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Sample records for crude ethanolic extract

  1. The cardiotonic effect of the crude ethanolic extract of Nerium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cardiotonic effect of the crude ethanolic extract of Nerium oleander in the isolated guinea pig hearts. R O Adome, J W Gachihi, B Onegi, J Tamale, S O Apio. Abstract. Cardiovascular diseases are increasingly becoming one of the leading diseases causing morbidity and mortality in Uganda. Ethnographic evidence ...

  2. Antibacterial activities of the crude ethanol extracts of medicinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-07-05

    Jul 5, 2010 ... and Pelargonium graveolens) against Listeria monocytogenes and other pathogenic strains. These plants are used more ... sed on pathogens, such as Listeria which is recognized as one of the leading causes of ... spices were extracted by ethanolic extraction by soaking 20 g of plant part in 100 mL of 90% ...

  3. Antibacterial activities of the crude ethanol extracts of medicinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to verify the antibacterial effect of ethanol extracts of 13 plants (Artemisia Herba Alba, Lavandula officinalis L., Matricaria Chamomilla, Eugenia caryophylata , Cistus salvifolius, Mentha suaveolens subsp. Timija, Thymus serpyllum L., Lippia citriodora, Cinnamomum Zeylanicum, Rosa centifolia, ...

  4. Effects of crude ethanol extract of Tapinanthus globiferus a. Rich on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of crude ethanol extract of Tapinanthus globiferuson rat kidney. The toxic effects of the extract on rats kidney after 28 days of oral administration were evaluated on serum levels of urea, creatinine, sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), chloride (Cl-) and bicarbonate ...

  5. Crude ethanolic extract from spent coffee grounds: Volatile and functional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Julio C; Arruda, Neusa P; Freitas, Suely P

    2017-11-01

    Espresso capsule consumption and spent coffee ground (SCG) generation have increased, and the present study was undertaken to evaluate the volatile profile (VP), the antioxidant activity (AA) and the sun protection factor (SPF) of the Crude ethanolic extract obtained from the SCG in capsules. The extract yield was superior to the ether yield because a higher unsaponifiable matter (U.M.) amount was recovered by ethanol. The obtained VP (70 compounds) was typical of roasted coffee oil. Furthermore, chemometric analysis using principal components (PCA) discriminated the extracts and grouped the replicates for each sample, which showed the repeatability of the extraction process. The AA ranged from 18.4 to 23.6 (mg extract mg DPPH-1) and the SPF from 2.27 to 2.76. The combination of the coffee VP, AA and SPF gave the espresso SCG's crude ethanolicextract, desirable properties that can be used in cosmetic and food industries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Bioactivity of crude ethanol extract and fractions of Eugenia uniflora (Myrtaceae) in the hepatopancreas of Oreochromis niloticus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiuza, Tatiana S; Silva, Paulo C; De Paula, José R; Tresvenzol, Leonice M F; Sabóia-Morais, Simone M T

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the bioactivity of the crude ethanol extract and ethyl acetate, hexane and chloroform fractions obtained from Eugenia uniflora leaves using the hepatopancreas of Oreochromis niloticus L. as an experimental model. The ethanol extract and fractions were administered to the fish orally with their feed. Twenty-four hours later, the fish were sacrificed and their livers dissected, fixed in neutral formalin, embedded in paraffin and sectioned. Histological analyses were performed using Masson's trichrome and Haematoxylin-Eosin. Histochemical studies were performed using Feulgen, PAS (Periodic Acid Schiff) and PAS + salivary amylase and Sudan IV stain. The qualitative analysis of the material showed that the crude extract and the ethyl, chloroform and hexane fractions induced vasodilation, vascular congestion and toxicity due to the presence of eosinophilic granular cells, rodlet cells, some leukocytic infiltrate and rare focal necroses. The Nile tilapia proved to be a satisfactory model for screening plant products.

  7. Hepatoprotective Effect Of Crude Aqueous Leaf Extract Of Fig Tree Ficus Benjamina On Ethanol-Induced Liver Damage In Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimee Lynne Pilapil

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholic abuse remains to be the most common cause of liver cirrhosis with significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Herbal supplements are being used to prevent damage in excessive alcohol intake and including hepatitis from other causes as hepatoprotective agents. Fig tree is currently being utilized in studies as a potential candidate for hepatoprotection but with limited success. This study determined the hepatoprotective effect of crude aqueous leaf extract of fig tree Ficus benjamina on ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. In this study fifteen Balbc mice were assigned to negative control positive control and treatment groups which received distilled water Silymarin and F. benjamina crude aqueous leaf extract respectively on day 0 to day 14. Ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity was done on day 7 to day 14 using ethanol given by oral gavage. Assessment of liver function and histology was done with the use of alanine aminotransferase ALT assay and histopathological study respectively. Results showed significant reduction of ALT levels in the treatment 52.40 UL and the positive control groups 42.58 UL as compared with the negative control group with a mean of 196.88 UL P0.05. The difference between the positive and treatment groups was not significant P0.05. The degree of hepatic injury was significantly severe in the negative control group than with the treatment and positive control groups P0.05. On the other hand the degree of hepatic injury showed no significant difference between the positive and treatment groups P0.05. Thus the crude aqueous leaf extract of F. benjamina has hepatoprotective property on ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity in mice similar to Silymarin. F. benjamina as an ornamental plant may be a source of phytochemical with potential pharmaceutical and functional activities.

  8. Crude Ethanol Extract of Pithecellobium ellipticum as a Potential Lipid-Lowering Treatment for Hypercholesterolaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet P.-C. Wong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available If left untreated, hypercholesterolaemia can lead to atherosclerosis, given time. Plants from the Fabaceae family have shown the ability to significantly suppress atherosclerosis progression. We selected four extracts from Pithecellobium ellipticum, from the Fabaceae family, to be screened in a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase assay. The ethanol extract, at a concentration of 500 μg/mL, exhibited superior inhibition properties over the other extracts by demonstrating 80.9% inhibition, while 0.223 μg/mL of pravastatin (control showed 78.1% inhibition towards enzymatic activity. These findings led to the fractionation of the ethanol extract using ethyl acetate : methanol (95 : 5, gradually increasing polarity and produced seven fractions (1A to 7A. Fraction 7A at 150 μg/mL emerged as being the most promising bioactive fraction with 78.7% inhibition. FRAP, beta carotene, and DPPH assays supported the findings from the ethanol extract as it exhibited good overall antioxidant activity. The antioxidant properties have been said to reduce free radicals that are able to oxidize lipoproteins which are the cause of atherosclerosis. Phytochemical screenings revealed the presence of terpenoid, steroid, flavonoid, and phenolic compounds as the responsible group of compound(s, working individually or synergistically, within the extract to prevent binding of HMG-CoA to HMG-CoA reductase.

  9. Hepatoprotective effects of aqueous leaf extract and crude isolates of Murraya koenigii against in vitro ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathaye, Sadhana; Bagul, Yogita; Gupta, Sanjay; Kaur, Harpreet; Redkar, Roopali

    2011-09-01

    Medicinal plants constitute a principal health care resource corroborating their gradual acceptance by the global population. The ethno medicinal plant, Murraya koeniggi (Curry-leaf tree) as is native to India exhibits diverse biological activities. Unpublished data from our laboratory revealed hepatoprotective activity of its crude aqueous extract against ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity in experimental animals. Chronic ethanol consumption diminishes the cellular antioxidant levels through free radical induced injury causing hepatitis and cirrhosis with mortality in severe cases. This provided a rationale for studying its mechanistic approaches in terms of modulation of antioxidant defenses for probable hepatoprotective activity against ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity in vitro. Based on the inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) obtained from the cell viability assay, graded concentrations of 100 μg/ml and 500 μg/ml of aqueous extract (WE), isolated carbazole alkaloids (CA) and tannin (T) fraction were chosen to study the hepatoprotective activity against ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity using liver carcinoma cell lines (Hep G(2)). Their antioxidant activity with anti-lipid peroxidation potential (LPO), effects on protein content, liver metabolizing enzymes viz., glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and the morphology of the cells were studied as parameters of hepatoprotection. The tannins and the carbazole alkaloids from the aqueous extract exhibited excellent hepatoprotective activity with respect to the different parameters studied and maintained normal morphology even after ethanolic challenge to the cells as comparable to the protection offered by the standard drug L-ornithine L-aspartate (LOLA). The modulating effect of the aqueous extract and isolates on liver metabolizing enzymes, reduction in lipid peroxidation and decreased cellular damage were found to contribute to the hepatoprotective activity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All

  10. The cardiotonic effect of the crude ethanolic extract of Nerium oleander in the isolated guinea pig hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adome, R O; Gachihi, J W; Onegi, B; Tamale, J; Apio, S O

    2003-08-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are increasingly becoming one of the leading diseases causing morbidity and mortality in Uganda. Ethnographic evidence suggests that these diseases are often first managed by indigenous and related herbs before patients are referred for allopathic forms of management. One such herb of interest is Nerium oleander. Therefore the crude ethanolic extracts of the dried leaves of this herb were tested against the following parameters in the isolated guinea pig hearts: force of contraction, heart rate and cardiac flow. The extracts brought about dose-dependent increases in all these parameters from their baseline readings. Compared with graded doses of digoxin the effects closely mirrored the activities in a dose dependent manner. At the mechanism of action level, it would appear the extract works in the same as digoxin since their dose-contraction-response curves are parallel. This finding would tend to provide a strong rationale for the herb's traditional use in cardiovascular illness.

  11. Evaluation of activity of the crude ethanolic extract of Magonia pubescens St. Hil (Sapindaceae) against larvae of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini, 1887) (Acari: Ixodidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando de Freitas Fernandes; Priscilla Antunes Diógenes Bessa; Edméia de Paula e Souza Freitas

    2008-01-01

    The acaricidal potential of the crude ethanolic extract (c.e.e.) of the stem peel of Magonia pubescens was evaluated against larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The larvae were placed in filter paper envelopes impregnated with different concentrations of c.e.e., dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and distilled water for determination of lethal concentrations (LC). The following treatments were used: 1. Envelopes of dry filter paper; 2. Envelopes of filter paper moistened with di...

  12. In vitro antibacterial activity of crude ethanol, acetone and aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to screen for in vitro antibacterial activity of crude ethanol, acetone and aqueous seeds extract of Garcinia kola at different treatment regimes against some selected clinical bacterial isolates comprising of Gram positive and negative organisms namely; Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and ...

  13. Investigation of the toxic potential of crude ethanol extract of Annona coriacea (araticum seeds in acute exposed mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Nobre L. do Nascimento

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Annona coriacea Mart., Annonaceae, was examined for possible toxic effects on brain, liver and kidney of mice exposed to crude extract of the seeds (CESAN of this plant. CESAN was administered by gavage for four days at doses of 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg/day. Significant changes on liver were observed, which showed reduction in the number of hepatocytes per area and increase the apoptotic index in the exposed groups, and changes in the cytoplasm and nucleus of these cells and reduced consumption of water and feed in these animals. For the other studied areas, brain and kidneys showed no changes in the parameters used in this study. The results suggest hepatotoxic effects of CESAN, but without damage to brain and kidneys in this experiment, showing a toxic potential to this species, as to the Annonaceae family.

  14. Antimicrobial Analysis of an Antiseptic Made from Ethanol Crude Extracts of P. granatum and E. uniflora in Wistar Rats against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Honório Lins Bernardo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Surgical site infection remains a challenge for hospital infection control, especially when it relates to skin antisepsis in the surgical site. Objective. To analyze the antimicrobial activity in vivo of an antiseptic from ethanol crude extracts of P. granatum and E. uniflora against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Methods. Agar drilling and minimal inhibitory tests were conducted for in vitro evaluation. In the in vivo bioassay were used Wistar rats and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923 and Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 14990. Statistical analysis was performed through variance analysis and Scott-Knott cluster test at 5% probability and significance level. Results. In the in vitro, ethanolic extracts of Punica granatum and Eugenia uniflora and their combination showed the best antimicrobial potential against S. epidermidis and S. aureus. In the in vivo bioassay against S. epidermidis, there was no statistically significant difference between the tested product and the patterns used after five minutes of applying the product. Conclusion. The results indicate that the originated product is an antiseptic alternative source against S. epidermidis compared to chlorhexidine gluconate. It is suggested that further researches are to be conducted in different concentrations of the test product, evaluating its effectiveness and operational costs.

  15. Antimicrobial Analysis of an Antiseptic Made from Ethanol Crude Extracts of P. granatum and E. uniflora in Wistar Rats against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Thaís Honório Lins; Sales Santos Veríssimo, Regina Célia; Alvino, Valter; Silva Araujo, Maria Gabriella; Evangelista Pires dos Santos, Raíssa Fernanda; Maurício Viana, Max Denisson; de Assis Bastos, Maria Lysete; Alexandre-Moreira, Magna Suzana; de Araújo-Júnior, João Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Surgical site infection remains a challenge for hospital infection control, especially when it relates to skin antisepsis in the surgical site. To analyze the antimicrobial activity in vivo of an antiseptic from ethanol crude extracts of P. granatum and E. uniflora against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Agar drilling and minimal inhibitory tests were conducted for in vitro evaluation. In the in vivo bioassay were used Wistar rats and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 14990). Statistical analysis was performed through variance analysis and Scott-Knott cluster test at 5% probability and significance level. In the in vitro, ethanolic extracts of Punica granatum and Eugenia uniflora and their combination showed the best antimicrobial potential against S. epidermidis and S. aureus. In the in vivo bioassay against S. epidermidis, there was no statistically significant difference between the tested product and the patterns used after five minutes of applying the product. The results indicate that the originated product is an antiseptic alternative source against S. epidermidis compared to chlorhexidine gluconate. It is suggested that further researches are to be conducted in different concentrations of the test product, evaluating its effectiveness and operational costs.

  16. Pharmacological and toxicity studies of the crude extracts and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory potency of the hydro-ethanol extract and fractions from Hedranthera barteri leaf. Column chromatography of the crude extracts, practical acute toxicity testing and fixed dose procedures were carried out. Effects of the extracts on nociception were assessed by ...

  17. Determination of ulcer protecting effect of ethanol extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethanol extract of dietary vegetable, Gongronema latifolium, was evaluated for anti-ulcer activity. The extract was obtained from air-dried, pulverized leaves of the plant following its maceration in ethanol, filteration with Whatman No. 1 filter paper and drying at 110°C. Fractionation of the dry crude ethanol extract was ...

  18. Evaluation of antimicrobial activities of crude ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of Morinda lucida leaf, stem, and bark growing in Adekunle Ajasin University Botanical Garden against selected clinical isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Osuntokun, Oludare T.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research work is to determine the antimicrobial activities of crude ethyl acetate and ethanolic extracts of Morinda lucida leaf, stem, and bark growing in Adekunle Ajasin University Botanical Garden against selected clinical isolates. The plant Morindal lucida falls under the family Rubiaceae known to have wide usage in traditional medicine. Morinda lucida is a tropical West African tree of medium-size about 18–25 m tall, the bark is grey to brown in color, flowers are whi...

  19. Effect of Crude Leaf Extracts on Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz. Sacc.

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    Prapassorn Bussaman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz. Sacc. is a fungus that causes anthracnose disease in tropical fruit plants, resulting in damages of the fruit plants and low yield and quality of fruits. The use of chemical fungicides is common for management of this disease, but it also results in the development of fungal resistance to the chemicals. Therefore, this study aims to in vitro evaluate the efficacy of 14 crude leaf extracts against C. gloeosporioides. The results showed that Piper sarmentosum leaf extracts, using 80% of ethanol, methanol, and chloroform as solvents, were found to have very high antifungal activities. Crude methanol extract of P. sarmentosum leaves could effectively inhibit the growth of fungal mycelium (100%, followed by crude chloroform extract (81.85% and 80% ethanol extract (45.50%. Maximum inhibition of C. gloeosporioides spore germination could be obtained after application with crude methanol extract of P. sarmentosum leaves and crude chloroform extract of Mentha cordifolia leaves at 1.25 and 2.5%, respectively. In conclusion, crude extracts of P. sarmentosum leaves were found to be highly effective for inhibiting both C. gloeosporioides mycelium growth and spore germination, and they have a potential as the new natural fungicides for management of anthracnose disease.

  20. Safety and analgesic properties of ethanolic extracts of Toddalia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    automatic, microprocessor-controlled photometer fromchem-labs, Nairobi. RESULTS: The effect of extract on serum biochemical parameters after 14 days treatment with the crude ethanolic extract of T. asiatica (L.) revealed significant difference in the ...

  1. Evaluation of activity of the crude ethanolic extract of Magonia pubescens St. Hil (Sapindaceae against larvae of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 (Acari: Ixodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando de Freitas Fernandes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The acaricidal potential of the crude ethanolic extract (c.e.e. of the stem peel of Magonia pubescens was evaluated against larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. The larvae were placed in filter paper envelopes impregnated with different concentrations of c.e.e., dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO and distilled water for determination of lethal concentrations (LC. The following treatments were used: 1. Envelopes of dry filter paper; 2. Envelopes of filter paper moistened with distilled water; 3. Envelopes of filter paper moistened with a solution of DMSO in distilled water; and 4. Envelopes moistened with 2 mL of each concentration of the c.e.e. to be tested. The bioassays were carried out in quadruplicate at 27°±1° C and RH e"80% and 12h light. Mortality was observed after 48 h, LC50 and LC99 values of 365 and 4,000 ppm being obtained. There was no significant mortality in larvae exposed to the first three treatments (p Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o potencial acaricida do extrato-bruto etanólico (e.b.e. da casca do caule de Magonia pubescens sobre larvas do carrapato bovino Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. As larvas foram acondicionadas em B.O.D. climatizada, em envelopes de papel filtro impregnados com diferentes concentrações do e.b.e., solubilizado com dimetilsulfóxido (DMSO e água destilada, para determinação das Concentrações Letais (CL. Foram realizados os seguintes tratamentos: 1. envelopes de papel filtro seco; 2. envelopes de papel filtro umedecidos com água destilada; 3. envelopes de papel filtro umedecidos com solução de DMSO e água destilada; e 4. envelopes umedecidos com 2 mL de cada concentração do e.b.e. testada. Os bioensaios foram feitos em quadruplicata, em uma câmara climatizada a 27°±1° C, URe"80% e fotofase natural de 12 horas. A mortalidade foi observada após 48h. Obtiveram-se as CL50 de 365 e CL99 de 4.000 ppm. Não houve mortalidade significativa para os três primeiros tratamentos

  2. Bioconversion of crude glycerol feedstocks into ethanol by Pachysolen tannophilus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaoying; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Workman, Mhairi

    2012-01-01

    Glycerol, the by-product of biodiesel production, is considered as a waste by biodiesel producers. This study demonstrated the potential of utilising the glycerol surplus through conversion to ethanol by the yeast Pachysolen tannophilus (CBS4044). This study demonstrates a robust bioprocess which...... was not sensitive to the batch variability in crude glycerol dependent on raw materials used for biodiesel production. The oxygen transfer rate (OTR) was a key factor for ethanol production, with lower OTR having a positive effect on ethanol production. The highest ethanol production was 17.5 g/L on 5% (v/v) crude...... glycerol, corresponding to 56% of the theoretical yield. A staged batch process achieved 28.1 g/L ethanol, the maximum achieved so far for conversion of glycerol to ethanol in a microbial bioprocess. The fermentation physiology has been investigated as a means to designing a competitive bioethanol...

  3. Anti-cryptococcal activity of ethanol crude extract and hexane fraction from Ocimum basilicum var. Maria bonita: mechanisms of action and synergism with amphotericin B and Ocimum basilicum essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Nathalia N R; Alviano, Celuta S; Blank, Arie F; Arrigoni-Blank, Maria de Fátima; Romanos, Maria Teresa V; Cunha, Marcel M L; da Silva, Antonio Jorge R; Alviano, Daniela S

    2017-12-01

    Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae) has been used in folk medicine to treat headaches, kidney disorders, and intestinal worms. This study evaluates the anti-cryptococcal activity of ethanol crude extract and hexane fraction obtained from O. basilicum var. Maria Bonita leaves. The MIC values for Cryptococcus sp. were obtained according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute in a range of 0.3-2500 μg/mL. The checkerboard assay evaluated the association of the substances tested (in a range of 0.099-2500 μg/mL) with amphotericin B and O. basilicum essential oil for 48 h. The ethanol extract, hexane fraction and associations in a range of 0.3-2500 μg/mL were tested for pigmentation inhibition after 7 days of treatment. The inhibition of ergosterol synthesis and reduction of capsule size were evaluated after the treatment with ethanol extract (312 μg/mL), hexane fraction (78 μg/mL) and the combinations of essential oil + ethanol extract (78 μg/mL + 19.5 μg/mL, respectively) and essential oil + hexane fraction (39.36 μg/mL + 10 μg/mL, respectively) for 24 and 48 h, respectively. The hexane fraction presented better results than the ethanol extract, with a low MIC (156 μg/mL against C. neoformans T444 and 312 μg/mL against C. neoformans H99 serotype A and C. gattii WM779 serotype C). The combination of the ethanol extract and hexane fraction with amphotericin B and essential oil enhanced their antifungal activity, reducing the concentration of each substance needed to kill 100% of the inoculum. The substances tested were able to reduce the pigmentation, capsule size and ergosterol synthesis, which suggest they have important mechanisms of action. These results provide further support for the use of ethanol extracts of O. basilicum as a potential source of antifungal agents.

  4. Antiulcerogenic Activity of Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Croton ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Croton zambesicus Muell. Arg. is often used in traditional medicine by Ibibios of Niger Delta region of Nigeria for the treatment of several diseases including gastrointestinal disorders especially ulcer. The antiulcer activity of the ethanolic extract of the crude leaf extract was investigated against indomethacin, ethanol and ...

  5. Evaluation of hypoglycaemic activity of ethanol extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-07-02

    Jul 2, 2014 ... reveals that crude ethanol extract significantly and dose-dependently reduced hyperglycaemia. The fractions of the ethanol extract equally reduced hyperglycaemia but the level of reduction was affected by the phytochemical content. This suggests that an intact pancreas is required for the hypoglycaemic.

  6. Teratogenic Effects of Crude Ethanolic Root Bark and Leaf Extracts of Rauwolfia vomitoria (Apocynaceae on the Femur of Albino Wistar Rat Fetuses

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    Mokutima A. Eluwa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Rauwolfia vomitoria is a plant used as a sedative and in the treatment of psychotic tendency. This study was on the teratogenic effects of its root bark and leaf extracts on Wistar rat’s fetal femurs. Materials and Methods. Twenty-five female rats weighing between 180 and 200 g were divided into 5 groups, of 5 rats each. Group A was the control, while Groups B, C, D, and E were the experimental. The female rats were mated with mature male rats to allow for pregnancy. Groups B and C animals received orally 150 mg/kg each of the root bark and leaf extracts of Rauwolfia vomitoria, respectively, while Groups D and E animals received 250 mg/kg bodyweight each of the root bark and leaf extracts of Rauwolfia vomitoria, respectively, from day 7 to day 11 of gestation. On day 20 of gestation, the rats were sacrificed, the fetuses were examined, and their femurs were dissected out and preserved, decalcified, and routinely processed using the Haematoxylin and Eosin staining method. Results. Histological observations of the fetal femur bones showed numerous osteoblast and osteoclast, hypertrophy, and hyperplasia of bone cells compared with the control. Conclusion. Ethanolic root bark and leaf extracts of Rauwolfia vomitoria may lead to advanced skeletal development.

  7. Analgesic effects of crude extracts of Miconia albicans (Melastomataceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, M A Lemos; Ferreira, D da Silva; Andrade e Silva, M L; Veneziani, R Cassio Sola; Cunha, W R

    2003-10-01

    The present study describes the analgesic effects of the crude extracts (hexane, methylene chloride and ethanol) obtained from the aerial parts of Miconia albicans (Melastomataceae) using the writhing test and the hot plate models for pain in mice. The extracts in hexane and methylene chloride, given orally, produced significant antinociception in the writhing test. On the other hand, none of the extracts had a significant effect on the hot plate test, a fact suggesting that the substances present in the extracts may rather have peripheral analgesic activity.

  8. Antimalarial and hepatoprotective effects of crude ethanolic extract of Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (W.Curt.:Fr.)P.Karst. (higher Basidiomycetes), in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluba, Olarewaju M; Olusola, Augustine O; Fagbohunka, Bamidele S; Onyeneke, E

    2012-01-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the in vivo antimalarial activity (using some biochemical indices) of crude aqueous extracts of the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma lucidum, a mushroom with well-established medicinal properties. A rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium berghei (1 × 107), was inoculated intraperitoneally into Swiss albino mice. The test groups were administered G. lucidum extract and chloroquine (CQ, as standard drug), while the control groups were administered the same amount of distilled water by an intragastric tube once daily. The antimalarial activity of the extract was investigated from the suppressive, curative, and prophylactic effects of the extract on parasite growth. Serum aminotransferases (AST and ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and gamma glutamine transpeptidase (γ-GT) levels monitored following the 4-day suppressive test were significantly reduced, with a corresponding significant increase in the livers of mice treated with the extract compared with infected untreated mice. The results obtained from this study provide scientific justification in an animal model of malaria that an ethanolic extract of G. lucidum possesses potent antimalarial activity and also could help ameliorate the attendant Plasmodium-induced liver damage due to malarial infection.

  9. Effects of fractionation on antibacterial activity of crude extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Column chromatographic fractionation of the crude ethanolic extract of the stem bark of Tamarindus indica yielded six fractions (TiA - TiF). Among these, TiB showed about five tracks: TiC, TiD and TiE, two tracks each, on thin layer chromatography (TLC). Fractions TiC, TiD and TiE were re-eluted with different solvent ...

  10. Determination of ulcer protecting effect of ethanol extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chi

    2013-09-18

    Sep 18, 2013 ... temperature and stored for use. The anti-ulcer activity of the ... Key words: Gongronema latifolium, ulcer, protection, indomethacin, acid/ethanol. .... toxicity or fatality for 24 h. Effect of crude ethanol extract on Indomethacin-induced ulcer. The method of Urishidani et al. (1979) was utilized. Gastric ulceration ...

  11. In Vivo Anti-Diabetic Activity of the Ethanolic Crude Extract of Sorbus decora C.K.Schneid. (Rosacea): A Medicinal Plant Used by Canadian James Bay Cree Nations to Treat Symptoms Related to Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianna, Rose; Brault, Antoine; Martineau, Louis C.; Couture, Réjean; Arnason, John T.; Haddad, Pierre S.

    2011-01-01

    A number of potential anti-diabetic plants were identified through an ethnobotanical survey of the traditional pharmacopeia of the Cree of Eeyou Istchee (CEI—Northeastern Canada) used against symptoms of diabetes and their biological activity assessed by in vitro bioassays. Among these, Sorbus decora C.K.Schneid. (Rosacea) ranked highly and increased the transport of glucose in skeletal muscle cells in culture. The present study thus aimed at confirming the antidiabetic potential of S. decora in in vivo models of insulin resistance and diabetes, notably the streptozotocin Type 1 diabetic rat (STZ), the genetic KK-Ay Type 2 diabetic mouse and the rat rendered insulin resistant with 10% glucose water consumption for 6 weeks. Sorbus decora ethanolic crude extract (SDEE) was administered orally (200 mg kg−1) and compared to metformin (150 or 500 mg kg−1). The intragastric (i.g.) gavage of SDEE transiently decreased glycemia in STZ rats in a bi-phasic manner but the effect was cumulative over several days. In KK-Ay mice, SDEE incorporated in food (0.12%) decreased glycemia by 15% within 1 week as compared to vehicle controls. In pre-diabetic insulin-resistant rats, SDEE fed daily by i.g. gavage for 2 weeks significantly decreased the slight hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, without affecting sugar water intake. Using the HOMA insulin resistance parameter, the effect of SDEE was equivalent to that of metformin. In conclusion, the ethanolic crude extract of S. decora demonstrates both anti-hyperglycemic and insulin-sensitizing activity in vivo, thereby confirming anti-diabetic potential and validating CEI traditional medicine. PMID:19887507

  12. In Vivo Anti-Diabetic Activity of the Ethanolic Crude Extract of Sorbus decora C.K.Schneid. (Rosacea: A Medicinal Plant Used by Canadian James Bay Cree Nations to Treat Symptoms Related to Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Vianna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of potential anti-diabetic plants were identified through an ethnobotanical survey of the traditional pharmacopeia of the Cree of Eeyou Istchee (CEI—Northeastern Canada used against symptoms of diabetes and their biological activity assessed by in vitro bioassays. Among these, Sorbus decora C.K.Schneid. (Rosacea ranked highly and increased the transport of glucose in skeletal muscle cells in culture. The present study thus aimed at confirming the antidiabetic potential of S. decora in in vivo models of insulin resistance and diabetes, notably the streptozotocin Type 1 diabetic rat (STZ, the genetic KK-Ay Type 2 diabetic mouse and the rat rendered insulin resistant with 10% glucose water consumption for 6 weeks. Sorbus decora ethanolic crude extract (SDEE was administered orally (200 mg kg-1 and compared to metformin (150 or 500 mg kg-1. The intragastric (i.g. gavage of SDEE transiently decreased glycemia in STZ rats in a bi-phasic manner but the effect was cumulative over several days. In KK-Ay mice, SDEE incorporated in food (0.12% decreased glycemia by 15% within 1 week as compared to vehicle controls. In pre-diabetic insulin-resistant rats, SDEE fed daily by i.g. gavage for 2 weeks significantly decreased the slight hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, without affecting sugar water intake. Using the HOMA insulin resistance parameter, the effect of SDEE was equivalent to that of metformin. In conclusion, the ethanolic crude extract of S. decora demonstrates both anti-hyperglycemic and insulin-sensitizing activity in vivo, thereby confirming anti-diabetic potential and validating CEI traditional medicine.

  13. Ethanol production from biodiesel-derived crude glycerol by newly isolated Kluyvera cryocrescens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Won Jae; Hartono, Maria Regina; Chan, Weng Heng; Yeo, Suan Siong [Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), Jurong Island (Singapore). Inst. of Chemical and Engineering Sciences

    2011-02-15

    The rapidly expanding market for biodiesel has increased the supply and reduced the cost of glycerol, making it an attractive sustainable feed stock for the fuel and chemical industry. Glycerol-based biorefinery is the microbial fermentation of crude glycerol to produce fuels and chemicals. A major challenge is to obtain microbes tolerant to inhibitors such as salts and organic solvents present in crude glycerol. Microbial screening was attempted to isolate novel strain capable of growing on crude glycerol as a sole carbon source. The newly isolated bacteria, identified as nonpathogenic Kluyvera cryocrescens S26 could convert biodiesel-derived crude glycerol to ethanol with high yield and productivity. The supplementation of nutrients such as yeast extract resulted in distinguished enhancement in cell growth as well as ethanol productivity under anaerobic condition. When glycerol fermentation is performed under microaerobic condition, there is also a remarkable improvement in cell growth, ethanol productivity and yield, compared with those under strict anaerobic condition. In batch fermentation under microaerobic condition, K. cryocrescens S26 produced 27 g/l of ethanol from crude glycerol with high molar yield of 80% and productivity of 0.61 g/l/h. (orig.)

  14. Ethanol production from biodiesel-derived crude glycerol by newly isolated Kluyvera cryocrescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Won Jae; Hartono, Maria Regina; Chan, Weng Heng; Yeo, Suan Siong

    2011-02-01

    The rapidly expanding market for biodiesel has increased the supply and reduced the cost of glycerol, making it an attractive sustainable feed stock for the fuel and chemical industry. Glycerol-based biorefinery is the microbial fermentation of crude glycerol to produce fuels and chemicals. A major challenge is to obtain microbes tolerant to inhibitors such as salts and organic solvents present in crude glycerol. Microbial screening was attempted to isolate novel strain capable of growing on crude glycerol as a sole carbon source. The newly isolated bacteria, identified as nonpathogenic Kluyvera cryocrescens S26 could convert biodiesel-derived crude glycerol to ethanol with high yield and productivity. The supplementation of nutrients such as yeast extract resulted in distinguished enhancement in cell growth as well as ethanol productivity under anaerobic condition. When glycerol fermentation is performed under microaerobic condition, there is also a remarkable improvement in cell growth, ethanol productivity and yield, compared with those under strict anaerobic condition. In batch fermentation under microaerobic condition, K. cryocrescens S26 produced 27 g/l of ethanol from crude glycerol with high molar yield of 80% and productivity of 0.61 g/l/h.

  15. ANTIFUNGAL PROPERTY OF THE CRUDE EXTRACTS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Epidermophyton floccosium, Fusarium solani, Mucor mucedo, Microsporium audonii and Trichophyton verrucosum. The ethanol extract of Richardia brasiliensis was the most active of the four extrtacts. The water extract of Brachystegia eurycoma was more active ...

  16. Biodegradation of chlorobenzene using immobilized crude extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-10-04

    Oct 4, 2007 ... enzymes which will decompose chlorobenzene to non toxic substance. Crude cell extracts produced which contains ... environment with wastewater and exhaust, great num- bers are benzene derivatives and other non ... Although acute toxicity is uncommon, these substances cause sublethal damage, e.g., ...

  17. Biodegradation of chlorobenzene using immobilized crude extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been identified as potential organism to decompose chlorobenzene by its crude extract through immobilization technique. P. aeruginosa was grown on chlorobenzene as sole source of carbon and energy. Chlorobenzene was used as an inducer to develop specific intracellular enzymes ...

  18. Volatility spillovers in US crude oil, ethanol, and corn futures markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trujillo Barrera, A.A.; Mallory, M.; Garcia, P.

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes recent volatility spillovers in the United States from crude oil using futures prices. Crude oil spillovers to both corn and ethanol markets are somewhat similar in timing and magnitude, but moderately stronger to the ethanol market. The shares of corn and ethanol price

  19. Lactic acid fermentation of crude sorghum extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuel, W.A.; Lee, Y.Y.; Anthony, W.B.

    1980-04-01

    Crude extract from sweet sorghum supplemented with vetch juice was utilized as the carbohydrate source for fermentative production of lactic acid. Fermentation of media containing 7% (w/v) total sugar was completed in 60-80 hours by Lactobacillus plantarum, product yield averaging 85%. Maximum acid production rates were dependent on pH, initial substrate distribution, and concentration, the rates varying from 2 to 5 g/liter per hour. Under limited medium supplementation the lactic acid yield was lowered to 67%. The fermented ammoniated product contained over eight times as much equivalent crude protein (N x 6.25) as the original medium. Unstructured kinetic models were developed for cell growth, lactic acid formation, and substrate consumption in batch fermentation. With the provision of experimentally determined kinetic parameters, the proposed models accurately described the fermentation process. 15 references.

  20. Antioxidant Properties of Crude Extract, Partition Extract, and Fermented Medium of Dendrobium sabin Flower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahziela Abu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant properties of crude extract, partition extract, and fermented medium from Dendrobium sabin (DS flower were investigated. The oven-dried DS flower was extracted using 100% methanol (w/v, 100% ethanol (w/v, and 100% water (w/v. The 100% methanolic crude extract showed the highest total phenolic content (40.33 ± mg GAE/g extract and the best antioxidant properties as shown by DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays. A correlation relationship between antioxidant activity and total phenolic content showed that phenolic compounds were the dominant antioxidant components in this flower extract. The microbial fermentation on DS flower medium showed a potential in increasing the phenolic content and DPPH scavenging activity. The TPC of final fermented medium showed approximately 18% increment, while the DPPH of fermented medium increased significantly to approximately 80% at the end of the fermentation. Dendrobium sabin (DS flower showed very good potential properties of antioxidant in crude extract and partition extract as well as better antioxidant activity in the flower fermented medium.

  1. Antioxidant Properties of Crude Extract, Partition Extract, and Fermented Medium of Dendrobium sabin Flower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu, Farahziela; Mohd Akhir, Sobri

    2017-01-01

    Antioxidant properties of crude extract, partition extract, and fermented medium from Dendrobium sabin (DS) flower were investigated. The oven-dried DS flower was extracted using 100% methanol (w/v), 100% ethanol (w/v), and 100% water (w/v). The 100% methanolic crude extract showed the highest total phenolic content (40.33 ± mg GAE/g extract) and the best antioxidant properties as shown by DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays. A correlation relationship between antioxidant activity and total phenolic content showed that phenolic compounds were the dominant antioxidant components in this flower extract. The microbial fermentation on DS flower medium showed a potential in increasing the phenolic content and DPPH scavenging activity. The TPC of final fermented medium showed approximately 18% increment, while the DPPH of fermented medium increased significantly to approximately 80% at the end of the fermentation. Dendrobium sabin (DS) flower showed very good potential properties of antioxidant in crude extract and partition extract as well as better antioxidant activity in the flower fermented medium. PMID:28761496

  2. EVALUATION PHYTOCHEMISTRY, CYTOTOXIC ANALYSIS AND ANTIMICROBIAL GROSS ETHANOL EXTRACT OF LEAVES Annona muricata L. (ANNONACEAE)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daiani Patrícia Silva Alfaia; Sheylla Susan Moreida da Silva de Almeida

    2016-01-01

    ... population use as analgesics and against urinary infections. This research aimed to perform the phytochemical screening, analyze cytotoxic activity and antibacterial of the crude ethanol extract of leaves Annona muricata L...

  3. Anti-tuberculosis activities of the crude methanolic extract and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The crude extract was prepared using soxhlet extraction apparatus while the purified fractions were obtained by column chromatography. The two media were inoculated with M. tuberculosis strains, after which the crude and purified extracts were added. After 4-6 weeks incubation, colony forming units were counted and ...

  4. Molluscicidal activity of crude water leaf extracts of Alternanthera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2007-02-19

    Feb 19, 2007 ... while the evaporated crude water extract had LC50 of 48.07 (42.81 – 54.28) for the dried leaf extract. For the fresh leaves the ... Key words: Alternanthera sesselis, crude water extract, molluscicidal activity, bioavailability, schistomiasis control. ... (Brown, 1980). Although the snails do not play an active.

  5. Diuretic Activity of Trianthema portulacastrum Crude Extract in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pharmacotherapy Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City, 300001 Nigeria. ... aqueous extract of this plant in normal albino rats. ... diuretic activity and by oral route for acute toxicity. [6]. Phytochemical screening of crude plant extract. Preliminary screening of the crude aqueous extract for a variety of ...

  6. Evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of different leaves crude extracts of Omani Ficus carica against food borne pathogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AfafMohammed Weli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To prepare different polarities crude extract from the leaves of Ficus carica and to evaluate their antioxidant and antimicrobial potential against food borne pathogenic bacterial strains. Methods: The dried leaves were macerated in absolute ethanol for one week. The ethanol was evaporated and the crude extract was defatted with ethanol-water. The defatted hydro alcoholic crude extract was successively extracted with hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate. The antioxidant potential was determined against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay. Evaluation of antimicrobial potential of different crude extracts against selected Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria by agar disc diffusion method. Results: The total extraction yield was 2.2%. The highest extraction yield was in chloroform and the lowest in hexane. The antioxidant results were found in the order of hydro alcoholic>ethyl acetate>hexane>chloroform. Hydro alcoholic crude extract and its derived fractions display moderate antimicrobial potential against the selected bacterial strains such as Staphylococcus aureus, Escheichia coli and Pseudomonas, in the range of 0%-13%. Conclusions: It is concluded that the hydro alcoholic and ethyl acetate crude extracts of Ficus carica possess very good antioxidant and antimicrobial potential.

  7. Topical Delivery of Withania somnifera Crude Extracts in Niosomes and Solid Lipid Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinembiri, Tawona N; Gerber, Minja; du Plessis, Lissinda H; du Preez, Jan L; Hamman, Josias H; du Plessis, Jeanetta

    2017-10-01

    Withania somnifera is a medicinal plant native to India and is known to have anticancer properties. It has been investigated for its anti-melanoma properties, and since melanoma presents on the skin, it is prudent to probe the use of W. somnifera in topical formulations. To enhance topical drug delivery and to allow for controlled release, the use of niosomes and solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) as delivery vesicles were explored. The objective of this study is to determine the stability and topical delivery of W. somnifera crude extracts encapsulated in niosomes and SLNs. Water, ethanol, and 50% ethanol crude extracts of W. somnifera were prepared using 24 h soxhlet extraction which were each encapsulated in niosomes and SLNs. Franz cell diffusion studies were conducted with the encapsulated extracts to determine the release and skin penetration of the phytomolecules, withaferin A, and withanolide A. The niosome and SLN formulations had average sizes ranging from 165.9 ± 9.4 to 304.6 ± 52.4 nm with the 50% ethanol extract formulations having the largest size. A small particle size seemed to have correlated with a low encapsulation efficiency (EE) of withaferin A, but a high EE of withanolide A. There was a significant difference (P < 0.05) between the amount of withaferin A and withanolide A that were released from each of the formulations, but only the SLN formulations managed to deliver withaferin A to the stratum corneum-epidermis and epidermis-dermis layers of the skin. SLNs and niosomes were able to encapsulate crude extracts of W. somnifera and release the marker compounds, withaferin A, and withanolide A, for delivery to certain layers in the skin. Withania somnifera crude extracts were prepared using ethanol, water, and 50% ethanol as solvents. These three extracts were then incorporated into niosomes and solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) for use in skin diffusion studies, thus resulting in six formulations (ethanol niosome, water niosome, 50% ethanol

  8. Direct conversion of wet algae to crude biodiesel under supercritical ethanol conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, Harvind K. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Chemical Engineering Dept.; Muppaneni, Tapaswy [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Chemical Engineering Dept.; Patil, Prafulla D. [American Refining Group, Inc., Bradford, PA (United States); Ponnusamy, Sundaravadivelnathan [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Chemical Engineering Dept.; Cooke, Peter [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Core University Research Resource Lab.; Schaub, Tanner [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Bio Security and Food Safety Center; Deng, Shuguang [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Chemical Engineering Dept.

    2013-08-06

    This paper presents a single-step, environmentally friendly approach for the direct conversion of wet algae to crude biodiesel under supercritical ethanol conditions. Ethanol was used for the simultaneous extraction and transesterification of lipids in algae to produce fatty acid ethyl esters at supercritical conditions. In this work the effects of process parameters dry algae to ethanol (wt./vol.) ratio (1:6-1:15), reaction temperature (245-270 C), and reaction time (2-30 min.) on the yield of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) were studied. 67% conversion was achieved at 265 C and 20 min of reaction time. The calorific value of a purified biodiesel sample produced at optimum conditions was measured to be 43 MJ/kg, which is higher than that of fatty acid methyl esters produced from the same biomass. The purified fatty acid ethyl esters were analyzed using GC-MS and FTIR. TGA analysis of algal biomass and purified FAEE was presented along with TEM images of the biomass captured before and after supercritical ethanol transesterification. This green conversion process has the potential to provide an energy-efficient and economical route for the production of renewable biodiesel production.

  9. Anti-tuberculosis activities of the crude methanolic extract and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    petroleum ether, followed by methanol. The free methanol was allowed to evaporate using water- bath, a brown viscous solid was obtained, it was transferred into a clean dry bottle, weighed and labelled as crude methanolic extract. Preparation of purified fractions. The crude methanolic extract of the plant was purified by ...

  10. Crude aqueous extract of the root bark of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crude aqueous extract of the root bark of zanthoxylumxanthoxyloides inhibits white blood cells migration in acute inflammation. ... Background: Crude aqueous extract of Zanthoxylum xanthozyloides is used locally to treat inflammatory conditions. Previous study confirmed that the ... response in inflammation. Objective: To ...

  11. Acute Toxicity of Crude Euphorbia tirucalli Latex Extracts to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute toxicity of crude Euphorbia tirucalli latex extracts to Oreochromis niloticus juveniles was investigated in the College of Agriculture, Lafia. A four day static acute toxicity test was performed to determine the LC50 value of crude Euphorbia tirucalli latex extract for the fresh water fish, Oreochromis niloticus. Various ...

  12. Phytopharmacological evaluation of ethanol extract of Sida cordifolia L. roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momin, Mohammad Abdul Motalib; Bellah, Sm Faysal; Rahman, Sarder Mohammad Raussel; Rahman, Ahmed Ayedur; Murshid, Gazi Mohammad Monjur; Emran, Talha Bin

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the phytochemical screening (group determination) and selected pharmacological activities (antioxidant, antimicrobial and analgesic activity) of the plant Sida cordifolia Linn (S. cordifolia). Eighty percent concentrated ethanol extract of the roots was used. To identify the chemical constituents of plant extract standard procedures were followed. In phytochemical screening the crude extract was tested for the presence of different chemical groups like reducing sugar, tannins, saponins, steroids, flavonoids, gums, alkaloids and glycosides. The antioxidant property of ethanolic extract of S. cordifolia was assessed by DPPH free radical scavenging activity. Analgesic activity of the extract was tested using the model of acetic acid induced writhing in mice. Diclofenac sodium is used as reference standard drug for the analgesic activity test. Antibacterial activity of plant extract was carried out using disc diffusion method with five pathogenic bacteria comparison with kanamycin as a standard. Phytochemical analysis of the ethanolic extract of the roots of S. cordifolia indicated the presence of reducing sugar, alkaloids, steroids and saponins. In DPPH scavenging assay the IC50 value was found to be 50 μg/mL which was not comparable to the standard ascorbic acid. The crude extract produced 44.30% inhibition of writhing at the dose of 500 mg/kg body weight which is statistically significant (P>0.001). The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the ethanol extract of the roots of S. cordifolia showed no antimicrobial activity against five types of microorganisms. The experiment was conducted only with five species of bacteria as test species, which do not at all indicate the total inactivity against micro-organisms. The obtained results provide a support for the use of this plant in traditional medicine but further pharmacological studies are required. Copyright © 2014 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights

  13. Some Neuropharmacological Effects of the Crude Venom Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study reports some neuropharmacological effects of the crude venom extract of Conus musicus (family Conidae) in mice using various experimental models. The crude venom was found to significantly increase tail flick reaction time in mice. The effects of the venom on the central nervous system were studied by ...

  14. Some Neuropharmacological Effects of the Crude Venom Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some Neuropharmacological Effects of the Crude Venom Extract of Conus musicus in Mice. Department of Pharmacy ... coordination and prolonged pentobarbitone-sleeping time. A liquid ..... Pharmacology, Academic Press, New. York and ...

  15. Dielectric characterization of crude oil extracts obtained from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dielectric characterization of crude oil extracts obtained from different oil fields in Nigeria, intended for utility exploitation in electrical power transformers. J.O. Akinnifesi, F.M. Adebiyi, K.F. Olafisan ...

  16. The effects of crude extracts of Pterocarpus soyauxii on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of crude extracts of Pterocarpus soyauxii on the hematology of albino wistar rats. JN Egwurugwu, NN Obaji, CS Ufearo, OJ Olorunfemi, OM Adienbo, RC Uchefuna, S Iwuji, B Chinko, E Akpan ...

  17. An antifungal property of crude plant extracts from Anogeissus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chloroform, ethanolic, methanolic, ethyl acetate and aqueous root extracts of Anogeissus leiocarpus and Terminalia avicennioides were investigated in vitro for antifungal activities against Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium species, Microsporum audouinii and Trichophyton rubrum using radial growth ...

  18. Antimicrobial activities and toxicity of crude extract of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The extract of the Psophocarpus tetragonolobus pods has been tested for antimicrobial activity in a disk diffusion assay on eight human pathogenic bacteria and two human pathogenic yeasts. The extracts of P. tetragonolobus possessed antimicrobial activity against all tested strains. The ethanolic extract of P.

  19. Saw palmetto ethanol extract inhibits adipocyte differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaverde, Nicole; Galvis, Adriana; Marcano, Adriana; Priestap, Horacio A; Bennett, Bradley C; Barbieri, M Alejandro

    2013-07-01

    The fruits of saw palmetto have been used for the treatment of a variety of urinary and reproductive system problems. In this study we investigated whether the fruit extracts affect in vitro adipogenesis. Saw palmetto ethanol extract inhibited the lipid droplet accumulation by induction media in a dose-dependent manner, and it also attenuated the protein expressions of C-EBPα and PPARγ. Phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and Akt1 were also decreased by saw palmetto ethanol extract. This report suggests that saw palmetto extracts selectively affect the adipocyte differentiation through the modulation of several key factors that play a critical role during adipogenesis.

  20. Antiulcerogenic activity of crude extract, fractions and populnoic acid isolated from Austroplenckia populnea (Celastraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Sérgio F; Antoniolli, Daiane; Comunello, Eros; Cardoso, Luis G V; Carvalho, José C T; Bastos, Jairo K

    2006-01-01

    Many plant crude extracts and their isolated compounds are the most attractive sources of new drugs and show promising results for the treatment of gastric ulcers. Austroplenckia populnea is commonly known as "marmelinho-do campo, mangabeira-brava, mangabarana and vime" and it has been used in folk medicine as anti-dysenteric and anti-rheumatic. Powdered bark wood (3.25 kg) was macerated with aqueous ethanol (96%) and the extract was concentrated under reduced pressure to yield 406 g of crude hydralcoholic extract. The hydralcoholic extract was suspended in aqueous methanol and partitioned with hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate (EtOAc) in sequence, yielding 8.0 g, 9.5 g and 98.17 g of crude extracts, respectively. Chromatography of the hexane extract over a silica gel column led to the isolation of the triterpene populnoic acid. The oral administration of hydralcoholic, hexane, chloroform and EtOAc extracts (200 mg/kg) decreased the ulcer lesion index (ULI) by 83.15%, 46.87%, 32.2%, 68.12%, respectively. Oral administration of populnoic acid (100 mg/kg) diminished the ULI by 55.29%. All the obtained results were significant in comparison with the negative control, with exception of the chloroform extract.

  1. Determination of amylase activity of crude extract from partially ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amylase activity of crude extract from partially germinated mango seeds ( Mangifera oraphila) was determined using Caraway-Somogyi iodine/potassium iodide (IKI) method. The effects of varied pH and temperature were also investigated. The amylase was extracted with 0.1 M acetate buffer (pH 4.2). Amylase activity of the ...

  2. In vitro antimicrobial and phytochemical properties of crude extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The crude extract of the stem bark of the plant exhibited antimicrobial activities at a concentration of 25 mg/ml against twenty-one of the bacterial isolates, (i.e. 72.41% of the tested isolates) comprising both Gram positive and Gram negative strains. The zones of inhibition exhibited by the extract against the test bacterial ...

  3. Toxicity Studies of the Crude Aqueous Root Extract of Albizzia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxicity Studies of the Crude Aqueous Root Extract of Albizzia chevalieri Harms in Albino Rats. Y Saidu, FC Nwachukwu, LS Bilbis, UZ Faruk, AY Abbas. Abstract. Aqueous root extract of Albizzia chevalieri has been reported to possess hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic effects. The current work investigated the LD50 of ...

  4. In vitro time kill assessment of crude methanol extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The in vitro antibacterial activities and time kill regimes of crude methanol extract of Helichrysum pedunculatum was assessed using standard microbiological procedures. The experiment was conducted against a panel of bacterial species made up of clinical, environmental and reference strains. The extract was active ...

  5. In vitro time kill assessment of crude methanol extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-03

    Jun 3, 2008 ... The extract was active against eleven of the twenty-one bacteria tested at a concentration of 10 mg/ml. Minimum Inhibitory ... rized in a mill (Christy Lab Mill, Christy and Norris Ltd; Process. Engineers, Chelmsford ... Determination of the rate of kill of the crude extract was done following the procedure ...

  6. In vitro cytotoxicity of crude alkaloidal extracts of South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro cytotoxicity of crude alkaloidal extracts of South African Menispermaceae against three cancer cell linese. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Extracts of ten of the thirteen species showed positive activity against all three cancer cell lines with significant inhibition of cellular growth at TGI (total growth inhibition) ...

  7. Phytochemical and anti-fungal activity of crude extracts, fractions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crude extracts of F. thonningii demonstrated inhibitory activity on moulds and yeast but none against the dermatophytes (Trichophyton and Microsporium species). Hexane leaf extract was the most active inhibiting all the strains of Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Penicillum chrysogenum and Rhizopus nigricans with an ...

  8. Antifeedant and Toxic Effect of Crude Extract from Flourensia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Botanical insecticides are one of the environmentally acceptable options for pest management. Extract of Flourensia oolepis (known as chilca), a plant endemic to the province of Córdoba, Argentina, has shown insecticidal activity. The aim of this work was to study the effect of crude extract of this F. oolepis on the nutritional ...

  9. Effect of Crude Aqueous Extract of the Leaf of Cissampellos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... outcome measure: Litter number Results: The extract significantly reduced the number of litters produced by the rat. Conclusion: Cissampellos Owriences has a deleterious effect on the reproductive system and caution must be exercised in its use in humans. Key Words: Crude aqueous extract, Cissampellos Owariences, ...

  10. Desulfurization of Saudi Arabian crudes by oxidation-extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Otaibi, Raja L; Liu, Dong; Hou, Xulian; Song, Linhua; Li, Qingyin; Li, Mengfei; Almigrin, Hamid O; Yan, Zifeng

    The oxidation-extraction desulfurization of Saudi Arabian crudes was conducted with hydrogen peroxide-acetic acid oxidation system. The selection of extractant, the optimization of oxidation-extraction conditions, and the exploration of desulfurization mechanism were studied. As DMF was used as the extractant, the optimal desulfurization rate of 35.11 % and oil recovery of 95 % were obtained at 70 °C with the molar ratio of peracetic acid to sulfur of 8:1, the molar ratio of acetic acid to hydrogen peroxide of 2:1 and the volume ratio of extractant to oil of 1:1. The desulfurization effect of different fractions in the treated Saudi Arabian crudes was found to obey the following order: gasoline-diesel fraction >VGO fraction >VR fraction, due to different types and structures of sulfur compounds. The oil quality was less affected and most sulfides were mainly extracted via DMF.

  11. Effects of dietary Aloe vera crude extracts on digestive enzyme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gabriel Gabriel

    2017-10-16

    Oct 16, 2017 ... El-Dakar (2015) reported that basil (Ocimum basilicum) extracts significantly increased serum lipase activity in Sparus aurata fingerlings, while protease activity was reported to increase significantly in. Labeo rohita fingerlings after being fed with Mucuna pruriens ethanolic extracts (Ojha et al., 2014).

  12. Antibacterial activity of crude extract of Punica granatum pericarp on pathogenic Gram-negative bacilli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voravuthikunchai, S.

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of crude extracts of Punica granatum Linn. pericarp with 3 different solvents against pathogenic Gram-negative bacilli. Ethanolic extracts showed the antibacterial activity against all strains tested including enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli 4 strains (E. coli O157: H7, E. coli O26: H11, E. coli O111: NM, E. coli O22, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shigella boydii and Salmonella london. Inhibition zones ranged from 10.02 to 19.15 mm. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC ranged from 0.09 to 3.13 mg/ml and 3.13 to 25 mg/ml, respectively. Aqueous extract had low antibacterial activity while crude chloroform extracts had no effect on the growth of these strains. Ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions of P. granatum pericarp demonstrated high activity with the best MIC and MBC values of 0.02 to 0.78 mg/ml and 0.19 to 6.25 mg/ml, respectively. As ethanolic extract of P. granatum was very effective against these pathogenic bacteria, further investigation on this plant species may provide alternative, but bioactive, medicines for the treatment of Gram-negative bacterial infection.

  13. Optimizing extraction conditions of crude fiber, phenolic compounds, flavonoids and antioxidant activity of date seed powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Hanan S; Hashim, Isameldin B; Altubji, Sabreen I

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to optimize the extraction conditions of crude fiber, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and antioxidant activity from date seeds powder, using Response Surface Methodology. A central composite design with four independent variables; concentration of ethanol (X1 = 25, 50 and 75% v/v), solvent: sample ratio (X2 = 40:1, 50:1 and 60:1 v/w), temperature (X3 = 45, 55 and 65 °C), and extraction time (X4 = 1, 2 and 3 h) and a three level face centered cube design were used. A total of twenty nine experimental runs with five replicates at the central point were used to study the response variables using two extraction cycles. Maximum phenolic compound content (71.6 mg GAE/100 g) was extracted using 50% ethanol solution with 40:1 solvent: sample ratio for 1 h at 55 °C. While the maximum antioxidant activity (55.02 µmol Fe(II)/g) was obtained using similar ethanol concentration and solvent: sample ratio except at lower temperature (45 °C) for 2 h. On other hand, the maximum flavonoids content (455.77 mg CEQ/100 g) was reached by using 50% concentration, 50:1 solvent: sample ratio at 65 °C for 3 h. In contrast, the content of fiber was not affected by the different extraction conditions. Results indicate that using combination of extracted conditions, have a great potential for extracting all depending compounds except crude fiber.

  14. Performance evaluation of topical formulations of the crude extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lippia adoensis and Olinia rochetiana are traditionally used in the form of topical applications for the treatment of various skin disorders in Ethiopia. In view of their traditional uses and proven antimicrobial activities, the crude extracts of the two botanicals were incorporated into various formulation bases having different ...

  15. Bioactivities of crude extracts of the candlewood Zanthoxylum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efficacy of petroleum-ether crude extracts of the candlewood, Zanthoxylum xanthoxyloides Lam. was assessed for their contact toxicity, feeding and oviposition deterrence to the cowpea beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (Walp). Percent mortality, number of progeny produced and damage caused to were dose– ...

  16. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Crude Saponin Extracts from Five ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These plants were the whole plant of Schwenkia americana Linn (WSA), the rhizomes of Asparagus africanus Lam (RAA), the leaves of Dichrostachys cinerea Linn (LDC), the stem bark of Ficus iteophylla Miq (BFI) and the leaves of Indigofera pulchra Willd (LIP). A modify traditional method of crude saponins extraction was ...

  17. Cytotoxic Effect of Crude Aqueous Extract of Pistia Stratiotes Leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pistia stratiotes is a medicinal plant used traditionally to treat a various diseases such as skin infections, worm infections, tuberculosis, ulcer, diabetes etc. The present study was designed to investigate the effect this crude aqueous extract may have on body weight and renal cells function in albino rats. Twelve white Albino ...

  18. Degradation of methylmercaptan by crude enzyme extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    To these vials were then added xml. (0.05 to 0.5ml) of the crude enzyme extract sample. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. Influence of Tris/HCl Buffer: Figure 1 shows the calculated mg equivalents of protein per dL when standards in Tis/HCl are read against standards with. NaCl solution as blank. The values obtained show.

  19. Diuretic Activity of Trianthema portulacastrum Crude Extract in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the diuretic effect and acute toxicity of the crude aqueous extract of Trianthema portulacastrum in a rat model. Method: Albino rats were divided into five groups. Control group received normal saline (10 mg/kg), reference group received furosemide (10 mg/kg) and test groups were given different doses ...

  20. Diuretic Activity of Achyranthes aspera Linn Crude Aqueous Extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The control group received normal saline (10 ml/kg), the reference group received furosemide (10 mg/kg) and the test groups were administered different doses of the crude aqueous extract (10, 30 and 50 mg/kg) by intra-peritoneal route, respectively. At the end of 6 h, urine was collected and total volume of urine excreted ...

  1. Crude extract of Nigella sativa inhibits proliferation and induces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crude extract of Nigella sativa inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Cervical cancer is a major cause of morbidity in women worldwide and chemotherapy for this cancer seems unsatisfactory, which demands exploring new therapeutic ...

  2. Pytotoxic activity of crude methanolic extract of Euphorbia prostrata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biotechnology

    2011-09-30

    Sep 30, 2011 ... plate studies, the extract showed inhibitory effect on the germination of the growth of root and shoot of the seedlings. The inhibition was found ... drugs, contains active ingredients plant materials in the crude state and certain ... harmful effects on the neighboring organism (Stamp,. 2003; Khan et al., 2011c).

  3. Antioxidant Activity of the Aqueous Crude Extract of Ocimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of the crude extract, which on its own had little effect on basal serum phosphatase levels, followed by i.p administration of Cd, caused a reversal of the Cd-induced dose-response curves on the various phosphatase levels to negative values. These results may be due to the oxidative and the antioxidative biochemical ...

  4. Assessment of antimicrobial activity of crude extracts of stem and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tannins, phlobatannins, terpenoids, cardiac glycosides and saponins were found to be present in the stem bark. Terpenoids only were found in the root bark. It is concluded that stem and root barks of A. digitata contain bioactive constituents which are responsible for antimicrobial activity of the crude extracts.

  5. Antiviral activity of the crude extracts and phytochemical fractions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The three fractions used contained the major peaks within which the main compounds had been identified as aloenin, aloin and an aloinoside derivatives. The crude Aloe extract at 400 mg/ml exhibited antiviral effects at 100%, While 200 mg/ml resulted to 30% reduction in viral multiplication. Fraction containing aloenin (4 ...

  6. EFFECT OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT (CRUDE) OF LEAVES OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of crude aqueous extract of leaves of Vernonia amygdalina on blood glucose, serum albumin and cholesterol levels on alloxan induced diabetic albino rats was investigated. Blood glucose, serum albumin and cholesterol levels were significantly reduced. From 296.75 ± 9.0mg/dl to 179.0 ± 7.3mg/dl for blood glucose; ...

  7. Antifeedant Activty Of Different Organic Solvent Crude Extracts Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antifeedant activity of different organic solvents (acetone, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, diethyl ether and ethyl alcohol) crude extracts of latex of Euphorbia hirta (family Euphobiaceae) against Limicolaria aurora was investigated, and compared with a control, using pawpaw, (Carica papaya) as bait, at a concentration ...

  8. Antibacterial activity assessment of different crude extracts obtained ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    4.5%), β-ocymene (31.6%), caryphyllene (7.5%) and geraniol (5.9%). The evaluation of antibacterial activity of different organic crude extracts, against the growth of Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Listeria innocua and Staphylococcus ...

  9. In vivo Wound Healing Activity of 70% Ethanol Leaf Extract of

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Becium grandiflorum Lam. (Lamiaceae)is used as a traditional medicine against malaria, “Mich” and for treatment of spider bite that culminates in wound. The present study evaluated the potential wound healing activity of the crude extract of B. grandiflorum using rodent wound models. Hydroalcoholic (70% ethanol) leaf ...

  10. Antimicrobial activity of the ethanol extract and fractions of the seeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The crude ethanol extract, aqueous and chloroform fractions of the seeds of Garcinia kola Heckel (Guttiferae) was investigated for antimicrobial activity. Agar well diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration determinations were the methods employed for the study. Clinical bacterial and fungal isolates were used as ...

  11. The In Vivo Analgesic Activity of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this work is to determine the analgesic activities of Anacardium occidentale and Cymbopogon citratus, plants used in ethnomedicine. Crude aqueous and ethanolic extracts of A. occidentale and C. citratus at the doses of 50 and 100mg/kg body weight were evaluated for analgesic activities in male and ...

  12. Effects of ethanol extract of Radix Sophorae Flavescentis on activity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper mainly studied the inhibitory effect of total ethanol extract of Radix Sophorae Flavescentis on proliferation of colon cancer HT29 cells. By reflux extraction method and with ethanol as extraction solvent, different extracts were obtained at different ethanol concentrations, different solid-liquid ratios, and at different ...

  13. Antibacterial activities and toxicological potentials of crude ethanolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    used to determine the antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi and Bacillus subtilis at different concentrations while toxicological studies was carried out through intraperitoneal injection of albino rat with varying concentrations of the extract.

  14. Antihypercholesterolemic activity of ethanolic extract of Buchholzia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hypercholesterolemia is a condition characterised with high level of cholesterol in the blood. Objectives: The effect of ethanolic extract of Buchholzia coriacea (EEBC) on the lipid profile levels and extent of lipid peroxidation in hypercholesterolemic albino rats was investigated in this study. Methods: Thirty ...

  15. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACT OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethanolic leaf extract of Eucalyptus camaldulensis, dispersed in a concentrated sugar solution had marked fungicidal effect against clinical dermatophytic fungal isolates; Microsporium gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Microsporium gypseum at an inoculum level of 4.8 x 103 cfu/ml and T. mentagrophytes at ...

  16. Antibacterial activities and toxicological potentials of crude ethanolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-07-04

    Jul 4, 2007 ... Leaves of Euphorbia hirta used in traditional medicine for the treatments of boils, wounds and control of diarrhoea and dysentery ... Antibacterial sensitivity test indicated that the extract inhibited the growth of S. aureus, E. coli ... yellowish bristly hairs especially in the younger parts. The leaves are oppositely ...

  17. An antifungal property of crude plant extracts from Anogeissus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A. MANN*, A. BANSO and L.C. CLIFFORD. Department of Science Laboratory Technology, The Federal Polytechnic,. P.M.B. 55, Bida, Niger State, Nigeria. Abstract: Chloroform, ethanolic, methanolic, ethyl acetate and aqueous root extracts of Anogeissus leiocarpus and Ter- minalia avicennioides were investigated in vitro ...

  18. Antibacterial activity of crude extract of Ocinum gratissimum (African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ocimum gratissimum is a local plant used traditionally in Nigeria to treat ailments such as diarrheoa, pneumonia, fever etc. The antibacterial properties of ethanolic extract of Ocimum gratissimum against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella pneumoniae were investigated using agar well/cup plate diffusion ...

  19. Ethanol extraction of phytosterols from corn fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle E.; Binder, Thomas P.; Rammelsberg, Anne M.

    2010-11-16

    The present invention provides a process for extracting sterols from a high solids, thermochemically hydrolyzed corn fiber using ethanol as the extractant. The process includes obtaining a corn fiber slurry having a moisture content from about 20 weight percent to about 50 weight percent solids (high solids content), thermochemically processing the corn fiber slurry having high solids content of 20 to 50% to produce a hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry, dewatering the hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, washing the residual corn fiber, dewatering the washed, hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, and extracting the residual corn fiber with ethanol and separating at least one sterol.

  20. Ethanol extracts of saw palmetto contain the indirectly acting sympathomimetic: tyramine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Thiam; Simpson, Jamie S; Ventura, Sabatino

    2011-01-01

    To identify the bioactive components of saw palmetto ethanol extracts that affect contractility in the rat prostate gland. A commercially available saw palmetto ethanol extract was lyophilized then subjected to fractionation using silica gel column chromatography. Composition of fractions was assessed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) spectroscopy and mass spectrometry (MS). Contractile activity of these fractions was evaluated pharmacologically using isolated preparations of rat prostate gland and compared to the activity of crude ethanol extract. Saw palmetto ethanol extract caused contractions of the rat prostate gland which were consistent with indirectly acting sympathomimetic activity. Fractions resulting from chromatography produced contractions of isolated rat prostates that were similar in magnitude to the contractions produced by the crude extracts. Analysis of NMR and mass spectra revealed that this bioactivity was due to tyramine in the active fraction. Tyramine is present in saw palmetto ethanol extracts and causes indirect α(1)-adrenoceptor mediated contractions via the release of noradrenaline from sympathetic neurons. This has clinical implications, as tyramine interacts with MAO inhibitors to cause hypertensive crisis. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Brazilian sugarcane ethanol as an expandable green alternative to crude oil use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Deepak; de Souza, Amanda P.; Larsen, Søren; Lebauer, David S.; Miguez, Fernando E.; Sparovek, Gerd; Bollero, Germán; Buckeridge, Marcos S.; Long, Stephen P.

    2017-11-01

    Reduction of CO2 emissions will require a transition from fossil fuels to alternative energy sources. Expansion of Brazilian sugarcane ethanol provides one near-term scalable solution to reduce CO2 emissions from the global transport sector. In contrast to corn ethanol, the Brazilian sugarcane ethanol system may offset 86% of CO2 emissions compared to oil use, and emissions resulting from land-use change to sugarcane are paid back in just 2-8 years. But, it has been uncertain how much further expansion is possible given increasing demand for food and animal feed, climate change impacts and protection of natural ecosystems. We show that Brazilian sugarcane ethanol can provide the equivalent of 3.63-12.77 Mb d-1 of crude oil by 2045 under projected climate change while protecting forests under conservation and accounting for future land demand for food and animal feed production. The corresponding range of CO2 offsets is 0.55-2.0 Gigatons yr-1. This would displace 3.8-13.7% of crude oil consumption and 1.5-5.6% of net CO2 emission globally relative to data for 2014.

  2. Direct detection of saponins in crude extracts of soapnuts by FTIR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almutairi, Meshari Saad; Ali, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Direct detection of saponins in soapnuts (Sapindus mukorossi) using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is investigated in this project. Potassium bromide powder was mixed with extracted powder of soapnuts and compressed to a thin pellet for examination process. The outcome of the FTIR spectra of saponin demonstrated characteristic triterpenoid saponin absorptions of OH, C = O, C-H, and C = C, while the glycoside linkages to the sapogenins were indicated by the absorptions of C-O. The significance of this study is that saponin absorption peaks are directly detectable in crude aqueous and 95% ethanol extracts of soapnuts powder using FTIR spectroscopy, thereby eliminating the need of further expensive and exhaustive purification steps. The extracts of soapnuts were screened for saponins along with controls by phytochemical tests, and advanced spectroscopic techniques such as ultra fast liquid chromatography and ultra performance liquid chromatography quadrupole-time of flight-mass spectrometry were also implemented to validate the saponins.

  3. Effect of Artemisia annua L. leaves essential oil and ethanol extract on behavioral assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio F. Perazzo

    Full Text Available Artemisia annua has been used as a traditional plant for the treatment of malaria and fever in China because of the presence of its active compound, artemisinin. The present study evaluated the central activity of the essential oil and the crude ethanol extract of A. annua L. in animals as a part of a psychopharmacological screening of this plant. The extract was prepared in ethanol (AEE and the essential oil (AEO obtained by hydrodistillation, both with fresh leaves. Induced immobility, the forced swimming test (FST and the open-field test (OFT are well-known animal models to study drug-induced depression. The administration of A. annua essential oil or crude ethanol extract increased the immobility time in the FST and decreased other activities (ambulation, exploration, rearing and grooming in the OFT in animals. Both AEO and AEE prolonged pentobarbital-induced sleep as well, but the essential oil had a marked effect. Observing these results, it is possible to suggest that A. annua crude ethanol extract and essential oil could act as depressors on the Central Nervous System (CNS.

  4. COMPARATIVE ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF THE COMBINED CRUDE LEAF EXTRACT OF BIXA ORELLANA, AZADIRACHTA INDICA AND OCIMUM SCANTUM

    OpenAIRE

    B.UttamKumar; A.Bhubaneswari; M.V.VTejasri; P.Radhakrishna; K.D.; K.Amrita

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper, we analyze the past, present and future of medicinal plants, both as potential antimicrobial crude drugs as well as a source for natural compounds that act as new anti-infection agents. Ethanol extracts of the leaves of Bixa orellana, Azadirachta indica & Ocimum scantum were investigated for their invitro antimicrobial properties. Fresh leaves were collected randomly from Bhimavaram region, India. Plants were compared with voucher specimens deposited by Dr. B. Sarveswara...

  5. Avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana do extrato etanólico bruto da casca da sucupira branca (Pterodon emarginatus Vogel - Fabaceae Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of crude ethanol extract from the bark of "sucupira branca" (Pterodon emarginatus Vogel - Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.G.L. Bustamante

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Pterodon emarginatus Vogel (Fabaceae é uma árvore do Cerrado conhecida popularmente como "sucupira branca, faveiro, fava de sucupira e sucupira lisa" e utilizada na medicina popular em preparações anti-reumáticas, antiinflamatórias, analgésicas e antiinfecciosas. Esse trabalho teve por objetivo fazer a triagem fitoquímica do pó e avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana do extrato etanólico bruto das cascas da P. emarginatus contra bactérias Gram-positivas, Gram-negativas e o fungo Candida albicans. O extrato etanólico bruto foi obtido a partir das cascas dessecadas e pulverizadas. A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM do extrato bruto foi determinada utilizando-se o inoculador de Steers. Os testes fitoquímicos detectaram a presença de flavonóides, heterosídeos saponínicos, resinas e traços de esteróides e triterpenóides. As CIM do extrato etanólico foram de 0,18 mg mL-1 para as bactérias Gram-positivas Rhodococcus equi ATCC 25923, Micrococcus luteus ATCC 9341, Micrococcus roseus IPTSP/UFG e para as bactérias Gram-negativas Serratia marcescens ATCC 14756 e Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027; de 0,37 mg mL-1 para a Enterobacter cloacae FT 505 LEMC/EPM/UFG e de 0,74 mg mL-1 para as demais bactérias testadas e para o fungo C. albicans. O presente estudo abre perspectivas para o uso da cascas da P. emarginatus como antimicrobiano.Pterodon emarginatus Vogel (Fabaceae is a Cerrado tree popularly known as "sucupira branca", "faveiro", "fava de sucupira" and "sucupira lisa" and has been used in folk medicine as antirheumatic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-infective. The aim of this work was to perform the phytochemical screening of the powder and to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of crude ethanol extract from P. emarginatus barks against Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria and the fungus Candida albicans. The crude ethanol extract was obtained from desiccated and pulverized barks. Its minimum inhibitory

  6. Effect of ethanol extract of Selaginella doederleinii hieron on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper mainly studied the effect of ethanol extract of Selaginella doederleinii Hieron on the proliferation of two kinds of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell lines, CNE-1 and C666-1, and their mechanisms of action. Extract was obtained by heat reflux extraction with ethanol, and the effect of extract on the extracellular matrix ...

  7. Learning and memory promoting effects of crude garlic extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Dhrubajyoti; Banerjee, Sugato

    2013-12-01

    Chronic administration of aged garlic extract has been shown to prevent memory impairment in mice. Acute and chronic (21 days) effects of marketed formulation of crude garlic extract (Lasuna) were evaluated on learning and memory in mice using step down latency (SDL) by passive avoidance response and transfer latency (TL) using elevated plus maze. Scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg, ip) was used to induce amnesia in mice and piracetam (200 mg/kg, ip) served as positive control. In the acute study, Lasuna (65 mg/kg, po) partially reversed the scopolamine-induced amnesia but failed to improve learning and memory in untreated animals. Chronic administration of Lasuna (40 mg/kg/day for 21 days) significantly improved learning both in control and scopolamine induced amnesic animals. Influence of Lasuna on central cholinergic activity and its antioxidant properties were also studied by estimating the cortical acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels respectively. Chronic administration of Lasuna inhibited AchE, while increasing GSH levels. Thus the results indicate that long-term administration of crude garlic extract may improve learning and memory in mice while the underlying mechanism of action may be attributed to the anti-AchE activity and anti-oxidant property of garlic.

  8. THE INFLUENCE OF CRUDE SHEABUTTER LEAF-EXTRACTS ON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AGROSEARCH UIL

    Table 3: Influence of dietary crude shea butter leaf extracts on nitrogen metabolism in the goats. Index/treatment. A. B. C. D. SEM. Nitrogen intake, g/day. 11.59a. 11.49a. 7.79b. 8.08b. 1.29. Faecal. Nitrogen, g/day. 3.91b. 4.32a. 4.39a. 4.75a. 0.18. Urinary nitrogen, g/day. 4.46a. 3.21b. 1.68c. 1.58c. 0.76. Nitrogen Digested,.

  9. Análise tecidual e celular das brânquias de Oreochromis niloticus L. tratadas com extrato etanólico bruto e frações das folhas da pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L. - Myrtaceae Tissue and cell analysis of Oreochromis niloticus L. gill treated with crude ethanol extract and fractions from pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L. leaves Myrtaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Fiuza

    2011-01-01

    have revealed in vitro antimicrobial activity of E. uniflora. Considering its popular use, this study aimed to assess possible systemic cellular and tissue activities of the crude extract and the fractions from the leaves of this plant on Oreochromis niloticus L. (Nile tilapia gill. Thus, ethanol extract and fractions from the leaves of this plant were orally administered to the fish in their rations. After 24 hours, the fish were sacrificed and the second gill arch of each fish was dissected, fixed in neutral formalin, dehydrated, embedded in paraffin and sectioned. Masson's trichome and hematoxylin and eosin (HE were used in the histological analyses. Qualitative analyses using a light microscope led to the conclusion that the crude ethanol extract and the fractions from E. uniflora leaves presented systemic effect on Nile tilapias, affecting the gills. Toxic actions such as respiratory epithelium detachment and lifting, and hyperplasia of interlamellar epithelial cells were more pronounced in the tilapias that ingested higher concentrations. This study helped to identify the vasodilator effect of this plant and contributed to the definition of the Nile tilapia as a model system for testing plant active principles. These tests are expected to make feasible not only the use of plants as fish medication but also the maintenance of the health of animals in intensive and extensive cultures through the possible use of alternatives to synthetic medication.

  10. Antidiabetic activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Croton zambesicus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antidiabetic activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Croton zambesicus Muell. Arg. was evaluated using alloxan-induced (150mg/kg) hyperglycaemic rats. The activity of the ethanolic leaf extract was compared with that of a reference drug Chlorpropamide. The Blood Glucose Levels were measured using glucometer. The extract ...

  11. MECHANISTIC KINETIC MODELS FOR STEAM REFORMING OF CONCENTRATED CRUDE ETHANOL ON NI/AL2O3 CATALYST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. OLAFADEHAN

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Mechanistic kinetic models were postulated for the catalytic steam reforming of concentrated crude ethanol on a Ni-based commercial catalyst at atmosphere pressure in the temperature range of 673-863 K, and at different catalyst weight to the crude ethanol molar flow rate ratio (in the range 0.9645-9.6451 kg catalyst h/kg mole crude ethanol in a stainless steel packed bed tubular microreactor. The models were based on Langmuir-Hinshelwood-Hougen-Watson (LHHW and Eley-Rideal (ER mechanisms. The optimization routine of Nelder-Mead simplex algorithm was used to estimate the inherent kinetic parameters in the proposed models. The selection of the best kinetic model amongst the rival kinetic models was based on physicochemical, statistical and thermodynamic scrutinies. The rate determining step for the steam reforming of concentrated crude ethanol on Ni/Al2O3 catalyst was found to be surface reaction between chemisorbed CH3O and O when hydrogen and oxygen were adsorbed as monomolecular species on the catalyst surface. Excellent agreement was obtained between the experimental rate of reaction and conversion of crude ethanol, and the simulated results, with ADD% being ±0.46.

  12. Bioactivities examination of Cinchona leaves ethanol extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artanti, Nina; Udin, Linar Z.; Hanafi, M.; Jamilah, Kurniasih, Ida Rahmi; Primahana, Gian; Anita, Yulia; Sundowo, Andini; Kandace, Yoice Sri

    2017-01-01

    Cinchona species especially the barks are commonly known for commercial production of quinine as antimalarial. Although it is also reported for treatment of depurative, whooping cough, influenza and dysentery. In this paper we reported in vitro examination of other bioactivities (antidiabetes, antioxidant and in vitro cytotoxicity) of 70% ethanol extract of Cinchona ledgeriana and C. succirubra leaves as well as qunine, quinidine, and cinchonine the major alkaloids found in Cinchona species. Antidiabetes was conducted using α-glucosidase inhibitory activity assay. Antioxidant was conducted using DPPH free radical scavenging activity assay. In vitro cytotoxic activity was concucted by microscopic observation on growth of breast cancer cell line MCF-7. The results showed that at concentration of 100 µg/ml, C. ledgeriana leaves ethanol extracts showed the best activity as antidiabetes (98% inhibitory of α-glucosidase activity) and antioxidant (92% DPPH free radical scavenging activity), whereas at the same concentration C. succirubra, quinine, quinidine and cinchonine showed very low activities of antidiabetes and antioxidant. Microscopic observation of in vitro cytotoxicity showed that C. ledgeriana also has excellent cytotoxicity to breast cancer cell line MCF-7 which better than quinine, quinidine and cinchonine, whereas C. succirubra showed low cytotoxicity. These results suggest that cinchona species have many potential as the source of drugs discovery and development other than just for malaria treatment. Therefore it is important to conduct further studies and to maintain the available Cinchona plantation in Indonesia.

  13. Evaluation of ethanolic extract of Zanthoxylum xanthoxyloides (Lam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of ethanolic extract of Zanthoxylum xanthoxyloides (Lam) as seed protectant against Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) and Sitophilus zeamaismotsch . on stored cowpea and maize under tropical conditions.

  14. Fuel grade ethanol by solvent extraction: Final subcontract report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tedder, D.W.

    1987-04-01

    This report summarizes final results for ethanol recovery by solvent extraction and extractive distillation. At conclusion this work can be summarized as ethanol dehydration and recovery dilute fermentates is feasible using liquid/liquid extraction and extractive distillation. Compared to distillation, the economics are more attractive for less than 5 wt % ethanol. However, an economic bias in favor of SEED appears to exist even for 10 wt % feeds. It is of particular interest to consider the group extraction of ethanol and acetic acid followed by conversion to a mixture of ethanol and ethyl acetate. The latter species is a more valuable commodity and group extraction of inhibitory species is one feature of liquid/liquid extraction that is not easily accomodated using distillation. Upflow immobilized reactors offer the possibility of achieving high substrate conversion while also maintaining low metabolite concentrations. However, many questions remain to be answered with such a concept. 135 refs., 42 figs., 61 tabs.

  15. Contact toxicity of the crude extract of Chinese star anise fruits to house fly larvae and their development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guntharee Sripongpun

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Contact toxicity of the ethanol crude extract of Chinese star anise fruits, Illicium verum Hook. F. (Illiciaceae to house fly larvae, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae and their development were determined by a dipping method. Younger larvae were more susceptible than older. The median lethal concentration (LC50 values of the crude extract to the 2nd instar larvae at 24, 48 and 72 hours were 7.4x104, 4.1x104 and 3.2x104 mg/l, respectively. Furthermore, treated extractsaffected house fly development in pupal and adult stages. The number of test larvae developed to pupae and adults was lessthan that of control group. The crude extract at concentration 8.5x104 mg/l completely inhibited development from larvae to pupae. In addition, small pupae were found at every concentration between 2.5x103 -105x103 mg/l. Small treated pupae were observed more at higher concentrations. Some of them could continually develop to adults but their developmental percentageswere less than those of normal sized pupae in treatments and in control group. The crude extract of Chinese star anise fruits can be applied as an optional point source control of house fly.

  16. Antimicrobial activity of the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Salacia chinensis Linn. against human pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    oorthy kannaiyan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate antimicrobial effects of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Salacia chinensis (S. chinensis Linn. against pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Methods: The Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus (MTCC 96, Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis (MTCC 435, Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis (MTCC 121, Escherichia coli (E. coli (MTCC 443, Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae (MTCC 432, Proteus mirabilis (P. mirabilis (MTCC 1429, Salmonella paratyphi A (S. paratyphi A (MTCC 735, Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium (MTCC 98, Shigella flexneri (S. flexneri (MTCC 1457 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa (MTCC 424, Candida albicans (C. albicans (MTCC 183 and Cryptococcus neoformans (C. neoformans (clinical isolate were originally obtained from Microbial Type Culture Collection Centre, Institute of Microbial Technology, Chandigarh, India. Antimicrobial activity was carried out by disc diffusion and broth dilution methods against pathogens by using crude ethanolic and aqueous extracts. Results: Ethanolic extract of S. chinensis L. leaves showed significant antimicrobial activity against S. epidermidis (33.20 mm, C. albicans (30.40 mm and C. neoformans (18.20 mm mean values were documented. Aqueous extract of leaves showed significant inhibitory activity against C. neoformans (19.8 mm and S. epidermidis (17.80 mm were observed. Based on broth dilution method, the ethanolic extract of crude plant material showed the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values against S. epidermidis, C. neoformans (256 毺 g/mL and C. albicans (512 毺 g/mL, whereas the aqueous extract of S. chinensis L. leaves showed significant inhibitory activity against S. epidermidis (512 毺 g/mL and C. neoformans (1024 毺 g/mL were observed. Conclusions: The present result revealed that ethanolic extract of S. chinensis L. possesses significant antifungal activity when compared as the antibacterial activities.

  17. Study of allelopathic effects of Eucalyptus erythrocorys L. crude extracts against germination and seedling growth of weeds and wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ghnaya, Asma; Hamrouni, Lamia; Amri, Ismail; Ahoues, Haifa; Hanana, Mohsen; Romane, Abderrahmane

    2016-09-01

    Allelopathic materials inside a tree can produce positive or negative change in the survival, growth, reproduction and behaviour of other organisms if they escape into the environment. To assess these effects, this work was carried out to evaluate the allelopathic impact of Eucalyptus erythrocorys L. on seed germination and seedling growth of two weeds: Sinapis arvensis L. and Phalaris canariensis L.; on one cultivated crop: Triticum durum L. Aqueous; and on ethanolic leaf extracts of E. erythrocorys L. The study was effected using four concentrations (10, 20, 25 and 30 μL/mL) while distilled water was used as a control. The results showed that the E. erythrocorys L. crude extracts had an inhibitory effect on seed germination and seedling growth of both studied weeds and wheat. The inhibition rate was increased by the increase in extract concentration. Only ethanolic extracts of E. erythrocorys L. induced a significant inhibition of seed germination of durum wheat. The effect of E. erythrocorys L. crude extracts was more severe on weeds than on durum wheat. These results indicate that the seedling growth, especially radicle elongation, was the more sensitive indicator to evaluate the effects of extracts than was the seed germination.

  18. Immobilised cells of Pachysolen tannophilus yeast for ethanol production from crude glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, Nikolay; Efremenko, Elena

    2017-01-25

    Screening among naturally occurring yeast strains of Pachysolen spp. that are capable of producing ethanol from glycerol under aerobic conditions identified the most active culture, P. tannophilus Y -475. Conversion of glycerol by this producer immobilised in poly(vinyl alcohol) cryogel resulted in a 90% yield of ethanol relative to the theoretical limit. The maximum rate of alcohol accumulation was 0.64±0.01gL(-1)h(-1) at a 25gL(-1) concentration of glycerol in the culture medium. We demonstrated the efficacy of reusing immobilised cells (for a minimum of 16 working cycles for batch mode of crude glycerol conversion to ethanol) and the possibility of long-term (for a minimum of 140h) use of the cells in continuous mode with a maximum process productivity of 0.63±0.02gL(-1)h(-1), while the medium dilution rate in the reactor was 0.062±0.001h(-1). Reduction of metabolic activity did not exceed 5-7% relative to baseline. Immobilised cells were demonstrated to withstand long-term storage in frozen form for at least 2 years while retaining high metabolic activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. GC-MS and HPLC analysis of crude extracts of stem bark of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present investigation was carried out to characterize the chemical profile of the crude extract of stem bark of Adansonia digitata using GC-MS and HPLC analysis The plant stem bark were extracted using three solvents, the crude extracts of each solvent were characterized using Gas chromatography mass spectrometry ...

  20. The efficacy of crude extract of Aloe secundiflora on Candida Albicans

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In- vitro studies on the efficacy of crude extracts of Aloe secundiflora on Candida albicans was conducted. Five mature leaves of Aloe secundiflora were collected and the crude extract was prepared, then autoclaved. The extract was then tested on Candida albicans grown on solid media. The results from these studies ...

  1. Effects of ethanol extract of Moringa stenopetala leaves on guinea-pig and mouse smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Y

    1999-08-01

    The fresh leaf ethanol (LE) extract of Moringa stenopetala was tested in guinea-pig ileum and mouse duodenum and in uterus strips. There were significant dose and time dependent reductions of the acetylcholine (AC) response with initial stimulatory effects in both the guinea-pig ileum and the mouse duodenum preparations. Spontaneous rhythmic contractions were greatly reduced, suggesting an antispasmodic property of the crude LE extract. The LE extract showed some oxytocic activity on uterus strips of guinea-pigs and mice. The results are indicative of the traditional use of the leaves of Moringa stenopetala for stomach pain and to expel retained placentae by women. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Anti-quorum sensing potential of crude Kigelia africana fruit extracts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chenia, Hafizah Y

    2013-01-01

    .... Thus the quorum sensing (QS) inhibitory activity of four crude Kigelia africana fruit extracts was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively using the Chromobacterium violaceum and Agrobacterium tumefaciens biosensor systems...

  3. Effects of the ethanolic stem bark extract of pterocarpus erinaceus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary phytochemical studies of the ethanolic extract revealed the presence of tannins, carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids flavonoids and steroids. The ethanolic stem bark extract of P.erinaceus (6.4mg/ml) relaxed the isolated pregnant rat uterus. Oxytocin induced contractions of the pregnant rat uterus was blocked ...

  4. Sedative and Anticonvulsant Activities of the Ethanol Root Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the sedative, hypnotic and anticonvulsant activities of the ethanol extract of the roots of the Flemingia chappar (ERFC) on the central nervous system (CNS) of mice. Methods: The ethanol extract of the roots of F. chappar in doses of 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg, p.o., was studied in mice for its sedative ...

  5. Evaluation of the Antinociceptive Effect of the Ethanolic Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HPLC analysis revealed the presence of gallic acid, ellagic acid and Punicalagins A&B. Conclusion: The results demonstrated that ethanol pomegranate extract has an antinociceptive effect that may be related to the presence of identified phytochemicals. Key words: Pain, ethanolic extract of pomegranate, analgesia, ...

  6. Preliminary Study On The Effect Of Ethanol Extracts Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of ethanol extracts of Chrysophyllum albidum fruit parts (namely pericarp, mesocarp, seed coat and seed cotyledon) on isolated rat uterus was investigated. The ethanol extracts of pericarp, mesocarp and seed coat were found to have no effect on the rat uterus as well as oxytocin-induced uterine contraction.

  7. Ethanolic extracts of Sophora moorcroftiana seeds induce apoptosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethanolic extracts of Sophora moorcroftiana seeds induce apoptosis of human stomach cancer cell line SGC-7901 in vitro. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... apoptosis activity of Sophora moorcroftiana seeds, the ethanolic extracts from the seeds was prepared and added into the culture of human stomach cancer cell ...

  8. Effect of ethanolic leave extract of phyllantus amarus on carbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peters

    of ethanolic leaves extract of phyllantus amarus on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatotocity in albino rats. Thirty six (36) rats were divided into 9 groups (n=4rats) ... cardenolides, steroids, tannins, carbohydrate and anthraquinones. Thus, ethanolic leaves extract of phyllantus amarus ameliorated the damage ...

  9. Toxicity effects of ethanol extract of Simarouba versicolor on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxicity effects of ethanol extract of Simarouba versicolor on reproductive parameters in female Wistar rats. ... The effects of ethanolic extract of the bark of S. versicolor (Sv-EtOH) on the reproductive system of rats were investigated; also the influence of estrogenic and/or antiestrogenic activity, estrous cycle, pregnancy, ...

  10. In vitro activity of Piper sarmentosum ethanol leaf extract against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non-toxic concentrations of the ethanol extract for Vero cells were determined by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) cell proliferation. The presence of Toxoplasma gondii was observed by Giemsa staining. Results: The results showed that significant (p < 0.05) anti-toxoplasma activity of the ethanol extract, though lower than ...

  11. Wound healing and antiulcer activities of the ethanol extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the wound healing and antiulcer activities of the ethanol extract of Newbouldia laevis root bark in rats. Dried root bark of Newbouldia laevis was extracted by maceration in ethanol and concentrated in a rotary evaporator. Qualitative phytochemical analysis and lethality study ...

  12. Evaluation Study Of Inhibition And Regeneration Characters For Substituted Anilines Extracted From Crude Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Mohammad Jamil Abd-Alghani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aniline derivatives containing carbonyl group in the side chain was extracted from crude oil received from Al- Dora refinery. The crude oil was dissolved in xylene 13 and extracted through a column containing activated cationic resin type Amberlyte 15 then eluted by absolute ethanol and identified by infra red spectroscopy then examined as antioxidant for lubricant oil stock 50. FT-IR spectroscopy for the lubricant oil was performed before employing in an internal combustion engine and 190 hrs after. It was seen that the FT-IR of the oxidized oil contains a new peak in the region 1700 1800 cm1 which is formed due to the oxidation of base oil which belongs to carbonyl group. The FT-IR specter for the formulated crude oil with a specific concentration of the extracted substituted aniline after applying the same conditions of oxidation 190 working hrs. in an internal combustion engine showed a minimum peak intensity at 1710 1770 cm-1 than that observed in FT-IR done in absence of extracted antioxidant. The values of induction periods in presence of 0.20 and 0.30 moll of the extracted sample in the lubricant oil at 393 K were 766 sec. 1630 sec. while in their absence was 55 sec.. The values of maximum rates of oxidation were 3.0x10-4 and 2.0x10-4 moll. sec. These values were still not arrived the value of maximum rate of oxidation for the lubricant oil 3.5 x10-4 mol.l.sec. The same study was applied on the universal antioxidant inhibitor 2 6-diter-butyl-4-methyl phenol phenolic type under the same conditions. The obtained induction periods were 150 290 sec. respectively. This means that the values of induction periods obtained by formulating the lubricant oil with the extracted aniline molecule were 7 times greater than do the 2 6- diter-butyl-4-methyl phenol molecule. From the literatures it is known that the value of stochiometric factor for inhibition f for 2 4 6-triisobutyl phenol is equal to 2 so as a result the value of stochiometric

  13. Study on the extraction of dioscin by the ultrasonicassisted ethanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The method was compared with solvent extraction process for the effect on extraction yield of dioscin. It was shown that the technology of ultrasonic assisted ethanol extraction which can significantly increase the extraction yield and extraction efficiency of dioscin. The ultrasonic did not destroy D. zingiberensis cell structure, ...

  14. Effects of crude ethanolic extract of Garcinia cambogia on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2007-05-16

    May 16, 2007 ... 1Department of Anatomy, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Igbinedion University, Okada. ... Nigeria. 2Department of Anatomy, College of Health Sciences, University of Ilorin, P.M.B. 1515, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria. ... Key words: Garcinia cambogia, sperm count, histology, Leydig cells, interstitial spaces.

  15. Cytotoxicity of Alpinia galanga Rhizome Crude Extract on NIH-3T3 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferry Sandra

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alpinia galanga (A. galanga was reported as a potential medicinal source due to its wide effect. A. galanga rhizome crude extract (ARCE was reported to have high cytotoxic effect in cancer cells, but low in normal cells. However half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 of ARCE is not clearly known yet. Hence, current study was conducted to investigate the IC50 of ARCE in normal standard fibroblast cell line, NIH-3T3 cells. METHODS: Rhizomes of A. galanga were collected, peeled, dried, milled and weighed. Extraction was performed using maceration method, then filtered and evaporated. ARCE with various concentrations were applied in NIH-3T3 cells for 24 or 48 hours. Cells were documented and counted with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. RESULTS: Five hundreds grams of simplicia were macerated with ethanol and evaporated, 1 mg/mL crude extract with total volume of 114 mL was obtained. By addition of ARCE in NIH-3T3 cell culture, number of NIH-3T3 cells were shown less when treated with higher concentration of ARCE. Cell numbers of 0, 3.125, 6.25, 12.5, 25 and 50% ARCE treatment for 24 hours are 11,531, 11,352, 10,920, 10,365, 9,471, 8,360, respectively, meanwhile for 48 hours are 13,219, 12,686, 12,278, 11,390, 10,279, 8,390, respectively. CONCLUSION: IC50 of ARCE in 24 hours treatment was 620.5 mg/mL, while in 48 hours treatment was 666.6 mg/mL. Hence, ARCE is suggested to have low cytotoxic effect in NIH-3T3 cells. KEYWORDS: Alpinia galanga, ginger, extract, cytotoxic, MTT, NIH-3T3

  16. In vitro photoprotective effects of Marcetia taxifolia ethanolic extract and its potential for sunscreen formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia C.C. Costa

    Full Text Available AbstractThe species Marcetia taxifolia (A. St.-Hil. DC., Melastomataceae, which is endemic of the rupestrian fields of northeastern Brazil, contains a significant amount of flavonoids. In this work, the potential of the ethanolic extract of M. taxifolia as the active principle in a sunscreen photoprotection (UV-A and UV-B formulation was investigated. The Liquid Chromatography High Performance-Diode Array Detector quantification (quercetin, total flavonoid content, antioxidant activity through 2.2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazil method, photoprotective activity against UV-B and UV-A radiation in vitro (spectrophotometric method and potential for eye irritation using the methodology of the hen egg test-chorioallantoic membrane were performed in the extract. After that, the formulations were prepared using different concentrations of active ethanolic extract (5, 10, 20 and 30% and the evaluation of the sun protection factor was carried out using the same methodology used for the crude extract. The crude extract showed UV-A photoprotection and low eye irritation in the hen egg test-chorioallantoic membrane test. All formulations containing M. taxifolia extract had ≥ 6 sun protection factor. Its shows the possibility to use this extracts as a sunscreen in pharmaceutical preparations.

  17. Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Effects of Crude Extract, Fractions and 4-Nerolidylcathecol from Aerial Parts of Pothomorphe umbellata L. (Piperaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey P. Lopes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The crude ethanolic extract from aerial parts of Pothomorphe umbellata L. (Piperaceae and fractions obtained by partitions sequentially among water-methanol, methylene chloride, and ethyl acetate, as well as the major constituent, 4-nerolidylcatechol, were, respectively, evaluated and evidenced for antioxidant and cytotoxic effects through fluorometric microplate and microculture tetrazolium assays in HL-60 cells. The crude ethanolic extract demonstrated the preeminent antioxidant activity (IC50=1.2 μg/mL against exogenous cytoplasmic reactive oxygen species, followed by the water-methanolic (IC50=4.5 μg/mL, methylene chloride (IC50=5.9 μg/mL, ethyl acetate (IC50=8.0 μg/mL, 4-nerolidylcatechol (IC50=8.6 μg/mL, and the sterol fractions (IC50>12.5 μg/mL. Vitamin C, the positive control used in this assay, presented IC50 value equivalent to 1.7 μg/mL. 4-Nerolidylcatechol (IC50=0.4 μg/mL and methylene chloride fraction (IC50=2.3 μg/mL presented considerable cytotoxicity probably because of the presence of an o-quinone, an auto-oxidation by product of the catechol. Polar compounds, present in the ethanol extract, appear to increase the solubility and stability of the major active constituent, acting synergistically with 4-nerolidylcatechol, improving its pharmacokinetic parameters and increasing significantly its antioxidant activity which, in turn, suggests that the aqueous-ethanolic extract, used in folklore medicine, is safe and effective.

  18. Phytochemical and toxicological investigations of crude methanolic extracts, subsequent fractions and crude saponins of Isodon rugosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Zeb Abdul Sadiq

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Isodon rugosus is used traditionally in the management of hypertension, rheumatism, tooth-ache and pyrexia. Present study was arranged to investigate I. rugosus for phytoconstituents, phytotoxic and cytotoxic activities to explore its toxicological, pharmacological potentials and to rationalize its ethnomedicinal uses. Briefly, qualitative phytochemical analysis of the plant extracts were carried out for the existence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, oils, glycosides, anthraquinones, terpenoids, sterols and tannins. Plant crude methanolic extract (Ir.Cr, its subsequent fractions; n-hexane (Ir.Hex, chloroform (Ir.Chf, ethyl acetate (Ir.EtAc, aqueous (Ir.Aq and saponins (Ir.Sp in different concentrations were tested for phytotoxic and cytotoxic activities using radish seeds and brine shrimps (Artemia salina respectively. The phytotoxic activity was determined by percent root length inhibition (RLI and percent seeds germination inhibition (SGI while the cytotoxicity was obtained with percent lethality of the brine shrimps. RESULTS: Ir.Cr was tested positive for the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, oils, terpenoids, saponins, tannins and anthraquinones. Among different fractions Ir.Sp, Ir.Chf, Ir.EtAc, and Ir.Cr were most effective causing 93.55, 89.32, 81.32 and 58.68% inhibition of seeds in phytotoxicity assay, with IC50 values of 0.1, 0.1, 0.1 and 52 μg/ml respectively. Similarly, among all the tested samples, Ir.Sp exhibited the highest phytotoxic effect causing 91.33% root length inhibition with IC50 of 0.1 μg/ml. Ir.Sp and Ir.Chf were most effective against brine shrimps showing 92.23 and 76.67% lethality with LC50 values of 10 and 12 μg/ml respectively. CONCLUSIONS: It may be inferred from the current investigations that I. rugosus contains different secondary metabolites and is a potential source for the isolation of natural anticancer and herbicidal drug molecules. Different fractions exhibited phytotoxic and

  19. Biodiesel production from crude palm oil and evaluation of butanol extraction and fuel properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crabbe, E.; Nolasco-Hipolito, C.; Kobayashi, Genta; Sonomoto, Kenji; Ishizaki, Ayaaki [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Laboratory of Microbial Technology

    2001-09-01

    Three principal variables, molar ratio of methanol to oil, amount of catalyst, and reaction temperature, affecting the yield of acid-catalyzed production of methyl ester (biodiesel) from crude palm oil were investigated. The biodiesel was then used as an extractant in batch and continuous acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation, and its fuel properties and that of the biodiesel-ABE product mix extracted from the batch culture analyzed. The optimized variables, 40:1 methanol/oil (mol/mol) with 5% H{sub 2}S0{sub 4} (vol/wt) reacted at 95{sup o}C for 9 h, gave a maximum ester yield of 97%. Biodiesel preferentially extracted butanol, and enhanced its production in the batch culture from 10 to 12 g 1{sup -1}. The fuel properties of biodiesel and the biodiesel-ABE mix were comparable to that of No.2 diesel, but their cetane numbers and the boiling points of the 90% fractions were higher. Therefore, they could serve as efficient No. 2 diesel substitutes. The biodiesel-ABE mixture had the highest cetane number. (author)

  20. Antibiotic, cytotoxic and enzyme inhibitory activity of crude extracts from Brazilian marine invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna H. R. Seleghim

    Full Text Available Herein we present the results of a screening with 349 crude extracts of Brazilian marine sponges, ascidians, bryozoans and octocorals, against 16 strains of susceptible and antibiotic-resistant bacteria, one yeast (Candida albicans, Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, three cancer cell lines MCF-7 (breast, B16 (murine melanoma and HCT8 (colon, and Leishmania tarentolae adenine phosphoribosyl transferase (L-APRT enzyme. Less than 15% of marine sponge crude extracts displayed antibacterial activity, both against susceptible and antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Up to 40% of marine sponge crude extracts displayed antimycobacterial activity against M. tuberculosis H37Rv. Cytotoxicity was observed for 18% of marine sponge crude extracts. Finally, less than 3% of sponge extracts inhibited L-APRT. Less than 10% of ascidian crude extracts displayed antibacterial activity. More than 25% of ascidian crude extracts were active against M. tuberculosis and the three cancer cell lines. Only two crude extracts from the ascidian Polysyncraton sp. collected in different seasons (1995 and 1997 displayed activity against L-APRT. Less than 2% of bryozoan and octocoral crude extracts presented antibacterial activity, but a high percentage of crude extracts from bryozoan and octororal displayed cytotoxic (11% and 30%, respectively and antimycobacterial (60% activities. The extract of only one species of bryozoan, Bugula sp., presented inhibitory activity against L-APRT. Overall, the crude extracts of marine invertebrates herein investigated presented a high level of cytotoxic and antimycobacterial activities, a lower level of antibacterial activity and only a small number of crude extracts inhibited L-APRT. Taxonomic analysis of some of the more potently active crude extracts showed the occurrence of biological activity in taxa that have been previously chemically investigated. These include marine sponges belonging to genera Aaptos, Aplysina, Callyspongia, Haliclona

  1. Acute toxicities of diethyl ether and ethanol extracted Nerium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A four-day static renewal acute toxicity test was performed to determine the LC50 value of ethanol and diethyl ether extracted Nerium indicum leaf for the freshwater fish, Heteropneustes fossilis. The LC50 values, their upper and lower confidence limits and slope functions were calculated. The LC50 values for ethanol ...

  2. Evaluation of hypoglycaemic activity of ethanol extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mechanism of anti-diabetic activity of Gongronema latifolium was evaluated. The ethanol extract of the leaves of G. latifolium were fractionated using solvents of increasing polarity, namely n-hexane, chloroform, ethylacetate and ethanol. Phytochemical screening of the dried fractions were carried and then acute toxicity ...

  3. Hypoglycaemic and Haematinic properties of ethanol leaf extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hypoglycaemic and Haematinic properties of ethanol leaf extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus in alloxan induced diabetic rats. CC Okonkwo, CV Agu, OU Njoku, U Abonyi, A Victor, EG Anaduaka, KV Iloabuchi, CE Odo ...

  4. Investigation of the Antiasthmatic Properties of Ethanol Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigation of the Antiasthmatic Properties of Ethanol Extract of Callophyllis japonica in Mice. WS Park, KS Lee, JH Chun, SH Urm, DS Lee, DY Lee, SG Park, SK Seo, SJ Heo, ZJ Qian, WK Jung, IW Choi ...

  5. Toxicological Studies on the Ethanol Extract of Acalypha torta (Muell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These herbal remedies, although natural, can cause some serious damaging effects on the vital organs of the body due to inadequacy in standardization and safety regulations. Ethanol extract of Acalypha torta was obtained after defatting dried ...

  6. Therapeutic potentials of ethanolic extract of leaves of Holarrhena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therapeutic potentials of ethanolic extract of leaves of Holarrhena floribunda (G. Don) Dur. And schinz (apocynaceae). Yao Patrick Hoekou, Tchadjobo Tchacondo, Simplice Damintoti Karou, Rakiswende Serge Yerbanga, Elom Achoribo, Ollo Da, Wouyo Atakpama, Komlan Batawila ...

  7. In vitro trematocidal effects of crude alcoholic extracts of Artemisia annua, A. absinthium, Asimina triloba, and Fumaria officinalis: trematocidal plant alcoholic extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Jorge F S; Peaden, Paul; Keiser, Jennifer

    2011-12-01

    Trematode infections negatively affect human and livestock health, and threaten global food safety. The only approved human anthelmintics for trematodiasis are triclabendazole and praziquantel with no alternative drugs in sight. We tested six crude plant extracts against adult Schistosoma mansoni, Fasciola hepatica, and Echinostoma caproni in vitro. Mortality was best achieved by ethanolic extracts of Artemisia annua (sweet Annie), Asimina triloba (paw-paw), and Artemisia absinthium (wormwood) which, at 2 mg/mL, killed S. mansoni and E. caproni in 20 h or less (except for wormwood), F. hepatica between 16 and 23 h (sweet Annie), or 40 h (paw-paw). Some extracts were active at 0.2 mg/mL and 20 μg/mL, although more time was required to kill trematodes. However, aqueous A. annua and methanol extracts of Fumaria officinalis had no activity. Chromatographic analysis of the three best extracts established that A. annua and A. triloba extracts contained bioactive artemisinin and acetogenins (asimicin and bullatacin), respectively. The anthelmintic activity of our extracts at such low doses indicates that their anthelmintic activity deserves further testing as natural alternative controls for parasites of both animals and humans. Our results also support recent evidence that synergistic effects of multiple bioactive compounds present in crude plant extracts is worth exploring.

  8. Effect of ethanol extract of Pyrenacantha staudtii leaves on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of ethanol extract of Pyrenacantha staudtii leaves on carbontetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in rats. ... total and conjugated bilirubin were also significantly lowered by the extract. These results show that the extract of Pyrenacantha staudtii leaves has protective effect against CCl4 induced liver toxicity and damage.

  9. Effect of ethanolic extract of Rosa canina on some serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect ethanolic extract of Rosa canina on some serum biochemical factors of diabetic male rats. Thirty two (32) male Wistar rats weighting 200 – 250 grams in 4 groups (control, diabetic control, diabetics + 250mg/kg/day extract, diabetics + 500 mg/kg/day extract) were used.

  10. The Anti-Sickling Properties of Ethanol Extracts of Euphorbia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ethanol extracts of Euphorbia heterophylla and Moringa oleifera showed potential anti-sickling activity. The sickling inhibition and reversal activities of the extracts were significant (P<0.05) compared to their negative controls without the extracts at all. Moringa oleifera however showed greater anti-sickling activity of 93% ...

  11. Effects of aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Pterocarpus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to investigate the possible toxicological effects of the ethanol and aqueous leaf extracts of this plant on renal and heart functions in Wistar albino rats. Both extracts were ... These results suggest non-toxic effects of leaf extracts of P. mildbraedii on the kidney and heart in rats. Hence, the plant can be ...

  12. Antibacterial effects of Solanum tuberosum peel ethanol extract in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Amanpour Raana; Abbasi-Maleki Saeid; Neyriz-Naghadehi Moslem; Asadi-Samani Majid

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Today, medicinal plants are being widely used due to being natural, available, and cheaper than synthetic drugs and having minimum side effects. Since there were reports about the antibacterial properties of Solanum tuberosum (SE), the aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial effects of SE ethanol extract in vitro condition on Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Methods: Ethanol extract of SE peel was pre...

  13. "Antimicrobial and antiproliferative activity of essential oil, aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Ocimum micranthum Willd leaves".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caamal-Herrera, Isabel O; Carrillo-Cocom, Leydi M; Escalante-Réndiz, Diana Y; Aráiz-Hernández, Diana; Azamar-Barrios, José A

    2018-02-08

    Ocimum micranthum Willd is a plant used in traditional medicine practiced in the region of the Yucatan peninsula. In particular, it is used for the treatment of cutaneous infections and wound healing, however there are currently no existing scientific studies that support these applications. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial and the in vitro proliferative activity (on healthy mammalian cell lines) of the essential oil and extracts (aqueous and ethanolic) of this plant. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of essential oil and aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Ocimum micranthum leaves against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans was determined using the microdilution technique. The in vitro proliferative activity of human fibroblast (hFB) and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells treated with these extracts was evaluated using the MTT test. The hFB cell line was also evaluated using Trypan Blue assay. Candida albicans was more susceptible to the ethanolic extract and the aqueous extract (MIC value of 5 μL/mL and 80 μL/mL respectively). In the case of Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the MIC of the aqueous and ethanolic extract was 125 μL/mL. The aqueous extract showed a significant (p essential oil and extracts of Ocimum micranthum leaves are sufficient to cause an antiproliferative effect on the hFB cell line but do not produce an antimicrobial effect against the microorganisms evaluated. More studies are necessary to improve understanding of the mechanism of action of the compounds implicated in the bioactivities shown by the crude extracts.

  14. Analgesic activity of crude aqueous extract of the root bark of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The analgesic activity of crude aqueous extract of the root bark of Zanthoxylum xanthozyloides was studied in mice and rats with the view to verifying the claim in folklore medicine that the extract has analgesic activity. Method: The extract was obtained by Soxhlet extraction and rotatory evaporation, followed by ...

  15. Antioxidant activity and growth inhibition of human colon cancer cells by crude and purified fucoidan preparations extracted from Sargassum cristaefolium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Yuan Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides, also termed “fucoidans”, which are known to possess antioxidant, anticoagulant, anticancer, antiviral, and immunomodulating properties, are normally isolated from brown algae via various extraction techniques. In the present study, two methods (SC1 and SC2 for isolation of fucoidan from Sargassum cristaefolium were compared, with regard to the extraction yields, antioxidant activity, and inhibition of growth of human colon cancer cells exhibited by the respective extracts. SC1 and SC2 differ in the number of extraction steps and concentration of ethanol used, as well as the obtained sulfated polysaccharide extracts, namely, crude fucoidan preparation (CFP and purified fucoidan preparation (PFP, respectively. Thin layer chromatography, Fourier transform infrared analysis, and measurements of fucose and sulfate contents revealed that the extracts were fucoidan. There was a higher extraction yield for CFP, which contained less fucose and sulfate but more uronic acid, and had weaker antioxidant activity and inhibition of growth in human colon cancer cells. In contrast, there was a lower extraction yield for PFP, which contained more fucose and sulfate but less uronic acid, and had stronger antioxidant activity and inhibition of growth in human colon cancer cells. Thus, since the difference in bioactive activities between CFP and PFP was not remarkable, the high extraction yield of SC1 might be favored as a method in industrial usage for extracting fucoidan.

  16. EVALUATION PHYTOCHEMISTRY, CYTOTOXIC ANALYSIS AND ANTIMICROBIAL GROSS ETHANOL EXTRACT OF LEAVES Annona muricata L. (ANNONACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiani Patrícia Silva Alfaia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The leaves of Annona muricata L. are widely used medicinally, against parasitic diseases, including helminths, dysentery, malaria and related symptoms. The Amapá population use as analgesics and against urinary infections. This research aimed to perform the phytochemical screening, analyze cytotoxic activity and antibacterial of the crude ethanol extract of leaves Annona muricata L. By the method described by Esteban et al. were detected classes: alkaloids, steroids and triterpenoids. Cytotoxicity was analyzed against the Artemia salina, by the method of Mayer with some adaptations, it was tested crude extract concentrations of leaves of 50µg/mL, 100µg/mL, 250µg/mL, 500µg/mL, 750µg/mL, 1000µg/mL, observed toxicity at concentrations from 250μg/mL extract. The antimicrobial analysis was determined by the Kirby-Bauer method with some adaptations, we used strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia. Were used three crude extract concentrations. The concentration of 25mg/mL and 50mg/mL showed zones of inhibition against the strain of E. coli. These results demonstrate the potential of this species to source of antibacterial compounds. Therefore, the results shown in this study partially justify its popular use. Keywords: Natural products; soursop; secondary metabolites.

  17. Screening of crude extracts of twelve medicinal plants and “wonder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Screening of crude extracts of twelve medicinal plants and “wonder-cure” concoction used in Nigeria unorthodox medicine for activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from tuberculosis patients sputum.

  18. Chemical and sensory evaluation of crude oil extracted from herring byproducts from different processing operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aidos, I.M.; Schelvis-Smit, A.A.M.; Veldman, M.; Luten, J.B.; Padt, van der A.; Boom, R.M.

    2003-01-01

    Fish oils extracted from marinated herring (frozen and unfrozen) byproducts and maatjes herring byproducts were evaluated on their chemical and sensory properties. The obtained crude oils had very low content of copper (

  19. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of crude methanolic extract of red alga Bryothamnion triquetrum

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cavalcante-Silva, Luiz Henrique Agra; da Matta, Carolina Barbosa Brito; de Araújo, Morgana Vital; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; de Lira, Daysianne Pereira; de Oliveira Santos, Bárbara Viviana; de Miranda, George Emmanuel C; Alexandre-Moreira, Magna Suzana

    2012-01-01

    .... In this regard, the aim of this study was to investigate the possible antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of a crude methanolic extract of the red alga Bryothamnion triquetrum (BT-MeOH) in murine models...

  20. An in vitro study of the acaricidal efficacy of aqueous crude extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -veterinary plants on larvae of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Amblyomma hebraeum. ... the other plants. These results suggest that the crude extracts of M. esculenta have potential acaricidal properties and warrant further investigation.

  1. Quality of cooked ground buffalo meat treated with the crude extracts of Moringa oleifera (Lam.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazra, Suchandra; Biswas, Subhasish; Bhattacharyya, Debasish; Das, Sudip Kumar; Khan, Anupam

    2012-04-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the physico-chemical, microbial and organoleptic qualities of cooked ground buffalo meat (GBM), treated with, 1, 1.5 and 2% levels of aqueous solution of crude extract of drumstick (Moringa oleifera) leaves. The meat samples treated with 1.5% crude extract of drumstick leaves significantly (P  0.05) difference was observed in juiciness, tenderness and overall acceptability scores between the treated meat samples.

  2. Stability and degradation kinetics of crude anthocyanin extracts from H. sabdariffa

    OpenAIRE

    Shivon SIPAHLI; MOHANLALL, Viresh; John Jason MELLEM

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Hibiscus sabdariffa is an under-utilized plant that has reported to have great potential in the food industry. The vibrant red pigment from the calyces indicate a source of anthocyanins. Anthocyanins would make ideal natural food colourants with additional nutritional benefits however stability is a hindering factor. Stability studies were the main focus of this study. Crude anthocyanins were extracted using four different solvent systems. The crude extracts were analysed under the f...

  3. Antidiarrheal activity of ethanolic bark extract of Mitragyna diversifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jebunnessa, Shaikh Bokhtear Uddin, M. Mahabub-Uz-Zaman, Rasheda Akter, Nazim Uddin Ahmed

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The ethanolic bark extract of Mitragyna diversifolia showed significant (p<0.05 antidiarrheal activity on gastrointestinal motility with barium sulfate milk model and castor oil- induced diarrheal model in rats. These results revealed that the bark extract possess pharmacological activity against diarrhea and may possibly explain the use of the plant in traditional medicine.

  4. Antidiarrheal activity of ethanolic bark extract of Mitragyna diversifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jebunnessa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The ethanolic bark extract of Mitragyna diversifolia showed significant (p<0.05 antidiarrheal activity on gastrointestinal motility with barium sulfate milk model and castor oil- induced diarrheal model in rats. These result obtained revealed that the bark extract possess pharmacological activity against diarrhea and may possibly explain the use of the plant in traditional medicine.

  5. Hypoglycaemic activity of ethanolic leaf extract and fractions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Holarrhena floribunda is a common plant that has traditionally been used in Africa to treat many diseases such as fever, dysentery, sterility and diabetes. This study was set out to evaluate the hypoglycaemic properties of ethanolic leaf extract of Holarrhena floribunda and various fractions of this extract in normal fasted and ...

  6. Antibacterial activity of aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antibacterial activity of aqueous and ethanolic leaf extract of Peperomia pellucida was investigated on Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using Agar-well diffusion method. Results showed that E. coli displayed the highest susceptibility in water extract (17.4mm–21.2mm) followed by P.

  7. Evaluation of ethanol extract of Artemisia maciverae aerial part for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A decoction of Artemisia maciverae Linn. (Asteraceae) aerial part is used for the treatment of malaria in some parts of Northern Nigeria. The aim of the study was to evaluate the oral acute toxicity and in vivo antiplasmodial effect of an ethanol extract of Artemisia maciverae aerial part. Oral acute toxicity of the extract was ...

  8. Evaluation of the purgative properties of the ethanolic extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purgative properties of the ethanolic extract of Khaya senegalensis was investigated on isolated rat jejunum and the whole animal. The dose–response effect of the extract and the reference drugs - acetylcholine (ACh) and histamine - on rat jejunum was investigated in vitro. The in vivo experiment consisted of verifying ...

  9. Antioxidant potential of ethanolic extract of aerial parts of Coleus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-26

    Sep 26, 2011 ... disturbances like inflammation, atherosclerosis, stroke, heart disease, diabetes mellitus, multiple sclerosis, cancer, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, ... grinder and passed through a 40 mesh sieve. Preparation of extracts. The above powdered materials were successively extracted with ethanol by ...

  10. Antitrypanosomal Potentials of Ethanolic Leaf Extracts of Punica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three doses (20mg/kg, 40mg/kg,80mg/kg) of ethanolic extracts of the leaves of Punica granatum were screened for trypanocidal activity against Trypanosoma brucei bruce in Balb Strain Albino mice. Parasitaemia and disappearance of clinical signs were used as parameters to monitor the efficacy of the extracts using the ...

  11. Antimicrobial Potency of Hydro, acetone and Ethanolic extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phytochemical constituents of the dried powdered plant parts were extracted using aqueous and organic solvents (acetone and ethanol). The antimicrobial activity of the concentrated extracts was evaluated by determining the diameter of zone of inhibition against both gram negative and gram positive bacteria and ...

  12. Effect of subchronic administration of ethanolic leaf extract of croton ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biochemical effcts of ethanolic leaf extract of Croton zambesicus on serum alkaline phosphatase(SAP),aspartate aminotransferase (AST) ,alanine aminotransferase(ALT),serum total protein and albumin were studied.The levels of these enzymes and that of total protein and albumin in the extract treated rats were not ...

  13. Mechanism of antidiarrhoeal effect of ethanolic extract of Psidium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mechanisms by which the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Psidium guajava exerts its antidiarrhoeal effect were investigated. Antimicrobial analyses of the extracts were carried out using standard cultures of Escherichia coli (ATCC 15597) and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538). There was a concentration ...

  14. Antihyperglycemic effect of Bridelia ndellensis ethanol extract and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ethanol extract of B. ndellensis had no hypoglycemic effect in type 1 diabetic rats in fasting and postprandial glucose load conditions and, in type 2 diabetic rats in fasting condition. However, the extract, and its ethyl acetate and dichloromethane fractions significantly lowered blood glucose levels in type 2 diabetic rats ...

  15. Aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Ocimum basilicum (sweet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We evaluated the effects of aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil) on sodium arsenite-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats. We observed that treatment of the animals with the extracts before or just after sodium arsenite administration significantly (p < 0.05) reduced mean liver and serum ...

  16. Phytochemical screening and antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction from basil leaf (Ocimum basilicum L.) by DPPH radical scavenging method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warsi; Sholichah, A. R.

    2017-11-01

    Basil leaf (Ocimum basilicum L.) contains various compounds such as flavonoid, alkaloid, phenol and essential oil, so it needs to be fractionated to find out the flavonoid compound with the greatest potential as an antioxidant. This research was aimed to know the chemical compound, antioxidant potential of ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction from basil leaf. The basil leaf was extracted by maceration using ethanol 70 %. The crude extract was fractionated with ethyl acetate. The ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction were screened of phytochemical content including identification of flavonoids, alkaloids and polyphenolics. The antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction were tested qualitatively with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and phosphomolybdate. Its antioxidant activity was determined quantitatively using DPPH radical scavenging method. Phytochemical screening test showed that ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction from basil leaf contain flavonoids, polyphenolics, and alkaloids. The qualitative analysis of antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction from basil leaf showed an antioxidant activity. The IC50 value of ethanolic extract, ethyl acetate fraction and quercetin were 1,374.00±6.20 389.00±1.00 2.10±0.01μg/mL, respectively. The research showed that antioxidant activity of the ethyl acetate fraction more potential than the ethanol extract of the basil leaf, but less than quercetin.

  17. Inhibition of α-glucosidase activity by ethanolic extract of Melia azedarach L. leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulistiyani; Safithri, Mega; Puspita Sari, Yoana

    2016-01-01

    Development of α-glucosidase inhibitor derived from natural products is an opportunity for a more economic management of diabetes prevention. The objective of this study was to test the activity of α-glucosidase with or without potential inhibitor compounds. By in vitro method, α-glucosidase hydrolizes p-nitrophenyl-α-D-glucopiranoside to glucose and the yellow of p-nitrophenol which can be determined with spectrophotometry at 400 nm. The ability of ethanolic leaf extract of Melia azedarach L. as a-glucosidase inhibitor was compared with that of commercial acarbose (Glucobay®). Acarbose showed strong inhibitory activity against a-glucosidase with IC50 values of 2.154 µg/mL. The crude ethanolic leaf extract of M. azedarach, however, showed less inhibitory activity with IC50 value of 3, 444.114 µg/mL. Total phenolics of M. azedarach leaves EtOH extract showed 17.94 µg GAE/mg extract and flavonoids total compound of 9.55 µg QE/mg extract. Based on the published wide range of IC50 values of extracts reported as a-glucosidase inhibitor which were between 10, 000 ppm-0.66 ppm, our result suggests that extract of M.azedarach leaves is potential candidate for development of anti-hyperglycemic formulation.

  18. Effect of crude extract of Solanum xanthocarpum against snails and mosquito larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changbunjong, Tanasak; Wongwit, Waranya; Leemingsawat, Somjai; Tongtokit, Yuwadee; Deesin, Vanida

    2010-03-01

    The ethanolic crude extract from Solanum xanthocarpum was investigated for its molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata, the snail vector of Schistosoma mansoni, and Indoplanorbis exustus, the snail vector of intestinal echinostomiasis and Schistosoma spindale, together with the larvicidal activity against the larvae of Aedes aegypti, mosquito vector of dengue hemorrhagic fever and Culex quinquefasciatus, the mosquito vector of urban bancroftian filariasis. The bioassays were carried out following the methods recommended by the World Health Organization. For molluscicidal activity, the LC50 against Bi. glabrata and I. exustus were reported at 163.85 and 198.00 mg/l while the LC90 were 219.33 and 236.80 mg/l, respectively. Regarding mosquito larvicidal activity, the LC50 against the larvae of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus were 788.10 and 573.20 mg/l, while the LC90 were 1288.91 and 1066.93 mg/l, respectively. These results suggest a preparation of ingredients from this plant may be used as a biological larvicide for these vectors in the field.

  19. Study on optimization of extraction process of crude polysaccharides from Pleurotus eryngii by response surface method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui ZHAO

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the optimal extraction process of crude polysaccharides from Pleurotus eryngii, with fresh fruiting of Pleurotus eryngii as raw material, the influence of extraction time, solid-liquid ratio, and temperature, etc. on the extraction efficiency is analyzed using the hot water extraction method. Box-behnken design(BBD is used for response surface analysis, and the optimal condition is as follows: extraction temperature of 47 ℃, extraction time of 4.9 h and solid-liquid ratio of 1∶19 (g/mL. Among the factors,the heating temperature has the greatest influence on the extraction rate, then the material liquid ratio, and at last the extraction time. Under this condition, the extraction rate of crude polysaccharide from Pleurotus eryngii reaches the maximum of 5.66% which is close to the actual verification value. Therefore, the optimization of the extraction condition of crude polysaccharides from Pleurotus eryngii by using response surface method is reasonable and feasible, and it provides a theoretical basis for the industrial application of crude polysaccharide extraction from Pleurotus eryngii using hot water.

  20. Antidermatophytic Activity of Ethanolic Extract from Croton tiglium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Chien Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatophytosis, which is caused mainly by genera of Trichophyton, Epidermophyton, and Microsporum, is a frequent dermatological problem in tropical and subtropical countries. Investigations were carried out in this study to evaluate the antidermatophytic activity of the stems, leaves, and seeds of Croton tiglium, one of the traditional medicine plants indigenous to Asia. Ethanolic extracts of the stems, leaves, and seeds of C. tiglium were prepared by cold soak or heat reflux methods. The antidermatophytic activities of the extracts were evaluated by disc diffusion and microdilution susceptibility assays against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, and Epidermophyton floccosum. The active components in the extracts were analyzed and identified by GC-MS. All ethanolic extracts of C. tiglium showed some antifungal activities against the three dermatophytes. The ethanolic stem extract had the greatest inhibitory activities against T. mentagrophytes and E. floccosum with MICs at 0.16 mg/mL and had a lower activity against T. rubrum (MIC: 0.31 mg/mL. Oleic acid and hexadecanoic acid were found to be the major constituents in the stem extract that demonstrated strong antidermatophytic activities. The ethanolic extracts of stem or seed of C. tiglium exhibit strong antidermatophytic activities and, thus, could be considered for application on treating skin fungal infections after appropriate processing.

  1. EVALUATION PHYTOCHEMISTRY, CYTOTOXIC ANALYSIS AND ANTIMICROBIAL GROSS ETHANOL EXTRACT OF LEAVES Annona muricata L. (ANNONACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Daiani Patrícia Silva Alfaia; Sheylla Susan Moreida da Silva de Almeida

    2016-01-01

    The leaves of Annona muricata L. are widely used medicinally, against parasitic diseases, including helminths, dysentery, malaria and related symptoms. The Amapá population use as analgesics and against urinary infections. This research aimed to perform the phytochemical screening, analyze cytotoxic activity and antibacterial of the crude ethanol extract of leaves Annona muricata L. By the method described by Esteban et al. were detected classes: alkaloids, steroids and triterpenoids. Cytotox...

  2. Composição química do óleo essencial e avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana do óleo essencial, extrato etanólico bruto e frações das folhas de Spiranthera odoratissima A. St.-Hil Chemical composition of the essential oil and evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of essential oil, crude ethanol extract and fractions of Spiranthera odoratissima A. St.-Hil. leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.A. Chaibub

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A Spiranthera odoratissima A. St.-Hil (manacá é utilizada popularmente como depurativo do sangue, nas afecções renais e hepáticas (chá das folhas para dores musculares, de estômago, de cabeça, e disfunções hepáticas (chá das raízes. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a composição química do óleo essencial e a atividade antimicrobiana do óleo essencial, do extrato etanólico bruto e frações obtidos das folhas de S. odoratissima contra bactérias Gram positivas e negativas, e Candida albicans. O extrato bruto das folhas foi obtido por maceração seguido de concentração em rotaevaporador e as frações por partição em coluna filtrante. O pó das folhas foi submetido à hidrodestilação em aparelho de Clevenger e o óleo essencial obtido foi analisado por CG/EM. A atividade antimicrobiana foi avaliada pelo método da diluição em ágar para determinar a concentração inibitória mínima (CIM. Os constituintes majoritários do óleo essencial foram β-cariofileno (20,64%, γ-muuroleno (17,70%, biciclogermacreno (14,73%, e δ-cadineno (13,40%. No estudo da atividade antimicrobiana de S. odoratissima, os principais resultados foram obtidos contra Staphylococus epidermidis (extrato etanólico bruto, CIM de 0,098 mg/mL, C. albicans (fração hexano, CIM de 0,049 mg/mL, Bacillus cereus (diclorometano, CIM de 0,098 mg/mL, Micrococcus roseus (fração acetato de etila, CIM 0,049 mg/mL, e M. roseus, Micrococus luteus, B. cereus e C. albicans (fração metanol, CIM de 0,391 mg/mL.Spiranthera odoratissima ("manacá" has been popularly used as a blood cleanser, for liver and kidney diseases (tea from the leaves, as well as for muscle and stomach pains, headache and liver disorders (tea from the roots. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition of the essential oil and the antimicrobial activity of essential oil, crude ethanol extract and fractions of S. odoratissima leaves against Gram-positive and negative

  3. in vitro antimicrobial activity of crude extracts from plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Clement Adewunmi

    extraction by squeezing raw juice from the leaves was also employed. All extracts were lyophilized. ... Other parts of the plant especially the root is prescribed for gonorrhoea, vermifuge and abortion .... Both the aqueous extract of the dried leaves and methanol extraction of kalanchoe crenata showed moderate antimicrobial ...

  4. In vitro vasodilatory activity and possible mechanisms of the crude extracts and fractions of Moringa stenopetala (Baker f.) Cufod. leaves in isolated thoracic aorta of guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geleta, Bekesho; Makonnen, Eyasu; Debella, Asfaw; Abebe, Abiy; Fekadu, Netsanet

    2016-01-01

    Moringa stenopetala, a plant belonging to the family of Moringaceae, is traditionally used for the treatment of hypertension and diabetes in Ethiopia. This study evaluates the in vitro vasodilatory effect of the extract of M. stenopetala leaves and the possible mechanisms in precontracted isolated thoracic aorta of guinea pigs. A guinea pig was sacrificed by gentle cervical dislocation, and the thoracic aortic ring was removed, cut spirally, and mounted in an organ bath containing Krebs-Henseleit physiological solution maintained at 37°C, and then the solution was aerated with carbogen (95% O2 and 5% CO2). The vasodilatory activity of cumulative doses of M. stenopetala extracts and fractions was evaluated on intact and denuded endothelium of isolated whole, spirally cut thoracic aortic strips of guinea pigs precontracted with potassium chloride (80 mM), epinephrine (1 μM), methylene blue (10 μM), and glibenclamide (10 μM) using polygraph. All extracts showed a relaxant effect in precontracted isolated whole, spirally cut thoracic aortic strips of guinea pigs in a dose-dependent manner, whereas the greater percentage of relaxant effect was shown with the addition of crude extracts in 80 mM of potassium chloride (99.10% and 95.56% for ethanol and aqueous crude extracts, respectively), and 1 μM of epinephrine (82.85% and 90.16% for ethanol and aqueous crude extracts, respectively) in precontracted isolated whole, spirally cut thoracic aortic strips of guinea pigs. Hence, the possible mechanism of relaxation might be mediated through the blockade of receptor-operated calcium influx and L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels. The aqueous extract showed more significant in vitro vasodilatory effect than its fractions and 70% ethanol extract.

  5. Aphrodisiac Activity of the Aqueous Crude Extract of Purple Corn ( Zea mays) in Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carro-Juárez, Miguel; Rodríguez-Santiago, Magdalena G; Franco, Miguel Angel; Hueletl-Soto, María Eugenia

    2017-10-01

    In the present study, the aphrodisiac properties of the purple corn ( Zea mays) in male rats were analyzed. The aqueous crude extract of purple corn (at 25, 50, and 75 mg/kg) was administered to ( a) copulating male rats and ( b) anesthetized and spinal cord transected male rats. Behavioral parameters of copulatory behavior and parameters of the genital motor pattern of ejaculation previous to its inhibition, under the influence of the purple corn extract, are described. Administration of the aqueous crude extract of purple corn significantly facilitates the arousal and execution of male rat sexual behavior without significant influences on the ambulatory behavior. In addition, purple corn extract elicit a significant increase in the number of discharges of the ejaculatory motor patterns and in the total number of genital motor patterns evoked in spinal rats. The present findings show that the aqueous crude extract of purple corn possesses aphrodisiac activity.

  6. Antinociceptive Activity of an Ethanol Extract of Justicia spicigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata-Morales, Juan Ramón; Alonso-Castro, Angel Josabad; Domínguez, Fabiola; Carranza-Álvarez, Candy; Castellanos, Luis Manuel Orozco; Martínez-Medina, Rosa María; Pérez-Urizar, José

    2016-06-01

    Preclinical Research The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antinociceptive and sedative activity of an ethanol extract of Justicia spicigera an evergreen used in Mexican traditional medicine for the relief of pain, wounds, fever and inflammation. At 200 mg/kg po, the maximum dose examined, the ethanol extract of J. spicigera (JSE) had analgesic activity in mice in the acetic acid writhing test, the second phase of the formalin test and the tail flick test that was similar in efficacy to the NSAID, naproxen (150 mg/kg po). JSE was inactive in the hot plate test and and the ketamine-induced sleeping time test; it had no sedative effects. These results show that the ethanol extract from the leaves of J. spicigera has antinociceptive effects in mice without inducing sedation. Drug Dev Res 77 : 180-186, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Efficient extraction of intracellular reduced glutathione from fermentation broth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zhi-Qiang; Guo, Mei-Jin; Guo, Yuan-Xin; Chu, Ju; Zhuang, Ying-Ping; Zhang, Si-Liang

    2009-01-01

    Reduced glutathione (GSH) from fermentation broth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was extracted with ethanol without disruption of the cells. The effects of ethanol concentration, extraction temperature and extraction time were assessed by using 2(3) full factorial designs (FFD). Preliminary studies showed that ethanol concentration had the most influence on GSH yield by ethanol extraction, based on the first order regression coefficients derived using MINITAB software, and an optimal ethanol concentration (25%, v/v) was obtained. However, compared to the conventional extraction technique (hot water extraction), there was no significant advantage in yield of GSH from yeast cells using ethanol extraction under these optimized conditions. But ethanol extraction has several advantages, such as lower energy consumption and lower protein concentration of extraction broth, which may reduce the complexity and cost of the purification process. Hence, ethanol extraction which does not disrupt yeast cells could be an inexpensive, simple and efficient alternative to conventional extraction techniques in the GSH industry.

  8. Anti-Hyperglycemic Properties of Crude Extract and Triterpenes from Poria cocos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Hsuan Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Poria cocos, Bai Fu Ling in Chinese, is used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat diabetes. However, its claimed benefits and mechanism are not fully understood. This study aimed to investigate the effect and action of P. cocos on type 2 diabetes. We first performed phytochemical analysis on the crude extract and factions of P. cocos. P. cocos crude extract at 50 mg/kg body weight or more significantly decreased blood glucose levels in db/db mice. Based on a bioactivity-directed fractionation and isolation (BDFI strategy, chloroform fraction and subfractions 4 and 6 of the P. cocos crude extract possessed a blood glucose-lowering effect. Dehydrotumulosic acid, dehydrotrametenolic acid, and pachymic acid were identified from the chloroform sub-fractions 4, 3, and 2, respectively. Dehydrotumulosic acid had anti-hyperglycemic effect to a greater extent than dehydrotrametenolic acid and pachymic acid. Mechanistic study on streptozocin- (STZ- treated mice showed that the crude extract, dehydrotumulosic acid, dehydrotrametenolic acid, and pachymic acid of P. cocos exhibited different levels of insulin sensitizer activity. However, the P. cocos crude extract and triterpenes appeared not to activate PPAR-γ pathway. Overall, the data suggest that the P. cocos extract and its triterpenes reduce postprandial blood glucose levels in db/db mice via enhanced insulin sensitivity irrespective of PPAR-γ.

  9. Hepatoprotective Effects of Ethanol Extract of Caesalpiniabonduc ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    Whatman No.1 filter paper.Dried ethanol .... phosphate buffer ( 0.4 M, pH 7.0) was mixed with vortex mixer. Then, 0.1ml of reduced glutathione (4mM),0.05ml of hydrogen peroxide (2.5 mM H2O2) and 0.1ml distilled water were added. The mixture was mixed together with a vortex mixer.0.25 mL of serum were added to the.

  10. Antilisterial effects of ethanolic extracts of some edible Thai plants on refrigerated cooked pork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siriporn Stonsaovapak

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes is a major foodborne pathogen responsible for the disease listeriosis.Effective methods for reducing L. monocytogenes in foods would reduce the likelihood of foodborneoutbreaks of listeriosis and decrease economic losses to the food industry. Crude ethanolic extracts from 50 edible Thai plants were screened for inhibitory effects on isolated strains and type strains of L.monocytogenes by the well assay technique. Ethanolic extracts of Micromelum minutum, Artocarpus heterophyllus, Piper retrofractum and Cucurbita moschata, which showed listerial growth inhibition,were applied to cooked pork to determine their antimicrobial activities against L. monocytogenes. Pork was cooked to an internal temperature of 85C, allowed to cool to 8C and then treated by surface application with the plant extracts. Low (102 cfu g-1 or high (105 cfu g-1 population of L.monocytogenes were applied and samples were stored at 4C for up to 7 days. M. minutum and A.heterophyllus extracts were most effective in inhibiting the growth of the pathogen. These results suggested that some edible Thai plant extracts might be useful as antimicrobials in cooked, ready-to-eatpork.

  11. Evaluation of the in vitro antimicrobial activity of crude extracts of three Miconia species

    OpenAIRE

    Celotto,Andréa Carla; Nazario,Daniela Zaupa; Spessoto,Marcela de Almeida; Martins,Carlos Henrique Gomes; Cunha,Wilson Roberto

    2003-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of nine crude extracts of three Miconia species (M. albicans, M. rubiginosa and M. stenostachya) was tested against eleven selected microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Shigella flexneri, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella sp, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus agalactiae and Candida albicans. The results of the test showed that three extracts had some antimicrobial activit...

  12. Effect of crude canine pituitary extract (cCPE) on the in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We examined the effect of crude canine pituitary extract (cCPE) on the in vitro nuclear maturation of canine oocytes and production of progesterone by cumulus cells. cCPE was extracted from canine pituitaries and the concentrations of canine follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) were ...

  13. Prostaglandin E 2 (PgE 2 ) Inhibition By Crude Extracts Of Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken to assess anti-inflammatory activity of crude extracts of Cassine transvaalensis Burtt-Davy, Clerodendrum uncinatum Schinz and Commiphora glandulosa Schinz using COX inhibition assay. Water extract of C. transvaalensis root bark (125mg/ml) exhibited a (90%) PGE2 inhibition in ...

  14. Antimicrobial Activity of Aerial Part Crude Extracts from the Saharan plant Anabasis aretioides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. AMARI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of several crude extracts from the aerial parts of Anabasis aretioides was investigated by the disc diffusion method. The S. aureus, C. albicans and S. cereviceae Bacteria showed good efficiency in bacterial activity with most of the tested extract.

  15. Antifouling activity of crude extracts isolated from two Red Sea puffer fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosry A. Soliman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Crude extracts were isolated from the ovary and mucus of the puffer fish Amblyrhynchotes hypselogenion and Lagocephalus sceleratus. The crude toxin extracts (from the ovaries of L. sceleratus puffer fish (4.5, 9.0, and 18.0 g crude extract/100 g paint and only one concentration (3.0 g crude extract/100 g paint from the skin mucus of A. hypselogenion puffer fish were mixed with an inert simple paint formulation (consists of (vinyl chloride–vinyl acetate copolymer using tricresyl phosphate as plasticizer. The viscosity of paints was adjusted using a blend of solvents consisting of methyl isobutyl ketone and toluene applied to poly vinyl chloride (PVC plates and exposed to Suez Gulf water for about 24 weeks. Percentage covers of fouling organisms on plates were estimated for coated panels over six weeks, and the wet weight (gram/plate of fouling organisms on experimental plates was recorded till about 24 weeks. The percentage of plates coated by formulation with (2007 for 24 weeks the crude toxic extracts from the ovaries of L. sceleratus and the mucus of A. hypselogenion ranged from 22% to 24% and 11% to 12%, respectively. The wet weights of the plates covered by formulation with the same crude toxic extracts of the previous two species were 124–147 g and 82–93 g, respectively. Antifouling properties were observed for the extracts of the two species under investigation, however, extracts from A. hypselogenion showed better properties.

  16. Enhanced cyanide biodegradation by immobilized crude extract of Rhodococcus UKMP-5M.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniyam, Maegala Nallapan; Ibrahim, Abdul Latif; Cass, Anthony E G

    2017-10-31

    The capability of the crude extract of Rhodococcus UKMP-5M was enhanced by adopting the technology of immobilization. Among the matrices screened to encapsulate the crude extract, gellan gum emerged as the most suitable immobilization material, exceeding the activity of cyanide-degrading enzyme by 61% and 361% in comparison to alginate carrier and non-immobilized crude extract, respectively. Improved bead mechanical strength which supported higher biocatalyst activity by 63% was observed when concentration of gellan gum, concentration of calcium chloride, number of beads and bead size were optimized. The immobilized crude extract demonstrated higher tolerance towards broad range of pH (5-10) and temperature (30°C-40°C), superior cyanide-degrading activity over time and improved storage stability by maintaining 76% of its initial activity after 30 days at 4°C. Furthermore, repeated use of the gellan gum beads up to 20 batches without substantial loss in the catalytic activity was documented in the present study, indicating that the durability of the beads and the stability of the enzyme are both above adequate. Collectively, the findings reported here revealed that the utilization of the encapsulated crude extract of Rhodococcus UKMP-5M can be considered as a novel attempt to develop an environmentally favourable and financially viable method in cyanide biodegradation.

  17. Protective effect of crude Curcuma longa and its methanolic extract in alloxanized rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mobasher; Kamran, Sairah Hafeez; Mobasher, Afroze

    2014-01-01

    Curcuma longa (C. longa) is commonly found in different areas of Pakistan. It has been locally utilized as a traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antidiabetic, hepatoprotective and total antioxidant effect of the crude drug and its methanolic extract in rabbits. Diabetes was induced with alloxan (180mg/kg). Two major groups were designed, curative and protective groups. In curative group the crude drug and its methanolic extract was orally administered to the diabetic animals and acute study was performed. On the other hand in protective group the crude drug and its methanolic extract were administered for eight days prior to the diabetes induction. Results indicated that in Curative group the crude and methanolic extract of C. longa significantly improved the levels of serum glucose, serum transaminases and antioxidant activity (AOA). In protective group, serum glucose, serum transaminases were not significantly increased by alloxan, in both crude as well as methanolic extract group. This study shows that C. longa acts as antidiabetic, hepatoprotective and antioxidant in diabetes especially type 1 diabetes.

  18. Antiviral Activity of Crude Hydroethanolic Extract from Schinus terebinthifolia against Herpes simplex Virus Type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocchi, Samara Requena; Companhoni, Mychelle Vianna Pereira; de Mello, João Carlos Palazzo; Dias Filho, Benedito Prado; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Carollo, Carlos Alexandre; Silva, Denise Brentan; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia

    2017-04-01

    Herpes simplex virus infections persist throughout the lifetime of the host and affect more than 80 % of the humans worldwide. The intensive use of available therapeutic drugs has led to undesirable effects, such as drug-resistant strains, prompting the search for new antiherpetic agents. Although diverse bioactivities have been identified in Schinus terebinthifolia, its antiviral activity has not attracted much attention. The present study evaluated the antiherpetic effects of a crude hydroethanolic extract from the stem bark of S. terebinthifolia against Herpes simplex virus type 1 in vitro and in vivo as well as its genotoxicity in bone marrow in mammals and established the chemical composition of the crude hydroethanolic extract based on liquid chromatography-diode array detector-mass spectrometry and MS/MS. The crude hydroethanolic extract inhibited all of the tested Herpes simplex virus type 1 strains in vitro and was effective in the attachment and penetration stages, and showed virucidal activity, which was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The micronucleus test showed that the crude hydroethanolic extract had no genotoxic effect at the concentrations tested. The crude hydroethanolic extract afforded protection against lesions that were caused by Herpes simplex virus type 1 in vivo. Liquid chromatography-diode array detector-mass spectrometry and MS/MS identified 25 substances, which are condensed tannins mainly produced by a B-type linkage and prodelphinidin and procyanidin units. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Inhibitory Effect of Helicteres gardneriana Ethanol Extract on Acute Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Oliveira de Melo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The anti-inflammatory effect of an ethanol extract of Helicteres gardneriana (Nees Castiglioni was assayed in experimental models of pleurisy and microcirculation in situ. Treatment of animals with 500 mg/kg body weight reduced the exudate volume (35% reduction induced by intrapleural injection of carrageenan and the migration of polymorphonuclear cells into the inflamed pleural cavity of rats (40%. Additionally, rolling and adhesion of leukocytes and the number of leukocytes that migrated toward the perivascular space in response to the carrageenan injection were decreased by the extract (500 mg/kg. These data demonstrate the anti-inflammatory effect of the ethanol extract of Helicteres gardneriana and imply that inhibition of leukocyte-endothelial interactions is important in the extract's mechanism of action.

  20. Anti-ulcer activity of crude alcoholic extract of Toona ciliata Roemer (heart wood).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malairajan, P; Gopalakrishnan, Geetha; Narasimhan, S; Veni, K Jessi Kala; Kavimani, S

    2007-03-21

    The ethanol extract of Toona ciliata Roemer (heart wood) was evaluated for its anti-ulcer activity against aspirin plus pylorous ligation induced gastric ulcer (antisecretory), HCl-ethanol induced ulcer (cytoprotective) and water immersion stress induced ulcer in rats. We found that Toona ciliata extract at a dose of 300mg/kg p.o. markedly decrease the incidence of ulcers in all the three models. Ethanol extract of Toona ciliata showed significant reduction in gastric volume, free acidity, total acidity and ulcer index. The plant extract also showed gastro protective activity (52.94%), whereas standard drug sucralfate showed 94.85%. Toona ciliata extract showed protection index 43.0% in water immersion stress induced ulcer, whereas standard drug omeprazole showed protection index 100%.

  1. Antioxidant studies on the ethanolic extract of Commiphora spp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This investigation elucidated the presence of phytochemical constituents and in vitro free radicals scavenging activity for nitric oxide, total reducing power, superoxide, lipid peroxidation and DPPH in the ethanolic leaves extract of Commiphora species; Commiphora caudata (CC) and Commiphora var pubescens (CP).

  2. Effect of Ethanol Leaf Extract of Newboulda Laevis on Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate anti-diabetic effect of the ethanol leaf extract of Newbouldia laevis (P. Beauv) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Alloxan (150 mg/kg) was administered to wistar albino rats via the intraperitoneal route. The diabetic rats were then placed in 5 groups, following stabilization of hyperglycemia.

  3. Effects Of Caffeine And Ethanolic Extract Of Kolanut On Glucose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary: The study investigated the effects of caffeine and ethanolic extract of kolanut (EEK) on glucose uptake in the canine hindlimb at rest and during contraction. Thirty male anaesthetized Mongrel dogs (11 - 13kg) were divided into six groups (5dogs/group). Caffeine (6mg/kg), EEK (5mg/kg), or normal saline (control) ...

  4. Studies On The Identification Of Constituents In Ethanol Extract Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the paper is to isolate and identify the constituents in ethanol extract of Radix Glycyrrhizae, and to study their anticancer activity. Materials and Methods: Column chromatography, ODS column chromatography, preparative thin layer chromatography and NMR spectroscopy techniques were used to isolate ...

  5. Evaluation of ethanol extract of Artemisia maciverae aerial part for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    christy

    16(2) 77- 85, January – December, 2017. ISSN 1118 - 1028. Evaluation of ethanol extract of Artemisia maciverae aerial part for antiplasmodial activity in mice. Nwaeze AC1 ... has led researchers to source for new antimalarial drugs from different sources, including higher plants. ... probably due to progressive spread of.

  6. Effects of ethanol extract of Bersama engleriana leaves on oxidative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pesticides are used to improve agricultural yields; meanwhile they have detrimental effects on human and animal reproduction. This study aimed at evaluating the protective effects of ethanol extract of Bersama engleriana leaves against cypermethrin-induced oxidative stress and reproductive toxicity. Fifty male guinea pigs ...

  7. Effect of ethanolic extract of Ocimum gratissimum on sodium nitrite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of ethanolic extract of Ocimum gratissimum on sodium nitrite‑induced cerebellar cortex toxicity in adult Wistar rats. ... Conclusion: The result showed that O. gratissimum in a controlled manner may be useful in the management of neurodegenerative conditions that involve free radical generation and reduction in brain ...

  8. Effect of Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Senna Fistula on some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of chronic administration of ethanolic leave extract of Senna fistula on haematological values, oxidative stress and dyslipidemia in experimental diabetic rats. Twenty-four albino rats weighing 120-150 g were divided into 4 experimental groups of six rats each; control, diabetic ...

  9. Protective effect of ethanol leaf extract of Carica papaya Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the ameliorative effect of ethanolic extract of Carica papaya leaves in alloxan - induced diabetic rats. Methods: Rats were randomly divided into five groups of eight animals each. Group A (control) comprised normal healthy animals which were orally administered 1.0 ml of distilled water daily for 21 ...

  10. Synergistic effects of ethanolic plant extract mixtures against food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of mixtures of ethanol extracts from semi-desert plants [creosote bush (Larrea tridentata), tarbush (Flourensia cernua) and paddle cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica)] against Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi and Staphylococcus aureus.

  11. Antitumor effect of the ethanol extract of Scutellaria baicalensis on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user6

    2012-03-22

    Mar 22, 2012 ... cells via inducing apoptosis and suppressing telomerase activity. Life. Sci. 73: 2383-2394. Gao JY, Winston AM, Alberto SM, Olivia C (2011). The ethanol extract of. Scutellaria baicalensis and the active compounds induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis including upregulation of p53 and Bax in human.

  12. Ethanol stem bark extract of Rauwolfia vomitoria ameliorates MPTP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The Parkinson's disease was induced in rats by a single intraperitoneal (IP) injection of MPTP. After 72h of induction, the young adult male rats were treated with oral administration of stem bark ethanol extract of the plant daily for 2 weeks. The blood chemistry, antioxidant markers and brain dopamine levels were ...

  13. Cytoarchitectural effects of ethanolic leaf extract of Newbouldia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty-five Wistar rats weighing 200 - 250 g were divided into five groups- the control, saline, cisplatin, pre-cisplatin and the post-cisplatin groups. Each comprised of seven rats per group and were fed with growers feed mash. They were used to investigate the effects of ethanolic leaf extract of Newbouldia laevis (N. laevis) ...

  14. Effect Of Ethanolic Extract From Elaeophorbia drupifera Leaves On ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect Of Ethanolic Extract From Elaeophorbia drupifera Leaves On The Gastrointestinal Smooth Muscle Of The Rabbi. ... The rabbit intestine was removed and separated into three segments (duodenum, jejunum and ileum). About 3-4cm of each segment was mounted in an organ bath containing Tyrode solution at 37 ...

  15. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanolic extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the ethanolic extract of Rheumatic Tea Formula (RTF) a polyherbal tea consisting the leaves of Eucalyptus globulus, Albizia chevalieri and bark of Salix alba were studied in mice and rats using acetic acid induced writhing, hot plate method, formalin induced pain and ...

  16. Sedative and Anticonvulsant Activities of the Ethanol Root Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Moradabad-244 001, U.P., 2Department of. Pharmaceutical ... Purpose: To investigate the sedative, hypnotic and anticonvulsant activities of the ethanol extract of the roots of the ... Flemingia is a genus of flowering plants in the legume family ...

  17. Effect of Ethanol Leaf Extract of Newboulda Laevis on Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Purpose: To investigate anti-diabetic effect of the ethanol leaf extract of Newbouldia laevis (P. Beauv) in alloxan-induced diabetic ... The plant was identified by Mr S Nweke of the. Department of Pharmacogonosy, Faculty of. Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City. Botanical authentication of the plant was confirmed at the ...

  18. Effect of ethanol seed extract of Buccholzia coriacea (wonderful kola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study suggests that ethanol extract of B. coriacea seeds have active ingredients that are capable of improving the lipid profile and thus, might be useful in the management of cardiovascular diseases caused by hyperlipidemia. Keywords: Buccholzia coriacea, triacylglycerol, high density lipoprotein, low density ...

  19. Antimicrobial activity of the ethanolic extract of Bryonopsis laciniosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract of the leaf, stem, seed and fruit of an Indian medicinal plant, Bryonopsis laciniosa, used traditionally as potent medication in healing several ailments such as adenopathy, ague, asthma, bronchitis, cholera, colic, consumption, convulsion, cough, fertility and phthisis, was tested against ...

  20. Ameliorative effect of ethanolic extract of leaves of Momordica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mormodica charantia has been shown to possess antioxidant, hepatoprotective and anticancer effects while the kidneys have been shown to be the second largest repository of lead in lead poisoining. This study assessed the ameliorative effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Momordica charantia on lead nitrate induced kidney ...

  1. Original Paper Effects of ethanol extract of Bersama engleriana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pesticides are used to improve agricultural yields; meanwhile they have detrimental effects on human and animal reproduction. This study aimed at evaluating the protective effects of ethanol extract of Bersama engleriana leaves against cypermethrin-induced oxidative stress and reproductive toxicity. Fifty male guinea pigs ...

  2. Hepatoprotective and anticlastogenic effects of ethanol extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatoprotective and anticlastogenic effects of ethanol extract of Irvingia gabonensis (IG) leaves in sodium arsenite-induced toxicity in male Wistar rats. ... They were administered with 250 or 500 mg/kg body weight of IG with or without SA at ...

  3. Efficacy of ethanolic spore extract of Lycopodium clavatum in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethanolic extract of spores of Lycopodium clavatum L., reportedly has profound effect against liver disorders, but lacks adequate experimental validation. To test this claim, healthy inbred Swiss albino mice, Mus musculus, were divided into different groups: Gr.I mice were fed normal diet (negative control); Gr.II - fed normal ...

  4. Effects of Ethanol Extract of Curcuma Longa Rhizome on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human beings are constantly exposed to both emotional and physical stress throughout life and as a way of providing relief for such individuals, this study considered an alternative method of stress management with phytomedicine, hence, we investigated the effects of the ethanol extract of Curcuma longa rhizome in ...

  5. Evaluation of antiulcer activity of aqueous ethanol extract of Thesium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thesiumviride Hill (Santalaceae) is a sub-shrub hemiparasite that grows up to 45cm tall and widely distributed in Europe, Asia and Africa. It is used in treatment of ulcer and jaundice. Phytochemical screening was carried out on the aqueous ethanol extract of the whole plant by using standard phytochemical methods.

  6. Evaluation of antiplasmodial activity of ethanol extract and fractions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maesobotrya barteri is a medicinal plant that is used by the Ibibios of Southern Nigeria, to treat various ailments including malaria. The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vivo antiplasmodial activity of ethanol extract and fractions of M. barteri root in Plasmodium berghei berghei infected Swiss albino mice.

  7. Hepatoprotective and anticlastogenic effects of ethanol extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Summary: Consumption of arsenic contaminated water has been associated with diverse health defects such as cancer and skin lesions. Some plants of medicinal value have been reported to show protective effects against toxins. In this study, the effects of ethanol extract of the leaves of Irvingia gabonensis (IG) against ...

  8. Haematopoietic effect of an ethanolic leaf extract of Ipomoea in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The haematological profile of healthy New Zea-land rabbits, phlebotomized rabbits, and phlebotomized rabbits treated with 0.23 ml/kg Fero-globin®, 100, 300, and 1000 mg/kg I. involucrata ethanolic leaf extract, or 0.23 ml normal saline were determined at 20-day intervals for 40 days using the Cell Dyn 1800 Automatic ...

  9. Antitrypanosomal Potentials of Ethanolic Leaf Extracts of Punica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current treatment regimens based on chemotherapy for Human African Trypanosomiasis and Animal Trypanosomosis are limited, and are not ideal as ... Packed cell volume and Weight improved significantly (p<0.05) in the group which was admnistered 40 mg/kg ethanol extract when compared to the negative group.

  10. Histological effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Codiaeum variegatum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histological effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Codiaeum variegatum on the cerebrum of adult Wistar rats. ... Journal of Experimental and Clinical Anatomy ... They were sacrificed on the 15th day of the experiment; cerebrum was harvested, processed, and stained using the hematoxylin and eosin histological technique.

  11. Effect of ethanol extract of Pyrenacantha staudtii leaves on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr J. T. Ekanem

    The effect of ethanol extract of Pyrenacantha staudtii leaves on carbontetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatotoxicity in rats was studied. Sixteen male wistar rats of 100-170g body weight divided into four groups of four rats each, designated – group I, II, III and IV were used. Groups. II, III and IV were injected intraperitoneally ...

  12. Methanol Partition Fraction of Ethanol Extract of Discorea nipponica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the inhibitory effect of the methanol fraction of Dioscorea nipponica Makino ethanol extract (DNM) on melanogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. Methods: Cultured mouse B16 melanoma cell and zebra fish were used to evaluate the melanogenesis inhibitory activity of DNM in vitro and in vivo, ...

  13. Effect of ethanolic extract of Carpolobia lutea G. Don (polygalaceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Summary: Carpolobia lutea, commonly called cattle stick or poor man's candle, is used by traditional herbalists in eastern. Nigeria to treat 'madness'. It has a reported analgesic and anti-nociceptive effect. The effect of its ethanolic root extract on learning and memory was investigated. Thirty mice were divided into three ...

  14. Effect Of Sub Chronic Administration Of Ethanolic Leaf Extract Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethanolic leaf extract of Croton zambesicus was administered to rats at doses of 100 – 400mg / kg for 21 days to investigate its effect on the haematological indices of rats. Haematological indices, namely packed cell volume (PCV), Haemoglobin concentration (Hb) Red blood cell count (RBC), Mean cell Haemoglobin ...

  15. Antinociceptive properties and acute toxicity of ethanol extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antinociceptive effect of ethanol extract (Bl-EtOH) in mice was carried out using chemical (writhing and formalin) and thermal (hot plate) models of nociception. ... Naloxone (1.5 mg/kg, i.p.) antagonized the antinociceptive action of Bl-EtOH (100 mg/kg), and this finding suggests involvement of opioid mechanism.

  16. Effect of ethanolic extract of Carpolobia lutea G. Don (polygalaceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary: Carpolobia lutea, commonly called cattle stick or poor man's candle, is used by traditional herbalists in eastern Nigeria to treat 'madness'. It has a reported analgesic and anti-nociceptive effect. The effect of its ethanolic root extract on learning and memory was investigated. Thirty mice were divided into three ...

  17. Effect of Ethanol Extract of Indigofera tinctoria Linn (Fabaceae) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Different doses of the ethanol extract of Indigofera tinctoria were administered orally 1 h before the injection of pilocarpine. The severity of status epilepticus was observed and recorded every 15 min for 90 min and thereafter every 30 min for another 90 min, using Racine scoring system. In-vivo lipid peroxidation of rat brain ...

  18. Preliminary study on the wound healing activity of ethanolic extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: Powdered stem bark sample of V. paradoxa was screened for various classes of secondary metabolites using standard procedure. The wound healing activity of ethanol extract of the stem bark was evaluated using incision wound model in rats. Fifteen rats were divided into three groups of five rats ...

  19. Pterocarpus angolensis crude extracts induce the expression of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was an increase in the production of proteoglycans. However, the plant extracts at a concentration of 50 μg/ml induced apoptosis in the middle zone chondrocytes. These results show the potential of P. angolensis extracts in chondrocyte tissue regeneration. This potential could be exploited in the treatment of ...

  20. Effects of Crude Extracts of Portulaca oleracea on Haematological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of oral administration of aqueous (AEPO) and methanolic (MEPO) extracts of Portulaca oleracea at various doses (25mg/kg BW, 50mg/kgBW and 75mg/kgBW) on haematological and plasma biochemical parameters of albino rats were investigated. The extracts were administered on daily basis for 30 days and ...

  1. Effects of aqueous crude extract of Securidaca longipedunculata on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . The oxytocin-like effect of the extract is consistent with the use of the extract locally to induce abortion. It was observed that the pregnant uteri (rat and rabbit) were more responsive than the rat uterus. Concentrations ranging from 0.1 mg/ml to ...

  2. Phytochemical Screening and Cytotoxicity of Crude Extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Purpose: To investigate the phytochemistry and cytotoxic activity of the leaf, branch and fruit extracts of. Vatica diospyroides Symington type LS, an endangered medicinal plant in the peninsula of Thailand. Methods: Extracts of the mature leaves, branches and fruit (both cotyledon and pericarp) of five-year old tree were ...

  3. Total Phenol amd Flavonoid contents of Crude Extract and Fractions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phenolic compounds are numerous in plants and are essential part of human diet. Picralima nitida has been extensively used in African folk medicine especially in West Africa. The present study evaluated the total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the extract and fractions of Picralima nitida. The methanol extracts of P.

  4. Effects of Crude Extracts of Portulaca oleracea on Haematological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    Recent studies have also shown that extracts of P. oleracea cause reduction in locomotion activity and an increase in the onset time of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced convulsion in rats. (Radhakrishnan et al., 2001). This study was aimed at investigating the effects of aqueous and methanolic extracts of Portulaca oleracea.

  5. Anti-onchocercal and antibacterial Activities of crude extracts and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The methanol (MeOH) extract of Anchomanes difformis(Araceae) was fractionated by column chromatography and some pure compounds were obtained whose structures were determined by 1H and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. The extract was tested in vitro for anti-onchocercal activity against O. ochengi, a close relative of O.

  6. Antibacterial activity of crude extracts from Mexican plants against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of 36 extracts from 18 vegetal species used as soap, insecticides, insect repellent and for the treatment of several diseases likely associated to microorganisms. The vegetal species were collected in Oaxaca, Puebla and Veracruz States, México. The extracts ...

  7. Utilization Of Crude Testis Extract To Enhance Broiler Production In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the possibility of using aqueous testis extracts as growth promoters. In the first experiments, 100 Abore Acre chicks were assigned to four treatments in which the birds were given 0, 10,15 and 20% of a 3.3 % aqueous bull testis extract in drinking water ad libitum from week ...

  8. Phytochemical Screening and Cytotoxicity of Crude Extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the phytochemistry and cytotoxic activity of the leaf, branch and fruit extracts of Vatica diospyroides Symington type LS, an endangered medicinal plant in the peninsula of Thailand. Methods: Extracts of the mature leaves, branches and fruit (both cotyledon and pericarp) of five-year old tree were ...

  9. Effect of crude garlic extract on nicotine induced hyperglycaemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of curde garlic extract on nicotine induced hyperglycaemia and hyperlipidaemia has been studied in albino rats. Four groups of 6 rats each were used. A control group received saline, a second group received 1mg/kg nicotine i.p., the third group received 305 per kg body weight o acqueous garlic extract orally ...

  10. Potential Anticonvulsant Activity of Ethanol Extracts of Cichorium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The 1st group was kept as control, 2nd as standard (diazepam, 7.5 mg/kg); 3rd - 5th were treated with C. intybus ethanol extract (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg); and 6th - 8th treated with T. serotinum extract (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg). After 30 min of administration, the rats were exposed to a shock of 150 mA by a convulsiometer, ...

  11. Toxicological Evaluation of Ethanol Extract of Adenium obesum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    ABSTRACT: The toxicity of ethanol extract of Adenium obesum stem bark as a tool for aquaculture pond management prior to the ... 8.20 mgL-1, 8.80 mgL-1 and 10.00 mgL-1 of the extract and a control in an acute static toxicity bioassay after performing a .... Standard method for the examination of water and waste water.

  12. Toxicological Evaluation of Ethanol Extract of Adenium obesum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The toxicity of ethanol extract of Adenium obesum stem bark as a tool for aquaculture pond management prior to the stocking of desired fish species was evaluated in Clarias gariepinus over a 96-h exposure. The fish were exposed to 6.25 mgL-1, 7.50 mgL-1, 8.20 mgL-1, 8.80 mgL-1 and 10.00 mgL-1 of the extract and a ...

  13. Antioxidant activity of alstonia Angustifolia ethanolic leaf extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Nurhidayah Ab; Zakaria, Noorzafiza; Dzulkarnain, Syarifah Masyitah Habib; Azahar, Nazar Mohd Zabadi Mohd; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2017-10-01

    In current study, the ability of the ethanolic extract of Alstonia angustifolia in scavenging free radicals was assessed by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) radical scavenging assay. The results suggested that the ethanolic extract of A. angustifolia leaves has a notable antioxidant activity. In FRAP assay, it showed that the extract have higher total antioxidant activity with FRAP value is 1868.33 µM/g Fe (ii) dry mass ± 0.15 than the control, quercetin with FRAP value is 1336.9 µM/g Fe (II) dry mass ± 0.12 and ascorbic acid with FRAP value is 1720 µM/g Fe (II) dry mass ± 0.02. For DPPH assay, the IC50 value of the extract is 384.77 while the IC50 value of standards of ascorbic acid and quercetin are 18.07 µg/ml and 39.60 µg/ml, respectively. For H2O2 scavenging assay, the IC50 value for the extract was discovered to be 186.77 µg/ml compared to standard ascorbic acid 466.56 µg/ml. Thus, the study suggests that A. angustifolia ethanolic leaf extract has a good origin of natural antioxidants and might be beneficial in impeding the oxidative stress progression thus averting diseases that related to free radicals.

  14. Antibacterial effects of Solanum tuberosum peel ethanol extract in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanpour Raana

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Today, medicinal plants are being widely used due to being natural, available, and cheaper than synthetic drugs and having minimum side effects. Since there were reports about the antibacterial properties of Solanum tuberosum (SE, the aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial effects of SE ethanol extract in vitro condition on Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Methods: Ethanol extract of SE peel was prepared by maceration method. Initially, antibacterial activity of ethanol extract of SE was qualitatively determined by disk diffusion test; then, the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration were qualitatively determined by micro-dilution method. Results: SE peel extract had antibacterial properties and its effect was more pronounced on gram-positive bacteria, especially S. aureus (0.62±0.00 mg/ml. The extract had antibacterial activity on gram-negative bacteria, P. aeruginosa, too (8.33±2.88 mg/ml. Conclusion: SE peel extract has antibacterial activity and its effect on gram-positive bacteria was more pronounced than the investigated gram-negative bacteria. Therefore, it is suggested that SE peel constituent compounds be determined and to determine the exact mechanism of its antibacterial properties, and more comprehensive research be done to apply it, clinically.

  15. Extractive oxidative desulfurization of model oil/crude oil using KSF montmorillonite-supported 12-tungstophosphoric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezzat Rafiee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract 12-Tungstophosphoric acid (PW supported on KSF montmorillonite, PW/KSF, was used as catalyst for deep oxidative desulfurization (ODS of mixed thiophenic compounds in model oil and crude oil under mild conditions using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 as an oxidizing agent. A one-factor-at-a-time method was applied for optimizing the parameters such as temperature, reaction time, amount of catalyst, type of extractant and oxidant-to-sulfur compounds (S-compounds molar ratio. The corresponding products can be easily removed from the model oil by using ethanol as the best extractant. The results showed high catalytic activity of PW/KSF in the oxidative removal of dibenzothiophene (DBT and mixed thiophenic model oil under atmospheric pressure at 75 °C in a biphasic system. To investigate the oxidation and adsorption effects of crude oil composition on ODS, the effects of cyclohexene, 1,7-octadiene and o-xylene with different concentrations were studied.

  16. Actions of crude hydroalcoholic extract of Pfaffia sp on gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Setim Freitas

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The plants that compound the Pfaffia genus are used in folk medicine to treat gastric disturbances. This study examined the effects of a crude hydroalcoholic extract of Pfaffia sp on the gastrointestinal tract. Female Wistar rats were pretreated orally (p.o. with the hydroalcoholic extract of Pfaffia (0.5, 1 and 2 g.kg-1 before the induction of ulcer with hypothermic restraint stress (HRS, ethanol (ET or indomethacin (IND. Control animals received water (C or ranitidine (60mg/kg p.o. The hydroalcoholic extract of Pfaffia (0.5, 1 and 2 mg.kg-1 protected rats against HRS and ET - induced ulcers, but was not able to protect the gastric mucosa against IND - induced ulcers. When injected into the duodenal lumen, the hydroalcoholic extract of Pfaffia inhibited basal and stimulated acid secretion in pylorus-ligated rats. These results indicate that this plant has a protective action against gastric lesions of the mucosa involving the reduction of gastric acid secretion.As plantas que compõem o gênero Pfaffia são utilizadas na medicina popular para tratar distúrbios gástricos. O presente estudo verificou os efeitos de um extrato bruto hidroalcoólico de Pfaffia sp sobre o trato gastrointestinal. Ratos Wistar fêmeas, foram pré-tratados por via oral (p.o. com o extrato hidroalcoólico de Pfaffia sp (0,5; 1,0 e 2,0 g/kg 1 hora antes da indução de úlceras com estresse por imobilização e frio, com etanol 70% ou indometacina. Animais controle receberam água (C ou ranitidina (R: 60mg/kg - p.o. O tratamento com o extrato protegeu a mucosa gástrica contra o aparecimento de úlceras induzidas por estresse e etanol, mas não foi capaz de proteger a mucosa contra úlceras induzidas por indometacina. Quando injetado pela via intraduodenal (na luz do duodeno - i.d., o extrato hidroalcoólico de Pfaffia sp inibiu tanto a secreção ácida gástrica basal quanto a estimulada com histamina e betanecol (drogas agonistas, em ratas com ligadura de piloro. Os

  17. Evaluation of antidepressant effect of ethanolic extract of Rosa damascena using forced swimming test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Dolati

    2011-12-01

    Conclusion: Although ethanolic extract did not have antidepressant effect, we cannot rule out this effect altogether. In our opinion, antidepressant effect is masked by CNS depression effect of ethanolic extract of R. damascena.

  18. In Vitro Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Crude Extract from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The differentiating activities of these three extracts encourage developing a novel broad spectrum antimicrobial herbal formulation in future. Keywords: Diospyros peregrina, Coccinia grandis, Swietenia macrophylla, Antimicrobial activity, Ciprofloxacin, Griseofulvin > Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research Vol.

  19. Phytochemical and antimicrobial screening of the crude extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-02-18

    Feb 18, 2009 ... screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins, steroids, flavonoids, ... The extract from leaf had no antimicrobial activity against any of the clinical .... antiulcerogenic, anti-inflamatory, fibrinolytic, antipyretic, ...

  20. The potential of crude okara for isoflavone production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jankowiak, L.; Trifunovic, O.; Boom, R.M.; Goot, van der A.J.

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the extraction of isoflavones from crude okara, a by-product from soymilk production, using industrially relevant conditions. Ethanol and water were chosen as environmentally friendly and non-toxic solvents. A wide range of ethanol concentrations was tested (0–90% ethanol) for

  1. Aqueous ethanolic extract of Cochlospermum planchonii rhizome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. ABU

    2012-07-03

    Jul 3, 2012 ... extract of Lophira lanceolata stem bark in male rats (Etuk and Muhammad, 2009). The researchers however, did not observe increases in sperm motility and abnormal morphology. They concluded that the plant had fertility enhancing effects. Similar observations suggestive of enhanced sperm motility ...

  2. PHYTOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND FUNGICIDAL ACTION OF CRUDE EXTRACT OF Cinnamomum zeylanicum ON Quambalaria eucalypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ediellen Mayara Corrêa Gomes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the importance of natural products for alternative control of plant diseases, the aim of this work was to determine the chemical composition and evaluate the fungitoxic effects of extracts of Cinnamomum zeylanicum on isolated Q1 and Q2 pathogen Quambalaria eucalypti Crude extracts obtained by percolation with hexane solvent method (EBH, ethyl acetate (EBAcoEt and methanol (EBM. The phytochemical analysis were based on the conditions set out in the Manual for Phytochemistry and Chromatographic Analysis of Plant Extracts, resulting in the identification of reducing sugars, phenols, tannins, steroids, triterpenoids, alkaloids for EBH and EBAcoEt extracts. EBM extract distinguished by the presence of anthraquinones, espumidica saponins and flavonoids. To evaluate the effect of extracts on inhibition of mycelial growth of phytopathogenic fungus, we used concentrations of 5, 10 and 20 mg.mL-1 crude extracts of cinnamon incorporated into PDA culture medium. The results showed statistically significant differences compared to the control (control, the higher the concentration of the crude extract of C. zeylanicum most used was their antifungal activity against isolates Quambalaria eucalypti. In Q1 isolated extract, more inhibited mycelial growth was the EBM and isolated Q2 EBAcoEt. Keywords: cinnamon; alternative control; plant pathogens.

  3. The potential anticoagulant property of Caulerpa lentillifera crude extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenajo, Althea R; Ybañez, Adrian P; Ababan, Maria Maichol P; Villajuan, Charlotte E; Lasam, May Rose M; Young, Chiqui P; Reyes, Julie Lynn A

    2017-01-01

    Anticoagulants have been used in the treatment of several circulatory diseases and thrombotic disorders, and in the blood sampling for hematologic analysis. Sulfated polysaccharides (SP), which have anticoagulant properties, are found in most seaweeds, including Caulerpa spp. The study generally aimed to evaluate the potential anticoagulant property of Caulerpa lentillifera. The whole plant of fresh C. lentillifera was washed thoroughly with distilled water and manually expressed to obtain the extract. C. lentillifera extract was tested in two phases. Phase one utilized nine male albino rabbits, which were randomly and equally allocated into three groups: (1) negative control (oral distilled water and subsequent in vitro mixing of extracted blood with normal saline solution), (2) positive control (oral aspirin and subsequent in vitro mixing of extracted blood with normal saline solution), and (3) experimental group (oral distilled water and in vitro mixing of extracted blood with C. lentillifera extract). Blood coagulation was evaluated by measuring the clotting time using the slide and tube methods. In phase two, peripheral blood from three apparently healthy adult dogs were used. Blood collection was performed thrice. In each collection, the sample was divided into five aliquots: (1) negative control (normal saline solution), (2) positive control (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid [EDTA]), and (3-5) experimental treatments at 0.1, 0.15, and 0.2 ml of C. lentillifera extract. Coagulation was evaluated by measuring the clotting time using the tube method. Phase one results revealed significant differences on the clotting time between the negative and the positive and experimental groups (P 0.05). In phase two, all blood samples mixed with EDTA did not clot, while the negative control had an average clotting time of 2.01 min. Blood mixed with 0.2 ml of C. lentillifera extract had the longest coagulation time (15.49 min). Simple linear regression revealed a positive

  4. Inhibition of Serratia marcescens Smj-11 biofilm formation by Alcaligenes faecalis STN17 crude extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutfi, Zainal; Ahmad, Asmat [School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Usup, Gires [School of Environmental and Natural Resources Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    Serratia marcescens biofilms are formed when they are bound to surfaces in aqueous environments. S. marcescens utilizes N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) as its quorum sensing signal molecule. The accumulation of AHL indicates the bacteria to produce matrices to form biofilms. Prodigiosin (2-methyl-3-pentyl-6-methoxyprodigiosin), which causes red pigmentation in the colonies, are also produced when the AHL reaches a certain threshold. The Alcaligenes faecalis STN17 crude extract is believed to inhibit quorum sensing in the S. marcescens Smj-11 and, thus, impedes its biofilm formation ability. A. faecalis STN17 was grown in marine broth, and ethyl acetate extraction was carried out. The crude compound of A. faecalis STN17 was diluted at high concentration (0.2-6.4 mg/mL) and was taken to confirm anti-biofilm activity through the crystal violet method in 96-wells plate. Then, the crude extract underwent purification using simple solvents partitioning test to discern the respective compounds that had the anti-biofilm activity under the crystal violet method. The crystal violet test showed that the crude did have anti-biofilm activity on S. marcescens Smj-11, but did not kill the cells. This finding signifies that the suppression of biofilm formation in S. marcescens by A. faecalis STN17 has a strong correlation. The partitioning test showed that A. faecalis STN17 crude extract has several compounds and only the compound(s) in chloroform showed activities. In conclusion, the crude extract of A. faecalis STN17 has the ability to inhibit S. marcescens Smj-11 biofilm formation.

  5. Inhibition of Serratia marcescens Smj-11 biofilm formation by Alcaligenes faecalis STN17 crude extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutfi, Zainal; Usup, Gires; Ahmad, Asmat

    2014-09-01

    Serratia marcescens biofilms are formed when they are bound to surfaces in aqueous environments. S. marcescens utilizes N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) as its quorum sensing signal molecule. The accumulation of AHL indicates the bacteria to produce matrices to form biofilms. Prodigiosin (2-methyl-3-pentyl-6-methoxyprodigiosin), which causes red pigmentation in the colonies, are also produced when the AHL reaches a certain threshold. The Alcaligenes faecalis STN17 crude extract is believed to inhibit quorum sensing in the S. marcescens Smj-11 and, thus, impedes its biofilm formation ability. A. faecalis STN17 was grown in marine broth, and ethyl acetate extraction was carried out. The crude compound of A. faecalis STN17 was diluted at high concentration (0.2-6.4 mg/mL) and was taken to confirm anti-biofilm activity through the crystal violet method in 96-wells plate. Then, the crude extract underwent purification using simple solvents partitioning test to discern the respective compounds that had the anti-biofilm activity under the crystal violet method. The crystal violet test showed that the crude did have anti-biofilm activity on S. marcescens Smj-11, but did not kill the cells. This finding signifies that the suppression of biofilm formation in S. marcescens by A. faecalis STN17 has a strong correlation. The partitioning test showed that A. faecalis STN17 crude extract has several compounds and only the compound(s) in chloroform showed activities. In conclusion, the crude extract of A. faecalis STN17 has the ability to inhibit S. marcescens Smj-11 biofilm formation.

  6. Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical analysis of crude extracts and essential oils from medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, N C C; Barbosa, L; Seito, L N; Fernandes, A

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to establish a phytochemical analysis of the crude extracts and performed GC-MS of the essential oils (EOs) of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) and Asteraceae species Baccharis dracunculifolia DC, Matricaria chamomilla L. and Vernonia polyanthes Less, as well as determining their antimicrobial activity. Establishment of the minimal inhibitory concentrations of the crude extracts and EOs against 16 Staphylococcus aureus and 16 Escherichia coli strains from human specimens was carried out using the dilution method in Mueller-Hinton agar. Some phenolic compounds with antimicrobial properties were established, and all EOs had a higher antimicrobial activity than the extracts. Matricaria chamomilla extract and E. uniflora EO were efficient against S. aureus strains, while E. uniflora and V. polyanthes extracts and V. polyanthes EO showed the best antimicrobial activity against E. coli strains. Staphylococcus aureus strains were more susceptible to the tested plant products than E. coli, but all natural products promoted antimicrobial growth inhibition.

  7. Comparison of reduced sugar high quality chocolates sweetened with stevioside and crude stevia 'green' extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torri, Luisa; Frati, Alessandra; Ninfali, Paolino; Mantegna, Stefano; Cravotto, Giancarlo; Morini, Gabriella

    2017-06-01

    The demand for zero and reduced-sugar food products containing cocoa is expanding continuously. The present study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of producing high-quality chocolate sweetened with a crude extract of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) prepared by a green microwave-assisted water-steam extraction procedure. Seven approximately isosweet chocolate formulations were developed, mixing cocoa paste, sucrose, commercial stevioside, crude green extract and maltitol in different proportions. All samples were analyzed for the determination of polyphenol and flavonoid content, antioxidant activity, and sensory acceptability. The use of a crude stevia extract allowed low-sugar, high-quality chocolates to be obtained that were also acceptable by consumers and had a significant increased antioxidant activity. Moreover, consumers' segmentation revealed a cluster of consumers showing the same overall liking for the sample with 50% sucrose replaced by the stevia crude extract as that obtained with the commercial stevioside and the control sample (without sucrose replacement). The results provide information that can contribute to promoting the development of sweet food products, with advantages in terms of an improved nutritional value (reduced sugar content and increased antioxidant activity) and a reduced impact of the production process on the environment. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of crude extracts and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2015-03-25

    Mar 25, 2015 ... Key words: Adenanthera pavonina, antimicrobial activity, chromatographic fractions, methanolic extract. INTRODUCTION. Plants are valuable as sources of medicine. The use of natural products with therapeutic properties is as ancient as human civilization and, for a long time, mineral, plant and animal ...

  9. Antibacterial activity of crude extracts from Mexican plants against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-10

    Oct 10, 2011 ... The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of 36 extracts from 18 vegetal species used as soap, insecticides, insect repellent and for the treatment of several diseases likely associated to microorganisms. The vegetal species were collected in Oaxaca, Puebla and Veracruz States, México.

  10. Crude extract of Nigella sativa inhibits proliferation and induces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    2012-08-09

    Aug 9, 2012 ... including p53 and p21. These findings demonstrate that EENS inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in HeLa cells and suggest this extract may be a promising agent for the prevention/treatment of human cervical cancer. Key words: Nigella sativa, cervical cancers, apoptosis, caspases, cell cycle.

  11. Antifungal activity of crude extracts of Gladiolus dalenii van Geel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bulb extracts of Gladiolus dalenii reportedly used in the treatment of fungal infections in HIV/AIDS patients in the Lake Victoria region were tested for antifungal activity using the disc diffusion assay technique. Commercially used antifungal drugs, Ketaconazole and Griseofulvin (Cosmos Pharmaceuticals) were used as ...

  12. Biopesticide activity of crude extracts and fractions of Calotropis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ethyl acetate fraction (35 ± 0.71 eggs) or a respective rate of reduction of spawning 52.93% and 63.25% compared to the control. After characterization of reactions, it is clear from this study that the bioactivity of extracts of C. procera is likely related to suspected active compounds (alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, anthracene ...

  13. Antifungal activity of selected plant leaves crude extracts against a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antifungal activities of the leaves extract of 15 selected medicinal plants; Alpinia galanga (L.) Willd., Alstonia spatulata Blume., Annona muricata L., Blechnum orientale L., Blumea balsamifera L., Centella asiatica L., Dicranopteris linearis (Burm. f.) Underw., Dillenia suffruticosa (Griff ex Hook.f. and Thomson) Martelli, ...

  14. In vitro antibacterial activity of crude methanol extracts of various ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among the P. hysterophorus parts tested: leaf, flower, bark and root showed promising inhibitory activities against the tested bacterial strains at all concentration except bark extract at 250mg/ml, root 500mg/ml, root 250mg/ml did not show antibacterial activity against Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylococcus aureus and ...

  15. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity Of Crude Extracts From Plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extracts from the leaves of Bryophyllum pinnatum and Kalanchoe crenata were screened for their antimicrobial activities. Solvents used included water, methanol, and local solvents such as palmwine, local gin (Seaman's Schnapps 40% alcoholic drink,) and “omi ekan-ogi” (Sour water from 3 days fermented milled maize).

  16. Screening of crude extracts of twelve medicinal plants and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antimicrobial activity of extracts of twelve Nigerian medicinal plant species and a “wonder cure” concoction [Epa –Ijebu]; used in traditional medicine for the treatment of tuberculosis and cough were screened for activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from tuberculosis patient sputum and the control strains ...

  17. Antibacterial Interaction of Crude Methanol Extract of Garcinia kola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Concurrent use of orthodox and herbal medicines is likely to precipitate an overall effect which may or may not be beneficial to the patient. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial interaction between the methanol extract of Garcinia kola seed (GKS) which is chewed habitually as a masticatory ...

  18. Nutritional evaluation of ethanol-extracted lentil flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, M A; Blázquez, I; Sierra, I; Medrano, M A; Frias, J; Vidal-Valverde, C; Hernández, A

    2001-04-01

    Lentil flours were extracted with 80% ethanol at 25 and 50 degrees C for 1, 2, or 3 h. The various nitrogen fractions, soluble carbohydrates, three amino acids (Lys, His, and Tyr), available lysine, protein digestibility, and vitamins B(1) and B(2) were analyzed to evaluate the effect of extraction. Extraction resulted in an increase in the total nitrogen content of the extracted flours, with extraction temperature affecting the nature of the nitrogen (protein or nonprotein) content. There was also a large reduction in the oligosaccharides of the raffinose family, although the effect of temperature was appreciable only in the case of stachyose. There was hardly any effect on the concentrations of the amino acids analyzed or on protein digestibility; however, a positive correlation between protein digestibility and the available lysine was recorded in the samples. The vitamin B(1) and B(2) contents underwent variable decreases depending on extraction temperature.

  19. Spectrophotometric Quantification of Flavonoids in Herbal Material, Crude Extract, and Fractions from Leaves of Eugenia uniflora Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Rhayanne T M; Bezerra, Isabelle C F; Ferreira, Magda R A; Soares, Luiz Alberto Lira

    2017-01-01

    The traditional use of Eugenia uniflora L. ("Pitanga") is reported due to several properties, which have often been related to its flavonoid content. The aim was to evaluate analytical procedures for quantification of total flavonoids content (TFCs) by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry in the herbal material (HM), crude extract (CE), and fractions from leaves of E. uniflora. The method for quantification of flavonoids after complexation with aluminum chloride (AlCl3) was evaluated: amount of sample (0.25-1.5 g); solvent (40%-80% ethanol); reaction time and AlCl3 concentration (2.5%-7.5%). The procedures by direct dilution (DD) and after acid hydrolysis (AH) were used and validated for HM and CE and applied to the aqueous fraction (AqF), hexane fraction, and ethyl acetate fractions (EAF). The ideal conditions of analysis were ethanol 80% as solvent; 0.5 g of sample; λmax of 408 (DD) and 425 nm (AH); 25 min after addition of AlCl3 5%. The procedures validated for standards and samples showed linearity (R2 > 0.99) with limit of detection and limit of quantification between 0.01 and 0.17 mg/mL (rutin and quercetin); and 0.03 and 0.09 mg/mL (quercetin), for DD and AH, respectively. The procedures were accurate (detect, practice, and repair 90%), and stable under robustness conditions (luminosity, storage, reagents, and equipment). The TFCs in AqF and EAF were 0.65 g% and 17.72 g%, calculated as rutin. UV-Vis methods for quantification of TFC in HM, CE, and fractions from leaves of E. uniflora were suitably validated. Regarding the analysis of fractions, the EAF achieved enrichment of about nine times in the content of flavonoids. The total flavonoids content (TFCs) of herbal material, crude extract, and fractions from Eugenia uniflora can be quantified by ultraviolet-visibleThe spectrophotometric methods (direct dilution and acid hydrolysis) were reproducible and able to quantify TFC in raw material and derivatives from leaves of E. uniflora

  20. Spectrophotometric Quantification of Flavonoids in Herbal Material, Crude Extract, and Fractions from Leaves of Eugenia uniflora Linn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Rhayanne T. M.; Bezerra, Isabelle C. F.; Ferreira, Magda R. A.; Soares, Luiz Alberto Lira

    2017-01-01

    Background: The traditional use of Eugenia uniflora L. (“Pitanga”) is reported due to several properties, which have often been related to its flavonoid content. Objective: The aim was to evaluate analytical procedures for quantification of total flavonoids content (TFCs) by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry in the herbal material (HM), crude extract (CE), and fractions from leaves of E. uniflora. Materials and Methods: The method for quantification of flavonoids after complexation with aluminum chloride (AlCl3) was evaluated: amount of sample (0.25–1.5 g); solvent (40%–80% ethanol); reaction time and AlCl3 concentration (2.5%–7.5%). The procedures by direct dilution (DD) and after acid hydrolysis (AH) were used and validated for HM and CE and applied to the aqueous fraction (AqF), hexane fraction, and ethyl acetate fractions (EAF). Results: The ideal conditions of analysis were ethanol 80% as solvent; 0.5 g of sample; λmax of 408 (DD) and 425 nm (AH); 25 min after addition of AlCl3 5%. The procedures validated for standards and samples showed linearity (R2 > 0.99) with limit of detection and limit of quantification between 0.01 and 0.17 mg/mL (rutin and quercetin); and 0.03 and 0.09 mg/mL (quercetin), for DD and AH, respectively. The procedures were accurate (detect, practice, and repair 90%), and stable under robustness conditions (luminosity, storage, reagents, and equipment). The TFCs in AqF and EAF were 0.65 g% and 17.72 g%, calculated as rutin. Conclusions: UV-Vis methods for quantification of TFC in HM, CE, and fractions from leaves of E. uniflora were suitably validated. Regarding the analysis of fractions, the EAF achieved enrichment of about nine times in the content of flavonoids. SUMMARY The total flavonoids content (TFCs) of herbal material, crude extract, and fractions from Eugenia uniflora can be quantified by ultraviolet-visibleThe spectrophotometric methods (direct dilution and acid hydrolysis) were reproducible and able to

  1. Evaluation of the in vitro antimicrobial activity of an ethanol extract of Brazilian classified propolis on strains of Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucila Coelho Pamplona-Zomenhan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus is one of the most frequent causes of hospital acquired infections. With the increase in multiple drug resistant strains, natural products such as propolis are a stratagem for new product discovery. The aims of this study were: to determine the in vitro antimicrobial activity of an ethanol extract of propolis; to define the MIC50 and MIC90 (Minimal Inhibitory Concentration - MIC against 210 strains of S. aureus; to characterize a crude sample of propolis and the respective ethanol extract as to the presence of predetermined chemical markers. The agar dilution method was used to define the MIC and the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method was used to characterize the samples of propolis. MIC results ranged from 710 to 2,850 µg/mL. The MIC50 and MIC90 for the 210 strains as well as the individual analysis of American Type Culture Collection (ATCC strains of Methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA were both 1,420 µg/mL. Based on the chromatographic analysis of the crude sample and ethanol extracted propolis, it was concluded that propolis was a mixture of the BRP (SP/MG and BRP (PR types. The results obtained confirm an antimicrobial activity in relation to the strains of the S. aureus tested.

  2. The Effects of Crude Neem Leaf Acetone-Water Extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    loss, the hemostatic system which include platelets, vascular endothelial cells, and plasma coagulation proteins. 9 come into play . To generate clot, both the intrinsic and. The Effects of Crude Neem Leaf Acetone-Water Extract on Prothrombin Time (PT) and Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT) in Albino Wistar ...

  3. Effect of crude canine pituitary extract (cCPE) on the in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. NJ TONUKARI

    2012-01-20

    Jan 20, 2012 ... We examined the effect of crude canine pituitary extract (cCPE) on the in vitro nuclear maturation of canine oocytes and ... Cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) were harvested from anestrus cycle ovaries and matured in ... Canine pituitary glands were obtained from healthy female canines within 1 h of ...

  4. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of fruit and leaf crude extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: Petroleum ether and methanolic crude extracts of fruits and leaves of the plant were evaluated for antimicrobial activity using the disk diffusion method on four reference microorganisms (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus; and four clinical strains of Klebsiella ...

  5. Terverticillate penicillia studied by direct electrospray mass spectrometric profiling of crude extracts II. Database and identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedsgaard, Jørn

    1997-01-01

    A mass spectral database was built using standard instrument software from 678 electrospray mass spectra (mass profiles) from crude fungal extracts of terverticillate taxa within the genus Penicillium. The match factors calculated from searching all the mass profiles stored in the database were u...

  6. Acute toxicity assessment of crude lead-extract from electronic waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lead, with its toxic emission and pollution, is one of the hazardous chemical components of electronic wastes (e-wastes) rapidly generated in developing countries. This study assessed the environmental health effects of crude lead extracted from e-wastes materials, as determined by its acute toxicity (rat, oral). Diluted ...

  7. Comparison study of anti-microbial activity between crude extract of Kappaphycus alvarezii and Andrographis paniculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Qi Chuah

    2017-08-01

    Conclusions: Crude extract of K. alvarezii has zero inhibition in bacteria growth whereas A. paniculata exerted higher inhibition towards Gram-positive bacteria. The bioactive compounds contained by A. paniculata can be evaluated in order to yield a better vision towards the mode of action.

  8. The efficacy of the crude root bark extracts of Erythrina abyssinica on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    minimum volume by a rotary evaporator (Büchi. Labortechnik AG, Switzerland) at 40°c and reduced pressure. The concentrated crude extracts were then ..... Research Initiative (VicRes) which gave financial support to the project; Uganda National Council for Science and Technology who gave permission to conduct the ...

  9. Optimizing Microwave-assisted Crude Butter Extraction from Carabao Mango (Mangifera indica Kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo V. Casas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Carabao mangoes are among the highly produced fruit crops in the Philippines. The processing and consumption of carabao mangoes leave a significant amount of waste seeds. Mango kernel butter extracted from waste seed kernels is a potential additive to cosmetic products or as a cocoa butter substitute. This study determined the pretreatment conditions that produce optimum yield prior to the mechanical extraction of the crude butter. Moreover, this study provided a general sensory evaluation of the finished product. Microwave power (160, 500, and 850 W, microwave exposure time (2.0, 3.5, and 5.0 min, and size levels (1.5, 3.0, and 4.5 mm were tested for their effects on the yield of the mechanically extracted crude butter in wet basis percentage. The optimization procedures resulted to optimum pretreatment conditions of 160 W, 4.25 min, and 1.5 mm. Size level was the most significant factor in the crude butter yield. Sensory evaluation of the crude butter extracted at optimum pretreatment conditions through acceptance test by a test panel resulted to below neutral scores in visual appearance and odor, and above neutral score in texture, indicating the potential of mango butter as a good substitute to cocoa butter in cosmetic products.

  10. Larvicidal action of ethanolic extracts from fruit endocarps of Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica against the dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandscheer, Carolina B; Duque, Jonny E; da Silva, Mario A N; Fukuyama, Yoshiyasu; Wohlke, Jonathan L; Adelmann, Juliana; Fontana, José D

    2004-12-15

    Ethanolic extracts from the kernels of ripe fruits from the Indian Lilac Melia azedarach and from the well-known Neem tree, Azadirachta indica were assayed against larvae of Aedes aegypti, the mosquito vector of dengue fever. The lethality bioassays were carried out according to the recommendations of the World Health Organization. Extracts were tested at doses ranging from 0.0033 to 0.05 g% in an aqueous medium for 24 and 48 h, at 25 or 30 degrees C, with or without feeding of the larvae. LC50, LC95 and LC99 were determined. Both seed extracts proved lethal for third to fourth instar larvae. Non-fed A. aegypti larvae were more susceptible to Azadirachta extracts at both temperatures. Under a more realistic environmental situation, namely with fed larvae at 25 degrees C, the death rates caused by the Melia extract were higher, although at 30 degrees C the extract of Azadirachta had an even higher lethality. Inter allia, the LC50 values for the crude extracts of these two members of the Meliaceae ranged from 0.017 to 0.034 g% while the LC99 values ranged from 0.133 to 0.189 g%. Since no downstream processing was undertaken to purify the active agents in the extracts, our findings seem very promising, suggesting that it may be possible to increase the larvicidal activity further by improving the extraction and the fractionation of the crude limonoids, for instance removing the co-extracted natural fats.

  11. Antibacterial, antioxidant, antifungal and anti-inflammatory activities of crude extract from Nitraria schoberi fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Sharifi-Rad, Javad; Hoseini-Alfatemi, Seyedeh Mahsan; Sharifi-Rad, Majid; Jaime A. TEIXEIRA DA SILVA

    2014-01-01

    This study is the first comprehensive investigation of the antibacterial, antioxidant, antifungal and anti-inflammatory activities of a crude extract from Nitraria schoberi L. (Zygophyllaceae) fruits. The extract was tested against four Gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter lwoffii) and one Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria using the agar disc diffusion and microdilution methods. P. aeruginosa was inhibited the most...

  12. Optimizing Microwave-assisted Crude Butter Extraction from Carabao Mango (Mangifera indica) Kernels

    OpenAIRE

    Edgardo V. Casas; Von Jansen G. Comedia; Arni G. Gilbuena; Kevin F. Yaptenco

    2015-01-01

    Carabao mangoes are among the highly produced fruit crops in the Philippines. The processing and consumption of carabao mangoes leave a significant amount of waste seeds. Mango kernel butter extracted from waste seed kernels is a potential additive to cosmetic products or as a cocoa butter substitute. This study determined the pretreatment conditions that produce optimum yield prior to the mechanical extraction of the crude butter. Moreover, this study provided a general sensory evaluation of...

  13. A STUDY ON CYTOTOXIC AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITIES OF CRUDE EXTRACTS OF LEAVES OF CLERODENDRUM VISCOSUM

    OpenAIRE

    Islam Md. Shamsul; Moghal Md. Mizanur Rahman; Ahamed Sayed Koushik; Ahmed Jamiuddin; Islam Md. Ariful

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the biological investigations of Clerodendrum viscosum – a plant belonging to the family Verbenaceae. The leaf of Clerodendrum viscosum was extracted with methanol and water. The crude extract of methanol of Clerodendrum viscosum was screened for cytotoxic activity using brine shrimp lethality bioassay. A reputed cytotoxic agent vincristine sulphate was used as a positive control. From the result of the brine shrimp lethality bioassay it can be well predicted that methano...

  14. Protective effects of crude and alkaloidal extracts of Tamarindus indica against acute inflammation and nociception in rats

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    Ali Audu Jigam

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of total alkaloids extracted from the leaf of Tamarindus indica (T. indica in rats. Methods: Acetic acid-induced pain and egg albumin-induced inflammation were used to inspect the anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the crude and alkaloidal extracts of T. indica at doses of 40 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. Sodium diclofenac was used as the control drug. Results: The percentage yields of crude methanol and alkaloidal extracts of T. indica were 2.85% and 0.98%, respectively. Screening of secondary metabolite of the crude extract revealed the presence of saponins, alkaloids, tannins, steroids, phenols and terpenes, while phlobatannins was not detected. The safe dose and LD50 were 400 and 750 mg/kg for crude methanol extract, respectively, while the safe dose and LD50 of alkaloidal extract were 40 and 57 mg/kg, respectively. The anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of crude methanol extract and alkaloid extract of T. indica were significantly (P < 0.05 different from those of control rats. The standard drug (sodium diclofenac, crude extract and alkaloidal extract showed percentage inhibition of 89.36%, 53.92% and 81.37% in paw edema, respectively. Conclusions: The results obtained indicated that the crude and alkaloidal extracts of the plant exhibited significant anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities, thus, supporting its folkloric use for the treatment of these conditions.

  15. Antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts of some Vietnamese medicinal plants against Helicobacter pylori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngan, Luong Thi My; Dung, Pham Phuong; Nhi, Nguyen Vang Thi Yen; Hoang, Nguyen van Minh; Hieu, Tran Trung

    2017-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori is one of the most common human infectious bacteria. The infection is highly associated with a number of the most important disease of the upper gastrointestinal tract, including gastritis, duodenitis, peptic ulceration, and gastric cancer. In addition, widespread use of antimicrobial agents has resulted in the development of antibiotic resistance. Metabolites of plants, particularly higher plants, have been suggested as alternative potential sources for antibacterial products due to their safe. This study aimed to evaluate antibacterial activities of crude ethanolic extracts of seventeen Vietnamese medicinal plants toward one reference strain and three clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori using broth micro-dilution bioassay. The antibacterial activities of these extracts were also compared with those of seven antibiotics, amoxicillin, clarithromycin, erythromycin, levofloxacin, azithromycin, tetracycline, and metronidazole. The extracts of Ampelopsis cantoniensis and Cleistocalyx operculatus showed highest antibacterial activity with MIC (MBC) values of 0.31 - 0.97 (2.5 - 5) mg/mL, followed by the extracts of Hedyotis diffusa and Ardisia silvestris with MIC (MBC) values of 1.04 - 1.94 (7.5 - 10) mg/mL. The remaining plant extracts exhibited moderate, low and very low or no active to the H. pylori strains. Further studies are needed to determine the active compounds from the extracts that showed high antibacterial activity against H. pylori.

  16. Antimicrobial activity of crude extracts from plant parts and corresponding calli of Bixa orellana L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castello, Marie-Claire; Phatak, Anita; Chandra, Naresh; Sharon, Madhuri

    2002-12-01

    Ethanol extracts from the different parts of B. orellana showed differential antimicrobial activity. It was found that the extracts of in vitro leaves showed maximum activity against Bacillus pumilus followed by the extracts from the roots and hypocotyls. The callus derived from different explants too showed antimicrobial activity. The leaf callus showed maximum activity. The zone of inhibition for the diluted extracts of in vitro hypocotyls and roots and their corresponding calli showed minimum zone of inhibition at concentration 24 mg/ml, whereas the diluted extract of in vitro leaves and leaf derived callus showed minimum zone of inhibition at 16 mg/ml.

  17. Determination of the total phenols, flavonoids and antimicrobial activity of the crude extracts from locally grown neem stems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda Salim Khamis Al-Jadidi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To prepare the crude extracts from the stems of neem with maceration extractor and determine their total phenolics, flavonoids contents and antimicrobial activity by established methods. Methods: The dry stem samples were used to prepare different crude extracts using maceration method. The total phenolics and total flavonoids contents were determined through FolinCiocalteu’s reagent and AlCl3 methods. The antimicrobial activity of the crude extracts from the local neem was determined by disc diffusion method against one Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and three Grams-negative Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and vulgaris pathogenic bacterial strains. The standard amoxicillin was used as a positive control for the antimicrobial study. Results: The results of the total phenolics content of the crude extracts from different stems ranged from 20.80 mg/100 g to 107.29 mg/100 g of the powder crude extracts. The total flavonoids content of different crude extracts from powder stems of neem ranged from 136.50 mg/100 g to 484.50 mg/100 g of the powder samples. The antimicrobial activity of the crude extracts from different stems of neem at different concentrations against four bacterial strains didn’t give any activity. Conclusions: Thanks to the contents of the total phenolics and flavonoids, the crude extracts could be used as medicines for different aliments.

  18. Antimicrobial, Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activity of MarineStreptomyces parvulus VITJS11 Crude Extract

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    S. Jemimah Naine

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the study was to evaluate the bioactive properties of ethyl acetate crude extract of Streptomyces parvulus VITJS11 with a view to assess their therapeutic potential. The biological activity of ethyl acetate extract was tested against fungal and bacterial pathogens. The free radical scavenging potential of the crude extract was determined by DPPH assay. The chemo preventive properties of S. parvulus VITJS11 ethyl acetate extract was examined by MTT assay on HepG2 cells. The morphological, physiological and the biochemical properties of the strain S. parvulus VITJS11 was confirmed by conventional methods. Genotypic characterization was done using 16S r-DNA partial gene amplification and sequencing. The authenticity of the crude chemical constitutes were determined by the GC-MS. The ethyl acetate extract of VITJS11 showed maximum antifungal activity against three Aspergillus species and prominent antibacterial activity against two Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria at 20 mg/mL. The antioxidant potential of the crude extract exhibited strong reducing power activity at 5mg/ mL with 85% inhibition and the cytotoxic effect was found with IC50 of 500µg/ mL on HepG2 cell lines. The GC-MS analysis and the chromatogram patterns revealed 16 peaks, indicating the presence of bioactive constituents, which included several important organic compounds, namely 9-(2',2'-dimethylpropanoilhydrazono-3,6-dichloro-2,7-Bis-[2-(diethylamino-ethoxy]fluorine (23.1 Dotriacontylpentafluoropropionate,(25.0 Octadecanoic acid, (20.0; Trans-2-methyl-4-n-butylthiane, S, S-dioxide.(19.0. The results showed the benefit of ethyl acetate extract from S. parvulus VITJS11 in treating microbial infections and indicated their broad spectrum of activity with beneficial virtues for therapeutic use.

  19. Antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts of some moss species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpiński Tomasz M.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: For centuries, mosses have been used in traditional medicine due to their antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral activities. Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts obtained from 12 moss species: Brachythecium albicans, Bryum argenteum, Ceratodon purpureus, Dicranum scoparium, Dryptodon pulvinatus, Orthotrichum anomalum, Oxyrrhynchium hians, Plagiomnium undulatum, Polytrichum juniperinum, P. piliferum, Schistidium crassipilum, and Syntrichia ruralis. Methods: The antimicrobial activity of extracts was investigated against three Gram(+ bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pyogenes and two Gram(- bacteria (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, using the agar disc-diffusion method. Results: The high activity against all investigated bacteria was determined for extracts of D. pulvinatus, P. undulatum, B. argenteum, S. crassipilum, O. anomalum (mean inhibition zone: 11.3-13.1 mm and to a lesser extent in the case of D. scoparium (8.3 mm. Extracts from P. juniperinum and P. piliferum showed activity only against Gram-positive bacteria, with an inhibition zone from 7.3 to 9.7 mm. Four species: B. albicans, C. purpureus, O. hians, and S. ruralis had not antibacterial properties. Conclusions: The obtained results indicate that mosses could be a significant source of antibacterial agents. For the first time, we presented antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts from S. crassipilum and O. anomalum.

  20. Micro-aerobic, anaerobic and two-stage condition for ethanol production by Enterobacter aerogenes from biodiesel-derived crude glycerol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saisaard, Kanokrat; Angelidaki, Irini; Prasertsan, Poonsuk

    2011-01-01

    The microbial production of ethanol from biodiesel-derived crude glycerol by Enterobacter aerogenes TISTR1468, under micro-aerobic and anaerobic conditions, was investigated. The experimental results showed that micro-aerobic conditions were more favorable for cellular growth (4.0 g/L DCW), ethanol...... production (20.7 g/L) as well as the ethanol yield (0.47 g/g glycerol) than anaerobic conditions (1.2 g/L DCW, 6.3 g/L ethanol and 0.72 g/g glycerol, respectively). Crude glycerol (100 g/L) was consumed completely with the rate of 1.80 g/L/h. Two-stage fermentation (combination of micro-aerobic and anaerobic...... condition) exhibited higher ethanol production (24.5 g/L) than using one-stage fermentation (either micro-aerobic or anaerobic condition. The two-stage configuration, exhibited slightly higher crude glycerol consumption rate (1.81 g/L/h), as well as ethanol yield (0.56 g/g) than the one-stage configuration...

  1. Phenolic derivatives from soy flour ethanol extract are potent in vitro quinone reductase (QR) inducing agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolling, Bradley W; Parkin, Kirk L

    2008-11-26

    The fractionation of soy flour directed by a cellular bioassay for induction of phase 2 detoxification enzymes was used to identify quinone reductase (QR) inducing agents. A phospholipid-depleted, 80% methanol-partitioned isolate from a crude ethanol extract of soy flour was resolved using normal phase medium-pressure liquid chromatography (MPLC). Early eluting fractions were found to be the most potent QR inducing agents among the separated fractions. Fraction 2 was the most potent, doubling QR at QR inducers. Benzofuran-3-carbaldehyde, 4-hydroxybenzaldeyde, 4-ethoxybenzoic acid, 4-ethoxycinnamic acid, benzofuran-2-carboxylic ethyl ester, and ferulic acid ethyl ester (FAEE) were also identified as QR inducing constituents of this fraction. FAEE was the most potent of the identified constituents, doubling QR specific activity at 3.2 muM in the cellular bioassay.

  2. Production of cellulolytic enzymes and application of crude enzymatic extract for saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparotto, Juliana Machado; Werle, Leandro Bernardi; Foletto, Edson L; Kuhn, Raquel C; Jahn, Sergio Luiz; Mazutti, Marcio A

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the optimal conditions for production of cellulolytic enzymes by Trichoderma reesei NRRL-6156 using the solid-state fermentation were assessed in conical flasks and validated in a packed-bed bioreactor. Afterwards, the crude enzymatic extract obtained in the optimized condition was used for hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse in water and ultrasound baths. The enzyme activities determined in this work were filter paper, exocellulase, endocellulase, and xylanase. The optimized condition for production was moisture content 68.6 wt% and soybean bran concentration 0.9 wt%. The crude enzymatic extract was applied for hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse, being obtained 224.0 and 229 g kg(-1) at temperature of 43.4 °C and concentration of enzymatic extract of 18.6 % in water and ultrasound baths, respectively. The yields obtained are comparable to commercial enzymes.

  3. Pharmacological studies of ethanolic extracts of Maytenus rigida Mart (Celastraceae in animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanda Lucia dos Santos

    Full Text Available The crude ethanol extract (EEOH of the bark of Maytenus rigida Mart (Celastraceae a plant used in Brazil herbal traditional medicine, was tested for anti-inflammatory, antiulcer and antidiarrhoeal activities in animal models. No acute toxicological sign was observed in animals treated with the highest dose (5000 mg/kg, p.o. or 2000 mg/kg i.p. of EEOH. The extract doses of 250, 500 or 750 mg/kg revealed a significant inhibitory effect (P < 0,01 in carrageenin-induced rat paw oedema and exhibited ulcer-protective properties against ethanol-induced ulceration in rats. An anti-diarrhoeal activity (P < 0.01 was also observed in castor-oil-induced diarrhoeal in mice. The intestinal transit was significantly (P < 0.01 reduced, however the pretreatment did not reduce the weight of intestinal contents. These results support the popular applications of Maytenus rigida for the treatment of inflammation, ulcer and diarrhoea in Brazil herbal traditional medicine.

  4. Analgesic effect of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of clove

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Kamkar Asl

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The beneficial effects of clove on toothache have been well documented. We have also previously shown the analgesic effects of clove essential oil. The present work was done to investigate the analgesic effects of the aqueous extract of clove using hot plate test. The possible role of opioid receptors in the analgesic effects of clove was also investigated using naloxone. Materials and Methods: Ninety male mice were divided into nine groups: (1 Saline, (2-4 Aaqueous (Aq 50, Aq 100, and Aq 200 groups which were treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of aqueous extract of clove, respectively, (5-7 Ethanolic (Eth 50, Eth 100, and Eth 200 groups which were treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of ethanolic extract of clove, respectively, and (8-9 Aq 100- Naloxone and Aq 200- Naloxone which were pretreated with 4 mg/kg of naloxone before injection of 100 or 200 mg/kg of the aqueous extract. The hot plate test was performed as a base record 10 min before injection of drugs and consequently repeated every 10 minutes after the injection. Results: The maximal percent effect (MPE in the animal groups treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of aqueous extract was significantly higher than the control group. Pretreatment with naloxone reduced the analgesic effects of both 100 and 200 mg/kg of the aqueous extract. Administration of all three doses of the ethanloic extract also non-significantly increased the MPE. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that aqueous extract of clove has analgesic effect in mice demonstrated by hot plate test which is reversible by naloxone. The role of opioid system in the analgesic effect of clove might be suggested. However, more investigations are needed to elucidate the exact mechanism(s.

  5. Effects of crude extracts of various plants on infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus-plaque production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelling, C L; Schipper, I A; Schermeister, L J; Vacik, J P

    1976-02-01

    Extracts of 28 plants were tested without demonstable antiviral activity in an agar-overlay plaque-reduction antiviral assay system, using infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus and bovine endocardial cell cultures. Ethanolic extract of Narcissus tazetta L bulb elicited antiviral activity by inhibition of viral plaque formation. Antiviral activity was demonstrated against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and equine rhinopneumonitis viruses. Narcissus tazetta L bulb did not directly inactivate the virus extracellularly. The extract exhibited only limited toxicity to rapidly multiplying bovine endocardial cells at plaque-inhibitory levels and was not cytoxic to preformed confluent cell monolayers. Narcissus extract did not induce the formation of drug-resistant viral strains.

  6. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of different organic crude extracts from the local medicinal plant of Thymus vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashmi, Laila Salim Al; Hossain, Mohammad Amzad; Weli, Afaf Mohammed; Al-Riyami, Qasim; Al-Sabahi, Jamal Nasser

    2013-01-01

    To isolate and analyze the chemical composition in different crude extracts of from the leaves of locally grown of Thymus vulgaris L (T. vulgaris) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The shade dried leaves powder was extracted with methanol by using Soxhlet extractor. Methanol crude extracts of T. vulgaris and the derived fractions of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol were obtained. Qualitative analyses of various organic crude extracts of T. vulgaris by using GC-MS showed that there were different types of high and low molecular weight compounds. Most of the isolated and identified compounds by GC-MS in the crude extracts are basically biologically important. Further, the T. vulgaris leaf possessed certain characteristics that can be ascribed to cultivation on a domestic plantation. The crude extracts were prepared from the powder leaves of T. vulgaris for respective compounds can be chosen on the basis of above GC-MS analysis. All the major compounds were identified and characterized by spectroscopic method in different organic crude extracts of T. vulgaris are biologically active molecules. Thus the identification of a good number of compounds in various crude extracts of T. vulgaris might have some ecological role.

  7. Effect of crude saponins from Gaultheria trichophylla extract on growth inhibition in human colorectal cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiaz Alam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Gaultheria also comprised of species with reported cytotoxic activities. Current research work was carried out to evaluate G. trichophylla crude extract and respective saponins fraction against human colorectal cancer cell line (Caco-2 based on cell viability assays. Caco-2 cells treated with the crude extract showed significant growth inhibition (p< 0.001 in a dose dependent manner with apparent IC50 value of 200 μg/mL and 100 μg/mL in MTT and NRU assays respectively. The fractioned crude saponins showed an enhanced response and inhibited the growth of Caco-2 by 93.6 and 97.4% in MTT and NRU assays respectively, with compared to actinomycin-D (65%. The DAPI staining of cell treated with crude saponins observed under confocal microscope showed shrunken nuclei with apparent nuclear fragmentation and chromatin condensation indicating apoptosis mode of cell death. The study exhibited that the G. Trichophylla saponins induced apoptosis of Caco-2 cell lines. This study provides new evidences to further explore this plant for the novel targets in anticancer drug development.

  8. Crude bacterial extracts of two new Streptomyces sp. isolates as bio-colorants for textile dyeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramar, Ana; Ilic-Tomic, Tatjana; Petkovic, Milos; Radulović, Niko; Kostic, Mirjana; Jocic, Dragan; Nikodinovic-Runic, Jasmina

    2014-08-01

    Renewed demand for incorporation of natural dyes (bio-colorants) in textile industry could be met through biotechnological production of bacterial pigments. Two new Streptomyces strains (NP2 and NP4) were isolated for the remarkable ability to produce diffusible deep blue and deep red pigment into fermentation medium. Crude mycelial extracts of both strains were used as bio-colorants in conventional textile dyeing procedures avoiding downstream purification procedures. The yields of bio-colorants obtained in this way were 62 and 84 mg per g of mycelia for Streptomyces sp. NP2 and Streptomyces sp. NP4, respectively. Through nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of crude extracts before and after dyeing procedures, it was shown that both extracts contained prodigiosin-like family of compounds that exhibited different dyeing capabilities towards different textile fibers. Polyamide and acrylic fibers were colored to the deepest shade, polyester and triacetate fibers to a noticeable, but much lower shade depth, while cotton and cellulosic fibers stained weakly. These results confirmed that crude bacterial extracts had the characteristics similar to those of ionic and disperse dyes, which was consistent with the identified polypyrrolic prodigiosin-like structures.

  9. Evaluation of antiherpetic activity of crude extract and fractions of Avicenna marina, in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behbahani, Mandana; Zadeh, Mehrnaz Shanehsaz; Mohabatkar, Hassan

    2013-03-01

    This study was carried out to check antiherpetic substances of crude methanol leaf extract of Avicenna marina and its column chromatographic fractions. Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is a harmful pathogen especially in highly susceptible individuals. The antiherpetic activity of crude methanol extract and sub-fractions was performed in different concentrations (20, 2, 0.2, and 0.02μg/ml) by use of plaque-forming unit (PFU) assay and real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. The most active fraction analyzed by NMR contained luteolin 7-O-methylether 3'-O-beta-d-glucoside (LMEG). The other active fraction was detected by HPLC as luteolin. The apparent effective concentrations for 50% plaque reduction (EC50) of crude methanol extract, LMEG, luteolin and ACV were 10, 5, 16.6 and 2.97μg/ml, respectively. The three extracts showed no cytotoxic effect on Vero cell line at concentrations of 32μg/ml or below. According to the consequences of time-of-addition studies, antiherpetic compound LMEG exerted an inhibitory effect on the early stage of HSV-2 infection during which it was added. In conclusion, LMEG isolated from A. marina could probably inhibit HSV attachment to the cell membrane and its entry into the cell. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by crude extracts from spent mushroom substrate and its possible mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuanzhen; Lin, Xiangui; Zhang, Jing; Wu, Yucheng; Yin, Rui; Feng, Youzhi; Wang, Yong

    2010-05-01

    Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by pure laccase has been reported, but the high cost limited its application in environmental bioremediation. Here, we reported a study about PAHs degradation by crude extracts (CEs) containing laccase, which were obtained by extracting four spent mushroom (Agaricus bisporus, Pleurotus eryngii, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Coprinus comatus) substrates. The results showed that anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, and benzo[a]anthracene were top three degradable PAHs by CEs while naphthalene was most recalcitrant. The PAHs oxidation was enhanced in the presence of 2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS). Laccase included in CE might play a major role in PAHs degradation. The maximum degradation rate of anthracene and benzo[a]pyrene was observed by using crude extracts from P. eryngii while the highest laccase activities were found in crude extracts from A. bisporus, moreover, crude extracts from P. eryngii, which contained less laccase activities, degraded more anthracene and benzo[a]pyrene than pure laccase with higher laccase activities. The lack of correlation between laccase activity and PAHs degradation rate indicated that other factors might also influence the PAHs degradation. Boiled CEs were added to determine the effect on PAHs degradation by laccase. The results showed that all four boiled CEs had improved the PAHs oxidation. The maximum improvement was observed by adding CEs from P. eryngii. It suggested that some mediators indeed existed in CEs and CEs from P. eryngii contained most. As a result, CEs from P. eryngii has the most application potential in PAHs bioremediation.

  11. Antipyretic and antimalarial activities of crude leaf extract and fractions of Enicostema littorale

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    Jude E. okokon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antiplasmodial and antipyretic activities of whole plant extract and fractions of Enicostemma littorale (E. littorale for ascertaining the folkloric claim of its antimalarial and antipyretic activities. Methods: The crude extract (260 - 780 mg/kg and fractions (chloroform and acqeous; 520 mg/kg of E. littorale were investigated for antiplasmodial activity against chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium berghei (P. berghei infections in mice and for antipyretic activity against dinitrophenol, amphetamine and yeast-induced pyrexia. The antiplasmodial activity during early and established infections as well as prophylactic were investigated. Artesunate (5 mg/kg and pyrimethamine (1.2 mg/kg were used as positive controls. Antipyretic activity of the crude extract was also evaluated against dinitrophenol, amphetamine and yeast-induced pyrexia. Results: The extract and fractions dose-dependently reduced parasitaemia induced by chloroquine-sensitive P. berghei infection in prophylactic, suppressive and curative models in mice. These reductions were statistically significant (P<0.001. They also improved the mean survival time from 11 to 27 days relative to control (P<0.01 - 0.001. The activities of extract/fractions were comparable to that of the standard drugs used (artesunate and pyrimethamine. On pyrexia induced by dinitrophenol, amphetamine and yeast, the extract caused inhibitions which were statistically significant (P<0.05 - 0.001 and in a dose-dependent fashion. Conclusions: These plant extracts possess considerable antiplasmodial and antipyretic activities, which justify its use in ethnomedicine.

  12. Antioxidant activities of ethanol extracts and fractions of Crescentia cujete leaves and stem bark and the involvement of phenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Nandita; Islam, Md Ekramul; Jahan, Nusrat; Islam, Mohammad Saiful; Khan, Alam; Islam, Md Rafikul; Parvin, Mst Shahnaj

    2014-02-04

    Antioxidant compounds like phenols and flavonoids scavenge free radicals and thus inhibit the oxidative mechanisms that lead to control degenerative and other diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activity in vitro, total phenolic and flavonoid contents in ethanol extracts and fractions of Crescentia cujete leaves and stem bark. Crescentia cujete leaves and bark crude ethanol extract (CEE) and their partitionates petroleum ether (PEF), chloroform (CHF), ethyl acetate (EAF) and aqueous (AQF) were firstly prepared. Different established testing methods, such as 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical, ferric reducing power (FRP), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) assays were used to detect the antioxidant activity. Further, the total yield, total phenolic (TPC) and total flavonoid contents (TFC) of CEE and all the fractions were determined. Ethanol extracts of both leaves and stem bark were also subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening to detect the presence of secondary metabolites, using standard phytochemical methods (Thin layer chromatography and spray reagents). Phytochemical screening of crude ethanol extract of both leaves and stem bark revealed the presence of steroids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, glycosides and terpenoids. All the fractions and CEE of leaves and bark exhibited antioxidant activities, however, EAF of leaves showing the highest antioxidant activity based on the results of DPPH, FRP and TAC assay tests. The above fraction has shown the significant DPPH scavenging activity (IC50 = 8.78 μg/ml) when compared with standard ascorbic acid (IC50 =7.68 μg/ml). The TAC and FRP activities increased with increasing crude extract/fractions content. The TPC (371.23 ± 15.77 mg GAE/g extract) and TFC (144.64 ± 5.82 mg QE/g extract) of EAF of leaves were found significantly higher as compared to other solvent fractions for both leaves and bark. TPC were highly correlated with the antioxidant

  13. Liquid chromatographic separation of sediment rock, and coal extracts and crude oil into compound classes

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    Willsch, H.; Clegg, H.; Horsfield, B.; Radke, M.; Wilkes, H. [Kernforschungsanlage Juelich GmbH, Juelich (Germany). Inst. fuer Erdoel und Organische Geochimie

    1997-10-15

    A method is described for the rapid fractionation of sediment, rock, coal extracts and crude oils into compound classes. The method is based on combined polarity/affinity chromatography of soluble organic matter. Five heterocompound fractions are obtained in addition to the conventional saturated and aromatic hydrocarbon fractions, Model compound studies show that these fractions are chemically well-defined. The applicability to a variety of geological materials is demonstrated by analysing a North Sea crude oil and solvent extracts of Posidonia shale, coal, and recent lake sediment samples. The total recoveries vary between 76% and 57%, depending on the sample type. The method is shown to be well-suited for the bulk compositional characterization of soluble organic matter. Isolated fractions are amenable directly or after derivatization to qualitative and quantitative anlaysis by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

  14. Analysis of lipids in crude extracts by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollesello, P; Toffanin, R; Eriksson, O; Kilpeläinen, I; Hynninen, P H; Paoletti, S; Saris, N E

    1993-10-01

    Phospho- and glycolipids with mono- or polyunsaturated fatty acid chains, free and acylated steroids, carotenes and carotenoids, chlorophylls, and related pheophytins were detected in crude extracts by NMR spectroscopy without any need for prior separation. A broad range of molecules belonging to different lipid classes could be identified in one-dimensional 13C NMR spectra obtained by applying a polarization transfer pulse sequence (DEPT 135 degrees). Directly detected or 1H-detected two-dimensional heterocorrelated NMR experiments were performed to facilitate the assignment of peaks arising from carotenoids, unsaturated fatty acid chains, and chlorophylls. 13C NMR data of crude lipid extracts from the macroalagae Ulva rigida and Fucus virsoides are shown to yield an informative overview of their lipid content. NMR is thus proposed as a simple, nonselective, and nondestructive technique for the first screening of the main lipid classes in complex lipid mixtures.

  15. Evaluation of the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of crude extracts of Cordia ecalyculata and Echinodorus grandiflorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Cristiano José; Bastos, Jairo Kenupp; Takahashi, Catarina Satie

    2010-02-03

    Cordia ecalyculata Vell. and Echinodorus grandiflorus (Cham. & Schltdl.) Micheli are extensively used in Brazil as therapeutic preparations for indigenous groups and the general population. These plants have been used in the folk medicine as: tonic, diuretic, anti-inflammatory, appetite suppressants, for the treatment of snake bites, and weight loss. In this study, it was verified the possible cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of the crude extracts of. Cordia ecalyculata and Echinodorus grandiflorus, as well as their effectiveness in treating obesity. The Micronucleus Test was used for the evaluation of possible clastogenic and aneugenic effects, and the Comet Assay was used for the evaluation of single-strand and double-strand DNA breaks. The cytotoxic effects of the crude extracts were verified by PCE/NCE ratio. Swiss mice (Mus musculus) were used as the experimental model. It was observed a significant (PCordia ecalyculata or Echinodorus grandiflorus extracts, in comparison with the negative control. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) in the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes for both extract treatment. We observed that treatment with the Cordia ecalyculata extract at concentrations of 1000 and 2000 mg/kg bw resulted in a PCE/NCE ratio that was larger (P0.05). The results of this study allowed us to infer that the crude extracts of Cordia ecalyculata and Echinodorus grandiflorus do not display cytotoxic or genotoxic activities. However, they do possess weak clastogenic activity (without significance) on peripheral blood cells. Contrary to commonly held beliefs it was also found in this study that the extracts are not effective for obesity treatments. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Inhibition of Human Cervical Cancer Cell Growth by Ethanolic Extract of Boerhaavia diffusa Linn. (Punarnava Root

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    Rakhi Srivastava

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In Indian traditional medicine, Boerhaavia diffusa (punarnava roots have been widely used for the treatment of dyspepsia, jaundice, enlargement of spleen, abdominal pain and as an anti-stress agent. Pharmacological evaluation of the crude ethanolic extract of B. diffusa roots has been shown to possess antiproliferative and immunomodulatory properties. The extract of B. diffusa was studied for anti-proliferative effects on the growth of HeLa cells and for its effect on cell cycle. Bio-assays of extracts from B. diffusa root showed that a methanol : chloroform fraction (BDF 5 had an antiproliferative effect on HeLa cells. After 48 h of exposure, this fraction at a concentration of 200 μg mL−1 significantly reduced cell proliferation with visible morphological changes in HeLa cells. Cell cycle analysis suggests that antiproliferative effect of BDF 5 could be due to inhibition of DNA synthesis in S-phase of cell cycle in HeLa cells, whereas no significant change in cell cycle was detected in control cells. The fraction BDF 5 caused cell death via apoptosis as evident from DNA fragmentation and caspase-9 activation. Thus the extract has potential to be evaluated in detail to assess the molecular mechanism-mediated anticancer activities of this plant.

  17. [Toxicity of the ethanol extract of Magonia pubescens on larvae Aedes aegypti].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda, Walquíria; Oliveira, Gláucia Maria Cavasin; da Silva, Ionizete Garcia

    2003-01-01

    Crude ethanol extracted from Magonia pubescens trunks was utilized to prove its effect in the intestinal tract of Aedes aegypti 3rd instar larvae. Exposure times (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 13 hours) were tested to verify when the morphological alterations begin to occur, in the intestinal tract of the larvae. The toxic effect of the extract was mainly in the midgut, beginning at the anterior midgut and followed through to posterior midgut. The main alterations observed were partial or total cell destruction, high citoplasmatic vacuolization, increase of subperitrophic space, cell hypertrophy and the epithelium did not maintain its monolayer appearance. The alterations began after four hours of exposure to M. pubescens extract. Observations of tissue sections from larvae treated for different lengths of time revealed a wide variation in the degree of damage between exposure periods and midgut larvae region. The present study provides evidence regarding the mode of action of the M. pubescens extract and suggests its potential utilization as a larvicide to control Aedes aegypti mosquito.

  18. Chemical Composition, Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of Crude Dittrichia viscosa (L. Greuter Leaf Extracts

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    Wafa Rhimi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The small amount of data regarding the antifungal activity of Dittrichia viscosa (L. Greuter against dermatophytes, Malassezia spp. and Aspergillus spp., associated with the few comparative studies on the antimicrobial activity of methanolic, ethanolic, and butanolic extracts underpins the study herein presented. The total condensed tannin (TCT, phenol (TPC, flavonoid (TFC, and caffeoylquinic acid (CQC content of methanol, butanol, and ethanol (80% and 100% extracts of D. viscosa were assessed and their bactericidal and fungicidal activities were evaluated. The antibacterial, anti-Candida and anti-Malassezia activities were evaluated by using the disk diffusion method, whereas the anti-Microsporum canis and anti-Aspergillus fumigatus activities were assessed by studying the toxicity effect of the extracts on vegetative growth, sporulation and germination. The methanolic extract contained the highest TPC and CQC content. It contains several phytochemicals mainly caffeoylquinic acid derivatives as determined by liquid chromatography with photodiode array and electrospray ionisation mass spectrometric detection (LC/PDA/ESI-MS analysis. All extracts showed an excellent inhibitory effect against bacteria and Candida spp., whereas methanolic extract exhibited the highest antifungal activities against Malassezia spp., M. canis and A. fumigatus strains. The results clearly showed that all extracts, in particular the methanolic extract, might be excellent antimicrobial drugs for treating infections that are life threatening (i.e., Malassezia or infections that require mandatory treatments (i.e., M. canis or A. fumigatus.

  19. Toxicity, analgesic and sedative potential of crude extract of soil-borne phytopathogenic fungi Aspergillus flavus

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    Bashir Ahmad

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aspergillus flavus is one of the most abundant mold present around the world. The present study was conducted to investigate the acute toxicity, analgesic and sedative effect of the crude extract obtained from soil borne fungi A. flavus. Methods: The fungi was isolated from soil samples and identified morphologically and microscopically. The growth condition i.e. media, temperature, pH, and incubation period were optimized. In these optimized growth condition, A. flavus was grown in batch culture in shaking incubator. Crude contents were extracted by using ethyl acetate solvent. Crude secondary metabolites were screened for acute toxicity, analgesic and sedative effect. Results: Upon completion of the experiment, blood was collected from the tail vein of albino mice, and different haematological tests were conducted. White blood cells counts displayed a slight increase (10.6× 109/L above their normal range (0.8–6.8 × 109/L, which may be due to the increment in the number of lymphocytes or granulocytes. However, the percentage of lymphocytes was much lower (17.7%, while the percentage of the granulocytes was higher (61.4% than its normal range (8.6–38.9%. A reduction in the mean number of writhing in the different test groups was caused by the application of the crude ethyl acetate extract through the i.p. route at different doses (50, 100, and 150 mg/kg body weight. The results of our investigation showed the EtOAc extract of A. flavus can cause a significant sedative effect in open field. Conclusion: It was concluded from the present study that the A. flavus has the potential to produce bioactive metabolites which have analgesic and sedative effect.

  20. Antimicrobial activity of rosemary-pepper essential oil and barbatimao dry crude extract against bacteria isolated from milk

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    João Paulo Ramos Costa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of Lippia sidoides essential oil (LsEO, popularly known as “rosemary-pepper”, and the Stryphnodendron adstringens dry crude extract (SaDCE, or “barbatimao”, against bacteria isolated from total milk flock, from small farms of northern Minas Gerais state. SaDCE was obtained from the peel of the vegetable through static distillation in ethanol 99.9% during eight days. LsEO was obtained through hydro-distillation of its fresh leaves. The bacteria Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus isolated from milk underwent the test of disk-diffusion and minimum bacterial concentration (MBC, using concentrations of 320, 160, 80, 40, 20 and 0μl/mL of LsEO and 400, 200, 100, 50, 25 and 0mg/mL of SaDCE. All bacteria were sensitive to the vegetable extracts, except the Escherichia coli which was not inhibited by any test when SaDCE was used.

  1. Synergy of antibacterial and antioxidant activities from crude extracts and peptides of selected plant mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background A plant mixture containing indigenous Australian plants was examined for synergistic antimicrobial activity using selected test microorganisms. This study aims to investigate antibacterial activities, antioxidant potential and the content of phenolic compounds in aqueous, ethanolic and peptide extracts of plant mixture. Methods Well diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) assays were used to test antibacterial activity against four pathogenic bacteria namely Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) assays were used to evaluate antioxidant activity. HPLC and gel filtration were used for purification of the peptides. Scanning electron microscope was applied to investigate the mode of attachment of the peptides on target microbial membranes. Results Aqueous extraction of the mixture showed no inhibition zones against all the test bacteria. Mean diameter of inhibition zones for ethanol extraction of this mixture attained 8.33 mm, 7.33 mm, and 6.33 mm against S. aureus at corresponding concentrations of 500, 250 and 125 mg/ml while E .coli showed inhibition zones of 9.33 mm, 8.00 mm and 6.66 mm at the same concentrations. B. cereus exhibited inhibition zones of 11.33 mm, 10.33 mm and 10.00 mm at concentrations of 500, 250 and 125 mg/ml respectively. The peptide extract demonstrated antibacterial activity against S. aureus, E. coli and B. cereus. The MIC and MBC values for ethanol extracts were determined at 125 mg/ml concentration against S. aureus and E. coli and B. cereus value was 31.5 mg/ml. MIC and MBC values showed that the peptide extract was significantly effective at low concentration of the Australian plant mixture (APM). Phenolic compounds were detected in hot aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the plant mixture. Hot aqueous, ethanol and peptides extracts also exhibited

  2. Synergy of antibacterial and antioxidant activities from crude extracts and peptides of selected plant mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shami, Abdul-Mushin M; Philip, Koshy; Muniandy, Sekaran

    2013-12-16

    A plant mixture containing indigenous Australian plants was examined for synergistic antimicrobial activity using selected test microorganisms. This study aims to investigate antibacterial activities, antioxidant potential and the content of phenolic compounds in aqueous, ethanolic and peptide extracts of plant mixture. Well diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) assays were used to test antibacterial activity against four pathogenic bacteria namely Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) assays were used to evaluate antioxidant activity. HPLC and gel filtration were used for purification of the peptides. Scanning electron microscope was applied to investigate the mode of attachment of the peptides on target microbial membranes. Aqueous extraction of the mixture showed no inhibition zones against all the test bacteria. Mean diameter of inhibition zones for ethanol extraction of this mixture attained 8.33 mm, 7.33 mm, and 6.33 mm against S. aureus at corresponding concentrations of 500, 250 and 125 mg/ml while E .coli showed inhibition zones of 9.33 mm, 8.00 mm and 6.66 mm at the same concentrations. B. cereus exhibited inhibition zones of 11.33 mm, 10.33 mm and 10.00 mm at concentrations of 500, 250 and 125 mg/ml respectively. The peptide extract demonstrated antibacterial activity against S. aureus, E. coli and B. cereus. The MIC and MBC values for ethanol extracts were determined at 125 mg/ml concentration against S. aureus and E. coli and B. cereus value was 31.5 mg/ml. MIC and MBC values showed that the peptide extract was significantly effective at low concentration of the Australian plant mixture (APM). Phenolic compounds were detected in hot aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the plant mixture. Hot aqueous, ethanol and peptides extracts also exhibited antioxidant activities. It was

  3. Anti-quorum sensing potential of crude Kigelia africana fruit extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenia, Hafizah Y

    2013-02-27

    The increasing incidence of multidrug-resistant pathogens has stimulated the search for novel anti-virulence compounds. Although many phytochemicals show promising antimicrobial activity, their power lies in their anti-virulence properties. Thus the quorum sensing (QS) inhibitory activity of four crude Kigelia africana fruit extracts was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively using the Chromobacterium violaceum and Agrobacterium tumefaciens biosensor systems. Inhibition of QS-controlled violacein production in C. violaceum was assayed using the qualitative agar diffusion assay as well as by quantifying violacein inhibition using K. africana extracts ranging from 0.31-8.2 mg/mL. Qualitative modulation of QS activity was investigated using the agar diffusion double ring assay. All four extracts showed varying levels of anti-QS activity with zones of violacein inhibition ranging from 9-10 mm. The effect on violacein inhibition was significant in the following order: hexane > dichloromethane > ethyl acetate > methanol. Inhibition was concentration-dependent, with the ≥90% inhibition being obtained with ≥1.3 mg/mL of the hexane extract. Both LuxI and LuxR activity were affected by crude extracts suggesting that the phytochemicals target both QS signal and receptor. K. africana extracts with their anti-QS activity, have the potential to be novel therapeutic agents, which might be important in reducing virulence and pathogenicity of drug-resistant bacteria in vivo.

  4. Immobilization of Tyrosinase from Avocado Crude Extract in Polypyrrole Films for Inhibitive Detection of Benzoic Acid

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    André Brisolari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Inhibition-based biosensors were developed by immobilizing tyrosinase (Tyr, polyphenol oxidase from the crude extract of avocado fruit on electrochemically prepared polypyrrole (PPy films. The biosensors were prepared during the electropolymerization of pyrrole in a solution containing a fixed volume of the crude extract of avocado. The dependence of the biosensor responses on the volume used from the crude extract, values of pH and temperature was studied, and a substrate, catechol, at different concentrations, was amperometrically detected by these biosensors. Benzoic acid, a competitive inhibitor of Try, was added to the catechol solutions at specific concentrations aimed at obtaining the inhibition constant, K’m, which ranged from 1.7 to 4.6 mmol∙L−1 for 0.0 and 60 µmol∙L−1 of benzoic acid, respectively. Studies on the inhibition caused by benzoic acid by using PPy/Try films, and catechol as a substrate, allowed us propose how to develop, under optimized conditions, simple and low-cost biosensors based on the use of avocado fruit.

  5. Extraction of stevia glycosides with CO2 + water, CO2 + ethanol, and CO2 + water + ethanol

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    A. Pasquel

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Stevia leaves are an important source of natural sugar substitute. There are some restrictions on the use of stevia extract because of its distinctive aftertaste. Some authors attribute this to soluble material other than the stevia glycosides, even though it is well known that stevia glycosides have to some extent a bitter taste. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to develop a process to obtain stevia extract of a better quality. The proposed process includes two steps: i Pretreatment of the leaves by SCFE; ii Extraction of the stevia glycosides by SCFE using CO2 as solvent and water and/or ethanol as cosolvent. The mean total yield for SCFE pretreatment was 3.0%. The yields for SCFE with cosolvent of stevia glycosides were below 0.50%, except at 120 bar, 16°C, and 9.5% (molar of water. Under this condition, total yield was 3.4%. The quality of the glycosidic fraction with respect to its capacity as sweetener was better for the SCFE extract as compared to extract obtained by the conventional process. The overall extraction curves were well described by the Lack extended model.

  6. Antiviral activity of crude extracts from Commiphora swynnertonii against Newcastle disease virus in ovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakari, Gaymary George; Max, Robert A; Mdegela, Robinson H; Phiri, Elliot C J; Mtambo, Mkumbukwa M A

    2012-10-01

    Studies were carried out to investigate the effect of crude extracts from resin, leaves, stem barks and root barks of Commiphora swynnertonii against Newcastle disease virus (NDV) using an in ovo assay. Nine-day-old embryonated chicken eggs were divided into seven groups (n = 6) and received various treatments. Six groups were inoculated with velogenic NDV strain; five groups out of these were treated with different concentrations of the four extracts or a diluent, dimethylsulphoxide. The uninoculated and inoculated groups were left as negative and positive controls, respectively. Embryo survival was observed daily and embryo weights were measured day 5 post-inoculation; a few eggs from selected groups were left to hatch. Allantoic fluid from treated eggs and serum from hatched chicks were collected for hemagglutination and hemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests to detect NDV in the eggs and antibodies against NDV in the hatched chicks respectively. Results showed that embryo survival and mean embryo weight were significantly higher (p < 0.001) in those groups which were treated with the crude extracts from C. swynnertonii than the positive control group. Also the extracts significantly (p < 0.001) reduced virus titres, whereas no viruses were detected in the allantoic fluids of the resin-treated group at the highest concentration of 500 μg/mL. Furthermore, the HI test results showed very low levels of antibodies against NDV in chicks hatched from resin and root bark extract-treated eggs suggesting that these plant materials were capable of destroying the NDV before stimulating the developing chick's immunity. The current findings have clearly demonstrated that crude extracts especially that of resin from C. swynnertonii have strong antiviral activity against NDV in ovo. In vivo trials are needed to validate the use of resin from the tree in controlling Newcastle disease in chickens.

  7. Study of total phenol, flavonoids contents and phytochemical screening of various leaves crude extracts of locally grown Thymus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mohammad Amzad; AL-Raqmi, Khulood Ahmed Salim; AL-Mijizy, Zawan Hamood; Weli, Afaf Mohammed; Al-Riyami, Qasim

    2013-09-01

    To prepare various crude extracts using different polarities of solvent and to quantitatively evaluate their total phenol, flavonoids contents and phytochemical screening of Thymus vulgaris collected from Al Jabal Al Akhdar, Nizwa, Sultanate of Oman. The leave sample was extracted with methanol and evaporated. Then it was defatted with water and extracted with different polarities organic solvents with increasing polarities. The prepare hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol and methanol crude extracts were used for their evaluation of total phenol, flavonoids contents and phytochemical screening study. The established conventional methods were used for quantitative determination of total phenol, flavonoids contents and phytochemical screening. Phytochemical screening for various crude extracts were tested and shown positive result for flavonoids, saponins and steroids compounds. The result for total phenol content was the highest in butanol and the lowest in methanol crude extract whereas the total flavonoids contents was the highest in methanol and the lowest hexane crude extract. The crude extracts from locally grown Thymus vulgaris showed high concentration of flavonoids and it could be used as antibiotics for different curable and uncurable diseases.

  8. Lipoxygenase inhibitory activity of crude bark extracts and isolated compounds from Commiphora berryi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Ramesh; Meyyappan, Arumugam; Selvamani, Palanisamy; Mukherjee, Joydeep; Jaisankar, Parasuraman

    2011-10-31

    Commiphora berryi is traditionally used for the treatment of cold and fever as well as for wound healing in the southern parts of India. The present study was designed to investigate in vitro soybean lipoxygenase inhibitory activity of crude extracts and compounds isolated from Commiphora berryi. The bark of Commiphora berryi was extracted with different organic solvents and subjected to chromatographic separation for isolation of bioactive compounds. Structures of isolated compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. The anti-inflammatory activity of bark extracts and bioactive compounds were assessed by in vitro soybean lipoxygenase (SBL) assay. 3β-Hydroxyglutin-5-ene (1), friedelin (2), cycloeucaneol (3) nimbiol (4), sugiol (5), surianol (6), daucosterol (7) and ursolic acid (8) were isolated from crude bark extracts of the Commiphora berryi. The structure of nimbiol (4) was also confirmed by single crystal X-ray analysis. The petroleum ether, methanol, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of bark of Commiphora berryi showed SBL inhibitory activity with the IC(50) values of 15.3, 54.2, 71.5 and 87.8 μg/ml respectively. Among all the isolates, friedelin (2) showed significant SBL inhibitory activity with IC(50) 35.8 μM. The overall results provide evidence that the studied plant might be a potential source of anti-inflammatory agents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. In vitro and in vivo antitumor activity of crude extracts obtained from Brazilian Chromobacterium sp isolates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menezes, C.B.A.; Silva, B.P. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Centro Pluridisciplinar de Pesquisas Químicas, Biológicas e Agrícolas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Universidade de São Paulo, Interunidades em Biotecnologia, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Sousa, I.M.O.; Ruiz, A.L.T.G.; Spindola, H.M. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Centro Pluridisciplinar de Pesquisas Químicas, Biológicas e Agrícolas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Cabral, E.; Eberlin, M.N. [Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Laboratório Thomson Mass Spectrometry, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Tinti, S.V.; Carvalho, J.E. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Centro Pluridisciplinar de Pesquisas Químicas, Biológicas e Agrícolas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Foglio, M.A.; Fantinatti-Garboggini, F. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Centro Pluridisciplinar de Pesquisas Químicas, Biológicas e Agrícolas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Universidade de São Paulo, Interunidades em Biotecnologia, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-10-23

    Natural products produced by microorganisms have been an important source of new substances and lead compounds for the pharmaceutical industry. Chromobacterium violaceum is a Gram-negative β-proteobacterium, abundant in water and soil in tropical and subtropical regions and it produces violacein, a pigment that has shown great pharmaceutical potential. Crude extracts of five Brazilian isolates of Chromobacterium sp (0.25, 2.5, 25, and 250 µg/mL) were evaluated in an in vitro antitumor activity assay with nine human tumor cells. Secondary metabolic profiles were analyzed by liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry resulting in the identification of violacein in all extracts, whereas FK228 was detected only in EtCE 308 and EtCE 592 extracts. AcCE and EtCE 310 extracts showed selectivity for NCI/ADR-RES cells in the in vitro assay and were evaluated in vivo in the solid Ehrlich tumor model, resulting in 50.3 and 54.6% growth inhibition, respectively. The crude extracts of Chromobacterium sp isolates showed potential and selective antitumor activities for certain human tumor cells, making them a potential source of lead compounds. Furthermore, the results suggest that other compounds, in addition to violacein, deoxyviolacein and FK228, may be involved in the antitumor effect observed.

  10. Immunomodulatory activities of the ethanolic extract of Caesalpinia bonducella seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Shruti; Mehta, Archana; John, Jinu; Mehta, Pradeep; Vyas, Suresh Prasad; Shukla, Savita

    2009-09-07

    Caesalpinia bonducella FLEMING (Caesalpiniaceae) is a plant well known for its medicinal value in Indian Ayurveda. However, to prove its efficiency for the clinical utilization, more experimental data will be beneficial. The present study involved the investigation of immunomodulatory activities of ethanolic extract of Caesalpinia bonducella seeds. Neutrophil adhesion test, haemagglutinating antibody (HA) titre, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response, phagocytic activity and cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression were determined by in vivo experiments. The evaluation of immunomodulatory potential by oral administration of ethanolic seed extract of Caesalpinia bonducella (200-500 mg/kg) evoked a significant increase in percent neutrophil adhesion to nylon fibers as well as a dose-dependent increase in antibody titre values, and potentiated the delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction induced by sheep red blood cells. Also it prevented myelosuppression in cyclophosphamide drug treated rats and good response towards phagocytosis in carbon clearance assay. The results obtained in this study indicate that Caesalpinia bonducella possesses potential immunomodulatory activity and has therapeutic potential for the prevention of autoimmune diseases.

  11. Antioxidant, antimicrobial, cytotoxic and analgesic activities of ethanolic extract of Mentha arvensis L.

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    Nripendra Nath Biswas

    2014-10-01

    Conclusions: These results suggest that the ethanolic extract of Mentha arvensis L. has potential antioxidant, antibacterial, cytotoxic and analgesic activities that support the ethnopharmacological uses of this plant.

  12. Anticonvulsant potentials of ethanolic extract of Eleusine indica

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    Ette Okon Ettebong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the anticonvulsant potentials of ethanolic extract of Eleusine indica. Methods: Albino Wistar mice were separated into five groups with six animals in each group and thereafter pretreated with distilled water, various doses of the extract (200–600 mg/kg and standard drug diazepam (0.5 mg/kg. Thirty minutes later, pentylenetetrazole (70 mg/kg, aminophylline (280 mg/kg and isoniazid (250 mg/kg were used to induce convulsions by intraperitoneal administration. These mice were then placed in plexiglas cages and monitored for the occurrence of seizures over a thirty-minute time period. The latency of convulsions, duration of tonic convulsions and mortality protection were recorded. Data obtained were analyzed using GraphPad InStat 3.10. Results: The results showed that the extract exhibited a dose-dependent increase in the latency of clonic convulsions and decrease in duration of tonic convulsions as compared to the control and these effects were statistically significant (P < 0.001. The extract also provided protection against the mortality which was similar to that produced by the standard drug diazepam. Conclusions: The significant increase in the latency of clonic convulsions and decrease in duration of tonic convulsions caused by the extract show anticonvulsant activity and corroborate with the claims of the traditional use of the plant as an anticonvulsant remedy.

  13. Study on the extraction of AP components in HTPB solid propellant by water/ethanol recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingqi; Du, Shiguo; Yan, Jun

    2017-10-01

    In order to improve the recovery of ammonium perchlorate (AP) components in scrapped HTPB solid propellants, the AP in HTPB solid propellants were extracted by water/ethanol mixed solvent system. The effects of extraction time, extraction temperature, volume ratio of water/ethanol, ratio of liquid to material, thickness of sample and extraction rate on AP extraction rate were discussed. The extraction results were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the best process parameter for extracting AP components from HTPB solid propellants: the extraction temperature was 70°C, the extraction time was 6h, the volume ratio of water/ethanol was 1:1, the ratio of liquid to material was 6:1(water/ethanol volume and sample mass ratio, ml/g) and the extraction frequency was 2 times. Under this condition, the recovery of AP was 90.5% and the purity of AP was 91.1%.

  14. Stability and degradation kinetics of crude anthocyanin extracts from H. sabdariffa

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    Shivon SIPAHLI

    Full Text Available Abstract Hibiscus sabdariffa is an under-utilized plant that has reported to have great potential in the food industry. The vibrant red pigment from the calyces indicate a source of anthocyanins. Anthocyanins would make ideal natural food colourants with additional nutritional benefits however stability is a hindering factor. Stability studies were the main focus of this study. Crude anthocyanins were extracted using four different solvent systems. The crude extracts were analysed under the following parameters; heat (50 and 80 °C, light (darkness and 20 W light and pH (pH 1-9 stability. Degradation kinetic studies were done on thermally treated samples. Radical scavenging ability was thereafter calculated. Anthocyanidins were identified and quantified by HPLC coupled with a Diode Array Detector (DAD. Total phenolic content was determined with Folin – Ciocalteu’s method. Approximately 87% of pigments were retained when heated at 50 °C while heating at 80 °C resulted in 61% pigment retention. The pH stability of samples incubated for 7 days indicated that crude anthocyanins degraded slower at acidic pH. Light stability showed slower degradation in dark incubated samples resulting in 84% pigment retention after a 10 day period. H. sabdariffa shows potential for the application of a food in products such as jelly and yoghurt.

  15. In vitro fermentation characteristics of ruminant diets using ethanol extract of brown propolis as a nutritional additive

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    Maria de Fátima Falcão Gomes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The addition of levels of ethanol extract of brown propolis was evaluated by assessing diet degradation in rumen fluid and predicting cumulative in vitro gas production by nonlinear (dual pool logistic and exponential models. A total of 35 g of crude propolis were extracted in 65 mL of cereal alcohol (95% ethanol. In a completely randomized factorial design, the experimental diets combined four concentrations of extracted propolis diluted in cereal alcohol (0, 50, 70, and 100% of propolis extract and supplementation doses (4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 mL/kg dry matter, tested in triplicate. Diet (400 g/kg Tifton hay and 600 g/kg concentrate was incubated for 96 h carried out three times in three different weeks. There was significant interaction between extract concentration and dose on the dry matter (DM degradability. Dry matter degradability of diet decreased exponentially as a function of the increase in dose (y = 678.55×dose–0.271. Pure alcohol treatment showed a negative exponential effect, with degradability of 303.61 g/kg when administered at a dose of 20 mL/kg DM. Treatment 100% ethanol extract reached the greatest degradability, estimated at 18.93 mL/kg DM. The treatment with 70% extract showed 6.35 mL/kg DM and the 50% extract, 7.65 mL/kg DM of minimum degradability. The reduction potential of pure ethanol was –0.32 mL gas/mL. Estimates of maximum gas production by dual pool logistic and exponential models were 13.10 mL and 12.07 mL for 100% extract, respectively. The 100% extract produced the highest gas production estimates, above 30 mL gas/100 mg DM of fermented diet. The degradation and fermentation of ruminant diet can be improved using 13 mL/DM kg of ethanol extract of propolis.

  16. Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Crude Extracts and Essential Oils of Syzygium cumini Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Amal A.; Ali, Sami I.; El-Baz, Farouk K.

    2013-01-01

    This research highlights the chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of essential oils and various crude extracts (using methanol and methylene chloride) from Syzygium cumini leaves. Essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).The abundant constituents of the oils were: α-pinene (32.32%), β-pinene (12.44%), trans-caryophyllene (11.19%), 1, 3, 6-octatriene (8.41%), delta-3-carene (5.55%), α-caryophyllene (4.36%), and α-limonene (3.42%).The antioxidant activities of all extracts were examined using two complementary methods, namely diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing power (FRAP). In both methods, the methanol extract exhibited a higher activity than methylene chloride and essential oil extracts. A higher content of both total phenolics and flavonoids were found in the methanolic extract compared with other extracts. Furthermore, the methanol extract had higher antibacterial activity compared to methylene chloride and the essential oil extracts. Due to their antioxidant and antibacterial properties, the leaf extracts from S. cumini may be used as natural preservative ingredients in food and/or pharmaceutical industries. PMID:23593183

  17. Antinociceptive effect of ethanolic extract of Selaginella convoluta in mice

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    de Sá Pedro Guilherme S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selaginella convoluta (Arn. Spring (Selaginellaceae, commonly known as “jericó”, is a medicinal plant found in northeastern Brazil. S. convoluta is used in folk medicine as an antidepressant, aphrodisiac, diuretic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and it is used to combat amenorrhea, coughing and bleeding. This study was performed to evaluate the antinociceptive effects of ethanolic extract from S. convoluta in mice exposed to chemical and thermal models of nociception. Methods Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the ethanolic extract was performed. The ethanolic extract from Selaginella convoluta (Sc-EtOH was examined for its intraperitoneal (i.p. antinociceptive activity at the doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight. Acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin injection and hot plate tests were used to evaluate the antinociceptive activity of Sc-EtOH extract. The rota-rod test was used to evaluate motor coordination. Results A preliminary analysis of Sc-EtOH revealed that it contained phenols, steroids, terpenoids and flavonoids. In the acetic acid-induced writhing test, mice treated with Sc-EtOH (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, i.p. exhibited reduced writhing (58.46, 75.63 and 82.23%, respectively. Secondly, Sc-EtOH treatment (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, i.p. decreased the paw licking time in mice during the first phase of the formalin test (by 44.90, 33.33 and 34.16%, respectively, as well as during the second phase of the test (by 86.44, 56.20 and 94.95%, respectively. Additionally, Sc-EtOH treatment at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg increased the latency time in the hot plate test after 60 and 90 minutes, respectively. In addition, Sc-EtOH did not impair motor coordination. Conclusion Overall, these results indicate that Sc-EtOH is effective as an analgesic agent in various pain models. The activity of Sc-EtOH is most likely mediated via the inhibition of peripheral mediators and central inhibitory mechanisms. This study supports

  18. Influence of aqueous crude extracts of medicinal plants on the osmotic stability of human erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Mariana V; Netto, Rita de Cássia M; da Costa Huss, Juliana C; de Souza, Tatiana Maria T; Costa, Júnia O; Firmino, Cynthia B; Penha-Silva, Nilson

    2008-02-01

    This work analyzed the effects of the aqueous crude extracts of Artemisia absinthium L., Lippia sp., Bryophyllum sp., Solidago microglossa DC, Cymbopogon citratus DC and Mentha x villosa HUDSON on the osmotic stability of human erythrocytes. Hemolysis was monitored by measurement of absorbance at 540 nm following addition of erythrocytes to NaCl solutions of varying concentration. Absorbance was fitted to sigmoid regression curves given by the Boltzmann equation, and hemolysis was characterized by the NaCl concentration leading to lysis of 50% of cells (H(50)), and by the intensity (H) and the amplitude (dS) of the lysis effect. The parameters were determined in the absence and presence of the crude extracts. The extracts of Artemisia absinthium, Lippia sp., C. citratus and M. villosa protected human erythrocytes against hypotonic shock, as evidenced by a decrease in the values of H and H(50) compared to the control solution (p<0.05). The extracts of Bryophyllum sp. and S. microglossa enhanced hemolysis, since their H(50) values were higher than in the control group (p<0.05), but they also showed protective effects, as evidenced by a decrease in H and an increase in dS.

  19. In Vitro Antilisterial Properties of Crude Methanol Extracts of Garcinia kola (Heckel Seeds

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    Dambudzo Penduka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Crude methanol extracts of Garcinia kola (Heckel seeds were screened for their antilisterial activities against 42 Listeria bacteria isolated from wastewater effluents. The extract had activity against 45% of the test bacteria and achieved minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs ranging between 0.157 and 0.625 mg/mL. The rate of kill of the extract was determined against four representative Listeria species in the study, and the results showed that the highest percentage of bacteria cells were killed after the maximum exposure time of 2 h at the highest concentration of 4×MIC value, with the maximum number of bacteria cells killed being for L. ivanovii (LEL 30 100%, L. monocytogenes (LAL 8 94.686%, L. ivanovii (LEL 18 60.330%, and L. grayi (LAL 15 56.071% We therefore conclude that the nature of inhibition of the crude methanol extracts of Garcinia kola seeds can be either bactericidal or bacteriostatic depending on the target Listeria species and can also differ among same species as evidenced by L. ivanovii strains LEL 30 and LEL 18.

  20. Bioactivities by a crude extract from the Greenlandic Pseudomonas sp. In5 involves the nonribosomal peptides, nunamycin and nunapeptin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydenlund Michelsen, Charlotte; Jensen, Helle; Venditto, Vincent J.

    2015-01-01

    Bioactive microbial metabolites provide a successful source of novel compounds with pharmaceutical potentials. The bacterium Pseudomonas sp. In5 is a biocontrol strain isolated from a plant disease suppressive soil in Greenland, which produces two antimicrobial nonribosomal peptides (NRPs......), nunapeptin and nunamycin. In this study, we used in vitro antimicrobial and anticancer bioassays to evaluate the potential bioactivities of both a crude extract derived from Pseudomonas sp. In5 and NRPs purified from the crude extract....

  1. Antifungal activity of Piper aduncum and Peperomia pellucida leaf ethanol extract against Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastuti, Utami Sri; Ummah, Yunita Putri Irsadul; Khasanah, Henny Nurul

    2017-05-01

    This research was done to 1) examine the effect of Piper aduncum leaf ethanol extract at certain concentrations against Candida albicans colony growth inhibition in vitro; 2) examine the effect of Peperomia pellucida leaf ethanol extract at certain concentrations toward Candida albicans colony growth inhibition in vitro; and 3) determine the most effective concentration of P. aduncum and P. pellucida leaves ethanol extract against C. albicans colony growth inhibition in vitro. These plant extracts were prepared by the maceration technique using 95% ethanol, and then sterile filtered and evaporated to obtain the filtrate. The filtrate was diluted with sterile distilled water at certain concentrations, i.e.: 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 405, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, and 90%. The antifungal effect of each leaf extract concentration was examined by the agar diffusion method on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar medium. The research results are: 1) the P.aduncum leaf ethanol extract at some concentrations has an effect against C. albicans colony growth inhibition in vitro; 2) the P.pellucida leaf ethanol extract at some concentrations has an effect against C. albicans colony growth inhibition in vitro; 3) the P. aduncum leaf ethanol extract at 80% is the most effective for C. albicans colony growth inhibition in vitro; and 4) the P. pellucida leaf ethanol extract at 70% is the most effective for C. albicans colony growth inhibition in vitro.

  2. Peningkatan Produktivitas Ayam Petelur Melalui Pemberian Ekstrak Etanol Daun Kemangi (INCREASED LAYING HENS PRODUCTIVITY THROUGH THE ADMINISTRATION OF ETHANOL EXTRACT OF KEMANGI LEAVES

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    Andriyanto .

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Empirically, kemangi leaves reported to increase health quality in human and livestock. Thepreliminary study was designed to explore the potency of ethanol extract of kemangi leaves to increaselaying hens performance. Sixteen laying hens (pullet were divided into 4 groups and repeated 4 times.Control group was laying hen administered aquadest orally, treated group was laying hen administeredextract of kemangi leaves orally at a dose of 1, 2, and 3 mg/kg BW, respectively. Every day, the experimentallaying hens were fed for 3 times and drinking water was provided ad libitum. Variables observed were thenumber of eggs, egg weight, time of first laying, egg laying intervals, egg quality ( water content, crudeprotein, and crude fat, and liver function (SGPT and SGOT values . Results of this research showed thatadministration of kemangi leaves extract at a dose of 3 mg/kg BW significantly increased the number ofegg production and egg weight (p<0.05. Time of first laying and laying interval did not show any significantdifference among treatments. Examination of moisture, crude protein, and crude fat content of the eggindicated that the administration of kemangi leaves extract did not affect egg quality. Extract of kemangileaves decreased SGPT and SGOT values that indicated improvement of liver function. It was concludedthat administration of ethanol extract of kemangi leaves could increase laying hens productivity byimprovement of liver function that is critical in vitellogenesis.

  3. Antihyperlipidemic effect of crude extract of saffron stigma (Crocus sativus in healthy male rats

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    Iliass Lahmass

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated for the first time the antihyperlipidemic ef-fects of crude extract of stigmas from Crocus sativus (saffron against hyperlipidemia induced by tartrazine (synthetic dye in normal male rats. Thirty adult male albino rats weighing about 150 - 200 g, were divided into 5 groups (n = 6 and daily treatment was given orally. Clinical biochemis-try and metabolic parameters were evaluated at the end of the experiment and after 105 days. (n=6, for all groups. Our data revealed that the meta-bolic parameters like consumption of food and water, pH and urine vol-ume have not been affected; also the difference between liver, right kid-ney and heart weight was not significant. The levels of cholesterol and triglyceride were significantly increased in group 2 and group 3 compared to control group. There was no significant difference in the level of cholesterol and triglyceride in group 4. Treatment with saffron alone did not have any significant effects on the level of fat compared to control group. The oral administration of the crude extract of saffron revealed good hypolipidemic effects in adult male albino rats. These results suggest that aqueous saffron extract reduced plasma cholesterol and decreased triglyceride. Therefore, it could conceivably lead to suitable changes in blood lipid profiles. [J Med Allied Sci 2017; 7(1.000: 20-25

  4. Partial biochemical characterization of crude extract extracellular chitinase enzyme from Bacillus subtilis B 298

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, P.; Prihatiningsih, N.; Djatmiko, H. A.

    2017-02-01

    Extraction and characterization of extracellular chitinase from Bacillus subtilis B 298 have been done. Growth curve determination of B. subtilis B 298, production curve determination of crude extract chitinase from B. subtilis B 298, and partial biochemical characterization of crude extract chitinase have been achieved in this study. Optimum growth of B. subtilis B 298 was achieved at logarithmic phase within 9 hours incubation time, so it was used as inoculum for enzyme production. According to production curve of the enzyme, it was known that incubation time which gave the highest chitinase activity of 15 hours with activity of 6.937 U/mL respectively. Effect of various temperatures on chitinase activity showed that optimum activity was achieved at 40°C with an activity of 5.764 U/mL respectively. Meanwhile, the optimum pH for chitinase activity was achieved at pH of 5.0 with an activity of 6.813 U/mL respectively. This enzyme was then classified as metalloenzyme due to the decline of the activity by EDTA addition. All divalent cations tested acted as inhibitors.

  5. Physicochemical Properties, Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities of Crude Extracts and Fractions from Phyllanthus amarus

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    Van Tang Nguyen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Phyllanthus amarus (P. amarus has been used as a medicinal plant for the prevention and treatment of chronic ailments such as diabetes, hepatitis, and cancer. Methods: The physicochemical properties, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of crude extracts and fractions from P. amarus were determined using spectrophotometric method. Results: The P. amarus methanol (PAM extract had lower levels of residual moisture (7.40% and water activity (0.24 and higher contents of saponins, phenolics, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins (1657.86 mg escin equivalents, 250.45 mg gallic acid equivalents, 274.73 mg rutin equivalents and 61.22 mg catechin equivalents per g dried extract, respectively than those of the P. amarus water (PAW extract. The antioxidant activity of PAM extract was significantly higher (p < 0.05 than that of the PAW extract, PAM fractions, and phyllanthin (known as a major compound in the P. amarus. Higher cytotoxic activity of PAM extract based on MTT assay on different cell lines including MiaPaCa-2 (pancreas, HT29 (colon, A2780 (ovarian, H460 (lung, A431 (skin, Du145 (prostate, BE2-C (neuroblastoma, MCF-7 (breast, MCF-10A (normal breast, and U87, SJ-G2, SMA (glioblastoma was observed in comparison to the PAW extract and PAM fractions. The cytotoxic potential of the PAW extract (200 μg/mL, based on the CCK-8 assay on a pancreatic cancer cell line (MiaCaPa2 was significantly lower (p < 0.05 than those of gemcitabine (50 nM and a saponin-enriched extract from quillajia bark at 200 μg/mL (a commercial product, but was significantly higher than that of phyllanthin at 2 μg/mL. Conclusions: The results achieved from this study reveal that the PA extracts are a potential source for the development of natural antioxidant products and/or novel anticancer drugs.

  6. effects of the ethanolic stem bark extract of pterocarpus erinaceus poir

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ABSTRACT. Effects of the 70% ethanolic stem bark extract of Pterocarpus erinaceus Poir were investigated in some isolated smooth muscles preparations of experimental animals. Preliminary phytochemical studies of the ethanolic extract revealed the presence of tannins, carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids flavonoids ...

  7. Antifertility effect of aqueous and ethanol extracts of the leaves and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Asparagus africanus is claimed to have use in reproductive related health problems in some areas of Ethiopia. Objective: To study the potential antifertility effect of the aqueous and ethanol extracts of the leaves and roots of Asparagus africanus in rats. Methods: Water and ethanol extracts were given by ...

  8. Bioactive metabolite profiles and antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extracts from Muntingia calabura L. leaves and stems

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    William Patrick Cruiz Buhian

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: M. calabura leaf and stem ethanol extracts are potential sources of antibacterial agents against P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. This study reports for the first time the high degree of antifungal activity of M. calabura ethanolic extract, especially against C. albicans.

  9. Evaluation of the effect of ethanolic extract of Croton zambesicus on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The possible effect of Croton zambesicus administration on vital organs has been less investigated despite its extensive traditional use in tropical Africa. We therefore aim at elucidating the effect of ethanolic extract on the testes. The aqueous fraction of ethanolic leaf extract of C. zambesicus (5 and 10 mg/Kg body weight) ...

  10. In vivo Anti-plasmodial Activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Terminalia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Terminalia catappa (Tropical almond) is used traditionally in the management of fever, cough, wounds and various ulceration. Oral acute toxicity of the ethanolic leaf extract of Terminalia catappa was evaluated in mice using modified Lorke's method. The ethanolic leaf extract was evaluated for in vivo anti-plasmodial activity ...

  11. Hexane neem leaf extract more potent than ethanol extract against Aspergillus flavus

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    Jenny Hidayat

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Aspergillus flavus is one of the causes of aspergillosis, with a high virulence and resistance to standard antifungals, resulting in a high mortality rate. Medicinal plants are increasingly used as they are relatively safer with minimal side effects. Previously we found that the ethanol extract of neem (Azadirachta indica A Juss leaves inhibits A. flavus growth in vitro. However, most chemical compounds with antifungal effect are nonpolar. The purpose of this research was to compare the antifungal effect of neem leaves extracted in a nonpolar solvent to that of leaves extracted in a polar solvent. METHODS An in vitro experimental research was conducted between October 2013 and January 2014. Neem leaves were extracted in ethanol or hexane at various concentrations. A macrodilution test with 48-hour incubation time was done in triplicate on 8 groups of samples. These comprised the neem leaf ethanol extract (NLEE at 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g/dL, neem leaf hexane extract (NLHE at 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g/dL, positive control, and negative control groups. Fungal growth was detected on Sabouroud dextrose agar. Statistical analysis used Chi square and Fisher’s exact test. RESULTS NLHE had a higher, but statistically non-significant, inhibitory effect on A. flavus than NLEE (p=0.996. At higher concentrations, the antifungal effect of NLHE is better than that of NLEE. CONCLUSION There is no significant difference in in-vitro inhibitory effectivity on A. flavus of neem leaves between extracts in polar and nonpolar solvents.

  12. Effects of an alkaloid-rich extract from Mitragyna speciosa leaves and fluoxetine on sleep profiles, EEG spectral frequency and ethanol withdrawal symptoms in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheaha, Dania; Keawpradub, Niwat; Sawangjaroen, Kitja; Phukpattaranont, Pimpimol; Kumarnsit, Ekkasit

    2015-10-15

    Many antidepressants are effective in alleviating ethanol withdrawal symptoms. However, most of them suppress rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Thus, development of antidepressants without undesirable side effects would be preferable. Previously, crude alkaloid extract from Mitragyna speciosa (MS) Korth was found to produce antidepressant activities. It was hypothesized that the alkaloid extract from MS may attenuate ethanol withdrawal without REM sleep disturbance. Adult male Wistar rats implanted with electrodes over the frontal and parietal cortices were used for two separated studies. For an acute study, 10 mg/kg fluoxetine or 60 mg/kg alkaloid extract from MS were administered intragastrically. Electroencephalographic (EEG) signals were recorded for 3 h to examine sleep profiles and EEG fingerprints. Another set of animal was used for an ethanol withdrawal study. They were rendered dependent on ethanol via a modified liquid diet (MLD) containing ethanol ad libitum for 28 days. On day 29, fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) or alkaloid extract from MS (60 mg/kg) were administered 15 min before the ethanol-containing MLD was replaced with an isocaloric ethanol-free MLD to induced ethanol withdrawal symptoms. The sleep analysis revealed that alkaloid extract from MS did not change any REM parameters which included average duration of each REM episode, total REM time, number of REM episode and REM latency whereas fluoxetine significantly suppressed all REM parameters and delayed REM latency. However, power spectral analysis revealed similar fingerprints for fluoxetine and alkaloid extract from MS characterized by decreasing powers in the slow frequency range in frontal and parietal cortical EEG. Neither treatment affected spontaneous motor activity. Finally, both alkaloid extract from MS and fluoxetine were found to significantly attenuate ethanol withdrawal-induced hyperexcitability (increases gamma activity) in both cortices and to reduce locomotor activity. The present study

  13. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of crude plant extracts from Colombian biodiversity

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    Jaime Niño

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available On a global scale, people have used plants to treat diseases and infections, and this has raised interest on the plant biodiversity potencial in the search of antimicrobial principles. In this work, 75 crude n-hexanes, dichloromethane and methanol extracts from the aerial parts of 25 plants belonging to four botanical families (Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae and Solanaceae, collected at the Natural Regional Park Ucumari (Risaralda, Colombia, were evaluated for their antibacterial and antifungal activities by the agar well diffusion method. The antibacterial activities were assayed against two Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, and three Gram-negative ones named, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In addition, the same plant extracts were tested against the yeast Candida albicans and the fungi Aspergillus fumigatus and Fusarium solani. Overall, the plant extracts examined displayed better bactericide rather than fungicide activities. In general, the best antibacterial activity was showed by the plant extracts from the Rubiaceae family, followed in order by the extracts from the Euphorbiaceae and Solanaceae ones. It is important to emphasize the great activity displayed by the methanol extract of Alchornea coelophylla (Euphorbiaceae that inhibited four out of five bacteria tested (B. Subtilis, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and E. coli. Furthermore, the best Minimal Inhibitory Concentration for the extracts with antifungal activities were displayed by the dichloromethane extracts from Acalypha diversifolia and Euphorbia sp (Euphorbiaceae. The most susceptible fungus evaluated was F. Solani since 60% and 20% of the dichloromethane and methanol extracts evaluated inhibited the growth of this phytopathogenic fungus. The antimicrobial activity of the different plant extracts examined in this work could be related to the secondary metabolites contents and their interaction and

  14. HYPOTENSIVE AND CARDIOINHIBOTORY EFFECTS OF THE AQUEOUS AND ETHANOL EXTRACTS OF CELERY (APIUM GRAVEOLENS, APIACEAE

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    Dragana Pavlović

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study we present the effects of aqueous and ethanol extracts of celery (Apium graveolens L., Apiaceae investigated on the mean blood pressure of anaesthetized rabbits and contractility of isolated atria of the rats. In our experiments were used rabbits and Wistar albino rats. The effects of extracts (0.5-15 mg/kg on blood pressure were recorded directly from the carotid artery. Rat isolated atria was mounted in 10 ml tissue bath. An equilibrium period of 30 min was given before the application of the extracts (0.02-0.75 mg/ml. In anesthetized rabbit, intravenous administration of aqueous extracts induced least hypotensive effects (14.35±2.94%, while the ethanol extract caused the greatest fall in the blood pressure (45.79±10.86%. Hypotensive effects of the extracts were partially blocked by atropine (0.3 mg/kg, an unselective muscarinic receptor antagonist. In isolated rat atria both aqueous and ethanolic extracts of celery, exhibit a negative chronotropic and an inotropic action. Aqueous extract decreased rate of contractions for 12.88±2.74% and amplitude for 8.73±0.89%. Ethanol extract inhibited rate of the atria contractions for 34.26±5.69%, and amplitude for 25.40±3.61%. Pretreatment of the atria with atropine (1μM partially blocked inhibitory response of aqueous and ethanol extracts. Ethanol extract of celery exhibited significantly greater hypotensive and cardio-depressant activities then aqueous extract (p<0.05. These data suggest that the aqueous and ethanol extracts of celery caused the hypotensive, negative inotropic and chronotropic effects, which could partially be mediated possibly via stimulation of muscarinic receptors. Inhibitory effect of ethanol extract was significant comparing to aqueous extract of celery.

  15. Subcritical ethanol extraction of flavonoids from Moringa oleifera leaf and evaluation of antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongqiang; Gao, Yujie; Ding, Hui; Liu, Shejiang; Han, Xu; Gui, Jianzhou; Liu, Dan

    2017-03-01

    A large-scale process to extract flavonoids from Moringa oleifera leaf by subcritical ethanol was developed and HPLC-MS analysis was conducted to qualitatively identify the compounds in the extracts. To optimize the effects of process parameters on the yield of flavonoids, a Box-Behnken design combined with response surface methodology was conducted in the present work. The results indicated that the highest extraction yield of flavonoids by subcritical ethanol extraction could reach 2.60% using 70% ethanol at 126.6°C for 2.05h extraction. Under the optimized conditions, flavonoids yield was substantially improved by 26.7% compared with the traditional ethanol reflux method while the extraction time was only 2h, and obvious energy saving was observed. FRAP and DPPH assays showed that the extracts had strong antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Immunomodulatory and antitumor activity of Aerva lanata ethanolic extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siveen, K S; Kuttan, Girija

    2011-09-01

    Cancer is responsible for millions of deaths each year worldwide. Pharmacological intervention with plant-derived products alone or in combination to reverse, suppress, or prevent the cancer progression plays a key role in the fight against this terrible disease. Aerva lanata is an important medicinal plant widely used in traditional systems of medicine like ayurveda and siddha. Ethanolic extract of whole plant of A. lanata exhibited immunomodulatory and antitumor activity. Intraperitoneal administration of five doses of the extract (10 mg/kg body weight) was found to enhance the total WBC count (14,238 cells/mm(3)), bone marrow cellularity (22.33 × 10(6) cells/femur), and number of α-esterase-positive cells (1276 cells/4000 cells). Aerva treatment also showed enhanced proliferation of splenocytes, thymocytes, and bone marrow cells both in the presence and absence of specific mitogens in vitro and in vivo. The number of plaque-forming cells (PFC) in spleen (243.33 PFC/10(6) spleen cells) and circulating antibody titer were also increased (P < 0.001). The extract was 100% cytotoxic to Dalton's lymphoma ascites (DLA) and Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells at a concentration of 500 µg/mL. It was also found to be cytotoxic toward L929 and HELA cells at higher concentrations, whereas the nontoxic concentrations produced a reduction in the rate of proliferation. Simultaneous administration of five doses of A. lanata extract could produce significant inhibition in DLA-induced solid tumor development in mice and increase the life span of mice-bearing EAC tumors by 53.47%.

  17. Amperometric biosensor for the determination of phenols using a crude extract of sweet potato

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz Vieira, I. da; Fatibello-Filho, O. [Universidade Federal de Sa Carlos (Brazil)

    1997-03-01

    An amperometric biosensor for the determination of phenols is proposed using a crude extract of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) as an enzymatic source of polyphenol oxidase (PPO; tyrosinase; catechol oxidase; EC 1.14.18.1). The biosensor is constructed by the immobilization of sweet potato crude extract with glutaraldehyde and bovine serum albumin onto an oxygen membrane. This biosensor provides a linear response for catechol, pyrogallol, phenol and p-cresol in the concentration ranges of 2.0 x 10{sup -5} -4.3 x 10{sup -4} mol L{sup -1}, 2.0 x 10{sup -5} -4.3 x 10{sup -4} mol L{sup -1}, 2.0 x 10{sup -5} -4.5 x 10{sup -4} mol L{sup -1} and 2.0 x 10{sup -5} -4.5 x 10{sup -4} mol L{sup -1}, respectively. The response time was about 3-5 min for the useful response range, and the lifetime of this electrode was excellent for fifteen days (over 220 determinations for each enzymatic membrane). Application of this biosensor for the determination of phenols in industrial wastewaters is presented.

  18. Anti-Hepatitis C Virus Activity of a Crude Extract from Longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apriyanto, Dadan Ramadhan; Aoki, Chie; Hartati, Sri; Hanafi, Muhammad; Kardono, Leonardus Broto Sugeng; Arsianti, Ade; Louisa, Melva; Sudiro, Tjahjani Mirawati; Dewi, Beti Ernawati; Sudarmono, Pratiwi; Soebandrio, Amin; Hotta, Hak

    2016-05-20

    Infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) results in hepatitis C, a disease characterized by chronic infection, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Currently, the standard therapy is a combination of pegylated interferon-α plus ribavirin with NS3 protease inhibitors. Addition of NS3 protease inhibitors to the standard therapy improves response rates; however, use of NS3 protease inhibitors is also associated with significant adverse effects and an increase in the overall cost of treatment. Therefore, there is a need to develop safe and inexpensive drugs for the treatment of HCV infections. In this study, we examined the antiviral activity of a crude extract from Dimocarpus longan leaves against HCV (genotype 2a strain JFH1). The D. longan crude extract (DL-CE) exhibited anti-HCV activity with a 50% effective concentration (EC50) of 19.4 μg/ml without cytotoxicity. A time-of-addition study demonstrated that DL-CE has anti-HCV activity at both the entry and post-entry steps and markedly blocks the viral entry step through direct virucidal activity with marginal inhibition of virion assembly. Co-treatment of DL-CE with cyclosporine A, an immunosuppressant or telaprevir, an NS3 protease inhibitor, resulted in additive and synergistic antiviral effects, respectively. Our findings suggest that DL-CE may be useful as an add-on therapy candidate for treating HCV infections.

  19. Anti-inflammatory effect of ethanolic extract of spine, skin and rind of Jack fruit peel - A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meera, M; Ruckmani, A; Saravanan, R; Lakshmipathy Prabhu, R

    2017-10-09

    The present study was conducted to identify the chemical constituents and evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of crude ethanolic extracts of spine, skin and rind of jack fruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) peel. Polyphenol and flavonoid contents were assessed using Folin's Ciocalteu reagent and aluminium chloride methods which revealed 316, 355 and 382 mg tannic acid equivalent/g of polyphenol and 96.7, 131.6 and 164.6 mg quercetin equivalent/g of flavonoid in spine, skin and rind, respectively. Anti-inflammatory activity of all three extracts was comparable to diclofenac in vitro and in vivo studies. Skin exhibited maximum anti-inflammatory activity, rind had preferential inhibition on Cyclooxygenase-2 and spine and skin inhibited both Cyclooxygenase-1 and 2 in vitro.

  20. Nanoemulsion of ethanolic extracts of propolis and its antioxidant activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauludin, R.; Primaviri, D. S.; Fidrianny, I.

    2015-09-01

    Propolis contains several antioxidant compounds which can be used in topical application to protect skin against free radical and prevent skin cancer and skin aging. Ethanolic extracts of propolis (EEP) provided the greatest antioxidant activity but has very small solubility in water thus was prepared in nanoemulsion (NE). EEP contains steroid/triterpenoid, flavonoid, and saponin. EEP had the value of DPPH scavenging activity 61.14% and IC50 0.41629 ppm. The best NE formulation consisted of 26.25% Kolliphor RH40; 8.75% glycerin; 5% rice bran oil; and 3% EEP. NE was transparent, had particle size of 23.72 nm and polydispersity index of 0.338. Based on TEM morphology, NE was almost spherical and has particle size below 50 nm. NE propolis revealed to be physically stable after stability test within 63 days at 25°C and passed 6 cycles of Freeze and Thaw test without separated. NE propolis reduced around 58% of free radical DPPH similar to antioxidant activity of the original extracts. Antioxidant activity of NE propolis is relatively stable after stored for 6 weeks. NE propolis was proven to be safe by primary irritation test with the value of primary irritation index (OECD) was 0.

  1. The anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of a crude extract of Petiveria alliacea L. (Phytolaccaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-Martins, R A B; Pegoraro, D H; Woisky, R; Penna, S C; Sertié, J A A

    2002-04-01

    Petiveria alliacea L (Phytolaccaceae) is a perennial bush plant that grows widely in Brazil. The roots and leaves of P. alliacea have been used in folk medicine for their antispasmodic, sedative, diuretic and antihelminthic actions. We recently described the anti-inflammatory properties of P. alliacea administered topically and orally in different animal models. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of a crude lyophilized extract of P. alliacea roots administered to rats with pleurisy. The oral administration of P. alliacea root extract did not significantly reduce the total number of leukocytes at the doses tested. By contrast, the highest dose of extract tested (43.9 mg/kg body wt.) significantly reduced the number of migrating neutrophils, mononuclear cells and eosinophils; the dose of 31.4 mg/kg body wt. also reduced mononuclear cell migration. The P. alliacea root extract also showed a significant analgesic effect in the experimental model used. The results of this study provide a basis for the use of P. alliacea extracts in popular folk medicine, but further studies are necessary to elucidate the mechanism of its anti-inflammatory and analgesic actions.

  2. Skin test reactivity of allergic subjects to basidiomycetes' crude extracts in a tropical environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Mariani, Félix E; Nazario-Jiménez, Sylvette; López-Malpica, Fernando; Bolaños-Rosero, Benjamín

    2011-11-01

    Fungal allergies can be detected by the skin prick test with extracts of the organisms, but not all fungi, including the basidiomycetes, are being examined. We determined the level of sensitization to basidiomycetes in allergic subjects and compared their reactivity to commercial extracts commonly used to detect allergies. Crude spore extracts of the basidiomycetes Ganoderma applanatum, Chlorophyllum molybdites, and Pleurotus ostreatus, which are known to release numerous spores, were examined along with commercial extracts on 33 subjects with asthma, allergic or non-allergic rhinitis. Overall, affected subjects showed the highest reactivity to mites (36%), followed by Ganoderma applanatum (30%), grass (27%) Chlorophyllum molybdites (12%) and Pleurotus ostreatus (12%). Allergic rhinitis patients were most reactive to mites (58%), grass (42%), Ganoderma applanatum (25%), Penicillium spp. (25%), and cat (17%). Those with asthma primarily responded to mites (44%), Ganoderma applanatum (44%), grass (33%), and Pleurotus ostreatus (22%). IgE levels correlated with positive basidiomycetes extracts. This finding, coupled with higher reactivity to basidiospores as compared to mitospores, and the similar sensitivities of patients to G. applanatum and mites, suggest that basidiomycetes are important allergen sources in the tropics.

  3. Assessment of the Anti-Protozoal Activity of Crude Carica papaya Seed Extract against Trypanosoma cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Y. Acosta-Viana

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the in vivo activity against the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, two doses (50 and 75 mg/kg of a chloroform extract of Carica papaya seeds were evaluated compared with a control group of allopurinol. The activity of a mixture of the three main compounds (oleic, palmitic and stearic acids in a proportion of 45.9% of oleic acid, 24.1% of palmitic and 8.52% of stearic acid previously identified in the crude extract of C. papaya was evaluated at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg. Both doses of the extracts were orally administered for 28 days. A significant reduction (p < 0.05 in the number of blood trypomastigotes was observed in animals treated with the evaluated doses of the C. papaya extract in comparison with the positive control group (allopurinol 8.5 mg/kg. Parasitemia in animals treated with the fatty acids mixture was also significantly reduced (p < 0.05, compared to negative control animals. These results demonstrate that the fatty acids identified in the seed extracts of C. papaya (from ripe fruit are able to reduce the number of parasites from both parasite stages, blood trypomastigote and amastigote (intracellular stage.

  4. Assessment of the anti-protozoal activity of crude Carica papaya seed extract against Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Coello, Matilde; Guzman-Marín, Eugenia; Ortega-Pacheco, Antonio; Perez-Gutiérrez, Salud; Acosta-Viana, Karla Y

    2013-10-11

    In order to determine the in vivo activity against the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, two doses (50 and 75 mg/kg) of a chloroform extract of Carica papaya seeds were evaluated compared with a control group of allopurinol. The activity of a mixture of the three main compounds (oleic, palmitic and stearic acids in a proportion of 45.9% of oleic acid, 24.1% of palmitic and 8.52% of stearic acid previously identified in the crude extract of C. papaya was evaluated at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg. Both doses of the extracts were orally administered for 28 days. A significant reduction (p < 0.05) in the number of blood trypomastigotes was observed in animals treated with the evaluated doses of the C. papaya extract in comparison with the positive control group (allopurinol 8.5 mg/kg). Parasitemia in animals treated with the fatty acids mixture was also significantly reduced (p < 0.05), compared to negative control animals. These results demonstrate that the fatty acids identified in the seed extracts of C. papaya (from ripe fruit) are able to reduce the number of parasites from both parasite stages, blood trypomastigote and amastigote (intracellular stage).

  5. Antitussive activity of ethanolic extract of Curcuma aromatica rhizomes on sulfur dioxide induced cough in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marina, G.D.; Kekuda, T.R Prashith; Sudarshan, S.J

    2008-01-01

    Ethanolic extract of rhizomes of Curcuma aromatica (Zingiberaceae) was investigated for its antitussive effect on Sulfur dioxide induced cough model in mice. The extract exhibited significant antitussive activity in a dose dependant manner. The activity was compared with the prototype antitussive agent codeine phosphate. The ethanolic extract at the dose of lOOmg. 200mg and 400mg/kg body weight, po, showed 68%, 74% and 79% of inhibition of cough with respect to control group. PMID:22557276

  6. The Protective Effect of Hippophae Rhamnoides Carotenoid Extract Against Lipid Peroxidation in Crude Vegetable Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanda Andrei

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable oils are important elements of the human diet because they contain essential nutritional factors. Due to the manufacturing processes or inadequate conditions of storage, they may also contain lipid oxidation products that are toxic to the body. The purpose of this paper is to test the protective effect of carotenoid-rich extracts obtained from the fruits of Hippophae rhamnoides on crude sunflower, pumpkin and olive oils oxidative processes. In order to evaluate the effect of antioxidant carotenoids, three stages were followed: thermal induction of lipid peroxidation in the presence of AAPH (2,2'-Azobis(2-amidinopropane dihydrochloride; determination of the level of lipid peroxidation in oxidized oils in the presence and absence of antioxidants, by quantifying the concentration of conjugated dienes and malonyl dialdehyde (MDA; determination of the level of lipid peroxidation by evaluating the profile of the fatty acids and the ratio between the saturated and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA / SFA, using an GC-MS method. In the case of sunflower oil, it was observed that sea buckthorn fruit extract significantly decreased MDA concentration but does not significantly reduce the concentration of conjugated dienes. The protective effect of carotenoids is more evident in the case of oil from pumpkin seeds. In the olive oil, unlike the first two types of oils, the carotenoids extract inhibits both the MDA and the conjugated dienes formation to a lesser extent, statistically insignificant. Overall, the ratio UFA / SFA decreases in crude oxidized oils. In the oils in which carotenoids were added was observed an increase in the UFA / SFA ratio. Carotenoids fraction from sea buckthorn fruits, rich in xanthophylls’ esters, possess a good antioxidant effect, protecting vegetable oils against peroxidation processes induced in the presence of AAPH

  7. Effects of crude and partially purified extracts from UV-B-irradiated rice leaves on Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caasi-Lit, Merdelyn T

    2005-01-01

    The effect of crude and partially purified extracts from ultraviolet-B (UV-B)-irradiated rice (Oryza sativa L.) leaves on the growth and development of corn earworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), was investigated. Fifty muL droplets of a liquid diet containing different concentrations of the crude and partially purified extracts were fed to H. armigera neonates to determine possible short-term toxicity effects. A choice test using a solid artificial diet was also performed to determine larval feeding preferences and antifeedant effects. To study effects on the life history of the insect, different concentrations of the crude and partially purified extracts were also incorporated in the artificial diet and fed to individually confined neonates of H. armigera. The neonates were reared up to the adult stage. Results showed that crude and partially purified extracts of UV-B-irradiated rice leaves demonstrated antifeedant, growth-inhibitory and antibiotic properties against H. armigera. At high concentrations, the extract initially stimulated larval feeding; however, there were subsequent negative effects on pupal and adult traits, thereby reducing the reproductive potential of adults. These partially purified extracts appeared to have an antifertility effect because adults laid fewer eggs and, of those eggs laid, viability was lower. These results suggest that the accumulated flavonoids or other phenolics in UV-B-irradiated leaves, extracted from UV-B-resistant rice cultivar 'M202,' affected the growth, development and reproduction of H. armigera, a polyphagous insect pest.

  8. PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS OF WATER-ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF MENTHA LONGIFOLIA L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Grebennikova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article represents data about qualitative and quantitative composition of phenolic compounds in water-ethanol extract of perspective clone of Mentha longifolia L. of NBE-NSC selection. Phenolic substances content in water-ethanol extract amounted to 3003.3 mg/100g. 13 components were determined in the extract. The extract contains caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid isomers, rosmarinic acid and glycosides of luteolin. Rosmarinic acid (50.2% prevails among phenolic substances of Mentha longifolia extract. The conclusion is that the use of this extract is possible to create products with high biological value

  9. Antibacterial, antioxidant, antifungal and anti-inflammatory activities of crude extract from Nitraria schoberi fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi-Rad, Javad; Hoseini-Alfatemi, Seyedeh Mahsan; Sharifi-Rad, Majid; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A

    2015-10-01

    This study is the first comprehensive investigation of the antibacterial, antioxidant, antifungal and anti-inflammatory activities of a crude extract from Nitraria schoberi L. (Zygophyllaceae) fruits. The extract was tested against four Gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter lwoffii) and one Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria using the agar disc diffusion and microdilution methods. P. aeruginosa was inhibited the most (widest inhibition zone) while K. pneumonia showed the largest MIC value. The antioxidant activity of fruits (0.02 mg/mL vs. 0.04, 0.06 and 1.00 mg/mL for α-tocopherol, butylated hydroxyanisole and ascorbic acid, respectively) was determined by the paired diene method. The antifungal activity of N. schoberi fruits was tested against different fungi, including Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans, with 300 µg/mL of fruit extract being the most effective concentration. The percentage of anti-inflammatory activity assayed for N. schoberi fruit extract at 100, 200 and 500 µg/mL was 36.12, 59.89 and 88.33 %, respectively. N. schoberi fruits possess potent antibacterial, antioxidant, antifungal and anti-inflammatory properties, and may be used as an antibacterial and antifungal to treat diseases and/or as a protective agent against disorders associated with oxidative stress and inflammation.

  10. Contamination by oil crude extraction - Refinement and their effects on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Maria Isabel; Arevalo, Ana Paulina; Sotomayor, Santiago; Bailon-Moscoso, Natalia

    2017-12-01

    The harmful effects of oil on various species of flora and fauna have been studied extensively; however, few studies have studied the effects of oil exposure on human health. The objective of this research was to collect information on the acute health effects and serious psychological symptoms of the possible consequences of such exposure to crude oil. Some studies focused on the composition of different chemicals used in the extraction process, and wastes generated proved to be highly harmful to human health. Thus, studies have shown that individuals who live near oil fields or wells - or who take part in activities of cleaning oil spills - have presented health conditions, such as irritation to the skin, eyes, mucous membranes, kidney damage, liver, reproductive, among others. In Ecuador, this reality is not different from other countries, and some studies have shown increased diseases related with oil crude and oil spills, like skin irritation, throat, liver, lung, infertility, and abortions, and it has been linked to childhood leukemia. Other studies suggest a direct relationship between DNA damage because of oil resulting in a genetic instability of the main enzymes of cellular metabolism as well as a relationship with some cancers, such as leukemia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Anti-oxidant properties and polyphenolic profile screening of Vitis vinifera stems and leaves crude extracts grown in Perlis, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Nursyahda; Zulkifli, Razauden Mohamed; Akhir, Fazrena Nadia Md; Basar, Norazah

    2014-03-01

    Grape has become a fast growing agricultural sector in Malaysia producing between 0.62 kg to 2.03 kg waste per vinestock. This study aims to generate useful information on anti-oxidative properties as well as polyphenolic composition of grapevine waste. Stems and leaves of Vitis vinifera cultivated in Perlis, Malaysia were extracted using methanol, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether. Ethyl acetate stems extract exhibited highest total phenolic content. While in DPPH assay, methanolic stems extract show the highest antioxidant activities. This result indicates that total phenolic content in the extracts may not contribute directly to the antioxidant activities. Thin Layer Chromatograms of all crude extracts exhibited good separation under solvent system petroleum ether-ethyl acetate (2:3) resulted in detection of resveratrol in ethyl acetate stems crude extract.

  12. Impact of ethanolic lamiaceae extracts on herpesvirus infectivity in cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichling, Jürgen; Nolkemper, Silke; Stintzing, Florian C; Schnitzler, Paul

    2008-12-01

    Extracts of medicinal plants are increasingly of interest as novel drugs for antimicrobial and antiviral agents, since microorganisms might develop resistance to commonly used antimicrobial or antiviral agents. Ethanolic extracts from Lamiaceae plants prunella, peppermint, rosemary and thyme were phytochemically characterised. The inhibitory activity of four 20% ethanolic plant extracts and four 80% ethanolic extracts against herpes simplex virus (HSV) strains was tested in cell culture. Rosmarinic acid, a typical compound in Lamiaceae species, was identified in the extracts except for thyme 20% ethanolic extract. In addition, some other phenolic compounds such as apigenin- and luteolin-derivatives were identified in different amounts. All extracts exhibited high and concentration-dependent levels of antiviral activity against free acyclovir-sensitive and acyclovir-resistant HSV-1 strains with 50% inhibitory concentrations of 0.05-0.82 microg/ml. Mechanistically, exposure of free virions as well as host cells to prunella and peppermint 80% ethanolic extracts at maximum non-cytotoxic concentrations prior to infection reduced plaque formation drastically. Thus, both extracts revealed a dual mode of action similar to aqueous lemon balm extracts. Since infectivity of acyclovir-susceptible and acyclovir-resistant HSV strains was significantly reduced with Lamiaceae extracts, the results obtained indicate that ethanolic plant extracts affected herpesvirus prior to and during adsorption and in a different way than acyclovir. Based on its dual mode of action, e.g. antiviral effect against free virions and blocking virus attachment to host cells, prunella and peppermint 80% ethanolic extracts are promising antiviral agents in recurrent herpes labialis for topical therapeutic applications. 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Effects of Cymbidium Root Ethanol Extract on Atopic Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Joong Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cymbidium has known antibacterial and antiedema activity and has been used as an ingredient in cosmetics and fragrances. The effects of Cymbidium ethanol extract (CYM on allergic response and the underlying mechanisms of action have not been reported. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of CYM on allergic responses. Topical application of CYM was effective against immunoglobulin E (IgE/dinitrophenyl-conjugated bovine serum albumin- (DNP-BSA- induced degranulation of RBL-2H3 cells and anaphylaxis in ICR mice. An allergic dermatitis-like mouse model was used to evaluate the therapeutic potential of CYM in vivo. Continuous application of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB not only induced dermatitis in ICR mice but also aggravated the skin lesioning. However, the application of CYM decreased skin lesion severity, scratching behavior, and IgE levels. In addition, CYM downregulated the expression of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin- (IL- 4, IL-13, and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF- α. Studies of signal transduction pathways showed that CYM suppressed the phosphorylation of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk, an upstream molecule. It also inhibited the phosphorylation of Akt, phospholipase C- (PLC- γ, and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MEKK. These results indicate that CYM may be effective in preventing and reducing allergic response and may have therapeutic potential as an antiallergic agent in disorders such as atopic dermatitis.

  14. Effects of Cymbidium Root Ethanol Extract on Atopic Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wan-Joong; Cha, Hae-Sim; Lee, Myung-Hun; Kim, Sun-Young; Kim, Seo Ho; Kim, Tack-Joong

    2016-01-01

    Cymbidium has known antibacterial and antiedema activity and has been used as an ingredient in cosmetics and fragrances. The effects of Cymbidium ethanol extract (CYM) on allergic response and the underlying mechanisms of action have not been reported. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of CYM on allergic responses. Topical application of CYM was effective against immunoglobulin E (IgE)/dinitrophenyl-conjugated bovine serum albumin- (DNP-BSA-) induced degranulation of RBL-2H3 cells and anaphylaxis in ICR mice. An allergic dermatitis-like mouse model was used to evaluate the therapeutic potential of CYM in vivo. Continuous application of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) not only induced dermatitis in ICR mice but also aggravated the skin lesioning. However, the application of CYM decreased skin lesion severity, scratching behavior, and IgE levels. In addition, CYM downregulated the expression of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin- (IL-) 4, IL-13, and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α. Studies of signal transduction pathways showed that CYM suppressed the phosphorylation of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), an upstream molecule. It also inhibited the phosphorylation of Akt, phospholipase C- (PLC-) γ, and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MEKK). These results indicate that CYM may be effective in preventing and reducing allergic response and may have therapeutic potential as an antiallergic agent in disorders such as atopic dermatitis.

  15. Evaluation of the Sporicidal Activity of Ethanol Extract of Arctium lappa Root against Bacillus cereus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vajihe Karbasizade

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bacillus cereus is one of the most common causes of food spoilage, keratitis, endophthalmitis, and panophthalmitis. These bacteria produce spores which are resistant to chemical and physical agents. Nowadays, the sporicidal properties of plants have been considered as alternatives to chemical sporicidal agents. Materials and Methods: In this empirical-experimental study the effect of ethanol extract of edible burdock (Arctium lappa root has been studied on Bacillus cereus spores. In this investigation, the suspensions of tested microorganisms were cultured in sporulating agar. Sporulation process was assessed by optical microscopy following the staining of spores. Then the produced spores were exposed to various concentrations (100, 150, 200, 250, 300 mg/mL of ethanol extract of edible burdock (Arctium lappa root and finally the remaining spores were counted. With increasing concentrations of ethanol extract, the number of spores declined. Results: Pearson correlation showed inverse relation between the spores count and concentration of ethanol extract of edible burdock (Arctium lappa root (r=-0.765, p<0.001. The most effective extract concentration was 300 mg /mL. Conclusion: Ethanol extract of edible burdock (Arctium lappa root, has sporicidal activity. Only, the sporicidal nature of ethanol extract has been evaluated by this study; therefore, the assessment of other extracts and essences is necessary.

  16. Antimicrobial activities of the crude methanol extract of Acorus calamus Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souwalak Phongpaichit

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A partially-purified fraction obtained from column chromatographic preparation of the crude methanol extract of Acorus calamus Linn. rhizomes was investigated for its antimicrobial activities on various microorganisms including bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi. It exhibited high activity againstfilamentous fungi: Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum gypseum, and Penicillium marneffei with IC50 values of 0.2, 0.2 and 0.4 mg/ml, respectively. However, it showed moderate activity against yeasts: Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (MIC 0.1-1 mg/ml and low activity against bacteria (MIC 5->10 mg/ml. Scanning electron microscopic observation revealed that hyphae and conidia treated with this fraction were shrunken and collapsed, which might be due to cell fluid leakage.

  17. Reversible changes of canavalin solubility controlled by divalent cation concentration in crude sword bean extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizawa, Kaho; Arii, Yasuhiro

    2016-12-01

    Canavalin is a vicilin-class (7S) storage protein found in sword bean (Canavalia gladiata). Our previous report indicated that canavalin is precipitated by the addition of 20 mM MgCl2 to crude sword bean extract. Here, we examined the solubility changes induced by the addition of Mg2+ and Ca2+ at various concentrations. Canavalin tended to be insolubilized at relatively low concentrations of MgCl2 ( 20 mM). In addition, canavalin was slightly insolubilized in the presence of NaCl. Overall, the results revealed that solubility changes are reversible and depend on the concentration of divalent cations. Therefore, we suggested a reaction scheme that describes the effects of divalent cations on the solubility of canavalin, which would facilitate the study of its physiological function and the application of canavalin in the food processing industry.

  18. Antimicrobial and buffer capacity of crude extracts of chewing sticks (Miswaki) from Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemoli, A M; van Amerongen, W E; de Soet, J J

    2001-01-01

    The use of Chewing sticks (Miswaki) in the third world for control of dental plaque is very popular. Some of the studies that have been conducted on this subject have reported marked decrease in the incidences of dental caries and periodontal diseases in the users of Miswaki, when compared to the users of the conventional toothbrush living under similar conditions. Various mechanisms by which the Miswaki contributes to this phenomenon have been suggested. The purpose of the present study was to investigate in vitro, the anti-microbial action, the potential acid buffer capacity and fluoride content of crude aqueous extracts of eight commonly used chewing sticks from three regions in Kenya. The results obtained in the study, showed that one of the Miswaki had remarkable antibiotic activity against three stains of oral bacteria. Three of the Miswaki had significant acid buffer capacity. None of the eight Miswaki showed any significant fluoride release.

  19. In vivo Antihypertensive and Antihyperlipidemic Effects of the Crude Extracts and Fractions of Moringa stenopetala (Baker f.) Cufod. Leaves in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geleta, Bekesho; Makonnen, Eyasu; Debella, Asfaw; Tadele, Ashenif

    2016-01-01

    Moringa stenopetala (Baker f.) Cufod. is a medicinal plant that has been used in Ethiopian traditional medicine as a remedy for treatment of hypertension and diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate antihypertensive and antihyperlipidemic effect in fructose induced hypertensive rats. Rats were randomly divided into control and treatment groups (n = 6). Treatment groups were given daily extracts (250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg) orally with fructose. Whereas, positive, negative and normal control groups were received captopril (20 mg/kg/day with fructose), only fructose (66% w/v ad libitum) and distilled water ad libitum for 15 days, respectively. The blood pressure was measured every 5th day using tail cuff blood pressure analyzer, and on the 16th day the blood was sampled to evaluate antihyperlipidemic effect using clinical chemistry analyzer. The study showed that aqueous and 70% ethanol extracts significantly prevented blood pressure increment in a dose dependent manner comparable to that of the standard drug. Similarly, the extracts suppressed increment in lipid profile (cholesterol, glucose, and triglycerides) compared with negative control. The biochemical test revealed that extracts produced a rise in liver but no effect on kidney function indicators compared with normal control. These findings revealed that both crude extracts of M. stenopetala (Baker f.) Cufod. possess antihypertensive and antihyperlipidemic effect.

  20. In vivo antihypertensive and antidyslipidemic effects of the crude extracts and fractions of Moringa stenopetala (Baker f. Cufod. leaves in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekesho eGeleta

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Moringa stenopetala (Baker f. Cufod. is a medicinal plant that has been used in Ethiopian traditional medicine as a remedy for treatment of hypertension and diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate antihypertensive and antihyperlipidemic effect in fructose induced hypertensive rats.Rats were randomly divided into control and treatment groups (n=6. Treatment groups were given daily extracts (250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg orally with fructose. Whereas, positive, negative and normal control groups were received captopril (20 mg/kg/day with fructose, only fructose (66% w/v ad libitum and distilled water ad libitum for 15 days, respectively. The blood pressure was measured every 5th day using tail cuff blood pressure analyzer, and on the 16th day the blood was sampled to evaluate antihyperlipidemic effect using clinical chemistry analyzer. The study showed that aqueous and 70% ethanol extracts significantly prevented blood pressure increment in a dose dependent manner comparable to that of the standard drug. Similarly, the extracts suppressed increment in lipid profile (cholesterol, glucose and triglycerides compared with negative control. The biochemical test revealed that extracts produced a rise in liver but no effect on kidney function indicators compared with normal control.These findings revealed that both crude extracts of Moringa stenopetala (Baker f. Cufod. possess antihypertensive and antihyperlipidemic effect.

  1. Clinical evaluation of ethanolic extract of curcumin (Curcuma longa on wound healing in Black Bengal goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Abu Haris Miah

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: Ethanol treated turmeric enhances wound healing process in goats. This result could help the veterinarian and the researchers to consider herbal product especially ethanolic extract of turmeric for the treatment and better healing of surgical wounds with minimal complications. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2017; 4(2.000: 181-186

  2. Separation of enzymes from microorganism crude extracts by free-flow zone electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, S; Schütte, H; Hustedt, H; Deckwer, W D; Weber, G

    1996-07-05

    Continuous, single-step, state-of-the-art preparative separations of enzymes from microorganism crude extracts by free-flow zone electrophoresis are presented. In the first example, the enzymes formate dehydrogenase, formaldehyde dehydrogenase, and methanol oxidase were continuously separated from Candida boidinii crude extract. Yields of 85% to 95% and purification factors between 3 and 7 were obtained along with a simultaneous separation of the finer cell debris from the enzymes. Using multiple injections of sample, a throughput of 46.2 mg protein/h was recorded. In the second example, a fivefold purification of beta-galactosidase from Escherichia coli was achieved along with complete, simultaneous cell debris separation from the enzyme. The yield of the enzyme was greater than 90%. The preparative free-flow zone electrophoresis experiments were run continuously for a period of 12 h and the separations were found to be stable; i.e., the enzymes and the cell debris eluted at their respective fraction numbers during the entire period. In both examples, choice of the type of buffer played a critical role and had to be investigated and optimized experimentally. Scale-up aspects of the separations are also discussed. Recently, by comparison of free-flow zone electrophoresis with ion-exchange chromatography, we have presented evidence that free-flow electrophoresis separations are governed by net surface charge (S. Nath et al., Biotechnol. Bioeng. 1993, 42: 829-835). Here, we offer further confirmation of this evidence by comparison of preparative free-flow zone electrophoresis experiments at various pHs on a mixture of two model proteins with analytical electrophoretic titration curves of the proteins. We are thus in a position to predict separations in free-flow zone electrophoresis. (c) 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  3. Determination of total phenolics, flvonoids and antioxidant activity of root crude extracts of Adenium obesum traditionally used for the treatment of bone dislocations and rheumatism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mouza Khamis Nasser AL-Ghudani; Mohammad Amzad Hossain

    2015-01-01

    ...: Different polarities crude extracts were prepared through Soxhlet extractor and maceration methods by using different polarities organic solvents, and were used for the determination of antioxidant...

  4. Effects of Pithecellobium Jiringa Ethanol Extract against Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Injuries in Sprague-Dawley Rats

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    Fouad Hussain AL-Bayaty

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Current anti-gastric ulcer agents have side effects, despite the progression and expansion of advances in treatment. This study aimed to investigate the gastroprotective mechanisms of Pithecellobium jiringa ethanol extract against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal ulcers in rats. For this purpose, Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups: Group 1 (normal control rats were orally administered with vehicle (carboxymethyl cellulose, Group 2 (ulcer control rats were also orally administered with vehicle. Group 3 (positive control rats were orally administered with 20 mg/kg omeprazole, Groups 4 and 5 (experimental groups received ethanol extract of Pithecellobium jiringa ethanol extract at a concentration of 250 and 500 mg/kg, respectively. Sixty minutes later, vehicle was given orally to the normal control group, and absolute ethanol was given orally to the ulcer control, positive control and experimental groups to generate gastric mucosal injury. The rats were sacrificed an hour later. The effect of oral administration of plant extract on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury was studied grossly and histology. The level of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde—MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD and gastric wall mucus were measured from gastric mucosal homogenate. The ulcer control group exhibited severe gastric mucosal injury, and this finding was also confirmed by histology of gastric mucosa which showed severe damage to the gastric mucosa with edema and leucocyte infiltration of the submucosal layer. Pre-treatment with plant extract significantly reduced the formation of ethanol-induced gastric lesions, and gastric wall mucus was significantly preserved. The study also indicated a significant increase in SOD activity in gastric mucosal homogenate, whereas a significant decrease in MDA was observed. Acute toxicity tests did not show any signs of toxicity and mortality up to 5 g/kg. The ulcer protective effect of this plant may

  5. Pharmacological effects of Eugenia uniflora (Myrtaceae) aqueous crude extract on rat's heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consolini, Alicia E; Sarubbio, Marisol Gracía

    2002-06-01

    The effect of aqueous crude extract (ACE) of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) was studied on rat's perfused ventricles. This plant is used in South American traditional medicine as an antihypertensive and we already demonstrated previously its hypotensive properties. In this paper, maximal left intraventriclular pressure (P) of rat's hearts beating at 0.2 Hz firstly increased to 162.1+/-11.1% of basal value during 1-3 min of perfusing ACE 0.6%. Maximum rate of contraction (+P) also increased to duplicating +P/P ratio. Both types of effect were significantly decreased by either propranolol 0.35 microM, and pre-treatment with reserpine (5 mg/kg), suggesting that they were caused by a compound that releases cathecolamines with beta-adrenergic action. Nevertheless, after 20 min of perfusing ACE, ventricles decreased P to about 50% of their basal value, suggesting a negative-inotropic compound present in the extract. The perfusion of 1.2% ACE decreased P in a pressure-[Ca](o) curve (0.5-2 mM) in a non-competitive manner, suggesting that an irreversible Ca-blocking compound is also present in the extract. In summary, E. uniflora ACE has a dual effect on the heart related to its hypotensive action and is probably responsible for the therapeutic or adverse effects in patients under cardiac risk.

  6. Effects of Agelas oroides and Petrosia ficiformis crude extracts on human neuroblastoma cell survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, Cristina; Marengo, Barbara; De Ciucis, Chiara; Nitti, Mariapaola; Pronzato, Maria Adelaide; Marinari, Umberto Maria; Pronzato, Roberto; Manconi, Renata; Domenicotti, Cinzia

    2007-01-01

    Among marine sessile organisms, sponges (Porifera) are the major producers of bioactive secondary metabolites that defend them against predators and competitors and are used to interfere with the pathogenesis of many human diseases. Some of these biological active metabolites are able to influence cell survival and death, modifying the activity of several enzymes involved in these cellular processes. These natural compounds show a potential anticancer activity but the mechanism of this action is largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of two Mediterranean sponges, Agelas oroides and Petrosia ficiformis on the viability of human neuroblastoma cells. Upon treatment with the methanolic extract of Petrosia ficiformis, a marked cytotoxic effect was observed at any concentration or time of exposure. In contrast, a time- and dose-dependent effect was monitored for Agelas oroides that induced the development of apoptotic features and ROS production in LAN5 cells. These events were suppressed by calpeptin or zVAD and by vitamin C suggesting that the cell death caused by Agelas oroides was calpain- and caspase-dependent and of oxidative nature. Comet assay showed that this methanolic extract was not able to produce a genotoxic effect. Future studies will be applied to investigate the effect of isolated bioactive compounds from crude extract of this sponge which are potentially useful for cancer therapeutics.

  7. Wheat germ oil extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide with ethanol: Fatty acid composition

    OpenAIRE

    Parczewska-Plesnar, B.; Brzozowski, R.; Gwardiak, H.; Białecka-Florjańczyk, E.; Bujnowski, Z.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using CO2 with ethanol as entrainer was performed at a temperature of 40 oC under a pressure of 21 MPa. For comparison, a similar extraction without the entrainer was carried out. The extraction yield of wheat germ using supercritical CO2 with ethanol was slightly higher (10.7 wt%) than that of extraction without the entrainer (9.9 wt%). Fractions of SFE extracts were collected separately during the experiments and the composition of fatty ac...

  8. Ethanolic Echinacea purpurea Extracts Contain a Mixture of Cytokine-Suppressive and Cytokine-Inducing Compounds, Including Some That Originate from Endophytic Bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A Todd

    Full Text Available Echinacea preparations, which are used for the prevention and treatment of upper respiratory infections, account for 10% of the dietary supplement market in the U.S., with sales totaling more than $100 million annually. In an attempt to shed light on Echinacea's mechanism of action, we evaluated the effects of a 75% ethanolic root extract of Echinacea purpurea, prepared in accord with industry methods, on cytokine and chemokine production from RAW 264.7 macrophage-like cells. We found that the extract displayed dual activities; the extract could itself stimulate production of the cytokine TNF-α, and also suppress production of TNF-α in response to stimulation with exogenous LPS. Liquid:liquid partitioning followed by normal-phase flash chromatography resulted in separation of the stimulatory and inhibitory activities into different fractions, confirming the complex nature of this extract. We also studied the role of alkylamides in the suppressive activity of this E. purpurea extract. Our fractionation method concentrated the alkylamides into a single fraction, which suppressed production of TNF-α, CCL3, and CCL5; however fractions that did not contain detectable alkylamides also displayed similar suppressive effects. Alkylamides, therefore, likely contribute to the suppressive activity of the extract but are not solely responsible for that activity. From the fractions without detectable alkylamides, we purified xanthienopyran, a compound not previously known to be a constituent of the Echinacea genus. Xanthienopyran suppressed production of TNF-α suggesting that it may contribute to the suppressive activity of the crude ethanolic extract. Finally, we show that ethanolic extracts prepared from E. purpurea plants grown under sterile conditions and from sterilized seeds, do not contain LPS and do not stimulate macrophage production of TNF-α, supporting the hypothesis that the macrophage-stimulating activity in E. purpurea extracts can

  9. Ethanolic Echinacea purpurea Extracts Contain a Mixture of Cytokine-Suppressive and Cytokine-Inducing Compounds, Including Some That Originate from Endophytic Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Emily R.; Oberhofer, Martina; Leyte-Lugo, Martha; Moody, Ashley N.; Shymanovich, Tatsiana; Grubbs, Laura F.; Juzumaite, Monika; Graf, Tyler N.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.; Faeth, Stanley H.; Laster, Scott M.; Cech, Nadja B.

    2015-01-01

    Echinacea preparations, which are used for the prevention and treatment of upper respiratory infections, account for 10% of the dietary supplement market in the U.S., with sales totaling more than $100 million annually. In an attempt to shed light on Echinacea's mechanism of action, we evaluated the effects of a 75% ethanolic root extract of Echinacea purpurea, prepared in accord with industry methods, on cytokine and chemokine production from RAW 264.7 macrophage-like cells. We found that the extract displayed dual activities; the extract could itself stimulate production of the cytokine TNF-α, and also suppress production of TNF-α in response to stimulation with exogenous LPS. Liquid:liquid partitioning followed by normal-phase flash chromatography resulted in separation of the stimulatory and inhibitory activities into different fractions, confirming the complex nature of this extract. We also studied the role of alkylamides in the suppressive activity of this E. purpurea extract. Our fractionation method concentrated the alkylamides into a single fraction, which suppressed production of TNF-α, CCL3, and CCL5; however fractions that did not contain detectable alkylamides also displayed similar suppressive effects. Alkylamides, therefore, likely contribute to the suppressive activity of the extract but are not solely responsible for that activity. From the fractions without detectable alkylamides, we purified xanthienopyran, a compound not previously known to be a constituent of the Echinacea genus. Xanthienopyran suppressed production of TNF-α suggesting that it may contribute to the suppressive activity of the crude ethanolic extract. Finally, we show that ethanolic extracts prepared from E. purpurea plants grown under sterile conditions and from sterilized seeds, do not contain LPS and do not stimulate macrophage production of TNF-α, supporting the hypothesis that the macrophage-stimulating activity in E. purpurea extracts can originate from endophytic

  10. Effects of Danshen Ethanol Extract on the Pharmacokinetics of Fexofenadine in Healthy Volunteers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Qiu, Furong; Zeng, Jin; Liu, Songcan; He, Min; Zhu, Leilei; Ye, Yujie; Miao, Ping; Shen, Shujiao; Jiang, Jian

    2014-01-01

      [ProQuest: [...] denotes non US-ASCII text; see PDF] This study investigated the effect of multidose administration of danshen ethanol extract on fexofenadine pharmacokinetics in healthy volunteers...

  11. Assessment of bio-activities of the crude extract and components of Withania somnifera leaves by bioinformatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nashi widodo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditional herbal medicines are now increasingly being appreciated with Western models of integrative health sciences and evidence-based approach both in the basic research and clinic scenario. Ashwagandha is a commonly used plant in Ayurvedic, Indian traditional medicine. Medicinal value of Ashwagandha (WithaniasomniferaDunal extends from anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic, anti-rheumatic, rejuvenation and anti-cancer. Based on the belief that holistic multi-site mechanism of action offers greater chance of success, the traditional Ayurvedicmedicine practices the use of whole herb or its crude extract. It opposes with the mainstream of pharmaceutical industry that uses single and purified molecules. In the present study, we used bioinformatics approach to reveal the mechanism of action of (i crude extract of Ashwagandha leaf extract and its purified components, (ii Withanone and (iii Withaferin A. Whereas p53-p21 was identified as a common signaling pathway for the three kinds of reagents, specific signaling pathways for Withaferin-A and Withanone were identified. Whereas the crude extract and Withanone were selectively toxic to human cancer cells, WithaferinA showed cytotoxicity to the normal cells too. The study suggested that the crude extract or a combinational formulamay be a superior and safenatural reagent for cancer treatment.

  12. Antimicrobial activity of crude epicarp and seed extracts from mature avocado fruit (Persea americana) of three cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond Chia, Teck Wah; Dykes, Gary A

    2010-07-01

    The epicarp and seed of Persea Americana Mill. var. Hass (Lauraceae), Persea Americana Mill. var. Shepard, and Persea americana Mill. var Fuerte cultivars of mature avocados (n = 3) were ground separately and extracted with both absolute ethanol and distilled water. Extracts were analyzed for antimicrobial activity using the microtiter broth microdilution assay against four Gram-positive bacteria, six Gram-negative bacteria, and one yeast. Antimicrobial activity against two molds was determined by the hole plate method. The ethanol extracts showed antimicrobial activity (104.2-416.7 microg/mL) toward both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (except Escherichia coli), while inhibition of the water extracts was only observed for Listeria monocytogenes (93.8-375.0 microg/mL) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (354.2 microg/mL). The minimum concentration required to inhibit Zygosaccharomyces bailii was 500 microg/mL for the ethanol extracts, while no inhibition was observed for the water extracts. No inhibition by either ethanol or water extracts was observed against Penicillium spp. and Aspergillus flavus.

  13. Acute toxicity study and effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Guiera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute toxicity study and effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Guiera senegalensis J. F. Gmel (combretaceae) on trypanosome Brucei brucei induced pathology in albino rats. ... were observed at histopathology in some extract treated groups compared to the infected untreated group, suggesting a dose dependent extract activity.

  14. Analysis of ethanol-soluble extractives in southern pine wood by low-field proton NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas L. Eberhardt; Thomas Elder; Nicole Labbe

    2007-01-01

    Low-field portion NMR was evaluated as a nondestructive and rapid technique for measuring ethanol-soluble extractives in southern pine wood. Matchstick-sized wood specimens were steeped in extractive-containing solutions to generate extractive-enriched samples for analysis. decay curves obtained by the Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-gill (CPMG) pulse sequence were analyzed with...

  15. Hepatoprotective effect of biherbal ethanolic extract against paracetamol-induced hepatic damage in albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Anantha, Krishna Chaitanya D.; Siva, Reddy Challa; Manohar, Reddy A.

    2012-01-01

    Aim : The combined hepatoprotective effect of Bi-herbal ethanolic extract (BHEE) was evaluated against paracetamol induced hepatic damage in albino rats. Materials and Methods: Liver function tests and biochemical parameters were estimated using standard kits. Livers were quickly removed and fixed in 10% formalin and subjected to histopathological studies. Results : Ethanolic extract from the leaves of Aerva lanata and leaves of Achyranthes aspera at a dose level of 200 mg/kg, 400mg/kg body w...

  16. Toxicity of ethanolic extracts from Lippia origanoides and Gliricidia sepium to Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval) (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Sivira, A; Sanabria, ME; Valera, N; C. Vásquez

    2011-01-01

    Botanical compounds with insecticidal and acaricidal activities have been used in pest management with different levels of success. Toxicity of ethanolic extracts obtained from wild oregano (Lippia origanoides) and gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium) to Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval) were evaluated. Mite population was collected from black bean plants growing in Urachiche Municipality, Yaracuy State, Venezuela. Ethanolic extracts of wild oregano and gliricidia leaves were evaluated at differ...

  17. Antiulcer activity of ethanol leaf extract of Cassia fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, Sivanesan; Gobianand, Kuppannan

    2010-08-01

    The ethanol leaf extract (ELE) of Cassia fistula Linn. (Caesalpinaceae) was evaluated for antiulcer activity against pylorus ligation-induced gastric ulcer. Ranitidine (30 mg/kg b.w.) and ELE at doses of 250, 500, and 750 mg/kg b.w. were administered orally in different groups of rats (n = 6), 1 h prior to pyloric ligation. Four hours after pyloric ligation, the gastric juice was collected for evaluation of various parameters. The antiulcer activity of ELE was evidenced by the significant attenuation of gastric volume, pH, free acidity, and total acidity in the gastric juice of pyloric-ligated rats in a dose-dependent manner, and this protective effect could be due to strengthening of the mucosal defense mechanism. ELE pre-treatment significantly attenuated the fall in status of sialic acid and fucose accompanied by an increase in hexose, hexosamine, total non-amino polysaccharide, total carbohydrate, and C:P ratio in the gastric juice of pylorus-ligated rats, and this effect could be due to protection of the mucosal barrier system. ELE pre-treatment significantly prevented the increase in LPO and SOD accompanied by a fall in CAT, in the gastric juice of pyloric-ligated rats. This protective ability of ELE against pylorus ligation-induced gastric ulcer could be attributed to its free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties. Higher doses of ELE (750 mg/kg b.w.) produced maximum antiulcer activity comparable to ranitidine treatment. In essence, the antiulcer activity of ELE could be attributed to (i) a decrease in gastric acid secretion, (ii) protection of the mucosal barrier and restoration of mucosal secretions, (iii) inhibition of free radical generation or prevention of lipid peroxidation, and (iv) free radical scavenging or antioxidant properties.

  18. Antinociceptive and anti-ulcerogenic activities of the ethanolic extract of Annona muricata leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roslida Abd Hamid

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethanolic extract of Annona muricata L., Annonaceae, leaf (AML was used to investigate its antinociceptive and anti-ulcerogenic activities and the involvement of the mechanism of ethanolic leaves extract of AML in various animal models. Antinociceptive activity of AML extract was done using acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing in mice, formalin test in rats and hot plate test in mice. Furthermore, the anti-ulcerogenic effect of AML extract was studied in ethanol-induced ulcer model in rats, ethanol-induced gastric lesions in L-NAME-pre-treated rats as well as ethanol-induced gastric lesions in NEM-pre-treated rats test model to determine its mechanism. AML exhibited significant and dose-dependent antinociceptive activity. It also significantly decreased the ulcerative lesion produced by ethanol in rats in a dose-dependent manner. Pre-treatment with N-ethymaleimide, a thiol blocker, including mucosal nonprotein sulfhydryl groups, reduced the anti-ulcerogenic effect of AML extract in the same ulcer model, suggesting that AML extract may have active substances such as tannins, flavanoids and triterpenes that increase the mucosal nonprotein sulfhydryl group content.

  19. In vitro functional properties of crude extracts and isolated compounds from banana pseudostem and rhizome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Saravanan; Ramu, Sasikala; Aradhya, Somaradhya Mallikarjuna

    2016-03-15

    Pseudostem and rhizome are the significant bio-waste generated (43.48%) from the banana plant post fruit harvest, which are usually left in the plantation or incinerated and wasted. Amounts used in production for consumption are negligible. However, the material has an important part to play in indigenous systems of medicine. Based on the huge volume of bio-waste generated and its traditional medicinal use, it is worth exploiting it as a source of natural bioactive compounds. In the current study, sequential extracts from banana pseudostem (BPS) and rhizome (BR), and isolated compounds including chlorogenic acid, 4-epicyclomusalenone and cycloeucalenol acetate, were tested for their antimicrobial activity, antiplatelet aggregation and cytotoxicity. Isolated compounds and crude extracts exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against a wide range of bacterial and fungal strains, platelet aggregation induced by collagen and cytotoxicity towards human liver cancer (HepG2) cells. Banana plant bio-waste, pseudostem and rhizome may serve as a potential source of multifunctional bioactive compounds and functional ingredient in food and other allied industries. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Phytochemical screening, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of the crude leaves’ extract from Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochapski, Márcia Thaís; Fosquiera, Eliana Cristina; Esmerino, Luís Antônio; dos Santos, Elizabete Brasil; Farago, Paulo Vitor; Santos, Fábio André; Groppo, Francisco Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Background: Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., popularly known as sweet potato (SP), has played an important role as an energy and a phytochemical source in human nutrition and animal feeding. Ethnopharmacological data show that SP leaves have been effectively used in herbal medicine to treat inflammatory and/or infectious oral diseases in Brazil. The aim of this research was to evaluate the phytochemical, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of the crude leaves’ extract of SP leaves. Materials and Methods: The screening was performed for triterpenes/steroids, alkaloids, anthraquinones, coumarins, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and phenolic acids. The color intensity or the precipitate formation was used as analytical responses to these tests. The total antioxidant capacity was evaluated by the phosphomolybdenum complex method. Antimicrobial activity was made by agar disk and agar well diffusion tests. Results: The phytochemical screening showed positive results for triterpenes/steroids, alkaloids, anthraquinones, coumarins, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and phenolic acids. Total contents of 345.65, 328.44, and 662.02 mg were respectively obtained for alkaloids, anthraquinones, and phenolic compounds in 100 g of the dry sample. The total antioxidant capacity was 42.94% as compared to ascorbic acid. For antimicrobial studies, no concentration of the SP freeze dried extract was able to inhibit the growth of Streptococcus mutans, S. mitis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans in both agar disk and agar well diffusion tests. Conclusions: SP leaves demonstrated the presence of secondary metabolites with potential biological activities. No antimicrobial activity was observed. PMID:21716926

  1. Isolation, antimicrobial activity of myxobacterial crude extracts and identification of the most potent strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charousová Ivana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Broad spectrum antimicrobial agents are urgently needed to fight frequently occurring multidrug-resistant pathogens. Myxobacteria have been regarded as “microbe factories” for active secondary metabolites, and therefore, this study was performed to isolate two bacteriolytic genera of myxobacteria, Myxococcus sp. and Corallococcus sp., from 10 soil/sand samples using two conventional methods followed by purification with the aim of determining the antimicrobial activity of methanol extracts against 11 test microorganisms (four Gram-positive, four Gram-negative, two yeasts and one fungus. Out of thirty-nine directly observed strains, 23 were purified and analyzed for antimicrobial activities. Based on the broth microdilution method, a total of 19 crude extracts showed antimicrobial activity. The range of inhibited wells was more important in the case of anti-Gram-positive-bacterial activity in comparison with the anti-Gram-negative-bacterial and antifungal activity. In light of the established degree and range of antimicrobial activity, two of the most active isolates (BNEM1 and SFEC2 were selected for further characterization. Morphological parameters and a sequence similarity search by BLAST revealed that they showed 99% sequence similarity to Myxococcus xanthus − BNEM1 (accession no. KX669224 and Corallococcus coralloides - SFEC2 (accession no. KX669225. As these isolates had antimicrobial activity, they could be considered for use in the development of antibiotics for pharmaceutical use.

  2. Effects of Cylindrospermopsin Producing Cyanobacterium and Its Crude Extracts on a Benthic Green Alga—Competition or Allelopathy?

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    Viktória B-Béres

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cylindrospermopsin (CYN is a toxic secondary metabolite produced by filamentous cyanobacteria which could work as an allelopathic substance, although its ecological role in cyanobacterial-algal assemblages is mostly unclear. The competition between the CYN-producing cyanobacterium Chrysosporum (Aphanizomenon ovalisporum, and the benthic green alga Chlorococcum sp. was investigated in mixed cultures, and the effects of CYN-containing cyanobacterial crude extract on Chlorococcum sp. were tested by treatments with crude extracts containing total cell debris, and with cell debris free crude extracts, modelling the collapse of a cyanobacterial water bloom. The growth inhibition of Chlorococcum sp. increased with the increasing ratio of the cyanobacterium in mixed cultures (inhibition ranged from 26% to 87% compared to control. Interestingly, inhibition of the cyanobacterium growth also occurred in mixed cultures, and it was more pronounced than it was expected. The inhibitory effects of cyanobacterial crude extracts on Chlorococcum cultures were concentration-dependent. The presence of C. ovalisporum in mixed cultures did not cause significant differences in nutrient content compared to Chlorococcum control culture, so the growth inhibition of the green alga could be linked to the presence of CYN and/or other bioactive compounds.

  3. Effects of Cylindrospermopsin Producing Cyanobacterium and Its Crude Extracts on a Benthic Green Alga—Competition or Allelopathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    B-Béres, Viktória; Vasas, Gábor; Dobronoki, Dalma; Gonda, Sándor; Nagy, Sándor Alex; Bácsi, István

    2015-01-01

    Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a toxic secondary metabolite produced by filamentous cyanobacteria which could work as an allelopathic substance, although its ecological role in cyanobacterial-algal assemblages is mostly unclear. The competition between the CYN-producing cyanobacterium Chrysosporum (Aphanizomenon) ovalisporum, and the benthic green alga Chlorococcum sp. was investigated in mixed cultures, and the effects of CYN-containing cyanobacterial crude extract on Chlorococcum sp. were tested by treatments with crude extracts containing total cell debris, and with cell debris free crude extracts, modelling the collapse of a cyanobacterial water bloom. The growth inhibition of Chlorococcum sp. increased with the increasing ratio of the cyanobacterium in mixed cultures (inhibition ranged from 26% to 87% compared to control). Interestingly, inhibition of the cyanobacterium growth also occurred in mixed cultures, and it was more pronounced than it was expected. The inhibitory effects of cyanobacterial crude extracts on Chlorococcum cultures were concentration-dependent. The presence of C. ovalisporum in mixed cultures did not cause significant differences in nutrient content compared to Chlorococcum control culture, so the growth inhibition of the green alga could be linked to the presence of CYN and/or other bioactive compounds. PMID:26528991

  4. Effects of Cylindrospermopsin Producing Cyanobacterium and Its Crude Extracts on a Benthic Green Alga-Competition or Allelopathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    B-Béres, Viktória; Vasas, Gábor; Dobronoki, Dalma; Gonda, Sándor; Nagy, Sándor Alex; Bácsi, István

    2015-10-30

    Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a toxic secondary metabolite produced by filamentous cyanobacteria which could work as an allelopathic substance, although its ecological role in cyanobacterial-algal assemblages is mostly unclear. The competition between the CYN-producing cyanobacterium Chrysosporum (Aphanizomenon) ovalisporum, and the benthic green alga Chlorococcum sp. was investigated in mixed cultures, and the effects of CYN-containing cyanobacterial crude extract on Chlorococcum sp. were tested by treatments with crude extracts containing total cell debris, and with cell debris free crude extracts, modelling the collapse of a cyanobacterial water bloom. The growth inhibition of Chlorococcum sp. increased with the increasing ratio of the cyanobacterium in mixed cultures (inhibition ranged from 26% to 87% compared to control). Interestingly, inhibition of the cyanobacterium growth also occurred in mixed cultures, and it was more pronounced than it was expected. The inhibitory effects of cyanobacterial crude extracts on Chlorococcum cultures were concentration-dependent. The presence of C. ovalisporum in mixed cultures did not cause significant differences in nutrient content compared to Chlorococcum control culture, so the growth inhibition of the green alga could be linked to the presence of CYN and/or other bioactive compounds.

  5. Antidiarrhoeal Activity of an Ethanol Extract of the Stem Bark of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of the extract on gastrointestinal motility was also determined by the oral administration of charcoal meal and castor oil-induced intestinal fluid ... No mortality or visible signs of general weakness were observed in the rats following administration of the crude extract in doses up to 6000 mg/kg body weight in an ...

  6. Study on total phenolics and antioxidant activity of leaves crude extracts of Annona squamosa traditionally used for the treatment of cancerous tumours

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    Aziza Saif Rashid Alkhawalidy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To use the leaves of Annona squamosa (A. squamosa for the preparation of crude extracts and all crude extracts were used to evaluate their antioxidant activity and total phenolics content collected from Jabal Al Akhdar. Methods: The leaves powder samples of A. squamosa were used for the preparation of crude extracts with methanol by Soxhlet extractor method. Defatted methanol crude extract by water was extracted by different polarities of solvents with increasing polarities. All crude extracts were used for the determination of total phenolics content and antioxidant activity by FolinCiocalteu reagent and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl methods. Results: The high amount of total phenolics content found in the leaves crude extracts was in the range of 54.75 to 352.0 mg/100 g of dry powder samples. The highest antioxidant activity was found in methanol and the lowest was found in ethyl acetate crude extract. Conclusions: The crude extracts from A. squamosa leaves showed strong antioxidant activity. Therefore, it could be used as a medicine for the treatment food borne diseases.

  7. Antifungal activity of the ethanolic extracts of Punica granatum L. and evaluation of the morphological and structural modifications of its compounds upon the cells of Candida spp.

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    Paula Cristina Anibal

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Ethanolic crude extracts prepared from the arils and seeds, pericarp, peels and from the whole fruit of Punica granatum, known as pomegranate, had their antifungal activity tested against Candida spp. The ethanolic crude extracts were analyzed by Mass Spectrometry and yielded many compounds such as punicalagin and galladydilacton. The extracts from the pericarp and peel showed activity against Candida spp., with MICs of 125 µg/mL. The effect of pericarp and peel extracts upon the morphological and structure of C. albicans and C. krusei were examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, with the visualization of an irregular membrane and hyphae, formation of vacuoles and thickening of the cell wall. The data obtained revealed potential antimicrobial activity against yeasts cells of the Candida genus, and the bioactive compounds could be responsible for changes in cell morphology and structure. The data obtained open new perspectives for future research in continuation to this study, where information such as determination of the site of action of the compounds could contribute to an alternative therapy against these organisms.

  8. Total phenols, total flvonoids contents and free radical scavenging activity of seeds crude extracts of pigeon pea traditionally used in Oman for the treatment of several chronic diseases

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    Asma Hamood Al-Saeedi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate total phenols, flavonoids content of methanol crude extract of pigeon pea seeds powder and its different polarities soluble fractions and evaluate their free radical scavenging activity. Methods: The powder seeds samples were used for extraction with methanol. Methanol crude extract from the seeds was defatted by water and fractioned by different polarities of solvents. The investigation of total phenols and flavonoids contents of total six crude extracts of pigeon pea were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and aluminum chloride calorimetric methods. Antioxidant activity of six crude extracts from the seeds of pigeon pea was determined through α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl method. Results: Significant amount of total phenols content was presented in hexane crude extract among the six crude extracts of pigeon pea and the order was hexane>chloroform> methanol>ethyl acetate>butanal>water. Similarly, significant amount of total flavonoids content was presented in chloroform crude extract and the order was chloroform>methanol>ethyl acetate>butanol>water>hexane. The crude extracts displayed significant α,α-diphenyl-β- picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity with highest value in hexane extract followed by butanol, methanol, ethyl acetate, chloroform and water crude extracts having value of 95.50%, 83.30%, 64.60%, 64.20%, 60.60% and 52.60%, respectively. Conclusions: The crude extracts from seeds of pigeon pea have high contents of total phenols, flavonoids and antioxidant activity. In this regards, it could be used as a medicine for the treatment of different chronic diseases.

  9. Diuretic activity of the aqueous crude extract and hot tea infusion of Moringa stenopetala (Baker f.) Cufod. leaves in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekadu, Netsanet; Basha, Hirut; Meresa, Asfaw; Degu, Sileshi; Girma, Biruktawit; Geleta, Bekesho

    2017-01-01

    Moringa stenopetala (Baker f.) Cufod. is a medicinal plant that has been used for the treatment of different ailments such as hypertension and diabetes in Ethiopia. This study aims to assess the diuretic activity of the aqueous crude extract and hot tea infusion of M. stenopetala leaves in saline-loaded rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into ten groups (n = 5). The control group received distilled water (5 mL/kg), whereas the reference group received Furosemide (10 mg/kg). Groups III–X orally received different doses of aqueous crude extract (62.5, 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg) and hot tea infusion (1, 2, 4, and 6 teaspoons [Tsp]) based on community use. Urine volume was recorded every hour until the end of the 5th hour, and total urine volume of each animal was calculated. The diuretic activity and diuretic action were determined based on the urine output. Additionally, concentration of urinary sodium, chloride, and potassium ions was determined. The urinary Na+/K+ ratio and carbonyl anhydrase activity (Cl−/(Na+/K+)) were also assessed. The findings verified that the aqueous crude extract as well as the hot tea infusion of the leaves of M. stenopetala possesses significant (P tea infusion (2 Tsp) displayed the highest diuretic activity (101% and 96%, respectively) comparable to the reference drug, Furosemide (10 mg/kg). They also displayed a good natriuretic activity. The aqueous crude extract and hot tea infusion revealed a significant Na+ urinary excretion (P tea infusion except higher doses (4 and 6 Tsp). Thus, the aqueous crude extract as well as the hot tea infusion of the leaves of M. stenopetala causes a plausible increase in the urine volume and concentration of urinary electrolytes in rats. PMID:28684924

  10. Anti-spasmodic action of crude methanolic extract and a new compound isolated from the aerial parts of Myrsine africana

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    Ahmad Bashir

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myrsine africana is an herbaceous plant that is traditionally used as appetizer and carminative. Locally, it is used for the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis, rheumatism and diarrhea by healers. The aims of the current study were to screen the crude methanol extract obtained from the aerial parts (leaves and stem of M. africana, for antispasmodic actions on isolated tissues and further to subject the ethyl acetate (EtOAc fraction of plant to column chromatography for isolation of pure compounds. Methods The antispasmodic action of the crude methanol extract was measured on the spontaneous rabbit's jejunum preparations at concentration 0.01, 0.03, 0.1, 0.3, 1.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/ml. The crude extract was also applied, in similar concentrations, on KCl (80 mM induced contractions to explain its possible mode of action. Results A new compound Myrsigenin was isolated from the EtOAc fraction of M. africana. The structure of the compound was identified with the help of 13C-NMR, 1H-NMR, HMBC, HMQC, NOESY and COSY. The plant crude methanol extract showed a significant antispasmodic action on rabbit jejunum and abolished the tissue contraction completely at concentration of 5.0 mg/ml. Conclusion The study concludes that the methanol crude extract of aerial parts of M. africana has antispasmodic action possibly through the calcium channel blocking mechanisms. A new compound Myrsigenin was isolated from the EtOAc fraction of the plant.

  11. Activity of crude extracts from Brazilian cerrado plants against clinically relevant Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Amabel Fernandes; Silveira, Dâmaris; Fonseca-Bazzo, Yris Maria; Magalhães, Pérola Oliveira; Fagg, Christopher William; da Silva, Elton Clementino; Gomes, Suelí Maria; Gandolfi, Lenora; Pratesi, Riccardo; de Medeiros Nóbrega, Yanna Karla

    2016-07-11

    Medicinal plants have traditionally been used in many parts of the world as alternative medicine. Many extracts and essential oils isolated from plants have disclosed biological activity, justifying the investigation of their potential antimicrobial activity. In this study, the in vitro antifungal activity of six Brazilian Cerrado medicinal plant species were evaluated against clinically relevant Candida species. The crude extract plants were evaluated against American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) standard strains of Candida spp. using disk diffusion method and determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The chemical study results were confirmed by HPLC method. All six plant species showed antifungal activity. Among the species studied, Eugenia dysenterica and Pouteria ramiflora showed significant inhibitory activity against C. tropicalis at lowest MIC value of 125 and 500 μg/disc, respectively. The Eugenia dysenterica also disclosed MIC value of 125 μg/disc against C. famata, 250 μg/disc against C. krusei and 500 μg/disc against C. guilliermondii and C. parapsilosis. Pouteria torta, Bauhinia rufa, Erythroxylum daphnites and Erythroxylum subrotundum showed activity against the yeast strains with MIC value of 1000 μg/disc. The chemical study of the most bioactive extracts of Eugenia dysenterica and Pouteria ramiflora revealed catechin derivatives and flavonoids as main components. All six evaluated plant species showed good antifungal potential against several Candida strains. However, E .dysenterica and P. ramiflora showed the higher inhibitory effect against the non-albicans Candida species. Our results may contribute to the continuing search of new natural occurring products with antifungal activity.

  12. Antivenom potential of ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark against Naja venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Pranay; Bodakhe, Surendra H

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the antivenom potential of ethanolic extract of bark of Cordia macleodii against Naja venom induced pharmacological effects such as lethality, hemorrhagic lesion, necrotizing lesion, edema, cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity. Wistar strain rats were challenged with Naja venom and treated with the ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark. The effectiveness of the extract to neutralize the lethalities of Naja venom was investigated as recommended by WHO. At the dose of 400 and 800 mg/kg ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark significantly inhibited the Naja venom induced lethality, hemorrhagic lesion, necrotizing lesion and edema in rats. Ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark was effective in neutralizing the coagulant and defibrinogenating activity of Naja venom. The cardiotoxic effects in isolated frog heart and neurotoxic activity studies on frog rectus abdominus muscle were also antagonized by ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark. It is concluded that the protective effect of extract of Cordia macleodii against Naja venom poisoning may be mediated by the cardiotonic, proteolysin neutralization, anti-inflammatory, antiserotonic and antihistaminic activity. It is possible that the protective effect may also be due to precipitation of active venom constituents.

  13. Antivenom potential of ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark against Naja venom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Pranay; Bodakhe, Surendra H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antivenom potential of ethanolic extract of bark of Cordia macleodii against Naja venom induced pharmacological effects such as lethality, hemorrhagic lesion, necrotizing lesion, edema, cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity. Methods Wistar strain rats were challenged with Naja venom and treated with the ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark. The effectiveness of the extract to neutralize the lethalities of Naja venom was investigated as recommended by WHO. Results At the dose of 400 and 800 mg/kg ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark significantly inhibited the Naja venom induced lethality, hemorrhagic lesion, necrotizing lesion and edema in rats. Ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark was effective in neutralizing the coagulant and defibrinogenating activity of Naja venom. The cardiotoxic effects in isolated frog heart and neurotoxic activity studies on frog rectus abdominus muscle were also antagonized by ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark. Conclusions It is concluded that the protective effect of extract of Cordia macleodii against Naja venom poisoning may be mediated by the cardiotonic, proteolysin neutralization, anti-inflammatory, antiserotonic and antihistaminic activity. It is possible that the protective effect may also be due to precipitation of active venom constituents. PMID:25183127

  14. Hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata on paracetamol-induced liver toxicity in rats

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    Rajasekaran Aiyalu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trichosanthes lobata (family cucurbitaceae is used to treat malarial fever and liver disorders. This study aims to investigate possible hepatoprotective activities of ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity. Methods Hepatotoxicity was induced in Wistar male rats by oral administration, 2 g/kg body weight on 7th day after the administration of ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata and silymarin (100 mg/kg. Ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata was administered orally at doses of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight daily for 7 days. Several serum markers, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, total protein was measured to assess the effect of the extract on paracetamol (acetaminophen-induced hepatic damage. The study included histopathological examination of liver sections. Results Blood samples from rats treated with ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata (200 mg/kg body weight and 400 mg/kg body weight had significant reductions in serum markers in paracetamol administered animals, indicating the effect of the extract in restoring the normal functional ability of hepatocytes. Silymarin (100 mg/kg, p.o. was used as a reference drug. Conclusion The ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata exhibits protective effects against paracetamol‒induced hepatotoxicity.

  15. Selective Antifungal Action of Crude Extracts of Cassia fistula L.: A Preliminary Study on Candida and Aspergillus species

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    Panda, S. K.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary studies on the phytochemicals and extracts of petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol, methanol and aqueous of Cassia fistula leaves were examined for antifungal activity using agar cup and broth dilution methods. Although all five extracts showed promising antifungal activity against Candida albicans (12.6 mm, C. krusei (13.3 mm, C. parapsilosis (14.0 mm, and C. tropicalis (14.3 mm, yet maximum activity was observed in methanol extract followed by ethanol and aqueous extracts. Petroleum ether and ethanol extracts, showed zone of inhibition against all the three species of Aspergillus with highest zone of inhibition for A. fumigatus (12.0 mm. MIC values for most of the extracts ranged from 0.75 to 3.0 mg/mL; while the least MFC value was observed at 6.0 mg/mL. Result of MFC showed that at concentration 6.0 mg/mL, 75% of the test Candida species were killed while rests 25% were inhibited at same concentration. Phytochemical analysis exhibited the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, glycosides, protein and amino acids, saponins and triterpenoids in different extracts. These results reveal the antifungal activity of C. fistula leaves extracts which may be useful in treatment of candidiasis and aspergillosis. However, further studies with purified fractions or bioactive compounds responsible for antifungal activity need to be evaluated.

  16. Isolation, fractionation and identification of chemical constituents from the leaves crude extracts of Mentha piperita L grown in Sultanate of Oman

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    Mohammad Amzad Hossain

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: According to the results of the present study, the plant crude extracts could be used as medicine for the treatment of different diseases. The analysis and identification of the chemical compounds in the plant crude extracts by using GC-MS was the first time.

  17. Ginger extract protects rat's kidneys against oxidative damage after chronic ethanol administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirpoor, Aireza; Rezaei, Farzaneh; Fard, Amin Abdollahzade; Afshari, Ali Taghizadeh; Gharalari, Farzaneh Hosseini; Rasmi, Yousef

    2016-12-01

    Chronic alcohol ingestion is associated with pronounced detrimental effects on the renal system. In the current study, the protective effect of ginger extract on ethanol-induced damage was evaluated through determining 8-OHdG, cystatin C, glomerular filtration rate, and pathological changes such as cell proliferation and fibrosis in rats' kidneys. Male wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups and were treated as follows: (1) control, (2) ethanol and (3) ginger extract treated ethanolic (GETE) groups. After a six weeks period of treatment, the results revealed proliferation of glomerular and tubular cells, fibrosis in glomerular and peritubular and a significant rise in the level of 8-OHdG, cystatin C, plasma urea and creatinine. Moreover, compared to the control group, the ethanol group showed a significant decrease in the urine creatinine and creatinine clearance. In addition, significant amelioration of changes in the structure of kidneys, along with restoration of the biochemical alterations were found in the ginger extract treated ethanolic group, compared to the ethanol group. These findings indicate that ethanol induces kidneys abnormality by oxidative DNA damage and oxidative stress, and that these effects can be alleviated using ginger as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. A comparison of the antimicrobial effectiveness of different polarities crude extracts from the leaves of Adenium obesum used in Omani traditional medicine for the treatment of microbial infections

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    Mohammad Amzad Hossain

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study and compare different crude extracts from the leaves of Adenium obesum for antimicrobial potency and to perform different group tests. Methods: After processed, the leaves samples were used for extraction with methanol solvent by Soxhlet extraction method. The methanol crude extract was prepared by evaporating the solvent. The obtained extract was defatted by water and fractioned into different solvents. All the fractionated crude extracts were evaporated and used for antimicrobial study by disc method against pathogenic bacterial strains (Gram-positive and Gram-negative. The antimicrobial results for all crude extracts obtained from the leaves of Adenium obesum were compared with a standard antibiotic amoxicillin. Results: The calculated diameter of inhibition zone for all polarities crude extracts were in the range of 0-13 mm. The results showed that all crude extracts have strong potential against different pathogenic bacterial strains. Conclusions: The isolated crude extracts by Soxhlet method could be used as herbal or pharmaceutical medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases.

  19. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of crude plant extracts from Colombian biodiversity

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    Jaime Niño

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available On a global scale, people have used plants to treat diseases and infections, and this has raised interest on the plant biodiversity potencial in the search of antimicrobial principles. In this work, 75 crude n-hexanes, dichloromethane and methanol extracts from the aerial parts of 25 plants belonging to four botanical families (Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae and Solanaceae, collected at the Natural Regional Park Ucumari (Risaralda, Colombia, were evaluated for their antibacterial and antifungal activities by the agar well diffusion method. The antibacterial activities were assayed against two Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, and three Gram-negative ones named, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In addition, the same plant extracts were tested against the yeast Candida albicans and the fungi Aspergillus fumigatus and Fusarium solani. Overall, the plant extracts examined displayed better bactericide rather than fungicide activities. In general, the best antibacterial activity was showed by the plant extracts from the Rubiaceae family, followed in order by the extracts from the Euphorbiaceae and Solanaceae ones. It is important to emphasize the great activity displayed by the methanol extract of Alchornea coelophylla (Euphorbiaceae that inhibited four out of five bacteria tested (B. Subtilis, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and E. coli. Furthermore, the best Minimal Inhibitory Concentration for the extracts with antifungal activities were displayed by the dichloromethane extracts from Acalypha diversifolia and Euphorbia sp (Euphorbiaceae. The most susceptible fungus evaluated was F. Solani since 60% and 20% of the dichloromethane and methanol extracts evaluated inhibited the growth of this phytopathogenic fungus. The antimicrobial activity of the different plant extracts examined in this work could be related to the secondary metabolites contents and their interaction and

  20. VOLATILE COMPOUNDS OF WATER-ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF SATUREJA MONTANA L.

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    A. E. Paliy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have studied a composition and content of volatile compounds of Satureja montana L. extract. It was established that concentration of volatile compounds in water-ethanol extract of S. montana amounted to 325 mg/100g. The principal component of the extract is carvacrol. It was shown that the extract of Satureja montana represents high biological value

  1. Bioefficacy of crude extract of Cyperus aromaticus (Family: Cyperaceae) cultured cells, against Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiabi, Fatemeh; Jaal, Zairi; Keng, Chan Lai

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the growth inhibition activity of the crude extract of Cyperus aromaticus (C. aromaticus) cultured cells against the 3rd instar larvae of Aedes aegypti (Linn.) and Aedes albopictus Skuse (Ae. albopictus) under laboratory conditions, and determine the sublethal effects (EI50) of the crude extract of C. aromaticus cultured cells on some biological and morphological parameters of both Aedes mosquito species during two generations as well. The cell suspension cultures of C. aromaticus were activated from five callus lines (P4, Pa, Z1, Z6 and Ml) derived from the root explants of in vitro plantlets. The cultured cells were extracted in chloroform and used as plant material for the present study. For detection of juvenile hormone III, the crude extracts were analyzed by HPLC. Then the crude extracts of the three C. aromaticus cultured cell lines which contained varied amounts of juvenile hormone III [high level (P4 cell line), medium level (Z1 cell line) and low level (Ml cell line)] were tested against Aedes mosquito species. Laboratory evaluation was performed against late third instar larvae of the Vector Control Research Unit strains of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus using the standard WHO method. The effects of EI50 of the C. aromaticus cultured P4 cells on fecundity, fertility, growth period, sex ratio, adult size and longevity of Aedes mosquitoes were assessed. Bioassay tests presented the remarkable growth inhibition activity of the crude extracts of C. aromaticus cultured cells against the two Aedes mosquitoes. Between the two mosquito species, Ae. albopictus was more susceptible to the crude extracts with lower EI50 values. EI50 of the crude extract of C. aromaticus cultured cells (P4) increased the sterility indices in the parental generation females in both Aedes mosquito species. A significant delay in the pupal formation and adult emergence were observed in the parental generation of the both mosquito species. The sex ratio of the adult

  2. Actividad biológica de extractos crudos de Larrea divaricata Cav. y Capparis atamisquea Kuntze sobre Sitophilus oryzae (L. Biological activity of crude extracts of Larrea divaricata Cav. and Capparis atamisquea Kuntze on Sitophilus oryzae (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. Viglianco

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron las propiedades repelentes y antialimentarias de extractos crudos de dos plantas difundidas en la provincia de Córdoba (Argentina, jarilla (Larrea divaricata Cav. y atamisqui (Capparis atamisquea Kuntze., sobre Sitophilus oryzae (L.. Se estudiaron los extractos crudos en etanol, cloroformo y hexano de ambas especies. Para cada extracto se determino el coeficiente de disuasión total. Para las pruebas de repelencia se utilizaron papeles de filtro separados en dos mitades iguales; se determinaron los porcentajes de repelencia de cada extracto. Se observó mayor efecto antialimentario de los extractos de atamisqui con respecto a los de jarilla, y de los de hojas o tallos sobre los de frutos. El extracto de mayor efecto antialimentario fue el etanólico de tallos de atamisqui (clase ++++ seguido por los extractos etanólico y clorofórmico de hojas de esta especie (clase +++. Se observó un moderado efecto de repelencia de los extractos de jarilla y atamisqui sobre S. oryzae, destacándose el de hojas de atamisqui en hexano como el de mayor efecto de repelencia (clase IV. El extracto clorofórmico de hojas de atamisqui, los tres de hoja de jarilla y los clorofórmicos de tallos y frutos de jarilla presentaron efecto de repelencia (clase III.Repellent and antifeedant properties of crude extracts of two plants widely distributed in the province of Córdoba (Argentina, jarilla (Larrea divaricata Cav. and atamisqui (Capparis atamisquea Kuntze on Sitophilus oryzae were studied. Crude extracts in ethanol, chloroform and hexane of both species were evaluated. The Total Deterrence Coefficient for each extract was determined. Repellence tests were conducted using filter paper separated in halves. Repellence percentages were determined for each extract. A greater antifeedant effect was observed in the atamisqui extracts than in the jarilla ones; the effect was also greater in extracts of leaves or twigs than in extracts of fruits. The extracts

  3. Combined effect of crude herbal extracts, pH and sucrose on the survival of Candida parapsilosis and Zygosaccharomyces fermentati in orange juice

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    Aran H-Kittikun

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of crude extracts of cinnamon and clove compared with potassium sorbate against food spoilage yeasts isolated from orange juice (Candidaparapsilosis and Zygosaccharomyces fermentati. The ethanolic extract of both cinnamon and clove showed activity against C. parapsilosis and Z. fermentati with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC of 1.0 and0.5 mg/ml by agar dilution method, respectively. While potassium sorbate showed activity against both yeasts with MIC 0.4 mg/ml. The combined effect of pH, concentration of sucrose and cinnamon extract or cloveextract or potassium sorbate in orange juice on the survival of the isolated yeasts were studied using Response Surface Methodology. The pH of orange juice and the concentration of cinnamon or clove extracthad the most significant (P<0.05 effect on the survival of C. parapsilosis and Z. fermentati while concentration of sucrose had the least effect. Survival of C. parapsilosis and Z. fermentati was mostly affected by theconcentration of potassium sorbate but pH and the concentration of sucrose did not have significant effect on the survival of Z. fermentati.

  4. In vitro antiplasmodial effect of ethanolic extracts of traditional medicinal plant Ocimum species against Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inbaneson, Samuel Jacob; Sundaram, Ravikumar; Suganthi, Palavesam

    2012-02-01

    To identify the possible antiplasmodial compounds from leaf, stem, root and flower extracts of Ocimum canum (O. canum), Ocimum sanctum (O. sanctum) and Ocimum basilicum (O. basilicum). The O. canum, O. sanctum and O. basilicum were collected from Ramanathapuram District, Tamil Nadu and the extraction was carried out in ethanol. The filter sterilized extracts (100, 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25 and 3.125 μg/mL) of leaf, stem, root and flower extracts of O. canum, O. sanctum and O. basilicum were tested for antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum). The potential extracts were also tested for their phytochemical constituents. The leaf extract of O. sanctum showed excellent antiplasmodial activity (IC(50) 35.58 μg/mL) followed by leaf extract of O. basilicum (IC(50) 43.81 μg/mL). The leaf extract of O. canum, root extracts of O. sanctum and O. basilicum, the stem and flower extracts of all the three tested Ocimum species showed IC(50) values between 50 and 100 μg/mL. Statistical analysis reveals that, significant antiplasmodial activity (P basilicum. The in vitro antiplasmodial activity might be due to the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, phenols, saponins, triterpenoids, proteins, resins, steroids and tannins in the ethanolic extracts of tested plants. The ethanolic leaf extracts of O. sanctum possess lead compounds for the development of antiplasmodial drugs. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Quality and storage characteristics of yogurt containing Lacobacillus sakei ALI033 and cinnamon ethanol extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Jin Choi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was conducted to examine the quality and storage characteristics of yogurt containing antifungal-active lactic acid bacteria (ALH, Lacobacillus sakei ALI033 isolated from kimchi and cinnamon ethanol extract. The starter was used for culture inoculation (1.0 % commercial starter culture YF-L812 and ALH. Results The antifungal activity of cinnamon extracts was observed in treatments with either cinnamon ethanol extracts or cinnamon methanol extracts. Changes in fermented milk made with ALH and cinnamon extract during fermentation at 40 °C were as follows. The pH was 4.6 after only 6 h of fermentation. Titratable acidity values were maintained at 0.8 % in all treatment groups. Viable cell counts were maintained at 4 × 109 CFU/mL in all groups except for 1.00 % cinnamon treatment. Sensory evaluations of fermented milk sample made with ALH and 0.05 % cinnamon ethanol extract were the highest. Changes in fermented milk made with ALH and cinnamon ethanol extract during storage at 4 °C for 28 days were as follows. In fermented milk containing ALH and cinnamon ethanol extracts, the changes in pH and titratable acidity were moderate and smaller compared with those of the control. Viable cell counts were maintained within a proper range of 108 CFU/mL. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that the overgrowth of fermentation strains or post acidification during storage can be effectively delayed, thereby maintaining the storage quality of yogurt products in a stable way, using cinnamon ethanol extract, which exhibits excellent antifungal and antibacterial activity, in combination with lactic acid bacteria isolated from kimchi.

  6. Quality and storage characteristics of yogurt containing Lacobacillus sakei ALI033 and cinnamon ethanol extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yu Jin; Jin, Hee Yeon; Yang, Hee Sun; Lee, Sang Cheon; Huh, Chang Ki

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the quality and storage characteristics of yogurt containing antifungal-active lactic acid bacteria (ALH, Lacobacillus sakei ALI033) isolated from kimchi and cinnamon ethanol extract. The starter was used for culture inoculation (1.0 % commercial starter culture YF-L812 and ALH). The antifungal activity of cinnamon extracts was observed in treatments with either cinnamon ethanol extracts or cinnamon methanol extracts. Changes in fermented milk made with ALH and cinnamon extract during fermentation at 40 °C were as follows. The pH was 4.6 after only 6 h of fermentation. Titratable acidity values were maintained at 0.8 % in all treatment groups. Viable cell counts were maintained at 4 × 10(9) CFU/mL in all groups except for 1.00 % cinnamon treatment. Sensory evaluations of fermented milk sample made with ALH and 0.05 % cinnamon ethanol extract were the highest. Changes in fermented milk made with ALH and cinnamon ethanol extract during storage at 4 °C for 28 days were as follows. In fermented milk containing ALH and cinnamon ethanol extracts, the changes in pH and titratable acidity were moderate and smaller compared with those of the control. Viable cell counts were maintained within a proper range of 10(8) CFU/mL. The results of this study suggest that the overgrowth of fermentation strains or post acidification during storage can be effectively delayed, thereby maintaining the storage quality of yogurt products in a stable way, using cinnamon ethanol extract, which exhibits excellent antifungal and antibacterial activity, in combination with lactic acid bacteria isolated from kimchi.

  7. Preliminary in vitro antisickilng properties of crude juice extracts of Persia Americana, Citrus sinensis, Carica papaya and Ciklavit®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iweala, E E J; Uhegbu, F O; Ogu, G N

    2009-12-30

    The antisickling properties of crude juice extracts of the edible portions of three commonly consumed tropical fruits namely Persia americana, Citrus sinensis, and Carica papaya were investigated in vitro alongside a new drug preparation called Ciklavit® that has antisickling activity. Four different solvent extracts of the crude juice of each fruit including aqueous, acidic, alkaline and alcoholic extracts were prepared and their antisickling effects on sickle cell trait (HbAS) and sickle cell disease (HbSS) blood samples checked alongside Ciklavit®. Blood samples were stabilized using normal saline and the antisickling effects were checked by counting the number of sickle cells remaining after incubation of the blood samples with the crude fruit extracts and Ciklavit® for twenty-four hours. The results showed that Ciklavit® produced a sustained reduction in the number of sickle cells in both HbAS and HbSS blood samples. Also the alkaline and alcoholic extracts of P. americana and C. papaya produced significant reduction in the number of sickle cells.

  8. A new azadirachta from the crude extracts of neem (Azadirachta Indica A. Juss) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Quan; Sun, Jia; Xun, Hang; Yao, Xi; Wang, Jin; Tang, Feng

    2017-08-01

    One new compound, 2H, 3H-cyclopent[b] furo [2',3':4,5] naphtho [2,4-d] heptlactone-[3,7] furan-6aceticacid, 3-(acetyloxy)-8-(3-furyl)-2a, 4a, 4b, 4c,5,5a, 6, 6a, 8, 9,9a, 10a,10b-13 hydrogen-2a,5a,6a,5-tetramethyl-3-[[(2E)-2-methyl-1-oxo-2-butenyl]oxy]-methyl ester, named azadirachta R (1), along with 10 known ones, Azadirachta A, AZ-B, AZ-D, AZ-H, AZ-I, nimbin, deacetylnimbin, salannin, deacetylsalannin and azadiradione were isolated from the crude extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) seeds, which were determined by UV, IR, HR-ESI-MS and NMR data analyses. According to the in vitro antibacterial activity experimental results, this compound showed good antibacterial activity to two bacteria, the minimum inhibitory concentration and the minimum bactericidal concentration of compound 1 to two kinds of bacteria are 50 and 25 mg/L, respectively, which were determined by resazurin colour-micro-dilution method. The experimental results provide a theoretical basis for the comprehensive utilisation of azadirachtin compounds in the future.

  9. Phenolic profiles and antioxidant capacities of crude extracts and subsequent fractions from Potentilla fruticosa L. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ziwen; Wang, Shanshan; Wang, Dongmei

    2016-08-01

    This work aimed to further investigate the phenolic profiles and antioxidant capacities of the crude extracts and the subsequent fractions of Potentilla fruticosa leaves. Result showed that P. fruticosa leaves contained high amounts for hyperoside, ellagic acid and (+)-catechin contents, and the highest amount being registered for hyperoside (17.67 mg g(-1)). Nine sub-fractions were obtained after column chromatographic separation. EF-3, EF-4, EF-5 and BF-2 presented higher values for their total phenolic or flavonoid, (+)-catechin, ellagic acid and hyperoside content. Besides, EF-3, EF-4, BF-2 and BF-3 showed significant in vitro antioxidant capacities and protective effects on Escherichia coli under peroxide stress. The correlation between chromatograms and antioxidant activity showed that (+)-catechin, ellagic acid and hyperoside may play crucial roles in the antioxidant capacities of P. fruticosa and could be used as chemical markers for its quality assessment. Moreover, this is the first time P. fruticosa leaves have been systematically studied.

  10. Anti-equine arteritis virus activity of ethanolic extract and compounds from Origanum vulgare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Einhardt Blank

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The equine arteritis virus (EAV is responsible by an important respiratory and reproductive disease in equine populations and there is no specific antiviral treatment available. The objective of this study was to investigate the activity of an ethanolic crude extract of Origanum vulgare (EEO and of isolated compound caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, rosmarinic acid, quercetin, luteolin, carnosol, carnosic acid, kaempferol and apigenin against EAV. The assays were performed using non-cytotoxic concentrations. The antiviral activity was monitored initially by cytopathic effect inhibition (CPE assay in RK13 cells in the presence or absence of EEO. Pre-incubated cells with EEO were also examined to show prophylactic effect. Direct viral inactivation by EEO and isolated compounds was evaluated by incubation at 37°C or 20°C. After the incubation period, the infectivity was immediately determined by virus titrations on cell cultures and expressed as 50% tissue culture infective dose (TCID50/100 µL. There was significant virucidal activity of EEO and of the compounds caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, quercetin, carnosic acid and kaempferol. When EEO was added after infection, EEO inhibited the virus growth in infected cells, as evidenced by significant reduction of the viral titre. The results provide evidence that the EEO exhibit an inhibitory effect anti-EAV. Among the main compounds evaluated, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, carnosic acid, kaempferol and mainly quercetin, contributed to the activity of EEO. EEO may represent a good prototype for the development of a new antiviral agent, presenting promising for combating arteriviruses infections.

  11. Response of the Cutworm Spodoptera litura to Sesame Leaves or Crude Extracts in Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofosuhene Sintim, Henry; Tashiro, Toru; Motoyama, Naoki

    2009-01-01

    The effects of extracts of sesame, Sesamum indicum L. (Liamiales: Pedaliaceae), and whole leaves of some selected cultivars of sesame were tested using a natural host Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Indices taken using the immature stages include; diet utilization, growth and development and induction of detoxification enzymes. The results indicate that S. litura generally selects its food amongst cultivars within 6 hours after food presentation. Growth and development of the insect is controlled also by plant acceptability and quality. Although all the cultivars tested significantly limit insect growth and development the variety 56S-radiatum did not allow a complete life cycle as pupation from first instar stage was 0%. Generally the crucial period for immature S. litura was the larval period, especially the first two instars where the weight of an insect fed on an experimental diet was three times lower than that of a control diet. The larval developmental period was greater than 40 days as compared to 17 days for insects fed a control diet. S. litura also had lowered efficiency in utilizing ingested food, from a low of 13% in a sesame cultivar to 45% in the control diet. The key detoxification enzyme was a glutathione s-transferase that was confirmed by a 6-fold increase between S. litura fed a plant cultivar vs. a control diet towards the substrate 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene. First and second instars of S. litura have a relatively reduced detoxification of enzymes in response to plant cultivar diets leading to low survival. A 3% v/w crude extract of the cultivars increased enzyme induction towards all the tested substrates. PMID:20050772

  12. The antiproliferative effect of Moringa oleifera crude aqueous leaf extract on cancerous human alveolar epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiloke, Charlette; Phulukdaree, Alisa; Chuturgoon, Anil A

    2013-09-16

    The incidence of lung cancer is expected to increase due to increases in exposure to airborne pollutants and cigarette smoke. Moringa oleifera (MO), a medicinal plant found mainly in Asia and South Africa is used in the traditional treatment of various ailments including cancer. This study investigated the antiproliferative effect of MO leaf extract (MOE) in cancerous A549 lung cells. A crude aqueous leaf extract was prepared and the cells were treated with 166.7 μg/ml MOE (IC50) for 24 h and assayed for oxidative stress (TBARS and Glutathione assays), DNA fragmentation (comet assay) and caspase (3/7 and 9) activity. In addition, the expression of Nrf2, p53, Smac/DIABLO and PARP-1 was determined by Western blotting. The mRNA expression of Nrf2 and p53 was assessed using qPCR. A significant increase in reactive oxygen species with a concomitant decrease in intracellular glutathione levels (p < 0.001) in MOE treated A549 cells was observed. MOE showed a significant reduction in Nrf2 protein expression (1.89-fold, p < 0.05) and mRNA expression (1.44-fold). A higher level of DNA fragmentation (p < 0.0001) was seen in the MOE treated cells. MOE's pro-apoptotic action was confirmed by the significant increase in p53 protein expression (1.02-fold, p < 0.05), p53 mRNA expression (1.59-fold), caspase-9 (1.28-fold, p < 0.05), caspase-3/7 (1.52-fold) activities and an enhanced expression of Smac/DIABLO. MOE also caused the cleavage and activation of PARP-1 into 89 KDa and 24 KDa fragments (p < 0.0001). MOE exerts antiproliferative effects in A549 lung cells by increasing oxidative stress, DNA fragmentation and inducing apoptosis.

  13. Antimicrobial activity of the ethanol extract of the aerial parts of sida ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The antimicrobial activity of the 90 % ethanol extract of the aerial parts of Sida acuta Burm. F. (Malvaceae) was investigated in other to verify its claimed ethno medicinal use in the treatment of microbial infections. Method: The antimicrobial activity of the extract was tested against standard strains and clinical ...

  14. Kava hepatotoxicity: comparison of aqueous, ethanolic, acetonic kava extracts and kava-herbs mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, Rolf; Genthner, Alexander; Wolff, Albrecht

    2009-06-25

    Ethanolic and acetonic kava extracts have previously been causally related to rare hepatotoxicity observed in patients from Germany and Switzerland, but causality assessment was not performed in cases of patients having taken the traditional aqueous kava extracts of South Pacific islands or kava-herbs mixtures. To study the possible hepatotoxicity of aqueous kava extracts of the South Pacific Islands. Causality of hepatotoxicity by aqueous kava extracts and kava-herbs mixtures was assessed, using the updated score of the quantitative CIOMS (Council for the International Organizations of Medical Sciences). Causality was established in five patients from New Caledonia, Australia, the United States and Germany for aqueous kava extracts and kava-herbs mixtures. A comparison with 9 patients from Germany and Switzerland with established causality of hepatotoxicity by ethanolic and acetonic kava extracts reveals that the clinical picture in all 14 patients is similar, independently whether aqueous, ethanolic and acetonic kava extracts or kava-herbs mixtures were used. Kava hepatotoxicity occurs also with traditional aqueous kava extracts of the South Pacific islands and thereby independently from ethanol or acetone as chemical solvents, suggesting that the toxicity is linked to the kava plant itself with a possibly low quality of the used kava cultivar or kava plant part rather than to chemical solvents.

  15. In vivo antimalarial activity of the ethanolic leaf extract of Hyptis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vivo antimalarial activity of the ethanolic leaf extract of Hyptis suaveolens poit on Plasmodium berghei in Mice. ... On day 7 the red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), haemoglobin (Hb) and packed cell volume (PCV) were evaluated. The extract demonstrated dose-dependent inhibition effect on the parasites with ...

  16. Effect of Carica papaya (paw-paw) seeds ethanolic extract on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Activity of Carica papaya seeds extract on the pituitary, thyroid and parathyroid glands of rats were investigated. The ethanolic extract of C. papaya seeds (50 and 200 mg/kg) was administered orally daily to sexually mature male wistar rats for one and eight weeks. Histology of pituitary and thyroids were prepared.

  17. In vitro Activity of Ethanol, Cold Water and Hot Water Extracts of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An in vitro evaluation was performed to determine the efficacy of ethanol, cold water and hot water extracts of the stem bark of Canthium mannii (Rubiaceae) on un-embryonated and embryonated eggs of Ancylostoma caninum obtained from the faeces of naturally infected local dogs. The extracts were diluted in distilled ...

  18. Evaluation of the effects of the hydro-ethanolic root extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical analysis of the plant extract showed the presence of tannins, saponins, alkaloids and flavonoids, glycosides, terpenoids and phenols. ... that the hydro-ethanolic root extract of Z. zanthoxyloides could be beneficial in hyperlipidemia and in cases of malignancies with abnormal cholesterol metabolism an effect ...

  19. Gastroprotective effects of the ethanolic extract of Enantia chlorantha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Enantia chlorantha, prophylaxis, ethanol, indomethacin, gastric ulcers. Rsum. L\\'corse de Enantia chloranthaa plusieur proprite mdicinales et a t utilis par les tradi-praticients du Nigeria pour le traitement de l\\'ulcer de la peau, gastrique et duodenal, et aussi commme un anti-malarial. Le but de cette tud est de ...

  20. HEMOSTATIC EFFECT OF ETHANOL EXTRACT OF Piper betle, Linn LEAVES TO MALE MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadakata Sinulingga

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hemorrhage occurs in most of the dental care. Untreated hemorrhage could cause excessive blood loss, hypotension, and cyanosis. A Natural resource that reported has an hemostatic effect is ethanol extract of betel leaves (Piper betel, Linn.The aim of this study is to find the minimum concentration of ethanol extract of betel leaves which capable of shortening the bleeding time in mice. The experimental study used pretest-posttest with control group design was conducted on 35 mice that divided into 7 group which are negative control, positive control (feracrylum 1%, the ethanol extract of betel leaves 1%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%. All mice were injected heparin intravenously. Mice’s tail was cut at diameter 3 mm and pretest bleeding time was counted. Mice’s tail was recut at diameter 4 mm, given treatment for 5 seconds and posttest bleeding time was counted. Results of paired t-test showed that reduction of bleeding time between pretest and posttest was significant (p<0,050. The enhancement of ethanol extract of betel leaves concentration leads to better hemostatic effect. Results of ANOVA test showed that comparison of posttest bleeding time among groups was significant (p<0,050. The minimum concentration of ethanol extract of betel leaves which capable of shortening the bleeding time in mice is 5%.

  1. Extraction of high-quality DNA from ethanol-preserved tropical plant tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, Eduardo A; Rossi, Mônica L; Gerald, Lee T S; Figueira, Antonio

    2014-04-24

    Proper conservation of plant samples, especially during remote field collection, is essential to assure quality of extracted DNA. Tropical plant species contain considerable amounts of secondary compounds, such as polysaccharides, phenols, and latex, which affect DNA quality during extraction. The suitability of ethanol (96% v/v) as a preservative solution prior to DNA extraction was evaluated using leaves of Jatropha curcas and other tropical species. Total DNA extracted from leaf samples stored in liquid nitrogen or ethanol from J. curcas and other tropical species (Theobroma cacao, Coffea arabica, Ricinus communis, Saccharum spp., and Solanum lycopersicon) was similar in quality, with high-molecular-weight DNA visualized by gel electrophoresis. DNA quality was confirmed by digestion with EcoRI or HindIII and by amplification of the ribosomal gene internal transcribed spacer region. Leaf tissue of J. curcas was analyzed by light and transmission electron microscopy before and after exposure to ethanol. Our results indicate that leaf samples can be successfully preserved in ethanol for long periods (30 days) as a viable method for fixation and conservation of DNA from leaves. The success of this technique is likely due to reduction or inactivation of secondary metabolites that could contaminate or degrade genomic DNA. Tissue conservation in 96% ethanol represents an attractive low-cost alternative to commonly used methods for preservation of samples for DNA extraction. This technique yields DNA of equivalent quality to that obtained from fresh or frozen tissue.

  2. Effects of croton urucurana extracts and crude resin on Anagasta kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Barboza Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Hundreds of plant species have been studied in order to find out the active ingredient responsible for their insecticidal activity against the pests of economic importance. To verify the insecticidal activity in the husk of stem of Croton urucurana Baillon 1864 (Euphorbiaceae against Anagasta kuehniella Zeller 1879 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae, the methanolic (EMeOH extract, dichloromethane fraction (FDM, ethyl acetate fraction (FAE and crude resin, incorporated into an artificial diet were evaluated. EMeOH (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% and crude resin (2.0% interfered with neither the weight nor the survival of fourth instar larvae and other analyzed parameters. FDM (2.0% fraction caused mortality of 65%, and the artificial diet containing 2.0, 1.0 and 0.5% FAE caused 100, 55 and 68% mortality respectively when compared with the control, confirming the least efficiency rates of food conversion for FDM(2.0% and FAE(1.0%. The tryptic analysis performed with the midgut fluid of fourth-instar larvae demonstrated that tryptic and chymiotryptic activities for the larvae fed artificial diet containing EMeOH and crude resin were not different.Atualmente centenas de plantas são investigadas para se conhecer os princípios ativos responsáveis pela atividade inseticida contra as diversas pragas de importância econômica. Com o objetivo de verificar a atividade inseticida das cascas do caule de Croton urucurana Baillon 1864 (Euphorbiaceae em relação a Anagasta kuehniella Zeller 1879 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae, avaliou-se o extrato metanólico (EMeOH, fração diclorometano (FDM, a fração acetato de etila (FAE e a resina in natura, os quais foram adicionados à dieta artificial. O EMeOH (0,5, 1,0 e 20,% e a resina in natura (2,0%, não interferiram no peso, sobrevivência das larvas de 4ª ínstar, bem como nos demais parâmetros analisados. A fração FDM (2,0% causou mortalidade de 65%, e a dieta artificial contendo 2,0, 1,0, e 0,5% de FAE causou 100, 55 e 68% de

  3. Inhibitory effect of Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira ethanol extracts on melanin synthesis via repression of tyrosinase expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shih-Chieh; Chen, Chun-Hao; Yu, Chih-Wen; Chen, Hsiao Ling; Huang, Wei-Tung; Chang, Yun-Shiang; Hung, Shu-Hsien; Lee, Tai-Lin

    2016-09-01

    Melanin contributes to skin color, and tyrosinase is the enzyme that catalyzes the initial steps of melanin formation. Therefore, tyrosinase inhibitors may contribute to the control of skin hyperpigmentation. The inhibition of tyrosinase activity by Cinnamomum zeylanicum extracts was previously reported. In this report, we test the hypothesis that Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira, an endemic plant to Taiwan, contains compounds that inhibit tyrosinase activity, similar to C. zeylanicum. The cytotoxicity of three sources of C. osmophloeum Kanehira ethanol extracts was measured in B16-F10 cells using a methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. At concentrations greater than 21.25 μg/mL, the ethanol extracts were toxic to the cells; therefore, 21.25 μg/mL was selected to test the tyrosinase activities. At this concentration, all three ethanol extracts decreased the melanin content by 50% in IBMX-induced B16-F10 cells. In addition to the melanin content, greater than 20% of the tyrosinase activity was inhibited by these ethanol extracts. The RT-PCR results showed that tyrosinase and transcription factor MITF mRNAs expression were down-regulated. Consistent with the mRNA results, greater than 40% of the human tyrosinase promoter activity was inhibited based on the reporter assay. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that the ethanol extracts protect cells from UV exposure. C. osmophloeum Kanehira neutralized the IBMX-induced increase in melanin content in B16-F10 cells by inhibiting tyrosinase gene expression at the level of transcription. Moreover, the ethanol extracts also partially inhibited UV-induced cell damage and prevented cell death. Taken together, we conclude that C. osmophloeum Kanehira is a potential skin-whitening and protective agent. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. In vivo antioxidant and antiulcer activity of Parkia speciosa ethanolic leaf extract against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami Al Batran

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The current study was carried out to examine the gastroprotective effects of Parkia speciosa against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa injury in rats. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sprague Dawley rats were separated into 7 groups. Groups 1-2 were orally challenged with carboxymethylcellulose (CMC; group 3 received 20 mg/kg omeprazole and groups 4-7 received 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg of ethanolic leaf extract, respectively. After 1 h, CMC or absolute ethanol was given orally to groups 2-7. The rats were sacrificed after 1 h. Then, the injuries to the gastric mucosa were estimated through assessment of the gastric wall mucus, the gross appearance of ulcer areas, histology, immunohistochemistry and enzymatic assays. Group 2 exhibited significant mucosal injuries, with reduced gastric wall mucus and severe damage to the gastric mucosa, whereas reductions in mucosal injury were observed for groups 4-7. Groups 3-7 demonstrated a reversal in the decrease in Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS staining induced by ethanol. No symptoms of toxicity or death were observed during the acute toxicity tests. CONCLUSION: Treatment with the extract led to the upregulation of heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70 and the downregulation of the pro-apoptotic protein BAX. Significant increases in the levels of the antioxidant defense enzymes glutathione (GSH and superoxide dismutase (SOD in the gastric mucosal homogenate were observed, whereas that of a lipid peroxidation marker (MDA was significantly decreased. Significance was defined as p<0.05 compared to the ulcer control group (Group 2.

  5. Moringa extracts used in sugarcane juice treatment and effects on ethanolic fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Rita, De Cassia Vieira Macri [UNESP; Gustavo, Henrique Gravatim Costa [UNESP; Nayara, Abrao Montijo [UNESP; Aline, Ferreira Silva [UNESP; Mutton,Márcia Justino Rossini

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of sugarcane juice treatment using Moringa oleifera leaf and seeds extracts on ethanolic fermentation. The experiment was arranged in a split plot statistical design, with four replications. Main treatments were three sedimentation agents (synthetic polyelectrolyte, moringa leaf and seed extracts) and control while the secondary treatments were two sugarcane varieties (RB867515 and CTC4). Extracted sugarcane juice was clarified by simple...

  6. Batch extraction modeling of jatropha oil using ethanol and n-hexane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drummond, Alessandro Araujo; Martins, Marcio Aredes [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (DEA/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], E-mail: aredes@ufv.br; Santos, Karine Tennis dos [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (DEQ/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Carneiro, Angelica Cassia de Oliveira [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (DFT/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Fitotecnia; Perez, Ronaldo [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (DTA/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Tecnologia de Alimentos

    2008-07-01

    Jatropha curcas (Linnaeus.) has been considered as a promising alternative for rainfall regimes from 200 to over 1500 mm per annum. The seed and the oil have many applications, such as purgative, in the treatment of skin infections and rheumatism, in the control of insects, mollusks and fungi, for diesel engines lubricants, in soap and paint production, and mainly for biodiesel production. New technologies should be developed to accomplish the oil production in large scale, since the Brazilian Biodiesel Program stimulates the oilseeds productions. In large scale oil production, the oil is obtained using solvent extraction. The solvent widely used for oil extraction is the n-hexane mainly because of its low vaporization temperature and selectivity to the lipidic fraction. However, the use of n-hexane in small capacity plants makes the process expensive because of high operating losses. Alcohols were exhaustively studied at pilot and industrial scales extraction plants. Ethanol is an efficient and advantageous extraction solvent for oilseeds, being an attractive alternative to extraction grade n-hexane. Therefore, the objective of the present work is to model and to compare the extraction kinetics of jatropha oil by using ethanol and n-hexane. Extractions experiments were performed in a batch extractor at 45 deg C using a liquid-to-solvent ratio of 15:1 (mL solvent/g sample). Samples were taken every 15 min, and extraction time was to 2 h. The kinetics of oil extraction data were fitted to the models reported in literature. For n-hexane and ethanol extractions, the fractional residual oil at 120 minutes was 0.314 and 0.0538, respectively. The models reported in literature were suitable to describe the n-hexane extraction, especially the Duggal model. However, those models were not adequate the model the ethanol extraction (author)

  7. Simulation of ethanol extractive distillation with mixed glycols as separating agent

    OpenAIRE

    Gil,I. D.; L. C. García; G. Rodríguez

    2014-01-01

    Extractive distillation is an alternative for ethanol dehydration processes that has been shown to be more effective than azeotropic distillation and, in close proximity, to be very competitive against the process that uses adsorption with molecular sieves. Glycols have been shown to be the most effective solvents in extractive distillation, mainly ethylene glycol and glycerol. In this work, an extractive distillation column was simulated with the Aspen Plus software platform, using the RadFr...

  8. Anticonvulsant effects of Lippia citriodora (Verbenaceae leaves ethanolic extract in mice: Role of gabaergic system

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    Amir Rashidian

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The results propose that L. citriodora leave ethanolic extract has anticonvulsant activity against convulsive disorders. It seems that this plant′s extract generates its antiseizure effect through GABAergic system potentiation. Further studies will be needed in order to investigate the exact mechanisms of it. Moreover, one may conclude that the present results are in accordance with the positive effect of L. citriodora extract to treat convulsion mentioned in old Iranian literature.

  9. Effect of Prosopis africana ethanolic leaf extracts on packed cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The extract of Prosopis africana was given to the rats in solution as daily water. Group A rats (cage A) received 0 ml of the extract per 100 ml of distilled water and served as control group. Group B rats (cage B) received 1 ml of extract in 100 ml of distilled water, group C rats (cage C) received 2 ml of extract in 100 ml of ...

  10. Hepatoprotective effect of leaves of aqueous ethanol extract of Cestrum nocturnum against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity

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    M. Imran Qadir

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The hepatoprotective activities of Cestrum nocturnum (Queen of Night was evaluated against the paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in the mice. Aqueous ethanol (30:70 extract of plant was obtained by maceration. Results showed that aqueous ethanol extract of C. nocturnum (250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg produced significant (p<0.05 hepatoprotective activities against paracetamol induced liver injury in Swiss albino mice. Histopathalogical studied of liver further supported the hepatoprotective effects of C. notrunum. Phyto-chemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, terpenes, phenolic compounds, carbohydrates and volatile oils. Most of the flavonoids have hepatoprotective activity. Therefore, the hepatoprotective activity of C. nocturnum may be due to the presence of flavonoids and phenolic components. It was concluded from the present study that aqueous ethanol extract of leaves of C. nocturnum has hepatoprotective activity against the paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in albino mice.

  11. A study Antiurolithiatic Activity of ethanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus in animal models

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    Jagannath N

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the Antiurolithiatic Activity of ethanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus in animal models.Materials and Methods: The study includes performing on healthy albino rats of either sex weighing 220 – 270gms and urolithiasis was induced by oral administration of ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride water. The parameters studied are serum analysis for Urea, Creatinine, Calcium and Phosphorus, Body Weight of animals included in the study group and Histopathological Study of kidney for the presences crystals.  Results In our study the Ethanolic extract of Asparagus Racemosus with doses of 800mg/kg and 1600mg/kg per orally to rats showed significant reduction in serum urea, creatinine, calcium and phosphorus levels in urolithiatic rats when compared to the positive control rats (Group II. These results were found to be statistically significant (p<0.05.Conclusion: Ethanol Extract of Asparagus racemosus has a significant antiurolithiatic activity.

  12. NOVEL FUROCARBAZOLE A LKALOIDS AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF ETHANOL EXTRACT FROM Zanthoxylum fagara (L. Sargent

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    Víctor Macías

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available From ethanol-soluble extract of the bark from Zanthoxylum fagara (L. Sargent. were isolated two novel furocarbazole alkaloids, 4-methoxy-10H-furo[3,2-a]carbazole ( and 10H-furo[3,2-a]carbazole ( , whose structures were elucidated on the basis of IR, MS and NMR (including 1D and 2D techniques. In addition, the antibacterial effect of the ethanol extract of bark was evaluated against Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Shigella boydii, Vibrio cholerae El Tor, and Vibrio cholerae clinical lysate; and Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus epidermidis, using the Agar-well diffusion method. In above-mentioned assay was found that the ethanol extract of bark exhibited inhibition against strains B. subtilis (17mm, V. cholerae El Tor (11mm, V. cholerae clinical lysate (10mm, and S. epidermidis (9mm.

  13. Anti-inflammatory Activity of Methanoilc and Ethanolic Extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aqueous ethanoic and methanolic extracts of Citrus Sinensis Peel were investigated for antiinflammatory activity in carrageenan induced paw oedema in wistar rats, and compared to a positive control drug, Indomethacin. These extracts were given(IP) in a concentration of 20, and 70mg/kg with extract with a concentration ...

  14. Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antioxidant and free radical scavenging ability of the extract was assessed against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The ability of the extract to reduce ferric ions to its ferrous form was also evaluated. The total phenols, flavonoids, tannins and saponin contents of the extract was ...

  15. Enhanced Cutaneous Wound Healing In Vivo by Standardized Crude Extract of Poincianella pluviosa.

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    Fernanda Giacomini Bueno

    Full Text Available Wound healing is a complex process that involves several biological events, and a delay in this process may cause economic and social problems for the patient. The search continues for new alternative treatments to aid healing, including the use of herbal medicines. Members of the genus Caesalpinia are used in traditional medicine to treat wounds. The related species Poincianella pluviosa (DC. L.P. Queiroz increases the cell viability of keratinocytes and fibroblasts and stimulates the proliferation of keratinocytes in vitro. The crude extract (CE from bark of P. pluviosa was evaluated in the wound-healing process in vivo, to validate the traditional use and the in vitro activity. Standardized CE was incorporated into a gel and applied on cutaneous wounds (TCEG and compared with the formulation without CE (Control for 4, 7, 10, or 14 days of treatment. The effects of the CE on wound re-epithelialization; cell proliferation; permeation, using photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS; and proteins, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD-2 and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2 were evaluated. The TCEG stimulated the migration of keratinocytes at day 4 and proliferation on the following days, with a high concentration of cells in metaphase at 7 days. Type I collagen formed more rapidly in the TCEG. PAS showed that the CE had permeated through the skin. TCEG stimulated VEGF at day 4 and SOD-2 and COX-2 at day 7. The results suggest that the CE promoted the regulation of proteins and helped to accelerate the processes involved in healing, promoting early angiogenesis. This led to an increase in the re-epithelialized surface, with significant mitotic activity. Maturation of collagen fibers was also enhanced, which may affect the resistance of the extracellular matrix. PAS indicated a correlation between the rate of diffusion and biological events during the healing process. The CE from P. pluviosa appears promising as an aid in

  16. The Antiproliferative Effect of Moringa oleifera Crude Aqueous Leaf Extract on Human Esophageal Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiloke, Charlette; Phulukdaree, Alisa; Chuturgoon, Anil A

    2016-04-01

    Esophageal cancer (EC) is commonly diagnosed in South Africa (SA), with high incidences occurring in SA's black population. Moringa oleifera (MO), a multipurpose tree, is used traditionally for its nutritional and medicinal properties. It has been used for the treatment of a variety of ailments, including cancer. We investigated the antiproliferative effect of MO crude aqueous leaf extract (MOE) on a cancerous esophageal cell line (SNO). SNO cells were exposed to a range of MOE dilutions to evaluate cytotoxicity (MTT assay). Oxidative stress was determined using the TBARS assay. The comet assay was used to assess DNA damage. We then determined cell death mechanisms by measuring phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization (flow cytometry), caspase-3/7 and caspase-9 activities, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels (luminometry). Protein expression of Smac/DIABLO and PARP-1 was determined by western blotting. SNO cells were treated with a range of MOE dilutions to obtain an IC50 value of 389.2 μg/mL MOE (24 h), which was used in all subsequent assays. MOE significantly increased lipid peroxidation (P < .05) and DNA fragmentation (P < .0001) in SNO cells. The induction of apoptosis was confirmed by the increase in PS externalization (P < .0001), caspase-9 (P < .05) and caspase-3/7 (P = .22) activities, and decreased ATP levels (P < .0001). MOE significantly increased both the expression of Smac/DIABLO protein and cleavage of PARP-1, resulting in an increase in the 24-kDa fragment (P < .001). MOE possesses antiproliferative effects on SNO EC cells by increasing lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation, and induction of apoptosis.

  17. Hepatoprotective effect of aqueous extract of Aframomum melegueta on ethanol-induced toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwozo, Sarah O; Oyinloye, Babatunji E

    2011-01-01

    In recent years there have been remarkable developments in the prevention of diseases, especially with regards to the role of free radicals and antioxidants. Ethanol-induced oxidative stress appears to be one mechanism by which ethanol causes liver injury. The protective effect of aqueous plant extract of Aframomum melegueta on ethanol-induced toxicity was investigated in male Wistar rats. The rats were treated with 45 % ethanol (4.8 g/kg b.w.t.) for 16 days to induce alcoholic diseases in the liver. The activities of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and triglyceride were monitored and the histological changes in liver examined in order to evaluate the protective effects of the plant extract. Hepatic malondialdehyde and reduced glutathione, as well as superoxide dismutase and glutathione-S-transferase activities were determined for the antioxidant status. Chronic ethanol administration resulted in a statistically significant elevation of serum alanine aminotransferases and triglyceride levels, as well as a decrease in reduced glutathione and superoxide dismutase which was dramatically attenuated by the co-administration of the plant extract. Histological changes were related to these indices. Co-administration of the plant extract suppressed the elevation of lipid peroxidation, restored the reduced glutathion, and enhanced the superoxide dismutase activity. These results highlight the ability of Aframomum melegueta to ameliorate oxidative damage in the liver and the observed effects are associated with its antioxidant activities.

  18. Effects of marjoram volatile oil and grape seed extract on ethanol toxicity in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ashmawy, Ibrahim M; Saleh, Amal; Salama, Osama M

    2007-11-01

    Natural dietary antioxidants are extensively studied for their ability to protect cells from miscellaneous damages. Marjoram volatile oil (Origanum majorana L., Lamiaceae) and grape seed extract (Vitis vinifera L., Vitaceae) are potent antioxidants. Effects of administration of marjoram volatile oil or grape seed extract on oral administration of ethanol, simultaneously, daily for 10 weeks were studied through determining epididymal spermatozoal analysis, serum testosterone level, weight and histopathological examination of testis, liver and brain. Glutathione level and lipid peroxidation content as malondialdehyde in the testis, liver and brain were measured. The repeated intake of a great amount of ethanol (10 ml/kg body weight, 25% v/v) was followed by fertility disturbances with low sperm count, impaired sperm motility and decrease in serum testosterone level. Moreover, ethanol toxicity induced significant alterations in the histological structures of the testis, liver and brain. The results revealed a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and decrease in the level of glutathione in the testis, liver and brain in the ethanol-treated group. However, co-administration of the extracts of protective plants resulted in minimizing the hazard effects of ethanol toxicity on male fertility, liver and brain tissues. It may be concluded that marjoram volatile oil and grape seed extract are useful herbal remedies, especially for controlling oxidative damages.

  19. Antibacterial activity of crude extracts of Thai medicinal plants against clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

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    Kitpipit, L.

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Acacia catechu, Garcinia mangostana, Impatiens balsamina, Peltophorum pterocarpum, Psidium guajava, Punica granatum, Quercus infectoria, Tamarindus indica, Uncaria gambir, Walsura robusta were primarily tested for their antibacterial activities against 35 clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant S. aureus and S. aureus ATCC 25923 using disc diffusion method (2.5 mg/disc. Almost all extracts, except Tamarindus indica exhibited antibacterial activity. Both aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Acacia catechu, Psidium guajava, Punica granatum, Quercus infectoria, and Uncaria gambir, and ethanolic extracts of Garcinia mangostana, Impatiens balsamina, Peltophorum pterocarpum, and Walsura robusta demonstrated inhibition zones, ranging from 6 to 22 mm. Determination of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC values were performed using agar dilution method. The MIC/MBC values of aqueous extracts of Quercus infectoria against clinical isolates of MRSA and S. aureus were 0.2 to 0.4/0.4 to 1.6 and 0.2/1.6 mg/ ml, respectively. Ethanolic extracts of Garcinia mangostana, Punica granatum and Quercus infectoria were demonstrated to be the most effective. The MIC values against MRSA isolates and S. aureus ranged from 0.05 to 0.4 and 0.1, 0.2 to 0.4 and 0.1, 0.2 to 0.4 and 0.2 mg/ml, respectively. The MBC values against MRSA ranged from 0.1 to 0.4, 0.4 to 1.6, and 1.6 to 3.1 mg/ml and against S. aureus at 0.4, 3.2, and 1.6 mg/ml, respectively.

  20. Factorial Design Evaluation of Some Experimental Factors for Phenols Oxidation using Crude Extracts from Jackfruit (Artocarpus integrifolia)

    OpenAIRE

    Cestari,Antonio R.; Vieira,Eunice F. S.; Nascimento,Alisson J. P.; Santos Filha,Marina M.; Airoldi,Claudio

    2002-01-01

    This study presents some additional information on the alternative utilization of Jackfruit crude extracts in selective phenol oxidation reactions, using catechol and the o-, m- e p- cresols and pyrogallol substracts. The effects of pH, concentration of phosphate buffer and kinds of natural phenol extractors are evaluated. By using the conventional univariate procedure, the best enzymatic activities were obtained with the catechol substract, phosphate buffer (pH 5.0) at a concentration 0.10 m...

  1. Spectrophotometric Quantification of Flavonoids in Herbal Material, Crude Extract, and Fractions from Leaves of Eugenia uniflora Linn

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Rhayanne T. M.; Bezerra, Isabelle C. F.; Ferreira, Magda R. A.; Soares, Luiz Alberto Lira

    2017-01-01

    Background: The traditional use of Eugenia uniflora L. (?Pitanga?) is reported due to several properties, which have often been related to its flavonoid content. Objective: The aim was to evaluate analytical procedures for quantification of total flavonoids content (TFCs) by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry in the herbal material (HM), crude extract (CE), and fractions from leaves of E. uniflora. Materials and Methods: The method for quantification of flavonoids after complexati...

  2. Diuretic activity of the aqueous crude extract and hot tea infusion of Moringa stenopetala (Baker f.) Cufod. leaves in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Fekadu,Netsanet; Basha,Hirut; Meresa,Asfaw; Degu,Sileshi; Girma,Biruktawit; Geleta,Bekesho

    2017-01-01

    Netsanet Fekadu, Hirut Basha, Asfaw Meresa, Sileshi Degu, Biruktawit Girma, Bekesho Geleta Directorate of Traditional and Modern Medicine Research, Ethiopian Public Health Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Abstract: Moringa stenopetala (Baker f.) Cufod. is a medicinal plant that has been used for the treatment of different ailments such as hypertension and diabetes in Ethiopia. This study aims to assess the diuretic activity of the aqueous crude extract and hot tea i...

  3. The influence of {sup 60}Co gamma radiation on the action of phenolic compounds Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.) Brenan in the microbiological control of crude extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Gustavo Henrique F. dos; Silva, Edvane B. da, E-mail: santosghf@hotmail.co [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Estudos em Radioprotecao e Radioecologia (GERAR); Sena, Kesia Xisto da Fonseca R. de; Silva, Bruna L., E-mail: kxfrs@bol.com.b [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Antibioticos; Lima, Claudia S. de A., E-mail: claudia.salima@gmail.co [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Radiobiologia

    2009-07-01

    Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.) Brenan, known popularly as angico is a tree founded in northeastern of Brazil, and has great economic and ecological interest. These trees are characterized by high levels of tannins. To evaluate the influence of gamma radiation in plant extracts of barks and leaves of angico, we got extracts of barks and leaves in 70% ethanol, which was filtered and evaporated until dryness. It were classified in four groups (non-irradiated, 5; 7.5 and 10 kGy). The total phenols were quantified by Folin-Ciocalteau method, and the tannins, using the precipitation of casein. The antimicrobial activity of extracts was observed using the paper disk diffusion methods against Gram-positive, Gram-negative, acid-alcohol-resistant bacteria: and yeasts. The halos greater than 10 mm were considered actives. It was also performed the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) using Gram positive and alcohol-acid resistant bacteria. The results showed that tannins of A. colubrina, were 52 to 57% of total phenols, and leaves, 58 to 60%. The percentage of total phenols and tannins in the barks and leaves of A. colubrina have not statistically significant change when compared with the irradiated control. These results suggest that A. colubrina has antimicrobial activity against the Gram-positive and alcohol-acid -resistant bacteria, confirmed by MIC. The extracts of leaves it was additionally actives against the Gram-negative and against the yeast C. albicans. These results show that the gamma radiation has not influence about the antimicrobial activity of crude extracts of barks and leaves of A. colubrina. (author)

  4. Antifungal effects of the aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Echinophora platyloba and Rosmarinus officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehri, Z; Javadian, F; Khammari, D; Hassanshahian, M

    2016-03-01

    In traditional medicine, herbal products still remain the principal source of pharmaceutical agents. The present study aimed to investigate the antifungal effects of Echinophora platyloba and Rosmarinus officinalis extracts on C. albicans species. :The aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of E. platyloba and R. officinalis, collected from the mountainous regions of Iran, were screened in terms of antimicrobial activity against C. albicans strains, using the agar well diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by the microtitration technique. Overall, the results showed that the leaf extracts of E. platyloba and R. officinalis had strong antimicrobial activities. Also, based on the findings, R. officinalis leaf extracts exhibited higher antimicrobial activity. The ethanolic leaf extracts of E. platyloba and R. officinalis showed good antimicrobial activity against C. albicans strains. However, the aqueous extracts did not show any major activities against the tested C. albicans strains. On the other hand, the ethanolic extracts exhibited major antimicrobial properties against C. albicans strains. The highest minimum inhibitory concentration was reported in E. platyloba leaf extracts. The present results indicated some advantages of E. platyloba and R. officinalis leaf extracts, which could be applied for the treatment of microbial infections.

  5. Identification and antioxidant activity test of bioactive compound produced from ethanol extract of temukunci (Boesenbergia rotunda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atun, Sri; Handayani, Sri; Frindryani, Luthfi Fitri

    2017-08-01

    The aims of this study are to identify and to analyze antioxidant activity of bioactive compounds in ethanol extract of temukunci (Boesenbergia rotunda) rhizome. This research method was carried out by maceration of 3 kg dryed powder of B. rotunda in ethanol. The extract was concentrated using a vacuum evaporator. White crystals obtained from ethanol extract further recrystallized to produce as much as 80 mg of pure compound. Identification of pure compound was obtained using UV-Vis, IR, and 1H-NMR. The antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts, pure compounds, and ascorbic acid (positive control) were obtained using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) method. The UV-Vis spectra showed λmax 287.40 and 214.20 nm, the IR spectra showed absorption C=C aromatic group at 1571.66 cm-1, C=O carbonyl at 1639.37 cm-1 and CO at 1153.35 cm-1. 1H-NMR spectra showed a group monosubtituted benzene, benzene tetrasubstituted, proton of hydroxyl group, proton of methoxyl group, one proton oxyalkyl, and two protons alkyl. The spectroscopic data showed the compound is pinostrobin (5-hydroxy-7-metoxyiflavanone). The antioxidant activity (IC50) of the ethanol extracts from B. rotunda rhizome, pinostrobin, and ascorbic acid (positive control) were 92.6; 62.84; and 3.7 µg/mL repectively. The study showed that the ethanol extract of B. rotunda rhizome and bioactive compounds have high antioxidant activity, but their activity lower than ascorbic acid.

  6. Chemical composition, antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Tunisian garlic (Allium sativum essential oil and ethanol extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Zouari Chekki

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to establish some nutritional properties of garlic cultivated in Tunisia and to evaluate the antioxidant and the antimicrobial activites of its essential oil and ethanol extract. Tunisian garlic (Allium sativum was characterized for moisture, ash and protein contents which were determined as 66%, 1.4% and 5.2% respectively. In addition, Fe (5.90 mg/kg, Cu (1.61 mg/kg, Mg (15 mg/kg and P (140 mg/kg were reported such as the major minerals in garlic. The fat profile of tunisian garlic was conducted, the main fatty acids identified were lauric acid (49.3% and linoleic acid (20.4%. Essential oil obtained from A. sativum was analysed by capillary GCMS. Diallyl disulfide (49.1% and diallyl trisulfide (30.38% were the main components of the five identified components. The phenolic content of The ethanol extract are analysed for its phenolic profiles, colorimetric analysis revealed that the total phenols, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins contents were respectively 43.63 mg GA/g, 13.18 mg quercetin/g and 24.24 mg of catechin/g. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay, essential oil presented the highest antioxidant activity compared to its ethanolic extract. IC50 values observed for the essential oil and ethanol extract were 300 μg/ml and 600 µg/ml respectively. The essential oil and ethanol extract from raw garlic were tested for antimicrobial activity against seven microorganisms. The results showed that ethanol extract was active against all tested strains: Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Listeria monocytogene, Yersinia enterocolitica and Bacillus cereus.

  7. Comparative study of total phenolics, flavonoids contents and evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of different polarities fruits crude extracts of Datura metel L.

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    Mohammad A. Hossain

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the total phenolics and flavonoids and to evaluate antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of different extracts from fruits of Datura metel (D. metel. Methods: Different crude extracts from the fruits of D. metel were subjected to determination of total phenolics, flavonoids, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities by established methods. Results: The total phenolics results showed that ethyl acetate extract was the most efficient (60.26% compared to hexane, chloroform, butanol and methanol extracts which had phenolic contents of 50.08, 35.50, 52.54 and 26.49%, respectively. Almost similar results were obtained from the fruits crude extracts for total flavonoids and results found that methanol crude extract was the highest (1.71% compared to other crude extracts. The antioxidant activity results showed that methanol extract acted the highest activity compared to other extracts and in the order of methanol>ethyl a cetate>hexane>chloroform>butanol extract. All extracts were displayed moderate antibacterial potential against the tested bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonus aeruginosa in the range of 0%-10%. Conclusions: The results of this present study clearly showed that the crude extracts of D. metel demenstrated antimicrobial and antioxidant activities and it may act as potential antioxidant sources for human biological system.

  8. Brine shrimp cytotoxicity of crude methanol extract and antispasmodic activity of α-amyrin acetate from Tylophora hirsuta Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background We have previously reported that aerial parts of Tylophora hirsuta have antispasmodic profile. The current work is an attempt for isolation of pharmacologically active compound(s) that contribute for its antispasmodic activity. Methods Preliminary phytochemical screening for crude methanol extract of Tylophora hirsuta (Th.Cr) is performed. Brine shrimp cytotoxicity of crude methanol extract is performed. Column chromatography was used for isolation of compounds. Mass spectroscopy, H1 NMR and C13 NMR were used for structural determination of compounds. α-amyrin acetate was tried for possible spasmolytic activity in rabbit’s jejunal preparations and KCl-induced contractions. Results Th.Cr tested positive for saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenoids. Compound 1 was isolated as α-amyrin acetate. Compound 2 was heptaeicosanol. Crude methanol extract tested positive for brine shrimp cytotoxicity with LC50 492.33± 8.08 mg/ml. Compound 1 tested positive for antispasmodic activity on spontaneous rabbits’ jejunum preparations with EC50 (60 ± 2) × 10-5M. The compound also tested positive on KCl induced contractions with EC50 (72 ± 3) × 10-5M. Conclusions The present work confirms that α-amyrin acetate is has antispasmodic profile and the relaxant effect may be attributed to α-amyrin acetate which is a major compound. PMID:23773697

  9. Antinociceptive activities of crude methanolic extract and phases, n-butanolic, chloroformic and ethyl acetate from Caulerpa racemosa (Caulerpaceae

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    Everton T. Souza

    Full Text Available In this study, we attempted to identify the possible antinociceptive actions of n-butanolic phase, chloroformic phase, ethyl acetate phase and crude methanolic extract obtained from Caulerpa racemosa. This seaweed is cosmopolitan in world, mainly in tropical regions. The n-butanolic, chloroformic, ethyl acetate phases and crude methanolic extract, all administered orally in the concentration of 100 mg/kg, reduced the nociception produced by acetic acid by 47.39%, 70.51%, 76.11% and 72.24%, respectively. In the hotplate test the chloroformic and ethyl acetate phase were activite in this models. In the neurogenic phase on formalin test, were observed that crude methanolic extract (51.77%, n-butanolic phase (35.12%, chloroformic phase (32.70% and indomethacin (32.06% were effective in inhibit the nociceptive response. In the inflammatory phase, only the ethyl acetate phase (75.43% and indomethacin (47.83% inhibited significantly the nociceptive response. Based on these data, we can infer that the ethyl acetate phase shows a significant anti-inflammatory profile, whose power has not yet been determined. However, pharmacological and chemical studies are continuing in order to characterize the mechanism(s responsible for the antinociceptive action and also to identify other active principles present in Caulerpa racemosa.

  10. Effect of Bawang Dayak (Eleutherine palmifolia (L) Merr) crude extract towards bacteria inhibition zone and carp (Cyprinus carpio) hematology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maftuch

    2017-05-01

    Negative impacts of antibiotics and chemical substance usage in aquaculture demand the researchers discover more efficient alternative yet environmentally friendly to overcome fish diseases. One alternative is by using Bawang Dayak (Eleutherine palmifolia (L.) Merr). This research aimed to reveal the effect of Bawang Dayak crude extract towards the inhibition zone of A. hydrophilia, V. harveyi, and P. fluorescens bacteria. Furthermore, it was also conducted to investigate the carp (C. carpio) hematology which was infected with A. hydrophila bacteria, and find the most appropriate dose of Bawang Dayak crude extract to inhibit the bacteria. This experimental research was performed by using Completely Randomized Design with 4 treatments and 3 replications. The best result of the zone of inhibition test in A. hydrophila bacteria was at the dose of 70 ppm while V. harveyi and P. Fluorescens bacteria were at the dose of 85 ppm. Then, fish hematology was found best at the dose of 80 ppm. Bawang Dayak crude extract was significant towards the inhibition zone of A. hydrophila, V. harveyi and P. Fluorescens bacteria, and carp hematology which was infected with A. hydrophila bacteria.

  11. Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Crude Methanolic Extract of Red Alga Bryothamnion triquetrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante-Silva, Luiz Henrique Agra; da Matta, Carolina Barbosa Brito; de Araújo, Morgana Vital; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; de Lira, Daysianne Pereira; de Oliveira Santos, Bárbara Viviana; de Miranda, George Emmanuel C.; Alexandre-Moreira, Magna Suzana

    2012-01-01

    The marine environment is an extraordinary reservoir of bioactive natural products, many of which exhibit chemical and structural features not found in terrestrial natural products. In this regard, the aim of this study was to investigate the possible antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of a crude methanolic extract of the red alga Bryothamnion triquetrum (BT-MeOH) in murine models. Groups of Swiss mice of both sexes (25–30 g) were used throughout the experiments. The potential antinociceptive of BT-MeOH was evaluated by means of the following tests: acetic acid-induced writhing, hot-plate test and glutamate- and formalin-induced nociception. The anti-inflammatory activity of BT-MeOH was investigated using the zymosan A-induced peritonitis test. The tests were conducted using 100 mg/kg (p.o.) BT-MeOH, 33.3 mg/kg (p.o.) dipyrone, 35.7 mg/kg (p.o.) indomethacin and 5.7 mg/kg (s.c.) morphine. The extract and all standard drugs were administered 40 min before the nociceptive/inflammatory stimulus. In the acetic acid-induced writhing test, BT-MeOH and dipyrone inhibited the nociceptive response by 55.9% (22.2 ± 2.0 writhings; p < 0.01) and 80.9% (9.6 ± 2.1 writhings; p < 0.01). In the hot-plate test, BT-MeOH did not increase the latency time of the animals in the time evaluated. In addition, BT-MeOH inhibited glutamate-induced nociception by 50.1%. While BT-MeOH did not inhibit the neurogenic phase in formalin-induced nociception, the inflammatory phase was inhibited by 53.1% (66.8 ± 14.2 s; p < 0.01). Indomethacin inhibited the inflammatory phase by 60.2% (56.8 ± 8.7 s; p < 0.01). In the zymosan-induced peritonitis test, BT-MeOH inhibited 55.6% (6.6 ± 0.2 × 106 leukocytes/mL; p < 0.01) of leukocyte migration, while indomethacin inhibited 78.1% (3.2 ± 0.1 × 106 leukocytes/mL; p < 0.01). Based on the results obtained in this study, we conclude that BT-MeOH has peripheral antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities. However, more studies need

  12. Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Crude Methanolic Extract of Red Alga Bryothamnion triquetrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Agra Cavalcante-Silva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The marine environment is an extraordinary reservoir of bioactive natural products, many of which exhibit chemical and structural features not found in terrestrial natural products. In this regard, the aim of this study was to investigate the possible antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of a crude methanolic extract of the red alga Bryothamnion triquetrum (BT-MeOH in murine models. Groups of Swiss mice of both sexes (25–30 g were used throughout the experiments. The potential antinociceptive of BT-MeOH was evaluated by means of the following tests: acetic acid-induced writhing, hot-plate test and glutamate- and formalin-induced nociception. The anti-inflammatory activity of BT-MeOH was investigated using the zymosan A-induced peritonitis test. The tests were conducted using 100 mg/kg (p.o. BT-MeOH, 33.3 mg/kg (p.o. dipyrone, 35.7 mg/kg (p.o. indomethacin and 5.7 mg/kg (s.c. morphine. The extract and all standard drugs were administered 40 min before the nociceptive/inflammatory stimulus. In the acetic acid-induced writhing test, BT-MeOH and dipyrone inhibited the nociceptive response by 55.9% (22.2 ± 2.0 writhings; p < 0.01 and 80.9% (9.6 ± 2.1 writhings; p < 0.01. In the hot-plate test, BT-MeOH did not increase the latency time of the animals in the time evaluated. In addition, BT-MeOH inhibited glutamate-induced nociception by 50.1%. While BT-MeOH did not inhibit the neurogenic phase in formalin-induced nociception, the inflammatory phase was inhibited by 53.1% (66.8 ± 14.2 s; p < 0.01. Indomethacin inhibited the inflammatory phase by 60.2% (56.8 ± 8.7 s; p < 0.01. In the zymosan-induced peritonitis test, BT-MeOH inhibited 55.6% (6.6 ± 0.2 × 106 leukocytes/mL; p < 0.01 of leukocyte migration, while indomethacin inhibited 78.1% (3.2 ± 0.1 × 106 leukocytes/mL; p < 0.01. Based on the results obtained in this study, we conclude that BT-MeOH has peripheral antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities. However, more

  13. The Cytotoxic, Antibacterial and Free Radical Scavenging Activities of Crude Extracts of Matricaria chamomilla, Salvadora persica and Artemisia annua

    KAUST Repository

    Seddek, Ahmed

    2011-12-01

    The discovery of drugs from natural sources has been a rapidly growing science in this era. Plants used for medicinal purposes have been usually studied as rich sources of bioactive chemical compounds that can be used as medications. Several plant-derived drugs have been approved so far. Cancer and infectious diseases have been common targets for the science of drug discovery, due to the high mortality rates caused by these diseases all over the world. Several plant-derived compounds are being marketed now as anti-cancer agents. However, finding novel antimicrobial and anti-cancer compounds has become an important goal to overcome the problems of existing anti-cancer and antimicrobial agents, such as resistance and non-selectivity. In this thesis project, an attempt to find out useful biological activities of the crude extracts of some plants used traditionally for medicinal purposes in Saudi Arabia has been made. Matricaria chamomilla, Salvadora persica and Artemisia annua have been selected for study, based on the literature review performed. These plants were screened for three biological activities; anti-cancer, anti-bacterial and free radical scavenging activities. The experimental part of the study consisted of some common in-vitro techniques, such as cytotoxicity and cell viability assays, disk diffusion assay and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl assay. In addition, the crude extract of Matricaria chamomilla has undergone chemical fractionation and four solvent fractions were obtained using column chromatography. The crude extract of Matricaria chamomilla showed a promising anti-bacterial activity against Escherichia coli and a very promising free radical scavenging activity that was comparable to ascorbic acid, an important anti-oxidant. The four solvent fractions obtained from that extract showed that these activities were produced by more than one compound belonging to different solvent fractions. In addition, the crude extract of Artemisia annua showed

  14. Life cycle assessment of biodiesel production from algal bio-crude oils extracted under subcritical water conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnusamy, Sundaravadivelnathan; Reddy, Harvind Kumar; Muppaneni, Tapaswy; Downes, Cara Meghan; Deng, Shuguang

    2014-10-01

    A life cycle assessment study is performed for the energy requirements and greenhouse gas emissions in an algal biodiesel production system. Subcritical water (SCW) extraction was applied for extracting bio-crude oil from algae, and conventional transesterification method was used for converting the algal oil to biodiesel. 58MJ of energy is required to produce 1kg of biodiesel without any co-products management, of which 36% was spent on cultivation and 56% on lipid extraction. SCW extraction with thermal energy recovery reduces the energy consumption by 3-5 folds when compared to the traditional solvent extraction. It is estimated that 1kg of algal biodiesel fixes about 0.6kg of CO2. An optimized case considering the energy credits from co-products could further reduce the total energy demand. The energy demand for producing 1kg of biodiesel in the optimized case is 28.23MJ. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of the diuretic effects of crude stem bark extraction of Zanthoxylum heitzii (Rutaceae) in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntchapda, Fidèle; Kakesse, Maguirgue; Fokam, Michel Archange Tagne; Pancha, Olivier Mbouemboue; Abakar, Djedouboum; Dimo, Théophile

    2015-09-01

    Zanthoxylum heitzii is a medicinal plant widely used in central Africa for the treatment of many diseases, especially cardiovascular diseases and hypertension. The diuretic effects of crude stem bark extraction were determined and its safety in rats was evaluated. The diuretic effects of crude stem bark extraction of Z. heitzii 250 g ± 10 g) of both sexes. The crude stem bark extraction of Z. heitzii at the doses of 225, 300 and 375 mg/kg was administered to rats at 5 mL/kg body weight. Urine volume was determined 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 24 h after administration of the extract. Kinetics of electrolyte elimination in response to a single oral administration dose of acute treatment was measured. The experiments were performed under the same conditions with two synthetic pharmacological diuretics considered as reference (furosemide and hydrochlorothiazide). Urinary and plasma concentrations of sodium and potassium ions were determined using flame photometry. Concentrations of creatinine, urea, glucose, albumin and electrolytes in the plasma and urine samples were evaluated using a two-way digital bidirectional spectrophotometer. The osmolarity of plasma and urine samples was measured by cytometry using an osmometer. Aldosterone was measured by radioimmunoassay. The plant extract accelerated the elimination of overloaded fluid and increased urine volume and the excretion of Na+, K+ and Cl- 24 h after administration (P0.05) changes were observed in the body temperature of the animals. The significant increase in urine volume 24 h after treatment followed a dose-response pattern. The excretion of Na+, K+ and Cl- caused a decrease in urine osmolarity. The stability of aldosterone, the absence of correlation with the plasma levels of sodium, and increased clearance of free water in animals treated with aqueous extract suggest that increased diuresis and moderate natriuresis elevation were of tubular origin.

  16. Curcuma aromatica Water Extract Attenuates Ethanol-Induced Gastritis via Enhancement of Antioxidant Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo-Young Jeon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Curcuma aromatica is an herbal medicine and traditionally used for the treatment of various diseases in Asia. We investigated the effects of C. aromatica water extract (CAW in the stomach of rats with ethanol-induced gastritis. Gastritis was induced in rats by intragastric administration of 5 mL/kg body weight of absolute ethanol. The CAW groups were given 250 or 500 mg of extract/kg 2 h before administration of ethanol, respectively. To determine the antioxidant effects of CAW, we determined the level of lipid peroxidation, the level of reduced glutathione (GSH, the activities of catalase, degree of inflammation, and mucus production in the stomach. CAW reduced ethanol-induced inflammation and loss of epithelial cells and increased the mucus production in the stomach. CAW reduced the increase in lipid peroxidation associated with ethanol-induced gastritis (250 and 500 mg/kg, p<0.01, resp. and increased mucosal GSH content (500 mg/kg, p<0.01 and the activity of catalase (250 and 500 mg/kg, p<0.01, resp.. CAW increased the production of prostaglandin E2. These findings suggest that CAW protects against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa injury by increasing antioxidant status. We suggest that CAW could be developed for the treatment of gastritis induced by alcohol.

  17. Assessment of bioactivities of ethanolic extract of Melia azedarach (Meliaceae leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Asadujjaman

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess ethanolic extract of the leaves of Melia azedarach L. (Family-Meliaceae for its possible antioxidant, analgesic and antibacterial activities in association with performing phytochemical evaluation. Methods: A number of phytochemical tests of this extract were utilized to distinguish the existence of different sorts of compounds. Qualitative and quantitative antioxidant activities were assessed by TLC and DPPH scavenging assay respectively. Acetic acid induced writhing test in mice and disk diffusion assay of the leaves extract were carried out to demonstrate the analgesic and antibacterial activities respectively. Results: The phytochemical assessment revealed the existence of alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, saponins and tannins like compounds. Ethanolic extract of the leaves demonstrated antioxidant, analgesic and antibacterial activities in vitro. Conclusion: Considering the study, this could justify the leaves extract ’s bioactivities but, to substantiate the activity of individual compound further investigation is necessary.

  18. Inhibitory effect of ethanol extract of Nannochloropsis oceanica on lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, amyloidogenesis and memory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Yeon; Hwang, Chul Ju; Lee, Hee Pom; Kim, Hee Sik; Han, Sang-Bae; Hong, Jin Tae

    2017-07-11

    Oxidative stress and neuroinflammation is implicated in the pathogenesis and development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we investigated the suppressive possibility of ethanol extract of Nannochloropsis oceanica (N. oceanica) on memory deficiency along with the fundamental mechanisms in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated mice model. Among several extracts of 32 marine microalgae, ethanol extract of N. oceanica showed the most significant inhibitory effect on nitric oxide (NO) generation, NF-κB activity and β-secretase activity in cultured BV-2 cells, neuronal cells and Raw 264.7 cells. Ethanol extract of N. oceanica (50, 100 mg/kg) also ameliorated LPS (250 μg/kg)-induced memory impairment. We also found that ethanol extract of N. oceanica inhibited the LPS-induced expression of iNOS and COX-2. Furthermore, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA) level as well as glutathione (GSH) level was also decreased by treatment of ethanol extract of N.oceanica. The ethanol extract of N. oceanica also suppresses IκB degradation as well as p50 and p65 translocation into the nucleus in LPS-treated mice brain. Associated with the inhibitory effect on neuroinflammation and oxidative stress, ethanol extract of N. oceanica suppressed Aβ1-42 generation through down-regulation of APP and BACE1 expression in in vivo. These results suggest that ethanol extract of N. oceanica ameliorated memory impairment via anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-amyloidogenic mechanisms.

  19. In vitro antiplasmodial activity of ethanolic extracts of South Indian medicinal plants against Plasmodium falciparum

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    Sundaram Ravikumar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the antiplasmodial potential of Catharanthus roseus L (C. roseus, Coccinea grandis (C. grandis, Thevetia peruviana (T. peruviana, Prosopis juliflora (P. juliflora, Acacia nilotica (A. nilotica, Azadirachta indica (A. indica (Abr. Juss and Morinda pubescens (M. pubescens. Methods: The C. roseus L, C. grandis, T. peruviana, P. juliflora, A. nilotica, A. indica (Abr. Juss and M. pubescens were collected from Ramanathapuram District, Tamil Nadu, India and the extraction was carried out in ethanol. The filter sterilized extracts (100, 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25 and 3.125 毺 g/mL were tested for antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum. The phytochemical constituents in the potential extracts were also detected. Results: Of the selected plants species, the bark extract of A. indica (Abr. Juss showed excellent antiplasmodial activity (IC50 29.77 毺 g/mL followed by leaf extract of A. indica (Abr. Juss (IC50 47.20 毺 g/mL and leaf extract of C. roseus L (IC50 49.63 毺 g/mL. The leaf, bark and flower extracts of P. juliflora showed IC50 values of more than 100 毺 g/mL. Statistical analysis reveals significant antiplasmodial activity (P<0.01 between the concentrations and time of exposure. Additionally, no chemical injury was found in the erythrocytes incubated with the ethanolic extract of all the tested plants. The in vitro antiplasmodial activity might be due to the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, carbohydrates, flavonoids, phenols, saponins, triterpenoids, proteins and tannins in the ethanolic extracts of the tested plants. Conclusions: The ethanolic bark extracts of A. indica (Abr. Juss possess lead compounds for the development of antiplasmodial drugs.

  20. Evaluation of immunomodulatory potential of ethanolic extract of Roscoea procera rhizomes in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh S Sahu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The aim of present study was to evaluate immunomodulatory potential of ethanolic extract of Roscoea procera (Zingiberaceae rhizomes by using delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH and carbon clearance method in comparison to standard established immunosuppressant drug, cyclophosphamide (30 mg/kg, i.p. in mice. Material and Methods : The extract was comprised to acute toxicity (OECD-423 guideline, DTH and carbon clearance method for their immunomodulatory potential. Ethanolic extract of Roscoea procera rhizomes administered orally at doses 300 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg, p.o. to mice. Result and Conclusion : Result of our study revealed that, the foot pat thickness of ethanolic extract group (P<0.05 significantly enhanced the production of circulating antibody titre in response to Sheep red blood cells (SRBC and phagocytic functions of mononuclear macrophages and non-specific immunity. Result were also supported by serological and haematological tests data. Hence, the present investigation reveals that, ethanolic extract of Roscoea procera rhizomes possesses immunostimulant properties. Further studies to identify the active moieties and elucidation of the mechanism of action are recommended.

  1. In vitro assessment of Macleaya cordata crude extract bioactivity and anticancer properties in normal and cancerous human lung cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Lin, Yu-ling; Chen, Xuan-Ren; Liao, Chi-Cheng; Poo, Wak-Kim

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the bioactivity and anticancer properties of Macleaya cordata crude extract in vitro using normal fetal lung fibroblast MRC5 and adenocarcinomic epithelial cell A549 as model systems,. Treatment of extract induced cell detachment, rounding, and irregularity in shape, in both normal and adenocarcinomic human lung cells, in accompanied of significant reduction in cell proliferation. The data indicated that necrosis appeared to be involved in compromising cell growth in both types of lung cells since membrane permeability and cell granularity were elevated. Although apoptosis was evident, the responses were differential in normal and diseased lung cells. Viability of treated MRC5 cells was reduced in a dose-dependent manner, demonstrating that the normal lung cells are sensitive to the extract. Surprisingly, A549 viability was slightly elevated in response to extract exposure at low concentration, implying that cells survived were metabolically active; the viability was reduced accordingly to treatment at higher concentrations. The present findings demonstrate that the crude extract of M. cordata contains agents affecting the functioning of normal and diseased lung cells in vitro. The observed cytotoxic effects against adenocarcinomic lung cells validate the potential of using M. cordata as herbal intervention in combined with conventional chemotherapy for lung cancer treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Anti- Plasmodium Falciparum Activity of Extracts from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    malaria drugs. Dendrathema indicum/ Dunkufea plant used in the treatment of malaria in the northern part of Nigeria was evaluated for activity against Plasmodium falciparum. The crude ethanol extract of the plant, n-hexane, chloroform and ethyl ...

  3. Ethanolic Extract Of Pterocarpus eringeus Bark Impairs Platelet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To investigate the effects of Pterocarpus erinaceus extract on platelets count functions in rats. Methods: 75 rats were fed with alcohol extracts of Pterocarpus erinaceus for two months. Platelets count, prothrombin time, Bleeding and Clotting time were determined in the rats by methods of Diacies and Lewis.

  4. Antimicrobial activity of the ethanolic extract of Bryonopsis laciniosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The extents of the growth inhibition of bacteria were measured for each extract and Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus and Bacillus cerues exhibited significant growth inhibition zone. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) exhibited by stem extract against the tested organisms ranged between 0.156 and 5 mg/ml ...

  5. Antifertility activity of aqueous ethanolic leaf extract of Spondias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Acute toxicity test of the plant extract was carried out in rats of both sexes. The anticonceptive and abortifacient activity of the extract were investigated, including the Fertility Index or embryo score of control and treated animals. The estrogenic activity was determined using ovariectomized rats. Results:The results ...

  6. Antimicrobial Evaluation of Ethanolic Extract of Pistia Stratiotes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... material while Escherichia coli was the most resistant. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the plant extract ranged between 20% (w/v) and 50% (w/v). Thus extract of Pistia stratiotes could be useful as a source of antibiotics against some disease causing bacteria. KEY WORDS: Antibacterial, Inhibitory, Agar diffusion, ...

  7. Antinociceptive and antipyretic properties of ethanol extract of Oryza ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2017-03-21

    Mar 21, 2017 ... The observation of the effect of the extract as compared to that of aspirin agrees with the fact that aspirin exerts its antipyretic effect by inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis in the hypothalamus. In a related study it was reported that Dalbergia odorifera extract inhibit the synthesis of prostaglandin (Bonazzi et al., ...

  8. Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Activities of Ethanolic Leaf Extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    inflammatory action of the leaf extract is mediated both centrally and peripherally. The analgesic or anti-inflammatory effect of the extract was not attenuated by opioid antagonist, naloxone, thus ruling out the involvement of opioid receptors in the central ...

  9. phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aluko B. T.

    ABSTRACT. The antioxidant and free radical scavenging ability of the extract was assessed against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The ability of the extract to reduce ferric ions to its ferrous form was also evaluated. The total phenols, flavonoids, tannins and saponin contents of the ...

  10. Effect of Crude and Decaffeinated Extracts of Cola nitida Seeds on Male Reproductive System in Swiss Albino Rats

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    J.O Ogundipe

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Caffeine is present in kola nut and xanthine stimulants which are used as a psychoactive drug. Therefore, the effect of kola nut (Cola nitida extract was carried out on male reproductive system in male albino rats. Aim and Objectives: This study was aimed to determine the effect of oral administration of Crude Extract of Kola (CEK and Decaffeinated Extract of Kola (DEK on the reproductive function in male Swiss albino rats. Material and Methods: Twenty-four adult male albino rats were used for this study, they were assigned into three groups consisting eight rats each. Group 1 (control group received (8mg/kg bw of distilled water for six weeks, Group 2 (crude extract group received (8mg/kg bw of CEK for six weeks, and Group 3 (decaffeinated extract group was treated with (8mg/kg bw of DEK for six weeks. Result: CEK showed no significant decrease in the body weight and sperm count when compared with the control group. No significant difference in seminal parameter (motility, morphology, viability, organ weight (testis and hormonal assay (testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone when compared with the control group. DEK showed no significant different in body weight, hormonal assay (testosterone and follicle stimulating hormone, seminal parameter (sperm viability, count, morphology and motility, organ weight (testes and epipidymis of the animal; however significant increase was observed in luteinizing hormone when compared with control group. Asignificant increase in the sperm count of decaffeinated group was observed (p = 0.02 when compared with crude group. Conclusion: This study indicates that CEK and DEK have little effects on male reproductive system.

  11. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of ethanolic extracts of guarana, boldo, rosemary and cinnamon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannine Bonilla

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this investigation, the ethanolic extracts of two less known plants, little reported in the literature (guarana and boldo leaves were studied in comparison with the ethanolic extracts of two well studied plants (cinnamon and rosemary, regarding their colour, GC-MS profile, phenolic content and their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. The rosemary (59.20 ± 0.28 and guarana (56.63 ± 0.54 extracts showed the highest values for luminosity (L* and the UV-Vis absorption increased when L* decreased. GC-MS identified a limited number of compounds in the cinnamon and guarana extracts. The cinnamon extract showed the highest value for the total phenolic content (172 mg GA/g extract as compared to the other extracts. The highest antioxidant capacity was observed for the boldo leaves extract in the TEAC (6.66 ± 0.17 mM assay and for the rosemary extract in the DPPH (0.80 ± 0.14 mg/L test. In addition, all the extracts showed antimicrobial activity against the S. aureus strain, indicating that all the extracts studied could be used by food industries to develop new active food packaging materials.

  12. Self-assembled films containing crude extract of avocado as a source of tyrosinase for monophenol detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Nirton C.S., E-mail: nirtoncristi@gmail.com [Instituto de Física de São Carlos/Universidade de São Paulo, CP 369, 13560-970 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Ferreira, Reginaldo A. [Centro de Estudos e Inovação em Materiais Biofuncionais Avançados/Universidade Federal de Itajubá, CP 50, 37500-903 Itajubá, MG (Brazil); Cruz Rodrigues, Valquiria da; Guimarães, Francisco E.G. [Instituto de Física de São Carlos/Universidade de São Paulo, CP 369, 13560-970 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Queiroz, Alvaro A.A. de [Centro de Estudos e Inovação em Materiais Biofuncionais Avançados/Universidade Federal de Itajubá, CP 50, 37500-903 Itajubá, MG (Brazil)

    2013-10-15

    This paper reports on the use of the crude extract of avocado (CEA) fruit (Persea americana) as a source of tyrosinase enzyme. CEA was immobilized via layer by layer (LbL) technique onto indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates and applied in the detection of monophenol using a potentiometric biosensor. Poly(propylene imine) dendrimer of generation 3 (PPI-G3) was used as a counter ion in the layer by layer process due to its highly porous structure and functional groups suitable for enzyme linkage. After the immobilization of the crude CEA as multilayered films, standard samples of monophenol were detected in the 0.25–4.00 mM linear range with approximately 28 mV mM{sup −1} of sensitivity. This sensitivity is 14 times higher than the values found in the literature for a similar system. The results show that it is possible to obtain efficient and low-cost biosensors for monophenol detection using potentiometric transducers and alternative sources of enzymes without purification. - Highlights: • ITO films were functionalized with multilayers of PPI dendrimer and crude extract of avocado. • The films were applied as potentiometric biosensor for the detection of monophenol. • The proposed system presented an excellent sensitivity to monophenol (27 mV mM{sup −1})

  13. In vitro acaricidal activity of ethanolic and aqueous floral extracts of Calendula officinalis against synthetic pyrethroid resistant Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godara, R; Katoch, R; Yadav, A; Ahanger, R R; Bhutyal, A D S; Verma, P K; Katoch, M; Dutta, S; Nisa, F; Singh, N K

    2015-09-01

    Detection of resistance levels against deltamethrin and cypermethrin in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from Jammu (India) was carried out using larval packet test (LPT). The results showed the presence of resistance level II and I against deltamethrin and cypermethrin, respectively. Adult immersion test (AIT) and LPT were used to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of ethanolic and aqueous floral extracts of Calendula officinalis against synthetic pyrethroid resistant adults and larvae of R. (B.) microplus. Four concentrations (1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10 %) of each extract with four replications for each concentration were used in both the bioassays. A concentration dependent mortality was observed and it was more marked with ethanolic extract. In AIT, the LC50 values for ethanolic and aqueous extracts were calculated as 9.9 and 12.9 %, respectively. The egg weight of the live ticks treated with different concentrations of the ethanolic and aqueous extracts was significantly lower than that of control ticks; consequently, the reproductive index and the percent inhibition of oviposition values of the treated ticks were reduced. The complete inhibition of hatching was recorded at 10 % of ethanolic extract. The 10 % extracts caused 100 % mortality of larvae after 24 h. In LPT, the LC50 values for ethanolic and aqueous extracts were determined to be 2.6 and 3.2 %, respectively. It can be concluded that the ethanolic extract of C. officinalis had better acaricidal properties against adults and larvae of R. (B.) microplus than the aqueous extract.

  14. Trypanocidal activity of ethanolic extracts of Commiphora swynnertonii Burtt on Trypanosoma congolense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagagi, Yakob P; Silayo, Richard S; Kweka, Eliningaya J

    2016-07-08

    African trypanosomosis is the disease caused by extracellular protozoan parasites of the genus Trypanosoma transmitted by tsetse flies. The current study has evaluated the trypanocidal activity of Commiphora swynnertonii extracts on Trypanosoma congolense. The effect of ethanolic stem bark and resinous extracts on motility of T. congolense was evaluated by in vitro study at concentrations of 2 mg/ml and 4 mg/ml. Then, trypanocidal activity was evaluated by drug incubation infectivity test using mice at concentrations of 0.4 mg/ml and 2 mg/ml. In both studies negative (without drug) and positive (diminazene diaceturate) controls were used. The in vitro study showed that, ethanolic stem bark extract of C. swynnertonii at concentration of 4 mg/ml caused complete cessation of motility for T. congolense in 30 min. However, resinous ethanolic extract had delayed effect on cessation of motility of T. congolense observed at 90 and 100 min post-incubation at concentrations of 4 mg/ml and 2 mg/ml respectively. The drug incubation infectivity test study depicted that ethanolic stem bark extract at concentration of 2 mg/ml significantly (p = 0.000) reduced the infectivity of T. congolense in mice. However, it did not vary significantly (P =0.897) with group treated with diminazene diaceturate incubated mixture. The current study has provided evidence that, ethanolic stem bark extract of C. swynnertonii possess trypanocidal activity against T. congolense. Based on these findings, further studies are recommended to determine its potential as a lead to trypanocidal drug discovery.

  15. Observation of different ceramide species from crude cellular extracts by normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pettus, BJ; Bielawska, A; Kroesen, BJ; Moeller, PDR; Szulc, ZM; Hannun, YA; Busman, M

    2003-01-01

    Normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (NP-HPLC) coupled to atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (APCI-MS) allows qualitative analysis of endogenous ceramide and dihydroceramide species from crude lipid extracts utilizing chromatographic methods readily adaptable

  16. Central nervous system activity of the ethanol leaf extract of Sida acuta in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibironke, G F; Umukoro, A S; Ajonijebu, D C

    2014-03-01

    The study investigated the pharmacological effects of ethanol extract of Sida acuta leaves on central nervous system activities in mice. Adult male mice (18 - 25g) were used for the study. The extract was administered orally in male mice and evaluated in the following tests: forced swimming, tail suspension, formalin-induced paw licking, acetic acid--induced mouse writhing and apomorphine-induced stereotypy. The results revealed a reduction in the frequency of abdominal constrictions induced by acetic acid, decreased licking times in both phases of the formalin test, reduction in immobility times in forced swimming and tail suspension tests. However, the extract produced no effect on apomorphine-induced stereotyped behaviour. These results suggest that the ethanol extract of Sida acuta contains psychoactive substances with analgesic and antidepressant-like properties which may be beneficial in the management of pain.

  17. Effects of an ethanolic extract of Garcinia kola on glucose and lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of Garcinia kola on glucose and lipid levels in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats was investigated. Ethanolic extract of G. kola was prepared and used for animal treatments. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (40 mg/kg body weight). Acute effects of G. kola on glucose ...

  18. Effects of ethanolic extract of garlic, roselle and ginger on quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2014-08-23

    Aug 23, 2014 ... antimicrobial properties (Agarwal, 1996). The objective of this study was therefore, to investigate the effect of ethanolic extracts of garlic, ginger and roselle on cost of production, sensory, physical, and keeping qualities of chicken patties. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Dried ginger, garlic and roselle were ...

  19. In Vitro Anticancer Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Euphorbia hirta (L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, In vitro anticancer effects of Euphorbia hirta were investigated. The objectives of this study are to find the presence of secondary metabolites by preliminary phytochemical investigation and FTIR analysis in the Euphorbia hirta. Ethanolic leaf extract of Euphorbia hirta was tested for its cytotoxicity against ...

  20. The effect of ethanolic seed extract of Cucurbita maxima on lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty (30) adult wistar rats were used to study the possible effects of ethanolic seed extract of Cucurbita maxima on lipid profile. The rats were divided randomly into two groups, that is, normal diet group and high fat diet group. Each group was further subdivided into three sub groups (A1,B1,C1 for the normal diet group and ...