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Sample records for crosslinked uhmwpe sockets

  1. Natural polyphenols enhance stability of crosslinked UHMWPE for joint implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jie; Gao, Guorong; Liu, Xincai; Fu, Jun

    2015-03-01

    Radiation-crosslinked UHMWPE has been used for joint implants since the 1990s. Postirradiation remelting enhances oxidative stability, but with some loss in strength and toughness. Vitamin E-stabilized crosslinked UHMWPE has shown improved strength and stability as compared with irradiated and remelted UHMWPE. With more active phenolic hydroxyl groups, natural polyphenols are widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industries as potent stabilizers and could be useful for oxidative stability in crosslinked UHMWPE. We asked whether UHMWPE blended with polyphenols would (1) show higher oxidation resistance after radiation crosslinking; (2) preserve the mechanical properties of UHMWPE after accelerated aging; and (3) alter the wear resistance of radiation-crosslinked UHMWPE. The polyphenols, gallic acid and dodecyl gallate, were blended with medical-grade UHMWPE followed by consolidation and electron beam irradiation at 100 kGy. Radiation-crosslinked virgin and vitamin E-blended UHMWPEs were used as reference materials. The UHMWPEs were aged at 120 °C in air with oxidation levels analyzed by infrared spectroscopy. Tensile (n = 5 per group) and impact (n = 3 per group) properties before and after aging as per ASTM F2003 were evaluated. The wear rates were examined by pin-on-disc testing (n = 3 per group). The data were reported as mean ± SDs. Statistical analysis was performed by using Student's t-test for a two-tailed distribution with unequal variance for tensile and impact data obtained with n ≥ 3. A significant difference is defined with p Accelerated aging of these polyphenol-blended UHMWPEs resulted in ultimate tensile strength of 50.4 ± 1.4 MPa and impact strength of 53 ± 5 kJ/m(2) for 100 kGy-irradiated UHMWPE with 0.05 wt% dodecyl gallate, for example, in comparison to 51.2 ± 0.7 MPa (p = 0.75) and 58 ± 5 kJ/m(2) (p = 0.29) before aging. The pin-on-disc wear rates of 100 kGy-irradiated UHMWPE with 0.05 wt% dodecyl gallate and 0.05 wt% gallic acid

  2. Oxidation resistant peroxide cross-linked UHMWPE produced by blending and surface diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gul, Rizwan M; Oral, Ebru; Muratoglu, Orhun K

    2014-01-01

    Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) has been widely used as acetabular cup in total hip replacement (THR) and tibial component in total knee replacement (TKR). Crosslinking of UHMWPE has been successful used to improve its wear performance leading to longer life of orthopedic implants. Crosslinking can be performed by radiation or organic peroxides. Peroxide crosslinking is a convenient process as it does not require specialized equipment and the level of crosslinking can be manipulated by changing the amount of peroxide added. However, there is concern about the long-term stability of these materials due to possible presence of by-products. Vitamin E has been successfully used to promote long-term oxidative stability of UHMWPE. In this study, UHMWPE has been crosslinked using organic peroxide in the presence of Vitamin E to produce an oxidation resistant peroxide crosslinked material. Crosslinking was performed both in bulk by mixing peroxide and resin, and only on the surface using diffusion of peroxides.The results show that UHMWPE can be crosslinked using organic peroxides in the presence of vitamin E by both methods. However, the level of crosslinking decreases with the increase in vitamin E content. The wear resistance increases with the increase in crosslink density, and oxidation resistance significantly increases due to the presence of vitamin E

  3. Oxidation resistant peroxide cross-linked UHMWPE produced by blending and surface diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gul, R. M.; Oral, E.; Muratoglu, O. K.

    2013-01-01

    Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) has been widely used as acetabular cup in total hip replacement (THR) and tibial component in total knee replacement (TKR). Crosslinking of UHMWPE has been successful used to improve its wear performance leading to longer life of orthopedic implants. Crosslinking can be performed by radiation or organic peroxides. Peroxide crosslinking is a convenient process as it does not require specialized equipment and the level of crosslinking can be manipulated by changing the amount of peroxide added. However, there is concern about the long-term stability of these materials due to possible presence of by-products. Vitamin E has been successfully used to promote long-term oxidative stability of UHMWPE. In this study, UHMWPE has been crosslinked using organic peroxide in the presence of Vitamin E to produce an oxidation resistant peroxide crosslinked material. Crosslinking was performed both in bulk by mixing peroxide and resin, and only on the surface using diffusion of peroxides.The results show that UHMWPE can be crosslinked using organic peroxides in the presence of vitamin E by both methods. However, the level of crosslinking decreases with the increase in vitamin E content. The wear resistance increases with the increase in crosslink density, and oxidation resistance significantly increases due to the presence of vitamin E. (author)

  4. Vitamin E-diffused highly cross-linked UHMWPE particles induce less osteolysis compared to highly cross-linked virgin UHMWPE particles in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bichara, David A; Malchau, Erik; Sillesen, Nanna H

    2014-01-01

    when compared to virgin gamma irradiated cross-linked UHMWPE. Groups received equal amount of particulate debris overlaying the calvarium for 10 days. Calvarial bone was examined using high resolution micro-CT and histomorphometric analyses. There was a statistically significant difference between...

  5. Effect of crosslinking UHMWPE on its tensile and compressive creep performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, G; Carroll, M

    2001-01-01

    The in vitro quasi-static tensile and compressive creep properties of three sets of GUR 1050 ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) specimens were obtained. These sets were: control (as-received stock); "low-gamma" (specimens were crosslinked using gamma radiation, with a minimum dose of 5 Mrad); and "high-gamma" (specimens were crosslinked using gamma radiation, with a minimum dose of 15 Mrad). The % crystallinity (%C) and crosslink density (rho(x)) of the specimens in the three sets were also obtained. It was found that, in both tension and compression, crosslinking resulted in a significant depreciation in the creep properties, relative to control. The trend in the creep results is explained in terms of the impact of crosslinking on the polymer's %C and rho(x). The present results are in contrast to literature reports that show that crosslinking enhances the wear resistance of the polymer. The implications of the present results, taken together with the aforementioned literature results, are fully discussed vis-a-vis the use of crosslinked UHMWPE for fabricating articular components for arthroplasties.

  6. Oxidation and Free Radical Decay in Vitamin E-stabilized, Radiation Cross-linked UHMWPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oral, E.

    2006-01-01

    A novel a-tocopherol (vitamin E, α-T)-stabilized, cross-linked ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) (αTPE) was developed for total joint arthroplasty as a bearing surface with low wear and improved mechanical properties. Accelerated aging showed α-T protects irradiated UHMWPE against oxidation. However, accelerated aging may not truly reflect in vivo and shelf oxidation. We used real-time aging to monitor the evolution of oxidation and free radical signals of α-T to determine the mechanism of oxidative stability. UHMWPE blocks (30x30x10 mm) were machined and γ-irradiated (85 kGy) in argon. The blocks were doped in α-T for 5 hours at 120 degree and homogenized for 64 hours at 120 degree in argon, packaged in vacuum and γ-sterilized (25 kGy). Samples were aged in air at room temperature, in air at 40 degree and in water at 40 degree. Measurements were at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 7 months. Sections cut from the aged blocks (150μm) were boiled in hexane overnight to extract free species and evaluated by FTIR. Oxidation indices were calculated by taking the area under the carbonyl peak and normalizing it to a skeletal peak. ESR was used to determine the content and type of free radicals. Control was 100-kGy irradiated, unstabilized UHMWPE. αTPE showed a small amount of oxidation, which stabilized after 2 months. This indicated that the decay of the hydroperoxides formed by the reaction of the residual free radicals with oxygen was exhausted by α-T due to its ability to scavenge free radicals. In contrast, control UHMWPE continued to oxidize because the residual free radicals likely continued to form hydroperoxides and additional free radicals, furthering the oxidation reactions. There was a shift in the free radical signature of both αTPE and control from the sextet alkyl/allyl radicals to a sharp singlet during aging. Most likely, trapped free radicals move along the crystal stems until they react with another free radical or until they reach the crystal

  7. Trace concentrations of vitamin E protect radiation crosslinked UHMWPE from oxidative degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, S M; Dumbleton, J; Siskey, R S; Wang, A; Manley, M

    2009-08-01

    The effect of very low concentrations of Vitamin E on the stability and mechanical behavior of UHMWPE remains unknown. We tested the hypothesis that the oxidation resistance of Vitamin E-blended UHMWPE would be influenced by trace doses of antioxidant, resin, and radiation treatment. Trace concentrations (Vitamin E) were blended separately with GUR 1020 and 1050 resins and molded into disks. From each disk, three groups of 10 mm thick blocks were machined: (1) no irradiation (control); (2) 30 kGy of gamma irradiation in nitrogen; and (3) 75 kGy of gamma irradiation in air. Specimens were subjected to three aging protocols: (a) no aging (control); (b) two weeks and (c) four weeks of accelerated aging in accordance with ASTM F 2003 (i.e., 70 degrees C and 5 atm oxygen). The minimum concentration of Vitamin E needed to stabilize UHMWPE during our accelerated tests depended upon the method of radiation processing. For the 30 and 75 kGy irradiated materials, the addition of 125 ppm or more Vitamin E was sufficient to maintain baseline mechanical and chemical properties through two weeks of accelerated aging. For these groups, the addition of 375 ppm or 500 ppm, respectively, was necessary to maintain baseline mechanical and chemical properties throughout the four-week accelerated aging period. UHMWPE resin molecular weight did not have an effect on oxidation behavior. The results of this experiment therefore supported our hypotheses that trace concentrations of Vitamin E, coupled with radiation treatment-but not resin grade-influence the mechanical and oxidative degradation behavior of UHMWPE.

  8. Mechanisms of plastic deformation in highly cross-linked UHMWPE for total hip components--the molecular physics viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yasuhito; Shishido, Takaaki; Yamamoto, Kengo; Masaoka, Toshinori; Kubo, Kosuke; Tateiwa, Toshiyuki; Pezzotti, Giuseppe

    2015-02-01

    Plastic deformation is an unavoidable event in biomedical polymeric implants for load-bearing application during long-term in-vivo service life, which involves a mass transfer process, irreversible chain motion, and molecular reorganization. Deformation-induced microstructural alterations greatly affect mechanical properties and durability of implant devices. The present research focused on evaluating, from a molecular physics viewpoint, the impact of externally applied strain (or stress) in ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) prostheses, subjected to radiation cross-linking and subsequent remelting for application in total hip arthroplasty (THA). Two different types of commercial acetabular liners, which belong to the first-generation highly cross-linked UHMWPE (HXLPE), were investigated by means of confocal/polarized Raman microprobe spectroscopy. The amount of crystalline region and the spatial distribution of molecular chain orientation were quantitatively analyzed according to a combined theory including Raman selection rules for the polyethylene orthorhombic structure and the orientation distribution function (ODF) statistical approach. The structurally important finding was that pronounced recrystallization and molecular reorientation increasingly appeared in the near-surface regions of HXLPE liners with increasing the amount of plastic (compressive) deformation stored in the microstructure. Such molecular rearrangements, occurred in response to external strains, locally increase surface cross-shear (CS) stresses, which in turn trigger microscopic wear processes in HXLPE acetabular liners. Thus, on the basis of the results obtained at the molecular scale, we emphasize here the importance of minimizing the development of irrecoverable deformation strain in order to retain the pristine and intrinsically high wear performance of HXLPE components. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Differences in Femoral Head Penetration Between Highly Cross-Linked Polyethylene Cemented Sockets and Uncemented Liners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Daigo; Seki, Taisuke; Higuchi, Yoshitoshi; Takegami, Yasuhiko; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed at investigating differences in femoral head penetration between highly cross-linked polyethylene (HXLPE) cemented sockets and uncemented liners during 5 years postoperatively. Ninety-six patients (106 hips) with a mean age of 64.4 (range, 35-83) years underwent total hip arthroplasty using a HXLPE cemented socket or liner and were respectively divided into cemented (35 patients [37 hips]) and uncemented (61 patients [69 hips]) groups. Femoral head penetrations were evaluated on both anteroposterior (AP)-view and Lauenstein-view radiographs, and mean polyethylene (PE) wear rates were calculated based on femoral head penetration from 2 to 5 years. Multivariate analyses were performed to assess risk factors for PE wear. At 5 years postoperatively, the cemented and uncemented groups exhibited proximal direction femoral head penetrations of 0.103 mm and 0.124 mm (P = .226) and anterior direction penetrations of 0.090 mm and 0.151 mm (P = .002), respectively. The corresponding mean PE wear rates were 0.004 mm/y and 0.009 mm/y in the AP-view (P = .286) and 0.005 mm/y and 0.012 mm/y in the Lauenstein-view (P = .168), respectively. Left-side operation and high activity were independent risk factors for PE wear on AP-view. When HXLPE was used, all mean PE wear rates were very low and those of cemented sockets and uncemented liners were very similar. PE particle theory suggests that the occurrence of osteolysis and related aseptic loosening might consequently decrease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of extremely low wear cross-link polyethylene for 30 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oonishi, Hironobu; Fujita, Hiroshi; Kim, Seok-Cheol; Ito, Shigeru; Masuda, Shingo; Clarke, I.C.

    2003-01-01

    In this report we present our long-term developmental and clinical results with both highly cross-linked and extensively cross-linked polyethylene materials. Beginning in 1970s, we performed wear screening studies on ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) (GUR412) sterilized by gamma-irradiation in air (range 0 to 10,000 kGy). From these scientific studies the 1,000 kGy dose (100 Mrad) appeared optimal, and so we began clinical use in 1971, and that continued into 1978. The radiographic wear-rates in patients with 1,000 kGy sockets, assessed by radiography, appeared 6-fold reduced compared to our standard UHMWPE sockets. Note also that we had not used any post-sterilization heat treatment for these pioneering extensively cross-linked polyethylene sockets. With clinical use now over 30 years, it was also clear that there was no adverse oxidation created by any free radicals present in our extensively cross-linked polyethylene sockets. With these encouraging clinical results, we further studied laboratory wear results with the modern UHMWPE resins, using the irradiation doses 1,000, 5,000, 10,000 and 15,000 kGy and with both saline and serum lubricants in hip simulators. These more recent studies demonstrated that the wear in extensively cross-linked polyethylene sockets was undetectable, less even than the measurement errors in the simulator techniques. It was unfortunate that the physical properties of such extensively cross-linked polyethylene sockets did not meet the current International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards. Thus, despite the excellent wear performance of these materials, we decided to investigate also the properties of the 60 kGy irradiated UHMWPE. The polyethylene sheet (GUR1050) was first irradiated with 35 kGy under N2 and then heat treated to remove free radicals. The socket liners were then machined to shape and resterilized with 25 kGy under N2 gas. The

  11. The effect of radiation dose on the crosslink density of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) measured by a novel swelling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muratoglu, O.K.; Bragdon, C.R.; O'Connor, D.O.; Jasty, M.; Harris, W.H.

    1998-01-01

    The crosslink density of a polyethylene network structure can be determined by swelling in hot xylene (130 deg C). The Flory's swelling theory is generally used to calculate the crosslink density, dx (ln(l-q -1 )+q -1 +Xq -1 )/(V 1 q -1/3 ), where V 1 is the molar volume of xylene at 130 deg C (136 cc/mol), X is the xylene-polyethylene interaction parameter, and q is the equilibrium volume swelling ratio of cross-linked network in hot xylene. Conventionally, q is measured using gravimetric methods as described in ASTM D2765-95. However, as noted in the ASTM standard, the gravimetric method has a large error factor associated with the measurement of q (as much as 100%). UHMWPE was irradiated (range of 25 to 300 kGy) using an AECL I 10/1 linear electron beam accelerator operated at 1 kW. The irradiated specimens were subsequently melt-annealed at 150 deg C for 2 hours in vacuum. For swelling experiments, 2 mm thin samples were machined using a diamond blade. The sample sizes were kept at around 3x3x2 mm and the bottom and top surfaces were machined parallel to each other. The equilibrium volume swelling ratios were determined using a Perkin-Elmer TMA/DMA 7 (n=3 for each radiation dose level). The samples were placed in a quartz basket-probe assembly and lowered into a xylene/antioxidant bath at room temperature. The xylene was then heated to 130 deg C at 5 deg C/min and held at 130 deg C for 2 hours. The swelling was then recorded with the upward motion of the probe until the equilibrium swelling was achieved. (The experiments were carried out in 3 orthogonal directions which confirmed the isotropy of swelling). (author)

  12. The effect of radiation dose on the crosslink density of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) measured by a novel swelling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muratoglu, O.K.; Bragdon, C.R.; O'Connor, D.O.; Jasty, M.; Harris, W.H.

    1998-01-01

    The crosslink density of a polyethylene network structure can be determined by swelling in hot xylene (130 deg C). The Flory's swelling theory is generally used to calculate the crosslink density, dx (ln(l-q -1 ) + q -1 + Xq -1 )/(V l q -1/3 ), where V l is the molar volume of xylene at 130 deg C (136 cc/mol), X is the xylene-polyethylene interaction parameter, and q is the equilibrium volume swelling ratio of cross-linked network in hot xylene. Conventionally, q is measured using gravimetric methods as described in ASTM D2765-95. However, as noted in the ASTM standard, the gravimetric method has a large error factor associated with the measurement of q (as much as 100%). UHMWPE was irradiated (range of 25 to 300 kGy) using an AECL I 10/1 linear electron beam accelerator operated at 1 kW. The irradiated specimens were subsequently melt-annealed at 150 deg C for 2 hours in vacuum. For swelling experiments, 2 mm thin samples were machined using a diamond blade. The sample sizes were kept at around 3x3x2 mm and the bottom and top surfaces were machined parallel to each other. The equilibrium volume swelling ratios were determined using a Perkin-Elmer TMA/DMA 7 (n=3 for each radiation dose level). The samples were placed in a quartz basket-probe assembly and lowered into a xylene/antioxidant bath at room temperature. The xylene was then heated to 130 deg C at 5 deg C/min and held at 130 deg C for 2 hours. The swelling was then recorded with the upward motion of the probe until the equilibrium swelling was achieved. (The experiments were carried out in 3 orthogonal directions which confirmed the isotropy of swelling). From this one-dimensional change in height, q was calculated by taking into account the volumetric expansion due to heating and melting. (author)

  13. Surface modification of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) by argon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hengjun; Pei Yanan; Xie Dong; Deng Xingrui; Leng, Y.X.; Jin Yong; Huang Nan

    2010-01-01

    In this work, argon (Ar) plasma generated by microwave electron cyclotron resonance (MWECR) has been used to modify the UHMWPE in order to increase the wear resistance. The results showed that the wettability, anti-scratch and wear resistance of UHMWPE treated by the Ar plasma had been improved, comparing with native UHMWPE. The FTIR and XPS spectra indicated the improvement of wettability should come from the oxygen based functional groups generated on the surface of UHMWPE. The improvement of anti-scratch and wear resistance may come from the enhancement of crosslinking of UHMWPE by Ar plasma treatment.

  14. Dry socket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alveolar osteitis; Alveolitis; Septic socket ... You may be more at risk for dry socket if you: Have poor oral health Have a ... after having a tooth pulled Have had dry socket in the past Drink from a straw after ...

  15. Wear-testing of a temporomandibular joint prosthesis : UHMWPE and PTFE against a metal ball, in water and in serum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Loon, JP; Verkerke, GJ; de Bont, LGM; Liem, RSB

    For a temporomandibular joint prosthesis, an estimation of the wear rate was needed, prior to patient application. Therefore, we determined the in vitro wear rate of the ball-socket articulation of this prosthesis, consisting of a metal head and an ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE)

  16. Development and validation of the small punch test for UHMWPE used in total joint replacements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edidin, A.A. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). School of Biomedical Engineering, Science and Health Systems; Howmedica Osteonics Corp., Allendale, NJ (United States); Kurtz, S.M. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). School of Biomedical Engineering, Science and Health Systems; Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery; Exponent, Inc., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2001-07-01

    In order to better understand the mechanical effects of oxidative degradation, improved oxidative stability and crosslinking on ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), a unique miniature specimen mechanical testing technique, known as the small punch test, was developed for evaluating total joint replacement components. The small punch test involves deforming a disk-shaped specimen having a thickness of 0.5 mm and a diameter of 6.4 mm. In addition to its small specimen size, the small punch test differs from conventional testing in that deformation of the UHMWPE specimen occurs under multiaxial loading conditions. Using the small punch test, we have traced the evolution of mechanical behavior in UHMWPE after natural (shelf-storage) and accelerated aging conditions. In addition, we have determined relationships between the mechanical behavior of UHMWPE and the biologically relevant wear debris volume generated in total hip replacements. The small punch test has also been used to investigate the effects of radiation crosslinking which has been shown to improve the wear performance in an in vitro hip simulator. However, the crosslinking and subsequent thermal processes used to improve the wear behavior may compromise the native mechanical behavior by changing the ductility and toughness of the UHMWPE bearing. The primary objective of this study was to investigate which tradeoffs exist related to the mechanical behavior associated with various clinically available types of highly crosslinked and thermally treated UHMWPE. We also review the development and validation of the small punch disk bend test and highlight its application to problems of clinical relevance in both hip and knee arthroplasty. (orig.)

  17. Effect of Argon Plasma Treatment on Tribological Properties of UHMWPE/MWCNT Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitturi Naresh Kumar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE is widely used in artificial joints in the replacement of knee, hip and shoulder that has been impaired as a result of arthritis or other degenerative joint diseases. The UHMWPE made plastic cup is placed in the joint socket in contact with a metal or ceramic ball affixed to a metal stem. Effective reinforcement of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs in UHMWPE results in improved mechanical and tribological properties. The hydrophobic nature of the nanocomposites surface results in lesser contact with biological fluids during the physiological interaction. In this project, we investigate the UHMWPE/MWCNTs nanocomposites reinforced with MWCNTs at different concentrations. The samples were treated with cold argon plasma at different exposure times. The water contact angles for 60 min plasma-treated nanocomposites with 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 wt % MWCNTs were found to be 55.65°, 52.51°, 48.01°, 43.72°, and 37.18° respectively. Increasing the treatment time of nanocomposites has shown transformation from a hydrophobic to a hydrophilic nature due to carboxyl groups being bonded on the surface for treated nanocomposites. Wear analysis was performed under dry, and also under biological lubrication, conditions of all treated samples. The wear factor of untreated pure UHMWPE sample was reduced by 68% and 80%, under dry and lubricated conditions, respectively, as compared to 2 wt % 60 min-treated sample. The kinetic friction co-efficient was also noted under both conditions. The hardness of nanocomposites increased with both MWCNTs loading and plasma treatment time. Similarly, the surface roughness of the nanocomposites was reduced.

  18. Polymeric thermal analysis of C + H and C + H + Ar ion implanted UHMWPE samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaya, N.; Oztarhan, Ahmet M.; Urkac, E.S.; Ila, D.; Budak, S.; Oks, E.; Nikolaev, A.; Ezdesir, A.; Tihminlioglu, F.; Tek, Z.; Cetiner, S.; Muntele, C.

    2007-01-01

    Chemical surface characterization of C + H hybrid ion implanted UHMWPE samples were carried out using DSC (differential scanning calorimeter) and TGA (thermal gravimetric analysis) techniques. Samples were implanted with a fluence of 10 17 ion/cm 2 and an extraction voltage of 30 kV. The study of TGA and DSC curves showed that: (1) Polymeric decomposition temperature increased (2) T m , ΔC p and ΔH m values changed while ΔC p and ΔH m increased. T g value could not be measured, because of some experimental limitations. However, the increase in ΔH m values showed that T g values increased (3) the branch density which indicated the increase in number of cross-link (M c ) decreased in ion implanted samples and (4) increase in ΔH m values indicated increase in crystallinity of implanted surface of UHMWPE samples

  19. Tethering sockets and wrenches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, E. P.

    1990-01-01

    The tethering of sockets and wrenches was accomplished to improve the safety of working over motor segments. To accomplish the tethering of the sockets to the ratchets, a special design was implemented in which a groove was machined into each socket. Each socket was then fitted with a snap ring that can spin around the machined groove. The snap ring is tethered to the handle of the ratchet. All open end wrenches are also tethered to the ratchet or to the operator, depending upon the type. Tests were run to ensure that the modified tools meet torque requirements. The design was subsequently approved by Space Safety.

  20. Tethering sockets and wrenches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, E. P.

    1990-07-01

    The tethering of sockets and wrenches was accomplished to improve the safety of working over motor segments. To accomplish the tethering of the sockets to the ratchets, a special design was implemented in which a groove was machined into each socket. Each socket was then fitted with a snap ring that can spin around the machined groove. The snap ring is tethered to the handle of the ratchet. All open end wrenches are also tethered to the ratchet or to the operator, depending upon the type. Tests were run to ensure that the modified tools meet torque requirements. The design was subsequently approved by Space Safety.

  1. Network protocols and sockets

    OpenAIRE

    BALEJ, Marek

    2010-01-01

    My work will deal with network protocols and sockets and their use in programming language C#. It will therefore deal programming network applications on the platform .NET from Microsoft and instruments, which C# provides to us. There will describe the tools and methods for programming network applications, and shows a description and sample applications that work with sockets and application protocols.

  2. High temperature homogenization improves impact toughness of vitamin E-diffused, irradiated UHMWPE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral, Ebru; O'Brien, Caitlin; Doshi, Brinda; Muratoglu, Orhun K

    2017-06-01

    Diffusion of vitamin E into radiation cross-linked ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is used to increase stability against oxidation of total joint implant components. The dispersion of vitamin E throughout implant preforms has been optimized by a two-step process of doping and homogenization. Both of these steps are performed below the peak melting point of the cross-linked polymer (homogenization of antioxidant-doped, radiation cross-linked UHMWPE could improve its toughness. We found that homogenization at 300°C for 8 h resulted in an increase in the impact toughness (74 kJ/m 2 compared to 67 kJ/m 2 ), the ultimate tensile strength (50 MPa compared to 43 MPa) and elongation at break (271% compared to 236%). The high temperature treatment did not compromise the wear resistance or the oxidative stability as measured by oxidation induction time. In addition, the desired homogeneity was achieved at a much shorter duration (8 h compared to >240 h) by using high temperature homogenization. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:1343-1347, 2017. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Multilayer porous UHMWPE scaffolds for bone defects replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maksimkin, A.V. [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Senatov, F.S., E-mail: senatov@misis.ru [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Anisimova, N.Yu.; Kiselevskiy, M.V. [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Moscow (Russian Federation); N.N. Blokhin Russian Cancer Research Center, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zalepugin, D.Yu.; Chernyshova, I.V.; Tilkunova, N.A. [State Plant of Medicinal Drugs, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kaloshkin, S.D. [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-01

    Reconstruction of the structural integrity of the damaged bone tissue is an urgent problem. UHMWPE may be potentially used for the manufacture of porous implants simulating as closely as possible the porous cancellous bone tissue. But the extremely high molecular weight of the polymer does not allow using traditional methods of foaming. Porous and multilayer UHMWPE scaffolds with nonporous bulk layer and porous layer that mimics cancellous bone architecture were obtained by solid-state mixing, thermopressing and washing in subcritical water. Structural and mechanical properties of the samples were studied. Porous UHMWPE samples were also studied in vitro and in vivo. The pores of UHMWPE scaffold are open and interconnected. Volume porosity of the obtained samples was 79 ± 2%; the pore size range was 80–700 μm. Strong connection of the two layers in multilayer UHMWPE scaffolds was observed with decreased number of fusion defects. Functionality of implants based on multilayer UHMWPE scaffolds is provided by the fixation of scaffolds in the bone defect through ingrowths of the connective tissue into the pores, which ensures the maintenance of the animals' mobility - Highlights: • Porous UHMWPE scaffold mimics cancellous bone architecture, maintaining its flexibility. • Multilayer UHMWPE scaffold is able to simulate different types of bone tissue. • Fixation of scaffolds in the bone provides through ingrowths of the connective tissue into pores. • Multilayer UHMWPE scaffolds can be used for the formation of bone implants.

  4. Multilayer porous UHMWPE scaffolds for bone defects replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maksimkin, A.V.; Senatov, F.S.; Anisimova, N.Yu.; Kiselevskiy, M.V.; Zalepugin, D.Yu.; Chernyshova, I.V.; Tilkunova, N.A.; Kaloshkin, S.D.

    2017-01-01

    Reconstruction of the structural integrity of the damaged bone tissue is an urgent problem. UHMWPE may be potentially used for the manufacture of porous implants simulating as closely as possible the porous cancellous bone tissue. But the extremely high molecular weight of the polymer does not allow using traditional methods of foaming. Porous and multilayer UHMWPE scaffolds with nonporous bulk layer and porous layer that mimics cancellous bone architecture were obtained by solid-state mixing, thermopressing and washing in subcritical water. Structural and mechanical properties of the samples were studied. Porous UHMWPE samples were also studied in vitro and in vivo. The pores of UHMWPE scaffold are open and interconnected. Volume porosity of the obtained samples was 79 ± 2%; the pore size range was 80–700 μm. Strong connection of the two layers in multilayer UHMWPE scaffolds was observed with decreased number of fusion defects. Functionality of implants based on multilayer UHMWPE scaffolds is provided by the fixation of scaffolds in the bone defect through ingrowths of the connective tissue into the pores, which ensures the maintenance of the animals' mobility - Highlights: • Porous UHMWPE scaffold mimics cancellous bone architecture, maintaining its flexibility. • Multilayer UHMWPE scaffold is able to simulate different types of bone tissue. • Fixation of scaffolds in the bone provides through ingrowths of the connective tissue into pores. • Multilayer UHMWPE scaffolds can be used for the formation of bone implants.

  5. Wear and creep of highly crosslinked polyethylene against cobalt chrome and ceramic femoral heads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, A L; Jennings, L M; Tipper, J L; Ingham, E; Fisher, J

    2010-10-01

    The wear and creep characteristics of highly crosslinked ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) articulating against large-diameter (36mm) ceramic and cobalt chrome femoral heads have been investigated in a physiological anatomical hip joint simulator for 10 million cycles. The crosslinked UHMWPE/ceramic combination showed higher volume deformation due to creep plus wear during the first 2 million cycles, and a steady-state wear rate 40 per cent lower than that of the crosslinked UHMWPE/cobalt chrome combination. Wear particles were isolated and characterized from the hip simulator lubricants. The wear particles were similar in size and morphology for both head materials. The particle isolation methodology used could not detect a statistically significant difference between the particles produced by the cobalt chrome and alumina ceramic femoral heads.

  6. Development and Characterization of UHMWPE Fiber-Reinforced Hydrogels For Meniscal Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Julianne Leigh

    Meniscal tears are the most common orthopedic injuries to the human body. The current treatment of choice, however, is a partial meniscectomy that leads to osteoarthritis proportional to the amount of tissue removed. As a result, there is a significant clinical need to develop materials capable of restoring the biomechanical contact stress distribution to the knee after meniscectomy and preventing the onset of osteoarthritis. In this work, a fiber-reinforced hydrogel-based synthetic meniscus was developed that allows for tailoring of the mechanical properties and molding of the implant to match the size, shape, and property distribution of the native tissue. Physically cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogels were reinforced with ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibers and characterized in compression (0.1-0.8 MPa) and tension (0.1-250 MPa) showing fine control over mechanical properties within the range of the human meniscus. Morphology and crystallinity analysis of PVA hydrogels showed increases in crystallinity and PVA densification, or phase separation, with freeze-thaw cycles. A comparison of freeze-thawed and aged, physically cross-linked hydrogels provided insight on both crystallinity and phase separation as mechanisms for PVA gelation. Results indicated both mechanisms independently contributed to hydrogel modulus for freeze-thawed hydrogels. In vitro swelling studies were performed using osmotic solutions to replicate the swelling pressure present in the knee. Minimal swelling was observed for hydrogels with a PVA concentration of 30-35 wt%, independently of hydrogel freeze-thaw cycles. This allows for independent tailoring of hydrogel modulus and pore structure using freeze-thaw cycles and swelling behavior using polymer concentration to match a wide range of properties needed for various soft tissue applications. The UHMWPE-PVA interface was identified as a significant weakness. To improve interfacial adhesion, a novel

  7. Study on torsional fretting wear behavior of a ball-on-socket contact configuration simulating an artificial cervical disk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Song; Wang, Fei; Liao, Zhenhua; Wang, Qingliang; Liu, Yuhong; Liu, Weiqiang

    2015-01-01

    A ball-on-socket contact configuration was designed to simulate an artificial cervical disk in structure. UHMWPE (ultra high molecular weight polyethylene) hot pressed by powders and Ti6Al4V alloy were selected as the material combination of ball and socket. The socket surface was coated by a ~ 500 nm C-DLC (carbon ion implantation-diamond like carbon) mixed layer to improve its surface nano hardness and wear resistance. The torsional fretting wear behavior of the ball-on-socket model was tested at different angular displacements under 25% bovine serum lubrication with an axial force of 100 N to obtain more realistic results with that in vivo. The fretting running regimes and wear damage characteristics as well as wear mechanisms for both ball and socket were studied based on 2D (two dimension) optical microscope, SEM (scanning electron microscope) and 3D (three dimension) profiles. With the increase of angular displacement amplitude from 1° to 7°, three types of T-θ (Torsional torque-angular displacement amplitude) curves (i.e., linear, elliptical and parallelogram loops) corresponding to running regimes of PSR (partial slip regime), MR (mixed regime) and SR (slip regime) were observed and analyzed. Both the central region and the edge zone of the ball and socket were damaged. The worn surfaces were characterized by wear scratches and wear debris. In addition, more severe wear damage and more wear debris appeared on the central region of the socket at higher angular displacement amplitude. The dominant damage mechanism was a mix of surface scratch, adhesive wear and abrasive wear for the UHMWPE ball while that for the coated socket was abrasive wear by PE particles and some polishing and rolling process on the raised overgrown DLC grains. The frictional kinetic behavior, wear type, damage region and damage mechanism for the ball-on-socket model revealed significant differences with those of a ball-on-flat contact while showing better consistency with that of in

  8. Study on torsional fretting wear behavior of a ball-on-socket contact configuration simulating an artificial cervical disk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Song [State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, Fei [School of Material Science and Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Liao, Zhenhua [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Biomechanics and Biotechnology Lab, Research Institute of Tsinghua University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Wang, Qingliang [School of Material Science and Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Liu, Yuhong [State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Liu, Weiqiang, E-mail: weiqliu@hotmail.com [Biomechanics and Biotechnology Lab, Research Institute of Tsinghua University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-10-01

    A ball-on-socket contact configuration was designed to simulate an artificial cervical disk in structure. UHMWPE (ultra high molecular weight polyethylene) hot pressed by powders and Ti6Al4V alloy were selected as the material combination of ball and socket. The socket surface was coated by a ~ 500 nm C-DLC (carbon ion implantation-diamond like carbon) mixed layer to improve its surface nano hardness and wear resistance. The torsional fretting wear behavior of the ball-on-socket model was tested at different angular displacements under 25% bovine serum lubrication with an axial force of 100 N to obtain more realistic results with that in vivo. The fretting running regimes and wear damage characteristics as well as wear mechanisms for both ball and socket were studied based on 2D (two dimension) optical microscope, SEM (scanning electron microscope) and 3D (three dimension) profiles. With the increase of angular displacement amplitude from 1° to 7°, three types of T-θ (Torsional torque-angular displacement amplitude) curves (i.e., linear, elliptical and parallelogram loops) corresponding to running regimes of PSR (partial slip regime), MR (mixed regime) and SR (slip regime) were observed and analyzed. Both the central region and the edge zone of the ball and socket were damaged. The worn surfaces were characterized by wear scratches and wear debris. In addition, more severe wear damage and more wear debris appeared on the central region of the socket at higher angular displacement amplitude. The dominant damage mechanism was a mix of surface scratch, adhesive wear and abrasive wear for the UHMWPE ball while that for the coated socket was abrasive wear by PE particles and some polishing and rolling process on the raised overgrown DLC grains. The frictional kinetic behavior, wear type, damage region and damage mechanism for the ball-on-socket model revealed significant differences with those of a ball-on-flat contact while showing better consistency with that of in

  9. Sockets and Pebbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This close-up Sojourner rover image of a small rock shows that weathering has etched-out pebbles to produce sockets. In the image, sunlight is coming from the upper left. Sockets (with shadows on top) are visible at the lower left and pebbles (with bright tops and shadowed bases) are seen at the lower center and lower right. Two pebbles (about 0.5 cm across) are visible at the lower center.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  10. Characterization and tribology of PEG-like coatings on UHMWPE for total hip replacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Sheryl R; Ashby, Paul D; Pruitt, Lisa A

    2010-03-15

    A crosslinked hydrogel coating similar to poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) was covalently bonded to the surface of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) to improve the lubricity and wear resistance of the UHWMPE for use in total joint replacements. The chemistry, hydrophilicity, and protein adsorption resistance of the coatings were determined, and the wear behavior of the PEG-like coating was examined by two methods: pin-on-disk tribometry to evaluate macroscale behavior, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) to simulate asperity wear. As expected, the coating was found to be highly PEG-like, with approximately 83% ether content by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and more hydrophilic and resistant to protein adsorption than uncoated UHMWPE. Pin-on-disk testing showed that the PEG-like coating could survive 3 MPa of contact pressure, comparable to that experienced by total hip replacements. AFM nanoscratching experiments uncovered three damage mechanisms for the coatings: adhesion/microfracture, pure adhesion, and delamination. The latter two mechanisms appear to correlate well with wear patterns induced by pin-on-disk testing and evaluated by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy mapping. Understanding the mechanisms by which the PEG-like coatings wear is critical for improving the behavior of subsequent generations of wear-resistant hydrogel coatings. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Socket welds in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, P.A.; Torres, L.L.

    1995-01-01

    Socket welds are easier and faster to make than are butt welds. However, they are often not used in nuclear facilities because the crevices between the pipes and the socket sleeves may be subject to crevice corrosion. If socket welds can be qualified for wider use in facilities that process nuclear materials, the radiation exposures to welders can be significantly reduced. The current tests at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) are designed to determine if socket welds can be qualified for use in the waste processing system at a nuclear fuel processing plant

  12. Multilayer porous UHMWPE scaffolds for bone defects replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimkin, A V; Senatov, F S; Anisimova, N Yu; Kiselevskiy, M V; Zalepugin, D Yu; Chernyshova, I V; Tilkunova, N A; Kaloshkin, S D

    2017-04-01

    Reconstruction of the structural integrity of the damaged bone tissue is an urgent problem. UHMWPE may be potentially used for the manufacture of porous implants simulating as closely as possible the porous cancellous bone tissue. But the extremely high molecular weight of the polymer does not allow using traditional methods of foaming. Porous and multilayer UHMWPE scaffolds with nonporous bulk layer and porous layer that mimics cancellous bone architecture were obtained by solid-state mixing, thermopressing and washing in subcritical water. Structural and mechanical properties of the samples were studied. Porous UHMWPE samples were also studied in vitro and in vivo. The pores of UHMWPE scaffold are open and interconnected. Volume porosity of the obtained samples was 79±2%; the pore size range was 80-700μm. Strong connection of the two layers in multilayer UHMWPE scaffolds was observed with decreased number of fusion defects. Functionality of implants based on multilayer UHMWPE scaffolds is provided by the fixation of scaffolds in the bone defect through ingrowths of the connective tissue into the pores, which ensures the maintenance of the animals' mobility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Investigation of properties of (U)HMW-PE under the influence of gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehe, K. von der; Wolff, D.; Boehning, M. [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    High molecular weight polyethylene (HMW-PE) and ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE) are high performance materials, which are predestinated for a wide range of applications due to characteristics like high chemical resistance, low wear, and high hydrogen content. In addition to the application of (U)HMW-PE as sports equipment (sliding surface of snowboards, skis) and in mechanical engineering (materials for spur gears and chain guides) these polymers are used in two other and even more demanding areas: as implant material in medical technology and as a component for neutron shielding purposes in casks for storage and transport of radioactive waste. In these two cases, gamma irradiation and its impact on the molecular structure of polyethylene play an important role. In the first case, irradiation is applied for sterilization purposes and in the second one it exists as a side-effect of inserting the radioactive material in the cask. Specifically concerning their use in the field of medical technology, different types of UHMW-PE have been intensively studied. It is generally accepted that two concurrent and competitive processes, based on initial chain scission and subsequent reactions of C-centered radicals and molecular fragments, occur in PE as a consequence of radiation: radical recombination accounts for crosslinking, together with some disproportionation, formation of low molecular weight fragments, and recrystallization. Furthermore, formation of oxygenated structures in the presence of traces of oxygen is a competitive process to those mentioned above. Radiation induced scission preferentially takes place in the amorphous phase and noncrystalline surface of the crystallites and results in shorter polymer chains, fewer entanglements, and consequently, increased molecular mobility. The latter enables folding of polymer segments and thus, crystal growth and increased perfection in the crystal lamellae. With regard to the long-term application of

  14. Gas from the wall socket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermeer, B.

    1997-01-01

    A Dutch public utility (Obragas) introduces a new way to supply gas for their household clients in Helmond, Netherlands: the gas wall socket. The use of gas wall sockets must prevent the decrease of the market share for natural gas compared to the market share of electricity for households

  15. Cross-linked polyethylene does not reduce wear in total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasurt-Bachs, S; Torner, P; Maculé, F; Prats, E; Menéndez-García, F; Ríos-Guillermo, J; Torrents, A

    To compare two different types of inserts: Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) and cross-linked polyethylene with a quantitative and qualitative study of polyethylene wear particles in synovial fluid 3 years after total knee arthroplasty. A prospective, randomized, controlled cohort study with blinded evaluation was carried out on 25 patients undergoing staged bilateral total knee replacement, 6 months apart. Knee arthrocentesis was performed on 12 patients 3 years after surgery, and the polyethylene particles were analyzed. No significant differences were found in the number of particles generated by the two different types of inserts at 3 years from total knee arthroplasty (3,000×: x¯ cross-linked=849.7; x¯ UHMWPE=796.9; P=.63; 20,000×: x¯ cross-linked=66.3; x¯ UHMWPE=73.1; P=.76). Likewise, no differences in the probability of finding elongated (χ 2 =0.19; P=.66) or rounded (χ 2 =1.44; P=.23) particles in both types of inserts were observed. However, the probability of finding fibrillar particles is 3.08 times greater in UHMWPE. Cross-linked polyethylene does not significantly reduce the generation of polyethylene particles in patients with total knee arthroplasty, 3 years after the surgical procedure. Copyright © 2018 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Thermal Response of UHMWPE Materials in a Flash Flame Test Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-13

    protection. The UHMWPE fabric immediately began disintegrating during the flash flame exposure. During the test, one end of the UHMWPE fabric...UHMWPE material after the test. There were places where the fabric material appeared to have melted and re-solidified, creating areas of solid plastic ...and Observations The midscale test results showed that any direct flame on the UHMWPE materials will cause rapid disintegration of the material

  17. Strength evaluation of prosthetic check sockets, copolymer sockets, and definitive laminated sockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerschutz, Maria J; Haynes, Michael L; Nixon, Derek; Colvin, James M

    2012-01-01

    A prosthesis encounters loading through forces and torques exerted by the person with amputation. International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standard 10328 was designed to test most lower-limb prosthetic components. However, this standard does not include prosthetic sockets. We measured static failure loads of prosthetic sockets using a modified ISO 10328 and then compared them with the criteria set by this standard for other components. Check socket (CS) strengths were influenced by thickness, material choice, and fabrication method. Copolymer socket (CP) strengths depended on thickness and fabrication methods. A majority of the CSs and all of the CPs failed to pass the ISO 10328 ductile loading criterion. In contrast, the strengths of definitive laminated sockets (DLs) were influenced more by construction material and technique. A majority of the DLs failed to pass the ISO 10328 brittle loading criterion. Analyzing prosthetic sockets from a variety of facilities demonstrated that socket performance varies considerably between and within facilities. The results from this article provide a foundation for understanding the quality of prosthetic sockets, some insight into possible routes for improving the current care delivered to patients, and a comparative basis for future technology.

  18. Tensile strength and impact resistance properties of materials used in prosthetic check sockets, copolymer sockets, and definitive laminated sockets

    OpenAIRE

    Maria J. Gerschutz, PhD; Michael L. Haynes, MS; Derek M. Nixon, BS; James M. Colvin, MS

    2011-01-01

    Prosthetic sockets serve as the interface between people with amputations and their prostheses. Although most materials used to make prosthetic sockets have been used for many years, knowledge of these materials' properties is limited, especially after they are subjected to fabrication processes. This study evaluated tensile and impact properties of the current state-of-the-art materials used to fabricate prosthetic check sockets, copolymer sockets, and definitive laminated sockets. Thermolyn...

  19. Properties of crosslinked ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, G

    2001-02-01

    Substantially reducing the rate of generation of wear particles at the surfaces of ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) orthopedic implant bearing components, in vivo, is widely regarded as one of the most formidable challenges in modern arthroplasty. In the light of this, much research attention has been paid to the myriad of endogenous and exogenous factors that have been postulated to affect this wear rate, one such factor being the polymer itself. In recent years, there has been a resurgence of interest in crosslinking the polymer as a way of improving its properties that are considered relevant to its use for fabricating bearing components. Such properties include wear resistance, fatigue life, and fatigue crack propagation rate. Although a large volume of literature exists on the topic on the impact of crosslinking on the properties of UHMWPE, no critical appraisal of this literature has been published. This is one of the goals of the present article, which emphasizes three aspects. The first is the trade-off between improvement in wear resistance and depreciation in other mechanical and physical properties. The second aspect is the presentation of a method of estimating the optimal value of a crosslinking process variable (such as dose in radiation-induced crosslinking) that takes into account this trade-off. The third aspect is the description of a collection of under- and unexplored research areas in the field of crosslinked UHMWPE, such as the role of starting resin on the properties of the crosslinked polymer, and the in vitro evaluation of the wear rate of crosslinked tibial inserts and other bearing components that, in vivo, are subjected to nearly unidirectional motion.

  20. Wettability of nano-epoxies to UHMWPE fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neema, S; Salehi-Khojin, A; Zhamu, A; Zhong, W H; Jana, S; Gan, Y X

    2006-07-01

    Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibers have a unique combination of outstanding mechanical, physical, and chemical properties. However, as reinforcements for manufacturing high performance composite materials, UHMWPE fibers have poor wettability with most polymers. As a result, the interfacial bonding strength between the fibers and polymer matrices is very low. Recently, developing so-called nano-matrices containing reactive graphitic nanofibers (r-GNFs) has been proposed to promote the wetting of such matrices to certain types of fiber reinforcements. In this work, the wettability of UHMWPE fibers with different epoxy matrices including a nano-epoxy, and a pure epoxy was investigated. Systematic experimental work was conducted to determine the viscosity of the epoxies, the contact angle between the epoxies and the fibers. Also obtained are the surface energy of the fibers and the epoxies. The experimental results show that the wettability of the UHMWPE fibers with the nano-epoxy is much better than that of the UHMWPE fibers with the pure epoxy.

  1. Nondestructive characterization of UHMWPE armor materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Chien-Ping; Margetan, Frank J.; Barnard, Daniel J.; Hsu, David K.; Jensen, Terrence; Eisenmann, David

    2012-05-01

    Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is a material increasingly used for fabricating helmet and body armor. In this work, plate specimens consolidated from thin fiber sheets in series 3124 and 3130 were examined with ultrasound, X-ray and terahertz radiation. Ultrasonic through-transmission scans using both air-coupled and immersion modes revealed that the 3130 series material generally had much lower attenuation than the 3124 series, and that certain 3124 plates had extremely high attenuation. Due to the relatively low inspection frequencies used, pulse-echo immersion ultrasonic testing could not detect distinct flaw echoes from the interior. To characterize the nature of the defective condition that was responsible for the high ultrasonic attenuation, terahertz radiation in the time-domain spectroscopy mode were used to image the flaws. Terahertz scan images obtained on the high attenuation samples clearly showed a distribution of a large number of defects, possibly small planar delaminations, throughout the volume of the interior. Their precise nature and morphology are to be verified by optical microscopy of the sectioned surface.

  2. Nondestructive characterization of UHMWPE armor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiou, Chien-Ping; Margetan, Frank J.; Barnard, Daniel J.; Hsu, David K.; Jensen, Terrence; Eisenmann, David

    2012-01-01

    Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is a material increasingly used for fabricating helmet and body armor. In this work, plate specimens consolidated from thin fiber sheets in series 3124 and 3130 were examined with ultrasound, X-ray and terahertz radiation. Ultrasonic through-transmission scans using both air-coupled and immersion modes revealed that the 3130 series material generally had much lower attenuation than the 3124 series, and that certain 3124 plates had extremely high attenuation. Due to the relatively low inspection frequencies used, pulse-echo immersion ultrasonic testing could not detect distinct flaw echoes from the interior. To characterize the nature of the defective condition that was responsible for the high ultrasonic attenuation, terahertz radiation in the time-domain spectroscopy mode were used to image the flaws. Terahertz scan images obtained on the high attenuation samples clearly showed a distribution of a large number of defects, possibly small planar delaminations, throughout the volume of the interior. Their precise nature and morphology are to be verified by optical microscopy of the sectioned surface.

  3. Photodegradation of UHMWPE Compounded with Annatto and Beetroot Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Rangel de Sousa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We observed the anti-UV action of beetroot extract in an ultra-high molecular weight (UHMWPE matrix. The beetroot extract and the one prepared from annatto seed also acted efficiently as pigment to the same polymeric matrix. Neat UHMWPE and UHMWPE compounded with annatto and beet extract were compression molded and tensile specimens were obtained from the molded plates and submitted to UV radiation for up to 42 days. Tensile tests were performed and it was observed that the beet extract had a stabilizing action in the polymer compared to neat polymer and the one with annatto extract. Complementary analyses showed good homogenization of the extracts through the polymer matrix indicating the possibility of use as pigment, although the annatto extract appeared to be very unstable under irradiation. Spectroscopic characterization helped to explain the stability of the extracts before and after molding.

  4. Tensile strength and impact resistance properties of materials used in prosthetic check sockets, copolymer sockets, and definitive laminated sockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerschutz, Maria J; Haynes, Michael L; Nixon, Derek M; Colvin, James M

    2011-01-01

    Prosthetic sockets serve as the interface between people with amputations and their prostheses. Although most materials used to make prosthetic sockets have been used for many years, knowledge of these materials' properties is limited, especially after they are subjected to fabrication processes. This study evaluated tensile and impact properties of the current state-of-the-art materials used to fabricate prosthetic check sockets, copolymer sockets, and definitive laminated sockets. Thermolyn Rigid and Orfitrans Stiff check socket materials produced significantly lower tensile strength and impact resistance than polyethylene terephthalate glycol (PETG). Copolymer socket materials exhibited greater resistance to impact forces than the check socket materials but lower tensile strengths than PETG. The heated molding processes, for the check socket and copolymer materials, reduced both tensile strength and elongation at break. Definitive laminated sockets were sorted according to fabrication techniques. Nyglass material had significantly higher elongation, indicating a more ductile material than carbon-based laminations. Carbon sockets with pigmented resin had higher tensile strength and modulus at break than nonpigmented carbon sockets. Elongation at yield and elongation at break were similar for both types of carbon-based laminations. The material properties determined in this study provide a foundation for understanding and improving the quality of prosthetic sockets using current fabrication materials and a basis for evaluating future technologies.

  5. Structure modification of UHMWPE used for total joint replacements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nevoralová, Martina; Baldrian, Josef; Pospíšil, Jan; Chodák, I.; Horák, Zdeněk

    74B, č. 2 (2005), s. 800-807 ISSN 1552-4973 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS4050009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : UHMWPE * modification * gamma radiation Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.621, year: 2005

  6. Relationship Between Melting Kinetics and Disentangled State of UHMWPE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romano, Dario; Liu, Kangsheng; Tops, Niek; Rastogi, Sanjay

    2017-01-01

    Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is a simple polymer used for many engineering applications such as ballistic, medical and applications where high mechanical properties are desired. However, its processing has always been challenging due to the high melt viscosity caused by the

  7. Lifetime of Macroradicals in UHMWPE Irradiated with Electron Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, L.

    2006-01-01

    Interaction of high energy radiation with UHMWPE leads to the scission of C-C and C-H bonds both in the amorphous and in the criystalline phase, giving H radicals, macroradicals and trans vinylene double bonds. If oxygen is present, alkyl macroradicals react immediately with it and the oxidation chain process begins. In this case the main products are hydroperoxides. In our laboratory ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (medical grade GUR 1050) has been irradiated with electron beam in vacuum and in presence of oxygen at room temperature. Electron beam irradiation has been considered in order to neglect irradiation time, that is shorter (maximum 2 minutes) than gamma irradiation time and negligible compared to the following observation time. UHMWPE irradiated has been examined with two different techniques, FTIR and EPR spectroscopy. Micro FTIR Spectroscopy has been carried out on UHMWPE to evaluate hydroperoxide concentration in samples irradiated in presence of oxygen. Hydroperoxides and their distribution inside samples can be observed very well with FTIR microscopy after a derivatization process (with NO). The obtained hydroperoxide profile decreases when distance from the outer surface increases till it achieves a plateau. The first decrease can be attributed to macroradicals reaction with oxygen, that can diffuse only in the amorphous phase. Value obtained in the centre of block is correlated only with oxygen dissolved in UHMWPE before irradiation. If radicals live for some hours, oxygen can diffuse into UHMWPE during the macroradicals lifetime and the hydroperoxides profile is a curve similar to that obtained. Comparing the oxygen diffusion curve, calculated in the function of Fick's law, with the hydroperoxide profile, we have obtained a good agreement when oxygen diffusion is calculated over two hours. This means that the macroradicals must survive at least for two hours in the amorphous phase. EPR Spectroscopy was undertaken to explore the nature of

  8. Effect of γ-ray irradiation on the structure and melt fluidity of UHMWPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Pengbo; Fan Ping; Xu Wen; Wang Kai

    2005-01-01

    Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) was irradiated in air by 60 Co γ-rays. The effect of γ-ray irradiation on the structure and properties of UHMWPE was studied by FTIR, intrinsic viscosity measurement, melt flow rate (MFR) measurement and mechanical property test. The experimental results show that oxygen-containing groups (mainly carbonyl group) were introduced on the molecular chain of UHMWPE during the irradiation, which caused degradation of UHMWPE. Molecular weight of UHMWPE decreased and melt flow rate increased obviously. Compared with the virgin UHMWPE, MFR of the 100 kGy-irradiated UHMWPE increased from virtually nothing to 4.8 g/10 min. Tensile yield strength and elongation at break of the irradiated UHMWPE samples were improved, whereas notched lzod impact strength of the samples decreased. Compared with the virgin UHMWPE, elongation at break of the UHMWPE samples irradiated to 100 kGy increased from 367% to 801%, and their notched lzod impact strength decreased to 576 J/m from over 1000. (authors)

  9. A Novel Technique for Assessing Antioxidant Concentration in Retrieved UHMWPE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currier, Barbara H; Van Citters, Douglas W

    2017-05-01

    Antioxidants added to UHMWPE to prevent in vivo oxidation are important to the long-term performance of hip and knee arthroplasty. Diffused vitamin E antioxidant polyethylene raised questions about potential in vivo elution that could cause inflammatory reactions in periprosthetic tissues and also potentially leave the implant once again prone to oxidation. Currently, there is no information on the elution, if any, of antioxidants from implant polyethylene materials in vivo. (1) Do antioxidants, especially diffused vitamin E, elute from antioxidant polyethylene in vivo? (2) Can extraction of the retrieved antioxidant polyethylene (to remove absorbed species from the in vivo environment near the articular and nonarticular surfaces) improve the identification of antioxidant content? (3) Can actual antioxidant content be estimated from calculated antioxidant indices by accounting for ester content (from absorbed species) near the articular and nonarticular surfaces? An institutional review board-approved retrieval laboratory received 39 antioxidant polyethylene hip and knee retrievals at revision from 25 surgeons with in vivo time of 0.02 to 3.6 years (median, 1.3 years). These consecutive antioxidant polyethylene retrievals, received between May 2010 and February 2016, were made from three different antioxidant highly crosslinked polyethylene materials: diffused vitamin E, blended vitamin E, and hindered phenol antioxidant pentaerythritol tetrakis[3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)] propionate (here and after referred to as PBHP). Retrievals were analyzed using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Absorbed ester index (1725-1740 cm -1 normalized to 1365-1371 cm -1 ), and vitamin E index (1245-1275 cm -1 ) and PBHP index (1125-1150 cm -1 ), normalized to 1850-1985 cm -1 , were defined. Microtomed thin sections of PBHP and vitamin E retrievals were hexane-extracted to remove absorbed species from the in vivo environment in an effort to improve

  10. Tribological behaviors of UHMWPE composites with different counter surface morphologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanzhen; Yin, Zhongwei; Li, Hulin; Gao, Gengyuan

    2017-12-01

    The influence of counter surface morphologies on hybrid glass fiber (GF) and carbon fiber (CF) filled ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) were studied under various contact pressure and sliding speed against GCr15 steel in dry condition. The goals were to investigate the tribological behavior of GF/CF/UHMWPE composite as a kind of water lubricated journal bearing material. The friction and wear behavior of composites were examined using a pin-on-disc tribometer. The morphologies of the worn surface were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and laser 3D micro-imaging and profile measurement. Generally, the wear rate and friction coefficient of composites increase as the increment of counter surface roughness. The friction coefficient increases firstly and then decrease with an increase in sliding speed and contact pressure for counterface with Ra=0.2 and 3.5 μm, while the friction coefficient decreased for counterface with Ra=0.6 μm.

  11. Photodegradation of UHMWPE filled with iron ore fine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morais, Frederick Louis Dias de; Sousa, Alexandre Rangel de, E-mail: rangel@deii.cefetmg.br [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais (CEFET), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais; Medeiros, Felipe da Silva; Silva, Glaura Goulart [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Rabello, Marcelo Silveira [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais

    2017-03-15

    Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is one of the most important engineering materials owing to outstanding properties like impact strength and abrasion resistance. However, the relatively low Young's modulus restricts some application and the use of fillers may be a suitable way to overcome this. The fillers can influence the photo stabilization of the compound, as it occurs to other polymers. Neat UHMWPE and its composites with 1 and 10% of iron ore fine were exposed to ultraviolet radiation for up to 33 days and then tested for mechanical properties. The stress-strain behaviour changed with degradation, with an evident necking and strain hardening region that was not observed before exposure, due to a reduction in entanglements density. From the tensile results, the filler may have a protection action against UV, particularly when a loading of 10% was present. Complementary analyses were performed, including X-ray diffraction, DSC and SEM. (author)

  12. Highly antibacterial UHMWPE surfaces by implantation of titanium ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delle Side, D., E-mail: domenico.delleside@le.infn.it [LEAS, Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “Ennio de Giorgi”, Università del Salento, Lecce (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare – Sezione di Lecce, Lecce (Italy); Nassisi, V.; Giuffreda, E.; Velardi, L. [LEAS, Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “Ennio de Giorgi”, Università del Salento, Lecce (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare – Sezione di Lecce, Lecce (Italy); Alifano, P.; Talà, A.; Tredici, S.M. [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche ed Ambientali, Università del Salento, Lecce (Italy)

    2014-07-15

    The spreading of pathogens represents a serious threat for human beings. Consequently, efficient antimicrobial surfaces are needed in order to reduce risks of contracting severe diseases. In this work we present the first evidences of a new technique to obtain a highly antibacterial Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) based on a non-stoichiometric titanium oxide coating, visible-light responsive, obtained through ion implantation.

  13. Highly antibacterial UHMWPE surfaces by implantation of titanium ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delle Side, D.; Nassisi, V.; Giuffreda, E.; Velardi, L.; Alifano, P.; Talà, A.; Tredici, S. M.

    2014-07-01

    The spreading of pathogens represents a serious threat for human beings. Consequently, efficient antimicrobial surfaces are needed in order to reduce risks of contracting severe diseases. In this work we present the first evidences of a new technique to obtain a highly antibacterial Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) based on a non-stoichiometric titanium oxide coating, visible-light responsive, obtained through ion implantation.

  14. In vitro wear assessments of fixed and mobile UHMWPE total knee replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Affatato, Saverio; Bracco, Pierangiola; Sudanese, Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► In this study we examined the wear behaviour of total knee UHMWPE menisci. ► We used two different knee designs: mobile and fixed menisci. ► We used a knee simulator and FTIR analyses to evaluate the wear behaviour. ► Our conclusions are that the two designs had a different wear behaviour. - Abstract: This work discusses the wear behaviour of two different ultra-high-molecular-weight-polyethylene tibial component designs. Mobile and fixed bearings were tested on a knee wear simulator for 5 million cycles using bovine calf serum as lubricant. We correlated the wear results with the chemical characterisation of the investigated materials: Fourier Transformed Infra Red Spectroscopy analyses, Differential Scanning Calorimetry and cross-link density measurements were used to assess the chemical features of this polyethylene. Mobile and fixed polyethylene inserts showed a different wear behaviour: the mobile designs components showed lower weight losses than the fixed components (109 ± 6 mg and 163 ± 80 mg, respectively). Significant statistical differences were observed in wear rate (P = 0.035, Kolmogorov–Smirnov Test for two samples). From a molecular point of view, typical radiation-induced oxidation profiles were observed in all the tested polyethylene samples, but the overall degradation was more significant in the fixed bearing inserts and this is likely to play a role on the wear performances

  15. Small Bore Piping Socket Weld Evaluation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Min; Cho, Hong Seok; Choi, Sang Hoon; Cho, Ki Hyun; Lee, Jang Wook

    2009-01-01

    Kori unit 3 had stopped operation due to leakage at Steam Generator drain line socket weld on June 6, 2008. The Cause of socket weld damage was known as a fatigue crack. According to this case, all socket welds located in RCS pressure boundary are carrying out Radiographic Testing. But to inspect socket welds by RT has some problems. The result of EPRI study showed that RT has limitation to find flaws at socket welds.The orientation of flaws has big influence on RT inspection capability and there is not enough space at socket welds for RT, dose problems as well. Although the gap between coupling and pipe at socket welds must follow up code, surface inspection can't inspect the gap. If there is absence of the gap, socket welds are damaged during operation. The gap should be identified by RT but the distance of gap can't be measured. As this paper, the ultrasonic inspection system was introduced to figure out indication and gap in the socket welds

  16. Surface modification of UHMWPE with infrared femtosecond laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Pradas, J.M., E-mail: jmfernandez@ub.edu [Departament de Fisica Aplicada i Optica, Universitat de Barcelona Marti i Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Naranjo-Leon, S.; Morenza, J.L.; Serra, P. [Departament de Fisica Aplicada i Optica, Universitat de Barcelona Marti i Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene surface was modified with femtosecond laser pulses at 1027 nm wavelength. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Surface roughness is increased. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ablation efficiency is maximum for 6 {mu}J pulses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Irradiated surfaces remain almost chemically unaltered. - Abstract: Ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is a polymer with mechanical and corrosion properties, which make it appropriate for using in biomedical devices such as hip and knee prostheses. The surface morphology and chemistry of UHMWPE influence its biocompatibility. A laser with wavelength at 1027 nm delivering 450 fs pulses at a repetition rate of 1 kHz is used to modify the surface of UHMWPE samples with 0.45 {mu}m root mean square surface roughness. Micrometric resolution is achieved with the use of a focusing lens of 0.25 NA and pulse energies of few microjoules. The study focuses in the influence of different pulse energies and pulse overlaps on the laser-induced surface roughness and ablation yield. Confocal microscopy is used to characterize changes in the morphology of the irradiated surfaces, and their chemical structure is analyzed by attenuated total reflectance infrared and Raman spectroscopies. The roughness increases as the pulse energy increases until it reaches a maximum. The ablation yield increases with the pulse energy and pulse overlap. However, the ablation yield per pulse is lower for higher pulse overlap. Pulses of 6 {mu}J have the highest ablation efficiency. Infrared and Raman spectra of samples irradiated with low energy pulses are similar to those of the pristine sample. However, some C=C and C=O bonds can be detected after irradiation with the highest pulse energies.

  17. SSL - THE SIMPLE SOCKETS LIBRARY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, C. E.

    1994-01-01

    The Simple Sockets Library (SSL) allows C programmers to develop systems of cooperating programs using Berkeley streaming Sockets running under the TCP/IP protocol over Ethernet. The SSL provides a simple way to move information between programs running on the same or different machines and does so with little overhead. The SSL can create three types of Sockets: namely a server, a client, and an accept Socket. The SSL's Sockets are designed to be used in a fashion reminiscent of the use of FILE pointers so that a C programmer who is familiar with reading and writing files will immediately feel comfortable with reading and writing with Sockets. The SSL consists of three parts: the library, PortMaster, and utilities. The user of the SSL accesses it by linking programs to the SSL library. The PortMaster initializes connections between clients and servers. The PortMaster also supports a "firewall" facility to keep out socket requests from unapproved machines. The "firewall" is a file which contains Internet addresses for all approved machines. There are three utilities provided with the SSL. SKTDBG can be used to debug programs that make use of the SSL. SPMTABLE lists the servers and port numbers on requested machine(s). SRMSRVR tells the PortMaster to forcibly remove a server name from its list. The package also includes two example programs: multiskt.c, which makes multiple accepts on one server, and sktpoll.c, which repeatedly attempts to connect a client to some server at one second intervals. SSL is a machine independent library written in the C-language for computers connected via Ethernet using the TCP/IP protocol. It has been successfully compiled and implemented on a variety of platforms, including Sun series computers running SunOS, DEC VAX series computers running VMS, SGI computers running IRIX, DECstations running ULTRIX, DEC alpha AXPs running OSF/1, IBM RS/6000 computers running AIX, IBM PC and compatibles running BSD/386 UNIX and HP Apollo 3000

  18. Fatigue tests of dowel-socket systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, D.D.

    1976-01-01

    A test program was conducted to determine the fatigue behavior of LHTGR fuel element dowel/socket systems. Two dowel/socket systems, namely, a four-dowel system and a five-dowel system, were tested to failure under shear loads applied through a fatigue test apparatus to simulate repetitive loading during a seismic event

  19. Research on Mechanical Behaviors of Micro-crystal Muscovite/UHMWPE Composites to Impact Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Huarong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available UHMWPE composites were prepared by hot pressing process with micro-crystal muscovite as reinforced particulates. The mechanical behaviors of composites to impact loading was evaluated by split Hopkinson bar. The results demonstrated that dynamic yield stress and failure stress of UHMWPE composites were gradually increased when the filling amount was less than 20%; when the filling content of muscovite was around 15%, the energy absorption efficiency of the composite reaches maximum value. It was also found that when strain rate within 3200/s, the dynamic yield stress, failure stress and energy absorption efficiency of UHMWPE composites increased with the increase of strain rate and display strain rate enhancement effect.

  20. Comparison of mechanical and tribotechnical properties of UHMWPE reinforced with basalt fibers and particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panin, S. V.; Kornienko, L. A.; Alexenko, V. O.; Qitao, Huang; Ivanova, L. R.

    2016-11-01

    Mechanical and tribotechnical properties of UHMWPE composites reinforced with basalt fibers and particles under dry sliding friction and abrasion were investigated. It is shown that adding of the basalt particles provides higher wear resistance under the dry sliding friction while at abrasion filling by the basalt fibers is more efficient since the wear resistance of the reinforced UHMWPE composites is by 3.7 times higher in contrast with the neat polymer. Wear mechanisms of the polymeric UHMWPE composites under various types of wear are discussed.

  1. Fatigue strength of socket welded pipe joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, K.; Matsuda, F.; Sato, M.; Higuchi, M.; Nakagawa, A.

    1994-01-01

    Fully reversed four point bending fatigue tests were carried out of small diameter socket welded joints made of carbon steels. Experimental parameters are pipe diameter, thickness of pipe and socket wall, throat depth and shape of fillet welds, slip-on and diametral gaps in the socket welding, lack of penetration at the root of fillet welds, and peening of fillet welds. In most cases a fatigue crack started from the root of the fillet, but in the case of higher stress amplitude, it tended to start from the toe of fillet. The standard socket welded joint of 50 mm diameter showed relatively low fatigue strength, 46 MPa in stress amplitude at the 10 7 cycles failure life. This value corresponds to about 1/5 of that of the smoothed base metal specimens in axial fatigue. The fatigue strength showed decrease with increasing pipe diameter, and increase with increasing the thickness of pipe and socket wall. The effects of throat depth and shape of fillet welds on fatigue strength were not significant. Contrary to the expectation, the fatigue strength of the socket welded joint without slip-on gap is higher than that of the joint with the normal gap. A lack of penetration at the root deleteriously reduced fatigue strength, showing 14 MPa in stress amplitude at the 10 7 cycles failure life for the 50 mm diameter socket joint. (orig.)

  2. Wear tests in a hip joint simulator of different CoCrMo counterfaces on UHMWPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Mora, V.A.; Hoffmann, M.; Stroosnijder, R.; Gil, F.J.

    2009-01-01

    The objective in this work was to study the effect of different material counterfaces on the Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) wear behavior. The materials used as counterfaces were based on CoCrMo: forged with hand polished and mass finished, CoCrMo coating applied on the forged CoCrMo alloy obtained by Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD). A hip joint simulator was designed and built for these studies. The worn surfaces were observed by optical and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the hand polished CoCrMo alloy caused the higher UHMWPE wear of the acetabular cups. The CoCrMo coating caused the least UHMWPE wear, while the mass finished CoCrMo alloy caused an intermediate UHMWPE wear. It is shown that the wear rates obtained in this work are closer to clinical studies than to similar hip joints simulator studies

  3. Effect of γ-irradiation on the thermal properties of UHMWPE ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    65

    addition to this, researchers are working on figuring out new and smarter fillers ... crystallinity for UHMWPE/MWCNTs due to reduction of crystalline lamellae density of ... hours at 200 rpm using the facility available at Pakistan Institute of ...

  4. Effect of γ-irradiation on the thermal properties of UHMWPE ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    irradiation on the thermal properties of UHMWPE/MWCNTs nanocomposites: a comparative study of incorporating unmodified and γ -ray-modified MWCNTs. SAQLAIN SAQIB MUKHTAR MALIK SAJJAD MEHMOOD SYED ASAD MAQBOOL ...

  5. Impact of UHMWPE texture on friction and wear resistance of hip prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddoumy Fatima

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ultra High Molecular Weight PolyEthylene (UHMWPE is a polymer widely used in hip implants (prostheses as a bearing surface against metal, because of its good mechanical properties and biocompatibility [1]. Nevertheless, the durability of such implants is limited because of failure resulting from osteolysis and aseptic loosening. These two phenomenons are due to the immune response of human body consecutive to the apparition of wear particles of UHMWPE with time.

  6. Evaluation of environmental degradation effects in morphology of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivas, Viviane; Zylberberg, Marcel P.; Cardoso, Andre Luis V.; Pereira, Iaci M.; Weber, Ricardo P.; Suarez, Joao C. Miguez

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate changes in the morphology of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene fiber (UHMWPE), before and after exposure to environmental agents. Fibers produced by two different manufacturers were analyzed. To characterize the morphology, we used the technique of small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). The results demonstrate that the original morphology of the fibers was UHMWPE affected by the defects caused by exposure to environmental agents. (author)

  7. Characterization and Accelerated Ageing of UHMWPE Used in Orthopedic Prosthesis by Peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Magda; Mansur, Alexandra; Mansur, Herman

    2009-01-01

    Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) has been the most commonly used bearing material in total joint arthroplasty. Wear and oxidation fatigue resistance of UHMWPE are regarded as two important mechanical properties to extend the longevity of knee prostheses. Though accelerated in vitro protocols have been developed to test the relative oxidation resistance of various types of UHMWPE, its mechanism is not accurately understood yet. Thus, in the present study an accelerated ageing of UHMWPE in hydrogen peroxide solution was performed and relative oxidation was extensively characterized by Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) spectroscopy and the morphological changes were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Different chemical groups of UHMWPE associated with the degradation reaction were monitored for over 120 days in order to evaluate the possible oxidation mechanism(s) which may have occurred. The results have provided strong evidence that the oxidation mechanism is rather complex, and two stages with their own particular first-order kinetics reaction patterns have been clearly identified. Furthermore, hydrogen peroxide has proven to be an efficient oxidative medium to accelerate ageing of UHMWPE.

  8. Bacterial adherence on UHMWPE doped with Vitamin E: an in vitro study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina-Manso D; Gomez-Barrena E; Esteban J; Adames H; Martinez M J; Cordero J; Fernandez-Roblas R; Puertolas J A

    2010-01-01

    Biomaterials may improve its capacity to resist bacterial adherence, and subsequent infection through material changes. Our aim was to test the bacterial adherence to vitamin E (VE) doped UHMWPE with S. aureus and S. epidermidis (collection and clinical strains), compared to virgin material. Experimental UHMWPE with 3%, 0.4%, and commercial 0.1% VE concentration (1000 ppm) were tested. The biofilm-developing ability was used as a covariable. The collection strain of S. aureus showed significantly less adherence to the commercial VE UHMWPE (p=0.036) but the clinical strains did not significantly modified its adhesion to UHMWPE in presence of VE. The collection strain of S. epidermidis showed significantly less adherence to experimental UHMWPE with VE, independently of the concentration used (p=0.008). However, only 1 of the 4 clinical strains under study clearly confirmed these results in commercial VE polyethylene. Vitamin E doped UHMWPE affects the adherence of some S. aureus and S. epidermidis strains, independently of the concentration in use, but the results showed important intraspecies differences.

  9. Titanium Socket for 120 mm Mortar Base

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    .... However, its unique properties also make it difficult to machine productively. ARDEC was spending excessive time turning a profile of a ball socket into the component that supports the mortar tube...

  10. The definitive guide to HTML5 WebSocket

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Vanessa; Moskovits, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The Definitive Guide to HTML5 WebSocket is the ultimate insider's WebSocket resource. This revolutionary new web technology enables you to harness the power of true real-time connectivity and build responsive, modern web applications.   This book contains everything web developers and architects need to know about WebSocket. It discusses how WebSocket-based architectures provide a dramatic reduction in unnecessary network overhead and latency compared to older HTTP (Ajax) architectures, how to layer widely used protocols such as XMPP and STOMP on top of WebSocket, and how to secure WebSocket c

  11. Alveolar socket healing: what can we learn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Mauricio G; Silva, Cléverson O; Misawa, Mônica; Sukekava, Flavia

    2015-06-01

    Tooth extraction induces a series of complex and integrated local changes within the investing hard and soft tissues. These local alterations arise in order to close the socket wound and to restore tissue homeostasis, and are referred to as '"socket healing". The aims of the present report were twofold: first, to describe the socket-healing process; and, second, to discuss what can be learned from the temporal sequence of healing events, in order to improve treatment outcomes. The socket-healing process may be divided into three sequential, and frequently overlapping, phases: inflammatory; proliferative; and modeling/remodeling. Several clinical and experimental studies have demonstrated that the socket-healing process promotes up to 50% reduction of the original ridge width, greater bone resorption at the buccal aspect than at the lingual/palatal counterpart and a larger amount of alveolar bone reduction in the molar region. In conclusion, tooth extraction, once a simple and straightforward surgical procedure, should be performed in the knowledge that ridge reduction will follow and that further clinical steps should be considered to compensate for this, when considering future options for tooth replacement. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The influence of Co-Cr and UHMWPE particles on infection persistence : An in vivo study in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosman, Anton H.; Bulstra, Sjoerd K.; Sjollema, Jelmer; van der Mei, Henny C.; Busscher, Henk J.; Neut, Danielle

    Wear of metal-on-metal (cobaltchromium, CoCr particles) and metal-on-polyethylene (ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene, UHMWPE particles) bearing surfaces in hip prostheses is a major problem in orthopedics. This study aimed to compare the influence of CoCr and UHMWPE particles on the

  13. Contact Stress Generation on the UHMWPE Tibial Insert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Petrović Savić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Total knee replacement (TKR is considered, during last years, as a very successful surgical technique for removing knee joint deformities and eliminating pain caused by cartilage damage. In literature, as primary causes for knee joint endoprothesis damage are cited complex movements which cause occurrences of complex stress conditions, sagital radius conformity, sliding, types of materials etc. Aim of this study is analysis of contact stresses that occur on tibial implant for 15°, 45° and 60° knee flexion and 50 kg, 75 kg, 100 kg and 125 kg weight. Knee joint prosthesis model and finite elements method (FEM analysis are done in software Catia V5. For this analysis we used ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE for tibial implant material and AISI 316, AISI 317, AISI 321, 17-4PH, CoCrMo, Ti6Al4V and SAE A-286 for femoral component materials. Results show that area of maximal contact stress is identified in medial and lateral part of tibial implant. Von Mises stress values vary regarding of flexion degree and weight, but values are approximate for types of chosen materials. Contact stress location corresponds to damage that occur on tibial implant during exploitation.

  14. 30 CFR 57.12035 - Weatherproof lamp sockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weatherproof lamp sockets. 57.12035 Section 57.12035 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Surface and Underground § 57.12035 Weatherproof lamp sockets. Lamp sockets shall be of a weatherproof type...

  15. 30 CFR 56.12035 - Weatherproof lamp sockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weatherproof lamp sockets. 56.12035 Section 56.12035 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL....12035 Weatherproof lamp sockets. Lamp sockets shall be of a weatherproof type where they are exposed to...

  16. Ball-and-socket ankle joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pistoia, F.; Ozonoff, M.B.; Wintz, P.; Hartford Hospital, CT

    1987-01-01

    The ball-and-socket ankle joint is a malformation of the ankle in which the articular surface of the talus is hemispherical in both the anteroposterior and lateral projections and has a congruent, concave tibial articular surface. Fourteen patients with this condition were identified retrospectively. Thirteen patients were thought to have the congenital type of ball-and-socket ankle joint which in many was associated with tarsal coalition, short limb, and ray fusion and deletion anomalies. One case of the acquired type, demonstrating less geometric rounding of the talar margins, was seen in a patient with myelomeningocele, probably resulting from sensory and motor deficits. Although the exact etiology of the congenital type is unknown, its association with other malformations suggests that the ball-and-socket ankle joint results from an overall maldevelopment of the ankle and foot. (orig.)

  17. Functionalization of powder and fibrous microfillers for UHMWPE by treatment with polyorganosiloxane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panin, S. V.; Kornienko, L. A.; Qitao, Huang; Alexenko, V. O.; Ivanova, L. R.

    2017-12-01

    To develop higher strength and wear-resistant polymer composites, which are based on ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), the mechanical and tribotechnical characteristics of UHMWPE filled with wollastonite microfibers and aluminum metahydroxide AlO(OH) microparticles, preliminarily treated (functionalized) in polyorganosiloxane to increase the adhesion of the fillers to the matrix, have been studied. The choice of the fillers and the adhesion promoter for the ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene matrix is determined by the search of effective commercially available fillers and surface modifiers to design wear resistant polymeric composites for friction units in mechanical engineering. The chemical and permolecular structure and the wear track surface topography of UHMWPE composites have been investigated under dry sliding friction at different loads and sliding velocities.

  18. Pain and discomfort in the anophthalmic socket

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohman, Elin; Roed Rasmussen, Marie Louise; Kopp, Eva Dafgård

    2014-01-01

    eye pain, and psychological/psychiatric factors. Recent research has brought attention to the role of prosthesis deposits in mucous formation, meibomian gland dysfunction causing dry socket, and the anophthalmic patients' experience of phantom eye pain. SUMMARY: Anophthalmic patients may experience...

  19. Modeling and experiments on ballistic impact into UHMWPE yarns using flat and saddle-nosed projectiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phoenix, S.L.; Heisserer, U.; Werff, H. van der; Jagt-Deutekom , M.J. van der

    2017-01-01

    Yarn shooting experiments were conducted to determine the ballistically-relevant, Young’s modulus and tensile strength of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fiber. Target specimens were Dyneema® SK76 yarns (1760 dtex), twisted to 40 turns/m, and initially tensioned to stresses ranging

  20. Continuous Plasma Treatment of Ultra-High-Molecular-Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) Fibres for Adhesion Improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teodoru, Steluta; Kusano, Yukihiro; Rozlosnik, Noemi

    2009-01-01

    A dielectric barrier discharge in Ar, He, He/O2, N2 or O2 at atmospheric pressure was used for the continuous plasma treatment of UHMWPE fibres. The influence of the input power of the discharge and the gas flow rate on surface modification is studied with the aim of adhesion improvement. Surface...

  1. Quantification of structural changes of UHMWPE components in total joint replacements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fulín, P.; Pokorný, D.; Šlouf, Miroslav; Nevoralová, Martina; Vacková, Taťana; Dybal, Jiří; Pilař, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 15, 28 March (2014), 109_1-109_8 E-ISSN 1471-2474 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01011406; GA MZd NT12229 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : UHMWPE * oxidative damage * residual radicals Subject RIV: FI - Traumatology, Orthopedics Impact factor: 1.717, year: 2014

  2. Safety evaluation of socket weld integrity in nuclear piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Y.H.; Kim, H.J.; Choi, S.Y.; Kim, Y.J.; Kim, Y.J.

    2004-01-01

    The purposes of this paper are to evaluate the integrity of socket weld in nuclear piping and prepare the technical basis for a new guideline on radiographic testing (RT) for the socket weld. Recently, the integrity of the socket weld is regarded as a safety concern in nuclear power plants because lots of failures and leaks have been reported in the socket weld. The root causes of the socket weld failure are known as unanticipated loadings such as vibration or thermal fatigue and improper weld joint during construction. The ASME Code sec. III requires 1/16 inch gap between the pipe and fitting in the socket weld. Many failure cases, however, showed that the gap requirement was not satisfied. The Code also requires magnetic particle examination (MT) or liquid penetration examination (PT) on the socket weld, but not radiographic examination (RT). It means that it is not easy to examine the 1/16 inch gap in the socket weld by using the NDE methods currently required in the Code. In this paper, the effects of the requirements in the ASME Code sec. III on the socket weld integrity were evaluated by using finite element method. The crack behavior in the socket weld was also investigated under vibration event in nuclear power plants. The results showed that the socket weld was very susceptible to the vibration if the requirements in ASME Code were not satisfied. The constraint between the pipe and fitting due to the contact significantly affects the integrity of the socket weld. This paper also suggests a new guideline on the RT for the socket weld during construction stage in nuclear power plants. (orig.)

  3. Study of crosslinking onset and hydrogen annealing of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene irradiated with high-energy protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John Ford

    1997-09-01

    Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE) is used extensively in hip and knee endoprostheses. Radiation damage from the sterilization of these endoprostheses prior to surgical insertion results in polymer crosslinking and decreased oxidative stability. The motivation for this study was to determine if UHMW-PE could be crosslinked by low dose proton irradiation with minimal radiation damage and its subsequent deleterious effects. I found that low dose proton irradiation and post irradiation hydrogen annealing did crosslink UHMW-PE and limit post irradiation oxidation. Crosslinking onset was investigated for UHMW-PE irradiated with 2.6 and 30 MeV H+ ions at low doses from 5.7 × 1011-2.3 × 1014 ions/cm2. Crosslinking was determined from gel permeation chromatography (GPC) of 1,2,4 trichlorobenzene sol fractions and increased with dose. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed irradiation resulted in increased free radicals confirmed from increased carbonyl groups. Radiation damage, especially at the highest doses observed, also showed up in carbon double bonds and increased methyl end groups. Hydrogen annealing after ion irradiation resulted in 40- 50% decrease in FTIR absorption associated with carbonyl. The hydrogen annealing prevented further oxidation after aging for 1024 hours at 80oC. Hydrogen annealing was successful in healing radiation damage through reacting with the free radicals generated during proton irradiation. Polyethylenes, polyesters, and polyamides are used in diverse applications by the medical profession in the treatment of orthopedic impairments and cardiovascular disease and for neural implants. These artificial implants are sterilized with gamma irradiation prior to surgery and the resulting radiation damage can lead to accelerated deterioration of the implant properties. The findings in this study will greatly impact the continued use of these materials through the elimination of many problems associated with radiation

  4. Single-Rooted Extraction Sockets: Classification and Treatment Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Chaar, Edgar; Oshman, Sarah; Fallah Abed, Pooria

    2016-09-01

    Clinicians have many treatment techniques from which to choose when extracting a failing tooth and replacing it with an implant-supported restoration and when successful management of an extraction socket during the course of tooth replacement is necessary to achieve predictable and esthetic outcomes. This article presents a straightforward, yet thorough, classification for extraction sockets of single-rooted teeth and provides guidance to clinicians in the selection of appropriate and predictable treatment. The presented classification of extraction sockets for single-rooted teeth focuses on the topography of the extraction socket, while the protocol for treatment of each socket type factors in the shape of the remaining bone, the biotype, and the location of the socket whether it be in the mandible or maxilla. This system is based on the biologic foundations of wound healing and can help guide clinicians to successful treatment outcomes.

  5. Evaluation of carbon nanotubes and graphene as reinforcements for UHMWPE-based composites in arthroplastic applications: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puértolas, J A; Kurtz, S M

    2014-11-01

    In this review we have evaluated the state of the art of CNT/UHMWPE and graphene/UHMWPE composites from four different points of view: mechanical properties, chemical stability, wear resistance and biocompatibility. The performance of these new carbonaceous composites allows us to conclude that these materials have overcome a first step on the way to developing into an alternative to the current HXLPEs used in orthopedic applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of swellable local implants of a polyethyleneimine-poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PEI-PVP) hydrogel as a socket filler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ching-Wen; Ho, Hsiu-O; Lo, Yi-June; Lee, Sheng-Yang; Yang, You-Ren; Sheu, Ming-Thau

    2012-01-01

    In this study, hydrogels composed of polyethyleneimine (PEI) and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) K90 (PVP) cross-linked with various concentrations (0, 0.125, 0.25 and 0.5%) of glutaraldehyde were evaluated as a hydrogel filler for the local delivery of lidocaine after tooth extraction. The drug-release kinetics, swellability, cytotoxicity and wound healing after tooth extraction of these non-cross-linked and cross-linked PEI-PVP hydrogels were examined in male beagles and compared to values using Spongostan(®). Results demonstrated that the extent of cross-linking influenced the swelling of the resulting hydrogel, but the drug-release rates were similar. No significant changes were observed in gingival fibroblasts in contact with the PEI- PVP hydrogels or Spongostan(®). In the in vivo study, PEI-PVP hydrogels showed good retention in the socket for 2 days and showed comparable wound-healing rates within 2 weeks with those of Spongostan(®). In conclusion, PEI-PVP hydrogels are suitable for use as socket-dressing materials, and the release of local anaesthesia from PEI-PVP hydrogels can be sustained for a desirable period of time to prevent pain after a tooth extraction.

  7. Dynamic elasticity measurement for prosthetic socket design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yujin; Kim, Junghoon; Son, Hyeryon; Choi, Youngjin

    2017-07-01

    The paper proposes a novel apparatus to measure the dynamic elasticity of human limb in order to help the design and fabrication of the personalized prosthetic socket. To take measurements of the dynamic elasticity, the desired force generated as an exponential chirp signal in which the frequency increases and amplitude is maintained according to time progress is applied to human limb and then the skin deformation is recorded, ultimately, to obtain the frequency response of its elasticity. It is referred to as a Dynamic Elasticity Measurement Apparatus (DEMA) in the paper. It has three core components such as linear motor to provide the desired force, loadcell to implement the force feedback control, and potentiometer to record the skin deformation. After measuring the force/deformation and calculating the dynamic elasticity of the limb, it is visualized as 3D color map model of the limb so that the entire dynamic elasticity can be shown at a glance according to the locations and frequencies. For the visualization, the dynamic elasticities measured at specific locations and frequencies are embodied using the color map into 3D limb model acquired by using 3D scanner. To demonstrate the effectiveness, the visualized dynamic elasticities are suggested as outcome of the proposed system, although we do not have any opportunity to apply the proposed system to the amputees. Ultimately, it is expected that the proposed system can be utilized to design and fabricate the personalized prosthetic socket in order for releasing the wearing pain caused by the conventional prosthetic socket.

  8. Web-based control application using WebSocket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Y.

    2012-01-01

    The WebSocket allows asynchronous full-duplex communication between a Web-based (i.e. Java Script-based) application and a Web-server. WebSocket started as a part of HTML5 standardization but has now been separated from HTML5 and has been developed independently. Using WebSocket, it becomes easy to develop platform independent presentation layer applications for accelerator and beamline control software. In addition, a Web browser is the only application program that needs to be installed on client computer. The WebSocket-based applications communicate with the WebSocket server using simple text-based messages, so WebSocket is applicable message-based control system like MADOCA, which was developed for the SPring-8 control system. A simple WebSocket server for the MADOCA control system and a simple motor control application were successfully made as a first trial of the WebSocket control application. Using Google-Chrome (version 13.0) on Debian/Linux and Windows 7, Opera (version 11.0) on Debian/Linux and Safari (version 5.0.3) on Mac OS X as clients, the motors can be controlled using a WebSocket-based Web-application. Diffractometer control application use in synchrotron radiation diffraction experiment was also developed. (author)

  9. Intercellular coupling mediated by potassium accumulation in peg-and-socket junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigmond, Edward J.; Bardakjian, Berj L.; Thuneberg, Lars

    2000-01-01

    Physiology, peg-and-socket junctions, smooth muscle, boundary element method, coupling, morphology......Physiology, peg-and-socket junctions, smooth muscle, boundary element method, coupling, morphology...

  10. Structural modifications of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) processed in attritor type mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, Melina C.; Carvalho, Benjamim de M.; Pinheiro, Luis A.; Cintho, Osvaldo M.; Capocchi, Jose D.T.; Kubaski, Evaldo T.

    2009-01-01

    Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is a polyethylene that has a high melt viscosity, hence its processing becomes very difficult. High-energy mechanical milling provides physical and chemical changes in polymers that have been studied recently. In order to study these changes in UHMWPE, powder of this polymer was mechanical milled in attritor type mill with a ball-to-powder weight ratio of 40:1 for 8 hours, varying the rotation speed: 200, 300, 400, 500 e 600 rpm. The polymer was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and xray diffraction (XRD). From the XRD results it was noted that as the rotation speed increased the monoclinic phase also increased up to 500 rpm. For 600 rpm, the amount of monoclinic phase apparently decreased. At this rotation speed, the deformation rate probably increased the process temperature, allowing the monoclinic phase to return to its initial structural orthorhombic form. (author)

  11. Thermal characterization of Ag and Ag + N ion implanted ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokullu Urkac, E.; Oztarhan, A.; Tihminlioglu, F.; Kaya, N.; Ila, D.; Muntele, C.; Budak, S.; Oks, E.; Nikolaev, A.; Ezdesir, A.; Tek, Z.

    2007-08-01

    Most of total hip joints are composed of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). However, as ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene is too stable in a body, wear debris may accumulate and cause biological response such as bone absorption and loosening of prosthesis. In this study, ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene samples were Ag and Ag + N hybrid ion implanted by using MEVVA ion implantation technique to improve its surface properties. Samples were implanted with a fluence of 1017 ion/cm2 and extraction voltage of 30 kV. Implanted and unimplanted samples were investigated by thermo-gravimetry analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical microscopy (OM) and contact Angle measurement. Thermal characterization results showed that the ion bombardment induced an increase in the % crystallinity, onset and termination degradation temperatures of UHMWPE.

  12. Thermal characterization of Ag and Ag + N ion implanted ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokullu Urkac, E. [Department of Materials Science, Izmir High Technology Institute, Gulbahcekoyu Urla, Izmir (Turkey)]. E-mail: emelsu@gmail.com; Oztarhan, A. [Bioengineering Department, Ege University, Bornova, Izmir 35100 (Turkey); Tihminlioglu, F. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Izmir High Technology Institute, Gulbahcekoyu Urla, Izmir (Turkey); Kaya, N. [Bioengineering Department, Ege University, Bornova, Izmir 35100 (Turkey); Ila, D. [Center for Irradiation of Materials, Alabama A and M University, Normal AL 35762 (United States); Muntele, C. [Center for Irradiation of Materials, Alabama A and M University, Normal AL 35762 (United States); Budak, S. [Center for Irradiation of Materials, Alabama A and M University, Normal AL 35762 (United States); Oks, E. [H C Electronics Institute, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Nikolaev, A. [H C Electronics Institute, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Ezdesir, A. [R and D Department, PETKIM Holding A.S., Aliaga, Izmir 35801 (Turkey); Tek, Z. [Department of Physics, Celal Bayar University, Manisa (Turkey)

    2007-08-15

    Most of total hip joints are composed of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE ). However, as ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene is too stable in a body, wear debris may accumulate and cause biological response such as bone absorption and loosening of prosthesis. In this study, ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene samples were Ag and Ag + N hybrid ion implanted by using MEVVA ion implantation technique to improve its surface properties. Samples were implanted with a fluence of 10{sup 17} ion/cm{sup 2} and extraction voltage of 30 kV. Implanted and unimplanted samples were investigated by thermo-gravimetry analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical microscopy (OM) and contact Angle measurement. Thermal characterization results showed that the ion bombardment induced an increase in the % crystallinity, onset and termination degradation temperatures of UHMWPE.

  13. High-Energy Impact Behaviors of Hybrid Composite Plates Strengthened with 3D-UHMWPE Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Youl Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with drop-impact effects of new hybrid concrete plates strengthened with an ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE. The proposed 3D-UHMWPE results in excellent mechanical properties such as high abrasion resistance, impact strength, and low coefficient of friction. These special properties allow the product to be used in several high-performance applications. In this study, we used two kinds of high-performance materials for the impact reinforcement of a structure made of conventional materials such as a concrete. In particular, the impact mechanism of a fiber-concrete hybrid structure was studied using various parameters. The parametric studies are focused on the various effects of drop-impact on the structural performance. The combined effects of using different fiber-reinforced materials on the impact behavers are also investigated.

  14. Modification of UHMWPE crystalline structure by means of e-beam irradiation and thermal treatment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šlouf, Miroslav; Synková, Hana; Baldrian, Josef; Stephan, M.; Dorschner, H.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 3 (2006), s. 171 ISSN 1211-5894. [Czech and Slovak Crystallographic Colloquium. 22.06.2006-24.06.2006, Grenoble] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/04/1118 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : UHMWPE * wear testing Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry http://www. xray .cz/ms/default.htm

  15. Dry Socket: Incidence, Clinical Features, and Predisposing Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babatunde O. Akinbami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Dry socket is a global phenomenon. The purpose of the study was to investigate the incidence of dry socket in recent times in a Nigerian Tertiary Hospital. Methods. Patients who were referred for dental extractions were included in the study. The case files of patients were obtained and information retrieved included biodata, indication for extraction, number and type of teeth extracted, oral hygiene status, compliance to oral hygiene instructions, and development of dry socket. Results. One thousand, one hundred and eighty two patients with total of 1362 teeth extracted during the 4-year period of the study were analyzed, out of which 1.4% teeth developed dry socket. The mean age (SD was 35.2 (16.0 years. Most of the patients who presented with dry socket were in the fourth decade of life. Mandibular teeth were affected more than maxillary teeth. Molars were more affected. Retained roots and third molars were conspicuous in the cases with dry socket. Conclusion. The incidence of dry socket in our centre was lower than previous reports. Oral hygiene status, lower teeth, and female gender were significantly associated with development of dry socket. Treatment with normal saline irrigation and ZnO eugenol dressings allowed relief of the symptoms.

  16. Laser surface modification of ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riveiro, A.; Soto, R.; Val, J. del; Comesaña, R.; Boutinguiza, M.; Quintero, F.; Lusquiños, F.; Pou, J.

    2014-01-01

    Ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is a synthetic polymer used for biomedical applications because of its high impact resistance, ductility and stability in contact with physiological fluids. Therefore, this material is being used in human orthopedic implants such as total hip or knee replacements. Surface modification of this material relates to changes on its chemistry, microstructure, roughness, and topography, all influencing its biological response. Surface treatment of UHMWPE is very difficult due to its high melt viscosity. This work presents a systematic approach to discern the role of different laser wavelengths (λ = 1064, 532, and 355 nm) on the surface modification of carbon coated UHMWPE samples. Influence of laser processing conditions (irradiance, pulse frequency, scanning speed, and spot overlapping) on the surface properties of this material was determined using an advanced statistical planning of experiments. A full factorial design of experiments was used to find the main effects of the processing parameters. The obtained results indicate the way to maximize surface properties which largely influence cell–material interaction.

  17. Deformation and Stress Response of Carbon Nanotubes/UHMWPE Composites under Extensional-Shear Coupling Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junxia; Cao, Changlin; Yu, Dingshan; Chen, Xudong

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, the effect of varying extensional-shear couple loading on deformation and stress response of Carbon Nanotubes/ ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (CNTs/UHMWPE) composites was investigated using finite element numerical simulation, with expect to improve the manufacturing process of UHMWPE-based composites with reduced stress and lower distortion. When applying pure extensional loading and pure X-Y shear loading, it was found that the risk of a structural breakage greatly rises. For identifying the coupling between extensional and shear loading, distinct generations of force loading were defined by adjusting the magnitude of extensional loading and X-Y shear loading. It was shown that with the decrement of X-Y shear loading the deformation decreases obviously where the maximal Mises stress in Z-direction at 0.45 m distance is in the range from 24 to 10 MPa and the maximal shear stress at 0.61 m distance is within the range from 0.9 to 0.3 MPa. In addition, all the stresses determined were clearly below the yield strength of CNTs/UHMWPE composites under extensional-shear couple loading.

  18. Laser surface modification of ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riveiro, A., E-mail: ariveiro@uvigo.es [Applied Physics Department, University of Vigo, ETSII, Lagoas-Marcosende, 9, Vigo 36310 (Spain); Centro Universitario de la Defensa, Escuela Naval Militar, Plaza de España 2, 36920 Marín (Spain); Soto, R.; Val, J. del; Comesaña, R.; Boutinguiza, M.; Quintero, F.; Lusquiños, F.; Pou, J. [Applied Physics Department, University of Vigo, ETSII, Lagoas-Marcosende, 9, Vigo 36310 (Spain)

    2014-05-01

    Ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is a synthetic polymer used for biomedical applications because of its high impact resistance, ductility and stability in contact with physiological fluids. Therefore, this material is being used in human orthopedic implants such as total hip or knee replacements. Surface modification of this material relates to changes on its chemistry, microstructure, roughness, and topography, all influencing its biological response. Surface treatment of UHMWPE is very difficult due to its high melt viscosity. This work presents a systematic approach to discern the role of different laser wavelengths (λ = 1064, 532, and 355 nm) on the surface modification of carbon coated UHMWPE samples. Influence of laser processing conditions (irradiance, pulse frequency, scanning speed, and spot overlapping) on the surface properties of this material was determined using an advanced statistical planning of experiments. A full factorial design of experiments was used to find the main effects of the processing parameters. The obtained results indicate the way to maximize surface properties which largely influence cell–material interaction.

  19. Socket sclerosis--an obstacle for orthodontic space closure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgaertel, Sebastian

    2009-07-01

    Socket sclerosis is a rare reaction to tooth extraction resulting in high-density bone in the center of the alveolar process, where, under normal circumstances, cancellous bone is to be expected. In an adult orthodontic patient, routine extractions of the mandibular first permanent bicuspids were performed, resulting in socket sclerosis and unsuccessful orthodontic space closure. Orthodontic mini-implants were inserted to augment anchorage and aid in space closure. In the presence of socket sclerosis, conventional orthodontic mechanics failed to close the extraction spaces. However, with absolute anchorage in place, space closure occurred at a nearly normal rate. After treatment, no signs of socket sclerosis were discernible on the periapical radiographs. Socket sclerosis can be an obstacle for orthodontic space closure if traditional mechanics are employed. However, mini-implant-reinforced anchorage can lead to successful space closure, resulting in complete resolution of the sclerotic sites.

  20. Radiation crosslinking of polypropylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nojiri, A.; Sawasaki, T.

    1984-01-01

    The radiation crosslinking of polypropylene with several kinds of polyfunctional monomers has been examined, and it has been clarified that the enhanced crosslinking may be classified into two types. In particular, the irradiation crosslinking process of polypropylene containing a polyfunctional monomer having an acryloyloxy group giving a specific gel - dose curve has been studied by infrared absorption spectrum and oxygen absorptivity measurement in comparison with the non-enhanced system. (author)

  1. Influence of DBD plasma pretreatment on the deposition of chitosan onto UHMWPE fiber surfaces for improvement of adhesion and dyeing properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Yu, E-mail: ren.y@ntu.edu.cn [School of Textile and Clothing, Nantong University, Jiangsu 226019 (China); College of Textile and Clothing Engineering, Soochow University, Jiangsu 215021 (China); Kuangda Fibre Technology Co., Ltd., Jiangsu 213161 (China); Ding, Zhirong [School of Textile and Clothing, Nantong University, Jiangsu 226019 (China); Wang, Chunxia [School of Textile and Clothing, Nantong University, Jiangsu 226019 (China); College of Textiles and Clothing, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Jiangsu 224051 (China); Zang, Chuanfeng; Zhang, Yin; Xu, Lin [School of Textile and Clothing, Nantong University, Jiangsu 226019 (China)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • The DBD plasma and chitosan combined treatment were performed on UHMWPE fibers. • The SEM and XPS analysis confirmed that chitosan was adsorbed on the UHMWPE fiber surfaces after the combined treatment. • The IFSS between the UHMWPE fiber and the epoxy resin reached 2.25 MPa with 100 s plasma pretreatment. • The dyeability of the UHMWPE fibers after the combined treatment was significantly improved. - Abstract: The combination treatment of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma and chitosan coatings was performed on ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibers in order to improve the wettability, dyeability and adhesion properties. The properties of UHMWPE fibers coated with chitosan, after being pretreated by DBD plasma, were evaluated through scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The interfacial shear strength (IFSS) between the fiber and the epoxy resin was determined using the single fiber pull-out test technique. The modified UHMWPE fibers were dyed with reactive dyes after the combined treatment. Surface wettability and dyeability were investigated by water contact angle and K/S measurement, respectively. SEM images confirmed that the chitosan was induced onto the surfaces of the UHMWPE fibers after the combined treatment. The XPS analysis showed that the oxygen and nitrogen contents of the UHMWPE fiber surfaces after the combined treatment were higher than that of the fiber modified by chitosan without DBD plasma pretreatment. Meanwhile, the UHMWPE fibers treated with combination of DBD plasma and chitosan treatment had better wettability, dyeability and adhesion property than those of the non-plasma pretreated surfaces, indicating that DBD plasma pretreatment facilitated the deposition of chitosan onto the UHMWPE surfaces.

  2. Fatigue evaluation of socket welded piping in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vecchio, R.S.

    1996-01-01

    Fatigue failures in piping systems occur, almost without exception, at the welded connections. In nuclear power plant systems, such failures occur predominantly at the socket welds of small diameter piping ad fillet attachment welds under high-cycle vibratory conditions. Nearly all socket weld fatigue failures are identified by leaks which, though not high in volume, generally are costly due to attendant radiological contamination. Such fatigue cracking was recently identified in the 3/4 in. diameter recirculation and relief piping socket welds from the reactor coolant system (RCS) charging pumps at a nuclear power plant. Consequently, a fatigue evaluation was performed to determine the cause of cracking and provide an acceptable repair. Socket weld fatigue life was evaluated using S-N type fatigue life curves for welded structures developed by AASHTO and the assessment of an effective cyclic stress range adjacent to each socket weld. Based on the calculated effective tress ranges and assignment of the socket weld details to the appropriate AASHTO S-N curves, the socket weld fatigue lives were calculated and found to be in excellent agreement with the accumulated cyclic life to-date

  3. The effect of cancer therapies on pediatric anophthalmic sockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shildkrot, Yevgeniy; Kirzhner, Maria; Haik, Barrett G; Qaddoumi, Ibrahim; Rodriguez-Galindo, Carlos; Wilson, Matthew W

    2011-12-01

    To determine the impact of chemotherapy or external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) on pediatric anophthalmic sockets. A retrospective, nonrandomized, interventional cohort study. A total of 135 sockets of 133 children undergoing enucleation from late 1999 to early 2009 at the St. Jude Children's Research Hospital were included. A retrospective chart review of outcomes after enucleation in patients treated with systemic chemotherapy or orbital EBRT either before or after removal of the eye compared with patients who received no other treatment. Incidence of implant exposure, migration, extrusion, socket contracture, and pyogenic granuloma formation. Retinoblastoma was the primary diagnosis in 128 eyes (95%). Median follow-up was 3.6 years (range, 0.1-9.3 years). Event-free course was observed in 94 sockets (69.6%). Complications included implant exposure (n = 28, 20.7%), socket contracture (n = 16, 11.9%), pyogenic granuloma (n = 9, 6.7%), implant extrusion (n = 3, 2.2%), and migration (n = 2, 1.5%). Exposure resolved in 21 sockets (77.8%) and improved in 2 sockets (11.1%); 1 patient with exposure died. Use of prior, adjuvant, or subsequent chemotherapy increased the long-term risk of exposure (odds ratio [OR] = 3.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-9.4), and contracture (OR could not be calculated, Psocket contracture. The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A smartphone photogrammetry method for digitizing prosthetic socket interiors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Amaia; Lemaire, Edward

    2017-04-01

    Prosthetic CAD/CAM systems require accurate 3D limb models; however, difficulties arise when working from the person's socket since current 3D scanners have difficulties scanning socket interiors. While dedicated scanners exist, they are expensive and the cost may be prohibitive for a limited number of scans per year. A low-cost and accessible photogrammetry method for socket interior digitization is proposed, using a smartphone camera and cloud-based photogrammetry services. 15 two-dimensional images of the socket's interior are captured using a smartphone camera. A 3D model is generated using cloud-based software. Linear measurements were comparing between sockets and the related 3D models. 3D reconstruction accuracy averaged 2.6 ± 2.0 mm and 0.086 ± 0.078 L, which was less accurate than models obtained by high quality 3D scanners. However, this method would provide a viable 3D digital socket reproduction that is accessible and low-cost, after processing in prosthetic CAD software. Clinical relevance The described method provides a low-cost and accessible means to digitize a socket interior for use in prosthetic CAD/CAM systems, employing a smartphone camera and cloud-based photogrammetry software.

  5. Development of Managing Program for Small Bore Piping Socket Weld on the Secondary System of NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Min; Ryu, Jong Myeong; Cho, Hong Seok; Cho, Ki Hyun; Choi, Sang Hoon; Kim, Man Hee

    2011-01-01

    Kori unit 3 had stopped operation due to leakage at steam generator drain line socket weld on June 6th, 2008. The cause of socket weld damage was known as welding defect and fatigue by vibration under normal operation. With above reason, the government has been required developing management program for small bore piping socket weld. Therefore, we have developed the socket weld management program to secure reliability and soundness of socket welds which are located at all domestic NPPs

  6. Study on crack generation at root of socket welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, K.; Matsuda, F.; Sato, M.; Nayama, M.; Akitomo, N.

    1994-01-01

    A program to investigate the fatigue strength of the socket welded joint has been carried out by the Japan Power Engineering and Inspection Corporation (JAPEIC) under contract with the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI). In this program, many types of socket welded joints were prepared with parameters varied, and the small cracks were observed at root sections of some welded joints. This study has been carried out to make clear the factors on crack generation at the root sections of the socket welded joints and to understand the cause and mechanism of crack generation. (orig.)

  7. Residual stress measurement in socket welded joints by neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Makoto; Ishiwata, Masayuki; Minakawa, Noriaki; Funahashi, Satoru.

    1995-01-01

    Neutron diffraction measurements of lattice spacings provide the spatial map of residual stress near welds in ferritic steel socket joints. The high tensile stress greater than 200 MPa was found in the fusion and heat-affected zones in the hoop direction. However, the highest tensile stress in the axial direction at the weld root was about 110 MPa relatively lower than the expected value from the fatigue test results. The balancing compressive stress was found near the surface of the socket weld fusion zone. Heat treatment at 625degC for 2 hours was sufficient for the relief of residual stress in socket welds. (author)

  8. Anophthalmic socket: choice of orbital implants for reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Artioli Schellini

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis literature review considers the treatment of an anophthalmic socket and the controversial aspects of the implants used to restore the lost volume after enucleation or evisceration, including the different materials employed and the main problems encountered during anophthalmic socket reconstruction. Since the 1980s, when integrated implants were proposed, there has been much controversy about what is the best implant for restoring the lost volume in an anophthalmic socket: integrated or non-integrated implants. Thus, we present this literature review to provide guidance to doctors and consumers

  9. 8 Pin RIC Socket for Hearing Aid Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Davids, Søren

    2012-01-01

    process and the other one is fully automated process. This paper presents the entire process chain for both the concepts and makes a comparative analysis based on the experimental investigation and validation. The work presented here can be a source of valuable information for industrial users...... of them. 8 Pin RIC Socket is a functionally versatile product which can combine many different functions and presents many advantages compared with the previous 3 Pin RIC Socket. For the demonstrator production of the new Socket, two different production concepts were chosen- one based on semi-automated...

  10. Natural gas from the socket. A surprising novelty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakker, P.

    1997-01-01

    A Dutch public utility (Obragas) introduced a new way to supply gas for their household clients in Helmond, Netherlands: the gas wall socket, which is in use in Japan for years. It appears that the Netherlands will follow. 6 ills

  11. Manufacture of sockets of volume compensators in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, V.P.; Tshekotilo, L.V.; Shevtshenko, N.T.; Sevruk, A.N.; Wolacek, W.J.; Irsicek, L.; Vrbensky, J.

    1982-01-01

    Experience is reported with regard to electroslag casting of sockets of volume compensators or steam separators used in nuclear power plants. According to the method the raw pieces are casted directly at the surface of the enclosures

  12. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy in management of severe dry socket pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdellateef, Abdelamajeed; Elrefai, Jamil; AlJadid, Omar; Alabbadi, Amjad

    2009-01-01

    To assess the role and efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) in the treatment of pain resulting from dry socket. From January 2006 to May 2007, 25 patients who had been diagnosed by the oral surgeon in the Dental Department of Princess Haya Hospital, Aqaba, Jordan with dry socket with severe intolerable pain, untreated with the classical treatments, were treated with HBOT. Fifteen patients (60%) were treated in a single HBOT session after which an almost complete resolution of pain took place, 7 patients (28%) were treated in 2 sessions and 3 patients (12%) needed 3 HBOT sessions to cure the pain. This preliminary study to assess the role of HBOT in the treatment of dry socket pain showed a great reduction of pain intensity of dry socket following administration of HBOT. (author)

  13. Zero insertion force socket for photoactivation patient treatment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troutner, V.H.

    1988-01-01

    Automatic operating zero insertion force socket for use in a photoactivatable reagent treatment system wherein photoactivatable agents, in contact with patient blood cells, are irradiated extracorporeally and then returned to the patient

  14. The possible nature of socket stars in H II regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castelaz, M.W.

    1990-01-01

    Close inspection of faint stars (V of about 14 mag) in H II regions show that they appear to be surrounded by circumstellar envelopes of about 10 arcsecs in diameter (as reported by Feibelman in 1989). The present premise is that the sockets are envelopes of obscuring dust which should emit a measurable amount of infrared radiation based on a simple thermal equilibrium model. A search of literature shows that, of 36 socket stars listed by Feibelman, 17 have been measured in the infrared. Of the 17, 14 show excess IR emission. This is very strong evidence that the socket stars are really stars with circumstellar envelopes. Socket stars may be a new type of astronomical object or well-known astronomical objects in environments or evolutionary states not previously seen. 22 refs

  15. Broadband from the socket and privatization of power distribution networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aalbers, R.; Baarsma, B.; Poort, J.

    2005-01-01

    Attention is paid to the consequences for the Dutch market of the recommendation of the European Commission to introduce Power Line Communication (PLC) in the EU member states. PLC makes it possible to access the internet via sockets [nl

  16. Investigation of Plasma Eects in Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) Cords

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teodoru, Steluta; Kusano, Yukihiro; Rozlosnik, Noemi

    modication for improved wetting and/or adhesion with other polymeric materials. Atmospheric pressure plasma treatment is promising for this purpose due to its environmental compatibility, high treatment eects without aecting the textural characteristics of the bulk material, its applicability to a variety...... of shapes, and easy up-scaling and construction of in-line production processes. An atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma is used to study surface modication eect on UHMWPE cords, operated at a frequency of ca. 40 kHz in He, He/O2, O2 and N2 gases. The cords were continuously...

  17. Effects of 108 Days Tritium Exposure on UHMW-PE, PTFE, and Vespel(R)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, E.A.

    2003-01-01

    Samples of three polymers, Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMW-PE), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), also known as Teflon(R), and Vespel(R) polyimide were exposed to 1 atmosphere of tritium gas at ambient temperature for 108 days. Sample mass and size measurements to calculate density, spectra-colorimetry, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were employed to characterize the effects of this exposure on these samples. This technical report is the first report from this research program

  18. Socket weld integrity in nuclear piping under fatigue loading condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Hwan; Choi, Sun Yeong

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the integrity of socket weld in nuclear piping under the fatigue loading. The integrity of socket weld is regarded as a safety concern in nuclear power plants because many failures have been world-widely reported in the socket weld. Recently, socket weld failures in the chemical and volume control system (CVCS) and the primary sampling system (PSS) were reported in Korean nuclear power plants. The root causes of the socket weld failures were known as the fatigue due to the pressure and/or temperature loading transients and the vibration during the plant operation. The ASME boiler and pressure vessel (B and PV) Code Sec. III requires 1/16 in. gap between the pipe and fitting in the socket weld with the weld leg size of 1.09 x t 1 , where t 1 is the pipe wall thickness. Many failure cases, however, showed that the gap requirement was not satisfied. In addition, industry has demanded the reduction of weld leg size from 1.09 x t 1 to 0.75 x t 1 . In this paper, the socket weld integrity under the fatigue loading was evaluated using three-dimensional finite element analysis considering the requirements in the ASME Code. Three types of loading conditions such as the deflection due to vibration, the pressure transient ranging from P = 0 to 15.51 MPa, and the thermal transient ranging from T = 25 to 288 deg. C were considered. The results are as follows; (1) the socket weld is susceptible to the vibration where the vibration levels exceed the requirement in the ASME operation and maintenance (OM) code. (2) The effect of pressure or temperature transient load on socket weld in CVCS and PSS is not significant owing to the low frequency of transient during plant operation. (3) 'No gap' is very risky to the socket weld integrity for the systems having the vibration condition to exceed the requirement specified in the ASME OM Code and/or the transient loading condition from P = 0 and T = 25 deg. C to P = 15.51 MPa and T = 288 deg. C. (4

  19. Fatigue evaluation for the socket weld in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Hwan; Choi, Sun Yeong; Huh, Nam Soo

    2004-01-01

    The operating experience showed that the fatigue is one of the major piping failure mechanisms in nuclear power plants (NPPs). The pressure and/or temperature loading transients, the vibration, and the mechanical cyclic loading during the plant operation may induce the fatigue failure in the nuclear piping. Recently, many fatigue piping failure occurred at the socket weld area have been widely reported. Many failure cases showed that the gap requirement between the pipe and fitting in the socket weld was not satisfied though the ASME Code Sec. Requires 1/16 inch gap in the socket weld. The ASME Code OM also limits the vibration level of the piping system, but some failure cases showed the limitation was not satisfied during the plant operation. In this paper, the fatigue behavior of the socket weld in the nuclear piping was estimated by using the three dimensional finite element method. The results are as follows. The socket weld is susceptible to the vibration if the vibration levels exceed the requirement in the ASME Code OM. The effect of the pressure or temperature transient load on the socket weld in NPPs is not significant because of the very low frequency of the transient during the plant lifetime operation. 'No gap' is very risky to the socket weld integrity for the specific systems having the vibration condition to exceed the requirement in the ASME OM Code and/or the transient loading condition. The reduction of the weld leg size from 1.09 * t 1 to 0.75 * t 1 can affect severely on the socket weld integrity

  20. Soft tissue healing in alveolar socket preservation technique: histologic evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Gaia; Rasperini, Giulio; Obot, Gregory; Farronato, Davide; Dellavia, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    After tooth extraction, 14 alveolar sockets were grafted with porous bovine bone mineral particles and covered with non-cross-linked collagen membrane (test group), and 14 alveolar sockets were left uncovered. At 5 and 12 weeks, microvascular density (MVD), collagen content, and amount of lymphocytes (Lym) T and B were analyzed in soft tissue. At 5 weeks, MVD was significantly lower and Lym T was significantly higher in tests than in controls (P healing process of the soft tissue.

  1. Is rooftop solar PV at socket parity without subsidies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagerman, Shelly; Jaramillo, Paulina; Morgan, M. Granger

    2016-01-01

    Installations of rooftop solar photovoltaic (PV) technology in the United States have increased dramatically in recent years, in large part because of state and federal subsidies. In the future, such subsidies may be reduced or eliminated. From the homeowner's perspective, solar PV is competitive when it can produce electricity at a cost equivalent to the retail electricity rate, a condition sometimes referred to as “socket parity”. In assessing the economic viability of residential solar PV, most existing literature considers only a few locations and fails to consider the differences in PV system cost and electricity prices that exist across the U.S. We combined insolation data from more than 1000 locations, installation costs by region, and county-level utility rates to provide a more complete economic assessment of rooftop solar PV across the U.S. We calculated the break-even electricity prices and evaluated the reductions in installed costs needed to reach socket parity. Among the scenarios considered, we estimate that only Hawaii has achieved socket parity without the use of subsidies. With subsidies, six states reach socket parity, yet widespread parity is still not achieved. We find that high installation costs and financing rates are two of the largest barriers to socket parity. - Highlights: • We evaluate the economic viability of residential rooftop solar PV across the U.S. • Widespread socket parity has not been achieved in the U.S. without subsidies. • Net metering may be critical for the economic viability of rooftop solar PV.

  2. ESR Study of PE, HDPE and UHMWPE Irradiated with Ion Beams and Neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes-Romero, J.

    2006-01-01

    We report the Electron Spin Resonance (RES) studies on the effects produced by bombarding with accelerated Sulfur ions, Protons and Neutrons on the Polyethylene, PE, (Hostalen and Romanian), ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene, UHMWPE, ( GUR 1050, medical grade Lennite), and high density polyethylene, HDPE, (HDPE-7000F, Polinter de Venezuela, PDVSA). The resonance spectra have been recorded using a Varian E-line-X ESR spectrometer at 100 KHz modulation frequency. In thin films of Polyethylene (Hostalen and UHMWPE) have been irradiated with Sulfur ions, S, accelerated at about 7 MeV/nucleons, and Protons at about 5 MeV/nucleons (IFIN, Romania). Samples of Polyethylene ( HDPE 7000-F) were irradiate with neutrons from a Pu-Be source (flux of 1.19 x 10 6 n/s. cm 2 , 5.65 MeV, IVIC, Venezuela) from 0 to 8 hours in the presence of air and at room temperature (RT). The ESR measurements were performed after a storage time of about 7 months, in air at room temperature. The nature of the free radicals induced by irradiation as well as the dependence of resonance line, resonance line shape and radicals concentration has been studied

  3. Pin on flat wear volume prediction of UHMWPE against cp Ti for orthopedic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handoko, Suyitno, Dharmastiti, Rini; Magetsari, Rahadyan

    2018-04-01

    Tribological assessment of orthopedic biomaterials requires a lot of testing time. Researchers must test the biomaterials in millions of cycles at low frequency (1 Hz) to mimic the in vivo conditions. It is a problem because product designs and developments could not wait longer for wear data to predict the lifetime of their products. The problem can be solved with the use of computation techniques to model the wear phenomena and provide predicted data. The aim of this research is to predict the wear volume of the commonly used ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) sliding against commercially pure titanium (cp Ti) in the unidirectional pin on flat tests. The 9 mm diameter UHMWPE pin and cp Ti plate contact mechanics were modeled using Abaqus. Contact pressure was set at 3 MPa. Outputs of the computations (contact pressure and contact area) were used to calculate the wear volume with Archard law. A custom Python script was made to automate the process. The results were then compared with experimental data for validations. The predicted data were in a good trend with numerical errors from 0.3% up to 26%.

  4. An activated energy approach for accelerated testing of the deformation of UHMWPE in artificial joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galetz, Mathias Christian; Glatzel, Uwe

    2010-05-01

    The deformation behavior of ultrahigh molecular polyethylene (UHMWPE) is studied in the temperature range of 23-80 degrees C. Samples are examined in quasi-static compression, tensile and creep tests to determine the accelerated deformation of UHMWPE at elevated temperatures. The deformation mechanisms under compression load can be described by one strain rate and temperature dependent Eyring process. The activation energy and volume of that process do not change between 23 degrees C and 50 degrees C. This suggests that the deformation mechanism under compression remains stable within this temperature range. Tribological tests are conducted to transfer this activated energy approach to the deformation behavior under loading typical for artificial knee joints. While this approach does not cover the wear mechanisms close to the surface, testing at higher temperatures is shown to have a significant potential to reduce the testing time for lifetime predictions in terms of the macroscopic creep and deformation behavior of artificial joints. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Mechanical properties of HDPE/UHMWPE blends: effect of filler loading and filler treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, K L K; Roziyanna, A; Ogunniyi, D S; Zainal, Arifin M I; Azlan, Ariffin A

    2004-05-01

    Various blend ratios of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) were prepared with the objective of determining their suitability as biomaterials. In the unfilled state, a blend of 50/50 (HDPE/UHMWPE) ratio by weight was found to yield optimum properties in terms of processability and mechanical properties. Hydroxyapatite (HA) was compounded with the optimum blend ratio. The effects of HA loading, varied from 0 to 50wt% for both filled and unfilled blends were tested for mechanical properties. It was found that the inclusion of HA in the blend led to a remarkable improvement of mechanical properties compared to the unfilled blend. In order to improve the bonding between the polymer blend and the filler, the HA used was chemically treated with a coupling agent known as 3-(trimethoxysiyl) propyl methacrylate and the treated HA was mixed into the blend. The effect of mixing the blend with silane-treated HA also led to an overall improvement of mechanical properties.

  6. Evaluation of the effect of vitamin E doped UHMWPE on biofilm development and infection using an in vivo experimental model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina-Manso D; Gomez-Barrena E; Alonso-Rodriguez N; Sandoval E; Cordero J; Fernandez-Roblas R; Puertolas J A; Esteban J, E-mail: dmolina@fjd.es

    2010-11-01

    The aim of our study was the evaluation of an in vivo experimental model of implant-related septic arthritis. 5 x 10 mm strips out of a polyethylene sheet 500 microns thick were incubated with a 0.5 McFarland bacterial suspension of collection strains S. aureus and S. epidermidis. A surgical experimental model was prepared, implanting the samples in the subquadricipital articular space of the rabbit's knee. After 7 days of survival, the knee joint was opened wide through the previous surgical approach and the polyethylene sample was retrieved. The UHMWPE samples were processed following a sonication and quantification protocol. Ten rabbits for each species were studied, five with each material. Negative controls (UHMWPE strips without attached bacteria) were also implanted in contralateral knees. S. aureus colonies were detected only in three rabbits with non-treated UHMWPE and in two with vitamin E-doped UHMWPE. No differences in colony counts were observed for S. aureus. No growth was detected for S. epidermidis, although clinical signs of infection were detected in all animals with inoculated samples. The model was useful to evaluate the effect of modifications in biomaterials, although highly pathogenic bacteria are needed to obtain quantifiable data.

  7. The effect of roughness on the tribological behavior of the prosthetic pair UHMWPE/TiN-coated stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gispert, M P; Serro, A P; Colaço, R; Pires, E; Saramago, B

    2008-01-01

    The effect of roughness on the tribological behavior of the prosthetic pair ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE)/TiN coated stainless steel was investigated. Standard and polished TiN coated stainless steel pins were tested against either standard or smooth UHMWPE disks. Hanks' Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution in HBSS were used as lubricants. Friction and wear were determined using a pin-on-disk apparatus and the wear mechanisms were investigated through optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The results showed that the decrease in the roughness led to a reduction of the friction coefficient and of the wear rate of UHMWPE. However, the most important effect was achieved through the decrease in the roughness of the hard TiN counterface while keeping the standard UHMWPE surface. If BSA was added to HBSS, a strong decrease of both the friction coefficient and the polymeric wear was observed independently of the roughness of both the TiN and the polyethylene surfaces. Abrasive and fatigue wear mechanisms are proposed to interpret the experimental results.

  8. Study the effect of surface texturing on the stress distribution of UHMWPE as a bearing material during rolling motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamari, J.; Ismail, R.; Anwar, I.B.; Saputra, E.; Tauviqirrahman, M.; Heide, E. van der

    2016-01-01

    Tribological properties of materials used in biomedical implants will critically affect the performance of the implant. Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) material is popular due to its great properties. Surface texturing is one of the methods to minimize friction and wear. In this

  9. Evaluation of the effect of vitamin E doped UHMWPE on biofilm development and infection using an in vivo experimental model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina-Manso D; Gomez-Barrena E; Alonso-Rodriguez N; Sandoval E; Cordero J; Fernandez-Roblas R; Puertolas J A; Esteban J

    2010-01-01

    The aim of our study was the evaluation of an in vivo experimental model of implant-related septic arthritis. 5 x 10 mm strips out of a polyethylene sheet 500 microns thick were incubated with a 0.5 McFarland bacterial suspension of collection strains S. aureus and S. epidermidis. A surgical experimental model was prepared, implanting the samples in the subquadricipital articular space of the rabbit's knee. After 7 days of survival, the knee joint was opened wide through the previous surgical approach and the polyethylene sample was retrieved. The UHMWPE samples were processed following a sonication and quantification protocol. Ten rabbits for each species were studied, five with each material. Negative controls (UHMWPE strips without attached bacteria) were also implanted in contralateral knees. S. aureus colonies were detected only in three rabbits with non-treated UHMWPE and in two with vitamin E-doped UHMWPE. No differences in colony counts were observed for S. aureus. No growth was detected for S. epidermidis, although clinical signs of infection were detected in all animals with inoculated samples. The model was useful to evaluate the effect of modifications in biomaterials, although highly pathogenic bacteria are needed to obtain quantifiable data.

  10. Biocompatibility evaluation of HDPE-UHMWPE reinforced β-TCP nanocomposites using highly purified human osteoblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokrgozar, M A; Farokhi, M; Rajaei, F; Bagheri, M H A; Azari, Sh; Ghasemi, I; Mottaghitalab, F; Azadmanesh, K; Radfar, J

    2010-12-15

    Biocompatibility of β-TCP/HDPE-UHMWPE nanocomposite as a new bone substitute material was evaluated by using highly purified human osteoblast cells. Human osteoblast cells were isolated from bone tissue and characterized by immunofluorescence Staining before and after purification using magnetic bead system. Moreover, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase production, cell attachment, calcium deposition, gene expression, and morphology of osteoblast cells on β-TCP/HDPE-UHMWPE nanocomposites were evaluated. The results have shown that the human osteoblast cells were successfully purified and were suitable for subsequent cell culturing process. The high proliferation rate of osteoblast cells on β-TCP/HDPE-UHMWPE nanocomposite confirmed the great biocompatibility of the scaffold. Expression of bone-specific genes was taken place after the cells were incubated in composite extract solutions. Furthermore, osteoblast cells were able to mineralize the matrix next to composite samples. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that cells had normal morphology on the scaffold. Thus, these results indicated that the nanosized β-TCP/HDPE-UHMWPE blend composites could be potential scaffold, which is used in bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Shallow Inferior Conjunctival Fornix in Contracted Socket and Anophthalmic Socket Syndrome: A Novel Technique to Deepen the Fornix Using Fascia Lata Strips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed F. K. Ibrahiem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate a new surgical technique using fascia lata to deepen the shallow inferior conjunctival fornix in contracted socket and anophthalmic socket syndrome. Methods. A prospective controlled study in which 24 sockets of 24 patients who were unable to wear and retain their ocular prosthesis due to shallow inferior fornix were enrolled and categorized into anophthalmic socket syndromes (9 patients and contracted sockets (15 patients. Another 24 patients who underwent evisceration or enucleation with healthy sockets and can wear and retain their prosthesis comfortably were chosen as a control group. Deepening of the fornix was performed using fascia lata strips under general anesthesia. Central depth of the inferior fornix was measured preoperatively and postoperatively. Results. A statistically significant improvement of the postoperative central inferior fornix depth was reported which was marked in anophthalmic subgroup. 100% of anophthalmic sockets and 93.3% of contracted sockets achieved satisfactory results during the follow-up period with no postoperative lower eyelid malposition or obvious skin scar. Conclusion. Fascia lata technique is a new alternative and effective procedure to deepen the shallow inferior fornix that can be used in moderate to severe contracted sockets or anophthalmic socket syndrome with minimal lower eyelid or socket complications.

  12. Periotest values of implants placed in sockets augmented with calcium phosphosilicate putty graft: a comparative analysis against implants placed in naturally healed sockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, Lanka; Narayan, Tv; Kostakis, Georgios; Shukla, Sagrika

    2014-03-01

    To measure implant stability using periotest values of implants placed in sockets augmented with calcium phospho-silicate putty (CPS Putty) as compared with implant stability in naturally healed sockets. Twenty two sockets were implanted with CPS Putty immediately after extraction. The sockets were re-entered after a healing period at 5 to 6 months (average 5.3 months) for implant placement. Periotest values were recorded during implant insertion to assess primary stability. These were compared with the Periotest values of 26 implants placed in 22 patients, with naturally healed sockets. Periotest values were significantly lower in the grafted group, indicating better implant stability in sites grafted with CPS putty. Implant stability seems to be significantly higher in sockets augmented using CPS putty when compared to nongrafted sites. This suggests that socket grafting with CPS putty may enhance the quality of available bone for implantation.

  13. Computer-socket manufacturing error: How much before it is clinically apparent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Joan E.; Severance, Michael R.; Allyn, Kathryn J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to pursue quality standards for computer-manufacturing of prosthetic sockets for people with transtibial limb loss. Thirty-three duplicates of study participants’ normally used sockets were fabricated using central fabrication facilities. Socket-manufacturing errors were compared with clinical assessments of socket fit. Of the 33 sockets tested, 23 were deemed clinically to need modification. All 13 sockets with mean radial error (MRE) greater than 0.25 mm were clinically unacceptable, and 11 of those were deemed in need of sizing reduction. Of the remaining 20 sockets, 5 sockets with interquartile range (IQR) greater than 0.40 mm were deemed globally or regionally oversized and in need of modification. Of the remaining 15 sockets, 5 sockets with closed contours of elevated surface normal angle error (SNAE) were deemed clinically to need shape modification at those closed contour locations. The remaining 10 sockets were deemed clinically acceptable and not in need modification. MRE, IQR, and SNAE may serve as effective metrics to characterize quality of computer-manufactured prosthetic sockets, helping facilitate the development of quality standards for the socket manufacturing industry. PMID:22773260

  14. Discharge and infection in retinoblastoma post-enucleation sockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourits, Daphne L; Hartong, Dyonne T; Budding, Andries E; Bosscha, Machteld I; Tan, H Stevie; Moll, Annette C

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the causes and treatment options for socket discharge and infection in patients enucleated for retinoblastoma (Rb). A questionnaire was filled out by (parents of) ocular prosthesis-wearing patients with a history of enucleation as treatment for Rb. We collected data on patients' characteristics, cleaning habits of the prosthesis, frequency of socket irritation, discharge, and infection, and use of antibiotics. With ordinal logistic regression analysis, factors related to the outcome parameters (frequency of irritation, mucoid and purulent discharge) were identified. In a subset of young asymptomatic and symptomatic patients, a swab culture of the socket was performed to determine the presence of microorganisms. A total of 186 patients or their parents (mean age of the patients: 17.3 years, ranging from 0.8 to 88.3 years) filled out the questionnaire. Irritation, mucoid discharge, and purulent discharge were frequently (once a month or more often) experienced in 75 (39.5%), 127 (66.8%), and 15 (13.2%) sockets, respectively. Younger age was associated with a higher frequency of mucoid and purulent discharge. Radiation therapy, chemotherapy, gender, age at surgery, cleaning frequency, and nocturnal wear were not associated with the outcome parameters. In a subgroup of 26 patients, the sockets were swabbed and cultured. All symptomatic patients had a positive bacterial culture versus 15% (2/13) of the asymptomatic patients ( P socket infection. These complaints were found to decrease with increasing age, but did not seem to be influenced by cleaning or wearing habits. Symptomatic sockets, with and without discharge, were correlated with the presence of pathogenic bacteria for which local antibiotic treatment seemed effective in most cases.

  15. Dielectric relaxation and ac conduction in γ-irradiated UHMWPE/MWCNTs nano composites: Impedance spectroscopy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maqbool, Syed Asad; Mehmood, Malik Sajjad; Mukhtar, Saqlain Saqib; Baluch, Mansoor A.; Khan, Shamim; Yasin, Tariq; Khan, Yaqoob

    2017-01-01

    The dielectric behavior of γ-irradiated ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) and its nano composites (NCs) with γ-ray modified multi wall carbon nano tubes (γ-MWCNTs) and MWCNTs had been studied using impedance spectroscopy. The study had been carried out in the frequency range of 20–2 MHz at room temperature. All samples (pure and NCs) were prepared in the form of sheets and irradiated with γ-dose of 50 kGy and 100 kGy, respectively. The comprehensive analysis of results revealed that resistivity of UHMWPE for conduction decreased on irradiation and incorporation of MWCNTs (whether γ ray modified or un-modified) due to the radiation induced damage and conductive networks induced by MWCNTs. At low frequency range a significant increase in the dielectric constant had been observed because of irradiation and addition of MWNCTs. The trend of loss tangent and ac conductivity for each investigated sample depended on resistivity offered and had a decreasing trend as a function of frequency. Moreover, dissipation factor increased with the incorporation of MWNCTs and irradiation from 0.12 to 0.22. In addition to this, non-frequency dependent static dielectric constant was also found to increase with irradiation and incorporation of MWCNTs. The relaxation time was found to increase from 1.2 to 4.3 ms due to hindrance offered by radiation induced mutual cross linking of PE chains and polymer-MWNCTs bindings. - Highlights: • The resistivity for conduction in pristine UHMWPE is decreased with γ-irradiation. • Conduction in PE/MWCNTs nanocomposites increased due to MWCNTs addition. • Static dielectric constant of UHMWPE increased with γ-irradiation. • Static dielectric constant of UHMWPE increased due to MWCNTs incorporation.

  16. The influence of early radiolucent lines appearing on femoral head penetration into HXLPE cemented sockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Daigo; Seki, Taisuke; Higuchi, Yoshitoshi; Takegami, Yasuhiko; Amano, Takafumi; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2018-04-01

    This study investigates differences in femoral head penetration between highly cross-linked polyethylene (HXLPE) cemented sockets both with and without radiolucent lines (RLLs) in the early postoperative phase and at 5 years follow-up. There were 35 patients (37 hips), mean age of 66.8 years, who underwent total hip arthroplasty (THA) using highly HXLPE cemented sockets. They were divided into 2 groups based on postoperative the early appearance of RLLs. Femoral head penetrations on both anteroposterior- and Lauenstein-view radiographs were evaluated, and the mean polyethylene (PE) wear rate was calculated based on femoral head penetrations between 2 and 5 years. Femoral head penetrations in the proximal direction were 0.075 mm and 0.150 mm in the RLL and non-RLL groups at 1 year postoperatively ( p = 0.019). At 5 years measured penetration was 0.107 mm and 0.125 mm in the RLL and non-RLL groups, respectively ( p = 0.320). The mean PE wear rates in anteroposterior-view were 0.008 mm/year and 0.003 mm/year in the RLL and non-RLL groups ( p = 0.390) and those in Lauenstein-view were 0.010 mm/year and 0.005 mm/year, respectively ( p = 0.239). In the RLL group, the PE bedding-in was less compared with those in the non-RLL group. Additionally, the mean PE wear rate in the RLL group tended to be higher than that in the non-RLL group. The distribution of stress loading through the cement may differ according to whether early RLLs appear.

  17. [Use of "gelatamp" colloidal silver gelatin sponge to prevent dry socket after extracting mandibular impacted teeth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yao-zhong; Guan, Qun-li; Li, Ya-xin; Guo, Ji-lai; Jiang, Ling; Jia, Mu-yun; Deng, Yue

    2013-02-01

    To study the clinical effect of "gelatamp" colloidal silver gelatin sponge on preventing dry socket after extracting the mandibular impacted teeth. 1350 teeth extracted from 976 patients who needed to extract the mandibular impacted teeth were divided into group A, group B and group C randomly. "Gelatamp" colloidal silver gelatin sponge was implanted into alveolar socket after teeth extraction in group A, with absorbable gelatin sponge was implanted into alveolar socket in group B and nothing was implanted into alveolar socket in group C. The incidence of dry socket was observed, the data was analyzed using SPSS10.0 software package. The incidence of dry socket was 0.44% in group A, 2% in group B and 4.44% in group C. There was significant difference in the incidence of dry socket between group A and group C(Pcolloidal silver gelatin sponge can prevent the occurrence of dry socket after teeth extraction, which is of wide clinical use.

  18. 'Incidence Of Dry Socket\\' In Benin City: Analysis Of 21 Cases ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zinc oxide/Eugenol dressing was the mainstay of treatment after irrigation of the socket with normal saline. The low incidence of dry socket in this review shows that it is not a common complication of tooth extraction in our hospital. Keywords: Dry socket, incidence. Annals of Biomedical Science Vol. 2 (2) 2003: pp. 82-87 ...

  19. Wear of cross-linked polyethylene against itself: a material suitable for surface replacement of the finger joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibly, T F; Unsworth, A

    1991-05-01

    Cross-linking of polyethylene (XLPE) has dramatically improved its properties in industrial applications, and it may also have some application in the field of human joint replacement. Additionally it has the advantage of permitting a lower molecular weight base material to be used, so that components may be injection moulded rather than machined. This study therefore investigates the wear resistance of medical grade cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE), cross-linked by a silane-grafting process, with a molecular weight between cross links of 5430 g mol(-1). This first report investigates the wear resistance of XLPE against itself, because for certain joints, such as the metacarpo-phalangeal joint, the material may have a high enough wear resistance to allow both bearing surfaces to be made from it. Tests were carried out both on a reciprocating pin and plate machine with pins loaded at 10 and 40 N and also on a new finger joint simulator, which simulates the loads applied to and the movements of, the metacarpo-phalangeal joint. An average wear rate of 1.8 x 10(-6) mm3 N-1 m-1 was found (range 0.9-2.75 x 10(-6) mm3 N-1 m-1). This is about six times greater than the wear rate of non-cross-linked ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) against stainless steel, but for applications with low loading, such as the metacarpo-phalangeal joint, this material is shown to have adequate wear resistance. The coefficient of friction was 0.1, which is similar to that of UHMWPE on stainless steel.

  20. Plug the socket of the main closing valve in a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neupauer, J.; Bednar, B.

    1988-01-01

    The plug is designed for closing the main closing valve socket during a refuelling shutdown of a nuclear power plant. The plug is fixed in the using jaws forced against the socket ring part. The socket is sealed by expanding a ring between two cone trays. A valve provided in the plug allows draining the pipe. The plug is inserted in the socket using a jib suspended on a rail. Following sealing both sockets the inner surfaces of the closing valve can be decontaminated. Following decontamination, a water-proof cover is slid over the plug protecting the plug moving mechanism from damage. (J.B.). 1 fig

  1. Healing of ungrafted and grafted extraction sockets after 12 weeks: a prospective clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberer, Susanne; Al-Chawaf, Bassem; Jablonski, Carlo; Nelson, John J; Lage, Hermann; Nelson, Katje

    2011-01-01

    In this prospective study, bone formation in human extraction sockets augmented with Bio-Oss Collagen after a 12-week healing period was quantified and compared to bone formation in unaugmented extraction sockets. Selected patients with four-walled extraction sockets were included in this prospective study. After extraction, the sockets were randomly augmented using Bio-Oss Collagen or left to heal unfilled without raising a mucoperiosteal flap. At the time of implant placement, histologic specimens were obtained from the socket and analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Twenty-five patients with a total of 39 sockets (20 augmented, 19 unaugmented) were included in the study and the histologic specimens analyzed. All specimens were free of inflammatory cells. The mean overall new bone formation in the augmented sites was 25% (range, 8%-41%) and in the unaugmented sockets it was 44% (range, 3%-79%). There was a significant difference in the rate of new bone formation between the grafted and ungrafted sockets and a significant difference in the bone formation rate in the apical compared to the coronal regions of all sockets, independent of the healing mode. This descriptive study demonstrated that bone formation in Bio-Oss Collagen-grafted human extraction sockets was lower than bone formation in ungrafted sockets. Bone formation occurred in all specimens with varying degrees of maturation independent of the grafting material and was initiated from the apical region.

  2. Development programme update for a socket solution offering a highly efficient termination of polyester mooring tethers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firth, Kevin M.; Calverley, Steve; Quintas, Manuel Pedro

    2000-01-01

    Bridon have previously developed a patented 'Socket and Spike' design for polyester tethers comprising a parallel array of seven sub-ropes. This phase of the development was successfully completed, subsequently Bridon have embarked on a new phase which aims to increase the efficiency of the socket and address the assembly problems that have been identified. The development has continued with the 'Socket and Spike' principle but a unique termination method has been devised such that each sub-rope is terminated in it is own mini-socket and pre-loaded prior to fitting into the main socket ensuring zero slippage and equal transfer of the mooring load. The sub-ropes are nested into the main socket body resulting in a socket termination that lighter, more efficient and easier to handle than the current method of spliced eye incorporating a steel spool and shackle. (author)

  3. Radiation crosslinking of elastomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, D.S.

    1981-01-01

    In the first part of this paper a review is presented of recent results which show that the tensile strength and fatigue life of synthetic elastomers cured by radiation are essentially equivalent to those prepared by other crosslinking techniques. An explanation for the conflict of these new results with the earlier studies on natural rubber is presented. Investigations into the mechanisms and kinetics of crosslinking mentioned above have also shown that the irradiation method should be ideal for preparing well characterized networks. Such materials are useful for testing theoretical relationships between the structure of rubber networks and their stress-strain behavior. The second part of this paper is devoted to this aspect. (author)

  4. Discharge and infection in retinoblastoma post-enucleation sockets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourits, Daphne L.; Hartong, Dyonne T.; Budding, Andries E.; Bosscha, Machteld I.; Tan, H. Stevie; Moll, Annette C.

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the causes and treatment options for socket discharge and infection in patients enucleated for retinoblastoma (Rb). A questionnaire was filled out by (parents of) ocular prosthesis-wearing patients with a history of enucleation as treatment for Rb. We collected data on patients'

  5. Recycling Waste Electrical Socket as a Carbon Resource in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    GMJ Vol. 16, No. 1, June, 2016. Recycling Waste Electrical Socket as a Carbon ... Carbon Resource in Ironmaking”, Ghana Mining Journal, Vol. 16, No. ... 2013; Dankwah and Koshy, 2014; Dankwah et al., ..... Chemical Science and Engineering, UNSW, ... of Scientific and Technology Research (IJSTR),. Vol. 4, Issue 2, pp.

  6. Effect of Modifying Prosthetic Socket Base Materials by Adding Nanodiamonds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifang Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The curing process of prosthetic socket base materials requires attention owing to a series of associated problems that are yet to be addressed and solved. However, to date, few relevant studies have been reported. In this paper, nanodiamonds modified with a silane coupling agent were dispersed into a prosthetic socket base material, and the performance of the modified base materials was investigated. Adding a predetermined amount of nanodiamonds to the prosthetic socket base material increased the glass transition temperature, improved the mechanical properties of the cured base material, and reduced the influence of the volatile gas formed during the curing process on the environment. With increasing nanodiamond contents, the glass transition temperature increased and the mechanical properties improved slightly. Owing to the high thermal conductivity of the nanodiamonds, the localized heat, as a result of the curing process, could be dissipated and released. Thus, adding nanodiamonds led to a more uniform temperature field forming in the curing system. This improved the curing process and reduced the formation of volatile monomers, thereby decreasing the adverse impact of the generated volatile gases on the environment. All of these provide a potential strategy for modifying prosthetic socket base materials.

  7. Prosthetics socket that incorporates an air splint system focusing on dynamic interface pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, Nasrul Anuar Abd; Osman, Noor Azuan Abu; Gholizadeh, Hossein; Ali, Sadeeq

    2014-08-01

    The interface pressure between the residual limb and prosthetic socket has a significant effect on an amputee's satisfaction and comfort. This paper presents the design and performance of a new prosthetic socket that uses an air splint system. The air splint prosthetic socket system was implemented by combining the air splint with a pressure sensor that the transhumeral user controls through the use of a microcontroller. The modular construction of the system developed allows the FSR pressure sensors that are placed inside the air splint socket to determine the required size and fitting for the socket used. Fifteen transhumeral amputees participated in the study. The subject's dynamic pressure on the socket that's applied while wearing the air splint systems was recorded using F-socket transducers and microcontroller analysis. The values collected by the F-socket sensor for the air splint prosthetic socket system were determined accordingly by comparing the dynamic pressure applied using statically socket. The pressure volume of the air splint fluctuated and was recorded at an average of 38 kPa (2.5) to 41 kPa (1.3) over three hours. The air splint socket might reduce the pressure within the interface of residual limb. This is particularly important during the daily life activities and may reduce the pain and discomfort at the residual limb in comparison to the static socket. The potential development of an auto-adjusted socket that uses an air splint system as the prosthetic socket will be of interest to researchers involved in rehabilitation engineering, prosthetics and orthotics.

  8. Discharge and infection in retinoblastoma post-enucleation sockets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourits DL

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Daphne L Mourits,1 Dyonne T Hartong,1 Andries E Budding,2 Machteld I Bosscha,1 H Stevie Tan,1 Annette C Moll1 1Department of Ophthalmology, VU University Medical Center, 2Department of Microbiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands Purpose: To investigate the causes and treatment options for socket discharge and infection in patients enucleated for retinoblastoma (Rb. Methods: A questionnaire was filled out by (parents of ocular prosthesis-wearing patients with a history of enucleation as treatment for Rb. We collected data on patients’ characteristics, cleaning habits of the prosthesis, frequency of socket irritation, discharge, and infection, and use of antibiotics. With ordinal logistic regression analysis, factors related to the outcome parameters (frequency of irritation, mucoid and purulent discharge were identified. In a subset of young asymptomatic and symptomatic patients, a swab culture of the socket was performed to determine the presence of microorganisms. Results: A total of 186 patients or their parents (mean age of the patients: 17.3 years, ranging from 0.8 to 88.3 years filled out the questionnaire. Irritation, mucoid discharge, and purulent discharge were frequently (once a month or more often experienced in 75 (39.5%, 127 (66.8%, and 15 (13.2% sockets, respectively. Younger age was associated with a higher frequency of mucoid and purulent discharge. Radiation therapy, chemotherapy, gender, age at surgery, cleaning frequency, and nocturnal wear were not associated with the outcome parameters. In a subgroup of 26 patients, the sockets were swabbed and cultured. All symptomatic patients had a positive bacterial culture versus 15% (2/13 of the asymptomatic patients (P<0.001. Common cold was correlated with both symptoms and presence of bacteria. Haemophilus influenzae and Staphylococcus aureus were the species most frequently cultured. Conclusion: Ocular prosthesis-wearing patients often experienced mucoid

  9. Surface modification of carbon fibers and its effect on the fiber–matrix interaction of UHMWPE based composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chukov, D.I.; Stepashkin, A.A.; Gorshenkov, M.V.; Tcherdyntsev, V.V.; Kaloshkin, S.D.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Both chemical and thermal treatments of UKN 5000 carbon fibers allow one to obtain well-developed surface. • The changes of structure and properties of VMN-4 fibers after both thermal and chemical oxidation are insignificant due to more perfect initial structure of these fibers. • The oxidative treatment of carbon fibers allows one to improve the interfacial interaction in the UHMWPE-based composites. • The oxidative treatment of the fibers allows one to a triple increase of Young’s modulus of the modified fibers reinforced UHMWPE composites. -- Abstract: The PAN-based carbon fibers (CF) were subjected to thermal and chemical oxidation under various conditions. The variation in the surface morphology of carbon fibers after surface treatment was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that the tensile strength of carbon fibers changed after surface modification. The interaction between the fibers and the matrix OF ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) was characterized by the Young modulus of produced composites. It was shown that the Young modulus of composites reinforced with modified carbon fibers was significantly higher than that of composites reinforced with non-modified fibers

  10. Preparation and characterization of CNTs/UHMWPE nanocomposites via a novel mixer under synergy of ultrasonic wave and extensional deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiaochun; Li, Sai; He, Guangjian; Feng, Yanhong; Wen, Jingsong

    2018-05-01

    In this work, design and development of a new melt mixing method and corresponding mixer for polymer materials were reported. Effects of ultrasonic power and sonication time on the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) filled ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) nanocomposites were experimentally studied. Transmission Electron Microscopy images showed that homogeneous dispersion of CNTs in intractable UHMWPE matrix is successfully realized due to the synergetic effect of ultrasonic wave and extensional deformation without any aid of other additives or solvents. Differential scanning calorimetry results revealed an increase in crystallinity and crystallization rate due to the finer dispersion of the CNTs in the matrix which act as nucleating point. Composites' complex viscosity and storage modulus decreased sharply at first and then leveled off with the increase of sonication time or the ultrasonic power. The thermal stability and the tensile strength of the CNTs/UHMWPE nanocomposites improved by using this novel mixing method. This is the first method that combined the ultrasonic wave and the extensional deformation in which the elongation rate, sonication time and ultrasonic power can be adjusted simultaneously during mixing. The novel mixer offers several advantages such as environment-friendly, high mixing efficiency, self-cleaning and wide adaptability to materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Nucleation and growth of apatite on NaOH-treated PEEK, HDPE and UHMWPE for artificial cornea materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, M; Stingelin, N; Tanner, K E

    2008-11-01

    The skirt of an artificial cornea must integrate the implant to the host sclera, a major failure of present devices. Thus, it is highly desirable to encourage the metabolic activity of the cornea by using more bioactive, flexible skirt materials. Here we describe attempts to increase the bioactivity of polyether ether ketone (PEEK), high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) films. The effectiveness of different strength NaOH pre-treatments to initiate apatite deposition on PEEK, HDPE and UHMWPE is investigated. We find that exposure of PEEK, HDPE and UHMWPE films to NaOH solutions induces the formation of potential nuclei for apatite (calcium phosphate), from which the growth of an apatite coating is stimulated when subsequently immersing the polymer films in 1.5 strength Simulated Body Fluid (SBF). As immersion time in SBF increases, further nucleation and growth produces a thicker and more compact apatite coating that can be expected to be highly bioactive. Interestingly, the apatite growth is found to also be dependent on both the concentration of NaOH solution and the structure of the polymer surface.

  12. Immediate implant placement into fresh extraction sockets versus delayed implants into healed sockets: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, C C; Lemos, C A A; Verri, F R; Dos Santos, D M; Goiato, M C; Pellizzer, E P

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to compare the survival rate of the implants and the peri-implant tissue changes associated with implants inserted in fresh extraction sockets and those inserted in healed sockets. This review has been registered at PROSPERO under the number CRD42016043309. A systematic search was conducted by two reviewers independently in the databases PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library using different search terms; articles published until November 2016 were searched for. The searches identified 30 eligible studies. A total of 3,049 implants were installed in a total of 1,435 patients with a mean age of 46.68 years and a minimum of 6 months of follow-up. The survival rate of delayed implants (98.38%) was significantly greater than immediate implants (95.21%) (p=.001). For the marginal bone loss (p=.32), implant stability quotients values (p=.44), and pocket probing depth (p=.94) there was no significant difference between the analysed groups. The immediate implants placed in fresh sockets should be performed with caution because of the significantly lower survival rates than delayed implants inserted in healed sockets. Copyright © 2017 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Aspect of use of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (uhmwpe) as biomaterial and as armour material (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuzail, M.

    2011-01-01

    Among the known polymeric materials, ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) has unique properties as a biomaterial as well as armour material. Its high strength and very high modulus makes it an alternate candidate as body armour for example bullet proof vest. The drawn fibers from this material are best known for their break strength and compete with the steel and carbon fibers. On the other hand, its extremely high molar mass imparts outstanding wear resistance and impact toughness better than any other polymer which makes it a better choice as biomaterial used in hip and knee transplants. As a biomaterial, when body transplants are gamma sterilized, their shelf life depends upon the number and nature of free radicals produced during sterilization. These long-lived radicals ultimately affect the wear properties of hip and knee transplants. The Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) technique used to determine the concentration and nature of free radicals in about 16 years old powder, fibers and ram-extruded bar samples shows that at low microwave power (0.01 mW), polyenyl radicals become prominent while at high microwave power (160 mW), oxygen-centered radicals show their identity. The ESR study also exhibits that the concentration of free radicals depends upon the crystallinities of different morphologies known i.e powder, extruded bars and drawn fibers. Differential scanning calorimetry shows the order of crystallinity as: fiber > extruded bars > powder. (author)

  14. Chronic Orbital Inflammation Associated to Hydroxyapatite Implants in Anophthalmic Sockets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Galindo-Ferreiro

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We report 6 patients who received a hydroxyapatite (HA orbital implant in the socket and developed chronic orbital inflammation unresponsive to conventional medical therapy. Case Reports: We assisted 6 cases (4 males, 2 females who received an HA orbital implant in the socket between 2015 and 2016 at King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and developed chronic orbital inflammation with chronic discharge, redness, and pain (onset from weeks to over 2 decades after surgery. Computed tomography evaluation indicated inflammation in the orbital tissues, and histological examination showed a foreign body granulomatous reaction mainly localized around and blanching the HA implant. The condition was unresponsive to usual medical treatment and was resolved immediately after implant removal. Conclusions: Chronic inflammation can occur decades after placement of an HA implant in the orbit and can be successfully treated with implant removal.

  15. Reconstruction of highly contracted socket after irradiation with antral mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Yosihiko; Masaki, Michiyosi; Kato, Hisakazu

    1999-01-01

    We have repaired 3 cases of the highly contracted socket after irradiation by lining it using antral mucosa and obtained excellent results. Although this procedure requires rhinological skill to obtain the mucosa, it has an advantage leaving no visible scar at the donor site. Usually it is not difficult to obtain a sufficient quantity of the mucous membrane to line a whole socket from one antrum. Besides, it is also easy to line its surface since the shape of antral mucosa is originally in a sac form. All we have to do is making 20 mm long incision to the mucosa, putting a silicone conformer into it, and inlaying it into the graft bed. Thus, having once obtained the mucous membrane, the surgical procedure itself is a quite simple one. (author)

  16. Expansion connection of socket in flow distributed cabin of heavy water research reactor inner shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Zhiliang; Li Yanshui

    1995-01-01

    Expansion connection of aluminium alloy LT21 socket in flow distributed cabin of Heavy Water Research Reactor (HWRR) inner shell is described systematically. The expansion connection technology parameters of products are determined through tests. They are as following: bounce value of inner diameter after expansion, expansion degree, space between socket and plate hole, device for expanding pipes, selection of tools for enlarging or reaming holes, manufacture for socket inner hole and cleaning after expansion

  17. Specification for high voltage cable plug and socket connections for medical X-ray equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Under the direction of the Light Engineering Standards Committee, a British Standard Specification has been prepared for three-conductor and four-conductor high-voltage cable plug and socket connections for medical X-ray equipment. The standard deals with the essential dimensions to ensure mechanical interchangeability, the recommended dimensions, the wiring connections to contacts of plug and socket and the marking of contacts of plug and socket. (U.K.)

  18. Laser welding and collagen crosslinks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiser, K.M.; Last, J.A. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Medicine; Small, W. IV; Maitland, D.J.; Heredia, N.J.; Da Silva, L.B.; Matthews, D.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-02-20

    Strength and stability of laser-welded tissue may be influenced, in part, by effects of laser exposure on collagen crosslinking. We therefore studied effects of diode laser exposure (805 nm, 1-8 watts, 30 seconds) + indocyanine green dye (ICG) on calf tail tendon collagen crosslinks. Effect of ICG dye alone on crosslink content prior to laser exposure was investigated; unexpectedly, we found that ICG-treated tissue had significantly increased DHLNL and OHP, but not HLNL. Laser exposure after ICG application reduced elevated DHLNL and OHP crosslink content down to their native levels. The monohydroxylated crosslink HLNL was inversely correlated with laser output (p<0.01 by linear regression analysis). DHLNL content was highly correlated with content of its maturational product, OHP, suggesting that precursor-product relations are maintained. We conclude that: (1)ICG alone induces DHLNL and OHP crosslink formation; (2)subsequent laser exposure reduces the ICG-induced crosslinks down to native levels; (3)excessive diode laser exposure destroys normally occurring HLNL crosslinks.

  19. Radiation crosslinking of polymer materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, Fumio

    2004-01-01

    It was found that some polyfunctional monomers (PFM) like triallyl isocyanurate (TAIC) and trimethallyl isocyanurate (TMAIC) when incorporated at low concentrations, are effective for promotion of crosslinking of biodegradable polymers such as polycaprolactone (PCL), poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate) (PBS) and poly(lactic acid) (PLA). PFM are kneaded with biodegradable polymers at molten condition before irradiation. Radiation crosslinking of PBS and PCL with 1% TAIC gave gel fractions of 80% at 20 kGy. This crosslinking is effective to improve deformation of biodegradable polymers at high temperature. The irradiated materials retained their biodegradability even after crosslinking when subjected to soil burial test. Irradiation at molten state (melting temperature, 340degC) led to crosslinking structures for polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). Crosslinked PTFE forms transparent films with high abrasion property and high radiation resistance. High-density polyethylene (HDPE) has a higher gel fraction in irradiation at molten state than irradiation at ordinary temperature. Crosslinked HDPE has been applied as knee joints in order to have high abrasion. Radiation crosslinked polycarbosilane (PCS) fiber gives high heat resistant silicon carbide (SiC) after firing. EB irradiation of PCS is effective to improve strength of product and to inhibit flow during carbonization. SiC, being resistant to high temperature will be applied in turbine and body of rockets. (author)

  20. DNA Photolithography with Cinnamate Crosslinkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lang (Inventor); Chaikin, Paul Michael (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates generally to cinnamate crosslinkers. Specifically, the present invention relates to gels, biochips, and functionalized surfaces useful as probes, in assays, in gels, and for drug delivery, and methods of making the same using a newly-discovered crosslinking configuration.

  1. Enhancement of mechanical and tribotechnical properties of polymer composites with thermoplastic UHMWPE and PEEK matrices by loading carbon nanofibers/nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panin, S. V.; Kornienko, L. A.; Anh, Nguyen Duc; Alexenko, V. O.; Ivanova, L. R.

    2017-12-01

    For comparative evaluation of the influence of carbon nanofiber/nanotube loading in two different thermoplastic matrices (UHMWPE and PEEK), some mechanical and tribotechnical properties of the nanocomposites have been studied. It is shown that mechanical properties of nanocomposites change in various manners with increasing loading of carbon nanofibers and nanotubes. Herewith, the wear resistance of the "UHMWPE+1 wt% CNF and PEEK + 1 wt% CNF" composites under dry sliding friction is doubled. It is shown that, regardless of various effects on permolecular structure formation, the studied nanofillers enhance the wear resistance of the composites in a similar manner. A comparative analysis of the influence of nanofillers on the modification of mechanical and tribotechnical properties of UHMWPE- and PEEK-based matrices is made.

  2. The Quantum Socket: Wiring for Superconducting Qubits - Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejanin, J. H.; McConkey, T. G.; Rinehart, J. R.; Bateman, J. D.; Earnest, C. T.; McRae, C. H.; Rohanizadegan, Y.; Shiri, D.; Mariantoni, M.; Penava, B.; Breul, P.; Royak, S.; Zapatka, M.; Fowler, A. G.

    Quantum computing research has reached a level of maturity where quantum error correction (QEC) codes can be executed on linear arrays of superconducting quantum bits (qubits). A truly scalable quantum computing architecture, however, based on practical QEC algorithms, requires nearest neighbor interaction between qubits on a two-dimensional array. Such an arrangement is not possible with techniques that rely on wire bonding. To address this issue, we have developed the quantum socket, a device based on three-dimensional wires that enables the control of superconducting qubits on a two-dimensional grid. In this talk, we present experimental results characterizing this type of wiring. We will show that the quantum socket performs exceptionally well for the transmission and reflection of microwave signals up to 10 GHz, while minimizing crosstalk between adjacent wires. Under realistic conditions, we measured an S21 of -5 dB at 6 GHz and an average crosstalk of -60 dB. We also describe time domain reflectometry results and arbitrary pulse transmission tests, showing that the quantum socket can be used to control superconducting qubits.

  3. Technical note: Computer-manufactured inserts for prosthetic sockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Joan E; McLean, Jake B; Cagle, John C; Gardner, David W; Allyn, Katheryn J

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this research was to use computer-aided design software and a tabletop 3-D additive manufacturing system to design and fabricate custom plastic inserts for trans-tibial prosthesis users. Shape quality of inserts was tested right after they were inserted into participant's test sockets and again after four weeks of wear. Inserts remained properly positioned and intact throughout testing. Right after insertion the inserts caused the socket to be slightly under-sized, by a mean of 0.11mm, approximately 55% of the thickness of a nylon sheath. After four weeks of wear the under-sizing was less, averaging 0.03mm, approximately 15% of the thickness of a nylon sheath. Thus the inserts settled into the sockets over time. If existing prosthetic design software packages were enhanced to conduct insert design and to automatically generate fabrication files for manufacturing, then computer manufactured inserts may offer advantages over traditional methods in terms of speed of fabrication, ease of design, modification, and record keeping. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Quantum Socket: Wiring for Superconducting Qubits - Part 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariantoni, M.; Bejianin, J. H.; McConkey, T. G.; Rinehart, J. R.; Bateman, J. D.; Earnest, C. T.; McRae, C. H.; Rohanizadegan, Y.; Shiri, D.; Penava, B.; Breul, P.; Royak, S.; Zapatka, M.; Fowler, A. G.

    The implementation of a quantum computer requires quantum error correction codes, which allow to correct errors occurring on physical quantum bits (qubits). Ensemble of physical qubits will be grouped to form a logical qubit with a lower error rate. Reaching low error rates will necessitate a large number of physical qubits. Thus, a scalable qubit architecture must be developed. Superconducting qubits have been used to realize error correction. However, a truly scalable qubit architecture has yet to be demonstrated. A critical step towards scalability is the realization of a wiring method that allows to address qubits densely and accurately. A quantum socket that serves this purpose has been designed and tested at microwave frequencies. In this talk, we show results where the socket is used at millikelvin temperatures to measure an on-chip superconducting resonator. The control electronics is another fundamental element for scalability. We will present a proposal based on the quantum socket to interconnect a classical control hardware to a superconducting qubit hardware, where both are operated at millikelvin temperatures.

  5. Study on crack generation at root of socket welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, K.; Matsuda, F.; Sato, M.; Nayama, M.; Akitomo, N.

    1996-01-01

    Because a power generation facility is made up of structures that contain a large number of welds, the reliability of weld joints is important to ensure the safety of power plants. Surveys and research are conducted on special weld joints to verify the reliability of power plants. The results of the investigation to verify the relation between the welding conditions and quality of small-diameter socket joints are described. Some defects are observed in the roots of socket-pipe joints of carbon steel in this project. The authors investigate experimentally the effect of the welding parameters on the generation of defects. The defects of the root are found experimentally to be solidification cracking (hot cracking). It is also revealed that a higher heat input and lower wire feed rate generate more hot cracking at the root of a weld. The authors also give a hypothesis that explains the generation mechanism of hot cracks at the root of a socket-pipe joint, based on finite element modelling analysis and other information. (orig.)

  6. Characterisation of radiation crosslinked polydimethylsiloxane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preston, C.M.L.; Hill, D.J.T.; Pomery, P.J.; Whittaker, A.K.

    1998-01-01

    Polysiloxanes, or silicones, are used widely in industry, as lubricants and process additives, as well as in many household products. The most common of the silicones is polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The fact that silicones crosslink during exposure to high energy radiation is well established. However, despite the number of studies performed on these systems, the exact mechanism of crosslinking has yet to be determined. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy (NMR) provides a useful method for the analysis of crosslinked polymer systems. Linear uncrosslinked PDMS is easily characterised in the solution state by NMR, as PDMS is readily soluble in common organic solvents. However, the onset of gelation caused by crosslinking results in an insoluble polymer network. The use of cross-polarisation (CP) and magic-angle spinning (MAS) in conjunction with high power decoupling has been shown to greatly enhance sensitivity of the NMR technique in solids. The true mechanism of crosslinking between polymer chains will be discussed

  7. Immediate Placement of Ultrawide-Diameter Implants in Molar Sockets: Description of a Recommended Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattingh, André C; De Bruyn, Hugo; Ackermann, Andrew; Vandeweghe, Stefan

    Immediate implant placement is performed less frequently in molar extraction sockets than in single root sockets. This is mainly due to the tripodal anatomical configuration of molar roots, which is perceived as complex and therefore unsuitable. The mechanical burden of molar sites, combined with much larger socket dimensions, make it amenable to the use of ultrawide-diameter dental implants. This article describes a practical, sequenced technique that can be used predictably for immediate implant placement in maxillary and mandibular first molar sockets, using a dry skull model for clarification. This detailed description is based on the experience of more than 580 clinical cases over a 10-year period.

  8. Fittings of unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC-U), chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (PVC-C) or acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene (ABS) with plain sockets for pipes under pressure - Dimensions of sockets - Metric series

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    1985-01-01

    Fittings of unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC-U), chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (PVC-C) or acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene (ABS) with plain sockets for pipes under pressure - Dimensions of sockets - Metric series

  9. Radiation crosslinking of polymer blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spenadel, L.

    1979-01-01

    Rocked by the one-two punch of rising energy costs and tougher pollution controls, a growing number of companies are looking to radiation crosslinking as a cheaper, cleaner alternative to heat and costly chemical crosslinking agents such as peroxides. With the development of larger, more powerful electron beam machines it is now possible to irradiate parts as thick as 400 mils in a single pass. Two application areas which have been investigated at our laboratory are the electron beam processing of thermoplastic elastomeric automotive parts and EPDM electrical insulation. This paper covers work carried out to develop the necessary technology base for the radiation crosslinking of ethylene propylene/polyolefin blends. Initial results indicate that EP/PE blends of electrical insulation quality cross-link quite readily when irradiated. On the other hand, EP/PP blends developed for automotive fascia require the addition of crosslinking monomers such as trimethylol propane trimethacrylate in order for crosslinking to predominate over chain scission. Crosslinking EP/PP blends improve mar resistance, flexural set and deformation at elevated temperatures. These are all key properties for automotive fascia. (author)

  10. Laser ablation of UHMWPE-polyethylene by 438 nm high energy pulsed laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrisi, L.; Gammino, S.; Mezzasalma, A.M.; Visco, A.M.; Badziak, J.; Parys, P.; Wolowski, J.; Woryna, E.; Krasa, J.; Laska, L.; Pfeifer, M.; Rohlena, K.; Boody, F.P

    2004-04-15

    Pulsed laser ablation of ultra-high-molecular-weight-polyethylene (UHMWPE) is investigated at Prague Asterix Laser System (PALS) Laboratory. The high ablation yield as a function of laser energy is presented at 438 nm laser wavelength. The mechanisms of the polymer ablation are studied on the base of ''in situ'' analysis, such as mass quadrupole spectrometry and time-of-flight measurements, and ''ex situ'' analysis, such as SEM investigations and Raman spectroscopy. Results show that the laser irradiation induces a strong polymer dehydrogenation and molecular emission due to different C{sub x}H{sub y} groups having high kinetic energy and high charge state. At a laser pulse energy of 150 J the H{sup +}, C{sup n+} ions (n=1 to 6) are emitted from the plasma with velocities of the order of 10{sup 8} cm/s, while the C{sub x}H{sub y} groups and the carbon clusters, detected up to C{sub 16}, have a velocity about one or two order magnitude lower. The laser ablation process produces a deep crater in the polymer, which depth depends on the laser pulse energy and it is of the order of 500 {mu}m. The crater volume increases with the laser pulse energy. Results demonstrated that the laser radiation modifies the polymer chains because dehydrogenated material and carbon-like structures are detected in the crater walls and in the bottom of the crater, respectively. A comparison of the experimental results with the data available in literature is presented and discussed.

  11. Measurement of the 232Th-series activity in gas sockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutarman, I.

    1995-01-01

    The activity of 232 Th and its daughters in Th-based gas sockets is required for health risk assessment. By absolute measurement of the 228 Ac-and 212 Pb/ 208 Tl-activities, the total activity of the sockets can be assessed. It is governed by 228 Ra and 228 Th and the product age. (author) 1 fig.; 2 tabs

  12. Immediate Placement of Ultrawide-Diameter Implants in Molar Sockets: Description of a Recommended Technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hattingh, A.C.; Bruyn, H. de; Ackermann, A.; Vandeweghe, S.

    2018-01-01

    Immediate implant placement is performed less frequently in molar extraction sockets than in single root sockets. This is mainly due to the tripodal anatomical configuration of molar roots, which is perceived as complex and therefore unsuitable. The mechanical burden of molar sites, combined with

  13. Effect of irradiation-timing on the initial socket healing in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, Y.; Sela, M.N.; Shlomi, B.; Ulmansky, M.; Sela, J.; Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem

    1979-01-01

    The effect of a single dose of 1500 R on early postextraction socket healing was studied in jaws of rats. A severe delay in healing was found in animals irradiated 2 weeks prior to extraction. Retardation of healing to a lesser degree was demonstrated in sockets irradiated immediately after exodontia. (author)

  14. Development of socketed foundations for S3X5.7 posts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a socketed foundation for use with the S3x5.7 (S76x8.5) weak : post. The design focused on cylindrical, reinforced concrete foundations with a steel tube placed in the center for : use as the socket. The fou...

  15. Clinical and histologic outcomes of calcium sulfate in the treatment of postextraction sockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruga, Emanuele; Gallesio, Cesare; Chiusa, Luigi; Boffano, Paolo

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to assess the clinical and histologic outcomes obtained with calcium sulfate (CS) used as a filler material in fresh premolar and molar postextraction sockets. Sixty premolar or molar postextraction sockets were filled with CS. Among the 60 grafted sockets, after 3 months, 50 underwent implant placement and clinical assessment. The removal of a sample core of newly generated intrasocket tissue was performed in 19 sockets. Collected samples were sent for histologic examination. The percentage of vital bone, nonvital bone, residual CS, amorphous material, and connective areas in every sample was calculated and recorded. Fifty postextraction regenerated sockets that underwent implant placement 3 months after tooth removal were included in this study.A partial postoperative exposition of the graft was observed in 12 of 50 sockets. At the surgical reentry, the augmented extraction sockets were completely filled by a hard material with an adequate alveolar crest in 41 cases. Histologic examination of the cores revealed that 63.16% of the intrasocket tissue was new vital bone, 2.1% was nonvital bone, 4.74% was fibrous tissue, and 30% was amorphous material. No residual CS was identified in bone cores. This study confirmed that CS is an ideal grafting material. The clinical adequacy aspect of filled sockets at surgical reentry seemed to be indicative of a qualitatively better bone regeneration. Postoperative exposition of graft material after a first intervention seemed to constitute an important risk factor for a worse bone regeneration.

  16. Automobile parts by radiation crosslinking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, Fumio

    2008-01-01

    Radiation crosslinking, graft polymerization and degradation are useful technologies to improve polymer materials. The crosslinking causes improvement in strength, heat stability and processability to gives network structure for polymer materials and hence crosslinked materials are used in various fields, especially car parts. Electron beam (EB) of short time irradiation is used for these modifications. Irradiated (pre-vulcanized) before sulfur vulcanization rubber tires, heat resistant wires/cables, shrinkable tubes and foams of car parts are achieved by EB crosslinking. Polyethylene and polyvinyl chloride are used in cables and wires, polypropylene in plastic foams and natural rubber etc. In this paper radiation processing of tire, wire/cables, foams, shrinkable tubes and circuit protection devices (CPT) are explained. (author)

  17. Covalent crosslinking of carbon nanostructures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Composites of the binary conjugates with polymer can be readily prepared by using the ... Besides the preparation of crosslinked ... of graphite oxide following the procedure described ... several times to remove the metal nanoparticles and.

  18. Radiation induced crosslinking of polytetrafluoroethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshima, Akihiro; Tabata, Yoneho; Ikeda, Shigetoshi; Otsuhata, Kazushige; Kudoh, Hisaaki; Seguchi, Tadao.

    1995-01-01

    The Irradiation temperature effect on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) from room temperature to 380degC was investigated by tensile test and thermal analysis. The behavior of tensile properties and changes of crystallinity on irradiation indicated the formation of a network structure in PTFE by radiation induced crosslinking in inert gas in the molten state just above the melting temperature of PTFE (327degC). The crosslinked PTFE showed a much improved radiation resistance in an atmospheric radiation field. (author)

  19. CAD/CAM transtibial prosthetic sockets from central fabrication facilities: How accurate are they?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Joan E.; Rogers, Ellen L.; Sorenson, Elizabeth A.; Lee, Gregory S.; Abrahamson, Daniel C.

    2014-01-01

    This research compares transtibial prosthetic sockets made by central fabrication facilities with their corresponding American Academy of Orthotists and Prosthetists (AAOP) electronic shape files and assesses the central fabrication process. We ordered three different socket shapes from each of 10 manufacturers. Then we digitized the sockets using a very accurate custom mechanical digitizer. Results showed that quality varied considerably among the different manufacturers. Four of the companies consistently made sockets within +/−1.1% volume (approximately 1 sock ply) of the AAOP electronic shape file, while six other companies did not. Six of the companies showed consistent undersizing or oversizing in their sockets, which suggests a consistent calibration or manufacturing error. Other companies showed inconsistent sizing or shape distortion, a difficult problem that represents a most challenging limitation for central fabrication facilities. PMID:18247236

  20. Unix Domain Sockets Applied in Android Malware Should Not Be Ignored

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jiang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly, malicious Android apps use various methods to steal private user data without their knowledge. Detecting the leakage of private data is the focus of mobile information security. An initial investigation found that none of the existing security analysis systems can track the flow of information through Unix domain sockets to detect the leakage of private data through such sockets, which can result in zero-day exploits in the information security field. In this paper, we conduct the first systematic study on Unix domain sockets as applied in Android apps. Then, we identify scenarios in which such apps can leak private data through Unix domain sockets, which the existing dynamic taint analysis systems do not catch. Based on these insights, we propose and implement JDroid, a taint analysis system that can track information flows through Unix domain sockets effectively to detect such privacy leaks.

  1. Numerical analysis of two pile caps with sockets embedded, subject the eccentric compression load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Delalibera

    Full Text Available The structural behavior of pile caps with sockets embedded is influenced by interface of column-socket, which can be smooth or rough. With intent to analyze the behavior of two pile caps with embedded socket, considering the friction between the column and the socket, with eccentric normal load, the numerical simulations were carried out, using a program based on the Finite Element Methods (FEM. In the numerical analysis the non-linear behavior of materials was considered, also the friction between the column and the socket. It was considered perfect bond between the reinforcement and the concrete around. It was observed that the embedded length is preponderant factor in the structural behavior of the analyzed element.

  2. Finite element analysis of the contact interface between trans-femoral stump and prosthetic socket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linlin; Zhu, Ming; Shen, Ling; Zheng, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Transfemoral amputees need prosthetic devices after amputation surgery, and the interface pressure between the residual limb and prosthetic socket has a significant effect on an amputee's satisfaction and comfort. The purpose of this study was to build a nonlinear finite element model to investigate the interface pressure between the above-knee residual limb and its prosthetic socket. The model was three-dimensional (3D) with consideration of nonlinear boundary conditions. Contact analysis was used to simulate the friction conditions between skin and the socket. The normal stresses up to 80.57 kPa at the distal end of the soft tissue. The longitudinal and circumferential shear stress distributions at the limb-socket interface were also simulated. This study explores the influences of load transfer between trans-femoral residual limb and its prosthetic socket.

  3. Survival Rate of Delayed Implants Placed in Healed Extraction Sockets is Significantly Higher Than That of Immediate Implants Placed in Fresh Extraction Sockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antetomaso, Jordan; Kumar, Satish

    2018-03-01

    Immediate implant placement into fresh extraction sockets versus delayed implants into healed sockets: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Mello CC, Lemos CAA, Verri FR, Dos Santos DM, Goiato MC, Pellizzer EP. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2017; 46(9):1162-77. None TYPE OF STUDY/DESIGN: Systematic review with meta-analysis of data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Význam a vlastnosti UHMWPE v aloplastice velkých kloubů z pohledu moderní medicíny

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fulín, P.; Pokorný, D.; Sosna, A.; Štefan, J.; Šlouf, Miroslav; Nevoralová, Martina

    -, č. 2 (2014), s. 20-22 ISSN 1803-3679 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01011406 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : UHMWPE * polyethylen * joint replacement Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry http://www. medicina aumeni.cz/index.php?action=44

  5. Persistent socket pain postenucleation and post evisceration: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogeboom, Charlotte S E; Mourits, Daphne L; Ket, Johannes C F; Tan, H Stevie; Hartong, Dyonne T; Moll, Annette C

    2018-04-06

    To investigate causes, diagnostics and treatment modalities for persistent socket pain (PSP) after enucleation and evisceration. A systematic search was undertaken in accordance with the PRISMA Statement, in PubMed, Embase.com and Thomson Reuters/Web of Science. We searched for relevant papers until the 28th of July 2016. Inclusion criteria were (1) patients with a history of enucleation or evisceration, (2) PSP, (3) report of the cause and/or used diagnostics and/or treatment modality, (4) full text in English, Dutch or Spanish language. Excluded were (1) review articles, (2) comments, and publications concerning, (3) nonhumans, (4) exenterated patients, (5) acute postoperative pain, or (6) periorbital pain without pain in the socket. Given the lack of high quality evidence from randomized controlled trials, we examined all available evidence from primary observational studies and assessed quality within this lower level of evidence. A total of 32 studies were included. Causes of PSP found were prosthesis-related (n = 5), dry socket (n = 2), trochleitis (n = 3), compression of the trigeminal nerve (n = 2), implant-related (n = unknown), inflammation (n = 5), surgery-related (n = 4), neuromas (n = 8), malignant tumours (n = 3), psychiatric/psychosocial (n = 2), phantom pain (n = 149), rarer entities (n = 3) or unknown (n = 14). Nonsurgical treatments suffice for conditions as trochleitis, prosthesis-related pain, dry socket and for phantom pain. Other causes of pain may require more invasive treatments such as implant removal. Careful history and examination can give some direction in the diagnostic procedure; however, PSP is probably multifactorial and the specific origin(s) may remain uncertain. Implant replacement can be an effective treatment. Studies to identifiy less invasive procedures are required. © 2018 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. [Intra-prosthetic dislocation of the Bousquet dual mobility socket].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecuire, F; Benareau, I; Rubini, J; Basso, M

    2004-05-01

    The Bousquet system is a dual mobility head-polyethylene polyethylene-metal cup socket. The polyethylene insert retaining the femoral head moves in the noncemented metal cup, increasing both mobility and stability. Between 1989 and 1997, seven cases of intra-prosthetic dislocation (six patients) were observed. The femoral head escaped from the polyethylene insert due to wear. On the average, this complication occurred ten Years after implantation. Risk of dislocation was high in six of the seven hips. All patients had a large sized stem screwed into the femoral neck. There was a characteristic radiological aspect with loss of the concentric head metal cup configuration. The head was applied against the upper wall of the metal cup. Surgical replacement was undertaken early in six patients by simply changing the insert without modifying the other stable components. Outcome remained good at three to eight Years. One patient underwent late surgery. The insert and the cup were replaced with a classical implant. Functional outcome was good but recurrent dislocation occurred. At mid-term, intra-prosthetic dislocation of dual mobility sockets appears to be exceptional. Dislocation results from polyethylene wear leading to failure of the insert to retain the prosthetic head. Wear is favored by direct phenomena (direct contact between neck and insert which can occur early if there is a small difference in the head and neck diameters) or indirect phenomena (factors limiting polyethylene metal-cup mobility). Surgical treatment is necessary. If undertaken early, replacement with a modular head and insert can be sufficient if the prosthesis has not loosened but the metal cup may have to be replaced in the event of metal-metal contact between the head and the cup. Prosthesis loosening, wear of the metal cup, or an identified cause of dislocation imply replacing the failing implants. Implantation of the dual mobility system is particularly interesting for patients with a high risk

  7. Surface crack behavior in socket weld of nuclear piping under fatigue loading condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Y.H.; Kim, J.S.; Choi, S.Y.

    2005-01-01

    The ASME B and PV Code Sec. III allows the socket weld for the nuclear piping in spite of the weakness on the weld integrity. Recently, the integrity of the socket weld is regarded as a safety concern in nuclear power plants because many failures and leaks have been reported in the socket weld. OPDE (OECD Piping Failure Data Exchange) database lists 108 socket weld failures among 2,399 nuclear piping failure cases during 1970 to 2001. Eleven failures in the socket weld were also reported in Korean NPPs. Many failure cases showed that the root cause of the failure is the fatigue and the gap requirement for the socket weld given in ASME Code was not satisfied. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the fatigue crack behavior of a surface crack in the socket weld under fatigue loading condition considering the gap effect. Three-dimensional finite element analysis was performed to estimate the fatigue crack behavior of the surface crack. Three types of loading conditions such as the deflection due to vibration, the pressure transient ranging from P=0 to 15.51 MPa, and the thermal transient ranging from T=25 C to 288 C were considered. The results are as follows; 1) The socket weld is susceptible to the vibration where the vibration levels exceed the requirement in the ASME operation and maintenance (OM) Code. 2) The effect of pressure or temperature transient load on the socket weld integrity is not significant. 3) No-gap condition gives very high possibility of the crack initiation at the socket weld under vibration loading condition. 4) For the specific systems having the vibration condition to exceed the requirement in the ASME Code OM and/or the transient loading condition from P=0 and T=25 C to P=15.51 MPa and T=288 C, radiographic examination to examine the gap during the construction stage is recommended. (orig.)

  8. Sodium hyaluronate accelerates the healing process in tooth sockets of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Renato M; Silva, Gerluza A B; Lima, Miguel F; Calliari, Marcelo V; Almeida, Alvair P; Alves, José B; Ferreira, Anderson J

    2008-12-01

    In this study we evaluated the effects of sodium hyaluronate (HY) in the healing process of tooth sockets of rats. Immediately after the extraction of the upper first molars of male Holtzman rats, right sockets were treated with 1% HY gel (approximately 0.1 ml), while left sockets were used as control (blood clot). The animals were sacrificed at 2, 7, and 21 days after tooth extraction and upper maxillaries processed for histological and morphometric analysis of the apical and medium thirds of the sockets. Carbopol, an inert gel, was used to evaluate the mechanical effect of gel injection into sockets. Expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and osteopontin (OPN) was determined by immunohistochemistry at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 7 days after tooth extraction. Histological analysis showed that HY treatment induced earlier trabecular bone deposition resulting in a bone matrix more organized at 7 and 21 days after tooth extraction. Also, HY elicited significant increase in the amount of bone trabeculaes at 7 and 21 days after tooth extraction (percentage of trabecular bone area at 7 days: 13.21+/-4.66% vs. 2.58+/-1.36% in the apical third of control sockets) and in the vessels counting at 7 days. Conversely, the number of cell nuclei was decreased in HY-treated sockets. Additionally, expression of BMP-2 and OPN was enhanced in HY-treated sockets compared with control sockets. These findings suggest that HY accelerates the healing process in tooth sockets of rats stimulating the expression of osteogenic proteins.

  9. Modeling and Experiments on Ballistic Impact into UHMWPE Yarns Using Flat and Saddle-Nosed Projectiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Leigh Phoenix

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Yarn shooting experiments were conducted to determine the ballistically-relevant, Young’s modulus and tensile strength of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE fiber. Target specimens were Dyneema® SK76 yarns (1760 dtex, twisted to 40 turns/m, and initially tensioned to stresses ranging from 29 to 2200 MPa. Yarns were impacted, transversely, by two types of cylindrical steel projectiles at velocities ranging from 150 to 555 m/s: (i a reverse-fired, fragment simulating projectile (FSP where the flat rear face impacted the yarn rather than the beveled nose; and (ii a ‘saddle-nosed projectile’ having a specially contoured nose imparting circular curvature in the region of impact, but opposite curvature transversely to prevent yarn slippage off the nose. Experimental data consisted of sequential photographic images of the progress of the triangular transverse wave, as well as tensile wave speed measured using spaced, piezo-electric sensors. Yarn Young’s modulus, calculated from the tensile wave-speed, varied from 133 GPa at minimal initial tension to 208 GPa at the highest initial tensions. However, varying projectile impact velocity, and thus, the strain jump on impact, had negligible effect on the modulus. Contrary to predictions from the classical Cole-Smith model for 1D yarn impact, the critical velocity for yarn failure differed significantly for the two projectile types, being 18% lower for the flat-faced, reversed FSP projectile compared to the saddle-nosed projectile, which converts to an apparent 25% difference in yarn strength. To explain this difference, a wave-propagation model was developed that incorporates tension wave collision under blunt impact by a flat-faced projectile, in contrast to outward wave propagation in the classical model. Agreement between experiment and model predictions was outstanding across a wide range of initial yarn tensions. However, plots of calculated failure stress versus yarn pre

  10. The Quantum Socket: Wiring for Superconducting Qubits - Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConkey, T. G.; Bejanin, J. H.; Rinehart, J. R.; Bateman, J. D.; Earnest, C. T.; McRae, C. H.; Rohanizadegan, Y.; Shiri, D.; Mariantoni, M.; Penava, B.; Breul, P.; Royak, S.; Zapatka, M.; Fowler, A. G.

    Quantum systems with ten superconducting quantum bits (qubits) have been realized, making it possible to show basic quantum error correction (QEC) algorithms. However, a truly scalable architecture has not been developed yet. QEC requires a two-dimensional array of qubits, restricting any interconnection to external classical systems to the third axis. In this talk, we introduce an interconnect solution for solid-state qubits: The quantum socket. The quantum socket employs three-dimensional wires and makes it possible to connect classical electronics with quantum circuits more densely and accurately than methods based on wire bonding. The three-dimensional wires are based on spring-loaded pins engineered to insure compatibility with quantum computing applications. Extensive design work and machining was required, with focus on material quality to prevent magnetic impurities. Microwave simulations were undertaken to optimize the design, focusing on the interface between the micro-connector and an on-chip coplanar waveguide pad. Simulations revealed good performance from DC to 10 GHz and were later confirmed against experimental measurements.

  11. Control and Measurement of an Xmon with the Quantum Socket

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConkey, T. G.; Bejanin, J. H.; Earnest, C. T.; McRae, C. R. H.; Rinehart, J. R.; Weides, M.; Mariantoni, M.

    The implementation of superconducting quantum processors is rapidly reaching scalability limitations. Extensible electronics and wiring solutions for superconducting quantum bits (qubits) are among the most imminent issues to be tackled. The necessity to substitute planar electrical interconnects (e.g., wire bonds) with three-dimensional wires is emerging as a fundamental pillar towards scalability. In a previous work, we have shown that three-dimensional wires housed in a suitable package, named the quantum socket, can be utilized to measure high-quality superconducting resonators. In this work, we set out to test the quantum socket with actual superconducting qubits to verify its suitability as a wiring solution in the development of an extensible quantum computing architecture. To this end, we have designed and fabricated a series of Xmon qubits. The qubits range in frequency from about 6 to 7 GHz with anharmonicity of 200 MHz and can be tuned by means of Z pulses. Controlling tunable Xmons will allow us to verify whether the three-dimensional wires contact resistance is low enough for qubit operation. Qubit T1 and T2 times and single qubit gate fidelities are compared against current standards in the field.

  12. Case study: survey of patient satisfaction with prosthesis quality and design among below-knee prosthetic leg socket users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Hawari, Nurhanisah; Jawaid, Mohammad; Md Tahir, Paridah; Azmeer, Raja Ahmad

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this case study was to explore patient satisfaction with the quality of prosthetic leg sockets intended for persons with lower limb amputations. A qualitative study based on in-depth interviews, preceded by a questionnaire session, was carried out with patients from the Rehabilitation Center and Hospital in Malaysia. Twelve out-patient and in-patient amputees with lower limb amputations, specifically below-knee amputations, were chosen randomly. The analysis of patients' narratives aimed to identify the functional and esthetic characteristics of currently used prosthetic leg sockets and any problems related to them. The obtained results indicated that out of the 12 participants, 41.7% and 25% were satisfied and somewhat satisfied with their current prosthetic sockets. Durability and comfort were rated by the participants as the most important characteristics of prosthetic sockets, with 83.3%. As regards the esthetic appearance of the socket, 66.7% of the respondents considered that the most important feature was the material from which the socket was fabricated. Thus, we conclude that current satisfaction levels with the quality of prosthetic sockets among amputees in Malaysia are suitable, prosthesis being preferred by many amputees. The results can be used to direct future research on cosmesis and functionality of prosthetic socket design. Implications for Rehabilitation Case study will help participants to get cost effective prosthetic leg socket. Develop prosthetic leg socket comfortable as comparative to existing one. Help Malaysian government to make policy to develop local prosthetic leg socket at affordable price.

  13. Crosslinking of agarose bioplastic using citric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awadhiya, Ankur; Kumar, David; Verma, Vivek

    2016-10-20

    We report chemical crosslinking of agarose bioplastic using citric acid. Crosslinking was confirmed using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The effects of crosslinking on the tensile strength, swelling, thermal stability, and degradability of the bioplastic were studied in detail. The tensile strength of the bioplastic films increased from 25.1MPa for control films up to a maximum of 52.7MPa for citric acid crosslinked films. At 37°C, the amount of water absorbed by crosslinked agarose bioplastic was only 11.5% of the amount absorbed by non-crosslinked controls. Thermogravimetric results showed that the crosslinked samples retain greater mass at high temperature (>450°C) than control samples. Moreover, while the crosslinked films were completely degradable, the rate of degradation was lower compared to non-crosslinked controls. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Characterization of interfacial socket pressure in transhumeral prostheses: A case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Jonathon S; Schoepp, Katherine R; Williams, Heather E; Carey, Jason P; Marasco, Paul D; Hebert, Jacqueline S

    2017-01-01

    One of the most important factors in successful upper limb prostheses is the socket design. Sockets must be individually fabricated to arrive at a geometry that suits the user's morphology and appropriately distributes the pressures associated with prosthetic use across the residual limb. In higher levels of amputation, such as transhumeral, this challenge is amplified as prosthetic weight and the physical demands placed on the residual limb are heightened. Yet, in the upper limb, socket fabrication is largely driven by heuristic practices. An analytical understanding of the interactions between the socket and residual limb is absent in literature. This work describes techniques, adapted from lower limb prosthetic research, to empirically characterize the pressure distribution occurring between the residual limb and well-fit transhumeral prosthetic sockets. A case series analyzing the result of four participants with transhumeral amputation is presented. A Tekscan VersaTek pressure measurement system and FaroArm Edge coordinate measurement machine were employed to capture socket-residual limb interface pressures and geometrically register these values to the anatomy of participants. Participants performed two static poses with their prosthesis under two separate loading conditions. Surface pressure maps were constructed from the data, highlighting pressure distribution patterns, anatomical locations bearing maximum pressure, and the relative pressure magnitudes. Pressure distribution patterns demonstrated unique characteristics across the four participants that could be traced to individual socket design considerations. This work presents a technique that implements commercially available tools to quantitatively characterize upper limb socket-residual limb interactions. This is a fundamental first step toward improved socket designs developed through informed, analytically-based design tools.

  15. Characterization of interfacial socket pressure in transhumeral prostheses: A case series.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathon S Schofield

    Full Text Available One of the most important factors in successful upper limb prostheses is the socket design. Sockets must be individually fabricated to arrive at a geometry that suits the user's morphology and appropriately distributes the pressures associated with prosthetic use across the residual limb. In higher levels of amputation, such as transhumeral, this challenge is amplified as prosthetic weight and the physical demands placed on the residual limb are heightened. Yet, in the upper limb, socket fabrication is largely driven by heuristic practices. An analytical understanding of the interactions between the socket and residual limb is absent in literature. This work describes techniques, adapted from lower limb prosthetic research, to empirically characterize the pressure distribution occurring between the residual limb and well-fit transhumeral prosthetic sockets. A case series analyzing the result of four participants with transhumeral amputation is presented. A Tekscan VersaTek pressure measurement system and FaroArm Edge coordinate measurement machine were employed to capture socket-residual limb interface pressures and geometrically register these values to the anatomy of participants. Participants performed two static poses with their prosthesis under two separate loading conditions. Surface pressure maps were constructed from the data, highlighting pressure distribution patterns, anatomical locations bearing maximum pressure, and the relative pressure magnitudes. Pressure distribution patterns demonstrated unique characteristics across the four participants that could be traced to individual socket design considerations. This work presents a technique that implements commercially available tools to quantitatively characterize upper limb socket-residual limb interactions. This is a fundamental first step toward improved socket designs developed through informed, analytically-based design tools.

  16. Highly Cross-Linked Polyethylene in Total Hip and Knee Replacement: Spatial Distribution of Molecular Orientation and Shape Recovery Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhito Takahashi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated effects of processing procedures on morphology of highly cross-linked and re-melted UHMWPE (XLPE in total hip and knee arthroplasty (THA, TKA. The shape recovery behavior was also monitored via uniaxial compression test at room temperature after non-destructive characterizations of the in-depth microstructure by confocal/polarized Raman spectroscopy. The goal of this study was to relate the manufacturing-induced morphology to the in vivo micromechanical performance, and ultimately to explore an optimal structure in each alternative joint bearing. It was clearly confirmed that the investigated XLPE hip and knee implants, which were produced from different orthopaedic grade resins (GUR 1050 and GUR 1020, consisted of two structural regions in the as-received states: the near-surface transitional anisotropic layer (≈100 μm thickness and the bulk isotropic structural region. These XLPEs exhibited a different crystalline anisotropy and molecular texture within the near-surface layers. In addition, the knee insert showed a slightly higher efficiency of shape recovery against the applied strain over the hip liner owing to a markedly higher percentage of the bulk amorphous phase with intermolecular cross-linking. The quantitative data presented in this study might contribute to construct manufacturing strategies for further rationalized structures as alternative bearings in THA and TKA.

  17. Wear resistant performance of highly cross-linked and annealed ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene against ceramic heads in total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Taishi; Nakashima, Yasuharu; Akiyama, Mio; Yamamoto, Takuaki; Mawatari, Taro; Itokawa, Takashi; Ohishi, Masanobu; Motomura, Goro; Hirata, Masanobu; Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of ceramic femoral head material, size, and implantation periods on the wear of annealed, cross-linked ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) (XLPE) in total hip arthroplasty compared to non-cross-linked conventional UHMWPE (CPE). XLPE was fabricated by cross-linking with 60 kGy irradiation and annealing. Femoral heads made from zirconia and alumina ceramics and cobalt-chrome (CoCr) of 22 or 26 mm diameter were used. In this retrospective cohort study, the femoral head penetration into the cup was measured digitally on radiographs of 367 hips with XLPE and 64 hips with CPE. The average follow-up periods were 6.3 and 11.9 years, respectively. Both XLPE creep and wear rates were significantly lower than those of CPE (0.19 mm vs. 0.44 mm, 0.0001 mm/year vs. 0.09 mm/year, respectively). Zirconia displayed increased wear rates compared to alumina in CPE; however, there was no difference among head materials in XLPE (0.0008, 0.00007, and -0.009 mm/year for zirconia, alumina, and CoCr, respectively). Neither head size or implantation period impacted XLPE wear. In contrast to CPE, XLPE displayed low wear rates surpassing the effects of varying femoral head material, size, implantation period, and patient demographics. Further follow-up is required to determine the long-term clinical performance of the annealed XLPE. Copyright © 2012 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  18. Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fiber epoxy composite hybridized with Gadolinium and Boron nanoparticles for radiation shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Venkat; Prasad, Narasimha S.; Kelkar, Ajit

    2016-09-01

    Deep space radiations pose a major threat to the astronauts and their spacecraft during long duration space exploration missions. The two sources of radiation that are of concern are the galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) and the short lived secondary neutron radiations that are generated as a result of fragmentation that occurs when GCR strikes target nuclei in a spacecraft. Energy loss, during the interaction of GCR and the shielding material, increases with the charge to mass ratio of the shielding material. Hydrogen with no neutron in its nucleus has the highest charge to mass ratio and is the element which is the most effective shield against GCR. Some of the polymers because of their higher hydrogen content also serve as radiation shield materials. Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibers, apart from possessing radiation shielding properties by the virtue of the high hydrogen content, are known for extraordinary properties. An effective radiation shielding material is the one that will offer protection from GCR and impede the secondary neutron radiations resulting from the fragmentation process. Neutrons, which result from fragmentation, do not respond to the Coulombic interaction that shield against GCR. To prevent the deleterious effects of secondary neutrons, targets such as Gadolinium are required. In this paper, the radiation shielding studies that were carried out on the fabricated sandwich panels by vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) process are presented. VARTM is a manufacturing process used for making large composite structures by infusing resin into base materials formed with woven fabric or fiber using vacuum pressure. Using the VARTM process, the hybridization of Epoxy/UHMWPE composites with Gadolinium nanoparticles, Boron, and Boron carbide nanoparticles in the form of sandwich panels were successfully carried out. The preliminary results from neutron radiation tests show that greater than 99% shielding performance was

  19. Biotribological behavior of Ag-ZrCxN1-x coatings against UHMWPE for joint prostheses devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon V, S; Sánchez-López, J C; Cavaleiro, A; Carvalho, S

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the structural, mechanical and tribological properties of zirconium carbonitrides (ZrCxN1-x) coatings with embedded silver nanoparticles, produced with the intention of achieving a material with enhanced multi-functional properties, including mechanical strength, corrosion resistance, tribological performance and antibacterial behavior suitable for their use in joint prostheses. The coatings were deposited by direct current (DC) reactive magnetron sputtering onto 316 L stainless steel, changing the silver content from 0 to 20 at% by modifying the current density applied to the targets. Different nitrogen and acetylene gas fluxes were used as reactive gases. The coatings revealed different mixtures of crystalline ZrCxN1-x, silver nanoparticles and amorphous carbon phases. The hardness of the films was found to be mainly controlled by the ratio between the hard (ZrCxN1-x) and soft (Ag and amorphous carbon) phases in the films, fluctuating between 7.4 and 20.4 GPa. The coefficient of friction, measured against ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) in Hank's balanced salt solution with 10 gL(-1) albumin, is governed by the surface roughness and hardness. The UHMWPE wear rates were in the same order of magnitude (between 1.4 and 2.0 × 10(-6)mm(3)N(-1)m(-1)), justified by the effect of the protective layer of albumin formed during the tests. The small differences were due to the hydrophobic/hydrophilic character of the surface, as well as to the silver content. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Autotransplantation of third molars with completely formed roots into surgically created sockets and fresh extraction sockets: a 10-year comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, H J; Jia, P; Lv, Z; Qiu, L X

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze and compare the long-term clinical outcomes of mature third molar autotransplantation in surgically created sockets and fresh extraction sockets with regard to survival and functional success rates. A total of 65 third molars with completely formed roots were autotransplanted in 60 patients (average age 33.1 years). Thirty-six of the teeth were autotransplanted into surgically created sockets with or without guided bone regeneration (GBR; delayed autotransplantation), while 29 were autotransplanted into fresh extraction sockets (immediate autotransplantation; control group). All patients underwent annual clinical and radiographic examinations (average follow-up 9.9 years, range 7-13 years). The survival rates for the control, GBR, and no GBR groups were 93.1%, 95.2%, and 80.0%, respectively, with no significant differences among the groups. There were no statistically significant differences among the groups with regard to the frequency of inflammatory root resorption or root ankylosis. Age did not influence the clinical outcomes. These results suggest that the autotransplantation of third molars with completely formed roots is effective in both surgically created and fresh extraction sockets and provides a high long-term success rate if cases are selected and treated appropriately. Copyright © 2016 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Impacted third molar transplantation on the malpracticed extraction socket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soung Min; Amponsah, Emmanuel K

    2017-12-01

    Autotransplantation with or without endodontic therapy is regarded as an alternative treatment option for the replacement of missing teeth. A primary responsibility of a maxillofacial surgeon is to reverse any malpractice to promote successful outcomes and improve the patient's quality of life. This paper presents a malpractice case of incorrect extraction of the lower second molar instead of the impacted third molar. A simple technique of transplanting the impacted third molar to the site of the extracted second molar is introduced by a maxillofacial specialist in Ghana. By making an intentional root socket and fixation without using additional appliances, a novel second molar was achieved with complete recovery. This patient was followed after transplant for a four-year period with the best satisfaction. A grant of the Korean Health Technology R&D Project, Ministry of Health & Welfare, Republic of Korea. (HI15C0689).

  2. Immediate placement of endosseous implants into the extraction sockets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Ebenezer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Implant by definition "means any object or material, such as an alloplastic substance or other tissue, which is partial or completely inserted into the body for therapeutic, diagnostic, prosthetic, or experimental purpose." The placement of a dental implant in an extraction socket at the time of extraction or explantation is known as immediate implant placement whereas delayed placement of implant signifies the implant placement in edentulous areas where healing has completed with new bone formation after the loss of tooth/teeth. Recent idea goes by "why late when it can be done immediately." There are several advantages of immediate placement of implants, and lots of studies have been done. In this article, the advantages and disadvantages of immediate versus delayed placement of implants have been reviewed.

  3. Immediate placement of endosseous implants into the extraction sockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebenezer, Vijay; Balakrishnan, K; Asir, R Vigil Dev; Sragunar, Banu

    2015-04-01

    Implant by definition "means any object or material, such as an alloplastic substance or other tissue, which is partial or completely inserted into the body for therapeutic, diagnostic, prosthetic, or experimental purpose." The placement of a dental implant in an extraction socket at the time of extraction or explantation is known as immediate implant placement whereas delayed placement of implant signifies the implant placement in edentulous areas where healing has completed with new bone formation after the loss of tooth/teeth. Recent idea goes by "why late when it can be done immediately." There are several advantages of immediate placement of implants, and lots of studies have been done. In this article, the advantages and disadvantages of immediate versus delayed placement of implants have been reviewed.

  4. EB radiation crosslinking of elastomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bik, J.; Rzymski, M.; Gluszewski, W.; Zagorski, Z.P.

    2002-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The first paper in the series described by the general title, starts with radiation crosslinking of hydrogenated butadiene-nitrile rubber (HBNR). This high-tech elastomer is obtained by catalytic hydrogenation of >C=C 99.5 and 94.5% of starting double bonds. Samples were irradiated with 10 MeV electrons, monoenergetical, 6 kW power, used as scanned beam over the conveyor, securing homogeneity of dose distribution. The doses were up to 300 kGy, applied in 20 kGy increments to avoid radiation generated heating of the material. The influence of presence or absence of oxygen was considered. Irradiated samples were investigated for the extend of crosslinking in the function of dose and for properties important for understanding of mechanisms. Samples are transparent, what allowed conventional absorption spectrophotometry, also time resolved. The quantitative interpretation of results shows that for 100 crosslinks there are 6-9 acts of chain-scission. It is less, than expected from the participation of multi-ionization spurs, also in the solid state, as announced during the previous, 9th Tihany Conference. However, the apparent lower yield of multi-ionization spurs is explained by partial conversion of products into crosslinks of specific type. Our investigations confirm the usefulness of consideration of radiation spurs in polymers as well as in all, low LET irradiated media

  5. Immediate Implant Placement in Sockets with Asymptomatic Apical Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, Roberto; Capparé, Paolo; Crespi, Giovanni; Lo Giudice, Giuseppe; Gastaldi, Giorgio; Gherlone, Enrico

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate if the presence of granulation tissue in asymptomatic apical periodontitis compromised immediate implant placement. Patients requiring extraction of one tooth (maxillary and mandibular incisive, canine or premolar) with asymptomatic apical periodontitis, were recruited for this prospective study. They were randomly scheduled into two groups: in first group (A) including 30 teeth, reactive soft tissue was debrided before implant placement, and in second group (B) including 30 teeth, reactive soft tissue was left in the apical lesion. Implants were positioned immediately after tooth extraction, and were loaded after 3 months in both groups. Cone beam computed tomography was performed before tooth extraction and at 1-year follow-up to evaluate the radiolucency around the root apex and the implant, bucco-lingual bone levels were also checked. Sixty patients were included in this study. Sixty implants were placed immediately after tooth extraction and, at 1-year follow-up, a survival rate of 100% was reported. After one year both groups showed absence of radiolucent zone at the apical region of implants. All fresh sockets presented a buccal-palatal bone reduction in both groups after one year, even if not statistically significant differences were found between baseline bone levels and within groups. Within the limitations of the present study, the immediate placement of implants into the extraction sockets with asymptomatic apical periodontitis, in presence of primary stability, did not lead to an increased rate of complications and rendered an equally favorable type of tissue integration. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. An Individualized 3-Dimensional Designed and Printed Conformer After Dermis Fat Grafting for Complex Sockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourits, Daphne L; Remmers, Jelmer S; Tan, Stevie H; Moll, Annette C; Hartong, Dyonne T

    2018-04-03

    To introduce a novel technique to design individually customized conformers for postenucleation sockets with dermis fat implants. We use a 3-dimensional scan of the frontal face/orbit and eyelid contour to design an individualized conformer. This polymethylmetacrylate printed conformer is adapted to patients' socket, palpebral fissures, horizontal eyelid aperture, curvature of the eyelids, and mean diameter of patients' contralateral eye. Sutures through holes in the inferior part of the conformer and in the extension can be placed to fixate the conformer and anchor fornix deepening sutures. A correct fitting conformer can be printed and attached to the socket and eyelids. The shape of this conformer can be used subsequently postsurgically to design the ocular prosthesis. Presurgical planning is important to anticipate for a functional socket to adequately fit an artificial eye. The presented technique using 3-dimensional imaging, designing, and printing promises to prevent conformer extrusion and forniceal shortening.

  7. Management of an irradiated anophthalmic socket following dermis-fat graft rejection: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raizada Kuldeep

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermis-fat graft (DFG is often the only promising option in cases of severely contracted sockets. However, there is an increased risk of graft failure in irradiated sockets with decreased vascularity. In such difficult cases, repeat DFG implantation also has higher risks of graft failure. We describe an ingenious method of successful management of an irradiated anophthalmic socket following DFG infection and necrosis, with acceptable cosmetic results. At surgery, an orbital impression was taken with ophthalmic grade alginate. Based on this measurement, a custom-made stem pressure socket-expander made up of high density polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA was fitted, a week post surgery and kept in situ for six weeks. On review, the fornices had considerably deepened. The expander device was removed and the patient was now fitted with a custom-made thicker prosthesis made up of high-density PMMA. The patient has followed up for a year subsequently and the prosthesis has remained stable.

  8. Continuation of down-hole geophysical testing for rock sockets : [technical summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The rock socket is critical to a drilled shaft : foundation because it lies within a rock stratum : and accounts for much of the capacity of the : foundational unit. Consistency of the rocks : structure and composition must be identifed : because ...

  9. Development of a socketed foundation for the Midwest Weak Post (MWP) v1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    A socketed foundation was designed and evaluated for use with the Midwest Weak Post (MWP), Version 1. : Dynamic component testing was conducted on five different design configurations with varying embedment : depths, steel reinforcement, and soil con...

  10. Histomorphometric evaluation of a calcium-phosphosilicate putty bone substitute in extraction sockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsakis, Georgios A; Joachim, Frederic P C; Saroff, Stephen A; Mahesh, Lanka; Prasad, Hari; Rohrer, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate bone regeneration in 24 sockets grafted with a calcium phosphosilicate putty alloplastic bone substitute. A core was obtained from 17 sockets prior to implant placement for histomorphometry at 5 to 6 months postextraction. Radiographic analysis during the same postextraction healing period showed radiopaque tissue in all sockets. Histomorphometric analysis revealed a mean vital bone content of 31.76% (± 14.20%) and residual graft content of 11.47% (± 8.99%) after a mean healing period of 5.7 months. The high percentage of vital bone in the healed sites in combination with its timely absorption rate suggest that calcium phosphosilicate putty can be a reliable choice for osseous regeneration in extraction sockets.

  11. Prosthetic Smart Socket Technology to Improve Patient Interaction, Usability, Comfort, Fit and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    impact on society beyond science and technology ? Nothing to report at this time. 5. CHANGES/PROBLEMS: Changes in approach and reasons for...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0785 TITLE: Prosthetic Smart Socket Technology to Improve Patient Interaction, Usability, Comfort, Fit and Function...2016 - 29 Sep 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Prosthetic Smart Socket Technology to Improve Patient Interaction, Usability, Comfort, Fit and Function 5a

  12. Hyaluronic Acid Improves Bone Formation in Extraction Sockets With Chronic Pathology: A Pilot Study in Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Ju; Song, Hyun Young; Ben Amara, Heithem; Kyung-Rim, Kang; Koo, Ki-Tae

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies on ridge preservation focusing on fresh extraction sockets using graft materials for ridge preservation procedures have reported a delay in the tissue modeling and remodeling phases. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of hyaluronic acid (HA) on healing of infected sockets. Six beagle dogs were used in this study. Both mandibular third premolars were hemisected, and the distal roots were extracted. Subsequently, periodontal and endodontic lesions were induced at the remaining mesial root. After communication of the periodontal lesion, an endodontic periapical lesion was observed at 4 months, and the mesial roots of both the right and left sides were extracted. HA was applied into the socket of the test group, and no treatment was administered to the other group (control group). Three months after extraction of the mesial roots, the dogs were sacrificed, and histologic evaluations were performed. The sockets were filled by mineralized bone (47.80% ± 6.60%) and bone marrow (50.47% ± 6.38%) in the control group, whereas corresponding values were 63.29% ± 9.78% and 34.73% ± 8.97% for the test group, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between the groups. Reversal lines and a copious lineup of osteoblasts were observed in the middle and apical parts of the sockets in the test group. An infected socket shows delayed healing of the socket wound, and HA, because of its osteoinductive, bacteriostatic, and anti-inflammatory properties, may improve bone formation and accelerate wound healing in infected sockets.

  13. Parathyroid hormone related to bone regeneration in grafted and nongrafted tooth extraction sockets in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroshima, Shinichiro; Al-Salihi, Zeina; Yamashita, Junro

    2013-02-01

    The quality and quantity of bone formed in tooth extraction sockets impact implant therapy. Therefore, the establishment of a new approach to enhance bone formation and to minimize bone resorption is important for the success of implant therapy. In this study, we investigated whether intermittent parathyroid hormone (PTH) therapy enhanced bone formation in grafted sockets. Tooth extractions of the maxillary first molars were performed in rats, and the sockets were grafted with xenograft. Intermittent PTH was administered either for 7 days before extractions, for 14 days after extractions, or both. The effect of PTH therapy on bone formation in the grafted sockets was assessed using microcomputed tomography at 14 days after extractions. PTH therapy for 7 days before extractions was not effective to augment bone fill, whereas PTH therapy for 14 days after operation significantly augmented bone formation in the grafted sockets. Intermittent PTH therapy starting right after tooth extractions significantly enhanced bone fill in the grafted sockets, suggesting that PTH therapy can be a strong asset for the success of the ridge preservation procedure.

  14. Evaluation of osteoblastic activity in extraction sockets treated with platelet-rich fibrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baslarli, Ozgur; Tumer, Celal; Ugur, Omer; Vatankulu, Betul

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the use of platelet rich fibrin (PRF) improved the healing of extraction sockets. A total of 20 patients with bilateral soft tissue impacted mandibular third molars were included in this study. The left and right third molars were extracted during the same session. Subsequently, the PRF membrane was randomly administered to one of the extraction sockets, whereas the contralateral sockets were left without treatment. On postoperative 30. and 90. days, panoramic images and bone scintigrams were taken to evaluate the bone healing between PRF-treated and non-PRF-treated sockets. Also, periodontal evaluation was performed in the same control sessions. Dependent group t test for paired samples was used for statistical analysis. The average increase in technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate uptake as an indication of enhanced bone healing did not differ significantly between PRF-treated and non-PRF-treated sockets 30 and 90 days postoperatively. Radio-opacity that can show the bone healing on panoramic images were measured by Image J programme and they did not differ significantly. Also periodontal values did not differ significantly. PRF might not lead to enhanced bone healing in impacted mandibular third molar extraction sockets 30 and 90 days after surgery. It is thought that PRF has the potential characteristics of an autologous fibrin matrix and can accelerate the healing. To better understand the effects of PRF on healing, further research is warranted with larger sample sizes.

  15. Histologic study of use of microfibrillar collagen hemostat in rat dental sockets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magro-Érnica Natasha

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to evaluate if the placement of microfibrillar collagen hemostat (MCH into a dental socket interfered with healing. General anesthesia was administered to 30 adult male Albinus Wistar rats and the maxillary right central incisor was extracted. In the control group after each tooth was extracted, the socket was sutured. In the MCH group after each tooth was extracted, MCH was placed into the socket before suturing. Postoperatively, 5 animals were sacrificed from each group at 7, 21 and 28 days. The right maxilla was removed from each animal and histologic slides were stained with Masson's trichromic and hematoxylin and eosin. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were done. The percentage of bone area in the dental socket was quantified using the Image Lab 98 image analysis system. The bone area formation for the control and MCH groups was: 8.1% and 3.3% at 7 days, 34.4% and 33% at 21 days and 41% and 41.3% at 28 days, respectively. We concluded that MCH interferes with the beginning of dental socket healing but does not interfere with the final healing of the dental socket.

  16. Quantification of UHMWPE wear in periprosthetic tissues of hip arthroplasty: Description of a new method based on IR and comparison with radiographic appearance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šlouf, Miroslav; Pokorný, D.; Entlicher, G.; Dybal, Jiří; Synková, Hana; Lapčíková, Monika; Fejfarková, Z.; Špundová, M.; Veselý, F.; Sosna, A.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 265, 5-6 (2008), s. 674-684 ISSN 0043-1648 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/04/1118; GA MŠk 2B06096 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : UHMWPE * isolation of wear debris * quantification of wear particles Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.509, year: 2008

  17. CoCrMo alloy vs. UHMWPE Particulate Implant Debris Induces Sex Dependent Aseptic Osteolysis Responses In Vivo using a Murine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgraeber, Stefan; Samelko, Lauryn; McAllister, Kyron; Putz, Sebastian; Jacobs, Joshua.J.; Hallab, Nadim James

    2018-01-01

    Background: The rate of revision for some designs of total hip replacements due to idiopathic aseptic loosening has been reported as higher for women. However, whether this is environmental or inherently sex-related is not clear. Objective: Can particle induced osteolysis be sex dependent? And if so, is this dependent on the type of implant debris (e.g. metal vs polymer)? The objective of this study was to test for material dependent inflammatory osteolysis that may be linked to sex using CoCrMo and implant grade conventional polyethylene (UHMWPE), using an in vivo murine calvaria model. Methods: Healthy 12 week old female and male C57BL/6J mice were treated with UHMWPE (1.0um ECD) or CoCrMo particles (0.9um ECD) or received sham surgery. Bone resorption was assessed by micro-computed tomography, histology and histomorphometry on day 12 post challenge. Results: Female mice that received CoCrMo particles showed significantly more inflammatory osteolysis and bone destruction compared to the females who received UHMWPE implant debris. Moreover, females challenged with CoCrMo particles exhibited 120% more inflammatory bone loss compared to males (p<0.01) challenged with CoCrMo implant debris (but this was not the case for UHMWPE particles). Conclusion: We demonstrated sex-specific differences in the amount of osteolysis resulting from CoCrMo particle challenge. This suggests osteo-immune responses to metal debris are preferentially higher in female compared to male mice, and supports the contention that there may be inherent sex related susceptibility to some types of implant debris. PMID:29785221

  18. Experimental study of reinforced concrete pile caps with external, embedded and partially embedded socket with smooth interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Barros

    Full Text Available On Precast concrete structures the column foundation connections can occur through the socket foundation, which can be embedded, partially embedded or external, with socket walls over the pile caps. This paper presents an experimental study about two pile caps reinforced concrete with external, partially embedded and embedded socket submitted to central load, using 1:2 scaled models. In the analyzed models, the smooth interface between the socket walls and column was considered. The results are compared to a reference model that presents monolithic connections between the column and pile cap. It is observed that the ultimate load of pile cap with external sockets has the same magnitude as the reference pile cap, but the ultimate load of models with partially embedded and embedded socket present less magnitude than the reference model.

  19. Microfabrication of crosslinked PTFE by synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yasunori; Yamaguchi, Daichi; Oshima, Akihiro; Washio, Masakazu; Katoh, Takanori; Aoki, Yasushi; Ikeda, Shigetoshi; Tanaka, Shigeru

    2003-01-01

    Microfabrication of crosslinked polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) using synchrotron radiation (SR) has been demonstrated for production of micro-components applicable to radiation fields. The method of microfabrication was readily capable of obtaining a microstructure with aspect-ratio of 25 made of crosslinked PTFE. The etching rate of crosslinked PTFE was higher than that of non-crosslinked PTFE. The results show that the etching rate of crosslinked PTFE depends only on the degree of crosslinking. The effect of molecular motion on etching process was discussed from temperature dependence on etching rate. Moreover, in order to examine whether any change of chemical structures and crystallinity would be induced by SR-irradiation on PTFE, SR-irradiated PTFE was measured by NMR spectroscopy and DSC analysis. The results showed that the crosslinking reaction of PTFE would be induced by SR-irradiation in the solid state. (author)

  20. Synthesis of Hydrophobic, Crosslinkable Resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    product by methanol precipitation the majority of the first oligomer was L-"- lost. 4.14 DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING CALORIMETRY. The DSC trace of a typical...polymer from the DSC traces obtained to dcte. Preliminary studies using an automated torsional pendulum indicate that the Tg of the crosslinked polymer is...enabling water to be used in the purification steps. The diethyl phosphonates are readily prepared by heating triethyl phosphite with the chloromethyl

  1. Techniques for Interface Stress Measurements within Prosthetic Sockets of Transtibial Amputees: A Review of the Past 50 Years of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fakih, Ebrahim A; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan; Mahmad Adikan, Faisal Rafiq

    2016-07-20

    The distribution of interface stresses between the residual limb and prosthetic socket of a transtibial amputee has been considered as a direct indicator of the socket quality fit and comfort. Therefore, researchers have been very interested in quantifying these interface stresses in order to evaluate the extent of any potential damage caused by the socket to the residual limb tissues. During the past 50 years a variety of measurement techniques have been employed in an effort to identify sites of excessive stresses which may lead to skin breakdown, compare stress distributions in various socket designs, and evaluate interface cushioning and suspension systems, among others. The outcomes of such measurement techniques have contributed to improving the design and fitting of transtibial sockets. This article aims to review the operating principles, advantages, and disadvantages of conventional and emerging techniques used for interface stress measurements inside transtibial sockets. It also reviews and discusses the evolution of different socket concepts and interface stress investigations conducted in the past five decades, providing valuable insights into the latest trends in socket designs and the crucial considerations for effective stress measurement tools that lead to a functional prosthetic socket.

  2. Surface EMG and intra-socket force measurement to control a prosthetic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Joe; Patterson, Rita; Popa, Dan

    2015-06-01

    Surface electromyography (SEMG) has been shown to be a robust and reliable interaction method allowing for basic control of powered prosthetic devices. Research has shown a marked decrease in EMG-classification efficiency throughout activities of daily life due to socket shift and movement and fatigue as well as changes in degree of fit of the socket throughout the subject's lifetime. Users with the most severe levels of amputation require the most complex devices with the greatest number of degrees of freedom. Controlling complex dexterous devices with limited available inputs requires the addition of sensing and interaction modalities. However, the larger the amputation severity, the fewer viable SEMG sites are available as control inputs. Previous work reported the use of intra-socket pressure, as measured during wrist flexion and extension, and has shown that it is possible to control a powered prosthetic device with pressure sensors. In this paper, we present data correlations of SEMG data with intra-socket pressure data. Surface EMG sensors and force sensors were housed within a simulated prosthetic cuff fit to a healthy-limbed subject. EMG and intra-socket force data was collected from inside the cuff as a subject performed pre-defined grip motions with their dominant hand. Data fusion algorithms were explored and allowed a subject to use both intra-socket pressure and SEMG data as control inputs for a powered prosthetic device. This additional input modality allows for an improvement in input classification as well as information regarding socket fit through out activities of daily life.

  3. Three dimensional Burn-up program parallelization using socket programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haliyati R, Evi; Su'ud, Zaki

    2002-01-01

    A computer parallelization process was built with a purpose to decrease execution time of a physics program. In this case, a multi computer system was built to be used to analyze burn-up process of a nuclear reactor. This multi computer system was design need using a protocol communication among sockets, i.e. TCP/IP. This system consists of computer as a server and the rest as clients. The server has a main control to all its clients. The server also divides the reactor core geometrically to in parts in accordance with the number of clients, each computer including the server has a task to conduct burn-up analysis of 1/n part of the total reactor core measure. This burn-up analysis was conducted simultaneously and in a parallel way by all computers, so a faster program execution time was achieved close to 1/n times that of one computer. Then an analysis was carried out and states that in order to calculate the density of atoms in a reactor of 91 cm x 91 cm x 116 cm, the usage of a parallel system of 2 computers has the highest efficiency

  4. Ultrasonic defect detection method for socket welding joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tominaga, Masaaki; Matsuo, Toshiyuki; Ueno, Akihiro; Watanabe, Kunimichi; Kawamata, Kunio.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of detecting defects over a wide range of a socket weld portion of various kinds of pipelines used, for example, in a nuclear power plant. Namely, an inclined probe is disposed to a jig for detecting defects by ultrasonic waves. This is rotated at least by one turn along the peripheral surface of the material to be detected such as weld tube joints. Defects of weld portion of the material can be detected automatically by using ultrasonic waves during the rotation. The inclined probe for detecting defects by ultrasonic waves comprises a transmission portion having a planar transmittance oscillator disposed to a wedge on the transmission side and a receiving portion comprising a planar receiving oscillator disposed to a wedge on the receiving side. With such a constitution, ultrasonic waves are emitted from the transmission portion to the defect detection portion in the welded portion. If a defect is present, defective echo is reflected to the receiving portion disposed ahead of the probe. Since the defective echo changes depending on the height of the detective portion, the estimation of the height of the defect can be facilitated. (I.S.)

  5. Effect of irradiation on the healing of extraction sockets in diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Il Joong; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae

    2003-01-01

    To observe the histologic pattern of healing in molar tooth extraction sockets of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats following irradiation. Mature Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: control, diabetic, and diabetic-irradiated groups. Diabetes mellitus was induced by injecting streptozotocin. Control rats were injected with a citrate buffer only. After 5 days, the right maxillary first molar was extracted under general anesthesia from each of the rats. After the extraction, rats in the diabetic-irradiated group were irradiated with a single absorbed dose of 10 Gy to the head and neck region. The rats were killed at 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after treatment. Tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Masson's trichrome. In the diabetic and diabetic-irradiated groups, the early healing process of the socket extraction was similar to the control group, but bone formation was delayed at 7 days after the treatment. In the diabetic-irradiated group, alveolar bone surrounding the extraction socket showed sighs of necrosis at 3 days after treatment, and hemorrhage was observed in connective tissue within the extraction socket at 14 days after treatment. The experiment revealed that the healing process of the extraction socket was severely delayed and retarded by irradiation in the diabetic state.

  6. Bone implant sockets made using three different procedures: a stability study in dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Julián

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study compared the effects of three different methods of preparing bone implant sockets (drilling, osteotomes, and piezoelectric device) on osseointegration using resonance frequency analysis (RFA). Study Design: An experimental prospective study was designed. Material and Methods: Ten adult beagle dogs were studied. After 5 weeks, 23 out of 28 initially placed implants in the iliac crest were evaluated, comparing these three different procedures of bone implant socket. Student’s t-test (paired, two-tailed) was used to reveal differences among the three groups at each time point (SPSS 16.0, IL, USA). Results: After a 5-week healing period, the implants placed in sockets that were made using an osteotome or piezoelectric device were slightly more stable than those made by drilling. Reduced mechanical and heat injury to the bone is beneficial for maintaining and improving stability during the critical early healing period. Conclusion: Using RFA, there was evidence of a slight increase in implant stability in the iliac crest after 5 weeks of healing when the implant socket was made using a piezoelectric device or expansion procedure as compare with the drilling method. Key words:Bone implant sockets, drilling, osteotomes, piezoelectric, resonance frequency analysis, stability. PMID:24558558

  7. Subclassification and Clinical Management of Extraction Sockets with Labial Dentoalveolar Dehiscence Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Stephen J; Sarnachiaro, Guido O; Hochman, Mark N; Tarnow, Dennis P

    2015-01-01

    Immediate implant therapy involving implants placed into intact Type 1 extraction sockets has become a consistent clinical technique. The classification of Type 2 extraction sockets, where the mucosal tissues are present but there is a midfacial osseous dehiscence defect, has been described according to the extent of the buccal bone plate absence. The literature has offered different techniques in the treatment of Type 2 sockets; however, the extent of the defect has never been defined or delineated. In this article, the authors describe a subclassification of Type 2 sockets: Type 2A presents with a dehiscence defect roughly 5 mm to 6 mm from the free gingival margin (FGM) involving the coronal one-third of the labial bone plate; Type 2B presents with a dehiscence defect involving the middle one-third of the labial plate, approximately 7 mm to 9 mm from the FGM; and in Type 2C the dehiscence defect involves the apical one-third of the labial osseous plate roughly 10 mm or greater from the FGM. The authors also offer a protocol and technique employing immediate implant placement, guided bone regeneration, and bone graft containment with a custom two-piece healing abutment that can lead to consistent and satisfactory clinical outcomes in low-smile-line patients. The treatment protocol and sequence is outlined in a clinical case presentation involving a Type 2B socket.

  8. Carbon nanotubes functionalized with sodium hyaluronate restore bone repair in diabetic rat sockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, M A; Andrade, V B; Mendes, R M; Caliari, M V; Ladeira, L O; Silva, E E; Silva, G A B; Corrêa-Júnior, J D; Ferreira, A J

    2013-07-01

    We evaluated the effects of sodium hyaluronate (HY) and carbon nanotubes functionalized with HY (HY-CNT) on bone repair in the tooth sockets of diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (50 mg kg(-1) i.v.), and the sockets were divided into normal control, diabetic control, diabetic treated with HY (1%), and diabetic treated with HY-CNT (100 μg ml(-1)) groups. The sockets were analyzed according to the percentage of bone formation and the number of cell nuclei. The percentage of bone trabeculae was lower in diabetic control animals (11.16 ± 5.10% vs 41.92 ± 6.34% in normal animals) after 14 days. Treating diabetic animals with HY or HY-CNT significantly increased the percentage of neoformed trabeculae (HY: 29.43 ± 3.29%; HY-CNT: 36.90 ± 3.07%). Moreover, the sockets of diabetic animals had an increased number of cell nuclei and HY or HY-CNT reduced this parameter. Our results indicate that HY and HY-CNT restore bone repair in the tooth sockets of diabetic rats, suggesting that these biomaterials are potential adjuvant therapies for the management of diabetes. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Effect of irradiation on the healing of extraction sockets in diabetic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Il Joong; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae [Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-03-15

    To observe the histologic pattern of healing in molar tooth extraction sockets of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats following irradiation. Mature Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: control, diabetic, and diabetic-irradiated groups. Diabetes mellitus was induced by injecting streptozotocin. Control rats were injected with a citrate buffer only. After 5 days, the right maxillary first molar was extracted under general anesthesia from each of the rats. After the extraction, rats in the diabetic-irradiated group were irradiated with a single absorbed dose of 10 Gy to the head and neck region. The rats were killed at 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after treatment. Tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Masson's trichrome. In the diabetic and diabetic-irradiated groups, the early healing process of the socket extraction was similar to the control group, but bone formation was delayed at 7 days after the treatment. In the diabetic-irradiated group, alveolar bone surrounding the extraction socket showed sighs of necrosis at 3 days after treatment, and hemorrhage was observed in connective tissue within the extraction socket at 14 days after treatment. The experiment revealed that the healing process of the extraction socket was severely delayed and retarded by irradiation in the diabetic state.

  10. CR TKA UHMWPE Wear Tested after Artificial Aging of the Vitamin E Treated Gliding Component by Simulating Daily Patient Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Schwiesau

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The wear behaviour of total knee arthroplasty (TKA is dominated by two wear mechanisms: the abrasive wear and the delamination of the gliding components, where the second is strongly linked to aging processes and stress concentration in the material. The addition of vitamin E to the bulk material is a potential way to reduce the aging processes. This study evaluates the wear behaviour and delamination susceptibility of the gliding components of a vitamin E blended, ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE cruciate retaining (CR total knee arthroplasty. Daily activities such as level walking, ascending and descending stairs, bending of the knee, and sitting and rising from a chair were simulated with a data set received from an instrumented knee prosthesis. After 5 million test cycles no structural failure of the gliding components was observed. The wear rate was with 5.62±0.53 mg/million cycles falling within the limit of previous reports for established wear test methods.

  11. CR TKA UHMWPE wear tested after artificial aging of the vitamin E treated gliding component by simulating daily patient activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwiesau, Jens; Fritz, Bernhard; Kutzner, Ines; Bergmann, Georg; Grupp, Thomas M

    2014-01-01

    The wear behaviour of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is dominated by two wear mechanisms: the abrasive wear and the delamination of the gliding components, where the second is strongly linked to aging processes and stress concentration in the material. The addition of vitamin E to the bulk material is a potential way to reduce the aging processes. This study evaluates the wear behaviour and delamination susceptibility of the gliding components of a vitamin E blended, ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) cruciate retaining (CR) total knee arthroplasty. Daily activities such as level walking, ascending and descending stairs, bending of the knee, and sitting and rising from a chair were simulated with a data set received from an instrumented knee prosthesis. After 5 million test cycles no structural failure of the gliding components was observed. The wear rate was with 5.62 ± 0.53 mg/million cycles falling within the limit of previous reports for established wear test methods.

  12. Hydrogel fibers for ACL prosthesis: design and mechanical evaluation of PVA and PVA/UHMWPE fiber constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Jason S; Detrez, Fabrice; Cherkaoui, Mohammed; Cantournet, Sabine; Ku, David N; Corté, Laurent

    2013-05-31

    Prosthetic devices for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction have been unsuccessful due to mechanical failure or chronic inflammation. Polymer hydrogels combine biocompatibility and unique low friction properties; however, their prior use for ligament reconstruction has been restricted to coatings due to insufficient tensile mechanics. Here, we investigate new constructs of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel fibers. In water, these fibers swell to an equilibrium water content of 50% by weight, retaining a tensile modulus greater than 40 MPa along the fiber axis at low strain. Rope constructs were assembled for ACL replacement and mechanical properties were compared with data from the literature. Pure PVA hydrogel constructs closely reproduce the non-linear tensile stiffness of the native ACL with an ultimate strength of about 2000 N. An additional safety factor in tensile strength was achieved with composite braids by adding ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibers around a core of PVA cords. Composition and braiding angle are adjusted to produce a non-linear tensile behavior within the range of the native ligament that can be predicted by a simple rope model. This design was found to sustain over one million cycles between 50 and 450 N with limited damage and less than 20% creep. The promising mechanical performances of these systems provide justification for more extensive in vivo evaluation. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Endothelial cell seeding on crosslinked collagen : Effects of crosslinking on endothelial cell proliferation and functional parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wissink, MJB; van Luyn, MJA; Dijk, F; Poot, AA; Engbers, GHM; Beugeling, T; van Aken, WG; Feijen, J

    Endothelial cell seeding, a promising method to improve the performance of small-diameter vascular grafts, requires a suitable substrate, such as crosslinked collagen. Commonly used crosslinking agents such as glutaraldehyde and formaldehyde cause, however, cytotoxic reactions and thereby hamper

  14. Dimensional Changes of Fresh Sockets With Reactive Soft Tissue Preservation: A Cone Beam CT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, Roberto; Capparé, Paolo; Crespi, Giovanni; Gastaldi, Giorgio; Gherlone, Enrico Felice

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess dimensional changes of the fresh sockets grafted with collagen sheets and maintenance of reactive soft tissue, using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Tooth extractions were performed with maximum preservation of the alveolar housing, reactive soft tissue was left into the sockets and collagen sheets filled bone defects. Cone beam computed tomography were performed before and 3 months after extractions. One hundred forty-five teeth, 60 monoradiculars and 85 molars, were extracted. In total, 269 alveoli were evaluated. In Group A, not statistically significant differences were found between monoradiculars, whereas statistically significant differences (P 0.05) for all types of teeth. This study reported an atraumatic tooth extraction, reactive soft tissue left in situ, and grafted collagen sponge may be helpful to reduce fresh socket collapse after extraction procedures.

  15. Disadvantages and advantages of transtibial technique for creating the anterior cruciate ligament femoral socket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, Brett N; Lubowitz, James H

    2014-10-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) femoral socket techniques have distinct advantages and disadvantages when considering the following techniques: transtibial, anteromedial portal, outside-in, and outside-in retroconstruction. There is no one perfect technique and we have an incomplete understanding of anatomical, biomechanical, isometry, stability, and clinical outcomes. Our primary focus is transtibial technique for creating the ACL femoral socket. Advantages include less invasive, isometric graft placement, stable Lachman exam, and minimal graft impingement with the tunnel and notch. Disadvantages include nonanatomic vertical graft placement that can cause rotational instability and positive pivot shift, interference screw divergence, graft-tunnel length mismatch, femoral socket constraint, posterior cruciate ligament impingement, and a short, oblique tibial tunnel that may undermine the medial plateau in an attempt to achieve anatomic ACL reconstruction. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  16. Radiation induced estane polymer crosslinking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, M.; Foster, P.

    1997-01-01

    The exposure of polymeric materials to radiation has been known to induce the effects of crosslinking and degradation. The crosslinking phenomena comes about when two long chain polymers become linked together by a primary bond that extends the chain and increases the viscosity, molecular weight and the elastic modules of the polymer. This process has been observed in relatively short periods of time with fairly high doses of radiation, on the order of several megarads/hour. This paper address low dose exposure over long periods of time to determine what the radiation effects are on the polymeric binder material in PBX 9501. An experimental sample of binder material without explosives will be placed into a thermal and radiation field produced from a W-48 put mod 0. Another sample will be placed in a thermal environment without the radiation. The following is the test plan that was submitted to the Pantex process. The data presented here will be from the first few weeks of exposure and this test will be continued over the next few years. Subsequent data will hopefully be presented in the next compatibility and aging conference

  17. A novel image processing technique for 3D volumetric analysis of severely resorbed alveolar sockets with CBCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manavella, Valeria; Romano, Federica; Garrone, Federica; Terzini, Mara; Bignardi, Cristina; Aimetti, Mario

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to present and validate a novel procedure for the quantitative volumetric assessment of extraction sockets that combines cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and image processing techniques. The CBCT dataset of 9 severely resorbed extraction sockets was analyzed by means of two image processing software, Image J and Mimics, using manual and automated segmentation techniques. They were also applied on 5-mm spherical aluminum markers of known volume and on a polyvinyl chloride model of one alveolar socket scanned with Micro-CT to test the accuracy. Statistical differences in alveolar socket volume were found between the different methods of volumetric analysis (Psockets showed more accurate results, excellent inter-observer similarity and increased user friendliness. The clinical application of this method enables a three-dimensional evaluation of extraction socket healing after the reconstructive procedures and during the follow-up visits.

  18. Sequential healing of open extraction sockets. An experimental study in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scala, Alessandro; Lang, Niklaus P; Schweikert, Michael T; de Oliveira, José Américo; Rangel-Garcia, Idelmo; Botticelli, Daniele

    2014-03-01

    To describe the sequential healing of open extraction sockets at which no attempts to obtain a primary closure of the coronal access to the alveolus have been made. The third mandibular premolar was extracted bilaterally in 12 monkeys, and no sutures were applied to close the wound. The healing after 4, 10, 20, 30, 90 and 180 days was morphometrically studied. After 4 days of healing, a blood clot mainly occupied the extraction sockets, with the presence of an inflammatory cells' infiltrate. A void was confined in the central zones of the coronal and middle regions, in continuity with the entrance of the alveoli. At 10 days, the alveolus was occupied by a provisional matrix, with new bone formation lining the socket bony walls. At 20 days, the amount of woven bone was sensibly increasing. At 30 days, the alveolar socket was mainly occupied by mineralized immature bone at different stages of healing. At 90 and 180 days, the amount of mineralized bone decreased and substituted by trabecular bone and bone marrow. Bundle bone decreased from 95.5% at 4 days to 7.6% at 180 days, of the whole length of the inner alveolar surface. Modeling processes start from the lateral and apical walls of the alveolus, leading to the closure of the socket with newly formed bone within a month from extraction. Remodeling processes will follow the previous stages, resulting in trabecular and bone marrow formation and in a corticalization of the socket access. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Development of Inspection Technique for Socket Weld of Small Bore Piping in Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Byungsik; Kim, Yongsik; Lee, Jeongseok

    2013-01-01

    The losses incurred by unplanned shutdowns are significant; consequently, early crack initiation and crack detection, including the detection of fillet weld manufacturing defects, is of the utmost importance. Current inspection techniques are not capable of reliably inspecting socket welds; therefore, new approaches are needed. The new technique must be sensitive to socket weld cracking, which usually initiates from the root, in order to detect the cracking during the early failure phase. In 2008, Kori unit 3 experienced leakage from the drain line socket weld of a steam generator. From this experience, KHNP enforced a management program to focus on enhancing the reliability of small bore socket weld piping inspections. Currently, conventional manual ultrasonic inspection techniques are used to detect service induced fatigue cracks. But there was uncertainty on manual ultrasonic inspection because of limited access to the welds and difficulties with contact between the ultrasonic probe and the OD surface of small bore piping. In this study, phased array ultrasonic inspection techniques are applied to increase inspection speed and reliability. Additionally a manually encoded scanner has been developed to enhance contact conditions and maintain constant signal quality. A phased array UT technique and system was developed to inspect small bore socket welds. The experimental results show all artificial flaws in the specimen were detected and measured. These experimental results show, that the newly developed inspection system, has improved the reliability and speed of small bore socket weld inspection. Based on these results, future works shall focus on additional experiments, with more realistic flaw responses. By applying this technique to the field, we expect that it can improve the integrity of small bore piping in nuclear power plants

  20. Scintigraphic evaluation of osteoblastic activity in extraction sockets treated with platelet-rich fibrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürbüzer, Bahadir; Pikdöken, Levent; Tunali, Mustafa; Urhan, Muammer; Küçükodaci, Zafer; Ercan, Feriha

    2010-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) on the early bone healing process with bone scintigraphy based on technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate uptake in third molar extraction sockets. Fourteen patients with bilaterally soft tissue impacted third mandibular molars were included in the study. The right and left impacted third molars were surgically extracted in the same session. PRF was randomly administered into one of the extraction sockets, whereas the contralateral sockets were left without treatment. Four weeks after surgery, scintigrams were obtained to evaluate scintigraphic differences between PRF-treated and non-PRF-treated sockets. After completion of the clinical study, PRF samples were evaluated by light and scanning electron microscopy. The average increase in technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate uptake as an indication of enhanced bone healing did not differ significantly between PRF-treated and non-PRF-treated sockets 4 weeks postoperatively (P > .05). Abundant fibrin and inflammatory cells were observed by light microscopic examination of PRF samples. Scanning electron microscopic analysis of PRF revealed the existence of platelet aggregates in a fibrin network and crystalline particles on the outer surface of PRF. PRF might not lead to enhanced bone healing in soft tissue impacted mandibular third molar extraction sockets 4 weeks after surgery. PRF exhibits the potential characteristics of an autologous fibrin matrix. However, whether the presence of crystal-like particles on the outer surface of PRF alters bone healing should be investigated further. Copyright 2010 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of different synthetic bone fillers on healing of extraction sockets: an experimental study in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ji-Youn; Lee, Jung-Seok; Pang, Eun-Kyoung; Jung, Ui-Won; Choi, Seong-Ho; Kim, Chong-Kwan

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to elucidate the socket healing process and biodegradation of incorporating synthetic bone fillers followed by grafting of the fresh extraction socket. Third premolars in four quadrants of eight beagle dogs were extracted and randomly treated with either one of hydroxyapatite (HA), biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP), β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), or no graft (C). Histologic observations and histomorphometric analysis at three zones (apical, middle, and coronal) of the socket were performed. Socket area (S) and the proportions of newly formed bone (%NB), residual biomaterials (%RB), and fibrovascular connective tissue (%FCT) at 2, 4, and 8 weeks were measured. The numbers of osteoclast-like multinucleated cells (No.OC) were also determined at the three zones. %NB was significantly higher in control group compared with the grafted groups at all healing periods. %NB of HA and BCP increased with time, whereas %RB showed different patterns that decreased in BCP, unlike the minimal change observed in HA. %NB of β-TCP showed smallest portion compared with other grafted groups at 2 and 4 weeks, however, significantly increased at 8 weeks. %RB of β-TCP was less than HA and BCP at all healing periods. Numbers of multinucleated cells were greater in BCP and β-TCP, followed by HA and smallest in control group. Within the limit of this study, bone formation of the extraction socket was delayed in the sockets grafted with synthetic bone fillers and showed different healing process according to the biodegradation patterns. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. [Implant placement in the aesthetic zone: the socket-shield-technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagas, L J; Pepplinkhuizen, J J F A A; Bergé, S J; Meijer, G J

    2015-01-01

    Following the extraction of an incisor in the maxilla, resorption of the -alveolar bone always occurs, especially on the buccal side. This often indicates that in the buccocervical area, insufficient bone is present to cover the dental implant. One treatment option is to carry out a bone transplant on the buccal side prior to or during the placement of the implant. An alternative way of supporting the buccocervical gingival is to leave the buccal part of the radixin situ, the so-called socket-shield technique. The results of this treatment for 16 consecutive patients were evaluated and revealed that the socket-shield technique produces good treatment results.

  3. Implementing the WebSocket Protocol Based on Formal Modelling and Automated Code Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kent Inge; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    2014-01-01

    with pragmatic annotations for automated code generation of protocol software. The contribution of this paper is an application of the approach as implemented in the PetriCode tool to obtain protocol software implementing the IETF WebSocket protocol. This demonstrates the scalability of our approach to real...... protocols. Furthermore, we perform formal verification of the CPN model prior to code generation, and test the implementation for interoperability against the Autobahn WebSocket test-suite resulting in 97% and 99% success rate for the client and server implementation, respectively. The tests show...

  4. Developing RESTful services with JAX-RS 2.0, WebSockets, and JSON

    CERN Document Server

    Kalali, Masoud

    2013-01-01

    Written as an easy and practical guide, this book is a crash course on using JAX-RS 2.0, JSON, and WebSockets to develop RESTful services.Getting Started with Developing RESTful Web Services using JAX-RS 2.0, JSON, and WebSockets is a perfect reading source for application developers who are familiar with Java EE and are keen to understand the new HTML5-related functionality introduced in Java EE 7 to improve productivity. To take full advantage of this book, you need to be familiar with Java EE and have some basic understanding of using the GlassFish application server.

  5. Chemical cross-linking of Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkelund, Svend; Lundemose, AG; Christiansen, Gunna

    1988-01-01

    Purified elementary bodies (EBs) of Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 were analyzed by chemical cross-linking with disuccinimidyl selenodipropionate. The effect of the cross-linking was analyzed by immunoblotting sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis-separated components which...

  6. Poly(tetramethyleneterephthalate) crosslinked by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyberg, D.D.

    1978-01-01

    Crosslinking, e.g., by irradiation, of a polymer comprising poly(tetramethyleneterephthalate) is made possible by the addition of a member selected from the group consisting of triallyl cyanurate and N,N'-m-phenylenedimaleimide. The resulting crosslinked modified polymer may be rendered heat recoverable

  7. Cross-linking of polymeric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, L.I.; Du Plessis, T.A.; Meij, G.O.

    1991-01-01

    The invention provides a method of producing a cured polymeric artifact from a polymeric thermoplastic starting material, the material of the artifact having reduced thermoplasticity relative to the starting material and exhibiting an enhanced degree of cross-linking relative to the starting material. The method includes subjecting a polymeric thermoplastic starting material, which is capable of being cross-linked by irradiation, to sufficient irradiation partially to cross-linked the starting material to produce a thermoplastic partially cross-linked intermediate material. The thermoplasticity of the intermediate material is then reduced by heating it to raise its melting point. The invention also provides a method of making a partially cross-linked feedstocks and a master batch for use in making such artifacts

  8. The radiation crosslinking of ethylene copolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, N.M.

    1979-01-01

    The enhanced radiation crosslinking tendency of ethylene-vinyl acetate and ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers over ethylene homopolymer is proportional to the comonomer content. This is caused by an increase in the amorphous polymer content and by structure-related factors. The copolymers crosslink by a random process that for ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer involves some crosslinking through the acetoxy group of the comonomer. While knowledge of the process for the crosslinking of ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymer is less certain, it is currently believed to occur primarily at the branch point on the polymer backbone. Data relating comonomer content and the molecular weight of the copolymers to the radiation crosslinking levels realized were developed to aid in resin selection by the formulator. Triallyl cyanurate cure accelerator was found to be less effective in ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer than in homopolymer and to have no effect on gel development in ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymer. (author)

  9. The role of crosslinkers in epoxy-amine crosslinked silicon sol-gel barrier protection coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vreugdenhil, A.J.; Gelling, V.J.; Woods, M.E.; Schmelz, J.R.; Enderson, B.P.

    2008-01-01

    The search for chromate replacements in corrosion prevention materials has identified the use of hybrid sol-gel coatings as one, very promising approach. Appropriately functionalized hybrid sol-gel materials can be crosslinked to enhance their chemical durability and mechanical strength. In this work, we evaluate three crosslinkers used in a tetramethoxysilane-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane binary sol-gel system in order to identify the role of the crosslinkers in corrosion protection. The crosslinkers examined were ethylenediamine, N-aminethylepiperazine, and diethylenetriamine. The sol-gel coatings were examined by contact angle, atomic force microscopy, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Circuit modeling of the EIS results yielded valuable insights into the significant differences between the durabilities of the variously crosslinked coatings. Crosslinker hydrophobicity was identified as not playing a significant role whereas the number of reactive sites per crosslinker and the resulting morphology of the material may be an important parameter

  10. Compact Fluorescent Plug-In Ballast-in-a-Socket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebecca Voelker

    2001-12-21

    The primary goal of this program was to develop a ballast system for plug-in CFLs (compact fluorescent lamps) that will directly replace standard metal shell, medium base incandescent lampholders (such as Levition No. 6098) for use with portable lamp fixtures, such as floor, table and desk lamps. A secondary goal was to identify a plug-in CFL that is optimized for use with this ballast. This Plug-in CFL Ballastin-a-Socket system will allow fixture manufacturers to easily manufacture CFL-based high-efficacy portable fixtures that provide residential and commercial consumers with attractive, cost-effective, and energy-efficient fixtures for use wherever portable incandescent fixtures are used today. The advantages of this proposed system over existing CFL solutions are that the fixtures can only be used with high-efficacy CFLs, and they will be more attractive and will have lower life-cycle costs than screw-in or adapter-based CFL retrofit solutions. These features should greatly increase the penetration of CFL's into the North American market. Our work has shown that using integrated circuits it is quite feasible to produce a lamp-fixture ballast of a size comparable to the current Edison-screw 3-way incandescent fixtures. As for price points for BIAS-based fixtures, end-users polled by the Lighting Research Institute at RPI indicated that they would pay as much as an additional $10 for a lamp containing such a ballast. The ballast has been optimized to run with a 26 W amalgam triple biax lamp in the base-down position, yet can accept non-amalgam versions of the lamp. With a few part alterations, the ballast can be produced to support 32 W lamps as well. The ballast uses GE's existing L-Comp[1] power topology in the circuit so that the integrated circuit design would be a design that could possibly be used by other CFL and EFL products with minor modifications. This gives added value by reducing cost and size of not only the BIAS, but also possibly other

  11. Demineralised human dentine matrix stimulates the expression of VEGF and accelerates the bone repair in tooth sockets of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis-Filho, Cláudio R; Silva, Elisângela R; Martins, Adalberto B; Pessoa, Fernanda F; Gomes, Paula V N; de Araújo, Mariana S C; Miziara, Melissa N; Alves, José B

    2012-05-01

    In this study we investigated the possible use of human demineralised dentine matrix (DHDM), obtained from the extracted teeth, as bone graft material and evaluated the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) induced by this material in the healing process of tooth sockets of rats. To evaluate bone regeneration and expression of VEGF induced by DHDM, thirty-two male Wistar rats weighing approximately 200 g were used. After maxillary second molar extraction, the left sockets were filled with DHDM and the right sockets were naturally filled by blood clot (control). The animals were sacrificed at 3, 7, 14 and 21 days after surgery and upper maxillaries were processed for histological, morphometric and immunohistochemical analyses. DHDM was used to evaluate the mechanical effect of bone graft material into sockets. Expression of VEGF was determined by immunohistochemistry in all groups. Our results demonstrated a significant increase in the newly formed bone tissue in sockets of 7, 14 and 21 days and a significant increase in VEGF expression at days 7 and 14 on treated sockets. Our results showed that DHDM increases the expression of VEGF and accelerates the healing process in rats tooth sockets, by stimulating bone deposition and also vessels formation. These results suggest that DHDM has osteoinductive/osteoconductive potential and may represent an efficient grafting material on guided bone regeneration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. An anthropomorphic transhumeral prosthesis socket developed based on an oscillometric pump and controlled by force-sensitive resistor pressure signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, N A Abd; Gholizadeh, H; Hasnan, N; Osman, N A Abu; Fadzil, S S Mohd; Hashim, N A

    2017-02-01

    While considering the importance of the interface between amputees and prosthesis sockets, we study an anthropomorphic prosthesis socket whose size can be dynamically changed according to the requirements of the residual limb. First, we introduce the structure and function of the anthropomorphic prosthesis socket. Second, we study the dynamic model of the prosthesis system and analyze the dynamic characteristics of the prosthesis socket system, the inputs of an oscillometric pump, and the control mechanism of force-sensitive resistor (FSR) pressure signals. Experiments on 10 healthy subjects using the designed system yield an average detection result between 102 and 112 kPa for the FSR pressure sensor and 39 and 41 kPa for the oscillometric pump. Results show the function of the FSR pressure signal in maintaining the contact pressure between the sockets and the residual limb. The potential development of an auto-adjusted socket that uses an oscillometric pump system will provide prosthetic sockets with controllable contact pressure at the residual limb. Moreover, this development is an attractive research area for researchers involved in rehabilitation engineering, prosthetics, and orthotics.

  13. Treatment of an Erratic Extraction Socket for Implant Therapy in a Patient with Chronic Periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Srividya

    2016-01-01

    As implant therapy becomes more commonplace in daily practice, preservation and preparation of edentulous sites are key. Many times, however, implant therapy may not be considered at the time of tooth extraction and additional measures are not taken to conserve the edentulous site. While the healing process in extraction sockets has been well investigated and bone fill can be expected, there are cases where even when clinicians perform thorough debridement of the sockets, connective tissue infiltration into the socket can occur. This phenomenon, known as “erratic healing,” may be associated with factors that lead to peri-implant disease and should be appropriately managed and treated prior to surgical implant placement. This case report describes the successful management of an erratic healing extraction socket in a 62-year-old Caucasian male patient with chronic periodontitis and the outcomes of an evidence-based treatment protocol performed prior to implant therapy. Careful preoperative analysis and cone beam computed tomography imaging can help detect signs of impaired healing in future implant sites and prevent surgical complications. PMID:27807485

  14. Favorable effects of lacrimal plugs in patients with an anophthalmic socket

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vardizer, Y.; Lang, Y.; Mourits, M. P.; Briscoe, M. D.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of punctal plugs in the treatment of dry eyes is well established. Anophthalmic patients have less tears in the anophthalmic socket in comparison to their normal side, due to an absent corneal reflex (Lee & Elsie, 1981a,b). Many of those patients complain of dry eye symptoms,

  15. Treatment of an Erratic Extraction Socket for Implant Therapy in a Patient with Chronic Periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Hamada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As implant therapy becomes more commonplace in daily practice, preservation and preparation of edentulous sites are key. Many times, however, implant therapy may not be considered at the time of tooth extraction and additional measures are not taken to conserve the edentulous site. While the healing process in extraction sockets has been well investigated and bone fill can be expected, there are cases where even when clinicians perform thorough debridement of the sockets, connective tissue infiltration into the socket can occur. This phenomenon, known as “erratic healing,” may be associated with factors that lead to peri-implant disease and should be appropriately managed and treated prior to surgical implant placement. This case report describes the successful management of an erratic healing extraction socket in a 62-year-old Caucasian male patient with chronic periodontitis and the outcomes of an evidence-based treatment protocol performed prior to implant therapy. Careful preoperative analysis and cone beam computed tomography imaging can help detect signs of impaired healing in future implant sites and prevent surgical complications.

  16. Development of a socketed foundation for cable barrier posts : phase I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Four socketed foundation designs were evaluated for use as a new reusable base for high-tension, cable barrier : systems. Each foundation was a reinforced concrete cylindrical shape. The top of the foundation had an open steel tube to : accept the po...

  17. The efficacy of hyaluronic acid in postextraction sockets of impacted third molars: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, N; Demirtas, N; Kazancioglu, H O; Bayer, S; Acar, A H; Mihmanli, A

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of local hyaluronic acid (HA) administration to surgically remove impacted third molar sockets and measure pain, swelling, and trismus. The study included a total of 25 healthy patients aged 18-29 years with asymptomatic bilaterally impacted lower third molars. All cases have been performed under local anesthesia. In the study group, 0.8% HA (Gengigel®) was applied in the postextraction sockets of the right third molars and in the control group nothing was applied to the extraction sockets of the left third molars. Postoperative pain, trismus, and swelling were evaluated on the 1st, 3rd, and 7th postoperative days. No difference was determined between groups in facial swelling and maximum mouth opening. However, the amount of pain significantly reduced in HA groups according to visual analog scale (P = 0.001). The results of this study showed that HA can produce an analgesic action in postextraction sockets after surgical removal of impacted teeth and therefore it has a clinical benefit to reduce usage of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs after dentoalveolar surgery.

  18. Editorial Commentary: The All-Epiphyseal Anterior Cruciate Ligament Distal Femoral Approach: Sockets or Tunnels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordasco, Frank A

    2018-05-01

    I believe that the distal femoral approach for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in the skeletally immature athlete with 3 to 6 years of remaining growth is best performed with an all-inside, all-epiphyseal technique using sockets rather than an outside-in approach creating tunnels. A shorter socket rather than a longer tunnel exposes a smaller surface area of the lateral distal femoral physis to potential compromise and resultant valgus malalignment. In addition, exiting the lateral femoral aspect of the epiphysis with a full-diameter tunnel as compared with a smaller diameter drill hole used to prepare a socket places the posterior articular cartilage, the lateral collateral ligament and anterolateral ligament footprints, and the popliteus tendon insertion at risk. My preference for sockets is also related to my belief that they provide a superior biologic milieu for graft incorporation compared with a full-length tunnel with the attendant violation of the lateral femoral cortex of the epiphysis. Copyright © 2018 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Post-extraction application of beta-tricalcium phosphate in alveolar socket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Muñoz-Corcuera

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim The objective of this study was to assess the capacity of beta-tricalcium phosphate to facilitate bone formation in the socket and prevent post-extraction alveolar resorption. Materials and methods After premolar extraction in 16 patients, the sockets were filled with beta-tricalcium phosphate. Six months later, during the implant placement surgery, a trephine was used to harvest the bone samples which were processed for histological and histomorphometrical analyses. Data were gathered on patient, clinical, histological and histomorphometric variables at the extraction and implant placement sessions, using data collection forms and pathological reports. Results Clinical outcomes were satisfactory, the biomaterial was radio-opaque on X-ray. Histological study showed: partial filling with alveolar bone of appropriate maturation and mineralization for the healing time, osteoblastic activity and bone lacunae containing osteocytes. The biomaterial was not completely resorbed at six months. Conclusion Beta-tricalcium phosphate is a material capable of achieving preservation of the alveolar bone when it is positioned in the immediate post-extraction socket followed by suture; it also helps the formation of new bone in the socket. Further studies are needed comparing this technique with other available biomaterials, with growth factors and with sites where no alveolar preservation techniques are performed.

  20. Circuit reliability boosted by soldering pins of disconnect plugs to sockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, W. B.

    1964-01-01

    Where disconnect pins must be used for wiring and testing a circuit, improved system reliability is obtained by making a permanent joint between pins and sockets of the disconnect plug. After the circuit has been tested, contact points may be fused through soldering, brazing, or welding.

  1. Lateral capacity of rock sockets in limestone under cyclic and repeated loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    This report contains the results from full scale lateral load testing of two short rock socketed shafts in : limestone, and the development of recommendations for p-y analysis using those results. Two short shafts 42 : inches in diameter were constru...

  2. Treatment of an Erratic Extraction Socket for Implant Therapy in a Patient with Chronic Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Yusuke; Prabhu, Srividya; John, Vanchit

    2016-01-01

    As implant therapy becomes more commonplace in daily practice, preservation and preparation of edentulous sites are key. Many times, however, implant therapy may not be considered at the time of tooth extraction and additional measures are not taken to conserve the edentulous site. While the healing process in extraction sockets has been well investigated and bone fill can be expected, there are cases where even when clinicians perform thorough debridement of the sockets, connective tissue infiltration into the socket can occur. This phenomenon, known as "erratic healing," may be associated with factors that lead to peri-implant disease and should be appropriately managed and treated prior to surgical implant placement. This case report describes the successful management of an erratic healing extraction socket in a 62-year-old Caucasian male patient with chronic periodontitis and the outcomes of an evidence-based treatment protocol performed prior to implant therapy. Careful preoperative analysis and cone beam computed tomography imaging can help detect signs of impaired healing in future implant sites and prevent surgical complications.

  3. Soft Tissue Closure of Grafted Extraction Sockets in the Anterior Maxilla: A Modified Palatal Pedicle Connective Tissue Flap Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Chaar, Edgard; Oshman, Sarah; Cicero, Giuseppe; Castano, Alejandro; Dinoi, Cinzia; Soltani, Leila; Lee, Yoonjung Nicole

    Localized ridge resorption, the consequence of socket collapse, following tooth extraction in the anterior maxilla can adversely affect esthetics, function, and future implant placement. Immediate grafting of extraction sockets may help preserve natural ridge contours, but a lack of available soft tissue can compromise the final esthetic outcome. The presented modified rotated palatal pedicle connective tissue flap is a useful technique for simultaneous soft tissue coverage and augmentation of grafted sockets to improve esthetic outcome. This article delineates its advantages through the presentation of a four-case series using this new technique.

  4. A new method to solve anophthalmic contracted socket in embedding orbital implant in 114 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Cheng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To perform a new method for orbital implant and contracted socket through one time and its results.METHODS: Totally 114 patients 114 eyes, from January 2008 to June 2014, with contracted socket participated in this study. We incised the bulbar conjunctiva horizontally and excised scar tissue, then implanted the hydroxyapatite in the four extraocular muscles and tightly sutured the Tenon' capsule. After that, we put the superior and inferior conjunctival petals backwards and sutured them to the Tenon's capsule. All the patients were divided into four groups according to the vertical diameter length of the conjunctival defect area: Group Ⅰ: ≤5mm; Group Ⅱ: 6-10mm; Group Ⅲ: 11-15mm; and Group Ⅳ: ≥16mm. These patients were followed up for 6mo to 3y to observe the conjunctival sac shaping and growth of conjunctiva.RESULTS: There were 64 cases in Group Ⅰ, 31 cases in Group Ⅱ, 16 cases in Group Ⅲ and 3 cases in Group Ⅳ. All patients' conjunctival defect was covered by new conjunctiva and scar tissue 4 to 6wk after surgeries. Ten cases had contracted socket; 2 cases had orbital implant exposure, requiring reoperation. Of the 114 cases, 8 had contracted socket and could use a smaller conformer, 106 could use a normal size conformer.CONCLUSION: When the conjunctival defect was ≤15mm, this new method can address the orbital implant and contracted socket at the same time. While it was ≥16mm, flap transplantation is necessary.

  5. Survival of Implants in Immediate Extraction Sockets of Anterior Teeth: Early Clinical Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabir, Mohammad; Alam, Mohammad Nazish

    2015-06-01

    The aims and objectives of this study were placement of implants in freshly extracted sockets of anterior teeth and to evaluate the implant stability, peri-implant radiolucency and gingival inflammation around implant over a short period of 30 months. A total of 12 patients (8 male and 4 female), ranging in the age from 20 to 50 years, from March 2007 to June 2007, were evaluated for immediate implant placement into 22 fresh extraction sockets. Only maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth/roots (central incisors, lateral incisors and canines) were considered for replacement with implants. One piece implant with integrated abutment and integrated surface, non-submerged, threaded and tapered at apical 5 mm, sand-blasted and acid etched surfaced implants (HI-TEC TRX-OP Implants of Life Care Company) were used. The mobility was not present in any of the implants at all the follow up visits. There were 2 implants at 6 month, 1 implant at 12 month, 1 implant at 18 month visits, showing peri-implant radiolucency at some sites at bone to implant contact site. Severe gingival inflammation was not observed in any of the implant site. At every follow-up visit, every implant met the criteria of success and none was found to be failed over a 30 months duration i.e. 100% success rate was achieved by implants in immediate extraction socket. The success rate of implant survival in this study was found 100%. These implants have fulfilled all the criteria of implant success and based on the defined criteria, the success rate of implants placed in immediate extraction sockets of anterior teeth compared favorably with the conventional implants. The early results of the present study showed that high survival rates with the implants in immediate extraction sockets can be achieved.

  6. Deepening Fornix Technique Using Central Split-Medium Thickness Skin Graft to Treat Contracted Anophthalmic Sockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlHassan, Sultan; Galindo-Ferreiro, Alicia; Khandekar, Rajiv; AlShaikh, Osama; Schellini, Silvana Artioli

    2018-05-08

    The aim of thhis study was to present the outcomes of postauricular split-medium thickness skin graft (SMTSG) to treat anophthalmic sockets with contracted fornices. This case series enrolled patients with grade 2 or 3 anophthalmic sockets between 2015 and 2016. Data were collected on patient demographics, objective and subjective parameters preoperatively and 180 days postoperatively. Success of the surgery was graded on the height of the graft, the depth of the superior and inferior fornices, and presence/abscence of lagophthalmos, entropion, and ability to retain an external prosthesis. Eighteen patients were enrolled with a mean age of 35.9 ± 18 years. The median height of the graft was 22 mm (25% quartile = 18.75) when removed and 20 mm (25% quartile = 16) postoperatively. The median depth of the superior fornix was 6.5 mm (25% quartile = 4.5 mm) preoperatively and 10 mm (25% quartile = 8 mm) postoperatively (P = 0.5). The median inferior fornix depth was 7 mm (25% quartile = 3.5 mm) preoperatively and 8 mm (25% quartile = 5 mm) (P = 0.27) postoperatively. Preoperatively, there were 13 (72.2%) patients with lagophthalmos, 10 (44.4%) with entropion, 3 (37.5%) with poor prosthesis retention, and 5 (62.5%) who were unable to retain the prosthesis. Postoperatively, 7 (38.9%) patients had lagophthamos, 1 (5.6%) had entropion, and all the patients could retain the prosthesis. None of the sockets had a foul odor postoperatively. Postauricular SMTSG achieves successful outcomes for the treatment of contracted anophthalmic sockets, reshaping the anterior socket surface and deepening the fornices.

  7. 2-Dimensional changes of the soft tissue profile of augmented and non-augmented human extraction sockets: a randomized pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flügge, Tabea; Nelson, Katja; Nack, Claudia; Stricker, Andres; Nahles, Susanne

    2015-04-01

    This study identified the soft tissue changes of the alveolar ridge at different time points within 12 weeks after tooth extraction with and without socket augmentation. In 38 patients with single tooth extractions, 40 sockets were augmented and 39 extraction sockets were not augmented. At 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 weeks impressions were taken and casts digitized with a laser scanner. The horizontal and vertical changes were compared between augmented and non-augmented sites. A p-value sockets were between 0.4 mm (2 weeks) and 0.8 mm (12 weeks). In non-augmented sockets changes of 0.7 mm (2 weeks) and of 1.0 mm (12 weeks) were demonstrated. The mean values differed significantly between the buccal and oral region (p sockets showed less resorption within 4 weeks after extraction compared to non-augmented sockets. Non-augmented sockets showed a continuous dimensional loss with a great variation over 12 weeks whereas augmented sockets had the highest degree of resorption between 4 and 6 weeks. At 12 weeks a comparable resorption in augmented and non-augmented sockets was observed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Crosslinkable coatings from phosphorylcholine-based polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, A L; Cumming, Z L; Goreish, H H; Kirkwood, L C; Tolhurst, L A; Stratford, P W

    2001-01-01

    2-Methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) was synthesised and then used in the preparation of crosslinked polymer membranes with lauryl methacrylate, hydroxypropyl methacrylate and trimethoxysilylpropyl methacrylate (crosslinker) comonomers. Some physical aspects of the membrane properties were evaluated in order to establish the basis for the synthesis of a series of post-crosslinkable polymers. These materials were made by copolymerisation of the constituent monomers via a free radical method, and characterised using NMR, FT-IR, viscometry and elemental analysis. The optimum crosslink density and conditions required for curing coatings of these polymers were investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and showed the inclusion of 5 mol% silyl crosslinking agent to be ideal. A nanoindentation technique was employed to determine if the coating developed elasticity upon crosslinking. The biological properties of the coatings were evaluated using a variety of protein adsorption assays and blood contacting experiments, and an enzyme immunoassay was developed to detect E. coli in order to assess the level of bacterial adhesion to these biomaterials. Polymers of this type were shown to be very useful as coating materials for improving the biocompatibility of, or reducing the levels of adherent bacteria to medical devices.

  9. Grafting functional antioxidants on highly crosslinked polyethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Malaika, S.; Riasat, S.; Lewucha, C.

    2016-05-01

    The problem of interference of antioxidants, such as hindered phenols, with peroxide-initiated crosslinking of polyethylene was addressed through the use of functional (reactive) graftable antioxidants (g-AO). Reactive derivatives of hindered phenol and hindered amine antioxidants were synthesised, characterised and used to investigate their grafting reactions in high density polyethylene; both non-crosslinked (PE) and highly peroxide-crosslinked (PEXa). Assessment of the extent of in-situ grafting of the antioxidants, their retention after exhaustive solvent extraction in PE and PEXa, and the stabilising performance of the grafted antioxidants (g-AO) in the polymer were examined and benchmarked against conventionally stabilised crosslinked & non-crosslinked polyethylene. It was shown that the functional antioxidants graft to a high extent in PEXa, and that the level of interference of the g-AOs with the polymer crosslinking process was minimal compared to that of conventional antioxidants which bear the same antioxidant function. The much higher level of retention of the g-AOs in PEXa after exhaustive solvent extraction, compared to that of the corresponding conventional antioxidants, accounts for their superior long-term thermal stabilising performance under severe extractive conditions.

  10. Guided tissue regeneration ensures osseointegration of dental implants placed into extraction sockets. An experimental study in monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warrer, L; Gotfredsen, K; Hjørting-Hansen, E

    1991-01-01

    on the buccal and palatal aspects of the maxillary molars in both sides of the jaw. The second molars were then extracted and self tapping titanium implants of the screw type (Astra Dental Implants) were inserted into the sockets of the largest roots. In the coronal portion of the sockets, a void was always...... present between the implant and the socket walls. In one side of the jaw, a membrane (Gore-Tex Augmentation Material) was adjusted to cover the implant. The implant in the other side of the jaw served as control and was only covered by the tissue flaps. Microscopic analysis after 3 months of healing...... technique can secure complete osseointegration of implants inserted immediately into extraction sockets....

  11. Evaluation of guided bone generation around implants placed into fresh extraction sockets: an experimental study in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotfredsen, K; Nimb, L; Buser, D

    1993-01-01

    Immediate placement of implants into fresh extraction sockets would have the principal advantage of decreasing the recommended period of healing. It also would result in a guided placement of the implant, and it could reduce the resorption of the alveolar bone in the extraction area. However, when...... an implant is placed immediately into an extraction socket, it may not engage the walls of the socket near the crest of the alveolar ridge. With the presence of a bone defect around an implant, ingrowth of soft tissue could compromise the achievement of osseointegration in the crestal bone area....... The objective of this study was to evaluate the crestal bone healing response adjacent to implants placed immediately into fresh extraction sockets with and without covering membranes. Eight adult mongrel dogs had the third and fourth mandibular premolars extracted bilaterally. Thirty-two submerged titanium...

  12. Comparison of the effectiveness of two different bone substitute materials for socket preservation after tooth extraction: a controlled clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakibaie-M, Behnam

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of two bone substitute materials for socket preservation after tooth extraction. Extraction sockets in 10 patients were filled with either inorganic bovine bone material (Bio-Oss) or with synthetic material consisting of hydroxyapatite and silicon dioxide (NanoBone). Extraction sockets without filling served as the control. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the presented protocol for socket preservation and that the choice of a suitable bone substitute material is crucial. The dimensions of the alveolar ridge were significantly better preserved with Bio-Oss than with NanoBone or without treatment. Bio-Oss treatment resulted in better bone quality and quantity for successful implant placement.

  13. Application of self-balanced loading test to socketed pile in weak rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ye; Gong, Weiming; Dai, Guoliang; Wu, JingKun

    2008-11-01

    Method of self-balanced loading test differs from the traditional methods of pile test. The key equipment of the test is a cell. The cell specially designed is used to exert load which is placed in pile body. During the test, displacement values of the top plate and the bottom plate of the cell are recorded according to every level of load. So Q-S curves can be obtained. In terms of test results, the bearing capacity of pile can be judged. Equipments of the test are simply and cost of it is low. Under some special conditions, the method will take a great advantage. In Guangxi Province, tertiary mudstone distributes widely which is typical weak rock. It is usually chosen as the bearing stratum of pile foundation. In order to make full use of its high bearing capacity, pile is generally designed as belled pile. Foundations of two high-rise buildings which are close to each other are made up of belled socketed piles in weak rock. To obtain the bearing capacity of the belled socketed pile in weak rock, loading test in situ should be taken since it is not reasonable that experimental compression strength of the mudstone is used for design. The self-balanced loading test was applied to eight piles of two buildings. To get the best test effect, the assembly of cell should be taken different modes in terms of the depth that pile socketed in rock and the dimension of the enlarged toe. The assembly of cells had been taken three modes, and tests were carried on successfully. By the self-balanced loading test, the large bearing capacities of belled socketed piles were obtained. Several key parameters required in design were achieved from the tests. For the data of tests had been analyzed, the bearing performance of pile tip, pile side and whole pile was revealed. It is further realized that the bearing capacity of belled socketed pile in the mudstone will decrease after the mudstone it socketed in has been immerged. Among kinds of mineral ingredient in the mudstone

  14. Clinical and impression cytology findings of amniotic membrane and oral mucosal membrane transplantation for the management of socket contracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtul, Bengi Ece; Erdener, Ugur; Mocan, Mehmet Cem; Irkec, Murat; Orhan, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    To investigate and compare the cytopathological and clinical effects of amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) and oral mucosal membrane transplantation (OMMT) in socket contraction. Twelve patients who could not be fitted with ocular prosthesis due to socket contracture were included in this study. Seven patients underwent AMT and 5 patients underwent OMMT. Thirteen patients who had healthy sockets were included as control group. Depth of inferior fornix, degree of inflammation, extent of the socket contracture and socket volume were measured in the preoperative period and at sixth and twelfth weeks postoperatively. Impression cytology of conjunctival fornices and tear transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGFβ1) levels were determined. In the AMT group, socket volume and lower fornix depth values were significantly higher (P=0.030 and P=0.004 respectively) and inflammation levels and impression cytology stages (P=0.037 and P=0.022 respectively) were significantly lower in postoperative period compared to preoperative period. In the OMMT group, no statistical differences were found in terms of clinical parameters, inflammation levels and impression cytology stages of preoperative versus postoperative values. Preoperative tear TGFβ1 levels were higher in AMT and OMMT groups compared to the control group (25.5 ng/mL, 26.3 ng/mL and 21.7 ng/mL respectively). Decreased tear TGFβ1 levels were observed in both the AMT and OMMT groups postoperatively (median decrease value=2.1 ng/mL and 2.7 ng/mL respectively). AMT is associated with postoperative improvement in inferior fornix depth, socket volume, inflammation and impression cytology levels and may be a more proper alternative method than OMMT in the management of socket contracture.

  15. A welding device for a socket in a hard-to-get-to circular pipe connection piece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deschamps, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    The welding device allows for the assembly of a socket inside the collection piece of an auxiliary pipe at the bottom of a dissolver tube; the device comprises a support around which is mounted a rotating welding head with a gear motor. Clamping of the socket around the head is achieved by the means of pneumatically driven clamping sections. A pulley and gutter tension device is aimed at securing the electric and metal supply cables. 9 refs., 3 figs

  16. Sockets Manufactured by CAD/CAM Method Have Positive Effects on the Quality of Life of Patients With Transtibial Amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakoç, Mehmet; Batmaz, İbrahim; Sariyildiz, Mustafa Akif; Yazmalar, Levent; Aydin, Abdülkadir; Em, Serda

    2017-08-01

    Patients with amputation need prosthesis to comfortably move around. One of the most important parts of a good prosthesis is the socket. Currently, the most commonly used method is the traditional socket manufacturing method, which involves manual work; however, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) is also being used in the recent years. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of sockets manufactured by traditional and CAD/CAM method on clinical characteristics and quality of life of patients with transtibial amputation. The study included 72 patients with transtibial amputation using prosthesis, 36 of whom had CAD/CAM prosthetic sockets (group 1) and 36 had traditional prosthetic sockets (group 2). Amputation reason, prosthesis lifetime, walking time and distance with prosthesis, pain-free walking time with prosthesis, production time of the prosthesis, and adaptation time to the prosthesis were questioned. Quality of life was assessed using the 36-item Short Form Health Survey questionnaire and the Trinity Amputation and Prosthesis Experience Scales. Walking time and distance and pain-free walking time with prosthesis were significantly better in group 1 than those in group 2. Furthermore, the prosthesis was applied in a significantly shorter time, and socket adaptation time was significantly shorter in group 1. Except emotional role limitation, all 36-item Short Form Healthy Survey questionnaire parameters were significantly better in group 1 than in group 2. Trinity Amputation and Prosthesis Experience Scales activity limitation scores of group 1 were lower, and Trinity Amputation and Prosthesis Experience Scales satisfaction with the prosthesis scores were higher than those in group 2. Our study demonstrated that the sockets manufactured by CAD/CAM methods yield better outcomes in quality of life of patients with transtibial amputation than the sockets manufactured by the traditional method.

  17. Bone modelling at fresh extraction sockets: immediate implant placement versus spontaneous healing: an experimental study in the beagle dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignoletti, Fabio; Discepoli, Nicola; Müller, Anna; de Sanctis, Massimo; Muñoz, Fernando; Sanz, Mariano

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to describe histologically the undisturbed healing of fresh extraction sockets when compared to immediate implant placement. In eight beagle dogs, after extraction of the 3P3 and 4P4, implants were inserted into the distal sockets of the premolars, while the mesial sockets were left to heal spontaneously. Each animal provided four socket sites (control) and four implant sites (test). After 6 weeks, animals were sacrificed and tissue blocks were dissected, prepared for ground sectioning. The relative vertical buccal bone resorption in relation to the lingual bone was similar in both test and control groups. At immediate implant sites, however, the absolute buccal bone loss observed was 2.32 (SD 0.36) mm, what may indicate that while an apical shift of both the buccal and lingual bone crest occurred at the implant sites, this may not happen in naturally healing sockets. The results from this investigation showed that after tooth extraction the buccal socket wall underwent bone resorption at both test and control sites. This resorption appeared to be more pronounced at the implant sites, although the limitations of the histological evaluation method utilized preclude a definite conclusion. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. High-throughput sockets over RDMA for the Intel Xeon Phi coprocessor

    CERN Document Server

    Santogidis, Aram

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we describe the design, implementation and performance of Trans4SCIF, a user-level socket-like transport library for the Intel Xeon Phi coprocessor. Trans4SCIF library is primarily intended for high-throughput applications. It uses RDMA transfers over the native SCIF support, in a way that is transparent for the application, which has the illusion of using conventional stream sockets. We also discuss the integration of Trans4SCIF with the ZeroMQ messaging library, used extensively by several applications running at CERN. We show that this can lead to a substantial, up to 3x, increase of application throughput compared to the default TCP/IP transport option.

  19. Design method of large-diameter rock-socketed pile with steel casing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming-wei; Fang, Fang; Liang, Yue

    2018-02-01

    There is a lack of the design and calculation method of large-diameter rock-socketed pile with steel casing. Combined with the “twelfth five-year plan” of the National Science & Technology Pillar Program of China about “Key technologies on the ports and wharfs constructions of the mountain canalization channels”, this paper put forward the structured design requirements of concrete, steel bar distribution and steel casing, and a checking calculation method of the bearing capacity of the normal section of the pile and the maximum crack width at the bottom of the steel casing. The design method will have some degree of guiding significance for the design of large-diameter rock-socketed pile with steel casing.

  20. Vibrational fatigue failures in short cantilevered piping with socket-welding fittings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.K.

    1996-01-01

    Approximately 80% of the vibrational fatigue failures in nuclear power plants have been caused by high cycle vibrational fatigue. Many of these failures have occurred in short, small bore (2 in. nominal diameter and smaller), unbraced, cantilevered piping with socket-welding fittings. The fatigue failures initiated in the socket welds. These failures have been unexpected, and have caused costly, unscheduled outages in some cases. In order to reduce the number of vibrational fatigue failures in these short cantilevered pipes, an acceleration based vibrational fatigue screening criteria was developed under Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) sponsorship. In this paper, the acceleration based criteria will be compared to the results obtained from detailed dynamic modeling of a short, cantilevered pipe

  1. A Multidisciplinary Approach for Rehabilitation of Enucleated Sockets: Ocular Implants with Custom Ocular Prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Minati; Banu, Fathima; Natarajan, Shanmuganathan; Kumar, Anand; Tv, Padmanabhan

    2018-02-16

    Interdisciplinary prosthodontics goes beyond our imagination into fields that have a direct effect on our total body health and quality of life. Removal of an eye has a detrimental effect on the psychology of the patient. Enucleation involves removal of the eyeball proper and leads to an enophthalmic socket with a shrunken eye, which has a crippling effect on patient's emotional and social life. Custom-made eye prosthesis simulates the characteristics of the companion eye and helps in restoring the normal facial appearance. Restoration of saccadic eye movements occurring during speech is desirable because this greatly contributes to a normal facial expression. This can be achieved by an orbital implant, which helps in orbital volume replacement and restoration of prosthesis movement and comfort. This article describes prosthodontic rehabilitation of enucleated eye sockets with orbital implants for two patients.

  2. Development of fatigue resistance evaluation method for socket-weld-jointed pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, Shinji; Shibayama, Motoaki; Iwata, Masazumi; Matsuura, Masayuki

    2003-01-01

    Vent line, drain line and sampling line in nuclear power station have many socket welded-joints made of austenitic stainless steel. Their slenderness and stagnation yield some potential of vibration-induced cracking and stress corrosion cracking. For the joints under vibration, the authors firstly elucidated their welding-defect-related fatigue strength by using fracture mechanics. It could define the allowable sets of stress amplitude and defect size. Secondly, authors developed an ultra-sonic detecting apparatus by using a focus-type probe and its programmed crawl on socket part. The authors finally measured the stress amplitude and frequency by sticking strain gage on suspected joints, then evaluated the fatigue resistance of the joints. For more efficient procedure, the method of stress amplitude analysis through vibration measurement is being developed. (author)

  3. Immediate implants in extraction sockets with periapical lesions: an illustrated review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur B. Novaes Jr.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim Immediate implantation has gained great attention since first proposed. Immediate implants in replacement of teeth with periapical lesion is, to date, an issue of discussion. The aim of this study is to perform an illustrated literature review of immediate implants in sockets exhibiting previous periapical lesions.Materials and methods A search on medline/EMBASE database was done for the literature review which is presented together with two case reports illustrating the state of the art of immediate implants on sockets with periapical lesions. Both cases are presented in areas with great aesthetic demands and a periapical lesion of considerable size. The two cases were conducted following strict granulation tissue removal and careful rinsing and pre-operative antibiotics, followed by good primary stability of the dental implant.Results and conclusion Both cases represented successes in aesthetics and function, describing a successful protocol for immediate implant installation in areas exhibiting periapical lesions.

  4. Application Study of Self-balanced Testing Method on Big Diameter Rock-socketed Piles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-biao WANG

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Through the technological test of self-balanced testing method on big diameter rock-socketed piles of broadcasting centre building of Tai’an, this paper studies and analyzes the links of the balance position selection, the load cell production and installation, displacement sensor selection and installation, loading steps, stability conditions and determination of the bearing capacity in the process of self-balanced testing. And this paper summarizes key technology and engineering experience of self-balanced testing method of big diameter rock-socketed piles and, meanwhile, it also analyzes the difficult technical problems needed to be resolved urgently at present. Conclusion of the study has important significance to the popularization and application of self-balanced testing method and the similar projects.

  5. Fuzzy linguistic hedges for the selection of manufacturing process for prosthetic sockets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa Pandey

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a comparison is presented between two prime methods of producing prosthetic sockets by using the fuzzy linguistic hedges approach on the qualitative feedback of Indian prosthetic users. Recent trends indicate that the Indian manufacturers have tried to adopt the newer technologies like reverse engineering (RE approach to achieve the desired goals. However, the satisfaction of the user is of utmost importance for the unique and customized products for rehabilitation. In order to analyze the effectiveness of the manufacturing approaches, user case studies are taken, based on the linguistic feedbacks, and a comparative study is conducted. Thirteen users from four different manufacturing units are taken for study and sockets made by conventional as well as RE are experimented. Fuzzy membership functions are constructed using the linguistic hedges based on the user feedbacks. An analytical hierarchy process (AHP is applied to arrive at a decision to select the manufacturing process for user satisfaction and manufacturing excellence.

  6. Evaluation of Amoxicillin & Cephalexin concentrations in dental alveolar sockets after tooth extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Fakhraei AH.; Jabal Ameli F.; Ghobadi G

    2005-01-01

    Statement of Problem: One of the most important complications after tooth extraction and oral and maxillofacial surgery is transient bacteraemia and prescription of prophylactic antibiotic is necessary to prevent postoperative infections in immunocompromised patients. Purpose: The aim of this study was the evaluation of cephalexin and amoxicillin concentrations in dental alveolar sockets following tooth extraction. Materials and Methods: In this interventional study, 80 healthy patients subje...

  7. Development of the Automated Ultrasonic Testing System for Inspection of the flaw in the Socket Weldment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Ki; Park, Moon Ho; Park, Ki Sung; Lee, Jae Ho; Lim, Sung Jin

    2004-01-01

    Socket weldment used to change the flow direction of fluid nay have flaws such as lack of fusion and cracks. Liquid penetrant testing or Radiography testing have been applied as NDT methods for flaw detection of the socket weldment. But it is difficult to detect the flaw inside of the socket weldment with these methods. In order to inspect the flaws inside the socket weldment, a ultrasonic testing method is established and a ultrasonic transducer and automated ultrasonic testing system are developed for the inspection. The automated ultrasonic testing system is based on the portable personal computer and operated by the program based Windows 98 or 2000. The system has a pulser/receiver, 100MHz high speed A/D board, and basic functions of ultrasonic flaw detector using the program. For the automated testing, motion controller board of ISA interface type is developed to control the 4-axis scanner and a real time iC-scan image of the automated testing is displayed on the monitor. A flaws with the size of less than 1mm in depth are evaluated smaller than its actual site in the testing, but the flaws larger than 1mm appear larger than its actual size on the contrary. This tendency is shown to be increasing as the flaw size increases. h reliable and objective testing results are obtained with the developed system, so that it is expected that it can contribute to safety management and detection of repair position of pipe lines of nuclear power plants and chemical plants

  8. Osseointegration of dental implants in extraction sockets preserved with porous titanium granules - an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verket, Anders; Lyngstadaas, Ståle P; Rønold, Hans J; Wohlfahrt, Johan C

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated osseointegration of dental implants inserted in healed extraction sockets preserved with porous titanium granules (PTG). Three adult female minipigs (Gøttingen minipig; Ellegaard A/S, Dalmose, Denmark) had the mandibular teeth P2, P3 and P4 extracted. The extraction sockets were preserved with metallic PTG (Tigran PTG; Tigran Technologies AB, Malmö, Sweden) n = 12, heat oxidized white porous titanium granules (WPTG) (Tigran PTG White) n = 12 or left empty (sham) n = 6. All sites were covered with collagen membranes (Bio-Gide; Geistlich Pharma, Wolhausen, Switzerland) and allowed 11 weeks of healing before implants (Straumann Bone Level; Straumann, Basel, Switzerland) were inserted. The temperature was measured during preparation of the osteotomies. Resonance frequency analysis (RFA, Osstell; Osstell AB, Gothenburg, Sweden) was performed at implant insertion and at termination. After 6 weeks of submerged implant healing, the pigs were euthanized and jaw segments were excised for microCT and histological analyses. In the temperature and RFA analyses no significant differences were recorded between the test groups. The microCT analysis demonstrated an average bone volume of 61.7% for the PTG group compared to 50.3% for the WPTG group (P = 0.03) and 57.1% for the sham group. Histomorphometry demonstrated an average bone-to-implant contact of 68.2% for the PTG group compared to 36.6% for the WPTG group and 60.9% for the sham group (n.s). Eight out of ten implants demonstrated apical osseous defects in the WPTG group, but similar defects were observed in all groups. PTG preserved extraction sockets demonstrate a similar outcome as the sham control group for all analyses suggesting that this material potentially can be used for extraction socket preservation prior to implant installment. Apical osseous defects were however observed in all groups including the sham group, and a single cause could not be determined. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Skin grafting in severely contracted socket with the use of ′Compo′

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betharia S

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of split thickness autologous skin grafting along with the use of a dental impression material (Compo, a thermoplastic substance are presented in a series of 11 patients of acquired, severely contracted, anophthalmic sockets. Only the fornix fixation sutures and the central tarsorrhaphy were employed for the proper placement of graft without the use of retention devices. Artificial eyes were successfully fitted and retained subsequently after 6 weeks of grafting.

  10. Using PRP and human amniotic fluid combination for osteogenesis in rabbit socket preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Moradi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP is used as an adjunct treatment during periodontal grafting surgery because of its capability of enhancing healing process. Amniotic fluid is a rich source of growth factors and hyaluronic acid (HA and a good point to study its properties of wound healing and bone formation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the osteogenic properties of a combination of amniotic fluid and PRP in rabbit′s dental socket preservation. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 24 healthy male laboratory rabbits (average weight 3,125 ± 185 gr that were randomly allocated into four groups. PRP for the first group, human amniotic fluid (HAF for the second group, a combination of PRP and HAF (PRHA for the third group was used. In the fourth (control group, no biomaterial was used. In each group, half of the rabbits were sacrificed at 4 weeks following surgery and the rest were sacrificed after 8 weeks. Histological analysis of biopsies of the sockets was performed using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E staining. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS software (version 16 and P-value <0.05 was considered significance. Results: All three experimental groups showed positive effect on bone formation in terms of area of trabecular bone and number of osteocytes and also vessel formation. Socket preservation using HAF and PRHA showed the highest impact on bone formation. Socket preservation using HAF also had the highest impact on vessel formation. Conclusion: PRHA and HAF appear to be useful for enhancing bone formation. Since there was no difference between HAF and PRHA, it seems beneficial to use HAF due to its simplicity of application.

  11. Effects of increased low-level diode laser irradiation time on extraction socket healing in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joon Bong; Ahn, Su-Jin; Kang, Yoon-Goo; Kim, Eun-Cheol; Heo, Jung Sun; Kang, Kyung Lhi

    2015-02-01

    In our previous studies, we confirmed that low-level laser therapy (LLLT) with a 980-nm gallium-aluminum-arsenide diode laser was beneficial for the healing of the alveolar bone in rats with systemic disease. However, many factors can affect the biostimulatory effects of LLLT. Thus, we attempted to investigate the effects of irradiation time on the healing of extraction sockets by evaluating the expressions of genes and proteins related to bone healing. The left and right first maxillary molars of 24 rats were extracted. Rats were randomly divided into four groups in which extraction sockets were irradiated for 0, 1, 2, or 5 min each day for 3 or 7 days. Specimens containing the sockets were examined using quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. LLLT increased the expressions of all tested genes, Runx2, collagen type 1, osteocalcin, platelet-derived growth factor-B, and vascular endothelial growth factor, in a time-dependent manner. The highest levels of gene expressions were in the 5-min group after 7 days. Five minutes of irradiation caused prominent increases of the expression of all tested proteins after both 3 and 7 days. The expression level of each protein in group 4 was higher by almost twofold compared with group 1 after 7 days. Laser irradiation for 5 min caused the highest expressions of genes and proteins related to bone healing. In conclusion, LLLT had positive effects on the early stages of bone healing of extraction sockets in rats, which were irradiation time-dependent.

  12. Effect of piezoelectric instruments on healing propensity of alveolar sockets following mandibular third molar extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Shang-Jye Tsai; Yen-Liang Chen; Hao-Hueng Chang; Yow-Chyun Shyu; Chun-Pin Lin

    2012-01-01

    Background/purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the use of piezoelectric instruments affected the healing propensity of alveolar sockets after mandibular third molar extraction, compared with conventional rotary instruments. Materials and methods: Thirty patients with impacted bilateral symmetrical mandibular third molars participated in this investigation. We conducted a randomized, crossover study using conventional rotary instruments for extraction on one side a...

  13. Smart Adaptive Socket to Improve Fit and Relieve Pain in Wounded Warriors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    thermal dependence 1.2.b Maximum patient comfort 1.2.c improve response times for changes in volume 1.2.d Maximize range of compression region 2 the...and the prosthesis. The functionality and comfort of the prosthesis is to a great degree determined by the intimacy of this connection. Fluctuations...for a socket that accommodates a changing residual limb volume while maintaining comfort and fit. We will develop and complete preliminary real world

  14. Effects of lithium on extraction socket healing in rats assessed with micro-computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yun Ting; Fu, Bin; Tang, Guo Hua; Zhang, Lei; Qian, Yu Fen

    2013-09-01

    Lithium is an activator of β-catenin signaling and β-catenin plays an important role in regulating bone formation and remodeling. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of lithium on bone repair in tooth extraction sockets in rats. Twenty male Wistar rats were subjected to maxillary left second molar extraction. The animals received a daily injection of lithium chloride (LiCl) or the same dose of sodium chloride (NaCl) starting 7 days before tooth extraction until sacrifice 14 days after extraction. Rats were randomly divided into: (1) a pre-treated group that received LiCl injection from 7 days before to 3 days after tooth extraction; (2) a post-treated group that received LiCl injection starting 4 days after tooth extraction; (3) a continuously treated group that received LiCl injection for the entire 21 days; and (4) a control group that received NaCl injection only. The volume of new bone and the bone density in the extraction socket were quantified by micro-computed tomography. The percentage of new bone formation in the extraction socket was as follows: 63.2 ± 13.4% (pre-treated group), 53.9 ± 9.8% (post-treated), 23.8 ± 8.0% (continuously treated) and 37.5 ± 4.2% (control). The difference in percentage was statistically significant between each pair of groups. Pre- and post-treated groups also showed a significant increase in the density of new bone. Lithium enhances bone repair in extraction sockets when delivered before or after tooth extraction. Tooth extraction during lithium treatment may impair bone healing.

  15. Crosslinked polytriazole membranes for organophilic filtration

    KAUST Repository

    Chisca, Stefan

    2016-12-30

    We report the preparation of crosslinked membranes for organophilic filtration, by reacting a new polytriazole with free OH groups, using non-toxic poly (ethylene glycol) diglycidyl ether (PEGDE). The OH-functionalized polymer was obtained by converting the oxadiazole to triazole rings with high yield (98%). The maximum degree of crosslinking is achieved after 6 h of reaction. The crosslinked polytriazole membranes are stable in a wide range of organic solvents and show high creep recovery, indicating the robustness of crosslinked membranes. The influence of different casting solutions and different crosslinking time on the membrane morphology and membrane performance was investigated. The membranes performance was studied in dimethylformamide (DMF) and (tetrahydrofuran) THF. We achieved a permeance for THF of 49 L m−2 h−1 bar−1 for membranes with molecular weight cut off (MWCO) of 7 kg mol−1 and a permeance for THF of 17.5 L m−2 h−1 bar−1 for membranes with MWCO of 3 kg mol−1. Our data indicate that by using the new polytriazole is possible to adjust the pore dimensions of the membranes to have a MWCO, which covers ultra- and nanofiltration range.

  16. Radiation crosslinking of highly plasticized PVC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendizabal, E.; Cruz, L.; Jasso, C. F.; Burillo, G.; Dakin, V. I.

    1996-02-01

    To improve the physical properties of highly plasticized PVC, the polymer was crosslinked by gamma irradiation using a dose rate of 91 kGy/h. The effect of plasticizer type was studied by using three different plasticizers, 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutyrate (TXIB), di(2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate (DOP), and di(2-ethylhexyl terephthalate) (DOTP), and varying irradiation doses. Gel content was determined by soxhlet extraction, tensile measurements were made on a universal testing machine and the mechano-dynamic measurements were made in a dynamic rheometer. It was found that a considerable bonding of plasticizer molecules to macromolelcules takes place along with crosslinking, so that the use of the solvent extraction method for measuring the degree of crosslinking can give erroneous information. Radiation-chemical crosslinking yield ( Gc) and molecular weight of interjunctions chains ( Mc), were calculated for different systems studied. Addition of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDM) as a crosslinking coagent and dioctyl tin oxide (DOTO) as a stabilizer was also studied. Plasticizers extraction resistance was increased by irradiation treatment.

  17. Radiation crosslinking of highly plasticized PVC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendizabal, E.; Cruz, L.; Jasso, C.F.; Burillo, G.; Dakin, V.I.

    1996-01-01

    To improve the physical properties of highly plasticized PVC, the polymer was crosslinked by gamma irradiation using a dose rate of 91 kGy/h. The effect of plasticizer type was studied by using three different plasticizers, 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutyrate (TXIB), di(2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate (DOP), and di(2-ethylhexyl terephthalate) (DOTP), and varying irradiation doses. Gel content was determined by soxhlet extraction, tensile measurements were made on a universal testing machine and the mechano-dynamic measurements were made in a dynamic rheometer. It was found that a considerable bonding of plasticizer molecules to macromolecules takes place along with crosslinking, so that the use of the solvent extraction method for measuring the degree of crosslinking can give erroneous information. Radiation-chemical crosslinking yield (G c ) and molecular weight of interjunctions chains (M c ), were calculated for different systems studied. Addition of ethylene glycol dimethyacrylate (EGDM) as a crosslinking coagent and dioctyl tin oxide (DOTO) as a stabilizer was also studied. Plasticizers extraction resistance was increased by irradiation treatment. (author)

  18. Crosslinked polytriazole membranes for organophilic filtration

    KAUST Repository

    Chisca, Stefan; Falca, Gheorghe; Musteata, Valentina-Elena; Boi, Cristiana; Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2016-01-01

    We report the preparation of crosslinked membranes for organophilic filtration, by reacting a new polytriazole with free OH groups, using non-toxic poly (ethylene glycol) diglycidyl ether (PEGDE). The OH-functionalized polymer was obtained by converting the oxadiazole to triazole rings with high yield (98%). The maximum degree of crosslinking is achieved after 6 h of reaction. The crosslinked polytriazole membranes are stable in a wide range of organic solvents and show high creep recovery, indicating the robustness of crosslinked membranes. The influence of different casting solutions and different crosslinking time on the membrane morphology and membrane performance was investigated. The membranes performance was studied in dimethylformamide (DMF) and (tetrahydrofuran) THF. We achieved a permeance for THF of 49 L m−2 h−1 bar−1 for membranes with molecular weight cut off (MWCO) of 7 kg mol−1 and a permeance for THF of 17.5 L m−2 h−1 bar−1 for membranes with MWCO of 3 kg mol−1. Our data indicate that by using the new polytriazole is possible to adjust the pore dimensions of the membranes to have a MWCO, which covers ultra- and nanofiltration range.

  19. Mechanical properties of ramie fiber reinforced epoxy lamina composite for socket prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tresna Soemardi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation into the application of natural fiber composite especially ramie fiber reinforced epoxy lamina composite for socket prosthesis. The research focuses on the tensile and shear strength from ramie fiber reinforced epoxy lamina composite which will be applied as alternative material for socket prosthesis. The research based on American Society for Testing Material (ASTM standard D 3039/D 3039M for tensile strength and ASTM D 4255/D 4255M-83 for shear strength. The ramie fiber applied is a fiber continue 100 % Ne14'S with Epoxy Resin Bakelite EPR 174 as matrix and Epoxy Hardener V-140 as hardener. The sample composite test made by hand lay up method. Multiaxial characteristic from ramie fiber reinforced epoxy composite will be compared with ISO standard for plastic/polymer for health application and refers strength of material application at Prosthetics and Orthotics. The analysis was completed with the mode of the failure and the failure criterion observation by using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM. Based on results of the research could be concluded that ramie fiber reinforced epoxy composite could be developed further as the alternative material for socket prosthesis on Vf 40-50%. Results of the research will be discussed in more detail in this paper.

  20. Successful conjunctival socket expansion in anophthalmic patients until the age of 2 years: an outpatient procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Essawy RA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Rania Assem El Essawy, Sameh Hassan Abdelbaky Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt Purpose: To report the results of a simple outpatient method for soft tissue socket expansion in young children with congenital anophthalmos.Methods: Seventeen congenital anophthalmic sockets of 15 infants of a mean age of 4.2±4.4 months were fitted with specially designed serial solid acrylic shapes or hydrogel expanders using cyanoacrylate for eyelids closure when using the latter.Results: At the age of 2 years, the mean horizontal eyelid length increased from a mean of 11.6±4.5 to 19.4±4.6 mm and the volume of the last expander from a mean of 0.6±0.2 to 2.0±0.3 cm3. The specially designed acrylic shapes could be a substitute to the custom-made molds, which require general anesthesia.Conclusion: Successful increase in the horizontal eyelid length as well as the conjunctival socket volume could be achieved by a simple outpatient procedure without the need for repeated hospitalization and general anesthesia in these infants. Keywords: congenital anophthalmia, custom-made conformers, hydrogel expanders, cyanoacrylate glue

  1. A Novel Procedure for the Immediate Reconstruction of Severely Resorbed Alveolar Sockets for Advanced Periodontal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Aimetti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Several clinical techniques and a variety of biomaterials have been introduced over the years in an effort to overcome bone remodeling and resorption after tooth extraction. However, the predictability of these procedures in sockets with severely resorbed buccal/lingual plate due to periodontal disease is still unknown. Case Description. A patient with advanced periodontitis underwent extraction of upper right lateral and central incisors. The central incisor exhibited complete buccal bone plate loss and a 9 mm vertical bone deficiency on its palatal side. The alveolar sockets were filled with collagen sponge and covered with a nonresorbable high-density PTFE membrane. Primary closure was not attained and any rigid scaffold material was not used. Histologic analysis provided evidence of new bone formation. At 12 months a cone-beam computed tomographic scan revealed enough bone volume to insert two conventional dental implants in conjunction with minor horizontal bone augmentation procedures. Clinical Implications. This case report would seem to support the potential of the proposed reconstructive approach in changing the morphology of severely resorbed alveolar sockets, minimizing the need for advanced bone regeneration procedures during implant placement.

  2. Immediate Implant Placement into Extraction Sockets with Labial Plate Dehiscence Defects: A Clinical Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarnachiaro, Guido O; Chu, Stephen J; Sarnachiaro, Evangelina; Gotta, Sergio Luis; Tarnow, Dennis P

    2016-08-01

    To measure the buccal plate reconstruction of extraction sockets with labial plate dehiscence defects using a bone allograft in combination with an absorbable collagen membrane and a custom-healing abutment at the time of tooth removal. Ten patients underwent immediate implant placement and reconstruction of the buccal plate. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) was performed preextraction, immediately after bone grafting and implant placement (day 0), and between 6 and 9 months following implant surgery. Measurements were taken at three levels: coronal (L1), middle (L2), and apical (L3) level. Implants placed into sockets with labial plate dehiscence defects demonstrated radiographic reformation of the labial plate dehiscence defect at 6 to 9 months posttreatment. The net gain in labial plate on cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT) in L1 and L2 was 3.0 mm, where 0 mm existed at pretreatment. The minimum amount of labial plate thickness of 2.0 mm was achieved in all treated sites, evaluated radiographically at 6 to 9 months postoperatively, in a single procedure, without flap elevation and maintaining the gingival architecture and satisfactory esthetics. Placing an absorbable membrane, bone graft, and custom-healing abutment at the time of flapless anterior tooth extraction and immediate implant placement into a socket with a labial osseous dehiscence is a viable clinical technique to reconstitute the absence of the labial bone plate. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. High-cycle fatigue properties of small-bore socket-welded pipe joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Akira; Noda, Michiyasu; Suzuki, Michiaki

    2009-01-01

    Piping and equipment in nuclear power plants are structures including many welded joints. Reliability of welded joints is one of high-priority issues to improve the safety of nuclear power plants. However, occurrence of fatigue failures in small-bore socket-welded pipe joints by high-cycle vibrations is still reported. In this study, fatigue experiments on a socket-welded joint of austenitic stainless steel pipe was conducted under excitation conditions similar to those in actual plants to investigate vibration characteristics and fatigue strength. It was found that the natural frequency of pipe with socket-welded joint gradually decreased as fatigue damage developed, according to the Miner rule for fatigue life evaluation. The results indicate that the fatigue life of the welded pipe joint could be estimated by monitoring the decreasing ratio of the natural frequency of the pipe. The evaluation of decreasing ratio of the natural frequency in addition to fatigue damage evaluation by the Miner rule could enhance the accuracy of fatigue life evaluation. (author)

  4. Is ridge preservation/augmentation at periodontally compromised extraction sockets safe? A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Ju; Ben Amara, Heithem; Schwarz, Frank; Kim, Hae-Young; Lee, Jung-Won; Wikesjö, Ulf M E; Koo, Ki-Tae

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the safety of ridge preservation/augmentation procedures when performed at compromised extraction sockets. Patients subject to ridge preservation/augmentation at periodontally compromised sockets at Seoul National University Dental Hospital (SNUDH) were evaluated in a chart review. Tooth extractions due to acute infection were not included in our study as chronically formed lesions are the only lesions that can be detected from radiographic images. If inflammatory symptoms persisted following ridge preservation/augmentation and antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory therapy, the patient was categorized as a re-infection case and implanted biomaterial removed. Of 10,060 patients subject to tooth extractions at SNUDH, 2011 through 2015, 297 cases meeting inclusion criteria were reviewed. The severity and type of lesions were not specific because extracting data was only done by radiographic images and chart records. The review identified eight patients exhibiting inflammatory symptoms that required additional antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory therapy. Within this group, re-infection occurred in two patients requiring biomaterials removal. The final safety rate for the ridge preservation/augmentation was 99.3%. None of the demographic factors, systemic conditions or choice of biomaterial affected the safety of ridge preservation/augmentation. Alveolar ridge preservation/augmentation at periodontally compromised sockets appears safe following thorough removal of infectious source. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. [The effect of osteogenic inducer on healing of tooth extraction sockets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junliang; Shan, Chuncheng; He, Yun; Xia, Delin

    2012-06-01

    To study the effect of osteogenic inducer (dexamethasone, beta-sodium glycerophosphate and Vitamin C) carried by gelatin sponge on healing and remodeling of tooth extraction sockets. Fifty rabbits were selected. After extracting the first premolars of bilateral maxillary, the right side tooth extraction sockets were filled with gelatin sponge containing osteogenic inducer as experimental side, tooth extraction sockets on left side were filled with gelatin sponge as control. Every ten rabbits were executed at the end of 1, 2, 4, 8, 12 weeks after tooth extraction. Bone density was measured through digital X-ray images. The specimens were examined by histology. The absorption height of alveolar bone at 12 weeks was measured. X-ray measurement showed that the bone density of experimental side was higher than that of control side at 2, 4, 8, 12 weeks, the difference had statistical significance (Psockets of experimental side was earlier than that in control side. The absorptional height of alveolar bone had significant difference between experimental side and control side (Psockets can promote the healing and new bone formation and prevent from alveolar bone absorption.

  6. A Novel Procedure for the Immediate Reconstruction of Severely Resorbed Alveolar Sockets for Advanced Periodontal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimetti, Mario; Manavella, Valeria; Cricenti, Luca; Romano, Federica

    2017-01-01

    Background. Several clinical techniques and a variety of biomaterials have been introduced over the years in an effort to overcome bone remodeling and resorption after tooth extraction. However, the predictability of these procedures in sockets with severely resorbed buccal/lingual plate due to periodontal disease is still unknown. Case Description. A patient with advanced periodontitis underwent extraction of upper right lateral and central incisors. The central incisor exhibited complete buccal bone plate loss and a 9 mm vertical bone deficiency on its palatal side. The alveolar sockets were filled with collagen sponge and covered with a nonresorbable high-density PTFE membrane. Primary closure was not attained and any rigid scaffold material was not used. Histologic analysis provided evidence of new bone formation. At 12 months a cone-beam computed tomographic scan revealed enough bone volume to insert two conventional dental implants in conjunction with minor horizontal bone augmentation procedures. Clinical Implications. This case report would seem to support the potential of the proposed reconstructive approach in changing the morphology of severely resorbed alveolar sockets, minimizing the need for advanced bone regeneration procedures during implant placement.

  7. The adult ball-and-socket ankle joint: surgical management of late ankle and subtalar arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, John S; DeOrio, James K

    2015-04-01

    We review the surgical management of 4 adult patients with ball-and-socket ankle deformity who developed end-stage subtalar and/or ankle joint arthritis. We retrospectively reviewed a series of 4 adult patients with ball-and-socket ankle configurations who underwent surgical treatment for either end-stage tibiotalar or subtalar arthritis, with either subtalar arthrodesis or total ankle replacement (TAR). Clinical outcome, including subjective pain assessment, limitation of activities, and difficulty with shoe wear, were assessed at follow-up. A total of 5 ankles in 4 patients were identified that met the inclusion criteria. There were 3 subtalar arthrodeses in 2 patients and 2 primary TARs in 2 patients. At an average follow-up of 30.5 (range = 17 to 59) months, there were no failures, although 1 patient who underwent TAR was considered an impending failure with aseptic component loosening. Of the 4 patients, 3 resumed normal activity with minimal pain and were very pleased with their overall outcome. Standard surgical interventions for ankle and subtalar arthritis, such as total ankle arthroplasty and subtalar arthrodesis, can be successfully performed in patients with ball-and-socket ankles; clinical outcome and survivorship, however, may be inferior to that in patients with normal ankle configurations. Therapeutic, Level IV: Case Series. © 2014 The Author(s).

  8. Hygrothermal Effect on Mechanical and Fatigue Properties of laminated Lower Limb Socket and Bacteria Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadhel Abbas Abdullah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, hygrothermal effect on the mechanical and fatigue properties of prosthetic socket lamination and its effect on the bacteria growth were studied. Two laminations composite materials were used in manufacturing prosthetic socket by using vacuum device. The reinforced materials of these laminations were perlon and carbon nanopowder (CNP while the matrix material was polyurethane resin. Tests performed in this work were the moisture absorption properties test to calculate percent moisture content according to ASTM 5229, tensile and fatigue tests with and without the hygrothermal effect to find the mechanical and fatigue properties, and the bacteria growth test under the hygrothermal effect to calculate the number of bacteria on the laminations. The results showed that the lamination (10 perlon+1 wt % CNP has mechanical properties than lamination (10 perlon with and without hygrothermal effect. The mechanical and fatigue properties for the two laminations were decreasing with increasing temperature and moisture.. Adding carbon nanopowder to the lamination (10 perlon increased ultimate stress, modulus of elastic, and endurance limit by (1.36, 2.35, and2.72 time respectively. Finally, the results showed that the Staphylococcus aureus growth increases with increasing temperature and moisture on the two laminations used in manufacturing prosthetic socket, and adding carbon nanopowder also increased the Staphylococcus aureus growth on the lamination.

  9. Early inhibitory effects of zoledronic acid in tooth extraction sockets in dogs are negated by recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerard, David A; Carlson, Eric R; Gotcher, Jack E; Pickett, David O

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted with 2 purposes. The first was to determine the effect of a single dose of zoledronic acid (ZA) on the healing of a tooth extraction socket in dogs. The second was to determine if placement of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2)/absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) - INFUSE, (Medtronic, Memphis, TN) into these extraction sockets would inhibit the inhibition on bone healing and remodeling by ZA. Nine adult female beagle dogs (2 to 3 yr old) were placed into 3 groups of 3 dogs each. Group I received 15 mL of sterile saline intravenously; group II received 2.5 mg of ZA intravenously; and group III received 5 mg of ZA intravenously. Forty-five days after treatment, all dogs underwent extraction of noncontiguous right and left mandibular first molars and second premolars. In group I, the right mandibular extraction sockets had nothing placed in them, whereas the left mandibular sockets had only ACS placed in them. In groups II and III, the right mandibular sockets had rhBMP-2/ACS placed in them, whereas the left mandibular sockets had only ACS placed. All extraction sockets were surgically closed. Tetracycline was given intravenously 5 and 12 days later, and all animals were euthanized 15 days after tooth extraction. The extraction sockets and rib and femur samples were harvested immediately after euthanasia, processed, and studied microscopically. A single dose of ZA significantly inhibited healing and bone remodeling in the area of the tooth extractions. The combination of rhBMP-2/ACS appeared to over-ride some of the bone remodeling inhibition of the ZA and increased bone fill in the extraction sites, and remodeling activity in the area was noted. The effects of rhBMP-2/ACS were confined to the area of the extraction sockets because bone activity at distant sites was not influenced. A single dose of ZA administered intravenously inhibits early healing of tooth extraction sockets and bone remodeling in this animal model. The

  10. Development of a socket-type rib coaptation device made of poly-L-lactide fibers: feasibility study in a canine model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Teruya; Sakaguchi, Yasuto; Muranishi, Yusuke; Yutaka, Yojiro; Date, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Tatsuo

    2018-01-01

    Background Costal coaptation pins made of poly-L-lactide (PLA) are clinically available for fixing surgically divided ribs. However, the clinical results of such rib fixation have not been completely satisfactory. We aimed to develop a new rib coaptation socket system and explore its clinical applicability. Methods We surgically divided three consecutive ribs of each beagle dog, and rib coaptation sockets were implanted to stabilize each rib. Fifteen 3-dimensional (3D)-printed and 30 PLA fiber knitted sockets were implanted in five and ten dogs, respectively, to stabilize the artificially divided ribs. Mechanical analysis of the sockets and radiographical examination of costal fixation were performed to evaluate the effectiveness of the newly developed socket system for rib stabilization. Results All 15 ribs with 3D-printed sockets had displaced 1 month after the operation. Three ribs in one dog with implanted PLA fiber knitted sockets were displaced radiographically after 1 month, and the grade of displacement remained unchanged after 6 months. The remaining 27 ribs fixed with PLA fiber knitted sockets did not show any displacement. Conclusions The PLA fiber knitted rib coaptation socket system was sufficiently durable for the stabilization of divided ribs with biocompatibility. This promising finding can be applied for clinical stabilization of divided ribs. PMID:29850125

  11. Regression models to predict the behavior of the coefficient of friction of AISI 316L on UHMWPE under ISO 14243-3 conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Garcia, A L; Alvarez-Vera, M; Montoya-Santiyanes, L A; Dominguez-Lopez, I; Montes-Seguedo, J L; Sosa-Savedra, J C; Barceinas-Sanchez, J D O

    2018-06-01

    Friction is the natural response of all tribosystems. In a total knee replacement (TKR) prosthetic device, its measurement is hindered by the complex geometry of its integrating parts and that of the testing simulation rig operating under the ISO 14243-3:2014 standard. To develop prediction models of the coefficient of friction (COF) between AISI 316L steel and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) lubricated with fetal bovine serum dilutions, the arthrokinematics and loading conditions prescribed by the ISO 142433: 2014 standard were translated to a simpler geometrical setup, via Hertz contact theory. Tribological testing proceeded by loading a stainless steel AISI 316L ball against the surface of a UHMWPE disk, with the test fluid at 37 °C. The method has been applied to study the behavior of the COF during a whole walking cycle. On the other hand, the role of protein aggregation phenomena as a lubrication mechanism has been extensively studied in hip joint replacements but little explored for the operating conditions of a TKR. Lubricant testing fluids were prepared with fetal bovine serum (FBS) dilutions having protein mass concentrations of 5, 10, 20 and 36 g/L. The results were contrasted against deionized, sterilized water. The results indicate that even at protein concentration as low as 5 g/L, protein aggregation phenomena play an important role in the lubrication of the metal-on-polymer tribopair. The regression models of the COF developed herein are available for numerical simulations of the tribological behavior of the aforementioned tribosystem. In this case, surface stress rather than film thickness should be considered. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Disentangled solid state and metastable polymer melt; a solvent free route to high-modulus high-strength tapes and films of UHMWPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Sanjay

    2013-03-01

    Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) having average molar mass greater than a million g/mol is an engineering polymer. Due to its light-weight, high abrasion resistance and biocompatibility it is used for demanding applications such as body armour, prostheses etc. At present, because of its high melt viscosity to achieve the uniaxial/biaxial properties in the form of fibers/films the polymer is processed via solution route where nearly 95wt% of the solvent is used to process 5wt% of the polymer. In past several attempts have been made to process the polymer without using any solvent. However, compared to the solvent processing route the achieved mechanical properties were rather poor. Here we show that by controlled synthesis it is feasible to obtain UHMWPE that could be processed free of solvent to make uniaxial tapes and biaxial films, having unprecedented mechanical properties, exceeding that of the solution spun fibers. We address some of the fundamental aspects of chemistry, physics, rheology and processing for the development of desired morphological features to achieve the ultimate mechanical properties in tapes and films. The paper will also address the metastable melt state obtained on melting of the disentangled crystals and its implication on rheology in linear and nonlinear viscoelastic region. Solid state NMR studies will be applied to establish disentangled state in solid state to the polymerisation conditions. References: Macromolecules 2011, 44(14), 5558-5568; Nature Materials 2005, 4, 635-641; Phys Rev Lett 2006, 96(21), 218303-218205. The authors acknowledge financial support by the Dutch Polymer Institute.

  13. Collagen crosslinks in chondromalacia of the patella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väätäinen, U; Kiviranta, I; Jaroma, H; Arokosi, J; Tammi, M; Kovanen, V

    1998-02-01

    The aim of the study was to determine collagen concentration and collagen crosslinks in cartilage samples from chondromalacia of the patella. To study the extracellular matrix alterations associated to chondromalacia, we determined the concentration of collagen (hydroxyproline) and its hydroxylysylpyridinoline and lysylpyridinoline crosslinks from chondromalacia foci of the patellae in 12 patients and 7 controls from apparently normal cadavers. The structure of the collagen network in 8 samples of grades II-IV chondromalacia was examined under polarized light microscopy. The full-thickness cartilage samples taken with a surgical knife from chondromalacia lesions did not show changes in collagen, hydroxylysylpyridinoline and lysylpyridinoline concentration as compared with the controls. Polarized light microscopy showed decreased birefringence in the superficial cartilage of chondromalacia lesions, indicating disorganization or disappearance of collagen fibers in this zone. It is concluded that the collagen network shows gradual disorganization with the severity of chondromalacia lesion of the patella without changes in the concentration or crosslinks of collagen.

  14. Synthesis and Characterization of Ionically Crosslinked Elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    was prepared by quaternization of vinyl benzyl chloride, while a  common dicarboxylic RAFT agent was neutralized with  potassium . The ideal structure...polymerization  where each mole of RAFT agent will  produce one mole of crosslink  junctions.  Initial polymerizations of n‐butyl  acrylate  (BA) were...butyl  acrylate  was polymerized  with the RAFT crosslinking agent in  methanol to low conversion to  introduce BA units, but limit the crosslinking

  15. Crosslinked polyethylene foams, via eb radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, E.C.L.; Lugao, A. B.; Andrade e Silva, L. G.

    1998-01-01

    Polyethylene foams, produced by radio-induced crosslinking, show a smooth and homogeneous surface, when compared to chemical crosslinking method using peroxide as crosslinking agent. This process fosters excellent adhesive and printability properties. Besides that, closed cells, intrinsic to these foams, imparts optimum mechanical, shocks and insulation resistance, indicating these foams to some markets segments as: automotive and transport; buoyancy, flotation and marine; building and insulation; packaging; domestic sports and leisure goods. We were in search of an ideal foam, by adding 5 to 15% of blowing agent in LDPE. A series of preliminary trials defined 203 degree sign C as the right blowing agent decomposition temperature. At a 22.7 kGys/dose ratio, the lowest dose for providing an efficient foam was 30 kGy, for a formulation comprising 10% of azodicarbonamide in LDPE, within a 10 minutes foaming time

  16. Gap junctions are selectively associated with interlocking ball-and-sockets but not protrusions in the lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Sondip K; Lee, Jai Eun; Brako, Lawrence; Jiang, Jean X; Lo, Woo-Kuen

    2010-11-09

    Ball-and-sockets and protrusions are specialized interlocking membrane domains between lens fibers of all species studied. Ball-and-sockets and protrusions are similar in their shape, size, and surface morphology, and are traditionally believed to play a key role in maintaining fiber-to-fiber stability. Here, we evaluate the hypothesis that ball-and-sockets and protrusions possess important structural and functional differences during fiber cell differentiation and maturation. Intact lenses of leghorn chickens (E7 days to P62 weeks old) and rhesus monkeys (1.5-20 years old) were studied with SEM, freeze-fracture TEM, freeze-fracture immunogold labeling (FRIL), and filipin cytochemistry for membrane cholesterol detection. SEM showed that ball-and-sockets were distributed along the long and short sides of hexagonal fiber cells, whereas protrusions were located along the cell corners, from superficial to deep cortical regions in both chicken and monkey lenses. Importantly, by freeze-fracture TEM, we discovered the selective association of gap junctions with all ball-and-sockets examined, but not with protrusions, in both species. In the embryonic chicken lens (E18), the abundant distribution of ball-and-socket gap junctions was regularly found in an approximate zone extending at least 300 μm deep from the equatorial surface of the superficial cortical fibers. Many ball-and-socket gap junctions often protruded deeply into neighboring cells. However, in the mature fibers of monkey lenses, several ball-and-sockets exhibited only partial occupancy of gap junctions with disorganized connexons, possibly due to degradation of gap junctions during fiber maturation and aging. FRIL analysis confirmed that both connexin46 (Cx46) and connexin50 (Cx50) antibodies specifically labeled ball-and-socket gap junctions, but not protrusions. Furthermore, filipin cytochemistry revealed that the ball-and-socket gap junctions contained different amounts of cholesterol (i.e., cholesterol

  17. Shell-crosslinked knedel-like nanoparticles induce lower immunotoxicity than their non-crosslinked analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsabahy, Mahmoud; Samarajeewa, Sandani; Raymond, Jeffery E; Clark, Corrie; Wooley, Karen L

    2013-10-21

    The development of stable nanoparticles that can withstand the changing conditions experienced in a biological setting and also be of low toxicity and immunogenicity is of particular importance to address the problems associated with currently utilized nanotechnology-based therapeutics and diagnostics. The use of crosslinked nanoparticles continues to receive special impetus, due to their robust structure and high kinetic stability, and they have recently been shown to induce lower cytotoxicity than their non-crosslinked micellar counterparts. In the current study, poly(acrylamidoethylamine)- block -poly(DL-lactide) (PAEA 90 - b -PDLLA 40 ) copolymers were synthesized, self-assembled in water to yield nanoscopic polymeric micelles, and the effects of decorating the micellar surface with poly(ethylene glycol) ( i.e. PEGylation) and crosslinking the PAEA layer to varying extents on the physicochemical characteristics, cytotoxicity and immunotoxicity of the nanoparticles were studied. Herein, we report for the first time that crosslinking can efficiently reduce the immunotoxicity of polymeric nanomaterials. In addition, increasing the degree of crosslinking further reduced the accessibility of biomolecules to the core of the nanoparticles and decreased their cytotoxicity and immunotoxicity. It is also highlighted that crosslinking can be more efficient than PEGylation in reducing the immunotoxicity of nanomaterials. Shell-crosslinking of block copolymer micelles, therefore, is expected to advance their clinical development beyond the earlier known effects, and to broaden the implications in the field of nanomedicine.

  18. Clinical assessment of bone quality of human extraction sockets after conversion with growth factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntounis, Athanasios; Geurs, Nico; Vassilopoulos, Philip; Reddy, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of mineralized freeze-dried bone allograft (FDBA), alone or in combination with growth factors in extraction sockets, on subjective assessment of bone quality during implant placement. Forty-one patients whose treatment plan involved extraction of anterior or premolar teeth were randomized into four groups: Group 1, collagen plug (control); Group 2, FDBA/β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP)/collagen plug; Group 3, FDBA/β-TCP/platelet-rich plasma (PRP)/collagen plug; Group 4, FDBA/β-TCP/recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor BB (rhPDGF-BB)/collagen plug. After 8 weeks of healing, implants were placed. The clinicians assessed bone quality according to the Misch classification. A benchtop calibration exercise test was conducted to evaluate agreement and accuracy of operators in recognizing different bone qualities. Differences were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) or chi-square tests for continuous and categorical data. Pairwise comparisons were tested using least squares means (LS means). Spearman correlation coefficients were used to evaluate the relationship of bone growth with potential confounders. P .05). Inclusion of bone grafting is associated with a shift from D4 quality to D3 quality bone. Inclusion of PRP in bone grafting eliminates the incidence of D4 bone, establishing D3 and D2 quality bone as prevalent (56% vs. 42%, respectively). Inclusion of rhPDGF-BB and β-TCP in combination with the bone grafting has the same effect, although D2 quality is less prevalent. When compared to sockets grafted with FDBA/β-TCP/collagen plug alone, the sockets with growth factors demonstrated fewer residual bone graft particles. (1) Inclusion of bone grafting enhanced bone quality as assessed during implant placement. (2) Overall inclusion of PRP and rhPDGF-BB enhanced subjective bone quality, eliminating incidence of D4 quality in human extraction sockets. (3) The use of PRP or rhPDGF-BB may

  19. Bone physiology in human grafted and non-grafted extraction sockets--an immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahles, Susanne; Nack, Claudia; Gratecap, Kerrin; Lage, Hermann; Nelson, John J; Nelson, Katja

    2013-07-01

    The aim of the present immunohistological investigation was to define and compare the osteogenic potential with the vascularization of the provisional matrix in grafted and ungrafted extraction sockets after 4 and 12 weeks of healing. A total of 33 Patients (15 women, 18 men) with 65 extraction sites with a mean age of 54.4 years (30-73 years) participated in this study. After tooth extraction, the sockets were augmented with Bio-Oss collagen or non-augmented. At implant placement after 4 or 12 weeks bone biopsies were obtained. Within the specimens the osteogenic and endothelial potential of mesenchymal cells was analyzed in the provisional matrix using immunohistochemical analysis with three monoclonal antibodies Cbfa1/Runx2, Osteocalcin (OC), and CD31. Statistical analysis was performed using Mann-Whitney U-test, Spearman's rank-order correlation coefficient, and the two-factorial analysis for repeated measurements. Of the 65 extraction sockets, 25 (13 non-augmented, 12 augmented) sites after 4 weeks healing time and 40 (19 non-augmented, 21 augmented) sites after 12 weeks healing time were involved in the study. No signs of acute or chronic inflammation were noted in any specimens. After 4 weeks, a median amount of 56% (10-85%) of Cbfa1 positive cells and a median amount of cells expressing OC of 21% (5-42%) were measured. A median CD31 score of 5 was observed. After 12 weeks, a median amount of 61% (19-90%) positive cells expressed by Cbfa1/Runx2 staining a median amount of OC positive cells of 9% (2-17%) was measured. The results at 12 weeks revealed a median score of CD31 positive cells of 3. Osteoblastic activity in the provisional matrix was highest after 4 weeks of healing period. The active zone of bone formation is found in the apical region of the extraction socket during the early healing phase, shifting to the coronal region after 12 weeks. A peak of osteoblast activity within the first weeks is followed by a reduction in mature

  20. Cross-linking for microbial keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayesh Vazirani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The success of collagen cross-linking as a clinical modality to modify the clinical course in keratoconus seems to have fueled the search for alternative applications for this treatment. Current clinical data on its efficacy is limited and laboratory data seems to indicate that it performs poorly against resistant strains of bacteria and against slow growing organisms. However, the biological plausibility of crosslinking and the lack of effective strategies in managing infections with these organisms continue to focus attention on this potential treatment. Well-conducted experimental and clinical studies with controls are required to answer the questions of its efficacy in future.

  1. Heating tubes of cross-linked polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoeppler, H.; Hoffmann, M.

    1981-01-01

    Oxygen permeability of plastic tubes for floor heating systems was measured as a function of the reduced oxygen content of water in plastic tubes at a flow rate of 0.5 m/s and a temperature of 30 0 C and as a function of oxygen uptake of low-oxygen water in floor heating tubes. Pipes of VEP, periodically cross-linked polyethylene (Engels process), polypropylene copolymeride, and polybutene were compared. The permeability of periodically cross-linked polyethylene is twice as high as that of VEP. Measurements, results, and consequences for floor heating systems are discussed. (KH) [de

  2. Immediate provisionalization of dental implants placed in healed alveolar ridges and extraction sockets: a 5-year prospective evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Lyndon F; Reside, Glenn J; Raes, Filiep; Garriga, Joan Soliva; Tarrida, Luis Giner; Wiltfang, Jörg; Kern, Matthias; De Bruyn, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    This 5-year prospective multicenter study compared implant survival and success, peri-implant health and soft tissue responses, crestal bone level stability, and complication rates following immediate loading of single OsseoSpeed implants placed in anterior maxillary healed ridges or extraction sockets. Individuals requiring anterior tooth replacement with single implants were treated and immediately provisionalized. Definitive all-ceramic crowns were placed at 12 weeks. Implant survival, bone levels, soft tissue levels, and peri-implant health were monitored for 5 years. One hundred thirteen patients received implants in fresh sockets (55) and healed ridges (58). After 5 years, 45 and 49 patients remained for evaluation, respectively. During the first year, three implants failed in the extraction socket group (94.6% survival) and one implant failed in the healed ridge group (98.3% survival); this difference was not significant. No further implant failures were recorded. After 5 years, the interproximal crestal bone levels were located a mean of 0.43 ± 0.63 mm and 0.38 ± 0.62 mm from the reference points of implants in sockets and healed ridges (not a significant difference). In both groups, papillae increased over time and peri-implant mucosal zenith positions were stable from the time of definitive crown placement in sockets and healed ridges. Compared to flap surgery for implants in healed ridges, flapless surgery resulted in increased peri-implant mucosal tissue dimension (average, 0.78 ± 1.34 mm vs 0.19 ± 0.79 mm). After 5 years, the bone and soft tissue parameters that characterize implant success and contribute to dental implant esthetics were similar following the immediate provisionalization of implants in sockets and healed ridges. The overall tissue responses and reported implant survival support the immediate provisionalization of dental implants in situations involving healed ridges and, under ideal circumstances, extraction sockets.

  3. Densely crosslinked polycarbosiloxanes .2. Thermal and mechanical properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flipsen, T.A C; Derks, R.; van der Vegt, H.A.; Stenekes, R.; Pennings, A.J; Hadziioannou, G

    1997-01-01

    The thermal and mechanical properties of two densely crosslinked polycarbosiloxane systems were investigated in relation to the molecular structure. The networks were prepared from functional branched prepolymers and crosslinked via a hydrosilylation curing reaction. The prepolymers having only

  4. Thermal enhancement of x-ray induced DNA crosslinking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowden, G.T.; Kasunic, M.; Cress, A.E.

    1982-01-01

    Ionizing radiation appears to crosslink nuclear DNA with chromosomal proteins. Important cellular processes such as transcription and DNA replication are likely to be compromised as a result of the DNA crosslinking. Heat treatment (43/sup o/C) of mouse leukemia cells (L1210) before X irradiation (50 Gy) was found to cause a doubling of the radiation-induced DNA crosslinking as measured by alkaline elution technique. By using proteinase K, a very active protease, to eliminate DNA-protein crosslinking in the alkaline elution assay, it was shown that the thermally enhanced DNA crosslinking was attributed to an increase in DNA-protein crosslinking. However, utilizing a protein radiolabel technique under conditions of increased DNA-protein crosslinking, the amount of protein left on the filter in the elution assay was not increased. These data suggest that qualitative rather than large quantitative differences in the crosslinked chromosomal proteins exist between irradiated cells and cells treated with heat prior to irradiation

  5. Evora® chromium-cobalt dual mobility socket: results at a minimum 10 years' follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, S; Benoit, J Y; de Rosa, J P; Tallier, E; Leteurtre, C; Girardin, P H

    2013-12-01

    The Evora chromium-cobalt alloy dual mobility socket claims to display a large articulation tribology different from that of stainless steel models, limiting the risk of intraprosthetic dislocation and wear. The present study reports a minimum of 10years' follow-up in a multicenter prospective series of 200 sockets previously reported on at 5years. The use of chromium-cobalt in dual mobility sockets provides a low rate of failure at 10years, especially as regards to osteolysis and intraprosthetic dislocation. Two hundred hydroxyapatite-coated molded chromium-cobalt sockets without titanium interface were implanted without cement in 194 patients with a mean age of 70 years (range, 32-91 years). Clinical results were assessed on Postel Merle d'Aubigné and Harris scores, plain radiographs and survival analysis. At a mean 11 years' follow-up (10-13 years), 56 patients had died and 31 were lost to follow-up. Four underwent surgical revision (3 femoral components, and 1 socket for migration at 9 years with complete disappearance of the hydroxyapatite). A total of 109 implants were analyzable in 107 patients with a mean age of 81 years (55-93 years). At follow-up, the mean Harris score was 90 (75-96) and the PMA score 16.3 (14-18). There were no cases of loosening (except for the case reoperated on at 9 years) and no acetabular radiolucency or cysts. There were 2 cases of non-evolutive femoral radiolucency and 10 of femoral granuloma, involving head size > 22 mm (P<0.0001) and a cemented titanium stem (P=0.004) as risk factors. There were no dislocations in the large or small articulation. Ten-year survival was 99% (95% CI: 97.3%-100%) with socket revision as censorship criterion. The absence of dislocation in both small and large articulations confirmed the efficacy of the dual mobility concept and suggested an advantage for chromium-cobalt sockets in reducing the rate of intraprosthetic dislocation and preventing blockage of the large articulation by a better

  6. Modification of UHMWPE membrane with a PE/clay/PE-G-MA nano composite film to treat oily effluents; Modificacao de membrana de PEUAPM com filme nanocomposito de PEAD/argila/PE-G-MA para o tratamento de efluentes oleosos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Suelem S.L.; Silva, Caio M.B.; Leal, Tania L; Carvalho, Laura H; Costa, Anna R.M. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil)], e-mail: tanlucleal@yahoo.com.br

    2011-07-01

    Interest in techniques of surface modification is evinced by the large number of studies in recent decades. In this work the internal surfaces of polymeric membranes of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) were modified by impregnation of HDPE/organoclay/PE-g-MA nanocomposite film. The addition of PE-g-MA aims to increase polymer/clay interaction and to control and/or modify surface characteristics of UHMWPE membranes, such as permeability and pore size, so as to make the membranes more efficient and/or appropriate for effluent treatment, more specifically in the treatment of oil contaminated water. The films were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), the modified membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and their performance (permeate flux and selectivity) were measured using distilled water and an oil in water dispersion. (author)

  7. Enzymatically crosslinked silk-hyaluronic acid hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raia, Nicole R; Partlow, Benjamin P; McGill, Meghan; Kimmerling, Erica Palma; Ghezzi, Chiara E; Kaplan, David L

    2017-07-01

    In this study, silk fibroin and hyaluronic acid (HA) were enzymatically crosslinked to form biocompatible composite hydrogels with tunable mechanical properties similar to that of native tissues. The formation of di-tyrosine crosslinks between silk fibroin proteins via horseradish peroxidase has resulted in a highly elastic hydrogel but exhibits time-dependent stiffening related to silk self-assembly and crystallization. Utilizing the same method of crosslinking, tyramine-substituted HA forms hydrophilic and bioactive hydrogels that tend to have limited mechanics and degrade rapidly. To address the limitations of these singular component scaffolds, HA was covalently crosslinked with silk, forming a composite hydrogel that exhibited both mechanical integrity and hydrophilicity. The composite hydrogels were assessed using unconfined compression and infrared spectroscopy to reveal of the physical properties over time in relation to polymer concentration. In addition, the hydrogels were characterized by enzymatic degradation and for cytotoxicity. Results showed that increasing HA concentration, decreased gelation time, increased degradation rate, and reduced changes that were observed over time in mechanics, water retention, and crystallization. These hydrogel composites provide a biologically relevant system with controllable temporal stiffening and elasticity, thus offering enhanced tunable scaffolds for short or long term applications in tissue engineering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cross-linked structure of network evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassett, Danielle S., E-mail: dsb@seas.upenn.edu [Department of Bioengineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Sage Center for the Study of the Mind, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Wymbs, Nicholas F.; Grafton, Scott T. [Department of Psychology and UCSB Brain Imaging Center, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Porter, Mason A. [Oxford Centre for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford OX2 6GG (United Kingdom); CABDyN Complexity Centre, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 1HP (United Kingdom); Mucha, Peter J. [Carolina Center for Interdisciplinary Applied Mathematics, Department of Mathematics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Department of Applied Physical Sciences, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    We study the temporal co-variation of network co-evolution via the cross-link structure of networks, for which we take advantage of the formalism of hypergraphs to map cross-link structures back to network nodes. We investigate two sets of temporal network data in detail. In a network of coupled nonlinear oscillators, hyperedges that consist of network edges with temporally co-varying weights uncover the driving co-evolution patterns of edge weight dynamics both within and between oscillator communities. In the human brain, networks that represent temporal changes in brain activity during learning exhibit early co-evolution that then settles down with practice. Subsequent decreases in hyperedge size are consistent with emergence of an autonomous subgraph whose dynamics no longer depends on other parts of the network. Our results on real and synthetic networks give a poignant demonstration of the ability of cross-link structure to uncover unexpected co-evolution attributes in both real and synthetic dynamical systems. This, in turn, illustrates the utility of analyzing cross-links for investigating the structure of temporal networks.

  9. Cross-linked structure of network evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassett, Danielle S.; Wymbs, Nicholas F.; Grafton, Scott T.; Porter, Mason A.; Mucha, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    We study the temporal co-variation of network co-evolution via the cross-link structure of networks, for which we take advantage of the formalism of hypergraphs to map cross-link structures back to network nodes. We investigate two sets of temporal network data in detail. In a network of coupled nonlinear oscillators, hyperedges that consist of network edges with temporally co-varying weights uncover the driving co-evolution patterns of edge weight dynamics both within and between oscillator communities. In the human brain, networks that represent temporal changes in brain activity during learning exhibit early co-evolution that then settles down with practice. Subsequent decreases in hyperedge size are consistent with emergence of an autonomous subgraph whose dynamics no longer depends on other parts of the network. Our results on real and synthetic networks give a poignant demonstration of the ability of cross-link structure to uncover unexpected co-evolution attributes in both real and synthetic dynamical systems. This, in turn, illustrates the utility of analyzing cross-links for investigating the structure of temporal networks

  10. Mesoscopic simulations of crosslinked polymer networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Megariotis, G.; Vogiatzis, G.G.; Schneider, L.; Müller, M.; Theodorou, D.N.

    2016-01-01

    A new methodology and the corresponding C++ code for mesoscopic simulations of elastomers are presented. The test system, crosslinked ds-1'4-polyisoprene' is simulated with a Brownian Dynamics/kinetic Monte Carlo algorithm as a dense liquid of soft, coarse-grained beads, each representing 5-10 Kuhn

  11. Comparison of immediate implant placement in infected and non-infected extraction sockets: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jungwon; Park, Dueun; Koo, Ki-Tae; Seol, Yang-Jo; Lee, Yong-Moo

    2018-04-03

    This review aimed to investigate the feasibility of immediate implant placement in infected extraction sockets. We performed electronic and manual searches up to March 2017 to obtain data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and nonrandomized controlled clinical trials (CCTs). Using a fixed-effects model to assess the difference in survival rate (primary outcome), we evaluated the risk difference for immediate implant placement in infected and non-infected sites. We estimated the weighted mean differences (WMDs) of the change in marginal bone loss (MBL), probing depth (PD), modified bleeding index (mBI), marginal gingival level (MGL) and width of keratinized gingiva (WKG) at baseline and latest follow-up. In total, five studies (0 RCT, five CCTs) were included in the systematic review and three studies were included in the meta-analysis. The risk difference for immediate implant placement in an infected extraction socket compared with that in a non-infected socket was -0.02. WMDs for MBL, PD, mBI, MGL and WKG between the two groups were 0.32, 0.12, 0.07, -0.06, 0.20 and 0.51, respectively. No statistical differences were observed between the two groups, except for the change in WKG. Implants can be placed in infected extraction sockets after thorough socket debridement. For aesthetics, WKG should be considered when performing immediate implant placement in infected sites.

  12. The Capability of Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors to Measure Amputees’ Trans-Tibial Stump/Socket Interface Pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Rafiq Mahamd Adikan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the first investigation into the capability of fiber Bragg grating (FBG sensors to measure interface pressure between the stump and the prosthetic sockets of a trans-tibial amputee. FBG element(s were recoated with and embedded in a thin layer of epoxy material to form a sensing pad, which was in turn embedded in a silicone polymer material to form a pressure sensor. The sensor was tested in real time by inserting a heavy-duty balloon into the socket and inflating it by using an air compressor. This test was conducted to examine the sensitivity and repeatability of the sensor when subjected to pressure from the stump of the trans-tibial amputee and to mimic the actual environment of the amputee’s Patellar Tendon (PT bar. The sensor exhibited a sensitivity of 127 pm/N and a maximum FSO hysteresis of around ~0.09 in real-time operation. Very good reliability was achieved when the sensor was utilized for in situ measurements. This study may lead to smart FBG-based amputee stump/socket structures for pressure monitoring in amputee socket systems, which will result in better-designed prosthetic sockets that ensure improved patient satisfaction.

  13. The capability of fiber Bragg grating sensors to measure amputees' trans-tibial stump/socket interface pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fakih, Ebrahim A; Osman, Noor Azuan Abu; Eshraghi, Arezoo; Adikan, Faisal Rafiq Mahamd

    2013-08-12

    This study presents the first investigation into the capability of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors to measure interface pressure between the stump and the prosthetic sockets of a trans-tibial amputee. FBG element(s) were recoated with and embedded in a thin layer of epoxy material to form a sensing pad, which was in turn embedded in a silicone polymer material to form a pressure sensor. The sensor was tested in real time by inserting a heavy-duty balloon into the socket and inflating it by using an air compressor. This test was conducted to examine the sensitivity and repeatability of the sensor when subjected to pressure from the stump of the trans-tibial amputee and to mimic the actual environment of the amputee's Patellar Tendon (PT) bar. The sensor exhibited a sensitivity of 127 pm/N and a maximum FSO hysteresis of around ~0.09 in real-time operation. Very good reliability was achieved when the sensor was utilized for in situ measurements. This study may lead to smart FBG-based amputee stump/socket structures for pressure monitoring in amputee socket systems, which will result in better-designed prosthetic sockets that ensure improved patient satisfaction.

  14. Socket preservation using freeze-dried bone allograft with and without plasma rich in growth factors in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hasan Samandari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF and freeze-dried bone allograft (FDBA are shown to promote bone healing. This study was aimed to histologically and histomorphometrically investigate the effect of combined use of PRGF and FDBA on bone formation, and compare it to FDBA alone and control group. Materials and Methods: The distal roots of the lower premolars were extracted bilaterally in four female dogs. Sockets were randomly divided into FDBA + PRGF, FDBA, and control groups. Two dogs were sacrificed after 2 weeks and two dogs were sacrificed after 4 weeks. Sockets were assessed histologically and histomorphometrically. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Mann-Whitney U-tests utilizing the SPSS software version 20. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: While the difference in density of fibrous tissue in three groups was not statistically significant (P = 0.343, the bone density in grafted groups was significantly higher than the control group (P = 0.021. The least decrease in all socket dimensions was observed in the FDBA group. However, these differences were only significant in coronal portion at week 4. Regarding socket dimensions and bone density, the difference between FDBA and FDBA+PRGF groups was not significant in middle and apical portions. Conclusion: The superiority of PRGF+FDBA overFDBA in socket preservation cannot be concluded from this experiment.

  15. Bone grafting of alveolar socket and ovate seat pontic preparation for natural emergence profile for anterior bridge - A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Deshmukh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Alveolar atrophy following tooth extraction remains a challenge for future prosthetic restorations. Immediate implant placement and postextraction alveolar bone grafting are two methods that are used to prevent significant postextraction bone loss. Grafting is one of the most common methods of socket preservation widely used to prevent the collapse of oral tissues following extraction so that an excellent esthetic prosthesis can be provided particularly in the anterior maxillary region. The present report describes the management of a maxillary tooth extraction socket using a socket preservation technique involving placement of an osteoconductive slowly resorbable grafting material & resorbable collagen membrane in the extraction socket also called as Bio-Col socket preservation technique followed by a provisional restoration to preserve the tissues & interdental papilla for the placement of future final ovate pontic anterior bridge to give the illusion of the tooth emerging from the gums. This technique resulted in a successful prevention of alveolar bone loss following tooth extraction & maintainence of tissue contour & density which provided a good tissue base for the fabrication of Ovate pontic giving excellent esthetic results.

  16. Crosslinking of viral nanoparticles with “clickable” fluorescent crosslinkers at the interface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KAUR; Gagandeep; BARNHILL; Hannah

    2010-01-01

    Cu (I) catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction,a typical "click" reaction,is one of the modular synthetic approaches which has been broadly used in various organic syntheses,medicinal chemistry,materials development and bioconjugation applications.We have for the first time synthesized two dialkyne derivatized fluorescent crosslinkers which could be applied to crosslink two biomolecules using CuAAC reaction.Turnip yellow mosaic virus,a plant virus with unique structural and chemical properties,was used as a prototypical scaffold to form a 2D single layer at the interface of two immiscible liquids and crosslinked with these two linkers by the CuAAC reaction.Upon crosslinking,the fluorescence of both linkers diminished,likely due to the distortion of the polymethylene backbone,which therefore could be used to indicate the completion of the reaction.

  17. ESR study on free radicals trapped in crosslinked polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshima, Akihiro; Tabata, Yoneho; Seguchi, Tadao

    1997-01-01

    Free radicals in crosslinked PTFE which formed by 60 Co γ-rays irradiation at 77 K and at room temperature were studied by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The crosslinked PTFE specimens with different crosslinking density were prepared by electron beam irradiation in the molten state. The ESR spectra observed in the irradiated crosslinked PTFE are much different from those in non-crosslinked PTFE (virgin); a broad singlet component increases with increasing the crosslinking density, G-value of radicals is much higher in crosslinked PTFE than in non-crosslinked one. Free radicals related to the broad component are trapped in the non-crystalline region of crosslinked PTFE and rather stable at room temperature, whereas radicals trapped in amorphous non-crosslinked PTFE are unstable at room temperature. It is thought that most of free radicals trapped in the crosslinked PTFE are formed in the crosslinked amorphous region. The trapped radicals decays around 383 K (110 o C) due to the molecular motion of α-relaxation. (Author)

  18. [Biophysical principles of collagen cross-linking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spörl, E; Raiskup-Wolf, F; Pillunat, L E

    2008-02-01

    The reduced mechanical stability of the cornea in keratoconus or in keratectasia after Lasik may be increased by photooxidative cross-linking of corneal collagen. The biophysical principles are compiled for the safe and effective application of this new treatment method. The setting of the therapy parameters should be elucidated from the absorption behaviour of the cornea. The safety of the method for the endothelium cells and the lens will be discussed. The induced cross-links are shown to be the result of changes in the physico-chemical properties of the cornea. To reach a high absorption of the irradiation energy in the cornea, riboflavin of a concentration of 0.1% and UV light of a wavelength of 370 nm, corresponding to the relative maximum of absorption of riboflavin, were used. An irradiance of 3 mW/cm(2) and an irradiation time of 30 min lead to an increase of the mechanical stiffness. The endothelium cells will be protected due to the high absorption within the cornea, that means the damaging threshold of the endothelium cells will not be reached in a 400 microm thick stroma. As evidence for cross-links we can consider the increase of the biomechanical stiffness, the increased resistance against enzymatic degradation, a higher shrinkage temperature, a lower swelling rate and an increased diameter of collagen fibres. The therapy parameters were tested experimentally and have been proven clinically in the corneal collagen cross-linking. These parameters should be respected to reach a safe cross-linking effect without damage of the adjacent tissues.

  19. Análisis experimental del desgaste entre UHMWPE y acero inoxidable 316l empleados en la manufactura de prótesis coxofemorales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Gustavo Rodríguez Cañizo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Título en inglés: Experimental wear analysis of UHMWPE and stainless 316l used in the manufacturing of coxofemoral prosthesis. Resumen La causa más común de falla en prótesis coxofemorales es el aflojamiento entre los componentes que conforman el sistema, de manera específica la copa acetabular y la cabeza femoral. En esta investigación se presenta un análisis tribológico del desgaste en los componentes mencionados, ya que cuando las superficies en contacto se desgastan, la funcionalidad mecánica del sistema se compromete, debido al cambio de geometría de los mismos, dando como resultado un juego mecánico entre la copa y la cabeza. Los materiales considerados en este estudio son el polietileno de ultra elevado peso molecular (UHMWPE, por sus siglas en inglés para la copa acetabular, y acero inoxidable 316L para la cabeza femoral. Esta combinación de materiales representa hoy en día la recomendación más usual por parte de los cirujanos para pacientes de la tercera edad. La tasa anual de desgaste se determinó de manera experimental y se cuantificó la cantidad de material desprendido durante el contacto. Se establecieron las condiciones de carga de forma analítica, considerando las que actúan sobre la cabeza femoral a lo largo del área de desgaste durante la marcha humana. Posteriormente, se realizó el análisis experimental de desgaste utilizando una máquina tribológica de configuración perno-sobre-disco (pin-on-disk, diseñada de manera específica para este estudio. Las pruebas para determinar la pérdida volumétrica de los componentes se realizaron bajo tres condiciones de operación: en seco, lubricada con agua destilada y lubricada con suero bovino. El marco experimental considerado consistió en pernos de UHMWPE sobre discos de acero inoxidable 316L simulando el desgaste equivalente a diez años de uso de la prótesis. Finalmente, de los resultados obtenidos se puede establecer que el desgaste y la cantidad de part

  20. Purposeful exposure of a polylactic acid barrier to achieve socket preservation for placement of dental implants: case series report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Paul S; Rosen, Adam D

    2013-01-01

    This retrospective case series reports on the use of a polylactic acid barrier that was left exposed in the process of socket preparation for the placement of dental implants. A retrospective chart review found 43 patients with 48 extraction sockets that were treated in this manner. Teeth were removed and the sockets were thoroughly debrided, with 40 of them receiving a bone replacement graft covered by the polylactic acid barrier and the additional 8 receiving the membrane alone. Suturing left the barrier exposed, and the sites were re-entered on average at 23 weeks for the placement of a dental implant. All sites were able to receive a dental implant, demonstrating the ability to leave a polylactic acid barrier exposed and achieve successful guided bone regeneration (GBR) results. This ultimately helped avoid some of the negative sequelae of trying to achieve primary closure of the flaps at the time of tooth extraction.

  1. Socket preservation using freeze-dried bone allograft with and without plasma rich in growth factors in dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samandari, Mohammad Hasan; Haghighat, Abbas; Torabinia, Nakisa; Taghian, Mehdi; Sadri, Leyli; Naemy, Vahid

    2016-01-01

    Background: Plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) and freeze-dried bone allograft (FDBA) are shown to promote bone healing. This study was aimed to histologically and histomorphometrically investigate the effect of combined use of PRGF and FDBA on bone formation, and compare it to FDBA alone and control group. Materials and Methods: The distal roots of the lower premolars were extracted bilaterally in four female dogs. Sockets were randomly divided into FDBA + PRGF, FDBA, and control groups. Two dogs were sacrificed after 2 weeks and two dogs were sacrificed after 4 weeks. Sockets were assessed histologically and histomorphometrically. Data were analyzed by Kruskal–Wallis test followed by Mann–Whitney U-tests utilizing the SPSS software version 20. P PRGF groups was not significant in middle and apical portions. Conclusion: The superiority of PRGF+FDBA overFDBA in socket preservation cannot be concluded from this experiment. PMID:27857769

  2. Effect of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1α on Early Healing in Extraction Sockets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Chang Lim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1A on the early healing (4 weeks of extraction sockets exhibiting partial loss of the labial bone. Two extraction sockets of the maxillary incisors from each of six dogs were assigned to two treatment modalities: deproteinized bovine bone mineral (i with 10% collagen (DBBM-C soaked with HIF1A and covered by a collagen membrane (CM (HIF group or (ii treated with DBBM-C only and covered by a CM (control group. Microcomputed tomography revealed some degree of collapse of the labial contour. The totally augmented volume and new bone volume did not differ significantly between two groups (P>0.05. The histological analysis revealed that the apical area of the socket was mostly filled with newly formed bone, while there was less newly formed bone in the coronal area and incomplete cortex formation. The histomorphometric analysis revealed that the area of newly formed bone was significantly larger in the HIF group than the control group (12.16±3.04 versus 9.48±2.01 mm2, P<0.05, while there was no significant intergroup difference in the total augmented area. In conclusion, even though DBBM-C soaked with HIF1A enhanced histomorphometric bone formation, this intervention did not demonstrate superiority in preventing ridge shrinkage compared to DBBM-C alone. Clinical relevance of these findings should be further studied.

  3. Stability of implants placed in fresh sockets versus healed alveolar sites: Early findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrke, Sergio Alexandre; da Silva Neto, Ulisses Tavares; Rossetti, Paulo Henrique Orlato; Watinaga, Sidney Eiji; Giro, Gabriela; Shibli, Jamil Awad

    2016-05-01

    The present study measured implant stability quotient (ISQ) values at three different time points after surgical procedures to compare whether the stability values differed between implants placed in fresh extraction sockets versus healed alveolar sites. To measure implant stability, resonance frequency analysis (RFA) was performed in 77 patients (53 women, 24 men) with a total of 120 dental implants. These implants were divided into two groups: Group 1 included 60 implants in healed alveolar sites (22 in the maxilla, 38 in the mandible), and Group 2 included 60 implants in fresh sockets (41 in the maxilla, 19 in the mandible). Implant stability was measured immediately at implant placement (baseline), 90, and 150 days later. Statistical analysis was made using a multivariate regression linear model at implant level (α = 0.05). Overall, the means and standard deviations of the ISQ values were 62.7 ± 7.14 (95% confidence interval [CI], 39-88) at baseline, 70.0 ± 6.22 (95% CI, 46-88) at 90 days, and 73.4 ± 5.84 (95% CI, 58-88) at 150 days. In Group 1, the ISQs ranged between 64.3 ± 6.20 and 75.0 ± 5.69, while in Group 2, presented lower values that ranged between 61.2 ± 8.09 and 71.9 ± 5.99 (P = 0.002). Anatomic location and times periods were the only identified variables with an influence on ISQ values at implant level (P sockets and in healed sites exhibited similar evolutions in ISQ values and thus osseointegration; however, the implants in the healed alveolar sites exhibited superior values at all time points. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Holistic Healing Through Herbs: Effectiveness of Aloe Vera on Post Extraction Socket Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimma, Vijaya Lakshmi; Talla, Harsha Vardhan; Bairi, Jaya Krishna; Gopaldas, Madhulatha; Bathula, Haritha; Vangdoth, Sandeep

    2017-03-01

    Advances in the field of alternative medicine has encouraged the use of various natural products for multiple uses in the field of dentistry for treatment of various oral diseases. A natural herbal product is Aloe vera, which has number of benefits with no reported side effects and gaining considerable importance in clinical research. The aim of this cross-sectional randomized interventional study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Aloe vera in the healing of post extraction sockets. A sample size of 40 patients undergoing atraumatic extraction was divided into two groups. Group A-patients were prescribed only analgesics and followed for seven consecutive days and socket healing assessment was done. Group B-Patients were given Aloe vera soaked gel foams, followed up to the third and seventh day by two observers and the socket healing was assessed using the standardized index by Landry, Turnbull and Howley. In addition to healing the common complaint associated with extraction wound, the pain was assessed using numerical rating scale. Data obtained was statistically analysed using Mann-whitney U test, Wilcoxon Signed ranks test and Spearman's rank correlation method. Control group on the third and the seventh day showed healing of 60% and 70% respectively and the Aloe vera group showed a better result having a healing potential of 70% on the third day and 90% on the seventh day which was statistically significant with a (p-valueAloe vera group showed a significant decrease in pain after two hours on the day of extraction followed by second, third and seventh day which was statistically significant (p-valueAloe vera has been proved to have a unique property that is implicated in better healing than other group without any side effects. Aloe vera is economical, effective, powerful nutritional supplement and antioxidant that protects and promotes wound healing.

  5. Holistic Healing Through Herbs: Effectiveness of Aloe Vera on Post Extraction Socket Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talla, Harsha Vardhan; Bairi, Jaya Krishna; Gopaldas, Madhulatha; Bathula, Haritha; Vangdoth, Sandeep

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Advances in the field of alternative medicine has encouraged the use of various natural products for multiple uses in the field of dentistry for treatment of various oral diseases. A natural herbal product is Aloe vera, which has number of benefits with no reported side effects and gaining considerable importance in clinical research. Aim The aim of this cross-sectional randomized interventional study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Aloe vera in the healing of post extraction sockets. Materials and Methods A sample size of 40 patients undergoing atraumatic extraction was divided into two groups. Group A-patients were prescribed only analgesics and followed for seven consecutive days and socket healing assessment was done. Group B-Patients were given Aloe vera soaked gel foams, followed up to the third and seventh day by two observers and the socket healing was assessed using the standardized index by Landry, Turnbull and Howley. In addition to healing the common complaint associated with extraction wound, the pain was assessed using numerical rating scale. Data obtained was statistically analysed using Mann-whitney U test, Wilcoxon Signed ranks test and Spearman’s rank correlation method. Results Control group on the third and the seventh day showed healing of 60% and 70% respectively and the Aloe vera group showed a better result having a healing potential of 70% on the third day and 90% on the seventh day which was statistically significant with a (p-valueAloe vera group showed a significant decrease in pain after two hours on the day of extraction followed by second, third and seventh day which was statistically significant (p-valueAloe vera has been proved to have a unique property that is implicated in better healing than other group without any side effects. Aloe vera is economical, effective, powerful nutritional supplement and antioxidant that protects and promotes wound healing. PMID:28511517

  6. Radiation cross-linking of fluoropolymers: Pt.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jiazhen; Zhu Xianglin; Zhang Yuefang

    1987-01-01

    On the basis of the results of IR analysis, ESR, ESCA and chemical anlaysis, the mechanism of radiation crosslinking of fluoropolymer Fs-46 was suggested. The crosslinking point of Fs-46 is not on the side chain-CF 3 -group, as Bowers suggest with their theoretical analysis, it may carried out with recombination of two side chain radicals directly, crosslinking with H type, or recombination of side chain radicals and chain end radicals through branching and then crosslinking. It is crosslinking with T type or Y type. The later one is the probable mechanism

  7. The effects of modeling simplifications on craniofacial finite element models: the alveoli (tooth sockets) and periodontal ligaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Sarah A; Strait, David S; Dumont, Elizabeth R; Ross, Callum F; Grosse, Ian R

    2011-07-07

    Several finite element models of a primate cranium were used to investigate the biomechanical effects of the tooth sockets and the material behavior of the periodontal ligament (PDL) on stress and strain patterns associated with feeding. For examining the effect of tooth sockets, the unloaded sockets were modeled as devoid of teeth and PDL, filled with teeth and PDLs, or simply filled with cortical bone. The third premolar on the left side of the cranium was loaded and the PDL was treated as an isotropic, linear elastic material using published values for Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio. The remaining models, along with one of the socket models, were used to determine the effect of the PDL's material behavior on stress and strain distributions under static premolar biting and dynamic tooth loading conditions. Two models (one static and the other dynamic) treated the PDL as cortical bone. The other two models treated it as a ligament with isotropic, linear elastic material properties. Two models treated the PDL as a ligament with hyperelastic properties, and the other two as a ligament with viscoelastic properties. Both behaviors were defined using published stress-strain data obtained from in vitro experiments on porcine ligament specimens. Von Mises stress and strain contour plots indicate that the effects of the sockets and PDL material behavior are local. Results from this study suggest that modeling the sockets and the PDL in finite element analyses of skulls is project dependent and can be ignored if values of stress and strain within the alveolar region are not required. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Bone Regeneration of Hydroxyapatite with Granular Form or Porous Scaffold in Canine Alveolar Sockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    JANG, SEOK JIN; KIM, SE EUN; HAN, TAE SUNG; SON, JUN SIK; KANG, SEONG SOO; CHOI, SEOK HWA

    2017-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess bone regeneration using hydroxyapatite (HA). The primary focus was comparison of bone regeneration between granular HA (gHA) forms and porous HA (pHA) scaffold. The extracted canine alveolar sockets were divided with three groups: control, gHA and pHA. Osteogenic effect in the gHA and pHA groups showed bone-specific surface and bone mineral density to be significantly higher than that of the control group (psocket healing. For new bone formation during 8 weeks' post-implantation, HA with porous scaffold was superior to the granular form of HA. PMID:28438860

  9. Buccal bone deficiency in fresh extraction sockets: a prospective single cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Antonio; Ricci, Massimiliano; Romanos, Georgios E; Tonelli, Paolo; Alfonsi, Fortunato; Covani, Ugo

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this prospective single cohort study was to evaluate the use of xenograft and collagen membranes in treating full or partial buccal bone defects of fresh extraction sockets in the esthetic zone. Thirty-three patients requiring tooth extraction in the anterior maxillary area and showing a complete or partial buccal bone plate deficiency (more than 2 mm) were consecutively enrolled and treated. Corticocancellous porcine bone and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) with a collagen membrane were used to graft the extraction sockets, and the membranes were left exposed to the oral cavity with a secondary soft tissue healing. The outcome variables were as follows: width of keratinized mucosa, facial soft tissue levels, clinical bone changes (measured with a clinical splint), implant and prosthesis failures, and peri-implant marginal bone changes. All treated sites allowed the placement of implants; the width of keratinized mucosa at the mid-facial aspect showed an increase of 2.3 mm 5 months after the grafting procedure, and its value was 3.2 ± 0.6 mm at 1-year follow-up. The mean values of the facial soft tissue level indicated an increase over time. The bone level showed an improvement of 0.8 ± 0.1 mm and 0.7 ± 0.1 mm at mesial and distal sites, respectively, when compared to the baseline measurements. Finally, in the palatal area, no bone changes were observed. No implant failed during the entire observation period. Findings from this study showed that xenograft and PRF, used for ridge preservation of the extraction sockets with buccal bone plate dehiscence in the esthetic zone, can be considered effective in repairing bone defects before implant placement. The secondary soft tissue healing over the grafted sockets did not compromise bone formation; moreover, the soft tissue level and the width of keratinized gingiva showed a significant improvement over time. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Immediate Loading of Tapered Implants Placed in Postextraction Sockets and Healed Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chang-Hun; Mangano, Francesco; Mortellaro, Carmen; Park, Kwang-Bum

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the survival, stability, and complications of immediately loaded implants placed in postextraction sockets and healed sites. Over a 2-year period, all patients presenting with partial or complete edentulism of the maxilla and/or mandible (healed site group, at least 4 months of healing after tooth extraction) or in need of replacement of nonrecoverable failing teeth (postextraction group) were considered for inclusion in this study. Tapered implants featuring a nanostructured calcium-incorporated surface were placed and loaded immediately. The prosthetic restorations comprised single crowns, fixed partial dentures, and fixed full arches. Primary outcomes were implant survival, stability, and complications. Implant stability was assessed at placement and at each follow-up evaluation (1 week, 3 months, and 1 year after placement): implants with an insertion torque (IT) sockets of 17 patients, and 32 implants were placed in healed sites of 22 patients. There were no statistically significant differences in ISQ values between the 2 groups, at each assessment. In total, 60 implants (96.8%) had an IT ≥45 and an ISQ ≥70 at placement and at each follow-up control: all these implants were successfully loaded. Only 2 implants (1 in a postextraction socket and 1 in a healed site, 3.2%) could not achieve an IT ≥45 N·cm and/or an ISQ ≥70 at placement or over time: accordingly, these were considered failed for stability, as they could not be subjected to immediate loading. One of these 2 implants, in a healed site of a posterior maxilla, had to be removed, yielding an overall 1-year implant survival rate of 98.4%. No complications were reported. No significant differences were reported between the 2 groups with respect to implant failures and complications. Immediately loaded implants placed in postextraction sockets and healed sites had similar high survival and stability, with no reported complications. Further long

  11. Development and Evaluation of Secure Socket Layer Visualization Tool with Packet Capturing Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arai Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Secure Socket Layer (SSL has become a fundamental technology that secures browser-processed personal details sent to the server. As a result, communication and computer engineers are advised to learn the protocol. However, understanding SSL is very difficult because of its intricate communication procedure. To solve this problem, we developed a visualization tool for understanding SSL. This paper describes the design, implementation methods, and evaluation of the tool. The evaluation results show that the visualization tool is effective for learning SSL.

  12. Secondary reconstruction of a mobile eye socket 30 years after enucleation of the eyeball for retinoblastoma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumoto, T; Koike, G; Yoshimura, Y

    2014-03-01

    A mobile eye socket is generally reconstructed by inserting an implant into the scleral pocket immediately after bulbar exenteration, or by attaching the extra-ocular muscles to the implanted artificial eyeball immediately after enucleation. However, exposure of the implanted material and other problems can occur. We achieved satisfactory reconstruction of a mobile eye socket by using an autogenous cartilage graft and a pericranial flap in a patient with long-standing anophthalmia due to enucleation. This case is presented with a review of the relevant literature. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 3D reconstruction of the structure of a residual limb for customising the design of a prosthetic socket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuxian, Zheng; Wanhua, Zhao; Bingheng, Lu

    2005-01-01

    Aiming at overcoming the limitations of the plaster-casting method in traditional prosthetic socket fabrication, the idea of reconstructing the 3D models for bones and skin of the residual limb is proposed. Given the two-dimensional obtained image through CT scanning, using image processing and reverse engineering techniques, the 3D solid model of the residual limb can be successfully reconstructed. The new approach can reproduce both the internal and the external structure of the residual limb. It can moreover avoid making a positive mould by the way of manual modifications. In addition to this, it can provide a scientific basis for the individualization of prosthetic socket design.

  14. Desmosine-Inspired Cross-Linkers for Hyaluronan Hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagel, Valentin; Mateescu, Markus; Southan, Alexander; Wegner, Seraphine V.; Nuss, Isabell; Haraszti, Tamás; Kleinhans, Claudia; Schuh, Christian; Spatz, Joachim P.; Kluger, Petra J.; Bach, Monika; Tussetschläger, Stefan; Tovar, Günter E. M.; Laschat, Sabine; Boehm, Heike

    2013-06-01

    We designed bioinspired cross-linkers based on desmosine, the cross-linker in natural elastin, to prepare hydrogels with thiolated hyaluronic acid. These short, rigid cross-linkers are based on pyridinium salts (as in desmosine) and can connect two polymer backbones. Generally, the obtained semi-synthetic hydrogels are form-stable, can withstand repeated stress, have a large linear-elastic range, and show strain stiffening behavior typical for biopolymer networks. In addition, it is possible to introduce a positive charge to the core of the cross-linker without affecting the gelation efficiency, or consequently the network connectivity. However, the mechanical properties strongly depend on the charge of the cross-linker. The properties of the presented hydrogels can thus be tuned in a range important for engineering of soft tissues by controlling the cross-linking density and the charge of the cross-linker.

  15. Crosslinking of wire and cable insulation using electron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Yongxiang; Ma Zueteh

    1992-01-01

    Radiation crosslinking of wire and cable insulation is a well-established technology that is widely used in industry. The advantages of radiation crosslinking over chemical crosslinking have helped maintain its steady growth. Since successful utilization of electron beam processing relies on the formulation of compounds used in insulation, the radiation crosslinking of various polymers is reviewed. The handling technology for crosslinking wire and cable insulation and the throughput capacity of electron beam processors are also discussed. More than 30% of the industrial electron accelerators in the world are used for the radiation crosslinking of wire and cable insulation. Prospects of increased use of electron accelerators for crosslinking of wire and cable insulation are very good. (orig.)

  16. Crosslinked polyurethanes based on hyperbranched polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Jasna

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, two samples of polyurethane (PU crosslinked with hydroxy -functonal hyperbranched aliphatic polyester of the second pseudo generation were investigated. For the synthesis of these crosslinked PUs two different macrodiols were used: poly(tetramethyleneoxide (PTMO for PUPTMO and ethylene oxide-poly(dimethylsiloxane-ethylene oxide (PDMS-EO for PUPDMS-EO sample. Synthesized samples behave as elastomers and have yellow color. Obtained results show that swelling degree of the sample PUPDMS-EO in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinon (NMP determined at room temperature is higher than for the sample PUPTMO. It has been also observed that thermal properties of these polyurethane networks can be changed by incorporation of siloxane sequences in their structure.

  17. General protein-protein cross-linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegria-Schaffer, Alice

    2014-01-01

    This protocol describes a general protein-to-protein cross-linking procedure using the water-soluble amine-reactive homobifunctional BS(3) (bis[sulfosuccinimidyl] suberate); however, the protocol can be easily adapted using other cross-linkers of similar properties. BS(3) is composed of two sulfo-NHS ester groups and an 11.4 Å linker. Sulfo-NHS ester groups react with primary amines in slightly alkaline conditions (pH 7.2-8.5) and yield stable amide bonds. The reaction releases N-hydroxysuccinimide (see an application of NHS esters on Labeling a protein with fluorophores using NHS ester derivitization). © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Riboflavin UVA crosslinking in progressive keratoconus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, P; Reinhard, T

    2017-06-01

    In patients with keratoconus, a progressive, ectatic disease of the cornea, the shape of the cornea is continuously changing leading to a reduction in visual acuity by progressive myopia and more and more (irregular) astigmatism. The symptomatic treatment consists of the prescription of glasses or special gas-permeable rigid contact lenses. Corneal tomography is generally used for diagnosis. After initial diagnosis of keratoconus, regular tomographic follow-ups should be performed. If clinically significant progression is found and confirmed by repeated measurements, riboflavin UVA collagen crosslinking should be offered to the patients. The aim of riboflavin UVA collagen crosslinking is to halt the progression of the disease to avoid further complications. The therapeutic principle is a combined effect of the photosensitizer riboflavin and UVA light. This stiffening effect of the corneal tissue halts the progression of keratoconus. The efficacy of this treatment has been demonstrated in various randomized, controlled trials.

  19. Mesoscopic Simulations of Crosslinked Polymer Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megariotis, Grigorios; Vogiatzis, Georgios G.; Schneider, Ludwig; Müller, Marcus; Theodorou, Doros N.

    2016-08-01

    A new methodology and the corresponding C++ code for mesoscopic simulations of elastomers are presented. The test system, crosslinked ds-1’4-polyisoprene’ is simulated with a Brownian Dynamics/kinetic Monte Carlo algorithm as a dense liquid of soft, coarse-grained beads, each representing 5-10 Kuhn segments. From the thermodynamic point of view, the system is described by a Helmholtz free-energy containing contributions from entropic springs between successive beads along a chain, slip-springs representing entanglements between beads on different chains, and non-bonded interactions. The methodology is employed for the calculation of the stress relaxation function from simulations of several microseconds at equilibrium, as well as for the prediction of stress-strain curves of crosslinked polymer networks under deformation.

  20. Radiation crosslinking of PVC with polyfunctional monomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobo, J.; Takacs, E.; Csato, P.

    1984-01-01

    The radiation crosslinking of PVC in the presence of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDM) and of trimethylol propane trimethacrylate (TMPTM) was investigated. The effect of PVC powders of different types on the polymerization rate of these monomers was studied by a Calvet-type microcalorimeter. In the milled PVC sheets containing 50 part EGDM a high concentration of trapped free radicals was found by ESR after 16 months storage. (author)

  1. Intrastromal crosslinking in post-LASIK ectasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Kaplan Moscovici

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Descrevemos um caso de ectasia de córnea precoce após cirurgia de LASIK, detectado no primeiro semestre pós-operatório. Nós optamos tratar este paciente com "crosslinking" embaixo do "flap" , sem desepitelização com bons resultados. A paciente permaneceu sem progressão da ectasia até o momento atual, dois anos após o procedimento.

  2. Adhesion between Polydimethylsiloxane Layers by Crosslinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Liyun; Daugaard, Anders Egede; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2013-01-01

    Adhesion between two surfaces may be strongly improved by chemical crosslinking of the interfaces. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is a widely used polymer that has received considerable attention due to its unique properties, such as relatively low price, biocompatibility, flexibility, high thermal...... investigated by rheology and microscopy. The objective of this work was to create adhesion of two layers without destroying the original viscoelastic properties of the PDMS films....

  3. Electron beam crosslinked PVC : structure property relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Neeraj K.; Sabharwal, Sunil

    2001-01-01

    PVC is used extensively for its insulating properties for the manufacture of wires and cables and for other applications. Its gradual degradation, oxidation and even dehydro chlorination restricts use for long lasting period in installations such as high temperature zones, underground cables, communication systems, electro-nuclear facilities, etc. The technological properties and performance characteristics of PVC based insulation can be improved via crosslinking by high-energy electrons. PVC is however a polymer, which on irradiation predominantly undergoes degradation. To avoid degradation, it needs to be compounded with sensitizing agents or multifunctional monomers so that crosslinking is the predominant reaction. Radiation cross linkable formulations are complex mixtures of resin and various additives incorporated for achieving desired technological and performance characteristics, ease of processing and improving quality. The proper choice of additives and sensitizing agents enable low dose requirements for efficient crosslinking and improvements in various technological properties. The purposes of this work was to investigate the effect of using a binary sensitizer blend of a trifunctional monomer and a rubber in PVC, and develop suitable electron beam cross linkable formulations for wire insulation. This paper presents some aspects of the investigations and development of insulation demonstrated at industrial scale

  4. Epoxy Crosslinked Silica Aerogels (X-Aerogels)

    Science.gov (United States)

    fabrizio, Eve; Ilhan, Faysal; Meador, Mary Ann; Johnston, Chris; Leventis, Nicholas

    2004-01-01

    NASA is interested in the development of strong lightweight materials for the dual role of thermal insulator and structural component for space vehicles; freeing more weight for useful payloads. Aerogels are very-low density materials (0.010 to 0.5 g/cc) that, due to high porosity (meso- and microporosity), can be, depending on the chemical nature of the network, ideal thermal insulators (thermal conductivity approx. 15 mW/mK). However, aerogels are extremely fragile. For practical application of aerogels, one must increase strength without compromising the physical properties attributed to low density. This has been achieved by templated growth of an epoxy polymer layer that crosslinks the "pearl necklace" network of nanoparticles: the framework of a typical silica aerogel. The requirement for conformal accumulation of the epoxy crosslinker is reaction both with the surface of silica and with itself. After cross-linking, the strength of a typical aerogel monolith increases by a factor of 200, in the expense of only a 2-fold increase in density. Strength is increased further by coupling residual unreacted epoxides with diamine.

  5. Collagen cross-linking in thin corneas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prema Padmanabhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Collagen cross-linking (CXL has become the standard of care for progressive keratoconus, after numerous clinical studies have established its efficacy and safety in suitably selected eyes. The standard protocol is applicable in eyes which have a minimum corneal thickness of 400 μm after epithelial debridement. This prerequisite was stipulated to protect the corneal endothelium and intraocular tissues from the deleterious effect of ultraviolet-A (UVA radiation. However, patients with keratoconus often present with corneal thickness of less than 400 μm and could have otherwise benefited from this procedure. A few modifications of the standard procedure have been suggested to benefit these patients without a compromise in safety. Transepithelial cross-linking, pachymetry-guided epithelial debridement before cross-linking, and the use of hypoosmolar riboflavin are some of the techniques that have been attempted. Although clinical data is limited at the present time, these techniques are worth considering in patients with thin corneas. Further studies are needed to scientifically establish their efficacy and safety.

  6. Crosslinked anion exchange membranes with primary diamine-based crosslinkers for vanadium redox flow battery application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Min Suc; Jeong, Hwan Yeop; Shin, Hee Young; Hong, Soo Hyun; Kim, Tae-Ho; Oh, Seong-Geun; Lee, Jang Yong; Hong, Young Taik

    2017-09-01

    A series of polysulfone-based crosslinked anion exchange membranes (AEMs) with primary diamine-based crosslinkers has been prepared via simple a crosslinking process as low-cost and durable membranes for vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs). Chloromethylated polysulfone is used as a precursor polymer for crosslinked AEMs (CAPSU-x) with different degrees of crosslinking. Among the developed AEMs, CAPSU-2.5 shows outstanding dimensional stability and anion (Cl-, SO42-, and OH-) conductivity. Moreover, CAPSU-2.5 exhibits much lower vanadium ion permeability (2.72 × 10-8 cm2 min-1) than Nafion 115 (2.88 × 10-6 cm2 min-1), which results in an excellent coulombic efficiency of 100%. The chemical and operational stabilities of the membranes have been investigated via ex situ soaking tests in 0.1 M VO2+ solution and in situ operation tests for 100 cycles, respectively. The excellent chemical, physical, and electrochemical properties of the CAPSU-2.5 membrane make it suitable for use in VRFBs.

  7. A development methodology for a remote inspection system with JAVA and socket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yoo Rark; Lee, Jae Cheol; Kim, Jae Hee

    2004-01-01

    We have developed RISYS (Reactor Inspection System) which inspects reactor vessel welds by an underwater mobile robot. The system consists of a main control computer and an inspection robot which is controlled by the main control computer. Since the environments of the inspection tasks in a nuclear plant, like in other industrial fields, is very poor, serious accidents often happen. Therefore the necessity for remote inspection and control system has increased more and more. We have carried out the research for a remote inspection model for RISYS, and have adopted the world wide web, java, and socket technologies for it. Client interface to access the main control computer that controls the inspection equipment is essential for the development of a remote inspection system. It has been developed with a traditional programming language, for example, Visual C++, Visual Basic and X-Window. However, it is too expensive to vend and maintain the version of a interface program because of the different computer O/S. Nevertheless web and java technologies come to the fore to solve the problems but the java interpreting typed language could incur a performance problem in operating the remote inspection system. We suggest a methodology for developing a remote inspection system with java, a traditional programming language, and a socket programming that solves the java performance problem in this paper

  8. Simquake 3: Seismic interactions between building structures and rock-socketed foundations: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, G.E.; Chitty, D.E.; Oleck, R.F.

    1988-04-01

    It has long been recognized that soil-structure interaction can significantly influence the earthquake response of massive structures such as nuclear power plant reactor buildings. The linear analysis methods that are widely used to model interaction phenomena can result in often unrecognized safety margins in design for earthquake excitation. Use of improved interaction models which capture nonlinear characteristics of interaction---such as energy dissipation and significant changes in stiffness---can provide realistic predictions of the earthquake loads imposed on nuclear power plant structures and equipment, supplying an improved basis for seismic design review. This report documents the results of a research effort investigating the soil-structure (or structure-media) interaction of reinforced concrete structures founded in backfilled rock sockets. The objectives of the research, which included field testing with semi-scale structural models, were: to examine the influence of the backfilled socket on structural dynamic response; and to develop an experimental data base for the benchmarking of computer simulation procedures

  9. Effect of groove on socket welds under the condition of vibration fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiu, Junjie; Jing, Hongyang; Han, Yongdian; Zhao, Lei; Xu, Lianyong

    2013-01-01

    Root failures of socket welds in small bore piping caused by vibration mainly occur at nuclear power plants (NPPs). It was observed that at higher stress level failures tended to originate at the toe while for the case of lower stress failures tended to occur at the root. The groove can increase the penetration depth (PD) of root, which is beneficial to the fatigue life. The effect of groove was also investigated by finite element method (FEM). The simulation results show that groove can decline the stress distribution, stress triaxiality and maximum principal plastic strain in the weld root, and the 5 mm groove suffering σ max (the highest stress of root failure) is almost same as no groove subjecting to σ f (fatigue limit). The test results show that the socket weld with groove can increase the natural frequency and damping of specimen, which make the system more difficult to vibrate. Moreover, the groove can also improve the fatigue property of specimen which do not exist the root failure even under high cycle fatigue (HCF)

  10. Effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester on palatal mucosal defects and tooth extraction sockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günay, Ahmet; Arpağ, Osman Fatih; Atilgan, Serhat; Yaman, Ferhan; Atalay, Yusuf; Acikan, İzzet

    2014-01-01

    Aim The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on palatal mucosal defects and tooth extraction sockets in an experimental model. Materials and methods Forty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats with a mean age of 7 weeks and weighing 280–490 g were used in this study. The rats were randomly divided into two groups: group A (the control group, n=21) and group B (the experimental group, n=21). Under anesthesia with ketamine (8 mg/100 g, intraperitoneally), palatal mucosal defects were created and tooth extraction was performed in the rats in groups A and B. Group A received no treatment, whereas group B received CAPE. CAPE was injected daily (10 μmol/kg, intraperitoneally). The rats were killed on days 7, 14, and 30 after the procedures. Palatal mucosa healing and changes in bone tissue and fibrous tissue were evaluated histopathologically. Result Pairwise comparisons showed no statistically significant difference between days 7 and 14 in either group (P>0.05). At day 30, bone healing was significantly better in group B (CAPE) than in group A (control) (P0.05). Conclusion In conclusion, the findings of this study suggest that CAPE can significantly improve tooth socket healing. PMID:25364232

  11. Estimation of date of death through wound healing of an extraction socket: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viciano, Joan; D'Anastasio, Ruggero; D'Ovidio, Cristian; Costantini, Sara; Carnevale, Aldo; Capasso, Luigi

    2017-06-01

    Surgical extraction of teeth due to dental pathologies is a relatively common procedure in modern man. The healing of the wound that results occurs in gradual and sequential stages, such that the analysis of this repair process can be very useful in forensic investigations on human remains. The following study reports on a particular case where the remodeling of a tooth socket allowed an estimation of the time that had elapsed from the day of the surgical extraction of the tooth to the time of death. The corpse was that of a woman of 34 years. It was in an advanced state of decomposition, as it was largely skeletonized. Macroscopic, radiographic, and histological examinations of the oral cavity showed the initial stages of alveolar bone remodeling of the first left mandibular molar, which was characterized by: (i) a small reduction in the vertical height of the vestibular surface with respect to the theoretical original position of the tooth; (ii) resorption of the intra-alveolar septum and lamina dura; and (iii) formation of new immature bone, which covered the entire inner surface of the socket. This study established that the subject died 13-42days after the tooth extraction. Knowing the date of the dental extraction provided by the police investigation, it was possible to provide an estimate of the date of death. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A study of internet of things real-time data updating based on WebSocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shoulin; Yu, Konglin; Dai, Wei; Liang, Bo; Zhang, Xiaoli

    2015-12-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is gradually entering the industrial stage. Web applications in IoT such as monitoring, instant messaging, real-time quote system changes need to be transmitted in real-time mode to client without client constantly refreshing and sending the request. These applications often need to be as fast as possible and provide nearly real-time components. Real-time data updating is becoming the core part of application layer visualization technology in IoT. With support of data push in server-side, running state of "Things" in IoT could be displayed in real-time mode. This paper discusses several current real-time data updating method and explores the advantages and disadvantages of each method. We explore the use of WebSocket in a new approach for real-time data updating in IoT, since WebSocket provides low delay, low network throughput solutions for full-duplex communication.

  13. Corneal collagen crosslinking for keratoconus. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Bikbov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Photochemical crosslinking is widely applied in ophthalmology. Its biochemical effect is due to the release of singlet oxygen that promotes anaerobic photochemical reaction. Keratoconus is one of the most common corneal ectasia affecting 1 in 250 to 250 000 persons. Currently, the rate of iatrogenic ectasia following eximer laser refractive surgery increases due to biomechanical weakening of the cornea. Morphologically and biochemically, ectasia is characterized by corneal layers thinning, contact between the stroma and epithelium resulting from Bowman’s membrane rupture, chromatin fragmentation in keratocyte nuclei, phagocytosis, abnormal staining and arrangement of collagen fibers, enzyme system disorders, and keratocyte apoptosis. In corneal ectasia, altered enzymatic processes result in the synthesis of abnormal collagen. Collagen packing is determined by the activity of various extracellular matrix enzymes which bind amines and aldehydes of collagen fiber amino acids. In the late stage, morphological changes of Descemet’s membrane (i.e., rupture and detachment develop. Abnormal hexagonal-shaped keratocytes and their apoptosis are the signs of endothelial dystrophy. The lack of analogs in domestic ophthalmology encouraged the scientists of Ufa Eye Research Institute to develop a device for corneal collagen crosslinking. The parameters of ultraviolet (i.e., wavelength, exposure time, power to achieve the desired effect were identified. The specifics of some photosensitizers in the course of the procedure were studied. UFalink, a device for UV irradiation of cornea, and photosensitizer Dextralink were developed and adopted. Due to the high risk of endothelial damage, this treatment is contraindicated in severe keratoconus (CCT less than 400 microns. Major effects of corneal collagen crosslinking are the following: Young’s modulus (modulus of elasticity increase by 328.9 % (on average, temperature tolerance increase by 5

  14. Cross-link guided molecular modeling with ROSETTA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Kahraman

    Full Text Available Chemical cross-links identified by mass spectrometry generate distance restraints that reveal low-resolution structural information on proteins and protein complexes. The technology to reliably generate such data has become mature and robust enough to shift the focus to the question of how these distance restraints can be best integrated into molecular modeling calculations. Here, we introduce three workflows for incorporating distance restraints generated by chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry into ROSETTA protocols for comparative and de novo modeling and protein-protein docking. We demonstrate that the cross-link validation and visualization software Xwalk facilitates successful cross-link data integration. Besides the protocols we introduce XLdb, a database of chemical cross-links from 14 different publications with 506 intra-protein and 62 inter-protein cross-links, where each cross-link can be mapped on an experimental structure from the Protein Data Bank. Finally, we demonstrate on a protein-protein docking reference data set the impact of virtual cross-links on protein docking calculations and show that an inter-protein cross-link can reduce on average the RMSD of a docking prediction by 5.0 Å. The methods and results presented here provide guidelines for the effective integration of chemical cross-link data in molecular modeling calculations and should advance the structural analysis of particularly large and transient protein complexes via hybrid structural biology methods.

  15. A study of the oriented composites with the conductive segregated structure obtained via solid-phase processing of the UHMWPE reactor powder mixed with the carbon nanofillers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebedev, Oleg V. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University,) Institutskiy per., Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region, 141700 (Russian Federation); N.S. Enikolopov Institute of Synthetic Polymer Materials of RAS, Profsoyuznaya st., Moscow, 117393 (Russian Federation); Kechek’yan, Alexander S.; Shevchenko, Vitaly G.; Kurkin, Tikhon S.; Golubev, Evgeny K.; Ozerin, Alexander N. [N.S. Enikolopov Institute of Synthetic Polymer Materials of RAS, Profsoyuznaya st., Moscow, 117393 (Russian Federation); Karpushkin, Evgeny A.; Sergeev, Vladimir G. [Moscow State University, Chemical Department, Leninskie Gori, Moscow, 119234 (Russian Federation)

    2016-05-18

    Electrically conductive oriented polymer nano-composites of different compositions, based on the reactor powder of ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) with a special morphology, filled with particles of nanostructured graphite (NG), multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), and electrically conductive carbon black (CB), were investigated. Polymer composites were obtained via compaction of the mechanical mixture of the polymer and filler powder, followed by uniaxial deformation of the material under homogeneous shear (HS) conditions (all of the processing stages were conducted at room temperature). Resulted composites possess a high tensile strength, high level of the electrical conductivity and low percolation threshold, owing it to the formation of the segregated conductive structure, The influence of the type of nanosized carbon filler, degree of the deformation under HS condition, temperature and etc. on the electrical conductivity and mechanical properties of strengthened conductive composites oriented under homogeneous shear conditions was investigated. Changes in the electrical conductivity of oriented composite materials during reversible “tension–shrinkage” cycles along the orientation axis direction were studied. A theoretical approach, describing the process of transformation of the conductive system as a response on polymer phase deformation and volume change, was proposed, based on the data received from the analysis of the conductivity behavior during the uniaxial deformation and thermal treatment of composites.

  16. Impact of some environmental conditions on the tensile, creep-recovery, relaxation, melting and crystallinity behaviour of UHMWPE-GUR 410-medical grade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourad, A.-H.I.; Fouad, H.; Elleithy, Rabeh

    2009-01-01

    The present work was undertaken to examine the effect of some environmental media (sodium hydroxide NaOH solution, water, ice, UV irradiation dose and pre-heat treatment) on the mechanical (quasi-static tensile creep-recovery and relaxation) and physical/thermal (melting and crystallinity) behaviour of the ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE-GUR 410-medical grade), that has several biomedical and engineering applications. The results show changes in the mechanical properties due to these environmental effects. The pre-heat treatment has significantly enhanced the tensile properties compared to virgin specimens' properties. Improvement due to pre-heat treatment at 100 o C is more than that at 50 o C. Specimens' storing in ice, NaOH and water has not affected significantly the tensile properties. All properties except fracture strain have enhanced due to specimens exposure to UV irradiation. The differential scanning calorimetry results indicate that environmental media have not any noticeable effects on the melting temperature. However, a significant increase in the degree of crystallinity was observed for all specimens versus that for virgin specimens. The creep and permanent strains of the tested virgin material increase with temperature and lineally increase with applied load. The specimens' exposure to environmental media has improved the creep resistance and the permanent creep strain when compared with that for virgin ones. Remarkable increase was observed in the initial relaxation and residual stress of the exposed specimens against that for virgin specimens.

  17. Influence of the graphite type in the mechanical properties of graphene nanosheets and ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (GN/UHMWPE) nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, M.E. de A.; Coutinho, S.V.; Fim, F. de C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the mechanical properties of graphene nanosheets and ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (GN/UHMWPE) nanocomposites. The graphene nanosheets were obtained by two methods: the first, from Graphite Micrograf HC11 after 8 hours in a ultrasound bath in 70% alcoholic solution; the second, from Graflake 9950 prepared by oxidizing with H 2 SO 4 /HNO 3 (4:1), followed by thermal expansion at 1050°C for 30 seconds and ultrasound bath for 20 hours. Both were oven dried for 24 hours at 110°C and subsequently added to the polymer in percentages of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% (w/w). The powders of the nanocomposites were mixed in a ball mill for 1 hour and molded by hot compression. XRD and SEM images was possible to verify that the Graflake's GN had higher delamination that the Micrograph's GN. The mechanical properties were affected in different percentages for each graphite type. (author)

  18. Experimental study of the microvascular architecture and bone formation when using a carboxymethyl-chitin for bone repair in extracted sockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Tamotsu; Toda, Isumi; Ehara, Yuji; Nakanishi, Ko; Suwa, Fumihiko

    2011-01-01

    Chitin is an absorbable agent used to promote wound healing and hemostasis, and is also used in medical treatment. We investigated the effects of carboxymethyl-chitin (CM-chitin), a water-soluble derivative of chitin, on bone augmentation. Four maxillary incisors were extracted from 5 adult Crab-eating Macaques, then the extraction sockets on the subjects' right sides were immediately filled with CM-chitin (experimental sites), while the left sides were left unfilled (control). One, two, four, eight, and twelve weeks after the procedure, the animals were euthanized and acrylic resin was injected via the common carotid arteries. Bone-microvascular corrosion casts were made and observed using scanning electron microscopy to determine the volume ratio of newly-formed bone in each socket. After 1 week, newly-formed capillary networks were observed in the sockets of the experimental sites. After 2 weeks, the sockets in both the experimental and control sites were filled with newly-formed capillary networks. After 4 weeks, newly-formed bone was observed in the sockets of both sites and the sockets were also filled with newly-formed bone after 8 weeks. After 12 weeks, trabecular bone was thicker and more compressed than after 8 weeks. Image analysis showed that the volume ratio of newly-formed bone was not significantly different between the experimental and control sites. We concluded that CM-chitin does not obstruct bone augmentation in extracted tooth sockets and is useful to promote angiogenesis in the early stages. (author)

  19. An investigation on effects of amputee's physiological parameters on maximum pressure developed at the prosthetic socket interface using artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Chitresh; Singh, Amit; Chaudhary, Himanshu; Unune, Deepak Rajendra

    2017-10-23

    Technological advances in prosthetics have attracted the curiosity of researchers in monitoring design and developments of the sockets to sustain maximum pressure without any soft tissue damage, skin breakdown, and painful sores. Numerous studies have been reported in the area of pressure measurement at the limb/socket interface, though, the relation between amputee's physiological parameters and the pressure developed at the limb/socket interface is still not studied. Therefore, the purpose of this work is to investigate the effects of patient-specific physiological parameters viz. height, weight, and stump length on the pressure development at the transtibial prosthetic limb/socket interface. Initially, the pressure values at the limb/socket interface were clinically measured during stance and walking conditions for different patients using strain gauges placed at critical locations of the stump. The measured maximum pressure data related to patient's physiological parameters was used to develop an artificial neural network (ANN) model. The effects of physiological parameters on the pressure development at the limb/socket interface were examined using the ANN model. The analyzed results indicated that the weight and stump length significantly affects the maximum pressure values. The outcomes of this work could be an important platform for the design and development of patient-specific prosthetic socket which can endure the maximum pressure conditions at stance and ambulation conditions.

  20. Device for inserting and removing electric plug in socket- using remote handling apparatus inside radioactive hot cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevallereau, R.; Galmard, Y.

    1994-01-01

    A device for pushing an electric plug into a supply socket inside a radioactive hot cell and for withdrawing the plug after use of the appliance attached to it, comprises a pair of pivotally mounted arms. It can be used inside radioactive hot cells, to insert and put in and put off electric plugs

  1. Socket Preservation with d-PTFE Membrane: Histologic Analysis of the Newly Formed Matrix at Membrane Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurito, Domenico; Cugnetto, Riccardo; Lollobrigida, Marco; Guerra, Fabrizio; Vestri, Annarita; Gianno, Francesca; Bosco, Sandro; Lamazza, Luca; De Biase, Alberto

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of an exposed high-density polytetrafluoroethylene (d-PTFE) membrane in preventing epithelial migration in postextraction sockets. For this purpose, a histologic description of the newly formed soft tissue underlying the membrane is presented. The periodontal status of the adjacent teeth was also evaluated to assess the gingival response. Ten premolar extraction sockets were treated. After tooth extraction, the sockets were filled with nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite and covered with d-PTFE membranes. Subperiosteal pockets were created to ensure the stability of the membranes. Membranes were left intentionally exposed and were atraumatically removed after 28 days. At that time, a bioptic specimen of the newly formed soft tissue under the membranes was taken. All the histologic samples showed a dense connective tissue without epithelial cells and no signs of foreign body reaction. No significant variation of the periodontal indices was observed on the teeth adjacent to the extraction sites. The study results indicate that exposed d-PTFE membranes can prevent epithelial migration in healing sockets without consequences on the periodontal health.

  2. Optical fiber Bragg grating-instrumented silicone liner for interface pressure measurement within prosthetic sockets of lower-limb amputees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fakih, Ebrahim; Arifin, Nooranida; Pirouzi, Gholamhossein; Mahamd Adikan, Faisal Rafiq; Shasmin, Hanie Nadia; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a fiber Bragg grating (FBG)-instrumented prosthetic silicone liner that provides cushioning for the residual limb and can successfully measure interface pressures inside prosthetic sockets of lower-limb amputees in a simple and practical means of sensing. The liner is made of two silicone layers between which 12 FBG sensors were embedded at locations of clinical interest. The sensors were then calibrated using a custom calibration platform that mimics a real-life situation. Afterward, a custom gait simulating machine was built to test the liner performance during an amputee's simulated gait. To validate the findings, the results were compared to those obtained by the commonly used F-socket mats. As the statistical findings reveal, both pressure mapping methods measured the interface pressure in a consistent way, with no significant difference (P-values ≥0.05). This pressure mapping technique in the form of a prosthetic liner will allow prosthetics professionals to quickly and accurately create an overall picture of the interface pressure distribution inside sockets in research and clinical settings, thereby improving the socket fit and amputee's satisfaction.

  3. Mate tea (Ilex paraguariensis) improves bone formation in the alveolar socket healing after tooth extraction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasilino, Matheus da Silva; Stringhetta-Garcia, Camila Tami; Pereira, Camila Scacco; Pereira, Ariana Aparecida Ferreira; Stringhetta, Karina; Leopoldino, Andréia Machado; Crivelini, Marcelo Macedo; Ervolino, Edilson; Dornelles, Rita Cássia Menegati; de Melo Stevanato Nakamune, Ana Cláudia; Chaves-Neto, Antonio Hernandes

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of mate tea (MT) [Ilex paraguariensis] on alveolar socket healing after tooth extraction. Sixteen male rats were divided into MT and control groups. MT was administered by intragastric gavage at a dose of 20 mg/kg/day for 28 days before and 28 days after right maxillary incisor extraction. The control group received an equal volume of water. Histopathological and histometric analysis of the neoformed bone area and osteocyte density were performed, as well as immunohistochemical analysis of osteocalcin (OCN), receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) in the alveolar socket. Calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in plasma, whereas TRAP activity was determined in serum. Histometry evidenced an increase in bone area (P alveolar socket healing on day 28 after tooth extraction. Regular MT ingestion improves the antioxidant defenses and bone formation, which is beneficial for alveolar socket bone healing after tooth extraction.

  4. Radiologic study of the healing process of the extracted socket of beagle dogs using cone beam CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Bong Won; Lee, Won; Lee, Byung Do [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, De Sok [Department of Electrical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-03-15

    To longitudinally observe the healing process of extracted socket and the alterations of the residual ridge in healthy adult dogs using cone beam CT (CBCT). The mandibular premolars of two beagle dogs were removed and the extraction sites were covered with the gingival tissue. CBCTs (3D X-ray CT scanner, Alphard vega, Asahi Co.) were taken at baseline and at 1 week interval for 12 weeks. Radiographic density of extracted wounds was measured on normalized images with a custom-made image analysis program. The amount of alveolar crestal resorption after the teeth extraction was measured with a reformatted three-dimensional image using CBCT. Bony healing pattern of extracted wound of each group was also longitudinally observed and analyzed. Dimensional changes occurred during the first 6 weeks following the extraction of dogs' mandibular premolars. The reduction of the height of residual ridge was more pronounced at the buccal than at the lingual aspect of the extraction socket. Radiographic density of extracted wounds increased by week 4, but the change in density stabilized after week 6. New bone formation was observed at the floor and the peripheral side of extracted socket from week 1. The entrance of extracted socket was sealed by a hard-tissue bridge at week 5. The healing process of extracted wound involved a series of events including new bone formation and residual ridge resorption.

  5. Radiologic study of the healing process of the extracted socket of beagle dogs using cone beam CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Bong Won; Lee, Won; Lee, Byung Do; Kim, De Sok

    2009-01-01

    To longitudinally observe the healing process of extracted socket and the alterations of the residual ridge in healthy adult dogs using cone beam CT (CBCT). The mandibular premolars of two beagle dogs were removed and the extraction sites were covered with the gingival tissue. CBCTs (3D X-ray CT scanner, Alphard vega, Asahi Co.) were taken at baseline and at 1 week interval for 12 weeks. Radiographic density of extracted wounds was measured on normalized images with a custom-made image analysis program. The amount of alveolar crestal resorption after the teeth extraction was measured with a reformatted three-dimensional image using CBCT. Bony healing pattern of extracted wound of each group was also longitudinally observed and analyzed. Dimensional changes occurred during the first 6 weeks following the extraction of dogs' mandibular premolars. The reduction of the height of residual ridge was more pronounced at the buccal than at the lingual aspect of the extraction socket. Radiographic density of extracted wounds increased by week 4, but the change in density stabilized after week 6. New bone formation was observed at the floor and the peripheral side of extracted socket from week 1. The entrance of extracted socket was sealed by a hard-tissue bridge at week 5. The healing process of extracted wound involved a series of events including new bone formation and residual ridge resorption.

  6. Verification of BGA type FPGA logic applied to a control equipment with Safety Class using the special socket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, YounHu; Yoo, Kwanwoo; Lee, Myeongkyun; Yun, Donghwa

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to provide the verification method for BGA-type FPGA of Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) developed as Safety Class. The logic of FPGA in the control device with Safety Class is the circuit to control overall logic of PLC. This device converts to the different module from the input signals for both digital and analogue of the equipment in the field and outputs their data. In addition, it should perform the logical controls such as backplane communication control and data communication. We suggest acquiring method of the data signal with efficient logic using the socket in this article. Proposed test socket is made by simpler process than former one, and the process is done in batches by which cost can be reduces, and the test socket can be quickly produced in response to any request. Also, it is possible to reduce the wear by reducing the contact force of the ball phenomenon. The structure on the basis of silicon can be reduced the modification, and it has excellent linearity. At the logic verification, the operation that state data block is designed in the FPGA could be easily confirmed by using a socket

  7. New crosslinked polyvinyl chloride insulated wire by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahata, Norio; Shingyouchi, Kazuo; Sato, Masakatsu; Sasaki, Hidemi; Terunuma, Haruji

    1978-01-01

    The polyvinyl chloride-coated wires crosslinked by electron beam irradiation have made rapid progress as electric and electronic wiring material and grown to hold a firm position in this field. In response to the requirements for wires with the advance of electronic equipments, Hitachi Cable Ltd. developed a peculiar graft polymer consisting of chlorinated polyethylene and polyvinyl chloride. To this polymer, the characteristics of a very wide range from toughness to flexibility can be given, and the crosslinked polyvinyl chloride wires utilizing these characteristics were put in practical use. Many kinds of the wires were developed as follows; 105 deg. C rating crosslinked vinyl-coated wires authorized by UL and CSA standards, crosslinked vinyl-coated wires with excellent flexibility, high strength crosslinked vinyl-coated wires with thin coating and crosslinked vinyl-coated wires for automobiles. They are expected to be developed into other new fields and applications. (Kobatake, H.)

  8. Crosslinking of thermoplastic composites using electron beam radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong, A.B.; Black, S.R.; Bryce, G.R.; Olcott, D.D.

    1991-01-01

    The crosslinking of thermoset materials has been clearly demonstrated to improve many desirable physical and chemical properties for composite applications. While thermoplastic resins also offer many advantages for composite applications, they are not crosslinked and, therefore, may not meet the same property criteria as crosslinked thermosets. Electron beams have been used successfully for crosslinking non-reinforced thermoplastic materials. Electron beams have also been used for curing composite thermoset materials. This research utilizes electron beams to crosslink high performance thermoplastic composite materials (PEEK and PPS with glass and carbon fibers). The tensile strength and tensile modulus are compared under various crosslinking conditions. The method is found to have some advantages in potentially improving physical properties of thermoplastic composite materials

  9. A NOVEL APPROACH TO SYNTHESIZE CHITOSAN BEADS CROSSLINKED BY EPICHLOROHYDRIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yongjian; BAI Shu; SUN Yan

    2001-01-01

    The present investigation describes a novel method for preparing spherical chitosan particles based on crosslinking with epichlorohydrin. Certain amount of pre-crosslinking agent was added to form chitosan gels by traditional inverse phase suspension polymerization. Then the gels were crosslinked by epichlorohydrin at basic condition to obtain chitosan beads. The effects of reaction conditions, such as crosslinking time, the amount of crosslinking agent and the NaOtt concentration,on the physical properties of the chitosan beads were investigated. The beads were found to have more amino groups in the polymer chains than the beads crosslinked by glutaraldehyde. The capacity for copper ions is as high as 40mg/g. The beads have good mechanical strength and can be reused.

  10. A NOVEL APPROACH TO SYNTHESIZE CHITOSAN BEADS CROSSLINKED BY EPICHLOROHYDRIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGYongjina; BAIShu; 等

    2001-01-01

    The present investigation describes a novel method for preparing spherical chitosan particles based on crosslinking with epichlorohydrin.Certain amount of pre-crosslinking agent was added to form chitosan gels by traditional inverse phase suspension polymerization.Then the gels were crosslinked by epichlorohydrin at basic condition to obtain chitosan beads.The effects of reaction conditions,such as crosslinking time,the amount of crosslinking agent and the NaOH concentration,on the physical properties of the chitosan beads were investigated.The beads were found to have more amino groups in the polymer chains than the beads crosslinked by glutaraldehyde.The capacity for copper ions in as high as 40mg/g,The beads have good mechanical strength and can be reused.

  11. Crosslinkers of Different Types in Precipitation Polymerization of Acrylic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Eshaghi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Crosslinked poly(acrylic acids were prepared using two types of crosslinker by precipitation polymerization method in a binary organic solvent. N,N’-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA and polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate (PEGDMA-330 were used as low-molecular weight and long-chain crosslinkers, respectively. The effect of various types of crosslinkers on polymer characteristics (i.e., gel content, equilibrium swelling, glass transition temperature, and rheological properties was investigated. Maximum amount of viscosity was obtained by using long-chain crosslinker. The Flory-Rehner equation and rubber elasticity theory were used to discuss the network structure of polymer. It was observed that, the glass transition temperature (Tg of the synthesized polymer containing PEGDMA-330 is higher than that of polymer containing MBA. Apparent and rotational viscosity were used to determine the optimal crosslinker type. In addition, the consistencycoefficient (m and flow behavior index (n parameter of Ostwald equation were investigated as well.

  12. Immediate implant placement into posterior sockets with or without buccal bone dehiscence defects: A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chen; Gong, Ting; Lin, Weimin; Yuan, Quan; Man, Yi

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate bone reconstruction and soft tissue reactions at immediate implants placed into intact sockets and those with buccal bone dehiscence defects. Fifty-nine internal connection implants from four different manufacturers were immediately placed in intact sockets(non-dehiscence group, n=40), and in alveoli with buccal bone dehiscence defects: 1) Group 1(n= N10), the defect depth measured 3-5 mm from the gingival margin. 2) Group 2(n=9), the depth ranged from 5mm to 7mm. The surrounding bony voids were grafted with deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM) particles. Cone beam computed tomography(CBCT) was performed immediately after surgery (T1), and at 6 months later(T2). Radiographs were taken at prosthesis placement and one year postloading(T3). Soft tissue parameters were measured at baseline (T0), prosthesis placement and T3. No implants were lost during the observation period. For the dehiscence groups, the buccal bone plates were radiographically reconstructed to comparable horizontal and vertical bone volumes compared with the non-dehiscence group. Marginal bone loss occurred between the time of final restoration and 1-year postloading was not statistically different(P=0.732) between groups. Soft tissue parameters did not reveal inferior results for the dehiscence groups. Within the limitations of this study, flapless implant placement into compromised sockets in combination with DBBM grafting may be a viable technique to reconstitute the defected buccal bone plates due to space maintenance and primary socket closure provided by healing abutments and bone grafts. Immediate implants and DBBM grafting without using membranes may be indicated for sockets with buccal bone defects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Socket preservation using demineralized freezed dried bone allograft with and without plasma rich in growth factor: A canine study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogharehabed, Ahmad; Birang, Reza; Torabinia, Nakisa; Nasiri, Saman; Behfarnia, Parichehr

    2014-01-01

    Background: The accelerating effect of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGFs) in the healing of extraction sockets has been demonstrated by some studies. The aim of the present study was to histologically and histomorphometrically evaluate whether bone formation would increase by the combined use of PRGF and demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft (DFDBA). Materials and Methods: In four female dogs, the distal root of the second, third and fourth lower premolars were extracted bilaterally and the mesial roots were preserved. The extraction sockets were randomly divided into DFDBA + PRGF, DFDBA + saline or control groups. Two dogs were sacrificed after 2 weeks and two dogs were sacrificed after 6 weeks. The extraction sockets were evaluated from both histological and histomorphometrical aspects. The data were analyzed by Mann-Whitney followed by Kruskal-Wallis tests using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Significant levels were set at 0.05. Results: The least decrease in socket height was observed in the DFDBA + PRGF group (0.73 ± 0.42 mm). The least decrease in the coronal portion was observed in the DFDBA + PRGF group (1.38 ± 1.35 mm²). The least decrease in the middle surface was observed in the DFDBA group (0.61 ± 0.80 mm²). The least decrease in the apical portion was observed in the DFDBA group (0.34 ± 0.39 mm²). Conclusion: The present study showed better socket preservation subsequent to the application of DFDBA and PRGF combination in comparison with the two other groups. However, the difference was not statistically significant. PMID:25225559

  14. Healing of extraction sockets filled with BoneCeramic® prior to implant placement: preliminary histological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Coster, Peter; Browaeys, Hilde; De Bruyn, Hugo

    2011-03-01

    Various grafting materials have been designed to minimize edentulous ridge volume loss following tooth extraction by encouraging new bone formation in healing sockets. BoneCeramic® is a composite of hydroxyapatite and bèta-tricalcium phosphate with pores of 100-500 microns. The aim of this study was to evaluate bone regeneration in healing sockets substituted with BoneCeramic® prior to implant procedures. Fifteen extraction sockets were substituted with BoneCeramic® and 14 sockets were left to heal naturally in 10 patients (mean age 59.6 years). Biopsies were collected only from the implant recipient sites during surgery after healing periods ranging from 6-74 weeks (mean 22). In total, 24 biopsies were available; 10 from substituted and 14 from naturally healed sites. In one site, the implant was not placed intentionally and, in four substituted sites, implant placement had to be postponed due to inappropriate healing, hence from five sites biopsies were not available. Histological sections were examined by transmitted light microscope. At the time of implant surgery, bone at substituted sites was softer than in controls, compromising initial implant stability. New bone formation at substituted sites was consistently poorer than in controls, presenting predominantly loose connective tissue and less woven bone. The use of BoneCeramic® as a grafting material in fresh extraction sockets appears to interfere with normal healing processes of the alveolar bone. On the basis of the present preliminary findings, its indication as a material for bone augmentation, when implant placement is considered within 6-38 weeks after extraction, should be revised. © 2009, Copyright the Authors. Journal Compilation © 2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Regenerative Needs Following Alveolar Ridge Preservation Procedures in Compromised and Noncompromised Extraction Sockets: A Cone Beam Computed Tomography Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutouzis, Theofilos; Lipton, David

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the necessity for additional regenerative procedures following healing of compromised and noncompromised extraction sockets with alveolar ridge preservation procedures through the use of virtual implant imaging software. The cohort was comprised of 87 consecutive patients subjected to a single maxillary tooth extraction with an alveolar ridge preservation procedure for subsequent implant placement. Patients were divided into two main groups based on the integrity of the buccal bone plate following teeth extraction. Patients in the compromised socket (CS) group (n = 52) had partial or complete buccal bone plate loss, and patients in the noncompromised socket (NCS) group (n = 35) exhibited no bone loss of their socket walls following tooth extraction. Following 4 to 6 months of healing, all patients had a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) study. Root-formed implants were placed virtually in an ideal prosthetic position. The number of implants per group and location (anterior, premolar, molar) exhibiting exposed buccal implant surface was calculated. In the CS group, 5 out of 19 anterior implants (26.3%), 4 out of 14 premolar implants (28.5%), and 7 out of 19 molar implants (36.8%) had exposed buccal surfaces. In the NCS group, 4 out of 9 anterior implants (44.4%), 2 out of 9 premolar implants (22.2%), and 4 out of 17 molar implants (23.5%) had exposed buccal surfaces. There were no statistically significant differences for intragroup and intergroup comparisons (χ² test, P > .05). This study failed to find statistically significant differences in the frequency of implants with exposed buccal surfaces placed virtually, following treatment of compromised and noncompromised sockets. A high proportion (22% to 44%) of sites had implants that potentially needed additional regenerative procedures.

  16. Socket preservation using demineralized freezed dried bone allograft with and without plasma rich in growth factor: A canine study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mogharehabed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The accelerating effect of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGFs in the healing of extraction sockets has been demonstrated by some studies. The aim of the present study was to histologically and histomorphometrically evaluate whether bone formation would increase by the combined use of PRGF and demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft (DFDBA. Materials and Methods: In four female dogs, the distal root of the second, third and fourth lower premolars were extracted bilaterally and the mesial roots were preserved. The extraction sockets were randomly divided into DFDBA + PRGF, DFDBA + saline or control groups. Two dogs were sacrificed after 2 weeks and two dogs were sacrificed after 6 weeks. The extraction sockets were evaluated from both histological and histomorphometrical aspects. The data were analyzed by Mann-Whitney followed by Kruskal-Wallis tests using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA. Significant levels were set at 0.05. Results: The least decrease in socket height was observed in the DFDBA + PRGF group (0.73 ± 0.42 mm. The least decrease in the coronal portion was observed in the DFDBA + PRGF group (1.38 ± 1.35 mm². The least decrease in the middle surface was observed in the DFDBA group (0.61 ± 0.80 mm². The least decrease in the apical portion was observed in the DFDBA group (0.34 ± 0.39 mm². Conclusion: The present study showed better socket preservation subsequent to the application of DFDBA and PRGF combination in comparison with the two other groups. However, the difference was not statistically significant.

  17. Interstrand DNA crosslinks due to AP (apurinic/apyrimidinic) sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goffin, C.; Verly, W.G.

    1983-01-01

    Storage of a solution of DNA containing apurinic sites, even at 4 0 C leads to the appearance of interstrand crosslinks. Possible consequences of these crosslinks, when they appear in cell DNA, are briefly discussed. Formation of interstrand crosslinks in DNA containing tritium-labelled thymine and kept in an aqueous solution might be due, at least partly, to the loss of bases by the autoirradiated DNA. (Auth.)

  18. Covalent DNA-protein crosslinking occurs after hyperthermia and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cress, A.E.; Bowden, G.T.

    1983-01-01

    Covalent DNA-protein crosslinks occur in exponentially growing mouse leukemia cells (L1210) after exposure to ionizing radiation. The amount of DNA-protein crosslinks as measured by a filter binding assay is dose dependent upon X irradiation. Although hyperthermia and radiation in combination are synergistic with respect to cell lethality, the combination does not result in an increase of DNA-protein crosslinks when assayed immediately following treatments. Hyperthermia (43 degrees C/15 min) given prior to radiation does not alter the radiation dose dependency of the amount of initial crosslinking. In addition, the amount of DNA-protein crosslinking produced by heat plus radiation is independent of the length of heating the cells at 43 degrees C. The DNA-protein crosslinks produced by 50-Gy X ray alone are removed after 2 hr at 37 degrees C. However, if hyperthermia (43 degrees C/15 min) is given prior to 100-Gy X ray, the removal of DNA-protein crosslinks is delayed until 4.0 hr after radiation. Phospho-serine and phospho-threonine bonds are not produced with either radiation or the combination of hyperthermia plus radiation as judged by the resistance of the bonds to guanidine hydrochloride. However, hyperthermia plus radiation causes an increase in phosphate to nitrogen type bonding. These results show that radiation alone causes covalent DNA-protein crosslinks. Hyperthermia in combination with radiation does not increase the total amount of the crosslinks but delays the removal of the crosslinks and alters the distribution of the types of chemical bonding. These data suggest that the synergistic action on hyperthermia with radiation is more related to the rate of removal and the type of chemical bonding involved in the covalent DNA-protein crosslinks rather than the amount of DNA-protein crosslinks

  19. Transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy with crosslinking for keratoconus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Achyut N; Selimis, Vasilis; Aslanides, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    To analyse visual, refractive and topographic outcomes of combining transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy (tPRK) with simultaneous corneal crosslinking for the visual rehabilitation of contact lens intolerant keratoconus patients. Patients with topographically significant keratoconus, limited corrected vision and intolerant of contact lenses were prospectively recruited, subject to ethical approval and consent. All patients underwent single step aspheric tPRK and sequential crosslinking. Preoperative vision, refraction, corneal topography and wavefront were assessed, with postoperative assessment at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. 22 eyes of 14 patients were included in the pilot study. Mean age was 32 years (SD 6.8, range 24 to 43). Mean preoperative unaided vision was 1.39 LogMAR (SD 0.5) best corrected 0.31 LogMAR (SD 0.2). Mean preoperative spherical equivalent was -2.74 Diopters (D) (SD 4.1 range -12.25 to +7.75), and mean cylinder -2.9 D (SD 1.2, range 0 to -5.5). Mean central corneal thickness was 461um (SD 29, range 411 to 516). Vision improved postoperatively; unaided 0.32 LogMAR (SD 0.4), best corrected 0.11 (SD 0.13) (P=<0.005). Mean postoperative cylinder was -1.4D (SD1.2), significantly reduced (p<0.005). Maximum keratometry (Kmax) was stable throughout postoperative follow up. (p<0.05). Non topographic transepithelial PRK with simultaneous crosslinking improves vision, and may offer an alternative to keratoplasty in contact lens intolerant keratoconus. Further comparative studies to topographic PRK techniques are indicated.

  20. Effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester on palatal mucosal defects and tooth extraction sockets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günay A

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ahmet Günay,1 Osman Fatih Arpağ,2 Serhat Atilgan,3 Ferhan Yaman,3 Yusuf Atalay,4 İzzet Acikan3 1Department of Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, Dicle University, Diyarbakir, Turkey; 2Department of Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, Mustafa Kemal University, Hatay, Turkey; 3Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, Dicle University, Diyarbakir, Turkey; 4Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, Kocatepe University, Afyon, Turkey Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE on palatal mucosal defects and tooth extraction sockets in an experimental model.Materials and methods: Forty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats with a mean age of 7 weeks and weighing 280–490 g were used in this study. The rats were randomly divided into two groups: group A (the control group, n=21 and group B (the experimental group, n=21. Under anesthesia with ketamine (8 mg/100 g, intraperitoneally, palatal mucosal defects were created and tooth extraction was performed in the rats in groups A and B. Group A received no treatment, whereas group B received CAPE. CAPE was injected daily (10 µmol/kg, intraperitoneally. The rats were killed on days 7, 14, and 30 after the procedures. Palatal mucosa healing and changes in bone tissue and fibrous tissue were evaluated histopathologically.Result: Pairwise comparisons showed no statistically significant difference between days 7 and 14 in either group (P>0.05. At day 30, bone healing was significantly better in group B (CAPE than in group A (control (P<0.05. Fibrinogen levels at day 30 were significantly higher in group A (control than in group B (CAPE (P<0.05. Pairwise comparisons showed no statistically significant difference in palatal mucosa healing levels between days 7 and 14 in both groups (P>0.05.Conclusion: In conclusion, the findings of this study suggest that CAPE can significantly improve tooth socket healing. Keywords: caffeic

  1. Comparison study of crosslink density determination in cured rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-sabbagh, S.H.; Yehia, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    The crosslink density is an important property affecting the major characteristics of cured rubber. The crosslink density can be determined by different methods such as: 1. Dynamic mechanical method using the data of stress-strain relationship. 2. Mooney-Rivlin equation 3. Swelling in organic solvents measurements using Flory-Rehner equation. The crosslink density calculated by the previous methods were discussed and compared with each other for cured NR, SBR and NBR. The obtained data showed that the dynamic-mechanical method can be considered as a simple and reliable method for determination of crosslink density for cured rubbers

  2. Irradiation Crosslinking of Polyamides for the Electrical and Automotive Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehring, J.

    2006-01-01

    Irradiation crosslinking of electrical cables and heat shrinkable tubes have been widely accepted in the automotive and electrical industry for a long time. Due higher demands regarding temperature resistance, arc resistance and good chemical resistance against oil and greases crosslinked injection moulded parts made out of polyamid and polybutylentherephtalate become also more and more interesting. Crosslinked polyamide can also replace thermosets for switches and offers therefore additional financial benefits. It will be shown on the basis of already realized projects, which basic requirements exist and how irradiation crosslinking can fulfil these demands

  3. Restoration of an atrophic eye socket with custom made eye prosthesis, utilizing digital photography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav P Jayaswal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocular defects may cause several ocular and orbital disorders, which require surgical intervention. These defects are psychologically disturbing for the patients, and therefore, they require immediate management and rehabilitation by a team of specialist. Ocular prosthesis may be either readymade (stock or custom made. Fabrication of a custom ocular prosthesis allows for a range of variations during construction. The iris can also be custom made by ocular painting or by digital photography. The optimum cosmetic and functional results of a custom-made prosthesis enhance the patient′s rehabilitation to a normal life style. This paper elaborates the technique for fabrication of a custom-made ocular prosthesis for an atrophic eye socket utilizing digital photography.

  4. SPADOCK: Adaptive Pipeline Technology for Web System using WebSocket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aries RICHI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As information technology grows to the era of IoT(Internet of Things and cloud computing, the performance ofweb application and web service which acts as the informationgateway becomes an issue. Horizontal quality of serviceimprovement through system performance escalation becomesan issue pursued by engineers and scientists, giving birth toBigPipe pipeline technology which was developed by Facebook.We make SPADOCK, an adaptive pipeline system which is builtunder distributed system architecture with the utilization ofHTML5 WebSocket, then measure its performance. Parametersused for the measurement includes latency, workload, andbandwidth. The result shows that SPADOCK could reduceserving latency by 68.28% compared with the conventional web,and it is 20.63% faster than BigPipe.

  5. Placement of endosseous implant in infected alveolar socket with large fenestration defect: A comparative case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji Anitha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Placement of endosseous implants into infected bone is often deferred or avoided due to fear of failure. However, with the development of guided bone regeneration [GBR], some implantologists have reported successful implant placement in infected sockets, even those with fenestration defects. We had the opportunity to compare the osseointegration of an immediate implant placed in an infected site associated with a large buccal fenestration created by the removal of a root stump with that of a delayed implant placed 5 years after extraction. Both implants were placed in the same patient, in the same dental quadrant by the same implantologist. GBR was used with the fenestration defect being filled with demineralized bone graftFNx01 and covered with collagen membraneFNx08. Both implants were osseointegrated and functional when followed up after 12 months.

  6. Nano-socketed nickel particles with enhanced coking resistance grown in situ by redox exsolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neagu, Dragos; Oh, Tae-Sik; Miller, David N.; Ménard, Hervé; Bukhari, Syed M.; Gamble, Stephen R.; Gorte, Raymond J.; Vohs, John M.; Irvine, John T. S.

    2015-09-01

    Metal particles supported on oxide surfaces are used as catalysts for a wide variety of processes in the chemical and energy conversion industries. For catalytic applications, metal particles are generally formed on an oxide support by physical or chemical deposition, or less commonly by exsolution from it. Although fundamentally different, both methods might be assumed to produce morphologically and functionally similar particles. Here we show that unlike nickel particles deposited on perovskite oxides, exsolved analogues are socketed into the parent perovskite, leading to enhanced stability and a significant decrease in the propensity for hydrocarbon coking, indicative of a stronger metal-oxide interface. In addition, we reveal key surface effects and defect interactions critical for future design of exsolution-based perovskite materials for catalytic and other functionalities. This study provides a new dimension for tailoring particle-substrate interactions in the context of increasing interest for emergent interfacial phenomena.

  7. Stress indices for ANSI standard B16.11 socket-welding fittings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodabaugh, E.C.; Moore, S.E.

    1975-08-01

    Stress indices for ANSI standard B16.11 socket-welding tees, 45 0 elbows, 90 0 elbows, and couplings are developed for intended use with the Class-1 piping system design rules of Section III--Division 1 of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Indices are given for the evaluation of appropriate primary stresses, primary-plus-secondary stresses, and peak stresses due to internal pressure, bending-moment loads, and thermal gradients between the fitting and the attached pipe. The proposed indices are based on the dimensional and pressure-burst requirements of the B16.11 standard, the apparent shapes of B16.11 fittings as indicated from a random sampling taken off-the-shelf, the standard pressure-temperature ratings of the fittings, and on current stress indices now in the Code for similar butt-welding fittings. Specific recommendations are made for issuing the new stress indices in a Code case. (auth)

  8. Properties of sericin films crosslinking with dimethylolurea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turbiani, Franciele R.B.; Stroher, Gylles Ricardo; Tomadon Junior, Jose; Seixas, Fernanda L.; Stroher, Gylles Ricardo; Gimenes, Marcelino L.

    2011-01-01

    Sericin is a natural silk protein which is removed from silk in a process called degumming. Thus, finding a use for the extracted sericin as a bio polymer film will create added value product which will benefit both the economy and society. The films were manufactured with silk sericin, using different dimethylolurea (DMU) concentrations as cross-linking agent and glycerol as plasticizer. Sericin films produced by crosslinking method were light yellow, homogeneous, transparent and visually attractive. The average film thickness was 0.10 ± 0.02 mm. The bio films show low water solubility (up to 30% of total dry mass), good tension strength and high elongation ability. The water vapor permeability is moderate, typical of highly hydrophilic films. Structural transformations in silk sericin films were analyzed using Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. This resulted in aggregated β-sheet structure (peak at 1616 cm-1 in the amide I absorption) by FTIR studies and increasing the DMU concentration in film decreased the peak intensity at 2θ = 20 degree. Sericin-based film properties are dependent on components used to form film, which can used to tailor the desired film flexibility and minimize permeability of films. (author)

  9. Properties of sericin films crosslinking with dimethylolurea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turbiani, Franciele R.B.; Stroher, Gylles Ricardo [Federal Technology University - UTFPR, Campus Apucarana, PR (Brazil); Tomadon, Junior, Jose; Seixas, Fernanda L; Stroher, Gylles Ricardo; Gimenes, Marcelino L., E-mail: francieler@utfpr.edu.br [State University of Maringa. UEM, Campus Maringa, PR (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Sericin is a natural silk protein which is removed from silk in a process called degumming. Thus, finding a use for the extracted sericin as a bio polymer film will create added value product which will benefit both the economy and society. The films were manufactured with silk sericin, using different dimethylolurea (DMU) concentrations as cross-linking agent and glycerol as plasticizer. Sericin films produced by crosslinking method were light yellow, homogeneous, transparent and visually attractive. The average film thickness was 0.10 {+-} 0.02 mm. The bio films show low water solubility (up to 30% of total dry mass), good tension strength and high elongation ability. The water vapor permeability is moderate, typical of highly hydrophilic films. Structural transformations in silk sericin films were analyzed using Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. This resulted in aggregated {beta}-sheet structure (peak at 1616 cm-1 in the amide I absorption) by FTIR studies and increasing the DMU concentration in film decreased the peak intensity at 2{theta} = 20 degree. Sericin-based film properties are dependent on components used to form film, which can used to tailor the desired film flexibility and minimize permeability of films. (author)

  10. Immediate implants placed in fresh sockets associated to periapical infectious processes. A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Camino, Juan C.; Valmaseda-Castellón, Eduard

    2013-01-01

    Objetives: The development of treated implant surfaces, added to the increase of the aesthetic requirements by the patients has led to a change in the treatment protocols as well as the development of techniques such as the one-fase implants and the immediate prosthetic loading. One of the usual contraindications of the implant treatment is the presence of periapical disease associated to the tooth to be replaced. The aim of this paper is to review the published literature on immediate implant placement in extraction sockets of teeth with periapical pathology, considering the level of scientific evidence, and following the principles of medicine and evidence-based Dentistry. Material and Methods: A search of articles published between 1982 and 2012 was conducted. The search terms immediate, dental implant, extraction, infected, periapical pathology were used. Search was limited to studies in animals and humans, published in english language. Results: 16 articles were selected from a total of 438, which were stratified according to their level of scientific evidence using the SORT criteria (Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy). Studies in both animals and humans presented high rates of implant survival, but human studies are limited to a small number of cases. Discussion and Conclusions: There is a limited evidence regarding implant placement immediately to the extraction of teeth affected by chronic periapical pathology. Following analysis of the articles, and in function of their scientific quality, a type B recommendation is given in favor of the immediate implant placement in fresh sockets associated to periapical infectious processes. Key words:Immediate implant, periapical pathology. PMID:23722139

  11. Healing of Postextraction Sockets Preserved With Autologous Platelet Concentrates. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Fabbro, Massimo; Bucchi, Cristina; Lolato, Alessandra; Corbella, Stefano; Testori, Tiziano; Taschieri, Silvio

    2017-08-01

    The true benefit of autologous platelet concentrates (APCs) for enhancing the healing of postextraction sites is still a matter of debate, and in recent years several clinical trials have addressed this issue. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an APC adjunct in the preservation of fresh extraction sockets. An electronic search was performed on Medline, Embase, Scopus, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Only controlled clinical trials or randomized clinical trials were included. Selected articles underwent risk-of-bias assessment. The outcomes were complications and adverse events, discomfort and quality of life, bone healing and remodeling assessed by histologic and radiographic techniques, and soft tissue healing. Thirty-three comparative studies were included. Nine articles had a parallel design and 24 had a split-mouth design. Twenty studies were considered to have a low risk of bias and 13 were considered to have a high risk. Overall, 1,193 teeth were extracted from 911 patients. Meta-analysis showed that soft tissue healing, probing depth at 3 months, and bone density at 1, 3, and 6 months were statistically better for the APC group. Qualitative analysis suggested that APCs might be associated with a decrease in swelling and trismus. However, no relevant difference among groups was found for probing depth at 1 month, incidence of alveolar osteitis, acute inflammation or infection, percentage of new bone, and indirect measurement of bone metabolism. APCs should be used in postextraction sites to improve clinical and radiographic outcomes such as bone density and soft tissue healing and postoperative symptoms. The actual benefit of APCs on decreasing pain in extraction sockets is still not quantifiable. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Graphene oxide scaffold accelerates cellular proliferative response and alveolar bone healing of tooth extraction socket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Erika; Miyaji, Hirofumi; Kato, Akihito; Takita, Hiroko; Iwanaga, Toshihiko; Momose, Takehito; Ogawa, Kosuke; Murakami, Shusuke; Sugaya, Tsutomu; Kawanami, Masamitsu

    2016-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) consisting of a carbon monolayer has been widely investigated for tissue engineering platforms because of its unique properties. For this study, we fabricated a GO-applied scaffold and assessed the cellular and tissue behaviors in the scaffold. A preclinical test was conducted to ascertain whether the GO scaffold promoted bone induction in dog tooth extraction sockets. For this study, GO scaffolds were prepared by coating the surface of a collagen sponge scaffold with 0.1 and 1 µg/mL GO dispersion. Scaffolds were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), physical testing, cell seeding, and rat subcutaneous implant testing. Then a GO scaffold was implanted into a dog tooth extraction socket. Histological observations were made at 2 weeks postsurgery. SEM observations show that GO attached to the surface of collagen scaffold struts. The GO scaffold exhibited an interconnected structure resembling that of control subjects. GO application improved the physical strength, enzyme resistance, and adsorption of calcium and proteins. Cytocompatibility tests showed that GO application significantly increased osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cell proliferation. In addition, an assessment of rat subcutaneous tissue response revealed that implantation of 1 µg/mL GO scaffold stimulated cellular ingrowth behavior, suggesting that the GO scaffold exhibited good biocompatibility. The tissue ingrowth area and DNA contents of 1 µg/mL GO scaffold were, respectively, approximately 2.5-fold and 1.4-fold greater than those of the control. Particularly, the infiltration of ED2-positive (M2) macrophages and blood vessels were prominent in the GO scaffold. Dog bone-formation tests showed that 1 µg/mL GO scaffold implantation enhanced bone formation. New bone formation following GO scaffold implantation was enhanced fivefold compared to that in control subjects. These results suggest that GO was biocompatible and had high bone-formation capability for the scaffold

  13. Pain Control Following Impacted Third Molar Surgery with Bupivacaine Irrigation of Tooth Socket: A Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Khorshidi Khiavi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. The surgical removal of the lower third molars is a procedure generally followed by side effects such as postoperative pain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of socket irrigation with an anesthetic solution in relieving pain following impacted third molar surgery. Materials and methods. Thirty-four patients (17 males and 17 females, aged 18-24 years, with bilateral impacted lower third molars were selected. Both third molars were extracted in one surgical session. Tooth sockets in each patient were rinsed randomly either with 4 mL of 0.5% bupivacaine hydrochloride plain (without vasoconstrictor anesthetic solution or 4 mL of normal saline, used as control. The patients were instructed not to use analgesics as long as possible, and if not, they were instructed to use an analgesic, and record the time. Pain severity was assessed using a visual analogue pain scale (VAPS at 1-, 6-, 12-, and 24-hour intervals post-operatively. Data were analyzed using Pearson’s chi-square test and P <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. Post-operative pain difference between the two groups was statistically significant at 1-, 6-, 12- and 24-hour postoperative intervals (P <0.05. Post-operative pain increased in both groups to a maximum 12 hours after surgery with significant improvements after that. Conclusion. Based on the results, the irrigation of surgery site with bupivacaine after third molar surgery significantly reduces post-operative pain.

  14. Periodontal and endodontic pathology delays extraction socket healing in a canine model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the present exploratory study was to evaluate extraction socket healing at sites with a history of periodontal and endodontic pathology. Methods The mandibular 4th premolar teeth in 5 adult beagle dogs served as experimental units. Periodontal and endodontic lesions were induced in 1 premolar site in each animal using wire ligatures and pulpal exposure over 3 months (diseased sites). The contralateral premolar sites served as healthy controls. The mandibular 4th premolar teeth were then extracted with minimal trauma, followed by careful wound debridement. The animals were sacrificed at days 1, 7, 30, 60, and 90 post-extraction for analysis, and the healing patterns at the healthy and diseased extraction sites were compared using radiography, scanning electron microscopy, histology, and histometry. Results During the first 7 days of healing, a significant presence of inflammatory granulation tissue was noted at the diseased sites (day 1), along with a slightly accelerated rate of fibrin clot resolution on day 7. On day 30, the diseased extraction sites showed a greater percentage of persistent fibrous connective tissue, and an absence of bone marrow formation. In contrast, healthy sites showed initial signs of bone marrow formation on day 30, and subsequently a significantly greater proportion of mature bone marrow formation on both days 60 and 90. Radiographs exhibited sclerotic changes adjoining apical endodontic lesions, with scanning electron microscopy showing collapsed Volkmann canals protruding from these regions in the diseased sites. Furthermore, periodontal ligament fibers exhibited a parallel orientation to the alveolar walls of the diseased sites, in contrast to a perpendicular arrangement in the healthy sites. Conclusions Within the limitations of this study, it appears that a history of periodontal and endodontic pathology may critically affect bone formation and maturation, leading to delayed and compromised extraction socket

  15. Integrated versus non-integrated orbital implants for treating anophthalmic sockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellini, Silvana; El Dib, Regina; Silva, Leandro Re; Farat, Joyce G; Zhang, Yuqing; Jorge, Eliane C

    2016-11-07

    Anophthalmia is the absence of one or both eyes, and it can be congenital (i.e. a birth defect) or acquired later in life. There are two main types of orbital implant: integrated, whereby the implant receives a blood supply from the body that allows for the integration of the prosthesis within the tissue; and non-integrated, where the implant remains separate. Despite the remarkable progress in anophthalmic socket reconstruction and in the development of various types of implants, there are still uncertainties about the real roles of integrated (hydroxyapatite (HA), porous polyethylene (PP), composites) and non-integrated (polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)/acrylic and silicone) orbital implants in anophthalmic socket treatment. To assess the effects of integrated versus non-integrated orbital implants for treating anophthalmic sockets. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2016, Issue 7), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to August 2016), Embase (January 1980 to August 2016), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database (LILACS) (1982 to August 2016), the ISRCTN registry (www.isrctn.com/editAdvancedSearch), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov), and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 8 August 2016. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs of integrated and non-integrated orbital implants for treating anophthalmic sockets. Two authors independently selected relevant trials, assessed methodological quality and extracted data. We included three studies with a total of 284 participants (250 included in analysis). The studies were conducted in India, Iran and the Netherlands. The three

  16. Cross-linked polyelectrolyte multilayers for marine antifouling applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, X.; Janczewski, D.; Lee, S.S.C.; Teo, S.L-M.; Vancso, Gyula J.

    2013-01-01

    A polyionic multilayer film was fabricated by layer-by-layer (LbL) sequential deposition followed by cross-linking under mild conditions on a substrate surface to inhibit marine fouling. A novel polyanion, featuring methyl ester groups for an easy cross-linking was used as a generic solution for

  17. Characterization of Aldehyde Crosslinked Kenaf Regenerated Cellulose Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatika Kaco

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Regenerated cellulose film with better mechanical properties was successfully produced by introducing aldehyde crosslinker during the regeneration process. The cellulose source material was derived from kenaf core powder and dissolved in LiOH/urea solvent at −13 °C to form a cellulose solution. The cellulose solution was cast and coagulated in a crosslinker bath at different percentages of glutaraldehyde (GA and glyoxal (GX to form a regenerated cellulose film. According to Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR spectra, the hydroxyl group of the cellulose was reduced, reducing the percentage of swelling as the percentage of crosslinker was increased. X-ray diffraction (XRD patterns showed that the crystallinity index of the crosslinked film was decreased. The pore size of the films decreased as the percentage of crosslinker was increased, resulting in decreased film transparency. The pore volume and percentage of swelling in water of the films also increased with decreases in the pore size as the percentage of crosslinker was increased. The tensile strengths of the GA- and GX-crosslinked films increased by 20 and 15% with the addition of 20% of each crosslinker, respectively.

  18. Hydrogels Prepared from Cross-Linked Nanofibrillated Cellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandeep S. Nair; J.Y. Zhu; Yulin Deng; Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2014-01-01

    Nanocomposite hydrogels were developed by cross-linking nanofibrillated cellulose with poly(methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic acid) and polyethylene glycol. The cross-linked hydrogels showed enhanced water absorption and gel content with the addition of nanocellulose. In addition, the thermal stability, mechanical strength, and modulus increased with an increase in the...

  19. Fabrication of homobifunctional crosslinker stabilized collagen for biomedical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakra, Rachita; Kiran, Manikantan Syamala; Sai, Korrapati Purna

    2015-01-01

    Collagen biopolymer has found widespread application in the field of tissue engineering owing to its excellent tissue compatibility and negligible immunogenicity. Mechanical strength and enzymatic degradation of the collagen necessitates the physical and chemical strength enhancement. One such attempt deals with the understanding of crosslinking behaviour of EGS (ethylene glycol-bis (succinic acid N-hydroxysuccinimide ester)) with collagen to improve the physico-chemical properties. The incorporation of a crosslinker during fibril formation enhanced the thermal and mechanical stability of collagen. EGS crosslinked collagen films exhibited higher denaturation temperature (T d ) and the residue left after thermogravimetric analysis was about 16  ±  5.2%. Mechanical properties determined by uniaxial tensile tests showed a threefold increase in tensile strength and Young’s modulus at higher concentration (100 μM). Water uptake capacity reduced up to a moderate extent upon crosslinking which is essential for the transport of nutrients to the cells. Cell viability was found to be 100% upon treatment with 100 μM EGS whereas only 30% viability could be observed with glutaraldehyde. Rheological studies of crosslinked collagen showed an increase in shear stress and shear viscosity at 37 °C. Crosslinking with EGS resulted in the formation of a uniform fibrillar network. Trinitrobenzene sulfonate (TNBS) assay confirmed that EGS crosslinked collagen by forming a covalent interaction with ε-amino acids of collagen. The homobifunctional crosslinker used in this study enhanced the effectiveness of collagen as a biomaterial for biomedical application. (paper)

  20. Reconstruction of severe anophthalmic orbits and atresic eye sockets after enucleation and irradiation of retinoblastoma by vascular anastomosed free dorsalis pedis flaps' transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xiaoping; Fan, Xianqun; Zhou, Huifang; Shi, Wodong; Xiao, Caiwen; Lin, Min; Li, Zhenkang

    2011-05-01

    Retinoblastoma is a common malignant intraocular tumor in childhood, and most patients require enucleation or exenteration even with irradiation. Severe anophthalmic orbits and atresic eye sockets are not rare. We conducted a retrospective study to evaluate the results of surgical management of reconstruction of severe anophthalmic orbits and atresic eye sockets with vascular anastomosed free dorsalis pedis flap transplantation. There were 5 patients (5 eyes) who underwent reconstructive surgery of severe anophthalmic orbits and atresic eye sockets after enucleation and irradiation of retinoblastoma in our hospital during the 3 years. All patients had enucleation and irradiation immediately after the retinoblastoma was diagnosed and had never worn artificial eyes because of the atresic eye sockets. Vascular anastomosed free dorsalis pedis flaps, whose dimensions were typically 6.5 × 5.5 cm(2), were transplanted to reconstruct the severe anophthalmic orbits and atresic eye sockets. The donor sites were covered by free abdominal skin flaps. All the vascular anastomosed free dorsalis pedis flaps were valid after more than 6 months of follow-up. And then all the 5 patients underwent secondary autogenous dermal fat implantation to augment the supraorbital area depression. After the 2-stage reconstruction surgery, the dimensions of the eye sockets were adequate, and all patients were able to wear their prosthesis and had a satisfactory cosmetic result. Implantation of alloplastic materials is not recommended because of insufficient blood supply of the irradiated orbital area.

  1. Effects of local and whole body irradiation on the appearance of osteoblasts during wound healing in tooth extraction sockets in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosokawa, Yoichiro; Kudo, Kohsei; Kashiwakura, Ikuo; Sakakura, Yasunori; Irie, Kazuharu

    2010-01-01

    Irradiation before tooth extraction delays wound healing in the alveolar socket. This study examined the influences of local and whole body irradiation before tooth extraction on appearance of osteoblasts in the alveolar bone of rat maxillary first molars because bone formation is observed at the initial phase of wound healing. Several osteoblasts were generated 3 days after tooth extraction, and the number of cells increased day by day. Morphological studies showed there were little differences between local irradiation and non-irradiated controls. In contrast, the extraction wound in the whole body irradiation group showed delayed healing, and there was poor granulation tissue and very few osteoblasts at the bottom of the socket. An ultrastructural study showed that the osteoblasts in the extraction socket of whole body irradiation rats were smaller, and had poorly developed organelles. Injection of bone marrow cells to whole body-irradiated animals immediately after tooth extraction partially restored the number of osteoblasts. New periosteal bone formations outside of sockets showed little delay in the whole body irradiation group. These findings suggest that bone formation in the wound healing of extraction socket requires bone marrow cells from hematopoietic organs such as the bone marrow as well as local sources around the alveolar socket, during the initial phase of wound healing. (author)

  2. Effectiveness of platelet-rich fibrin in the management of pain and delayed wound healing associated with established alveolar osteitis (dry socket).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ashish; Aggarwal, Nimish; Rastogi, Sanjay; Choudhury, Rupshikha; Tripathi, Siddhi

    2017-01-01

    To assess the efficacy of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) on the pain and healing of the extraction socket related with established alveolar osteitis (dry socket, AO) after the removal of maxillary and mandibular molars. One hundred consecutive adult patients with age group ranging from 18 to 40 years along with established dry socket after maxillary and mandibular molar extractions who have not received any treatment for the same were included in this single-arm clinical trial. PRF was placed in the maxillary and mandibular molar extraction sockets after adequate irrigation of the socket. All the patients evaluated for the various study variables which include pain, degree of inflammation, and healthy granulation tissue formation (wound healing) at the 1 st , 3 rd , 7 th , and 14 th post-PRF placement day in the alveolar socket. Data were analyzed using Shapiro-Wilk's test, Chi-square test and/or Student's t -test, Friedman's test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, and Bonferroni test, with the significance level set at P healing by the end of the 2 nd week. The use of PRF in this clinical trial illustrates the promising results in terms of reduced pain and better healing in the patients with sustained AO.

  3. Effects of local and whole body irradiation on the appearance of osteoblasts during wound healing in tooth extraction sockets in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Yoichiro; Sakakura, Yasunori; Irie, Kazuharu; Kudo, Kohsei; Kashiwakura, Ikuo

    2010-01-01

    Irradiation before tooth extraction delays wound healing in the alveolar socket. This study examined the influences of local and whole body irradiation before tooth extraction on appearance of osteoblasts in the alveolar bone of rat maxillary first molars because bone formation is observed at the initial phase of wound healing. Several osteoblasts were generated 3 days after tooth extraction, and the number of cells increased day by day. Morphological studies showed there were little differences between local irradiation and non-irradiated controls. In contrast, the extraction wound in the whole body irradiation group showed delayed healing, and there was poor granulation tissue and very few osteoblasts at the bottom of the socket. An ultrastructural study showed that the osteoblasts in the extraction socket of whole body irradiation rats were smaller, and had poorly developed organelles. Injection of bone marrow cells to whole body-irradiated animals immediately after tooth extraction partially restored the number of osteoblasts. New periosteal bone formations outside of sockets showed little delay in the whole body irradiation group. These findings suggest that bone formation in the wound healing of extraction socket requires bone marrow cells from hematopoietic organs such as the bone marrow as well as local sources around the alveolar socket, during the initial phase of wound healing.

  4. Nuclear magnetic resonance structure investigations on crosslinked polyesters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grobelny, J.

    1999-01-01

    Styrene-crosslinked mixed polyesters derived from maleic anhydride, 2,2-di(4-hydroxypropoxyphenyl)propane, oligo(propylene oxide) and 1,2-propylene glycol were investigated by high-resolution solid-state 13 C NMR spectroscopy. The structural modifications accompanying crosslinking were characterized in terms of spin-lattice relaxation times as a function of unsaturated polyester composition. Copolymerization and crosslinking effects were individually evaluated and the latter effect was related to variations in crosslinking density associated with the chemical structure of the unsaturated prepolymer. As the crosslinking effect is suppressed, the mechanical properties undergo expected changes, e.g., impact strength is increased and modulus of elasticity in tension is decreased. (author)

  5. Recent advances in corneal collagen cross-linking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitansha Shreyas Sachdev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Corneal collagen cross-linking has become the preferred modality of treatment for corneal ectasia since its inception in late 1990s. Numerous studies have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of the conventional protocol. Our understanding of the cross-linking process is ever evolving, with its wide implications in the form of accelerated and pulsed protocols. Newer advancements in technology include various riboflavin formulations and the ability to deliver higher fluence protocols with customised irradiation patterns. A greater degree of customisation is likely the path forward, which will aim at achieving refractive improvements along with disease stability. The use of cross-linking for myopic correction is another avenue under exploration. Combination of half fluence cross-linking with refractive correction for high errors to prevent post LASIK regression is gaining interest. This review aims to highlight the various advancements in the cross-linking technology and its clinical applications.

  6. Carboxymethylcellulose hydrogel crosslinked with citric acid for biomedical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capanema, Nadia S.V.; Mansur, Alexandra A.P.; Mansur, Herman S.; Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais

    2016-01-01

    The carboxymethylcellulose (CMCel) has been extensively used in order application as flexible polymer membrane. Biopolymers crosslinked have been studied to optimize their performance in biomedical applications. In this work, CMCel films with a degree of substitution (DS = 0.77) were prepared by evaporation of solvent and crosslinked with different concentrations of citric acid (CA). The synthesized CMCel was characterized by Infrared Spectroscopy by Fourier Transform X-ray spectroscopy (FTIR), and morphology assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Morphological analysis performed using the SEM indicated the crosslinked CMCel and not crosslinked with a very smooth and uniform appearance. The FTIR results indicated the modification of existing bands and appearance of a new band 1715 cm"-"1 suggesting that there has been change in the structure of the crosslinked CMCel. (author)

  7. Radiation-induced crosslinking of poly(vinylidene fluoride)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makuuchi, Keizo

    1977-07-01

    The factors influencing radiation-induced crosslinking efficiency of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVdF) have been studied. Results of the basic research on irradiation conditions (dose rate and atmosphere) and initial physical properties of PVdF (structure of molecular chain and molecular mobility of chain segment) showed that crosslinking efficiency is raised in irradiation at high temperature above 50 0 C under vacuum in the presence of an absorbent for the evolved hydrogen fluoride. The crosslinking reaction is also accelerated with irregular molecular structure such as head-to-head bond in main chain. High crosslinking efficiency is obtained by addition of a polyfunctional monomer having good solubility with PVdF. Mechanical properties of PVdF, the strength at high temperature near the melting point in particular, are improved by crosslinking in the presence of a polyfunctional monomer. (auth.)

  8. Covalent DNA-protein crosslinking occurs after hyperthermia and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cress, A.E.; Bowden, G.T.

    1983-01-01

    Covalent DNA-protein crosslinks occur in exponentially growing mouse leukemia cells (L1210) after exposure to ionizing radiation. The amount of DNA-protein crosslinks as measured by a filter binding assay is dose dependent upon x irradiation. Although hyperthermia and radiation in combination are synergistic with respect to cell lethality, the combination does not result in an increase of DNA-protein crosslinks when assayed immediately following treatments. Hyperthermia (43 0 C/15 min) given prior to radiation dose not alter the radiation dose dependency of the amount of initial crosslinking. In addition, the amount of DNA-protein crosslinking produced by heat plus radiation is independent of the length of heating the cells at 43 0 C. The DNA-protein crosslinks produced y 50-Gy x ray alone are removed after 2 hr at 37 0 C. However, if hyperthermia (43 0 C/15 min) is given prior to 100-Gy x ray, the removal of DNA-protein crosslinks is delayed until 4.0 hr after radiation. Phospho-serine and phospho-threonine bonds are not produced with either radiation or the combination of hyperthermia plus radiation as judged by the resistance of the bonds to guanidine hydrochloride. However, hyperthermia plus radiation causes an increase in phosphate to nitrogen type bonding. These results show that radiation alone causes covalent DNA-protein crosslinks. Hyperthermia in combination with radiation does not increase the total amount of the crosslinks but delays the removal of the crosslinks and alters the distribution of the types of chemical bonding

  9. Gamma irradiation Effect on the Non-Crosslinked and Crosslinked Poly(vinyl alcohol) Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sawy, N.M.; El-Arnaouty, M.B.; Abdel Ghaffar, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    The non-crosslinked and crosslinked poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) films were prepared by the cast method then irradiated with gamma rays for various doses up to 300 kGy. The structure and characterization of PVA were determined by using Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), ultraviolet spectroscopy (UV). Swelling behaviour was also investigated. Mechanical properties have been examined with respect to the absorbed dose. The color of the films changed to yellowish-white after irradiation. Additional changes were observed using FTIR analysis on the degradation products demonstrated that the radiolysis of PVA was initiated by liberation of H and OH groups leading to scission of the main chains and formation of carbonyl and double bond groups. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was performed

  10. Radiation crosslinked materials with antithrombotical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schunk, W.; Kloecking, H.P.; Merkmann, G.; Giessmann, C.; Knoll, H.; Borgmann, S.

    1991-01-01

    Described is a flexible drainage tube of good tissue tolerance developed for the postoperative continuous withdrawal of secretions from wounds which - owing to the addition of an active ingredient in sustained release dosage form (pentosanpolysulfate stored in the molecular sieve) - inhibits or considerably delays clogging as a result of coagulation processes. The tube is made of a mixture of natural or silicone rubbers and 4% coagulation inhibitor that is extruded onto a metal mandrel, crosslinked using electron rays (100 kGy, 20 s) and simultaneously sterilised. The mandrel is subsequently removed. In vitro trials (using blood plasm for open flow systems and blood for circulatory flow systems) provided evidence in confirmation of a continuous regular release of active ingredient that inhibited coagulation processes over prolonged periods of time. (orig.) [de

  11. Corneal collagen crosslinking and pigment dispersion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaHood, Benjamin R; Moore, Sacha

    2017-03-01

    We describe the case of a keratoconus patient with pigment dispersion syndrome (PDS) who was treated for progressive corneal ectasia with corneal collagen crosslinking (CXL). Pigment dispersion syndrome has been shown to have associated morphologic changes of the corneal endothelium. Corneal CXL has the potential to cause toxicity to the corneal endothelium, and adjacent pigment might increase the likelihood of damage. In this case, the presence of PDS had no detrimental effect on the outcome of treatment, and no complications were observed at 12 months follow-up, indicating that it may be safe to perform corneal CXL in the setting of PDS. This is an important observation as the number of indications for corneal CXL grows. Copyright © 2017 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. In vivo biocompatibility of carbodiimide-crosslinked collagen matrices : Effects of crosslink density, heparin immobilization, and bFGF loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wachem, PB; Plantinga, JA; Wissink, MJB; Poot, AA; Engbers, GHM; Beugeling, T; van Aken, WG; Feijen, J; van Luyn, MJA

    2001-01-01

    Collagen matrices, crosslinked using N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethylcarbodiimide (E) and N-hydroxvsuccinimide (N), were previously developed as a substrate for endothelial cell seeding of small-diameter vascular grafts. In the present study, the biocompatibility of various EN-crosslinked collagen

  13. The Modification of PVDF Membrane via Crosslinking with Chitosan and Glutaraldehyde as the Crosslinking Agent

    OpenAIRE

    Silitonga, Romaya Sitha; Widiastuti, Nurul; Jaafar, Juhana; Ismail, Ahmad Fauzi; Abidin, Muhammad Nidzhom Zainol; Azelee, Ihsan Wan; Naidu, Mahesan

    2018-01-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) has outstanding properties such as high thermal stability, resistance to acid solvents and good mechanical strength. Due to its properties, PVDF is widely used as a membrane matrix. However, PVDF membrane is hydrophobic properties, so as for specific applications, the surface of membrane needs to be modified to become hydrophilic. This research aims to modify PVDF membrane surface with chitosan and glutaraldehyde as a crosslinker agent. The FTIR spectra showed...

  14. Immediate Implant Placement in Single-Tooth Molar Extraction Sockets: A 1- to 6-Year Retrospective Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Francesco; Polara, Giorgio

    The aim of this study was to investigate the survival rate of implants immediately placed in fresh extraction sockets of molars in the maxilla and mandible with a single-stage procedure. A total of 102 patients were treated, and 107 implants (53 in the maxilla and 54 in the mandible) were placed in a fresh molar extraction socket and connected to a healing abutment. After a mean follow-up of 3 years (range: 1 to 6 years) 1 implant failed, for a cumulative success rate of 99.06% (98.11% for the mandible and 100% for the maxilla). The results of this study support placement of an implant immediately after the extraction of a molar, applying a single-stage procedure.

  15. Ankle and subtalar synovitis in a ball-and-socket ankle joint causing posterolateral painful coarse crepitus: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ka Yuk; Lui, Tun Hing

    2014-01-01

    A 17-year-old girl with bilateral ball-and-socket ankles reported left medial heel pain. Her left heel had gone into a varus position on tiptoeing, and a painful clunk had occurred when returning to normal standing. The clunk persisted after physiotherapy and treatment with an orthosis. Subtalar arthroscopy and peroneal tendoscopy showed mild diffuse synovitis of the ankle joint, especially over the posterior capsule, and a patch of inflamed and fibrotic synovium at the posterolateral corner of the subtalar joint. The clunk subsided immediately after arthroscopic synovectomy and had not recurred during 5 years of follow-up. We found no other reported cases of ankle and subtalar synovitis occurring in patients with a ball-and-socket ankle joint. Copyright © 2014 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterization of the degree of cross-linking in radiation cross-linked low and high density polyethylenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posselt, K.; Haedrich, W.

    1986-01-01

    In practice the cross-linking of irradiated polyethylene is mostly characterized by solubility and thermomechanical data. The irradiation of samples of a LDPE and a HDPE yields very different gel-dose curves. But for a quantitative comparison the complicated connection between the gel values and the corresponding densities of cross-links, especially the dependence on the initial molecular size distribution, has to take into consideration. The analysis of the solubility data according to the statistical theory of cross-linking developed by Inokuti and Saito shows that at equal doses in both investigated PE types in spite of the different gel values nearly the same densities of cross-links are present. That result is confirmed by the densities of cross-links determined from stress-strain measurements at 423 K. (author)

  17. Dental implants inserted in fresh extraction sockets versus healed sites: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrcanovic, Bruno Ramos; Albrektsson, Tomas; Wennerberg, Ann

    2015-01-01

    To test the null hypothesis of no difference in the implant failure rates, postoperative infection and marginal bone loss for the insertion of dental implants in fresh extraction sockets compared to the insertion in healed sites, against the alternative hypothesis of a difference. Main search terms used in combination: dental implant, oral implant, resh extraction socket, immediate placement, immediate insertion, immediate implant. An electronic search was undertaken in July/2014, in PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register plus hand-searching. Eligibility criteria included clinical human studies, either randomized or not. The search strategy resulted in 73 publications, with 8,241 implants inserted in sockets (330 failures, 4.00%), and 19,410 in healed sites (599 failures, 3.09%). It is suggested that the insertion of implants in fresh extraction sockets affects the failure rates (RR 1.58, 95% CI 1.27-1.95, P<0.0001). The difference was not statistically significant when studies evaluating implants inserted in maxillae or in mandibles were pooled, or when the studies using implants to rehabilitate patients with full-arch prostheses were pooled; however, it was significant for the studies that rehabilitated patients with implant-supported single crowns and for the controlled studies. There was no apparent significant effect on the occurrence of postoperative infection or on the magnitude of marginal bone loss. The results should be interpreted with caution due to the potential for biases and to the presence of uncontrolled confounding factors in the included studies, most of them not randomized. The question whether immediate implants are more at risk for failure than implants placed in mature bone has received increasing attention in the last years. As the philosophies of treatment alter over time, a periodic review of the different concepts is necessary to refine techniques and eliminate unnecessary procedures. This would form a basis

  18. The coefficient of friction of UHMWPE along an entire walking cycle using a ball-on-disc tribometer under arthrokinematics and loading conditions prescribed by ISO 14243-3:2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barceinas-Sanchez, J D O; Alvarez-Vera, M; Montoya-Santiyanes, L A; Dominguez-Lopez, I; Garcia-Garcia, A L

    2017-01-01

    The observation of tribological phenomena occurring in total knee replacement (TKR) simulators may be obscured by the intrinsic complexity of their operation: the dynamics and kinematics prescribed by the ISO 14243-3:2014 standard, and the geometry of the surfaces involved. On the other hand, evaluating the individual performance of the tribosystem elements may be carried out in simpler apparatuses. An experimental method is presented here, by means of which the arthrokinematics and loading conditions prescribed by the said standard are adapted to a ball-on-disc configuration in order to observe the behavior of the coefficient of friction along an entire walking cycle, using the contact point of an AISI 316L stainless steel ball rolling/sliding on an ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) disc, lubricated by a solution of fetal bovine serum, at 37°C. The method was tried on two different testing fluids prepared with protein concentrations of 20g/L, according to the said standard, and 36g/L, as received. The statistical model obtained for the behavior of the COF during the entire walking cycle may be used in numerical simulations of UHMWPE wear, under the conditions established by ISO 14243-3:2014. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Implant-buccal plate distance as diagnostic parameter: a prospective cohort study on implant placement in fresh extraction sockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capelli, Matteo; Testori, Tiziano; Galli, Fabio; Zuffetti, Francesco; Motroni, Alessandro; Weinstein, Roberto; Del Fabbro, Massimo

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate contour changes around immediate implants in fresh extraction sockets when different grafting procedures are performed, based on the distance between the external implant collar and the bony surface on the buccal plate (I-BP). A secondary aim is to assess the esthetic outcome via the implant esthetic score (IAS). This prospective cohort study was performed in three centers. Suitable patients to undergo implant placement in fresh extraction sockets were selected. Periodontal biotype, horizontal and vertical peri-implant bone defects, and dehiscences were assessed. Depending on I-BP, two types of grafting procedures were performed. In group A (I-BP sockets. No implant failed during the observation period. The mean follow-up was 25 months (range: 12 to 37 months). After 1 year of loading, group A showed a slight decrease in mean buccal volume, whereas group B had an increase in volume (P = 0.02). IAS was higher for group B than group A. When implants are placed immediately after tooth extraction, I-BP may represent a useful diagnostic parameter in choosing the most appropriate grafting procedure (IG versus IEG). In clinical cases in which the distance between implant surface and the buccal plate is <4 mm, the combination of internal and external grafting (IEG) is recommended to maintain the volume and the contour of the ridge and achieve a successful esthetic outcome.

  20. Load-bearing Characters Analysis of Large Diameter Rock-Socketed Filling Piles Based on Self-Balanced Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    tongqing, Wu; liang, Li; xinjian, Liu; Xu, nianchun; Tian, Mao

    2018-03-01

    Self-balanced method is carried out on the large diameter rock-socketed filling piles of high-pile wharf at Inland River, to explore the distribution laws of load-displacement curve, pile internal force, pile tip friction resistance and pile side friction resistance under load force. The results showed that: the tip resistance of S1 and S2 test piles accounted for 53.4% and 53.6% of the pile bearing capacity, respectively, while the total side friction resistance accounted for 46.6% and 46.4% of the pile bearing capacity, respectively; both the pile tip friction resistance and pile side friction resistance can be fully played, and reach to the design requirements. The reasonability of large diameter rock-socketed filling design is verified through test analysis, which can provide basis for the optimization of high-pile wharf structural type, thus reducing the wharf project cost, and also providing reference for the similar large diameter rock-socketed filling piles of high-pile wharf at Inland River.

  1. A pilot trial comparing the tear-out behavior in screw-sockets and cemented polyethylene acetabular components - a cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möbius, R; Schleifenbaum, S; Grunert, R; Löffler, S; Werner, M; Prietzel, T; Hammer, N

    2016-10-01

    The removal of well-fixed acetabular components following THA (total hip arthroplasty) is a difficult operation and could be accompanied by the loss of acetabular bone stock. The optimal method for fixation is still under debate. The aim of this pilot study was to compare the tear-out resistance and failure behavior between osseo-integrated and non-integrated screw cups. Furthermore, we examined whether there are differences in the properties mentioned between screw sockets and cemented polyethylene cups. Tear-out resistance and related mechanical work required for the tear-out of osseo-integrated screw sockets are higher than in non-integrated screw sockets. Ten human coxal bones from six cadavers with osseo-integrated screw sockets (n=4), non-integrated (implanted post-mortem, n=3) screw sockets and cemented polyethylene cups (n=3) were used for tear-out testing. The parameters axial failure load and mechanical work for tear-out were introduced as measures for determining the stability of acetabular components following THA. The osseo-integrated screw sockets yielded slightly higher tear-out resistance (1.61±0.26kN) and related mechanical work compared to the non-integrated screw sockets (1.23±0.39kN, P=0.4). The cemented polyethylene cups yielded the lowest tear-out resistance with a failure load of 1.18±0.24kN. Compared to the screw cups implanted while alive, they also differ on a non-significant level (P=0.1). Osseous failure patterns differed especially for the screw sockets compared to the cemented polyethylene cups. Osseo-integration did not greatly influence the tear-out stability in cementless screw sockets following axial loading. Furthermore, the strength of the bone-implant-interface of cementless screw sockets appears to be similar to cemented polyethylene cups. However, given the high failure load, high mechanical load and because of the related bone failure patterns, removal should not be performed by means of tear-out but rather by osteotomes

  2. Moisture curable toughened poly(lactide utilizing vinyltrimethoxysilane based crosslinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schneider

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Vinyltrimethoxysilane (VTMOS was grafted on to the backbone of poly(lactide (PLA through a free radical grafting reaction using reactive extrusion (REX processing. The methoxy groups of the silane provide the modified PLA sites for crosslinking through a moisture induced pathway. VTMOS grafting efficiencies of up to 90% were obtained. The newly created methoxy functionality of the modified PLA readily undergoes hydrolysis and condensation forming siloxane crosslinks in the material. Crosslinking with VTMOS exhibited improved modulus, strength, and impact toughness while showing a decrease in ductility. Incorporating silanol-terminated poly(dimethylsiloxane (OH-PDMS resulted in the formation of longer siloxane crosslinks. These samples showed an increase in modulus and impact toughness due to the crosslinking, while the longer siloxane linkages resulted in improved ductility and tensile toughness. This is unusual for polymers toughened through crosslinking reactions. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM of the fractured surfaces showed the presence of these elongated siloxane crosslinks. This enhanced ability for the modified PLA to deform and absorb energy results in the increase in both impact and tensile toughness.

  3. Repair of DNA-polypeptide crosslinks by human excision nuclease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Joyce T.; Sancar, Aziz

    2006-03-01

    DNA-protein crosslinks are relatively common DNA lesions that form during the physiological processing of DNA by replication and recombination proteins, by side reactions of base excision repair enzymes, and by cellular exposure to bifunctional DNA-damaging agents such as platinum compounds. The mechanism by which pathological DNA-protein crosslinks are repaired in humans is not known. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of recognition and repair of protein-DNA and oligopeptide-DNA crosslinks by the human excision nuclease. Under our assay conditions, the human nucleotide excision repair system did not remove a 16-kDa protein crosslinked to DNA at a detectable level. However, 4- and 12-aa-long oligopeptides crosslinked to the DNA backbone were recognized by some of the damage recognition factors of the human excision nuclease with moderate selectivity and were excised from DNA at relatively efficient rates. Our data suggest that, if coupled with proteolytic degradation of the crosslinked protein, the human excision nuclease may be the major enzyme system for eliminating protein-DNA crosslinks from the genome. damage recognition | nucleotide excision repair

  4. Development of new materials by utilizing radiation crosslinking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Keiji; Uda, Yujiro; Suzuki, Shizuo

    1989-01-01

    About 30 years have elapsed since the cables by electron beam crosslinking were developed as the first industrial utilization of radiation in Japan. At present about 200 electron beam accelerators are used industrially in Japan, and cable industry ranks at the top, followed by foaming polyethylene and curing, and the preliminary vulcanization of tires. The effect of these irradiations is the reforming of polymers by radiation crosslinking. In cables, the heat resistance and chemical resistance of insulators are improved by radiation crosslinking. By applying radiation crosslinking to polyurethane elastomer, its weakest point, waterproof property, was improved. Moreover, by using this crosslinked polyurethane elastomer for cable coating, the reliability of the sensor cables for brake system was able to be remarkably improved. As another new application of radiation crosslinking process, the improvement of the heat resistance of engineering plasties was examined. The structure of radiation crosslinked urethane elastomer cables, their endurance in hot water and oil, and the life, and the characteristics of sensor cables are reported. Multi-functional monomers, the molecular structure, and the various characteristics of engineering plastics are described. (K.I.)

  5. Manufacture of polyethylene foam by electron beam cross-linking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamai, Isamu

    1976-01-01

    The manufacturing process of polyethylene foam, comparison between electron beam cross-linking process and chemical cross-linking process, the electron beam irradiation technique for continuous sheets, the characteristics and uses of polyethylene foam are reviewed. The pore diameter can be controlled by selecting the dose rate, because there is strong relationship between the pore diameter and the dose rate. As the dose if higher, the foam becomes finer. The electron accelerators having large capacity show the lowest cost as the radiation source, and are applicable industrially. If the production capacity exceeds about 200 tons per month, the costs of electron beam irradiation process may be more advantageous than that of chemical process according to the circumstances. It is difficult to obtain the uniform distribution of absorption dose in the direction of thickness. General characteristics of cross-linked polyethylene foam are listed. The special feature of electron beam process is that the degree of cross-linking can be controlled arbitrarily before foaming. The products obtained by the electron beam cross-linking process have finer foams and smoother surfaces than those obtained by the chemical process, because the separation of the decomposition of foaming agents from that of cross-linking agents in the chemical cross-linking is difficult. (Iwakiri, K.)

  6. Mechanism of melphalan crosslink enhancement by misonidazole pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Y.C.; Sawyer, J.M.; Hsu, B.; Brown, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    Sensitization of Chinese hamster ovary cells to melphalan (L-PAM) toxicity by prior treatment with misonidazole is associated with increased levels of DNA crosslinks believed to be the critical lesion for bifunctional alkylating agent toxicity. Enhanced L-PAM crosslinking of DNA could occur by a variety of mechanisms in MISO-pretreated cells including: (1) increased transport or binding of L-PAM, (2) decreased repair of L-PAM monoadducts which would allow more time for their conversion to crosslinks, (3) decreased crosslink repair (unhooking of one arm), or (4) chemical modification of the DNA structure, presumably by bound MISO derivatives, such that crosslink formation is facilitated. Previous studies have eliminated mechanisms (1) and (3). Mechanism (4) was investigated by following MISO-pretreatments of whole cells with L-PAM treatments of the isolated DNA from these cells. Treatment of bare DNA with L-PAM modeled very well the crosslinking behavior in whole cells although it was somewhat more efficient. In the presence of double stranded DNA and absence of repair systems during and after the L-PAM exposure, it was determined that MISO-pretreatments did not increase the crosslinking efficiency of L-PAM

  7. Graphene oxide scaffold accelerates cellular proliferative response and alveolar bone healing of tooth extraction socket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishida E

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Erika Nishida,1 Hirofumi Miyaji,1 Akihito Kato,1 Hiroko Takita,2 Toshihiko Iwanaga,3 Takehito Momose,1 Kosuke Ogawa,1 Shusuke Murakami,1 Tsutomu Sugaya,1 Masamitsu Kawanami11Department of Periodontology and Endodontology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Sapporo, Japan; 2Support Section for Education and Research, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Sapporo, Japan; 3Laboratory of Histology and Cytology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, JapanAbstract: Graphene oxide (GO consisting of a carbon monolayer has been widely investigated for tissue engineering platforms because of its unique properties. For this study, we fabricated a GO-applied scaffold and assessed the cellular and tissue behaviors in the scaffold. A preclinical test was conducted to ascertain whether the GO scaffold promoted bone induction in dog tooth extraction sockets. For this study, GO scaffolds were prepared by coating the surface of a collagen sponge scaffold with 0.1 and 1 µg/mL GO dispersion. Scaffolds were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, physical testing, cell seeding, and rat subcutaneous implant testing. Then a GO scaffold was implanted into a dog tooth extraction socket. Histological observations were made at 2 weeks postsurgery. SEM observations show that GO attached to the surface of collagen scaffold struts. The GO scaffold exhibited an interconnected structure resembling that of control subjects. GO application improved the physical strength, enzyme resistance, and adsorption of calcium and proteins. Cytocompatibility tests showed that GO application significantly increased osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cell proliferation. In addition, an assessment of rat subcutaneous tissue response revealed that implantation of 1 µg/mL GO scaffold stimulated cellular ingrowth behavior, suggesting that the GO scaffold exhibited good biocompatibility. The tissue ingrowth area and DNA contents of 1

  8. Sequential healing at implants installed immediately into extraction sockets. An experimental study in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainetti, Tomaso; Lang, Niklaus P; Bengazi, Franco; Favero, Vittorio; Soto Cantero, Luis; Botticelli, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    To compare the sequential healing at implants installed in a healed alveolar bony ridge or immediately after tooth extraction without functional load. In the mandible of 12 dogs, the mesial roots of the first molars were endodontically treated, the tooth hemisected, and the distal roots extracted. After 3 months, the mesial roots of the fourth premolars were endodontically treated, the tooth hemisected, and the distal roots extracted in one side of the mandible. Implants were placed immediately into extraction sockets (IPIES) of the fourth premolar and in the healed sites in the molar regions. Healing abutments were placed, and the flaps were sutured to allow a non-submerged healing. The time of surgery and of sacrifices were planned in such a way to obtain biopsies representing the healing after 1 and 2 weeks and 1 and 3 months, respectively. Ground sections were prepared for histological evaluation of tissues components on the implant surface and the coronal termination level of osseointegration (M-B). New bone apposition on the implant surface was slightly higher at the healed compared to the IPIES sites, being 7.4% and 4.1% after 1 week, and 67.3% and 65.3% after 3 months, respectively. Old bone was progressively resorbed, from 27.0% and 21.9% after 1 week, to 2.5% and 2.0% after 3 months, at healed and IPIES sites, respectively. M-B was 1.4 mm and 2.6 mm after 1 week, 1.2 mm and 1.2 mm after 3 months, at healed and IPIES sites, respectively. Similar patterns of sequential osseointegration were found at implants installed in healed alveolar bone or in alveolar sockets immediately after tooth extraction. The coronal termination level of osseointegration, that was different after 1 week, was found similar at the 3-month observation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Theoretical studies of ionic conductivity of crosslinked chitosan membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, Ernesto Lopez [Programa de Ingenieria Molecular y Nuevos Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de la Ciudad de Mexico, Fray Servando Teresa de Mier 92, 1er. Piso, Col Centro, Mexico D.F. CP 06080 (Mexico); Oviedo-Roa, R.; Contreras-Perez, Gustavo; Martinez-Magadan, Jose Manuel [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas Norte 152, Col. San Bartolo Atepehuacan, CP 07730 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Castillo-Alvarado, F.L. [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Edificio 9 de la UPALM, Colonia Lindavista, Mexico D.F. CP 07738 (Mexico)

    2010-11-15

    Ionic conductivity of crosslinked chitosan membranes was studied using techniques of molecular modeling and simulation. The COMPASS force field was used. The simulation allows the description of the mechanism of ionic conductivity along the polymer matrix. The theoretical results obtained are compared with experimental results for chitosan membranes. The analysis suggests that the conduction mechanism is portrayed by the overlapping large Polaron tunneling model. In addition, when the chitosan membrane was crosslinked with an appropriate degree of crosslinking its ionic conductivity, at room temperature, was increased by about one order of magnitude. The chitosan membranes can be used as electrolytes in solid state batteries, electric double layer capacitors and fuel cells. (author)

  10. Crosslinking of commercial polyethylenes by 10 MeV electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, A.; Lopata, V.J.; Kremers, W.; Sze, Yu-keung

    1995-08-01

    Commercial polyethylenes were irradiated with 10 MeV electrons to induce crosslinking. The gel fraction data measured as a function of total dose suggests that crosslinking proceeds on irradiation, as expected. A number of the properties of the irradiated polyethylenes, such as the degree of oxidation, crystallinity and thermal degradation, were studied by Fourier transform infrared/photo acoustic spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and a pyrolysis technique coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The results of this study suggest that commercial polyethylenes can be crosslinked to a gel fraction of ∼70%, required for wire and cable applications, by 10 MeV electrons. (author). 35 refs., 6 figs

  11. Nitrile crosslinked polyphenyl-quinoxaline/graphite fiber composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, W. B.

    1976-01-01

    Studies were performed to reduce the 600 F thermoplasticity of polyphenylquinoxaline (PPQ) matrix resins by introducing crosslinking by the reaction of terminal nitrile groups. Seven solvents and solvent mixtures were studied as the crosslinking catalysts and used to fabricate crosslinked PPQ/HMS graphite fiber composites. The room temperature and 600 F composite mechanical properties after short time and prolonged 600 F air exposure and the 600 F composite weight loss were determined and compared to those properties of high molecular weight, linear PPQ/HMS graphite fiber composites.

  12. Current status of accelerated corneal cross-linking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Mrochen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Corneal cross-linking with riboflavin is a technique to stabilize or reduce corneal ectasia, in diseases such as keratoconus and post-laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK ectasia. There is an interest by patient as well as clinicians to reduce the overall treatment time. Especially, the introduction of corneal cross-linking in combination with corneal laser surgery demands a shorter treatment time to assure a sufficient patient flow. The principles and techniques of accelerated corneal cross-linking is discussed.

  13. Radiation degradation and crosslinking of polytetrafluoroethylene and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Guozhong; Wang Mouhua; Tang Zhongfeng

    2009-01-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a high-performance engineering plastic and known as a typical material of radiation degradation. PTFE can be degraded by radiation under various conditions and PTFE micro-powder is usually fabricated by a combination of radiation and milling. PTFE can also be crosslinked by irradiation in the melt state (330∼340 degree C). The materials can be applied as a special additive due to its excellent wear resistance. Crosslinked PTFE may also be applied in lithography and fuel cell membrane in the future. In this paper, history and application of PTFE degradation and crosslinking products are reviewed. (authors)

  14. Production of radiation crosslinked polymeric compositions using diacetylenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, G.N.

    1979-01-01

    Crosslinked polymeric compositions, useful as electrical insulators, heat shrinkable packaging, and lightweight foam plastics, are described. The crosslinked polymeric compositions are produced by admixing a diacetylene monomer, oligomer, polymer or mixture thereof, wherein the monomer has the formula, RNHCO-O-CH 2 -C==C-C==C-CH- 2 -O-OCNHR' in which R and R' are the same or different and are alkyl containing 1 to 20 carbon atoms, with a thermoplastic crosslinkable polymer and then subjecting the resulting mixture to actinic radiation

  15. Potential for Osseous Regeneration of Platelet-Rich Fibrin-A Comparative Study in Mandibular Third Molar Impaction Sockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Mathew P; Manuel, Suvy; Kumar L K, Surej

    2017-07-01

    This study investigated the potential of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) for osseous regeneration and soft tissue healing in mandibular third molar impaction sockets. A prospective in vivo study was performed. Randomization was performed after extraction. On one side, the socket was sutured primarily (control site); on the other side, autologous PRF gel was placed and then the socket was sutured (test site). Postoperatively, grid periapical radiographs were obtained at periodic intervals (weeks 1, 4, and 16) and digitalized. Gray-level values were measured at 3 different regions of the socket (for regions of newly formed bone) compared with the natural bone area using HL Image++ software, and the percentage bone fill was measured. Clinical evaluation of soft tissue healing was performed using the healing index of Landry et al (J Periodontol 60:212, 1994) at the specific intervals. Thirty healthy men and women (age range, 18 to 35 yr) with bilaterally impacted mandibular third molars were enrolled in this study. In general, there was markedly greater bone formation in sockets treated with PRF (P < .05). In the PRF group, the average gray-level values at the cervical, middle, and apical regions were 61.85 (standard deviation [SD], ±25.186), 64.54 (SD, ±24.831), and 67.80 (SD, ±23.946), respectively, with a mean value of 64.73 (SD, ±24.411). In the control group, these values were 51.58 (SD, ±15.286), 54.30 (SD, ±16.274), and 57.53 (SD, ±16.187), respectively, with a mean of 53.67 (SD, ±16.528). The average percentage of bone fill in the PRF group was 57.90 (SD, ±26.789) and that of the non-PRF group was 46.74 (SD, ±17.713; P < .05). Soft tissue healing as evaluated by the healing index of Landry et al also was found to be better at the PRF test site and it was statistically significant (P < .05). There was evidence for better osseous regeneration and soft tissue healing in response to PRF. Further investigations to evaluate the application of PRF in other

  16. Magnesium-enriched hydroxyapatite compared to calcium sulfate in the healing of human extraction sockets: radiographic and histomorphometric evaluation at 3 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, Roberto; Capparè, Paolo; Gherlone, Enrico

    2009-02-01

    Reduction of alveolar height and width after tooth extraction may present problems for implant placement, especially in the anterior maxilla where bone volume is important for biologic and esthetic reasons. Different graft materials have been proposed to minimize the reduction in ridge volume. The aim of this study was to compare radiographic and histomorphometric results of magnesium-enriched hydroxyapatite (MHA) and calcium sulfate (CS) grafts in fresh sockets after tooth extractions. Forty-five fresh extraction sockets with three bone walls were selected in 15 patients. A split-mouth design was used: 15 sockets on the right side of the jaw received MHA, 15 sockets on the left side received CS, and 15 random unfilled sockets were considered the control (C) group. Intraoral digital radiographs were taken at baseline and at 3 months after graft material placement. At 3 months, cylinder bone samples were obtained for histology and histomorphometry analysis. The difference in mean radiographic vertical bone level from baseline to 3 months was -2.48 +/- 0.65 mm in the CS group, -0.48 +/- 0.21 mm in the MHA group, and -3.75 +/- 0.63 mm in the unfilled C group. Statistically significant differences (P sockets showed 13.9% +/- 3.4% residual implant material, whereas the MHA-treated sockets showed 20.2% +/- 3.2% residual material. The difference between the groups was statistically significant (P <0.05). Radiographs revealed a greater reduction of alveolar ridge in the CS group than in the MHA group. Histologic examination showed more bone formation and faster resorption in the CS group and more residual implant material in the MHA group.

  17. Calcium dynamics in the healing of tooth extraction sockets in mice evaluated using 45Ca-autoradiography and Electron Probe Micro Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Takeo

    2006-01-01

    The calcium distribution in tooth extraction sockets of mice was examined using 45-Calcium autoradiography (ARG) and Electron Probe Micro Analysis (EPMA). Mice were divided into 8 groups (n=8) according to the number of days (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 10, 20 respectively) after extraction. Frozen sections were taken from mice on each experimental day after injection of 45-Calcium (RI). The process of formation of new bone was observed using ARG. An ultimate analysis was performed by EPMA. Histological analysis was performed with toluidine blue- and alizarin red S-staining. In toluidine blue-staining, an osteoblast was found along the socket wall at 4 days and non-calcified periodontal ligament was recognized until 5 days after extraction. In alizarin red S-staining, new bone was recognized separated from the socket wall at 4 days after extraction. 45 Ca-labeling was detected strongly in the periosteum of the mandible, the surface of cement and periodontal ligament in control animals. 45 Ca-labeling was moved from the bottom to the top of the tooth extraction socket during the period from 1 to 5 days after extraction, but in the periodontal ligament lower than in the granulation tissue. 45 Ca-labeling was detected in the socket at 7, 10 and 20 days. At 4 days, calcium phosphate was observed in the central portion of the socket using EPMA. 45 Ca-labeling showed deposition of calcium phosphate for alveolar bone and new bone. These results suggest that the granulation tissue may be involved in the initial calcification in the tooth extraction socket and lead to the formation of new bone in it. (author)

  18. Extraction Socket Preservation Using Porcine-Derived Collagen Membrane Alone or Associated with Porcine-Derived Bone. Clinical Results of Randomized Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renzo Guarnieri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of present randomized controlled clinical trial was to clinically evaluate hard tissue changes after extraction socket preservation procedures compared to natural spontaneous healing. Material and Methods: Thirty patients were enrolled in the present study and underwent single-tooth extraction in the premolar/molar areas. Ten sites were grafted with porcine-derived bone covered by collagen membrane, 10 covered by porcine-derived collagen membrane alone, and 10 underwent natural spontaneous healing. Vertical and horizontal bone changes after 3-month were evaluated at implant placement. Results: The vertical and horizontal bone changes at the extraction sockets treated with collagen membrane alone (vertical: -0.55 [SD 0.11] mm, and horizontal: -1.21 [SD 0.69] mm and collagen membrane plus porcine-derived bone (vertical: -0.37 [SD 0.7] mm, and horizontal: -0.91 [SD 0.53] mm were found significantly lower (P < 0.001, when compared to non-grafted sockets (vertical: -2.09 [SD 0.19] mm, and horizontal: -3.96 [SD 0.87] mm. In type 1 extraction sockets, in premolar sites, and in presence of vestibular bone thicknesses ≥ 1.5 mm, the use of collagen membrane alone revealed similar outcomes to those with additional graft material. Conclusions: At the re-entry surgery, extraction sockets grafted with porcine-derived bone and covered by collagen membrane, and extraction sockets covered by porcine-derived collagen membrane alone, showed significantly lower vertical and horizontal bone changes, compared to extraction sockets sites underwent natural spontaneous healing. However, a complete prevention of remodelling is not achievable, irrespective of the technique used.

  19. The influence of alendronate on the healing of extraction sockets of ovariectomized rats assessed by in vivo micro-computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, Jeong-Hyun; Lee, Wan; Lee, Byung Do

    2010-08-01

    Many dental patients take bisphosphonates to reduce the risk of hip and vertebral fractures. In vivo micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) was used to examine the longitudinal inhibitory effect of alendronate on the healing of extraction sockets in ovariectomized rats. Twenty 5-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 groups: sham-operated (n = 5), and 2 ovariectomized (OVX) groups: saline treated (0.1 mL/100 g/d, n = 7) and alendronate treated (1 mg/kg/d, n = 8). Before micro-CT scanning, the left maxillary first molars of the rats were extracted. In vivo micro-CT (spatial resolution 50 x 50 mum) of the jaw was performed at baseline and at 2-week intervals for 6 weeks. Alveolar-bone radiographic densities and dimensions were analyzed with repeated measures analysis of variance. The bony healing patterns of the extraction sockets were also evaluated in each group. The radiographic socket densities of the sham-treated and OVX-alendronate groups significantly increased during the first 4 weeks after extraction (P sockets in the OVX-saline group increased, but the increase was significantly lower than for the other groups at 4 weeks (P sockets in all groups 2 to 6 weeks after extraction. There was a significant loss of alveolar ridge height at the second week postextraction compared with baseline, and at the fourth week compared with the second week (P sockets in estrogen-deficient rats and helps resist the loss of alveolar bone adjacent to extraction sockets. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Efficacy of plasma-rich growth factor in the healing of postextraction sockets in patients affected by insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozzati, Marco; Gallesio, Giorgia; di Romana, Sara; Bergamasco, Laura; Pol, Renato

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of plasma-rich growth factor (PRGF) in improving socket healing after tooth extraction in diabetic patients. This was a split-mouth study in which each patient also served as the control: the study socket was treated with PRGF, whereas the control socket underwent natural healing. The outcome variables were the Healing Index, residual socket volume, visual analog scale score, postsurgical complications, and outcome of a patient questionnaire. The investigation considered the impact of hyperglycemia, glycated hemoglobin, End Organ Disease Score, and smoking habits. Follow-up included 4 postextraction checkups over a 21-day period. Pairs of correlated continuous variables were analyzed with the Wilcoxon test, independent continuous variables with the Mann-Whitney test, and categorical variables with the χ(2) test or Fisher test. From January 2012 to December 2012, 34 patients affected by insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus underwent contemporary bilateral extractions of homologous teeth. The treatment-versus-control postoperative comparison showed that PRGF resulted in significantly smaller residual socket volumes and better Healing Indices from days 3 to 14. The patients' questionnaire outcomes were unanimously in favor of PRGF treatment. The small sample of patients with glycemia values of at least 240 mg/dL showed worse Healing Index and minor socket decreases. PRGF application after extraction improved the healing process in diabetic patients by accelerating socket closure (epithelialization) and tissue maturation, proving the association between PRGF use and improved wound healing in diabetic patients. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A Molecular Dynamics Study of Crosslinked Phthalonitrile Polymers: The Effect of Crosslink Density on Thermomechanical and Dielectric Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janel Chua

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, molecular dynamics (MD and molecular mechanics (MM simulations are used to study well-equilibrated models of 4,4′-bis(3,4-dicyanophenoxybiphenyl (BPh–1,3-bis(3-aminophenoxybenzene (m-APB phthalonitrile (PN system with a range of crosslink densities. A cross-linking technique is introduced to build a series of systems with different crosslink densities; several key properties of this material, including thermal expansion, mechanical properties and dielectric properties are studied and compared with experimental results. It is found that the coefficient of linear thermal expansion predicted by the model is in good agreement with experimental results and indicative of the good thermal stability of the PN polymeric system. The simulation also shows that this polymer has excellent mechanical property, whose strength increases with increasing crosslink density. Lastly and most importantly, the calculated dielectric constant—which shows that this polymer is an excellent insulating material—indicates that there is an inverse relation between cross-linking density and dielectric constant. The trend gave rise to an empirical quadratic function which can be used to predict the limits of attainable dielectric constant for highly crosslinked polymer systems. The current computational work provides strong evidence that this polymer is a promising material for aerospace applications and offers guidance for experimental studies of the effect of cross-linking density on the thermal, mechanical and dielectric properties of the material.

  2. Do oxidized zirconium femoral heads reduce polyethylene wear in cemented THAs? A blinded randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaoui, Amine; Hage, Samer El; Langlois, Jean; Scemama, Caroline; Courpied, Jean Pierre; Hamadouche, Moussa

    2015-12-01

    Charnley low-friction torque total hip arthroplasty (THA) remains the gold standard in THA. The main cause for failure is wear of the socket. Highly crosslinked polyethylene (HXLPE) has been associated with reduced wear rates. Also, oxidized zirconium has shown in vitro reduced wear rates. However, to our knowledge, there are no data comparing oxidized zirconium femoral heads with metal heads against HXLPE or ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) when 22.25-mm bearings were used, which was the same size that performed so well in Charnley-type THAs. We hypothesized that after a minimal 4-year followup (1) use of HXLPE would result in lower radiographic wear than UHMWPE when articulating with a stainless steel head or with an oxidized zirconium head; (2) use of oxidized zirconium would result in lower radiographic wear than stainless steel when articulating with UHMWPE and HXLPE; and (3) there would be no difference in terms of Merle d'Aubigné scores between the bearing couple combinations. One hundred patients were randomized to receive cemented THA with either oxidized zirconium or a stainless steel femoral head. UHMWPE was used in the first 50 patients, whereas HXLPE was used in the next 50 patients. There were 25 patients in each of the four bearing couple combinations. All other parameters were identical in both groups. Complete followup was available in 86 of these patients. Femoral head penetration was measured using a validated computer-assisted method dedicated to all-polyethylene sockets. Clinical results were compared between the groups using the Merle d'Aubigné score. In the UHMWPE series, the median steady-state penetration rate from 1 year onward was 0.03 mm/year (range, 0.003-0.25 mm/year) in the oxidized zirconium group versus 0.11 mm/year (range, 0.03-0.29 mm/year) in the metal group (difference of medians 0.08, p zirconium group versus 0.05 mm/year (range, -0.39 to 0.11 mm/year) in the metal group (difference of medians 0.03, p

  3. Plasma parameters effects on the properties, aging and stability behaviors of allylamine plasma coated ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziz, Gaelle, E-mail: gaelle.aziz@ugent.be; Thukkaram, Monica; De Geyter, Nathalie; Morent, Rino

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • Medium to atmospheric pressure DBD is used to deposit amino rich films. • Process parameters affect the films’ surface chemical and physical properties. • High deposition rates can be reached by varying the power and/or monomer flow rate. • High amino selectivity (NH{sub 2}/N in %) is obtained at low powers and high monomer concentration. • Aging and stability behaviors of the deposited coatings can be controlled by carefully choosing the plasma parameters. - Abstract: In this work, a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) operated at medium to atmospheric pressure has been used for the deposition of thin polyallylamine (PAA) films on ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) substrates. The effect of treatment time (1–5 min), discharge power (5.7–24.0 W), monomer concentration (1–2 g/h) and pressure (10–100 kPa) on the films properties, aging and stability behaviors have been investigated. The used characterization techniques are X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, water contact angle and optical reflectance spectroscopy. In this paper, it is shown that plasma treatment time does not affect the coatings chemistry; whereas plasma power, monomer concentration and pressure control the coatings properties. It is also shown that the deposition rate of the deposited films changes with varying W/FM values. At low W/FM values, high deposition rates of up to 2 nm/s are observed. Plasma treatments were also characterized by their amino efficiency ([NH{sub 2}]/[C] in %) and amino selectivity ([NH{sub 2}]/[N] in %). Depending on the used parameters, these varied between 12.3% and 20% and between 71.2% and 91.1%, respectively. For the aging study, coatings that preserved most of their hydrophilicity were obtained at power ≤11.3 W, monomer concentration ≥1.5 g/h and pressure ≥50 kPa. For the stability study, coatings that showed the highest [N] (%) and lowest percentage of thickness decrease were obtained at ≤2 min, 24.0 W, 1 g/h and

  4. The influence of platelet-rich plasma on the healing of extraction sockets: an explorative randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alissa, Rami; Esposito, Marco; Horner, Keith; Oliver, Richard

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on the healing of hard and soft tissues of extraction sockets with a pilot study. Patients undergoing tooth extraction under intravenous sedation were asked to participate in the trial. Autologous platelet concentrates were prepared from the patients' blood and autologous thrombin was produced. Outcome measures were: pain level, analgesic consumption, oral function (ability to eat food, swallowing, mouth opening and speech), general activity, swelling, bruising, bleeding, bad taste or halitosis, food stagnation, patient satisfaction, healing complications, soft tissue healing, trabecular pattern of newly formed bone in extraction sockets, trabecular bone volume, trabecular separation, trabecular length, trabecular width, and trabecular number. Patients were followed up to 3 months post-extraction. Twelve patients (15 sockets) were randomly allocated to the PRP group and 11 patients (14 sockets) to the control group. Two patients from the control group did not attend any of the scheduled appointments following tooth extraction, and were considered dropouts. Additionally, one more patient from the control group and four patients from the PRP group did not attend their 3-month radiographic assessment appointments. Statistically significantly more pain was recorded in the control group for the first (P=0.02), second (P=0.02) and third (P=0.04) post-operative days for Visual Analogue Scale scores, whereas no differences were observed for the fourth (P=0.17), fifth (P=0.38), sixth (P=0.75) and seventh (P=0.75) post-operative days. There was a statistically significantly higher analgesic consumption for the first (P=0.03) and second (P=0.02) post-operative days in the control group and no differences thereafter. Differences in patients' responses in the health-related quality of life questionnaire were statistically significant in favour of PRP treatment only for the presence of bad taste or bad smell in the mouth (P

  5. Radiation crosslinking of poly(butyl acrylate) during polymerization and grafted copolymerization with Cr(III) crosslinked collagen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietrucha, K.; Kroh, J.

    1984-01-01

    Enhanced crosslinking of synthetic polymer simultaneous with grafting and homopolymerization processes have been observed in irradiated leather tanned with Cr(III) and embedded with aqueous emulsions of butyl acrylate. Extent of poly(butyl acrylate) crosslinking during copolymerization was found to be approximately one order higher than in the case of radiation polymerization of butyl acrylate in emulsion. New method for isolation of grafted copolymer based on degradation of collagen has been developed. The extent of crosslinking was calculated from the swelling data. (author)

  6. Radiation crosslinking of poly(butyl acrylate) during polymerization and grafted copolymerization with Cr(III) crosslinked collagen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietrucha, K.; Kroh, J.

    1986-01-01

    Enhanced crosslinking of synthetic polymer simultaneously with grafting and homopolymerization processes has been observed in irradiated leather tanned with Cr(III) and embedded with aqueous emulsions of butyl acrylate. The extent of poly(butyl acrylate) crosslinking during copolymerization was found to be approximately one order higher than in the case of radiation polymerization of butyl acrylate in emulsion. A new method for isolation of grafted copolymer based on degradation of collagen has been developed. The extent of crosslinking was calculated from the swelling data. (author)

  7. Ridge Preservation with Modified “Socket-Shield” Technique: A Methodological Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Glocker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available After tooth extraction, the alveolar bone undergoes a remodeling process, which leads to horizontal and vertical bone loss. These resorption processes complicate dental rehabilitation, particularly in connection with implants. Various methods of guided bone regeneration (GBR have been described to retain the original dimension of the bone after extraction. Most procedures use filler materials and membranes to support the buccal plate and soft tissue, to stabilize the coagulum and to prevent epithelial ingrowth. It has also been suggested that resorption of the buccal bundle bone can be avoided by leaving a buccal root segment (socket shield technique in place, because the biological integrity of the buccal periodontium (bundle bone remains untouched. This method has also been described in connection with immediate implant placement. The present case report describes three consecutive cases in which a modified method was applied as part of a delayed implantation. The latter was carried out after six months, and during re-entry the new bone formation in the alveolar bone and the residual ridge was clinically evaluated as proof of principle. It was demonstrated that the bone was clinically preserved with this method. Possibilities and limitations are discussed and directions for future research are disclosed.

  8. Factors affecting incidence of dry socket: a prospective community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathi, Krishnan; Smith, Andrew; Chandu, Arun

    2011-07-01

    Dry socket, or alveolar osteitis, can occur because of the removal of teeth. No clear etiology has been acknowledged; however, numerous risk factors have been proposed and tested. We report on the results of a prospective, multicenter study of the incidence and factors affecting the occurrence of alveolar osteitis at the Royal Dental Hospital of Melbourne and Community Dental Clinics in Melbourne, Australia. Ethics approval was gained from the University of Melbourne and Dental Health Services Victoria. The data were analyzed in a descriptive fashion, and the factors affecting alveolar osteitis were assessed using logistic regression analysis. The incidence of alveolar osteitis was 2.3% of all teeth extracted, with 4.2% of all patients experiencing alveolar osteitis in a public dental setting. Multivariate analysis revealed operator experience, perioperative crown and root fractures, periodontal disease, posterior teeth, and, interestingly, the use of mental health medications to be significant independent risk factors for the development of alveolar osteitis. No alveolar osteitis was reported in patients taking antibiotics, the oral contraceptive pill, bisphosphonates, or oral steroid drugs. Smoking and extraction technique (either operative or nonoperative) were also not found to significantly affect the development of alveolar osteitis. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of Amoxicillin & Cephalexin concentrations in dental alveolar sockets after tooth extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhraei AH.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: One of the most important complications after tooth extraction and oral and maxillofacial surgery is transient bacteraemia and prescription of prophylactic antibiotic is necessary to prevent postoperative infections in immunocompromised patients. Purpose: The aim of this study was the evaluation of cephalexin and amoxicillin concentrations in dental alveolar sockets following tooth extraction. Materials and Methods: In this interventional study, 80 healthy patients subjected to tooth extraction were divided into two groups. Each group received 1 gr amoxicillin or cephalexin and teeth were extracted 30-60-90-120-180 minutes after antibiotic intake. Blood sampling was performed immediately after extraction and concentrations of two antibiotics were measured in microbiology laboratory. ANOVA test and Post-hoc (Duncan test were used for statistical analysis with P<0.05 as the limit of significance. Results: The maximum serum concentration was 10.1006 μg/ml for amoxicillin at 120 minutes and 41.5467 μg/ml for cephalexin at 90 minutes after drug intake. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of cephalexin and amoxicillin for Streptococcus sanguis was 2 μg/ml and 1 μg/ml respectively. Conclusion: The mean concentration for amoxicillin was 10 times and for cephalexin was 20 times higher than MIC.

  10. Placement of single tooth implant in healed socket with immediate temporization: Clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeevan Lata

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Edentulous condition inadequately compensated for, by dentures, impair oral function and is accompanied by reduced self–confidence. In a continued effort to achieve these goals, implant dentistry was introduced. Immediate temporization is somehow a recent concept, which allows the maintenance of soft tissue contours, along with interdental alveolar contours. Aims and Obectives: Aims of the present study were to study the placement of implant in the post-extracted healed tooth socket of anterior maxilla and to evaluate the feasibility of early function on implants placed. Materials and Methods: In the present study, HI-TECH IMPLANTS TRX-OP one-piece immediate loading implant system with the built on abutment has been used.Immediate temporisation has been done and results have been evaluated in terms of stability, gingival health, esthetics, marginal bone loss, patient′s psychological attitude, and satisfaction.
Results: Out of eight implants, 6 successfully healed whereas 2 implants suffered failure
Conclusion: Overall conclusion drawn from the study is, immediate temporization is a successful method providing psychological, financial and emotional benefits to the patient.

  11. Anti-resorptive effect of pamidronate on extraction socket wall in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Jae-Kook; Sun, Yoo-Kyung; Kim, Myong Ji; Sanz, Mariano; Jung, Ui-Won

    2018-05-12

    The aim of this experimental in vivo investigation was to assess the anti-resorptive effect of low concentration pamidronate on the buccal plate in fresh extraction sockets. The distal roots of the third premolars were extracted bilaterally in six dogs. A collagen matrix loaded with either pamidronate (test group) or saline (control group) was positioned on the outer surface of buccal bone immediately after tooth extraction and subsequently covered with a coronally advanced flap. Histological and histomorphometric outcomes were evaluated 12 weeks later. The mean vertical distance between the buccal and lingual bone crest differed significantly between the test and control groups (0.52 ± 0.43 and 2.21 ± 1.15 mm, respectively; p = .037). The width of the buccal bone 1 mm below the crest was significantly wider in the test group than the control group (4.68 ± 0.68 vs. 3.44 ± 0.60 mm, p < .001). Local application of pamidronate onto a collagen matrix may reduce the dimensional changes of the buccal bone plate both vertically and horizontally. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Application of high performance asynchronous socket communication in power distribution automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ziyu

    2017-05-01

    With the development of information technology and Internet technology, and the growing demand for electricity, the stability and the reliable operation of power system have been the goal of power grid workers. With the advent of the era of big data, the power data will gradually become an important breakthrough to guarantee the safe and reliable operation of the power grid. So, in the electric power industry, how to efficiently and robustly receive the data transmitted by the data acquisition device, make the power distribution automation system be able to execute scientific decision quickly, which is the pursuit direction in power grid. In this paper, some existing problems in the power system communication are analysed, and with the help of the network technology, a set of solutions called Asynchronous Socket Technology to the problem in network communication which meets the high concurrency and the high throughput is proposed. Besides, the paper also looks forward to the development direction of power distribution automation in the era of big data and artificial intelligence.

  13. Ball-and-socket tectonic rotation during the 2013 Mw7.7 Balochistan earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhart, William D.; Hayes, Gavin P.; Briggs, Richard W.; Gold, Ryan D.; Bilham, R.

    2014-01-01

    The September 2013 Mw7.7 Balochistan earthquake ruptured a ∼200-km-long segment of the curved Hoshab fault in southern Pakistan with 10±0.2 m of peak sinistral and ∼1.7±0.8 m of dip slip. This rupture is unusual because the fault dips 60±15° towards the focus of a small circle centered in northwest Pakistan, and, despite a 30° increase in obliquity along strike, the ratios of strike and dip slip remain relatively uniform. Surface displacements and geodetic and teleseismic source inversions quantify a bilateral rupture that propagated rapidly at shallow depths from a transtensional jog near the northern end of the rupture. Static friction prior to rupture was unusually weak (μstructural unit in southeast Makran that rotates – akin to a 2-D ball-and-socket joint – counter-clockwise in response to India's penetration into the Eurasian plate. This rotation accounts for complexity in the Chaman fault system and, in principle, reduces seismic potential near Karachi; nonetheless, these findings highlight deficiencies in strong ground motion equations and tectonic models that invoke Anderson–Byerlee faulting predictions.

  14. Riboflavin for corneal cross-linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brart, D P S

    2016-06-01

    Corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) with riboflavin and ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation is the first therapeutic modality that appears to arrest the progression of keratoconus and other corneal ectasias. Riboflavin is central to the process, acting as a photosensitizer for the production of oxygen singlets and riboflavin triplets. These free radicals drive the CXL process within the proteins of the corneal stroma, altering its biomechanical properties. Riboflavin also absorbs the majority of the UVA radiation, which is potentially cytotoxic and mutagenic, within the anterior stroma, preventing damage to internal ocular structures, such as the corneal endothelium, lens and retina. Clinical studies report cessation of ectatic progression in over 90% of cases and the majority document significant improvements in visual, keratometric and topographic parameters. Clinical follow-up is limited to 5-10 years, but suggests sustained stability and enhancement in corneal shape. Sight-threatening complications are rare. The optimal stromal riboflavin dosage for CXL is as yet undetermined. Copyright 2016 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  15. Radiation induced crosslinking of cellulose ethers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wach, A.R.; Mitomo, H.; Yoshii, F.; Kume, T.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of high-energy radiation on four ethers of cellulose: carboxymethyl (CMC); hydroxypropyl (HPC), hydroxyethyl (HEC) and methylcellulose (MC) were investigated. Polymers are irradiated in solid state and in aqueous solutions at various concentrations. Degree of substitution (DS) of the derivatives, the concentration of their aqueous solutions and irradiation conditions had a significant impact on the obtained products. Irradiation of polymers in solid state and in diluted aqueous solutions resulted in their degradation. However, it was found that for concentrated solutions gel formation occurred. Paste-like form of the initial material, when water plasticizes the bulk of polymer as well as the high dose rate, what prevents oxygen penetration of the polymer during irradiation, have been found favourable for hydrogel formation. Up to 95% of gel fraction was obtained from solutions of CMC with concentration over 50% irradiated by γ-rays or electron beam. It was pointed out that the ability to the formation of the three-dimensional network is related to the DS of anhydroglucose units and a type of chemical group introduced to main chain of cellulose. Produced hydrogels swelled markedly in water. Despite of the crosslinked structure they underwent degradation by the action of cellulase enzyme or microorganisms from compost, and can be included into the group of biodegradable materials. (author)

  16. Crosslinked polyimide electro-optic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalczyk, T.C.; Kosc, T.Z.; Singer, K.D. [Case Western Reserve University, Department of Physics, Cleveland, Ohio 44106-7079 (United States); Beuhler, A.J.; Wargowski, D.A. [Amoco Research Center, Amoco Chemical Co., Naperville, Illinois 60566 (United States); Cahill, P.A.; Seager, C.H.; Meinhardt, M.B. [Sandia National Laboratories, Division 1811, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1407 (United States); Ermer, S. [Lockheed Research and Development Division, Palo Alto, California 94304 (United States)

    1995-11-15

    We report studies of the optical and electro-optic properties of guest--host polymeric nonlinear optical materials based on aromatic, fluorinated, fully imidized, organic soluble, thermally, and photochemically crosslinkable, guest--host polyimides. We have introduced temperature stable nonlinear optical chromophores into these polyimides and studied optical losses, electric field poling, electro-optic properties, and orientational stability. We measured electro-optic coefficients of 5.5 and 12.0 pm/V for ((2,6-Bis(2-(3-(9-(ethyl)carbazolyl))ethenyl)4H-pyran-4-ylidene)propanedinitrile) (4-(Dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(p -dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran) DCM-doped guest--host systems at 800 nm using a poling field of 1.3 MV/cm. Poling induced nonlinearities in single-layer films were in agreement with the oriented gas model, but were lower in three-layer films due to voltage division across the layers. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  17. Covalently crosslinked diels-alder polymer networks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, Christopher (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO); Adzima, Brian J. (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO); Anderson, Benjamin John

    2011-09-01

    This project examines the utility of cycloaddition reactions for the synthesis of polymer networks. Cycloaddition reactions are desirable because they produce no unwanted side reactions or small molecules, allowing for the formation of high molecular weight species and glassy crosslinked networks. Both the Diels-Alder reaction and the copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) were studied. Accomplishments include externally triggered healing of a thermoreversible covalent network via self-limited hysteresis heating, the creation of Diels-Alder based photoresists, and the successful photochemical catalysis of CuAAC as an alternative to the use of ascorbic acid for the generation of Cu(I) in click reactions. An analysis of the results reveals that these new methods offer the promise of efficiently creating robust, high molecular weight species and delicate three dimensional structures that incorporate chemical functionality in the patterned material. This work was performed under a Strategic Partnerships LDRD during FY10 and FY11 as part of a Sandia National Laboratories/University of Colorado-Boulder Excellence in Science and Engineering Fellowship awarded to Brian J. Adzima, a graduate student at UC-Boulder. Benjamin J. Anderson (Org. 1833) was the Sandia National Laboratories point-of-contact for this fellowship.

  18. 21 CFR 177.1211 - Cross-linked polyacrylate copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1211 Cross-linked polyacrylate... shall be determined using size exclusion chromatography or an equivalent method. When conducting the...

  19. Syntheses of crosslinked latex nanoparticles using differential microemulsion polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassmoro, N. F.; Rusop, M.; Abdullah, S.

    2013-06-01

    The differential microemulsion polymerization was used to synthesize latex nanoparticles. In this paper, 1, 3-butylene glycol dimethacrylate (1, 3-BGDMA) was used as a crosslinker respectively 1-5 weight% of monomer total. Butyl acrylate (BA), butyl methacrylate (BMA), and methacrylic acid (MAA) was used as the monomer. The thin film of latex nanoparticles were prepared by using spin coating method and have been dried at 100°C for 5 minutes. The amount of the crosslinker added in the polymerization was optimized and we found that the particle sizes fall in the range of 30-60 nm. The structural morphology of the uncrosslinked latex represented the most homogeneous image compared to the crosslinked latex. The effect of the amount of crosslinker on the particle sizes investigated by the Zeta-sizer Nano series while Atomic Force microscopy (AFM) was used to study the structural properties of latex nanoparticles.

  20. Syntheses of crosslinked latex nanoparticles using differential microemulsion polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassmoro, N F; Abdullah, S; Rusop, M

    2013-01-01

    The differential microemulsion polymerization was used to synthesize latex nanoparticles. In this paper, 1, 3-butylene glycol dimethacrylate (1, 3-BGDMA) was used as a crosslinker respectively 1–5 weight% of monomer total. Butyl acrylate (BA), butyl methacrylate (BMA), and methacrylic acid (MAA) was used as the monomer. The thin film of latex nanoparticles were prepared by using spin coating method and have been dried at 100°C for 5 minutes. The amount of the crosslinker added in the polymerization was optimized and we found that the particle sizes fall in the range of 30–60 nm. The structural morphology of the uncrosslinked latex represented the most homogeneous image compared to the crosslinked latex. The effect of the amount of crosslinker on the particle sizes investigated by the Zeta-sizer Nano series while Atomic Force microscopy (AFM) was used to study the structural properties of latex nanoparticles.

  1. Photoreactivities and thermal properties of psoralen cross-links

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeung, A.T.; Jones, B.K.; Chu, C.T.

    1988-01-01

    The authors have studied the photoreaction of 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP), 4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen (TMP), and 4'-(hydroxymethyl)-4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen (HMT) with a pair of 18-base-long oligonucleotides in which a 14-base region is complementary. Only one 5'TpA site, favored for both monoadduct and cross-link formation with psoralen, is present in this oligonucleotide pair. They have used this model system to demonstrate, for the first time, strand specificity in the photoreaction of psoralen with DNA. They found that the two types of cross-links which form at this site have large differences in thermal stabilities. In addition, the denaturation of each cross-links isomer duplex occurred in at least three stages, which can be visualized as three bands in thermal equilibrium under the conditions of a denaturing polyacrylamide gel. This novel observation suggests that there are several domains differing in thermal stability in a psoralen cross-link

  2. Shaped articles of cross-linked fluorocarbon polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotcher, A.J.; Germeraad, P.B.

    1981-01-01

    A process is described which comprises (1) contacting (a) a shaped article of a polymeric composition wherein the polymer is a fluorocarbon polymer having a melting point of at least 200 0 C, the article having a tensile strength of at least 3,000 psi, with (b) a fluid composition comprising a cross-linking agent, until the article contains at least 2.5% by weight of the cross-linking agent; and (2) irradiating the shaped article with ionising radiation to a dosage not exceeding 50 Mrads under conditions such that the composition is cross-linked sufficiently to impart thereto an M 100 value of at least 300 psi, while maintaining a tensile strength of at least 3000 psi, the shaped article containing a specified proportion of the cross-linking agent. (author)

  3. Covalently cross-linked polyetheretherketone proton exchange membrane for DMFC

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Luo, H

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available -7 cm2/s) and good electrochemical stability. The results suggested that cross-linked polyetheretherketone membrane is particularly promising to be used as proton exchange membrane for the direct methanol fuel cell application....

  4. Biocompatibility and tissue regenerating capacity of crosslinked dermal sheep collagen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wachem, P.B.; van Luyn, M.J.A.; Olde Damink, L.H.H.; Olde damink, L.H.H.; Dijkstra, Pieter J.; Feijen, Jan; Nieuwenhuis, P.

    1994-01-01

    The biocompatibility and tissue regenerating capacity of four crosslinked dermal sheep collagens (DSC) was studied. In vitro, the four DSC versions were found to be noncytotoxic or very low in cytoxicity. After subcutaneous implantation in rats, hexamethylenediisocyanatecrcrosslinked DSC (HDSC)

  5. Formaldehyde cross-linking and structural proteomics: Bridging the gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasa, Savita; Ding, Xuan; Kast, Juergen

    2015-11-01

    Proteins are dynamic entities constantly moving and altering their structures based on their functions and interactions inside and outside the cell. Formaldehyde cross-linking combined with mass spectrometry can accurately capture interactions of these rapidly changing biomolecules while maintaining their physiological surroundings. Even with its numerous established uses in biology and compatibility with mass spectrometry, formaldehyde has not yet been applied in structural proteomics. However, formaldehyde cross-linking is moving toward analyzing tertiary structure, which conventional cross-linkers have already accomplished. The purpose of this review is to describe the potential of formaldehyde cross-linking in structural proteomics by highlighting its applications, characteristics and current status in the field. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Multiple molecular forms of pyridinoline crosslinks generated by the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    molecular forms of pyridinoline crosslinks from insoluble bone type I collagen, and we studied ... resorbed in a dynamic process during ... proteins at 4 C for 24H in 4 mol/L .... fragments was merely due to interactions ... completely elucidated.

  7. The Effect of Polymer Molecular Weight on Citrate Crosslinked ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Purpose: To develop citrate crosslinked chitosan films using chitosan of different molecular weights. (MW) in .... left to stand until trapped air bubbles ... blotted out carefully with filter paper from the .... potential as biodegradable stent coatings. J.

  8. Enzymatic digestibility of peptides cross-linked by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dizdaroglu, M.; Gajewski, E.; Simic, M.G.

    1984-01-01

    Digestibility by proteolytic enzymes of peptides cross-linked by ionizing radiation was investigated. Small peptides of alanine and phenylalanine were chosen as model compounds and aminopeptidases and carboxypeptidases were used as proteolytic enzymes. Peptides exposed to γ-radiation in aqueous solution were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography before and after hydrolysis by aminopeptidase M, leucine aminopeptidase carboxypeptidase A and carboxypeptidase Y. The results obtained clearly demonstrate the different actions of these enzymes on cross-linked aliphatic and aromatic peptides. Peptide bonds of cross-linked dipeptides of alanine were completely resistant to enzymatic hydrolysis whereas the enzymes, except for carboxypeptidase Y, cleaved all peptide bonds of cross-linked peptides of phenylalanine. The actions of the enzymes on these particular compounds are discussed in detail. (author)

  9. Highly efficient perovskite solar cells with crosslinked PCBM interlayers

    KAUST Repository

    Qiu, W.

    2017-01-09

    Commercially available phenyl-C-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) is crosslinked with 1,6-diazidohexane (DAZH), resulting in films resistant to common solvents used in perovskite solar cell processing. By using crosslinked PCBM as an interlayer and (HC(NH))(CHNH)PbIBr as the active layer, we achieve small area devices and modules with a maximum steady-state power conversion efficiency of 18.1% and 14.9%, respectively.

  10. Donor cross-linking for keratoplasty: a laboratory evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Achyut; Hayes, Sally; Aslanides, Ioannis; Lanchares, Elena; Meek, Keith M

    2015-12-01

    This laboratory-based investigation compares the topographic outcomes of conventional penetrating keratoplasty with that of a novel procedure in which donor corneas are cross-linked prior to keratoplasty. Penetrating keratoplasty procedures with continuous running sutures were carried out in a porcine whole globe model. Sixty eyes were randomly paired as 'donor' and 'host' tissue before being assigned to one of two groups. In the cross-linked group, donor corneas underwent riboflavin/UVA cross-linking prior to being trephined and sutured to untreated hosts. In the conventional keratoplasty group, both host and donor corneas remained untreated prior to keratoplasty. Topographic and corneal wavefront measurements were performed following surgery, and technical aspects of the procedure evaluated. Mean keratometric astigmatism was significantly lower in the cross-linked donor group at 3.67D (SD 1.8 D), vs. 8.43 D (SD 2.4 D) in the conventional keratoplasty group (p < 0.005). Mean wavefront astigmatism was also significantly reduced in the cross-linked donor group 4.71 D (SD 2.1) vs. 8.29D (SD 3.6) in the conventional keratoplasty group (p < 0.005). Mean RMS higher order aberration was significantly lower in the cross-linked donor group at 1.79 um (SD 0.98), vs. 3.05 um (SD 1.9) in the conventional keratoplasty group (P = 0.02). Qualitative analysis revealed less tissue distortion at the graft-host junction in the cross-linked group. Cross-linking of donor corneas prior to keratoplasty reduces intraoperative induced astigmatism and aberrations in an animal model. Further studies are indicated to evaluate the implications of this potential modification of keratoplasty surgery.

  11. Fanconi anemia (cross)linked to DNA repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedernhofer, Laura J; Lalai, Astrid S; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J

    2005-12-29

    Fanconi anemia is characterized by hypersensitivity to DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs) and susceptibility to tumor formation. Despite the identification of numerous Fanconi anemia (FANC) genes, the mechanism by which proteins encoded by these genes protect a cell from DNA interstrand crosslinks remains unclear. The recent discovery of two DNA helicases that, when defective, cause Fanconi anemia tips the balance in favor of the direct involvement of the FANC proteins in DNA repair and the bypass of DNA lesions.

  12. Radiation crosslinking of polymer materials and its functional properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, Fumio

    2006-01-01

    It was found out that radiation crosslinking of biodegradable polymer such as poly (butylene succinate, PBS) and poly(ε-caprolactone, PCL) could be achieved by radiation in the presence of small amount of trimethallyl isocyanurate (TMAIC) or 1% triallyl isocyanurate (TAIC). Such modification is very effective to improve heat resistance for PBS and PCL. Poly (lactic acid, PLA) undergoes crosslinking effectively with 3% TAIC by radiation. Outstanding feature of these polymers is their biodegradability even after crosslinking. Radiation crosslinking of polysaccharide derivatives such as carboxymethyl-cellulose (CMC) is also achieved in aqueous solution at high concentration (paste-like state). The crosslinking behavior was largely affected by the degree of substitution (DS) and polymer concentration. After removal of water the dry CMC gel is used as water absorbent material. This dry gel is the most effective for removal of large amounts of water from organic wastes, resulting in the acceleration of their fermentation. Measurement of swelling ratio of the dry CMC gel in 0.9% NaCl aqueous solution was carried out to expand application fields for this material. Radiation crosslinked poly (vinyl alcohol) hydrogel was successfully commercialized from July 2004 as wound dressing for accelerated healing. Furthermore, this material was also used as gel protector to prevent shore sore and was further commercialized. (author)

  13. Three-Dimensional Volumetric Changes in Severely Resorbed Alveolar Sockets After Ridge Augmentation with Bovine-Derived Xenograft and Resorbable Barrier: A Preliminary Study on CBCT Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manavella, Valeria; Romano, Federica; Corano, Lisa; Bignardi, Cristina; Aimetti, Mario

    The primary aim of the study was to describe a novel technique to evaluate volumetric hard tissue dimensional changes after ridge augmentation procedures. The secondary aim was to apply this newly developed measuring method to compromised alveolar sockets grafted with a slowly resorbing biomaterial covered with a collagen membrane. Eleven patients (6 men and 5 women, mean age 52.7 ± 8.3 years) requiring extraction of one hopeless tooth for severe periodontitis in the maxillary anterior area were consecutively treated with a ridge augmentation procedure. All experimental sockets showed advanced buccal bone plate deficiency and were grafted with deproteinized bovine bone mineral with 10% collagen covered with a collagen membrane. Sockets healed by secondary intention. Three-dimensional volumetric alveolar bone changes were calculated by superimposing cone beam computed tomography scans obtained before and 12 months after the augmentation procedure. After 12 months, the alveolar mineralized tissue filled 91.20% ± 7.96% of the maximum volume for regeneration. The augmentation procedure appeared not only to compensate for bone remodeling in most alveolar regions but also to repair a significant portion of the buccal wall. The most significant ridge width changes occurred 1 mm apical to the bone crest (2.33 ± 1.46 mm, P socket volume. A ridge preservation technique performed with collagenated bovine bone and a collagen membrane was able to improve ridge shape and dimensions in compromised alveolar sockets.

  14. The spectra character of photodegraded the pyridinoline cross-links by Hypocrellin B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jucheng; Chen Rui; Liu Wei; Chen Zhuo; Shu Lidan; Liu Yingji

    2011-01-01

    Pyridinoline cross-links is one of the cross-link formation in collagen which in cell matrix, many research shown that this cross-link cause the fibrosis. Hypocrellin B (HB) is one of the nature photosensitizers, this work investigated the pyridinoline cross-link in collagen was photodegraded by HB. The result shown HB can degrade the pyridinoline cross-link with photo. This is to say, HB may be use as the photodynamic reagent to study the fibrosis.

  15. Nitric oxide-induced interstrand cross-links in DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Jennifer L; Wishnok, John S; Tannenbaum, Steven R

    2003-05-01

    The DNA damaging effects of nitrous acid have been extensively studied, and the formation of interstrand cross-links have been observed. The potential for this cross-linking to occur through a common nitrosating intermediate derived from nitric oxide is investigated here. Using a HPLC laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) system, the amount of interstrand cross-link formed on nitric oxide treatment of the 5'-fluorescein-labeled oligomer ATATCGATCGATAT was determined. This self-complimentary sequence contains two 5'-CG sequences, which is the preferred site for nitrous acid-induced cross-linking. Nitric oxide was delivered to an 0.5 mM oligomer solution at 15 nmol/mL/min to give a final nitrite concentration of 652 microM. The resulting concentration of the deamination product, xanthine, in this sample was found to be 211 +/- 39 nM, using GC/MS, and the amount of interstrand cross-link was determined to be 13 +/- 2.5 nM. Therefore, upon nitric oxide treatment, the cross-link is found at approximately 6% of the amount of the deamination product. Using this system, detection of the cross-link is also possible for significantly lower doses of nitric oxide, as demonstrated by treatment of the same oligomer with NO at a rate of 18 nmol/mL/min resulting in a final nitrite concentration of 126 microM. The concentration of interstrand cross-link was determined to be 3.6 +/- 0.1 nM in this sample. Therefore, using the same dose rate, when the total nitric oxide concentration delivered drops by a factor of approximately 5, the concentration of cross-link drops by a factor of about 4-indicating a qausi-linear response. It may now be possible to predict the number of cross-links in a small genome based on the number of CpG sequences and the yield of xanthine derived from nitrosative deamination.

  16. Retrospective Analysis of the Outcome of Ridge Preservation with Anorganic Bovine Bone Minerals: Microcomputed Tomographic Assessment of Wound Healing in Grafted Extraction Sockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshalian, Neema; Freire, Marcelo; Min, Seiko; Wu, Ivy; Zadeh, Homayoun H

    A total of 68 extraction sockets were grafted with anorganic bovine bone mineral and covered by dense polytetrafluoroethylene membrane. Quantitative analysis of three-dimensional microcomputed tomography imaging of core samples retrieved after a mean of 21.0 ± 14.2 weeks revealed 40.1% bone volume fraction (bone volume [BV]/total volume [TV]) and 12% residual graft. Evidence of de novo bone formation was observed in the form of discrete islands of newly formed bone in direct apposition to graft particles, separated from parent bone. Anterior sockets exhibited a significantly higher percentage of residual graft compared to premolar sockets (P = .05). The BV/TV and percentage of residual graft correlated well with histomorphometric analysis of the same sites, but not with implant outcomes.

  17. Comparative evaluation of zinc oxide eugenol versus gelatin sponge soaked in plasma rich in growth factor in the treatment of dry socket: An initial study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, U. S.; Singh, Balendra Pratap; Verma, Vikas

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to report a comparison between the zinc oxide eugenol dressing and plasma rich in growth factor (PRGF) with gelatin sponge in the treatment of dry socket. Materials and Methods: This study comprised of 45 patients of dry socket in the span of one year. The patients were randomly divided into three groups on the basis of treatments: Group A (PRGF with gelatin sponge), group B (zinc oxide eugenol group), and group C (irrigation with sterile saline only). The clinical progress was noted at 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 7th, and 15th day after the treatment. Results: Patient's healing was better in group A than in group B but symptomatic pain relief was faster in group B. Group C fared worst in both aspects. Conclusion: We conclude that PRGF with gelatin sponge might be a treatment of choice in the management of dry socket. PMID:23853450

  18. Comparative evaluation of zinc oxide eugenol versus gelatin sponge soaked in plasma rich in growth factor in the treatment of dry socket: An initial study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U S Pal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to report a comparison between the zinc oxide eugenol dressing and plasma rich in growth factor (PRGF with gelatin sponge in the treatment of dry socket. Materials and Methods: This study comprised of 45 patients of dry socket in the span of one year. The patients were randomly divided into three groups on the basis of treatments: Group A (PRGF with gelatin sponge, group B (zinc oxide eugenol group, and group C (irrigation with sterile saline only. The clinical progress was noted at 1 st , 2 nd , 3 rd , 7 th , and 15 th day after the treatment. Results: Patient′s healing was better in group A than in group B but symptomatic pain relief was faster in group B. Group C fared worst in both aspects. Conclusion: We conclude that PRGF with gelatin sponge might be a treatment of choice in the management of dry socket.

  19. Spirulina chitosan gel induction on healing process of Cavia cobaya post extraction socket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rostiny Rostiny

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prominent residual ridge is necessary to gain retention and stabilility for succesful prosthodontic treatment such as removable, fixed or implant. Spirulina is a natural substance that can help tissue healing and chitosan also a natural substance that reported to have the ability to help bone remodelling. The combination gel of spirulina and chitosan could be considered as an alternative material to maintain residual ridge height after tooth extraction. Purpose: The aim of study was to examine the effect of combination gel of Spirulina and chitosan on healing process of Cavia cobaya post tooth extraction socket by counting the amount of osteoclast, osteoblast and colagen as an indicator. Methods: Twenty eight cavia cobaya were divided into 4 groups. Insisive mandible extraction was done and the sockets were filled with 3% CMCNa for control groups, 3% spirulina chitosan 200 mg for group 1, 6% spirulina chitosan 200 mg for group 2, 12% spirulina chitosan 200 mg for group 3. After 30 days, histopathology examination was done by using microscope to count the amount of osteoclast, osteoblast and collagen. Results: Data was analyzed by using Anova and Tukey HSD. For osteoclast, there was no significant different between every groups, while for osteoblast and collagen there was significant different between groups. The results showed that induction of combination gel spirulina chitosan was able to accumulate collagen fiber and resulting faster wound healing. Conclusion: Combination 12% gel spirulina chitosan 200 mg could be used as an alternative material for better bone remodeling after tooth extraction.Latar belakang: Residual ridge yang prominen sangat dibutuhkan untuk mendapatkan retensi dan stabilitas untuk menunjang keberhasilan perawatan di bidang prostodonsia seperti pada kasus removable, fixed atau implant. Tindakan pencabutan gigi dapat merusak jaringan periodontal, sementum dan tulang alveolar yang mengakibatkan resorbsi ridge

  20. In vitro evaluation of crosslinked electrospun fish gelatin scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, S.R.; Rodrigues, G.; Martins, G.G.; Henriques, C.M.R.; Silva, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Gelatin from cold water fish skin was electrospun, crosslinked and investigated as a substrate for the adhesion and proliferation of cells. Gelatin was first dissolved in either water or concentrated acetic acid and both solutions were successfully electrospun. Cross-linking was achieved via three different routes: glutaraldehyde vapor, genipin and dehydrothermal treatment. Solution's properties (surface tension, electrical conductivity and viscosity) and scaffold's properties (chemical bonds, weight loss and fiber diameters) were measured. Cellular viability was analyzed culturing 3T3 fibroblasts plated on the scaffolds and grown up to 7 days. The cells were fixed and observed with SEM or stained for DNA and F-actin and observed with confocal microscopy. In all scaffolds, the cells attached and spread with varying degrees. The evaluation of cell viability showed proliferation of cells until confluence in scaffolds crosslinked by glutaraldehyde and genipin; however the rate of growth in genipin crosslinked scaffolds was slow, recovering only by day five. The results using the dehydrothermal treatment were the less satisfactory. Our results show that glutaraldehyde treated fish gelatin is the most suitable substrate, of the three studied, for fibroblast adhesion and proliferation. - Highlights: ► Electrospinning of fish gelatin dissolved in both water or concentrated acetic acid ► Glutaraldehyde, genipin and dehydrothermal treatment effectively crosslink the fish gelatin fibers ► Fibroblasts effectively adhere to and propagate on all scaffolds ► Cell population is highest for glutaraldehyde crosslinked scaffolds ► Cells exhibit more filopodia and stress fibers on glutaraldehyde crosslinked scaffolds