Testing DGP modified gravity in the Solar System
Iorio, Lorenzo
2006-01-01
In this talk we review the perspectives of testing the multidimensional Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati (DGP) model of modified gravity in the Solar System. The inner planets, contrary to the giant gaseous ones, yield the most promising scenario for the near future.
Self-Consistent Cosmological Simulations of DGP Braneworld Gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schmidt, Fabian [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Kavli Inst. for Cosmological Physics (KICP)
2009-09-01
We perform cosmological N-body simulations of the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati braneworld model, by solving the full non-linear equations of motion for the scalar degree of freedom in this model, the brane bending mode. While coupling universally to matter, the brane-bending mode has self-interactions that become important as soon as the density field becomes non-linear. These self-interactions lead to a suppression of the field in high-density environments, and restore gravity to General Relativity. The code uses a multi-grid relaxation scheme to solve the non-linear field equation in the quasi-static approximation. We perform simulations of a flat self-accelerating DGP model without cosmological constant. However, the type of non-linear interactions of the brane-bending mode, which are the focus of this study, are generic to a wide class of braneworld cosmologies. The results of the DGP simulations are compared with standard gravity simulations assuming the same expansion history, and with DGP simulations using the linearized equation for the brane bending mode. This allows us to isolate the effects of the non-linear self-couplings of the field which are noticeable already on quasi-linear scales. We present results on the matter power spectrum and the halo mass function, and discuss the behavior of the brane bending mode within cosmological structure formation. We find that, independently of CMB constraints, the self-accelerating DGP model is strongly constrained by current weak lensing and cluster abundance measurements.
Övgün, A.; Jusufi, Kimet
2017-07-01
This paper discusses the effects of the mass and angular momentum of massive vector and scalar particles on the Hawking temperature manifested under the effects of the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP). In particular, we calculate the Hawking temperature of a black hole in a warped DGP gravity model in the framework of the quantum tunneling method. We use the modified Proca and Klein-Gordon equations previously determined from the GUP Lagrangian in the spacetime background of a warped Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati (DGP) metric, with the help of Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) and semiclassical (WKB) approximation methods. We find that as a special case of a warped DGP black hole solution, the Hawking temperature of a Schwarzschild-de Sitter (SdS) black hole can be determined. Furthermore, the Hawking temperature is influenced by the mass and the angular momentum of vector and scalar particles and depends on which of those types of particles is being emitted by the black hole. We conclude that the nonthermal nature of the Hawking spectrum leads to Planck-scale nonthermal correlations, shedding light on the information paradox in black hole evaporation.
Hinterbichler, Kurt; Porrati, Massimo
2009-01-01
We reconsider the issue of superluminal propagation in the DGP model of infrared modified gravity. Superluminality was argued to exist in certain otherwise physical backgrounds by using a particular, physically relevant scaling limit of the theory. In this paper, we exhibit explicit five-dimensional solutions of the full theory that are stable against small fluctuations and that indeed support superluminal excitations. The scaling limit is neither needed nor invoked in deriving the solutions or in the analysis of its small fluctuations. To be certain that the superluminality found here is physical, we analyze the retarded Green's function of the scalar excitations, finding that it is causal and stable, but has support on a widened light-cone. We propose to use absence of superluminal propagation as a method to constrain the parameters of the DGP model. As a first application of the method, we find that whenever the 4D energy density is a pure cosmological constant and a hierarchy of scales exists between the ...
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
de Rham, Claudia
2014-01-01
We review recent progress in massive gravity. We start by showing how different theories of massive gravity emerge from a higher-dimensional theory of general relativity, leading to the Dvali–Gabadadze–Porrati model (DGP...
Probing Lambda-DGP Braneworld Model
Ravanpak, A; Fadakar, G F
2016-01-01
In this article we study cosmic dynamics in the context of normal branch of DGP braneworld model. Using the current Planck data, we best fit the model and cosmological parameters in non-flat $\\Lambda$DGP. With the transition redshift as a basic variable and statefinder parameters, our result shows that the Universe starts its accelerated expansion phase, slightly earlier than expected in $\\Lambda$CDM cosmology. The result also alleviates the coincidence problem of the $\\Lambda$CDM model.
Claudia de Rham
2016-01-01
We review recent progress in massive gravity. We start by showing how different theories of massive gravity emerge from a higher-dimensional theory of general relativity, leading to the Dvali–Gabadadze–Porrati model (DGP), cascading gravity, and ghost-free massive gravity. We then explore their theoretical and phenomenological consistency, proving the absence of Boulware–Deser ghosts and reviewing the Vainshtein mechanism and the cosmological solutions in these models. Finally, we present alt...
DGP cosmological model with generalized Ricci dark energy
Aguilera, Yeremy; Avelino, Arturo; Cruz, Norman; Lepe, Samuel; Peña, Francisco
2014-11-01
The brane-world model proposed by Dvali, Gabadadze and Porrati (DGP) leads to an accelerated universe without cosmological constant or other form of dark energy for the positive branch . For the negative branch we have investigated the behavior of a model with an holographic Ricci-like dark energy and dark matter, where the IR cutoff takes the form , being the Hubble parameter and , positive constants of the model. We perform an analytical study of the model in the late-time dark energy dominated epoch, where we obtain a solution for , where is the leakage scale of gravity into the bulk, and conditions for the negative branch on the holographic parameters and , in order to hold the conditions of weak energy and accelerated universe. On the other hand, we compare the model versus the late-time cosmological data using the latest type Ia supernova sample of the Joint Light-curve Analysis (JLA), in order to constrain the holographic parameters in the negative branch, as well as in the positive branch, where is the Hubble constant. We find that the model has a good fit to the data and that the most likely values for lie in the permitted region found from an analytical solution in a dark energy dominated universe. We give a justification to use a holographic cutoff in 4D for the dark energy in the 5-dimensional DGP model. Finally, using the Bayesian Information Criterion we find that this model is disfavored compared with the flat CDM model.
Challenges to the DGP Model from Horizon-Scale Growth and Geometry
Fang, Wenjuan; Wang, Sheng; Hu, Wayne; Haiman, Zoltan; Hui, Lam; May, Morgan
2008-01-01
We conduct a Markov Chain Monte Carlo study of the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati (DGP) self-accelerating braneworld scenario given the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy, supernovae and Hubble constant data by implementing an effective dark energy prescription for modified gravity into a standard Einstein-Boltzmann code. We find no way to alleviate the tension between distance measures and horizon scale growth in this model. Growth alterations due to perturbations propagating into the bul...
DGP cosmological model with generalized Ricci dark energy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aguilera, Yeremy [Universidad de Santiago, Departamento de Matematicas y Ciencia de la Computacion, Santiago (Chile); Avelino, Arturo [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Cruz, Norman [Universidad de Santiago, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencia, Santiago (Chile); Lepe, Samuel [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Facultad de Ciencias, Instituto de Fisica, Valparaiso (Chile); Pena, Francisco [Universidad de La Frontera, Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Facultad de Ingenieria y Ciencias, Temuco (Chile)
2014-11-15
The brane-world model proposed by Dvali, Gabadadze and Porrati (DGP) leads to an accelerated universe without cosmological constant or other form of dark energy for the positive branch (element of = +1). For the negative branch (element of = -1) we have investigated the behavior of a model with an holographic Ricci-like dark energy and dark matter, where the IR cutoff takes the form αH{sup 2} + βH, H being the Hubble parameter and α, β positive constants of the model. We perform an analytical study of the model in the late-time dark energy dominated epoch, where we obtain a solution for r{sub c}H(z), where r{sub c} is the leakage scale of gravity into the bulk, and conditions for the negative branch on the holographic parameters α and β, in order to hold the conditions of weak energy and accelerated universe. On the other hand, we compare the model versus the late-time cosmological data using the latest type Ia supernova sample of the Joint Light-curve Analysis (JLA), in order to constrain the holographic parameters in the negative branch, as well as r{sub c}H{sub 0} in the positive branch, where H{sub 0} is the Hubble constant. We find that the model has a good fit to the data and that the most likely values for (r{sub c}H{sub 0}, α, β) lie in the permitted region found from an analytical solution in a dark energy dominated universe. We give a justification to use a holographic cutoff in 4D for the dark energy in the 5-dimensional DGP model. Finally, using the Bayesian Information Criterion we find that this model is disfavored compared with the flat ΛCDM model. (orig.)
The Schwarzschild solution in the DGP model
Middleton, Chad; Siopsis, George
2003-01-01
We discuss the Schwarzschild solution in the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati (DGP) model. We obtain a perturbative expansion and find the explicit form of the lowest-order contribution. By keeping off-diagonal terms in the metric, we arrive at a perturbative expansion which is valid both far from and near the Schwarzschild radius. We calculate the lowest-order contribution explicitly and obtain the form of the metric both on the brane and in the bulk. As we approach the Schwarzschild radius, the pert...
Holographic dark energy in the DGP model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cruz, Norman [Universidad de Santiago, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencia, Santiago (Chile); Lepe, Samuel [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Valparaiso (Chile); Pena, Francisco [Universidad de La Frontera, Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Facultad de Ingenieria, Ciencias y Administracion, Avda. Francisco Salazar 01145, Casilla 54-D, Temuco (Chile); Avelino, Arturo [Universidad de Guanajuato, Departamento de Fisica, DCI, Codigo Postal 37150, Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico)
2012-09-15
The braneworld model proposed by Dvali, Gabadadze, and Porrati leads to an accelerated universe without cosmological constant or any other form of dark energy. Nevertheless, we have investigated the consequences of this model when an holographic dark energy is included, taking the Hubble scale as IR cutoff. We have found that the holographic dark energy leads to an accelerated flat universe (de Sitter-like expansion) for the two branches: {epsilon}={+-}1, of the DGP model. Nevertheless, in universes with no null curvature the dark energy presents an EoS corresponding to a phantom fluid during the present era and evolving to a de Sitter-like phase for future cosmic time. In the special case in which the holographic parameter c is equal to one we have found a sudden singularity in closed universes. In this case the expansion is decelerating. (orig.)
A 5D holographic dark energy in DGP-BRANE cosmology
Farajollahi, H.; Ravanpak, A.
2014-02-01
This paper is aimed to investigate 5D holographic dark energy (HDE) in DGP-Brane cosmology by employing a combination of Sne Ia, BAO and CMB observational data and constraining cosmological parameters. The FRW dynamics for the normal branch ( ɛ=+1) solution of induced gravity brane-world model is taken with the assumption that matter in 5D bulk is HDE such that its holographic nature is reproduced effectively in 4D universe. In the HDE model, we used Hubble horizon as IR cutoff instead of future event horizon. This way, while the model predicts current universe acceleration, it also removes the problem of circular reasoning and causality observed in using future event horizon as IR cutoff.
Crossing w=1 in Gauss-Bonnet Brane World with Induced Gravity
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
CAI Rong-Gen ZHANG Hong-Sheng WANG An-Zhong
2005-01-01
.... In this paper we show that it is possible to realize such a crossing without introducing any phantom component in a Gauss-Bonnet brane worm with induced gravity, where a four-dimensional curvature...
Gamow, George
2003-01-01
A distinguished physicist and teacher, George Gamow also possessed a special gift for making the intricacies of science accessible to a wide audience. In Gravity, he takes an enlightening look at three of the towering figures of science who unlocked many of the mysteries behind the laws of physics: Galileo, the first to take a close look at the process of free and restricted fall; Newton, originator of the concept of gravity as a universal force; and Einstein, who proposed that gravity is no more than the curvature of the four-dimensional space-time continuum.Graced with the author's own draw
Battat, James Benjamin Royston
We use observations of solar system bodies to derive constraints on departures from General Relativity (GR). We also characterize the initial science data from the Apache Point Observatory Lunar Laser-ranging Operation (APOLLO). The millimeter-precision APOLLO data will enable an order-of-magnitude improvement in several tests of gravitational physics. This work is motivated by the current dark energy crisis. Multiple independent astrophysical observations suggest that the Universe is accelerating in its expansion. GR with Einstein's cosmological constant can give rise to acceleration, but no viable theory can compute the observed dark energy density from first principles. A plausible alternative to dark energy is that GR breaks down on cosmological scales. There is no shortage of speculative gravity theories that could replace GR. Many of these predict observable deviations from GR in the solar system. We look for the evidence of such deviations in two ways: (1) searching for Lorentz symmetry violation using Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) data and (2) searching for anomalous perihelion precession using planetary range and Doppler measurements. Our constraints on Lorentz symmetry violation are presented in the Standard- Model Extension (SME) framework. No evidence for Lorentz violation is seen at the level of 10 -6 to 10 -11 in the six dimensionless SME parameters to which LLR is sensitive. We also show that any universal anomalous precession of the planetary perihelia must be less than 0.02 arcseconds per century. This constraint has direct relevance to the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati (DGP) theory of braneworld gravity, which can explain the accelerating Universe without a cosmological constant. DGP theory posits that gravity weakens above a cross-over scale r c = 5 Gpc. As a result, DGP predicts a uniform anomalous perihelion precession rate for the planets of do/dt = 5 × 10 -4 arcseconds per century. Our precession constraint requires r c > 0.13 Gpc, a factor of 40 away
Self-interacting scalar field trapped in a DGP brane: The dynamical systems perspective
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Quiros, Israel [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Central de Las Villas, 54830 Santa Clara (Cuba)], E-mail: israel@uclv.edu.cu; Garcia-Salcedo, Ricardo [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada-Legaria del IPN, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: rigarcias@ipn.mx; Matos, Tonatiuh [Departamento de Fisica, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, A.P. 14-740, 07000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: tmatos@fis.cinvestav.mx; Moreno, Claudia [Departamento de Fisica y Matematicas, Centro Universitario de Ciencias Exactas e Ingenierias, Corregidora 500 S.R., Universidad de Guadalajara, 44420 Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico)], E-mail: claudia.moreno@cucei.udg.mx
2009-01-05
We apply the dynamical systems tools to study the linear dynamics of a self-interacting scalar field trapped on a DGP brane. The simplest kinds of self-interaction potentials are investigated: (a) constant potential, and (b) exponential potential. It is shown that the dynamics of DGP models can be very rich and complex. One of the most interesting results of this study shows that dynamical screening of the scalar field self-interaction potential, occurring within the Minkowski cosmological phase of the DGP model and that mimics 4D phantom behaviour, is an attractor solution for a constant self-interaction potential but not for the exponential one. In the latter case gravitational screening is not even a critical point of the corresponding autonomous system of ordinary differential equations.
Joint Interpretation of Bathymetric and Gravity Anomaly Maps Using Cross and Dot-Products.
Jilinski, Pavel; Fontes, Sergio Luiz
2010-05-01
0.1 Summary We present the results of joint map interpretation technique based on cross and dot-products applied to bathymetric and gravity anomaly gradients maps. According to the theory (Gallardo, Meju, 2004) joint interpretation of different gradient characteristics help to localize and empathize patterns unseen on one image interpretation and gives information about the correlation of different spatial data. Values of angles between gradients and their cross and dot-product were used. This technique helps to map unseen relations between bathymetric and gravity anomaly maps if they are analyzed separately. According to the method applied for the southern segment of Eastern-Brazilian coast bathymetrical and gravity anomaly gradients indicates a strong source-effect relation between them. The details of the method and the obtained results are discussed. 0.2 Introduction We applied this method to investigate the correlation between bathymetric and gravity anomalies at the southern segment of the Eastern-Brazilian coast. Gridded satellite global marine gravity data and bathymetrical data were used. The studied area is located at the Eastern- Brazilian coast between the 20° W and 30° W meridians and 15° S and 25° S parallels. The volcanic events responsible for the uncommon width of the continental shelf at the Abrolhos bank also were responsible for the formation of the Abrolhos islands and seamounts including the major Vitoria-Trindade chain. According to the literature this volcanic structures are expected to have a corresponding gravity anomaly (McKenzie, 1976, Zembruscki, S.G. 1979). The main objective of this study is to develop and test joint image interpretation method to compare spatial data and analyze its relations. 0.3 Theory and Method 0.3.1 Data sources The bathymetrical satellite data were derived bathymetry 2-minute grid of the ETOPO2v2 obtained from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov). The satellite marine gravity 1
Particle-driven gravity currents in non-rectangular cross-section channels
Zemach, Tamar
2015-11-01
Particle-driven gravity currents are suspensions of dense particles that spread into an ambient fluid due to the difference between the density of the suspension and that of the ambient fluid. During the evolution of the current, particles continually sediment and are deposited from the flow. Particle-driven gravity currents are important in many environmental situations (volcanic ash flows, turbidity currents). In the present work we consider the propagation of a high-Reynolds-number gravity current generated by suspension of heavier particles in fluid of density ρi propagating along a channel into an ambient fluid of the density ρa. The bottom and top of the channel are at z = 0 , H , and the cross-section is given by the quite general -f1 (z) <= y <=f2 (z) for 0 <= z <= H . The flow is modeled by the one-layer shallow-water equation. We solve the problem by the finite-difference numerical code to present typical height h (x , t) , velocity u (x , t) and volume fraction of particles ϕ (x , t) profiles. The methodology is illustrated for flow in typical geometries: power-law, trapezoidal and circle. The presence of the particles reduces the speed of propagation, however the details are depend on the geometry of the cross-section.
Investigation of lunar maria structure from cross-analysis of GRAIL gravity and Kaguya radar data
Zuber, M. T.; Ermakov, A.; Smith, D. E.; Mastroguiseppe, M.; Raguso, M.
2016-12-01
The Lunar Radar Sounder (LRS) on JAXA's Kaguya spacecraft investigated the subsurface structure of the Moon to a depth of a few km. GRAIL gravity models are potentially sensitive to subsurface structure at such depths. GRAIL gravity and LRS radar data are complementary since both are sensitive to density/compositional heterogeneities. Cross-correlation of GRAIL and LRS data has the potential to produce new constraints on the structure and evolution of the lunar maria. Originally, subsurface reflections within the lunar maria were detected with Lunar Sounder Experiment aboard Apollo 17. Subsurface layering was attributed to multiple episodes of volcanism. Later, Kaguya's LRS produced similar measurements but with global-scale coverage. Laboratory measurements show that density variations among mare basalts can be up to 200 kg m-3 or 7%. The LRS measurements have detected subsurface reflection in the upper 1 km of the crust. Combining these two estimates and using the Bouguer slab approximation, we estimate that anomalies of order 1-10 mGal are expected due to potentially varying density of surface and/or subsurface horizons. This accuracy is achievable with the latest GRAIL gravity models. The LRS surface backscattering power is indicative of surface and near sub-surface dielectric properties, which are sensitive to target density and roughness. We investigate the northwestern part of the Procellarum basin because it is the region with the strongest signal-to-noise ratios in gravity models within maria. To examine shallow subsurface structure, we map the surface received power by tracking the first return of radar echoes and compare it with gravity gradients, which are particularly sensitive to small-scale structures.
Generalized second law of thermodynamics in warped DGP braneworld
Sheykhi, Ahmad; Wang, Bin
2008-01-01
We investigate the validity of the generalized second law of thermodynamics on the $(n-1)$-dimensional brane embedded in the $(n+1)$-dimensional bulk. We examine the evolution of the apparent horizon entropy extracted through relation between gravitational equation and the first law of thermodynamics together with the matter field entropy inside the apparent horizon. We find that the apparent horizon entropy extracted through connection between gravity and the first law of thermodynamics sati...
2D data-space cross-gradient joint inversion of MT, gravity and magnetic data
Pak, Yong-Chol; Li, Tonglin; Kim, Gang-Sop
2017-08-01
We have developed a data-space multiple cross-gradient joint inversion algorithm, and validated it through synthetic tests and applied it to magnetotelluric (MT), gravity and magnetic datasets acquired along a 95 km profile in Benxi-Ji'an area of northeastern China. To begin, we discuss a generalized cross-gradient joint inversion for multiple datasets and model parameters sets, and formulate it in data space. The Lagrange multiplier required for the structural coupling in the data-space method is determined using an iterative solver to avoid calculation of the inverse matrix in solving the large system of equations. Next, using model-space and data-space methods, we inverted the synthetic data and field data. Based on our result, the joint inversion in data-space not only delineates geological bodies more clearly than the separate inversion, but also yields nearly equal results with the one in model-space while consuming much less memory.
Ghanaatian, Mohammad
2014-01-01
In this study, FRW cosmology in modified gravity containing arbitrary function $f(R)$ is taken into consideration when our action are coupled with Weyl tensor. It is indicated that the bouncing solution emerges in the model while the equation of state (EoS) parameter crosses the phantom divider. In this research, cosmological usage of the most promising candidates of dark energy in the framework of f(R) theory coupled by Weyl tensor is explored. A f(R) gravity model in the spatially flat FRW universe acoording to the ordinary version of the holographic dark energy model, which describes accelerated expansion of the universe is reconstructed. The equation of state parameter of the corresponding Weyl gravity models are obtained as well. We conclude that the holographic and Weyl gravity models can behave like phantom or quintessence models, whereas the equation of state parameter of the models can transit from quintessence state to phantom regime as shown recent observations.
Gauss-Bonnet Braneworld Cosmology with Modified Induced Gravity on the Brane
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kourosh Nozari
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We analyze the background cosmology for an extension of the DGP gravity with Gauss-Bonnet term in the bulk and f(R gravity on the brane. We investigate implications of this setup on the late-time cosmic history. Within a dynamical system approach, we study cosmological dynamics of this setup focusing on the role played by curvature effects. Finally, we constrain the parameters of the model by confrontation with recent observational data.
Gravity currents in non-rectangular cross-area channels with stratified ambient
Ungarish, Marius
2014-11-01
The propagation of a high-Reynolds-number gravity current (GC) in a horizontal channel along the horizontal coordinate x is considered. The current is of constant density, ρc, and the ambient has a linear stable stratification, from ρb at the bottom z = 0 to ρo at z = H . The cross-section of the channel is given by the general -f1 (z) model is developed for the solution of a GC of fixed volume released from a lock on the bottom (ρc >=ρb). The dependent variables are the position of the interface, h (x , t) , and the speed (area-averaged), u (x , t) , where t is time. The cross-section geometry enters the formulation via the width of the channel f (z) =f1 (z) +f2 (z) . For a given f (z) , the free input parameters of are the height ratio H /h0 of ambient to lock and the stratification parameter S = (ρb -ρo) / (ρc -ρo) . The equations of motion are a hyperbolic PDE system. The initial motion displays a ``slumping'' stage with constant speed, calculated analytically. An analytical solution for the long-time self-similar propagation is also available for special cases. The model is a significant generalization of the rectangular-channel analysis.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Richard F. Reschen
2012-03-01
Dgp71WD/Nedd1 proteins are essential for mitotic spindle formation. In human cells, Nedd1 targets γ-tubulin to both centrosomes and spindles, but in other organisms the function of Dgp71WD/Nedd1 is less clear. In Drosophila cells, Dgp71WD plays a major part in targeting γ-tubulin to spindles, but not centrosomes, while in Xenopus egg extracts, Nedd1 acts as a more general microtubule (MT organiser that can function independently of γ-tubulin. The interpretation of these studies, however, is complicated by the fact that some residual Dgp71WD/Nedd1 is likely present in the cells/extracts analysed. Here we generate a Dgp71WD null mutant lacking all but the last 12 nucleotides of coding sequence. The complete loss of Dgp71WD has no quantifiable effect on γ-tubulin or Centrosomin recruitment to the centrosome in larval brain cells. The recruitment of γ-tubulin to spindle MTs, however, is severely impaired, and spindle MT density is reduced in a manner that is indistinguishable from cells lacking Augmin or γ-TuRC function. In contrast, the absence of Dgp71WD leads to defects in the assembly of the acentrosomal female Meiosis I spindle that are more severe than those seen in Augmin or γ-TuRC mutants, indicating that Dgp71WD has additional functions that are independent of these complexes in oocytes. Moreover, the localisation of bicoid RNA during oogenesis, which requires γ-TuRC function, is unperturbed in Dgp71WD120 mutants. Thus, Dgp71WD is not simply a general cofactor required for γ-TuRC and/or Augmin targeting, and it appears to have a crucial role independent of these complexes in the acentrosomal Meiosis I spindle.
Solganik, S
2005-01-01
The thesis is devoted to a number of fundamental issues at the intersection of particle physics and cosmology. In particular, we invent one of the first models of the brane inflationary scenario in string theory, the so- called D-brane inflation. In this picture, the role of the inflation field is played by the brane-anti-brane separation. Branes are slowly attracted toward each other. During this slow motion, the potential energy of their tension causes the four-dimensional space to inflate. Inflation ends by the brane collision and annihilation, which reheats the Universe. Thus, in our picture inflation acquires a novel geometric meaning as seen from high-dimensional string theory. Another subject investigated in the thesis is the large distance modification of gravity, which is motivated by the observed mysterious accelerated expansion of the Universe. We study different aspects of the two possible approaches leading to modified gravity. One is Dvali- Gabadadze-Porrati (DGP) model, in which gravity gets mo...
Gessner, Klaus; Gallardo, Luis; Wedin, Francis; Sener, Kerim
2014-05-01
The Menderes Massif in western Turkey formed by the stacking of tectonic units during Cretaceous-Eocene shortening that were modified by late Oligocene to recent crustal extension, accompanied by significant crustal melting. The interaction of regional deformation with crustal melting and the emplacement of plutons and volcanic complexes during both contraction and extension across structures related to the Tethyan suture has resulted in epithermal and porphyry type gold mineralization that has taken place mainly in the northern and western parts of the Menderes Massif, and in ongoing structurally controlled hydrothermal activity across its entire extent. The northern Menderes Massif contains granitic intrusions, ophiolitic klippen, volcanics, metamorphic basement and Cenozoic sediments. Some of the plutons, such as the Egrigöz granite, have intruded into the footwall of an extensional shear zone, defining at least part of the granite-intruded basement as a Miocene metamorphic core complex with ophiolitic rocks of the Vardar-Izmir-Ankara zone in the hanging wall plate. Here we present results of cross-gradient joint inversions of gravity and magnetic data in the northern Menderes Massif along a series of cross-sections oriented N-S, E-W and ESE-WNW. The inversions were carried out to better define the subsurface geology and aid targeting hydrothermal mineralization. The results suggest that metamorphic rocks with low magnetization underlie wide areas in the centre and east of the study area. Dense rocks with low to intermediate magnetization often correlate with oceanic affinity rocks that extend to great depth in the west and southeast of the study area, but occur as thin sheets in the centre. Regions of low to intermediate magnetization and low density are mostly encountered with the upper 5 km of the crust and are often spatially associated with felsic volcanic complexes and sedimentary rocks. High magnetization and low density are generally associated with
Crossing the c=1 barrier in 2D Lorentzian quantum gravity
Ambjørn, J.; Anagnostopoulos, K.; Loll, R.
2000-02-01
In an extension of earlier work we investigate the behavior of two-dimensional (2D) Lorentzian quantum gravity under coupling to a conformal field theory with c>1. This is done by analyzing numerically a system of eight Ising models (corresponding to c=4) coupled to dynamically triangulated Lorentzian geometries. It is known that a single Ising model couples weakly to Lorentzian quantum gravity, in the sense that the Hausdorff dimension of the ensemble of two-geometries is two (as in pure Lorentzian quantum gravity) and the matter behavior is governed by the Onsager exponents. By increasing the amount of matter to eight Ising models, we find that the geometry of the combined system has undergone a phase transition. The new phase is characterized by an anomalous scaling of spatial length relative to proper time at large distances, and as a consequence the Hausdorff dimension is now three. In spite of this qualitative change in the geometric sector, and a very strong interaction between matter and geometry, the critical exponents of the Ising model retain their Onsager values. This provides evidence for the conjecture that the KPZ values of the critical exponents in 2D Euclidean quantum gravity are entirely due to the presence of baby universes. Lastly, we summarize the lessons learned so far from 2D Lorentzian quantum gravity.
L'Huillier, Benjamin; Winther, Hans A.; Mota, David F.; Park, Changbom; Kim, Juhan
2017-07-01
We study the properties of dark matter haloes in a wide range of modified gravity models, namely, f(R), DGP and interacting dark energy models. We study the effects of modified gravity and dark energy on the internal properties of haloes, such as the spin and the structural parameters. We find that f(R) gravity enhances the median value of the Bullock spin parameter, but could not detect such effects for DGP and coupled dark energy. f(R) also yields a lower median sphericity and oblateness, while coupled dark energy has the opposite effect. However, these effects are very small. We then study the interaction rate of haloes in different gravity and find that only strongly coupled dark energy models enhance the interaction rate. We then quantify the enhancement of the alignment of the spins of interacting halo pairs by modified gravity. Finally, we study the alignment of the major axes of haloes with the large-scale structures. The alignment of the spins of interacting pairs of haloes in DGP and coupled dark energy models show no discrepancy with GR, while f(R) shows a weaker alignment. Strongly coupled dark energy shows a stronger alignment of the halo shape with the large-scale structures.
Crossing the c=1 barrier in 2d Lorentzian quantum gravity
Ambjørn, J.; Anagnostopoulos, K.N.; Loll, R.
1999-01-01
In an extension of earlier work we investigate the behaviour of two-dimensional Lorentzian quantum gravity under coupling to a conformal field theory with c > 1. This is done by analyzing numerically a system of eight Ising models (corresponding to c=4) coupled to dynamically triangulated
Acceleration from Modified Gravity: Lessons from Worked Examples
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Hu, Wayne [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)
2009-10-15
I examine how two specific examples of modified gravity explanations of cosmic acceleration help us understand some general problems confronting cosmological tests of gravity: how do we distinguish modified gravity from dark energy if they can be made formally equivalent? how do we parameterize deviations according to physical principles with sufficient generality, yet focus cosmological tests into areas that complement our existing knowledge of gravity? how do we treat the dynamics of modifications which necessarily involve non-linearities that preclude superposition of forces? The modified action f(R) and DGP braneworld models provide insight on these question as fully-worked examples whose expansion history, linear perturbation theory, and most recently, non-linear N-body and force-modification field dynamics of cosmological simulations are available for study.
Longo, S.; Ungarish, M.; Di Federico, V.; Chiapponi, L.; Addona, F.
2016-04-01
We investigate high-Reynolds number gravity currents (GC) in a horizontal channel of circular cross-section. We focus on GC sustained by constant or time varying inflow (volume of injected fluid ∝ tα, with α = 1 and α > 1). The novelty of our work is in the type of the gravity currents: produced by influx/outflux boundary conditions, and propagation in circular (or semi-circular) channel. The objective is to elucidate the main propagation features and correlate them to the governing dimensionless parameters; to this end, we use experimental observations guided by shallow-water (SW) theoretical models. The system is of Boussinesq type with the denser fluid (salt water) injected into the ambient fluid (tap water) at one end section of a circular tube of 19 cm diameter and 605 cm long. The ambient fluid fills the channel of radius r* up to a given height H* = βr* (0 channel. The two different configurations (with return and no-return flow) allow to analyze the impact of the motion of the ambient fluid on the front speed of the intruding current. For Q larger than some threshold value, the current is expected theoretically to undergo a choking process which limits the speed/thickness of propagation. Two series of experiments were conducted with constant and time varying inflow. The choking effect was observed, qualitatively, in both series. The theory correctly predicts the qualitative behavior, but systematically overestimates the front speed of the current (consistent with previously-published data concerning rectangular and non-rectangular cross-sections), with larger discrepancies for the no-return flow case. These discrepancies are mainly due to: (i) the variations of the free-surface of the ambient fluid with respect to its nominal value (the theoretical model assumes a fixed free-slip top of the ambient fluid), and (ii) mixing/entrainment effects, as shown by specific measurements of the open interface level and velocity profiles.
Kalpana, Duraisamy; Im, Chanki; Lee, Yang Soo
2016-01-01
Streptococcus pyogenes is commonly found on pharynx, mouth and rarely on skin, lower gastrointestinal tract. It is a potential pathogen causing tonsillitis, pneumonia, endocarditis. The present study was undertaken to study the effects of low shear modeled microgravity on growth, morphology, antibiotic resistance, cross-stress resistance to various stresses and alteration in gene expression of S. pyogenes. The growth analysis performed using UV-Visible spectroscopy indicated decrease in growth of S. pyogenes under low shear modeled microgravity. Morphological analysis by Bio-transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Bio-scanning electron microscopy (SEM) did not reveal much difference between normal and low shear modeled microgravity grown S. pyogenes. The sensitivity of S. pyogenes to antibiotics ampicillin, penicillin, streptomycin, kanamycin, hygromycin, rifampicin indicates that the bacterium is resistant to hygromycin. Further S. pyogenes cultured under low shear modeled microgravity was found to be more sensitive to ampicillin and rifampicin as compared with normal gravity grown S. pyogenes. The bacteria were tested for the acid, osmotic, temperature and oxidative cross stress resistances. The gene expression of S. pyogenes under low shear modeled microgravity analyzed by microarray revealed upregulation of 26 genes and down regulation of 22 genes by a fold change of 1.5.
Induced higher-derivative massive gravity on a 2-brane in 4D Minkowski space
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Bazeia
2015-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper we revisit the problem of localizing gravity in a 2-brane embedded in a 4D Minkowski space to address induction of high derivative massive gravity. We explore the structure of propagators to find well-behaved higher-derivative massive gravity induced on the brane. Exploring a special case in the generalized mass term of the graviton propagator we find a model of consistent higher order gravity with an additional unitary massive spin-2 particle and two massless particles: one spin-0 particle and one spin-1 particle. The condition for the absence of tachyons is satisfied for both ‘right’ and ‘wrong’ signs of the Einstein–Hilbert term on the 2-brane. We also find the Pauli–Fierz mass term added to the new massive gravity in three dimensions and recover the low-dimensional DGP model.
Kassemi, Mohammad; Kartuzova, Olga; Hylton, Sonya
2018-01-01
This paper examines our computational ability to capture the transport and phase change phenomena that govern cryogenic storage tank pressurization and underscores our strengths and weaknesses in this area in terms of three computational-experimental validation case studies. In the first study, 1g pressurization of a simulant low-boiling point fluid in a small scale transparent tank is considered in the context of the Zero-Boil-Off Tank (ZBOT) Experiment to showcase the relatively strong capability that we have developed in modelling the coupling between the convective transport and stratification in the bulk phases with the interfacial evaporative and condensing heat and mass transfer that ultimately control self-pressurization in the storage tank. Here, we show that computational predictions exhibit excellent temporal and spatial fidelity under the moderate Ra number - high Bo number convective-phase distribution regimes. In the second example, we focus on 1g pressurization and pressure control of the large-scale K-site liquid hydrogen tank experiment where we show that by crossing fluid types and physical scales, we enter into high Bo number - high Ra number flow regimes that challenge our ability to predict turbulent heat and mass transfer and their impact on the tank pressurization correctly, especially, in the vapor domain. In the final example, we examine pressurization results from the small scale simulant fluid Tank Pressure Control Experiment (TCPE) performed in microgravity to underscore the fact that in crossing into a low Ra number - low Bo number regime in microgravity, the temporal evolution of the phase front as affected by the time-dependent residual gravity and impulse accelerations becomes an important consideration. In this case detailed acceleration data are needed to predict the correct rate of tank self-pressurization.
Lue, Arthur; Starkman, G D
2004-01-01
The nature of the fuel that drives today's cosmic acceleration is an open and tantalizing mystery. The brane-world theory of Dvali, Gabadadze, and Porrati (DGP) provides a context where late-time acceleration is driven not by some energy-momentum component (dark energy), but rather is the manifestation of the excruciatingly slow leakage of gravity off our four-dimensional world into an extra dimension. At the same time, DGP gravity alters the gravitational force law in a specific and dramatic way at cosmologically accessible scales. We derive the DGP gravitational force law in a cosmological setting for spherical perturbations at subhorizon scales and compute the growth of large-scale structures. We find that a residual repulsive force at large distances gives rise to a suppression of the growth of density and velocity perturbations. Explaining the cosmic acceleration in this framework leads to a present day fluctuation power spectrum normalization sigma8<=0.8 at about the two-sigma level, in contrast with...
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Voshaar, T.H. [Krankenhaus Bethanien, Moers (Germany). Zentrum fuer Schlafmedizin und Heimbeatmung; Heyder, J. [GSF Inst. fuer Inhalationsbiologie, Neuherberg/Muenchen (Germany); Koehler, D. [Fachkrankenhaus Kloster Grafschaft, Schmallenberg (Germany); Krug, N. [Fraunhofer-Inst. Toxikologie und Experimentelle Medizin, Hannover (Germany); Nowak, D. [Inst. und Poliklinik fuer Arbeits- und Umweltmedizin, Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ., Muenchen (Germany); Scheuch, G. [Inamed GmbH, Muenchen-Gauting und Gemuenden/Wohra (Germany); Schulz, H. [GSF Inst. fuer Inhalationsbiologie, Neuherberg/Muenchen (Germany); Witt, C. [Charite-Universitaetsklinik, Schwerpunkt Pneumologie, Berlin (Germany)
2005-07-01
The statement of the German Society of Pneumology (DGP) on the discussion about fine particulate air pollution reviews recent research on the matter: effects of particulates depending on particle size, abundance indoor and outdoor, tobacco smoke, diesel soot particles, health hazards especially for children, epidemiology, toxicological studies, aerosols. (uke)
Cascading Gravity Extending the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati Model to Higher Dimension
de Rham, Claudia; Hofmann, Stefan; Khoury, Justin; Pujolas, Oriol; Redi, Michele; Tolley, Andrew J
2008-01-01
We present a higher codimension generalization of the DGP scenario which, unlike previous attempts, is free of ghost instabilities. The 4D propagator is made regular by embedding our visible 3-brane within a 4-brane, each with their own induced gravity terms, in a flat 6D bulk. The model is ghost-free if the tension on the 3-brane is larger than a certain critical value, while the induced metric remains flat. The gravitational force law `cascades' from a 6D behavior at the largest distances followed by a 5D and finally a 4D regime at the shortest scales.
Holographic renormalization group and cosmology in theories with quasilocalized gravity
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Csaki, Csaba; Erlich, Joshua; Hollowood, Timothy J.; Terning, John
2001-03-15
We study the long distance behavior of brane theories with quasilocalized gravity. The five-dimensional (5D) effective theory at large scales follows from a holographic renormalization group flow. As intuitively expected, the graviton is effectively four dimensional at intermediate scales and becomes five dimensional at large scales. However, in the holographic effective theory the essentially 4D radion dominates at long distances and gives rise to scalar antigravity. The holographic description shows that at large distances the Gregory-Rubakov-Sibiryakov (GRS) model is equivalent to the model recently proposed by Dvali, Gabadadze, and Porrati (DGP), where a tensionless brane is embedded into 5D Minkowski space, with an additional induced 4D Einstein-Hilbert term on the brane. In the holographic description the radion of the GRS model is automatically localized on the tensionless brane, and provides the ghostlike field necessary to cancel the extra graviton polarization of the DGP model. Thus, there is a holographic duality between these theories. This analysis provides physical insight into how the GRS model works at intermediate scales; in particular it sheds light on the size of the width of the graviton resonance, and also demonstrates how the holographic renormalization group can be used as a practical tool for calculations.
Ernest, Alllan David; Collins, Matthew P.
2015-08-01
Analysis of astrophysical phenomena relies on knowledge of cross sections. These cross sections are measured in scattering experiments, or calculated using theoretical techniques such as partial wave analysis. It has been recently shown [1,2,3] however that photon scattering cross sections depend also on the degree of localization of the target particle, and that particles in large-scale, deep-gravity wells can exhibit lower cross sections than those measured in lab-based experiments where particles are implicitly localized. This purely quantum effect arises as a consequence of differences in the gravitational eigenspectral distribution of a particle’s wavefunction in different situations, and is in addition to the obvious notion that delocalized particle scattering is less likely simply because the target particles are ‘in a bigger box’.In this presentation we consider the quantum equilibrium statistics of particles in gravitational potentials corresponding to dark matter density profiles. We show that as galactic halos approach equilibrium, the dark eigenstates of the eigenspectral ensemble are favoured and baryons exhibit lower photon scattering cross sections, rendering halos less visible than expected from currently accepted cross sections. Traditional quantum theory thus predicts that baryons that have not coalesced into self-bound macroscopic structures such as stars, can essentially behave as dark matter simply by equilibrating within a deep gravity well. We will discuss this effect and the consequences for microwave anisotropy analysis and primordial nucleosynthesis.[1] Ernest, A. D., and Collins, M. P., 2014, Australian Institute of Physics, AIP Congress, Canberra, December, 2014.[2] Ernest, A. D., 2009, J. Phys. A: Math. Theor., 42, 115207, 115208.[3] Ernest, A. D., 2012, In Prof. Ion Cotaescu (Ed) Advances in Quantum Theory (pp 221-248). Rijeka: InTech. ISBN 978-953-51-0087-4
Multibrane DGP model: Our universe as a stack of (2+1)-dimensional branes
Dai, De-Chang; Stojkovic, Dejan; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Cheng-Yong
2014-09-01
We consider a scenario in which our (3+1)-dim universe is actually a dense stack of multiple parallel (2+1)-dim branes. For this purpose, we generalize the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati model to a multibrane case. We solve for the propagation of the scalar field and gravity in this setup. At short distances (high momenta) along the branes interactions follow the (2+1)-dim laws, while at large distances (low momenta) interactions follow the usual (3+1)-dim laws. This feature is inherited from the original Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati model. In the direction perpendicular to the brane, we show that interactions become (3+1)-dim at low momenta which are unable to resolve the interbrane separation. Thus, this is one of the explicit constructs of the "vanishing dimensions" scenario where high energy physics appears to be lower dimensional rather than higher dimensional.
The integrated bispectrum in modified gravity theories
Munshi, Dipak
2017-01-01
Gravity-induced non-Gaussianity can provide important clues to Modified Gravity (MG) Theories. Several recent studies have suggested using the Integrated Bispectrum (IB) as a probe for squeezed configuration of bispectrum. Extending previous studies on the IB, we include redshift-space distortions to study a class of (parametrised) MG theories that include the string-inspired Dvali, Gabadadze & Porrati (DGP) model. Various contributions from redshift-space distortions are derived in a transparent manner, and squeezed contributions from these terms are derived separately. Results are obtained using the Zel'dovich Approximation (ZA). Results are also presented for projected surveys (2D). We use the Press-Schechter (PS) and Sheth-Tormen (ST) mass functions to compute the IB for collapsed objects that can readily be extended to peak-theory based approaches. The cumulant correlators (CCs) generalise the ordinary cumulants and are known to probe collapsed configurations of higher order correlation functions. We generalise the concept of CCs to halos of different masses. We also introduce a generating function based approach to analyse more general non-local biasing models. The Fourier representations of the CCs, the skew-spectrum, or the kurt-spctra are discussed in this context. The results are relevant for the study of the Minkowski Functionals (MF) of collapsed tracers in redshift-space.
Pueyo, E. L.; Izquierdo-Llavall, E.; Ayala, C.; Oliva-Urcia, B.; Rubio, F. M.; Rodríguez-Pintó, A.; Casas, A. M.; García Crespo, J.
2015-12-01
The lack of subsurface information in the Linking Zone (between the Iberian and the Catalan Coastal Ranges) where no seismic sections and few boreholes are available, together with the need to perform an evaluation of a potential CO2 reservoir, have motivated us to carry out a combined structural and geophysical study. The reservoir is located in the Bunt/Muschelkalk facies (Triassic in age) just underneath the Keuper evaporites (regional detachment). The expected density contrast between cover/basement/detachment rocks represent a suitable setting to apply gravity modeling. Therefore, we designed the location of eight serial and radial cross sections over 1.50000 available geological maps, we also include bedding data (field work) and thickness and depth information from wells and previous stratigraphic profiles. Besides, gravity data were acquired along the sections to build up 2.5D models and thus, to constrain the geometry of the basement and the thickness of the sedimentary cover. Density values used in the modelling come from a database with 1470 sites (compiled and acquired). Initially we build the balanced sections using the available geological information and applying standard geometric techniques. Regional knowledge and previous sections were also taken into account. Then, we took these sections into Oasis Montaj to fit the real and expected gravimetric signal. In this work we present the comparison of the location of certain horizons before and after that feedback. In some cases, mislocation of some horizons may reach up to 0.4 km, which represents up to 50% of the expected depth. After fitting the gravity data with balanced cross-sections we carried out a stochastic inversion that allowed reducing the uncertainty to a maximum of 0.15 km, i. e. c. 20% . Further error analysis may be focused on the double-checking with seismic section information from the industry, if and when available. Attached figure displays an example of one of the performed
Mitra, Saugata; Chakraborty, Subenoy
2016-01-01
The present work deals with a detailed study of universal thermodynamics in different modified gravity theories. The validity of the generalized second law of thermodynamics (GSLT) and thermodynamical equilibrium (TE) of the Universe bounded by a horizon (apparent/event) in f(R)-gravity, Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity, RS-II brane scenario and DGP brane model has been investigated. In the perspective of recent observational evidences, the matter in the Universe is chosen as interacting holographic dark energy model. The entropy on the horizons are evaluated from the validity of the unified first law and as a result there is a correction (in integral form) to the usual Bekenstein entropy. The other thermodynamical parameter namely temperature on the horizon is chosen as the recently introduced corrected Hawking temperature. The above thermodynamical analysis is done for homogeneous and isotropic flat FLRW model of the Universe. The restrictions for the validity of GSLT and the TE are presented in tabular form f...
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Healey, D.L. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (USA)
1983-12-31
A large density contrast exists between the Paleozoic rocks (including the rocks of Climax stock) and less dense, Tertiary volcanic rocks and alluvium. This density contrast ranges widely, and herein for interpretive purposes, is assumed to average 0.85 Mg/m{sup 3} (megagrams per cubic meter). The large density contrast makes the gravity method a useful tool with which to study the interface between these rock types. However, little or no density contrast is discernible between the sedimentary Paleozoic rocks that surround the Climax stock and the intrusive rocks of the stock itself. Therefore the gravity method can not be used to define the configuration of the stock. Gravity highs coincide with outcrops of the dense Paleozoic rocks, and gravity lows overlie less-dense Tertiary volcanic rocks and Quaternary alluvium. The positions of three major faults (Boundary, Yucca, and Butte faults) are defined by steep gravity gradients. West of the Climax stock, the Tippinip fault has juxtaposed Paleozoic rocks of similar density, and consequently, has no expression in the gravity data in that area. The gravity station spacing, across Oak Spring Butte, is not sufficient to adequately define any gravity expression of the Tippinip fault. 18 refs., 5 figs.
Schmidt, Fabian
2013-08-01
These lectures provide a brief introduction into modified gravity theories, i.e. theories that deviate from General Relativity. We focus on theories that satisfy the Einstein Equivalence Principle, which are characterized by a single metric governing the motions of bodies and dynamics of fields. Further, we emphasize models that have received interest in the cosmological context, and which modify gravity on large scales.
Mashhoon, Bahram
2017-05-01
Relativity theory is based on a postulate of locality, which means that the past history of the observer is not directly taken into account. This book argues that the past history should be taken into account. In this way, nonlocality 1R 2i1nr-in the sense of history dependence-is introduced into relativity theory. The deep connection between inertia and gravitation suggests that gravity could be nonlocal, and in nonlocal gravity the fading gravitational memory of past events must then be taken into account. Along this line of thought, a classical nonlocal generalization of Einstein's theory of gravitation has recently been developed. A significant consequence of this theory is that the nonlocal aspect of gravity appears to simulate dark matter. According to nonlocal gravity theory, what astronomers attribute to dark matter should instead be due to the nonlocality of gravitation. Nonlocality dominates on the scale of galaxies and beyond. Memory fades with time; therefore, the nonlocal aspect of gravity becomes weaker as the universe expands. The implications of nonlocal gravity are explored in this book for gravitational lensing, gravitational radiation, the gravitational physics of the Solar System and the internal dynamics of nearby galaxies, as well as clusters of galaxies. This approach is extended to nonlocal Newtonian cosmology, where the attraction of gravity fades with the expansion of the universe. Thus far, scientists have only compared some of the consequences of nonlocal gravity with astronomical observations.
Mashhoon, Bahram
2017-01-01
Relativity theory is based on a postulate of locality, which means that the past history of the observer is not directly taken into account. This book argues that the past history should be taken into account. In this way, nonlocality---in the sense of history dependence---is introduced into relativity theory. The deep connection between inertia and gravitation suggests that gravity could be nonlocal, and in nonlocal gravity the fading gravitational memory of past events must then be taken into account. Along this line of thought, a classical nonlocal generalization of Einstein's theory of gravitation has recently been developed. A significant consequence of this theory is that the nonlocal aspect of gravity appears to simulate dark matter. According to nonlocal gravity theory, what astronomers attribute to dark matter should instead be due to the nonlocality of gravitation. Nonlocality dominates on the scale of galaxies and beyond. Memory fades with time; therefore, the nonlocal aspect of gravity becomes wea...
Kalpana, Duraisamy; Im, Chanki; Lee, Yang Soo
2016-01-01
Streptococcus pyogenes is commonly found on pharynx, mouth and rarely on skin, lower gastrointestinal tract. It is a potential pathogen causing tonsillitis, pneumonia, endocarditis. The present study was undertaken to study the effects of low shear modeled microgravity on growth, morphology, antibiotic resistance, cross-stress resistance to various stresses and alteration in gene expression of S. pyogenes. The growth analysis performed using UV–Visible spectroscopy indicated decrease in growt...
Clément, Gilles
2007-01-01
Protecting the health, safety, and performance of exploration-class mission crews against the physiological deconditioning resulting from long-term weightlessness during transit and long-term reduced gravity during surface operations will require effective, multi-system countermeasures. Artificial gravity, which would replace terrestrial gravity with inertial forces generated by rotating the transit vehicle or by short-radius human centrifuge devices within the transit vehicle or surface habitat, has long been considered a potential solution. However, despite its attractiveness as an efficient
Astronomical Constraints on Some Long-Range Models of Modified Gravity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lorenzo Iorio
2007-01-01
Full Text Available We use the corrections to the Newton-Einstein secular precessions of the longitudes of the perihelia of the inner planets, phenomenologically estimated E.V. Pitjeva by fitting almost one century of data with the EPM2004 ephemerides, to constrain some long-range models of modified gravity recently put forth to address the dark energy and dark matter problems. They are the four-dimensional ones obtained with the addition of inverse powers and logarithm of some curvature invariants, and the DGP multidimensional braneworld model. After working out the analytical expressions of the secular perihelion precessions induced by the corrections to the Newtonian potential of such models, we compare them to the estimated extra-rates of perihelia by taking their ratio for different pairs of planets instead of using one perihelion at a time for each planet separately, as done so far in literature. The curvature invariants-based models are ruled out, even by rescaling by a factor 10 the errors in the estimated planetary orbital parameters. Less neat is the situation for the DGP model. Only the general relativistic Lense-Thirring effect, not included, as the other exotic models considered here, by Pitjeva in the EPM force models, passes such a test.
Lujan, Richard E.
2001-01-01
A mechanical gravity brake that prevents hoisted loads within a shaft from free-falling when a loss of hoisting force occurs. A loss of hoist lifting force may occur in a number of situations, for example if a hoist cable were to break, the brakes were to fail on a winch, or the hoist mechanism itself were to fail. Under normal hoisting conditions, the gravity brake of the invention is subject to an upward lifting force from the hoist and a downward pulling force from a suspended load. If the lifting force should suddenly cease, the loss of differential forces on the gravity brake in free-fall is translated to extend a set of brakes against the walls of the shaft to stop the free fall descent of the gravity brake and attached load.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Barceló Carlos
2005-12-01
Full Text Available Analogue models of (and for gravity have a long and distinguished history dating back to the earliest years of general relativity. In this review article we will discuss the history, aims, results, and future prospects for the various analogue models. We start the discussion by presenting a particularly simple example of an analogue model, before exploring the rich history and complex tapestry of models discussed in the literature. The last decade in particular has seen a remarkable and sustained development of analogue gravity ideas, leading to some hundreds of published articles, a workshop, two books, and this review article. Future prospects for the analogue gravity programme also look promising, both on the experimental front (where technology is rapidly advancing and on the theoretical front (where variants of analogue models can be used as a springboard for radical attacks on the problem of quantum gravity.
Hooft, G. 't
2000-01-01
Gravitons should have momentum just as photons do; and since graviton momentum would cause compression rather than elongation of spacetime outside of matter; it does not appear that gravitons are compatible with Swartzchild's spacetime curvature. Also, since energy is proportional to mass, and mass is proportional to gravity; the energy of matter is proportional to gravity. The energy of matter could thus contract space within matter; and because of the inter-connectedness of space, cause the...
NNLO QCD corrections to the Drell-Yan cross section in models of TeV-scale gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ahmed, Taushif; Banerjee, Pulak; Dhani, Prasanna K.; Rana, Narayan [The Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai (India); Kumar, M.C. [Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Department of Physics, Guwahati (India); Mathews, Prakash [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India); Ravindran, V. [The Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (India)
2017-01-15
The first results on the complete next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) Quantum Chromodynamic (QCD) corrections to the production of di-leptons at hadron colliders in large extra dimension models with spin-2 particles are reported in this article. In particular, we have computed these corrections to the invariant mass distribution of the di-leptons taking into account all the partonic sub-processes that contribute at NNLO. In these models, spin-2 particles couple through the energy-momentum tensor of the Standard Model with the universal coupling strength. The tensorial nature of the interaction and the presence of both quark annihilation and gluon fusion channels at the Born level make it challenging computationally and interesting phenomenologically. We have demonstrated numerically the importance of our results at Large Hadron Collider energies. The two-loop corrections contribute an additional 10% to the total cross section. We find that the QCD corrections are not only large but also important to make the predictions stable under renormalisation and factorisation scale variations, providing an opportunity to stringently constrain the parameters of the models with a spin-2 particle. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlos Barceló
2011-05-01
Full Text Available Analogue gravity is a research programme which investigates analogues of general relativistic gravitational fields within other physical systems, typically but not exclusively condensed matter systems, with the aim of gaining new insights into their corresponding problems. Analogue models of (and for gravity have a long and distinguished history dating back to the earliest years of general relativity. In this review article we will discuss the history, aims, results, and future prospects for the various analogue models. We start the discussion by presenting a particularly simple example of an analogue model, before exploring the rich history and complex tapestry of models discussed in the literature. The last decade in particular has seen a remarkable and sustained development of analogue gravity ideas, leading to some hundreds of published articles, a workshop, two books, and this review article. Future prospects for the analogue gravity programme also look promising, both on the experimental front (where technology is rapidly advancing and on the theoretical front (where variants of analogue models can be used as a springboard for radical attacks on the problem of quantum gravity.
Kiefer, Claus
2012-01-01
The search for a quantum theory of the gravitational field is one of the great open problems in theoretical physics. This book presents a self-contained discussion of the concepts, methods and applications that can be expected in such a theory. The two main approaches to its construction - the direct quantisation of Einstein's general theory of relativity and string theory - are covered. Whereas the first attempts to construct a viable theory for the gravitational field alone, string theory assumes that a quantum theory of gravity will be achieved only through a unification of all the interactions. However, both employ the general method of quantization of constrained systems, which is described together with illustrative examples relevant for quantum gravity. There is a detailed presentation of the main approaches employed in quantum general relativity: path-integral quantization, the background-field method and canonical quantum gravity in the metric, connection and loop formulations. The discussion of stri...
Pedrera, A.; García-Senz, J.; Ayala, C.; Ruiz-Constán, A.; Rodríguez-Fernández, L. R.; Robador, A.; González Menéndez, L.
2017-12-01
Recent models support the view that the Pyrenees were formed after the inversion of a previously highly extended continental crust that included exhumed upper mantle rocks. Mantle rocks remain near to the surface after compression and mountain building, covered by the latest Cretaceous to Paleogene sequences. 3-D lithospheric-scale gravity inversion demands the presence of a high-density mantle body placed within the crust in order to justify the observed anomalies. Exhumed mantle, having 50 km of maximum width, continuously extends beneath the Basque-Cantabrian Basin and along the northern side of the Pyrenees. The association of this body with rift, postrift, and inversion structural geometries is tested in a balanced cross section across the Basque-Cantabrian Basin that incorporates a major south-dipping ramp-flat-ramp extensional detachment active between Valanginian and early Cenomanian times. Results indicate that horizontal extension progressed 48 km at variable strain rates that increased from 1 to 4 mm/yr in middle Albian times. Low-strength Triassic Keuper evaporites and mudstones above the basement favor the decoupling of the cover with formation of minibasins, expulsion rollovers, and diapirs. The inversion of the extensional system is accommodated by doubly verging basement thrusts due to the reactivation of the former basin bounding faults in Eocene-Oligocene times. Total shortening is estimated in 34 km and produced the partial subduction of the continental lithosphere beneath the two sides of the exhumed mantle. Obtained results help to pinpoint the original architecture of the North Iberian Margin and the evolution of the hyperextended aborted intracontinental basins.
Pipinos, Savas
2010-01-01
This article describes one classroom activity in which the author simulates the Newtonian gravity, and employs the Euclidean Geometry with the use of new technologies (NT). The prerequisites for this activity were some knowledge of the formulae for a particle free fall in Physics and most certainly, a good understanding of the notion of similarity…
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Shiraz Minwalla
Scattering amplitudes are fundamental observables in quatnum field theories, and are of great interest to high energy phenomenologists, because they are directly measurable in particle accelerators. N = 4 Yang Mills is a theory of massless gluons. Natural question: can one use gravity to compute the S matrix of.
Mankhemthong, N.; Doser, D. I.; Baker, M. R.; Kaip, G.; Jones, S.; Eslick, B. E.; Budhathoki, P.
2011-12-01
Quaternary glacial covers and lack of dense geophysical data on the Kenai Peninsula cause a location and geometry of the Border Ranges fault system (BRFS) within a recent forearc-accretionary boundary of Aleutian subduction zone in southern Alaska are unclear. Using new ~1,300 gravity collections within the Anchorage and Kenai Peninsula regions complied with prior 1997 gravity and aeromagnetic data help us better imaging these fault and the subduction structures. Cook Inlet forearc basin is corresponded by deep gravity anomaly lows; basin boundaries are characterized by a strong gravity gradient, where are considered to be traces of Border Ranges fault system on the east and Castle Mountain and Bruin Bay fault system on the west and northwest of the forearc basin respectively. Gravity anomaly highs over accreted rocks generally increase southeastward to the Aleutian trench, but show a gravity depression over the Kenai Mountains region. The lineament between gravity high and low in the same terrenes over the Kenai Peninsula is may be another evidence to determine the Southern Edge of the Yakutat Microplate (SEY) as inferred by Eberhart-Phillips et al. (2006). Our 2.5-D models illustrate the main fault of the BRFS dips steeply toward the west with a downslip displacement. Gravity and Magnetic anomaly highs, on the east of the BRFS, probably present a slice of the ultramafic complex emplaced by faults along the boundary of the forearc basin and accretionary wedge terranes. Another magnetic high beneath the basin in the southern forearc basin support a serpentiznied body inferred by Saltus et al. (2001), with a decreasing size toward the north. Regional density-gravity models show the Pacific subducting slab beneath the foreacre-arc teranes with a gentle and flatted dip where the subducting plate is located in north of SEY and dips more steeply where it is located on the south of SEY. The gravity depression over the accreted terrene can be explained by a density low
Meador, Lydia R; Kessans, Sarah A; Kilbourne, Jacquelyn; Kibler, Karen V; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Roderiguez, Mariano Esteban; Blattman, Joseph N; Jacobs, Bertram L; Mor, Tsafrir S
2017-07-01
Showing modest efficacy, the RV144 HIV-1 vaccine clinical trial utilized a non-replicating canarypox viral vector and a soluble gp120 protein boost. Here we built upon the RV144 strategy by developing a novel combination of a replicating, but highly-attenuated Vaccinia virus vector, NYVAC-KC, and plant-produced HIV-1 virus-like particles (VLPs). Both components contained the full-length Gag and a membrane anchored truncated gp41 presenting the membrane proximal external region with its conserved broadly neutralizing epitopes in the pre-fusion conformation. We tested different prime/boost combinations of these components in mice and showed that the group primed with NYVAC-KC and boosted with both the viral vectors and plant-produced VLPs have the most robust Gag-specific CD8 T cell responses, at 12.7% of CD8 T cells expressing IFN-γ in response to stimulation with five Gag epitopes. The same immunization group elicited the best systemic and mucosal antibody responses to Gag and dgp41 with a bias towards IgG1. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NGS Absolute Gravity data (78 stations) was received in July 1993. Principal gravity parameters include Gravity Value, Uncertainty, and Vertical Gradient. The...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data base (14,559 records) was received in January 1986. Principal gravity parameters include elevation and observed gravity. The observed gravity values are...
Quantum Gravity Mathematical Models and Experimental Bounds
Fauser, Bertfried; Zeidler, Eberhard
2007-01-01
The construction of a quantum theory of gravity is the most fundamental challenge confronting contemporary theoretical physics. The different physical ideas which evolved while developing a theory of quantum gravity require highly advanced mathematical methods. This book presents different mathematical approaches to formulate a theory of quantum gravity. It represents a carefully selected cross-section of lively discussions about the issue of quantum gravity which took place at the second workshop "Mathematical and Physical Aspects of Quantum Gravity" in Blaubeuren, Germany. This collection covers in a unique way aspects of various competing approaches. A unique feature of the book is the presentation of different approaches to quantum gravity making comparison feasible. This feature is supported by an extensive index. The book is mainly addressed to mathematicians and physicists who are interested in questions related to mathematical physics. It allows the reader to obtain a broad and up-to-date overview on ...
Lombard, John
2017-01-01
We introduce the construction of a new framework for probing discrete emergent geometry and boundary-boundary observables based on a fundamentally a-dimensional underlying network structure. Using a gravitationally motivated action with Forman weighted combinatorial curvatures and simplicial volumes relying on a decomposition of an abstract simplicial complex into realized embeddings of proper skeletons, we demonstrate properties such as a minimal volume-scale cutoff, the necessity of a term playing the role of a positive definite cosmological constant as a regulator for nondegenerate geometries, and naturally emergent simplicial structures from Metropolis network evolution simulations with no restrictions on attachment rules or regular building blocks. We see emergent properties which echo results from both the spinfoam formalism and causal dynamical triangulations in quantum gravity, and provide analytical and numerical results to support the analogy. We conclude with a summary of open questions and intent for future work in developing the program.
Newtonian gravity in loop quantum gravity
Smolin, Lee
2010-01-01
We apply a recent argument of Verlinde to loop quantum gravity, to conclude that Newton's law of gravity emerges in an appropriate limit and setting. This is possible because the relationship between area and entropy is realized in loop quantum gravity when boundaries are imposed on a quantum spacetime.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rafael P. Silva
2010-09-01
Full Text Available Urine specific gravity is often used to assess hydration status. Athletes who are hypohydrated prior to exercise tend to ingest more fluid during the exercise, possibly to compensate for their pre exercise fluid deficit. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of additional fluid intake on fluid balance and gastrointestinal tract comfort during 1h running in a thermoneutral environment when athletes followed their habitual fluid and dietary regimes. Sixteen men and sixteen women ingested a 6% carbohydrate-electrolyte solution immediately prior to exercise and then every 15 minutes during two runs, with a consumption rate of 2 mL.kg-1 (LV, lower volume or 3 mL.kg-1 (HV, higher volume body mass. Urine specific gravity and body mass changes were determined before and after the tests to estimate hydration status. During exercise subjects verbally responded to surveys inquiring about gastrointestinal symptoms, sensation of thirst and ratings of perceived exertion. Plasma glucose, heart rate and blood pressure were also evaluated. Men had higher preexercise urine specific gravity than women (1.025 vs. 1.016 g·mL-1 HV; and 1.024 vs. 1.017 g·mL-1 LV and greater sweat loss (1.21 ± 0.27 L vs. 0.83 ± 0.21 L HV; and 1.18 ± 0.23 L vs. 0.77 ± 0.17 LV. Prevalence of gastrointestinal discomfort increased after 45 min. No significant differences on heart rate, rate of perceived exertion, blood pressure or glycemia was observed with the additional fluid intake. From these results it appears that additional fluid intake reduces body mass loss and thirst sensation. When compared to the men, however, preexercise euhydration was more common in women and an increased fluid intake increases the risk of body mass gain and gastrointestinal discomfort
Is nonrelativistic gravity possible?
Kocharyan, A. A.
2009-01-01
We study nonrelativistic gravity using the Hamiltonian formalism. For the dynamics of general relativity (relativistic gravity) the formalism is well known and called the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner (ADM) formalism. We show that if the lapse function is constrained correctly, then nonrelativistic gravity is described by a consistent Hamiltonian system. Surprisingly, nonrelativistic gravity can have solutions identical to relativistic gravity ones. In particular, (anti-)de Sitter black holes of Eins...
Linker, Patrick
2016-01-01
A couple of quantum gravity theories were proposed to make theoretical predictions about the behavior of gravity. The most recent approach to quantum gravity, called E-theory, is proposed mathematical, but there is not formulated much about what dynamics of gravity this theory proposes. This research paper treats the main results of the application of E-theory to General relativity involving conservation laws and scattering of particles in presence of gravity. Also the low-energy limit of thi...
Feeling Gravity's Pull: Gravity Modeling. The Gravity Field of Mars
Lemoine, Frank; Smith, David; Rowlands, David; Zuber, Maria; Neumann, G.; Chinn, Douglas; Pavlis, D.
2000-01-01
Most people take the constant presence of gravitys pull for granted. However, the Earth's gravitational strength actually varies from location to location. This variation occurs because mass, which influences an object's gravitational pull, is not evenly distributed within the planet. Changes in topography, such as glacial movement, an earthquake, or a rise in the ocean level, can subtly affect the gravity field. An accurate measurement of the Earth's gravity field helps us understand the distribution of mass beneath the surface. This insight can assist us in locating petroleum, mineral deposits, ground water, and other valuable substances. Gravity mapping can also help notice or verify changes in sea surface height and other ocean characteristics. Such changes may indicate climate change from polar ice melting and other phenomena. In addition, gravity mapping can indicate how land moves under the surface after earthquakes and other plate tectonic processes. Finally, changes in the Earth's gravity field might indicate a shift in water distribution that could affect agriculture, water supplies for population centers, and long-term weather prediction. Scientists can map out the Earth's gravity field by watching satellite orbits. When a satellite shifts in vertical position, it might be passing over an area where gravity changes in strength. Gravity is only one factor that may shape a satellite's orbital path. To derive a gravity measurement from satellite movement, scientists must remove other factors that might affect a satellite's position: 1. Drag from atmospheric friction. 2. Pressure from solar radiation as it heads toward Earth and. as it is reflected off the surface of the Earth 3. Gravitational pull from the Sun, the Moon, and other planets in the Solar System. 4. The effect of tides. 5. Relativistic effects. Scientists must also correct for the satellite tracking process. For example, the tracking signal must be corrected for refraction through the
Cadiz, California Gravity Data
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (32 records) were gathered by Mr. Seth I. Gutman for AridTech Inc., Denver, Colorado using a Worden Prospector gravity meter. This data base...
... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003587.htm Urine specific gravity test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Urine specific gravity is a laboratory test that shows the concentration ...
Beysens, D.A.; van Loon, J.J.W.A.; Beysens, D.A.; van Loon, J.J.W.A.
2015-01-01
It is generally thought that gravity is zero on an object travelling at constant velocity in space. This is not exactly so. We detail in the following those causes that make space gravity not strictly zero.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Central Andes gravity data (6,151 records) were compiled by Professor Gotze and the MIGRA Group. This data base was received in April, 1997. Principal gravity...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (24,284 records) were compiled by the U. S. Geological Survey. This data base was received on February 23, 1993. Principal gravity...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Decade of North American Geology (DNAG) gravity grid values, spaced at 6 km, were used to produce the Gravity Anomaly Map of North America (1987; scale...
Bergshoeff, E.; Pope, C.N.; Stelle, K.S.
1990-01-01
We discuss the notion of higher-spin covariance in w∞ gravity. We show how a recently proposed covariant w∞ gravity action can be obtained from non-chiral w∞ gravity by making field redefinitions that introduce new gauge-field components with corresponding new gauge transformations.
Levi Said, Jackson; Farrugia, Gabriel; Finch, Andrew; Pace, Mark
2016-01-01
Five small articles by each author: 1 The Gravity Research Group by Jackson Levi Said 2 Cosmology and Gravity: The dark side of the universe by Gabriel Farrugia 3 Galactic Rotation Dynamics in Modifi ed Gravity by Andrew Finch 4 Exotic Stars by Mark Pace
Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni
2003-01-01
Comment: 9 pages, LaTex. These notes were prepared while working on an invited contribution to the November 2003 issue of Physics World, which focused on quantum gravity. They intend to give a non-technical introduction (accessible to readers from outside quantum gravity) to "Quantum Gravity Phenomenology"
3D joint inversion of gravity-gradient and borehole gravity data
Geng, Meixia; Yang, Qingjie; Huang, Danian
2017-12-01
Borehole gravity is increasingly used in mineral exploration due to the advent of slim-hole gravimeters. Given the full-tensor gradiometry data available nowadays, joint inversion of surface and borehole data is a logical next step. Here, we base our inversions on cokriging, which is a geostatistical method of estimation where the error variance is minimised by applying cross-correlation between several variables. In this study, the density estimates are derived using gravity-gradient data, borehole gravity and known densities along the borehole as a secondary variable and the density as the primary variable. Cokriging is non-iterative and therefore is computationally efficient. In addition, cokriging inversion provides estimates of the error variance for each model, which allows direct assessment of the inverse model. Examples are shown involving data from a single borehole, from multiple boreholes, and combinations of borehole gravity and gravity-gradient data. The results clearly show that the depth resolution of gravity-gradient inversion can be improved significantly by including borehole data in addition to gravity-gradient data. However, the resolution of borehole data falls off rapidly as the distance between the borehole and the feature of interest increases. In the case where the borehole is far away from the target of interest, the inverted result can be improved by incorporating gravity-gradient data, especially all five independent components for inversion.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rongjia Yang
2014-08-01
Full Text Available If we assume that the source of thermodynamic system, ρ and p, are also the source of gravity, then either thermal quantities, such as entropy, temperature, and chemical potential, can induce gravitational effects, or gravity can induce thermal effects. We find that gravity can be seen as entropic force only for systems with constant temperature and zero chemical potential. The case for Newtonian approximation is discussed.
Pirkola, Patrik
2016-01-01
The surface gravity on Mars is smaller than the surface gravity on Earth, resulting in longer falling times. This effect can be simulated on Earth by taking advantage of air resistance and buoyancy, which cause low density objects to fall slowly enough to approximate objects falling on the surface of Mars. We describe a computer simulation based on an experiment that approximates Martian gravity, and verify our numerical results by performing the experiment.
Gravity Independent Compressor Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop and demonstrate a small, gravity independent, vapor compression refrigeration system using a linear motor compressor which effectively...
Classical Weyl transverse gravity
Oda, Ichiro
2017-05-01
We study various classical aspects of the Weyl transverse (WTDiff) gravity in a general space-time dimension. First of all, we clarify a classical equivalence among three kinds of gravitational theories, those are, the conformally invariant scalar tensor gravity, Einstein's general relativity and the WTDiff gravity via the gauge-fixing procedure. Secondly, we show that in the WTDiff gravity the cosmological constant is a mere integration constant as in unimodular gravity, but it does not receive any radiative corrections unlike the unimodular gravity. A key point in this proof is to construct a covariantly conserved energy-momentum tensor, which is achieved on the basis of this equivalence relation. Thirdly, we demonstrate that the Noether current for the Weyl transformation is identically vanishing, thereby implying that the Weyl symmetry existing in both the conformally invariant scalar tensor gravity and the WTDiff gravity is a "fake" symmetry. We find it possible to extend this proof to all matter fields, i.e. the Weyl-invariant scalar, vector and spinor fields. Fourthly, it is explicitly shown that in the WTDiff gravity the Schwarzschild black hole metric and a charged black hole one are classical solutions to the equations of motion only when they are expressed in the Cartesian coordinate system. Finally, we consider the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmology and provide some exact solutions.
Classical Weyl transverse gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oda, Ichiro [University of the Ryukyus, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Nishihara, Okinawa (Japan)
2017-05-15
We study various classical aspects of the Weyl transverse (WTDiff) gravity in a general space-time dimension. First of all, we clarify a classical equivalence among three kinds of gravitational theories, those are, the conformally invariant scalar tensor gravity, Einstein's general relativity and the WTDiff gravity via the gauge-fixing procedure. Secondly, we show that in the WTDiff gravity the cosmological constant is a mere integration constant as in unimodular gravity, but it does not receive any radiative corrections unlike the unimodular gravity. A key point in this proof is to construct a covariantly conserved energy-momentum tensor, which is achieved on the basis of this equivalence relation. Thirdly, we demonstrate that the Noether current for the Weyl transformation is identically vanishing, thereby implying that the Weyl symmetry existing in both the conformally invariant scalar tensor gravity and the WTDiff gravity is a ''fake'' symmetry. We find it possible to extend this proof to all matter fields, i.e. the Weyl-invariant scalar, vector and spinor fields. Fourthly, it is explicitly shown that in the WTDiff gravity the Schwarzschild black hole metric and a charged black hole one are classical solutions to the equations of motion only when they are expressed in the Cartesian coordinate system. Finally, we consider the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmology and provide some exact solutions. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Animesh Mukherjee
1991-01-01
Full Text Available Based upon Biot's [1965] theory of initial stresses of hydrostatic nature produced by the effect of gravity, a study is made of surface waves in higher order visco-elastic media under the influence of gravity. The equation for the wave velocity of Stonely waves in the presence of viscous and gravitational effects is obtained. This is followed by particular cases of surface waves including Rayleigh waves and Love waves in the presence of viscous and gravity effects. In all cases the wave-velocity equations are found to be in perfect agreement with the corresponding classical results when the effects of gravity and viscosity are neglected.
Interior Alaska Bouguer Gravity Anomaly
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 1 kilometer Complete Bouguer Anomaly gravity grid of interior Alaska. Only those grid cells within 10 kilometers of a gravity data point have gravity values....
Dynamical spacetimes in conformal gravity
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Hongsheng Zhang; Yi Zhang; Xin-Zhou Li
2017-01-01
The conformal gravity remarkably boosts our prehension of gravity theories. We find a series of dynamical solutions in the W2-conformal gravity, including generalized Schwarzschild–Friedmann–Robertson–Walker (GSFRW...
No consistent bimetric gravity?
Deser, S.; Sandora, M.; Waldron, A
2013-01-01
We discuss the prospects for a consistent, nonlinear, partially massless (PM), gauge symmetry of bimetric gravity (BMG). Just as for single metric massive gravity, we show that consistency of BMG relies on it having a PM extension; we then argue that it cannot.
Consistency of orthodox gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bellucci, S. [INFN, Frascati (Italy). Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati; Shiekh, A. [International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)
1997-01-01
A recent proposal for quantizing gravity is investigated for self consistency. The existence of a fixed-point all-order solution is found, corresponding to a consistent quantum gravity. A criterion to unify couplings is suggested, by invoking an application of their argument to more complex systems.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2016-11-02
Nov 2, 2016 ... the existence of dark energy and dark matter, several modified theories of gravitation have been proposed as alternative to Einstein's theory. By modifying the geometrical part of Einstein–Hilbert action of general relativity, we obtain the modified gravity. Modified gravity is of great importance because it can ...
Palsingh, S. (Inventor)
1975-01-01
An educational toy useful in demonstrating fundamental concepts regarding the laws of gravity is described. The device comprises a sphere 10 of radius r resting on top of sphere 12 of radius R. The center of gravity of sphere 10 is displaced from its geometrical center by distance D. The dimensions are so related that D((R+r)/r) is greater than r. With the center of gravity of sphere 10 lying on a vertical line, the device is in equilibrium. When sphere 10 is rolled on the surface of sphere 12 it will return to its equilibrium position upon release. This creates an illusion that sphere 10 is defying the laws of gravity. In reality, due to the above noted relationship of D, R, and r, the center of gravity of sphere 10 rises from its equilibrium position as it rolls a short distance up or down the surface of sphere 12.
CERN. Geneva
2007-01-01
Of the four fundamental forces, gravity has been studied the longest, yet gravitational physics is one of the most rapidly developing areas of science today. This talk will give a broad brush survey of the past achievements and future prospects of general relativistic gravitational physics. Gravity is a two frontier science being important on both the very largest and smallest length scales considered in contemporary physics. Recent advances and future prospects will be surveyed in precision tests of general relativity, gravitational waves, black holes, cosmology and quantum gravity. The aim will be an overview of a subject that is becoming increasingly integrated with experiment and other branches of physics.
Altered orientation and flight paths of pigeons reared on gravity anomalies: a GPS tracking study.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nicole Blaser
Full Text Available The mechanisms of pigeon homing are still not understood, in particular how they determine their position at unfamiliar locations. The "gravity vector" theory holds that pigeons memorize the gravity vector at their home loft and deduct home direction and distance from the angular difference between memorized and actual gravity vector. However, the gravity vector is tilted by different densities in the earth crust leading to gravity anomalies. We predicted that pigeons reared on different gravity anomalies would show different initial orientation and also show changes in their flight path when crossing a gravity anomaly. We reared one group of pigeons in a strong gravity anomaly with a north-to-south gravity gradient, and the other group of pigeons in a normal area but on a spot with a strong local anomaly with a west-to-east gravity gradient. After training over shorter distances, pigeons were released from a gravitationally and geomagnetically normal site 50 km north in the same direction for both home lofts. As expected by the theory, the two groups of pigeons showed divergent initial orientation. In addition, some of the GPS-tracked pigeons also showed changes in their flight paths when crossing gravity anomalies. We conclude that even small local gravity anomalies at the birth place of pigeons may have the potential to bias the map sense of pigeons, while reactivity to gravity gradients during flight was variable and appeared to depend on individual navigational strategies and frequency of position updates.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (55,907 records) were gathered by various governmental organizations (and academia) using a variety of methods. This data base was received...
Phenomenological Quantum Gravity
Kimberly, Dagny; Magueijo, Joa~O.
2005-08-01
These notes summarize a set of lectures on phenomenological quantum gravity which one of us delivered and the other attended with great diligence. They cover an assortment of topics on the border between theoretical quantum gravity and observational anomalies. Specifically, we review non-linear relativity in its relation to loop quantum gravity and high energy cosmic rays. Although we follow a pedagogic approach we include an open section on unsolved problems, presented as exercises for the student. We also review varying constant models: the Brans-Dicke theory, the Bekenstein varying α model, and several more radical ideas. We show how they make contact with strange high-redshift data, and perhaps other cosmological puzzles. We conclude with a few remaining observational puzzles which have failed to make contact with quantum gravity, but who knows... We would like to thank Mario Novello for organizing an excellent school in Mangaratiba, in direct competition with a very fine beach indeed.
Carroll versus Galilei gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bergshoeff, Eric [Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen,Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Gomis, Joaquim [Departament de Física Cuàntica i Astrofísica and Institut de Ciències del Cosmos,Universitat de Barcelona,Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Rollier, Blaise [Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen,Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Rosseel, Jan [Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna,Boltzmanngasse 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Veldhuis, Tonnis ter [Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen,Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands)
2017-03-30
We consider two distinct limits of General Relativity that in contrast to the standard non-relativistic limit can be taken at the level of the Einstein-Hilbert action instead of the equations of motion. One is a non-relativistic limit and leads to a so-called Galilei gravity theory, the other is an ultra-relativistic limit yielding a so-called Carroll gravity theory. We present both gravity theories in a first-order formalism and show that in both cases the equations of motion (i) lead to constraints on the geometry and (ii) are not sufficient to solve for all of the components of the connection fields in terms of the other fields. Using a second-order formalism we show that these independent components serve as Lagrange multipliers for the geometric constraints we found earlier. We point out a few noteworthy differences between Carroll and Galilei gravity and give some examples of matter couplings.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (65,164 records) were gathered by various governmental organizations (and academia) using a variety of methods. The data base was received...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (71 records) were gathered by various governmental organizations (and academia) using a variety of methods. This data base was received in...
Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Hohm, Olaf; Townsend, Paul K.
2012-01-01
We present a brief review of New Massive Gravity, which is a unitary theory of massive gravitons in three dimensions obtained by considering a particular combination of the Einstein-Hilbert and curvature squared terms.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 1985, Dr. William F. Haxby of the Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory of Columbia University prepared this data base of free-air gravity anomalies, based on the...
Infrared Modifications Of Gravity
Rombouts, J
2005-01-01
In this thesis, we study theories that modify gravity at very large distances. Motivated by recent observations in cosmology, such as the dimming of type Ia supernovae and flattening of rotation curves of galaxies, we study two classes of theories that attempt to explain these observations as due to a change in the laws of gravity at large distances rather than due to the presence of new forms of exotic energy and matter. The first class of theories is massive gravity, obtained by adding a mass term to the action for the gravitational fluctuation in Einstein's general relativity. The second class of models we study are braneworlds that provide infrared modified gravity, in specific the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati model and its extension to higher codimensional branes. We stress in our discussion the field theoretical consistency, both classically and quantum-mechanically, of these models.
Garland, G D; Wilson, J T
2013-01-01
The Earth's Shape and Gravity focuses on the progress of the use of geophysical methods in investigating the interior of the earth and its shape. The publication first offers information on gravity, geophysics, geodesy, and geology and gravity measurements. Discussions focus on gravity measurements and reductions, potential and equipotential surfaces, absolute and relative measurements, and gravity networks. The text then elaborates on the shape of the sea-level surface and reduction of gravity observations. The text takes a look at gravity anomalies and structures in the earth's crust; interp
Quantum massive conformal gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Faria, F.F. [Universidade Estadual do Piaui, Centro de Ciencias da Natureza, Teresina, PI (Brazil)
2016-04-15
We first find the linear approximation of the second plus fourth order derivative massive conformal gravity action. Then we reduce the linearized action to separated second order derivative terms, which allows us to quantize the theory by using the standard first order canonical quantization method. It is shown that quantum massive conformal gravity is renormalizable but has ghost states. A possible decoupling of these ghost states at high energies is discussed. (orig.)
Gravity Before Einstein and Schwinger Before Gravity
Trimble, Virginia L.
2012-05-01
Julian Schwinger was a child prodigy, and Albert Einstein distinctly not; Schwinger had something like 73 graduate students, and Einstein very few. But both thought gravity was important. They were not, of course, the first, nor is the disagreement on how one should think about gravity that is being highlighted here the first such dispute. The talk will explore, first, several of the earlier dichotomies: was gravity capable of action at a distance (Newton), or was a transmitting ether required (many others). Did it act on everything or only on solids (an odd idea of the Herschels that fed into their ideas of solar structure and sunspots)? Did gravitational information require time for its transmission? Is the exponent of r precisely 2, or 2 plus a smidgeon (a suggestion by Simon Newcomb among others)? And so forth. Second, I will try to say something about Scwinger's lesser known early work and how it might have prefigured his "source theory," beginning with "On the Interaction of Several Electrons (the unpublished, 1934 "zeroth paper," whose title somewhat reminds one of "On the Dynamics of an Asteroid," through his days at Berkeley with Oppenheimer, Gerjuoy, and others, to his application of ideas from nuclear physics to radar and of radar engineering techniques to problems in nuclear physics. And folks who think good jobs are difficult to come by now might want to contemplate the couple of years Schwinger spent teaching elementary physics at Purdue before moving on to the MIT Rad Lab for war work.
Capps, Stephen; Lorandos, Jason; Akhidime, Eval; Bunch, Michael; Lund, Denise; Moore, Nathan; Murakawa, Kiosuke
1989-01-01
The purpose of this study is to investigate comprehensive design requirements associated with designing habitats for humans in a partial gravity environment, then to apply them to a lunar base design. Other potential sites for application include planetary surfaces such as Mars, variable-gravity research facilities, and a rotating spacecraft. Design requirements for partial gravity environments include locomotion changes in less than normal earth gravity; facility design issues, such as interior configuration, module diameter, and geometry; and volumetric requirements based on the previous as well as psychological issues involved in prolonged isolation. For application to a lunar base, it is necessary to study the exterior architecture and configuration to insure optimum circulation patterns while providing dual egress; radiation protection issues are addressed to provide a safe and healthy environment for the crew; and finally, the overall site is studied to locate all associated facilities in context with the habitat. Mission planning is not the purpose of this study; therefore, a Lockheed scenario is used as an outline for the lunar base application, which is then modified to meet the project needs. The goal of this report is to formulate facts on human reactions to partial gravity environments, derive design requirements based on these facts, and apply the requirements to a partial gravity situation which, for this study, was a lunar base.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maartens Roy
2004-01-01
Full Text Available The observable universe could be a 1+3-surface (the "brane" embedded in a 1+3+$d$-dimensional spacetime (the "bulk", with Standard Model particles and fields trapped on the brane while gravity is free to access the bulk. At least one of the $d$ extra spatial dimensions could be very large relative to the Planck scale, which lowers the fundamental gravity scale, possibly even down to the electroweak ($sim$TeV level. This revolutionary picture arises in the framework of recent developments in M theory. The 1+10-dimensional M theory encompasses the known 1+9-dimensional superstring theories, and is widely considered to be a promising potential route to quantum gravity. General relativity cannot describe gravity at high enough energies and must be replaced by a quantum gravity theory, picking up significant corrections as the fundamental energy scale is approached. At low energies, gravity is localized at the brane and general relativity is recovered, but at high energies gravity "leaks" into the bulk, behaving in a truly higher-dimensional way. This introduces significant changes to gravitational dynamics and perturbations, with interesting and potentially testable implications for high-energy astrophysics, black holes and cosmology. Brane-world models offer a phenomenological way to test some of the novel predictions and corrections to general relativity that are implied by M theory. This review discusses the geometry, dynamics and perturbations of simple brane-world models for cosmology and astrophysics, mainly focusing on warped 5-dimensional brane-worlds based on the Randall-Sundrum models.
Blaser, Nicole; Guskov, Sergei I; Entin, Vladimir A; Wolfer, David P; Kanevskyi, Valeryi A; Lipp, Hans-Peter
2014-11-15
The gravity vector theory postulates that birds determine their position to set a home course by comparing the memorized gravity vector at the home loft with the local gravity vector at the release site, and that they should adjust their flight course to the gravity anomalies encountered. As gravity anomalies are often intermingled with geomagnetic anomalies, we released experienced pigeons from the center of a strong circular gravity anomaly (25 km diameter) not associated with magnetic anomalies and from a geophysical control site, equidistant from the home loft (91 km). After crossing the border zone of the anomaly--expected to be most critical for pigeon navigation--they dispersed significantly more than control birds, except for those having met a gravity anomaly en route. These data increase the credibility of the gravity vector hypothesis. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Morey-Holton, Emily R.
1996-01-01
Gravity has been the most constant environmental factor throughout the evolution of biological species on Earth. Organisms are rarely exposed to other gravity levels, either increased or decreased, for prolonged periods. Thus, evolution in a constant 1G field has historically prevented us from appreciating the potential biological consequences of a multi-G universe. To answer the question 'Can terrestrial life be sustained and thrive beyond our planet?' we need to understand the importance of gravity on living systems, and we need to develop a multi-G, rather than a 1G, mentality. The science of gravitational biology took a giant step with the advent of the space program, which provided the first opportunity to examine living organisms in gravity environments lower than could be sustained on Earth. Previously, virtually nothing was known about the effects of extremely low gravity on living organisms, and most of the initial expectations were proven wrong. All species that have flown in space survive in microgravity, although no higher organism has ever completed a life cycle in space. It has been found, however, that many systems change, transiently or permanently, as a result of prolonged exposure to microgravity.
Ortín, Tomás
2015-01-01
Self-contained and comprehensive, this definitive new edition of Gravity and Strings is a unique resource for graduate students and researchers in theoretical physics. From basic differential geometry through to the construction and study of black-hole and black-brane solutions in quantum gravity - via all the intermediate stages - this book provides a complete overview of the intersection of gravity, supergravity, and superstrings. Now fully revised, this second edition covers an extensive array of topics, including new material on non-linear electric-magnetic duality, the electric-tensor formalism, matter-coupled supergravity, supersymmetric solutions, the geometries of scalar manifolds appearing in 4- and 5-dimensional supergravities, and much more. Covering reviews of important solutions and numerous solution-generating techniques, and accompanied by an exhaustive index and bibliography, this is an exceptional reference work.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abele, Hartmut; Bittner, Thomas; Cronenberg, Gunther; Filter, Hanno; Jenke, Tobias; Lemmel, Hartmut; Thalhammer, Martin [Atominstitut TU Wien, Wien (Austria); Geltenbort, Peter [Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France)
2012-07-01
This talk is about a test of the Newtons Inverse Square Law of Gravity at micron distances by quantum interference with ultra-cold neutrons deep into the theoretically interesting regime. The method is based on a new resonance spectroscopy technique related to Rabi spectroscopy, but it has been adapted to gravitationally bound quantum systems. By coupling such a quantum system to mechanical vibrations, we observe resonant transitions, devoid of electromagnetic interaction. As Newtonian gravity and hypothetical Fifth Forces evolve with different phase information, the experiment has the potential to test the equivalence principle and Newtons gravity law at the micron scale. This experiment can therefore test speculations on large extra dimensions of sub-millimetre size of space-time or the origin of the cosmological constant in the universe, where effects are predicted in the interesting range of this experiment and might give a signal in an improved setup.
Intrinsic Time Quantum Gravity
Yu, Hoi Lai
2016-01-01
Correct identification of the true gauge symmetry of General Relativity being 3d spatial diffeomorphism invariant(3dDI) (not the conventional infinite tensor product group with principle fibre bundle structure), together with intrinsic time extracted from clean decomposition of the canonical structure yields a self-consistent theory of quantum gravity. A new set of fundamental commutation relations is also presented. The basic variables are the eight components of the unimodular part of the spatial dreibein and eight SU(3) generators which correspond to Klauder's momentric variables that characterize a free theory of quantum gravity. The commutation relations are not canonical, but have well defined group theoretical meanings. All fundamental entities are dimensionless; and the quantum wave functionals are preferentially in the dreibein representation. The successful quantum theory of gravity involves only broad spectrum of knowledge and deep insights but no exotic idea.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cahill R. T.
2015-10-01
Full Text Available A new quantum gravity experiment is reported with the data confirming the generali- sation of the Schrödinger equation to include the interaction of the wave function with dynamical space. Dynamical space turbulence, via this interaction process, raises and lowers the energy of the electron wave function, which is detected by observing conse- quent variations in the electron quantum barrier tunnelling rate in reverse-biased Zener diodes. This process has previously been reported and enabled the measurement of the speed of the dynamical space flow, which is consistent with numerous other detection experiments. The interaction process is dependent on the angle between the dynamical space flow velocity and the direction of the electron flow in the diode, and this depen- dence is experimentally demonstrated. This interaction process explains gravity as an emergent quantum process, so unifying quantum phenomena and gravity. Gravitational waves are easily detected.
Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for EN05 (2012)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan collected in 2012 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the...
Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for EN06 (2016)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Maine, Canada, and the Atlantic Ocean collected in 2012 over 2 surveys. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the...
Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for EN08 (2013)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for New York, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusettes, Maine, and Canada collected in 2013 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity...
Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for EN04 (2013)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Michigan and Lake Huron collected in 2012 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American...
Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for PN01 (2014)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for California and Oregon collected in 2011 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical...
Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for AN03 (2010)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Alaska collected in 2010 and 2012 over 2 surveys. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical Datum...
Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for TS01 (2014)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands collected in 2009 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the...
Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for CS03 (2009)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Texas and Louisiana collected in 2009 over 2 surveys. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical...
Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for ES01 (2013)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Florida, the Bahamas, and the Atlantic Ocean collected in 2013 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of...
Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for CS06 (2012 & 2013)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Texas collected in 2012 & 2013 over 2 surveys. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical...
Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for EN01 (2011)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for New York, Canada, and Lake Ontario collected in 2011 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the...
Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for CN03 (2014)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Nebraska collected in 2014 over one survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical Datum...
Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for CN02 (2013 & 2014)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Nebraska collected in 2013 & 2014 over 3 surveys. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical...
Maartens, Roy; Koyama, Kazuya
2010-01-01
The observable universe could be a 1+3-surface (the "brane") embedded in a 1+3+d-dimensional spacetime (the "bulk"), with Standard Model particles and fields trapped on the brane while gravity is free to access the bulk. At least one of the d extra spatial dimensions could be very large relative to the Planck scale, which lowers the fundamental gravity scale, possibly even down to the electroweak (∼ TeV) level. This revolutionary picture arises in the framework of recent developments in M theory. The 1+10-dimensional M theory encompasses the known 1+9-dimensional superstring theories, and is widely considered to be a promising potential route to quantum gravity. At low energies, gravity is localized at the brane and general relativity is recovered, but at high energies gravity "leaks" into the bulk, behaving in a truly higher-dimensional way. This introduces significant changes to gravitational dynamics and perturbations, with interesting and potentially testable implications for high-energy astrophysics, black holes, and cosmology. Brane-world models offer a phenomenological way to test some of the novel predictions and corrections to general relativity that are implied by M theory. This review analyzes the geometry, dynamics and perturbations of simple brane-world models for cosmology and astrophysics, mainly focusing on warped 5-dimensional brane-worlds based on the Randall-Sundrum models. We also cover the simplest brane-world models in which 4-dimensional gravity on the brane is modified at low energies - the 5-dimensional Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati models. Then we discuss co-dimension two branes in 6-dimensional models.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Roy Maartens
2010-09-01
Full Text Available The observable universe could be a 1+3-surface (the “brane” embedded in a 1+3+d-dimensional spacetime (the “bulk”, with Standard Model particles and fields trapped on the brane while gravity is free to access the bulk. At least one of the d extra spatial dimensions could be very large relative to the Planck scale, which lowers the fundamental gravity scale, possibly even down to the electroweak (∼ TeV level. This revolutionary picture arises in the framework of recent developments in M theory. The 1+10-dimensional M theory encompasses the known 1+9-dimensional superstring theories, and is widely considered to be a promising potential route to quantum gravity. At low energies, gravity is localized at the brane and general relativity is recovered, but at high energies gravity “leaks” into the bulk, behaving in a truly higher-dimensional way. This introduces significant changes to gravitational dynamics and perturbations, with interesting and potentially testable implications for high-energy astrophysics, black holes, and cosmology. Brane-world models offer a phenomenological way to test some of the novel predictions and corrections to general relativity that are implied by M theory. This review analyzes the geometry, dynamics and perturbations of simple brane-world models for cosmology and astrophysics, mainly focusing on warped 5-dimensional brane-worlds based on the Randall–Sundrum models. We also cover the simplest brane-world models in which 4-dimensional gravity on the brane is modified at low energies – the 5-dimensional Dvali–Gabadadze–Porrati models. Then we discuss co-dimension two branes in 6-dimensional models.
Miniaturised Gravity Sensors for Remote Gravity Surveys.
Middlemiss, R. P.; Bramsiepe, S. G.; Hough, J.; Paul, D. J.; Rowan, S.; Samarelli, A.; Hammond, G.
2016-12-01
Gravimetry lets us see the world from a completely different perspective. The ability to measure tiny variations in gravitational acceleration (g), allows one to see not just the Earth's gravitational pull, but the influence of smaller objects. The more accurate the gravimeter, the smaller the objects one can see. Gravimetry has applications in many different fields: from tracking magma moving under volcanoes before eruptions; to locating hidden tunnels. The top commercial gravimeters weigh tens of kg and cost at least $100,000, limiting the situations in which they can be used. By contrast, smart phones use a MEMS (microelectromechanical system) accelerometer that can measure the orientation of the device. These are not nearly sensitive or stable enough to be used for the gravimetry but they are cheap, light-weight and mass-producible. At Glasgow University we have developed a MEMS device with both the stability and sensitivity for useful gravimetric measurements. This was demonstrated by a measurement of the Earth tides - the first time this has been achieved with a MEMS sensor. A gravimeter of this size opens up the possiblility for new gravity imaging modalities. Thousands of gravimeters could be networked over a survey site, storing data on an SD card or communicating wirelessly to a remote location. These devices could also be small enough to be carried by a UAVs: airborne gravity surveys could be carried out at low altitude by mulitple UAVs, or UAVs could be used to deliver ground based gravimeters to remote or inaccessible locations.
Calibrating Vadose Zone Models with Time-Lapse Gravity Data
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christiansen, Lars; Hansen, A. B.; Looms, M. C.
2009-01-01
A change in soil water content is a change in mass stored in the subsurface. Given that the mass change is big enough, the change can be measured with a gravity meter. Attempts have been made with varying success over the last decades to use ground-based time-lapse gravity measurements to infer...... experiment on 10m by 10m grass land. Simulation studies show a potential for vadose zone model calibration using gravity data in conjunction with other geophysical data, e.g. cross-borehole georadar. We present early field data and calibration results from a forced infiltration experiment conducted over 30...
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Sreejith, K.M.; Rajesh, S.; Majumdar, T.J.; Rao, G.S.; Radhakrishna, M.; Krishna, K.S.; Rajawat, A.S.
of reference model at degree and order 50. Geoid anomalies are converted to free-air gravity anomalies and validated with cross-over corrected ship-borne gravity data of the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal. The present satellite derived gravity data matches well...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yildiz, Hasan; Forsberg, René; Tscherning, Carl Christian
2017-01-01
An airborne gravity campaign was carried out at the Dome-C survey area in East Antarctica between the 17th and 22nd of January 2013, in order to provide data for an experiment to validate GOCE satellite gravity gradients. After typical filtering for airborne gravity data, the cross-over error...
Euler Chern Simons Gravity from Lovelock Born Infeld Gravity
Izaurieta, F.; Rodriguez, E.; Salgado, P.
2004-01-01
In the context of a gauge theoretical formulation, higher dimensional gravity invariant under the AdS group is dimensionally reduced to Euler-Chern-Simons gravity. The dimensional reduction procedure of Grignani-Nardelli [Phys. Lett. B 300, 38 (1993)] is generalized so as to permit reducing D-dimensional Lanczos Lovelock gravity to d=D-1 dimensions.
Gravity Data for South America
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (152,624 records) were compiled by the University of Texas at Dallas. This data base was received in June 1992. Principal gravity parameters...
Scalable Gravity Offload System Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A scalable gravity offload device simulates reduced gravity for the testing of various surface system elements such as mobile robots, excavators, habitats, and...
Interior Alaska Gravity Station Data
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data total 9416 records. This data base was received in March 1997. Principal gravity parameters include Free-air Anomalies which have been...
Gravity Station Data for Spain
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data total 28493 records. This data base was received in April 1997. Principal gravity parameters include Free-air Anomalies which have been...
Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Hohm, Olaf; Rosseel, Jan; Townsend, Paul K.
2011-01-01
The physical modes of a recently proposed D-dimensional "critical gravity'', linearized about its anti-de Sitter vacuum, are investigated. All "log mode'' solutions, which we categorize as "spin-2'' or "Proca'', arise as limits of the massive spin-2 modes of the noncritical theory. The linearized
Newburgh, Ronald
2010-01-01
It's both surprising and rewarding when an old, standard problem reveals a subtlety that expands its pedagogic value. I realized recently that the role of gravity in the range equation for a projectile is not so simple as first appears. This realization may be completely obvious to others but was quite new to me.
Klaassen, F.; Teulings, R.
2017-01-01
We derive a real gravity equation and gain several new insights that were hidden in the nominal specification used so far. Most importantly, the real effective exchange rate (REER) of the exporter and, via the importer's terms of trade, also the importer's REER matter, and we can identify the
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rovelli Carlo
1998-01-01
Full Text Available The problem of finding the quantum theory of the gravitational field, and thus understanding what is quantum spacetime, is still open. One of the most active of the current approaches is loop quantum gravity. Loop quantum gravity is a mathematically well-defined, non-perturbative and background independent quantization of general relativity, with its conventional matter couplings. Research in loop quantum gravity today forms a vast area, ranging from mathematical foundations to physical applications. Among the most significant results obtained are: (i The computation of the physical spectra of geometrical quantities such as area and volume, which yields quantitative predictions on Planck-scale physics. (ii A derivation of the Bekenstein-Hawking black hole entropy formula. (iii An intriguing physical picture of the microstructure of quantum physical space, characterized by a polymer-like Planck scale discreteness. This discreteness emerges naturally from the quantum theory and provides a mathematically well-defined realization of Wheeler's intuition of a spacetime ``foam''. Long standing open problems within the approach (lack of a scalar product, over-completeness of the loop basis, implementation of reality conditions have been fully solved. The weak part of the approach is the treatment of the dynamics: at present there exist several proposals, which are intensely debated. Here, I provide a general overview of ideas, techniques, results and open problems of this candidate theory of quantum gravity, and a guide to the relevant literature.
Lev, Felix M.
2009-01-01
Comment: 17 pages, Latex, 1 figure. A considerably extended version published in Physics Essays, where 1) a motivation for a quantum theory over a Galois field is given; 2) my hypothesis about gravity is described in greater details; Online access to the journal: http://physicsessays.aip.org
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Skielboe, Andreas
Gravity governs the evolution of the universe on the largest scales, and powers some of the most extreme objects at the centers of galaxies. Determining the masses and kinematics of galaxy clusters provides essential constraints on the large-scale structure of the universe, and act as direct probes...
Variable gravity research facility
Allan, Sean; Ancheta, Stan; Beine, Donna; Cink, Brian; Eagon, Mark; Eckstein, Brett; Luhman, Dan; Mccowan, Daniel; Nations, James; Nordtvedt, Todd
1988-01-01
Spin and despin requirements; sequence of activities required to assemble the Variable Gravity Research Facility (VGRF); power systems technology; life support; thermal control systems; emergencies; communication systems; space station applications; experimental activities; computer modeling and simulation of tether vibration; cost analysis; configuration of the crew compartments; and tether lengths and rotation speeds are discussed.
Novello, M.; Duque, S. L. S.
We use a three-index tensor Aμνα to describe spin-2 fields. This quantity acts as the potential of the standard variable hμν. We apply the new variables to examine the coherence of a nonlocal nonlinear theory of gravity.
Artificial Gravity Research Plan
Gilbert, Charlene
2014-01-01
This document describes the forward working plan to identify what countermeasure resources are needed for a vehicle with an artificial gravity module (intermittent centrifugation) and what Countermeasure Resources are needed for a rotating transit vehicle (continuous centrifugation) to minimize the effects of microgravity to Mars Exploration crewmembers.
Loop quantum gravity and observations
Barrau, A
2014-01-01
Quantum gravity has long been thought to be completely decoupled from experiments or observations. Although it is true that smoking guns are still missing, there are now serious hopes that quantum gravity phenomena might be tested. We review here some possible ways to observe loop quantum gravity effects either in the framework of cosmology or in astroparticle physics.
Adhesion Casting In Low Gravity
Noever, David A.; Cronise, Raymond J.
1996-01-01
Adhesion casting in low gravity proposed as technique for making new and improved materials. Advantages of low-gravity adhesion casting, in comparison with adhesion casting in normal Earth gravity, comes from better control over, and greater uniformity of, thicknesses of liquid films that form on and adhere to solid surfaces during casting.
Quantum Gravity Effects in Cosmology
Gu, Je-An; Pyo Kim, Sang; Shen, Che-Min
2018-01-01
Within the geometrodynamic approach to quantum cosmology, we studied the quantum gravity effects in cosmology. The Gibbons-Hawking temperature is corrected by quantum gravity due to spacetime fluctuations and the power spectrum as well as any probe field will experience the effective temperature, a quantum gravity effect.
Quantum Gravity Effects in Cosmology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gu Je-An
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Within the geometrodynamic approach to quantum cosmology, we studied the quantum gravity effects in cosmology. The Gibbons-Hawking temperature is corrected by quantum gravity due to spacetime fluctuations and the power spectrum as well as any probe field will experience the effective temperature, a quantum gravity effect.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. V. Vikulin
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Gravity phenomena related to the Earth movements in the Solar System and through the Galaxy are reviewed. Such movements are manifested by geological processes on the Earth and correlate with geophysical fields of the Earth. It is concluded that geodynamic processes and the gravity phenomena (including those of cosmic nature are related. The state of the geomedium composed of blocks is determined by stresses with force moment and by slow rotational waves that are considered as a new type of movements [Vikulin, 2008, 2010]. It is shown that the geomedium has typical rheid properties [Carey, 1954], specifically an ability to flow while being in the solid state [Leonov, 2008]. Within the framework of the rotational model with a symmetric stress tensor, which is developed by the authors [Vikulin, Ivanchin, 1998; Vikulin et al., 2012a, 2013], such movement of the geomedium may explain the energy-saturated state of the geomedium and a possibility of its movements in the form of vortex geological structures [Lee, 1928]. The article discusses the gravity wave detection method based on the concept of interactions between gravity waves and crustal blocks [Braginsky et al., 1985]. It is concluded that gravity waves can be recorded by the proposed technique that detects slow rotational waves. It is shown that geo-gravitational movements can be described by both the concept of potential with account of gravitational energy of bodies [Kondratyev, 2003] and the nonlinear physical acoustics [Gurbatov et al., 2008]. Based on the combined description of geophysical and gravitational wave movements, the authors suggest a hypothesis about the nature of spin, i.e. own moment as a demonstration of the space-time ‘vortex’ properties.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. V. Vikulin
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Gravity phenomena related to the Earth movements in the Solar System and through the Galaxy are reviewed. Such movements are manifested by geological processes on the Earth and correlate with geophysical fields of the Earth. It is concluded that geodynamic processes and the gravity phenomena (including those of cosmic nature are related. The state of the geomedium composed of blocks is determined by stresses with force moment and by slow rotational waves that are considered as a new type of movements [Vikulin, 2008, 2010]. It is shown that the geomedium has typical rheid properties [Carey, 1954], specifically an ability to flow while being in the solid state [Leonov, 2008]. Within the framework of the rotational model with a symmetric stress tensor, which is developed by the authors [Vikulin, Ivanchin, 1998; Vikulin et al., 2012a, 2013], such movement of the geomedium may explain the energy-saturated state of the geomedium and a possibility of its movements in the form of vortex geological structures [Lee, 1928]. The article discusses the gravity wave detection method based on the concept of interactions between gravity waves and crustal blocks [Braginsky et al., 1985]. It is concluded that gravity waves can be recorded by the proposed technique that detects slow rotational waves. It is shown that geo-gravitational movements can be described by both the concept of potential with account of gravitational energy of bodies [Kondratyev, 2003] and the nonlinear physical acoustics [Gurbatov et al., 2008]. Based on the combined description of geophysical and gravitational wave movements, the authors suggest a hypothesis about the nature of spin, i.e. own moment as a demonstration of the space-time ‘vortex’ properties.
Analog Systems for Gravity Duals
Hossenfelder, S.
2014-01-01
We show that analog gravity systems exist for charged, planar black holes in asymptotic Anti-de Sitter space. These black holes have been employed to describe, via the gauge-gravity duality, strongly coupled condensed matter systems on the boundary of AdS-space. The analog gravity system is a different condensed matter system that, in a suitable limit, describes the same bulk physics as the theory on the AdS boundary. This combination of the gauge-gravity duality and analog gravity therefore ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Forsberg, René; Sideris, M.G.; Shum, C.K.
2005-01-01
The gravity field of the earth is a natural element of the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS). Gravity field quantities are like spatial geodetic observations of potential very high accuracy, with measurements, currently at part-per-billion (ppb) accuracy, but gravity field quantities are also...... unique as they can be globally represented by harmonic functions (long-wavelength geopotential model primarily from satellite gravity field missions), or based on point sampling (airborne and in situ absolute and superconducting gravimetry). From a GGOS global perspective, one of the main challenges...... is to ensure the consistency of the global and regional geopotential and geoid models, and the temporal changes of the gravity field at large spatial scales. The International Gravity Field Service, an umbrella "level-2" IAG service (incorporating the International Gravity Bureau, International Geoid Service...
Gomberoff, Andres
2006-01-01
The 2002 Pan-American Advanced Studies Institute School on Quantum Gravity was held at the Centro de Estudios Cientificos (CECS),Valdivia, Chile, January 4-14, 2002. The school featured lectures by ten speakers, and was attended by nearly 70 students from over 14 countries. A primary goal was to foster interaction and communication between participants from different cultures, both in the layman’s sense of the term and in terms of approaches to quantum gravity. We hope that the links formed by students and the school will persist throughout their professional lives, continuing to promote interaction and the essential exchange of ideas that drives research forward. This volume contains improved and updated versions of the lectures given at the School. It has been prepared both as a reminder for the participants, and so that these pedagogical introductions can be made available to others who were unable to attend. We expect them to serve students of all ages well.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lamon, Raphael
2010-06-29
Quantum gravity is an attempt to unify general relativity with quantum mechanics which are the two highly successful fundamental theories of theoretical physics. The main difficulty in this unification arises from the fact that, while general relativity describes gravity as a macroscopic geometrical theory, quantum mechanics explains microscopic phenomena. As a further complication, not only do both theories describe different scales but also their philosophical ramifications and the mathematics used to describe them differ in a dramatic way. Consequently, one possible starting point of an attempt at a unification is quantum mechanics, i.e. particle physics, and try to incorporate gravitation. This pathway has been chosen by particle physicists which led to string theory. On the other hand, loop quantum gravity (LQG) chooses the other possibility, i.e. it takes the geometrical aspects of gravity seriously and quantizes geometry. The first part of this thesis deals with a generalization of loop quantum cosmology (LQC) to toroidal topologies. LQC is a quantization of homogenous solutions of Einstein's field equations using tools from LQG. First the general concepts of closed topologies is introduced with special emphasis on Thurston's theorem and its consequences. It is shown that new degrees of freedom called Teichmueller parameters come into play and their dynamics can be described by a Hamiltonian. Several numerical solutions for a toroidal universe are presented and discussed. Following the guidelines of LQG this dynamics are rewritten using the Ashtekar variables and numerical solutions are shown. However, in order to find a suitable Hilbert space a canonical transformation must be performed. On the other hand this transformation makes the quantization of geometrical quantities less tractable such that two different ways are presented. It is shown that in both cases the spectrum of such geometrical operators depends on the initial value problem
CERN. Geneva
2017-01-01
Extensions of Einstein’s theory of General Relativity are under investigation as a potential explanation of the accelerating expansion rate of the universe. I’ll present a cosmologist’s overview of attempts to test these ideas in an efficient and unbiased manner. I’ll start by introducing the bestiary of alternative gravity theories that have been put forwards. This proliferation of models motivates us to develop model-independent, agnostic tools for comparing the theory space to cosmological data. I’ll introduce the effective field theory for cosmological perturbations, a framework designed to unify modified gravity theories in terms of a manageable set of parameters. Having outlined the formalism, I’ll talk about the current constraints on this framework, and the improvements expected from the next generation of large galaxy clustering, weak lensing and intensity mapping experiments.
The inverse gravimetric problem in gravity modelling
Sanso, F.; Tscherning, C. C.
1989-01-01
One of the main purposes of geodesy is to determine the gravity field of the Earth in the space outside its physical surface. This purpose can be pursued without any particular knowledge of the internal density even if the exact shape of the physical surface of the Earth is not known, though this seems to entangle the two domains, as it was in the old Stoke's theory before the appearance of Molodensky's approach. Nevertheless, even when large, dense and homogeneous data sets are available, it was always recognized that subtracting from the gravity field the effect of the outer layer of the masses (topographic effect) yields a much smoother field. This is obviously more important when a sparse data set is bad so that any smoothing of the gravity field helps in interpolating between the data without raising the modeling error, this approach is generally followed because it has become very cheap in terms of computing time since the appearance of spectral techniques. The mathematical description of the Inverse Gravimetric Problem (IGP) is dominated mainly by two principles, which in loose terms can be formulated as follows: the knowledge of the external gravity field determines mainly the lateral variations of the density; and the deeper the density anomaly giving rise to a gravity anomaly, the more improperly posed is the problem of recovering the former from the latter. The statistical relation between rho and n (and its inverse) is also investigated in its general form, proving that degree cross-covariances have to be introduced to describe the behavior of rho. The problem of the simultaneous estimate of a spherical anomalous potential and of the external, topographic masses is addressed criticizing the choice of the mixed collection approach.
Gravity, Time, and Lagrangians
Huggins, Elisha
2010-01-01
Feynman mentioned to us that he understood a topic in physics if he could explain it to a college freshman, a high school student, or a dinner guest. Here we will discuss two topics that took us a while to get to that level. One is the relationship between gravity and time. The other is the minus sign that appears in the Lagrangian. (Why would one…
Nagle, Ian
2017-09-01
A new entropic gravity inspired derivation of general relativity from thermodynamics is presented. This generalizes the "Thermodynamics of Spacetime" approach by T. Jacobson, which relies on the null Raychaudhuri evolution equation. Here the rest of the first law of thermodynamics is incorporated by using the null Damour-Navier-Stokes equation, known from the membrane paradigm for describing the tangential flow of deformations along a horizon.
Rovelli, Carlo
2008-01-01
The problem of describing the quantum behavior of gravity, and thus understanding quantum spacetime, is still open. Loop quantum gravity is a well-developed approach to this problem. It is a mathematically well-defined background-independent quantization of general relativity, with its conventional matter couplings. Today research in loop quantum gravity forms a vast area, ranging from mathematical foundations to physical applications. Among the most significant results obtained so far are: (i) The computation of the spectra of geometrical quantities such as area and volume, which yield tentative quantitative predictions for Planck-scale physics. (ii) A physical picture of the microstructure of quantum spacetime, characterized by Planck-scale discreteness. Discreteness emerges as a standard quantum effect from the discrete spectra, and provides a mathematical realization of Wheeler's "spacetime foam" intuition. (iii) Control of spacetime singularities, such as those in the interior of black holes and the cosmological one. This, in particular, has opened up the possibility of a theoretical investigation into the very early universe and the spacetime regions beyond the Big Bang. (iv) A derivation of the Bekenstein-Hawking black-hole entropy. (v) Low-energy calculations, yielding n-point functions well defined in a background-independent context. The theory is at the roots of, or strictly related to, a number of formalisms that have been developed for describing background-independent quantum field theory, such as spin foams, group field theory, causal spin networks, and others. I give here a general overview of ideas, techniques, results and open problems of this candidate theory of quantum gravity, and a guide to the relevant literature.
Mérand, A.; Berger, J.-P.; de Wit, W.-J.; Eisenhauer, F.; Haubois, X.; Paumard, T.; Schoeller, M.; Wittkowski, M.; Woillez, J.; Wolff, B.
2017-12-01
In the time between successfully commissioning an instrument and before offering it in the Call for Proposals for the first time, ESO gives the community at large an opportunity to apply for short Science Verification (SV) programmes. In 2016, ESO offered SV time for the second-generation Very Large Telescope Interferometer instrument GRAVITY. In this article we describe the selection process, outline the range of science cases covered by the approved SV programmes, and highlight some of the early scientific results.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rovelli Carlo
2008-07-01
Full Text Available The problem of describing the quantum behavior of gravity, and thus understanding quantum spacetime, is still open. Loop quantum gravity is a well-developed approach to this problem. It is a mathematically well-defined background-independent quantization of general relativity, with its conventional matter couplings. Today research in loop quantum gravity forms a vast area, ranging from mathematical foundations to physical applications. Among the most significant results obtained so far are: (i The computation of the spectra of geometrical quantities such as area and volume, which yield tentative quantitative predictions for Planck-scale physics. (ii A physical picture of the microstructure of quantum spacetime, characterized by Planck-scale discreteness. Discreteness emerges as a standard quantum effect from the discrete spectra, and provides a mathematical realization of Wheeler’s “spacetime foam” intuition. (iii Control of spacetime singularities, such as those in the interior of black holes and the cosmological one. This, in particular, has opened up the possibility of a theoretical investigation into the very early universe and the spacetime regions beyond the Big Bang. (iv A derivation of the Bekenstein–Hawking black-hole entropy. (v Low-energy calculations, yielding n-point functions well defined in a background-independent context. The theory is at the roots of, or strictly related to, a number of formalisms that have been developed for describing background-independent quantum field theory, such as spin foams, group field theory, causal spin networks, and others. I give here a general overview of ideas, techniques, results and open problems of this candidate theory of quantum gravity, and a guide to the relevant literature.
Bittencourt, E; Novello, M; Toniato, J D
2016-01-01
We discuss a class of models for gravity based on a scalar field. The models include and generalize the old approach by Nordstr\\"om which predated and in some way inspired General Relativity. The class include also a model that we have recently introduced and discussed in its cosmological aspects (GSG). We present here a complete characterisation of the Schwarschild geometry as a vacuum solution of GSG and sketch a discussion of the first Post-Newtonian approximation.
Granular Superconductors and Gravity
Noever, David; Koczor, Ron
1999-01-01
As a Bose condensate, superconductors provide novel conditions for revisiting previously proposed couplings between electromagnetism and gravity. Strong variations in Cooper pair density, large conductivity and low magnetic permeability define superconductive and degenerate condensates without the traditional density limits imposed by the Fermi energy (approx. 10(exp -6) g cu cm). Recent experiments have reported anomalous weight loss for a test mass suspended above a rotating Type II, YBCO superconductor, with a relatively high percentage change (0.05-2.1%) independent of the test mass' chemical composition and diamagnetic properties. A variation of 5 parts per 104 was reported above a stationary (non-rotating) superconductor. In experiments using a sensitive gravimeter, bulk YBCO superconductors were stably levitated in a DC magnetic field and exposed without levitation to low-field strength AC magnetic fields. Changes in observed gravity signals were measured to be less than 2 parts in 108 of the normal gravitational acceleration. Given the high sensitivity of the test, future work will examine variants on the basic magnetic behavior of granular superconductors, with particular focus on quantifying their proposed importance to gravity.
O'Sullivan, Ian
2014-03-01
The speed of light is measured as a constant number of metres per second. However, a meter is a measure of how far light travels in a second. That is, light always travels as far as it does in a second every second. This is a circular definition. When measured against other things, light speed must change. Gravity is usually described as a consequence of a curve in spacetime. The word ``space'' has two distinct meanings. In geometry, space is a continuous area. In relativity, ``space'' refers exclusively to geometric spaces measured with light. ``Time'' in a relativistic sense also refers exclusively to the passage of time as measured against light. So a curve in spacetime (a relativistic concept) is a gradual deviation in the thing we use to measure geometric spaces and the passage of time, i.e. the speed of light. I show how Newtonian gravity can explain observable phenomena if the speed of light is inversely proportional to the strength of the gravitational field. For example, we would also expect light to refract as it changes speed passing near massive bodies. Boundary conditions are also discussed, for example, very high gravity will slow light to a stop, making it impossible to measure anything against light, giving a gravitational singularity.
Gravity Resonance Spectroscopy and Einstein-Cartan Gravity
Abele, Hartmut; Ivanov, Andrei; Jenke, Tobias; Pitschmann, Mario; Geltenbort, Peter
2015-01-01
The qBounce experiment offers a new way of looking at gravitation based on quantum interference. An ultracold neutron is reflected in well-defined quantum states in the gravity potential of the Earth by a mirror, which allows to apply the concept of gravity resonance spectroscopy (GRS). This experiment with neutrons gives access to all gravity parameters as the dependences on distance, mass, curvature, energy-momentum as well as on torsion. Here, we concentrate on torsion.
Cosmological tests of modified gravity.
Koyama, Kazuya
2016-04-01
We review recent progress in the construction of modified gravity models as alternatives to dark energy as well as the development of cosmological tests of gravity. Einstein's theory of general relativity (GR) has been tested accurately within the local universe i.e. the Solar System, but this leaves the possibility open that it is not a good description of gravity at the largest scales in the Universe. This being said, the standard model of cosmology assumes GR on all scales. In 1998, astronomers made the surprising discovery that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating, not slowing down. This late-time acceleration of the Universe has become the most challenging problem in theoretical physics. Within the framework of GR, the acceleration would originate from an unknown dark energy. Alternatively, it could be that there is no dark energy and GR itself is in error on cosmological scales. In this review, we first give an overview of recent developments in modified gravity theories including f(R) gravity, braneworld gravity, Horndeski theory and massive/bigravity theory. We then focus on common properties these models share, such as screening mechanisms they use to evade the stringent Solar System tests. Once armed with a theoretical knowledge of modified gravity models, we move on to discuss how we can test modifications of gravity on cosmological scales. We present tests of gravity using linear cosmological perturbations and review the latest constraints on deviations from the standard [Formula: see text]CDM model. Since screening mechanisms leave distinct signatures in the non-linear structure formation, we also review novel astrophysical tests of gravity using clusters, dwarf galaxies and stars. The last decade has seen a number of new constraints placed on gravity from astrophysical to cosmological scales. Thanks to on-going and future surveys, cosmological tests of gravity will enjoy another, possibly even more, exciting ten years.
Norsk, P.; Shelhamer, M.
2016-01-01
This panel will present NASA's plans for ongoing and future research to define the requirements for Artificial Gravity (AG) as a countermeasure against the negative health effects of long-duration weightlessness. AG could mitigate the gravity-sensitive effects of spaceflight across a host of physiological systems. Bringing gravity to space could mitigate the sensorimotor and neuro-vestibular disturbances induced by G-transitions upon reaching a planetary body, and the cardiovascular deconditioning and musculoskeletal weakness induced by weightlessness. Of particular interest for AG during deep-space missions is mitigation of the Visual Impairment Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome that the majority of astronauts exhibit in space to varying degrees, and which presumably is associated with weightlessness-induced fluid shift from lower to upper body segments. AG could be very effective for reversing the fluid shift and thus help prevent VIIP. The first presentation by Dr. Charles will summarize some of the ground-based and (very little) space-based research that has been conducted on AG by the various space programs. Dr. Paloski will address the use of AG during deep-space exploration-class missions and describe the different AG scenarios such as intra-vehicular, part-of-vehicle, or whole-vehicle centrifugations. Dr. Clement will discuss currently planned NASA research as well as how to coordinate future activities among NASA's international partners. Dr. Barr will describe some possible future plans for using space- and ground-based partial-G analogs to define the relationship between physiological responses and G levels between 0 and 1. Finally, Dr. Stenger will summarize how the human cardiovascular system could benefit from intermittent short-radius centrifugations during long-duration missions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shan Gao
2011-04-01
Full Text Available The remarkable connections between gravity and thermodynamics seem to imply that gravity is not fundamental but emergent, and in particular, as Verlinde suggested, gravity is probably an entropic force. In this paper, we will argue that the idea of gravity as an entropic force is debatable. It is shown that there is no convincing analogy between gravity and entropic force in Verlinde’s example. Neither holographic screen nor test particle satisfies all requirements for the existence of entropic force in a thermodynamics system. Furthermore, we show that the entropy increase of the screen is not caused by its statistical tendency to increase entropy as required by the existence of entropic force, but in fact caused by gravity. Therefore, Verlinde’s argument for the entropic origin of gravity is problematic. In addition, we argue that the existence of a minimum size of spacetime, together with the Heisenberg uncertainty principle in quantum theory, may imply the fundamental existence of gravity as a geometric property of spacetime. This may provide a further support for the conclusion that gravity is not an entropic force.
Espinosa Aldama, Mariana
2015-04-01
The gravity apple tree is a genealogical tree of the gravitation theories developed during the past century. The graphic representation is full of information such as guides in heuristic principles, names of main proponents, dates and references for original articles (See under Supplementary Data for the graphic representation). This visual presentation and its particular classification allows a quick synthetic view for a plurality of theories, many of them well validated in the Solar System domain. Its diachronic structure organizes information in a shape of a tree following similarities through a formal concept analysis. It can be used for educational purposes or as a tool for philosophical discussion.
Gottlieb, Robert G.
1993-01-01
Derivation of first and second partials of the gravitational potential is given in both normalized and unnormalized form. Two different recursion formulas are considered. Derivation of a general gravity gradient torque algorithm which uses the second partial of the gravitational potential is given. Derivation of the geomagnetic field vector is given in a form that closely mimics the gravitational algorithm. Ada code for all algorithms that precomputes all possible data is given. Test cases comparing the new algorithms with previous data are given, as well as speed comparisons showing the relative efficiencies of the new algorithms.
Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for CS05 (2014)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Texas collected in 2014 over 2 surveys. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical Datum (GRAV-D)...
Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for ES02 (2013)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Florida and the Gulf of Mexico collected in 2013 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American...
Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for AN02 (2010)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Alaska collected in 2010 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical Datum (GRAV-D)...
Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for CS08 (2015)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for CS08 collected in 2006 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical Datum (GRAV-D)...
Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for CS04 (2009)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Texas collected in 2009 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical Datum (GRAV-D)...
Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for AS02 (2010)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Alaska collected in 2010 over 2 surveys. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical Datum (GRAV-D)...
Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for AN04 (2010)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Alaska collected in 2010 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical Datum (GRAV-D)...
Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for AS01 (2008)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Alaska collected in 2008 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical Datum (GRAV-D)...
Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for AN05 (2011)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Alaska collected in 2011 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical Datum (GRAV-D)...
Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for AN06 (2011)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Alaska collected in 2011 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical Datum (GRAV-D)...
Polar gravity fields from GOCE and airborne gravity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Forsberg, René; Olesen, Arne Vestergaard; Yidiz, Hasan
2011-01-01
in Antarctica. It is shown how the enhanced gravity field solutions improve the determination of ocean dynamic topography in both the Arctic and in across the Drake Passage. For the interior of Antarctica, major airborne gravity programs are currently being carried out, and there is an urgent need...
Alvarez-Gaume, Luis; Kounnas, Costas; Lust, Dieter; Riotto, Antonio
2016-01-01
We discuss quadratic gravity where terms quadratic in the curvature tensor are included in the action. After reviewing the corresponding field equations, we analyze in detail the physical propagating modes in some specific backgrounds. First we confirm that the pure $R^2$ theory is indeed ghost free. Then we point out that for flat backgrounds the pure $R^2$ theory propagates only a scalar massless mode and no spin-two tensor mode. However, the latter emerges either by expanding the theory around curved backgrounds like de Sitter or anti-de Sitter, or by changing the long-distance dynamics by introducing the standard Einstein term. In both cases, the theory is modified in the infrared and a propagating graviton is recovered. Hence we recognize a subtle interplay between the UV and IR properties of higher order gravity. We also calculate the corresponding Newton's law for general quadratic curvature theories. Finally, we discuss how quadratic actions may be obtained from a fundamental theory like string- or M-...
Freidel, Laurent; Pranzetti, Daniele
2016-01-01
In this work we study canonical gravity in finite regions for which we introduce a generalisation of the Gibbons-Hawking boundary term including the Immirzi parameter. We study the canonical formulation on a spacelike hypersuface with a boundary sphere and show how the presence of this term leads to an unprecedented type of degrees of freedom coming from the restoration of the gauge and diffeomorphism symmetry at the boundary. In the presence of a loop quantum gravity state, these boundary degrees of freedom localize along a set of punctures on the boundary sphere. We demonstrate that these degrees of freedom are effectively described by auxiliary strings with a 3-dimensional internal target space attached to each puncture. We show that the string currents represent the local frame field, that the string angular momenta represent the area flux and that the string stress tensor represents the two dimensional metric on the boundary of the region of interest. Finally, we show that the commutators of these broken...
Surface gravity and Hawking temperature from entropic force viewpoint
Chang-Young, Ee; Kimm, Kyoungtae; Lee, Daeho
2010-01-01
We consider a freely falling holographic screen for the Schwarzschild and Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black holes and evaluate the entropic force \\`a la Verlinde. When the screen crosses the event horizon, the temperature of the screen agrees to the Hawking temperature and the entropic force gives rise to the surface gravity for both of the black holes.
Transplanckian collisions in TeV scale gravity
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Collisions at transplanckian energies offer model independent tests of TeV scale gravity. One spectacular signal is given by black-hole production, though a full calculation of the corresponding cross-section is not yet available. Another signal is given by gravitational elastic scattering, which may be less spectacular but ...
IceBridge ZLS Dynamic Gravity Meter Time-Registered L1B Vertical Accelerations
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The IceBridge ZLS Dynamic Gravity Meter Time-Registered L1B Vertical Accelerations (IGZLS1B) data set contains vertical, cross body, and along body acceleration...
Bergshoeff, Eric; Hohm, Olaf; Merbis, Wout; Routh, Alasdair J.; Townsend, Paul K.
2014-01-01
We present an alternative to topologically massive gravity (TMG) with the same 'minimal' bulk properties; i.e. a single local degree of freedom that is realized as a massive graviton in linearization about an anti-de Sitter (AdS) vacuum. However, in contrast to TMG, the new 'minimal massive gravity'
Correlation functions in quantum gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gies, Holger; Knorr, Benjamin; Lippoldt, Stefan [Theoretisch-Physikalisches Institut, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena (Germany)
2016-07-01
We present some aspects of non-perturbative correlation functions of quantum gravity. In particular, the influence of curvature on gravitational correlations is investigated. Possible future applications of this include, e.g., genuine quantum gravity effects in black hole physics and gravitational waves.
Observable Effects of Quantum Gravity
Chang, Lay Nam; Sun, Chen; Takeuchi, Tatsu
2016-01-01
We discuss the generic phenomenology of quantum gravity and, in particular, argue that the observable effects of quantum gravity, associated with new, extended, non-local, non-particle-like quanta, and accompanied by a dynamical energy-momentum space, are not necessarily Planckian and that they could be observed at much lower and experimentally accessible energy scales.
Quantum Gravity in Two Dimensions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ipsen, Asger Cronberg
The topic of this thesis is quantum gravity in 1 + 1 dimensions. We will focus on two formalisms, namely Causal Dynamical Triangulations (CDT) and Dy- namical Triangulations (DT). Both theories regularize the gravity path integral as a sum over triangulations. The difference lies in the class...
Neumeyer, Jürgen; Schäfer, Uwe; Kremer, Jens; Pflug, Hartmut; Xu, Guochang
2009-04-01
For testing the performance of the upgraded LaCoste and Romberg airborne gravimeter S124 and evaluating the newly updated software, an airborne gravity test campaign has been carried out in the northern part of Germany by GFZ Potsdam in autumn 2006 using the aircraft Cessna 404 of "Hansa Luftbild" Company, Münster. We present the results of a profile flown SW-NE in both directions at a nearly constant mean altitude of ˜1100 m with a ground speed of ˜230 km/h, crossing one of the most pronounced gravity anomalies in Central Europe with peak-to-peak amplitude of about 70 mgal. The scalar gravity anomalies along the flight trajectories have been derived from the airborne gravimeter taking into account platform recordings and data from the GPS-controlled Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) Aerocontrol IIb. All common corrections have been performed on the raw gravity data. Due to problems in GPS recording, we used the IMU data only. To verify the airborne gravity results, ground-based and satellite-derived gravity data have been used to compute local analytical gravity field models in a new methodological approach that allows the calculation of gravity anomalies at flight altitudes. For the most part there is a good agreement between the INS-airborne-derived and the independently modelled gravity anomalies, yielding best results of about 3.5 mgal RMS.
Experimental search for quantum gravity
2018-01-01
This book summarizes recent developments in the research area of quantum gravity phenomenology. A series of short and nontechnical essays lays out the prospects of various experimental possibilities and their current status. Finding observational evidence for the quantization of space-time was long thought impossible. In the last decade however, new experimental design and technological advances have changed the research landscape and opened new perspectives on quantum gravity. Formerly dominated by purely theoretical constructions, quantum gravity now has a lively phenomenology to offer. From high precision measurements using macroscopic quantum oscillators to new analysis methods of the cosmic microwave background, no stone is being left unturned in the experimental search for quantum gravity. This book sheds new light on the connection of astroparticle physics with the quantum gravity problem. Gravitational waves and their detection are covered. It illustrates findings from the interconnection between gene...
Superconducting gravity gradiometer for sensitive gravity measurements. I. Theory
Chan, H. A.; Paik, H. J.
1987-06-01
Because of the equivalence principle, a global measurement is necessary to distinguish gravity from acceleration of the reference frame. A gravity gradiometer is therefore an essential instrument needed for precision tests of gravity laws and for applications in gravity survey and inertial navigation. Superconductivity and SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) technology can be used to obtain a gravity gradiometer with very high sensitivity and stability. A superconducting gravity gradiometer has been developed for a null test of the gravitational inverse-square law and space-borne geodesy. Here we present a complete theoretical model of this instrument. Starting from dynamical equations for the device, we derive transfer functions, a common mode rejection characteristic, and an error model of the superconducting instrument. Since a gradiometer must detect a very weak differential gravity signal in the midst of large platform accelerations and other environmental disturbances, the scale factor and common mode rejection stability of the instrument are extremely important in addition to its immunity to temperature and electromagnetic fluctuations. We show how flux quantization, the Meissner effect, and properties of liquid helium can be utilized to meet these challenges.
Higher derivative mimetic gravity
Gorji, Mohammad Ali; Mansoori, Seyed Ali Hosseini; Firouzjahi, Hassan
2018-01-01
We study cosmological perturbations in mimetic gravity in the presence of classified higher derivative terms which can make the mimetic perturbations stable. We show that the quadratic higher derivative terms which are independent of curvature and the cubic higher derivative terms which come from curvature corrections are sufficient to remove instabilities in mimetic perturbations. The classified higher derivative terms have the same dimensions but they contribute differently in the background and perturbed equations. Therefore, we can control both the background and the perturbation equations allowing us to construct the higher derivative extension of mimetic dark matter and the mimetic nonsingular bouncing scenarios. The latter can be thought as a new higher derivative effective action for the loop quantum cosmology scenario in which the equations of motion coincide with those suggested by loop quantum cosmology. We investigate a possible connection between the mimetic cosmology and the Randall-Sundrum cosmology.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maxfield, Travis; Sethi, Savdeep [Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago,Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)
2017-02-22
We study the dynamics of gravitational lumps. By a lump, we mean a metric configuration that asymptotes to a flat space-time. Such lumps emerge in string theory as strong coupling descriptions of D-branes. We provide a physical argument that the broken global symmetries of such a background, generated by certain large diffeomorphisms, constrain the dynamics of localized modes. These modes include the translation zero modes and any localized tensor modes. The constraints we find are gravitational analogues of those found in brane physics. For the example of a Taub-NUT metric in eleven-dimensional supergravity, we argue that a critical value for the electric field arises from standard gravity without higher derivative interactions.
Teleparallel Gravity An Introduction
Aldrovandi, Ruben
2013-01-01
Teleparallel Gravity (TG) is an alternative theory for gravitation, which is equivalent to General Relativity (GR). However, it is conceptually different. For example in GR geometry replaces the concept of force, and the trajectories are determined by geodesics. TG attributes gravitation to torsion, which accounts for gravitation by acting as a force. TG has already solved some old problems of gravitation (like the energy-momentum density of the gravitational field). The interest in TG has grown in the last few years. The book here proposed will be the first one dedicated exclusively to TG, and will include the foundations of the theory, as well as applications to specific problems to illustrate how the theory works.
Frè, Pietro Giuseppe
2013-01-01
‘Gravity, a Geometrical Course’ presents general relativity (GR) in a systematic and exhaustive way, covering three aspects that are homogenized into a single texture: i) the mathematical, geometrical foundations, exposed in a self consistent contemporary formalism, ii) the main physical, astrophysical and cosmological applications, updated to the issues of contemporary research and observations, with glimpses on supergravity and superstring theory, iii) the historical development of scientific ideas underlying both the birth of general relativity and its subsequent evolution. The book is divided in two volumes. Volume One is dedicated to the development of the theory and basic physical applications. It guides the reader from the foundation of special relativity to Einstein field equations, illustrating some basic applications in astrophysics. A detailed account of the historical and conceptual development of the theory is combined with the presentation of its mathematical foundations. Differe...
Mannheim, Philip D
2005-01-01
This timely and valuable book provides a detailed pedagogical introduction and treatment of the brane-localized gravity program of Randall and Sundrum, in which gravitational signals are able to localize around our four-dimensional world in the event that it is a brane embedded in an infinitely-sized, higher dimensional anti-de Sitter bulk space. A completely self-contained development of the material needed for brane-world studies is provided for both students and workers in the field, with a significant amount of the material being previously unpublished. Particular attention is given to issues not ordinarily treated in the brane-world literature, such as the completeness of tensor gravitational fluctuation modes, the causality of brane-world propagators, and the status of the massless graviton fluctuation mode in brane worlds in which it is not normalizable.
Artificial gravity - The evolution of variable gravity research
Fuller, Charles A.; Sulzman, Frank M.; Keefe, J. Richard
1987-01-01
The development of a space life science research program based on the use of rotational facilities is described. In-flight and ground centrifuges can be used as artificial gravity environments to study the following: nongravitational biological factors; the effects of 0, 1, and hyper G on man; counter measures for deconditioning astronauts in weightlessness; and the development of suitable artificial gravity for long-term residence in space. The use of inertial fields as a substitute for gravity, and the relations between the radius of the centrifuge and rotation rate and specimen height and rotation radius are examined. An example of a centrifuge study involving squirrel monkeys is presented.
Recent advancements in conformal gravity
O'Brien, James G.; Chaykov, Spasen S.; Dentico, Jeremy; Stulge, Modestas; Stefanski, Brian; Moss, Robert J.
2017-05-01
In recent years, due to the lack of direct observed evidence of cold dark matter, coupled with the shrinking parameter space to search for new dark matter particles, there has been increased interest in Alternative Gravitational theories. This paper, addresses three recent advances in conformal gravity, a fourth order renormalizable metric theory of gravitation originally formulated by Weyl, and later advanced by Mannheim and Kazanas. The first section of the paper applies conformal gravity to the rotation curves of the LITTLE THINGS survey, extending the total number of rotation curves successfully fit by conformal gravity to well over 200 individual data sets without the need for additional dark matter. Further, in this rotation curve study, we show how MOND and conformal gravity compare for each galaxy in the sample. Second, we look at the original Zwicky problem of applying the virial theorem to the Coma cluster in order to get an estimate for the cluster mass. However, instead of using the standard Newtonian potential, here we use the weak field approximation of conformal gravity. We show that in the conformal case we can get a much smaller mass estimate and thus there is no apparent need to include dark matter. We then show that this calculation is in agreement with the observational data from other well studied clusters. Last, we explore the calculation of the deflection of starlight through conformal gravity, as a first step towards applying conformal gravity to gravitaitonal lensing.
Falsification of Mannheim's conformal gravity
Yoon, Youngsub
2013-01-01
We show that Mannheim's conformal gravity, whose potential has a term proportional to $1/r$ and another term proportional to $r$, doesn't reduce to Newtonian gravity at short distances. Therefore, despite the claim that it successfully explains galaxy rotation curves, it seems falsified by numerous Cavendish-type experiments performed at laboratories on Earth whose work haven't found any deviations from Newton's theory. Moreover, when Mannheim used his potential to fit the galaxy rotation curve, he used the Newtonian formula to calculate the effects of the term proportional to $1/r$, not the conformal gravity one. So, he lacked consistency. After all, he would not have been able to use the conformal gravity one either since it deviates so much from the Newtonian one, which the conformal gravity one should reduce to. We also give a couple of other similar reasons why Mannheim's conformal gravity is wrong. For example, the gravitational potential of conformal gravity doesn't reduce to the Newtonian one even in ...
Stochastic Gravity: Theory and Applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hu Bei Lok
2008-05-01
Full Text Available Whereas semiclassical gravity is based on the semiclassical Einstein equation with sources given by the expectation value of the stress-energy tensor of quantum fields, stochastic semiclassical gravity is based on the Einstein–Langevin equation, which has, in addition, sources due to the noise kernel. The noise kernel is the vacuum expectation value of the (operator-valued stress-energy bitensor, which describes the fluctuations of quantum-matter fields in curved spacetimes. A new improved criterion for the validity of semiclassical gravity may also be formulated from the viewpoint of this theory. In the first part of this review we describe the fundamentals of this new theory via two approaches: the axiomatic and the functional. The axiomatic approach is useful to see the structure of the theory from the framework of semiclassical gravity, showing the link from the mean value of the stress-energy tensor to the correlation functions. The functional approach uses the Feynman–Vernon influence functional and the Schwinger–Keldysh closed-time-path effective action methods. In the second part, we describe three applications of stochastic gravity. First, we consider metric perturbations in a Minkowski spacetime, compute the two-point correlation functions of these perturbations and prove that Minkowski spacetime is a stable solution of semiclassical gravity. Second, we discuss structure formation from the stochastic-gravity viewpoint, which can go beyond the standard treatment by incorporating the full quantum effect of the inflaton fluctuations. Third, using the Einstein–Langevin equation, we discuss the backreaction of Hawking radiation and the behavior of metric fluctuations for both the quasi-equilibrium condition of a black-hole in a box and the fully nonequilibrium condition of an evaporating black hole spacetime. Finally, we briefly discuss the theoretical structure of stochastic gravity in relation to quantum gravity and point out
Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for EN09 (2016)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, New York, and the Atlantic Ocean collected in 2012 over 1 survey. This data set is...
Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for EN10 (2013)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Connecticut and the Atlantic Ocean collected in 2013 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the...
Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for ES03 (2013)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Maryland, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, West Virginia, Virginia, Delaware, and the Atlantic Ocean collected in 2013 over 1 survey. This data...
Cosmic string in gravity's rainbow
Momeni, Davood; Upadhyay, Sudhaker; Myrzakulov, Yerlan; Myrzakulov, Ratbay
2017-09-01
In this paper, we study the various cylindrical solutions (cosmic strings) in gravity's rainbow scenario. In particular, we calculate the gravitational field equations corresponding to energy-dependent background. Further, we discuss the possible Kasner, quasi-Kasner and non-Kasner exact solutions of the field equations. In this framework, we find that quasi-Kasner solutions cannot be realized in gravity's rainbow. Assuming only time-dependent metric functions, we also analyse the time-dependent vacuum cosmic strings in gravity's rainbow, which are completely different than the other GR solutions.
Artificial Gravity Research Project
Kamman, Michelle R.; Paloski, William H.
2005-01-01
Protecting the health, safety, and performance of exploration-class mission crews against the physiological deconditioning resulting from long-term weightlessness during transit and long-term hypogravity during surface operations will require effective, multi-system countermeasures. Artificial gravity (AG), which would replace terrestrial gravity with inertial forces generated by rotating the transit vehicle or by a human centrifuge device within the transit vehicle or surface habitat, has long been considered a potential solution. However, despite its attractiveness as an efficient, multi-system countermeasure and its potential for improving the environment and simplifying operational activities (e.g., WCS, galley, etc.), much still needs to be learned regarding the human response to rotating environments before AG can be successfully implemented. This paper will describe our approach for developing and implementing a rigorous AG Research Project to address the key biomedical research questions that must be answered before developing effective AG countermeasure implementation strategies for exploration-class missions. The AG Research Project will be performed at JSC, ARC, extramural academic and government research venues, and international partner facilities maintained by DLR and IMBP. The Project includes three major ground-based human research subprojects that will lead to flight testing of intermittent short-radius AG in ISS crewmembers after 201 0, continuous long-radius AG in CEV crews transiting to and from the Moon, and intermittent short-radius AG plus exercise in lunar habitats. These human ground-based subprojects include: 1) a directed, managed international short-radius project to investigate the multi-system effectiveness of intermittent AG in human subjects deconditioned by bed rest, 2) a directed, managed long-radius project to investigate the capacity of humans to live and work for extended periods in rotating environments, and 3) a focused
Entanglement entropy and correlations in loop quantum gravity
Feller, Alexandre; Livine, Etera R.
2018-02-01
Black hole entropy is one of the few windows into the quantum aspects of gravitation, and its study over the years has highlighted the holographic nature of gravity. At the non-perturbative level in quantum gravity, promising explanations are being explored in terms of the entanglement entropy between regions of space. In the context of loop quantum gravity, this translates into an analysis of the correlations between the regions of the spin network states defining the quantum state of the geometry of space. In this paper, we explore a class of states, motivated by results in condensed matter physics, satisfying an area law for entanglement entropy and having non-trivial correlations. We highlight that entanglement comes from holonomy operators acting on loops crossing the boundary of the region.
Chern-Simons-like Gravity Theories
Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Hohm, Olaf; Merbis, Wout; Routh, Alasdair J.; Townsend, Paul K.
2014-01-01
A wide class of three-dimensional gravity models can be put into "Chern-Simons-like" form. We perform a Hamiltonian analysis of the general model and then specialise to Einstein-Cartan Gravity, General Massive Gravity, the recently proposed Zwei-Dreibein Gravity and a further parity violating
Chern-Simons-like Gravity Theories
Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Hohm, Olaf; Merbis, Wout; Routh, Alasdair J.; Townsend, Paul K
2014-01-01
A wide class of three-dimensional gravity models can be put into "Chern-Simons-like" form. We perform a Hamiltonian analysis of the general model and then specialise to Einstein-Cartan Gravity, General Massive Gravity, the recently proposed Zwei-Dreibein Gravity and a further parity violating generalisation combining the latter two.
GOCE gravity gradient data for lithospheric modeling
Bouman, J.; Ebbing, J.; Meekes, S.; Fattah, R.A.; Fuchs, M.; Gradmann, S.; Haagmans, R.; Lieb, V.; Schmidt, M.; Dettmering, D.; Bosch, W.
2015-01-01
The Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) is the European Space Agency's (ESA)satellite gravity mission to determine the Earth's mean gravity field. GOCE delivers gravity gradients, anew type of satellite data. We study how these data can improve modeling of the Earth's
Quantum gravity and quantum cosmology
Papantonopoulos, Lefteris; Siopsis, George; Tsamis, Nikos
2013-01-01
Quantum gravity has developed into a fast-growing subject in physics and it is expected that probing the high-energy and high-curvature regimes of gravitating systems will shed some light on how to eventually achieve an ultraviolet complete quantum theory of gravity. Such a theory would provide the much needed information about fundamental problems of classical gravity, such as the initial big-bang singularity, the cosmological constant problem, Planck scale physics and the early-time inflationary evolution of our Universe. While in the first part of this book concepts of quantum gravity are introduced and approached from different angles, the second part discusses these theories in connection with cosmological models and observations, thereby exploring which types of signatures of modern and mathematically rigorous frameworks can be detected by experiments. The third and final part briefly reviews the observational status of dark matter and dark energy, and introduces alternative cosmological models. ...
GRAVITY PROSPECTING IN PLATFORM AREAS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Željko Zagorac
1992-12-01
Full Text Available The problem of ambiguity in the interpretation of gravity in platform areas is analised. A theoretical example is given, presenting ambiguity in the determination of depth and position of faults, even when the form of structures is known. It has been concluded, that the best method of gravity interpretation is the construction of the map and profiles showing the depths of horizon where there is the strongest density contrast. An example is given from the Sultana area in Jordan, where the gravity map is converted into the maps of »quantitative regional« and »true residual«, by means of drilling data. Interpretation of the residual by the method of gravity modelling resulted in the construction of the map of structures and depths of the density contrast horizon, with the positions and throws of the main faults.
Gravity Data For Colombia 1997
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (9,050 records), were observed and processed by the Instituto Geografico Agustin Codazzi(IGAC), in Colombia from 1958 to 1996. This data...
Low Gravity Anchoring System Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future sampling missions to the Moon, Mars and Asteroids will likely involve drilling and in-situ analysis from mobile robotic platforms in low gravity. Past...
Path integral of unimodular gravity
de León Ardón, R.; Ohta, N.; Percacci, R.
2018-01-01
We compute the one-loop effective action in unimodular gravity, starting from two different classical formulations of the theory. We find that the effective action is the same in both cases, and agrees with the one of general relativity.
Interior Alaska Bouguer Gravity Anomaly
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 1 kilometer Complete Bouguer Anomaly gravity grid of interior Alaska. All grid cells within the rectangular data area (from 61 to 66 degrees North latitude and...
Rauscher, Elizabeth A.; Hurtak, James J.; Hurtak, Desire E.
The authors propose that the structure of a micro-vacuum plenum acts as a driving mechanism of the universe, which determines what we observe as oscopic topological conditions on cosmogenesis and cosmological evolution. The detailed structure of the vacuum plenum is based on a quantum gravity model. At the micro scale quantum is formulated in terms of non-abelian algebras. Through the pervasive vacuum structure, particle and atomic processes can be reconciled with the larger structures of cosmogenic evolution, that is, matter is continuously created throughout the universe. The constraints of a Schwarzschild-like criterion can also be applied at each point in the evolutionary process which appears not to be linear in all aspects. The source of new matter is considered to be the activity of and interaction through vacuum effects describable in terms of creation and destruction of operators in the Feynman graphical techniques. In the early stages of cosmogenic processes, an inflationary like or multi big bangs may have occurred and were driven by the vacuum plenum. In addition the vacuum effects occur where quantum gravitational processes were much more dominant. Our approach may lead to an understanding of the observed acceleration of distant High-z bright supernovas of over 6. The current Hubble expansion requires a modification in the model of the early universe conditions and may be more appropriate in current cosmological model considerations in local astrophysical phenomena.
Dubovsky, S L
2004-01-01
We systematically study the most general Lorentz-violating graviton mass invariant under three-dimensional Eucledian group using the explicitly covariant language. We find that at general values of mass parameters the massive graviton has six propagating degrees of freedom, and some of them are ghosts or lead to rapid classical instabilities. However, there is a number of different regions in the mass parameter space where massive gravity can be described by a consistent low-energy effective theory with cutoff $\\sim\\sqrt{mM_{Pl}}$ free of rapid instabilities and vDVZ discontinuity. Each of these regions is characterized by certain fine-tuning relations between mass parameters, generalizing the Fierz--Pauli condition. In some cases the required fine-tunings are consequences of the existence of the subgroups of the diffeomorphism group that are left unbroken by the graviton mass. We found two new cases, when the resulting theories have a property of UV insensitivity, i.e. remain well behaved after inclusion of ...
Distinguishing modified gravity models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brax, Philippe [Institut de Physique Théorique, Université Paris-Saclay, CEA, CNRS, F-91191 Gif/Yvette Cedex (France); Davis, Anne-Christine, E-mail: philippe.brax@cea.fr, E-mail: A.C.Davis@damtp.cam.ac.uk [DAMTP, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)
2015-10-01
Modified gravity models with screening in local environments appear in three different guises: chameleon, K-mouflage and Vainshtein mechanisms. We propose to look for differences between these classes of models by considering cosmological observations at low redshift. In particular, we analyse the redshift dependence of the fine structure constant and the proton to electron mass ratio in each of these scenarios. When the absorption lines belong to unscreened regions of space such as dwarf galaxies, a time variation would be present for chameleons. For both K-mouflage and Vainshtein mechanisms, the cosmological time variation of the scalar field is not suppressed in both unscreened and screened environments, therefore enhancing the variation of constants and their detection prospect. We also consider the time variation of the redshift of distant objects using their spectrocopic velocities. We find that models of the K-mouflage and Vainshtein types have very different spectroscopic velocities as a function of redshift and that their differences with the Λ-CDM template should be within reach of the future ELT-HIRES observations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bernard S. Kay
2015-12-01
Full Text Available We give a review, in the style of an essay, of the author’s 1998 matter-gravity entanglement hypothesis which, unlike the standard approach to entropy based on coarse-graining, offers a definition for the entropy of a closed system as a real and objective quantity. We explain how this approach offers an explanation for the Second Law of Thermodynamics in general and a non-paradoxical understanding of information loss during black hole formation and evaporation in particular. It also involves a radically different from usual description of black hole equilibrium states in which the total state of a black hole in a box together with its atmosphere is a pure state—entangled in just such a way that the reduced state of the black hole and of its atmosphere are each separately approximately thermal. We also briefly recall some recent work of the author which involves a reworking of the string-theory understanding of black hole entropy consistent with this alternative description of black hole equilibrium states and point out that this is free from some unsatisfactory features of the usual string theory understanding. We also recall the author’s recent arguments based on this alternative description which suggest that the Anti de Sitter space (AdS/conformal field theory (CFT correspondence is a bijection between the boundary CFT and just the matter degrees of freedom of the bulk theory.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Au, G.
1995-03-01
One of the greatest challenges facing theoretical physics lies in reconciling Einstein`s classical theory of gravity - general relativity -with quantum field theory. Although both theories have been experimentally supported in their respective regimes, they are as compatible as a square peg and a round hole. This article summarises the current status of the superstring approach to the problem, the status of the Ashtekar program, and problem of time in quantum gravity.
Threat Mitigation: The Gravity Tractor
Schweickart, Russell; Chapman, Clark; Durda, Dan; Hut, Piet
2006-01-01
The Gravity Tractor (GT) is a fully controlled asteroid deflection concept using the mutual gravity between a robotic spacecraft and an asteroid to slowly accelerate the asteroid in the direction of the "hovering" spacecraft. Based on early warning, provided by ground tracking and orbit prediction, it would be deployed a decade or more prior to a potential impact. Ion engines would be utilized for both the rendezvous with the asteroid and the towing phase. Since the GT does not dock with or o...
Holographic renormalization in teleparallel gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Krssak, Martin [Universidade Estadual Paulista, Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)
2017-01-15
We consider the problem of IR divergences of the action in the covariant formulation of teleparallel gravity in asymptotically Minkowski spacetimes. We show that divergences are caused by inertial effects and can be removed by adding an appropriate surface term, leading to the renormalized action. This process can be viewed as a teleparallel analog of holographic renormalization. Moreover, we explore the variational problem in teleparallel gravity and explain how the variation with respect to the spin connection should be performed. (orig.)
Brane worlds in critical gravity
Chen, Feng-Wei; Liu, Yu-Xiao; Zhong, Yuan; Wang, Yong-Qiang; Wu, Shao-Feng
2013-11-01
Recently, Lü and Pope proposed critical gravities in [Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 181302 (2011)]. In this paper we construct analytic brane solutions in critical gravity with matter. The Gibbons-Hawking surface term and junction condition are investigated, and the thin and thick brane solutions are obtained. All these branes are embedded in five-dimensional anti-de Sitter spacetimes. Our solutions are stable against scalar perturbations, and the zero modes of scalar perturbations cannot be localized on the branes.
PPN-limit of Fourth Order Gravity inspired by Scalar-Tensor Gravity
Capozziello, S.; Troisi, A.
2005-01-01
Based on the {\\it dynamical} equivalence between higher order gravity and scalar-tensor gravity the PPN-limit of fourth order gravity is discussed. We exploit this analogy developing a fourth order gravity version of the Eddington PPN-parameters. As a result, Solar System experiments can be reconciled with higher order gravity, if physical constraints descending from experiments are fulfilled.
Satellite Gravity Drilling the Earth
vonFrese, R. R. B.; Potts, L. V.; Leftwich, T. E.; Kim, H. R.; Han, S.-H.; Taylor, P. T.; Ashgharzadeh, M. F.
2005-01-01
Analysis of satellite-measured gravity and topography can provide crust-to-core mass variation models for new insi@t on the geologic evolution of the Earth. The internal structure of the Earth is mostly constrained by seismic observations and geochemical considerations. We suggest that these constraints may be augmented by gravity drilling that interprets satellite altitude free-air gravity observations for boundary undulations of the internal density layers related to mass flow. The approach involves separating the free-air anomalies into terrain-correlated and -decorrelated components based on the correlation spectrum between the anomalies and the gravity effects of the terrain. The terrain-decorrelated gravity anomalies are largely devoid of the long wavelength interfering effects of the terrain gravity and thus provide enhanced constraints for modeling mass variations of the mantle and core. For the Earth, subcrustal interpretations of the terrain-decorrelated anomalies are constrained by radially stratified densities inferred from seismic observations. These anomalies, with frequencies that clearly decrease as the density contrasts deepen, facilitate mapping mass flow patterns related to the thermodynamic state and evolution of the Earth's interior.
Gravity a very short introduction
Clifton, Timothy
2017-01-01
Gravity is one of the four fundamental interactions that exist in nature. It also has the distinction of being the oldest, weakest, and most difficult force to quantize. Understanding gravity is not only essential for understanding the motion of objects on Earth, but also the motion of all celestial objects, and even the expansion of the Universe itself. It was the study of gravity that led Einstein to his profound realizations about the nature of space and time. Gravity is not only universal, it is also essential for understanding the behavior of the Universe, and all astrophysical bodies within it. In this Very Short Introduction Timothy Clifton looks at the development of our understanding of gravity since the early observations of Kepler and Newtonian theory. He discusses Einstein's theory of gravity, which now supplants Newton's, showing how it allows us to understand why the frequency of light changes as it passes through a gravitational field, why GPS satellites need their clocks corrected as they orbi...
Threshold Gravity Determination and Artificial Gravity Studies Using Magnetic Levitation
Ramachandran, N.; Leslie, F.
2005-01-01
What is the threshold gravity (minimum gravity level) required for the nominal functioning of the human system? What dosage is required (magnitude and duration)? Do human cell lines behave differently in microgravity in response to an external stimulus? The critical need for a variable gravity simulator is emphasized by recent experiments on human epithelial cells and lymphocytes on the Space Shuttle clearly showing that cell growth and function are markedly different from those observed terrestrially. Those differences are also dramatic between cells grown in space and those in Rotating Wall Vessels (RWV), or NASA bioreactor often used to simulate microgravity, indicating that although morphological growth patterns (three dimensional growth) can be successfully simulated using RWVs, cell function performance is not reproduced - a critical difference. If cell function is dramatically affected by gravity off-loading, then cell response to stimuli such as radiation, stress, etc. can be very different from terrestrial cell lines. Yet, we have no good gravity simulator for use in study of these phenomena. This represents a profound shortcoming for countermeasures research. We postulate that we can use magnetic levitation of cells and tissue, through the use of strong magnetic fields and field gradients, as a terrestrial microgravity model to study human cells. Specific objectives of the research are: 1. To develop a tried, tested and benchmarked terrestrial microgravity model for cell culture studies; 2. Gravity threshold determination; 3. Dosage (magnitude and duration) of g-level required for nominal functioning of cells; 4. Comparisons of magnetic levitation model to other models such as RWV, hind limb suspension, etc. and 5. Cellular response to reduced gravity levels of Moon and Mars.
Hogg, Charlie A. R.; Dalziel, Stuart B.; Huppert, Herbert E.; Imberger, Jörg
2015-09-01
In many important natural and industrial systems, gravity currents of dense fluid feed basins. Examples include lakes fed by dense rivers and auditoria supplied with cooled air by ventilation systems. As we will show, the entrainment into such buoyancy driven currents can be influenced by viscous forces. Little work, however, has examined this viscous influence and how entrainment varies with the Reynolds number, Re. Using the idea of an entrainment coefficient, E, we derive a mathematical expression for the rise of the front at the top of the dense fluid ponding in a basin, where the horizontal cross-sectional area of the basin varies linearly with depth. We compare this expression to experiments on gravity currents with source Reynolds numbers, Res, covering the broad range 100 < Res < 1500. The form of the observed frontal rises was well approximated by our theory. By fitting the observed frontal rises to the theoretical form with E as the free parameter, we find a linear trend for E(Res) over the range 350 < Res < 1100, which is in the transition to turbulent flow. In the experiments, the entrainment coefficient, E, varied from 4 × 10-5 to 7 × 10-2. These observations show that viscous damping can be a dominant influence on gravity current entrainment in the laboratory and in geophysical flows in this transitional regime.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Morand, Kevin, E-mail: Kevin.Morand@lmpt.univ-tours.fr [Laboratoire de Mathematiques et Physique Theorique, Universite Francois-Rabelais Tours, Federation Denis Poisson - CNRS, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France); Solodukhin, Sergey N., E-mail: Sergey.Solodukhin@lmpt.univ-tours.fr [Laboratoire de Mathematiques et Physique Theorique, Universite Francois-Rabelais Tours, Federation Denis Poisson - CNRS, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France)
2012-08-29
The linearized massive gravity in three dimensions, over any maximally symmetric background, is known to be presented in a self-dual form as a first order equation which encodes not only the massive Klein-Gordon type field equation but also the supplementary transverse-traceless conditions. We generalize this construction to higher dimensions. The appropriate dual description in d dimensions, additionally to a (non-symmetric) tensor field h{sub {mu}{nu}}, involves an extra rank-(d-1) field equivalently represented by the torsion rank-3 tensor. The symmetry condition for h{sub {mu}{nu}} arises on-shell as a consequence of the field equations. The action principle of the dual theory is formulated. The focus has been made on four dimensions. Solving one of the fields in terms of the other and putting back in the action one obtains two other equivalent formulations of the theory in which the action is quadratic in derivatives. In one of these representations the theory is formulated entirely in terms of a rank-2 non-symmetric tensor h{sub {mu}{nu}}. This quadratic theory is not identical to the Fierz-Pauli theory and contains the coupling between the symmetric and antisymmetric parts of h{sub {mu}{nu}}. Nevertheless, the only singularity in the propagator is the same as in the Fierz-Pauli theory so that only the massive spin-2 particle is propagating. In the other representation, the theory is formulated in terms of the torsion rank-3 tensor only. We analyze the conditions which follow from the field equations and show that they restrict to 5 degrees of freedom thus producing an alternative description to the massive spin-2 particle. A generalization to higher dimensions is suggested.
Inference of Altimeter Accuracy on Along-track Gravity Anomaly Recovery
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
LI Yang
2015-04-01
Full Text Available A correlation model between along-track gravity anomaly accuracy, spatial resolution and altimeter accuracy is proposed. This new model is based on along-track gravity anomaly recovery and resolution estimation. Firstly, an error propagation formula of along-track gravity anomaly is derived from the principle of satellite altimetry. Then the mathematics between the SNR (signal to noise ratio and cross spectral coherence is deduced. The analytical correlation between altimeter accuracy and spatial resolution is finally obtained from the results above. Numerical simulation results show that along-track gravity anomaly accuracy is proportional to altimeter accuracy, while spatial resolution has a power relation with altimeter accuracy. e.g., with altimeter accuracy improving m times, gravity anomaly accuracy improves m times while spatial resolution improves m0.4644 times. This model is verified by real-world data.
Criticality in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity: gravity without graviton
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fan, Zhong-Ying [Peking University, Center of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Chen, Bin [Peking University, Center of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Peking University, Department of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Beijing (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing (China); Lue, Hong [Beijing Normal University, Department of Physics, Center for Advanced Quantum Studies, Beijing (China)
2016-10-15
General Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity with a cosmological constant allows two (A)dS spacetimes as its vacuum solutions. We find a critical point in the parameter space where the two (A)dS spacetimes coalesce into one and the linearized perturbations lack any bilinear kinetic terms. The vacuum perturbations hence lose their interpretation as linear graviton modes at the critical point. Nevertheless, the critical theory admits black hole solutions due to the nonlinear effect. We also consider Einstein gravity extended with general quadratic curvature invariants and obtain critical points where the theory has no bilinear kinetic terms for either the scalar trace mode or the transverse modes. Such critical phenomena are expected to occur frequently in general higher-derivative gravities. (orig.)
The Juno Gravity Science Instrument
Asmar, Sami W.; Bolton, Scott J.; Buccino, Dustin R.; Cornish, Timothy P.; Folkner, William M.; Formaro, Roberto; Iess, Luciano; Jongeling, Andre P.; Lewis, Dorothy K.; Mittskus, Anthony P.; Mukai, Ryan; Simone, Lorenzo
2017-11-01
The Juno mission's primary science objectives include the investigation of Jupiter interior structure via the determination of its gravitational field. Juno will provide more accurate determination of Jupiter's gravity harmonics that will provide new constraints on interior structure models. Juno will also measure the gravitational response from tides raised on Jupiter by Galilean satellites. This is accomplished by utilizing Gravity Science instrumentation to support measurements of the Doppler shift of the Juno radio signal by NASA's Deep Space Network at two radio frequencies. The Doppler data measure the changes in the spacecraft velocity in the direction to Earth caused by the Jupiter gravity field. Doppler measurements at X-band (˜ 8 GHz) are supported by the spacecraft telecommunications subsystem for command and telemetry and are used for spacecraft navigation as well as Gravity Science. The spacecraft also includes a Ka-band (˜ 32 GHz) translator and amplifier specifically for the Gravity Science investigation contributed by the Italian Space Agency. The use of two radio frequencies allows for improved accuracy by removal of noise due to charged particles along the radio signal path.
Improved Airborne Gravity Results Using New Relative Gravity Sensor Technology
Brady, N.
2013-12-01
Airborne gravity data has contributed greatly to our knowledge of subsurface geophysics particularly in rugged and otherwise inaccessible areas such as Antarctica. Reliable high quality GPS data has renewed interest in improving the accuracy of airborne gravity systems and recent improvements in the electronic control of the sensor have increased the accuracy and ability of the classic Lacoste and Romberg zero length spring gravity meters to operate in turbulent air conditions. Lacoste and Romberg type gravity meters provide increased sensitivity over other relative gravity meters by utilizing a mass attached to a horizontal beam which is balanced by a ';zero length spring'. This type of dynamic gravity sensor is capable of measuring gravity changes on the order of 0.05 milliGals in laboratory conditions but more commonly 0.7 to 1 milliGal in survey use. The sensor may have errors induced by the electronics used to read the beam position as well as noise induced by unwanted accelerations, commonly turbulence, which moves the beam away from its ideal balance position otherwise known as the reading line. The sensor relies on a measuring screw controlled by a computer which attempts to bring the beam back to the reading line position. The beam is also heavily damped so that it does not react to most unwanted high frequency accelerations. However this heavily damped system is slow to react, particularly in turns where there are very high Eotvos effects. New sensor technology utilizes magnetic damping of the beam coupled with an active feedback system which acts to effectively keep the beam locked at the reading line position. The feedback system operates over the entire range of the system so there is now no requirement for a measuring screw. The feedback system operates at very high speed so that even large turbulent events have minimal impact on data quality and very little, if any, survey line data is lost because of large beam displacement errors. Airborne testing
Padmanabhan, T
2015-01-01
The equations of motion describing all physical systems, except gravity, remain invariant if a constant is added to the Lagrangian. In the conventional approach, gravitational theories break this symmetry exhibited by all other physical systems. Restoring this symmetry to gravity and demanding that gravitational field equations should also remain invariant under the addition of a constant to a Lagrangian, leads to the interpretation of gravity as the thermodynamic limit of the kinetic theory of atoms of space. This approach selects, in a very natural fashion, Einstein's general relativity in $d=4$. Developing this paradigm at a deeper level, one can obtain the distribution function for the atoms of space and connect it up with the thermodynamic description of spacetime. This extension relies on a curious fact that the quantum spacetime endows each event with a finite area but zero volume. This approach allows us determine the numerical value of the cosmological constant and suggests a new perspective on cosmo...
Kinetic Quantum Theory of Gravity
DeAquino, F
2002-01-01
Gravity is here quantized starting from the generalization of the action function. This leads to an equation of correlation between gravitational and inertial masses, which depends on the particle's kinetic energy. We show that there is a reaffirmation of the strong equivalence principle and consequently the Einstein's equations are preserved. In fact such equations are deduced here directly from this kinetic approach to Gravity. Moreover, we have obtained a generalized equation for inertial forces, which incorporates the Mach's principle into Gravitation. Also, we have deduced the equation of Entropy; the Hamiltonian for a particle in an electromagnetic field and the reciprocal fine structure constant. It is possible to deduce the expression of the Casimir force and also to explain the Inflation Period and the Missing Matter without assuming the existence of vacuum fluctuations. This new approach for Gravity will allow us to understand some crucial matters in Cosmology.
Kinetic Quantum Theory of Gravity
DeAquino, F
2002-01-01
Starting from the action function we have derived a theoretical background that leads to quantization of gravity and the deduction of a correlation between the gravitational and inertial masses, which depends on the kinetic momentum of the particle. We show that there is a reaffirmation of the strong equivalence principle and consequently the Einstein's equations are preserved. In fact such equations are deduced here directly from this kinetic approach to Gravity. Moreover, we have obtained a generalized equation for inertial forces, which incorporates the Mach's principle into Gravitation. Also, we have deduced the equation of Entropy; the Hamiltonian for a particle in an electromagnetic field and the reciprocal fine structure constant. It is possible to deduce the expression of the Casimir force and also to explain the Inflation Period and the Missing Matter without assuming the existence of vacuum fluctuations. This new approach for Gravity will allow us to understand some crucial matters in Cosmology.
Inconsistencies in Verlinde's emergent gravity
Dai, De-Chang; Stojkovic, Dejan
2017-11-01
We point out that recent Verlinde's proposal of emergent gravity suffers from some internal inconsistencies. The main idea in this proposal is to preserve general relativity at short scales where numerous tests verified its validity, but modify it on large scales where we meet puzzles raised by observations (in particular dark matter), by using some entropic concepts. We first point out that gravity as a conservative force is very difficult (if possible at all) to portray as an entropic force. We then show that the derivation of the MOND relation using the elastic strain idea is not self-consistent. When properly done, Verlinde's elaborate procedure recovers the standard Newtonian gravity instead of MOND.
Warping the Weak Gravity Conjecture
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Karta Kooner
2016-08-01
Full Text Available The Weak Gravity Conjecture, if valid, rules out simple models of Natural Inflation by restricting their axion decay constant to be sub-Planckian. We revisit stringy attempts to realise Natural Inflation, with a single open string axionic inflaton from a probe D-brane in a warped throat. We show that warped geometries can allow the requisite super-Planckian axion decay constant to be achieved, within the supergravity approximation and consistently with the Weak Gravity Conjecture. Preliminary estimates of the brane backreaction suggest that the probe approximation may be under control. However, there is a tension between large axion decay constant and high string scale, where the requisite high string scale is difficult to achieve in all attempts to realise large field inflation using perturbative string theory. We comment on the Generalized Weak Gravity Conjecture in the light of our results.
Basement structures over Rio Grande Rise from gravity inversion
Constantino, Renata Regina; Hackspacher, Peter Christian; de Souza, Iata Anderson; Lima Costa, Iago Sousa
2017-04-01
The basement depth in the Rio Grande Rise (RGR), South Atlantic, is estimated from combining gravity data obtained from satellite altimetry, marine surveys, bathymetry, sediment thickness and crustal thickness information. We formulate a crustal model of the region by inverse gravity modeling. The effect of the sediment layer is evaluated using the global sediment thickness model of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and fitting the sediment compaction model to observed density values from Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) reports. The Global Relief Model ETOPO1 and constraining data from seismic interpretation on crustal thickness are integrated in the inversion process. The modeled Moho depth values vary between 6 and 27 km over the area, being thicker under the RGR and also in the direction of São Paulo Plateau. The inversion for the gravity-equivalent basement topography is applied to gravity residual data, which is free from the gravity effect of sediments and from the gravity effect of the estimated Moho interface. We find several short-wavelengths structures not present in the bathymetry data. Our model shows a rift crossing the entire Rio Grande Rise deeper than previously presented in literature, with depths up to 5 km in the East Rio Grande Rise (ERGR) and deeper in the West Rio Grande Rise (WRGR), reaching 6.4 km. An interesting NS structure that goes from 34°S and extends through de São Paulo Ridge may be related to the South Atlantic Opening and could reveal an extinct spreading center.
IceBridge ZLS Dynamic Gravity Meter Time-Registered L1B Vertical Accelerations V001
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains vertical, cross body, and along body acceleration values for geophysical survey flights in Antarctica using the ZLS Dynamic Gravity Meter. The...
Acoustic-gravity nonlinear structures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Jovanović
2002-01-01
Full Text Available A catalogue of nonlinear vortex structures associated with acoustic-gravity perturbations in the Earth's atmosphere is presented. Besides the previously known Kelvin-Stewart cat's eyes, dipolar and tripolar structures, new solutions having the form of a row of counter-rotating vortices, and several weakly two-dimensional vortex chains are given. The existence conditions for these nonlinear structures are discussed with respect to the presence of inhomogeneities of the shear flows. The mode-coupling mechanism for the nonlinear generation of shear flows in the presence of linearly unstable acoustic-gravity waves, possibly also leading to intermittency and chaos, is presented.
Gravity research at Cottrell observatory
Tuman, V. S.; Anderson, J. D.; Lau, E. L.
1977-01-01
The Cottrell gravity research observatory and work in progress are described. Equipment in place and equipment to be installed, the cryogenic gravity meter (CGM), concrete pads to support the vertical seismometer, CGM, and guest experiments, techniques of data analysis, and improvements needed in the CGM are discussed. Harmonic earth eigenvibrations with multipole moments are examined and their compatibility with a fictitious black hole binary system (of which the primary central mass is assigned a value one million solar masses) located 400 light-years away is shown by calculations.
Probing Gravity with Spacetime Sirens
Deffayet, Cédric; Menou, Kristen
2007-10-01
A gravitational observatory such as LISA will detect coalescing pairs of massive black holes, accurately measure their luminosity distance, and help identify a host galaxy or an electromagnetic counterpart. If dark energy is a manifestation of modified gravity on large scales, gravitational waves from cosmologically distant spacetime sirens are direct probes of this new physics. For example, a gravitational Hubble diagram based on black hole pair luminosity distances and host galaxy redshifts could reveal a large distance extradimensional leakage of gravity. Various additional signatures may be expected in a gravitational signal propagated over cosmological scales.
Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for MS02 (2016)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data over southern Arizona and New Mexico overlapping into Mexico collected in 2016 over 2 surveys, AZ16-1 and AZ16-2. This data set is part of the...
Wisconsin Gravity Data for the Ashland Area
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (327 records) were compiled by Mr. Bernard Coakley. This data base was received in June 1985. Principal gravity parameters include latitude,...
Gravity Data for Indiana (300 records compiled)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity data (300 records) were compiled by Purdue University. This data base was received in February 1993. Principal gravity parameters include Free-air...
Nevada Isostatic Residual Gravity Over Basement
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study of gravity data from Nevada is part of a statewide analysis of mineral resources. The main objective of the gravity study were: 1) to infer the structure...
SEG US Bouguer Gravity Anomaly Grid
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The SEG gravity data are the product of the ad hoc Gravity Anomaly Map (GAM) Committee, sponsored by the Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG) and the U.S....
Maine Onshore Complete Bouguer Gravity Anomaly Data
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (18,461 records) were compiled by the U. S. Geological Survey. This data base was received on February 23, 1993. Principal gravity...
Maine Offshore Free-air Anomaly Gravity
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (5,363 records) were compiled by the U. S. Geological Survey. This data base was received on February 23, 1993. Principal gravity parameters...
Gravity Data for California and Southern Nevada
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity data (88,514 records) were compiled largely from a state-wide regional gravity study program organized by the California Division of Mines and Geology in...
Wisconsin Gravity Data for the Prentice Area
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (898 records) were compiled by Professor Ervin. This data base was received in January 1987. Principal gravity parameters include Free-Air...
Gravity Data for the Greater Portland Area
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (1,522 records) were compiled by the Portland State University. This data base was received in August 1990. Principal gravity parameters...
Wisconsin Gravity Data for the Marshfield Area
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (8388 records) were compiled by Professor Ervin. This data base was received in April 1993. Principal gravity parameters include Free-Air...
Wisconsin Gravity Data for the Sawyers Area
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (3814 records) were compiled by Professor Ervin. This data base was received in April 1993. Principal gravity parameters include Free-Air...
Idaho Batholith Study Area Gravity Data
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (32,152 records) were compiled by the U. S. Geological Survey. This data base was received on February 23, 1993. Principal gravity...
Gravity Data for the State of Nevada
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gravity data for the entire state of Nevada and adjacent parts of California, Utah, and Arizona are presented. About 80,000 gravity stations were compiled primarily...
Gravity Data For The State of Ohio
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (6,591 records) were compiled by the U. S. Geological Survey. This data base was received on February 23, 1993. Principal gravity parameters...
Gravity Data for portions of Ohio
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (1,037 records) were compiled by Doctor Stierman. This data base was received in June 1992. Principal gravity parameters include Free-Air...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bejarano, Cecilia; Guzman, Maria Jose [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ferraro, Rafael [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad de Buenos Aires, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Buenos Aires (Argentina)
2015-02-01
Null tetrads are shown to be a valuable tool in teleparallel theories of modified gravity. We use them to prove that Kerr geometry remains a solution for a wide family of f(T) theories of gravity. (orig.)
Modified gravity from the quantum part of the metric
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dzhunushaliev, Vladimir [KazNU, Department of Theoretical and Nuclear Physics, Almaty (Kazakhstan); IETP, Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty (Kazakhstan); NAS of the Kyrgyz Republic, Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan). Institute of Physicotechnical Problems and Material Science; Universitaet Oldenburg, Institut fuer Physik, Oldenburg (Germany); Folomeev, Vladimir [IETP, Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty (Kazakhstan); NAS of the Kyrgyz Republic, Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan). Institute of Physicotechnical Problems and Material Science; Kleihaus, Burkhard; Kunz, Jutta [Universitaet Oldenburg, Institut fuer Physik, Oldenburg (Germany)
2014-01-15
It is shown that if a metric in quantum gravity can be decomposed as a sum of classical and quantum parts, then Einstein quantum gravity looks approximately like modified gravity with a nonminimal interaction between gravity and matter. (orig.)
Lovelock gravity, black holes and holography
Otero Camaño, Xián
2013-01-01
Lovelock theory is the natural extension of General Relativity to higher di- mensions and can also be thought of as a toy model for ghost-free higher curvature gravity. These gravity theories capture some of the de ning fea- tures of higher curvature gravities, namely the existence of more than one (A)dS vacuum and an intricate dynamics, more general black hole solutions and instabilities; while avoiding some of their problems. In particular, Love- lock gravities yield secon...
Three-dimensional tricritical gravity
Bergshoeff, Eric A.; de Haan, Sjoerd; Merbis, Wout; Rosseel, Jan; Zojer, Thomas
2012-01-01
We consider a class of parity-even, six-derivative gravity theories in three dimensions. After linearizing around anti-de Sitter space, the theories have one massless and two massive graviton solutions for generic values of the parameters. At a special, so-called tricritical, point in parameter
Antihydrogen Experiment Gravity Interferometry Spectroscopy
Tietje, I C; Trezzi, D; Dassa, L; Rienacker, B; Khalidova, O; Ferrari, G; Krasnicky, D; Perini, D; Cerchiari, G; Belov, A; Boscolo, I; Sacerdoti, M G; Ferragut, R O; Nedelec, P; Hinterberger, A; Al-qaradawi, I; Malbrunot, C L S; Brusa, R S; Prelz, F; Manuzio, G; Riccardi, C; Fontana, A; Genova, P; Haider, S; Haug, F; Turbabin, A; Castelli, F; Testera, G; Lagomarsino, V E; Doser, M; Penasa, L; Gninenko, S; Cataneo, F; Zenoni, A; Cabaret, L; Comparat, D P; Zmeskal, J; Scampoli, P; Nesteruk, K P; Dudarev, A; Kellerbauer, A G; Mariazzi, S; Fesel, J V; Carraro, C; Zavatarelli, S M
The AEGIS experiment (Antihydrogen Experiment: Gravity, Interferometry, Spectroscopy) has the aim of carrying out the first measurement of the gravitational interaction of antimatter to a precision of 1%, by applying techniques from atomic physics, laser spectroscopy and interferometry to a beam of antihydrogen atoms. A further goal of the experiment is to carry out spectroscopy of the antihydrogen atoms in flight.
Massive Gravity in Three Dimensions
Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Hohm, Olaf; Townsend, Paul K.
2009-01-01
A particular higher-derivative extension of the Einstein-Hilbert action in three spacetime dimensions is shown to be equivalent at the linearized level to the (unitary) Pauli-Fierz action for a massive spin-2 field. A more general model, which also includes "topologically-massive" gravity as a
Quintic quasi-topological gravity
Cisterna, Adolfo; Guajardo, Luis; Hassaïne, Mokhtar; Oliva, Julio
2017-04-01
We construct a quintic quasi-topological gravity in five dimensions, i.e. a theory with a Lagrangian containing {\\mathcal{R}}^5 terms and whose field equations are of second order on spherically (hyperbolic or planar) symmetric spacetimes. These theories have recently received attention since when formulated on asymptotically AdS spacetimes might provide for gravity duals of a broad class of CFTs. For simplicity we focus on five dimensions. We show that this theory fulfils a Birkhoff's Theorem as it is the case in Lovelock gravity and therefore, for generic values of the couplings, there is no s-wave propagating mode. We prove that the spherically symmetric solution is determined by a quintic algebraic polynomial equation which resembles Wheeler's polynomial of Lovelock gravity. For the black hole solutions we compute the temperature, mass and entropy and show that the first law of black holes thermodynamics is fulfilled. Besides of being of fourth order in general, we show that the field equations, when linearized around AdS are of second order, and therefore the theory does not propagate ghosts around this background. Besides the class of theories originally introduced in arXiv:1003.4773, the general geometric structure of these Lagrangians remains an open problem.
Quantum gravity and quantum cosmology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Calcagni, Gianluca [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Estructura de la Materia; Papantonopoulos, Lefteris [National Technical Univ. of Athens (Greece). Dept. of Physics; Siopsis, George [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Tsamis, Nikos (eds.) [Crete Univ, Heraklion (Greece). Dept. of Physics
2013-02-01
With contributions by leading researcher in the field. Chapters written as both tutorial and state-of-the-art surveys. Can be used both as advanced course material and for self study. Quantum gravity has developed into a fast-growing subject in physics and it is expected that probing the high-energy and high-curvature regimes of gravitating systems will shed some light on how to eventually achieve an ultraviolet complete quantum theory of gravity. Such a theory would provide the much needed information about fundamental problems of classical gravity, such as the initial big-bang singularity, the cosmological constant problem, Planck scale physics and the early-time inflationary evolution of our Universe. While in the first part of this book concepts of quantum gravity are introduced and approached from different angles, the second part discusses these theories in connection with cosmological models and observations, thereby exploring which types of signatures of modern and mathematically rigorous frameworks can be detected by experiments. The third and final part briefly reviews the observational status of dark matter and dark energy, and introduces alternative cosmological models.
Ghost quintessence in fractal gravity
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In this study, using the time-like fractal theory of gravity, we mainly focus on the ghost dark energy model which was recently suggested to explain the present acceleration of the cosmic expansion. Next, we establish a connection between the quintessence scalar field and fractal ghost dark energy density.
Light, Gravity and Black Holes
Falla, David
2012-01-01
The nature of light and how it is affected by gravity is discussed. Einstein's prediction of the deflection of light as it passes near the Sun was verified by observations made during the solar eclipse of 1919. Another prediction was that of gravitational redshift, which occurs when light emitted by a star loses energy in the gravitational field…
Localized gravity in string theory.
Karch, A; Randall, L
2001-08-06
We propose a string realization of the AdS4 brane in AdS5 that is known to localize gravity. Our theory is M D5 branes in the near horizon geometry of N D3 branes, where M and N are appropriately tuned.
Electrostatic analogy for symmetron gravity
Ogden, Lillie; Brown, Katherine; Mathur, Harsh; Rovelli, Kevin
2017-12-01
The symmetron model is a scalar-tensor theory of gravity with a screening mechanism that suppresses the effect of the symmetron field at high densities characteristic of the Solar System and laboratory scales but allows it to act with gravitational strength at low density on the cosmological scale. We elucidate the screening mechanism by showing that in the quasistatic Newtonian limit there are precise analogies between symmetron gravity and electrostatics for both strong and weak screening. For strong screening we find that large dense bodies behave in a manner analogous to perfect conductors in electrostatics. Based on this analogy we find that the symmetron field exhibits a lightning rod effect wherein the field gradients are enhanced near the ends of pointed or elongated objects. An ellipsoid placed in a uniform symmetron gradient is shown to experience a torque. By symmetry there is no gravitational torque in this case. Hence this effect unmasks the symmetron and might serve as the basis for future laboratory experiments. The symmetron force between a point mass and a large dense body includes a component corresponding to the interaction of the point mass with its image in the larger body. None of these effects have counterparts in the Newtonian limit of Einstein gravity. We discuss the similarities between symmetron gravity and the chameleon model as well as the differences between the two.
Klasing, Mariko; Milionis, Petros; Zymek, Robert
2016-01-01
How well can the standard gravity equation account for the evolution of global trade flows over the long run? This paper provides the first systematic attempt to answer this question using a newly-assembled data set of bilateral trade flows, income levels and trade frictions that spans the years
Fuchs, M.J.; Bouman, J.; Broerse, T.; Visser, P.; Vermeersen, B.
2013-01-01
The Japan Tohoku-Oki earthquake (9.0 Mw) of 11 March 2011 has left signatures in the Earth's gravity field that are detectable by data of the Gravity field Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission. Because the European Space Agency's (ESA) satellite gravity mission Gravity field and
Focus on quantum Einstein gravity Focus on quantum Einstein gravity
Ambjorn, Jan; Reuter, Martin; Saueressig, Frank
2012-09-01
The gravitational asymptotic safety program summarizes the attempts to construct a consistent and predictive quantum theory of gravity within Wilson's generalized framework of renormalization. Its key ingredient is a non-Gaussian fixed point of the renormalization group flow which controls the behavior of the theory at trans-Planckian energies and renders gravity safe from unphysical divergences. Provided that the fixed point comes with a finite number of ultraviolet-attractive (relevant) directions, this construction gives rise to a consistent quantum field theory which is as predictive as an ordinary, perturbatively renormalizable one. This opens up the exciting possibility of establishing quantum Einstein gravity as a fundamental theory of gravity, without introducing supersymmetry or extra dimensions, and solely based on quantization techniques that are known to work well for the other fundamental forces of nature. While the idea of gravity being asymptotically safe was proposed by Steven Weinberg more than 30 years ago [1], the technical tools for investigating this scenario only emerged during the last decade. Here a key role is played by the exact functional renormalization group equation for gravity, which allows the construction of non-perturbative approximate solutions for the RG-flow of the gravitational couplings. Most remarkably, all solutions constructed to date exhibit a suitable non-Gaussian fixed point, lending strong support to the asymptotic safety conjecture. Moreover, the functional renormalization group also provides indications that the central idea of a non-Gaussian fixed point providing a safe ultraviolet completion also carries over to more realistic scenarios where gravity is coupled to a suitable matter sector like the standard model. These theoretical successes also triggered a wealth of studies focusing on the consequences of asymptotic safety in a wide range of phenomenological applications covering the physics of black holes, early
Generalized geometry and non-symmetric gravity
Jurco, Branislav; Khoo, Fech Scen; Schupp, Peter; Vysoky, Jan
2015-01-01
Generalized geometry provides the framework for a systematic approach to non-symmetric metric gravity theory and naturally leads to an Einstein-Kalb-Ramond gravity theory with totally anti-symmetric contortion. The approach is related to the study of the low-energy effective closed string gravity actions.
Workshop on Topics in Three Dimensional Gravity
2016-01-01
Gravity in three dimensions has rather special features which makes it particularly suitable for addressing questions related to the quantization of gravity and puzzles concerning black hole physics. AdS3 gravity and in particular AdS3/CFT2 has played a crucial role in black hole microstate counting, and more recently in studying holographic entanglement entropy and higher spin theories.
Asymptotic symmetry algebra of conformal gravity
Irakleidou, Maria; Lovrekovic, Iva
2017-11-01
We compute asymptotic symmetry algebras of conformal gravity. Due to more general boundary conditions allowed in conformal gravity in comparison to those in Einstein gravity, we can classify the corresponding algebras. The highest algebra for nontrivial boundary conditions is five dimensional and it leads to global geon solution with nonvanishing charges.
Flattening the inflaton potential beyond minimal gravity
Lee, Hyun Min
2018-01-01
We review the status of the Starobinsky-like models for inflation beyond minimal gravity and discuss the unitarity problem due to the presence of a large non-minimal gravity coupling. We show that the induced gravity models allow for a self-consistent description of inflation and discuss the implications of the inflaton couplings to the Higgs field in the Standard Model.
Decoupling of gravity on non-susy Dp branes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nayek, Kuntal; Roy, Shibaji [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics,1/AF Bidhannagar, Calcutta, 700064 (India)
2016-03-15
We study the graviton scattering in the background of non-susy Dp branes of type II string theories consisting of a metric, a dilaton and a (p+1) form gauge field. We show numerically that in these backgrounds graviton experiences a scattering potential which takes the form of an infinite barrier in the low energy (near brane) limit for p≤5 and therefore is never able to reach the branes. This shows, contrary to what is known in the literature, that gravity indeed decouples from the non-susy Dp branes for p≤5. For non-susy D6 brane, gravity couples as there is no such barrier for the potential. To give further credence to our claim we solve the scattering equation in some situation analytically and calculate the graviton absorption cross-sections on the non-susy branes and show that they vanish for p≤4 in the low energy limit. This shows, as in the case of BPS branes, that gravity does decouple for non-susy Dp branes for p≤4 but it does not decouple for D6 brane as the potential here is always attractive. We argue for the non-susy D5 brane that depending on one of the parameters of the solution gravity either always decouples (unlike the BPS D5 brane) or it decouples when the energy of the graviton is below certain critical value, otherwise it couples, very similar to BPS D5 brane.
Global gravity survey by an orbiting gravity gradiometer
Paik, Ho Jung; Leung, Jurn-Sun; Morgan, Samuel H.; Parker, Joseph
1988-11-01
The scientific aims, design, and mission profile of the Superconducting Gravity Gradiometer Mission (SGGM), a NASA spacecraft mission proposed for the late 1990s, are discussed and illustrated with drawings and diagrams. SGGM would complement the two other planned gravimetry missions, GRM and Aristoteles, and would provide gravitational-field measurements with accuracy 2-3 mGal in 55 x 55-km blocks. The principal instruments are a (1) three-axis superconducting gravity gradiometer with intrinsic sensitivity 100 microeotvos/sq rt Hz, (2) a six-axis superconducting accelerometer with sensitivity 100 fg(E)/sq rt Hz linear and 10 prad/sec squared sq rt Hz angular, and (3) a six-axis shaker for active control of the platform. Consideration is given to the error budget and platform requirements, the orbit selection criteria, and the spacecraft design.
Seasonal gravity changes estimated from GRACE data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhengbo Zou
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Since 2002, the GRACE program has provided a large amount of high-precision data, which can be used to detect temporal gravity variations related to global mass re-distribution inside the fluid envelop of the surface of the Earth. In order to make use of the GRACE data to investigate earthquake-related gravity changes in China, we first studied the degree variances of the monthly GRACE gravity field models, and then applied decor-relation and Gaussian smoothing method to obtain seasonal gravity changes in China. By deducting the multi-year mean seasonal variations from the seasonal maps, we found some earthquake-related gravity anomalies.
Vaidya spacetime in massive gravity's rainbow
Heydarzade, Yaghoub; Rudra, Prabir; Darabi, Farhad; Ali, Ahmed Farag; Faizal, Mir
2017-11-01
In this paper, we will analyze the energy dependent deformation of massive gravity using the formalism of massive gravity's rainbow. So, we will use the Vainshtein mechanism and the dRGT mechanism for the energy dependent massive gravity, and thus analyze a ghost free theory of massive gravity's rainbow. We study the energy dependence of a time-dependent geometry, by analyzing the radiating Vaidya solution in this theory of massive gravity's rainbow. The energy dependent deformation of this Vaidya metric will be performed using suitable rainbow functions.
Vaidya spacetime in massive gravity's rainbow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yaghoub Heydarzade
2017-11-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we will analyze the energy dependent deformation of massive gravity using the formalism of massive gravity's rainbow. So, we will use the Vainshtein mechanism and the dRGT mechanism for the energy dependent massive gravity, and thus analyze a ghost free theory of massive gravity's rainbow. We study the energy dependence of a time-dependent geometry, by analyzing the radiating Vaidya solution in this theory of massive gravity's rainbow. The energy dependent deformation of this Vaidya metric will be performed using suitable rainbow functions.
Nonsingular universe in massive gravity's rainbow
Hendi, S. H.; Momennia, M.; Eslam Panah, B.; Panahiyan, S.
2017-06-01
One of the fundamental open questions in cosmology is whether we can regard the universe evolution without singularity like a Big Bang or a Big Rip. This challenging subject stimulates one to regard a nonsingular universe in the far past with an arbitrarily large vacuum energy. Considering the high energy regime in the cosmic history, it is believed that Einstein gravity should be corrected to an effective energy dependent theory which could be acquired by gravity's rainbow. On the other hand, employing massive gravity provided us with solutions to some of the long standing fundamental problems of cosmology such as cosmological constant problem and self acceleration of the universe. Considering these aspects of gravity's rainbow and massive gravity, in this paper, we initiate studying FRW cosmology in the massive gravity's rainbow formalism. At first, we show that although massive gravity modifies the FRW cosmology, but it does not itself remove the big bang singularity. Then, we generalize the massive gravity to the case of energy dependent spacetime and find that massive gravity's rainbow can remove the early universe singularity. We bring together all the essential conditions for having a nonsingular universe and the effects of both gravity's rainbow and massive gravity generalizations on such criteria are determined.
Topics in string theory and quantum gravity
Alvarez-Gaume, Luis
1992-01-01
These are the lecture notes for the Les Houches Summer School on Quantum Gravity held in July 1992. The notes present some general critical assessment of other (non-string) approaches to quantum gravity, and a selected set of topics concerning what we have learned so far about the subject from string theory. Since these lectures are long (133 A4 pages), we include in this abstract the table of contents, which should help the user of the bulletin board in deciding whether to latex and print the full file. 1-FIELD THEORETICAL APPROACH TO QUANTUM GRAVITY: Linearized gravity; Supergravity; Kaluza-Klein theories; Quantum field theory and classical gravity; Euclidean approach to Quantum Gravity; Canonical quantization of gravity; Gravitational Instantons. 2-CONSISTENCY CONDITIONS: ANOMALIES: Generalities about anomalies; Spinors in 2n dimensions; When can we expect to find anomalies?; The Atiyah-Singer Index Theorem and the computation of anomalies; Examples: Green-Schwarz cancellation mechanism and Witten's SU(2) ...
Butterfly effect in 3D gravity
Qaemmaqami, Mohammad M.
2017-11-01
We study the butterfly effect by considering shock wave solutions near the horizon of the anti-de Sitter black hole in some three-dimensional gravity models including 3D Einstein gravity, minimal massive 3D gravity, new massive gravity, generalized massive gravity, Born-Infeld 3D gravity, and new bigravity. We calculate the butterfly velocities of these models and also we consider the critical points and different limits in some of these models. By studying the butterfly effect in the generalized massive gravity, we observe a correspondence between the butterfly velocities and right-left moving degrees of freedom or the central charges of the dual 2D conformal field theories.
Conformal transformation route to gravity's rainbow
He, Miao; Li, Ping; Wang, Zi-Liang; Ding, Jia-Cheng; Deng, Jian-Bo
2018-02-01
Conformal transformation as a mathematical tool has been used in many areas of gravitational physics. In this paper, we consider gravity's rainbow, in which the metric can be treated as a conformal rescaling of the original metric. By using the conformal transformation technique, we get a specific form of a modified Newton's constant and cosmological constant in gravity's rainbow, which implies that the total vacuum energy is dependent on probe energy. Moreover, the result shows that Einstein gravity's rainbow can be described by energy-dependent f(E,\\tilde{R}) gravity. At last, we study the f( R) gravity, when gravity's rainbow is considered, which can also be described as energy-dependent \\tilde{f}(E,\\tilde{R}) gravity.
Black holes in massive gravity
Babichev, Eugeny
2015-01-01
We review the black hole solutions of the ghost-free massive gravity theory and its bimetric extension and outline the main results on the stability of these solutions against small perturbations. Massive (bi)-gravity accommodates exact black hole solutions, analogous to those of General Relativity. In addition to these solutions, hairy black holes -- solutions with no correspondent in General Relativity -- have been found numerically, whose existence is a natural consequence of the absence of the Birkhoff's theorem in these theories. The existence of extra propagating degrees of freedom, makes the stability properties of these black holes richer and more complex than those of General Relativity. In particular, the bi-Schwarzschild black hole exhibits an unstable spherically symmetric mode, while the bi-Kerr geometry is also generically unstable, both against the spherical mode and against superradiant instabilities. If astrophysical black holes are described by these solutions, the superradiant instability o...
Nonlocal quantum gravity: A review
Modesto, Leonardo; Rachwał, Lesław
We hereby review a class of quantum gravitational theories based on weakly nonlocal analytic classical actions. The most general action is characterized by two nonpolynomial entire functions (form-factors) in terms quadratic in curvature. The form-factors avert the presence of poltergeists, that plague any local higher derivative theory of gravity and improve the high-energy behavior of loop amplitudes. For pedagogical purposes, it is proved that the theory is super-renormalizable in any dimension, i.e. only one-loop divergences survive, and is asymptotically free. Furthermore, due to dimensional reasons, in odd dimensions, there are no counterterms for pure gravity and the theory turns out to be finite. Moreover, we show that it is always possible to choose the additional terms in the action (higher in curvature) in such a way to make the full theory UV-finite and therefore, scale-invariant in quantum realm, also in even dimension.
GRAVITY acquisition camera: characterization results
Anugu, Narsireddy; Garcia, Paulo; Amorim, Antonio; Wiezorrek, Erich; Wieprecht, Ekkehard; Eisenhauer, Frank; Ott, Thomas; Pfuhl, Oliver; Gordo, Paulo; Perrin, Guy; Brandner, Wolfgang; Straubmeier, Christian; Perraut, Karine
2016-08-01
GRAVITY acquisition camera implements four optical functions to track multiple beams of Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI): a) pupil tracker: a 2×2 lenslet images four pupil reference lasers mounted on the spiders of telescope secondary mirror; b) field tracker: images science object; c) pupil imager: reimages telescope pupil; d) aberration tracker: images a Shack-Hartmann. The estimation of beam stabilization parameters from the acquisition camera detector image is carried out, for every 0.7 s, with a dedicated data reduction software. The measured parameters are used in: a) alignment of GRAVITY with the VLTI; b) active pupil and field stabilization; c) defocus correction and engineering purposes. The instrument is now successfully operational on-sky in closed loop. The relevant data reduction and on-sky characterization results are reported.
Canonical Chern-Simons gravity
Sarkar, Souvik; Vaz, Cenalo
2017-07-01
We study the canonical description of the axisymmetric vacuum in 2 +1 -dimensional gravity, treating Einstein's gravity as a Chern-Simons gauge theory on a manifold with the restriction that the dreibein is invertible. Our treatment is in the spirit of Kuchař's description of the Schwarzschild black hole in 3 +1 dimensions, where the mass and angular momentum are expressed in terms of the canonical variables and a series of canonical transformations that turn the curvature coordinates and their conjugate momenta into new canonical variables is performed. In their final form, the constraints are seen to require that the momenta conjugate to the Killing time and curvature radius vanish, and what remains is the mass, the angular momentum, and their conjugate momenta, which we derive. The Wheeler-DeWitt equation is trivial and describes time independent systems with wave functions described only by the total mass and total angular momentum.
Solving higher curvature gravity theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chakraborty, Sumanta [IUCAA, Pune (India); SenGupta, Soumitra [Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Theoretical Physics Department, Kolkata (India)
2016-10-15
Solving field equations in the context of higher curvature gravity theories is a formidable task. However, in many situations, e.g., in the context of f(R) theories, the higher curvature gravity action can be written as an Einstein-Hilbert action plus a scalar field action. We show that not only the action but the field equations derived from the action are also equivalent, provided the spacetime is regular. We also demonstrate that such an equivalence continues to hold even when the gravitational field equations are projected on a lower-dimensional hypersurface. We have further addressed explicit examples in which the solutions for Einstein-Hilbert and a scalar field system lead to solutions of the equivalent higher curvature theory. The same, but on the lower-dimensional hypersurface, has been illustrated in the reverse order as well. We conclude with a brief discussion on this technique of solving higher curvature field equations. (orig.)
Testing Brans-Dicke gravity using the Einstein telescope
Zhang, Xing; Yu, Jiming; Liu, Tan; Zhao, Wen; Wang, Anzhong
2017-06-01
Gravitational radiation is an excellent field for testing theories of gravity in strong gravitational fields. The current observations on the gravitational-wave (GW) bursts by LIGO have already placed various constraints on the alternative theories of gravity. In this paper, we investigate the possible bounds which could be placed on the Brans-Dicke gravity using GW detection from inspiraling compact binaries with the proposed Einstein Telescope, a third-generation GW detector. We first calculate in detail the waveforms of gravitational radiation in the lowest post-Newtonian approximation, including the tensor and scalar fields, which can be divided into the three polarization modes, i.e., "plus mode," "cross mode," and "breathing mode." Applying the stationary phase approximation, we obtain their Fourier transforms, and derive the correction terms in amplitude, phase, and polarization of GWs, relative to the corresponding results in general relativity. Imposing the noise level of the Einstein Telescope, we find that the GW detection from inspiraling compact binaries, composed of a neutron star and a black hole, can place stringent constraints on the Brans-Dicke gravity. The bound on the coupling constant ωBD depends on the mass, sky position, inclination angle, polarization angle, luminosity distance, redshift distribution, and total observed number NGW of the binary systems. Taking into account all the burst events up to redshift z =5 , we find that the bound could be ωBD≳1 06×(NGW/1 04)1/2. Even for the conservative estimation with 1 04 observed events, the bound is still more than one order tighter than the current limit from Solar System experiments. So, we conclude that the Einstein Telescope will provide a powerful platform to test alternative theories of gravity.
Schwarzschild instanton in emergent gravity
Chanda, Sumanto; Guha, Partha; Roychowdhury, Raju
2017-09-01
In the bottom-up approach of emergent gravity, we attempt to find symplectic gauge fields emerging from Euclidean Schwarzschild instanton, which is studied as electromagnetism defined on the symplectic space (M,ω). Geometrical engineering with the emergent metric sets up the Seiberg-Witten map between commutative and non-commutative gauge fields, preparing the ground for the evaluation of topological invariants in terms of the underlying gauge theory quantities.
Geologic Interpretation of Gravity Anomalies
1990-04-19
stratigraphic horizons/levels, but also in facial -lithologic special features of these rocks. Page 410-411. I I Doe-= 000002-02 2/2 8 U 4 l DOC - 88020221...38 (967, 11l). D e a n W. C. Frequency analisis for gravity and magnetic interpretation. Geophys.. vol. XXIII. No 1. 1958. E I c i n s T. A. The
Teleparallel formalism of galilean gravity
Ulhoa, S. C.; Khanna, F. C.; Santana, A.E.
2011-01-01
A pseudo-Riemannian manifold is introduced, with light-cone coordinates in (4+1) dimensional space-time, to describe a Galilei covariant gravity. The notion of 5-bein and torsion are developed and a galilean version of teleparallelism is constructed in this manifold. The formalism is applied to two spherically symmetric configurations. The first one is an ansatz which is inferred by following the Schwarzschild solution in general relativity. The second one is a solution of galilean covariant ...
Elandt, Ryan B.; Shakeri, Mostafa; Alam, Mohammad-Reza
2014-02-01
Here we show that a nonlinear resonance between oceanic surface waves caused by small seabed features (the so-called Bragg resonance) can be utilized to create the equivalent of lenses and curved mirrors for surface gravity waves. Such gravity wave lenses, which are merely small changes to the seafloor topography and therefore are surface noninvasive, can focus or defocus the energy of incident waves toward or away from any desired focal point. We further show that for a broadband incident wave spectrum (i.e., a wave group composed of a multitude of different-frequency waves), a polychromatic topography (occupying no more than the area required for a monochromatic lens) can achieve a broadband lensing effect. Gravity wave lenses can be utilized to create localized high-energy wave zones (e.g., for wave energy harvesting or creating artificial surf zones) as well as to disperse waves in order to create protected areas (e.g., harbors or areas near important offshore facilities). In reverse, lensing of oceanic waves may be caused by natural seabed features and may explain the frequent appearance of very high amplitude waves in certain bodies of water.
Solid holography and massive gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alberte, Lasma [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics,Strada Costiera 11, 34151, Trieste (Italy); Baggioli, Matteo [Institut de Física d’Altes Energies (IFAE),The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology (BIST), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Department of Physics, Institute for Condensed Matter Theory, University of Illinois,1110 W. Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Khmelnitsky, Andrei [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera 11, 34151, Trieste (Italy); Pujolàs, Oriol [Institut de Física d’Altes Energies (IFAE),The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology (BIST), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)
2016-02-17
Momentum dissipation is an important ingredient in condensed matter physics that requires a translation breaking sector. In the bottom-up gauge/gravity duality, this implies that the gravity dual is massive. We start here a systematic analysis of holographic massive gravity (HMG) theories, which admit field theory dual interpretations and which, therefore, might store interesting condensed matter applications. We show that there are many phases of HMG that are fully consistent effective field theories and which have been left overlooked in the literature. The most important distinction between the different HMG phases is that they can be clearly separated into solids and fluids. This can be done both at the level of the unbroken spacetime symmetries as well as concerning the elastic properties of the dual materials. We extract the modulus of rigidity of the solid HMG black brane solutions and show how it relates to the graviton mass term. We also consider the implications of the different HMGs on the electric response. We show that the types of response that can be consistently described within this framework is much wider than what is captured by the narrow class of models mostly considered so far.
Mccay, M. H.; Lee, J. E.; Curreri, P. A.
1986-01-01
The effect of alternating low (0.01 g) and high (1.8 g) gravity force on the primary spacings in the dendrite structure in a directionally solidified Ni-based superalloy (PWA 1480, containing 5 pct Co, 10 pct Cr, 4 pct W, 12 pct Ta, 5 pct Al, 1.5 pct Ti, and the balance Ni) was investigated using samples solidified in a directional solidification furnace aboard the NASA KC-135 aircraft that made a series of low-g parabolas. The cross-section slices for each growth rate were polished and etched with Kallings II, and the primary dendritic arm spacings were measured using the method of Jacobi and Schwerdtfeger (1976). The arm spacings were found to fluctuate with gravity force, increasing as the gravity level decreased, and growing finer as gravity increased.
Measuring Gravity in International Trade Flows
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. Young Song
2004-12-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is two-fold. One is to clarify the concept of gravity in international trade flows. The other is to measure the strength of gravity in international trade flows in a way that is consistent with a well-defined concept of gravity. This paper shows that the widely accepted belief that specialization is the source of gravity is not well grounded on theory. We propose to define gravity in international trade as the force that makes the market shares of an exporting country constant in all importing countries, regardless of their sizes. In a stochastic context, we should interpret it as implying that the strength of gravity increases i as the correlation between market shares and market sizes gets weaker and ii as the variance of market shares gets smaller. We estimate an empirical gravity equation thoroughly based on this definition of gravity. We find that a strong degree of gravity exists in most bilateral trade, regardless of income levels of countries, and in trade of most manThe purpose of this paper is two-fold. One is to clarify the concept of gravity in international trade flows. The other is to measure the strength of gravity in international trade flows in a way that is consistent with a well-defined concept of gravity. This paper shows that the widely accepted belief that specialization is the source of gravity is not well grounded on theory. We propose to define gravity in international trade as the force that makes the market shares of an exporting country constant in all importing countries, regardless of their sizes. In a stochastic context, we should interpret it as implying that the strength of gravity increases i as the correlation between market shares and market sizes gets weaker and ii as the variance of market shares gets smaller. We estimate an empirical gravity equation thoroughly based on this definition of gravity. We find that a strong degree of gravity exists in most bilateral trade, regardless of
Plant sensing: gravity and touch
Gilroy, S.; Swanson, S.; Massa, G.
Roots must integrate many stimuli in order to direct their growth as they explore the soil. Gravitropism leads to downward growth but other stimuli such as gradients in nutrients, water, biotic and abiotic stresses and physical obstacles such as rocks all act on the roots sensory systems to modify this gravitropic response. We have therefore investigated the interaction of gravity signaling and response to other stimuli such as a mechanical obstruction to downward growth. A gravitropically directed primary root of Arabidopsis thaliana (growing vertically) senses an obstacle such as a glass plate placed in its direction of growth and initiates an avoidance growth response upon contacting the barrier. This response appears to be caused by an interaction of gravitropic and thigmotropic sensory systems. The touch stimulation of the root cap leads to alteration in growth, initially in the central and later in the distal elongation zone of the root. These growth responses maintain the root tip at an angle of 136 degrees to the barrier as the root grows across the obstacle's surface. Removal of cells in the root cap by laser ablation indicate that all root cap cells are required for this growth response to the barrier. Once the end of the barrier is reached and the root can grow off the obstruciton, gravitropism appears to occur faster than in roots that did not interact with an obstacle, suggesting that the touch stimulation of the barrier may alter gravitropic signaling or response. Touch stimulation of the root cap inhibited the pH-dependent gravity signaling events that are known to be required for gravitropic response. These results imply a transient suppression of gravisensing or graviresponse by touch. Touch stimulation of root cap cells elicited an increase in cytosolic Ca2+ that appears to propagate from cell to cell throughout the cap, suggesting Ca2+ signaling may underlie the communication between gravity and touch sensing cells. Although the pgm1 -1 starch
Stochastic Gravity: Theory and Applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hu Bei Lok
2004-01-01
Full Text Available Whereas semiclassical gravity is based on the semiclassical Einstein equation with sources given by the expectation value of the stress-energy tensor of quantum fields, stochastic semiclassical gravity is based on the Einstein-Langevin equation, which has in addition sources due to the noise kernel. The noise kernel is the vacuum expectation value of the (operator-valued stress-energy bi-tensor which describes the fluctuations of quantum matter fields in curved spacetimes. In the first part, we describe the fundamentals of this new theory via two approaches: the axiomatic and the functional. The axiomatic approach is useful to see the structure of the theory from the framework of semiclassical gravity, showing the link from the mean value of the stress-energy tensor to their correlation functions. The functional approach uses the Feynman-Vernon influence functional and the Schwinger-Keldysh closed-time-path effective action methods which are convenient for computations. It also brings out the open systems concepts and the statistical and stochastic contents of the theory such as dissipation, fluctuations, noise, and decoherence. We then focus on the properties of the stress-energy bi-tensor. We obtain a general expression for the noise kernel of a quantum field defined at two distinct points in an arbitrary curved spacetime as products of covariant derivatives of the quantum field's Green function. In the second part, we describe three applications of stochastic gravity theory. First, we consider metric perturbations in a Minkowski spacetime. We offer an analytical solution of the Einstein-Langevin equation and compute the two-point correlation functions for the linearized Einstein tensor and for the metric perturbations. Second, we discuss structure formation from the stochastic gravity viewpoint, which can go beyond the standard treatment by incorporating the full quantum effect of the inflaton fluctuations. Third, we discuss the backreaction
Structural geometry and gravity constraints on the Palos Verdes and Cabrillo faults
Cengelcik, Yeliz
The thesis presents and evaluates five new gravity constrained structural cross-sections about the Palos Verdes and Cabrillo faults of southern California. They both have been active since the Miocene, however the Palos Verdes fault zone is considered to be a greater seismic hazard. Using geologic, gravity and seismic data we present new interpretations about the geometry of the Palos Verdes and Cabrillo faults. In the San Pedro and Los Angeles Harbor region approximately125 new gravity data were collected with a Worden gravimeter and new structural cross-sections were constructed by using data of our gravity surveying. The collected data displays a Simple Bouguer gravity anomaly high near the Cabrillo fault and northwards toward the Palos Verdes fault there is an approximately 30 mGal decrease. The Palos Verdes fault itself is characterized by an inflection in the gravity data and a relatively flat zone immediately to the north. This shelf in the gravity data is important because the highly productive Wilmington Oil Field is located in this area and it is likely a product of the particular geometry in the region. The Palos Verdes fault also forms the edge of the larger Los Angeles Basin. Our basic interpretation is that the Palos Verdes and Cabrillo faults are primarily strike slip faults. However, a horst-like block between the two faults has been uplifted and horizontally shortened. Our main interpretation is that Catalina Schist basement uplift and subsequent basin fill to the north is responsible for the large negative gravity anomalies associated with the Palos Verdes fault.
Active Response Gravity Offload and Method
Dungan, Larry K. (Inventor); Valle, Paul S. (Inventor); Bankieris, Derek R. (Inventor); Lieberman, Asher P. (Inventor); Redden, Lee (Inventor); Shy, Cecil (Inventor)
2015-01-01
A variable gravity field simulator can be utilized to provide three dimensional simulations for simulated gravity fields selectively ranging from Moon, Mars, and micro-gravity environments and/or other selectable gravity fields. The gravity field simulator utilizes a horizontally moveable carriage with a cable extending from a hoist. The cable can be attached to a load which experiences the effects of the simulated gravity environment. The load can be a human being or robot that makes movements that induce swinging of the cable whereby a horizontal control system reduces swinging energy. A vertical control system uses a non-linear feedback filter to remove noise from a load sensor that is in the same frequency range as signals from the load sensor.
Subduction zones seen by GOCE gravity gradients
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Švarc, Mario; Herceg, Matija; Cammarano, Fabio
In this study, the GOCE (Gravity field and steady state Ocean Circulation Explorer) gradiometry data were used to study geologic structures and mass variations within the lithosphere in areas of known subduction zones. The advantage of gravity gradiometry over other gravity methods...... is that gradients are extremely sensitive to localized density contrasts within regional geological settings, which makes it ideally suited for detecting subduction zones. Second order gravity gradients of disturbing potential were extracted from global geopotential model, the fifth release GOCE model ‘EGM_TIM_RL05......’. In order to remove the signal which mainly corresponds to the gravity signal of the lower mantle, long wavelength part of the gravity signal was removed up to degree and order 60. Because the areas with notable topography differences coincide with subduction zones, topography correction was also performed...
What goes up... gravity and scientific method
Kosso, Peter
2017-01-01
The concept of gravity provides a natural phenomenon that is simultaneously obvious and obscure; we all know what it is, but rarely question why it is. The simple observation that 'what goes up must come down' contrasts starkly with our current scientific explanation of gravity, which involves challenging and sometimes counterintuitive concepts. With such extremes between the plain and the perplexing, gravity forces a sharp focus on scientific method. Following the history of gravity from Aristotle to Einstein, this clear account highlights the logic of scientific method for non-specialists. Successive theories of gravity and the evidence for each are presented clearly and rationally, focusing on the fundamental ideas behind them. Using only high-school level algebra and geometry, the author emphasizes what the equations mean rather than how they are derived, making this accessible for all those curious about gravity and how science really works.
Logamediate Inflation in f ( T ) Teleparallel Gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rezazadeh, Kazem; Karami, Kayoomars [Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan, Pasdaran Street, P.O. Box 66177-15175, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdolmaleki, Asrin, E-mail: rezazadeh86@gmail.com [Research Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics of Maragha (RIAAM), P.O. Box 55134-441, Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2017-02-20
We study logamediate inflation in the context of f ( T ) teleparallel gravity. f ( T )-gravity is a generalization of the teleparallel gravity which is formulated on the Weitzenbock spacetime, characterized by the vanishing curvature tensor (absolute parallelism) and the non-vanishing torsion tensor. We consider an f ( T )-gravity model which is sourced by a canonical scalar field. Assuming a power-law f ( T ) function in the action, we investigate an inflationary universe with a logamediate scale factor. Our results show that, although logamediate inflation is completely ruled out by observational data in the standard inflationary scenario based on Einstein gravity, it can be compatible with the 68% confidence limit joint region of Planck 2015 TT,TE,EE+lowP data in the framework of f ( T )-gravity.
Horizon thermodynamics in fourth-order gravity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Meng-Sen Ma
2017-03-01
Full Text Available In the framework of horizon thermodynamics, the field equations of Einstein gravity and some other second-order gravities can be rewritten as the thermodynamic identity: dE=TdS−PdV. However, in order to construct the horizon thermodynamics in higher-order gravity, we have to simplify the field equations firstly. In this paper, we study the fourth-order gravity and convert it to second-order gravity via a so-called “Legendre transformation” at the cost of introducing two other fields besides the metric field. With this simplified theory, we implement the conventional procedure in the construction of the horizon thermodynamics in 3 and 4 dimensional spacetime. We find that the field equations in the fourth-order gravity can also be written as the thermodynamic identity. Moreover, we can use this approach to derive the same black hole mass as that by other methods.
The interior structure of Enceladus from Cassini gravity measurements
Iess, Luciano
2015-04-01
The Cassini spacecraft flew by the small Saturnian moon Enceladus in three close flybys (April 28, 2010, November 30, 2010 and May 2, 2012, to carry out measurements of the satellite's gravity field [1]. One of the main motivations was the search for a hemispherical asymmetry in the gravity field, the gravitational counterpart of the striking North-South asymmetry shown by optical imaging and other Cassini instruments in the geological features of the moon. The estimation of Enceladus' gravity field by Cassini was especially complex because of the small surface gravity (0.11 m/s2), the short duration of the gravitational interaction (only a few minutes) and the small, nearly impulsive, neutral particles drag occurring when the spacecraft crossed the south polar plume during the first and the third flyby. Including the non-gravitational acceleration due to the plume in the dynamical model was crucial to obtain a reliable solution for the gravity field. In order to maximize the sensitivity to the hemispherical asymmetry, controlled by the spherical harmonic coefficient J3, the closest approaches occurred at the low altitudes (respectively 100, 48 and 70 km), and at high latitudes in both hemispheres (89°S, 62°N, and 72°S). Enceladus' gravity field is dominated by large quadrupole terms not far from those expected for a body in a relaxed shape. Although the deviations from the hydrostaticity are weak (J2/C22=3.55±0.05), the straightforward application of the Radau-Darwin approximation yields a value of the moment of inertia factor (MOIF=C/MR2) that is incompatible (0.34) with the differentiated interior structure suggested by cryovolcanism and the large heat flow. The other remarkable feature of the gravity field is the small but still statistically significant value of J3 (106 x J3 = -115.3±22.9). A differentiated interior structure (corresponding to a smaller MOIF) may be reconciled with the gravity measurement by assuming that the rocky core has retained some
S-Duality for Linearized Gravity
Nieto, J.A.
1999-01-01
We develope the analogue of S-duality for linearized gravity in (3+1)-dimensions. Our basic idea is to consider the self-dual (anti-self-dual) curvature tensor for linearized gravity in the context of the Macdowell-Mansouri formalism. We find that the strong-weak coupling duality for linearized gravity is an exact symmetry and implies small-large duality for the cosmological constant.
Induced gravity from two occurrences of actions
El-Nabulsi, Rami Ahmad
2017-07-01
Modified gravity theories have gained recently an increasing interest in cosmology since they offer some solutions to a number of cosmological puzzles. All these theories are formulated by means of one occurrence of action that group geometry and fields in one single package. In this communication, we introduce a simple modified gravity based on the occurrence of two independent actions. We show that their combination divulge some properties that bear a resemblance to induced gravity and offer new insights in astrophysics and cosmology.
Variable Gravity Research Facility - A concept
Wercinski, Paul F.; Smith, Marcie A.; Synnestvedt, Robert G.; Keller, Robert G.
1990-01-01
Is human exposure to artificial gravity necessary for Mars mission success, and if so, what is the optimum means of achieving artificial gravity? Answering these questions prior to the design of a Mars vehicle would require construction and operation of a dedicated spacecraft in low earth orbit. This paper summarizes the study results of a conceptual design and operations scenario for such a spacecraft, called the Variable Gravity Research Facility (VGRF).
Flattening the inflaton potential beyond minimal gravity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lee Hyun Min
2018-01-01
Full Text Available We review the status of the Starobinsky-like models for inflation beyond minimal gravity and discuss the unitarity problem due to the presence of a large non-minimal gravity coupling. We show that the induced gravity models allow for a self-consistent description of inflation and discuss the implications of the inflaton couplings to the Higgs field in the Standard Model.
Airborne Gravity: NGS' Airborne Gravity Data for AN01 (2009-2010)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Alaska collected in 2009-2010 over 2 surveys. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical Datum...
Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for EN07 (2012-2013)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Maine and Canada collected in 2012 and 2013 over 2 surveys. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American...
Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for CS02 (2008-2009)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Louisana and Mississippi collected in 2008-2009 over 2 surveys. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American...
Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for AS03 (2010-2012)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Alaska collected in 2010 and 2012 over 2 surveys. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical Datum...
The Mars Gravity Simulation Project
Korienek, Gene
1998-10-01
Human beings who make abrupt transitions between one gravitational environment and another undergo severe disruptions of their visual perception and visual- motor coordination, frequently accompanied by "space sickness." Clearly, such immediate effects of exposure to a novel gravitational condition have significant implications for human performance. For example, when astronauts first arrive in Earth orbit their attempts to move about in the spacecraft and to perform their duties are uncoordinated, inaccurate, and inefficient. Other inter-gravitational transitions for which these difficulties can be expected include going from the 0 g of the spacecraft to the. 16 g of the Moon, from 0 g to the .38 g of Mars, and from 0 g back to the 1.0 g of Earth. However, after astronauts have actively interacted with their new gravitational environment for several days, these problems tend to disappear, evidence that some sort of adaptive process has taken place. It would be advantageous, therefore, if there were some way to minimize or perhaps even to eliminate this potentially hazardous adaptive transition period by allowing astronauts to adapt to the altered gravitational conditions before actually entering them. Simultaneous adaptations to both the altered and the normal gravitational environment as a result of repeatedly adapting to one and readapting to the other, a phenomenon known as dual adaptation. The objective of the Mars Gravity Simulator (MGS) Project is to construct a simulation of the visual and bodily effects of altered gravity. This perceptual-motor simulation is created through the use of: 1) differential body pressure to produce simulated hypo-gravity and 2) treadmill-controlled virtual reality to create a corresponding visual effect. It is expected that this combination will produce sensory motor perturbations in the subjects. Both the immediate and adaptive behavioral (postural and ambulatory) responses to these sensory perturbations will be assessed.
The Superheavy Elements and Anti-Gravity
Anastasovski, Petar K.
2004-02-01
The essence of any propulsion concept is to overcome gravity. Anti-gravity is a natural means to achieve this. Thus, the technology to pursue anti-gravity, by using superheavy elements, may provide a new propulsion paradigm. The theory of superluminal relativity provides a hypothesis for existence of elements with atomic number up to Z = 145, some of which may possess anti-gravity properties. Analysis results show that curved space-time exists demonstrating both gravitic and anti-gravitic properties not only around nuclei but inside the nuclei as well. Two groups of elements (Z Hawking, in honour of Stephen W. Hawking.
Inflationary Cosmology in Modified Gravity Theories
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kazuharu Bamba
2015-03-01
Full Text Available We review inflationary cosmology in modified gravity such as R2 gravity with its extensions in order to generalize the Starobinsky inflation model. In particular, we explore inflation realized by three kinds of effects: modification of gravity, the quantum anomaly, and the R2 term in loop quantum cosmology. It is explicitly demonstrated that in these inflationary models, the spectral index of scalar modes of the density perturbations and the tensor-to-scalar ratio can be consistent with the Planck results. Bounce cosmology in F(R gravity is also explained.
Cosmology in (R) Exponential Gravity
Jaime, Luisa; Salgado, Marcelo; Patiño, Leonardo
Using an approach that treats the Ricci scalar itself as a degree of freedom, we analyze the cosmological evolution within an f(R) model that has been proposed recently (exponential gravity) and that can be viable for explaining the accelerated expansion and other features of the Universe. This approach differs from the usual scalar-tensor method and, among other things, it spares us from dealing with unnecessary discussions about frames. It also leads to a simple system of equations which is particularly suited for a numerical analysis.
ESA's GOCE gravity gradiometer mission
Touboul, Pierre
2010-02-01
In the present decade, three space gravity missions, CHAMP, GRACE and GOCE provide unique information about mass and mass redistribution in the Earth system with a wide range of scientific returns like global ocean circulation, ice mass balance, glacial isostatic adjustment, continental ground water storage. On board the four satellites of these missions, similar electrostatic space inertial sensors deliver continuously, during quite nine years for the older, the accurate acceleration data needed for the missions. The sensor operation remains on the six axes electrostatic suspension of one solid metallic mass, which is servo-controlled motionless at the centre of the highly stable set of gold coated silica electrode plates. All degrees of freedom are measured with very sensitive capacitive sensors down to a few pico-m and the applied electrostatic forces to pico-N. With similar sensor design and technologies, full scale range and resolution can be adjusted according to the satellite environment and the mission requirements. The CHAMP and GRACE accelerometers have demonstrated their in orbit performance. They provides measurements of the satellite non gravitational surface forces like the atmospheric drag and radiation pressures in order to extract from the satellite measured orbital position and velocity fluctuations, the effects of gravity anomalies. The six GOCE accelerometers compose the three axes gradiometer, combined to the SST-high-low GPS tracking to provide higher precision and resolution of the Earth static field. They contribute also to the satellite attitude control and drag compensation system, allowing the heliosynchronous orbit at the very low 260 km altitude. So, the accelerometers are designed to exhibit a full range of 6.5 10-6 ms-2 and a resolution of 2 10-12 ms-2 Hz-1/2. Since the gradiometer switch on in April 09, they deliver data leading to the components of the gravity gradient tensor. The main characteristics of the GOCE accelerometers and
Gravity and Extreme Magnetism SMEX
2012-01-01
The Gravity and Extreme Magnetism SMEX mission will be the first mission to catalogue the X-ray polarisation of many astrophysical objects including black-holes and pulsars. This first of its kind mission is enabled by the novel use of a time projection chamber as an X-ray polarimeter. The detector has been developed over the last 5 years, with the current effort charged toward a demonstration of it's technical readiness to be at level 6 prior to the preliminary design review. This talk will describe the design GEMS polarimeter and the results to date from the engineering test unit.
Spinning particles coupled to gravity
Hojman, Sergio A
2016-01-01
Recent experimental work has determined that free falling $^{87}$Rb atoms on Earth, with vertically aligned spins, follow geodesics, thus apparently ruling out spin--gravitation interactions. It is showed that while some spinning matter models coupled to gravitation referenced to in that work seem to be ruled out by the experiment, those same experimental results confirm theoretical results derived from a Lagrangian description of spinning particles coupled to gravity constructed over forty years ago. A proposal to carry out (similar but) different experiments which will help to test the validity of the Universality of Free Fall as opposed to the correctness of the aforementioned Lagrangian theory, is presented.
Simultaneous measurement of gravity acceleration and gravity gradient with an atom interferometer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sorrentino, F.; Lien, Y.-H.; Rosi, G.; Tino, G. M. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia and LENS, Universita di Firenze, INFN Sezione di Firenze, via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Bertoldi, A. [Laboratoire Charles Fabry de l' Institut d' Optique, CNRS and Universite Paris-Sud Campus Polytechnique, RD 128, F-91127 Palaiseau cedex (France); Bodart, Q. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia and LENS, Universita di Firenze, INFN Sezione di Firenze, via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); European Space Agency, Research and Scientific Support Department, Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ Noordwijk (Netherlands); Cacciapuoti, L. [European Space Agency, Research and Scientific Support Department, Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ Noordwijk (Netherlands); Angelis, M. de [Istituto di Fisica Applicata ' Nello Carrara' CNR, via Madonna del Piano 10, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Prevedelli, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Bologna, Via Irnerio 46, I-40126, Bologna (Italy)
2012-09-10
We demonstrate a method to measure the gravitational acceleration with a dual cloud atom interferometer; the use of simultaneous atom interferometers reduces the effect of seismic noise on the gravity measurement. At the same time, the apparatus is capable of accurate measurements of the vertical gravity gradient. The ability to determine the gravity acceleration and gravity gradient simultaneously and with the same instrument opens interesting perspectives in geophysical applications.
Gravity, Magnetism, and "Down": Non-Physics College Students' Conceptions of Gravity
Asghar, Anila; Libarkin, Julie C.
2010-01-01
This study investigates how students enrolled in entry-level geology, most of whom would graduate from college without university-level physics courses, thought about and applied the concept of gravity while solving problems concerning gravity. The repercussions of students' gravity concepts are then considered in the context of non-physics…
Observation of resonant interactions among surface gravity waves
Bonnefoy, F; Michel, G; Semin, B; Humbert, T; Aumaître, S; Berhanu, M; Falcon, E
2016-01-01
We experimentally study resonant interactions of oblique surface gravity waves in a large basin. Our results strongly extend previous experimental results performed mainly for perpendicular or collinear wave trains. We generate two oblique waves crossing at an acute angle, while we control their frequency ratio, steepnesses and directions. These mother waves mutually interact and give birth to a resonant wave whose properties (growth rate, resonant response curve and phase locking) are fully characterized. All our experimental results are found in good quantitative agreement with four-wave interaction theory with no fitting parameter. Off-resonance experiments are also reported and the relevant theoretical analysis is conducted and validated.
Exotic smoothness and quantum gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Asselmeyer-Maluga, T, E-mail: torsten.asselmeyer-maluga@dlr.d [German Aerospace Center, Berlin, Germany and Loyola University, New Orleans, LA (United States)
2010-08-21
Since the first work on exotic smoothness in physics, it was folklore to assume a direct influence of exotic smoothness to quantum gravity. Thus, the negative result of Duston (2009 arXiv:0911.4068) was a surprise. A closer look into the semi-classical approach uncovered the implicit assumption of a close connection between geometry and smoothness structure. But both structures, geometry and smoothness, are independent of each other. In this paper we calculate the 'smoothness structure' part of the path integral in quantum gravity assuming that the 'sum over geometries' is already given. For that purpose we use the knot surgery of Fintushel and Stern applied to the class E(n) of elliptic surfaces. We mainly focus our attention to the K3 surfaces E(2). Then we assume that every exotic smoothness structure of the K3 surface can be generated by knot or link surgery in the manner of Fintushel and Stern. The results are applied to the calculation of expectation values. Here we discuss the two observables, volume and Wilson loop, for the construction of an exotic 4-manifold using the knot 5{sub 2} and the Whitehead link Wh. By using Mostow rigidity, we obtain a topological contribution to the expectation value of the volume. Furthermore, we obtain a justification of area quantization.
A gravity loading countermeasure skinsuit
Waldie, James M.; Newman, Dava J.
2011-04-01
Despite the use of several countermeasures, significant physiological deconditioning still occurs during long duration spaceflight. Bone loss - primarily due to the absence of loading in microgravity - is perhaps the greatest challenge to resolve. This paper describes a conceptual Gravity Loading Countermeasure Skinsuit (GLCS) that induces loading on the body to mimic standing and - when integrated with other countermeasures - exercising on Earth. Comfort, mobility and other operational issues were explored during a pilot study carried out in parabolic flight for prototype suits worn by three subjects. Compared to the 1- or 2-stage Russian Pingvin Suits, the elastic mesh of the GLCS can create a loading regime that gradually increases in hundreds of stages from the shoulders to the feet, thereby reproducing the weight-bearing regime normally imparted by gravity with much higher resolution. Modelling shows that the skinsuit requires less than 10 mmHg (1.3 kPa) of compression for three subjects of varied gender, height and mass. Negligible mobility restriction and excellent comfort properties were found during the parabolic flights, which suggests that crewmembers should be able to work normally, exercise or sleep while wearing the suit. The suit may also serve as a practical 1 g harness for exercise countermeasures and vibration applications to improve dynamic loading.
Exorcising ghosts in induced gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Narain, Gaurav [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics China (KITPC), Institute of Theoretical Physics, Beijing (China)
2017-10-15
Unitarity of the scale-invariant coupled theory of higher-derivative gravity and matter is investigated. A scalar field coupled with a Dirac fermion is taken as the matter sector. Following the idea of induced gravity the Einstein-Hilbert term is generated via dynamical symmetry breaking of scale invariance. The renormalisation group flows are computed and one-loop RG improved effective potential of scalar is calculated. The scalar field develops a new minimum via the Coleman-Weinberg procedure inducing the Newton constant and masses in the matter sector. The spin-2 problematic ghost and the spin-0 mode of the metric fluctuation get a mass in the broken phase of the theory. The energy dependence of the vacuum expectation value in the RG improved scenario implies a running for the induced parameters. This sets up platform to ask whether it is possible to evade the spin-2 ghost by keeping its mass always above the running energy scale? In broken phase this question is satisfactorily answered for a large domain of coupling parameter space where the ghost is evaded. The spin-0 mode can be made physically realisable or not depending upon the choice of the initial parameters. The induced Newton constant is seen to vanish in the ultraviolet case. By properly choosing parameters it is possible to make the matter fields physically unrealisable. (orig.)
Global marine gravity field from the ERS-1 and Geosat geodetic mission altimetry
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Knudsen, Per
1998-01-01
Satellite altimetry from the Geosat and the ERS-1 Geodetic Missions provide altimeter data with very dense spatial coverage. Therefore the gravity field may be recovered in great detail. As neighboring ground tracks are very closely distributed, cross-track variations in the sea surface heights...
Magmatic underplating beneath the Rajmahal Traps: Gravity ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
To understand the impact of the magmatic process that originated in the deep mantle on the lower crustal level of the eastern Indian shield and adjoining Bengal basin the conspicuous gravity anomalies observed over the region have been modelled integrating with available geophysical information. The 3-D gravity ...
Matrix model formulation of four dimensional gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
De Pietri, Roberto
2001-03-01
The attempt of extending to higher dimensions the matrix model formulation of two-dimensional quantum gravity leads to the consideration of higher rank tensor models. We discuss how these models relate to four dimensional quantum gravity and the precise conditions allowing to associate a four-dimensional simplicial manifold to Feynman diagrams of a rank-four tensor model.
Recommended Research on Artificial Gravity. Chapter 13
Vernikos, Joan; Paloski, William; Fuller, Charles; Clement, Gilles
2006-01-01
Based on the summaries presented in the above sections of what is still to be learned on the effects of artificial gravity on human functions, this chapter will discuss the short- and long-term steps of research required to understand fundamentals and to validate operational aspects of using artificial gravity as an effective countermeasure for long-duration space travel.
GRAVITATIONAL LENSES AND UNCONVENTIONAL GRAVITY THEORIES
BEKENSTEIN, JD; SANDERS, RH
1994-01-01
We study gravitational lensing by clusters of galaxies in the context of the generic class of unconventional gravity theories which describe gravity in terms of a metric and one or more scalar fields (called here scalar-tensor theories). We conclude that, if the scalar fields have positive energy,
Introduction to Loop Quantum Gravity and Cosmology
Ashtekar, Abhay
The goal of the lecture is to present a broad perspective on loop quantum gravity and cosmology for young researchers which would serve as an introduction to lectures by Rovelli and Bojowald. The first part is addressed to beginning students and the second to young researchers who are already working in quantum gravity.
Diagrammar in an extended theory of gravity
Dunbar, David C.; Godwin, John H.; Jehu, Guy R.; Perkins, Warren B.
2017-08-01
We show how the S-matrix of an extended theory of gravity defined by its three-point amplitudes can be constructed by demanding factorisation. The resultant S-matrix has tree amplitudes obeying the same soft singularity theorems as Einstein gravity including the sub-sub-leading terms.
Horava-Lifshitz gravity with detailed balance
Vernieri, Daniele; Sotiriou, Thomas P.
2012-01-01
Horava-Lifshitz gravity with "detailed balance" but without the projectability assumption is discussed. It is shown that detailed balance is quite efficient in limiting the proliferation of couplings in Horava-Lifshitz gravity, and that its implementation without the projectability assumption leads to a theory with sensible dynamics. However, the (bare) cosmological constant is restricted to be large and negative.
Emergence in holographic scenarios for gravity
Dieks, D.; van Dongen, J.; de Haro, S.
2015-01-01
‘Holographic’ relations between theories have become an important theme in quantum gravity research. These relations entail that a theory without gravity is equivalent to a gravitational theory with an extra spatial dimension. The idea of holography was first proposed in 1993 by Gerard ׳t Hooft on
Wang, Hubiao; Wu, Lin; Chai, Hua; Xiao, Yaofei; Hsu, Houtse; Wang, Yong
2017-08-10
The variation of a marine gravity anomaly reference map is one of the important factors that affect the location accuracy of INS/Gravity integrated navigation systems in underwater navigation. In this study, based on marine gravity anomaly reference maps, new characteristic parameters of the gravity anomaly were constructed. Those characteristic values were calculated for 13 zones (105°-145° E, 0°-40° N) in the Western Pacific area, and simulation experiments of gravity matching-aided navigation were run. The influence of gravity variations on the accuracy of gravity matching-aided navigation was analyzed, and location accuracy of gravity matching in different zones was determined. Studies indicate that the new parameters may better characterize the marine gravity anomaly. Given the precision of current gravimeters and the resolution and accuracy of reference maps, the location accuracy of gravity matching in China's Western Pacific area is ~1.0-4.0 nautical miles (n miles). In particular, accuracy in regions around the South China Sea and Sulu Sea was the highest, better than 1.5 n miles. The gravity characteristic parameters identified herein and characteristic values calculated in various zones provide a reference for the selection of navigation area and planning of sailing routes under conditions requiring certain navigational accuracy.
Wang, Hubiao; Chai, Hua; Xiao, Yaofei; Hsu, Houtse; Wang, Yong
2017-01-01
The variation of a marine gravity anomaly reference map is one of the important factors that affect the location accuracy of INS/Gravity integrated navigation systems in underwater navigation. In this study, based on marine gravity anomaly reference maps, new characteristic parameters of the gravity anomaly were constructed. Those characteristic values were calculated for 13 zones (105°–145° E, 0°–40° N) in the Western Pacific area, and simulation experiments of gravity matching-aided navigation were run. The influence of gravity variations on the accuracy of gravity matching-aided navigation was analyzed, and location accuracy of gravity matching in different zones was determined. Studies indicate that the new parameters may better characterize the marine gravity anomaly. Given the precision of current gravimeters and the resolution and accuracy of reference maps, the location accuracy of gravity matching in China’s Western Pacific area is ~1.0–4.0 nautical miles (n miles). In particular, accuracy in regions around the South China Sea and Sulu Sea was the highest, better than 1.5 n miles. The gravity characteristic parameters identified herein and characteristic values calculated in various zones provide a reference for the selection of navigation area and planning of sailing routes under conditions requiring certain navigational accuracy. PMID:28796158
Causality in 3D massive gravity theories
Edelstein, José D.; Giribet, Gaston; Gómez, Carolina; Kilicarslan, Ercan; Leoni, Matías; Tekin, Bayram
2017-05-01
We study the constraints coming from the local causality requirement in various 2 +1 dimensional dynamical theories of gravity. In topologically massive gravity, with a single parity noninvariant massive degree of freedom, and in new massive gravity, with two massive spin-2 degrees of freedom, causality and unitarity are compatible with each other and both require the Newton's constant to be negative. In their extensions, such as the Born-Infeld gravity and the minimal massive gravity the situation is similar and quite different from their higher dimensional counterparts, such as quadratic (e.g., Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet) or cubic theories, where causality and unitarity are in conflict. We study the problem both in asymptotically flat and asymptotically anti-de Sitter spaces.
An introduction to atmospheric gravity waves
Nappo, Carmen J
2012-01-01
Gravity waves exist in all types of geophysical fluids, such as lakes, oceans, and atmospheres. They play an important role in redistributing energy at disturbances, such as mountains or seamounts and they are routinely studied in meteorology and oceanography, particularly simulation models, atmospheric weather models, turbulence, air pollution, and climate research. An Introduction to Atmospheric Gravity Waves provides readers with a working background of the fundamental physics and mathematics of gravity waves, and introduces a wide variety of applications and numerous recent advances. Nappo provides a concise volume on gravity waves with a lucid discussion of current observational techniques and instrumentation.An accompanying website contains real data, computer codes for data analysis, and linear gravity wave models to further enhance the reader's understanding of the book's material. Companion web site features animations and streaming video Foreword by George Chimonas, a renowned expert on the interac...
Spin Entanglement Witness for Quantum Gravity
Bose, Sougato; Mazumdar, Anupam; Morley, Gavin W.; Ulbricht, Hendrik; Toroš, Marko; Paternostro, Mauro; Geraci, Andrew A.; Barker, Peter F.; Kim, M. S.; Milburn, Gerard
2017-12-01
Understanding gravity in the framework of quantum mechanics is one of the great challenges in modern physics. However, the lack of empirical evidence has lead to a debate on whether gravity is a quantum entity. Despite varied proposed probes for quantum gravity, it is fair to say that there are no feasible ideas yet to test its quantum coherent behavior directly in a laboratory experiment. Here, we introduce an idea for such a test based on the principle that two objects cannot be entangled without a quantum mediator. We show that despite the weakness of gravity, the phase evolution induced by the gravitational interaction of two micron size test masses in adjacent matter-wave interferometers can detectably entangle them even when they are placed far apart enough to keep Casimir-Polder forces at bay. We provide a prescription for witnessing this entanglement, which certifies gravity as a quantum coherent mediator, through simple spin correlation measurements.
A Proposal for Testing Gravity's Rainbow
Ali, Ahmed Farag
2014-01-01
Various approaches to quantum gravity such as string theory, loop quantum gravity and Horava-Lifshitz gravity predict modifications of the energy-momentum dispersion relation. Magueijo and Smolin incorporated the modified dispersion relation (MDR) with the general theory of relativity to yield a theory of gravity's rainbow. In this paper, we investigate the Schwarzschild metric in the context of gravity's rainbow. We investigate rainbow functions from three known modified dispersion relations that were introduced by Amelino-Camelia, et el. in [arXiv:hep-th/9605211, arXiv:0806.0339v2 [gr-qc], arXiv:astro-ph/9712103] and by Magueijo-Smolin in [arXiv:hep-th/0112090]. We study the effect of the rainbow functions on the deflection of light, photon time delay, gravitational red-shift, time dilation, and the weak equivalence principle. We compare our results with experiments to obtain upper bounds on the parameters of the rainbow functions.
New classes of modified teleparallel gravity models
Bahamonde, Sebastian; Böhmer, Christian G.; Krššák, Martin
2017-12-01
New classes of modified teleparallel theories of gravity are introduced. The action of this theory is constructed to be a function of the irreducible parts of torsion f (Tax ,Tten ,Tvec), where Tax ,Tten and Tvec are squares of the axial, tensor and vector components of torsion, respectively. This is the most general (well-motivated) second order teleparallel theory of gravity that can be constructed from the torsion tensor. Different particular second order theories can be recovered from this theory such as new general relativity, conformal teleparallel gravity or f (T) gravity. Additionally, the boundary term B which connects the Ricci scalar with the torsion scalar via R = - T + B can also be incorporated into the action. By performing a conformal transformation, it is shown that the two unique theories which have an Einstein frame are either the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity or f (- T + B) = f (R) gravity, as expected.
On the regularization of regional gravity field solutions in spherical radial base functions
Naeimi, Majid; Flury, Jakob; Brieden, Phillip
2015-08-01
Regional refinement of the gravity field models from satellite data using spherical radial base functions (SRBF) is an ill-posed problem. This is mainly due to the regional confinement of the data and the base functions, which leads to severe instabilities in the solutions. Here, this ill-posedness as well as the related regularization process are investigated. We compare three methods for the choice of the regularization parameter, which have been frequently used in gravity modelling. These methods are (1) the variance component estimation (VCE), (2) the generalized cross validation (GCV) and (3) the L-curve criterion. A particular emphasis is put on the impact of the SRBF type on the regularization parameter. To do this, we include two types of SRBF which are often used for regional gravity field modelling. These are the Shannon SRBF or the reproducing kernel and the Spline SRBF. The investigations are performed on two months of the real GOCE ultrasensitive gravity gradients over Central Africa and Amazon. The solutions are validated against a state-of-the-art global gravity solution. We conclude that if a proper regularization method is applied, both SRBF deliver more or less the same accuracy. We show that when the Shannon wavelet is used, the L-curve method gives the best results, while with the Spline kernel, the GCV outperforms the other two methods. Moreover, we observe that the estimated coefficients for the Spline kernel cannot be spatially interpreted. In contrast, the coefficients obtained for the Shannon wavelet reflect the energy of the recovered gravity field with a correlation factor of above 95 per cent. Therefore, when combined with the L-curve method, the Shannon SRBF is advantageous for regional gravity field estimation, since it is one of the simplest band-limited SRBF. In addition, it delivers promising solutions and the estimated coefficients represent the characteristics of the gravity field within the target region.
Quantum Gravity and Phenomenological Philosophy
Rosen, Steven M.
2008-06-01
The central thesis of this paper is that contemporary theoretical physics is grounded in philosophical presuppositions that make it difficult to effectively address the problems of subject-object interaction and discontinuity inherent to quantum gravity. The core objectivist assumption implicit in relativity theory and quantum mechanics is uncovered and we see that, in string theory, this assumption leads into contradiction. To address this challenge, a new philosophical foundation is proposed based on the phenomenology of Maurice Merleau-Ponty and Martin Heidegger. Then, through the application of qualitative topology and hypernumbers, phenomenological ideas about space, time, and dimension are brought into focus so as to provide specific solutions to the problems of force-field generation and unification. The phenomenological string theory that results speaks to the inconclusiveness of conventional string theory and resolves its core contradiction.
Efstratiou, P.
2013-09-01
This presentation will be based on my, undergraduate, thesis at Aristotle University of Thessoliniki with the same subject, supervised by Professor Demetrios Papadopoulos. I will first present the general mathematical formulation of the Chern-Simons (CS) modified gravity, which is split in a dynamical and a non-dynamical context, and the different physical theories which suggest this modification. Then proceed by examing the possibility that the CS theory shares solutions with General Relativity in both contexts. In the non-dynamical context I will present a new, undocumented solution as well as all the other possible solutions found to date. I will conclude by arguing that General Relativity and CS Theory share any solutions in the dynamical context.
Conformal gravity and "gravitational bubbles"
Berezin, V A; Eroshenko, Yu N
2015-01-01
We describe the general structure of the spherically symmetric solutions in the Weyl conformal gravity. The corresponding Bach equations are derived for the special type of metrics, which can be considered as the representative of the general class. The complete set of the pure vacuum solutions, consisting of two classes, is found. The first one contains the solutions with constant two-dimensional curvature scalar, and the representatives are the famous Robertson--Walker metrics. We called one of them the "gravitational bubbles", which is compact and with zero Weyl tensor. These "gravitational bubbles" are the pure vacuum curved space-times (without any material sources, including the cosmological constant), which are absolutely impossible in General Relativity. This phenomenon makes it easier to create the universe from "nothing". The second class consists of the solutions with varying curvature scalar. We found its representative as the one-parameter family, which can be conformally covered by the thee-para...
Cosmological Perturbations in Conformal Gravity
Mannheim, Philip D
2011-01-01
We present the first steps needed for an analysis of the perturbations that occur in the cosmology associated with the conformal gravity theory. We discuss the implications of conformal invariance for perturbative coordinate gauge choices, and show that in the conformal theory the trace of the metric fluctuation kinematically decouples from the first-order gravitational fluctuation equations. We determine the equations that describe first-order metric fluctuations around the illustrative conformally flat de Sitter background. Via a conformal transformation we show that such fluctuations can be constructed from fluctuations around a flat background, even though the fluctuations themselves are associated with a perturbative geometry that is not itself conformal to flat. We extend the analysis to fluctuations around other cosmologically relevant backgrounds, such as the conformally-flat Robertson-Walker background, and find tensor fluctuations that grow far more rapidly than those that occur in the analogous sta...
The affine quantum gravity programme
Klauder, J R
2002-01-01
The central principle of affine quantum gravity is securing and maintaining the strict positivity of the matrix left brace g-hat sub a sub b (x)right brace composed of the spatial components of the local metric operator. On spectral grounds, canonical commutation relations are incompatible with this principle, and they must be replaced by noncanonical, affine commutation relations. Due to the partial second-class nature of the quantum gravitational constraints, it is advantageous to use the recently developed projection operator method, which treats all quantum constraints on an equal footing. Using this method, enforcement of regularized versions of the gravitational operator constraints is formulated quite naturally by means of a novel and relatively well-defined functional integral involving only the same set of variables that appears in the usual classical formulation. It is anticipated that skills and insight to study this formulation can be developed by studying special, reduced-variable models that sti...
Colpi, Monica; Gorini, Vittorio; Moschella, Ugo
2016-01-01
This book presents an overview of the current understanding of gravitation, with a focus on the current efforts to test its theories, especially general relativity. It shows how the quest for a deeper understanding, which would possibly incorporate gravity in the quantum realm, is more than ever an open field. The majority of the contributions deals with the manifold facets of “experimental gravitation”, but the book goes beyond this and covers a broad range of subjects from the foundations of gravitational theories to astrophysics and cosmology. The book is divided into three parts. The first part deals with foundations and Solar System tests. An introductory pedagogical chapter reviews first Newtonian gravitational theory, special relativity, the equivalence principle and the basics of general relativity. Then it focuses on approximation methods, mainly the post-Newtonian formalism and the relaxed Einstein equations, with a discussion on how they are used in treating experimental tests and in the proble...
Rajabi, Fateme; Nozari, Kourosh
2017-10-01
We extend the idea of unimodular gravity to the modified f (R ,T ) theories. A new class of cosmological solutions, that the unimodular constraint on the metric imposes on the f (R ,T ) theories, is studied. This extension is done in both Jordan and Einstein frames. We show that while the Lagrange multiplier (that imposes the unimodular constraint on the action) depends on the cosmic time in Jordan frame and therefore, can act as an evolving scalar field in the universe history, in the Einstein frame it acts as a cosmological constant. Then a general reconstruction method is used to realize an explicit form of the unimodular f (R ,T ) corresponding to a given cosmological solution. By adopting a specific form of f (R ,T ), the issue of cosmological inflation is studied in this setup. To see the observational viability of this model, a numerical analysis on the model parameter space is done in the background of Planck2015 observational data.
Absolute-Gravity Workshop planned
Bilham, Roger; Sasagawa, Glenn
The new FG5 absolute gravimeter has a design goal accuracy of 1 μGal and represents the most recent of a series of gravimeters inspired by advances in gravimeter design by J. Faller at the Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics (JILA) in Boulder, Colo. A 2-day workshop will be held in Boulder from March 22 to 23 to discuss current and future applications of absolute gravity (g). Details of the workshop appear at the end of this article. The instrument is based on the principle of interferometrically measuring the time and position of a weight falling in a vacuum, using a stabilized laser and an atomic clock [cf. Cook, 1967; Faller, 1963; Hammond, 1970; Zumberge, 1981; Niebauer, 1986].
Granular rheology in zero gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bossis, G [LPMC UMR 6622, Universite de Nice, Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice Cedex 2 (France); Grasselli, Y [EAI Tech CERAM, Rue A Einstein, BP 085, 06902 Sophia Antipolis Cedex (France); Volkova, O [LPMC UMR 6622, Universite de Nice, Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice Cedex 2 (France)
2004-05-12
We present an experimental investigation on the rheological behaviour of model granular media made of nearly elastic spherical particles. The experiments are performed in a cylindrical Couette geometry and the experimental device is placed inside an aeroplane undergoing parabolic flights to cancel the effect of gravity. The corresponding curves, shear stress versus shear rate, are presented, and a comparison with existing theories is proposed. The quadratic dependence on the shear rate is clearly shown, and the behaviour as a function of the solid volume fraction of particles exhibits a power law function. It is shown that theoretical predictions overestimate the experimental results. We observe, at intermediate volume fractions, the formation of rings of particles regularly spaced along the height of the cell. The differences observed between experimental results and theoretical predictions are discussed and related to the structures formed in the granular medium submitted to the external shear.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. G. Pugacheva
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The source of gravity anomalies of the Moon are large mascons with a high mass concentration at a depth of volcanic plains and lunar Maria. New data on the gravitational field of the Moon were obtained from two Grail spacecrafts. The article presents the data of physical and mechanical properties of the surface soil layer of the lunar Maria and gives an assessment of the chemical composition of the soil. There have been calculated heterogeneity parameters of the surface macro-relief of the lunar Maria: albedo, soil density, average grain diameter of the particles forming the surface layer and the volume fraction occupied by particles. It can be assumed that mascons include rich KREEP rocks with a high content of thorium and iron oxide. Formation of mascons is connected with intensive development of basaltic volcanism on the Moon in the early periods of its existence.
Cosmological attractors in massive gravity
Dubovsky, S; Tkachev, I I
2005-01-01
We study Lorentz-violating models of massive gravity which preserve rotations and are invariant under time-dependent shifts of the spatial coordinates. In the linear approximation the Newtonian potential in these models has an extra ``confining'' term proportional to the distance from the source. We argue that during cosmological expansion the Universe may be driven to an attractor point with larger symmetry which includes particular simultaneous dilatations of time and space coordinates. The confining term in the potential vanishes as one approaches the attractor. In the vicinity of the attractor the extra contribution is present in the Friedmann equation which, in a certain range of parameters, gives rise to the cosmic acceleration.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Houndjo, M.J.S. [Faculte des Sciences et Techniques de Natitingou, Natitingou (Benin); Institut de Mathematiques et de Sciences Physiques, Porto-Novo (Benin)
2017-09-15
In this paper we study a modified version of unimodular general relativity in the context of f(G), G denoting the Gauss-Bonnet invariant. We focus on Bianchi-type I and Friendmann-Robertson-Walker universes and search for unimodular f(G) models according to the de Sitter and power-law solutions. Assuming unimodular f(G) gravity as a perfect fluid and making use of the slow-roll parameters, the inflationary model has been reconstructed in concordance with the Planck observational data. Moreover, we investigate the realization of the bounce and loop quantum cosmological ekpyrotic paradigms. Assuming suitable and appropriate scale factors, unimodular f(G) models able to reproduce superbounce and ekpyrotic scenarios have been reconstructed. (orig.)
Gravitomagnetic effects in conformal gravity
Said, Jackson Levi; Adami, Kristian Zarb
2014-01-01
Gravitomagnetic effects are characterized by two phenomena: first, the geodetic effect which describes the precession of the spin of a gyroscope in a free orbit around a massive object, second, the Lense-Thirring effect which describes the precession of the orbital plane about a rotating source mass. We calculate both these effects in the fourth-order theory of conformal Weyl gravity for the test case of circular orbits. We show that for the geodetic effect a linear term arises which may be interesting for high radial orbits, whereas for the Lense-Thirring effect the additional term has a diminishing effect for most orbits. Circular orbits are also considered in general leading up to a generalization of Kepler's third law.
Newtonian gravity on quantum spacetime
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Majid Shahn
2014-04-01
Full Text Available The bicrossproduct model λ-Minkowski (or ‘κ-Minkowski’ quantum space-time has an anomaly for the action of the Poincaré quantum group which was resolved by an extra cotangent direction θ’ not visible classically. We show that gauging a coefficient of θ′ introduces gravity into the model. We solve and analyse the model nonrelativisticaly in a 1/r potential, finding an induced constant term in the effective potential energy and a weakening and separation of the effective gravitational and inertial masses as the test particle Klein-Gordon mass increases. The present work is intended as a proof of concept but the approach could be relevant to an understanding of dark energy and possibly to macroscopic quantum systems.
Tribology Experiment in Zero Gravity
Pan, C. H. T.; Gause, R. L.; Whitaker, A. F.; Finckenor, M. M.
2015-01-01
A tribology experiment in zero gravity was performed during the orbital flight of Spacelab 1 to study the motion of liquid lubricants over solid surfaces. The absence of a significant gravitational force facilitates observation of such motions as controlled by interfacial and capillary forces. Two experimental configurations were used. One deals with the liquid on one solid surface, and the other with the liquid between a pair of closed spaced surfaces. Time sequence photographs of fluid motion on a solid surface yielded spreading rate data of several fluid-surface combinations. In general, a slow spreading process as governed by the tertiary junction can be distinguished from a more rapid process which is driven by surface tension controlled internal fluid pressure. Photographs were also taken through the transparent bushings of several experimental journal bearings. Morphology of incomplete fluid films and its fluctuation with time suggest the presence or absence of unsteady phenomena of the bearing-rotor system in various arrangements.
Rainbow metric from quantum gravity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mehdi Assanioussi
2015-12-01
Full Text Available In this Letter, we describe a general mechanism for emergence of a rainbow metric from a quantum cosmological model. This idea is based on QFT on a quantum spacetime. Under general assumptions, we discover that the quantum spacetime on which the field propagates can be replaced by a classical spacetime, whose metric depends explicitly on the energy of the field: as shown by an analysis of dispersion relations, quanta of different energy propagate on different metrics, similar to photons in a refractive material (hence the name “rainbow” used in the literature. In deriving this result, we do not consider any specific theory of quantum gravity: the qualitative behaviour of high-energy particles on quantum spacetime relies only on the assumption that the quantum spacetime is described by a wave-function Ψo in a Hilbert space HG.
Schwinger's Approach to Einstein's Gravity
Milton, Kim
2012-05-01
Albert Einstein was one of Julian Schwinger's heroes, and Schwinger was greatly honored when he received the first Einstein Prize (together with Kurt Godel) for his work on quantum electrodynamics. Schwinger contributed greatly to the development of a quantum version of gravitational theory, and his work led directly to the important work of (his students) Arnowitt, Deser, and DeWitt on the subject. Later in the 1960's and 1970's Schwinger developed a new formulation of quantum field theory, which he dubbed Source Theory, in an attempt to get closer contact to phenomena. In this formulation, he revisited gravity, and in books and papers showed how Einstein's theory of General Relativity emerged naturally from one physical assumption: that the carrier of the gravitational force is a massless, helicity-2 particle, the graviton. (There has been a minor dispute whether gravitational theory can be considered as the massless limit of a massive spin-2 theory; Schwinger believed that was the case, while Van Dam and Veltman concluded the opposite.) In the process, he showed how all of the tests of General Relativity could be explained simply, without using the full machinery of the theory and without the extraneous concept of curved space, including such effects as geodetic precession and the Lense-Thirring effect. (These effects have now been verified by the Gravity Probe B experiment.) This did not mean that he did not accept Einstein's equations, and in his book and full article on the subject, he showed how those emerge essentially uniquely from the assumption of the graviton. So to speak of Schwinger versus Einstein is misleading, although it is true that Schwinger saw no necessity to talk of curved spacetime. In this talk I will lay out Schwinger's approach, and the connection to Einstein's theory.
Modified gravity models of dark energy
Tsujikawa, Shinji
2011-01-01
We review recent progress of modified gravity models of dark energy--based on f(R) gravity, scalar-tensor theories, braneworld gravity, Galileon gravity, and other theories. In f(R) gravity and Brans-Dicke theory it is possible to design viable models consistent with local gravity constraints under a chameleon mechanism, while satisfying conditions for the cosmological viability. The Dvali-Gabadazde-Porrati braneworld model can be compatible with local gravity constraints through a nonlinear field self-interaction arising from a brane-bending mode, but the self-accelerating solution contains a ghost mode in addition to the tension with observational data about the cosmic expansion history. The extension of the field self-interaction to more general forms satisfying a Galilean symmetry in the flat space-time allows a possibility to avoid the appearance of ghosts and Laplacian instabilities, while the late-time cosmic acceleration can be realized by the field kinetic energy. We study the evolution of cosmologic...
New classes of modified teleparallel gravity models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sebastian Bahamonde
2017-12-01
Full Text Available New classes of modified teleparallel theories of gravity are introduced. The action of this theory is constructed to be a function of the irreducible parts of torsion f(Tax,Tten,Tvec, where Tax,Tten and Tvec are squares of the axial, tensor and vector components of torsion, respectively. This is the most general (well-motivated second order teleparallel theory of gravity that can be constructed from the torsion tensor. Different particular second order theories can be recovered from this theory such as new general relativity, conformal teleparallel gravity or f(T gravity. Additionally, the boundary term B which connects the Ricci scalar with the torsion scalar via R=âT+B can also be incorporated into the action. By performing a conformal transformation, it is shown that the two unique theories which have an Einstein frame are either the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity or f(âT+B=f(R gravity, as expected. Keywords: Modified gravity, Teleparallel gravity, Torsion, Conformal transformations
Graviresponses of osteocytes under altered gravity
Di, S. M.; Qian, A. R.; Qu, L. N.; Zhang, W.; Wang, Z.; Ding, C.; Li, Y. H.; Ren, H. G.; Shang, P.
2011-09-01
Single cell was capable of sensing and responding to alterations of gravity. Osteocytes, as the most abundant cells of the bone tissue playing an important role in the bone mechanotransduction, are very sensitive to mechanical stimuli. However, the effect of altered gravity on osteocytes so far is less known according to the public papers. Further study on this issue will help to verify and develop the theory of how cells perceive and respond to gravity. It also brings new ideas to the study of space bone loss. In our study, Osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 cells were exposed to 30 parabolic flights three times on ZERO-G airbus A300 to investigate the comprehensive effect on osteocytes stimulated by hyper- and hypo-gravity forces. It showed that the cell morphology, as well as cell area and height, was not changed significantly by hyper-gravity and hypo-gravity. However, the cytoskeleton was reorganized. In flight cells, F-actin polymerization was enhanced at the cell periphery and microtubule organizing center disappeared, but no apoptotic feathers were detected. The results of western blot showed that connexin 43 (Cx43) expression was down-regulated, indicating an decrease of gap-junction. In conclusion, hyper- and hypo-gravity stimulation altered the cytoskeleton architecture and suppressed gap-junction of osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 cells.
Genetic Analysis of Gravity Signal Transduction in Arabidopsis Roots
Masson, Patrick; Strohm, Allison; Barker, Richard; Su, Shih-Heng
that the protein-import function of the complex, not the presence of a large acidic domain of TOC132 within the cytoplasm, is needed for gravity signal transduction. Furthermore, mutations in several genes encoding distinct members of the TOC complex also enhanced the gravitropic defect of arg1. Together, these data suggest that the TOC complex works indirectly in gravity signal transduction through its ability to target specific cytoplasmically synthesized proteins, possibly gravity signal transducers, into the plastid. We have used a proteomic strategy to identify root-tip proteins that are differentially expressed between wild type and mar2 mutant plants. The corresponding list of differentially expressed proteins, which includes a surprisingly small number of plastid-targeted molecules, mainly contains proteins that are predicted to be associated with distinct cellular compartments. Several of the corresponding genes were found to also be differentially expressed between wild type and mar2 mutant root tips at the transcriptional level, suggesting cross-talk between amyloplasts and nucleus in these cells. Some of the differentially represented proteins are encoded by genes that are differentially expressed in the root tip in response to gravistimulation, further suggesting their contribution to gravity signal transduction. Work in underway to elucidate their function and potential contribution to this pathway. This work was funded by grants from the National Science Foundation.
Douch, Karim; Panet, Isabelle; Foulon, Bernard; Christophe, Bruno; Pajot-Métivier, Gwendoline; Diament, Michel
2014-05-01
Satellite missions such as CHAMP, GRACE and GOCE have led to an unprecedented improvement of global gravity field models during the past decade. However, for many applications these global models are not sufficiently accurate when dealing with wavelengths shorter than 100 km. This is all the more true in areas where gravity data are scarce and uneven as for instance in the poorly covered land-sea transition area. We suggest here, in line with spatial gravity gradiometry, airborne gravity gradiometry as a convenient way to amplify the sensitivity to short wavelengths and to cover homogeneously coastal region. Moreover, the directionality of the gravity gradients gives new information on the geometry of the gravity field and therefore of the causative bodies. In this respect, we analyze here the performances of a new airborne electrostatic acceleration gradiometer, GREMLIT, which permits along with ancillary measurements to determine the horizontal gradients of the horizontal components of the gravitational field in the instrumental frame. GREMLIT is composed of a compact assembly of 4 planar electrostatic accelerometers inheriting from technologies developed by ONERA for spatial accelerometers. After an overview of the functionals of the gravity field that are of interest for coastal oceanography, passive navigation and hydrocarbon exploration, we present the corresponding required precision and resolution. Then, we investigate the influence of the different parameters of the survey, such as altitude or cross-track distance, on the resolution and precision of the final measurements. To do so, we design numerical simulations of airborne survey performed with GREMLIT and compute the total error budget on the gravity gradients. Based on this error analysis, we infer by a method of error propagation the uncertainty on the different functionals of the gravity potential used for each application. This finally enables us to conclude on the requirements for a high
Cosmological acceleration. Dark energy or modified gravity?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bludman, S.
2006-05-15
We review the evidence for recently accelerating cosmological expansion or ''dark energy'', either a negative pressure constituent in General Relativity (Dark Energy) or modified gravity (Dark Gravity), without any constituent Dark Energy. If constituent Dark Energy does not exist, so that our universe is now dominated by pressure-free matter, Einstein gravity must be modified at low curvature. The vacuum symmetry of any Robertson-Walker universe then characterizes Dark Gravity as low- or high-curvature modifications of Einstein gravity. The dynamics of either kind of ''dark energy'' cannot be derived from the homogeneous expansion history alone, but requires also observing the growth of inhomogeneities. Present and projected observations are all consistent with a small fine tuned cosmological constant, but also allow nearly static Dark Energy or gravity modified at cosmological scales. The growth of cosmological fluctuations will potentially distinguish between static and ''dynamic'' ''dark energy''. But, cosmologically distinguishing the Concordance Model {lambda}CDM from modified gravity will require a weak lensing shear survey more ambitious than any now projected. Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati low-curvature modifications of Einstein gravity may also be detected in refined observations in the solar system (Lue and Starkman) or at the intermediate Vainstein scale (Iorio) in isolated galaxy clusters. Dark Energy's epicyclic character, failure to explain the original Cosmic Coincidence (''Why so small now?'') without fine tuning, inaccessibility to laboratory or solar system tests, along with braneworld theories, now motivate future precision solar system, Vainstein-scale and cosmological-scale studies of Dark Gravity. (Orig.)
Toward Joint Inversion of Gravity and Dyanamics
Jacoby, W. R.
To better understand geodynamic processes as seafloor spreading, plumes, subduction, and isostatic adjustment, gravity is inverted with "a prioriinformation from topography/bathymetry, seismic structure and dynamic models. Examples are subduction of the Juan de Fuca plate below Vancouver Island, the passive Black SeaTurkey margin and Iceland ridge-plume interaction. Gravity and other data are averaged 50 km wide strips. Mass balances are estimated (showing also that the free air anomaly is misleading for narrow structures). The mass balances represent plate forces and plate bending, affecting the gravity signals and the isostatic state of continental margins and ridge-plume effects, which are highly correlated in space and cannot be separated without a priori information from modelling. The examples from widely different tectonic situations demonstrate that the art of regional-scale gravity inversion requires extensive background knowledge and inclusion of dynamic processes. It is difficult to conceive any formal, globally applicable procedure taking care of this; it is even a question, what is data, what a priori information? They are not distinguishable if all are included as foreward routines. The "accuracy" of models cannot be perfectly determined, if the "real" mass distribution is not known if known, gravity inversion would be unnecessary. In reality only guesses are possible on the basis of observations and physical laws governing geodynamics. A priori information and gravity data limit the resolution of gravity inversion. Different model types are indistinguishable because adjustments within their parameter uncertainties permit a good fit. But gravity excludes wrong models (Karl Popper: science evolves by falsification of wrong models), and precise gravity guides and defines aims, targets and strategies for new observations.
The Universal Force Gravity - Creator of Worlds
Girifalco, Louis A
2008-01-01
"The Universal Force" conveys the excitement of science and nature's mysteries. It describes gravitation as seen by examining the achievements of those great scientists who have struggled with the seemingly simple facts and managed to extract some truth about the nature of gravity, its origins, and its effects. Gravity is intimately tied up with motion, and therefore with time and space, and is responsible for planetary systems, the evolution of stars and the existence of blackholes and the very beginning of the Universe. It is the universal force, and to look at gravity is to look a
Massive gravity and Fierz-Pauli theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blasi, Alberto [Universita di Genova, Dipartimento di Fisica, Genova (Italy); Maggiore, Nicola [I.N.F.N.-Sezione di Genova, Genoa (Italy)
2017-09-15
Linearized gravity is considered as an ordinary gauge field theory. This implies the need for gauge fixing in order to have well-defined propagators. Only after having achieved this, the most general mass term is added. The aim of this paper is to study of the degrees of freedom of the gauge fixed theory of linearized gravity with mass term. The main result is that, even outside the usual Fierz-Pauli constraint on the mass term, it is possible to choose a gauge fixing belonging to the Landau class, which leads to a massive theory of gravity with the five degrees of freedom of a spin-2 massive particle. (orig.)
Asymptotically safe inflation from quadratic gravity
Bonanno, Alfio
2015-01-01
Asymptotically Safe theories of gravity have recently received much attention. In this work we discuss a class of inflationary models derived from quantum-gravity modification of quadratic gravity according to the induced scaling around the non-Gaussian fixed point at very high energies. It is argued that the presence of a three dimensional ultraviolet critical surface generates operators of non-integer power of the type $R^{2-\\theta/2}$ in the effective Lagrangian, where $\\theta>0$ is a critical exponent. The requirement of a successful inflationary model in agreement with the recent Planck 2015 data puts important constraints on the strenght of this new type of couplings.
Critical behaviors of gravity under quantum perturbations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
ZHANG Hongsheng
2014-02-01
Full Text Available Phase transition and critical phenomenon is a very interesting topic in thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. Gravity is believed to have deep and inherent relation to thermodynamics. Near the critical point,the perturbation becomes significant. Thus for ordinary matter (governed by interactions besides gravity the critical behavior will become very different if we ignore the perturbations around the critical point,such as mean field theory. We find that the critical exponents for RN-AdS spacetime keep the same values even when we consider the full quantum perturbations. This indicates a key difference between gravity and ordinary thermodynamic system.
Bringing Artificial Gravity into the Classroom
Thompson, Grant; Aning, Isaac
2018-01-01
We recently conducted an experimental test of artificial gravity by placing various species of plants in centrifuges and analyzed the plants’ germination and growth. This research project incorporated several topics covered in undergraduate astronomy, biology, and physics courses. Given the interest of introductory astronomy students in artificial gravity and their pre-existing images of applications such as rotating spacecraft from pop culture, the results of the experiment may provide a gateway to discuss artificial gravity beyond teaching the traditional examples of Newton’s laws. We will discuss the experiment in detail and provide suggestions for how the experiment could be incorporated into your classroom.
Gravity-Induced Gene Expression in Plants.
Sederoff, Heike; Heber, Steffen; Howard, Brian; Myburg-Nichols, Henrietta; Hammond, Rebecca; Salinas-Mondragon, Raul; Brown, Christopher S.
Plants sense changes in their orientation towards the vector of gravity and respond with directional growth. Several metabolites in the signal transduction cascade have been identified. However, very little is known about the interaction between these sensing and signal transduction events and even less is known about their role in the differential growth response. Gravity induced changes in transcript abundance have been identified in Arabidopsis whole seedlings and root apices (Moseyko et al. 2002; Kimbrough et al. 2004). Gravity induced transcript abundance changes can be observed within less than 1 min after stimulation (Salinas-Mondragon et al. 2005). Gene expression however requires not only transcription but also translation of the mRNA. Translation can only occur when mRNA is associated with ribosomes, even though not all mRNA associated with ribosomes is actively translated. To approximate translational capacity we quantified whole genome transcript abundances in corn stem pulvini during the first hour after gravity stimulation in total and poly-ribosomal fractions. As in Arabidopsis root apices, transcript abundances of several clusters of genes responded to gravity stimulation. The vast majority of these transcripts were also found to associate with polyribosomes in the same temporal and quantitative pattern. These genes are transcriptionally regulated by gravity stimulation, but do not exhibit translational regulation. However, a small group of genes showed increased transcriptional regulation after gravity stimulation, but no association with polysomes. These transcripts likely are translationally repressed. The mechanism of translational repression for these transcripts is unknown. Based on the hypothesis that the genes essential for gravitropic responses should be expressed in most or all species, we compared the temporal gravity induced expression pattern of all orthologs identified between maize and Arabidopsis. A small group of genes showed high
Holography, Gravity and Condensed Matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hartnoll, Sean [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Physics
2017-12-20
Over the five years of funding from this grant, I produced 26 publications. These include a book-long monograph on "Holographic Quantum Matter" that is currently in press with MIT press. The remainder were mostly published in Physical Review Letters, the Journal of High Energy Physics, Nature Physics, Classical and Quantum Gravity and Physical Review B. Over this period, the field of holography applied to condensed matter physics developed from a promising theoretical approach to a mature conceptual and practical edifice, whose ideas were realized in experiments. My own work played a central role in this development. In particular, in the final year of this grant, I co-authored two experimental papers in which ideas that I had developed in earlier years were shown to usefully describe transport in strongly correlated materials — these papers were published in Science and in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (obviously my contribution to these papers was theoretical). My theoretical work in this period developed several new directions of research that have proven to be influential. These include (i) The construction of highly inhomogeneous black hole event horizons, realizing disordered fixed points and describing new regimes of classical gravity, (ii) The conjecture of a bound on diffusivities that could underpin transport in strongly interacting media — an idea which may be proven in the near future and has turned out to be intimately connected to studies of quantum chaos in black holes and strongly correlated media, (iii) The characterization of new forms of hydrodynamic transport, e.g. with phase-disordered order parameters. These studies pertain to key open questions in our understanding of how non-quasiparticle, intrinsically strongly interacting systems can behave. In addition to the interface between holography and strongly interacting condensed matter systems, I made several advances on understanding the role of entanglement in quantum
REXUS 16 Low Gravity Experiment
Manoliu, L.; Ciuca, I.; Lupu, E. S.; Ciobanu, I.; Cherciu, C.; Soare, C.; Murensan, C.; Dragomir, D.; Chitu, C.; Nachila, C.
2015-09-01
The REXUS/BEXUS is a programme realized under a bilateral agency agreement between the German Aerospace Centre (DLR) and the Swedish National Space Board (SNSB) (Source: www.rexusbexus.net) . Within this programme, the experiment proposed by LOW Gravity was given the opportunity to fly on board of REXUS 16 from Kiruna, Sweden, in May 2014. Since space settlements are within our reach and material processing in reduced gravity is a key requirement, we aim to improve this field by investigating the melting and welding processes taking place in milligravity on board of a sounding rocket. Our main objective is to analyze the surface deformation and physical properties of titanium and acid core solder alloys welded/melted under miligravity conditions with a 25W LASER diode. The main components of our experiment are the metal samples, the LASER diode and the control electronics. The metal samples are placed in front of an optical system and are shifted during approximately 120 seconds of milligravity. The optical system is connected via an optic fiber to the LASER diode. The electronics consists of two custom-made boards: the mainboard which is connected to the REXUS interface and controls the LASER diode and the sample shifting and the logboard which has an SD card to log all experiment data (sample position, experiment acceleration and rotation rate, pressure and temperature, battery voltage and LASER diode status). During the flight, due to unexpected vibration levels, the fiber optics was damaged at T+70 and the experiment could not fulfill its main objective. A GoPro camera mounted inside the experiment box recorded the experiment operation. Valuable information regarding temperature and battery voltage was also sent remotely to our Ground Station. This data enabled us to perform a thorough failure analysis. Parallel readings of these parameters taken by other experiments and by the REXUS Service Module corroborate our data and increase the accuracy of our analysis
The GRAVITY spectrometers: optical qualification
Yazici, Senol; Straubmeier, Christian; Wiest, Michael; Wank, Imke; Fischer, Sebastian; Horrobin, Matthew; Eisenhauer, Frank; Perrin, Guy; Perraut, Karine; Brandner, Wolfgang; Amorim, Antonio; Schöller, Markus; Eckart, Andreas
2014-07-01
GRAVITY1 is a 2nd generation Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) operated in the astronomical K-band. In the Beam Combiner Instrument2 (BCI) four Fiber Couplers3 (FC) will feed the light coming from each telescope into two fibers, a reference channel for the fringe tracking spectrometer4 (FT) and a science channel for the science spectrometer4 (SC). The differential Optical Path Difference (dOPD) between the two channels will be corrected using a novel metrology concept.5 The metrology laser will keep control of the dOPD of the two channels. It is injected into the spectrometers and detected at the telescope level. Piezo-actuated fiber stretchers correct the dOPD accordingly. Fiber-fed Integrated Optics6 (IO) combine coherently the light of all six baselines and feed both spectrometers. Assisted by Infrared Wavefront Sensors7 (IWS) at each Unit Telescope (UT) and correcting the path difference between the channels with an accuracy of up to 5 nm, GRAVITY will push the limits of astrometrical accuracy to the order of 10 μas and provide phase-referenced interferometric imaging with a resolution of 4 mas. The University of Cologne developed, constructed and tested both spectrometers of the camera system. Both units are designed for the near infrared (1.95 - 2.45 μm) and are operated in a cryogenic environment. The Fringe Tracker is optimized for highest transmission with fixed spectral resolution (R = 22) realized by a double-prism.8 The Science spectrometer is more diverse and allows to choose from three different spectral resolutions8 (R = [22, 500, 4000]), where the lowest resolution is achieved with a prism and the higher resolutions are realized with grisms. A Wollaston prism in each spectrometer allows for polarimetric splitting of the light. The goal for the spectrometers is to concentrate at least 90% of the ux in 2 × 2 pixel (36 × 36 μm2) for the Science channel and in 1 pixel (24 × 24 μm) in the Fringe Tracking channel. In Section 1, we present
Unit operations for gas-liquid mass transfer in reduced gravity environments
Pettit, Donald R.; Allen, David T.
1992-01-01
Basic scaling rules are derived for converting Earth-based designs of mass transfer equipment into designs for a reduced gravity environment. Three types of gas-liquid mass transfer operations are considered: bubble columns, spray towers, and packed columns. Application of the scaling rules reveals that the height of a bubble column in lunar- and Mars-based operations would be lower than terrestrial designs by factors of 0.64 and 0.79 respectively. The reduced gravity columns would have greater cross-sectional areas, however, by factors of 2.4 and 1.6 for lunar and Martian settings. Similar results were obtained for spray towers. In contract, packed column height was found to be nearly independent of gravity.
Estimations of model parameters for gravity wave spectra observed by MST radar
Scheffler, A. O.; Liu, C. H.; Franke, S. J.
1989-01-01
The general theory of MST radar observations of gravity wave spectra is developed. This effort extends the previous results to include anisotropy and Doppler effects for the spectra, as well as the consequences for the multibeam configuration. The relationships between the observed one- or two-dimensional spectra for the line-of-sight velocity in the gravity wave spectra are derived. Expressions for cross spectra, as well as covariances between velocities observed on different beams, are computed. Using these results, studies are carried out to show how model parameters for gravity wave spectra can be estimated from the observed quantities. Model parameters include the variance, power law indices, anisotropy parameters, Doppler parameters, mean scale sizes, etc. Cases with different numbers of beams are investigated.
14 CFR 27.27 - Center of gravity limits.
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Center of gravity limits. 27.27 Section 27... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight General § 27.27 Center of gravity limits. The extreme forward and aft centers of gravity and, where critical, the extreme lateral centers of gravity must be...
7 CFR 51.3417 - Optional test for specific gravity.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Optional test for specific gravity. 51.3417 Section 51... specific gravity. Tests to determine specific gravity shall be made in accordance with the procedures set.... The specific gravity for any lot of potatoes shall be the average of at least 3 corrected readings on...
14 CFR 29.27 - Center of gravity limits.
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Center of gravity limits. 29.27 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight General § 29.27 Center of gravity limits. The extreme forward and aft centers of gravity and, where critical, the extreme lateral centers of gravity...
Prediction of gravity anomalies for geophysical exploration | Idowu ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Where the density of the available gravity anomalies is not enough, for a particular purpose of geophysical exploration, more gravity stations can be established within the surveyed area and the gravity anomalies observed for these stations. In some cases, where observations of gravity anomalies are not possible due, ...
Japanese Oceanographic Data Center Japan Land Gravity
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (4,381 records) were compiled by the Japanese Oceanographic Data Center. This data base was received in July 1988. The data are in the...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (72,677 records) were compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey and the State of Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys. This...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (10,578 records) were compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey and the State of Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys. This...
Gravity observations for hydrocarbon reservoir monitoring
Glegola, M.A.
2013-01-01
In this thesis the added value of gravity observations for hydrocarbon reservoir monitoring and characterization is investigated. Reservoir processes and reservoir types most suitable for gravimetric monitoring are identified. Major noise sources affecting time-lapse gravimetry are analyzed. The
A new vacuum for Loop Quantum Gravity
Dittrich, Bianca
2014-01-01
We construct a new vacuum for loop quantum gravity, which is dual to the Ashtekar-Lewandowski vacuum. Because it is based on BF theory, this new vacuum is physical for $(2+1)$-dimensional gravity, and much closer to the spirit of spin foam quantization in general. To construct this new vacuum and the associated representation of quantum observables, we introduce a modified holonomy-flux algebra which is cylindrically consistent with respect to the notion of refinement by time evolution suggested in [1]. This supports the proposal for a construction of a physical vacuum made in [1,2], also for $(3+1)$-dimensional gravity. We expect that the vacuum introduced here will facilitate the extraction of large scale physics and cosmological predictions from loop quantum gravity.
High energy scattering in gravity and supergravity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
B. Giddings, Steven; Schmidt-Sommerfeld, Maximilian; Andersen, Jeppe Rosenkrantz
2010-01-01
We investigate features of perturbative gravity and supergravity by studying scattering in the ultraplanckian limit, and sharpen arguments that the dynamics is governed by long-distance physics. A simple example capturing aspects of the eikonal resummation suggests why short distance phenomena...... and in particular divergences or nonrenormalizability do not necessarily play a central role in this regime. A more profound problem is apparently unitarity. These considerations can be illustrated by showing that known gravity and supergravity amplitudes have the same long-distance behavior, despite the extra...... a physical scattering process, and ultraplanckian scattering exhibiting Regge behavior. These arguments sharpen the need to find a nonperturbative completion of gravity with mechanisms which restore unitarity in the strong gravity regime....
Toward a gauge field theory of gravity.
Yilmaz, H.
Joint use of two differential identities (Bianchi and Freud) permits a gauge field theory of gravity in which the gravitational energy is localizable. The theory is compatible with quantum mechanics and is experimentally viable.
Exploration technology surface systems: Artificial gravity
Hirschbein, Murray
1991-01-01
The topics presented are covered in viewgraph form and include the following: technical issues; current, state-of-the-art, and future programs; and Mars direct tether application for artificial gravity.
Black holes in massive conformal gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Myung, Yun Soo, E-mail: ysmyung@inje.ac.kr
2014-03-07
We analyze the classical stability of Schwarzschild black hole in massive conformal gravity which was recently proposed for another massive gravity model. This model in the Jordan frame is conformally equivalent to the Einstein–Weyl gravity in the Einstein frame. The coupled linearized Einstein equation is decomposed into the traceless and trace equation when one chooses 6m{sup 2}φ=δR. Solving the traceless equation exhibits unstable modes featuring the Gregory–Laflamme s-mode instability of five-dimensional black string, while we find no unstable modes when solving the trace equation. It is shown that the instability of the black hole in massive conformal gravity arises from the massiveness where the geometry of extra dimension trades for mass.
Former Soviet Union (FSU) Gravity Data
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded gravity anomaly data for the Former Soviet Union (FSU) and Eastern Europe has been received by the National Geophysical Data Center(NGDC). The data file...
Quantum and gravity. Blend or melange?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wuethrich, Christian [University of Geneva (Switzerland)
2016-07-01
Do we need to quantize gravity, as it is tacitly assumed in much of fundamental physics? The standard lore falls short of justifying an affirmative answer. Black hole thermodynamics is widely considered, faint though it may be, our firmest hint at a quantum theory of gravity - despite the failure to date to observe Hawking radiation or any other effect that would require going beyond a classical description of black holes. Hawking radiation hitherto merely enjoys a theoretical derivation in a semi-classical theory combining quantum matter with classical gravity. But how can a semi-classical melange of physical principles possibly justify that the quantum and gravity are blended into a unified fundamental theory when the latter is generally expected to reject at least some of the principles in the former?.
Gravity and Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics of Classical Matter
Hu, B L
2010-01-01
Renewed interest in deriving gravity (more precisely, the Einstein equations) from thermodynamics considerations [1, 2] is stirred up by a recent proposal that 'gravity is an entropic force' [3] (see also [4]). Even though I find the arguments justifying such a claim in this latest proposal rather ad hoc and simplistic compared to the original one I would unreservedly support the call to explore deeper the relation between gravity and thermodynamics, this having the same spirit as my long-held view that general relativity is the hydrodynamic limit [5, 6] of some underlying theories for the microscopic structure of spacetime - all these proposals, together with that of [7, 8], attest to the emergent nature of gravity [9]. In this first paper of two we set the modest goal of studying the nonequilibrium thermodynamics of classical matter only, bringing afore some interesting prior results, without invoking any quantum considerations such as Bekenstein-Hawking entropy, holography or Unruh effect. This is for the ...
ANWR and Alaska Peninsula Gravity Data
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (1252 records) were compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey and the State of Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys. This...
Remarks on osmosis, quantum mechanics, and gravity
Carroll, Robert
2011-01-01
Some relations of the quantum potential to Weyl geometry are indicated with applications to the Friedmann equations for a toy quantum cosmology. Osmotic velocity and pressure are briefly discussed in terms of quantum mechanics and superfluids with connections to gravity.
Zero Gravity Research Facility (Zero-G)
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Zero Gravity Research Facility (Zero-G) provides a near weightless or microgravity environment for a duration of 5.18 seconds. This is accomplished by allowing...
Brane worlds in gravity with auxiliary fields
Guo, Bin; Liu, Yu-Xiao; Yang, Ke
2015-02-01
Recently, Pani et al. explored a new theory of gravity by adding nondynamical fields, i.e., gravity with auxiliary fields (Phys Rev D 88:121502, 2013). In this gravity theory, higher-order derivatives of matter fields generically appear in the field equations. In this paper we extend this theory to any dimensions and discuss the thick braneworld model in five dimensions. Domain wall solutions are obtained numerically. The stability of the brane system under tensor perturbations is analyzed. We find that the system is stable under tensor perturbations and the gravity zero mode is localized on the brane. Therefore, the four-dimensional Newtonian potential can be realized on the brane.
Polemic Notes on IR Perturbative Quantum Gravity
Shapiro, Ilya L.
Quantum gravity is an important and to great extent unsolved problem. There are many different approaches to the quantization of the metric field, both perturbative and nonperturbative. The current situation in the perturbative quantum gravity is characterized by a number of different models, some of them well elaborated but no one perfect nor mathematically neither phenomenologically, mainly because there are no theoretically derived observables which can be experimentally measured. A very interesting one is an effective approach which separates the low-energy quantum effects from the UV sector. In this way one can calculate quantities which are potentially relevant for establishing certain universal features of quantum gravity. In this presentation we give a polemic consideration of the effective approach to the infrared quantum gravity. We question the validity of the recent results in this area and also discuss how one can check the alleged universality of the effective approach.
Gravity Field Atlas of the S. Ocean
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Gravity Field Atlas of the Southern Ocean from GEOSAT is MGG Report 7. In many areas of the global ocean, the depth of the seafloor is not well known because...
Aeromagnetic and Bouger Gravity Data from Bolivia
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — As part of a two-year assessment of the geology and mineral resources of the Altiplano and Cordillera Occidental, Bolivia, aeromagnetic and gravity data were...
Gravity Probe B Gyroscope Rotor
2003-01-01
The Gravity Probe B (GP-B) is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. This photograph is a close up of a niobium-coated gyroscope motor and its housing halves. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Launched April 20, 2004 , the GP-B program was managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Don Harley.)
Harko, Tiberiu; Nojiri, Shin'ichi; Odintsov, Sergei D
2011-01-01
We consider f(R,T) modified theories of gravity, where the gravitational Lagrangian is given by an arbitrary function of the Ricci scalar R and of the trace of the stress-energy tensor T. We obtain the gravitational field equations in the metric formalism, as well as the equations of motion for test particles, which follow from the covariant divergence of the stress-energy tensor. Generally, the gravitational field equations depend on the nature of the matter source. The field equations of several particular models, corresponding to some explicit forms of the function f(R,T), are also presented. An important case, which is analyzed in detail, is represented by scalar field models. We write down the action and briefly consider the cosmological implications of the $f(R,T^{\\phi})$ models, where $T^{\\phi}$ is the trace of the stress-energy tensor of a self-interacting scalar field. The equations of motion of the test particles are also obtained from a variational principle. The motion of massive test particles is...
Gravity localization on hybrid branes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D.F.S. Veras
2016-03-01
Full Text Available This work deals with gravity localization on codimension-1 brane worlds engendered by compacton-like kinks, the so-called hybrid branes. In such scenarios, the thin brane behavior is manifested when the extra dimension is outside the compact domain, where the energy density is non-trivial, instead of asymptotically as in the usual thick brane models. The zero mode is trapped in the brane, as required. The massive modes, although not localized in the brane, have important phenomenological implications such as corrections to the Newton's law. We study such corrections in the usual thick domain wall and in the hybrid brane scenarios. By means of suitable numerical methods, we attain the mass spectrum for the graviton and the corresponding wavefunctions. The spectra possess the usual linearly increasing behavior from the Kaluza–Klein theories. Further, we show that the 4D gravitational force is slightly increased at short distances. The first eigenstate contributes highly for the correction to the Newton's law. The subsequent normalized solutions have diminishing contributions. Moreover, we find out that the phenomenology of the hybrid brane is not different from the usual thick domain wall. The use of numerical techniques for solving the equations of the massive modes is useful for matching possible phenomenological measurements in the gravitational law as a probe to warped extra dimensions.
Gravity localization on hybrid branes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Veras, D.F.S., E-mail: franklin@fisica.ufc.br [Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC), Departamento de Física, Campus do Pici, Caixa Postal 6030, 60455-760, Fortaleza, Ceará (Brazil); Cruz, W.T., E-mail: wilamicruz@gmail.com [Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Ceará (IFCE), Campus Juazeiro do Norte, 63040-540 Juazeiro do Norte, Ceará (Brazil); Maluf, R.V., E-mail: r.v.maluf@fisica.ufc.br [Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC), Departamento de Física, Campus do Pici, Caixa Postal 6030, 60455-760, Fortaleza, Ceará (Brazil); Almeida, C.A.S., E-mail: carlos@fisica.ufc.br [Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC), Departamento de Física, Campus do Pici, Caixa Postal 6030, 60455-760, Fortaleza, Ceará (Brazil)
2016-03-10
This work deals with gravity localization on codimension-1 brane worlds engendered by compacton-like kinks, the so-called hybrid branes. In such scenarios, the thin brane behavior is manifested when the extra dimension is outside the compact domain, where the energy density is non-trivial, instead of asymptotically as in the usual thick brane models. The zero mode is trapped in the brane, as required. The massive modes, although not localized in the brane, have important phenomenological implications such as corrections to the Newton's law. We study such corrections in the usual thick domain wall and in the hybrid brane scenarios. By means of suitable numerical methods, we attain the mass spectrum for the graviton and the corresponding wavefunctions. The spectra possess the usual linearly increasing behavior from the Kaluza–Klein theories. Further, we show that the 4D gravitational force is slightly increased at short distances. The first eigenstate contributes highly for the correction to the Newton's law. The subsequent normalized solutions have diminishing contributions. Moreover, we find out that the phenomenology of the hybrid brane is not different from the usual thick domain wall. The use of numerical techniques for solving the equations of the massive modes is useful for matching possible phenomenological measurements in the gravitational law as a probe to warped extra dimensions.
The Gravity of Giraffe Physiology
Hargens, Alan R.; Holton, Emily M. (Technical Monitor)
1997-01-01
By virtue of its tallness and terrestrial environment, the giraffe is a uniquely sensitive African animal to investigate tissue adaptations to gravitational stress. One decade ago, we studied transcapillary fluid balance and local tissue adaptations to high cardiovascular and musculoskeletal loads in adult and fetal giraffes. Previous studies by Goetz, Pattersson, Van Citters, Warren and their colleagues revealed that arterial pressure near the giraffe heart is about twice that in humans, to provide more normal blood pressure and perfusion to the brain. Another important question is how giraffes avoid pooling of blood and tissue fluid (edema) in dependent tissue of the extremities. As monitored by radiotelemetry, the blood and tissue fluid pressures that govern transcapillary exchange vary greatly with exercise. These pressures, combined with a tight skin layer, move fluid upward against gravity. Other mechanisms that prevent edema include precapillary vasoconstriction and low permeability of capillaries to plasma proteins. Other anatomical adaptations in dependent tissues of giraffes represent developmental adjustments to high and variable gravitational forces. These include vascular wall hypertrophy, thickened capillary basement membrane and other connective tissue adaptations. Our results in giraffe suggest avenues of future gravitational research in other animals including humans.
Measuring antimatter gravity with muonium
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kaplan Daniel M.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The gravitational acceleration of antimatter, ḡ, has never been directly measured and could bear importantly on our understanding of gravity, the possible existence of a fifth force, and the nature and early history of the universe. Only two avenues for such a measurement appear to be feasible: antihydrogen and muonium. The muonium measurement requires a novel, monoenergetic, low-velocity, horizontal muonium beam directed at an atom interferometer. The precision three-grating interferometer can be produced in silicon nitride or ultrananocrystalline diamond using state-of-the-art nanofabrication. The required precision alignment and calibration at the picometer level also appear to be feasible. With 100 nm grating pitch, a 10% measurement of ḡ can be made using some months of surface-muon beam time, and a 1% or better measurement with a correspondingly larger exposure. This could constitute the first gravitational measurement of leptonic matter, of 2nd-generation matter and, possibly, the first measurement of the gravitational acceleration of antimatter.
Renormalisation in perturbative quantum gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rodigast, Andreas
2012-07-02
In this thesis, we derive the gravitational one-loop corrections to the propagators and interactions of the Standard Model field. We consider a higher dimensional brane world scenario: Here, gravitons can propagate in the whole D dimensional space-time whereas the matter fields are confined to a d dimensional sub-manifold (brane). In order to determine the divergent part of the one-loop diagrams, we develop a new regularisation scheme which is both sensitive for polynomial divergences and respects the Ward identities of the Yang-Mills theory. We calculate the gravitational contributions to the {beta} functions of non-Abelian gauge theories, the quartic scalar self-interaction and the Yukawa coupling between scalars and fermions. In the physically interesting case of a four dimensional matter brane, the gravitational contributions to the running of the Yang-Mills coupling constant vanish. The leading contributions to the other two couplings are positive. These results do not depend on the number of extra dimensions. We further compute the gravitationally induced one-loop counterterms with higher covariant derivatives for scalars, Dirac fermions and gauge bosons. In is shown that these counterterms do not coincide with the higher derivative terms in the Lee-Wick standard model. A possible connection between quantum gravity and the latter cannot be inferred.
Gravity theory through affine spheres
Minguzzi, E.
2017-08-01
In this work it is argued that in order to improve our understanding of gravity and spacetime our most successful theory, general relativity, must be destructured. That is, some geometrical assumptions must be dropped and recovered just under suitable limits. Along this line of thought we pursue the idea that the roundness of the light cone, and hence the isotropy of the speed of light, must be relaxed and that, in fact, the shape of light cones must be regarded as a dynamical variable. Mathematically, we apply some important results from affine differential geometry to this problem, the idea being that in the transition we should preserve the identification of the spacetime continuum with a manifold endowed with a cone structure and a spacetime volume form. To that end it is suggested that the cotangent indicatrix (dispersion relation) must be described by an equation of Monge-Ampère type determining a hyperbolic affine sphere, at least whenever the matter content is negligible. Non-relativistic spacetimes fall into this description as they are recovered whenever the center of the affine sphere is at infinity. In the more general context of Lorentz-Finsler theories it is shown that the lightlike unparametrized geodesic flow is completely determined by the distribution of light cones. Moreover, the transport of lightlike momenta is well defined though there could be no notion of affine parameter. Finally, we show how the perturbed indicatrix can be obtained from the perturbed light cone.
Gravity localization on hybrid branes
Veras, D. F. S.; Cruz, W. T.; Maluf, R. V.; Almeida, C. A. S.
2016-03-01
This work deals with gravity localization on codimension-1 brane worlds engendered by compacton-like kinks, the so-called hybrid branes. In such scenarios, the thin brane behavior is manifested when the extra dimension is outside the compact domain, where the energy density is non-trivial, instead of asymptotically as in the usual thick brane models. The zero mode is trapped in the brane, as required. The massive modes, although not localized in the brane, have important phenomenological implications such as corrections to the Newton's law. We study such corrections in the usual thick domain wall and in the hybrid brane scenarios. By means of suitable numerical methods, we attain the mass spectrum for the graviton and the corresponding wavefunctions. The spectra possess the usual linearly increasing behavior from the Kaluza-Klein theories. Further, we show that the 4D gravitational force is slightly increased at short distances. The first eigenstate contributes highly for the correction to the Newton's law. The subsequent normalized solutions have diminishing contributions. Moreover, we find out that the phenomenology of the hybrid brane is not different from the usual thick domain wall. The use of numerical techniques for solving the equations of the massive modes is useful for matching possible phenomenological measurements in the gravitational law as a probe to warped extra dimensions.
2003-01-01
The space vehicle for Gravity Probe B (GP-B) arrives at the launch site at Vandenburg Air Force Base. GP-B is the relativity experiment being developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Scheduled for launch in 2003 and managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center, development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University, with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation.
Quantum gravity phenomenology. Achievements and challenges
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liberati, S. [International School for Advanced Study (SISSA), Trieste (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Trieste (Italy); Maccione, L. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2011-05-15
Motivated by scenarios of quantum gravity, Planck-suppressed deviations from Lorentz invariance are expected at observable energies. Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic Rays, the most energetic particles ever observed in nature, yielded in the last two years strong constraints on deviations suppressed by O(E{sup 2}/M{sup 2}{sub Pl}) and also, for the first time, on space-time foam, stringy inspired models of quantum gravity. We review the most important achievements and discuss future outlooks. (orig.)
Exact Solutions in Modified Gravity Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Valery V. Obukhov
2012-06-01
Full Text Available We review the exact solutions in modified gravity. It is one of the main problems of mathematical physics for the gravity theory. One can obtain an exact solution if the field equations reduce to a system of ordinary differential equations. In this paper we consider a number of exact solutions obtained by the method of separation of variables. Some applications to Cosmology and BH entropy are briefly mentioned.
A testable prediction from entropic gravity
Süzen, Mehmet
2016-01-01
I have shown conceptually that quantum state has a direct relationship to gravitational constant due to entropic force posed by Verlinde's argument and part of the Newton-Schr\\"odinger equation (N-S) in the context of gravity induced collapse of the wavefunction via Di\\'osi-Penrose proposal. This direct relationship can be used to measure gravitational constant using state-of-the-art mater-wave interferometry to test the entropic gravity argument.
Fading Gravity and Self-Inflation
Khoury, Justin
2006-01-01
We study the cosmology of a toy modified theory of gravity in which gravity shuts off at short distances, as in the fat graviton scenario of Sundrum. In the weak-field limit, the theory is perturbatively local, ghost-free and unitary, although likely suffers from non-perturbative instabilities. We derive novel self-inflationary solutions from the vacuum equations of the theory, without invoking scalar fields or other forms of stress energy. The modified perturbation equation expressed in term...
Reduced gravity - A new biomedical research environment
Snyder, Robert S.
1989-01-01
Experiment programs for continuous flow electrophoresis and protein crystal growth are described to demonstrate the utility of the reduced gravity environment for scientific research. The advantages of the reduced gravity environment are outlined. The results of experiments on the Space Shuttle using the Continuous Flow Electrophoresis System and crystal growth experiments on Spacelab-1 and the Space Shuttle are examined, noting the importance of microgravity research.
Upward Continuation of Surface Gravity Anomalies.
1984-12-01
NUMBER(s) Jaime Y. Cruz and Piotr Laskowski F19268-82-K-0022 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK The Ohio...This report was prepared by Jaime Y. Cruz and Piotr Laskowski, Graduate Research Associates, Department of Geodetic Science and Surveying, The Ohio S...mountainous terrain of the aren . 1772. ah j vertical gradient of the normal gravity at P -yp’(O. , normal gravity on the ellipsoid, at the point P’ that
On IR solutions in Horava gravity theories
Nastase, Horatiu
2009-01-01
In this note we search for large distance solutions of Horava gravity. In the case of the "detailed balance" action, gravity solutions asymptote to IR only above the cosmological constant ($\\sim$horizon) scale. However, if one adds IR dominant terms $\\alpha R^{(3)}+\\beta \\Lambda_W$, one can recover general relativity solutions on usual scales in the real Universe, provided one fine-tunes the cosmological constant, reobtaining the usual cosmological constant problem. We comment on pp wave solu...
Gravity and Magnetotelluric Modeling of the Santo Domingo Basin, Northern New Mexico
Zamudio, K. D.; Keithline, N.; Blum, C.; Cunningham, E.; Fromont, A.; Jorgensen, M.; Lee, R.; McBride, K.; Saez Berrios, P.; Harper, C.; Pellerin, L.; McPhee, D.; Ferguson, J. F.
2015-12-01
The Santo Domingo Basin, one of a series of basins within the Rio Grande Rift, is located between Santa Fe and Albuquerque, NM, and has been the focus of research by the Summer of Geophysical Experience (SAGE) program since 2000. Gravity, magnetotelluric (MT), and seismic data have been collected throughout the region, although we are concentrating on gravity and MT data collected during SAGE 2014 and 2015. The study area is located in the center of the Santo Domingo basin, an extensional, Miocene age, rift basin, in an area that was minimally involved in the preceding local Laramide orogenic activity. Rift sediments (~3.5 km thick) are underlain by Eocene age sediments that were shed from adjacent uplifts. Up to 3 km of Mesozoic and Paleozoic sediments are preserved above the Precambrian basement. Geologic outcrop, borehole and seismic reflection data, and known density values were used in the construction of a ~100 km-long, generalized geologic cross section from which a gravity response was calculated. The modeled gravity response makes fairly definitive predictions about the geometry of the basin as well as the stratigraphy and faulting within and bounding the basin. MT data was collected at ten stations within the basin. The MT sounding curves exhibit one-dimensional behavior at short periods (1000 ohm-m) at ~ 3.5-4 km. Conductivities of the major stratigraphic units have been determined from well logs and previous MT modeling. Forward and inverse MT models constrained by the gravity-modeled geologic cross section are used to develop a conductivity model consistent with the geology, and are a step towards a better unified treatment of MT, seismic and gravity data.
Earthquake prediction from China's mobile gravity data
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Yiqing Zhu
2015-03-01
Full Text Available The relation between plate tectonics and earthquake evolution is analyzed systematically on the basis of 1998–2010 absolute and relative gravity data from the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China. Most earthquakes originated in the plate boundary or within the fault zone. Tectonic deformation was most intense and exhibited discontinuity within the tectonically active fault zone because of the differential movement; the stress accumulation produced an abrupt gravity change, which was further enhanced by the earthquake. The gravity data from mainland China since 2000 obviously reflected five major earthquakes (Ms > 7, all of which were better reflected than before 2000. Regional gravity anomalies and a gravity gradient change were observed in the area around the epicenter about 2 or 3 years before the earthquake occurred, suggesting that gravity change may be a seismic precursor. Furthermore, in this study, the medium-term predictions of the Ms7.3 Yutian, Ms8.0 Wenchuan, and Ms7.0 Lushan earthquakes are analytically presented and evaluated, especially to estimate location of earthquake.
Gravity and positional homeostasis of the cell
Nace, George W.
Normally bilateralization takes place in the presence of the Earth's gravity which produces torque, shear, tension and compression acting upon the naked aggregates of cytoplasm in the zygote which is only stabilized by a weak cytoskeleton. In an initial examination of the effects of these quantities on development, an expression is derived to describe the tendency of torque to rotate the egg and reorganize its constituents. This expression yields the net torque resulting from buoyancy and gravity acting upon a dumbbell shaped cell with heavy and light masses at either end and ``floating'' in a medium. Using crude values for the variables, torques of 2.5 × 10-13 to 8.5 × 10-1 dyne-cm are found to act upon cells ranging from 6.4 μm to 31 mm (chicken egg). By way of comparison six microtubules can exert a torque of 5 × 10-9 dyne-cm. (1) Gravity imparts torque to cells; (2) torque is reduced to zero as gravity approaches zero; and (3) torque is sensitive to cell size and particulate distribution. Cells must expend energy to maintain positional homeostasis against gravity. Although not previously recognized, Skylab 3 results support this hypothesis: tissue cultures used 58% more glucose on Earth than in space. The implications for developmental biology, physiology, genetics, and evolution are considered. At the cellular and tissue level the concept of ``gravity receptors'' may be unnecessary.
Insights on the structure and activity of Lusi mud edifice from land gravity monitoring.
Mauri, Guillaume; Husein, Alwi; Karyono, Karyono; Hadi, Soffian; Prasetyo, Hardi; Lupi, Matteo; Obermann, Anne; Mazzini, Adriano; Miller, Stephen A.
2017-04-01
ranging from 8.2 hours to 45.1 hours. Some very short gravity variation events, with durations of less than one hour, correlate with rapid change of atmospheric temperature and pressure, or stream temperature. Gravity variations over time cross-correlate well with the duration increase of seismic events. In addition, from our 3D forward model, within the conduit feeding each active vent, the mud density variations range between 100 and 775 kg m-3. Even at distances of 320 to 460m from the eruptive vents, this study shows that gravity monitoring and atmospheric pressure monitoring are potentially valuable tools for monitoring and gaining insight into processes occurring in the feeder conduit of a mud eruption. We show that gravity method is an efficient method to monitor the evolution of an active mud edifice by bringing new insight on the mud edifice structures, and over time on the density change, which is associated to changes in the eruption dynamics.
Bao, Qianzong; Qiang, Li-E.
2017-08-01
A theoretical study of testing nonlocal gravity in its Newtonian regime with gravity gradient measurements in space is given. For certain solutions of the modification to Newton’s law in nonlocal gravity, a null test and a lower bound on related parameters may be given with future high precision multi-axis gravity gradiometers along elliptic orbits.
Li, Panpan; Chen, Zhenqian; Shi, Juan
2017-12-01
A volume of fluid (VOF) method is adopted to simulate the condensation of R134a in a horizontal single square minichannel with 1 mm side length. The effect of gravity, surface tension and gas-liquid interfacial shear stress are taken into account. The result denotes that condensation is first appeared at the corner of channel, and then the condensation is stretched at the effect of surface tension until the whole channel boundary covered. The effect of gravity on the distribution of the liquid film depends on the channel length. In short channel, the gravity shows no significant effect, the distribution shape of steam in the cross section of the channel is approximately circular. In long channel, due to the influence of gravity, the liquid converges at the bottom under the effect of gravity, and the thickness of the liquid film at the bottom is obviously higher than that of the upper part of the channel. The effect of surface tension on condensation is also analysed. The surface tension can enhance the condensation heat transfer significantly when the inlet mass flux is low. Whilst, at high mass flux, the enhancement of surface tension on heat transfer is unobvious and can be neglected.
Saraswati, Anita Thea; Cattin, Rodolphe; Mazzotti, Stéphane; Cadio, Cécilia
2017-04-01
Accurate and optimum terrain modeling plays an essential role for gravity and gravity gradients interpretation and inversion. Owing to the existence of new satellite and ground-based data that provide the topography at unprecedented resolutions, from global to very local scales, the question of how to best describe the corresponding mass distribution becomes an important issue for gravity studies. Here we present a novel tool to assess terrain corrections at any altitude of observation, which permits to obtain the effect of topography on both gravity and gravity gradients for applications from regional ( 1000 km) to very local ( 100 m) scales. The computation is accomplished by using the contribution from any plane surfaces-mass density of the polyhedral body to the gravity field. Numerical and parametric investigations have been performed to assess the modeling method, its computation time and precision. The chosen study area is the Himalayan belt region, which is an end-member area in terms of variations of both topography and relief. Unsurprisingly, our approach confirms that the resolution of the digital elevation model and the altitude of the observations play a critical role. Our study indicates a non-linear dependency between computation time and both the resolution of the meshed topography surface and the radius of the computation area. For optimized computation parameters, our results give a precision for the calculated gravity - gravity gradient of 10 mGal - 40 mE at the GOCE satellite altitude ( 225 km). Compared to other methods using either spherical harmonics or tesseroid approach for gravity field computation at global scale, our method shows better the distribution of gravity and gravity gradient value in shorter wavelength, hence it appears more efficient and appropriate to assess terrain corrections at local scales. Additional works are thus now needed to study the respective efficiency of these three approaches at regional scales, which can be
Gravity as a Strong Prior: Implications for Perception and Action
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joan López-Moliner
2017-04-01
Full Text Available In the future, humans are likely to be exposed to environments with altered gravity conditions, be it only visually (Virtual and Augmented Reality, or visually and bodily (space travel. As visually and bodily perceived gravity as well as an interiorized representation of earth gravity are involved in a series of tasks, such as catching, grasping, body orientation estimation and spatial inferences, humans will need to adapt to these new gravity conditions. Performance under earth gravity discrepant conditions has been shown to be relatively poor, and few studies conducted in gravity adaptation are rather discouraging. Especially in VR on earth, conflicts between bodily and visual gravity cues seem to make a full adaptation to visually perceived earth-discrepant gravities nearly impossible, and even in space, when visual and bodily cues are congruent, adaptation is extremely slow. We invoke a Bayesian framework for gravity related perceptual processes, in which earth gravity holds the status of a so called “strong prior”. As other strong priors, the gravity prior has developed through years and years of experience in an earth gravity environment. For this reason, the reliability of this representation is extremely high and overrules any sensory information to its contrary. While also other factors such as the multisensory nature of gravity perception need to be taken into account, we present the strong prior account as a unifying explanation for empirical results in gravity perception and adaptation to earth-discrepant gravities.
Gauge choice in conformal gravity
Sultana, Joseph; Kazanas, Demosthenes
2017-04-01
In a recent paper, K. Horne examined the effect of a conformally coupled scalar field (referred to as Higgs field) on the Mannheim-Kazanas metric gμν, i.e. the static spherically symmetric metric within the context of conformal gravity, and studied its effect on the rotation curves of galaxies. He showed that for a Higgs field of the form S(r) = S0a/(r + a), where a is a radial length-scale, the equivalent Higgs-frame Mannheim-Kazanas metric \\tilde{g}_{μ ν } = Ω ^2 g_{μ ν }, with Ω = S(r)/S0, lacks the linear γr term, which has been employed in the fitting of the galactic rotation curves without the need to invoke dark matter. In this brief note, we point out that the representation of the Mannheim-Kazanas metric in a gauge, where it lacks the linear term, has already been presented by others, including Mannheim and Kazanas themselves, without the need to introduce a conformally coupled Higgs field. Furthermore, Horne argues that the absence of the linear term resolves the issue of light bending in the wrong direction, i.e. away from the gravitating mass, if γr > 0 in the Mannheim-Kazanas metric, a condition necessary to resolve the galactic dynamics in the absence of dark matter. In this case, we also point out that the elimination of the linear term is not even required because the sign of the γr term in the metric can be easily reversed by a simple gauge transformation, and also that the effects of this term are indeed too small to be observed.
Nakamura, T.; Tsuboi, S.
2013-12-01
Recent seismological studies suggested subsurface activities preceding the 2011 Tohoku earthquake; the occurrence of migration of seismicity (Kato et al., 2012) and slow slip events (Ito et al., 2013) in and around the source area one month before the mainshock. In this study, we investigated sea-surface gravity changes observed by the shipboard gravimeter mounted on research vessels before the mainshock. The vessels incidentally passed through the source area along almost the same cruise track twice, four months before and one month before the mainshock. Comparing the sea surface gravity in the former track with that in the latter after Bouguer correction, we find the gravity changes of approximately 7 mGal in coseismic slip areas near the trench axis during the three months. We find these gravity changes even in the crossing areas of the cruise tracks where seafloor topographies have no differences between the tracks. We also find that the topographic differences show positive changes but the gravity changes negative ones in other areas, which is a negative correlation inconsistent with the theoretical relationship between the topographic difference and the gravity change. These mean that the differences of seafloor topographies due to differences between the two cruise tracks are not main causes of the observed gravity changes there. The changes cannot also be explained by drifts of the gravimeter and geostrophic currents. Although we have not had any clear evidences, we speculate that the possible cause may be density increases around the seismogenic zone or uplifts of seafloor in order to explain the changes of this size. We estimate the density increases of 1.0 g/cm**3 in a disk with a radius of 40 km and a width of 200 m or the uplifts of several tens of meters in seafloor areas for the observed gravity changes. Our results indicate that sea-surface gravity observations may be one of valid approaches to monitor the approximate location of a possible great
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical Datum (GRAV-D) is a project initiated by NOAA's National Geodetic Survey to collect and monitor gravity data...
Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for ES05 (2015-2016)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Florida and the Atlantic Ocean collected in two surveys, FL15-1 and FL15-2. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of...
f(T) teleparallel gravity and cosmology.
Cai, Yi-Fu; Capozziello, Salvatore; De Laurentis, Mariafelicia; Saridakis, Emmanuel N
2016-10-01
Over recent decades, the role of torsion in gravity has been extensively investigated along the main direction of bringing gravity closer to its gauge formulation and incorporating spin in a geometric description. Here we review various torsional constructions, from teleparallel, to Einstein-Cartan, and metric-affine gauge theories, resulting in extending torsional gravity in the paradigm of f (T) gravity, where f (T) is an arbitrary function of the torsion scalar. Based on this theory, we further review the corresponding cosmological and astrophysical applications. In particular, we study cosmological solutions arising from f (T) gravity, both at the background and perturbation levels, in different eras along the cosmic expansion. The f (T) gravity construction can provide a theoretical interpretation of the late-time universe acceleration, alternative to a cosmological constant, and it can easily accommodate with the regular thermal expanding history including the radiation and cold dark matter dominated phases. Furthermore, if one traces back to very early times, for a certain class of f (T) models, a sufficiently long period of inflation can be achieved and hence can be investigated by cosmic microwave background observations-or, alternatively, the Big Bang singularity can be avoided at even earlier moments due to the appearance of non-singular bounces. Various observational constraints, especially the bounds coming from the large-scale structure data in the case of f (T) cosmology, as well as the behavior of gravitational waves, are described in detail. Moreover, the spherically symmetric and black hole solutions of the theory are reviewed. Additionally, we discuss various extensions of the f (T) paradigm. Finally, we consider the relation with other modified gravitational theories, such as those based on curvature, like f (R) gravity, trying to illuminate the subject of which formulation, or combination of formulations, might be more suitable
f(T) teleparallel gravity and cosmology
Cai, Yi-Fu; Capozziello, Salvatore; De Laurentis, Mariafelicia; Saridakis, Emmanuel N.
2016-10-01
Over recent decades, the role of torsion in gravity has been extensively investigated along the main direction of bringing gravity closer to its gauge formulation and incorporating spin in a geometric description. Here we review various torsional constructions, from teleparallel, to Einstein-Cartan, and metric-affine gauge theories, resulting in extending torsional gravity in the paradigm of f (T) gravity, where f (T) is an arbitrary function of the torsion scalar. Based on this theory, we further review the corresponding cosmological and astrophysical applications. In particular, we study cosmological solutions arising from f (T) gravity, both at the background and perturbation levels, in different eras along the cosmic expansion. The f (T) gravity construction can provide a theoretical interpretation of the late-time universe acceleration, alternative to a cosmological constant, and it can easily accommodate with the regular thermal expanding history including the radiation and cold dark matter dominated phases. Furthermore, if one traces back to very early times, for a certain class of f (T) models, a sufficiently long period of inflation can be achieved and hence can be investigated by cosmic microwave background observations—or, alternatively, the Big Bang singularity can be avoided at even earlier moments due to the appearance of non-singular bounces. Various observational constraints, especially the bounds coming from the large-scale structure data in the case of f (T) cosmology, as well as the behavior of gravitational waves, are described in detail. Moreover, the spherically symmetric and black hole solutions of the theory are reviewed. Additionally, we discuss various extensions of the f (T) paradigm. Finally, we consider the relation with other modified gravitational theories, such as those based on curvature, like f (R) gravity, trying to illuminate the subject of which formulation, or combination of formulations, might be more
Anti-gravity: The key to 21st century physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Noyes, H.P.
1993-01-01
The masses coupling constants and cosmological parameters obtained using our discrete and combinatorial physics based on discrimination between bit-strings indicate that we can achieve the unification of quantum mechanics with relativity which had become the goal of twentieth century physics. To broaden our case we show that limitations on measurement of the position and velocity of an individual massive particle observed in a colliding beam scattering experiment imply real, rational commutation relations between position and velocity. Prior to this limit being pushed down to quantum effects, the lower bound is set by the available technology, but is otherwise scale invariant. Replacing force by force per unit mass and force per unit charge allows us to take over the Feynman-Dyson proof of the Maxwell Equations and extend it to weak gravity. The crossing symmetry of the individual scattering processes when one or more particles are replaced by anti-particles predicts both Coulomb attraction (for charged particles) and a Newtonian repulsion between any particle and its anti-particle. Previous quantum results remain intact, and predict the expected relativistic fine structure and spin dependencies. Experimental confirmation of this anti-gravity prediction would inaugurate the physics of the twenty-first century.
Cosmological models of modified gravity
Bloomfield, Jolyon Keith
The recent discovery of dark energy has prompted an investigation of ways in which the accelerated expansion of the universe can be realized. In this dissertation, we present two separate projects related to dark energy. The first project analyzes a class of braneworld models in which multiple branes float in a five-dimensional anti-de Sitter bulk, while the second investigates a class of dark energy models from an effective field theory perspective. Investigations of models including extra dimensions have led to modifications of gravity involving a number of interesting features. In particular, the Randall-Sundrum model is well-known for achieving an amelioration of the hierarchy problem. However, the basic model relies on Minkowski branes and is subject to solar system constraints in the absence of a radion stabilization mechanism. We present a method by which a four-dimensional low-energy description can be obtained for braneworld scenarios, allowing for a number of generalizations to the original models. This method is applied to orbifolded and uncompactified N-brane models, deriving an effective four-dimensional action. The parameter space of this theory is constrained using observational evidence, and it is found that the generalizations do not weaken solar system constraints on the original model. Furthermore, we find that general N-brane systems are qualitatively similar to the two-brane case, and do not naturally lead to a viable dark energy model. We next investigate dark energy models using effective field theory techniques. We describe dark energy through a quintessence field, employing a derivative expansion. To the accuracy of the model, we find transformations to write the description in a form involving no higher-order derivatives in the equations of motion. We use a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson construction to motivate the theory, and find the regime of validity and scaling of the operators using this. The regime of validity is restricted to a
A parametrix for quantum gravity?
Esposito, Giampiero
2016-03-01
In the 60s, DeWitt discovered that the advanced and retarded Green functions of the wave operator on metric perturbations in the de Donder gauge make it possible to define classical Poisson brackets on the space of functionals that are invariant under the action of the full diffeomorphism group of spacetime. He therefore tried to exploit this property to define invariant commutators for the quantized gravitational field, but the operator counterpart of such classical Poisson brackets turned out to be a hard task. On the other hand, in the mathematical literature, it is by now clear that, rather than inverting exactly an hyperbolic (or elliptic) operator, it is more convenient to build a quasi-inverse, i.e. an inverse operator up to an operator of lower order which plays the role of regularizing operator. This approximate inverse, the parametrix, which is, strictly, a distribution, makes it possible to solve inhomogeneous hyperbolic (or elliptic) equations. We here suggest that such a construction might be exploited in canonical quantum gravity provided one understands what is the counterpart of classical smoothing operators in the quantization procedure. We begin with the simplest case, i.e. fundamental solution and parametrix for the linear, scalar wave operator; the next step are tensor wave equations, again for linear theory, e.g. Maxwell theory in curved spacetime. Last, the nonlinear Einstein equations are studied, relying upon the well-established Choquet-Bruhat construction, according to which the fifth derivatives of solutions of a nonlinear hyperbolic system solve a linear hyperbolic system. The latter is solved by means of Kirchhoff-type formulas, while the former fifth-order equations can be solved by means of well-established parametrix techniques for elliptic operators. But then the metric components that solve the vacuum Einstein equations can be obtained by convolution of such a parametrix with Kirchhoff-type formulas. Some basic functional equations
Gait transitions in simulated reduced gravity.
Ivanenko, Yuri P; Labini, Francesca Sylos; Cappellini, Germana; Macellari, Velio; McIntyre, Joseph; Lacquaniti, Francesco
2011-03-01
Gravity has a strong effect on gait and the speed of gait transitions. A gait has been defined as a pattern of locomotion that changes discontinuously at the transition to another gait. On Earth, during gradual speed changes, humans exhibit a sudden discontinuous switch from walking to running at a specific speed. To study the effects of altered gravity on both the stance and swing legs, we developed a novel unloading exoskeleton that allows a person to step in simulated reduced gravity by tilting the body relative to the vertical. Using different simulation techniques, we confirmed that at lower gravity levels the transition speed is slower (in accordance with the previously reported Froude number ∼0.5). Surprisingly, however, we found that at lower levels of simulated gravity the transition between walking and running was generally gradual, without any noticeable abrupt change in gait parameters. This was associated with a significant prolongation of the swing phase, whose duration became virtually equal to that of stance in the vicinity of the walk-run transition speed, and with a gradual shift from inverted-pendulum gait (walking) to bouncing gait (running).
The middeck 0-gravity dynamics experiment
Crawley, Edward F.; Vanschoor, Marthinus C.; Bokhour, Edward B.
The Middeck 0-Gravity Dynamics Experiment (MODE), flown onboard the Shuttle STS-48 Mission, consists of three major elements: the Experiment Support Module, a dynamics test bed providing computer experiment control, analog signal conditioning, power conditioning, an operator interface consisting of a keypad and display, experiment electrical and thermal control, and archival data storage: the Fluid Test Article assembly, used to investigate the dynamics of fluid-structure interaction in 0-gravity; and the Structural Test Article for investigating the open-loop dynamics of structures in 0-gravity. Deployable, erectable, and rotary modules were assembled to form three one- and two-dimensional structures, in which variations in bracing wire and rotary joint preload could be introduced. Change in linear modal parameters as well as the change in nonlinear nature of the response is examined. Trends in modal parameters are presented as a function of force amplitude, joint preload, and ambient gravity. An experimental study of the lateral slosh behavior of contained fluids is also presented. A comparison of the measured earth and space results identifies and highlights the effects of gravity on the linear and nonlinear slosh behavior of these fluids.
Emergent universe with wormholes in massive gravity
Paul, B. C.; Majumdar, A. S.
2018-03-01
An emergent universe (EU) scenario is proposed to obtain a universe free from big-bang singularity. In this framework the present universe emerged from a static Einstein universe phase in the infinite past. A flat EU scenario is found to exist in Einstein’s gravity with a non-linear equation of state (EoS). It has been shown subsequently that a physically realistic EU model can be obtained considering cosmic fluid composed of interacting fluids with a non-linear equation of state. It results a viable cosmological model accommodating both early inflation and present accelerating phases. In the present paper, the origin of an initial static Einstein universe needed in the EU model is explored in a massive gravity theory which subsequently emerged to be a dynamically evolving universe. A new gravitational instanton solution in a flat universe is obtained in the massive gravity theory which is a dynamical wormhole that might play an important role in realizing the origin of the initial state of the emergent universe. The emergence of a Lorentzian universe from a Euclidean gravity is understood by a Wick rotation τ = i t . A universe with radiation at the beginning finally transits into the present observed universe with a non-linear EoS as the interactions among the fluids set in. Thus a viable flat EU scenario where the universe stretches back into time infinitely, with no big bang is permitted in a massive gravity.
Semiclassical analysis of loop quantum gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Conrady, F.
2005-10-17
In this Ph.D. thesis, we explore and develop new methods that should help in determining an effective semiclassical description of canonical loop quantum gravity and spin foam gravity. A brief introduction to loop quantum gravity is followed by three research papers that present the results of the Ph.D. project. In the first article, we deal with the problem of time and a new proposal for implementing proper time as boundary conditions in a sum over histories: we investigate a concrete realization of this formalism for free scalar field theory. In the second article, we translate semiclassical states of linearized gravity into states of loop quantum gravity. The properties of the latter indicate how semiclassicality manifests itself in the loop framework, and how this may be exploited for doing semiclassical expansions. In the third part, we propose a new formulation of spin foam models that is fully triangulation- and background-independent: by means of a symmetry condition, we identify spin foam models whose triangulation-dependence can be naturally removed. (orig.)
Massive gravity wrapped in the cosmic web
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shim, Junsup; Lee, Jounghun [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, FPRD, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Li, Baojiu, E-mail: jsshim@astro.snu.ac.kr, E-mail: jounghun@astro.snu.ac.kr [Institute of Computational Cosmology, Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)
2014-03-20
We study how the filamentary pattern of the cosmic web changes if the true gravity deviates from general relativity (GR) on a large scale. The f(R) gravity, whose strength is controlled to satisfy the current observational constraints on the cluster scale, is adopted as our fiducial model and a large, high-resolution N-body simulation is utilized for this study. By applying the minimal spanning tree algorithm to the halo catalogs from the simulation at various epochs, we identify the main stems of the rich superclusters located in the most prominent filamentary section of the cosmic web and determine their spatial extents per member cluster to be the degree of their straightness. It is found that the f(R) gravity has the effect of significantly bending the superclusters and that the effect becomes stronger as the universe evolves. Even in the case where the deviation from GR is too small to be detectable by any other observables, the degree of the supercluster straightness exhibits a conspicuous difference between the f(R) and the GR models. Our results also imply that the supercluster straightness could be a useful discriminator of f(R) gravity from the coupled dark energy since it is shown to evolve differently between the two models. As a final conclusion, the degree of the straightness of the rich superclusters should provide a powerful cosmological test of large scale gravity.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tscherning, Carl Christian; Herceg, Matija; Fredenslund Levinsen, Joanna
GOCE TRF (terrestrial reference frame) vertical anomalous gradients (Tzz) from two periods have been used to determine gravity anomalies changes in mid-west Greenland, where a large mass-loss has been detected using GRACE (Fig. 1). As additional data were used the GOCE DIR-3 model and ground...... gravity at the coast on solid rock, where no mass loss is expected. The methods of Least-Squares Collocation (LSC) and the Reduced Point Mass (RPM) methods have been used, however only LSC included the ground data....
Earth's structure and evolution inferred from topography, gravity, and seismicity.
Watkinson, A. J.; Menard, J.; Patton, R. L.
2016-12-01
Earth's wavelength-dependent response to loading, reflected in observed topography, gravity, and seismicity, can be interpreted in terms of a stack of layers under the assumption of transverse isotropy. The theory of plate tectonics holds that the outermost layers of this stack are mobile, produced at oceanic ridges, and consumed at subduction zones. Their toroidal motions are generally consistent with those of several rigid bodies, except in the world's active mountain belts where strains are partitioned and preserved in tectonite fabrics. Even portions of the oceanic lithosphere exhibit non-rigid behavior. Earth's gravity-topography cross-spectrum exhibits notable variations in signal amplitude and character at spherical harmonic degrees l=13, 116, 416, and 1389. Corresponding Cartesian wavelengths are approximately equal to the respective thicknesses of Earth's mantle, continental mantle lithosphere, oceanic thermal lithosphere, and continental crust, all known from seismology. Regional variations in seismic moment release with depth, derived from the global Centroid Moment Tensor catalog, are also evident in the crust and mantle lithosphere. Combined, these observations provide powerful constraints for the structure and evolution of the crust, mantle lithosphere, and mantle as a whole. All that is required is a dynamically consistent mechanism relating wavelength to layer thickness and shear-strain localization. A statistically-invariant 'diharmonic' relation exhibiting these properties appears as the leading order approximation to toroidal motions on a self-gravitating body of differential grade-2 material. We use this relation, specifically its predictions of weakness and rigidity, and of folding and shear banding response as a function of wavelength-to-thickness ratio, to interpret Earth's gravity, topography, and seismicity in four-dimensions. We find the mantle lithosphere to be about 255-km thick beneath the Himalaya and the Andes, and the long
Hurtado-Cardador, Manuel; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, Jaime
2006-12-01
Since 1947 Petroleos Mexicanos (Pemex) has conducted oil exploration projects using potential field methods. Geophysical exploration companies under contracts with Pemex carried out gravity anomaly surveys that were referred to different floating data. Each survey comprises observations of gravity stations along highways, roads and trails at intervals of about 500 m. At present, 265 separate gravimeter surveys that cover 60% of the Mexican territory (mainly in the oil producing regions of Mexico) are available. This gravity database represents the largest, highest spatial resolution information, and consequently has been used in the geophysical data compilations for the Mexico and North America gravity anomaly maps. Regional integration of gravimeter surveys generates gradients and spurious anomalies in the Bouguer anomaly maps at the boundaries of the connected surveys due to the different gravity base stations utilized. The main objective of this study is to refer all gravimeter surveys from Pemex to a single new first-order gravity base station network, in order to eliminate problems of gradients and spurious anomalies. A second objective is to establish a network of permanent gravity base stations (BGP), referred to a single base from the World Gravity System. Four regional loops of BGP covering eight States of Mexico were established to support the tie of local gravity base stations from each of the gravimeter surveys located in the vicinity of these loops. The third objective is to add the gravity constants, measured and calculated, for each of the 265 gravimeter surveys to their corresponding files in the Pemex and Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo database. The gravity base used as the common datum is the station SILAG 9135-49 (Latin American System of Gravity) located in the National Observatory of Tacubaya in Mexico City. We present the results of the installation of a new gravity base network in northeastern Mexico, reference of the 43 gravimeter surveys
Gravity Aided Navigation Precise Algorithm with Gauss Spline Interpolation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
WEN Chaobin
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The gravity compensation of error equation thoroughly should be solved before the study on gravity aided navigation with high precision. A gravity aided navigation model construction algorithm based on research the algorithm to approximate local grid gravity anomaly filed with the 2D Gauss spline interpolation is proposed. Gravity disturbance vector, standard gravity value error and Eotvos effect are all compensated in this precision model. The experiment result shows that positioning accuracy is raised by 1 times, the attitude and velocity accuracy is raised by 1～2 times and the positional error is maintained from 100~200 m.
Noether Symmetries Of A Modified Model In Teleparallel Gravity
Tajahmad, Behzad
2016-01-01
In this paper, we have presented the Noether symmetries of flat FRW spacetime in the context of a new action in Teleparallel Gravity which we construct it based on f(R) version. This modified action contains a coupling between scalar field potential and magnetism. Also, we introduce an innovative approach (B.N.S. Approach) for exact solutions which carry more conserved currents than Noether approach. By data analysis the exact solutions, obtained from Noether approach, late time acceleration and phase crossing are realized, and some deep connections with observational data such as age of universe, the present amount of scale factor, state and deceleration parameters are observed. In B.N.S. approach, we have considered dark energy dominated era.
A new path toward gravity experiments with anti-hydrogen
Rosowsky, P P A
2004-01-01
We propose to use a 13 KeV antiproton beam passing through a dense cloud of positronium (Ps) atoms to produce an H+ beam. These ions can be slowed down and captured by a trap. The process involves two reactions with large cross sections under the same experimental conditions. These reactions are the interaction of p with PS to produce H and the e+ capture by H reacting on PS to produce H+. Once decelerated with an electrostatic field and captured in a trap the H+ ions could be cooled and the e+ removed with a laser to perform a measurement of the gravitational acceleration of neutral antimatter in the gravity field of the Earth.
Planck scale gravity test with accelerators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gharibyan, Vahagn
2012-07-15
Quantum or torsion gravity models predict unusual properties of space-time at very short distances. In particular, near the Planck length, around 10{sup -35} m, empty space may behave as a crystal, singly or doubly refractive. However, this hypothesis remains uncheckable for any direct measurement since the smallest distance accessible in experiment is about 10{sup -19} m at the LHC. Here I propose a laboratory test to measure the space refractivity and birefringence induced by gravity. A sensitivity from 10{sup -31} m down to the Planck length could be reached at existent GeV and future TeV energy lepton accelerators using laser Compton scattering. There are already experimental hints for gravity signature at distances approaching the Planck length by 5-7 orders of magnitude, derived from SLC and HERA data.
A Phase Space Diagram for Gravity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xavier Hernandez
2012-05-01
Full Text Available In modified theories of gravity including a critical acceleration scale a_{0}, a critical length scale r_{M} = (GM/a_{0}^{1/2} will naturally arise with the transition from the Newtonian to the dark matter mimicking regime occurring for systems larger than r_{M}. This adds a second critical scale to gravity, in addition to the one introduced by the criterion v < c of the Schwarzschild radius, r_{S }= 2GM/c^{2}. The distinct dependencies of the two above length scales give rise to non-trivial phenomenology in the (mass, length plane for astrophysical structures, which we explore here. Surprisingly, extrapolation to atomic scales suggests gravity should be at the dark matter mimicking regime there.
Problems with Mannheim's conformal gravity program
Yoon, Youngsub
2013-07-01
We show that Mannheim’s conformal gravity program, whose potential has a term proportional to 1/r and another term proportional to r, does not reduce to Newtonian gravity at short distances, unless one assumes undesirable singularities of the mass density of the proton. Therefore, despite the claim that it successfully explains galaxy rotation curves, unless one assumes the singularities, it seems to be falsified by numerous Cavendish-type experiments performed at laboratories on Earth whose work have not found any deviations from Newton’s theory. Moreover, it can be shown that as long as the total mass of the proton is positive, Mannheim’s conformal gravity program leads to negative linear potential, which is problematic from the point of view of fitting galaxy rotation curves, which necessarily requires positive linear potential.
Astrophysical black holes in screened modified gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Davis, Anne-Christine; Jha, Rahul; Muir, Jessica [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Gregory, Ruth, E-mail: acd@damtp.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: r.a.w.gregory@durham.ac.uk, E-mail: r.jha@damtp.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: jlmuir@umich.edu [Centre for Particle Theory, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)
2014-08-01
Chameleon, environmentally dependent dilaton, and symmetron gravity are three models of modified gravity in which the effects of the additional scalar degree of freedom are screened in dense environments. They have been extensively studied in laboratory, cosmological, and astrophysical contexts. In this paper, we present a preliminary investigation into whether additional constraints can be provided by studying these scalar fields around black holes. By looking at the properties of a static, spherically symmetric black hole, we find that the presence of a non-uniform matter distribution induces a non-constant scalar profile in chameleon and dilaton, but not necessarily symmetron gravity. An order of magnitude estimate shows that the effects of these profiles on in-falling test particles will be sub-leading compared to gravitational waves and hence observationally challenging to detect.
Newton-Cartan gravity and torsion
Bergshoeff, Eric; Chatzistavrakidis, Athanasios; Romano, Luca; Rosseel, Jan
2017-10-01
We compare the gauging of the Bargmann algebra, for the case of arbitrary torsion, with the result that one obtains from a null-reduction of General Relativity. Whereas the two procedures lead to the same result for Newton-Cartan geometry with arbitrary torsion, the null-reduction of the Einstein equations necessarily leads to Newton-Cartan gravity with zero torsion. We show, for three space-time dimensions, how Newton-Cartan gravity with arbitrary torsion can be obtained by starting from a Schrödinger field theory with dynamical exponent z = 2 for a complex compensating scalar and next coupling this field theory to a z = 2 Schrödinger geometry with arbitrary torsion. The latter theory can be obtained from either a gauging of the Schrödinger algebra, for arbitrary torsion, or from a null-reduction of conformal gravity.
Gravity-induced stresses in finite slopes
Savage, W.Z.
1994-01-01
An exact solution for gravity-induced stresses in finite elastic slopes is presented. This solution, which is applied for gravity-induced stresses in 15, 30, 45 and 90?? finite slopes, has application in pit-slope design, compares favorably with published finite element results for this problem and satisfies the conditions that shear and normal stresses vanish on the ground surface. The solution predicts that horizontal stresses are compressive along the top of the slopes (zero in the case of the 90?? slope) and tensile away from the bottom of the slopes, effects which are caused by downward movement and near-surface horizontal extension in front of the slope in response to gravity loading caused by the additional material associated with the finite slope. ?? 1994.
Quantum gravity from theory to experimental search
Kiefer, Claus; Lämmerzahl, Claus
2003-01-01
The relation between quantum theory and the theory of gravitation remains one of the most outstanding unresolved issues of modern physics. According to general expectation, general relativity as well as quantum (field) theory in a fixed background spacetime cannot be fundamentally correct. Hence there should exist a broader theory comprising both in appropriate limits, i.e., quantum gravity. This book gives readers a comprehensive introduction accessible to interested non-experts to the main issues surrounding the search for quantum gravity. These issues relate to fundamental questions concerning the various formalisms of quantization; specific questions concerning concrete processes, like gravitational collapse or black-hole evaporation; and the all important question concerning the possibility of experimental tests of quantum-gravity effects.
Action growth in f (R ) gravity
Wang, Peng; Yang, Haitang; Ying, Shuxuan
2017-08-01
Inspired by the recent "complexity=action " conjecture, we use the approach proposed by Lehner et al. to calculate the rate of the action of the Wheeler-DeWitt patch at late times for static uncharged and charged black holes in f (R ) gravity. Our results have the same expressions in terms of the mass, charge, and electrical potentials at the horizons of black holes as in Einstein's gravity. In the context of f (R ) gravity, the Lloyd bound is saturated for uncharged black holes but violated for charged black holes near extremality. For charged black holes far away from the ground states, the Lloyd bound is violated in four dimensions but satisfied in higher dimensions.
Spectral analysis of the full gravity tensor
Rummel, R.; van Gelderen, M.
1992-10-01
It is shown that, when the five independent components of the gravity tensor are grouped into (Gamma-zz), (Gamma-xz, Gamma-yz), and (Gamma-xx - Gamma-yy, 2Gamma-xy) sets and expanded into an infinite series of pure-spin spherical harmonic tensors, it is possible to derive simple eigenvalue connections between these three sets and the spherical harmonic expansion of the gravity potential. The three eigenvalues are (n + 1)(n + 2), -(n + 2) sq rt of n(n + 1), and sq rt of (n - 1)n(n + 1)(n + 2). The joint ESA and NASA Aristoteles mission is designed to measure with high precision the tensor components Gamma-zz, Gamma-yz, and Gamma-yy, which will make it possible to determine the global gravity field in six months time with a high precision.
High energy scattering in gravity and supergravity
Giddings, Steven B; Andersen, Jeppe R
2010-01-01
We investigate features of perturbative gravity and supergravity by studying scattering in the ultraplanckian limit, and sharpen arguments that the dynamics is governed by long-distance physics. A simple example capturing aspects of the eikonal resummation suggests why short distance phenomena and in particular divergences or nonrenormalizability do not necessarily play a central role in this regime. A more profound problem is apparently unitarity. These considerations can be illustrated by showing that known gravity and supergravity amplitudes have the same long-distance behavior, despite the extra light states of supergravity, and this serves as an important check on long-range dynamics in a context where perturbative amplitudes are finite. We also argue that these considerations have other important implications: they obstruct probing the conjectured phenomenon of asymptotic safety through a physical scattering process, and gravity appears not to reggeize. These arguments sharpen the need to find a nonpert...
Gravitational time advancement under gravity's rainbow
Deng, Xue-Mei; Xie, Yi
2017-09-01
Under gravity's rainbow, we investigate its effects on the gravitational time advancement, which is a natural consequence of measuring proper time span for a photon's round trip. This time advancement can be complementary to the time delay for testing the gravity's rainbow, because they are sensitive to different modified dispersion relations (MDRs). Its observability on ranging a spacecraft far from the Earth by two radio and a laser links is estimated at superior conjunction (SC) and inferior conjunction (IC). We find that (1) the IC is more favorable than the SC for measurement on the advancement caused by the rainbow; (2) a specific type of MDR has a significantly larger effect on the advancement than others in both SC and IC cases; and (3) a combination of available optical clocks and the realization of planetary laser ranging in the future will benefit distinguishing the gravity's rainbow from GR by measuring the gravitational time advancement.
Gravitational time advancement under gravity's rainbow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xue-Mei Deng
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Under gravity's rainbow, we investigate its effects on the gravitational time advancement, which is a natural consequence of measuring proper time span for a photon's round trip. This time advancement can be complementary to the time delay for testing the gravity's rainbow, because they are sensitive to different modified dispersion relations (MDRs. Its observability on ranging a spacecraft far from the Earth by two radio and a laser links is estimated at superior conjunction (SC and inferior conjunction (IC. We find that (1 the IC is more favorable than the SC for measurement on the advancement caused by the rainbow; (2 a specific type of MDR has a significantly larger effect on the advancement than others in both SC and IC cases; and (3 a combination of available optical clocks and the realization of planetary laser ranging in the future will benefit distinguishing the gravity's rainbow from GR by measuring the gravitational time advancement.
Wormholes in conformal gravity arXiv
Hohmann, Manuel; Raidal, Martti; Veermäe, Hardi
We present a new class of solutions for static spherically symmetric wormhole spacetimes in conformal gravity and outline a detailed method for their construction. As an explicit example, we construct a class of traversable and non-traversable wormholes that are locally conformal to Schwarzschild-(anti) de Sitter spacetimes. These wormhole spacetimes are exact vacuum solutions in, but not being limited to, Weyl gravity and conformal scalar-tensor theories. Importantly, the method implies that every conformal gravity theory with local field equations will trivially contain wormholes without the need for exotic matter. Applying those results on gravitational theories that possess conformal symmetry in the ultraviolet regime, the central singularities of black holes can be replaced with wormhole throats. We speculate on possible phenomenological consequences.
Topics in Theories of Quantum Gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Perelstein, M.
2005-04-05
In this thesis, the author addresses several issues involving gravity. The first half of the thesis is devoted to studying quantum properties of Einstein gravity and its supersymmetric extensions in the perturbative regime. String theory suggests that perturbative scattering amplitudes in the theories of gravity are related to the amplitudes in gauge theories. This connection has been studied at classical (tree) level by Kawai, Lewellen and Tye. Here, they will explore the relationship between gravity and gauge theory at quantum (loop) level. This relationship, together with the cut-based approach to computing loop amplitudes, allow us to obtain new non-trivial results for quantum gravity. IN particular, they present two infinite sequences of one-loop n-graviton scattering amplitudes: the maximally helicity violating amplitudes in N = 8 supergravity, and the ''all-plus'' helicity amplitudes in Einstein gravity with any minimally coupled massless matter content. The results for n {le} 6 will be obtained by an explicit calculation, while those for n > 6 is inferred from the soft and collinear properties of the amplitudes. They also present an explicit expression for the two-loop contribution to the four-particle scattering amplitude in N = 8 supergravity, and observe a simple relation between this result and its counterpart in N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory. Furthermore, the simple structure of the two-particle unitarity cuts in these theories suggests that similar relations exist to all loop orders. If this is the case, the first ultraviolet divergence in N = 8 supergravity should appear at five loops, contrary to the earlier expectation of a three-loop counterterm.
Uieda, Leonardo; Barbosa, Valéria C. F.
2017-01-01
Estimating the relief of the Moho from gravity data is a computationally intensive nonlinear inverse problem. What is more, the modelling must take the Earths curvature into account when the study area is of regional scale or greater. We present a regularized nonlinear gravity inversion method that has a low computational footprint and employs a spherical Earth approximation. To achieve this, we combine the highly efficient Bott's method with smoothness regularization and a discretization of the anomalous Moho into tesseroids (spherical prisms). The computational efficiency of our method is attained by harnessing the fact that all matrices involved are sparse. The inversion results are controlled by three hyperparameters: the regularization parameter, the anomalous Moho density-contrast, and the reference Moho depth. We estimate the regularization parameter using the method of hold-out cross-validation. Additionally, we estimate the density-contrast and the reference depth using knowledge of the Moho depth at certain points. We apply the proposed method to estimate the Moho depth for the South American continent using satellite gravity data and seismological data. The final Moho model is in accordance with previous gravity-derived models and seismological data. The misfit to the gravity and seismological data is worse in the Andes and best in oceanic areas, central Brazil and Patagonia, and along the Atlantic coast. Similarly to previous results, the model suggests a thinner crust of 30-35 km under the Andean foreland basins. Discrepancies with the seismological data are greatest in the Guyana Shield, the central Solimões and Amazonas Basins, the Paraná Basin, and the Borborema province. These differences suggest the existence of crustal or mantle density anomalies that were unaccounted for during gravity data processing.
Guo, X.; Ditmar, P.; Zhao, Q.; Klees, R.; Farahani, H. H.
2017-09-01
GPS data collected by satellite gravity missions can be used for extracting the long-wavelength part of the Earth's gravity field. We propose a new data processing method which makes use of the `average acceleration' approach to gravity field modelling. In this method, satellite accelerations are directly derived from GPS carrier phase measurements with an epoch-differenced scheme. As a result, no ambiguity solutions are needed and the systematic errors that do not change much from epoch to epoch are largely eliminated. The GPS data collected by the Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) satellite mission are used to demonstrate the added value of the proposed method. An analysis of the residual accelerations shows that accelerations derived in this way are more precise, with noise being reduced by about 20 and 5% at the cross-track component and the other two components, respectively, as compared to those based on kinematic orbits. The accelerations obtained in this way allow the recovery of the gravity field to a slightly higher maximum degree compared to the solution based on kinematic orbits. Furthermore, the gravity field solution has an overall better performance. Errors in spherical harmonic coefficients are smaller, especially at low degrees. The cumulative geoid height error is reduced by about 15 and 5% up to degree 50 and 150, respectively. An analysis in the spatial domain shows that large errors along the geomagnetic equator, which are caused by a high electron density coupled with large short-term variations, are substantially reduced. Finally, the new method allows for a better observation of mass transport signals. In particular, sufficiently realistic signatures of regional mass anomalies in North America and south-west Africa are obtained.
Hairs of discrete symmetries and gravity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kang Sin Choi
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Gauge symmetries are known to be respected by gravity because gauge charges carry flux lines, but global charges do not carry flux lines and are not conserved by gravitational interaction. For discrete symmetries, they are spontaneously broken in the Universe, forming domain walls. Since the realization of discrete symmetries in the Universe must involve the vacuum expectation values of Higgs fields, a string-like configuration (hair at the intersection of domain walls in the Higgs vacua can be realized. Therefore, we argue that discrete charges are also respected by gravity.
Violation of Energy Bounds in Designer Gravity
Hertog, T
2007-01-01
We continue our study of the stability of designer gravity theories, where one considers anti-de Sitter gravity coupled to certain tachyonic scalars with boundary conditions defined by a smooth function W. It has recently been argued there is a lower bound on the conserved energy in terms of the global minimum of W, if the scalar potential arises from a superpotential P and the scalar reaches an extremum of P at infinity. We show, however, there are superpotentials for which these bounds do not hold.
On Spectral Triples in Quantum Gravity I
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aastrup, Johannes; M. Grimstrup, Jesper; Nest, Ryszard
2009-01-01
. The interaction between the Dirac operator and the algebra reproduces the Poisson structure of General Relativity. Moreover, the associated Hilbert space corresponds, up to a discrete symmetry group, to the Hilbert space of diffeomorphism invariant states known from Loop Quantum Gravity. Correspondingly......This paper establishes a link between Noncommutative Geometry and canonical quantum gravity. A semi-finite spectral triple over a space of connections is presented. The triple involves an algebra of holonomy loops and a Dirac type operator which resembles a global functional derivation operator...
Mimicking dark matter in Horndeski gravity
Rinaldi, Massimiliano
2016-01-01
Since the rediscovery of Horndeski gravity, a lot of work has been devoted to the exploration of its properties, especially in the context of dark energy. However, one sector of this theory, namely the one containing the coupling of the Einstein tensor to the kinetic term of the scalar field, shows some surprising features in the construction of black holes and neutron stars. Motivated by these new results, I explore the possibility that this sector of Horndeski gravity can mimic cold dark matter at cosmological level and also explain the flattening of galactic rotation curves. I will show that it is possible to achieve both goals with a minimal set of assumptions.
Eddington's theory of gravity and its progeny.
Bañados, Máximo; Ferreira, Pedro G
2010-07-02
We resurrect Eddington's proposal for the gravitational action in the presence of a cosmological constant and extend it to include matter fields. We show that the Newton-Poisson equation is modified in the presence of sources and that charged black holes show great similarities with those arising in Born-Infeld electrodynamics coupled to gravity. When we consider homogeneous and isotropic space-times, we find that there is a minimum length (and maximum density) at early times, clearly pointing to an alternative theory of the big bang. We thus argue that the modern formulation of Eddington's theory, Born-Infeld gravity, presents us with a novel, nonsingular description of the Universe.
Charged C-metric in conformal gravity
Lim, Yen-Kheng
2016-01-01
Using a C-metric-type ansatz, we obtain an exact solution to conformal gravity coupled to a Maxwell electromagnetic field. The solution resembles a C-metric spacetime carrying an electromagnetic charge. The metric is cast in a factorised form which allows us to study the domain structure of its static coordinate regions. This metric reduces to the well-known Mannheim-Kazanas metric under an appropriate limiting procedure, and also reduces to the (Anti-)de Sitter C-metric of Einstein gravity for a particular choice of parameters.
Terminating black holes in quantum gravity
Bambi, Cosimo; Modesto, Leonardo
2014-01-01
We study the homogeneous gravitational collapse of a spherical cloud composed of radiation or dust in a super-renormalizable and asymptotically free theory of gravity. The central singularity appearing in classical general relativity is resolved in both cases. The singularity is replaced by a bounce, after which the cloud re-expands indefinitely. In this model, strictly speaking, a black hole never forms and the high density state governed by quantum-gravitational physics is visible to faraway observers. Our result is quite general, and it holds for gravity theories with form factors suggested by string field theory and non-commutative geometries.
Anomalies in covariant W-gravity
Ceresole, Anna T.; Frau, Marialuisa; McCarthy, Jim; Lerda, Alberto
1991-08-01
We consider free scalar matter covariantly coupled to background W-gravity. Expanding to second order in the W-gravity fields, we study the appropriate anomalous Ward-Takahashi identities and find the counterterms which maintain diffeomorphism invariance and its W-analogue. We see that a redefinition of the vielbein transformation rule under W-diffeomorphism is required in order to cancel nonlocal contributions to the anomaly. Moreover, we explicitly write all gauge invariances at this order. Some consequences of these results for the chiral gauge quantization are discussed. On leave of absence from Dipartimento di Fisica Teorica, Università di Torino, Turin, Italy.
Spacetime, Spin and Gravity Probe B
Overduin, James M
2015-01-01
It is more important than ever to push experimental tests of gravitational theory to the limits of existing technology in both range and sensitivity. This brief review focuses on spin-based tests of General Relativity and their implications for alternative, mostly non-metric theories of gravity motivated by the challenge of unification with the Standard Model of particle physics. The successful detection of geodetic precession and frame-dragging by Gravity Probe B places new constraints on a number of these theories, and increases our confidence in the theoretical mechanisms underpinning current ideas in astrophysics and cosmology.
Gravity and low-frequency geodynamics
Teisseyre, Roman
1989-01-01
This fourth volume in the series Physics and Evolution of the Earth's Interior, provides a comprehensive review of the geophysical and geodetical aspects related to gravity and low-frequency geodynamics. Such aspects include the Earth's gravity field, geoid shape theory, and low-frequency phenomena like rotation, oscillations and tides.Global-scale phenomena are treated as a response to source excitation in spherical Earth models consisting of several shells: lithosphere, mantle, core and sometimes also the inner solid core. The effect of gravitation and rotation on the Earth's shape is anal
Missing Measurements of Weak-Field Gravity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Benish R. J.
2011-01-01
Full Text Available For practical and historical reasons, most of what we know about gravity is based on observations made or experiments conducted beyond the surfaces of dominant massive bodies. Although the force of gravity inside a massive body can sometimes be mea- sured, it remains to demonstrate the motion that would be caused by that force through the body’s center. Since the idea of doing so has often been discussed as a thought experiment, we here look into the possibility of turning this into a real experiment. Fea- sibility is established by considering examples of similar experiments whose techniques could be utilized for the present one.
Testing Modified Gravity in the Solar System
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mozaffari, A. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)
2011-07-01
It is well known that the Earth-Sun gravitational field has a few interesting features, such as the Lagrange points. It also has a saddle point, which from a Newtonian/GR point of view is rather boring, but in the context of modified gravity becomes a whole lot more interesting. Using both theoretical and computational models, we will present a way of testing modified gravity theories in the Solar System, using the forthcoming LISA-pathfinder space probe. This document is composed of the slides of the presentation. (author)
A Hydro-Dynamical Model for Gravity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Corneliu BERBENTE
2016-03-01
Full Text Available hydro-dynamical model for gravity by using an analogy with the attraction of spherical sources in incompressible fluids is proposed. Information regarding a photon-like particle called graviton is taken using an author’s previous paper [6]. The substance and radiation interaction due to emission of gravitons takes place via an energy field made of the emitted gravitons and filling the entire universe. The energy distribution is considered uniform at the universe scale. A consequence of the proposed model is the increasing of the universal “constant” of gravity, as a function of the age of universe.
f( R) gravity solutions for evolving wormholes
Bhattacharya, Subhra; Chakraborty, Subenoy
2017-08-01
The scalar-tensor f( R) theory of gravity is considered in the framework of a simple inhomogeneous space-time model. In this research we use the reconstruction technique to look for possible evolving wormhole solutions within viable f( R) gravity formalism. These f( R) models are then constrained so that they are consistent with existing experimental data. Energy conditions related to the matter threading the wormhole are analyzed graphically and are in general found to obey the null energy conditions (NEC) in regions around the throat, while in the limit f(R)=R, NEC can be violated at large in regions around the throat.
Gravity changes, soil moisture and data assimilation
Walker, J.; Grayson, R.; Rodell, M.; Ellet, K.
2003-04-01
Remote sensing holds promise for near-surface soil moisture and snow mapping, but current techniques do not directly resolve the deeper soil moisture or groundwater. The benefits that would arise from improved monitoring of variations in terrestrial water storage are numerous. The year 2002 saw the launch of NASA's Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites, which are mapping the Earth's gravity field at such a high level of precision that we expect to be able to infer changes in terrestrial water storage (soil moisture, groundwater, snow, ice, lake, river and vegetation). The project described here has three distinct yet inter-linked components that all leverage off the same ground-based monitoring and land surface modelling framework. These components are: (i) field validation of a relationship between soil moisture and changes in the Earth's gravity field, from ground- and satellite-based measurements of changes in gravity; (ii) development of a modelling framework for the assimilation of gravity data to constrain land surface model predictions of soil moisture content (such a framework enables the downscaling and disaggregation of low spatial (500 km) and temporal (monthly) resolution measurements of gravity change to finer spatial and temporal resolutions); and (iii) further refining the downscaling and disaggregation of space-borne gravity measurements by making use of other remotely sensed information, such as the higher spatial (25 km) and temporal (daily) resolution remotely sensed near-surface soil moisture measurements from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR) instruments on Aqua and ADEOS II. The important field work required by this project will be in the Murrumbidgee Catchment, Australia, where an extensive soil moisture monitoring program by the University of Melbourne is already in place. We will further enhance the current monitoring network by the addition of groundwater wells and additional soil moisture sites. Ground
Prima Facie Questions in Quantum Gravity
Isham, C. J.
1993-01-01
The long history of the study of quantum gravity has thrown up a complex web of ideas and approaches. The aim of this article is to unravel this web a little by analysing some of the {\\em prima facie\\/} questions that can be asked of almost any approach to quantum gravity and whose answers assist in classifying the different schemes. Particular emphasis is placed on (i) the role of background conceptual and technical structure; (ii) the role of spacetime diffeomorphisms; and (iii) the problem...
Prima Facie Questions in Quantum Gravity
Isham, C J
2009-01-01
The long history of the study of quantum gravity has thrown up a complex web of ideas and approaches. The aim of this article is to unravel this web a little by analysing some of the {\\em prima facie\\/} questions that can be asked of almost any approach to quantum gravity and whose answers assist in classifying the different schemes. Particular emphasis is placed on (i) the role of background conceptual and technical structure; (ii) the role of spacetime diffeomorphisms; and (iii) the problem of time.
Black holes in higher derivative gravity.
Lü, H; Perkins, A; Pope, C N; Stelle, K S
2015-05-01
Extensions of Einstein gravity with higher-order derivative terms arise in string theory and other effective theories, as well as being of interest in their own right. In this Letter we study static black-hole solutions in the example of Einstein gravity with additional quadratic curvature terms. A Lichnerowicz-type theorem simplifies the analysis by establishing that they must have vanishing Ricci scalar curvature. By numerical methods we then demonstrate the existence of further black-hole solutions over and above the Schwarzschild solution. We discuss some of their thermodynamic properties, and show that they obey the first law of thermodynamics.
Correct light deflection in Weyl conformal gravity
Cattani, Carlo; Scalia, Massimo; Laserra, Ettore; Bochicchio, Ivana; Nandi, Kamal K.
2013-02-01
The conformal gravity fit to observed galactic rotation curves requires γ>0. On the other hand, the conventional method for light deflection by galaxies gives a negative contribution to the Schwarzschild value for γ>0, which is contrary to observation. Thus, it is very important that the contribution to bending should in principle be positive, no matter how small its magnitude is. Here we show that the Rindler-Ishak method gives a positive contribution to Schwarzschild deflection for γ>0, as desired. We also obtain the exact local coupling term derived earlier by Sereno. These results indicate that conformal gravity can potentially test well against all astrophysical observations to date.
Hairs of discrete symmetries and gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Choi, Kang Sin [Scranton Honors Program, Ewha Womans University, Seodaemun-Gu, Seoul 03760 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Fields, Gravity and Strings, CTPU, Institute for Basic Sciences, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 34047 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jihn E., E-mail: jihnekim@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Kyung Hee University, 26 Gyungheedaero, Dongdaemun-Gu, Seoul 02447 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research (IBS), 291 Daehakro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); Kyae, Bumseok [Department of Physics, Pusan National University, 2 Busandaehakro-63-Gil, Geumjeong-Gu, Busan 46241 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Soonkeon [Department of Physics, Kyung Hee University, 26 Gyungheedaero, Dongdaemun-Gu, Seoul 02447 (Korea, Republic of)
2017-06-10
Gauge symmetries are known to be respected by gravity because gauge charges carry flux lines, but global charges do not carry flux lines and are not conserved by gravitational interaction. For discrete symmetries, they are spontaneously broken in the Universe, forming domain walls. Since the realization of discrete symmetries in the Universe must involve the vacuum expectation values of Higgs fields, a string-like configuration (hair) at the intersection of domain walls in the Higgs vacua can be realized. Therefore, we argue that discrete charges are also respected by gravity.
Higher curvature gravity at the LHC
Chakraborty, Sumanta; SenGupta, Soumitra
2014-08-01
We investigate brane-world models in different viable F(R) gravity theories where the Lagrangian is an arbitrary function of the curvature scalar. Deriving the warped metric for this model, resembling Randal-Sundrum (RS)-like solutions, we determine the graviton KK modes. The recent observations at the LHC, which constrain the RS graviton KK modes to a mass range greater than 3 TeV, are incompatible with RS model predictions. It is shown that the models with F(R) gravity in the bulk address the issue, which in turn constrains the F(R) model itself.
Long-term gravity changes in Chinese mainland from GRACE and ground-based gravity measurements
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xing Lelin
2011-08-01
Full Text Available A long-term (9 years gravity change in Chinese mainland is obtained on the basis of observations of the ground-based national gravity network. The result shows several features that may be related to some large-scale groundwater pumping in North China, glacier-water flow and storage in Tianshan region, and pre-seismic gravity changes of the 2008 Ms8.0 Wenchuan earthquake, which are spatially similar to co-seismic changes but reversed in sign. These features are also shown in the result of the satellite-based GRACE observation, after a height effect is corrected with GPS data.
Gravity Independence of Microchannel Two-Phase Flow Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Most of the amassed two-phase flow and heat transfer knowledge comes from experiments conducted in Earth’s gravity. Space missions span varying gravity levels,...
U.S. Gravity Data per 2 min Cell (96)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' gravity density grid for the conterminous United States displays the distribution of the about 1.8 million terrestrial and marine gravity data held in the...
Gravity Data for Indiana-over 10,000 records
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity data (10,629 records) were compiled by Purdue University. This data base was received in December 1989. Principal gravity parameters include Free-air...
Adomian decomposition method used to solve the gravity wave equations
Mungkasi, Sudi; Dheno, Maria Febronia Sedho
2017-01-01
The gravity wave equations are considered. We solve these equations using the Adomian decomposition method. We obtain that the approximate Adomian decomposition solution to the gravity wave equations is accurate (physically correct) for early stages of fluid flows.
Gravity Data For The Maryland/Virginia Area
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (5,905 records) were compiled by the U. S. Geological Survey. This data base was received on July 11, 1997. Principal gravity parameters...
Modifications of Einstein's theory of gravity at large distances
2015-01-01
In the last few years modified gravity theories have been proposed as extensions of Einstein's theory of gravity. Their main motivation is to explain the latest cosmological and astrophysical data on dark energy and dark matter. The study of general relativity at small scales has already produced important results (cf e.g. LNP 863 Quantum Gravity and Quantum Cosmology) while its study at large scales is challenging because recent and upcoming observational results will provide important information on the validity of these modified theories. In this volume, various aspects of modified gravity at large scales will be discussed: high-curvature gravity theories; general scalar-tensor theories; Galileon theories and their cosmological applications; F(R) gravity theories; massive, new massive and topologically massive gravity; Chern-Simons modifications of general relativity (including holographic variants) and higher-spin gravity theories, to name but a few of the most important recent developments. Edite...