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Sample records for cross-scale linkages reduces

  1. Lack of cross-scale linkages reduces robustness of community-based fisheries management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Cudney-Bueno

    cooperation. However, without cross-scale linkages with higher levels of governance, increase of local fishery stocks may attract outsiders who, if not restricted, will overharvest and threaten local governance. Fishers and fishing communities require incentives to maintain their management efforts. Rewarding local effective management with formal cross-scale governance recognition and support can generate these incentives.

  2. The Political Economy of Cross-Scale Networks in Resource Co-Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Neil Adger

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate linkages between stakeholders in resource management that occur at different spatial and institutional levels and identify the winners and losers in such interactions. So-called cross-scale interactions emerge because of the benefits to individual stakeholder groups in undertaking them or the high costs of not undertaking them. Hence there are uneven gains from cross-scale interactions that are themselves an integral part of social-ecological system governance. The political economy framework outlined here suggests that the determinants of the emergence of cross-scale interactions are the exercise of relative power between stakeholders and their costs of accessing and creating linkages. Cross-scale interactions by powerful stakeholders have the potential to undermine trust in resource management arrangements. If government regulators, for example, mobilize information and resources from cross-level interactions to reinforce their authority, this often disempowers other stakeholders such as resource users. Offsetting such impacts, some cross-scale interactions can be empowering for local level user groups in creating social and political capital. These issues are illustrated with observations on resource management in a marine protected area in Tobago in the Caribbean. The case study demonstrates that the structure of the cross-scale interplay, in terms of relative winners and losers, determines its contribution to the resilience of social-ecological systems.

  3. Probabilistic linkage to enhance deterministic algorithms and reduce data linkage errors in hospital administrative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagger-Johnson, Gareth; Harron, Katie; Goldstein, Harvey; Aldridge, Robert; Gilbert, Ruth

    2017-06-30

     BACKGROUND: The pseudonymisation algorithm used to link together episodes of care belonging to the same patients in England (HESID) has never undergone any formal evaluation, to determine the extent of data linkage error. To quantify improvements in linkage accuracy from adding probabilistic linkage to existing deterministic HESID algorithms. Inpatient admissions to NHS hospitals in England (Hospital Episode Statistics, HES) over 17 years (1998 to 2015) for a sample of patients (born 13/28th of months in 1992/1998/2005/2012). We compared the existing deterministic algorithm with one that included an additional probabilistic step, in relation to a reference standard created using enhanced probabilistic matching with additional clinical and demographic information. Missed and false matches were quantified and the impact on estimates of hospital readmission within one year were determined. HESID produced a high missed match rate, improving over time (8.6% in 1998 to 0.4% in 2015). Missed matches were more common for ethnic minorities, those living in areas of high socio-economic deprivation, foreign patients and those with 'no fixed abode'. Estimates of the readmission rate were biased for several patient groups owing to missed matches, which was reduced for nearly all groups. CONCLUSION: Probabilistic linkage of HES reduced missed matches and bias in estimated readmission rates, with clear implications for commissioning, service evaluation and performance monitoring of hospitals. The existing algorithm should be modified to address data linkage error, and a retrospective update of the existing data would address existing linkage errors and their implications.

  4. Strengthening industry-research linkage for small scale industrial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strengthening industry-research linkage for small scale industrial development in Ghana - the relevance of scientific and technological information. ... Journal of Applied Science and Technology. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search ...

  5. Dimensional threshold for fracture linkage and hooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarche, Juliette; Chabani, Arezki; Gauthier, Bertrand D. M.

    2018-03-01

    Fracture connectivity in rocks depends on spatial properties of the pattern including length, abundance and orientation. When fractures form a single-strike set, they hardly cross-cut each other and the connectivity is limited. Linkage probability increases with increasing fracture abundance and length as small fractures connect to each other to form longer ones. A process for parallel fracture linkage is the "hooking", where two converging fracture tips mutually deviate and then converge to connect due to the interaction of their crack-tip stresses. Quantifying the processes and conditions for fracture linkage in single-strike fracture sets is crucial to better predicting fluid flow in Naturally Fractured Reservoirs. For 1734 fractures in Permian shales of the Lodève Basin, SE France, we measured geometrical parameters in 2D, characterizing three stages of the hooking process: underlapping, overlapping and linkage. We deciphered the threshold values, shape ratios and limiting conditions to switch from one stage to another one. The hook set up depends on the spacing (S) and fracture length (Lh) with the relation S ≈ 0.15 Lh. Once the hooking is initiated, with the fracture deviation length (L) L ≈ 0.4 Lh, the fractures reaches the linkage stage only when the spacing is reduced to S ≈ 0.02 Lh and the convergence (C) is < 0.1 L. These conditions apply to multi-scale fractures with a shape ratio L/S = 10 and for fracture curvature of 10°-20°.

  6. Coupled Vulnerability and Resilience: the Dynamics of Cross-Scale Interactions in Post-Katrina New Orleans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin F. Gotham

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the impact of trauma on cross-scale interactions in order to identify the major social-ecological factors affecting the pace and trajectory of post-Katrina rebuilding in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. Disaster and traumatic events create and activate networks and linkages at different spatial and institutional levels to provide information and resources related to post-trauma recovery and rebuilding. The extension, intensification, and acceleration of cross-scale linkages and interactions in response to trauma alter organizational couplings, which then contribute to the vulnerability and resilience of social-ecological systems. Rather than viewing urban ecosystems as either resilient or vulnerable, we conceptualize them as embodying both resilient and vulnerable components. This integrated approach directs analytical attention to the impact of socio-legal regulations, government policies, and institutional actions on resilience and vulnerability, which are also systemic properties of urban ecosystems.

  7. Allergen sanitation in the food industry: a systematic industrial scale approach to reduce hazelnut cross-contamination of cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röder, Martin; Baltruweit, Iris; Gruyters, Helwig; Ibach, Anja; Mücke, Ingo; Matissek, Reinhard; Vieths, Stefan; Holzhauser, Thomas

    2010-09-01

    Recently, we investigated the impact of shared equipment on cross-contamination of cookies at a pilot plant scale. Based on those findings, this study investigated the extent and subsequent sanitation of hazelnut cross-contamination (HNCC) of cookies at the industrial scale. Similarly, a product change from cookies with hazelnut ingredient to cookies without hazelnut was performed on standard equipment. HNCC in the hazelnut-free follow-up product was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for each production device and the applied cleaning procedure. All experiments were repeated in duplicate. The highest HNCC was found in concordance with previous studies after mere mechanical scraping: more than 1,000 mg of hazelnut protein per kg was quantified in the follow-up product after processing by a cookie machine. Additional cleaning with hot water decreased the HNCC irrespective of the processing device to levels at or below 1 mg of hazelnut protein per kg. Furthermore, raw materials for cookie production were monitored over a period of 24 months for unwanted preloads of hazelnut and peanut: hazelnut was quantified in 16% of the investigated raw materials as being between 0.26 and 90 mg/kg. Further critical control points at the industrial scale, where cross-contamination might occur, were identified but did not display noteworthy sources of cross-contamination. In conclusion, the quantitative monitoring of the cleaning efficiency at the industrial scale confirmed the procedure of manual scraping plus wet cleaning as a qualified sanitation procedure to effectively reduce the hazelnut protein cross-contamination down to a level at which severe hazelnut-related allergic reactions are unlikely to occur.

  8. VT Wildlife Linkage Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Wildlife Linkage Habitat Analysis uses landscape scale data to identify or predict the location of potentially significant wildlife linkage...

  9. Cross linkage studies with the membranes of the vesicular stomatitis virus using radioactive 4-acido and 5-acido palmitic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verfondern, M.

    1983-01-01

    In the study described here the spatial arrangement of lipids and proteins in the VS virus was investigated on the basis of the covalent cross linkage technique. The formation of such cross linkages is brought about by the action of photosensitive acidosubstituted lipids, which permit acido functions to be introduced into a membrane in a previously defined position. Subsequently, photolysis helps to trigger the generation of radioactive nitrenes that react with the proteins and lipids in their immediate vicinity in a direct and non-selective way. The findings revealed by this study have raised questions as to the possibility of lipid-protein and lipid-lipid interactions, which is also discussed. (orig./MG) [de

  10. Palladium-Catalyzed Formal Cross-Coupling of Diaryl Ethers with Amines: Slicing the 4-O-5 Linkage in Lignin Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huiying; Cao, Dawei; Qiu, Zihang; Li, Chao-Jun

    2018-03-26

    Lignin is the second most abundant organic matter on Earth, and is an underutilized renewable source for valuable aromatic chemicals. For future sustainable production of aromatic compounds, it is highly desirable to convert lignin into value-added platform chemicals instead of using fossil-based resources. Lignins are aromatic polymers linked by three types of ether bonds (α-O-4, β-O-4, and 4-O-5 linkages) and other C-C bonds. Among the ether bonds, the bond dissociation energy of the 4-O-5 linkage is the highest and the most challenging to cleave. To date, 4-O-5 ether linkage model compounds have been cleaved to obtain phenol, cyclohexane, cyclohexanone, and cyclohexanol. The first example of direct formal cross-coupling of diaryl ether 4-O-5 linkage models with amines is reported, in which dual C(Ar)-O bond cleavages form valuable nitrogen-containing derivatives. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Investigating the Evolution of Linkage Dynamics among Equity Markets Using Network Models and Measures: The Case of Asian Equity Market Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biplab Bhattacharjee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The state of cross-market linkage structures and its stability over varying time-periods play a key role in the performance of international diversified portfolios. There has been an increasing interest of global investors in emerging capital markets in the Asian region. In this setting, an investigation into the temporal dynamics of cross-market linkage structures becomes significant for the selection and optimal allocation of securities in an internationally-diversified portfolio. In the quest for this, in the current study, weighted network models along with network metrics are employed to decipher the underlying cross-market linkage structures among Asian markets. The study analyses the daily return data of fourteen major Asian indices for a period of 14 years (2002–2016. The topological properties of the network are computed using centrality measures and measures of influence strength and are investigated over temporal scales. In particular, the overall influence strengths and India-specific influence strengths are computed and examined over a temporal scale. Threshold filtering is also performed to characterize the dynamics related to the linkage structure of these networks. The impacts of the 2008 financial crisis on the linkage structural patterns of these equity networks are also investigated. The key findings of this study include: a set of central and peripheral indices, the evolution of the linkage structures over the 2002–2016 period and the linkage dynamics during times of market stress. Mainly, the set of indices possessing influence over the Asian region in general and the Indian market in particular is also identified. The findings of this study can be utilized in effective systemic risk management and for the selection of an optimally-diversified portfolio, resilient to system-level shocks.

  12. Identifying causal linkages between environmental variables and African conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguy-Robertson, A. L.; Dartevelle, S.

    2017-12-01

    Environmental variables that contribute to droughts, flooding, and other natural hazards are often identified as factors contributing to conflict; however, few studies attempt to quantify these causal linkages. Recent research has demonstrated that the environment operates within a dynamical system framework and the influence of variables can be identified from convergent cross mapping (CCM) between shadow manifolds. We propose to use CCM to identify causal linkages between environmental variables and incidences of conflict. This study utilizes time series data from Climate Forecast System ver. 2 and MODIS satellite sensors processed using Google Earth Engine to aggregate country and regional trends. These variables are then compared to Armed Conflict Location & Event Data Project observations at similar scales. Results provide relative rankings of variables and their linkage to conflict. Being able to identify which factors contributed more strongly to a conflict can allow policy makers to prepare solutions to mitigate future crises. Knowledge of the primary environmental factors can lead to the identification of other variables to examine in the causal network influencing conflict.

  13. Mapping of yield, yield stability, yield adaptability and other traits in barley using linkage disequilibrium mapping and linkage analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraakman, A.T.W.

    2005-01-01

    Plants is mostly done through linkage analysis. A segregating mapping population Identification and mappping of Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs) in is created from a bi-parental cross and linkages between trait values and mapped markers reveal the positions ofQTLs. In

  14. Spatially selective Au nanoparticle growth in laser-quality glass controlled by UV-induced phosphate-chain cross-linkage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigaev, Vladimir N; Savinkov, Vitaly I; Lotarev, Sergey V; Shakhgildyan, Georgiy Yu; Paleari, Alberto; Lorenzi, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Herein we describe how UV excitation of localized electronic states in phosphate glasses can activate structural rearrangements that influence the kinetics of Au nanoparticle (NP) thermal growth in Au-doped glass. The results suggest a novel strategy to address the problem of controlling nano-assembly processes of metal NP patterns in fully inorganic and chemically stable hard materials, such as laser-quality glasses. We show that the mechanism is promoted by opening and subsequent cross-linkage of phosphate chains under UV excitation of non-bridging groups in the amorphous network of the glass, with a consequent modification of Au diffusion and metal NP growth. Importantly, the micro-Raman mapping of the UV-induced modifications demonstrates that the process is restricted within the beam waist region of the focused UV laser beam. This fact is consistent with the need for more than one excitation event, close in time and in space, in order to promote structural cross-linkage and Au diffusion confinement. The stability of the photo-induced modifications makes it possible to design new metal patterning approaches for the fabrication of three-dimensional metal structures in laser-quality materials for high-power nonlinear applications. (paper)

  15. Spatially selective Au nanoparticle growth in laser-quality glass controlled by UV-induced phosphate-chain cross-linkage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigaev, Vladimir N; Savinkov, Vitaly I; Lotarev, Sergey V; Shakhgildyan, Georgiy Yu; Lorenzi, Roberto; Paleari, Alberto

    2013-06-07

    Herein we describe how UV excitation of localized electronic states in phosphate glasses can activate structural rearrangements that influence the kinetics of Au nanoparticle (NP) thermal growth in Au-doped glass. The results suggest a novel strategy to address the problem of controlling nano-assembly processes of metal NP patterns in fully inorganic and chemically stable hard materials, such as laser-quality glasses. We show that the mechanism is promoted by opening and subsequent cross-linkage of phosphate chains under UV excitation of non-bridging groups in the amorphous network of the glass, with a consequent modification of Au diffusion and metal NP growth. Importantly, the micro-Raman mapping of the UV-induced modifications demonstrates that the process is restricted within the beam waist region of the focused UV laser beam. This fact is consistent with the need for more than one excitation event, close in time and in space, in order to promote structural cross-linkage and Au diffusion confinement. The stability of the photo-induced modifications makes it possible to design new metal patterning approaches for the fabrication of three-dimensional metal structures in laser-quality materials for high-power nonlinear applications.

  16. Mapping of yield, yield stability, yield adaptability and other traits in barley using linkage disequilibrium mapping and linkage analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kraakman, A.T.W.

    2005-01-01

    Plants is mostly done through linkage analysis. A segregating mapping population Identification and mappping of Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs) in is created from a bi-parental cross and linkages between trait values and mapped markers reveal the positions ofQTLs. Inthisstudyweexploredlinkagedisequilibrium(LD)mappingof traits in a set of modernbarleycultivars. LDbetweenmolecularmarkerswasfoundup to a distance of 10 centimorgan,whichislargecomparedtootherspecies.Thelarge distancemightbeinducedb...

  17. Density limit and cross-field edge transport scaling in Alcator C-Mod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaBombard, B.; Greenwald, M.; Hughes, J.W.; Lipschultz, B.; Mossessian, D.; Terry, J.L.; Boivin, R.L.; Carreras, B.A.; Pitcher, C.S.; Zweben, S.J.

    2003-01-01

    Recent experiments in Alcator C-Mod have uncovered a direct link between the character and scaling of cross-field particle transport in the edge plasma and the density limit, n G . As n-bar e /n G is increased from low values to values approaching ∼1, an ordered progression in the cross-field edge transport physics occurs: first benign cross-field heat convection, then cross-field heat convection impacting the scrape-off layer (SOL) power loss channels and reducing the separatrix electron temperature, and finally 'bursty' transport (normally associated with the far SOL) invading into closed flux surface regions and carrying a convective power loss that impacts the power balance of the discharge. These observations suggest that SOL transport and its scaling with plasma conditions plays a key role in setting the empirically observed density limit scaling law. (author)

  18. The ties that bind: interorganizational linkages and physician-system alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, J A; Waters, T M; Burns, L R; Shortell, S M; Gillies, R R; Budetti, P P; Zuckerman, H S

    2001-07-01

    To examine the association between the degree of alignment between physicians and health care systems, and interorganizational linkages between physician groups and health care systems. The study used a cross sectional, comparative analysis using a sample of 1,279 physicians practicing in loosely affiliated arrangements and 1,781 physicians in 61 groups closely affiliated with 14 vertically integrated health systems. Measures of physician alignment were based on multiitem scales validated in previous studies and derived from surveys sent to individual physicians. Measures of interorganizational linkages were specified at the institutional, administrative, and technical core levels of the physician group and were developed from surveys sent to the administrator of each of the 61 physician groups in the sample. Two stage Heckman models with fixed effects adjustments in the second stage were used to correct for sample selection and clustering respectively. After accounting for sample selection, fixed effects, and group and individual controls, physicians in groups with more valued practice service linkages display consistently higher alignment with systems than physicians in groups that have fewer such linkages. Results also suggest that centralized administrative control lowers physician-system alignment for selected measures of alignment. Governance interlocks exhibited only weak associations with alignment. Our findings suggest that alignment generally follows resource exchanges that promote value-added contributions to physicians and physician groups while preserving control and authority within the group.

  19. Privacy-preserving record linkage on large real world datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Sean M; Ferrante, Anna M; Boyd, James H; Bauer, Jacqueline K; Semmens, James B

    2014-08-01

    Record linkage typically involves the use of dedicated linkage units who are supplied with personally identifying information to determine individuals from within and across datasets. The personally identifying information supplied to linkage units is separated from clinical information prior to release by data custodians. While this substantially reduces the risk of disclosure of sensitive information, some residual risks still exist and remain a concern for some custodians. In this paper we trial a method of record linkage which reduces privacy risk still further on large real world administrative data. The method uses encrypted personal identifying information (bloom filters) in a probability-based linkage framework. The privacy preserving linkage method was tested on ten years of New South Wales (NSW) and Western Australian (WA) hospital admissions data, comprising in total over 26 million records. No difference in linkage quality was found when the results were compared to traditional probabilistic methods using full unencrypted personal identifiers. This presents as a possible means of reducing privacy risks related to record linkage in population level research studies. It is hoped that through adaptations of this method or similar privacy preserving methods, risks related to information disclosure can be reduced so that the benefits of linked research taking place can be fully realised. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cross border hospital use: analysis using data linkage across four Australian states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilsbury, Katrina; Rosman, Diana; Alan, Janine; Boyd, James H; Ferrante, Anna M; Semmens, James B

    2015-06-15

    To determine the quality and effectiveness of national data linkage capacity by performing a proof-of-concept project investigating cross-border hospital use and hospital-related deaths. Analysis of person-level linked hospital separation and death registration data of all public and private hospital patients in New South Wales, Queensland and Western Australia and of public hospital patients in South Australia, totalling 7.7 million hospital patients from 1 July 2004 to 30 June 2009. Counts and proportions of hospital stays and patient movement patterns. 223 262 patients (3.0%) travelled across a state border to attend hospitals, in particular, far northern and western NSW patients travelling to Queensland and SA hospitals, respectively. A further 48 575 patients (0.6%) moved their place of residence interstate between hospital visits, particularly to and from areas associated with major mining and tourism industries. Over 11 000 cross-border hospital transfers were also identified. Of patients who travelled across a state border to hospital, 2800 (1.3%) died in that hospital. An additional 496 deaths recorded in one jurisdiction occurred within 30 days of hospital separation from another jurisdiction. Access to person-level data linked across jurisdictions identified geographical hot spots of cross-border hospital use and hospital-related deaths in Australia. This has implications for planning of health service delivery and for longitudinal follow-up studies, particularly those involving mobile populations.

  1. Discursive barriers and cross-scale forest governance in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caleb T. Gallemore

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Students of social-ecological systems have emphasized the need for effective cross-scale governance. We theorized that discursive barriers, particularly between technical and traditional practices, can act as a barrier to cross-scale collaboration. We analyzed the effects of discursive divides on collaboration on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+ policy development in Central Kalimantan, an Indonesian province on the island of Borneo selected in 2010 to pilot subnational REDD+ policy. We argue that the complexities of bridging local land management practices and technical approaches to greenhouse gas emissions reduction and carbon offsetting create barriers to cross-scale collaboration. We tested these hypotheses using an exponential random graph model of collaboration among 36 organizations active in REDD+ policy in the province. We found that discursive divides were associated with a decreased probability of collaboration between organizations and that organizations headquartered outside the province were less likely to collaborate with organizations headquartered in the province. We conclude that bridging discursive communities presents a chicken-and-egg problem for cross-scale governance of social-ecological systems. In precisely the situations where it is most important, when bridging transnational standards with local knowledge and land management practices, it is the most difficult.

  2. Large-scale linkage analysis of 1302 affected relative pairs with rheumatoid arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamshere, Marian L; Segurado, Ricardo; Moskvina, Valentina; Nikolov, Ivan; Glaser, Beate; Holmans, Peter A

    2007-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is the most common systematic autoimmune disease and its etiology is believed to have both strong genetic and environmental components. We demonstrate the utility of including genetic and clinical phenotypes as covariates within a linkage analysis framework to search for rheumatoid arthritis susceptibility loci. The raw genotypes of 1302 affected relative pairs were combined from four large family-based samples (North American Rheumatoid Arthritis Consortium, United Kingdom, European Consortium on Rheumatoid Arthritis Families, and Canada). The familiality of the clinical phenotypes was assessed. The affected relative pairs were subjected to autosomal multipoint affected relative-pair linkage analysis. Covariates were included in the linkage analysis to take account of heterogeneity within the sample. Evidence of familiality was observed with age at onset (p << 0.001) and rheumatoid factor (RF) IgM (p << 0.001), but not definite erosions (p = 0.21). Genome-wide significant evidence for linkage was observed on chromosome 6. Genome-wide suggestive evidence for linkage was observed on chromosomes 13 and 20 when conditioning on age at onset, chromosome 15 conditional on gender, and chromosome 19 conditional on RF IgM after allowing for multiple testing of covariates. PMID:18466440

  3. Cross-Market Linkages of Taiwan Index Futures Contracts Listed on the Taiwan Futures Exchange and the Singapore Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Hung-Gay Fung; Qingfeng "Wilson" Liu; Gyoungsin "Daniel" Park

    2007-01-01

    Cointegration tests and ex ante trading rules are applied to study cross-market linkages between the Taiwan Index futures contracts listed on the Singapore Exchange and the Taiwan Stock Exchange Capitalization-weighted Stock Index futures contracts listed on the Taiwan Futures Exchange. The exchange rate-adjusted returns of the two futures series do not differ significantly in mean but in variances, and show significant mean-reverting tendencies between them. Our trading strategies are able t...

  4. A Simple Sampling Method for Estimating the Accuracy of Large Scale Record Linkage Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, James H; Guiver, Tenniel; Randall, Sean M; Ferrante, Anna M; Semmens, James B; Anderson, Phil; Dickinson, Teresa

    2016-05-17

    Record linkage techniques allow different data collections to be brought together to provide a wider picture of the health status of individuals. Ensuring high linkage quality is important to guarantee the quality and integrity of research. Current methods for measuring linkage quality typically focus on precision (the proportion of incorrect links), given the difficulty of measuring the proportion of false negatives. The aim of this work is to introduce and evaluate a sampling based method to estimate both precision and recall following record linkage. In the sampling based method, record-pairs from each threshold (including those below the identified cut-off for acceptance) are sampled and clerically reviewed. These results are then applied to the entire set of record-pairs, providing estimates of false positives and false negatives. This method was evaluated on a synthetically generated dataset, where the true match status (which records belonged to the same person) was known. The sampled estimates of linkage quality were relatively close to actual linkage quality metrics calculated for the whole synthetic dataset. The precision and recall measures for seven reviewers were very consistent with little variation in the clerical assessment results (overall agreement using the Fleiss Kappa statistics was 0.601). This method presents as a possible means of accurately estimating matching quality and refining linkages in population level linkage studies. The sampling approach is especially important for large project linkages where the number of record pairs produced may be very large often running into millions.

  5. Cross-validating a bidimensional mathematics anxiety scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiyan Bai

    2011-03-01

    The psychometric properties of a 14-item bidimensional Mathematics Anxiety Scale-Revised (MAS-R) were empirically cross-validated with two independent samples consisting of 647 secondary school students. An exploratory factor analysis on the scale yielded strong construct validity with a clear two-factor structure. The results from a confirmatory factor analysis indicated an excellent model-fit (χ(2) = 98.32, df = 62; normed fit index = .92, comparative fit index = .97; root mean square error of approximation = .04). The internal consistency (.85), test-retest reliability (.71), interfactor correlation (.26, p anxiety. Math anxiety, as measured by MAS-R, correlated negatively with student achievement scores (r = -.38), suggesting that MAS-R may be a useful tool for classroom teachers and other educational personnel tasked with identifying students at risk of reduced math achievement because of anxiety.

  6. Crossing Science-Policy-Societal Boundaries to Reduce Scientific and Institutional Uncertainty in Small-Scale Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Abigail M.; Rudd, Murray A.

    2016-10-01

    The governance of small-scale fisheries (SSF) is challenging due to the uncertainty, complexity, and interconnectedness of social, political, ecological, and economical processes. Conventional SSF management has focused on a centralized and top-down approach. A major criticism of conventional management is the over-reliance on `expert science' to guide decision-making and poor consideration of fishers' contextually rich knowledge. That is thought to exacerbate the already low governance potential of SSF. Integrating scientific knowledge with fishers' knowledge is increasingly popular and is often assumed to help reduce levels of biophysical and institutional uncertainties. Many projects aimed at encouraging knowledge integration have, however, been unsuccessful. Our objective in this research was to assess factors that influence knowledge integration and the uptake of integrated knowledge into policy-making. We report results from 54 semi-structured interviews with SSF researchers and practitioners from around the globe. Our analysis is framed in terms of scientific credibility, societal legitimacy, and policy saliency, and we discuss cases that have been partially or fully successful in reducing uncertainty via push-and-pull-oriented boundary crossing initiatives. Our findings suggest that two important factors affect the science-policy-societal boundary: a lack of consensus among stakeholders about what constitutes credible knowledge and institutional uncertainty resulting from shifting policies and leadership change. A lack of training for scientific leaders and an apparent `shelf-life' for community organizations highlight the importance of ongoing institutional support for knowledge integration projects. Institutional support may be enhanced through such investments, such as capacity building and specialized platforms for knowledge integration.

  7. Crossing Science-Policy-Societal Boundaries to Reduce Scientific and Institutional Uncertainty in Small-Scale Fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Abigail M; Rudd, Murray A

    2016-10-01

    The governance of small-scale fisheries (SSF) is challenging due to the uncertainty, complexity, and interconnectedness of social, political, ecological, and economical processes. Conventional SSF management has focused on a centralized and top-down approach. A major criticism of conventional management is the over-reliance on 'expert science' to guide decision-making and poor consideration of fishers' contextually rich knowledge. That is thought to exacerbate the already low governance potential of SSF. Integrating scientific knowledge with fishers' knowledge is increasingly popular and is often assumed to help reduce levels of biophysical and institutional uncertainties. Many projects aimed at encouraging knowledge integration have, however, been unsuccessful. Our objective in this research was to assess factors that influence knowledge integration and the uptake of integrated knowledge into policy-making. We report results from 54 semi-structured interviews with SSF researchers and practitioners from around the globe. Our analysis is framed in terms of scientific credibility, societal legitimacy, and policy saliency, and we discuss cases that have been partially or fully successful in reducing uncertainty via push-and-pull-oriented boundary crossing initiatives. Our findings suggest that two important factors affect the science-policy-societal boundary: a lack of consensus among stakeholders about what constitutes credible knowledge and institutional uncertainty resulting from shifting policies and leadership change. A lack of training for scientific leaders and an apparent 'shelf-life' for community organizations highlight the importance of ongoing institutional support for knowledge integration projects. Institutional support may be enhanced through such investments, such as capacity building and specialized platforms for knowledge integration.

  8. Interpreting and Correcting Cross-scale Mismatches in Resilience Analysis: a Procedure and Examples from Australia's Rangelands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Ludwig

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Many rangelands around the globe are degraded because of mismatches between the goals and actions of managers operating at different spatial scales. In this paper, we focus on identifying, interpreting, and correcting cross-scale mismatches in rangeland management by building on an existing four-step resilience analysis procedure. Resilience analysis is an evaluation of the capacity of a system to persist in the face of disturbances. We provide three examples of cross-scale resilience analysis using a rangeland system located in northern Australia. The system was summarized in a diagram showing key interactions between three attributes (water quality, regional biodiversity, and beef quality, which can be used to indicate the degree of resilience of the system, and other components that affect these attributes at different scales. The strengths of cross-scale interactions were rated as strong or weak, and the likely causes of mismatches in strength were interpreted. Possible actions to correct cross-scale mismatches were suggested and evaluated. We found this four-step, cross-scale resilience analysis procedure very helpful because it reduced a complex problem down to manageable parts without losing sight of the larger-scale whole. To build rangeland resilience, many such cross-scale mismatches in management will need to be corrected, especially as the global use of rangelands increases over the coming decades.

  9. Cross-correlations and influence in world gold markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Min; Wang, Gang-Jin; Xie, Chi; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2018-01-01

    Using the detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) coefficient and the detrended partial cross-correlation analysis (DPCCA) coefficient, we investigate cross-correlations and net cross-correlations among five major world gold markets (London, New York, Shanghai, Tokyo, and Mumbai) at different time scales. We propose multiscale influence measures for examining the influence of individual markets on other markets and on the entire system. We find (i) that the cross-correlations, net cross-correlations, and net influences among the five gold markets vary across time scales, (ii) that the cross-market correlation between London and New York at each time scale is intense and inherent, meaning that the influence of other gold markets on the London-New York market is negligible, (iii) that the remaining cross-market correlations (i.e., those other than London-New York) are greatly affected by other gold markets, and (iv) that the London gold market significantly affects the other four gold markets and dominates the world-wide gold market. Our multiscale findings give market participants and market regulators new information on cross-market linkages in the world-wide gold market.

  10. Transdisciplinary application of the cross-scale resilience model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundstrom, Shana M.; Angeler, David G.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Garcia, Jorge H.; Allen, Craig R.

    2014-01-01

    The cross-scale resilience model was developed in ecology to explain the emergence of resilience from the distribution of ecological functions within and across scales, and as a tool to assess resilience. We propose that the model and the underlying discontinuity hypothesis are relevant to other complex adaptive systems, and can be used to identify and track changes in system parameters related to resilience. We explain the theory behind the cross-scale resilience model, review the cases where it has been applied to non-ecological systems, and discuss some examples of social-ecological, archaeological/ anthropological, and economic systems where a cross-scale resilience analysis could add a quantitative dimension to our current understanding of system dynamics and resilience. We argue that the scaling and diversity parameters suitable for a resilience analysis of ecological systems are appropriate for a broad suite of systems where non-normative quantitative assessments of resilience are desired. Our planet is currently characterized by fast environmental and social change, and the cross-scale resilience model has the potential to quantify resilience across many types of complex adaptive systems.

  11. Poly-Cross-Linked PEI Through Aromatically Conjugated Imine Linkages as a New Class of pH-Responsive Nucleic Acids Packing Cationic Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shun; Jin, Tuo

    2016-01-01

    Cationic polyimines polymerized through aromatically conjugated bis-imine linkages and intra-molecular cross-linking were found to be a new class of effective transfection materials for their flexibility in structural optimization, responsiveness to intracellular environment, the ability to facilitate endosome escape and cytosol release of the nucleic acids, as well as self-metabolism. When three phthalaldehydes of different substitution positions were used to polymerize highly branched low-molecular weight polyethylenimine (PEI 1.8K), the product through ortho-phthalimines (named PPOP) showed significantly higher transfection activity than its two tere- and iso-analogs (named PPTP and PPIP). Physicochemical characterization confirmed the similarity of three polyimines in pH-responded degradability, buffer capacity, as well as the size and Zeta potential of the polyplexes formed from the polymers. A mechanistic speculation may be that the ortho-positioned bis-imine linkage of PPOP may only lead to the straight trans-configuration due to steric hindrance, resulting in larger loops of intra-polymer cross-linking and more flexible backbone. PMID:26869931

  12. Linkage disequilibrium in wild mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy C Laurie

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Crosses between laboratory strains of mice provide a powerful way of detecting quantitative trait loci for complex traits related to human disease. Hundreds of these loci have been detected, but only a small number of the underlying causative genes have been identified. The main difficulty is the extensive linkage disequilibrium (LD in intercross progeny and the slow process of fine-scale mapping by traditional methods. Recently, new approaches have been introduced, such as association studies with inbred lines and multigenerational crosses. These approaches are very useful for interval reduction, but generally do not provide single-gene resolution because of strong LD extending over one to several megabases. Here, we investigate the genetic structure of a natural population of mice in Arizona to determine its suitability for fine-scale LD mapping and association studies. There are three main findings: (1 Arizona mice have a high level of genetic variation, which includes a large fraction of the sequence variation present in classical strains of laboratory mice; (2 they show clear evidence of local inbreeding but appear to lack stable population structure across the study area; and (3 LD decays with distance at a rate similar to human populations, which is considerably more rapid than in laboratory populations of mice. Strong associations in Arizona mice are limited primarily to markers less than 100 kb apart, which provides the possibility of fine-scale association mapping at the level of one or a few genes. Although other considerations, such as sample size requirements and marker discovery, are serious issues in the implementation of association studies, the genetic variation and LD results indicate that wild mice could provide a useful tool for identifying genes that cause variation in complex traits.

  13. Dynamic and Long-term Linkages among Growth, Inequality and Poverty in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Katsushi S. Imai; Raghav Gaiha

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Drawing upon a cross-country panel data for developing countries, the present study sheds new empirical light on dynamic and long-term linkages among growth, inequality and poverty. First, agricultural sector growth is found to be consistently the most important factor in reducing inequality and poverty not only through its direct effects but also through its indirect effects. Second, there is a significant and negative association between inequality and GDP per capita, with macro in...

  14. When to conduct probabilistic linkage vs. deterministic linkage? A simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ying; Matsuyama, Yutaka; Ohashi, Yasuo; Setoguchi, Soko

    2015-08-01

    When unique identifiers are unavailable, successful record linkage depends greatly on data quality and types of variables available. While probabilistic linkage theoretically captures more true matches than deterministic linkage by allowing imperfection in identifiers, studies have shown inconclusive results likely due to variations in data quality, implementation of linkage methodology and validation method. The simulation study aimed to understand data characteristics that affect the performance of probabilistic vs. deterministic linkage. We created ninety-six scenarios that represent real-life situations using non-unique identifiers. We systematically introduced a range of discriminative power, rate of missing and error, and file size to increase linkage patterns and difficulties. We assessed the performance difference of linkage methods using standard validity measures and computation time. Across scenarios, deterministic linkage showed advantage in PPV while probabilistic linkage showed advantage in sensitivity. Probabilistic linkage uniformly outperformed deterministic linkage as the former generated linkages with better trade-off between sensitivity and PPV regardless of data quality. However, with low rate of missing and error in data, deterministic linkage performed not significantly worse. The implementation of deterministic linkage in SAS took less than 1min, and probabilistic linkage took 2min to 2h depending on file size. Our simulation study demonstrated that the intrinsic rate of missing and error of linkage variables was key to choosing between linkage methods. In general, probabilistic linkage was a better choice, but for exceptionally good quality data (<5% error), deterministic linkage was a more resource efficient choice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Boundaries, injective envelopes, and reduced crossed products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bryder, Rasmus Sylvester

    In this dissertation, we study boundary actions, equivariant injective envelopes, as well as theideal structure of reduced crossed products. These topics have recently been linked to thestudy of C-simple groups, that is, groups with simple reduced group C-algebras.In joint work with Matthew Kennedy......, we consider reduced twisted crossed products overC-simple groups. For any twisted C-dynamical system over a C-simple group, we provethat there is a one-to-one correspondence between maximal invariant ideals in the underlyingC-algebra and maximal ideals in the reduced crossed product. When......*-algebras, and relate the intersection property for group actions on unital C*-algebras to the intersection property for theequivariant injective envelope. Moreover, we also prove that the equivariant injective envelopeof the centre of the injective envelope of a unital C*-algebra can be regarded as a C...

  16. Learning and Competence Building through Cross-cultural Linkages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Olav Jull

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the chapter is to study upgrading of companies in developing countries in a learning perspective. Both formal and experiential and tacit knowledge is discussed. Learning effects of different management modes, expatriates, linkages to customers and suppliers are discussed as are learning...... thorugh actual production as well as through explicit transfer of knowledge. The chapter in this way makes an attempt to provide an overview of the multiplicity og learning interfaces. It is concluded that the learning perspective need to be adressed more both by managers and scholars....

  17. Testing for linkage disequilibrium in the New Zealand radiata pine breeding population

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Kumar; Craig Echt; P.L. Wilcox; T.E. Richardson

    2004-01-01

    Linkage analysis is commonly uscd to find marker-trait associations within the full-sib families of forest tree and other species. Study of marker-trait associations at the population level is termed linkage-disequilibrium (LD) mapping. A female-tester design comprising 200 full-sib families generated by crossing 40 pollen parents with five female parents was used to...

  18. Probabilistic record linkage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayers, Adrian; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Blom, Ashley W; Steele, Fiona

    2016-06-01

    Studies involving the use of probabilistic record linkage are becoming increasingly common. However, the methods underpinning probabilistic record linkage are not widely taught or understood, and therefore these studies can appear to be a 'black box' research tool. In this article, we aim to describe the process of probabilistic record linkage through a simple exemplar. We first introduce the concept of deterministic linkage and contrast this with probabilistic linkage. We illustrate each step of the process using a simple exemplar and describe the data structure required to perform a probabilistic linkage. We describe the process of calculating and interpreting matched weights and how to convert matched weights into posterior probabilities of a match using Bayes theorem. We conclude this article with a brief discussion of some of the computational demands of record linkage, how you might assess the quality of your linkage algorithm, and how epidemiologists can maximize the value of their record-linked research using robust record linkage methods. © The Author 2015; Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  19. Cytogenetic characterization and AFLP-based genetic linkage mapping for the butterfly Bicyclus anynana, covering all 28 karyotyped chromosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjen E Van't Hof

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The chromosome characteristics of the butterfly Bicyclus anynana, have received little attention, despite the scientific importance of this species. This study presents the characterization of chromosomes in this species by means of cytogenetic analysis and linkage mapping. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Physical genomic features in the butterfly B. anynana were examined by karyotype analysis and construction of a linkage map. Lepidoptera possess a female heterogametic W-Z sex chromosome system. The WZ-bivalent in pachytene oocytes of B. anynana consists of an abnormally small, heterochromatic W-chromosome with the Z-chromosome wrapped around it. Accordingly, the W-body in interphase nuclei is much smaller than usual in Lepidoptera. This suggests an intermediate stage in the process of secondary loss of the W-chromosome to a ZZ/Z sex determination system. Two nucleoli are present in the pachytene stage associated with an autosome and the WZ-bivalent respectively. Chromosome counts confirmed a haploid number of n = 28. Linkage mapping had to take account of absence of crossing-over in females, and of our use of a full-sib crossing design. We developed a new method to determine and exclude the non-recombinant uninformative female inherited component in offspring. The linkage map was constructed using a novel approach that uses exclusively JOINMAP-software for Lepidoptera linkage mapping. This approach simplifies the mapping procedure, avoids over-estimation of mapping distance and increases the reliability of relative marker positions. A total of 347 AFLP markers, 9 microsatellites and one single-copy nuclear gene covered all 28 chromosomes, with a mapping distance of 1354 cM. Conserved synteny of Tpi on the Z-chromosome in Lepidoptera was confirmed for B. anynana. The results are discussed in relation to other mapping studies in Lepidoptera. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study adds to the knowledge of chromosome structure and

  20. Transnational linkages in sustainability experiments : A typology and the case of solar photovoltaic energy in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieczorek, A.J.; Raven, R.; Berkhout, F.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores transnational linkages in sustainability experiments. Transnational linkages refer to diverse cross-border relationships and interactions that can complement local, regional and national capabilities enabling sustainability experiments. The paper develops a typology of

  1. ON A REDUCED CROSSED PRODUCT OF A GROUP BY A C*-ALGEBRA. THE CASES OF CONTINUOUS TRACE AND TYPE I REDUCED CROSSED PRODUCT

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Tudor

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes two special cases of C* -algebras, the cases of universal crossed product and reduced crossed product of a group by a C* -algebra. In the hypothesis that the universal crossed product is a continuous trace C* -algebra or a type I C* -algebra, it is proved that the reduced crossed product is a continuous trace C* -algebra or, respectively, a type I C* -algebra. Moreover, these results can be extended in the case when the crossed products are obtained from a groupoid an...

  2. Scaling up from the grassroots and the top down: The impacts of multi-level governance on community forestry in Durango, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo A García-López

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the local-level impacts of cross-scale linkages in Mexican community forestry by evaluating the operation of four inter-community forest associations (FAs. Based on one year of fieldwork in Durango, Mexico, the paper focuses on two inter-related issues: (1 the services that each association provides to their member communities and how they impact forest management and the development of communities’ forestry enterprises, and (2 the differences in services and impacts between top-down and bottom-up FAs. The findings show that FAs, as a form of cross-scale linkage, can be crucial for the provision of services, goods and infrastructure related to the protection and enhancement of community forests, the economic development of community enterprises, and the political representation of these communities. At the same time, the study finds important differences between top-down and bottom-up FAs, while pointing to some of the disadvantages of each type of linkage.

  3. Subsidiary Linkage Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ulf; Perri, Alessandra; Nell, Phillip C.

    2012-01-01

    channels for spillovers to competitors. We find a curvilinear relationship between the extent of competitive pressure and the quality of a subsidiary's set of local linkages. Furthermore, the extent to which a subsidiary possesses capabilities moderates this relationship: Very capable subsidiaries...... in strongly competitive environments tend to shy away from high quality linkages. We discuss our findings in light of the literature on spillovers and inter-organizational linkages.......This paper investigates the pattern of subsidiaries' local vertical linkages under varying levels of competition and subsidiary capabilities. Contrary to most previous literature, we explicitly account for the double role of such linkages as conduits of learning prospects as well as potential...

  4. New SCALE-4 features related to cross-section processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrie, L.M.; Landers, N.F.; Greene, N.M.; Parks, C.V.

    1991-01-01

    The SCALE code system has a standardized scheme for processing problem-dependent cross section from problem-independent waste libraries. Some improvements and new capabilities in the processing scheme have been incorporated into the new Version 4 release of the SCALE system. The new features include the capability to consider annular cylindrical and spherical unit cells, and improved Dancoff factor formulation, and changes to the NITAWL-II module to perform resonance self-shielding with reference to infinite dilute values. A review of these major changes in the cross-section processing scheme for SCALE-4 is presented in this paper

  5. Genotyping by Sequencing in Almond: SNP Discovery, Linkage Mapping, and Marker Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi N. Goonetilleke

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In crop plant genetics, linkage maps provide the basis for the mapping of loci that affect important traits and for the selection of markers to be applied in crop improvement. In outcrossing species such as almond (Prunus dulcis Mill. D. A. Webb, application of a double pseudotestcross mapping approach to the F1 progeny of a biparental cross leads to the construction of a linkage map for each parent. Here, we report on the application of genotyping by sequencing to discover and map single nucleotide polymorphisms in the almond cultivars “Nonpareil” and “Lauranne.” Allele-specific marker assays were developed for 309 tag pairs. Application of these assays to 231 Nonpareil × Lauranne F1 progeny provided robust linkage maps for each parent. Analysis of phenotypic data for shell hardness demonstrated the utility of these maps for quantitative trait locus mapping. Comparison of these maps to the peach genome assembly confirmed high synteny and collinearity between the peach and almond genomes. The marker assays were applied to progeny from several other Nonpareil crosses, providing the basis for a composite linkage map of Nonpareil. Applications of the assays to a panel of almond clones and a panel of rootstocks used for almond production demonstrated the broad applicability of the markers and provide subsets of markers that could be used to discriminate among accessions. The sequence-based linkage maps and single nucleotide polymorphism assays presented here could be useful resources for the genetic analysis and genetic improvement of almond.

  6. The linkage between geopotential height and monthly precipitation in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirvani, Amin; Fadaei, Amir Sabetan; Landman, Willem A.

    2018-04-01

    This paper investigates the linkage between large-scale atmospheric circulation and monthly precipitation during November to April over Iran. Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) is used to set up the statistical linkage between the 850 hPa geopotential height large-scale circulation and monthly precipitation over Iran for the period 1968-2010. The monthly precipitation dataset for 50 synoptic stations distributed in different climate regions of Iran is considered as the response variable in the CCA. The monthly geopotential height reanalysis dataset over an area between 10° N and 60° N and from 20° E to 80° E is utilized as the explanatory variable in the CCA. Principal component analysis (PCA) as a pre-filter is used for data reduction for both explanatory and response variables before applying CCA. The optimal number of principal components and canonical variables to be retained in the CCA equations is determined using the highest average cross-validated Kendall's tau value. The 850 hPa geopotential height pattern over the Red Sea, Saudi Arabia, and Persian Gulf is found to be the major pattern related to Iranian monthly precipitation. The Pearson correlation between the area averaged of the observed and predicted precipitation over the study area for Jan, Feb, March, April, November, and December months are statistically significant at the 5% significance level and are 0.78, 0.80, 0.82, 0.74, 0.79, and 0.61, respectively. The relative operating characteristic (ROC) indicates that the highest scores for the above- and below-normal precipitation categories are, respectively, for February and April and the lowest scores found for December.

  7. Cross-section library and processing techniques within the SCALE system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westfall, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    A summary of each of the SCALE system features involved in problem-dependent cross section processing is presented. These features include criticality libraries, shielding libraries, the Standard Composition Library, the SCALE functional modules: BONAMI-S, NITAWL-S, XSDRNPM-S, ICE-S, and the Material Information Processor. The automated procedure for cross-section processing is described with examples. 15 refs

  8. Construction of a reference molecular linkage map of globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portis, E; Mauromicale, G; Mauro, R; Acquadro, A; Scaglione, D; Lanteri, S

    2009-12-01

    The genome organization of globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus), unlike other species belonging to Asteraceae (=Compositae) family (i.e. sunflower, lettuce and chicory), remains largely unexplored. The species is highly heterozygous and suffers marked inbreeding depression when forced to self-fertilize. Thus a two-way pseudo-testcross represents the optimal strategy for linkage analysis. Here, we report linkage maps based on the progeny of a cross between globe artichoke (C. cardunculus var. scolymus) and cultivated cardoon (C. cardunculus var. altilis). The population was genotyped using a variety of PCR-based marker platforms, resulting in the identification of 708 testcross markers suitable for map construction. The male map consisted of 177 loci arranged in 17 major linkage groups, spanning 1,015.5 cM, while female map was built with 326 loci arranged into 20 major linkage groups, spanning 1,486.8 cM. The presence of 84 loci shared between these maps and those previously developed from a cross within globe artichoke allowed for map alignment and the definition of 17 homologous linkage groups, corresponding to the haploid number of the species. This will provide a favourable property for QTL scanning; furthermore, as 25 mapped markers (8%) correspond to coding regions, it has an additional value as functional map and might represent an important genetic tool for candidate gene studies in globe artichoke.

  9. Some methods for blindfolded record linkage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christen Peter

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The linkage of records which refer to the same entity in separate data collections is a common requirement in public health and biomedical research. Traditionally, record linkage techniques have required that all the identifying data in which links are sought be revealed to at least one party, often a third party. This necessarily invades personal privacy and requires complete trust in the intentions of that party and their ability to maintain security and confidentiality. Dusserre, Quantin, Bouzelat and colleagues have demonstrated that it is possible to use secure one-way hash transformations to carry out follow-up epidemiological studies without any party having to reveal identifying information about any of the subjects – a technique which we refer to as "blindfolded record linkage". A limitation of their method is that only exact comparisons of values are possible, although phonetic encoding of names and other strings can be used to allow for some types of typographical variation and data errors. Methods A method is described which permits the calculation of a general similarity measure, the n-gram score, without having to reveal the data being compared, albeit at some cost in computation and data communication. This method can be combined with public key cryptography and automatic estimation of linkage model parameters to create an overall system for blindfolded record linkage. Results The system described offers good protection against misdeeds or security failures by any one party, but remains vulnerable to collusion between or simultaneous compromise of two or more parties involved in the linkage operation. In order to reduce the likelihood of this, the use of last-minute allocation of tasks to substitutable servers is proposed. Proof-of-concept computer programmes written in the Python programming language are provided to illustrate the similarity comparison protocol. Conclusion Although the protocols described in

  10. Gender-specific linkages of parents' childhood physical abuse and neglect with children's problem behaviour: evidence from Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshio, Takashi; Umeda, Maki

    2016-05-14

    Childhood abuse has far-reaching effects, not only for survivors of maltreatment but also for subsequent generations. However, the mechanism of such intergenerational linkages has not been fully explored. This study investigated this linkage with special reference to its gender-specific features. A dataset of parents and their children, obtained from a cross-sectional survey in the Tokyo metropolitan area of Japan, was used. The study sample consisted of 1750 children aged between 2 and 18 years (865 daughters and 885 sons) and their parents (1003 mothers and fathers). Regression models were estimated to assess the associations among 1) both parents' childhood physical abuse and neglect (childhood abuse), 2) parents' psychological distress, as measured by the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6), and 3) children's problem behaviour, as measured by the clinical scales of the Child Behavior Checklist. Daughters' problem behaviour was more closely associated with mothers' than fathers' childhood abuse, whereas sons' problem behaviour was more closely associated with their fathers' experience. The impact of mothers' childhood abuse on daughters' problem behaviour was mediated at a rate of around 40 % by both parents' psychological distress. The proportion of the effect mediated by parents' psychological distress was less than 20 % for the impact of fathers' childhood abuse on sons' problem behaviour. The intergenerational impact of parental childhood abuse on children's problem behaviour is gender specific, i.e. largely characterized by the same gender linkages. Further studies that explore the mechanisms involved in the intergenerational impact of childhood abuse are needed.

  11. Phase-Division-Based Dynamic Optimization of Linkages for Drawing Servo Presses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Gang; Wang, Li-Ping; Cao, Yan-Ke

    2017-11-01

    Existing linkage-optimization methods are designed for mechanical presses; few can be directly used for servo presses, so development of the servo press is limited. Based on the complementarity of linkage optimization and motion planning, a phase-division-based linkage-optimization model for a drawing servo press is established. Considering the motion-planning principles of a drawing servo press, and taking account of work rating and efficiency, the constraints of the optimization model are constructed. Linkage is optimized in two modes: use of either constant eccentric speed or constant slide speed in the work segments. The performances of optimized linkages are compared with those of a mature linkage SL4-2000A, which is optimized by a traditional method. The results show that the work rating of a drawing servo press equipped with linkages optimized by this new method improved and the root-mean-square torque of the servo motors is reduced by more than 10%. This research provides a promising method for designing energy-saving drawing servo presses with high work ratings.

  12. Porous Cross-Linked Polyimide-Urea Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, Mary Ann B. (Inventor); Nguyen, Baochau N. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Porous cross-linked polyimide-urea networks are provided. The networks comprise a subunit comprising two anhydride end-capped polyamic acid oligomers in direct connection via a urea linkage. The oligomers (a) each comprise a repeating unit of a dianhydride and a diamine and a terminal anhydride group and (b) are formulated with 2 to 15 of the repeating units. The subunit was formed by reaction of the diamine and a diisocyanate to form a diamine-urea linkage-diamine group, followed by reaction of the diamine-urea linkage-diamine group with the dianhydride and the diamine to form the subunit. The subunit has been cross-linked via a cross-linking agent, comprising three or more amine groups, at a balanced stoichiometry of the amine groups to the terminal anhydride groups. The subunit has been chemically imidized to yield the porous cross-linked polyimide-urea network. Also provided are wet gels, aerogels, and thin films comprising the networks, and methods of making the networks.

  13. Linkage analysis: Inadequate for detecting susceptibility loci in complex disorders?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, L.L.; Nagatomi, J. [Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    1994-09-01

    Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) may provide valuable clues about approaches to detecting susceptibility loci in other oligogenic disorders. Numerous studies have demonstrated significant association between IDDM and a VNTR in the 5{prime} flanking region of the insulin (INS) gene. Paradoxically, all attempts to demonstrate linkage of IDDM to this VNTR have failed. Lack of linkage has been attributed to insufficient marker locus information, genetic heterogeneity, or high frequency of the IDDM-predisposing allele in the general population. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is located 2.7 kb from INS on the 5` side of the VNTR and shows linkage disequilibrium with INS region loci. We typed a highly polymorphic microsatellite within TH in 176 multiplex families, and performed parametric (lod score) linkage analysis using various intermediate reduced penetrance models for IDDM (including rare and common disease allele frequencies), as well as non-parametric (affected sib pair) linkage analysis. The scores significantly reject linkage for recombination values of .05 or less, excluding the entire 19 kb region containing TH, the 5{prime} VNTR, the INS gene, and IGF2 on the 3{prime} side of INS. Non-parametric linkage analysis also provided no significant evidence for linkage (mean TH allele sharing 52.5%, P=.12). These results have important implications for efforts to locate genes predisposing to complex disorders, strongly suggesting that regions which are significantly excluded by linkage methods may nevertheless contain predisposing genes readily detectable by association methods. We advocate that investigators routinely perform association analyses in addition to linkage analyses.

  14. A Brazilian Portuguese cross-cultural adaptation of the modified JOA scale for myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratali, Raphael R; Smith, Justin S; Motta, Rodrigo L N; Martins, Samuel M; Motta, Marcel M; Rocha, Ricardo D; Herrero, Carlos Fernando P S

    2017-02-01

    To develop a version of the modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (mJOA) scale that had been translated into Portuguese and cross-culturally adapted for the Brazilian population. The well-established process of forward-backward translation was employed along with cross-cultural adaptation. Three bilingual translators (English and native Portuguese) performed the forward translation of the mJOA scale from English to Portuguese based on iterative discussions used to reach a consensus translation. The translated version of the mJOA scale was then back-translated into English by a native English-speaking translator unaware of the concepts involved with the mJOA scale. The original mJOA scale and the back-translated version were compared by a native North American neurosurgeon, and as they were considered equivalent, the final version of the mJOA scale that had been translated into Portuguese and cross-culturally adapted was defined. To facilitate global and cross-cultural comparisons of the severity of cervical myelopathy, this study presents a version of the mJOA scale that was translated into Portuguese and cross-culturally adapted for the Brazilian population.

  15. A location-scale model for non-crossing expectile curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnabel, S.K.; Eilers, P.H.C.

    2013-01-01

    In quantile smoothing, crossing of the estimated curves is a common nuisance, in particular with small data sets and dense sets of quantiles. Similar problems arise in expectile smoothing. We propose a novel method to avoid crossings. It is based on a location-scale model for expectiles and

  16. A Brazilian Portuguese cross-cultural adaptation of the modified JOA scale for myelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael R. Pratali

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To develop a version of the modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (mJOA scale that had been translated into Portuguese and cross-culturally adapted for the Brazilian population. METHODS: The well-established process of forward-backward translation was employed along with cross-cultural adaptation. RESULTS: Three bilingual translators (English and native Portuguese performed the forward translation of the mJOA scale from English to Portuguese based on iterative discussions used to reach a consensus translation. The translated version of the mJOA scale was then back-translated into English by a native English-speaking translator unaware of the concepts involved with the mJOA scale. The original mJOA scale and the back-translated version were compared by a native North American neurosurgeon, and as they were considered equivalent, the final version of the mJOA scale that had been translated into Portuguese and cross-culturally adapted was defined. CONCLUSION: To facilitate global and cross-cultural comparisons of the severity of cervical myelopathy, this study presents a version of the mJOA scale that was translated into Portuguese and cross-culturally adapted for the Brazilian population.

  17. Linkage mapping in a watermelon population segregating for fusarium wilt resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh K. Hawkins; Fenny Dane; Thomas L. Kubisiak; Billy B. Rhodes; Robert L. Jarret

    2001-01-01

    Isozyme, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers were used to generate a linkage map in an F2 and F3 watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thumb.) Matsum. & Nakai) population derived from a cross between the fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f....

  18. Multiscale properties of DNA primary structure: cross-scale correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altajskij, M.V.; Ivanov, V.V.; Polozov, R.V.

    2000-01-01

    Cross-scale correlations of wavelet coefficients of the DNA coding sequences are calculated and compared to that of the generated random sequence of the same length. The coding sequences are shown to have strong correlation between large and small scale structures, while random sequences have not

  19. Entrepreneurship And Business Management - Exploring Linkages For Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Serah K Mbetwa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurs have emerged as market leaders in todays business world amidst the numerous economic turmoil constantly affecting economies on a global scale. This research paper is on entrepreneurship and business management and its linkages to other business stakeholders. The research paper therefore discusses entrepreneurship and business management exploring the linkages to available financing and potential institutions for startup capital by linking entrepreneurs to the government financiers and the public clientele. It is believed that this can bring about achievement of sustainable development goals translating into sustainable development and hence economic growth. The idea of funding is echoed by Robert Rice 2016 An entrepreneur without funding is like a musician with no instruments. Sustainability and entrepreneurship sustainopreneurship is made possible with availability of information on linkages between entrepreneurs and financial lending institutions as well as government policy. It is hoped that the research will add to the existing knowledge and help entrepreneurs with funding options for their business ideas to come to life. Findings show that the government financial lending institutions and the public are the major linkages between entrepreneurship and business management and are critical for attaining sustainable development goals and achieving economic growth.

  20. Using the Bootstrap to Account for Linkage Errors when Analysing Probabilistically Linked Categorical Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chipperfield James O.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Record linkage is the act of bringing together records that are believed to belong to the same unit (e.g., person or business from two or more files. Record linkage is not an error-free process and can lead to linking a pair of records that do not belong to the same unit. This occurs because linking fields on the files, which ideally would uniquely identify each unit, are often imperfect. There has been an explosion of record linkage applications, particularly involving government agencies and in the field of health, yet there has been little work on making correct inference using such linked files. Naively treating a linked file as if it were linked without errors can lead to biased inferences. This article develops a method of making inferences for cross tabulated variables when record linkage is not an error-free process. In particular, it develops a parametric bootstrap approach to estimation which can accommodate the sophisticated probabilistic record linkage techniques that are widely used in practice (e.g., 1-1 linkage. The article demonstrates the effectiveness of this method in a simulation and in a real application.

  1. Genome-wide linkage scan for maximum and length-dependent knee muscle strength in young men: significant evidence for linkage at chromosome 14q24.3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mars, G; Windelinckx, A; Huygens, W; Peeters, M W; Beunen, G P; Aerssens, J; Vlietinck, R; Thomis, M A I

    2008-05-01

    Maintenance of high muscular fitness is positively related to bone health, functionality in daily life and increasing insulin sensitivity, and negatively related to falls and fractures, morbidity and mortality. Heritability of muscle strength phenotypes ranges between 31% and 95%, but little is known about the identity of the genes underlying this complex trait. As a first attempt, this genome-wide linkage study aimed to identify chromosomal regions linked to muscle and bone cross-sectional area, isometric knee flexion and extension torque, and torque-length relationship for knee flexors and extensors. In total, 283 informative male siblings (17-36 years old), belonging to 105 families, were used to conduct a genome-wide SNP-based multipoint linkage analysis. The strongest evidence for linkage was found for the torque-length relationship of the knee flexors at 14q24.3 (LOD = 4.09; p<10(-5)). Suggestive evidence for linkage was found at 14q32.2 (LOD = 3.00; P = 0.005) for muscle and bone cross-sectional area, at 2p24.2 (LOD = 2.57; p = 0.01) for isometric knee torque at 30 degrees flexion, at 1q21.3, 2p23.3 and 18q11.2 (LOD = 2.33, 2.69 and 2.21; p<10(-4) for all) for the torque-length relationship of the knee extensors and at 18p11.31 (LOD = 2.39; p = 0.0004) for muscle-mass adjusted isometric knee extension torque. We conclude that many small contributing genes rather than a few important genes are involved in causing variation in different underlying phenotypes of muscle strength. Furthermore, some overlap in promising genomic regions were identified among different strength phenotypes.

  2. A pantograph linkage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, G.V.

    1982-01-01

    A pantograph linkage is actuated by two linear actuators, pivotally connected together at the linkage. The displacement of the actuators is monitored by rectilinear potentiometers to provide feedback signals to a microprocessor which also receives input signals related to a required movement of a slave end of the linkage. In response to these signals, the microprocessor provides signals to control the displacement of the linear actuators to effect the required movement of the slave end. The movement of the slave end might be straightline in a substantially horizontal or vertical direction. (author)

  3. Evaluation of Price Linkages within the Supply Chain of Rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper evaluates price linkages within the supply chain of rice markets in Cross River State using weekly prices in three urban markets located in major rice producing areas of the State. The Johansen cointegration test indicated one cointegrating vector both at the 1% and 5% level of significance. The results of the ...

  4. Barriers to HIV testing, linkage to care, and treatment adherence: a cross-sectional study from a large urban center of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCarthy, Sarah; Hoffmann, Michael; Nunn, Amy; Silva, Luís Augusto Vasconcelos da; Dourado, Ines

    2016-12-01

    Early, continued engagement with the HIV treatment continuum can help achieve viral suppression, though few studies have explored how risk factors for delays differ across the continuum. The objective of this study was to identify predictors of delayed diagnosis, delayed linkage to care, and nonadherence to treatment in the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Data were collected during 2010 in a cross-sectional study with a sample (n = 1 970) of HIV-infected individuals enrolled in care. Multiple logistic regression analyses identified sociodemographic variables, behaviors, and measures of health service quality that were associated with delayed diagnosis, delayed linkage to care, and treatment nonadherence. For delayed diagnosis, male gender (adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 3.02; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.0-4.6); age 45 years and older (AOR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.1-2.5); and provider-initiated testing (AOR, 3.00; 95% CI, 2.1-4.4) increased odds, while drug use (AOR, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.2-0.5) and receiving results in a private space (AOR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.2-0.8) decreased odds. For delayed linkage to care, unemployment (AOR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.07-1.9) and difficulty understanding or speaking with a health care worker (AOR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.2-2.1) increased odds, while posttest counseling (AOR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.3-0.7) decreased odds. For nonadherence, experiencing verbal or physical discrimination related to HIV (AOR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.3-3.0) and feeling mistreated or not properly attended to at HIV care (AOR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.0-2.5) increased odds, while posttest counseling (AOR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.2-0.6) decreased odds. More attention is needed on how policies, programs, and research can provide tailored support across the treatment continuum.

  5. Privacy preserving interactive record linkage (PPIRL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kum, Hye-Chung; Krishnamurthy, Ashok; Machanavajjhala, Ashwin; Reiter, Michael K; Ahalt, Stanley

    2014-01-01

    Record linkage to integrate uncoordinated databases is critical in biomedical research using Big Data. Balancing privacy protection against the need for high quality record linkage requires a human-machine hybrid system to safely manage uncertainty in the ever changing streams of chaotic Big Data. In the computer science literature, private record linkage is the most published area. It investigates how to apply a known linkage function safely when linking two tables. However, in practice, the linkage function is rarely known. Thus, there are many data linkage centers whose main role is to be the trusted third party to determine the linkage function manually and link data for research via a master population list for a designated region. Recently, a more flexible computerized third-party linkage platform, Secure Decoupled Linkage (SDLink), has been proposed based on: (1) decoupling data via encryption, (2) obfuscation via chaffing (adding fake data) and universe manipulation; and (3) minimum information disclosure via recoding. We synthesize this literature to formalize a new framework for privacy preserving interactive record linkage (PPIRL) with tractable privacy and utility properties and then analyze the literature using this framework. Human-based third-party linkage centers for privacy preserving record linkage are the accepted norm internationally. We find that a computer-based third-party platform that can precisely control the information disclosed at the micro level and allow frequent human interaction during the linkage process, is an effective human-machine hybrid system that significantly improves on the linkage center model both in terms of privacy and utility.

  6. Linkage to HIV care and antiretroviral therapy in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Kranzer

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Antiretroviral therapy (ART has been scaled-up rapidly in Africa. Programme reports typically focus on loss to follow-up and mortality among patients receiving ART. However, little is known about linkage and retention in care of individuals prior to starting ART.Data on adult residents from a periurban community in Cape Town were collected at a primary care clinic and hospital. HIV testing registers, CD4 count results provided by the National Health Laboratory System and ART registers were linked. A random sample (n = 885 was drawn from adults testing HIV positive through antenatal care, sexual transmitted disease and voluntary testing and counseling services between January 2004 and March 2009. All adults (n = 103 testing HIV positive through TB services during the same time period were also included in the study. Linkage to HIV care was defined as attending for a CD4 count measurement within 6 months of HIV diagnosis. Linkage to ART care was defined as initiating ART within 6 months of HIV diagnosis in individuals with a CD4 count ≤200 cells/µl taken within 6 months of HIV diagnosis.Only 62.6% of individuals attended for a CD4 count measurement within 6 months of testing HIV positive. Individuals testing through sexually transmitted infection services had the best (84.1% and individuals testing on their own initiative (53.5% the worst linkage to HIV care. One third of individuals with timely CD4 counts were eligible for ART and 66.7% of those were successfully linked to ART care. Linkage to ART care was highest among antenatal care clients. Among individuals not yet eligible for ART only 46.3% had a repeat CD4 count. Linkage to HIV care improved in patients tested in more recent calendar period.Linkage to HIV and ART care was low in this poor peri-urban community despite free services available within close proximity. More efforts are needed to link VCT scale-up to subsequent care.

  7. Recent validation experience with multigroup cross-section libraries and scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, S.M.; Wright, R.Q.; DeHart, M.D.; Parks, C.V.; Petrie, L.M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper will discuss the results obtained and lessons learned from an extensive validation of new ENDF/B-V and ENDF/B-VI multigroup cross-section libraries using analyses of critical experiments. The KENO V. a Monte Carlo code in version 4.3 of the SCALE computer code system was used to perform the critical benchmark calculations via the automated SCALE sequence CSAS25. The cross-section data were processed by the SCALE automated problem-dependent resonance-processing procedure included in this sequence. Prior to calling KENO V.a, CSAS25 accesses BONAMI to perform resonance self-shielding for nuclides with Bondarenko factors and NITAWL-II to process nuclides with resonance parameter data via the Nordheim Integral Treatment

  8. Development of modern CANDU PHWR cross-section libraries for SCALE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoman, Nathan T.; Skutnik, Steven E.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • New ORIGEN libraries for CANDU 28 and 37-element fuel assemblies have been created. • These new reactor data libraries are based on modern ENDF/B-VII.0 cross-section data. • The updated CANDU data libraries show good agreement with radiochemical assay data. • Eu-154 overestimated when using ENDF-VII.0 due to a lower thermal capture cross-section. - Abstract: A new set of SCALE fuel lattice models have been developed for the 28-element and 37-element CANDU fuel assembly designs using modern cross-section data from ENDF-B/VII.0 in order to produce new reactor data libraries for SCALE/ORIGEN depletion analyses. These new libraries are intended to provide users with a convenient means of evaluating depletion of CANDU fuel assemblies using ORIGEN through pre-generated cross sections based on SCALE lattice physics calculations. The performance of the new CANDU ORIGEN libraries in depletion analysis benchmarks to radiochemical assay data were compared to the previous version of the CANDU libraries provided with SCALE (based on WIMS-AECL models). Benchmark comparisons with available radiochemical assay data indicate that the new cross-section libraries perform well at matching major actinide species (U/Pu), which are generally within 1–4% of experimental values. The library also showed similar or better results over the WIMS-AECL library regarding fission product species and minor actinoids (Np, Am, and Cm). However, a notable exception was in calculated inventories of "1"5"4Eu and "1"5"5Eu, where the new library employing modern nuclear data (ENDF/B-VII.0) performed substantially poorer than the previous WIMS-AECL library (which used ENDF-B/VI.8 cross-sections for these species). The cause for this discrepancy appears to be due to differences in the "1"5"4Eu thermal capture cross-section between ENDF/B-VI.8 and ENDF/B-VII.0, an effect which is exacerbated by the highly thermalized flux of a CANDU heavy water reactor compared to that of a typical

  9. Elite capture and the development of natural resource linkages in Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Lars; Monjane, Celso Marcos

    2017-01-01

    for a more fair distribution of opportunities for local firms to gain from large-scale natural resource investments and for learning and spillover effects to other parts of the economy. In a longer term perspective, it is a potential key source of economic transformation towards higher value added activities......This chapter explores these broader processes from the perspective of linkage creation in Mozambique related to mega-projects in natural resource extraction and development from a political economy perspective. From a resource fairness perspective, linkage creation is essential as it allows...

  10. Genome scan for linkage to asthma using a linkage disequilibrium-lod score test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y; Slager, S L; Huang, J

    2001-01-01

    We report a genome-wide linkage study of asthma on the German and Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Asthma (CSGA) data. Using a combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium test and the nonparametric linkage score, we identified 13 markers from the German data, 1 marker from the African American (CSGA) data, and 7 markers from the Caucasian (CSGA) data in which the p-values ranged between 0.0001 and 0.0100. From our analysis and taking into account previous published linkage studies of asthma, we suggest that three regions in chromosome 5 (around D5S418, D5S644, and D5S422), one region in chromosome 6 (around three neighboring markers D6S1281, D6S291, and D6S1019), one region in chromosome 11 (around D11S2362), and two regions in chromosome 12 (around D12S351 and D12S324) especially merit further investigation.

  11. Hybrid scaffold bearing polymer-siloxane Schiff base linkage for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, Bindu P., E-mail: bindumelekkuttu@gmail.com; Gangadharan, Dhanya; Mohan, Neethu; Sumathi, Babitha; Nair, Prabha D., E-mail: pdnair49@gmail.com

    2015-07-01

    Scaffolds that can provide the requisite biological cues for the fast regeneration of bone are highly relevant to the advances in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In the present article, we report the fabrication of a chitosan–gelatin–siloxane scaffold bearing interpolymer-siloxane Schiff base linkage, through a single-step dialdehyde cross-linking and freeze-drying method using 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane as the siloxane precursor. Swelling of the scaffolds in phosphate buffered saline indicates enhancement with increase in siloxane concentration, whereas compressive moduli of the wet scaffolds reveal inverse dependence, owing to the presence of siloxane, rich in silanol groups. It is suggested that through the strategy of dialdehyde cross-linking, a limiting siloxane loading of 20 wt.% into a chitosan-gelatin matrix should be considered ideal for bone tissue engineering, because the scaffold made with 30 wt.% siloxane loading degrades by 48 wt.%, in 21 days. The hybrid scaffolds bearing Schiff base linkage between the polymer and siloxane, unlike the stable linkages in earlier reports, are expected to give a faster release of siloxanes and enhancement in osteogenesis. This is verified by the in vitro evaluation of the hybrid scaffolds using rabbit adipose mesenchymal stem cells, which revealed osteogenic cell-clusters on a polymer-siloxane scaffold, enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity and the expression of bone-specific genes, whereas the control scaffold without siloxane supported more of cell-proliferation than differentiation. A siloxane concentration dependent enhancement in osteogenic differentiation is also observed. - Highlights: • A hybrid scaffold bearing interpolymer-siloxane Schiff base linkage • A limiting siloxane loading of 20 wt.% into chitosan–gelatin matrix • A siloxane concentration dependent enhancement in osteogenic differentiation.

  12. Investigating longitudinal and cross cultural measurement Invariance of Inglehart’s short post-materialism scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ippel, L.; Gelissen, J.P.T.M.; Moors, G.B.D.

    2014-01-01

    Inglehart applies a four item ranking scale to measure post-materialism which is used for cross-cultural and cross-temporal comparative purposes. The aim of this research is to test measurement invariance of the scale to establish to what extent the scale produces comparable results in time and

  13. A new approach to designing reduced scale thermal-hydraulic experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapa, Celso M.F.; Sampaio, Paulo A.B. de; Pereira, Claudio M.N.A.

    2004-01-01

    Reduced scale experiments are often employed in engineering because they are much cheaper than real scale testing. Unfortunately, though, it is difficult to design a thermal-hydraulic circuit or equipment in reduced scale capable of reproducing, both accurately and simultaneously, all the physical phenomena that occur in real scale and operating conditions. This paper presents a methodology to designing thermal-hydraulic experiments in reduced scale based on setting up a constrained optimization problem that is solved using genetic algorithms (GAs). In order to demonstrate the application of the methodology proposed, we performed some investigations in the design of a heater aimed to simulate the transport of heat and momentum in the core of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) at 100% of nominal power and non-accident operating conditions. The results obtained show that the proposed methodology is a promising approach for designing reduced scale experiments

  14. Multi-temporal Linkages of Net Ecosystem Exchanges (NEE) with the Climatic and Ecohydrologic Drivers in a Florida Everglades Short-hydroperiod Freshwater Marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, M. T.; Abdul-Aziz, O. I.; Ishtiaq, K. S.

    2017-12-01

    Wetlands are considered one of the most productive and ecologically valuable ecosystems on earth. We investigated the multi-temporal linkages of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) with the relevant climatic and ecohydrological drivers for a Florida Everglades short-hydroperiod freshwater wetland. Hourly NEE observations and the associated driving variables during 2008-12 were collected from the AmeriFlux and EDEN databases, and then averaged for the four temporal scales (1-day, 8-day, 15-day, and 30-day). Pearson correlation and factor analysis were employed to identify the interrelations and grouping patterns among the participatory variables for each time scale. The climatic and ecohydrological linkages of NEE were then reliably estimated using bootstrapped (1000 iterations) partial least squares regressions by resolving multicollinearity. The analytics identified four bio-physical components exhibiting relatively robust interrelations and grouping patterns with NEE across the temporal scales. In general, NEE was most strongly linked with the `radiation-energy (RE)' component, while having a moderate linkage with the `temperature-hydrology (TH)' and `aerodynamic (AD)' components. However, the `ambient atmospheric CO2 (AC)' component was very weakly linked to NEE. Further, RE and TH had a decreasing trend with the increasing time scales (1-30 days). In contrast, the linkages of AD and AC components increased from 1-day to 8-day scales, and then remained relatively invariable at the longer scales of aggregation. The estimated linkages provide insights into the dominant biophysical process components and drivers of ecosystem carbon in the Everglades. The invariant linking pattern and linkages would help to develop low-dimensional models to reliably predict CO2 fluxes from the tidal freshwater wetlands.

  15. Do coxibs reduce prescription of gastroprotective agents? Results of a record linkage study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violante Andrea

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coxibs are claimed to be cost-effective drugs and reduced prescription of gastroprotective agents is assumed to be one of their major benefits. Real life prescription of these drugs may be substantially different than that considered in pharmacoeconomic analyses or claimed by drug companies, yet. Our objective was to evaluate whether coxibs were associated with reduced prescription of gastro-protective agents (GPAs, specifically proton pump inhibitors, H2 blockers and misoprostol compared to non selective NSAIDs. Methods A record-linkage study was performed using 2001 outpatient prescription data from the province of Modena (about 632,000 inhabitants, in Northern Italy. Logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratio of GPA prescription for coxib and non-selective NSAID adult users (> 14 years. Three categories of users were further investigated: "acute", "chronic and "incident or new". Main outcome measures were same-day co-prescription and 30 days prescription of GPAs in coxibs and non selective NSAIDs users. To limit selection bias, data were adjusted for age, sex, DDD of coxibs and non selective NSAIDs received during 2001, DDD of GPAs and (for non-incident users DDD of NSAIDs received during the previous 4 years Results Same day co-prescription rates were similar considering the overall population and "acute" users. Chronic coxibs users instead showed higher co-prescription rates than chronic NSAIDs users (OR = 1.2, p Conclusion Assumptions made in pharmacoeconomic analyses on coxibs (lower GPA prescription associated with coxibs use may be overly optimistic. Claims made through cost-effectiveness data should be carefully interpreted, and mechanisms for attributing drug prices revised accordingly.

  16. Design of special planar linkages

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Jing-Shan; Ma, Ning; Chu, Fulei

    2013-01-01

    Planar linkages play a very important role in mechanical engineering. As the simplest closed chain mechanisms, planar four-bar linkages are widely used in mechanical engineering, civil engineering and aerospace engineering.Design of Special Planar Linkages proposes a uniform design theory for planar four-bar linkages. The merit of the method proposed in this book is that it allows engineers to directly obtain accurate results when there are such solutions for the specified n precise positions; otherwise, the best approximate solutions will be found. This book discusses the kinematics and reach

  17. Identifying food-related life style segments by a cross-culturally valid scaling device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsø, Karen; Grunert, Klaus G.

    1994-01-01

    -related life style in a cross-culturally valid way. To this end, we have col-lected a pool of 202 items, collected data in three countries, and have con-structed scales based on cross-culturally stable patterns. These scales have then been subjected to a number of tests of reliability and vali-dity. We have...... then applied the set of scales to a fourth country, Germany, based on a representative sample of 1000 respondents. The scales had, with a fe exceptions, moderately good reliabilities. A cluster ana-ly-sis led to the identification of 5 segments, which differed on all 23 scales....

  18. Efficient Record Linkage Algorithms Using Complete Linkage Clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamun, Abdullah-Al; Aseltine, Robert; Rajasekaran, Sanguthevar

    2016-01-01

    Data from different agencies share data of the same individuals. Linking these datasets to identify all the records belonging to the same individuals is a crucial and challenging problem, especially given the large volumes of data. A large number of available algorithms for record linkage are prone to either time inefficiency or low-accuracy in finding matches and non-matches among the records. In this paper we propose efficient as well as reliable sequential and parallel algorithms for the record linkage problem employing hierarchical clustering methods. We employ complete linkage hierarchical clustering algorithms to address this problem. In addition to hierarchical clustering, we also use two other techniques: elimination of duplicate records and blocking. Our algorithms use sorting as a sub-routine to identify identical copies of records. We have tested our algorithms on datasets with millions of synthetic records. Experimental results show that our algorithms achieve nearly 100% accuracy. Parallel implementations achieve almost linear speedups. Time complexities of these algorithms do not exceed those of previous best-known algorithms. Our proposed algorithms outperform previous best-known algorithms in terms of accuracy consuming reasonable run times.

  19. North-South Business Linkages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Olav Jull; Kuada, John

    2006-01-01

    Based on empirical studies of linkages between TNCs and local firms in India, Malaysia, Vietnam, Ghana and South Africa, five themes are discussed and related to present theoretical perspectives. The themes are (1) Linakge Governance; (2) Globalisation and the dynamics in developing countries (the...... TNC-driven markets in developing countries); (3) The upgrading impact of FDI; (4) Non-equity linkages as a platform for business development, and (5) The learning perspective on international business linakges. The chapter offers at the end a three-dimanional model for impacts of business linkages....

  20. Intra-facility linkage of HIV-positive mothers and HIV-exposed babies into HIV chronic care: rural and urban experience in a resource limited setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Mugasha

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Linkage of HIV-infected pregnant women to HIV care remains critical for improvement of maternal and child outcomes through prevention of maternal-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT and subsequent chronic HIV care. This study determined proportions and factors associated with intra-facility linkage to HIV care and Early Infant Diagnosis care (EID to inform strategic scale up of PMTCT programs. METHODS: A cross-sectional review of records was done at 2 urban and 3 rural public health care facilities supported by the Infectious Diseases Institute (IDI. HIV-infected pregnant mothers, identified through routine antenatal care (ANC and HIV-exposed babies were evaluated for enrollment in HIV clinics by 6 weeks post-delivery. RESULTS: Overall, 1,025 HIV-infected pregnant mothers were identified during ANC between January and June, 2012; 267/1,025 (26% in rural and 743/1,025 (74% in urban facilities. Of these 375/1,025 (37% were linked to HIV clinics [67/267(25% rural and 308/758(41% urban]. Of 636 HIV-exposed babies, 193 (30% were linked to EID. Linkage of mother-baby pairs to HIV chronic care and EID was 16% (101/636; 8/179 (4.5%] in rural and 93/457(20.3% in urban health facilities. Within rural facilities, ANC registration <28 weeks-of-gestation was associated with mothers' linkage to HIV chronic care [AoR, 2.0 95% CI, 1.1-3.7, p = 0.019] and mothers' multi-parity was associated with baby's linkage to EID; AoR 4.4 (1.3-15.1, p = 0.023. Stigma, long distance to health facilities and vertical PMTCT services affected linkage in rural facilities, while peer mothers, infant feeding services, long patient queues and limited privacy hindered linkage to HIV care in urban settings. CONCLUSION: Post-natal linkage of HIV-infected mothers to chronic HIV care and HIV-exposed babies to EID programs was low. Barriers to linkage to HIV care vary in urban and rural settings. We recommend targeted interventions to rapidly improve linkage to

  1. Localizing genes using linkage disequilibrium in plants: integrating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGO

    2007-03-19

    Mar 19, 2007 ... Localizing genes using linkage disequilibrium in plants: integrating lessons ... reduce that association as a function of the marker distance from the QTL. ..... the gene locus enhanced the resolution power of asso- ciation tests .... agents, such as insects, birds, water and wind, so mating is determined by a ...

  2. Large scale cross hole testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, J.K.; Black, J.H.; Doe, T.

    1991-05-01

    As part of the Site Characterisation and Validation programme the results of the large scale cross hole testing have been used to document hydraulic connections across the SCV block, to test conceptual models of fracture zones and obtain hydrogeological properties of the major hydrogeological features. The SCV block is highly heterogeneous. This heterogeneity is not smoothed out even over scales of hundreds of meters. Results of the interpretation validate the hypothesis of the major fracture zones, A, B and H; not much evidence of minor fracture zones is found. The uncertainty in the flow path, through the fractured rock, causes sever problems in interpretation. Derived values of hydraulic conductivity were found to be in a narrow range of two to three orders of magnitude. Test design did not allow fracture zones to be tested individually. This could be improved by testing the high hydraulic conductivity regions specifically. The Piezomac and single hole equipment worked well. Few, if any, of the tests ran long enough to approach equilibrium. Many observation boreholes showed no response. This could either be because there is no hydraulic connection, or there is a connection but a response is not seen within the time scale of the pumping test. The fractional dimension analysis yielded credible results, and the sinusoidal testing procedure provided an effective means of identifying the dominant hydraulic connections. (10 refs.) (au)

  3. A New Scaling Law of Resonance in Total Scattering Cross Section in Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Gorur Govinda

    2009-10-01

    Electrical discharges in gases continue to be an active area of research because of industrial applications such as power systems, environmental clean up, laser technology, semiconductor fabrication etc. A fundamental knowledge of electron-gas neutral interaction is indispensable and, the total scattering cross section is one of the quantities that have been measured extensively. The energy dependence of the total cross sections shows peaks or resonance processes that are operative in the collision process. These peaks and the energies at which they occur are shown to satisfy a broad relationship involving the polarizability and the dipole moment of the target particle. Data on 62 target particles belonging to the following species are analyzed. (Eq 1) Rare gas atoms (Eq 2) Di-atomic molecules with combinations of polar, non-polar, attaching, and non-attaching properties Poly-atomic molecules with combinations of polar, non-polar, attaching, and non-attaching properties. Methods of improving the newly identified scaling law and possible application have been identified. 1 INTRODUCTION: Data on electron-neutral interactions are one of the most fundamental in the study of gaseous electronics and an immense literature, both experimental and theoretical, has become available since about the year 1920. [1-5]. In view of the central role which these data play in all facets of gas discharges and plasma science, it is felt that a critical review of available data is timely, mainly for the community of high voltage engineers and industries connected with plasma science in general. The electron-neutral interaction, often referred to as scattering in the scientific literature, is quantified by using the quantity called the total scattering cross section (QT, m^2). In the literature on cross section, total cross section and total scattering cross section are terms used synonymously and we follow the same practice. A definition may be found in reference [1]. This paper concerns

  4. Polarization-induced interference within electromagnetically induced transparency for atoms of double-V linkage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuan; Liu, Chang; Chen, Ping-Xing; Liu, Liang

    2018-02-01

    People have been paying attention to the role of atoms' complex internal level structures in the research of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) for a long time, where the various degenerate Zeeman levels usually generate complex linkage patterns for the atomic transitions. It turns out, with special choices of the atomic states and the atomic transitions' linkage structure, clear signatures of quantum interference induced by the probe and coupling light's polarizations can emerge from a typical EIT phenomena. We propose to study a four-state system with double-V linkage pattern for the transitions and analyze the polarization-induced interference under the EIT condition. We show that such interference arises naturally under mild conditions on the optical field and atom manipulation techniques. Moreover, we construct a variation form of double-M linkage pattern where the polarization-induced interference enables polarization-dependent cross modulation between incident weak lights that can be effective even at the few-photon level. The theme is to gain more insight into the essential question: how can we build a nontrivial optical medium where incident lights experience polarization-dependent nonlinear optical interactions, valid for a wide range of incidence intensities down to the few-photon level?

  5. Effects of Demographic History on the Detection of Recombination Hotspots from Linkage Disequilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapper, Amy L; Payseur, Bret A

    2018-02-01

    In some species, meiotic recombination is concentrated in small genomic regions. These "recombination hotspots" leave signatures in fine-scale patterns of linkage disequilibrium, raising the prospect that the genomic landscape of hotspots can be characterized from sequence variation. This approach has led to the inference that hotspots evolve rapidly in some species, but are conserved in others. Historic demographic events, such as population bottlenecks, are known to affect patterns of linkage disequilibrium across the genome, violating population genetic assumptions of this approach. Although such events are prevalent, demographic history is generally ignored when making inferences about the evolution of recombination hotspots. To determine the effect of demography on the detection of recombination hotspots, we use the coalescent to simulate haplotypes with a known recombination landscape. We measure the ability of popular linkage disequilibrium-based programs to detect hotspots across a range of demographic histories, including population bottlenecks, hidden population structure, population expansions, and population contractions. We find that demographic events have the potential to greatly reduce the power and increase the false positive rate of hotspot discovery. Neither the power nor the false positive rate of hotspot detection can be predicted without also knowing the demographic history of the sample. Our results suggest that ignoring demographic history likely overestimates the power to detect hotspots and therefore underestimates the degree of hotspot sharing between species. We suggest strategies for incorporating demographic history into population genetic inferences about recombination hotspots. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  6. Density limit and cross-field edge transport scaling in Alcator C-Mod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaBombard, B.

    2002-01-01

    Experiments in Alcator C-Mod have uncovered a direct link between the character and scaling of edge transport and the empirical Greenwald density limit (n G ). In low to moderate density discharges, the scrape-off layer (SOL) exhibits a two-layer structure: a near SOL (∼5 mm zone) with steep density and temperature gradients and a far SOL with flatter profiles. In the far SOL, the transport fluxes exhibit large transport events ('bursts' which carry particles to main-chamber structures. In the near SOL, transport fluxes appear to be less 'bursty' particle diffusivities in this region is found to increase strongly with local plasma collisionality. As n/n G (or collisionality) is raised, cross-field heat convection begins to compete with parallel conduction to the divertor. At N/n G ∼0.5, T E at the separatrix is reduced. As n/n G approaches ∼1, regions inside the separatrix exhibit flatter profiles with 'bursty' transport behavior; cross-field heat convection to main-chamber structures becomes comparable to the radiated power. Thus as n/n G is increased, cross-field edge transport physics progressively changes, ultimately impacting the power balance of the discharge near N/n G ∼1. (author)

  7. Cross-Scale and Cross-Level Dynamics: Governance and Capacity for Resilience in a Social-Ecological System in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsing-Sheng Tai

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Resilience thinking has strongly influenced how people understand and pursue sustainability of linked social-ecological systems. Resilience thinking highlights the need to build capacity and manage general system properties in a complex, constantly changing world. I modified an analytical framework to address associations among cross-scale and cross-level dynamics, attributes of governance, and capacity to enhance resilience. The Danungdafu Forestation Area represents one of Taiwan’s most controvisal cases concerning land use, indigenous rights, and environmental issues. Analysis of this Taiwanese experience from a social-ecological perspective can show how current capacities for managing resilience are related to critical governance attributes. Analysis helped identify fundamental flaws in current governance and key issues needing to be addressed. The Danungdafu Forestation Area should transition towards a governance regime that is more participatory, deliberative, multi-layered, accountable, just, and networked. This can be done by developing an intermediate level institution that coordinates the cross-scale and cross-level interactions that better fit this social-ecological system.

  8. A cross-cultural investigation into the dimensional structure and stability of the Barriers to Research and Utilization Scale (BARRIERS Scale).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brett; Brown, Ted; Costello, Shane

    2015-10-24

    It is important that scales exhibit strong measurement properties including those related to the investigation of issues that impact evidence-based practice. The validity of the Barriers to Research Utilization Scale (BARRIERS Scale) has recently been questioned in a systematic review. This study investigated the dimensional structure and stability of the 28 item BARRIERS Scale when completed by three groups of participants from three different cross-cultural environments. Data from the BARRIERS Scale completed by 696 occupational therapists from Australia (n = 137), Taiwan (n = 413), and the United Kingdom (n = 144) were analysed using principal components analysis, followed by Procrustes Transformation. Poorly fitting items were identified by low communalities, cross-loading, and theoretically inconsistent primary loadings, and were systematically removed until good fit was achieved. The cross-cultural stability of the component structure of the BARRIERS Scale was examined. A four component, 19 item version of the BARRIERS Scale emerged that demonstrated an improved dimensional fit and stability across the three participant groups. The resulting four components were consistent with the BARRIERS Scale as originally conceptualised. Findings from the study suggest that the four component, 19 item version of the BARRIERS Scale is a robust and valid measure for identifying barriers to research utilization for occupational therapists in paediatric health care settings across Australia, United Kingdom, and Taiwan. The four component 19 item version of the BARRIERS Scale exhibited good dimensional structure, internal consistency, and stability.

  9. Renormalisation scale uncertainty in the DIS 2+1 jet cross-section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingelman, G.

    1994-05-01

    The Deep Inelastic Scattering 2+1 jet cross-section is a useful observable for precision tests of QCD, e.g. measuring the strong coupling constant α s . A consistent analysis requires a good understanding of the theoretical uncertainties and one of the fundamental ones in QCD is due to the renormalisation scheme and scale ambiguity. Different methods, which have been proposed to resolve the scale ambiguity, are applied to the 2+1 jet cross-section and the uncertainty is estimated. It is shown that the uncertainty can be made smaller by choosing the jet definition in a suitable way. (orig.)

  10. A RAD-based linkage map and comparative genomics in the gudgeons (genus Gnathopogon, Cyprinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakioka Ryo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The construction of linkage maps is a first step in exploring the genetic basis for adaptive phenotypic divergence in closely related species by quantitative trait locus (QTL analysis. Linkage maps are also useful for comparative genomics in non-model organisms. Advances in genomics technologies make it more feasible than ever to study the genetics of adaptation in natural populations. Restriction-site associated DNA (RAD sequencing in next-generation sequencers facilitates the development of many genetic markers and genotyping. We aimed to construct a linkage map of the gudgeons of the genus Gnathopogon (Cyprinidae for comparative genomics with the zebrafish Danio rerio (a member of the same family as gudgeons and for the future QTL analysis of the genetic architecture underlying adaptive phenotypic evolution of Gnathopogon. Results We constructed the first genetic linkage map of Gnathopogon using a 198 F2 interspecific cross between two closely related species in Japan: river-dwelling Gnathopogon elongatus and lake-dwelling Gnathopogon caerulescens. Based on 1,622 RAD-tag markers, a linkage map spanning 1,390.9 cM with 25 linkage groups and an average marker interval of 0.87 cM was constructed. We also identified a region involving female-specific transmission ratio distortion (TRD. Synteny and collinearity were extensively conserved between Gnathopogon and zebrafish. Conclusions The dense SNP-based linkage map presented here provides a basis for future QTL analysis. It will also be useful for transferring genomic information from a “traditional” model fish species, zebrafish, to screen candidate genes underlying ecologically important traits of the gudgeons.

  11. Saturation of an intra-gene pool linkage map: towards a unified consensus linkage map for fine mapping and synteny analysis in common bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, Carlos H; Fernandez, Andrea C; Franco-Herrera, Natalia; Cichy, Karen A; McClean, Phillip E; Vanderleyden, Jos; Blair, Matthew W

    2011-01-01

    Map-based cloning and fine mapping to find genes of interest and marker assisted selection (MAS) requires good genetic maps with reproducible markers. In this study, we saturated the linkage map of the intra-gene pool population of common bean DOR364 × BAT477 (DB) by evaluating 2,706 molecular markers including SSR, SNP, and gene-based markers. On average the polymorphism rate was 7.7% due to the narrow genetic base between the parents. The DB linkage map consisted of 291 markers with a total map length of 1,788 cM. A consensus map was built using the core mapping populations derived from inter-gene pool crosses: DOR364 × G19833 (DG) and BAT93 × JALO EEP558 (BJ). The consensus map consisted of a total of 1,010 markers mapped, with a total map length of 2,041 cM across 11 linkage groups. On average, each linkage group on the consensus map contained 91 markers of which 83% were single copy markers. Finally, a synteny analysis was carried out using our highly saturated consensus maps compared with the soybean pseudo-chromosome assembly. A total of 772 marker sequences were compared with the soybean genome. A total of 44 syntenic blocks were identified. The linkage group Pv6 presented the most diverse pattern of synteny with seven syntenic blocks, and Pv9 showed the most consistent relations with soybean with just two syntenic blocks. Additionally, a co-linear analysis using common bean transcript map information against soybean coding sequences (CDS) revealed the relationship with 787 soybean genes. The common bean consensus map has allowed us to map a larger number of markers, to obtain a more complete coverage of the common bean genome. Our results, combined with synteny relationships provide tools to increase marker density in selected genomic regions to identify closely linked polymorphic markers for indirect selection, fine mapping or for positional cloning.

  12. Video-conferencing Telehealth Linkage attempts to Schools to Facilitate Mental Health Consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, John D

    2018-04-01

    Telehealth to schools may be a strategic approach to expand child mental health service delivery, however, there are only a few published examples. This report describes video-conferencing telehealth linkage attempts to schools to facilitate mental health consultation. A series of synchronous video-conferencing linkage strategies were attempted to connect a mental health consultation service to multiple schools in a Canadian setting. Consultation to support the implementation of the Daily Report Card, for students with attentional and behavioural problems, was the core content of this pilot linkage attempt. Synchronous video conference consultations were successfully delivered to six elementary schools across three school districts. Two of three linkage strategies were functional. One used existing health centre-based telehealth units to connect to school-based dedicated tablets with a video collaboration app and reliance on existing school Wi-Fi. A second used existing laptops in both the health and school system linked through a communication platform. A third connection, using 3G/4G hotspots to obviate the need to access school Wi-Fi, was deemed too expensive in this setting. The potential to use existing computer hardware to connect mental health providers and schools could facilitate scale-up. However, it is unknown whether mental health systems and school sectors will invest in such linkages and reorganize core mental health services to be delivered in this way.

  13. Scaling of cross-sections for asymmetric (e,3e) process on helium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    , India ... (e, 3e) process; five-fold differential cross-section; scaling; helium isoelec- tronic ions. ... ration and experimental control of the target and the intensity related problems make the measurements extremely difficult. The scaling laws of ...

  14. [MapDraw: a microsoft excel macro for drawing genetic linkage maps based on given genetic linkage data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ren-Hu; Meng, Jin-Ling

    2003-05-01

    MAPMAKER is one of the most widely used computer software package for constructing genetic linkage maps.However, the PC version, MAPMAKER 3.0 for PC, could not draw the genetic linkage maps that its Macintosh version, MAPMAKER 3.0 for Macintosh,was able to do. Especially in recent years, Macintosh computer is much less popular than PC. Most of the geneticists use PC to analyze their genetic linkage data. So a new computer software to draw the same genetic linkage maps on PC as the MAPMAKER for Macintosh to do on Macintosh has been crying for. Microsoft Excel,one component of Microsoft Office package, is one of the most popular software in laboratory data processing. Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) is one of the most powerful functions of Microsoft Excel. Using this program language, we can take creative control of Excel, including genetic linkage map construction, automatic data processing and more. In this paper, a Microsoft Excel macro called MapDraw is constructed to draw genetic linkage maps on PC computer based on given genetic linkage data. Use this software,you can freely construct beautiful genetic linkage map in Excel and freely edit and copy it to Word or other application. This software is just an Excel format file. You can freely copy it from ftp://211.69.140.177 or ftp://brassica.hzau.edu.cn and the source code can be found in Excel's Visual Basic Editor.

  15. Recombination patterns reveal information about centromere location on linkage maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Limborg, Morten T.; McKinney, Garrett J.; Seeb, Lisa W.

    2016-01-01

    . mykiss) characterized by low and unevenly distributed recombination – a general feature of male meiosis in many species. Further, a high frequency of double crossovers along chromosome arms in barley reduced resolution for locating centromeric regions on most linkage groups. Despite these limitations...

  16. The efficiency of average linkage hierarchical clustering algorithm associated multi-scale bootstrap resampling in identifying homogeneous precipitation catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuan, Zun Liang; Ismail, Noriszura; Shinyie, Wendy Ling; Lit Ken, Tan; Fam, Soo-Fen; Senawi, Azlyna; Yusoff, Wan Nur Syahidah Wan

    2018-04-01

    Due to the limited of historical precipitation records, agglomerative hierarchical clustering algorithms widely used to extrapolate information from gauged to ungauged precipitation catchments in yielding a more reliable projection of extreme hydro-meteorological events such as extreme precipitation events. However, identifying the optimum number of homogeneous precipitation catchments accurately based on the dendrogram resulted using agglomerative hierarchical algorithms are very subjective. The main objective of this study is to propose an efficient regionalized algorithm to identify the homogeneous precipitation catchments for non-stationary precipitation time series. The homogeneous precipitation catchments are identified using average linkage hierarchical clustering algorithm associated multi-scale bootstrap resampling, while uncentered correlation coefficient as the similarity measure. The regionalized homogeneous precipitation is consolidated using K-sample Anderson Darling non-parametric test. The analysis result shows the proposed regionalized algorithm performed more better compared to the proposed agglomerative hierarchical clustering algorithm in previous studies.

  17. From Enclave to Linkage Economies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael W.

    as the enclave economy par excellence, moving in with fully integrated value chains, extracting resources and exporting them as commodities having virtually no linkages to the local economy. However, new opportunities for promoting linkages are offered by changing business strategies of local African enterprises...... as well as foreign multinational corporations (MNCs). MNCs in extractives are increasingly seeking local linkages as part of their efficiency, risk, and asset-seeking strategies, and linkage programmes are becoming integral elements in many MNCs’ corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities....... At the same time, local African enterprises are eager to, and increasingly capable of, linking up to the foreign investors in order to expand their activities and acquire technology, skills and market access. The changing strategies of MNCs and the improving capabilities of African enterprises offer new...

  18. Interdisciplinary linkage of community psychology and cross-cultural psychology: history, values, and an illustrative research and action project on intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankowski, Eric S; Galvez, Gino; Glass, Nancy

    2011-03-01

    An analysis of the respective organizational histories, missions, and scholarly activity of the International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology and the Society for Community Research and Action was conducted in order to inform the development of interdisciplinary linkages between members of the two organizations. The analysis revealed many points of shared values and actions, as well as some important differences. Both scholarly organizations developed out of a similar historical and cultural zeitgeist in the late 1960s and early 1970s. The missions emphasize the role of culture/diversity in psychological phenomena, adopting an interdisciplinary orientation, the value of collaboration, the importance of research method and ethics, and the value of action research. However, community psychology generally lacks an adequate treatment of cultural phenomena while cross-cultural psychology often fails to draw on community and participatory methods useful for understanding culture in context. These common roots and differences are examined. Finally, we describe a community based, participatory research and intervention project to address intimate partner violence among Latinos and European-Americans living in Oregon. Analysis of the research process and on some of our initial findings illustrates challenges and potential benefits of an interdisciplinary, cultural community psychology.

  19. K-Anonymity Based Privacy Risk Budgeting System for Interactive Record Linkage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Chung Kum

    2017-04-01

    The k-anonymity based privacy risk budgeting system provides a mechanism where we can concretely reason about the tradeoff between the privacy risks due to information disclosed, accuracy gained, and biases reduced during interactive record linkage.

  20. The impact of the built environment on health across the life course: design of a cross-sectional data linkage study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Karen; Pereira, Gavin; Knuiman, Matthew; Bull, Fiona; Wood, Lisa; Christian, Hayley; Foster, Sarah; Boruff, Bryan J; Beesley, Bridget; Hickey, Sharyn; Joyce, Sarah; Nathan, Andrea; Saarloos, Dick; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The built environment is increasingly recognised as being associated with health outcomes. Relationships between the built environment and health differ among age groups, especially between children and adults, but also between younger, mid-age and older adults. Yet few address differences across life stage groups within a single population study. Moreover, existing research mostly focuses on physical activity behaviours, with few studying objective clinical and mental health outcomes. The Life Course Built Environment and Health (LCBEH) project explores the impact of the built environment on self-reported and objectively measured health outcomes in a random sample of people across the life course. Methods and analysis This cross-sectional data linkage study involves 15 954 children (0–15 years), young adults (16–24 years), adults (25–64 years) and older adults (65+years) from the Perth metropolitan region who completed the Health and Wellbeing Surveillance System survey administered by the Department of Health of Western Australia from 2003 to 2009. Survey data were linked to Western Australia's (WA) Hospital Morbidity Database System (hospital admission) and Mental Health Information System (mental health system outpatient) data. Participants’ residential address was geocoded and features of their ‘neighbourhood’ were measured using Geographic Information Systems software. Associations between the built environment and self-reported and clinical health outcomes will be explored across varying geographic scales and life stages. Ethics and dissemination The University of Western Australia's Human Research Ethics Committee and the Department of Health of Western Australia approved the study protocol (#2010/1). Findings will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at local, national and international conferences, thus contributing to the evidence base informing the design of healthy neighbourhoods for all residents. PMID

  1. Challenges in administrative data linkage for research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Harron

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Linkage of population-based administrative data is a valuable tool for combining detailed individual-level information from different sources for research. While not a substitute for classical studies based on primary data collection, analyses of linked administrative data can answer questions that require large sample sizes or detailed data on hard-to-reach populations, and generate evidence with a high level of external validity and applicability for policy making. There are unique challenges in the appropriate research use of linked administrative data, for example with respect to bias from linkage errors where records cannot be linked or are linked together incorrectly. For confidentiality and other reasons, the separation of data linkage processes and analysis of linked data is generally regarded as best practice. However, the ‘black box’ of data linkage can make it difficult for researchers to judge the reliability of the resulting linked data for their required purposes. This article aims to provide an overview of challenges in linking administrative data for research. We aim to increase understanding of the implications of (i the data linkage environment and privacy preservation; (ii the linkage process itself (including data preparation, and deterministic and probabilistic linkage methods and (iii linkage quality and potential bias in linked data. We draw on examples from a number of countries to illustrate a range of approaches for data linkage in different contexts.

  2. A Targeted Capture Linkage Map Anchors the Genome of the Schistosomiasis Vector Snail, Biomphalaria glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennessen, Jacob A; Bollmann, Stephanie R; Blouin, Michael S

    2017-07-05

    The aquatic planorbid snail Biomphalaria glabrata is one of the most intensively-studied mollusks due to its role in the transmission of schistosomiasis. Its 916 Mb genome has recently been sequenced and annotated, but it remains poorly assembled. Here, we used targeted capture markers to map over 10,000 B. glabrata scaffolds in a linkage cross of 94 F1 offspring, generating 24 linkage groups (LGs). We added additional scaffolds to these LGs based on linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis of targeted capture and whole-genome sequences of 96 unrelated snails. Our final linkage map consists of 18,613 scaffolds comprising 515 Mb, representing 56% of the genome and 75% of genic and nonrepetitive regions. There are 18 large (> 10 Mb) LGs, likely representing the expected 18 haploid chromosomes, and > 50% of the genome has been assigned to LGs of at least 17 Mb. Comparisons with other gastropod genomes reveal patterns of synteny and chromosomal rearrangements. Linkage relationships of key immune-relevant genes may help clarify snail-schistosome interactions. By focusing on linkage among genic and nonrepetitive regions, we have generated a useful resource for associating snail phenotypes with causal genes, even in the absence of a complete genome assembly. A similar approach could potentially improve numerous poorly-assembled genomes in other taxa. This map will facilitate future work on this host of a serious human parasite. Copyright © 2017 Tennessen et al.

  3. Linkage and mapping analyses of the no glue egg gene Ng in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the silkworm, Bombyx mori, no glue egg is mainly controlled by Ng (No glue) gene, which is located on the 12th chromosome. Owning to a lack of crossing over in females, reciprocal backcrossed F1 (BC1) progenies were used for linkage analysis and mapping of the Ng gene based on the simple sequence repeats ...

  4. Construction of a SNP and SSR linkage map in autotetraploid blueberry using genotyping by sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    A mapping population developed from a cross between two key highbush blueberry cultivars, Draper × Jewel (Vaccinium corymbosum), segregating for a number of important phenotypic traits, has been utilized to produce a genetic linkage map. Data on 233 single sequence repeat (SSR) markers and 1794 sing...

  5. Cross-Scale Value Trade-Offs in Managing Social-Ecological Systems: The Politics of Scale in Ruaha National Park, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim Zia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Management of social-ecological systems takes place amidst complex governance processes and cross-scale institutional arrangements that are mediated through politics of scale. Each management scenario generates distinct cross-scale trade-offs in the distribution of pluralistic values. This study explores the hypothesis that conservation-oriented management scenarios generate higher value for international and national scale social organizations, whereas mixed or more balanced management scenarios generate higher value for local scale social organizations. This hypothesis is explored in the management context of Ruaha National Park (RNP, Tanzania, especially the 2006 expansion of RNP that led to the eviction of many pastoralists and farmers. Five management scenarios for RNP, i.e., national park, game reserve, game control area, multiple use area, and open area, are evaluated in a multicriteria decision analytical framework on six valuation criteria: economic welfare; good governance; socio-cultural values; social equity; ecosystem services; and biodiversity protection; and at three spatial scales: local, national, and international. Based upon this evaluation, we discuss the politics of scale that ensue from the implementation of management alternatives with different mixes of conservation and development goals in social-ecological systems.

  6. Siblings versus parents and friends: longitudinal linkages to adolescent externalizing problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defoe, Ivy N; Keijsers, Loes; Hawk, Skyler T; Branje, Susan; Dubas, Judith Semon; Buist, Kirsten; Frijns, Tom; van Aken, Marcel AG; Koot, Hans M; van Lier, Pol AC; Meeus, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Background: It is well documented that friends’ externalizing problems and negative parent–child interactions predict externalizing problems in adolescence, but relatively little is known about the role of siblings. This four-wave, multi-informant study investigated linkages of siblings’ externalizing problems and sibling–adolescent negative interactions on adolescents’ externalizing problems, while examining and controlling for similar linkages with friends and parents. Methods: Questionnaire data on externalizing problems and negative interactions were annually collected from 497 Dutch adolescents (M = 13.03 years, SD = 0.52, at baseline), as well as their siblings, mothers, fathers, and friends. Results: Cross-lagged panel analyses revealed modest unique longitudinal paths from sibling externalizing problems to adolescent externalizing problems, for male and female adolescents, and for same-sex and mixed-sex sibling dyads, but only from older to younger siblings. Moreover, these paths were above and beyond significant paths from mother–adolescent negative interaction and friend externalizing problems to adolescent externalizing problems, 1 year later. No cross-lagged paths existed between sibling–adolescent negative interaction and adolescent externalizing problems. Conclusions: Taken together, it appears that especially older sibling externalizing problems may be a unique social risk factor for adolescent externalizing problems, equal in strength to significant parents’ and friends’ risk factors. PMID:23398022

  7. The score statistic of the LD-lod analysis: detecting linkage adaptive to linkage disequilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J; Jiang, Y

    2001-01-01

    We study the properties of a modified lod score method for testing linkage that incorporates linkage disequilibrium (LD-lod). By examination of its score statistic, we show that the LD-lod score method adaptively combines two sources of information: (a) the IBD sharing score which is informative for linkage regardless of the existence of LD and (b) the contrast between allele-specific IBD sharing scores which is informative for linkage only in the presence of LD. We also consider the connection between the LD-lod score method and the transmission-disequilibrium test (TDT) for triad data and the mean test for affected sib pair (ASP) data. We show that, for triad data, the recessive LD-lod test is asymptotically equivalent to the TDT; and for ASP data, it is an adaptive combination of the TDT and the ASP mean test. We demonstrate that the LD-lod score method has relatively good statistical efficiency in comparison with the ASP mean test and the TDT for a broad range of LD and the genetic models considered in this report. Therefore, the LD-lod score method is an interesting approach for detecting linkage when the extent of LD is unknown, such as in a genome-wide screen with a dense set of genetic markers. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  8. Construction of an SSR and RAD-Marker Based Molecular Linkage Map of Vigna vexillata (L.) A. Rich.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marubodee, Rusama; Ogiso-Tanaka, Eri; Isemura, Takehisa; Chankaew, Sompong; Kaga, Akito; Naito, Ken; Ehara, Hiroshi; Tomooka, Norihiko

    2015-01-01

    Vigna vexillata (L.) A. Rich. (tuber cowpea) is an underutilized crop for consuming its tuber and mature seeds. Wild form of V. vexillata is a pan-tropical perennial herbaceous plant which has been used by local people as a food. Wild V. vexillata has also been considered as useful gene(s) source for V. unguiculata (cowpea), since it was reported to have various resistance gene(s) for insects and diseases of cowpea. To exploit the potential of V. vexillata, an SSR-based linkage map of V. vexillata was developed. A total of 874 SSR markers successfully amplified single DNA fragment in V. vexillata among 1,336 SSR markers developed from Vigna angularis (azuki bean), V. unguiculata and Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean). An F2 population of 300 plants derived from a cross between salt resistant (V1) and susceptible (V5) accessions was used for mapping. A genetic linkage map was constructed using 82 polymorphic SSR markers loci, which could be assigned to 11 linkage groups spanning 511.5 cM in length with a mean distance of 7.2 cM between adjacent markers. To develop higher density molecular linkage map and to confirm SSR markers position in a linkage map, RAD markers were developed and a combined SSR and RAD markers linkage map of V. vexillata was constructed. A total of 559 (84 SSR and 475 RAD) markers loci could be assigned to 11 linkage groups spanning 973.9 cM in length with a mean distance of 1.8 cM between adjacent markers. Linkage and genetic position of all SSR markers in an SSR linkage map were confirmed. When an SSR genetic linkage map of V. vexillata was compared with those of V. radiata and V. unguiculata, it was suggested that the structure of V. vexillata chromosome was considerably differentiated. This map is the first SSR and RAD marker-based V. vexillata linkage map which can be used for the mapping of useful traits.

  9. Decomposition of Domestic and International Linkages of the Korean Financial Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiki Lee

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A large degree of co-movements across financial markets within and between countries has been frequently observed worldwide and these co-movements intensify in times of financial crisis such as the recent financial turmoil triggered by the US sub-prime mortgage crisis. The aim of this paper is to analyze the degrees of financial linkages between four major markets of the US and Korea: money markets, bond markets, equity markets and foreign exchange markets. To break down the structures of these linkages, we fully identify a structural VAR without any ad-hoc restrictions using the methodology of Rigobon (2003. In addition to confirming that there are significant contemporaneous linkages across US asset prices and across Korean asset prices, we quantify and analyze the channels of international cross-market transmission of shocks between the US and Korea, comparing them with the Japanese cases. The main results are as follows. First, there are no significant substitution effects between bond and equity markets in Korea. Second, the US equity market shocks have a substantial effect on the Korean stock market while the US bond and equity market shocks don't on the Korean interest rates. Third, the Korea stock market shocks have a significant impact on the won-dollar exchange rate while the Korean bond market shocks don't. Fourth, Japan shows the similar international linkages as Korea even though it is a large open economy. However, the yen-dollar exchange rate responses to the Japanese bond market shocks, not the Japanese stock market shocks.

  10. NSLINK, Coupling of NJOY Cross-Sections Generator Code to SCALE-3 System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Leege, P.F.A

    1991-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: NSLINK (NJOY - SCALE - LINK) is a set of computer codes to couple the NJOY cross-section generation code to the SCALE-3 code system (using AMPX-2 master library format) retaining the Nordheim resolved resonance treatment option. 2 - Method of solution: The following module and codes are included in NSLINK: XLACSR: This module is a stripped-down version of the XLACS-2 code. The module passes all l=0 resonance parameters as well as the contribution from all other resonances to the group cross-sections, the contribution from the wings of the l=0 resonances, the background cross-section and possible interference for multilevel Breit-Wigner resonance parameters. The group cross-sections are stored in the appropriate 1-D cross-section arrays. The output file has AMPX-2 master format. The original NJOY code is used to calculate all other data. The XLACSR module is included in the NJOY code. MILER: This code converts NJOY output (GENDF format) to AMPX-2 master format. The code is an extensively revised version of the original MILER code. In addition, the treatment of thermal scattering matrices at different temperatures is included. UNITABR: This code is a revised version of the UNITAB code. It merges the output of XLACSR and MILER in such a way that contributions from the bodies of the l=0 resonances in the resolved energy range, calculated by XLACSR, are subtracted from the 1-D group cross-section arrays for fission (MT=18) and neutron capture (MT=102). The l=0 resonance parameters and the contributions from the bodies of these resonances are added separately (MT=1023, 1022 and 1021). The total cross-section (MT=1), the absorption cross- section (MT=27) and the neutron removal cross-section (MT=101) values are adjusted. In the case of Bondarenko data, infinite dilution values of the cross-sections (MT=1, 18 and 102) are changed in the same way as the 1-D cross-section. The output file of UNITABR is in AMPX-2 master format and

  11. Multidimensional scaling analysis of financial time series based on modified cross-sample entropy methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiayi; Shang, Pengjian; Xiong, Hui

    2018-06-01

    Stocks, as the concrete manifestation of financial time series with plenty of potential information, are often used in the study of financial time series. In this paper, we utilize the stock data to recognize their patterns through out the dissimilarity matrix based on modified cross-sample entropy, then three-dimensional perceptual maps of the results are provided through multidimensional scaling method. Two modified multidimensional scaling methods are proposed in this paper, that is, multidimensional scaling based on Kronecker-delta cross-sample entropy (MDS-KCSE) and multidimensional scaling based on permutation cross-sample entropy (MDS-PCSE). These two methods use Kronecker-delta based cross-sample entropy and permutation based cross-sample entropy to replace the distance or dissimilarity measurement in classical multidimensional scaling (MDS). Multidimensional scaling based on Chebyshev distance (MDSC) is employed to provide a reference for comparisons. Our analysis reveals a clear clustering both in synthetic data and 18 indices from diverse stock markets. It implies that time series generated by the same model are easier to have similar irregularity than others, and the difference in the stock index, which is caused by the country or region and the different financial policies, can reflect the irregularity in the data. In the synthetic data experiments, not only the time series generated by different models can be distinguished, the one generated under different parameters of the same model can also be detected. In the financial data experiment, the stock indices are clearly divided into five groups. Through analysis, we find that they correspond to five regions, respectively, that is, Europe, North America, South America, Asian-Pacific (with the exception of mainland China), mainland China and Russia. The results also demonstrate that MDS-KCSE and MDS-PCSE provide more effective divisions in experiments than MDSC.

  12. Cross-cultural validation of the positivity-scale in five European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Heikamp, Tobias; Alessandri, Guido; Laguna, Mariola; Petrovic, Vesna; Caprara, Maria Giovanna; Trommsdorff, Gisela

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present paper was to test the cross-cultural validity of the Positivity-Scale (P-Scale), a new nquestionnaire designed for the measurement of positivity (i.e., general tendency to evaluate self, life, and future in a positive way). Participants (N = 3544) from Italy, Germany, Spain, Poland, and Serbia answered eight items of the P-Scale and responded to items from other well-validated measures. Confirmatory Factor Analysis supported the assumed one-factor structure of the P-Sca...

  13. A Formalization of Linkage Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingolfsdottir, Anna; Christensen, A.I.; Hansen, Jens A.

    In this report a formalization of genetic linkage analysis is introduced. Linkage analysis is a computationally hard biomathematical method, which purpose is to locate genes on the human genome. It is rooted in the new area of bioinformatics and no formalization of the method has previously been ...

  14. Thermally actuated linkage arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, P.M.

    1981-01-01

    A reusable thermally actuated linkage arrangement includes a first link member having a longitudinal bore therein adapted to receive at least a portion of a second link member therein, the first and second members being sized to effect an interference fit preventing relative movement there-between at a temperature below a predetermined temperature. The link members have different coefficients of thermal expansion so that when the linkage is selectively heated by heating element to a temperature above the predetermined temperature, relative longitudinal and/or rotational movement between the first and second link members is enabled. Two embodiments of a thermally activated linkage are disclosed which find particular application in actuators for a grapple head positioning arm in a nuclear reactor fuel handling mechanism to facilitate back-up safety retraction of the grapple head independently from the primary fuel handling mechanism drive system. (author)

  15. A reduced scale two loop PWR core designed with particle swarm optimization technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima Junior, Carlos A. Souza; Pereira, Claudio M.N.A; Lapa, Celso M.F.; Cunha, Joao J.; Alvim, Antonio C.M.

    2007-01-01

    Reduced scale experiments are often employed in engineering projects because they are much cheaper than real scale testing. Unfortunately, designing reduced scale thermal-hydraulic circuit or equipment, with the capability of reproducing, both accurately and simultaneously, all physical phenomena that occur in real scale and at operating conditions, is a difficult task. To solve this problem, advanced optimization techniques, such as Genetic Algorithms, have been applied. Following this research line, we have performed investigations, using the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) Technique, to design a reduced scale two loop Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) core, considering 100% of nominal power and non accidental operating conditions. Obtained results show that the proposed methodology is a promising approach for forced flow reduced scale experiments. (author)

  16. Adolescent Linkage to Care After a Large-scale Transfer From a Hospital-based HIV Clinic to the Public Sector in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Avila, Lynn; Regan, Susan; Cloete, Christie; Crankshaw, Tamaryn; Rabideau, Dustin J; Freedberg, Kenneth A; Parker, Robert A; Walensky, Rochelle P; Losina, Elena; Bassett, Ingrid V

    2017-03-01

    HIV clinics formerly supported by the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief are transferring patients to public-sector clinics. We evaluated adolescent linkage to care after a large-scale transfer from a President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief-subsidized pediatric HIV clinic in Durban, South Africa. All adolescents (11-18 years) in care at a pediatric state-subsidized, hospital-based clinic (HBC) were transferred, from May to June 2012, to government sites [primary health care (PHC) clinic; community health center (CHC); and HBCs] or private clinics. Caregivers were surveyed 7-8 months after transfer to assess their adolescents' linkage to care and their reports were validated by clinic record audits in a subset of randomly selected clinics. Of the 309 (91%) caregivers reached, only 5 (2%) reported that their adolescent did not link. Of the 304 adolescents who linked, 105 (35%) were referred to a PHC, 73 (24%) to a CHC and 106 (35%) to a HBC. A total of 146 (48%) linked adolescents attended a different clinic than that assigned. Thirty-five (20%) of the 178 who linked and were assigned to a PHC or CHC ultimately attended a HBC. Based on clinic validation, the estimated transfer success was 88% (95% confidence interval: 77%-97%). The large majority of adolescents successfully transferred to a new HIV clinic, although nearly half attended a clinic other than that assigned.

  17. Large Gaps in Canopy Reduce Road Crossing by a Gliding Mammal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney van der Ree

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Roads and traffic reduce landscape connectivity and increase rates of mortality for many species of wildlife. Species that glide from tree to tree may be strongly affected by roads and traffic if the size of the gap between trees exceeds their gliding capability. Not only are wide roads likely to reduce crossing rates, but mortality may also be increased if gliders that do cross have poor landing opportunities. The road-crossing behavior of 47 squirrel gliders (Petaurus norfolcensis was investigated in southeast Australia using radio-tracking. The proportion of gliders crossing one or both roadways of a freeway where trees were present or absent from the center median was compared to that at single-lane country roads (control. The proportion of gliders crossing the road at control sites (77% was similar to the proportion that crossed one or both roadways at the freeway with trees in the median (67%, whereas only a single male (6% crossed the freeway where trees were absent from the median. The frequency of crossing for each individual was also similar at control sites and freeway sites with trees in the median. The almost complete lack of crossing at sites where trees were absent from the median was attributed to the wider gap in canopy (50 - 64 m vs. 5 - 13 m at sites with trees in the median. This suggests that traffic volume, up to 5,000 vehicles per day on each roadway, and the other characteristics of the freeway we studied are not in themselves complete deterrents to road crossing by squirrel gliders. This study demonstrates that retaining and facilitating the growth of tall trees in the center median of two-way roads may mitigate the barrier effect of roads on gliders, thus contributing positively to mobility and potentially to connectivity. This information will be essential for the assessment of road impacts on gliding species using population viability models.

  18. Developing the University of the Philippines Loneliness Assessment Scale: A Cross-Cultural Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharayil, Davis Porinchu

    2012-01-01

    As the existing scales to measure loneliness are almost all Western and there is no single scale developed cross-culturally for this purpose, this study is designed to develop a reliable and valid scale to measure the experience of loneliness of individuals from individualistic or collectivistic cultures. There are three samples for this study…

  19. SNP identification from RNA sequencing and linkage map construction of rubber tree for anchoring the draft genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearman, Jeremy R; Sangsrakru, Duangjai; Jomchai, Nukoon; Ruang-Areerate, Panthita; Sonthirod, Chutima; Naktang, Chaiwat; Theerawattanasuk, Kanikar; Tragoonrung, Somvong; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke

    2015-01-01

    Hevea brasiliensis, or rubber tree, is an important crop species that accounts for the majority of natural latex production. The rubber tree nuclear genome consists of 18 chromosomes and is roughly 2.15 Gb. The current rubber tree reference genome assembly consists of 1,150,326 scaffolds ranging from 200 to 531,465 bp and totalling 1.1 Gb. Only 143 scaffolds, totalling 7.6 Mb, have been placed into linkage groups. We have performed RNA-seq on 6 varieties of rubber tree to identify SNPs and InDels and used this information to perform target sequence enrichment and high throughput sequencing to genotype a set of SNPs in 149 rubber tree offspring from a cross between RRIM 600 and RRII 105 rubber tree varieties. We used this information to generate a linkage map allowing for the anchoring of 24,424 contigs from 3,009 scaffolds, totalling 115 Mb or 10.4% of the published sequence, into 18 linkage groups. Each linkage group contains between 319 and 1367 SNPs, or 60 to 194 non-redundant marker positions, and ranges from 156 to 336 cM in length. This linkage map includes 20,143 of the 69,300 predicted genes from rubber tree and will be useful for mapping studies and improving the reference genome assembly.

  20. HIV-1 transmission linkage in an HIV-1 prevention clinical trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitner, Thomas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Campbell, Mary S [UNIV OF WASHINGTON; Mullins, James I [UNIV OF WASHINGTON; Hughes, James P [UNIV OF WASHINGTON; Wong, Kim G [UNIV OF WASHINGTON; Raugi, Dana N [UNIV OF WASHINGTON; Scrensen, Stefanie [UNIV OF WASHINGTON

    2009-01-01

    HIV-1 sequencing has been used extensively in epidemiologic and forensic studies to investigate patterns of HIV-1 transmission. However, the criteria for establishing genetic linkage between HIV-1 strains in HIV-1 prevention trials have not been formalized. The Partners in Prevention HSV/HIV Transmission Study (ClinicaITrials.gov NCT00194519) enrolled 3408 HIV-1 serodiscordant heterosexual African couples to determine the efficacy of genital herpes suppression with acyclovir in reducing HIV-1 transmission. The trial analysis required laboratory confirmation of HIV-1 linkage between enrolled partners in couples in which seroconversion occurred. Here we describe the process and results from HIV-1 sequencing studies used to perform transmission linkage determination in this clinical trial. Consensus Sanger sequencing of env (C2-V3-C3) and gag (p17-p24) genes was performed on plasma HIV-1 RNA from both partners within 3 months of seroconversion; env single molecule or pyrosequencing was also performed in some cases. For linkage, we required monophyletic clustering between HIV-1 sequences in the transmitting and seroconverting partners, and developed a Bayesian algorithm using genetic distances to evaluate the posterior probability of linkage of participants sequences. Adjudicators classified transmissions as linked, unlinked, or indeterminate. Among 151 seroconversion events, we found 108 (71.5%) linked, 40 (26.5%) unlinked, and 3 (2.0%) to have indeterminate transmissions. Nine (8.3%) were linked by consensus gag sequencing only and 8 (7.4%) required deep sequencing of env. In this first use of HIV-1 sequencing to establish endpoints in a large clinical trial, more than one-fourth of transmissions were unlinked to the enrolled partner, illustrating the relevance of these methods in the design of future HIV-1 prevention trials in serodiscordant couples. A hierarchy of sequencing techniques, analysis methods, and expert adjudication contributed to the linkage

  1. Siblings versus parents and friends: longitudinal linkages to adolescent externalizing problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defoe, Ivy N; Keijsers, Loes; Hawk, Skyler T; Branje, Susan; Dubas, Judith Semon; Buist, Kirsten; Frijns, Tom; van Aken, Marcel A G; Koot, Hans M; van Lier, Pol A C; Meeus, Wim

    2013-08-01

    It is well documented that friends' externalizing problems and negative parent-child interactions predict externalizing problems in adolescence, but relatively little is known about the role of siblings. This four-wave, multi-informant study investigated linkages of siblings' externalizing problems and sibling-adolescent negative interactions on adolescents' externalizing problems, while examining and controlling for similar linkages with friends and parents. Questionnaire data on externalizing problems and negative interactions were annually collected from 497 Dutch adolescents (M = 13.03 years, SD = 0.52, at baseline), as well as their siblings, mothers, fathers, and friends. Cross-lagged panel analyses revealed modest unique longitudinal paths from sibling externalizing problems to adolescent externalizing problems, for male and female adolescents, and for same-sex and mixed-sex sibling dyads, but only from older to younger siblings. Moreover, these paths were above and beyond significant paths from mother-adolescent negative interaction and friend externalizing problems to adolescent externalizing problems, 1 year later. No cross-lagged paths existed between sibling-adolescent negative interaction and adolescent externalizing problems. Taken together, it appears that especially older sibling externalizing problems may be a unique social risk factor for adolescent externalizing problems, equal in strength to significant parents' and friends' risk factors. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2013 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  2. A new genetic linkage map of the zygomycete fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Chaudhary

    Full Text Available Phycomyces blakesleeanus is a member of the subphylum Mucoromycotina. A genetic map was constructed from 121 progeny of a cross between two wild type isolates of P. blakesleeanus with 134 markers. The markers were mostly PCR-RFLPs. Markers were located on 46 scaffolds of the genome sequence, covering more than 97% of the genome. Analysis of the alleles in the progeny revealed nine or 12 linkage groups, depending on the log of the odds (LOD score, across 1583.4 cM at LOD 5. The linkage groups were overlaid on previous mapping data from crosses between mutants, aided by new identification of the mutations in primary metabolism mutant strains. The molecular marker map, the phenotype map and the genome sequence are overall congruent, with some exceptions. The new genetic map provides a genome-wide estimate for recombination, with the average of 33.2 kb per cM. This frequency is one piece of evidence for meiosis during zygospore development in Mucoromycotina species. At the same time as meiosis, transmission of non-recombinant chromosomes is also evident in the mating process in Phycomyces. The new map provides scaffold ordering for the genome sequence and a platform upon which to identify the genes in mutants that are affected in traits of interest, such as carotene biosynthesis, phototropism or gravitropism, using positional cloning.

  3. SCALE system cross-section validation for criticality safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hathout, A.M.; Westfall, R.M.; Dodds, H.L. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to test selected data from three cross-section libraries for use in the criticality safety analysis of UO 2 fuel rod lattices. The libraries, which are distributed with the SCALE system, are used to analyze potential criticality problems which could arise in the industrial fuel cycle for PWR and BWR reactors. Fuel lattice criticality problems could occur in pool storage, dry storage with accidental moderation, shearing and dissolution of irradiated elements, and in fuel transport and storage due to inadequate packing and shipping cask design. The data were tested by using the SCALE system to analyze 25 recently performed critical experiments

  4. Effective interventions to improve young adults' linkage to HIV care in Sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavegam, Bertille Octavie; Pharr, Jennifer R; Cruz, Patricia; Ezeanolue, Echezona E

    2017-10-01

    HIV/AIDS remains a major public health problem despite the efforts to prevent and decrease its spread. Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) represents 70% of the global number of people living with HIV and 73% of all HIV/AIDS-related deaths. Young adults age 15-24 years are disproportionately impacted by HIV/AIDS in SSA with 34% of people living with HIV (PLWHIV) and 37% of newly diagnosed individuals being in this age group. It is important that PLWHIV be linked to care to facilitate antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation and limit the spread of infection. We conducted a systematic literature review to identify effective interventions designed to improve linkage to care among HIV-infected young adults in SSA. One hundred and forty-six titles and abstracts were screened, 28 full-texts were reviewed, and 6 articles met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Home-based HIV counseling and testing, home-based HIV self-testing, and mobile HIV counseling and testing followed by proper referral of HIV-positive patients to HIV care were effective for improving linkage of young adults to care. Other factors such as referral forms, transportation allowance, home initiation of HIV care, and volunteer escort to the HIV treatment clinic were effective in reducing time to linkage to care. There is a vast need for research and interventions that target HIV-positive young adults in SSA which aim to improve their linkage and access to HIV care. The results of this study illustrate effective interventions in improving linkage to care and reducing time to linkage to care of young adults in SSA.

  5. Multiobjective optimization of a steering linkage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sleesonsom, S.; Bureerat, S. [Sustainable and Infrastructure Research and Development Center, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen (Thailand)

    2016-08-15

    In this paper, multi-objective optimization of a rack-and-pinion steering linkage is proposed. This steering linkage is a common mechanism used in small cars with three advantages as it is simple to construct, economical to manufacture, and compact and easy to operate. In the previous works, many researchers tried to minimize a steering error but minimization of a turning radius is somewhat ignored. As a result, a multi-objective optimization problem is assigned to simultaneously minimize a steering error and a turning radius. The design variables are linkage dimensions. The design problem is solved by the hybrid of multi-objective population-based incremental learning and differential evolution with various constraint handling schemes. The new design strategy leads to effective design of rack-and-pinion steering linkages satisfying both steering error and turning radius criteria.

  6. Multiobjective optimization of a steering linkage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sleesonsom, S.; Bureerat, S.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, multi-objective optimization of a rack-and-pinion steering linkage is proposed. This steering linkage is a common mechanism used in small cars with three advantages as it is simple to construct, economical to manufacture, and compact and easy to operate. In the previous works, many researchers tried to minimize a steering error but minimization of a turning radius is somewhat ignored. As a result, a multi-objective optimization problem is assigned to simultaneously minimize a steering error and a turning radius. The design variables are linkage dimensions. The design problem is solved by the hybrid of multi-objective population-based incremental learning and differential evolution with various constraint handling schemes. The new design strategy leads to effective design of rack-and-pinion steering linkages satisfying both steering error and turning radius criteria

  7. Understanding relationships among ecosystem services across spatial scales and over time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jiangxiao; Carpenter, Stephen R.; Booth, Eric G.; Motew, Melissa; Zipper, Samuel C.; Kucharik, Christopher J.; Loheide, Steven P., II; Turner, Monica G.

    2018-05-01

    Sustaining ecosystem services (ES), mitigating their tradeoffs and avoiding unfavorable future trajectories are pressing social-environmental challenges that require enhanced understanding of their relationships across scales. Current knowledge of ES relationships is often constrained to one spatial scale or one snapshot in time. In this research, we integrated biophysical modeling with future scenarios to examine changes in relationships among eight ES indicators from 2001–2070 across three spatial scales—grid cell, subwatershed, and watershed. We focused on the Yahara Watershed (Wisconsin) in the Midwestern United States—an exemplar for many urbanizing agricultural landscapes. Relationships among ES indicators changed over time; some relationships exhibited high interannual variations (e.g. drainage vs. food production, nitrate leaching vs. net ecosystem exchange) and even reversed signs over time (e.g. perennial grass production vs. phosphorus yield). Robust patterns were detected for relationships among some regulating services (e.g. soil retention vs. water quality) across three spatial scales, but other relationships lacked simple scaling rules. This was especially true for relationships of food production vs. water quality, and drainage vs. number of days with runoff >10 mm, which differed substantially across spatial scales. Our results also showed that local tradeoffs between food production and water quality do not necessarily scale up, so reducing local tradeoffs may be insufficient to mitigate such tradeoffs at the watershed scale. We further synthesized these cross-scale patterns into a typology of factors that could drive changes in ES relationships across scales: (1) effects of biophysical connections, (2) effects of dominant drivers, (3) combined effects of biophysical linkages and dominant drivers, and (4) artificial scale effects, and concluded with management implications. Our study highlights the importance of taking a dynamic

  8. Longitudinal Cross-Gender Factorial Invariance of the Academic Motivation Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grouzet, Frederick M. E.; Otis, Nancy; Pelletier, Luc G.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the measurement and latent construct invariance of the Academic Motivation Scale (Vallerand, Blais, Brier, & Pelletier, 1989; Vallerand et al., 1992, 1993) across both gender and time. An integrative analytical strategy was used to assess in one set of nested models both longitudinal and cross-gender invariance, and…

  9. Reduced scale PWR passive safety system designing by genetic algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, Joao J. da; Alvim, Antonio Carlos M.; Lapa, Celso Marcelo Franklin

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the concept of 'Design by Genetic Algorithms (DbyGA)', applied to a new reduced scale system problem. The design problem of a passive thermal-hydraulic safety system, considering dimensional and operational constraints, has been solved. Taking into account the passive safety characteristics of the last nuclear reactor generation, a PWR core under natural circulation is used in order to demonstrate the methodology applicability. The results revealed that some solutions (reduced scale system DbyGA) are capable of reproducing, both accurately and simultaneously, much of the physical phenomena that occur in real scale and operating conditions. However, some aspects, revealed by studies of cases, pointed important possibilities to DbyGA methodological performance improvement

  10. Sexual antagonism and meiotic drive cause stable linkage disequilibrium and favour reduced recombination on the X chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydzewski, W T; Carioscia, S A; Liévano, G; Lynch, V D; Patten, M M

    2016-06-01

    Sexual antagonism and meiotic drive are sex-specific evolutionary forces with the potential to shape genomic architecture. Previous theory has found that pairing two sexually antagonistic loci or combining sexual antagonism with meiotic drive at linked autosomal loci augments genetic variation, produces stable linkage disequilibrium (LD) and favours reduced recombination. However, the influence of these two forces has not been examined on the X chromosome, which is thought to be enriched for sexual antagonism and meiotic drive. We investigate the evolution of the X chromosome under both sexual antagonism and meiotic drive with two models: in one, both loci experience sexual antagonism; in the other, we pair a meiotic drive locus with a sexually antagonistic locus. We find that LD arises between the two loci in both models, even when the two loci freely recombine in females and that driving haplotypes will be enriched for male-beneficial alleles, further skewing sex ratios in these populations. We introduce a new measure of LD, Dz', which accounts for population allele frequencies and is appropriate for instances where these are sex specific. Both models demonstrate that natural selection favours modifiers that reduce the recombination rate. These results inform observed patterns of congealment found on driving X chromosomes and have implications for patterns of natural variation and the evolution of recombination rates on the X chromosome. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  11. Polymeric micelles with ionic cores containing biodegradable cross-links for delivery of chemotherapeutic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Oh; Sahay, Gaurav; Kabanov, Alexander V; Bronich, Tatiana K

    2010-04-12

    Novel functional polymeric nanocarriers with ionic cores containing biodegradable cross-links were developed for delivery of chemotherapeutic agents. Block ionomer complexes (BIC) of poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(methacylic acid) (PEO-b-PMA) and divalent metal cations (Ca(2+)) were utilized as templates. Disulfide bonds were introduced into the ionic cores by using cystamine as a biodegradable cross-linker. The resulting cross-linked micelles with disulfide bonds represented soft, hydrogel-like nanospheres and demonstrated a time-dependent degradation in the conditions mimicking the intracellular reducing environment. The ionic character of the cores allowed to achieve a very high level of doxorubicin (DOX) loading (50% w/w) into the cross-linked micelles. DOX-loaded degradable cross-linked micelles exhibited more potent cytotoxicity against human A2780 ovarian carcinoma cells as compared to micellar formulations without disulfide linkages. These novel biodegradable cross-linked micelles are expected to be attractive candidates for delivery of anticancer drugs.

  12. The quantitative LOD score: test statistic and sample size for exclusion and linkage of quantitative traits in human sibships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, G P; Amos, C I; Boerwinkle, E

    1998-04-01

    We present a test statistic, the quantitative LOD (QLOD) score, for the testing of both linkage and exclusion of quantitative-trait loci in randomly selected human sibships. As with the traditional LOD score, the boundary values of 3, for linkage, and -2, for exclusion, can be used for the QLOD score. We investigated the sample sizes required for inferring exclusion and linkage, for various combinations of linked genetic variance, total heritability, recombination distance, and sibship size, using fixed-size sampling. The sample sizes required for both linkage and exclusion were not qualitatively different and depended on the percentage of variance being linked or excluded and on the total genetic variance. Information regarding linkage and exclusion in sibships larger than size 2 increased as approximately all possible pairs n(n-1)/2 up to sibships of size 6. Increasing the recombination (theta) distance between the marker and the trait loci reduced empirically the power for both linkage and exclusion, as a function of approximately (1-2theta)4.

  13. Construction of a genetic linkage map in Lilium using a RIL mapping population based on SRAP marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Li-Jing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A genetic linkage map of lily was constructed using RILs (recombinant inbred lines population of 180 individuals. This mapping population was developed by crossing Raizan No.1 (Formolongo and Gelria (Longiflomm cultivars through single-seed descent (SSD. SRAPs were generated by using restriction enzymes EcoRI in combination with either MseI. The resulting products were separated by electrophoresis on 6% denaturing polyacrylamide gel and visualized by silver staining. The segregation of each marker and linkage analysis was done using the program Mapmaker3.0. With 50 primer pairs, a total of 189 parental polymorphic bands were detected and 78 were used for mapping. The total map length was 2,135.5 cM consisted of 16 linkage groups. The number of markers in the linkage groups varied from 1 to 12. The length of linkage groups was range from 11.2 cM to 425.9 cM and mean marker interval distance range from 9.4 cM to 345.4 cM individually. The mean marker interval distance between markers was 27.4 cM. The map developed in the present study was the first sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers map of lily constructed with recombinant inbred lines, it could be used for genetic mapping and molecular marker assisted breeding and quantitative trait locus mapping of Lilium.

  14. Bronx Teens Connection's Clinic Linkage Model: Connecting Youth to Quality Sexual and Reproductive Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Uhuru, Deborah J; Santiago, Vivian; Murray, Lauren E; Travers, Madeline; Bedell, Jane F

    2017-03-01

    Teen pregnancy and birth rates in the Bronx have been higher than in New York City, representing a longstanding health disparity. The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene implemented a community-wide, multicomponent intervention to reduce unintended teen pregnancy, the Bronx Teens Connection. The Bronx Teens Connection Clinic Linkage Model sought to increase teens' access to and use of sexual and reproductive health care by increasing community partner capacity to link neighborhood clinics to youth-serving organizations, including schools. The Bronx Teens Connection Clinic Linkage Model used needs assessments, delineated the criteria for linkages, clarified roles and responsibilities of partners and staff, established trainings to support the staff engaged in linkage activities, and developed and used process evaluation methods. Early results demonstrated the strength and feasibility of the model over a 4-year period, with 31 linkages developed and maintained, over 11,300 contacts between clinic health educators and teens completed, and increasing adherence to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-defined clinical best practices for adolescent reproductive health. For those eight clinics that were able to provide data, there was a 25% increase in the number of teen clients seen over 4 years. There are many factors that relate to an increase in clinic utilization; some of this increase may have been a result of the linkages between schools and clinics. The Bronx Teens Connection Clinic Linkage Model is an explicit framework for clinical and youth-serving organizations seeking to establish formal linkage relationships that may be useful for other municipalities or organizations. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A machine learning approach to create blocking criteria for record linkage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giang, Phan H

    2015-03-01

    Record linkage, a part of data cleaning, is recognized as one of most expensive steps in data warehousing. Most record linkage (RL) systems employ a strategy of using blocking filters to reduce the number of pairs to be matched. A blocking filter consists of a number of blocking criteria. Until recently, blocking criteria are selected manually by domain experts. This paper proposes a new method to automatically learn efficient blocking criteria for record linkage. Our method addresses the lack of sufficient labeled data for training. Unlike previous works, we do not consider a blocking filter in isolation but in the context of an accompanying matcher which is employed after the blocking filter. We show that given such a matcher, the labels (assigned to record pairs) that are relevant for learning are the labels assigned by the matcher (link/nonlink), not the labels assigned objectively (match/unmatch). This conclusion allows us to generate an unlimited amount of labeled data for training. We formulate the problem of learning a blocking filter as a Disjunctive Normal Form (DNF) learning problem and use the Probably Approximately Correct (PAC) learning theory to guide the development of algorithm to search for blocking filters. We test the algorithm on a real patient master file of 2.18 million records. The experimental results show that compared with filters obtained by educated guess, the optimal learned filters have comparable recall but reduce throughput (runtime) by an order-of-magnitude factor.

  16. pH-triggered chitosan nanogels via an ortho ester-based linkage for efficient chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guanqing; Wang, Xin; Fu, Shengxiang; Tang, Rupei; Wang, Jun

    2017-09-15

    We report on new types of chitosan-based nanogels via an ortho ester-based linkage, used as drug carriers for efficient chemotherapy. First, we synthesized a novel diacrylamide containing ortho ester (OEAM) as an acid-labile cross-linker. Subsequently, methacrylated succinyl-chitosan (MASCS) was prepared and polymerized with OEAM at different molar ratios to give a series of pH-triggered MASCS nanogels. Doxorubicin (DOX) as a model anticancer drug was loaded into MASCS nanogels with a loading content of 16.5%. As expected, with the incorporation of ortho ester linkages, these nanogels showed pH-triggered degradation and drug release at acidic pH values. In vitro cellular uptake shows that the DOX-loaded nanogels could be preferentially internalized by two-dimensional (2D) cells and three-dimensional (3D) multicellular spheroids (MCs), resulting in higher inhibition of the proliferation of tumor cells. In vivo biodistribution and anti-tumor effect were determined in H22 tumor-bearing mice, and the results demonstrate that the acid-labile MASCS nanogels can significantly prolong the blood circulation time of DOX and improve the accumulation in tumor areas, leading to higher therapeutic efficacy. We designed new pH-triggered chitosan nanogels via an ortho ester-based cross-linker for efficient drug-loading and chemotherapy. These drug-loaded nanogels exhibit excellent pH-triggered drug release behavior due to the degradation of ortho ester linkages in mildly acidic environments. In vitro and in vivo results demonstrate that the nanogels could be efficiently internalized by 2D cells and 3D-MCs, improve drug concentration in solid tumors, and lead to higher therapeutic efficacy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on using an ortho ester-based cross-linker to prepare pH-triggered chitosan nanogels as tumor carriers, which may provide a potential route for improved safety and to increase the therapeutic efficacy of anticancer therapy. Copyright © 2017

  17. The Cross-Cultural Loss Scale: development and psychometric evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kenneth T; Wei, Meifen; Zhao, Ran; Chuang, Chih-Chun; Li, Feihan

    2015-03-01

    The Cross-Cultural Loss Scale (CCLS), a measure of loss associated with crossing national boundaries, was developed across 2 samples of international students. With Sample 1 (N = 262), exploratory factor analyses were used to select the 14 CCLS items and to determine 3 factors: Belonging-Competency (α = .87), National Privileges (α = .68), and Access to Home Familiarity (α = .72). With Sample 2, confirmatory factor analyses (N = 256) cross-validated the 3-factor oblique model as well as a bifactor model. Cronbach alphas of CCLS subscale scores in Sample 2 ranged from .73 to .87. The validity of the CCLS scores was supported by its associations with related variables in the expected directions. Perceived cross-cultural losses were positively associated with negative affect, migration grief and loss, and discrimination and were negatively associated with life satisfaction, positive affect, general self-efficacy, and social connection with mainstream society. Moreover, the CCLS total and 2 subscale scores added significant incremental variance in predicting subjective well-being over and above related constructs. The results indicated measurement invariance and validity equivalency for the CCLS scores between men and women. The overall results from these 2 samples support CCLS as a psychometrically strong measure. 2015 APA, all rights reserved

  18. Cross-sectional fluctuation scaling in the high-frequency illiquidity of Chinese stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qing; Gao, Xing-Lu; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2018-03-01

    Taylor's law of temporal and ensemble fluctuation scaling has been ubiquitously observed in diverse complex systems including financial markets. Stock illiquidity is an important nonadditive financial quantity, which is found to comply with Taylor's temporal fluctuation scaling law. In this paper, we perform the cross-sectional analysis of the 1 min high-frequency illiquidity time series of Chinese stocks and unveil the presence of Taylor's law of ensemble fluctuation scaling. The estimated daily Taylor scaling exponent fluctuates around 1.442. We find that Taylor's scaling exponents of stock illiquidity do not relate to the ensemble mean and ensemble variety of returns. Our analysis uncovers a new scaling law of financial markets and might stimulate further investigations for a better understanding of financial markets' dynamics.

  19. Can we really use available scales for child and adolescent psychopathology across cultures? A systematic review of cross-cultural measurement invariance data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanovic, Dejan; Jafari, Peyman; Knez, Rajna; Franic, Tomislav; Atilola, Olayinka; Davidovic, Nikolina; Bagheri, Zahra; Lakic, Aneta

    2017-02-01

    In this systematic review, we assessed available evidence for cross-cultural measurement invariance of assessment scales for child and adolescent psychopathology as an indicator of cross-cultural validity. A literature search was conducted using the Medline, PsychInfo, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases. Cross-cultural measurement invariance data was available for 26 scales. Based on the aggregation of the evidence from the studies under review, none of the evaluated scales have strong evidence for cross-cultural validity and suitability for cross-cultural comparison. A few of the studies showed a moderate level of measurement invariance for some scales (such as the Fear Survey Schedule for Children-Revised, Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children, Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale, Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale, Mood and Feelings Questionnaire, and Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale), which may make them suitable in cross-cultural comparative studies. The remainder of the scales either showed weak or outright lack of measurement invariance. This review showed only limited testing for measurement invariance across cultural groups of scales for pediatric psychopathology, with evidence of cross-cultural validity for only a few scales. This study also revealed a need to improve practices of statistical analysis reporting in testing measurement invariance. Implications for future research are discussed.

  20. Charged-current inclusive neutrino cross sections in the SuperScaling model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, M. V., E-mail: martin.inrne@gmail.com [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Grupo de Física Nuclear, Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid E-28040 (Spain); Megias, G. D.; Caballero, J. A. [Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Sevilla, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); González-Jiménez, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ghent University, Proeftuinstraat 86, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Moreno, O.; Donnelly, T. W. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Laboratory for Nuclear Science and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Barbaro, M. B. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Torino and INFN, Sezione di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Antonov, A. N. [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Moya de Guerra, E.; Udías, J. M. [Grupo de Física Nuclear, Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid E-28040 (Spain)

    2016-03-25

    SuperScaling model (SuSA) predictions to neutrino-induced charged-current π{sup +} production in the Δ-resonance region are explored under MiniBooNE experimental conditions. The SuSA charged-current π{sup +} results are in good agreement with data on neutrino flux-averaged double-differential cross sections. The SuSA model for quasielastic scattering and its extension to the pion production region are used for predictions of charged-current inclusive neutrino-nucleus cross sections. Results are also compared with the T2K experimental data for inclusive scattering.

  1. Large-scale development of SSR markers in tobacco and construction of a linkage map in flue-cured tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Zhijun; Xiao, Bingguang; Jiao, Fangchan; Fang, Dunhuang; Zeng, Jianmin; Wu, Xingfu; Chen, Xuejun; Yang, Jiankang; Li, Yongping

    2016-06-01

    Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.), particularly flue-cured tobacco, is one of the most economically important nonfood crops and is also an important model system in plant biotechnology. Despite its importance, only limited molecular marker resources are available for genome analysis, genetic mapping, and breeding. Simple sequence repeats (SSR) are one of the most widely-used molecular markers, having significant advantages including that they are generally co-dominant, easy to use, abundant in eukaryotic organisms, and produce highly reproducible results. In this study, based on the genome sequence data of flue-cured tobacco (K326), we developed a total of 13,645 mostly novel SSR markers, which were working in a set of eighteen tobacco varieties of four different types. A mapping population of 213 backcross (BC1) individuals, which were derived from an intra-type cross between two flue-cured tobacco varieties, Y3 and K326, was selected for mapping. Based on the newly developed SSR markers as well as published SSR markers, we constructed a genetic map consisting of 626 SSR loci distributed across 24 linkage groups and covering a total length of 1120.45 cM with an average distance of 1.79 cM between adjacent markers, which is the highest density map of flue-cured tobacco till date.

  2. SNP frequency, haplotype structure and linkage disequilibrium in elite maize inbred lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Oscar

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies of ancestral maize populations indicate that linkage disequilibrium tends to dissipate rapidly, sometimes within 100 bp. We set out to examine the linkage disequilibrium and diversity in maize elite inbred lines, which have been subject to population bottlenecks and intense selection by breeders. Such population events are expected to increase the amount of linkage disequilibrium, but reduce diversity. The results of this study will inform the design of genetic association studies. Results We examined the frequency and distribution of DNA polymorphisms at 18 maize genes in 36 maize inbreds, chosen to represent most of the genetic diversity in U.S. elite maize breeding pool. The frequency of nucleotide changes is high, on average one polymorphism per 31 bp in non-coding regions and 1 polymorphism per 124 bp in coding regions. Insertions and deletions are frequent in non-coding regions (1 per 85 bp, but rare in coding regions. A small number (2–8 of distinct and highly diverse haplotypes can be distinguished at all loci examined. Within genes, SNP loci comprising the haplotypes are in linkage disequilibrium with each other. Conclusions No decline of linkage disequilibrium within a few hundred base pairs was found in the elite maize germplasm. This finding, as well as the small number of haplotypes, relative to neutral expectation, is consistent with the effects of breeding-induced bottlenecks and selection on the elite germplasm pool. The genetic distance between haplotypes is large, indicative of an ancient gene pool and of possible interspecific hybridization events in maize ancestry.

  3. Universal happiness? Cross-cultural measurement invariance of scales assessing positive mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieda, Angela; Hirschfeld, Gerrit; Schönfeld, Pia; Brailovskaia, Julia; Zhang, Xiao Chi; Margraf, Jürgen

    2017-04-01

    Research into positive aspects of the psyche is growing as psychologists learn more about the protective role of positive processes in the development and course of mental disorders, and about their substantial role in promoting mental health. With increasing globalization, there is strong interest in studies examining positive constructs across cultures. To obtain valid cross-cultural comparisons, measurement invariance for the scales assessing positive constructs has to be established. The current study aims to assess the cross-cultural measurement invariance of questionnaires for 6 positive constructs: Social Support (Fydrich, Sommer, Tydecks, & Brähler, 2009), Happiness (Subjective Happiness Scale; Lyubomirsky & Lepper, 1999), Life Satisfaction (Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985), Positive Mental Health Scale (Lukat, Margraf, Lutz, van der Veld, & Becker, 2016), Optimism (revised Life Orientation Test [LOT-R]; Scheier, Carver, & Bridges, 1994) and Resilience (Schumacher, Leppert, Gunzelmann, Strauss, & Brähler, 2004). Participants included German (n = 4,453), Russian (n = 3,806), and Chinese (n = 12,524) university students. Confirmatory factor analyses and measurement invariance testing demonstrated at least partial strong measurement invariance for all scales except the LOT-R and Subjective Happiness Scale. The latent mean comparisons of the constructs indicated differences between national groups. Potential methodological and cultural explanations for the intergroup differences are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Cross-Cultural Validity of the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-gwi; Park, Hyun-joo

    2011-01-01

    This study with 213 South Korean college students (113 men) examined the cross-cultural generalizability of (a) the factor structure of the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (F-MPS) and (b) the existence of adaptive perfectionists, maladaptive perfectionists, and nonperfectionists. A confirmatory factor analysis did not support the…

  5. Linkage Behavior and Practices of Agencies in the Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the linkage behaviour and practices of agencies in the ... institutes; while (61.5%,65.5%and 50.0%) indicated that linkages with universities of ... Existing institutional framework for linkages between research and extension ...

  6. How home HIV testing and counselling with follow-up support achieves high testing coverage and linkage to treatment and prevention: a qualitative analysis from Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Norma C; Wyatt, Monique A; Asiimwe, Stephen; Turyamureeba, Bosco; Tumwesigye, Elioda; van Rooyen, Heidi; Barnabas, Ruanne V; Celum, Connie L

    2016-01-01

    The successes of HIV treatment scale-up and the availability of new prevention tools have raised hopes that the epidemic can finally be controlled and ended. Reduction in HIV incidence and control of the epidemic requires high testing rates at population levels, followed by linkage to treatment or prevention. As effective linkage strategies are identified, it becomes important to understand how these strategies work. We use qualitative data from The Linkages Study, a recent community intervention trial of community-based testing with linkage interventions in sub-Saharan Africa, to show how lay counsellor home HIV testing and counselling (home HTC) with follow-up support leads to linkage to clinic-based HIV treatment and medical male circumcision services. We conducted 99 semi-structured individual interviews with study participants and three focus groups with 16 lay counsellors in Kabwohe, Sheema District, Uganda. The participant sample included both HIV+ men and women (N=47) and HIV-uncircumcised men (N=52). Interview and focus group audio-recordings were translated and transcribed. Each transcript was summarized. The summaries were analyzed inductively to identify emergent themes. Thematic concepts were grouped to develop general constructs and framing propositional statements. Trial participants expressed interest in linking to clinic-based services at testing, but faced obstacles that eroded their initial enthusiasm. Follow-up support by lay counsellors intervened to restore interest and inspire action. Together, home HTC and follow-up support improved morale, created a desire to reciprocate, and provided reassurance that services were trustworthy. In different ways, these functions built links to the health service system. They worked to strengthen individuals' general sense of capability, while making the idea of accessing services more manageable and familiar, thus reducing linkage barriers. Home HTC with follow-up support leads to linkage by building

  7. Exploitation of linkage learning in evolutionary algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Ying-ping

    2010-01-01

    The exploitation of linkage learning is enhancing the performance of evolutionary algorithms. This monograph examines recent progress in linkage learning, with a series of focused technical chapters that cover developments and trends in the field.

  8. A node linkage approach for sequential pattern mining.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Navarro

    Full Text Available Sequential Pattern Mining is a widely addressed problem in data mining, with applications such as analyzing Web usage, examining purchase behavior, and text mining, among others. Nevertheless, with the dramatic increase in data volume, the current approaches prove inefficient when dealing with large input datasets, a large number of different symbols and low minimum supports. In this paper, we propose a new sequential pattern mining algorithm, which follows a pattern-growth scheme to discover sequential patterns. Unlike most pattern growth algorithms, our approach does not build a data structure to represent the input dataset, but instead accesses the required sequences through pseudo-projection databases, achieving better runtime and reducing memory requirements. Our algorithm traverses the search space in a depth-first fashion and only preserves in memory a pattern node linkage and the pseudo-projections required for the branch being explored at the time. Experimental results show that our new approach, the Node Linkage Depth-First Traversal algorithm (NLDFT, has better performance and scalability in comparison with state of the art algorithms.

  9. ANALYSIS OF INTER SECTORAL LINKAGES IN SEMARANG REGENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fafurida

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to analyze inter economic sectoral linkages and to arrange the Klassen typology of economic sectors in Semarang Regency. The Klassen typology is composed from the result of the linkage analysis. To construct the analysis, this paper also utulizes the input-output analysis. It finds that service sector has the highest backward linkage while farming sector has the highest forward linkage. Based on the Klassen typology analysis, sectors with the highest backward and forward linkages and potential to be the leading sector are farming sector, dan trade, hotel and restaurant sector.Keywords: Backward linkage,forward linkage, Klassen typologyJEL classification number: R15, O21AbstrakPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji seberapa besar keterkaitan antar sektor ekonomi di Kabupaten Semarang dan memetakan tipologi Klassennya. Tipologi Klasen disusun berdasarkan hasil perhitungan analisis keterkaitannya. Untuk menyusun analisis tersebut, paper ini juga menggunakan analisis input-output. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sektor jasa memiliki keterkaitan ke belakang tertinggi dibandingkan dengan sektor lainnya. Sementara itu, sektor pertanian merupakan sektor yang memiliki keterkaitan ke depan tertinggi. Berdasarkan hasil analisis tipologi Klassen, sektor yang memiliki keterkaitan ke depan dan ke belakang yang tinggi dan dapat menjadi sektor unggulan adalah sektor perdagangan, hotel dan sektor restoran.Kata kunci: Keterkaitan ke belakang, keterkaitan ke depan, tipologi KlassenJEL classification numbers: R15, O21

  10. Posterior probability of linkage and maximal lod score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Génin, E; Martinez, M; Clerget-Darpoux, F

    1995-01-01

    To detect linkage between a trait and a marker, Morton (1955) proposed to calculate the lod score z(theta 1) at a given value theta 1 of the recombination fraction. If z(theta 1) reaches +3 then linkage is concluded. However, in practice, lod scores are calculated for different values of the recombination fraction between 0 and 0.5 and the test is based on the maximum value of the lod score Zmax. The impact of this deviation of the test on the probability that in fact linkage does not exist, when linkage was concluded, is documented here. This posterior probability of no linkage can be derived by using Bayes' theorem. It is less than 5% when the lod score at a predetermined theta 1 is used for the test. But, for a Zmax of +3, we showed that it can reach 16.4%. Thus, considering a composite alternative hypothesis instead of a single one decreases the reliability of the test. The reliability decreases rapidly when Zmax is less than +3. Given a Zmax of +2.5, there is a 33% chance that linkage does not exist. Moreover, the posterior probability depends not only on the value of Zmax but also jointly on the family structures and on the genetic model. For a given Zmax, the chance that linkage exists may then vary.

  11. Effect of Linkage Disequilibrium on the Identification of Functional Variants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Alun; Abel, Haley J; Di, Yanming; Faye, Laura L; Jin, Jing; Liu, Jin; Wu, Zheyan; Paterson, Andrew D

    2011-01-01

    We summarize the contributions of Group 9 of Genetic Analysis Workshop 17. This group addressed the problems of linkage disequilibrium and other longer range forms of allelic association when evaluating the effects of genotypes on phenotypes. Issues raised by long-range associations, whether a result of selection, stratification, possible technical errors, or chance, were less expected but proved to be important. Most contributors focused on regression methods of various types to illustrate problematic issues or to develop adaptations for dealing with high-density genotype assays. Study design was also considered, as was graphical modeling. Although no method emerged as uniformly successful, most succeeded in reducing false-positive results either by considering clusters of loci within genes or by applying smoothing metrics that required results from adjacent loci to be similar. Two unexpected results that questioned our assumptions of what is required to model linkage disequilibrium were observed. The first was that correlations between loci separated by large genetic distances can greatly inflate single-locus test statistics, and, whether the result of selection, stratification, possible technical errors, or chance, these correlations seem overabundant. The second unexpected result was that applying principal components analysis to genome-wide genotype data can apparently control not only for population structure but also for linkage disequilibrium. PMID:22128051

  12. Linkage and related analyses of Barrett's esophagus and its associated adenocarcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiangqing; Elston, Robert; Falk, Gary W; Grady, William M; Faulx, Ashley; Mittal, Sumeet K; Canto, Marcia I; Shaheen, Nicholas J; Wang, Jean S; Iyer, Prasad G; Abrams, Julian A; Willis, Joseph E; Guda, Kishore; Markowitz, Sanford; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S; Chandar, Apoorva; Brock, Wendy; Chak, Amitabh

    2016-07-01

    Familial aggregation and segregation analysis studies have provided evidence of a genetic basis for esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and its premalignant precursor, Barrett's esophagus (BE). We aim to demonstrate the utility of linkage analysis to identify the genomic regions that might contain the genetic variants that predispose individuals to this complex trait (BE and EAC). We genotyped 144 individuals in 42 multiplex pedigrees chosen from 1000 singly ascertained BE/EAC pedigrees, and performed both model-based and model-free linkage analyses, using S.A.G.E. and other software. Segregation models were fitted, from the data on both the 42 pedigrees and the 1000 pedigrees, to determine parameters for performing model-based linkage analysis. Model-based and model-free linkage analyses were conducted in two sets of pedigrees: the 42 pedigrees and a subset of 18 pedigrees with female affected members that are expected to be more genetically homogeneous. Genome-wide associations were also tested in these families. Linkage analyses on the 42 pedigrees identified several regions consistently suggestive of linkage by different linkage analysis methods on chromosomes 2q31, 12q23, and 4p14. A linkage on 15q26 is the only consistent linkage region identified in the 18 female-affected pedigrees, in which the linkage signal is higher than in the 42 pedigrees. Other tentative linkage signals are also reported. Our linkage study of BE/EAC pedigrees identified linkage regions on chromosomes 2, 4, 12, and 15, with some reported associations located within our linkage peaks. Our linkage results can help prioritize association tests to delineate the genetic determinants underlying susceptibility to BE and EAC.

  13. Nested synchrony – a novel cross-scale interaction among neuronal oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simo eMonto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal interactions form the basis for our brain function, and oscillations and synchrony are the principal candidates for mediating them in the cortical networks. Phase synchrony, where oscillatory neuronal ensembles directly synchronize their phases, enables precise integration between separated brain regions. However, it is unclear how neuronal interactions are dynamically coordinated in space and over time. Cross-scale effects have been proposed to be responsible for linking levels of processing hierarchy and to regulate neuronal dynamics. Most notably, nested oscillations, where the phase of a neuronal oscillation modulates the amplitude of a faster one, may locally integrate neuronal activities in distinct frequency bands. Yet, hierarchical control of inter-areal synchrony could provide a more comprehensive view to the dynamical structure of oscillatory interdependencies in the human brain.In this study, the notion of nested oscillations is extended to a cross-frequency and inter-areal model of oscillatory interactions. In this model, the phase of a slower oscillation modulates inter-areal synchrony in a higher frequency band. This would allow cross-scale integration of global interactions and, thus, offers a mechanism for binding distributed neuronal activities.We show that inter-areal phase synchrony can be modulated by the phase of a slower neuronal oscillation using magnetoencephalography. This effect is the most pronounced at frequencies below 35 Hz. Importantly, changes in oscillation amplitudes did not explain the findings. We expect that the novel cross-frequency interaction could offer new ways to understand the flexible but accurate dynamic organization of ongoing neuronal oscillations and synchrony.

  14. Testing association and linkage using affected-sib-parent study designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millstein, Joshua; Siegmund, Kimberly D; Conti, David V; Gauderman, W James

    2005-11-01

    We have developed a method for jointly testing linkage and association using data from affected sib pairs and their parents. We specify a conditional logistic regression model with two covariates, one that quantifies association (either direct association or indirect association via linkage disequilibrium), and a second that quantifies linkage. The latter covariate is computed based on expected identity-by-descend (ibd) sharing of marker alleles between siblings. In addition to a joint test of linkage and association, our general framework can be used to obtain a linkage test comparable to the mean test (Blackwelder and Elston [1985] Genet. Epidemiol. 2:85-97), and an association test comparable to the Family-Based Association Test (FBAT; Rabinowitz and Laird [2000] Hum. Hered. 50:211-223). We present simulation results demonstrating that our joint test can be more powerful than some standard tests of linkage or association. For example, with a relative risk of 2.7 per variant allele at a disease locus, the estimated power to detect a nearby marker with a modest level of LD was 58.1% by the mean test (linkage only), 69.8% by FBAT, and 82.5% by our joint test of linkage and association. Our model can also be used to obtain tests of linkage conditional on association and association conditional on linkage, which can be helpful in fine mapping. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Normalization Ridge Regression in Practice II: The Estimation of Multiple Feedback Linkages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulcock, J. W.

    The use of the two-stage least squares (2 SLS) procedure for estimating nonrecursive social science models is often impractical when multiple feedback linkages are required. This is because 2 SLS is extremely sensitive to multicollinearity. The standard statistical solution to the multicollinearity problem is a biased, variance reduced procedure…

  16. Cross-Scale Baroclinic Simulation of the Effect of Channel Dredging in an Estuarine Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Ye

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Holistic simulation approaches are often required to assess human impacts on a river-estuary-coastal system, due to the intrinsically linked processes of contrasting spatial scales. In this paper, a Semi-implicit Cross-scale Hydroscience Integrated System Model (SCHISM is applied in quantifying the impact of a proposed hydraulic engineering project on the estuarine hydrodynamics. The project involves channel dredging and land expansion that traverse several spatial scales on an ocean-estuary-river-tributary axis. SCHISM is suitable for this undertaking due to its flexible horizontal and vertical grid design and, more importantly, its efficient high-order implicit schemes applied in both the momentum and transport calculations. These techniques and their advantages are briefly described along with the model setup. The model features a mixed horizontal grid with quadrangles following the shipping channels and triangles resolving complex geometries elsewhere. The grid resolution ranges from ~6.3 km in the coastal ocean to 15 m in the project area. Even with this kind of extreme scale contrast, the baroclinic model still runs stably and accurately at a time step of 2 min, courtesy of the implicit schemes. We highlight that the implicit transport solver alone reduces the total computational cost by 82%, as compared to its explicit counterpart. The base model is shown to be well calibrated, then it is applied in simulating the proposed project scenario. The project-induced modifications on salinity intrusion, gravitational circulation, and transient events are quantified and analyzed.

  17. Genome-wide linkage analysis for human longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beekman, Marian; Blanché, Hélène; Perola, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Clear evidence exists for heritability of human longevity, and much interest is focused on identifying genes associated with longer lives. To identify such longevity alleles, we performed the largest genome-wide linkage scan thus far reported. Linkage analyses included 2118 nonagenarian Caucasian...

  18. Linkage of PRA models. Phase 1, Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.L.; Knudsen, J.K.; Kelly, D.L.

    1995-12-01

    The goal of the Phase I work of the ``Linkage of PRA Models`` project was to postulate methods of providing guidance for US Nuclear Regulator Commission (NRC) personnel on the selection and usage of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) models that are best suited to the analysis they are performing. In particular, methods and associated features are provided for (a) the selection of an appropriate PRA model for a particular analysis, (b) complementary evaluation tools for the analysis, and (c) a PRA model cross-referencing method. As part of this work, three areas adjoining ``linking`` analyses to PRA models were investigated: (a) the PRA models that are currently available, (b) the various types of analyses that are performed within the NRC, and (c) the difficulty in trying to provide a ``generic`` classification scheme to groups plants based upon a particular plant attribute.

  19. Linkage of PRA models. Phase 1, Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.L.; Knudsen, J.K.; Kelly, D.L.

    1995-12-01

    The goal of the Phase I work of the ''Linkage of PRA Models'' project was to postulate methods of providing guidance for US Nuclear Regulator Commission (NRC) personnel on the selection and usage of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) models that are best suited to the analysis they are performing. In particular, methods and associated features are provided for (a) the selection of an appropriate PRA model for a particular analysis, (b) complementary evaluation tools for the analysis, and (c) a PRA model cross-referencing method. As part of this work, three areas adjoining ''linking'' analyses to PRA models were investigated: (a) the PRA models that are currently available, (b) the various types of analyses that are performed within the NRC, and (c) the difficulty in trying to provide a ''generic'' classification scheme to groups plants based upon a particular plant attribute

  20. Factors associated with linkage to HIV care and TB treatment at community-based HIV testing services in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Sue-Ann; Sloot, Rosa; Draper, Heather R; Naidoo, Pren; Burger, Ronelle; Beyers, Nulda

    2018-01-01

    Diagnosing HIV and/or TB is not sufficient; linkage to care and treatment is conditional to reduce the burden of disease. This study aimed to determine factors associated with linkage to HIV care and TB treatment at community-based services in Cape Town, South Africa. This retrospective cohort study utilized routinely collected data from clients who utilized stand-alone (fixed site not attached to a health facility) and mobile HIV testing services in eight communities in the City of Cape Town Metropolitan district, between January 2008 and June 2012. Clients were included in the analysis if they were ≥12 years and had a known HIV status. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) logistic regression models were used to assess the association between determinants (sex, age, HIV testing service and co-infection status) and self-reported linkage to HIV care and/or TB treatment. Linkage to HIV care was 3 738/5 929 (63.1%). Linkage to HIV care was associated with the type of HIV testing service. Clients diagnosed with HIV at mobile services had a significantly reduced odds of linking to HIV care (aOR 0.7 (CI 95%: 0.6-0.8), p<0.001. Linkage to TB treatment was 210/275 (76.4%). Linkage to TB treatment was not associated with sex and service type, but was associated with age. Clients in older age groups were less likely to link to TB treatment compared to clients in the age group 12-24 years (all, p-value<0.05). A large proportion of clients diagnosed with HIV at mobile services did not link to care. Almost a quarter of clients diagnosed with TB did not link to treatment. Integrated community-based HIV and TB testing services are efficient in diagnosing HIV and TB, but strategies to improve linkage to care are required to control these epidemics.

  1. Viral linkage in HIV-1 seroconverters and their partners in an HIV-1 prevention clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary S Campbell

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of viruses in HIV-1 transmission pairs will help identify biological determinants of infectiousness and evaluate candidate interventions to reduce transmission. Although HIV-1 sequencing is frequently used to substantiate linkage between newly HIV-1 infected individuals and their sexual partners in epidemiologic and forensic studies, viral sequencing is seldom applied in HIV-1 prevention trials. The Partners in Prevention HSV/HIV Transmission Study (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT00194519 was a prospective randomized placebo-controlled trial that enrolled serodiscordant heterosexual couples to determine the efficacy of genital herpes suppression in reducing HIV-1 transmission; as part of the study analysis, HIV-1 sequences were examined for genetic linkage between seroconverters and their enrolled partners.We obtained partial consensus HIV-1 env and gag sequences from blood plasma for 151 transmission pairs and performed deep sequencing of env in some cases. We analyzed sequences with phylogenetic techniques and developed a Bayesian algorithm to evaluate the probability of linkage. For linkage, we required monophyletic clustering between enrolled partners' sequences and a Bayesian posterior probability of ≥ 50%. Adjudicators classified each seroconversion, finding 108 (71.5% linked, 40 (26.5% unlinked, and 3 (2.0% indeterminate transmissions, with linkage determined by consensus env sequencing in 91 (84%. Male seroconverters had a higher frequency of unlinked transmissions than female seroconverters. The likelihood of transmission from the enrolled partner was related to time on study, with increasing numbers of unlinked transmissions occurring after longer observation periods. Finally, baseline viral load was found to be significantly higher among linked transmitters.In this first use of HIV-1 sequencing to establish endpoints in a large clinical trial, more than one-fourth of transmissions were unlinked to the enrolled partner

  2. Fine mapping quantitative trait loci under selective phenotyping strategies based on linkage and linkage disequilibrium criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansari-Mahyari, S; Berg, P; Lund, M S

    2009-01-01

    disequilibrium-based sampling criteria (LDC) for selecting individuals to phenotype are compared to random phenotyping in a quantitative trait loci (QTL) verification experiment using stochastic simulation. Several strategies based on LAC and LDC for selecting the most informative 30%, 40% or 50% of individuals...... for phenotyping to extract maximum power and precision in a QTL fine mapping experiment were developed and assessed. Linkage analyses for the mapping was performed for individuals sampled on LAC within families and combined linkage disequilibrium and linkage analyses was performed for individuals sampled across...... the whole population based on LDC. The results showed that selecting individuals with similar haplotypes to the paternal haplotypes (minimum recombination criterion) using LAC compared to random phenotyping gave at least the same power to detect a QTL but decreased the accuracy of the QTL position. However...

  3. Application of Hierarchy Theory to Cross-Scale Hydrologic Modeling of Nutrient Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    We describe a model called Regional Hydrologic Modeling for Environmental Evaluation 16 (RHyME2) for quantifying annual nutrient loads in stream networks and watersheds. RHyME2 is 17 a cross-scale statistical and process-based water-quality model. The model ...

  4. Cross-flow turbines: progress report on physical and numerical model studies at large laboratory scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wosnik, Martin; Bachant, Peter

    2016-11-01

    Cross-flow turbines show potential in marine hydrokinetic (MHK) applications. A research focus is on accurately predicting device performance and wake evolution to improve turbine array layouts for maximizing overall power output, i.e., minimizing wake interference, or taking advantage of constructive wake interaction. Experiments were carried with large laboratory-scale cross-flow turbines D O (1 m) using a turbine test bed in a large cross-section tow tank, designed to achieve sufficiently high Reynolds numbers for the results to be Reynolds number independent with respect to turbine performance and wake statistics, such that they can be reliably extrapolated to full scale and used for model validation. Several turbines of varying solidity were employed, including the UNH Reference Vertical Axis Turbine (RVAT) and a 1:6 scale model of the DOE-Sandia Reference Model 2 (RM2) turbine. To improve parameterization in array simulations, an actuator line model (ALM) was developed to provide a computationally feasible method for simulating full turbine arrays inside Navier-Stokes models. Results are presented for the simulation of performance and wake dynamics of cross-flow turbines and compared with experiments and body-fitted mesh, blade-resolving CFD. Supported by NSF-CBET Grant 1150797, Sandia National Laboratories.

  5. Estimating parameters for probabilistic linkage of privacy-preserved datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Adrian P; Randall, Sean M; Ferrante, Anna M; Semmens, James B; Boyd, James H

    2017-07-10

    Probabilistic record linkage is a process used to bring together person-based records from within the same dataset (de-duplication) or from disparate datasets using pairwise comparisons and matching probabilities. The linkage strategy and associated match probabilities are often estimated through investigations into data quality and manual inspection. However, as privacy-preserved datasets comprise encrypted data, such methods are not possible. In this paper, we present a method for estimating the probabilities and threshold values for probabilistic privacy-preserved record linkage using Bloom filters. Our method was tested through a simulation study using synthetic data, followed by an application using real-world administrative data. Synthetic datasets were generated with error rates from zero to 20% error. Our method was used to estimate parameters (probabilities and thresholds) for de-duplication linkages. Linkage quality was determined by F-measure. Each dataset was privacy-preserved using separate Bloom filters for each field. Match probabilities were estimated using the expectation-maximisation (EM) algorithm on the privacy-preserved data. Threshold cut-off values were determined by an extension to the EM algorithm allowing linkage quality to be estimated for each possible threshold. De-duplication linkages of each privacy-preserved dataset were performed using both estimated and calculated probabilities. Linkage quality using the F-measure at the estimated threshold values was also compared to the highest F-measure. Three large administrative datasets were used to demonstrate the applicability of the probability and threshold estimation technique on real-world data. Linkage of the synthetic datasets using the estimated probabilities produced an F-measure that was comparable to the F-measure using calculated probabilities, even with up to 20% error. Linkage of the administrative datasets using estimated probabilities produced an F-measure that was higher

  6. Diversity And Sustainability Of Small – Scale Farming In Cross River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examines the diversity and sustainability attributes of crops grown by small – scale farmers in Calabar Urban of Cross River State. It has as its objectives, the identification of the structure of agricultural system in Calabar- Urban, the determination of the types and diversity of crops grown by the farmers, the extent ...

  7. RLT-S: A Web System for Record Linkage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah-Al Mamun

    Full Text Available Record linkage integrates records across multiple related data sources identifying duplicates and accounting for possible errors. Real life applications require efficient algorithms to merge these voluminous data sources to find out all records belonging to same individuals. Our recently devised highly efficient record linkage algorithms provide best-known solutions to this challenging problem.We have developed RLT-S, a freely available web tool, which implements our single linkage clustering algorithm for record linkage. This tool requires input data sets and a small set of configuration settings about these files to work efficiently. RLT-S employs exact match clustering, blocking on a specified attribute and single linkage based hierarchical clustering among these blocks.RLT-S is an implementation package of our sequential record linkage algorithm. It outperforms previous best-known implementations by a large margin. The tool is at least two times faster for any dataset than the previous best-known tools.RLT-S tool implements our record linkage algorithm that outperforms previous best-known algorithms in this area. This website also contains necessary information such as instructions, submission history, feedback, publications and some other sections to facilitate the usage of the tool.RLT-S is integrated into http://www.rlatools.com, which is currently serving this tool only. The tool is freely available and can be used without login. All data files used in this paper have been stored in https://github.com/abdullah009/DataRLATools. For copies of the relevant programs please see https://github.com/abdullah009/RLATools.

  8. Scaling relations in elastic scattering cross sections between multiply charged ions and hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, V.D.

    1991-01-01

    Differential elastic scattering cross sections of bare ions from hydrogen are calculated using the eikonal approximation. The results satisfy a scaling relation involving the scattering angle, the ion charge and a factor related to the ion mass. A semiclassical explanation in terms of a distant collision hypothesis for small scattering angle is proposed. A unified picture of related scaling rules found in direct processes is discussed. (author)

  9. Construction of High Density Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L. Linkage Maps Using Microsatellite Markers and SNPs Detected by Genotyping-by-Sequencing (GBS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Guajardo

    Full Text Available Linkage maps are valuable tools in genetic and genomic studies. For sweet cherry, linkage maps have been constructed using mainly microsatellite markers (SSRs and, recently, using single nucleotide polymorphism markers (SNPs from a cherry 6K SNP array. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS, a new methodology based on high-throughput sequencing, holds great promise for identification of high number of SNPs and construction of high density linkage maps. In this study, GBS was used to identify SNPs from an intra-specific sweet cherry cross. A total of 8,476 high quality SNPs were selected for mapping. The physical position for each SNP was determined using the peach genome, Peach v1.0, as reference, and a homogeneous distribution of markers along the eight peach scaffolds was obtained. On average, 65.6% of the SNPs were present in genic regions and 49.8% were located in exonic regions. In addition to the SNPs, a group of SSRs was also used for construction of linkage maps. Parental and consensus high density maps were constructed by genotyping 166 siblings from a 'Rainier' x 'Rivedel' (Ra x Ri cross. Using Ra x Ri population, 462, 489 and 985 markers were mapped into eight linkage groups in 'Rainier', 'Rivedel' and the Ra x Ri map, respectively, with 80% of mapped SNPs located in genic regions. Obtained maps spanned 549.5, 582.6 and 731.3 cM for 'Rainier', 'Rivedel' and consensus maps, respectively, with an average distance of 1.2 cM between adjacent markers for both 'Rainier' and 'Rivedel' maps and of 0.7 cM for Ra x Ri map. High synteny and co-linearity was observed between obtained maps and with Peach v1.0. These new high density linkage maps provide valuable information on the sweet cherry genome, and serve as the basis for identification of QTLs and genes relevant for the breeding of the species.

  10. Linkage Map of Lissotriton Newts Provides Insight into the Genetic Basis of Reproductive Isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Niedzicka

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Linkage maps are widely used to investigate structure, function, and evolution of genomes. In speciation research, maps facilitate the study of the genetic architecture of reproductive isolation by allowing identification of genomic regions underlying reduced fitness of hybrids. Here we present a linkage map for European newts of the Lissotriton vulgaris species complex, constructed using two families of F2 L. montandoni × L. vulgaris hybrids. The map consists of 1146 protein-coding genes on 12 linkage groups, equal to the haploid chromosome number, with a total length of 1484 cM (1.29 cM per marker. It is notably shorter than two other maps available for salamanders, but the differences in map length are consistent with cytogenetic estimates of the number of chiasmata per chromosomal arm. Thus, large salamander genomes do not necessarily translate into long linkage maps, as previously suggested. Consequently, salamanders are an excellent model to study evolutionary consequences of recombination rate variation in taxa with large genomes and a similar number of chromosomes. A complex pattern of transmission ratio distortion (TRD was detected: TRD occurred mostly in one family, in one breeding season, and was clustered in two genomic segments. This is consistent with environment-dependent mortality of individuals carrying L. montandoni alleles in these two segments and suggests a role of TRD blocks in reproductive isolation. The reported linkage map will empower studies on the genomic architecture of divergence and interactions between the genomes of hybridizing newts.

  11. Pronounced photosensitivity of molecular [Ru(bpy)2(OSO)]+ solutions based on two photoinduced linkage isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieckmann, Volker; Eicke, Sebastian; Rack, Jeffrey J; Woike, Theo; Imlau, Mirco

    2009-08-17

    Photosensitive properties of [Ru(bpy)(2)(OSO)] PF(6) dissolved in propylene carbonate originating from photoinduced linkage isomerism have been studied by temperature and exposure dependent transmission and UV/Vis absorption spectroscopy. An exceeding photochromic photosensitivity of S = (63 +/- 10) x 10(3) cm l J(-1) mol(-1) is determined. It is attributed to a maximum population of 100% molecules in the photoinduced isomers, a unique absorption cross section per molecule and a very low light exposure of Q(0) = (0.25 +/- 0.03) Ws cm(-2) for isomerism. Relaxation studies of O-bonded to S-bonded isomers at different temperatures verify the existence of two distinct structures of linkage isomers determined by the activation energies of E(A,1) = (0.76 +/- 0.08) eV and E(A,2) = (1.00 +/- 0.14) eV.

  12. Linkage disequilibrium between STRPs and SNPs across the human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payseur, Bret A; Place, Michael; Weber, James L

    2008-05-01

    Patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD) reveal the action of evolutionary processes and provide crucial information for association mapping of disease genes. Although recent studies have described the landscape of LD among single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from across the human genome, associations involving other classes of molecular variation remain poorly understood. In addition to recombination and population history, mutation rate and process are expected to shape LD. To test this idea, we measured associations between short-tandem-repeat polymorphisms (STRPs), which can mutate rapidly and recurrently, and SNPs in 721 regions across the human genome. We directly compared STRP-SNP LD with SNP-SNP LD from the same genomic regions in the human HapMap populations. The intensity of STRP-SNP LD, measured by the average of D', was reduced, consistent with the action of recurrent mutation. Nevertheless, a higher fraction of STRP-SNP pairs than SNP-SNP pairs showed significant LD, on both short (up to 50 kb) and long (cM) scales. These results reveal the substantial effects of mutational processes on LD at STRPs and provide important measures of the potential of STRPs for association mapping of disease genes.

  13. Detection of QTL for Carcass Quality on Chromosome 6 by Exploiting Linkage and Linkage Disequilibrium in Hanwoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-H. Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to improve mapping power and resolution for the QTL influencing carcass quality in Hanwoo, which was previously detected on the bovine chromosome (BTA 6. A sample of 427 steers were chosen, which were the progeny from 45 Korean proven sires in the Hanwoo Improvement Center, Seosan, Korea. The samples were genotyped with the set of 2,535 SNPs on BTA6 that were imbedded in the Illumina bovine 50 k chip. A linkage disequilibrium variance component mapping (LDVCM method, which exploited both linkage between sires and their steers and population-wide linkage disequilibrium, was applied to detect QTL for four carcass quality traits. Fifteen QTL were detected at 0.1% comparison-wise level, for which five, three, five, and two QTL were associated with carcass weight (CWT, backfat thickness (BFT, longissimus dorsi muscle area (LMA, and marbling score (Marb, respectively. The number of QTL was greater compared with our previous results, in which twelve QTL for carcass quality were detected on the BTA6 in the same population by applying other linkage disequilibrium mapping approaches. One QTL for LMA was detected on the distal region (110,285,672 to 110,633,096 bp with the most significant evidence for linkage (p<10−5. Another QTL that was detected on the proximal region (33,596,515 to 33,897,434 bp was pleiotrophic, i.e. influencing CWT, BFT, and LMA. Our results suggest that the LDVCM is a good alternative method for QTL fine-mapping in detection and characterization of QTL.

  14. A general model for likelihood computations of genetic marker data accounting for linkage, linkage disequilibrium, and mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kling, Daniel; Tillmar, Andreas; Egeland, Thore; Mostad, Petter

    2015-09-01

    Several applications necessitate an unbiased determination of relatedness, be it in linkage or association studies or in a forensic setting. An appropriate model to compute the joint probability of some genetic data for a set of persons given some hypothesis about the pedigree structure is then required. The increasing number of markers available through high-density SNP microarray typing and NGS technologies intensifies the demand, where using a large number of markers may lead to biased results due to strong dependencies between closely located loci, both within pedigrees (linkage) and in the population (allelic association or linkage disequilibrium (LD)). We present a new general model, based on a Markov chain for inheritance patterns and another Markov chain for founder allele patterns, the latter allowing us to account for LD. We also demonstrate a specific implementation for X chromosomal markers that allows for computation of likelihoods based on hypotheses of alleged relationships and genetic marker data. The algorithm can simultaneously account for linkage, LD, and mutations. We demonstrate its feasibility using simulated examples. The algorithm is implemented in the software FamLinkX, providing a user-friendly GUI for Windows systems (FamLinkX, as well as further usage instructions, is freely available at www.famlink.se ). Our software provides the necessary means to solve cases where no previous implementation exists. In addition, the software has the possibility to perform simulations in order to further study the impact of linkage and LD on computed likelihoods for an arbitrary set of markers.

  15. Linkage disequilibrium in HLA cannot be explained by selective recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Termijtelen, A; D'Amaro, J; van Rood, J J; Schreuder, G M

    1995-11-01

    Some combinations of HLA-A, -B and -DR antigens occur more frequently than would be expected from their gene frequencies in the population. This phenomenon, referred to as Linkage Disequilibrium (LD) has been the origin of many speculations. One hypothesis to explain LD is that some haplotypes are protected from recombination. A second hypothesis is that these HLA antigens preferentially recombine after cross-over to create an LD haplotype. We tested these 2 hypotheses: from a pool of over 10,000 families typed in our department, we analyzed 126 families in which HLA-A:B or B:DR recombinant offspring was documented. To overcome a possible bias in our material, we used the non-recombined haplotypes from the same 126 families as a control group. Our results show that the number of cross-overs through LD haplotypes is not significantly lower then would be expected if recombination occurred randomly. Also the number of LD haplotypes created upon recombination was not significantly increased.

  16. Estimation of error in using born scaling for collision cross sections involving muonic ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stodden, C.D.; Monkhorst, H.J.; Szalewicz, K.

    1988-01-01

    A quantitative estimate is obtained for the error involved in using Born scaling to calcuated excitation and ionization cross sections for collisions between muonic ions. The impact parameter version of the Born Approximation is used to calculate cross sections and Coulomb corrections for the 1s→2s excitation of αμ in collisions with d. An error of about 50% is found around the peak of the cross section curve. The error falls to less than 5% for velocities above 2 a.u

  17. Two-locus linkage analysis in multiple sclerosis (MS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tienari, P.J. (National Public Health Institute, Helsinki (Finland) Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)); Terwilliger, J.D.; Ott, J. (Columbia Univ., New York (United States)); Palo, J. (Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)); Peltonen, L. (National Public Health Institute, Helsinki (Finland))

    1994-01-15

    One of the major challenges in genetic linkage analyses is the study of complex diseases. The authors demonstrate here the use of two-locus linkage analysis in multiple sclerosis (MS), a multifactorial disease with a complex mode of inheritance. In a set of Finnish multiplex families, they have previously found evidence for linkage between MS susceptibility and two independent loci, the myelin basic protein gene (MBP) on chromosome 18 and the HLA complex on chromosome 6. This set of families provides a unique opportunity to perform linkage analysis conditional on two loci contributing to the disease. In the two-trait-locus/two-marker-locus analysis, the presence of another disease locus is parametrized and the analysis more appropriately treats information from the unaffected family member than single-disease-locus analysis. As exemplified here in MS, the two-locus analysis can be a powerful method for investigating susceptibility loci in complex traits, best suited for analysis of specific candidate genes, or for situations in which preliminary evidence for linkage already exists or is suggested. 41 refs., 6 tabs.

  18. A saturated SSR/DArT linkage map of Musa acuminata addressing genome rearrangements among bananas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsumoto Takashi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Musa is a large species complex which includes cultivars at diploid and triploid levels. These sterile and vegetatively propagated cultivars are based on the A genome from Musa acuminata, exclusively for sweet bananas such as Cavendish, or associated with the B genome (Musa balbisiana in cooking bananas such as Plantain varieties. In M. acuminata cultivars, structural heterozygosity is thought to be one of the main causes of sterility, which is essential for obtaining seedless fruits but hampers breeding. Only partial genetic maps are presently available due to chromosomal rearrangements within the parents of the mapping populations. This causes large segregation distortions inducing pseudo-linkages and difficulties in ordering markers in the linkage groups. The present study aims at producing a saturated linkage map of M. acuminata, taking into account hypotheses on the structural heterozygosity of the parents. Results An F1 progeny of 180 individuals was obtained from a cross between two genetically distant accessions of M. acuminata, 'Borneo' and 'Pisang Lilin' (P. Lilin. Based on the gametic recombination of each parent, two parental maps composed of SSR and DArT markers were established. A significant proportion of the markers (21.7% deviated (p Conclusions We propose a synthetic map with 11 linkage groups containing 489 markers (167 SSRs and 322 DArTs covering 1197 cM. This first saturated map is proposed as a "reference Musa map" for further analyses. We also propose two complete parental maps with interpretations of structural rearrangements localized on the linkage groups. The structural heterozygosity in P. Lilin is hypothesized to result from a duplication likely accompanied by an inversion on another chromosome. This paper also illustrates a methodological approach, transferable to other species, to investigate the mapping of structural rearrangements and determine their consequences on marker

  19. Evaluating privacy-preserving record linkage using cryptographic long-term keys and multibit trees on large medical datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Adrian P; Borgs, Christian; Randall, Sean M; Schnell, Rainer

    2017-06-08

    Integrating medical data using databases from different sources by record linkage is a powerful technique increasingly used in medical research. Under many jurisdictions, unique personal identifiers needed for linking the records are unavailable. Since sensitive attributes, such as names, have to be used instead, privacy regulations usually demand encrypting these identifiers. The corresponding set of techniques for privacy-preserving record linkage (PPRL) has received widespread attention. One recent method is based on Bloom filters. Due to superior resilience against cryptographic attacks, composite Bloom filters (cryptographic long-term keys, CLKs) are considered best practice for privacy in PPRL. Real-world performance of these techniques using large-scale data is unknown up to now. Using a large subset of Australian hospital admission data, we tested the performance of an innovative PPRL technique (CLKs using multibit trees) against a gold-standard derived from clear-text probabilistic record linkage. Linkage time and linkage quality (recall, precision and F-measure) were evaluated. Clear text probabilistic linkage resulted in marginally higher precision and recall than CLKs. PPRL required more computing time but 5 million records could still be de-duplicated within one day. However, the PPRL approach required fine tuning of parameters. We argue that increased privacy of PPRL comes with the price of small losses in precision and recall and a large increase in computational burden and setup time. These costs seem to be acceptable in most applied settings, but they have to be considered in the decision to apply PPRL. Further research on the optimal automatic choice of parameters is needed.

  20. Power of non-parametric linkage analysis in mapping genes contributing to human longevity in long-lived sib-pairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua; Zhao, J H; Iachine, I

    2004-01-01

    This report investigates the power issue in applying the non-parametric linkage analysis of affected sib-pairs (ASP) [Kruglyak and Lander, 1995: Am J Hum Genet 57:439-454] to localize genes that contribute to human longevity using long-lived sib-pairs. Data were simulated by introducing a recently...... developed statistical model for measuring marker-longevity associations [Yashin et al., 1999: Am J Hum Genet 65:1178-1193], enabling direct power comparison between linkage and association approaches. The non-parametric linkage (NPL) scores estimated in the region harboring the causal allele are evaluated...... in case of a dominant effect. Although the power issue may depend heavily on the true genetic nature in maintaining survival, our study suggests that results from small-scale sib-pair investigations should be referred with caution, given the complexity of human longevity....

  1. Using Bureaucratic and Cultural Linkages to Improve Instruction: The Principal's Contribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firestone, William A.; Wilson, Bruce L.

    1985-01-01

    Principals can influence teachers and instructional behavior by working through linkage mechanisms within the organizational structure of the school. Two types of linkages are identified: bureaucratic and cultural. Principals have access to linkages of both kinds; using linkages effectively, they can generate a common purpose in their schools. (MD)

  2. Academic Globalization: Universality of Cross-Cultural And Cross-Disciplinary LMR Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Szabo White

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of this paper suggests that previous research underscoring cross-cultural differences may be misleading, when in fact it is cross-professional rather than cross-cultural differences that should be emphasized. Employing the LMR framework, this paper concludes that business or non-business predisposition has a more direct impact on one's individual cultural profile than does nationality. Regardless of culture, persons involved in business are characterized primarily by linear-active modes of communication, and persons not involved in business typically employ less linear and more multi-active/hybrid modes of communication. The linkages among individual characteristics, communication styles, work behaviors, and the extent to which the LMR constructs can facilitate and predict leadership, negotiating styles, individual behaviors, etc. are central to academic globalization and preparing global business leaders.

  3. Large Scale Hierarchical K-Means Based Image Retrieval With MapReduce

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    flat vocabulary on MapReduce. In 2013, Moise and Shestakov [32, 40], have been researching large scale indexing and search with MapReduce. They...time will be greatly reduced, however image retrieval performance will almost certainly suffer. Moise and Shestakov ran tests with 100M images on 108...43–72, 2005. [32] Diana Moise , Denis Shestakov, Gylfi Gudmundsson, and Laurent Amsaleg. Indexing and searching 100m images with map-reduce. In

  4. Body Dysmorphic Symptoms Scale for patients seeking esthetic surgery: cross-cultural validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Tatiana Dalpasquale; Brito, Maria José Azevedo de; Piccolo, Mônica Sarto; Rosella, Maria Fernanda Normanha da Silva Martins; Sabino, Miguel; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2016-01-01

    Rhinoplasty is one of the most sought-after esthetic operations among individuals with body dysmorphic disorder. The aim of this study was to cross-culturally adapt and validate the Body Dysmorphic Symptoms Scale. Cross-cultural validation study conducted in a plastic surgery outpatient clinic of a public university hospital. Between February 2014 and March 2015, 80 consecutive patients of both sexes seeking rhinoplasty were selected. Thirty of them participated in the phase of cultural adaptation of the instrument. Reproducibility was tested on 20 patients and construct validity was assessed on 50 patients, with correlation against the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale for Body Dysmorphic Disorder. The Brazilian version of the instrument showed Cronbach's alpha of 0.805 and excellent inter-rater reproducibility (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC = 0.873; P Dysmorphic Disorder and the Body Dysmorphic Symptoms Scale. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.981, thus showing good accuracy for discriminating between presence and absence of symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder. Forty-six percent of the patients had body dysmorphic symptoms and 54% had moderate to severe appearance-related obsessive-compulsive symptoms. The Brazilian version of the Body Dysmorphic Symptoms Scale is a reproducible instrument that presents face, content and construct validity.

  5. Fine mapping of multiple QTL using combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium mapping – A comparison of single QTL and multi QTL methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meuwissen Theo HE

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Two previously described QTL mapping methods, which combine linkage analysis (LA and linkage disequilibrium analysis (LD, were compared for their ability to detect and map multiple QTL. The methods were tested on five different simulated data sets in which the exact QTL positions were known. Every simulated data set contained two QTL, but the distances between these QTL were varied from 15 to 150 cM. The results show that the single QTL mapping method (LDLA gave good results as long as the distance between the QTL was large (> 90 cM. When the distance between the QTL was reduced, the single QTL method had problems positioning the two QTL and tended to position only one QTL, i.e. a "ghost" QTL, in between the two real QTL positions. The multi QTL mapping method (MP-LDLA gave good results for all evaluated distances between the QTL. For the large distances between the QTL (> 90 cM the single QTL method more often positioned the QTL in the correct marker bracket, but considering the broader likelihood peaks of the single point method it could be argued that the multi QTL method was more precise. Since the distances were reduced the multi QTL method was clearly more accurate than the single QTL method. The two methods combine well, and together provide a good tool to position single or multiple QTL in practical situations, where the number of QTL and their positions are unknown.

  6. Distribution of lod scores in oligogenic linkage analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J T; North, K E; Martin, L J; Comuzzie, A G; Göring, H H; Blangero, J

    2001-01-01

    In variance component oligogenic linkage analysis it can happen that the residual additive genetic variance bounds to zero when estimating the effect of the ith quantitative trait locus. Using quantitative trait Q1 from the Genetic Analysis Workshop 12 simulated general population data, we compare the observed lod scores from oligogenic linkage analysis with the empirical lod score distribution under a null model of no linkage. We find that zero residual additive genetic variance in the null model alters the usual distribution of the likelihood-ratio statistic.

  7. Data Linkage: A powerful research tool with potential problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Ian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Policy makers, clinicians and researchers are demonstrating increasing interest in using data linked from multiple sources to support measurement of clinical performance and patient health outcomes. However, the utility of data linkage may be compromised by sub-optimal or incomplete linkage, leading to systematic bias. In this study, we synthesize the evidence identifying participant or population characteristics that can influence the validity and completeness of data linkage and may be associated with systematic bias in reported outcomes. Methods A narrative review, using structured search methods was undertaken. Key words "data linkage" and Mesh term "medical record linkage" were applied to Medline, EMBASE and CINAHL databases between 1991 and 2007. Abstract inclusion criteria were; the article attempted an empirical evaluation of methodological issues relating to data linkage and reported on patient characteristics, the study design included analysis of matched versus unmatched records, and the report was in English. Included articles were grouped thematically according to patient characteristics that were compared between matched and unmatched records. Results The search identified 1810 articles of which 33 (1.8% met inclusion criteria. There was marked heterogeneity in study methods and factors investigated. Characteristics that were unevenly distributed among matched and unmatched records were; age (72% of studies, sex (50% of studies, race (64% of studies, geographical/hospital site (93% of studies, socio-economic status (82% of studies and health status (72% of studies. Conclusion A number of relevant patient or population factors may be associated with incomplete data linkage resulting in systematic bias in reported clinical outcomes. Readers should consider these factors in interpreting the reported results of data linkage studies.

  8. Genome-wide linkage scan for colorectal cancer susceptibility genes supports linkage to chromosome 3q

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velculescu Victor E

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer-related mortality. The disease is clinically and genetically heterogeneous though a strong hereditary component has been identified. However, only a small proportion of the inherited susceptibility can be ascribed to dominant syndromes, such as Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC or Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP. In an attempt to identify novel colorectal cancer predisposing genes, we have performed a genome-wide linkage analysis in 30 Swedish non-FAP/non-HNPCC families with a strong family history of colorectal cancer. Methods Statistical analysis was performed using multipoint parametric and nonparametric linkage. Results Parametric analysis under the assumption of locus homogeneity excluded any common susceptibility regions harbouring a predisposing gene for colorectal cancer. However, several loci on chromosomes 2q, 3q, 6q, and 7q with suggestive linkage were detected in the parametric analysis under the assumption of locus heterogeneity as well as in the nonparametric analysis. Among these loci, the locus on chromosome 3q21.1-q26.2 was the most consistent finding providing positive results in both parametric and nonparametric analyses Heterogeneity LOD score (HLOD = 1.90, alpha = 0.45, Non-Parametric LOD score (NPL = 2.1. Conclusion The strongest evidence of linkage was seen for the region on chromosome 3. Interestingly, the same region has recently been reported as the most significant finding in a genome-wide analysis performed with SNP arrays; thus our results independently support the finding on chromosome 3q.

  9. An estimating function approach to linkage heterogeneity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Testing linkage heterogeneity between two loci is an important issue in genetics. Currently, there are ... on linkage heterogeneity can help people to better understand complex .... χ2(F − 2) + cχ2 (1), where c is a constant (see Appendix). Here, it can be ..... gin, ancestry, gender, age, etc., for purpose of dividing sub- groups to ...

  10. Inheritance and expression of reduced culm number character in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamure, I.; Kinoshita, T.

    1985-01-01

    A mutant with a reduced culm number was found in M 2 population of AC-3 (a strain regenerated from A-5 Akamuro by another culture) after gamma-ray irradiation of dry seeds. In F2 population of the crossing between the mutant line, N-133 and the original strain, A-5, it was demonstrated that a single recessive gene, rcn is responsible for the reduced culm number type. A pleiotropic effect showing dwarfness was expressed although the seed fertility was unaffected. In the linkage analysis, it was found that rcn was linked with the genes belonging to the first linkage group such as wx (glutinous endosperm) and C (Chromogen for anthocyanin) in the order of wx-C-rcn. In addition, rcn was epistatic to the dwarf genes, d-2 (ebisu dwarf), d-3, d-4, d-5 (triplicate genes for bunketsu waito) and d-10 (toyohikari-bunwai). As for the relation with d-6 (ebisumochi dwarf), a non-parental dwarf type with a reduced culm number and shorter lower (below the second) internodes occurred as a double recessive genotype. The character expression of the mutant gene, rcn was remarkably affected. by the temperature conditlons during the growth period. Plant height and culm number of the mutant recovered to nearly normal when grown in a plastic house with the application of nitrogen. Since the plant height and culm number were retarded by the treatment with cold water (15°C), it was demonstrated that the gene expression was conditioned by the low temperature

  11. Bayesian linkage and segregation analysis: factoring the problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthysse, S

    2000-01-01

    Complex segregation analysis and linkage methods are mathematical techniques for the genetic dissection of complex diseases. They are used to delineate complex modes of familial transmission and to localize putative disease susceptibility loci to specific chromosomal locations. The computational problem of Bayesian linkage and segregation analysis is one of integration in high-dimensional spaces. In this paper, three available techniques for Bayesian linkage and segregation analysis are discussed: Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), importance sampling, and exact calculation. The contribution of each to the overall integration will be explicitly discussed.

  12. Mobile assemblies of Bennett linkages from four-crease origami patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Chen, Yan

    2018-02-01

    This paper deals with constructing mobile assemblies of Bennett linkages inspired by four-crease origami patterns. A transition technique has been proposed by taking the thick-panel form of an origami pattern as an intermediate bridge. A zero-thickness rigid origami pattern and its thick-panel form share the same sector angles and folding behaviours, while the thick-panel origami and the mobile assembly of linkages are kinematically equivalent with differences only in link profiles. Applying this transition technique to typical four-crease origami patterns, we have found that the Miura-ori and graded Miura-ori patterns lead to assemblies of Bennett linkages with identical link lengths. The supplementary-type origami patterns with different mountain-valley crease assignments correspond to different types of Bennett linkage assemblies with negative link lengths. And the identical linkage-type origami pattern generates a new mobile assembly. Hence, the transition technique offers a novel approach to constructing mobile assemblies of spatial linkages from origami patterns.

  13. Record linkage for pharmacoepidemiological studies in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herk-Sukel, Myrthe P P van; Lemmens, Valery E P P; Poll-Franse, Lonneke V van de; Herings, Ron M C; Coebergh, Jan Willem W

    2012-01-01

    An increasing need has developed for the post-approval surveillance of (new) anti-cancer drugs by means of pharmacoepidemiology and outcomes research in the area of oncology. To create an overview that makes researchers aware of the available database linkages in Northern America and Europe which facilitate pharmacoepidemiology and outcomes research in cancer patients. In addition to our own database, i.e. the Eindhoven Cancer Registry (ECR) linked to the PHARMO Record Linkage System, we considered database linkages between a population-based cancer registry and an administrative healthcare database that at least contains information on drug use and offers a longitudinal perspective on healthcare utilization. Eligible database linkages were limited to those that had been used in multiple published articles in English language included in Pubmed. The HMO Cancer Research Network (CRN) in the US was excluded from this review, as an overview of the linked databases participating in the CRN is already provided elsewhere. Researchers who had worked with the data resources included in our review were contacted for additional information and verification of the data presented in the overview. The following database linkages were included: the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results-Medicare; cancer registry data linked to Medicaid; Canadian cancer registries linked to population-based drug databases; the Scottish cancer registry linked to the Tayside drug dispensing data; linked databases in the Nordic Countries of Europe: Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark; and the ECR-PHARMO linkage in the Netherlands. Descriptives of the included database linkages comprise population size, generalizability of the population, year of first data availability, contents of the cancer registry, contents of the administrative healthcare database, the possibility to select a cancer-free control cohort, and linkage to other healthcare databases. The linked databases offer a longitudinal

  14. A guide to evaluating linkage quality for the analysis of linked data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harron, Katie L; Doidge, James C; Knight, Hannah E; Gilbert, Ruth E; Goldstein, Harvey; Cromwell, David A; van der Meulen, Jan H

    2017-10-01

    Linked datasets are an important resource for epidemiological and clinical studies, but linkage error can lead to biased results. For data security reasons, linkage of personal identifiers is often performed by a third party, making it difficult for researchers to assess the quality of the linked dataset in the context of specific research questions. This is compounded by a lack of guidance on how to determine the potential impact of linkage error. We describe how linkage quality can be evaluated and provide widely applicable guidance for both data providers and researchers. Using an illustrative example of a linked dataset of maternal and baby hospital records, we demonstrate three approaches for evaluating linkage quality: applying the linkage algorithm to a subset of gold standard data to quantify linkage error; comparing characteristics of linked and unlinked data to identify potential sources of bias; and evaluating the sensitivity of results to changes in the linkage procedure. These approaches can inform our understanding of the potential impact of linkage error and provide an opportunity to select the most appropriate linkage procedure for a specific analysis. Evaluating linkage quality in this way will improve the quality and transparency of epidemiological and clinical research using linked data. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  15. Agriculture–Tourism Linkages in Botswana: Evidence from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tourism researchers are increasingly recognising that strengthened linkages between the sectors of tourism and agriculture are significant for maximising local multipliers and especially for pro-poor impacts. This article examines the linkages between the tourism and agriculture sectors in Botswana using evidence ...

  16. Familial aggregation and linkage analysis with covariates for metabolic syndrome risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseri, Parisa; Khodakarim, Soheila; Guity, Kamran; Daneshpour, Maryam S

    2018-06-15

    Mechanisms of metabolic syndrome (MetS) causation are complex, genetic and environmental factors are important factors for the pathogenesis of MetS In this study, we aimed to evaluate familial and genetic influences on metabolic syndrome risk factor and also assess association between FTO (rs1558902 and rs7202116) and CETP(rs1864163) genes' single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) with low HDL_C in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS). The design was a cross-sectional study of 1776 members of 227 randomly-ascertained families. Selected families contained at least one affected metabolic syndrome and at least two members of the family had suffered a loss of HDL_C according to ATP III criteria. In this study, after confirming the familial aggregation with intra-trait correlation coefficients (ICC) of Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and the quantitative lipid traits, the genetic linkage analysis of HDL_C was performed using conditional logistic method with adjusted sex and age. The results of the aggregation analysis revealed a higher correlation between siblings than between parent-offspring pairs representing the role of genetic factors in MetS. In addition, the conditional logistic model with covariates showed that the linkage results between HDL_C and three marker, rs1558902, rs7202116 and rs1864163 were significant. In summary, a high risk of MetS was found in siblings confirming the genetic influences of metabolic syndrome risk factor. Moreover, the power to detect linkage increases in the one parameter conditional logistic model regarding the use of age and sex as covariates. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. The large-scale quasar-Lyman α forest cross-correlation from BOSS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Font-Ribera, Andreu [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Arnau, Eduard [Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (IEEC/UB), Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Miralda-Escudé, Jordi, E-mail: font@physik.uzh.ch, E-mail: edu.arnau.lazaro@gmail.com, E-mail: miralda@icc.ub.edu [Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats, Passeig Lluís Companys 23, 08010 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); and others

    2013-05-01

    We measure the large-scale cross-correlation of quasars with the Lyα forest absorption in redshift space, using ∼ 60000 quasar spectra from Data Release 9 (DR9) of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). The cross-correlation is detected over a wide range of scales, up to comoving separations r of 80 h{sup −1}Mpc. For r > 15 h{sup −1}Mpc, we show that the cross-correlation is well fitted by the linear theory prediction for the mean overdensity around a quasar host halo in the standard ΛCDM model, with the redshift distortions indicative of gravitational evolution detected at high confidence. Using previous determinations of the Lyα forest bias factor obtained from the Lyα autocorrelation, we infer the quasar bias factor to be b{sub q} = 3.64{sup +0.13}{sub −0.15} at a mean redshift z = 2.38, in agreement with previous measurements from the quasar auto-correlation. We also obtain a new estimate of the Lyα forest redshift distortion factor, β{sub F} = 1.1±0.15, slightly larger than but consistent with the previous measurement from the Lyα forest autocorrelation. The simple linear model we use fails at separations r < 15h{sup −1}Mpc, and we show that this may reasonably be due to the enhanced ionization due to radiation from the quasars. We also provide the expected correction that the mass overdensity around the quasar implies for measurements of the ionizing radiation background from the line-of-sight proximity effect.

  18. The large-scale quasar-Lyman α forest cross-correlation from BOSS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Font-Ribera, Andreu; Arnau, Eduard; Miralda-Escudé, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    We measure the large-scale cross-correlation of quasars with the Lyα forest absorption in redshift space, using ∼ 60000 quasar spectra from Data Release 9 (DR9) of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). The cross-correlation is detected over a wide range of scales, up to comoving separations r of 80 h −1 Mpc. For r > 15 h −1 Mpc, we show that the cross-correlation is well fitted by the linear theory prediction for the mean overdensity around a quasar host halo in the standard ΛCDM model, with the redshift distortions indicative of gravitational evolution detected at high confidence. Using previous determinations of the Lyα forest bias factor obtained from the Lyα autocorrelation, we infer the quasar bias factor to be b q = 3.64 +0.13 −0.15 at a mean redshift z = 2.38, in agreement with previous measurements from the quasar auto-correlation. We also obtain a new estimate of the Lyα forest redshift distortion factor, β F = 1.1±0.15, slightly larger than but consistent with the previous measurement from the Lyα forest autocorrelation. The simple linear model we use fails at separations r −1 Mpc, and we show that this may reasonably be due to the enhanced ionization due to radiation from the quasars. We also provide the expected correction that the mass overdensity around the quasar implies for measurements of the ionizing radiation background from the line-of-sight proximity effect

  19. Prioritizing tiger conservation through landscape genetics and habitat linkages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumnam, Bibek; Jhala, Yadvendradev V; Qureshi, Qamar; Maldonado, Jesus E; Gopal, Rajesh; Saini, Swati; Srinivas, Y; Fleischer, Robert C

    2014-01-01

    Even with global support for tiger (Panthera tigris) conservation their survival is threatened by poaching, habitat loss and isolation. Currently about 3,000 wild tigers persist in small fragmented populations within seven percent of their historic range. Identifying and securing habitat linkages that connect source populations for maintaining landscape-level gene flow is an important long-term conservation strategy for endangered carnivores. However, habitat corridors that link regional tiger populations are often lost to development projects due to lack of objective evidence on their importance. Here, we use individual based genetic analysis in combination with landscape permeability models to identify and prioritize movement corridors across seven tiger populations within the Central Indian Landscape. By using a panel of 11 microsatellites we identified 169 individual tigers from 587 scat and 17 tissue samples. We detected four genetic clusters within Central India with limited gene flow among three of them. Bayesian and likelihood analyses identified 17 tigers as having recent immigrant ancestry. Spatially explicit tiger occupancy obtained from extensive landscape-scale surveys across 76,913 km(2) of forest habitat was found to be only 21,290 km(2). After accounting for detection bias, the covariates that best explained tiger occupancy were large, remote, dense forest patches; large ungulate abundance, and low human footprint. We used tiger occupancy probability to parameterize habitat permeability for modeling habitat linkages using least-cost and circuit theory pathway analyses. Pairwise genetic differences (FST) between populations were better explained by modeled linkage costs (r>0.5, p<0.05) compared to Euclidean distances, which was in consonance with observed habitat fragmentation. The results of our study highlight that many corridors may still be functional as there is evidence of contemporary migration. Conservation efforts should provide legal status

  20. Prioritizing tiger conservation through landscape genetics and habitat linkages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibek Yumnam

    Full Text Available Even with global support for tiger (Panthera tigris conservation their survival is threatened by poaching, habitat loss and isolation. Currently about 3,000 wild tigers persist in small fragmented populations within seven percent of their historic range. Identifying and securing habitat linkages that connect source populations for maintaining landscape-level gene flow is an important long-term conservation strategy for endangered carnivores. However, habitat corridors that link regional tiger populations are often lost to development projects due to lack of objective evidence on their importance. Here, we use individual based genetic analysis in combination with landscape permeability models to identify and prioritize movement corridors across seven tiger populations within the Central Indian Landscape. By using a panel of 11 microsatellites we identified 169 individual tigers from 587 scat and 17 tissue samples. We detected four genetic clusters within Central India with limited gene flow among three of them. Bayesian and likelihood analyses identified 17 tigers as having recent immigrant ancestry. Spatially explicit tiger occupancy obtained from extensive landscape-scale surveys across 76,913 km(2 of forest habitat was found to be only 21,290 km(2. After accounting for detection bias, the covariates that best explained tiger occupancy were large, remote, dense forest patches; large ungulate abundance, and low human footprint. We used tiger occupancy probability to parameterize habitat permeability for modeling habitat linkages using least-cost and circuit theory pathway analyses. Pairwise genetic differences (FST between populations were better explained by modeled linkage costs (r>0.5, p<0.05 compared to Euclidean distances, which was in consonance with observed habitat fragmentation. The results of our study highlight that many corridors may still be functional as there is evidence of contemporary migration. Conservation efforts should

  1. Cross-cultural differences in social desirability scales: Influence of cognitive ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aletta Odendaal

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The use of personality tests for selection and screening has been consistently criticised resulting from the risk of socially desirable responding amongst job applicants. Research purpose: This study examined the magnitude of culture and language group meanscore differences amongst job applicants and the moderating effect of race on the relationship between social desirability and cognitive ability. Motivation for the study: The influence of cognitive ability and potential race and ethnic group differences in social desirability scale scores, which can lead to disproportional selection ratios, has not been extensively researched in South Africa. Research design, approach and method: A quantitative, cross-sectional research design, based on secondary datasets obtained from the test publisher, was employed. The dataset consisted of 1640 job applicants across industry sectors. Main findings: Moderated multiple regression analyses revealed that the relationship between social desirability and general reasoning was moderated by culture and language, with group differences in social desirability being more pronounced at the low general reasoning level. This suggests that social desirability scales may be an ambiguous indicator of faking as the scales may indicate tendency to fake, but not the ability to fake, that is likely to be connected to the level of cognitive ability of the respondent. Practical/managerial implications: Individual differences in social desirability are not fully explained by cognitive ability as cultural differences also played a role. Responding in a certain manner, reflects a level of psychological sophistication that is informed by the level of education and socio-economic status. In relation to selection practice, this study provided evidence of the potentially adverse consequences of using social desirability scales to detect response distortion. Contribution/value-add: The exploration of cross

  2. Contribution of large-scale coherent structures towards the cross flow in two interconnected channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, A.; Rohde, M.; Hagen, T.H.J.J. van der; Mudde, R.F.

    2009-01-01

    Single phase cross flow through a gap region joining two vertical channels has been investigated experimentally for Reynolds numbers, based on the channels hydraulic diameter, ranging from 850 to 21000. The flow field in the gap region is investigated by 2D-PIV and the inter channel mass transfer is quantified by the tracer injection method. Experiments carried out for variable gap heights and shape show the existence of a street of large-scale counter rotating vortices on either side of the channel-gap interface, resulting from the mean velocity gradient in the gap and the main channel region. The appearance of the coherent vortices is subject to a threshold associated with the difference between the maximum and the minimum average stream wise velocities in the channel and the gap region, respectively. The auto power spectral density of the cross velocity component in the gap region exhibits a slope of -3 in the inertial range, indicating the 2D nature of these vortices. The presence of the large-scale vortices enhances the mass transfer through the gap region by approximately 63% of the mass transferred by turbulent mixing alone. The inter-channel mass transfer, due to cross flow, is found to be dependent not only on the large-scale vortices characteristics, but also on the gap geometry. (author)

  3. Availability of Insurance Linkage Programs in U.S. Emergency Departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Kanak

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: As millions of uninsured citizens who use emergency department (ED services are now eligible for health insurance under the Affordable Care Act, the ED is ideally situated to facilitate linkage to insurance. Forty percent of U.S. EDs report having an insurance linkage program. This is the first national study to examine the characteristics of EDs that offer or do not offer these programs. Methods: This was a secondary analysis of data from the National Survey for Preventive Health Services in U.S. EDs conducted in 2008-09. We compared EDs with and without insurance programs across demographic and operational factors using univariate analysis. We then tested our hypotheses using multivariable logistic regression. We also further examined program capacity and priority among the sub-group of EDs with no insurance linkage program. Results: After adjustment, ED-insurance linkage programs were more likely to be located in the West (RR= 2.06, 95% CI = 1.33 – 2.72. The proportion of uninsured patients in an ED, teaching hospital status, and public ownership status were not associated with insurance linkage availability. EDs with linkage programs also offer more preventive services (RR = 1.87, 95% CI = 1.37–2.35 and have greater social worker availability (RR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.12–2.33 than those who do not. Four of five EDs with a patient mix of ≥25% uninsured and no insurance linkage program reported that they could not offer a program with existing staff and funding. Conclusion: Availability of insurance linkage programs in the ED is not associated with the proportion of uninsured patients served by an ED. Policy or hospital-based interventions to increase insurance linkage should first target the 27% of EDs with high rates of uninsured patients that lack adequate program capacity. Further research on barriers to implementation and cost effectiveness may help to facilitate increased adoption of insurance linkage programs. [West J

  4. Saturated linkage map construction in Rubus idaeus using genotyping by sequencing and genome-independent imputation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Judson A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid development of highly saturated genetic maps aids molecular breeding, which can accelerate gain per breeding cycle in woody perennial plants such as Rubus idaeus (red raspberry. Recently, robust genotyping methods based on high-throughput sequencing were developed, which provide high marker density, but result in some genotype errors and a large number of missing genotype values. Imputation can reduce the number of missing values and can correct genotyping errors, but current methods of imputation require a reference genome and thus are not an option for most species. Results Genotyping by Sequencing (GBS was used to produce highly saturated maps for a R. idaeus pseudo-testcross progeny. While low coverage and high variance in sequencing resulted in a large number of missing values for some individuals, a novel method of imputation based on maximum likelihood marker ordering from initial marker segregation overcame the challenge of missing values, and made map construction computationally tractable. The two resulting parental maps contained 4521 and 2391 molecular markers spanning 462.7 and 376.6 cM respectively over seven linkage groups. Detection of precise genomic regions with segregation distortion was possible because of map saturation. Microsatellites (SSRs linked these results to published maps for cross-validation and map comparison. Conclusions GBS together with genome-independent imputation provides a rapid method for genetic map construction in any pseudo-testcross progeny. Our method of imputation estimates the correct genotype call of missing values and corrects genotyping errors that lead to inflated map size and reduced precision in marker placement. Comparison of SSRs to published R. idaeus maps showed that the linkage maps constructed with GBS and our method of imputation were robust, and marker positioning reliable. The high marker density allowed identification of genomic regions with segregation

  5. Revealing the Linkage Network Dynamic Structures of Chinese Maritime Ports through Automatic Information System Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongchu Yu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Marine economic cooperation has emerged as a major theme in this era of globalization; hence, maritime network connectivity and dynamics have attracted more and more attention. Port construction and maritime route improvements increase maritime trade and thus facilitate economic viability and resource sustainability. This paper reveals the regional dimension of inter-port linkage dynamic structure of Chinese maritime ports from a complex multilayer perspective that is meaningful for strategic forecasting and regional long-term economic development planning. In this research, Automatic Information System (AIS-derived traffic flows were used to construct a maritime network and subnetworks based on the geographical locations of ports. The linkage intensity between subnetworks, the linkage tightness within subnetworks, the spatial isolation between high-intensity backbones and tight skeleton networks, and a linkage concentration index for each port were calculated. The ports, in turn, were analyzed based on these network attributes. This study analyzed the external competitiveness and internal cohesion of each subnetwork. The results revealed problems in port management and planning, such as unclear divisions in port operations. More critically, weak complementary relationships between the backbone and skeleton networks among the ports reduce connectivity and must be strengthened. This research contributes to the body of work supporting strategic decision-making for future development.

  6. Whole-genome patterns of linkage disequilibrium across flycatcher populations clarify the causes and consequences of fine-scale recombination rate variation in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Takeshi; Mugal, Carina F; Suh, Alexander; Nater, Alexander; Burri, Reto; Smeds, Linnéa; Ellegren, Hans

    2017-08-01

    Recombination rate is heterogeneous across the genome of various species and so are genetic diversity and differentiation as a consequence of linked selection. However, we still lack a clear picture of the underlying mechanisms for regulating recombination. Here we estimated fine-scale population recombination rate based on the patterns of linkage disequilibrium across the genomes of multiple populations of two closely related flycatcher species (Ficedula albicollis and F. hypoleuca). This revealed an overall conservation of the recombination landscape between these species at the scale of 200 kb, but we also identified differences in the local rate of recombination despite their recent divergence (recombination rate in a lineage-specific manner, indicating differences in the extent of linked selection between species. We detected 400-3,085 recombination hotspots per population. Location of hotspots was conserved between species, but the intensity of hotspot activity varied between species. Recombination hotspots were primarily associated with CpG islands (CGIs), regardless of whether CGIs were at promoter regions or away from genes. Recombination hotspots were also associated with specific transposable elements (TEs), but this association appears indirect due to shared preferences of the transposition machinery and the recombination machinery for accessible open chromatin regions. Our results suggest that CGIs are a major determinant of the localization of recombination hotspots, and we propose that both the distribution of TEs and fine-scale variation in recombination rate may be associated with the evolution of the epigenetic landscape. © 2017 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Quantifying sources of bias in longitudinal data linkage studies of child abuse and neglect: measuring impact of outcome specification, linkage error, and partial cohort follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Jared W; Shanahan, Meghan E; Schnitzer, Patricia G; Lanier, Paul; Daniels, Julie L; Marshall, Stephen W

    2017-12-01

    Health informatics projects combining statewide birth populations with child welfare records have emerged as a valuable approach to conducting longitudinal research of child maltreatment. The potential bias resulting from linkage misspecification, partial cohort follow-up, and outcome misclassification in these studies has been largely unexplored. This study integrated epidemiological survey and novel administrative data sources to establish the Alaska Longitudinal Child Abuse and Neglect Linkage (ALCANLink) project. Using these data we evaluated and quantified the impact of non-linkage misspecification and single source maltreatment ascertainment use on reported maltreatment risk and effect estimates. The ALCANLink project integrates the 2009-2011 Alaska Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) sample with multiple administrative databases through 2014, including one novel administrative source to track out-of-state emigration. For this project we limited our analysis to the 2009 PRAMS sample. We report on the impact of linkage quality, cohort follow-up, and multisource outcome ascertainment on the incidence proportion of reported maltreatment before age 6 and hazard ratios of selected characteristics that are often available in birth cohort linkage studies of maltreatment. Failure to account for out-of-state emigration biased the incidence proportion by 12% (from 28.3% w to 25.2% w ), and the hazard ratio (HR) by as much as 33% for some risk factors. Overly restrictive linkage parameters biased the incidence proportion downwards by 43% and the HR by as much as 27% for some factors. Multi-source linkages, on the other hand, were of little benefit for improving reported maltreatment ascertainment. Using the ALCANLink data which included a novel administrative data source, we were able to observe and quantify bias to both the incidence proportion and HR in a birth cohort linkage study of reported child maltreatment. Failure to account for out

  8. The importance of including local correlation times in the calculation of inter-proton distances from NMR measurements: ignoring local correlation times leads to significant errors in the conformational analysis of the Glc alpha1-2Glc alpha linkage by NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackeen, Mukram; Almond, Andrew; Cumpstey, Ian; Enis, Seth C; Kupce, Eriks; Butters, Terry D; Fairbanks, Antony J; Dwek, Raymond A; Wormald, Mark R

    2006-06-07

    The experimental determination of oligosaccharide conformations has traditionally used cross-linkage 1H-1H NOE/ROEs. As relatively few NOEs are observed, to provide sufficient conformational constraints this method relies on: accurate quantification of NOE intensities (positive constraints); analysis of absent NOEs (negative constraints); and hence calculation of inter-proton distances using the two-spin approximation. We have compared the results obtained by using 1H 2D NOESY, ROESY and T-ROESY experiments at 500 and 700 MHz to determine the conformation of the terminal Glc alpha1-2Glc alpha linkage in a dodecasaccharide and a related tetrasaccharide. For the tetrasaccharide, the NOESY and ROESY spectra produced the same qualitative pattern of linkage cross-peaks but the quantitative pattern, the relative peak intensities, was different. For the dodecasaccharide, the NOESY and ROESY spectra at 500 MHz produced a different qualitative pattern of linkage cross-peaks, with fewer peaks in the NOESY spectrum. At 700 MHz, the NOESY and ROESY spectra of the dodecasaccharide produced the same qualitative pattern of peaks, but again the relative peak intensities were different. These differences are due to very significant differences in the local correlation times for different proton pairs across this glycosidic linkage. The local correlation time for each proton pair was measured using the ratio of the NOESY and T-ROESY cross-relaxation rates, leaving the NOESY and ROESY as independent data sets for calculating the inter-proton distances. The inter-proton distances calculated including the effects of differences in local correlation times give much more consistent results.

  9. A statistical design for testing apomictic diversification through linkage analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yanru; Hou, Wei; Song, Shuang; Feng, Sisi; Shen, Lin; Xia, Guohua; Wu, Rongling

    2014-03-01

    The capacity of apomixis to generate maternal clones through seed reproduction has made it a useful characteristic for the fixation of heterosis in plant breeding. It has been observed that apomixis displays pronounced intra- and interspecific diversification, but the genetic mechanisms underlying this diversification remains elusive, obstructing the exploitation of this phenomenon in practical breeding programs. By capitalizing on molecular information in mapping populations, we describe and assess a statistical design that deploys linkage analysis to estimate and test the pattern and extent of apomictic differences at various levels from genotypes to species. The design is based on two reciprocal crosses between two individuals each chosen from a hermaphrodite or monoecious species. A multinomial distribution likelihood is constructed by combining marker information from two crosses. The EM algorithm is implemented to estimate the rate of apomixis and test its difference between two plant populations or species as the parents. The design is validated by computer simulation. A real data analysis of two reciprocal crosses between hickory (Carya cathayensis) and pecan (C. illinoensis) demonstrates the utilization and usefulness of the design in practice. The design provides a tool to address fundamental and applied questions related to the evolution and breeding of apomixis.

  10. [Linkage to care among new human immunodeficiency virus diagnoses in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Jesús; Malo, Carmen; Fernández, Ana; Izquierdo, Ana; Marcos, Henar; Cevallos, Carlos; Castilla, Jesús; García, Rocio; Díez, Mercedes

    2014-03-01

    To describe linkage to care among new HIV diagnoses in Spain; and to estimate factors associated to linkage to care within three months after diagnosis. The distribution of the time elapsing between the date of HIV diagnosis and the date of first determination of CD4 (considered to be the date of linkage to care) was calculated among new HIV diagnoses in 2010 in the seven Autonomous Regions participating, where data on date of CD4 count was available. Linkage to care was considered «correct» if done within three months after diagnosis. Factors associated to correct linkage to care were estimated using logistic regression. A total of 1769 new HIV diagnoses were included. Of them, 83.1% had evidence of linkage to care within a year, and 75.7% were linked within three months after diagnosis. Being an injectable drug user (IDU) was the only factor inversely associated with linkage to care within 3 months (OR = 0.3; 95% CI: 0.2-0.6). In Spain linkage to care after HIV diagnosis is good, but there is still room for improvement, especially among IDUs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  11. Critical Evaluation of the Linkage Between Tick-Based Risk Measures and the Occurrence of Lyme Disease Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Lars; Eisen, Rebecca J.

    2018-01-01

    The nymphal stage of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say, is considered the primary vector to humans in the eastern United States of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. The abundance of infected host-seeking nymphs is commonly used to estimate the fundamental risk of human exposure to B. burgdorferi, for the purpose of environmental risk assessment and as an outcome measure when evaluating environmentally based tick or pathogen control methods. However, as this tick-based risk measure does not consider the likelihoods of either human encounters with infected ticks or tick bites resulting in pathogen transmission, its linkage to the occurrence of Lyme disease cases is worth evaluating. In this Forum article, we describe different tick-based risk measures, discuss their strengths and weaknesses, and review the evidence for their capacity to predict the occurrence of Lyme disease cases. We conclude that: 1) the linkage between abundance of host-seeking B. burgdorferi-infected nymphs and Lyme disease occurrence is strong at community or county scales but weak at the fine spatial scale of residential properties where most human exposures to infected nymphs occur in Northeast, 2) the combined use of risk measures based on infected nymphs collected from the environment and ticks collected from humans is preferable to either one of these risk measures used singly when assessing the efficacy of environmentally based tick or pathogen control methods aiming to reduce the risk of human exposure to B. burgdorferi, 3) there is a need for improved risk assessment methodology for residential properties that accounts for both the abundance of infected nymphs and the likelihood of human–tick contact, and 4) we need to better understand how specific human activities conducted in defined residential microhabitats relate to risk for nymphal exposures and bites. PMID:27330093

  12. Survey error in an international context: an empirical assessment of cross-cultural differences regarding scale effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tobi, H.; Kampen, J.K.

    2013-01-01

    Likert-type of questions are prone to differences in response styles. The aim of the present study is to examine possible cross-cultural differences regarding scale effects resulting from different answer categories. This study aims to extend the literature on scale effects to a foreign language. An

  13. Equation Chapter 1 Section 1Cross Layer Design for Localization in Large-Scale Underwater Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanfeng ZHANG

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available There are many technical challenges for designing large-scale underwater sensor networks, especially the sensor node localization. Although many papers studied for large-scale sensor node localization, previous studies mainly study the location algorithm without the cross layer design for localization. In this paper, by utilizing the network hierarchical structure of underwater sensor networks, we propose a new large-scale underwater acoustic localization scheme based on cross layer design. In this scheme, localization is performed in a hierarchical way, and the whole localization process focused on the physical layer, data link layer and application layer. We increase the pipeline parameters which matched the acoustic channel, added in MAC protocol to increase the authenticity of the large-scale underwater sensor networks, and made analysis of different location algorithm. We conduct extensive simulations, and our results show that MAC layer protocol and the localization algorithm all would affect the result of localization which can balance the trade-off between localization accuracy, localization coverage, and communication cost.

  14. A saturated SSR/DArT linkage map of Musa acuminata addressing genome rearrangements among bananas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippolyte, Isabelle; Bakry, Frederic; Seguin, Marc; Gardes, Laetitia; Rivallan, Ronan; Risterucci, Ange-Marie; Jenny, Christophe; Perrier, Xavier; Carreel, Françoise; Argout, Xavier; Piffanelli, Pietro; Khan, Imtiaz A; Miller, Robert N G; Pappas, Georgios J; Mbéguié-A-Mbéguié, Didier; Matsumoto, Takashi; De Bernardinis, Veronique; Huttner, Eric; Kilian, Andrzej; Baurens, Franc-Christophe; D'Hont, Angélique; Cote, François; Courtois, Brigitte; Glaszmann, Jean-Christophe

    2010-04-13

    The genus Musa is a large species complex which includes cultivars at diploid and triploid levels. These sterile and vegetatively propagated cultivars are based on the A genome from Musa acuminata, exclusively for sweet bananas such as Cavendish, or associated with the B genome (Musa balbisiana) in cooking bananas such as Plantain varieties. In M. acuminata cultivars, structural heterozygosity is thought to be one of the main causes of sterility, which is essential for obtaining seedless fruits but hampers breeding. Only partial genetic maps are presently available due to chromosomal rearrangements within the parents of the mapping populations. This causes large segregation distortions inducing pseudo-linkages and difficulties in ordering markers in the linkage groups. The present study aims at producing a saturated linkage map of M. acuminata, taking into account hypotheses on the structural heterozygosity of the parents. An F1 progeny of 180 individuals was obtained from a cross between two genetically distant accessions of M. acuminata, 'Borneo' and 'Pisang Lilin' (P. Lilin). Based on the gametic recombination of each parent, two parental maps composed of SSR and DArT markers were established. A significant proportion of the markers (21.7%) deviated (p DArTs) covering 1197 cM. This first saturated map is proposed as a "reference Musa map" for further analyses. We also propose two complete parental maps with interpretations of structural rearrangements localized on the linkage groups. The structural heterozygosity in P. Lilin is hypothesized to result from a duplication likely accompanied by an inversion on another chromosome. This paper also illustrates a methodological approach, transferable to other species, to investigate the mapping of structural rearrangements and determine their consequences on marker segregation.

  15. Nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate: Evidence of linkage to BCL3 in 17 multigenerational families

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, J.; Hecht, T. [Univ. of Texas, Houston, TX (United States); Stal, S. [Texas Children`s Hospital, Houston, TX (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-01

    Nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) is a common craniofacial developmental defect. Recent segregation analyses have suggested that major genes play a role in the etiology of CL/P. Linkage to 22 candidate genes was tested in 11 multigenerational families with CL/P, and 21 of these candidates were excluded. APOC2, 19q13.1, which is linked to the proto-oncogene BCL3, gave suggestive evidence for linkage to CL/P. The study was expanded to include a total of 39 multigenerational CL/P families. Linkage was tested in all families, using anonymous marker, D19S178, and intragenic markers in BCL3 and APOC2. Linkage was tested under two models, autosomal dominant with reduced penetrance and affecteds-only model. Both models showed evidence of heterogeneity, with 43% of families linked at zero recombination to BCL3 when marker data from BCL3 and APOC2 were included. A maximum multipoint LOD score of 7.00 at BCL3 was found among the 17 families that had posterior probabilities {ge}50% in favor of linkage. The transmission disequilibrium test provided additional evidence for linkage with the 3 allele of BCL3 more often transmitted to affected children. These results suggest that BCL3, or a nearby gene, plays a role in the etiology of CL/P in some families. 39 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Effects of aquaculture researchers' job characteristics on linkage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the effects of researchers' job characteristics on linkage activities in Nigeria due to the fact that many fish farmers have not been properly reached with technologies and the problem of poor fish production has been attributed to the weak linkages existing between research, extension and fish farmers.

  17. Shielding proposal to reduce cross-talk from ITER lower port to equatorial port

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez, Rafael, E-mail: rjuarez@ind.uned.es [Departamento de Ingeniería Energética, ETSII-UNED, Calle Juan del Rosal 12, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Pampin, Raul [F4E, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, Josep Pla 2, Barcelona 08019 (Spain); Levesy, Bruno [ITER Organization, 13115 Route de Vinon sur Verdon, St Paul Lez Durance (France); Moro, Fabio [ENEA, Via Enrico Fermi 45, Frascati, Rome (Italy); Suarez, Alejandro [ITER Organization, 13115 Route de Vinon sur Verdon, St Paul Lez Durance (France); Catalan, J.P.; Sanz, Javier [Departamento de Ingeniería Energética, ETSII-UNED, Calle Juan del Rosal 12, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2015-12-15

    Radiation cross-talk from Torus Cryopump LP to EP was found to be a phenomenon driving Shutdown Dose Rates at EP Port Interspace after 12 days of cooling time, as relevant as neutron permeation through EP itself. In this work three different shields are proposed to mitigate the radiation cross-talk: two neutron shields placed inside LP, and a temporary gamma shield placed at EP PI during maintenance activities. Contributions from different reactor regions to Shutdown Dose Rates are computed, for the unshielded design, as long as the different shielded cases. The Rigorous-Two-Steps (R2S) method was used. The neutron shields inside TCP-LP are found to reduce SDR at EP PI 43 μSv/h and 99 μSv/h, while the gamma shield inside EP PI offers a reduction of 157 μSv/h in its heaviest configuration. Among these relevant reductions, the gamma shield inside the EP PI offers the best shielding option, as it reduces gamma cross-talk from TCP-LP and also protects EP PI from Port Duct and EP bellows activation, while it does not interfere with TCP performance.

  18. Reducing mechanical cross-coupling in phased array transducers using stop band material as backing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneberg, J.; Gerlach, A.; Storck, H.; Cebulla, H.; Marburg, S.

    2018-06-01

    Phased array transducers are widely used for acoustic imaging and surround sensing applications. A major design challenge is the achievement of low mechanical cross-coupling between the single transducer elements. Cross-coupling induces a loss of imaging resolution. In this work, the mechanical cross-coupling between acoustic transducers is investigated for a generic model. The model contains a common backing with two bending elements bonded on top. The dimensions of the backing are small; thus, wave reflections on the backing edges have to be considered. This is different to other researches. The operating frequency in the generic model is set to a low kHz range. Low operating frequencies are typical for surround sensing applications. The influence of the backing on cross-coupling is investigated numerically. In order to reduce mechanical cross-coupling a stop band material is designed. It is shown numerically that a reduction in mechanical cross-coupling can be achieved by using stop band material as backing. The effect is validated with experimental testing.

  19. Nature–society linkages in the Aral Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristopher D. White

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Central Asia's Aral Sea crisis represents a disaster of monumental proportions, a tragedy for both the region's ecology and its human inhabitants. While the human and natural environments had operated in a sustainable co-joined system for millennia, Tsarist Russian expansion into Central Asia, followed by Soviet expansion of both the cotton industry and unsustainable irrigation practices to anchor it spelled doom for the Aral Sea. Today, many of the political and economic stimuli for such misguided practices continue, as do the continued retreat of the Sea and the proliferation of poor human health. The Aral Sea crisis has received ample scholarly attention, though somewhat surprising is a relative dearth of research explicitly investigating the nature, variety, and directionality of nature–society linkages today within the region. The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the contemporary nature–society linkages operating within the Aral Sea region of Central Asia. Historical nexuses will provide necessary background, and the linkages operating currently within the spheres of regional economy, human health, and political considerations will be detailed. Couching the current crisis within the framework of coupled human–environment system contexts reveals a region in which these linkages are largely inextricable. This paper concludes with a call for a reconsideration of the nature-society linkages and a greater emphasis placed on the local region's ecological and social sustainability.

  20. Scaling up HIV viral load - lessons from the large-scale implementation of HIV early infant diagnosis and CD4 testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Trevor; Zeh, Clement; Katz, Zachary; Elbireer, Ali; Alemayehu, Bereket; Vojnov, Lara; Costa, Alex; Doi, Naoko; Jani, Ilesh

    2017-11-01

    The scale-up of effective HIV viral load (VL) testing is an urgent public health priority. Implementation of testing is supported by the availability of accurate, nucleic acid based laboratory and point-of-care (POC) VL technologies and strong WHO guidance recommending routine testing to identify treatment failure. However, test implementation faces challenges related to the developing health systems in many low-resource countries. The purpose of this commentary is to review the challenges and solutions from the large-scale implementation of other diagnostic tests, namely nucleic-acid based early infant HIV diagnosis (EID) and CD4 testing, and identify key lessons to inform the scale-up of VL. Experience with EID and CD4 testing provides many key lessons to inform VL implementation and may enable more effective and rapid scale-up. The primary lessons from earlier implementation efforts are to strengthen linkage to clinical care after testing, and to improve the efficiency of testing. Opportunities to improve linkage include data systems to support the follow-up of patients through the cascade of care and test delivery, rapid sample referral networks, and POC tests. Opportunities to increase testing efficiency include improvements to procurement and supply chain practices, well connected tiered laboratory networks with rational deployment of test capacity across different levels of health services, routine resource mapping and mobilization to ensure adequate resources for testing programs, and improved operational and quality management of testing services. If applied to VL testing programs, these approaches could help improve the impact of VL on ART failure management and patient outcomes, reduce overall costs and help ensure the sustainable access to reduced pricing for test commodities, as well as improve supportive health systems such as efficient, and more rigorous quality assurance. These lessons draw from traditional laboratory practices as well as fields

  1. Screening for postdeployment conditions: development and cross-validation of an embedded validity scale in the neurobehavioral symptom inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderploeg, Rodney D; Cooper, Douglas B; Belanger, Heather G; Donnell, Alison J; Kennedy, Jan E; Hopewell, Clifford A; Scott, Steven G

    2014-01-01

    To develop and cross-validate internal validity scales for the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory (NSI). Four existing data sets were used: (1) outpatient clinical traumatic brain injury (TBI)/neurorehabilitation database from a military site (n = 403), (2) National Department of Veterans Affairs TBI evaluation database (n = 48 175), (3) Florida National Guard nonclinical TBI survey database (n = 3098), and (4) a cross-validation outpatient clinical TBI/neurorehabilitation database combined across 2 military medical centers (n = 206). Secondary analysis of existing cohort data to develop (study 1) and cross-validate (study 2) internal validity scales for the NSI. The NSI, Mild Brain Injury Atypical Symptoms, and Personality Assessment Inventory scores. Study 1: Three NSI validity scales were developed, composed of 5 unusual items (Negative Impression Management [NIM5]), 6 low-frequency items (LOW6), and the combination of 10 nonoverlapping items (Validity-10). Cut scores maximizing sensitivity and specificity on these measures were determined, using a Mild Brain Injury Atypical Symptoms score of 8 or more as the criterion for invalidity. Study 2: The same validity scale cut scores again resulted in the highest classification accuracy and optimal balance between sensitivity and specificity in the cross-validation sample, using a Personality Assessment Inventory Negative Impression Management scale with a T score of 75 or higher as the criterion for invalidity. The NSI is widely used in the Department of Defense and Veterans Affairs as a symptom-severity assessment following TBI, but is subject to symptom overreporting or exaggeration. This study developed embedded NSI validity scales to facilitate the detection of invalid response styles. The NSI Validity-10 scale appears to hold considerable promise for validity assessment when the NSI is used as a population-screening tool.

  2. Genome scan for linkage to Gilles de la Tourette syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr, C.L.; Livingston, J.; Williamson, R. [and others

    1994-09-01

    Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (TS) is a familial, neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by chronic, intermittent motor and vocal tics. In addition to tics, affected individuals frequently display symptoms such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and/or obsessive compulsive disorder. Genetic analyses of family data have suggested that susceptibility to the disorder is most likely due to a single genetic locus with a dominant mode of transmission and reduced penetrance. In the search for genetic linkage for TS, we have collected well-characterized pedigrees with multiple affected individuals on whom extensive diagnostic evaluations have been done. The first stage of our study is to scan the genome systematically using a panel of uniformly spaced (10 to 20 cM), highly polymorphic, microsatellite markers on 5 families segregating TS. To date, 290 markers have been typed and 3,660 non-overlapping cM of the genome have been excluded for possible linkage under the assumption of genetic homogeneity. Because of the possibility of locus heterogeneity overall summed exclusion is not considered tantamount to absolute exclusion of a disease locus in that region. The results from each family are carefully evaluated and a positive lod score in a single family is followed up by typing closely linked markers. Linkage to TS was examined by two-point analysis using the following genetic model: single autosomal dominant gene with gene frequency .003 and maximum penetrance of .99. An age-of-onset correction is included using a linear function increasing from age 2 years to 21 years. A small rate of phenocopies is also incorporated into the model. Only individuals with TS or CMT according to DSM III-R criteria were regarded as affected for the purposes of this summary. Additional markers are being tested to provide coverage at 5 cM intervals. Moreover, we are currently analyzing the data non-parametrically using the Affected-Pedigree-Member Method of linkage analysis.

  3. The statistical power to detect cross-scale interactions at macroscales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Tyler; Fergus, C. Emi; Stow, Craig A.; Cheruvelil, Kendra S.; Soranno, Patricia A.

    2016-01-01

    Macroscale studies of ecological phenomena are increasingly common because stressors such as climate and land-use change operate at large spatial and temporal scales. Cross-scale interactions (CSIs), where ecological processes operating at one spatial or temporal scale interact with processes operating at another scale, have been documented in a variety of ecosystems and contribute to complex system dynamics. However, studies investigating CSIs are often dependent on compiling multiple data sets from different sources to create multithematic, multiscaled data sets, which results in structurally complex, and sometimes incomplete data sets. The statistical power to detect CSIs needs to be evaluated because of their importance and the challenge of quantifying CSIs using data sets with complex structures and missing observations. We studied this problem using a spatially hierarchical model that measures CSIs between regional agriculture and its effects on the relationship between lake nutrients and lake productivity. We used an existing large multithematic, multiscaled database, LAke multiscaled GeOSpatial, and temporal database (LAGOS), to parameterize the power analysis simulations. We found that the power to detect CSIs was more strongly related to the number of regions in the study rather than the number of lakes nested within each region. CSI power analyses will not only help ecologists design large-scale studies aimed at detecting CSIs, but will also focus attention on CSI effect sizes and the degree to which they are ecologically relevant and detectable with large data sets.

  4. Finite Mixture Multilevel Multidimensional Ordinal IRT Models for Large Scale Cross-Cultural Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Martijn G.; Steenkamp, Jan-Benedict E. M.

    2010-01-01

    We present a class of finite mixture multilevel multidimensional ordinal IRT models for large scale cross-cultural research. Our model is proposed for confirmatory research settings. Our prior for item parameters is a mixture distribution to accommodate situations where different groups of countries have different measurement operations, while…

  5. Intragroup Emotions: Physiological Linkage and Social Presence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvelä, Simo; Kätsyri, Jari; Ravaja, Niklas; Chanel, Guillaume; Henttonen, Pentti

    2016-01-01

    We investigated how technologically mediating two different components of emotion-communicative expression and physiological state-to group members affects physiological linkage and self-reported feelings in a small group during video viewing. In different conditions the availability of second screen text chat (communicative expression) and visualization of group level physiological heart rates and their dyadic linkage (physiology) was varied. Within this four person group two participants formed a physically co-located dyad and the other two were individually situated in two separate rooms. We found that text chat always increased heart rate synchrony but HR visualization only with non-co-located dyads. We also found that physiological linkage was strongly connected to self-reported social presence. The results encourage further exploration of the possibilities of sharing group member's physiological components of emotion by technological means to enhance mediated communication and strengthen social presence.

  6. A high-density SNP linkage scan with 142 combined subtype ADHD sib pairs identifies linkage regions on chromosomes 9 and 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asherson, P; Zhou, K; Anney, R J L; Franke, B; Buitelaar, J; Ebstein, R; Gill, M; Altink, M; Arnold, R; Boer, F; Brookes, K; Buschgens, C; Butler, L; Cambell, D; Chen, W; Christiansen, H; Feldman, L; Fleischman, K; Fliers, E; Howe-Forbes, R; Goldfarb, A; Heise, A; Gabriëls, I; Johansson, L; Lubetzki, I; Marco, R; Medad, S; Minderaa, R; Mulas, F; Müller, U; Mulligan, A; Neale, B; Rijsdijk, F; Rabin, K; Rommelse, N; Sethna, V; Sorohan, J; Uebel, H; Psychogiou, L; Weeks, A; Barrett, R; Xu, X; Banaschewski, T; Sonuga-Barke, E; Eisenberg, J; Manor, I; Miranda, A; Oades, R D; Roeyers, H; Rothenberger, A; Sergeant, J; Steinhausen, H-C; Taylor, E; Thompson, M; Faraone, S V

    2008-05-01

    As part of the International Multi-centre ADHD Genetics project we completed an affected sibling pair study of 142 narrowly defined Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition combined type attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) proband-sibling pairs. No linkage was observed on the most established ADHD-linked genomic regions of 5p and 17p. We found suggestive linkage signals on chromosomes 9 and 16, respectively, with the highest multipoint nonparametric linkage signal on chromosome 16q23 at 99 cM (log of the odds, LOD=3.1) overlapping data published from the previous UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles) (LOD>1, approximately 95 cM) and Dutch (LOD>1, approximately 100 cM) studies. The second highest peak in this study was on chromosome 9q22 at 90 cM (LOD=2.13); both the previous UCLA and German studies also found some evidence of linkage at almost the same location (UCLA LOD=1.45 at 93 cM; German LOD=0.68 at 100 cM). The overlap of these two main peaks with previous findings suggests that loci linked to ADHD may lie within these regions. Meta-analysis or reanalysis of the raw data of all the available ADHD linkage scan data may help to clarify whether these represent true linked loci.

  7. Biocatalytic cross-linking of pectic polysaccharides for designed food functionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaidel, Dayang Norulfairuz Abang; Meyer, Anne S.

    2012-01-01

    the mechanisms of formation of functional pectic polysaccharide cross-links, including covalent cross-links (notably phenolic esters and uronyl ester linkages) and non-covalent, ionic cross-links (which involve calcium and borate ester links). The treatise examines how such cross-links can be designed via......Recent research has demonstrated how cross-linking of pectic polysaccharides to obtain gel formation can be promoted by enzymatic catalysis reactions, and provide opportunities for functional upgrading of pectic polysaccharides present in agro-industrial sidestreams. This review highlights...... specific enzymatic reactions, and highlights the most recent data concerning enzyme catalyzed engineering of cross-links for in situ structural design of functional properties of foods....

  8. Scaling of two-phase flow transients using reduced pressure system and simulant fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocamustafaogullari, G.; Ishii, M.

    1987-01-01

    Scaling criteria for a natural circulation loop under single-phase flow conditions are derived. Based on these criteria, practical applications for designing a scaled-down model are considered. Particular emphasis is placed on scaling a test model at reduced pressure levels compared to a prototype and on fluid-to-fluid scaling. The large number of similarty groups which are to be matched between modell and prototype makes the design of a scale model a challenging tasks. The present study demonstrates a new approach to this clasical problen using two-phase flow scaling parameters. It indicates that a real time scaling is not a practical solution and a scaled-down model should have an accelerated (shortened) time scale. An important result is the proposed new scaling methodology for simulating pressure transients. It is obtained by considerung the changes of the fluid property groups which appear within the two-phase similarity parameters and the single-phase to two-phase flow transition prameters. Sample calculations are performed for modeling two-phase flow transients of a high pressure water system by a low-pressure water system or a Freon system. It is shown that modeling is possible for both cases for simulation pressure transients. However, simulation of phase change transitions is not possible by a reduced pressure water system without distortion in either power or time. (orig.)

  9. A Dense Brown Trout (Salmo trutta) Linkage Map Reveals Recent Chromosomal Rearrangements in the Salmo Genus and the Impact of Selection on Linked Neutral Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitwein, Maeva; Guinand, Bruno; Pouzadoux, Juliette; Desmarais, Erick; Berrebi, Patrick; Gagnaire, Pierre-Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    High-density linkage maps are valuable tools for conservation and eco-evolutionary issues. In salmonids, a complex rediploidization process consecutive to an ancient whole genome duplication event makes linkage maps of prime importance for investigating the evolutionary history of chromosome rearrangements. Here, we developed a high-density consensus linkage map for the brown trout (Salmo trutta), a socioeconomically important species heavily impacted by human activities. A total of 3977 ddRAD markers were mapped and ordered in 40 linkage groups using sex- and lineage-averaged recombination distances obtained from two family crosses. Performing map comparison between S. trutta and its sister species, S. salar, revealed extensive chromosomal rearrangements. Strikingly, all of the fusion and fission events that occurred after the S. salar/S. trutta speciation happened in the Atlantic salmon branch, whereas the brown trout remained closer to the ancestral chromosome structure. Using the strongly conserved synteny within chromosome arms, we aligned the brown trout linkage map to the Atlantic salmon genome sequence to estimate the local recombination rate in S. trutta at 3721 loci. A significant positive correlation between recombination rate and within-population nucleotide diversity (π) was found, indicating that selection constrains variation at linked neutral sites in brown trout. This new high-density linkage map provides a useful genomic resource for future aquaculture, conservation, and eco-evolutionary studies in brown trout. PMID:28235829

  10. A Dense Brown Trout (Salmo trutta Linkage Map Reveals Recent Chromosomal Rearrangements in the Salmo Genus and the Impact of Selection on Linked Neutral Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maeva Leitwein

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available High-density linkage maps are valuable tools for conservation and eco-evolutionary issues. In salmonids, a complex rediploidization process consecutive to an ancient whole genome duplication event makes linkage maps of prime importance for investigating the evolutionary history of chromosome rearrangements. Here, we developed a high-density consensus linkage map for the brown trout (Salmo trutta, a socioeconomically important species heavily impacted by human activities. A total of 3977 ddRAD markers were mapped and ordered in 40 linkage groups using sex- and lineage-averaged recombination distances obtained from two family crosses. Performing map comparison between S. trutta and its sister species, S. salar, revealed extensive chromosomal rearrangements. Strikingly, all of the fusion and fission events that occurred after the S. salar/S. trutta speciation happened in the Atlantic salmon branch, whereas the brown trout remained closer to the ancestral chromosome structure. Using the strongly conserved synteny within chromosome arms, we aligned the brown trout linkage map to the Atlantic salmon genome sequence to estimate the local recombination rate in S. trutta at 3721 loci. A significant positive correlation between recombination rate and within-population nucleotide diversity (π was found, indicating that selection constrains variation at linked neutral sites in brown trout. This new high-density linkage map provides a useful genomic resource for future aquaculture, conservation, and eco-evolutionary studies in brown trout.

  11. Characterization of genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium of ZmLOX4 and ZmLOX5 loci in maize.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald N De La Fuente

    Full Text Available Maize (Zea mays L. lipoxygenases (ZmLOXs are well recognized as important players in plant defense against pathogens, especially in cross kingdom lipid communication with pathogenic fungi. This study is among the first to investigate genetic diversity at important gene paralogs ZmLOX4 and ZmLOX5. Sequencing of these genes in 400 diverse maize lines showed little genetic diversity and low linkage disequilibrium in the two genes. Importantly, we identified one inbred line in which ZmLOX5 has a disrupted open reading frame, a line missing ZmLOX5, and five lines with a duplication of ZmLOX5. Tajima's D test suggests that both ZmLOX4 and ZmLOX5 have been under neutral selection. Further investigation of haplotype data revealed that within the ZmLOX family members only ZmLOX12, a monocot specific ZmLOX, showed strong linkage disequilibrium that extends further than expected in maize. Linkage disequilibrium patterns at these loci of interest are crucial for future candidate gene association mapping studies. ZmLOX4 and ZmLOX5 mutations and copy number variants are under further investigation for crop improvement.

  12. Asian Financial Linkages: The Case of Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Fialová, Anežka

    2014-01-01

    This work reviews the topic of international financial linkages, including theoretical definitions and the main methodological approaches of the empirical measurement based on vector autoregressive models. One of the approaches, the Spillover Index methodology based on Diebold & Yilmaz (2009), is then used to analyze the developments of financial linkages of the Japanese stock market in the period from 1995 to 2012. The attention is paid both to the relations with western developed economies ...

  13. Genetic Linkage Map Construction and QTL Analysis of Two Interspecific Reproductive Isolation Traits in Sponge Gourd

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Haibin; He, Xiaoli; Gong, Hao; Luo, Shaobo; Li, Mingzhu; Chen, Junqiu; Zhang, Changyuan; Yu, Ting; Huang, Wangping; Luo, Jianning

    2016-01-01

    The hybrids between Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb. and L.cylindrica (L.) Roem. have strong heterosis effects. However, some reproductive isolation traits hindered their normal hybridization and fructification, which was mainly caused by the flowering time and hybrid pollen sterility. In order to study the genetic basis of two interspecific reproductive isolation traits, we constructed a genetic linkage map using an F2 population derived from a cross between S1174 [L. acutangula (L.) Roxb.] and 9...

  14. Nance-Horan syndrome: linkage analysis in a family from The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergen, A. A.; ten Brink, J.; Schuurman, E. J.; Bleeker-Wagemakers, E. M.

    1994-01-01

    Linkage analysis was carried out in a Dutch family with Nance-Horan (NH) syndrome. Close linkage without recombination between NH and the Xp loci DXS207, DXS43, and DXS365 (zmax = 3.23) was observed. Multipoint linkage analysis and the analysis of recombinations in multiple informative meioses

  15. Body Dysmorphic Symptoms Scale for patients seeking esthetic surgery: cross-cultural validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Dalpasquale Ramos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Rhinoplasty is one of the most sought-after esthetic operations among individuals with body dysmorphic disorder. The aim of this study was to cross-culturally adapt and validate the Body Dysmorphic Symptoms Scale. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-cultural validation study conducted in a plastic surgery outpatient clinic of a public university hospital. METHODS: Between February 2014 and March 2015, 80 consecutive patients of both sexes seeking rhinoplasty were selected. Thirty of them participated in the phase of cultural adaptation of the instrument. Reproducibility was tested on 20 patients and construct validity was assessed on 50 patients, with correlation against the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale for Body Dysmorphic Disorder. RESULTS: The Brazilian version of the instrument showed Cronbach's alpha of 0.805 and excellent inter-rater reproducibility (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC = 0.873; P < 0.001 and intra-rater reproducibility (ICC = 0.939; P < 0.001. Significant differences in total scores were found between patients with and without symptoms (P < 0.001. A strong correlation (r = 0.841; P < 0.001 was observed between the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale for Body Dysmorphic Disorder and the Body Dysmorphic Symptoms Scale. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.981, thus showing good accuracy for discriminating between presence and absence of symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder. Forty-six percent of the patients had body dysmorphic symptoms and 54% had moderate to severe appearance-related obsessive-compulsive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: The Brazilian version of the Body Dysmorphic Symptoms Scale is a reproducible instrument that presents face, content and construct validity.

  16. Dynamic radar cross section measurements of a full-scale aircraft for RCS modelling validation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Schalkwyk, Richard F

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the process followed in generating a high fidelity reference data set for radar cross section (RCS) modelling validation for a full-scale aircraft, is presented. An overview of two dynamic RCS measurement campaigns, involving both...

  17. Validation of an instrument to measure inter-organisational linkages in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoroso, Cheryl; Proudfoot, Judith; Bubner, Tanya; Jayasinghe, Upali W; Holton, Christine; Winstanley, Julie; Beilby, Justin; Harris, Mark F

    2007-12-03

    Linkages between general medical practices and external services are important for high quality chronic disease care. The purpose of this research is to describe the development, evaluation and use of a brief tool that measures the comprehensiveness and quality of a general practice's linkages with external providers for the management of patients with chronic disease. In this study, clinical linkages are defined as the communication, support, and referral arrangements between services for the care and assistance of patients with chronic disease. An interview to measure surgery-level (rather than individual clinician-level) clinical linkages was developed, piloted, reviewed, and evaluated with 97 Australian general practices. Two validated survey instruments were posted to patients, and a survey of locally available services was developed and posted to participating Divisions of General Practice (support organisations). Hypotheses regarding internal validity, association with local services, and patient satisfaction were tested using factor analysis, logistic regression and multilevel regression models. The resulting General Practice Clinical Linkages Interview (GP-CLI) is a nine-item tool with three underlying factors: referral and advice linkages, shared care and care planning linkages, and community access and awareness linkages. Local availability of chronic disease services has no affect on the comprehensiveness of services with which practices link, however, comprehensiveness of clinical linkages has an association with patient assessment of access, receptionist services, and of continuity of care in their general practice. The GP-CLI may be useful to researchers examining comparable health care systems for measuring the comprehensiveness and quality of linkages at a general practice-level with related services, possessing both internal and external validity. The tool can be used with large samples exploring the impact, outcomes, and facilitators of high

  18. Validation of an instrument to measure inter-organisational linkages in general practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Amoroso

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Linkages between general medical practices and external services are important for high quality chronic disease care. The purpose of this research is to describe the development, evaluation and use of a brief tool that measures the comprehensiveness and quality of a general practice’s linkages with external providers for the management of patients with chronic disease. In this study, clinical linkages are defined as the communication, support, and referral arrangements between services for the care and assistance of patients with chronic disease. Methods: An interview to measure surgery-level (rather than individual clinician-level clinical linkages was developed, piloted, reviewed, and evaluated with 97 Australian general practices. Two validated survey instruments were posted to patients, and a survey of locally available services was developed and posted to participating Divisions of General Practice (support organisations. Hypotheses regarding internal validity, association with local services, and patient satisfaction were tested using factor analysis, logistic regression and multilevel regression models. Results: The resulting General Practice Clinical Linkages Interview (GP-CLI is a nine-item tool with three underlying factors: referral and advice linkages, shared care and care planning linkages, and community access and awareness linkages. Local availability of chronic disease services has no affect on the comprehensiveness of services with which practices link, however comprehensiveness of clinical linkages has an association with patient assessment of access, receptionist services, and of continuity of care in their general practice. Conclusions: The GP-CLI may be useful to researchers examining comparable health care systems for measuring the comprehensiveness and quality of linkages at a general practice-level with related services, possessing both internal and external validity. The tool can be used with large samples

  19. The Barley Chromosome 5 Linkage Map

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J.; Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms

    1975-01-01

    The distances between nine loci on barley chromosome 5 have been studied in five two-point tests, three three-point tests, and one four-point test. Our previous chromosome 5 linkage map, which contained eleven loci mapped from literature data (Jensen and Jørgensen 1975), is extended with four loci......-position is fixed on the map by a locus (necl), which has a good marker gene located centrally in the linkage group. The positions of the other loci are their distances in centimorgans from the 0-position; loci in the direction of the short chromosome arm are assigned positive values and those...

  20. Clause linkage in Ket

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nefedov, Andrey

    2015-01-01

    This work provides a typologically oriented description of clause linkage strategies in Ket, a highly endangered language spoken in Central Siberia. It is now the only surviving member of the Yeniseian language family with the last remaining speakers residing in the north of Russia’s Krasnoyarsk

  1. Intragroup emotions: physiological linkage and social presence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simo eJärvelä

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigated how technologically mediating two different components of emotion – communicative expression and physiological state – to group members affects physiological linkage and self-reported feelings in a small group during video viewing. In different conditions the availability of second screen text chat (communicative expression and visualization of group level physiological heart rates and their dyadic linkage (physiology was varied. Within this four person group two participants formed a physically co-located dyad and the other two were individually situated in two separate rooms. We found that text chat always increased heart rate synchrony but HR visualization only with non-co-located dyads. We also found that physiological linkage was strongly connected to self-reported social presence. The results encourage further exploration of the possibilities of sharing group member’s physiological components of emotion by technological means to enhance mediated communication and strengthen social presence.

  2. Intragroup Emotions: Physiological Linkage and Social Presence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvelä, Simo; Kätsyri, Jari; Ravaja, Niklas; Chanel, Guillaume; Henttonen, Pentti

    2016-01-01

    We investigated how technologically mediating two different components of emotion—communicative expression and physiological state—to group members affects physiological linkage and self-reported feelings in a small group during video viewing. In different conditions the availability of second screen text chat (communicative expression) and visualization of group level physiological heart rates and their dyadic linkage (physiology) was varied. Within this four person group two participants formed a physically co-located dyad and the other two were individually situated in two separate rooms. We found that text chat always increased heart rate synchrony but HR visualization only with non-co-located dyads. We also found that physiological linkage was strongly connected to self-reported social presence. The results encourage further exploration of the possibilities of sharing group member's physiological components of emotion by technological means to enhance mediated communication and strengthen social presence. PMID:26903913

  3. Identifying and Mapping Linkages between Actors in the Climate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Promoting innovations in climate change requires innovation partnerships and linkages and also creating an enabling environment for actors. The paper reviewed available information on the identification and mapping of linkages between actors in the climate change innovation system. The findings showed different ...

  4. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Sport Anxiety Scale-2 (SAS-2 for the Brazilian context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Vedovato Silva-Rocha

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To present the process of cross-cultural adaptation of the Sport Anxiety Scale-2 (SAS-2 for the Brazilian context. Method The following stages were used: translation into Brazilian Portuguese by independent translators, elaboration of a synthesis version, back-translation, evaluation by experts and pretest with target population. Results All the stages of cross-cultural adaptation were completed, and in the majority of items evaluated, good concordance between experts was obtained (≥ 80%. Suggested adjustments were compiled into the consensus version by the two authors, with the resulting material being considered adequate in the pretest (and thus no further changes were needed. Termed as “Escala de Ansiedade Esportiva-2,” the final version was considered by the main author of the original scale as an official version in Brazilian Portuguese. Conclusions In view of the fulfilment of all steps suggested for the cross-cultural adaptation process, the SAS-2 is now available in Brazilian Portuguese to be tested for its psychometric qualities.

  5. Solid-Phase Synthesis of RNA Analogs Containing Phosphorodithioate Linkages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xianbin

    2017-09-18

    The oligoribonucleotide phosphorodithioate (PS2-RNA) modification uses two sulfur atoms to replace two non-bridging oxygen atoms at an internucleotide phosphorodiester backbone linkage. Like a natural phosphodiester RNA backbone linkage, a PS2-modified backbone linkage is achiral at phosphorus. PS2-RNAs are highly stable to nucleases and several in vitro assays have demonstrated their biological activity. For example, PS2-RNAs silenced mRNA in vitro and bound to protein targets in the form of PS2-aptamers (thioaptamers). Thus, the interest in and promise of PS2-RNAs has drawn attention to synthesizing, isolating, and characterizing these compounds. RNA-thiophosphoramidite monomers are commercially available from AM Biotechnologies and this unit describes an effective methodology for solid-phase synthesis, deprotection, and purification of RNAs having PS2 internucleotide linkages. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  6. Effects of Worldwide Population Subdivision on ALDH2 Linkage Disequilibrium

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, Raymond J.; Goldman, David; Long, Jeffrey C.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of human population subdivision on linkage disequilibrium has previously been studied for unlinked genes. However, no study has focused on closely linked polymorphisms or formally partitioned linkage disequilibrium within and among worldwide populations. With an emphasis on population subdivision, the goal of this paper is to investigate the causes of linkage disequilibrium in ALDH2, the gene that encodes aldehyde dehydrogenase 2. Haplotypes for 756 people from 17 populations acros...

  7. The l-mixing cross section of Rydberg states of atomic Rb and the scaling LAW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hong; Chen Aiqiu; Li Baiwen

    1991-01-01

    On the basis of impulse approximate method, a kind of analytical wavefunctions based on a potential model was used to calculate the l mixing cross section of thermal collision of Rydberg states of atomic Rb with rare gas (He, Ne). The results were compared with the experimental results and other theoretical values. These results show that there exists a kind of scaling law for the l mixing cross section of Rydberg alkali atoms

  8. Cross-linked polyethylene does not reduce wear in total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasurt-Bachs, S; Torner, P; Maculé, F; Prats, E; Menéndez-García, F; Ríos-Guillermo, J; Torrents, A

    To compare two different types of inserts: Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) and cross-linked polyethylene with a quantitative and qualitative study of polyethylene wear particles in synovial fluid 3 years after total knee arthroplasty. A prospective, randomized, controlled cohort study with blinded evaluation was carried out on 25 patients undergoing staged bilateral total knee replacement, 6 months apart. Knee arthrocentesis was performed on 12 patients 3 years after surgery, and the polyethylene particles were analyzed. No significant differences were found in the number of particles generated by the two different types of inserts at 3 years from total knee arthroplasty (3,000×: x¯ cross-linked=849.7; x¯ UHMWPE=796.9; P=.63; 20,000×: x¯ cross-linked=66.3; x¯ UHMWPE=73.1; P=.76). Likewise, no differences in the probability of finding elongated (χ 2 =0.19; P=.66) or rounded (χ 2 =1.44; P=.23) particles in both types of inserts were observed. However, the probability of finding fibrillar particles is 3.08 times greater in UHMWPE. Cross-linked polyethylene does not significantly reduce the generation of polyethylene particles in patients with total knee arthroplasty, 3 years after the surgical procedure. Copyright © 2018 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Data Linkage in VET Research: Opportunities, Challenges and Principles. Discussion Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Kristen; Fowler, Craig; Circelli, Michelle

    2018-01-01

    This discussion paper explores the possibilities and risks that data linkage presents for the vocational education and training (VET) sector. Along with a broad overview of the nature of data linkage, it highlights possible applications for data linkage in the VET sector and examines the key challenges associated with its use. A number of case…

  10. A Novel Method to Magnetic Flux Linkage Optimization of Direct-Driven Surface-Mounted Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator Based on Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Xie

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper pays attention to magnetic flux linkage optimization of a direct-driven surface-mounted permanent magnet synchronous generator (D-SPMSG. A new compact representation of the D-SPMSG nonlinear dynamic differential equations to reduce system parameters is established. Furthermore, the nonlinear dynamic characteristics of new D-SPMSG equations in the process of varying magnetic flux linkage are considered, which are illustrated by Lyapunov exponent spectrums, phase orbits, Poincaré maps, time waveforms and bifurcation diagrams, and the magnetic flux linkage stable region of D-SPMSG is acquired concurrently. Based on the above modeling and analyses, a novel method of magnetic flux linkage optimization is presented. In addition, a 2 MW D-SPMSG 2D/3D model is designed by ANSYS software according to the practical design requirements. Finally, five cases of D-SPMSG models with different magnetic flux linkages are simulated by using the finite element analysis (FEA method. The nephograms of magnetic flux density are agreement with theoretical analysis, which both confirm the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  11. Cross-Cultural Validation of Stages of Exercise Change Scale among Chinese College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Xiaofen D.; Guan, Jianmin; Huang, Yong; Deng, Mingying; Wu, Yifeng; Qu, Shuhua

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to test the cross-cultural concurrent validity of the stages of exercise change scale (SECS) in Chinese college students. The original SECS was translated into Chinese (C-SECS). Students from four Chinese universities (N = 1843) participated in the study. The leisure-time exercise (LTE) questionnaire was used to…

  12. Strategies for Selecting Crosses Using Genomic Prediction in Two Wheat Breeding Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lado, Bettina; Battenfield, Sarah; Guzmán, Carlos; Quincke, Martín; Singh, Ravi P; Dreisigacker, Susanne; Peña, R Javier; Fritz, Allan; Silva, Paula; Poland, Jesse; Gutiérrez, Lucía

    2017-07-01

    The single most important decision in plant breeding programs is the selection of appropriate crosses. The ideal cross would provide superior predicted progeny performance and enough diversity to maintain genetic gain. The aim of this study was to compare the best crosses predicted using combinations of mid-parent value and variance prediction accounting for linkage disequilibrium (V) or assuming linkage equilibrium (V). After predicting the mean and the variance of each cross, we selected crosses based on mid-parent value, the top 10% of the progeny, and weighted mean and variance within progenies for grain yield, grain protein content, mixing time, and loaf volume in two applied wheat ( L.) breeding programs: Instituto Nacional de Investigación Agropecuaria (INIA) Uruguay and CIMMYT Mexico. Although the variance of the progeny is important to increase the chances of finding superior individuals from transgressive segregation, we observed that the mid-parent values of the crosses drove the genetic gain but the variance of the progeny had a small impact on genetic gain for grain yield. However, the relative importance of the variance of the progeny was larger for quality traits. Overall, the genomic resources and the statistical models are now available to plant breeders to predict both the performance of breeding lines per se as well as the value of progeny from any potential crosses. Copyright © 2017 Crop Science Society of America.

  13. The Universal Patient Centredness Questionnaire: scaling approaches to reduce positive skew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjertnaes O

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Oyvind Bjertnaes, Hilde Hestad Iversen, Andrew M Garratt Unit for Patient-Reported Quality, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway Purpose: Surveys of patients’ experiences typically show results that are indicative of positive experiences. Unbalanced response scales have reduced positive skew for responses to items within the Universal Patient Centeredness Questionnaire (UPC-Q. The objective of this study was to compare the unbalanced response scale with another unbalanced approach to scaling to assess whether the positive skew might be further reduced. Patients and methods: The UPC-Q was included in a patient experience survey conducted at the ward level at six hospitals in Norway in 2015. The postal survey included two reminders to nonrespondents. For patients in the first month of inclusion, UPC-Q items had standard scaling: poor, fairly good, good, very good, and excellent. For patients in the second month, the scaling was more positive: poor, good, very good, exceptionally good, and excellent. The effect of scaling on UPC-Q scores was tested with independent samples t-tests and multilevel linear regression analysis, the latter controlling for the hierarchical structure of data and known predictors of patient-reported experiences. Results: The response rate was 54.6% (n=4,970. Significantly lower scores were found for all items of the more positively worded scale: UPC-Q total score difference was 7.9 (P<0.001, on a scale from 0 to 100 where 100 is the best possible score. Differences between the four items of the UPC-Q ranged from 7.1 (P<0.001 to 10.4 (P<0.001. Multivariate multilevel regression analysis confirmed the difference between the response groups, after controlling for other background variables; UPC-Q total score difference estimate was 8.3 (P<0.001. Conclusion: The more positively worded scaling significantly lowered the mean scores, potentially increasing the sensitivity of the UPC-Q to identify differences over

  14. In vitro controlled release of cisplatin from gold-carbon nanobottles via cleavable linkages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li J

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Jian Li,1 Sia Lee Yoong,2 Wei Jiang Goh,2 Bertrand Czarny,1 Zhi Yang,1 Kingshuk Poddar,2,3 Michal M Dykas,2,3 Abhijeet Patra,2,3 T Venkatesan,2,3 Tomasz Panczyk,4 Chengkuo Lee,5 Giorgia Pastorin1–3 1Department of Pharmacy, National University of Singapore, 2NUS Graduate School for Integrative Sciences and Engineering, Centre for Life Sciences (CeLS, 3NUSNNI-NanoCore, National University of Singapore, Singapore; 4Institute of Catalysis and Surface Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Cracow, Poland; 5Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore Abstract: Carbon nanotubes’ (CNTs hollow interior space has been explored for biomedical applications, such as drug repository against undesirable inactivation. To further devise CNTs as smart material for controlled release of cargo molecules, we propose the concept of “gold-carbon nanobottles”. After encapsulating cis-diammineplatinum(II dichloride (cisplatin, CDDP in CNTs, we covalently attached gold nanoparticles (AuNPs at the open-tips of CNTs via different cleavable linkages, namely hydrazine, ester, and disulfide-containing linkages. Compared with our previous study in which more than 80% of CDDP leaked from CNTs in 2 hours, AuNPs were found to significantly decrease such spontaneous release to <40%. In addition, CDDP release from AuNP-capped CNTs via disulfide linkage was selectively enhanced by twofolds in reducing conditions (namely with 1 mM dithiothreitol [DTT], which mimic the intracellular environment. We treated human colon adenocarcinoma cells HCT116 with our CDDP-loaded gold-carbon nanobottles and examined the cell viability using lactate dehydrogenase assay. Interestingly, we found that our nanobottles with cleavable disulfide linkage exerted stronger cytotoxic effect in HCT116 compared with normal human fetal lung fibroblast cells IMR-90. Therefore, we infer that our nanobottles strategy with inbuilt disulfide linkage could

  15. Cross-Scale Modelling of Subduction from Minute to Million of Years Time Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolev, S. V.; Muldashev, I. A.

    2015-12-01

    Subduction is an essentially multi-scale process with time-scales spanning from geological to earthquake scale with the seismic cycle in-between. Modelling of such process constitutes one of the largest challenges in geodynamic modelling today.Here we present a cross-scale thermomechanical model capable of simulating the entire subduction process from rupture (1 min) to geological time (millions of years) that employs elasticity, mineral-physics-constrained non-linear transient viscous rheology and rate-and-state friction plasticity. The model generates spontaneous earthquake sequences. The adaptive time-step algorithm recognizes moment of instability and drops the integration time step to its minimum value of 40 sec during the earthquake. The time step is then gradually increased to its maximal value of 5 yr, following decreasing displacement rates during the postseismic relaxation. Efficient implementation of numerical techniques allows long-term simulations with total time of millions of years. This technique allows to follow in details deformation process during the entire seismic cycle and multiple seismic cycles. We observe various deformation patterns during modelled seismic cycle that are consistent with surface GPS observations and demonstrate that, contrary to the conventional ideas, the postseismic deformation may be controlled by viscoelastic relaxation in the mantle wedge, starting within only a few hours after the great (M>9) earthquakes. Interestingly, in our model an average slip velocity at the fault closely follows hyperbolic decay law. In natural observations, such deformation is interpreted as an afterslip, while in our model it is caused by the viscoelastic relaxation of mantle wedge with viscosity strongly varying with time. We demonstrate that our results are consistent with the postseismic surface displacement after the Great Tohoku Earthquake for the day-to-year time range. We will also present results of the modeling of deformation of the

  16. Total cross sections of beauty and charmed mesons on protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridman, A.

    1991-06-01

    Using a simple scaling law we predict the values of the total cross sections σ(B±p), σB d,s 0 , σ(bar B d,s 0 P), σ(D d,s ± P), σ(D 0 p), σ(bar D 0 p) from known total K p cross sections. We assume that mesons with the same light valence quark, q, and differing only by their heavy valence quark content, Q, have total cross sections on protons which scale as the inverse of the nth power of the reduced mass of the meson. We predict that σ(Q bar q)p > σ(bar Qq)p

  17. Arctic-midlatitude weather linkages in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overland, James E.; Wang, Muyin

    2018-06-01

    There is intense public interest in whether major Arctic changes can and will impact midlatitude weather such as cold air outbreaks on the central and east side of continents. Although there is progress in linkage research for eastern Asia, a clear gap is conformation for North America. We show two stationary temperature/geopotential height patterns where warmer Arctic temperatures have reinforced existing tropospheric jet stream wave amplitudes over North America: a Greenland/Baffin Block pattern during December 2010 and an Alaska Ridge pattern during December 2017. Even with continuing Arctic warming over the past decade, other recent eastern US winter months were less susceptible for an Arctic linkage: the jet stream was represented by either zonal flow, progressive weather systems, or unfavorable phasing of the long wave pattern. The present analysis lays the scientific controversy over the validity of linkages to the inherent intermittency of jet stream dynamics, which provides only an occasional bridge between Arctic thermodynamic forcing and extended midlatitude weather events.

  18. A microsatellite linkage map of Drosophila mojavensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schully Sheri

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drosophila mojavensis has been a model system for genetic studies of ecological adaptation and speciation. However, despite its use for over half a century, no linkage map has been produced for this species or its close relatives. Results We have developed and mapped 90 microsatellites in D. mojavensis, and we present a detailed recombinational linkage map of 34 of these microsatellites. A slight excess of repetitive sequence was observed on the X-chromosome relative to the autosomes, and the linkage groups have a greater recombinational length than the homologous D. melanogaster chromosome arms. We also confirmed the conservation of Muller's elements in 23 sequences between D. melanogaster and D. mojavensis. Conclusions The microsatellite primer sequences and localizations are presented here and made available to the public. This map will facilitate future quantitative trait locus mapping studies of phenotypes involved in adaptation or reproductive isolation using this species.

  19. Nitrogen rate strategies for reducing yield-scaled nitrous oxide emissions in maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xu; Nafziger, Emerson D.; Pittelkow, Cameron M.

    2017-12-01

    Mitigating nitrogen (N) losses from agriculture without negatively impacting crop productivity is a pressing environmental and economic challenge. Reductions in N fertilizer rate are often highlighted as a solution, yet the degree to which crop yields and economic returns may be impacted at the field-level remains unclear, in part due to limited data availability. Farmers are risk averse and potential yield losses may limit the success of voluntary N loss mitigation protocols, thus understanding field-level yield tradeoffs is critical to inform policy development. Using a case study of soil N2O mitigation in the US Midwest, we conducted an ex-post assessment of two economic and two environmental N rate reduction strategies to identify promising practices for maintaining maize yields and economic returns while reducing N2O emissions per unit yield (i.e. yield-scaled emissions) compared to an assumed baseline N input level. Maize yield response data from 201 on-farm N rate experiments were combined with an empirical equation predicting N2O emissions as a function of N rate. Results indicate that the economic strategy aimed at maximizing returns to N (MRTN) led to moderate but consistent reductions in yield-scaled N2O emissions with small negative impacts on yield and slight increases in median returns. The economic optimum N rate strategy reduced yield-scaled N2O emissions in 75% of cases but increased them otherwise, challenging the assumption that this strategy will automatically reduce environmental impacts per unit production. Both environmental strategies, one designed to increase N recovery efficiency and one to balance N inputs with grain N removal, further reduced yield-scaled N2O emissions but were also associated with negative yield penalties and decreased returns. These results highlight the inherent tension between achieving agronomic and economic goals while reducing environmental impacts which is often overlooked in policy discussions. To enable the

  20. GeneRecon Users' Manual — A coalescent based tool for fine-scale association mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailund, T

    2006-01-01

    GeneRecon is a software package for linkage disequilibrium mapping using coalescent theory. It is based on Bayesian Markov-chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method for fine-scale linkage-disequilibrium gene mapping using high-density marker maps. GeneRecon explicitly models the genealogy of a sample of th...

  1. High-frequency stock linkage and multi-dimensional stationary processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi; Bao, Si; Chen, Jingchao

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, China's stock market has experienced dramatic fluctuations; in particular, in the second half of 2014 and 2015, the market rose sharply and fell quickly. Many classical financial phenomena, such as stock plate linkage, appeared repeatedly during this period. In general, these phenomena have usually been studied using daily-level data or minute-level data. Our paper focuses on the linkage phenomenon in Chinese stock 5-second-level data during this extremely volatile period. The method used to select the linkage points and the arbitrage strategy are both based on multi-dimensional stationary processes. A new program method for testing the multi-dimensional stationary process is proposed in our paper, and the detailed program is presented in the paper's appendix. Because of the existence of the stationary process, the strategy's logarithmic cumulative average return will converge under the condition of the strong ergodic theorem, and this ensures the effectiveness of the stocks' linkage points and the more stable statistical arbitrage strategy.

  2. Autosomal dominant distal myopathy: Linkage to chromosome 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laing, N.G.; Laing, B.A.; Wilton, S.D.; Dorosz, S.; Mastaglia, F.L.; Kakulas, B.A. [Australian Neuromuscular Research Institute, Perth (Australia); Robbins, P.; Meredith, C.; Honeyman, K.; Kozman, H.

    1995-02-01

    We have studied a family segregating a form of autosomal dominant distal myopathy (MIM 160500) and containing nine living affected individuals. The myopathy in this family is closest in clinical phenotype to that first described by Gowers in 1902. A search for linkage was conducted using microsatellite, VNTR, and RFLP markers. In total, 92 markers on all 22 autosomes were run. Positive linkage was obtained with 14 of 15 markers tested on chromosome 14, with little indication of linkage elsewhere in the genome. Maximum two-point LOD scores of 2.60 at recombination fraction .00 were obtained for the markers MYH7 and D14S64 - the family structure precludes a two-point LOD score {ge} 3. Recombinations with D14S72 and D14S49 indicate that this distal myopathy locus, MPD1, should lie between these markers. A multipoint analysis assuming 100% penetrance and using the markers D14S72, D14S50, MYH7, D14S64, D14S54, and D14S49 gave a LOD score of exactly 3 at MYH7. Analysis at a penetrance of 80% gave a LOD score of 2.8 at this marker. This probable localization of a gene for distal myopathy, MPD1, on chromosome 14 should allow other investigators studying distal myopathy families to test this region for linkage in other types of the disease, to confirm linkage or to demonstrate the likely genetic heterogeneity. 24 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Translation into Brazilian Portuguese, cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Stanford presenteeism scale-6 and work instability scale for ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frauendorf, Renata; de Medeiros Pinheiro, Marcelo; Ciconelli, Rozana Mesquita

    2014-12-01

    Loss of productivity at work, as a result of health problems, is becoming an issue of interest due to the high burden it represents in society. The measurement of such phenomenon can be made using generic and specific scales for certain diseases such as the Stanford Presenteeism Scale (SPS-6) and the Work Instability Scale for Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS-WIS), specific for patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The aim of this study was to translate and perform a cross-cultural adaptation of SPS-6 and AS-WIS into Portuguese and check their psychometric properties. The study also aimed to evaluate the relationship between the general scores of the scales and the main sociodemographic and clinical data, lifestyles, and absenteeism in patients with AS and correlate these variables with SPS-6 and AS-WIS scales. A sample of 120 patients with AS and 80 workers at a university hospital was evaluated. The processes for the translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the instruments followed preestablished steps and rules presented in the literature. For the evaluation of measurement properties and correlations between scales, intra-class correlation coefficient (reproducibility analysis), Cronbach alpha (internal consistency), and Pearson correlation coefficient (validity) were employed. The inter-observer (0.986) and intra-observer (0.992) reproducibilities of the AS-WIS were shown to be high as well as the internal consistency (0.995). Similarly, the inter-observer reliability of SPS-6 was considered good (0.890), although it showed a poorer performance when considering the same observer (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.675 and intra-class correlation = 0.656). Internal consistency, for the total number of items, as measured by Cronbach alpha, was 0.889. The validity of the scales was evaluated thru the comparison of the achieved scores with the results of the WLQ, SF-36, ASQoL, BASFI, BASDAI, HAQ-S, and SRQ-20 instruments. Correlations between loss of

  4. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the teamwork climate scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Charantola Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To adapt and validate the Team Climate Inventory scale, of teamwork climate measurement, for the Portuguese language, in the context of primary health care in Brazil. METHODS Methodological study with quantitative approach of cross-cultural adaptation (translation, back-translation, synthesis, expert committee, and pretest and validation with 497 employees from 72 teams of the Family Health Strategy in the city of Campinas, SP, Southeastern Brazil. We verified reliability by the Cronbach’s alpha, construct validity by the confirmatory factor analysis with SmartPLS software, and correlation by the job satisfaction scale. RESULTS We problematized the overlap of items 9, 11, and 12 of the “participation in the team” factor and the “team goals” factor regarding its definition. The validation showed no overlapping of items and the reliability ranged from 0.92 to 0.93. The confirmatory factor analysis indicated suitability of the proposed model with distribution of the 38 items in the four factors. The correlation between teamwork climate and job satisfaction was significant. CONCLUSIONS The version of the scale in Brazilian Portuguese was validated and can be used in the context of primary health care in the Country, constituting an adequate tool for the assessment and diagnosis of teamwork.

  5. Linkages among climate change, crop yields and Mexico-US cross-border migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shuaizhang; Krueger, Alan B; Oppenheimer, Michael

    2010-08-10

    Climate change is expected to cause mass human migration, including immigration across international borders. This study quantitatively examines the linkages among variations in climate, agricultural yields, and people's migration responses by using an instrumental variables approach. Our method allows us to identify the relationship between crop yields and migration without explicitly controlling for all other confounding factors. Using state-level data from Mexico, we find a significant effect of climate-driven changes in crop yields on the rate of emigration to the United States. The estimated semielasticity of emigration with respect to crop yields is approximately -0.2, i.e., a 10% reduction in crop yields would lead an additional 2% of the population to emigrate. We then use the estimated semielasticity to explore the potential magnitude of future emigration. Depending on the warming scenarios used and adaptation levels assumed, with other factors held constant, by approximately the year 2080, climate change is estimated to induce 1.4 to 6.7 million adult Mexicans (or 2% to 10% of the current population aged 15-65 y) to emigrate as a result of declines in agricultural productivity alone. Although the results cannot be mechanically extrapolated to other areas and time periods, our findings are significant from a global perspective given that many regions, especially developing countries, are expected to experience significant declines in agricultural yields as a result of projected warming.

  6. Using proteomic data to assess a genome-scale "in silico" model of metal reducing bacteria in the simulation of field-scale uranium bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabusaki, S.; Fang, Y.; Wilkins, M. J.; Long, P.; Rifle IFRC Science Team

    2011-12-01

    A series of field experiments in a shallow alluvial aquifer at a former uranium mill tailings site have demonstrated that indigenous bacteria can be stimulated with acetate to catalyze the conversion of hexavalent uranium in a groundwater plume to immobile solid-associated uranium in the +4 oxidation state. While this bioreduction of uranium has been shown to lower groundwater concentrations below actionable standards, a viable remediation methodology will need a mechanistic, predictive and quantitative understanding of the microbially-mediated reactions that catalyze the reduction of uranium in the context of site-specific processes, properties, and conditions. At the Rifle IFRC site, we are investigating the impacts on uranium behavior of pulsed acetate amendment, acetate-oxidizing iron and sulfate reducing bacteria, seasonal water table variation, spatially-variable physical (hydraulic conductivity, porosity) and geochemical (reactive surface area) material properties. The simulation of three-dimensional, variably saturated flow and biogeochemical reactive transport during a uranium bioremediation field experiment includes a genome-scale in silico model of Geobacter sp. to represent the Fe(III) terminal electron accepting process (TEAP). The Geobacter in silico model of cell-scale physiological metabolic pathways is comprised of hundreds of intra-cellular and environmental exchange reactions. One advantage of this approach is that the TEAP reaction stoichiometry and rate are now functions of the metabolic status of the microorganism. The linkage of in silico model reactions to specific Geobacter proteins has enabled the use of groundwater proteomic analyses to assess the accuracy of the model under evolving hydrologic and biogeochemical conditions. In this case, the largest predicted fluxes through in silico model reactions generally correspond to high abundances of proteins linked to those reactions (e.g. the condensation reaction catalyzed by the protein

  7. Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Physical Appearance Comparison Scale-Revised in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Atari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The comparison of physical appearance may play an important role in many body-related variables. The Physical Appearance Comparison Scale-Revised (PACS-R is a recently developed instrument for measurement of physical appearance comparisons in a number of contexts. The aim of the present study was to validate the Persian version of this scale.Methods: The scale was administered following a standard back-translation procedure. The sample consisted of 206 female university students. The Body Appreciation Scale (BAS, Life Orientation Test (LOT, Interest in Aesthetic Rhinoplasty Scale (IARS, and Body Mass Index (BMI were used for assessment of concurrent validity. The factor structure of the scale was investigated using exploratory factor analysis (EFA. Analysis of variance (ANOVA, bivariate correlation coefficients, and one-sample t-test were used in SPSS software for statistical analysis. Effect sizes were also computed in comparisons between the Iranian sample and the American sample on which the scale was developed. Moreover, the reliability of the scale was evaluated using Cronbach’s alpha.Results: All items had adequate psychometric qualities in item analysis. The instrument was internally consistent (alpha = 0.97 and one-dimensional. It was positively correlated with BMI and interest in aesthetic rhinoplasty. Furthermore, PACS-R was inversely associated with optimism and body appreciation. Cross-cultural comparisons suggested that Iranian female participants had lower scores in physical appearance comparison.Conclusion: The Persian version of the PACS-R is a reliable and valid psychometric scale and may be used in clinical and research settings.

  8. Probing Rubber Cross-Linking Generation of Industrial Polymer Networks at Nanometer Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielle, Brice; Gomez, Emmanuel; Korb, Jean-Pierre

    2016-06-23

    We present improved analyses of rheometric torque measurements as well as (1)H double-quantum (DQ) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) buildup data on polymer networks of industrial compounds. This latter DQ NMR analysis allows finding the distribution of an orientation order parameter (Dres) resulting from the noncomplete averaging of proton dipole-dipole couplings within the cross-linked polymer chains. We investigate the influence of the formulation (filler and vulcanization systems) as well as the process (curing temperature) ending to the final polymer network. We show that DQ NMR follows the generation of the polymer network during the vulcanization process from a heterogeneous network to a very homogeneous one. The time variations of microscopic Dres and macroscopic rheometric torques present power-law behaviors above a threshold time scale with characteristic exponents of the percolation theory. We observe also a very good linear correlation between the kinetics of Dres and rheometric data routinely performed in industry. All these observations confirm the description of the polymer network generation as a critical phenomenon. On the basis of all these results, we believe that DQ NMR could become a valuable tool for investigating in situ the cross-linking of industrial polymer networks at the nanometer scale.

  9. Numerical and experimental analysis of an in-scale masonry cross-vault prototype up to failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, Michela; Calderini, Chiara; Lagomarsino, Sergio [Department of Civil, Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Genoa, Via Montallegro 1, Genoa (Italy); Milani, Gabriele [Department of Architecture, Built Environment and Construction Engineering, Milan Polytechnic University, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, Milan (Italy)

    2015-12-31

    A heterogeneous full 3D non-linear FE approach is validated against experimental results obtained on an in-scale masonry cross vault assembled with dry joints, and subjected to various loading conditions consisting on imposed displacement combinations to the abutments. The FE model relies into a discretization of the blocks by means of few rigid-infinitely resistant parallelepiped elements interacting by means of planar four-noded interfaces, where all the deformation (elastic and inelastic) occurs. The investigated response mechanisms of vault are the shear in-plane distortion and the longitudinal opening and closing mechanism at the abutments. After the validation of the approach on the experimentally tested cross-vault, a sensitivity analysis is conducted on the same geometry, but in real scale, varying mortar joints mechanical properties, in order to furnish useful hints for safety assessment, especially in presence of seismic action.

  10. [Suicide and suicide attempts by exogenous poisoning in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: information analysis through probabilistic linkage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Simone Agadir; Legay, Letícia Fortes; Aguiar, Fernanda Pinheiro; Lovisi, Giovanni Marcos; Abelha, Lucia; Oliveira, Sergio Pacheco de

    2014-05-01

    Poisoning is one of the three main means used in suicide and suicides attempts. In order to improve the quality of such information, a cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on case records in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 2006 to 2008, in the databases of the Information System on Diseases of Notification (SINAN), the Mortality Information System (SIM), and the Poison Control Center in Niterói (CCIn-Niterói). Probabilistic linkage was used to develop a model for monitoring suicides and suicide attempts by poisoning. Although 68.8% of the 948 records at CCIn had been reported by health professionals, only 2.6% were included in the other databases. Linking CCIn and SIM showed 61.3% underreporting. Information is important for surveillance, public policy-making, and decision-making. Probabilistic linkage allowed identifying problems in each system and provided better data quality and a more accurate diagnosis of the real situation in a complex and serious problem like suicidal behavior.

  11. A cross-coupled-structure-based temperature sensor with reduced process variation sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tie Meng; Cheng Xu, E-mail: tiemeng@mprc.pku.edu.c [Microprocessor Research and Development Center, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2009-04-15

    An innovative, thermally-insensitive phenomenon of cascaded cross-coupled structures is found. And a novel CMOS temperature sensor based on a cross-coupled structure is proposed. This sensor consists of two different ring oscillators. The first ring oscillator generates pulses that have a period, changing linearly with temperature. Instead of using the system clock like in traditional sensors, the second oscillator utilizes a cascaded cross-coupled structure to generate temperature independent pulses to capture the result from the first oscillator. Due to the compensation between the two ring oscillators, errors caused by supply voltage variations and systematic process variations are reduced. The layout design of the sensor is based on the TSMC13G process standard cell library. Only three inverters are modified for proper channel width tuning without any other custom design. This allows for an easy integration of the sensor into cell-based chips. Post-layout simulations results show that an error lower than +-1.1 deg. C can be achieved in the full temperature range from -40 to 120 deg. C. As shown by SPICE simulations, the thermal insensitivity of the cross-coupled inverters can be realized for various TSMC technologies: 0.25 mum, 0.18 mum, 0.13 mum, and 65 nm.

  12. Reduced scaling of thermal-hydraulic circuits for studies of PWR reactors natural circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botelho, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    The Ishii et al. hydrodynamic similarity criteria for natural circulation were used for scaling reduced models of prototype passive residual heat removal system of a 600 M We PWR. The physical scales of the thermohydraulic parameters obtained presented a reasonable agreement when compared with simplified analytic models of the systems. (author)

  13. Scaling of spectra in grid turbulence with a mean cross-stream temperature gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahri, Carla; Arwatz, Gilad; Mueller, Michael E.; George, William K.; Hultmark, Marcus

    2014-11-01

    Scaling of grid turbulence with a constant mean cross-stream temperature gradient is investigated using a combination of theoretical predictions, DNS, and experimental data. Conditions for self-similarity of the governing equations and the scalar spectrum are investigated, which reveals necessary conditions for self-similarity to exist. These conditions provide a theoretical framework for scaling of the temperature spectrum as well as the temperature flux spectrum. One necessary condition, predicted by the theory, is that the characteristic length scale describing the scalar spectrum must vary as √{ t} for a self-similar solution to exist. In order to investigate this, T-NSTAP sensors, specially designed for temperature measurements at high frequencies, were deployed in a heated passive grid turbulence setup together with conventional cold-wires, and complementary DNS calculations were performed to complement and complete the experimental data. These data are used to compare the behavior of different length scales and validate the theoretical predictions.

  14. STUDY ON REDUCING AND MELTING BEHAVIOR OF MILL SCALE/PETROLEUM COKE BLEND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Deves Flores

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Self-reducing tests were carried out under isothermal and non-isothermal condition in a muffle furnace, aiming to assess the reduction and melting of a self-reducing blend of mill scale and petroleum coke (85-15% in weight. The products obtained were analyzed by mass loss and wet analysis. Further investigations for the products from the non-isothermal condition were done by X-ray diffraction, nude eye inspection and carbon analyzer. It was observed that mass loss fraction and metallization degree are directly related and both increase with time and temperature. In the non-isothermal maximum mass loss was achieved in 8 minutes, reaching metallization degrees above 90%. It was observed that the reduction of iron oxide occurs mainly in solid state and the smelting of the samples is directly related to the iron carburization process. Thus, the use of self-reducing mixtures shows a possible way to recycle mill scale.

  15. Evidence of Allopolyploidy in Urochloa humidicola Based on Cytological Analysis and Genetic Linkage Mapping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca B Z Vigna

    Full Text Available The African species Urochloa humidicola (Rendle Morrone & Zuloaga (syn. Brachiaria humidicola (Rendle Schweick. is an important perennial forage grass found throughout the tropics. This species is polyploid, ranging from tetra to nonaploid, and apomictic, which makes genetic studies challenging; therefore, the number of currently available genetic resources is limited. The genomic architecture and evolution of U. humidicola and the molecular markers linked to apomixis were investigated in a full-sib F1 population obtained by crossing the sexual accession H031 and the apomictic cultivar U. humidicola cv. BRS Tupi, both of which are hexaploid. A simple sequence repeat (SSR-based linkage map was constructed for the species from 102 polymorphic and specific SSR markers based on simplex and double-simplex markers. The map consisted of 49 linkage groups (LGs and had a total length of 1702.82 cM, with 89 microsatellite loci and an average map density of 10.6 cM. Eight homology groups (HGs were formed, comprising 22 LGs, and the other LGs remained ungrouped. The locus that controls apospory (apo-locus was mapped in LG02 and was located 19.4 cM from the locus Bh027.c.D2. In the cytological analyses of some hybrids, bi- to hexavalents at diakinesis were observed, as well as two nucleoli in some meiocytes, smaller chromosomes with preferential allocation within the first metaphase plate and asynchronous chromosome migration to the poles during anaphase. The linkage map and the meiocyte analyses confirm previous reports of hybridization and suggest an allopolyploid origin of the hexaploid U. humidicola. This is the first linkage map of an Urochloa species, and it will be useful for future quantitative trait locus (QTL analysis after saturation of the map and for genome assembly and evolutionary studies in Urochloa spp. Moreover, the results of the apomixis mapping are consistent with previous reports and confirm the need for additional studies to search for

  16. Construction of a reference genetic linkage map for carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Masafumi; Yamamoto, Toshiya; Isobe, Sachiko; Hirakawa, Hideki; Tabata, Satoshi; Tanase, Koji; Yamaguchi, Hiroyasu; Onozaki, Takashi

    2013-10-26

    Genetic linkage maps are important tools for many genetic applications including mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs), identifying DNA markers for fingerprinting, and map-based gene cloning. Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) is an important ornamental flower worldwide. We previously reported a random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-based genetic linkage map derived from Dianthus capitatus ssp. andrezejowskianus and a simple sequence repeat (SSR)-based genetic linkage map constructed using data from intraspecific F2 populations; however, the number of markers was insufficient, and so the number of linkage groups (LGs) did not coincide with the number of chromosomes (x = 15). Therefore, we aimed to produce a high-density genetic map to improve its usefulness for breeding purposes and genetic research. We improved the SSR-based genetic linkage map using SSR markers derived from a genomic library, expression sequence tags, and RNA-seq data. Linkage analysis revealed that 412 SSR loci (including 234 newly developed SSR loci) could be mapped to 17 linkage groups (LGs) covering 969.6 cM. Comparison of five minor LGs covering less than 50 cM with LGs in our previous RAPD-based genetic map suggested that four LGs could be integrated into two LGs by anchoring common SSR loci. Consequently, the number of LGs corresponded to the number of chromosomes (x = 15). We added 192 new SSRs, eight RAPD, and two sequence-tagged site loci to refine the RAPD-based genetic linkage map, which comprised 15 LGs consisting of 348 loci covering 978.3 cM. The two maps had 125 SSR loci in common, and most of the positions of markers were conserved between them. We identified 635 loci in carnation using the two linkage maps. We also mapped QTLs for two traits (bacterial wilt resistance and anthocyanin pigmentation in the flower) and a phenotypic locus for flower-type by analyzing previously reported genotype and phenotype data. The improved genetic linkage maps and SSR markers developed

  17. The Cross-Cultural Validity of the MMPI-2-RF Higher-Order Scales in a Sample of North Korean Female Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Hyeon; Goodman, Grace M; Toruno, Joseph A; Sherry, Alissa R; Kim, Hee Kyung

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the cross-cultural factorial validity of the three Higher-Order (H-O) scales in the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) among a sample of North Korean female refugees (N = 2,732). Given the importance of the H-O scales in the overall structure of the MMPI-2-RF scales and in interpretation, we were interested in exploring their cross-cultural validity. We conducted an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) on the nine Restructured Clinical (RC) scale raw scores and fitted and compared one- to three-factor models. The three-factor model, akin to the model in Tellegen and Ben-Porath, demonstrated the best fit to the data. Furthermore, the pattern matrices of loadings across the current sample and the U.S. samples were comparable despite some differences, such as the RC2 scale's salient, negative loading on a factor analogous to the Behavioral/Externalizing Dysfunction scale. We also investigated the unique psychological characteristics of the refugees, possibly resulting from the arduous, perilous journeys out of North Korea taken by this group of female refugees and discussed the results of EFA in light of those singular psychological traits and experiences. Overall, the three H-O scales of the Korean MMPI-2-RF evidenced reasonable cross-cultural factorial validity among the sample of North Korean female refugees. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. The millennium development goals and road traffic injuries: exploring the linkages in South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyder, Adnan A; Ghaffar, Abdul

    2004-12-01

    In a major summit of the members of the United Nations (UN) in 2000, a Millennium Declaration was adopted which called for making the elimination of poverty and promotion of sustainable development a global priority. A road map was agreed upon to operationalize the declaration, and the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) were integrated within the document. The MDGs are now increasingly being used to assess the performance of countries, institutions and the global community. WHO declares that the MDGs provide "a set of outcomes that are relevant to the development of national health policy frameworks". It also states that although MDGs do not cover all the components of public health, when broadly interpreted "the goals provide an opportunity to address important cross-cutting issues and key constraints to health". Consistent with WHO's call for a broad interpretation of the MDGs, and building on the health linkages identified by WHO, this paper explores the linkages between the MDGs and the impact of road traffic injuries (RTI). This is done in the context of South Asia, one of the poorest and populated regions of the developing world.

  19. Design and implementation of a privacy preserving electronic health record linkage tool in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kho, Abel N; Cashy, John P; Jackson, Kathryn L; Pah, Adam R; Goel, Satyender; Boehnke, Jörn; Humphries, John Eric; Kominers, Scott Duke; Hota, Bala N; Sims, Shannon A; Malin, Bradley A; French, Dustin D; Walunas, Theresa L; Meltzer, David O; Kaleba, Erin O; Jones, Roderick C; Galanter, William L

    2015-09-01

    To design and implement a tool that creates a secure, privacy preserving linkage of electronic health record (EHR) data across multiple sites in a large metropolitan area in the United States (Chicago, IL), for use in clinical research. The authors developed and distributed a software application that performs standardized data cleaning, preprocessing, and hashing of patient identifiers to remove all protected health information. The application creates seeded hash code combinations of patient identifiers using a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act compliant SHA-512 algorithm that minimizes re-identification risk. The authors subsequently linked individual records using a central honest broker with an algorithm that assigns weights to hash combinations in order to generate high specificity matches. The software application successfully linked and de-duplicated 7 million records across 6 institutions, resulting in a cohort of 5 million unique records. Using a manually reconciled set of 11 292 patients as a gold standard, the software achieved a sensitivity of 96% and a specificity of 100%, with a majority of the missed matches accounted for by patients with both a missing social security number and last name change. Using 3 disease examples, it is demonstrated that the software can reduce duplication of patient records across sites by as much as 28%. Software that standardizes the assignment of a unique seeded hash identifier merged through an agreed upon third-party honest broker can enable large-scale secure linkage of EHR data for epidemiologic and public health research. The software algorithm can improve future epidemiologic research by providing more comprehensive data given that patients may make use of multiple healthcare systems. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Visualization of pairwise and multilocus linkage disequilibrium structure using latent forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaël Mourad

    Full Text Available Linkage disequilibrium study represents a major issue in statistical genetics as it plays a fundamental role in gene mapping and helps us to learn more about human history. The linkage disequilibrium complex structure makes its exploratory data analysis essential yet challenging. Visualization methods, such as the triangular heat map implemented in Haploview, provide simple and useful tools to help understand complex genetic patterns, but remain insufficient to fully describe them. Probabilistic graphical models have been widely recognized as a powerful formalism allowing a concise and accurate modeling of dependences between variables. In this paper, we propose a method for short-range, long-range and chromosome-wide linkage disequilibrium visualization using forests of hierarchical latent class models. Thanks to its hierarchical nature, our method is shown to provide a compact view of both pairwise and multilocus linkage disequilibrium spatial structures for the geneticist. Besides, a multilocus linkage disequilibrium measure has been designed to evaluate linkage disequilibrium in hierarchy clusters. To learn the proposed model, a new scalable algorithm is presented. It constrains the dependence scope, relying on physical positions, and is able to deal with more than one hundred thousand single nucleotide polymorphisms. The proposed algorithm is fast and does not require phase genotypic data.

  1. Linkage mechanisms in the vertebrate skull: Structure and function of three-dimensional, parallel transmission systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Aaron M; Westneat, Mark W

    2016-12-01

    Many musculoskeletal systems, including the skulls of birds, fishes, and some lizards consist of interconnected chains of mobile skeletal elements, analogous to linkage mechanisms used in engineering. Biomechanical studies have applied linkage models to a diversity of musculoskeletal systems, with previous applications primarily focusing on two-dimensional linkage geometries, bilaterally symmetrical pairs of planar linkages, or single four-bar linkages. Here, we present new, three-dimensional (3D), parallel linkage models of the skulls of birds and fishes and use these models (available as free kinematic simulation software), to investigate structure-function relationships in these systems. This new computational framework provides an accessible and integrated workflow for exploring the evolution of structure and function in complex musculoskeletal systems. Linkage simulations show that kinematic transmission, although a suitable functional metric for linkages with single rotating input and output links, can give misleading results when applied to linkages with substantial translational components or multiple output links. To take into account both linear and rotational displacement we define force mechanical advantage for a linkage (analogous to lever mechanical advantage) and apply this metric to measure transmission efficiency in the bird cranial mechanism. For linkages with multiple, expanding output points we propose a new functional metric, expansion advantage, to measure expansion amplification and apply this metric to the buccal expansion mechanism in fishes. Using the bird cranial linkage model, we quantify the inaccuracies that result from simplifying a 3D geometry into two dimensions. We also show that by combining single-chain linkages into parallel linkages, more links can be simulated while decreasing or maintaining the same number of input parameters. This generalized framework for linkage simulation and analysis can accommodate linkages of differing

  2. STAKEHOLDER LINKAGES FOR SUSTAINABLE LAND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    Key words: Stakeholders; farmer-expert linkages; resource management; Ethiopia. Introduction ... decentralized democratic decision making processes and thus ..... district offices within the given time limits. They were often .... -less willing and less ready to hearing weaker performance reports (expect more success with ...

  3. ANALISIS KEBIJAKAN LINKAGE PROGRAM LEMBAGA KEUANGAN SYARIAH DALAM RANGKA PEMBERDAYAAN UKM DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Hamidah

    2016-03-01

    Linkage program adalah program yang menghubungkan bank dengan pelaku usaha mikro kecil melalui lembaga keuangan mikro. Kelemahan dalam Linkage program adalah pada aspek peraturan yang tersebar dalam berbagai aturan, dan khusus bagi lembaga keuangan syariah terdapat pula kendala berkaitan dengan kesesuaian dengan ketentuan syariah. Dari penelitian dengan pendekatan perundang-undangan dan pendekatan konseptual ini diperoleh inventarisasi serta analisis kebijakan Linkage Program bagi Lembaga Keuangan Syariah dalam hukum positif Indonesia. Kebijakan terkait Linkage program, diklasifikasi dalam 2 kelompok, yaitu kebijakan substansi dan prosedural. Aturan inilah yang menjadi rujukan bagi lembaga keuangan syariah rangka pemberdayaan usaha kecil mikro di Indonesia. Kata kunci: Linkage program, lembaga keuangan syariah, usaha mikro kecil

  4. Efficient sampling of reversible cross-linking polymers: Self-assembly of single-chain polymeric nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyarzún, Bernardo; Mognetti, Bortolo Matteo

    2018-03-01

    We present a new simulation technique to study systems of polymers functionalized by reactive sites that bind/unbind forming reversible linkages. Functionalized polymers feature self-assembly and responsive properties that are unmatched by the systems lacking selective interactions. The scales at which the functional properties of these materials emerge are difficult to model, especially in the reversible regime where such properties result from many binding/unbinding events. This difficulty is related to large entropic barriers associated with the formation of intra-molecular loops. In this work, we present a simulation scheme that sidesteps configurational costs by dedicated Monte Carlo moves capable of binding/unbinding reactive sites in a single step. Cross-linking reactions are implemented by trial moves that reconstruct chain sections attempting, at the same time, a dimerization reaction between pairs of reactive sites. The model is parametrized by the reaction equilibrium constant of the reactive species free in solution. This quantity can be obtained by means of experiments or atomistic/quantum simulations. We use the proposed methodology to study the self-assembly of single-chain polymeric nanoparticles, starting from flexible precursors carrying regularly or randomly distributed reactive sites. We focus on understanding differences in the morphology of chain nanoparticles when linkages are reversible as compared to the well-studied case of irreversible reactions. Intriguingly, we find that the size of regularly functionalized chains, in good solvent conditions, is non-monotonous as a function of the degree of functionalization. We clarify how this result follows from excluded volume interactions and is peculiar of reversible linkages and regular functionalizations.

  5. Electrostatic microactuators with integrated gear linkages for mechanical power transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legtenberg, R.; Legtenberg, Rob; Berenschot, Johan W.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt; Fluitman, J.H.J.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper a surface micromachining process is presented which has been used to fabricate electrostatic microactuators that are interconnected with each other and linked to other movable microstructures by integrated gear linkages. The gear linkages consist of rotational and linear gear

  6. Cross-scale modelling of transpiration from stomata via the leaf boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defraeye, Thijs; Derome, Dominique; Verboven, Pieter; Carmeliet, Jan; Nicolai, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Leaf transpiration is a key parameter for understanding land surface–climate interactions, plant stress and plant structure–function relationships. Transpiration takes place at the microscale level, namely via stomata that are distributed discretely over the leaf surface with a very low surface coverage (approx. 0·2–5 %). The present study aims to shed more light on the dependency of the leaf boundary-layer conductance (BLC) on stomatal surface coverage and air speed. Methods An innovative three-dimensional cross-scale modelling approach was applied to investigate convective mass transport from leaves, using computational fluid dynamics. The gap between stomatal and leaf scale was bridged by including all these scales in the same computational model (10−5–10−1 m), which implies explicitly modelling individual stomata. Key Results BLC was strongly dependent on stomatal surface coverage and air speed. Leaf BLC at low surface coverage ratios (CR), typical for stomata, was still relatively high, compared with BLC of a fully wet leaf (hypothetical CR of 100 %). Nevertheless, these conventional BLCs (CR of 100 %), as obtained from experiments or simulations on leaf models, were found to overpredict the convective exchange. In addition, small variations in stomatal CR were found to result in large variations in BLCs. Furthermore, stomata of a certain size exhibited a higher mass transfer rate at lower CRs. Conclusions The proposed cross-scale modelling approach allows us to increase our understanding of transpiration at the sub-leaf level as well as the boundary-layer microclimate in a way currently not feasible experimentally. The influence of stomatal size, aperture and surface density, and also flow-field parameters can be studied using the model, and prospects for further improvement of the model are presented. An important conclusion of the study is that existing measures of conductances (e.g. from artificial leaves) can be

  7. GP registrar well-being: a cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Schattner, Peter; Mazalin, Dennis; Pier, Ciaran; Wainer, Jo; Ling, Mee Yoke

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objectives To investigate the major stressors affecting GP registrars, how those at risk can be best identified and the most useful methods of managing or reducing their stress. Design, setting and participants Cross-sectional postal questionnaire of all GP registrars in one large regional training provider's catchment area. Main outcome measures The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS), a specifically developed Registrar Stressor Scale consisting of five subscales of potentia...

  8. Linkages among climate change, crop yields and Mexico–US cross-border migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shuaizhang; Krueger, Alan B.; Oppenheimer, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Climate change is expected to cause mass human migration, including immigration across international borders. This study quantitatively examines the linkages among variations in climate, agricultural yields, and people's migration responses by using an instrumental variables approach. Our method allows us to identify the relationship between crop yields and migration without explicitly controlling for all other confounding factors. Using state-level data from Mexico, we find a significant effect of climate-driven changes in crop yields on the rate of emigration to the United States. The estimated semielasticity of emigration with respect to crop yields is approximately −0.2, i.e., a 10% reduction in crop yields would lead an additional 2% of the population to emigrate. We then use the estimated semielasticity to explore the potential magnitude of future emigration. Depending on the warming scenarios used and adaptation levels assumed, with other factors held constant, by approximately the year 2080, climate change is estimated to induce 1.4 to 6.7 million adult Mexicans (or 2% to 10% of the current population aged 15–65 y) to emigrate as a result of declines in agricultural productivity alone. Although the results cannot be mechanically extrapolated to other areas and time periods, our findings are significant from a global perspective given that many regions, especially developing countries, are expected to experience significant declines in agricultural yields as a result of projected warming. PMID:20660749

  9. Absolute fragmentation cross sections in atom-molecule collisions : Scaling laws for non-statistical fragmentation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, T.; Gatchell, M.; Stockett, M. H.; Alexander, J. D.; Zhang, Y.; Rousseau, P.; Domaracka, A.; Maclot, S.; Delaunay, R.; Adoui, L.; Huber, B. A.; Schlathölter, T.; Schmidt, H. T.; Cederquist, H.; Zettergren, H.

    2014-01-01

    We present scaling laws for absolute cross sections for non-statistical fragmentation in collisions between Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH/PAH+) and hydrogen or helium atoms with kinetic energies ranging from 50 eV to 10 keV. Further, we calculate the total fragmentation cross sections

  10. Genomewide Linkage Screen for Waldenström Macroglobulinemia Susceptibility Loci in High-Risk Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMaster, Mary L.; Goldin, Lynn R.; Bai, Yan; Ter-Minassian, Monica; Boehringer, Stefan; Giambarresi, Therese R.; Vasquez, Linda G.; Tucker, Margaret A.

    2006-01-01

    Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM), a distinctive subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma that features overproduction of immunoglobulin M (IgM), clearly has a familial component; however, no susceptibility genes have yet been identified. We performed a genomewide linkage analysis in 11 high-risk families with WM that were informative for linkage, for a total of 122 individuals with DNA samples, including 34 patients with WM and 10 patients with IgM monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (IgM MGUS). We genotyped 1,058 microsatellite markers (average spacing 3.5 cM), performed both nonparametric and parametric linkage analysis, and computed both two-point and multipoint linkage statistics. The strongest evidence of linkage was found on chromosomes 1q and 4q when patients with WM and with IgM MGUS were both considered affected; nonparametric linkage scores were 2.5 (P=.0089) and 3.1 (P=.004), respectively. Other locations suggestive of linkage were found on chromosomes 3 and 6. Results of two-locus linkage analysis were consistent with independent effects. The findings from this first linkage analysis of families at high risk for WM represent important progress toward identifying gene(s) that modulate susceptibility to WM and toward understanding its complex etiology. PMID:16960805

  11. Dynamic changes in protein functional linkage networks revealed by integration with gene expression data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubhada R Hegde

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Response of cells to changing environmental conditions is governed by the dynamics of intricate biomolecular interactions. It may be reasonable to assume, proteins being the dominant macromolecules that carry out routine cellular functions, that understanding the dynamics of protein:protein interactions might yield useful insights into the cellular responses. The large-scale protein interaction data sets are, however, unable to capture the changes in the profile of protein:protein interactions. In order to understand how these interactions change dynamically, we have constructed conditional protein linkages for Escherichia coli by integrating functional linkages and gene expression information. As a case study, we have chosen to analyze UV exposure in wild-type and SOS deficient E. coli at 20 minutes post irradiation. The conditional networks exhibit similar topological properties. Although the global topological properties of the networks are similar, many subtle local changes are observed, which are suggestive of the cellular response to the perturbations. Some such changes correspond to differences in the path lengths among the nodes of carbohydrate metabolism correlating with its loss in efficiency in the UV treated cells. Similarly, expression of hubs under unique conditions reflects the importance of these genes. Various centrality measures applied to the networks indicate increased importance for replication, repair, and other stress proteins for the cells under UV treatment, as anticipated. We thus propose a novel approach for studying an organism at the systems level by integrating genome-wide functional linkages and the gene expression data.

  12. Formation of covalent linkages between nuclear and protein constituents of ribosomes of E. coli MRE 600 irradiated by gamma rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekert, B; Giocanti, N [Institut du Radium, 91 - Orsay (France)

    1977-04-01

    Gamma irradiation of E.coli MRE 600 ribosomes in aqueous suspensions led to covalent linkages between the RNA and some ribosomal proteins. The presence of oxygen during the irradiation strongly inhibited this phenomenon. It appears clearly that only a few proteins were able to participate in these cross-linking reactions, which occurred simultaneously in the two sub-units. The radiochemical yield was determined at several concentrations and was relatively low.

  13. Effect of Integrated Pest Management Training on Ugandan Small-Scale Farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Anna Sabine; Jørs, Erik; Atuhaire, Aggrey

    2017-01-01

    Small-scale farmers in developing countries use hazardous pesticides taking few or no safety measures. Farmer field schools (FFSs) teaching integrated pest management (IPM) have been shown to reduce pesticide use among trained farmers. This cross-sectional study compares pesticide-related knowledge......-reported symptoms. The study supports IPM as a method to reduce pesticide use and potential exposure and to improve pesticide-related KAP among small-scale farmers in developing countries....

  14. Building the Foundations for a Large-Scale, Cross-Sector Collaboration for a Sustainable and Permanent Return to the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoglou, A.

    2017-10-01

    This presentation will describe how to build the foundations needed for a large scale, cross-industry collaboration to enable a sustainable and permanent return to the Moon based on system leadership, cross-sector partnership, and inclusive business.

  15. Heritability and whole genome linkage of pulse pressure in Chinese twin pairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Wengjie; Zhang, Dongfeng; Pang, Zengchang

    2012-01-01

    with a heritability estimate of 0.45. Genome-wide non-parametric linkage analysis identified three significant linkage peaks on chromosome 11 (lod score 4.06 at 30.5 cM), chromosome 12 (lod score 3.97 at 100.7 cM), and chromosome 18 (lod score 4.01 at 70.7 cM) with the last two peaks closely overlapping with linkage...

  16. The centrality of laboratory services in the HIV treatment and prevention cascade: The need for effective linkages and referrals in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemnji, George; Fonjungo, Peter; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Peter, Trevor; Kantor, Rami; Nkengasong, John

    2014-05-01

    Strong laboratory services and systems are critical for delivering timely and quality health services that are vital to reduce patient attrition in the HIV treatment and prevention cascade. However, challenges exist in ensuring effective laboratory health systems strengthening and linkages. In particular, linkages and referrals between laboratory testing and other services need to be considered in the context of an integrated health system that includes prevention, treatment, and strategic information. Key components of laboratory health systems that are essential for effective linkages include an adequate workforce, appropriate point-of-care (POC) technology, available financing, supply chain management systems, and quality systems improvement, including accreditation. In this review, we highlight weaknesses of and gaps between laboratory testing and other program services. We propose a model for strengthening these systems to ensure effective linkages of laboratory services for improved access and retention in care of HIV/AIDS patients, particularly in low- and middle-income countries.

  17. A Two-Scale Reduced Model for Darcy Flow in Fractured Porous Media

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Huangxin

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we develop a two-scale reduced model for simulating the Darcy flow in two-dimensional porous media with conductive fractures. We apply the approach motivated by the embedded fracture model (EFM) to simulate the flow on the coarse scale, and the effect of fractures on each coarse scale grid cell intersecting with fractures is represented by the discrete fracture model (DFM) on the fine scale. In the DFM used on the fine scale, the matrix-fracture system are resolved on unstructured grid which represents the fractures accurately, while in the EFM used on the coarse scale, the flux interaction between fractures and matrix are dealt with as a source term, and the matrix-fracture system can be resolved on structured grid. The Raviart-Thomas mixed finite element methods are used for the solution of the coupled flows in the matrix and the fractures on both fine and coarse scales. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed model for simulation of flow in fractured porous media.

  18. EDITORIAL Development Linkages between Tree Breeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EDITORIAL Development Linkages between Tree Breeding Programmes and National/Regional Tree Seed Centres in Africa. ... Discovery and Innovation. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives.

  19. Nance-Horan syndrome: linkage analysis in a family from The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, A A; ten Brink, J; Schuurman, E J; Bleeker-Wagemakers, E M

    1994-05-01

    Linkage analysis was carried out in a Dutch family with Nance-Horan (NH) syndrome. Close linkage without recombination between NH and the Xp loci DXS207, DXS43, and DXS365 (zmax = 3.23) was observed. Multipoint linkage analysis and the analysis of recombinations in multiple informative meioses suggest the genetic order Xcen-DMD (exon 49)-DXS451-(NH, DXS207, DXS365, DXS43)-(STS, DXF30)-Xpter. These data refine the localization of the NH locus on the distal Xp.

  20. A genetic linkage map of hexaploid naked oat constructed with SSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaoyuan Song

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Naked oat is a unique health food crop in China. Using 202 F2 individuals derived from a hybrid between the variety 578 and the landrace Sanfensan, we constructed a genetic linkage map consisting of 22 linkage groups covering 2070.50 cM and including 208 simple sequence repeat (SSR markers. The minimum distance between adjacent markers was 0.01 cM and the average was 9.95 cM. Each linkage group contained 2–22 markers. The largest linkage group covered 174.40 cM and the shortest one covered 36.80 cM, with an average of 94.11 cM. Thirty-six markers (17.3% showing distorted segregation were distributed across linkage groups LG5 to LG22. This map complements published oat genetic maps and is applicable for quantitative trait locus analysis, gene cloning and molecular marker-assisted selection.

  1. Dense genetic linkage maps of three Populus species (Populus deltoides, P. nigra and P. trichocarpa) based on AFLP and microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervera, M T; Storme, V; Ivens, B; Gusmão, J; Liu, B H; Hostyn, V; Van Slycken, J; Van Montagu, M; Boerjan, W

    2001-06-01

    Populus deltoides, P. nigra, and P. trichocarpa are the most important species for poplar breeding programs worldwide. In addition, Populus has become a model for fundamental research on trees. Linkage maps were constructed for these three species by analyzing progeny of two controlled crosses sharing the same female parent, Populus deltoides cv. S9-2 x P. nigra cv. Ghoy and P. deltoides cv. S9-2 x P. trichocarpa cv. V24. The two-way pseudotestcross mapping strategy was used to construct the maps. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers that segregated 1:1 were used to form the four parental maps. Microsatellites and sequence-tagged sites were used to align homoeologous groups between the maps and to merge linkage groups within the individual maps. Linkage analysis and alignment of the homoeologous groups resulted in 566 markers distributed over 19 groups for P. deltoides covering 86% of the genome, 339 markers distributed over 19 groups for P. trichocarpa covering 73%, and 369 markers distributed over 28 groups for P. nigra covering 61%. Several tests for randomness showed that the AFLP markers were randomly distributed over the genome.

  2. Rheological Behavior, Granule Size Distribution and Differential Scanning Calorimetry of Cross-Linked Banana (Musa paradisiaca) Starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Santiago, María C.; Maristany-Cáceres, Amira J.; Suárez, Francisco J. García; Bello-Pérez, Arturo

    2008-07-01

    Rheological behavior at 60 °C, granule size distribution and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) tests were employed to study the effect of diverse reaction conditions: adipic acid concentration, pH and temperature during cross-linking of banana (Musa paradisiaca) starch. These properties were determined in native banana starch pastes for the purpose of comparison. Rheological behavior from pastes of cross-linked starch at 60 °C did not show hysteresis, probably due the cross-linkage of starch that avoided disruption of granules, elsewhere, native starch showed hysteresis in a thixotropic loop. All pastes exhibited non-Newtonian shear thinning behavior. In all cases, size distribution showed a decrease in the median diameter in cross-linked starches. This condition produces a decrease in swelling capacity of cross-linked starch. The median diameter decreased with an increase of acid adipic concentration; however, an increase of pH and Temperature produced an increase in this variable. Finally, an increase in gelatinization temperature and entalphy (ΔH) were observed as an effect of cross-linkage. An increase in acid adipic concentration produced an increase in Tonset and a decrease in ΔH. pH and temperature. The cross-linked of banana starch produced granules more resistant during the pasting procedure.

  3. Integrating cross-scale analysis in the spatial and temporal domains for classification of behavioral movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Soleymani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Since various behavioral movement patterns are likely to be valid within different, unique ranges of spatial and temporal scales (e.g., instantaneous, diurnal, or seasonal with the corresponding spatial extents, a cross-scale approach is needed for accurate classification of behaviors expressed in movement. Here, we introduce a methodology for the characterization and classification of behavioral movement data that relies on computing and analyzing movement features jointly in both the spatial and temporal domains. The proposed methodology consists of three stages. In the first stage, focusing on the spatial domain, the underlying movement space is partitioned into several zonings that correspond to different spatial scales, and features related to movement are computed for each partitioning level. In the second stage, concentrating on the temporal domain, several movement parameters are computed from trajectories across a series of temporal windows of increasing sizes, yielding another set of input features for the classification. For both the spatial and the temporal domains, the ``reliable scale'' is determined by an automated procedure. This is the scale at which the best classification accuracy is achieved, using only spatial or temporal input features, respectively. The third stage takes the measures from the spatial and temporal domains of movement, computed at the corresponding reliable scales, as input features for behavioral classification. With a feature selection procedure, the most relevant features contributing to known behavioral states are extracted and used to learn a classification model. The potential of the proposed approach is demonstrated on a dataset of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio swimming movements in testing tanks, following exposure to different drug treatments. Our results show that behavioral classification accuracy greatly increases when firstly cross-scale analysis is used to determine the best analysis scale, and

  4. Meta-analysis of 32 genome-wide linkage studies of schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, MYM; Levinson, DF; Faraone, SV; Suarez, BK; DeLisi, LE; Arinami, T; Riley, B; Paunio, T; Pulver, AE; Irmansyah; Holmans, PA; Escamilla, M; Wildenauer, DB; Williams, NM; Laurent, C; Mowry, BJ; Brzustowicz, LM; Maziade, M; Sklar, P; Garver, DL; Abecasis, GR; Lerer, B; Fallin, MD; Gurling, HMD; Gejman, PV; Lindholm, E; Moises, HW; Byerley, W; Wijsman, EM; Forabosco, P; Tsuang, MT; Hwu, H-G; Okazaki, Y; Kendler, KS; Wormley, B; Fanous, A; Walsh, D; O’Neill, FA; Peltonen, L; Nestadt, G; Lasseter, VK; Liang, KY; Papadimitriou, GM; Dikeos, DG; Schwab, SG; Owen, MJ; O’Donovan, MC; Norton, N; Hare, E; Raventos, H; Nicolini, H; Albus, M; Maier, W; Nimgaonkar, VL; Terenius, L; Mallet, J; Jay, M; Godard, S; Nertney, D; Alexander, M; Crowe, RR; Silverman, JM; Bassett, AS; Roy, M-A; Mérette, C; Pato, CN; Pato, MT; Roos, J Louw; Kohn, Y; Amann-Zalcenstein, D; Kalsi, G; McQuillin, A; Curtis, D; Brynjolfson, J; Sigmundsson, T; Petursson, H; Sanders, AR; Duan, J; Jazin, E; Myles-Worsley, M; Karayiorgou, M; Lewis, CM

    2009-01-01

    A genome scan meta-analysis (GSMA) was carried out on 32 independent genome-wide linkage scan analyses that included 3255 pedigrees with 7413 genotyped cases affected with schizophrenia (SCZ) or related disorders. The primary GSMA divided the autosomes into 120 bins, rank-ordered the bins within each study according to the most positive linkage result in each bin, summed these ranks (weighted for study size) for each bin across studies and determined the empirical probability of a given summed rank (PSR) by simulation. Suggestive evidence for linkage was observed in two single bins, on chromosomes 5q (142-168 Mb) and 2q (103-134 Mb). Genome-wide evidence for linkage was detected on chromosome 2q (119-152 Mb) when bin boundaries were shifted to the middle of the previous bins. The primary analysis met empirical criteria for ‘aggregate’ genome-wide significance, indicating that some or all of 10 bins are likely to contain loci linked to SCZ, including regions of chromosomes 1, 2q, 3q, 4q, 5q, 8p and 10q. In a secondary analysis of 22 studies of European-ancestry samples, suggestive evidence for linkage was observed on chromosome 8p (16-33 Mb). Although the newer genome-wide association methodology has greater power to detect weak associations to single common DNA sequence variants, linkage analysis can detect diverse genetic effects that segregate in families, including multiple rare variants within one locus or several weakly associated loci in the same region. Therefore, the regions supported by this meta-analysis deserve close attention in future studies. PMID:19349958

  5. Cross-Cultural adaption, validity and reliability of a Hindi version of the Corah's Dental Anxiety Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Meena; Tandon, Shourya; Sharma, Ankur; Jain, Vishal; Rani Yadav, Nisha

    2018-01-01

    Background: An appropriate scale to assess the dental anxiety of Hindi speaking population is lacking. This study, therefore, aims to evaluate the psychometric properties of Hindi version of one of the oldest dental anxiety scale, Corah's Dental Anxiety Scale (CDAS) in Hindi speaking Indian adults. Methods: A total of 348 subjects from the outpatient department of a dental hospital in India participated in this cross-sectional study. The scale was cross-culturally adapted by forward and backward translation, committee review and pretesting method. The construct validity of the translated scale was explored with exploratory factor analysis. The correlation of the Hindi version of CDAS with visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to measure the convergent validity. Reliability was assessed through calculations of Cronbach's alpha and intra class correlation 48 forms were completed for test-retest. Results: Prevalence of dental anxiety in the sample within the age range of 18-80 years was 85.63% [95% CI: 0.815-0.891]. The response rate was 100 %. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) test value was 0.776. After factor analysis, a single factor (dental anxiety) was obtained with 4 items.The single factor model explained 61% variance. Pearson correlation coefficient between CDASand VAS was 0.494. Test-retest showed the Cronbach's alpha value of 0.814. The test-retest intraclass correlation coefficient of the total CDAS score was 0.881 [95% CI: 0.318-0.554]. Conclusion: Hindi version of CDAS is a valid and reliable scale to assess dental anxiety in Hindi speaking population. Convergent validity is well recognized but discriminant validity is limited and requires further study.

  6. Motivation for choice and healthiness perception of calorie-reduced dairy products. a cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Susanne Bølling; Næs, Tormod; Hersleth, Margrethe

    2011-02-01

    Understanding consumers' motives for selecting calorie-reduced dairy products are important to provide targeted communication to different consumer segments. The aim of this study was to identify motives for consumption of calorie-reduced dairy products among young consumers, and to identify how these consumers perceive the healthiness of such products compared to other food products. Consumers, aged 18-30 years, from Norway (n=118), Denmark (n=125), and California (n=127) participated in this cross-cultural study. The respondents sorted 24 statements referring to motives for choosing calorie-reduced yoghurt and cheese. The study also assessed the aspect of perceived healthiness of these products in comparison with a selection of other food products using a two-step ranking procedure. The data were analysed using chi-square analysis, Friedman's test and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The results show that fat content, healthiness and taste were the most important motivators for choice of the calorie-reduced dairy products. In all three countries salmon was perceived as the healthiest among the products presented. The calorie-reduced dairy products were ranked as relatively healthy, with yoghurt ranked as healthier than cheese. Although cross-cultural differences existed in motives for choice and perceived healthiness of the products, the similarities between the countries were evident in this study. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Robust LOD scores for variance component-based linkage analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blangero, J; Williams, J T; Almasy, L

    2000-01-01

    The variance component method is now widely used for linkage analysis of quantitative traits. Although this approach offers many advantages, the importance of the underlying assumption of multivariate normality of the trait distribution within pedigrees has not been studied extensively. Simulation studies have shown that traits with leptokurtic distributions yield linkage test statistics that exhibit excessive Type I error when analyzed naively. We derive analytical formulae relating the deviation from the expected asymptotic distribution of the lod score to the kurtosis and total heritability of the quantitative trait. A simple correction constant yields a robust lod score for any deviation from normality and for any pedigree structure, and effectively eliminates the problem of inflated Type I error due to misspecification of the underlying probability model in variance component-based linkage analysis.

  8. Progress on scaling up integrated services for sexual and reproductive health and HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Clare; Attawell, Kathy; Druce, Nel

    2009-11-01

    This paper considers new developments to strengthen sexual and reproductive health and HIV linkages and discusses factors that continue to impede progress. It is based on a previous review undertaken for the United Kingdom Department for International Development in 2006 that examined the constraints and opportunities to scaling up these linkages. We argue that, despite growing evidence that linking sexual and reproductive health and HIV is feasible and beneficial, few countries have achieved significant scale-up of integrated service provision. A lack of common understanding of terminology and clear technical operational guidance, and separate policy, institutional and financing processes continue to represent significant constraints. We draw on experience with tuberculosis and HIV integration to highlight some lessons. The paper concludes that there is little evidence to determine whether funding for health systems is strengthening linkages and we make several recommendations to maximize opportunities represented by recent developments.

  9. Double gloving to reduce surgical cross-infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, J; Parkinson, H

    2006-07-19

    The invasive nature of surgery, with its increased exposure to blood, means that during surgery there is a high risk of transfer of pathogens. Pathogens can be transferred through contact between surgical patients and the surgical team, resulting in post-operative or blood borne infections in patients or blood borne infections in the surgical team. Both patients and the surgical team need to be protected from this risk. This risk can be reduced by implementing protective barriers such as wearing surgical gloves. Wearing two pairs of surgical gloves, triple gloves, glove liners or cloth outer gloves, as opposed to one pair, is considered to provide an additional barrier and further reduce the risk of contamination. The primary objective of this review was to determine if additional glove protection reduces the number of surgical site or blood borne infections in patients or the surgical team. The secondary objective was to determine if additional glove protection reduces the number of perforations to the innermost pair of surgical gloves. The innermost gloves (next to skin) compared with the outermost gloves are considered to be the last barrier between the patient and the surgical team. We searched the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (January 2006), and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL)(The Cochrane Library Issue 4, 2005). We also contacted glove manufacturing companies and professional organisations. Randomised controlled trials involving: single gloving, double gloving, triple gloving, glove liners, knitted outer gloves, steel weave outer gloves and perforation indicator systems. Both authors independently assessed the relevance and quality of each trial. Data was extracted by one author and cross checked for accuracy by the second author. Two trials were found which addressed the primary outcome, namely, surgical site infections in patients. Both trials reported no infections. Thirty one randomised controlled trials

  10. Linkage of biomolecules to solid phases for immunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, R.S.

    1998-01-01

    Topics covered by this lecture include a brief review of the principal methods of linkage of biomolecules to solid phase matrices. Copies of the key self explanatory slides are presented as figures together with reprints of two publications by the author dealing with a preferred chemistry for the covalent linkage of antibodies to hydroxyl and amino functional groups and the effects of changes in solid phase matrix and antibody coupling chemistry on the performance of a typical excess reagent immunoassay for thyroid stimulating hormone

  11. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of als Functional Rating Scale-Revised in Portuguese language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Keyte; Pereira, Cecília; Pavan, Karina; Valério, Berenice Cataldo Oliveira

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study is the cross-cultural, as well as to validate in Portuguese language the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale - Revised (ALSFRS-R). We performed a prospective study of individuals with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) clinically defined. The scale, after obtaining the final version in Portuguese, was administered in 22 individuals and three weeks after re-applied. There were no significant differences between the application and reapplication of the scale (p=0.069). The linear regression and internal consistency measured by Pearson correlation and alpha Conbrach were significant with r=0.975 e alpha=0.934. The reliability test-retest demonstrated by intraclass correlation coefficient was strong with ICC=0.975. Therefore, this version proved to be applicable, reliable and easy to be conducted in clinical practice and research.

  12. Preliminary genetic linkage map of the abalone Haliotis diversicolor Reeve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yaohua; Guo, Ximing; Gu, Zhifeng; Wang, Aimin; Wang, Yan

    2010-05-01

    Haliotis diversicolor Reeve is one of the most important mollusks cultured in South China. Preliminary genetic linkage maps were constructed with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. A total of 2 596 AFLP markers were obtained from 28 primer combinations in two parents and 78 offsprings. Among them, 412 markers (15.9%) were polymorphic and segregated in the mapping family. Chi-square tests showed that 151 (84.4%) markers segregated according to the expected 1:1 Mendelian ratio ( P<0.05) in the female parent, and 200 (85.8%) in the male parent. For the female map, 179 markers were used for linkage analysis and 90 markers were assigned to 17 linkage groups with an average interval length of 25.7 cm. For the male map, 233 markers were used and 94 were mapped into 18 linkage groups, with an average interval of 25.0 cm. The estimated genome length was 2 773.0 cm for the female and 2 817.1 cm for the male map. The observed length of the linkage map was 1 875.2 cm and 1 896.5 cm for the female and male maps, respectively. When doublets were considered, the map length increased to 2 152.8 cm for the female and 2 032.7 cm for the male map, corresponding to genome coverage of 77.6% and 72.2%, respectively.

  13. How can poverty be reduced among small-scale farmers in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article discusses, on the basis of the situation of small-scale farmers in the western highlands of Cameroon, strategies that may reduce their poverty. Background information about Cameroon is given in order to situate the study and discussion in an empirical context that may facilitate a better understanding of the plight ...

  14. High resolution linkage maps of the model organism Petunia reveal substantial synteny decay with the related genome of tomato

    OpenAIRE

    Bossolini, Eligio; Klahre, Ulrich; Brandenburg, Anna; Reinhardt, Didier; Kuhlemeier, Cris

    2011-01-01

    Two linkage maps were constructed for the model plant Petunia. Mapping populations were obtained by crossing the wild species Petunia axillaris subsp. axillaris with Petunia inflata, and Petunia axillaris subsp. parodii with Petunia exserta. Both maps cover the seven chromosomes of Petunia, and span 970 centimorgans (cM) and 700 cM of the genomes, respectively. In total, 207 markers were mapped. Of these, 28 are multilocus amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers and 179 are gene...

  15. A Narrow and Highly Significant Linkage Signal for Severe Bipolar Disorder in the Chromosome 5q33 Region in Latin American Pedigrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinska, A.J.; Service, S.; Jawaheer, D.; DeYoung, J.; Levinson, M.; Zhang, Z.; Kremeyer, B.; Muller, H.; Aldana, I.; Garcia, J.; Restrepo, G.; Lopez, C.; Palacio, C.; Duque, C.; Parra, M.; Vega, J.; Ortiz, D.; Bedoya, G.; Mathews, C.; Davanzo, P.; Fournier, E.; Bejarano, J.; Ramirez, M.; Ortiz, C. Araya; Araya, X.; Molina, J.; Sabatti, C.; Reus, V.; Ospina, J.; Macaya, G.; Ruiz-Linares, A.; Freimer, N.B.

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported linkage of bipolar disorder to 5q33-q34 in families from two closely related population isolates, the Central Valley of Costa Rica (CVCR) and Antioquia, Colombia (CO). Here we present follow up results from fine-scale mapping in large CVCR and CO families segregating severe bipolar disorder, BP-I, and in 343 population trios/duos from CVCR and CO. Employing densely spaced SNPs to fine map the prior linkage peak region increases linkage evidence and clarifies the position of the putative BP-I locus. We performed two-point linkage analysis with 1134 SNPs in an approximately 9 Mb region between markers D5S410 and D5S422. Combining pedigrees from CVCR and CO yields a LOD score of 4.9 at SNP rs10035961. Two other SNPs (rs7721142 and rs1422795) within the same 94 kb region also displayed LOD scores greater than 4. This linkage peak coincides with our prior microsatellite results and suggests a narrowed BP-I susceptibility regions in these families. To investigate if the locus implicated in the familial form of BP-I also contributes to disease risk in the population, we followed up the family results with association analysis in duo and trio samples, obtaining signals within 2 Mb of the peak linkage signal in the pedigrees; rs12523547 and rs267015 (P = 0.00004 and 0.00016, respectively) in the CO sample and rs244960 in the CVCR sample and the combined sample, with P = 0.00032 and 0.00016, respectively. It remains unclear whether these association results reflect the same locus contributing to BP susceptibility within the extended pedigrees. PMID:19319892

  16. Discrimination of candidate subgenome-specific loci by linkage map construction with an S1 population of octoploid strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, Soichiro; Shirasawa, Kenta; Hirakawa, Hideki; Maeda, Fumi; Ishikawa, Masami; Isobe, Sachiko N

    2017-05-12

    The strawberry, Fragaria × ananassa, is an allo-octoploid (2n = 8x = 56) and outcrossing species. Although it is the most widely consumed berry crop in the world, its complex genome structure has hindered its genetic and genomic analysis, and thus discrimination of subgenome-specific loci among the homoeologous chromosomes is needed. In the present study, we identified candidate subgenome-specific single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci, and constructed a linkage map using an S 1 mapping population of the cultivar 'Reikou' with an IStraw90 Axiom® SNP array and previously published SSR markers. The 'Reikou' linkage map consisted of 11,574 loci (11,002 SNPs and 572 SSR loci) spanning 2816.5 cM of 31 linkage groups. The 11,574 loci were located on 4738 unique positions (bin) on the linkage map. Of the mapped loci, 8999 (8588 SNPs and 411 SSR loci) showed a 1:2:1 segregation ratio of AA:AB:BB allele, which suggested the possibility of deriving loci from candidate subgenome-specific sequences. In addition, 2575 loci (2414 SNPs and 161 SSR loci) showed a 3:1 segregation of AB:BB allele, indicating they were derived from homoeologous genomic sequences. Comparative analysis of the homoeologous linkage groups revealed differences in genome structure among the subgenomes. Our results suggest that candidate subgenome-specific loci are randomly located across the genomes, and that there are small- to large-scale structural variations among the subgenomes. The mapped SNPs and SSR loci on the linkage map are expected to be seed points for the construction of pseudomolecules in the octoploid strawberry.

  17. Final Report: Pilot-scale Cross-flow Filtration Test - Envelope A + Entrained Solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duignan, M.R.

    2000-01-01

    This report discusses the results of the operation of a cross-flow filter in a pilot-scale experimental facility that was designed, built, and run by the Experimental Thermal Fluids Laboratory of the Savannah River Technology Center of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company.This filter technology was evaluated for its inclusion in the pretreatment section of the nuclear waste stabilization plant being designed by BNFL, Inc. This plant will be built at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site as part of the River Protection Project

  18. Hereditary spastic paraplegia: LOD-score considerations for confirmation of linkage in a heterogeneous trait

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dube, M.P.; Kibar, Z.; Rouleau, G.A. [McGill Univ., Quebec (Canada)] [and others

    1997-03-01

    Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) is a degenerative disorder of the motor system, defined by progressive weakness and spasticity of the lower limbs. HSP may be inherited as an autosomal dominant (AD), autosomal recessive, or an X-linked trait. AD HSP is genetically heterogeneous, and three loci have been identified so far: SPG3 maps to chromosome 14q, SPG4 to 2p, and SPG4a to 15q. We have undertaken linkage analysis with 21 uncomplicated AD families to the three AD HSP loci. We report significant linkage for three of our families to the SPG4 locus and exclude several families by multipoint linkage. We used linkage information from several different research teams to evaluate the statistical probability of linkage to the SPG4 locus for uncomplicated AD HSP families and established the critical LOD-score value necessary for confirmation of linkage to the SPG4 locus from Bayesian statistics. In addition, we calculated the empirical P-values for the LOD scores obtained with all families with computer simulation methods. Power to detect significant linkage, as well as type I error probabilities, were evaluated. This combined analytical approach permitted conclusive linkage analyses on small to medium-size families, under the restrictions of genetic heterogeneity. 19 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  19. Hereditary spastic paraplegia: LOD-score considerations for confirmation of linkage in a heterogeneous trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, M P; Mlodzienski, M A; Kibar, Z; Farlow, M R; Ebers, G; Harper, P; Kolodny, E H; Rouleau, G A; Figlewicz, D A

    1997-03-01

    Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) is a degenerative disorder of the motor system, defined by progressive weakness and spasticity of the lower limbs. HSP may be inherited as an autosomal dominant (AD), autosomal recessive, or an X-linked trait. AD HSP is genetically heterogeneous, and three loci have been identified so far: SPG3 maps to chromosome 14q, SPG4 to 2p, and SPG4a to 15q. We have undertaken linkage analysis with 21 uncomplicated AD families to the three AD HSP loci. We report significant linkage for three of our families to the SPG4 locus and exclude several families by multipoint linkage. We used linkage information from several different research teams to evaluate the statistical probability of linkage to the SPG4 locus for uncomplicated AD HSP families and established the critical LOD-score value necessary for confirmation of linkage to the SPG4 locus from Bayesian statistics. In addition, we calculated the empirical P-values for the LOD scores obtained with all families with computer simulation methods. Power to detect significant linkage, as well as type I error probabilities, were evaluated. This combined analytical approach permitted conclusive linkage analyses on small to medium-size families, under the restrictions of genetic heterogeneity.

  20. Process-Structure Linkages Using a Data Science Approach: Application to Simulated Additive Manufacturing Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popova, Evdokia; Rodgers, Theron M.; Gong, Xinyi; Cecen, Ahmet; Madison, Jonathan D.; Kalidindi, Surya R.

    2017-01-01

    A novel data science workflow is developed and demonstrated to extract process-structure linkages (i.e., reduced-order model) for microstructure evolution problems when the final microstructure depends on (simulation or experimental) processing parameters. Our workflow consists of four main steps: data pre-processing, microstructure quantification, dimensionality reduction, and extraction/validation of process-structure linkages. These methods that can be employed within each step vary based on the type and amount of available data. In this paper, this data-driven workflow is applied to a set of synthetic additive manufacturing microstructures obtained using the Potts-kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) approach. Additive manufacturing techniques inherently produce complex microstructures that can vary significantly with processing conditions. Using the developed workflow, a low-dimensional data-driven model was established to correlate process parameters with the predicted final microstructure. In addition, the modular workflows developed and presented in this work facilitate easy dissemination and curation by the broader community.

  1. Exploiting linkage disequilibrium in statistical modelling in quantitative genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Lei

    Alleles at two loci are said to be in linkage disequilibrium (LD) when they are correlated or statistically dependent. Genomic prediction and gene mapping rely on the existence of LD between gentic markers and causul variants of complex traits. In the first part of the thesis, a novel method...... to quantify and visualize local variation in LD along chromosomes in describet, and applied to characterize LD patters at the local and genome-wide scale in three Danish pig breeds. In the second part, different ways of taking LD into account in genomic prediction models are studied. One approach is to use...... the recently proposed antedependence models, which treat neighbouring marker effects as correlated; another approach involves use of haplotype block information derived using the program Beagle. The overall conclusion is that taking LD information into account in genomic prediction models potentially improves...

  2. A 100,000 Scale Factor Radar Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanche, Pierre-Alexandre; Neifeld, Mark; Peyghambarian, Nasser

    2017-12-19

    The radar cross section of an object is an important electromagnetic property that is often measured in anechoic chambers. However, for very large and complex structures such as ships or sea and land clutters, this common approach is not practical. The use of computer simulations is also not viable since it would take many years of computational time to model and predict the radar characteristics of such large objects. We have now devised a new scaling technique to overcome these difficulties, and make accurate measurements of the radar cross section of large items. In this article we demonstrate that by reducing the scale of the model by a factor 100,000, and using near infrared wavelength, the radar cross section can be determined in a tabletop setup. The accuracy of the method is compared to simulations, and an example of measurement is provided on a 1 mm highly detailed model of a ship. The advantages of this scaling approach is its versatility, and the possibility to perform fast, convenient, and inexpensive measurements.

  3. Evidence for an asthma risk locus on chromosome Xp: a replication linkage study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasch-Andersen, C; Møller, M U; Haagerup, A

    2008-01-01

    replication sample as used in the present study. The aim of the study was to replicate linkage to candidate regions for asthma in an independent Danish sample. METHODS: We performed a replication study investigating linkage to candidate regions for asthma on chromosomes 1p36.31-p36.21, 5q15-q23.2, 6p24.3-p22...... studies have been carried out the results are still conflicting and call for replication experiments. A Danish genome-wide scan has prior reported evidence for candidate regions for asthma susceptibility genes on chromosomes 1p, 5q, 6p, 12q and Xp. Linkage to chromosome 12q was later confirmed in the same.......3, and Xp22.31-p11.4 using additional markers in an independent set of 136 Danish asthmatic sib pair families. RESULTS: Nonparametric multipoint linkage analyses yielded suggestive evidence for linkage to asthma to chromosome Xp21.2 (MLS 2.92) but failed to replicate linkage to chromosomes 1p36.31-p36.21, 5...

  4. Flexible chain molecules in the marginal and concentrated regimes: universal static scaling laws and cross-over predictions

    OpenAIRE

    Laso Carbajo, Manuel; Karayiannis, Nikos Ch.

    2008-01-01

    We present predictions for the static scaling exponents and for the cross-over polymer volumetric fractions in the marginal and concentrated solution regimes. Corrections for finite chain length are made. Predictions are based on an analysis of correlated fluctuations in density and chain length, in a semigrand ensemble in which mers and solvent sites exchange identities. Cross-over volumetric fractions are found to be chain length independent to first order, although reciprocal-N corrections...

  5. [Construction of genetic linkage map and localization of NBS-LRR like resistance gene analogues in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yu; Zhao, Qian-Cheng; Sun, De-Ling; Song, Wen-Qin

    2007-06-01

    Nucleotide binding site (NBS) profiling, a new method was used to map resistance gene analogues (RGAs) in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis). This method allows amplification and the mapping of genetic markers anchored in the conserved NBS encoding domain of plant disease resistance genes. AFLP was also performed to construct the cauliflower intervarietal genetic map. The aim of constructing genetic map was to identify potential molecular markers linked to important agronomic traits that would be particularly useful for development and improving the species. Using 17 AFLP primer combinations and two degeneration primer/enzyme combinations, a total of 234 AFLP markers and 21 NBS markers were mapped in the F2 population derived from self-pollinating a single F1 plant of the cross AD White Flower x C-8. The markers were mapped in 9 of major linkage groups spanning 668.4 cM, with an average distance of 2.9 cM between adjacent mapped markers. The AFLP markers were well distributed throughout the linkage groups. The linkage groups contained from 12 to 47 loci each and the distance between two consecutive loci ranged from 0 to 14.9 cM. NBS markers were mapped on 8 of the 9 linkage groups of the genetic map. Most of these markers were organized in clusters. This result demonstrates the feasibility of the NBS-profiling method for generating NBS markers for resistance loci in cauliflower. The clustering of the markers mapped in this study adds to the evidence that most of them could be real RGAs.

  6. Insufficiency of avoided crossings for witnessing large-scale quantum coherence in flux qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröwis, Florian; Yadin, Benjamin; Gisin, Nicolas

    2018-04-01

    Do experiments based on superconducting loops segmented with Josephson junctions (e.g., flux qubits) show macroscopic quantum behavior in the sense of Schrödinger's cat example? Various arguments based on microscopic and phenomenological models were recently adduced in this debate. We approach this problem by adapting (to flux qubits) the framework of large-scale quantum coherence, which was already successfully applied to spin ensembles and photonic systems. We show that contemporary experiments might show quantum coherence more than 100 times larger than experiments in the classical regime. However, we argue that the often-used demonstration of an avoided crossing in the energy spectrum is not sufficient to make a conclusion about the presence of large-scale quantum coherence. Alternative, rigorous witnesses are proposed.

  7. Sexual violence legislation in sub-Saharan Africa: the need for strengthened medico-legal linkages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilonzo, Nduku; Ndung'u, Njoki; Nthamburi, Nerida; Ajema, Caroline; Taegtmeyer, Miriam; Theobald, Sally; Tolhurst, Rachel

    2009-11-01

    Six sub-Saharan African countries currently have laws on sexual violence, including Kenya, and eight others have provisions on sexual violence in other legislation. Effective legislation requires functioning medico-legal linkages to enable both justice to be done in cases of sexual violence and the provision of health services for survivors of sexual violence. The health sector also needs to provide post-rape care services and collect and deliver evidence to the criminal justice system. This paper reviews existing data on sexual violence in sub-Saharan Africa, and summarises the content of sexual violence legislation in the region and the strengths and weaknesses of existing medico-legal linkages, using Kenya as a case study. Many sub-Saharan African countries do not yet have comprehensive post-rape care services, nor substantial co-ordination between HIV and sexual and reproductive health services, the legal and judicial systems, and sexual violence legislation. These need to be integrated by cross-referrals, using standardised referral guidelines and pathways, treatment protocols, and medico-legal procedures. Common training approaches and harmonised information across sectors, and common indicators, would facilitate government accountability. Joint and collaborative planning and working at country level, through sharing of information and data between the different systems remain key to achieving this.

  8. The acceptability of conducting data linkage research without obtaining consent: lay people's views and justifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xafis, Vicki

    2015-11-17

    A key ethical issue arising in data linkage research relates to consent requirements. Patients' consent preferences in the context of health research have been explored but their consent preferences regarding data linkage specifically have been under-explored. In addition, the views on data linkage are often those of patient groups. As a result, little is known about lay people's views and their preferences about consent requirements in the context of data linkage. This study explores lay people's views and justifications regarding the acceptability of conducting data linkage research without obtaining consent. A qualitative study explored lay people's views regarding consent requirements in data linkage via four hypothetical data linkage scenarios of increasing complexity. Prior to considering the scenarios, participants were provided with information regarding best practice data linkage processes via discussion and a diagrammatic representation of the process. Lay people were able to understand the intricate processes involved in data linkage and the key protections afforded within a short amount of time. They were supportive of data linkage research and, on the whole, believed it should be conducted without consent provided a data linkage organization de-identifies the data used so that researchers do not handle identifiable data. Many thought that de-identified data holds a different status to identifiable data and should be used without specific consent in research that aims to benefit society. In weighing up conflicting values and interests, participants shifted consent preferences before arriving at their final consent preference for each scenario and provided justifications for their choices. They considered the protection of people's information, societal benefits, and the nature and constraints of research and recognized that these need to be balanced. With some exposure to the features of data linkage, lay people have the capacity to understand the

  9. Model reduction of detailed-balanced reaction networks by clustering linkage classes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rao, Shodhan; Jayawardhana, Bayu; van der Schaft, Abraham; Findeisen, Rolf; Bullinger, Eric; Balsa-Canto, Eva; Bernaerts, Kristel

    2016-01-01

    We propose a model reduction method that involves sequential application of clustering of linkage classes and Kron reduction. This approach is specifically useful for chemical reaction networks with each linkage class having less number of reactions. In case of detailed balanced chemical reaction

  10. Bibliography. Examples of literature related to the use of induced mutations in cross-breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micke, A.

    1976-01-01

    The bibliography contains about 400 references arranged alphabetically under the following 20 headings: Genetic analysis of mutants; Mutant gene combination and interaction; Pleiotropy versus linkage; Genetic background; Heterosis and overdominance; Mutations in heterozygous plants such as vegetatively propagated plants; Mutations in hybrids of self-pollinators; Distant hybridization; Increasing recombination; Alteration in the reproductive system; Alteration of photoperiodic response; Self and cross-incompatibility; Male or female sterility; Adaptability of mutants and mutant hybrids; Mutation induction in cross pollinators; Dwarfing mutant genes in cross-breeding; Protein mutants in cross-breeding; Disease resistant mutants in cross-breeding; Practical cross-breeding programmes using mutants; Spontaneous versus induced genetic diversity

  11. Balancing of linkages and robot manipulators advanced methods with illustrative examples

    CERN Document Server

    Arakelian, Vigen

    2015-01-01

    In this book advanced balancing methods for planar and spatial linkages, hand operated and automatic robot manipulators are presented. It is organized into three main parts and eight chapters. The main parts are the introduction to balancing, the balancing of linkages and the balancing of robot manipulators. The review of state-of-the-art literature including more than 500 references discloses particularities of shaking force/moment balancing and gravity compensation methods. Then new methods for balancing of linkages are considered. Methods provided in the second part of the book deal with the partial and complete shaking force/moment balancing of various linkages. A new field for balancing methods applications is the design of mechanical systems for fast manipulation. Special attention is given to the shaking force/moment balancing of robot manipulators. Gravity balancing methods are also discussed. The suggested balancing methods are illustrated by numerous examples.

  12. Exotic superconductivity with enhanced energy scales in materials with three band crossings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Ping; Nandkishore, Rahul M.

    2018-04-01

    Three band crossings can arise in three-dimensional quantum materials with certain space group symmetries. The low energy Hamiltonian supports spin one fermions and a flat band. We study the pairing problem in this setting. We write down a minimal BCS Hamiltonian and decompose it into spin-orbit coupled irreducible pairing channels. We then solve the resulting gap equations in channels with zero total angular momentum. We find that in the s-wave spin singlet channel (and also in an unusual d-wave `spin quintet' channel), superconductivity is enormously enhanced, with a possibility for the critical temperature to be linear in interaction strength. Meanwhile, in the p-wave spin triplet channel, the superconductivity exhibits features of conventional BCS theory due to the absence of flat band pairing. Three band crossings thus represent an exciting new platform for realizing exotic superconducting states with enhanced energy scales. We also discuss the effects of doping, nonzero temperature, and of retaining additional terms in the k .p expansion of the Hamiltonian.

  13. Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Initial Validation of the Stroke-Specific Quality of Life Scale into the Yoruba Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinpelu, Aderonke O.; Odetunde, Marufat O.; Odole, Adesola C.

    2012-01-01

    Stroke-Specific Quality of Life 2.0 (SS-QoL 2.0) scale is used widely and has been cross-culturally adapted to many languages. This study aimed at the cross-cultural adaptation of SS-QoL 2.0 to Yoruba, the indigenous language of south-western Nigeria, and to carry out an initial investigation on its validity. English SS-QoL 2.0 was first adapted…

  14. Final Report: Pilot-scale Cross-flow Filtration Test - Envelope A + Entrained Solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M.R.

    2000-06-27

    This report discusses the results of the operation of a cross-flow filter in a pilot-scale experimental facility that was designed, built, and run by the Experimental Thermal Fluids Laboratory of the Savannah River Technology Center of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company.This filter technology was evaluated for its inclusion in the pretreatment section of the nuclear waste stabilization plant being designed by BNFL, Inc. This plant will be built at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site as part of the River Protection Project.

  15. A literature review of record linkage procedures focusing on infant health outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Jorge Machado

    Full Text Available Record linkage is a powerful tool in assembling information from different data sources and has been used by a number of public health researchers. In this review, we provide an overview of the record linkage methodologies, focusing particularly on probabilistic record linkage. We then stress the purposes and research applications of linking records by focusing on studies of infant health outcomes based on large data sets, and provide a critical review of the studies in Brazil.

  16. Sustaining innovations : schools, institutions and linkages in the Cuzco region, Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ChavezTafur, J.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis is about linkages between the different institutions operating in the rural areas and the contributions these linkages provide. Numerous activities are found taking place in the rural areas of Peru. Many are the result of a specific intervention, designed and implemented towards

  17. Bayesian estimates of linkage disequilibrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abad-Grau María M

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The maximum likelihood estimator of D' – a standard measure of linkage disequilibrium – is biased toward disequilibrium, and the bias is particularly evident in small samples and rare haplotypes. Results This paper proposes a Bayesian estimation of D' to address this problem. The reduction of the bias is achieved by using a prior distribution on the pair-wise associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that increases the likelihood of equilibrium with increasing physical distances between pairs of SNPs. We show how to compute the Bayesian estimate using a stochastic estimation based on MCMC methods, and also propose a numerical approximation to the Bayesian estimates that can be used to estimate patterns of LD in large datasets of SNPs. Conclusion Our Bayesian estimator of D' corrects the bias toward disequilibrium that affects the maximum likelihood estimator. A consequence of this feature is a more objective view about the extent of linkage disequilibrium in the human genome, and a more realistic number of tagging SNPs to fully exploit the power of genome wide association studies.

  18. Cross-ecosystem impacts of stream pollution reduce resource and contaminant flux to riparian food webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Johanna M.; Schmidt, Travis S.; Walters, David; Wanty, Richard B.; Zuellig, Robert E.; Wolf, Ruth E.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of aquatic contaminants are propagated across ecosystem boundaries by aquatic insects that export resources and contaminants to terrestrial food webs; however, the mechanisms driving these effects are poorly understood. We examined how emergence, contaminant concentration, and total contaminant flux by adult aquatic insects changed over a gradient of bioavailable metals in streams and how these changes affected riparian web-building spiders. Insect emergence decreased 97% over the metal gradient, whereas metal concentrations in adult insects changed relatively little. As a result, total metal exported by insects (flux) was lowest at the most contaminated streams, declining 96% among sites. Spiders were affected by the decrease in prey biomass, but not by metal exposure or metal flux to land in aquatic prey. Aquatic insects are increasingly thought to increase exposure of terrestrial consumers to aquatic contaminants, but stream metals reduce contaminant flux to riparian consumers by strongly impacting the resource linkage. Our results demonstrate the importance of understanding the contaminant-specific effects of aquatic pollutants on adult insect emergence and contaminant accumulation in adults to predict impacts on terrestrial food webs.

  19. Genetic Linkage Map Construction and QTL Analysis of Two Interspecific Reproductive Isolation Traits in Sponge Gourd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haibin; He, Xiaoli; Gong, Hao; Luo, Shaobo; Li, Mingzhu; Chen, Junqiu; Zhang, Changyuan; Yu, Ting; Huang, Wangping; Luo, Jianning

    2016-01-01

    The hybrids between Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb. and L.cylindrica (L.) Roem. have strong heterosis effects. However, some reproductive isolation traits hindered their normal hybridization and fructification, which was mainly caused by the flowering time and hybrid pollen sterility. In order to study the genetic basis of two interspecific reproductive isolation traits, we constructed a genetic linkage map using an F2 population derived from a cross between S1174 [L. acutangula (L.) Roxb.] and 93075 [L. cylindrica (L.) Roem.]. The map spans 1436.12 CentiMorgans (cM), with an average of 8.11 cM among markers, and consists of 177 EST-SSR markers distributed in 14 linkage groups (LG) with an average of 102.58 cM per LG. Meanwhile, we conducted colinearity analysis between the sequences of EST-SSR markers and the genomic sequences of cucumber, melon and watermelon. On the basis of genetic linkage map, we conducted QTL mapping of two reproductive isolation traits in sponge gourd, which were the flowering time and hybrid male sterility. Two putative QTLs associated with flowering time (FT) were both detected on LG 1. The accumulated contribution of these two QTLs explained 38.07% of the total phenotypic variance (PV), and each QTL explained 15.36 and 22.71% of the PV respectively. Four QTLs for pollen fertility (PF) were identified on LG 1 (qPF1.1 and qPF1.2), LG 3 (qPF3) and LG 7 (qPF7), respectively. The percentage of PF explained by these QTLs varied from 2.91 to 16.79%, and all together the four QTLs accounted for 39.98% of the total PV. Our newly developed EST-SSR markers and linkage map are very useful for gene mapping, comparative genomics and molecular marker-assisted breeding. These QTLs for interspecific reproductive isolation will also contribute to the cloning of genes relating to interspecific reproductive isolation and the utilization of interspecific heterosis in sponge gourd in further studies.

  20. Psychometric Evaluation of the Tagalog and German Subjective Happiness Scales and a Cross-Cultural Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Stieger, Stefan; Voracek, Martin; Dressler, Stefan G.; Eisma, Laura; Furnham, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    The Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS) has recently been developed as a more complete measure for the assessment of molar subjective happiness. In the present study, we report on the translation and validation of German and Tagalog versions of the SHS and conduct an initial cross-cultural examination of subjective happiness. In Study 1, 960…

  1. Genomic and environmental selection patterns in two distinct lettuce crop–wild hybrid crosses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Yorike; Uwimana, Brigitte; Hooftman, Danny A P; Schranz, Michael E; van de Wiel, Clemens C M; Smulders, Marinus J M; Visser, Richard G F; van Tienderen, Peter H

    2013-01-01

    Genomic selection patterns and hybrid performance influence the chance that crop (trans)genes can spread to wild relatives. We measured fitness(-related) traits in two different field environments employing two different crop–wild crosses of lettuce. We performed quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses and estimated the fitness distribution of early- and late-generation hybrids. We detected consistent results across field sites and crosses for a fitness QTL at linkage group 7, where a selective advantage was conferred by the wild allele. Two fitness QTL were detected on linkage group 5 and 6, which were unique to one of the crop–wild crosses. Average hybrid fitness was lower than the fitness of the wild parent, but several hybrid lineages outperformed the wild parent, especially in a novel habitat for the wild type. In early-generation hybrids, this may partly be due to heterosis effects, whereas in late-generation hybrids transgressive segregation played a major role. The study of genomic selection patterns can identify crop genomic regions under negative selection across multiple environments and cultivar–wild crosses that might be applicable in transgene mitigation strategies. At the same time, results were cultivar-specific, so that a case-by-case environmental risk assessment is still necessary, decreasing its general applicability. PMID:23789025

  2. Genomic and environmental selection patterns in two distinct lettuce crop-wild hybrid crosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Yorike; Uwimana, Brigitte; Hooftman, Danny A P; Schranz, Michael E; van de Wiel, Clemens C M; Smulders, Marinus J M; Visser, Richard G F; van Tienderen, Peter H

    2013-06-01

    Genomic selection patterns and hybrid performance influence the chance that crop (trans)genes can spread to wild relatives. We measured fitness(-related) traits in two different field environments employing two different crop-wild crosses of lettuce. We performed quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses and estimated the fitness distribution of early- and late-generation hybrids. We detected consistent results across field sites and crosses for a fitness QTL at linkage group 7, where a selective advantage was conferred by the wild allele. Two fitness QTL were detected on linkage group 5 and 6, which were unique to one of the crop-wild crosses. Average hybrid fitness was lower than the fitness of the wild parent, but several hybrid lineages outperformed the wild parent, especially in a novel habitat for the wild type. In early-generation hybrids, this may partly be due to heterosis effects, whereas in late-generation hybrids transgressive segregation played a major role. The study of genomic selection patterns can identify crop genomic regions under negative selection across multiple environments and cultivar-wild crosses that might be applicable in transgene mitigation strategies. At the same time, results were cultivar-specific, so that a case-by-case environmental risk assessment is still necessary, decreasing its general applicability.

  3. Modelling cross-scale relationships between climate, hydrology, and individual animals: Generating scenarios for stream salamanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe eGirard

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid modelling provides a unique opportunity to study cross-scale relationships in environmental systems by linking together models of global, regional, landscape, and local-scale processes, yet the approach is rarely applied to address conservation and management questions. Here, we demonstrate how a hybrid modelling approach can be used to assess the effect of cross-scale interactions on the survival of the Allegheny Mountain Dusky Salamander (Desmognathus ochrophaeus in response to changes in temperature and water availability induced by climate change at the northern limits of its distribution. To do so, we combine regional climate modelling with a landscape-scale integrated surface-groundwater flow model and an individual-based model of stream salamanders. On average, climate scenarios depict a warmer and wetter environment for the 2050 horizon. The increase in average annual temperature and extended hydrological activity time series in the future, combined with a better synchronization with the salamanders’ reproduction period, result in a significant increase in the long-term population viability of the salamanders. This indicates that climate change may not necessarily limit the survivability of small, stream-dwelling animals in headwater basins located in cold and humid regions. This new knowledge suggests that habitat conservation initiatives for amphibians with large latitudinal distributions in Eastern North America should be prioritized at the northern limits of their ranges to facilitate species migration and persistence in the face of climate change. This example demonstrates how hybrid models can serve as powerful tools for informing management and conservation decisions.

  4. Generation of SCALE 6 Input Data File for Cross Section Library of PWR Spent Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Chang Joon; Cho, Dong Keun

    2010-11-01

    In order to obtain the cross section libraries of the Korean Pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent fuel (SF), SCALE 6 code input files have been generated. The PWR fuel data were obtained from the nuclear design report (NDR) of the current operating PWRs. The input file were prepared for 16 fuel types such as 4 types of Westinghouse 14x14, 3 types of OPR-1000 16x16, 4 types of Westinghouse 16x16, and 6 types of Westinghouse 17x17. For each fuel type, 5 kinds of fuel enrichments have been considered such as 1.5, 2.0 ,3.0, 4.0 and 5.0 wt%. In the SCALE 6 calculation, a ENDF-V 44 group was used. The 25 burnup step until 72000 MWD/T was used. A 1/4 symmetry model was used for 16x16 and 17x17 fuel assembly, and 1/2 symmetry model was used for 14x14 fuel assembly The generated cross section libraries will be used for the source-term analysis of the PWR SF

  5. Missing Linkages in California's Landscape [ds420

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The critical need for conserving landscape linkages first came to the forefront of conservation thinking in California in November 2000, when a statewide interagency...

  6. Missing Linkages in California's Landscape [ds420

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The critical need for conserving landscape linkages first came to the forefront of conservation thinking in California in November 2000, when a statewide interagency...

  7. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Cyberchondria Severity Scale for Brazilian Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Gonçalves da Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The internet has proven to be a valuable resource for self-care, allowing access to information and promoting interaction between professionals, caregivers, users of health care services and people interested in health information. However, recurring searches are often related to excessive health anxiety and a phenomenon known as cyberchondria can have impacts on physical and mental health. Within this background, a Cyberchondria Severity Scale has been developed to differentiate healthy and unhealthy behavior in internet searches for health information, based on the following criteria: compulsion, distress, excesses, and trust and distrust of health professionals. Objective: To conduct cross-cultural adaptation of the Cyberchondria Severity Scale for Brazilian Portuguese, because of the lack of an appropriate instrument for Brazil. Methods: This study was authorized by the original author of the scale. The process was divided into the following four steps: 1 initial translation, 2 back-translation, 3 development of a synthesized version, and 4 experimental application. Results: Translation into Brazilian Portuguese required some idiomatic expressions to be adapted. In some cases, words were not literally translated from English into Portuguese. Only items 7, 8, 12, 23 and 27 were altered, as a means of both conforming to proper grammar conventions and achieving easy comprehension. The items were rewritten without loss of the original content. Conclusion: This paper presents a translated version of the Cyberchondria Severity Scale that has been semantically adapted for the Brazilian population, providing a basis for future studies in this area, which should in turn contribute to improved understanding of the cyberchondria phenomenon in this population.

  8. Markov chain Monte Carlo linkage analysis: effect of bin width on the probability of linkage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slager, S L; Juo, S H; Durner, M; Hodge, S E

    2001-01-01

    We analyzed part of the Genetic Analysis Workshop (GAW) 12 simulated data using Monte Carlo Markov chain (MCMC) methods that are implemented in the computer program Loki. The MCMC method reports the "probability of linkage" (PL) across the chromosomal regions of interest. The point of maximum PL can then be taken as a "location estimate" for the location of the quantitative trait locus (QTL). However, Loki does not provide a formal statistical test of linkage. In this paper, we explore how the bin width used in the calculations affects the max PL and the location estimate. We analyzed age at onset (AO) and quantitative trait number 5, Q5, from 26 replicates of the general simulated data in one region where we knew a major gene, MG5, is located. For each trait, we found the max PL and the corresponding location estimate, using four different bin widths. We found that bin width, as expected, does affect the max PL and the location estimate, and we recommend that users of Loki explore how their results vary with different bin widths.

  9. Application of the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) technique to the thermal-hydraulics project of a PWR reactor core in reduced scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima Junior, Carlos Alberto de Souza

    2008-09-01

    The reduced scale models design have been employed by engineers from several different industries fields such as offshore, spatial, oil extraction, nuclear industries and others. Reduced scale models are used in experiments because they are economically attractive than its own prototype (real scale) because in many cases they are cheaper than a real scale one and most of time they are also easier to build providing a way to lead the real scale design allowing indirect investigations and analysis to the real scale system (prototype). A reduced scale model (or experiment) must be able to represent all physical phenomena that occurs and further will do in the real scale one under operational conditions, e.g., in this case the reduced scale model is called similar. There are some different methods to design a reduced scale model and from those two are basic: the empiric method based on the expert's skill to determine which physical measures are relevant to the desired model; and the differential equation method that is based on a mathematical description of the prototype (real scale system) to model. Applying a mathematical technique to the differential equation that describes the prototype then highlighting the relevant physical measures so the reduced scale model design problem may be treated as an optimization problem. Many optimization techniques as Genetic Algorithm (GA), for example, have been developed to solve this class of problems and have also been applied to the reduced scale model design problem as well. In this work, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) technique is investigated as an alternative optimization tool for such problem. In this investigation a computational approach, based on particle swarm optimization technique (PSO), is used to perform a reduced scale two loop Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) core, considering 100% of nominal power operation on a forced flow cooling circulation and non-accidental operating conditions. A performance comparison

  10. Scaling law for (e, 2e) cross sections for isoelectronic hydrogen- and alkali-like ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ancarani, L U; Hervieux, P-A

    2003-01-01

    Triple differential cross sections (TDCSs) for (e, 2e) processes on the valence electrons of H-, Li-, Na- and K-like positive ions are calculated for asymmetric coplanar geometries and intermediate incident energies. Although the proper boundary conditions are not respected, both the long-range Coulomb interaction in the initial and final channels, and the short-range effects, are taken into account in the Coulomb Born approximation through the use of two effective charges. The latter are obtained within the framework of the frozen-core Hartree-Fock approximation which is also used for describing the bound state wavefunctions. An approximate scaling law for the TDCSs is predicted for the ionization of sequences of isoelectronic ions, provided the incident and ejected energies are properly scaled. The calculations illustrate that the scaling is generally well verified, in particular for increasing ionicity within a sequence. Moreover, as one moves from the H- to K-like sequences, more TDCS structure is observed. Two main peaks are always situated close to the direction of the momentum transfer and opposite direction, although with strong shifts. Contrary to what is observed for the ionization of outer-shells electrons in neutral atoms, the dominant peak of all cross sections is in the opposite direction to the momentum transfer, a signature of strong elastic scattering from the nucleus

  11. Cross-Cultural adaption, validity and reliability of a Hindi version of the Corah’s Dental Anxiety Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena Jain

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: An appropriate scale to assess the dental anxiety of Hindi speaking population is lacking. This study, therefore, aims to evaluate the psychometric properties of Hindi version of one of the oldest dental anxiety scale, Corah’s Dental Anxiety Scale (CDAS in Hindi speaking Indian adults.Methods: A total of 348 subjects from the outpatient department of a dental hospital in Indiaparticipated in this cross-sectional study. The scale was cross-culturally adapted by forward and backward translation, committee review and pretesting method. The construct validity of the translated scale was explored with exploratory factor analysis. The correlation of the Hindi version of CDAS with visual analogue scale (VAS was used to measure the convergent validity.Reliability was assessed through calculations of Cronbach’s alpha and intra class correlation 48 forms were completed for test-retest.Results: Prevalence of dental anxiety in the sample within the age range of 18-80 years was 85.63% [95% CI: 0.815-0.891]. The response rate was 100 %. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO test value was 0.776. After factor analysis, a single factor (dental anxiety was obtained with 4 items.The single factor model explained 61% variance. Pearson correlation coefficient between CDASand VAS was 0.494. Test-retest showed the Cronbach’s alpha value of 0.814. The test-retest intraclass correlation coefficient of the total CDAS score was 0.881 [95% CI: 0.318-0.554].Conclusion: Hindi version of CDAS is a valid and reliable scale to assess dental anxiety in Hindi speaking population. Convergent validity is well recognized but discriminant validity is limited and requires further study.

  12. Cross-Cultural adaption, validity and reliability of a Hindi version of the Corah’s Dental Anxiety Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Meena; Tandon, Shourya; Sharma, Ankur; Jain, Vishal; Rani Yadav, Nisha

    2018-01-01

    Background: An appropriate scale to assess the dental anxiety of Hindi speaking population is lacking. This study, therefore, aims to evaluate the psychometric properties of Hindi version of one of the oldest dental anxiety scale, Corah’s Dental Anxiety Scale (CDAS) in Hindi speaking Indian adults. Methods: A total of 348 subjects from the outpatient department of a dental hospital in India participated in this cross-sectional study. The scale was cross-culturally adapted by forward and backward translation, committee review and pretesting method. The construct validity of the translated scale was explored with exploratory factor analysis. The correlation of the Hindi version of CDAS with visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to measure the convergent validity. Reliability was assessed through calculations of Cronbach’s alpha and intra class correlation 48 forms were completed for test-retest. Results: Prevalence of dental anxiety in the sample within the age range of 18-80 years was 85.63% [95% CI: 0.815-0.891]. The response rate was 100 %. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) test value was 0.776. After factor analysis, a single factor (dental anxiety) was obtained with 4 items.The single factor model explained 61% variance. Pearson correlation coefficient between CDASand VAS was 0.494. Test-retest showed the Cronbach’s alpha value of 0.814. The test-retest intraclass correlation coefficient of the total CDAS score was 0.881 [95% CI: 0.318-0.554]. Conclusion: Hindi version of CDAS is a valid and reliable scale to assess dental anxiety in Hindi speaking population. Convergent validity is well recognized but discriminant validity is limited and requires further study. PMID:29744307

  13. Health problems in childhood cancer survivors: Linkage studies and guideline development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Font-Gonzalez, A.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis comprises two parts. The first part of this thesis aims to increase the evidence on the burden of disease in childhood cancer survivors and to define high-risk groups of survivors by using medical record linkage studies. A two-step record linkage methodology between Dutch national

  14. Genomic and environmental selection patterns in two distinct lettuce crop-wild hybrid crosses

    OpenAIRE

    Hartman, Y.; Uwimana, B.; Hooftman, D.A.P.; Schranz, M.E.; Wiel, van de, C.C.M.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Visser, R.G.F.; Tienderen, van, P.H.

    2013-01-01

    Genomic selection patterns and hybrid performance influence the chance that crop (trans)genes can spread to wild relatives. We measured fitness(-related) traits in two different field environments employing two different crop?wild crosses of lettuce. We performed quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses and estimated the fitness distribution of early- and late-generation hybrids. We detected consistent results across field sites and crosses for a fitness QTL at linkage group 7, where a selectiv...

  15. Glass Barriers : Constraints to Women's Small-Scale Cross-Border Trade in Cambodia and Lao PDR

    OpenAIRE

    Seror, Marlon; Record, Richard; Clarke, Julian

    2017-01-01

    Trade facilitation projects often assume indirect benefits for small-scale, cross-border traders. Recent studies have shown the challenges faced in Africa by this population, especially women, but it remains unknown in Cambodia and the Lao People's Democratic Republic, despite large trade facilitation investments. This paper fills this gap, thanks to an innovative mix of original qualitati...

  16. Application of multi-scale (cross-) sample entropy for structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Kang; Liang, Jui-Chang

    2015-08-01

    This study proposes an information-theoretic structural health monitoring (SHM) system based on multi-scale entropy (MSE) and multi-scale cross-sample entropy (MSCE). By measuring the ambient vibration signal from a structure, the damage condition can be rapidly evaluated via MSE analysis. The damage location can then be detected by analyzing the signals of different floors under the same damage condition via MSCE analysis. Moreover, a damage index is proposed to efficiently quantify the SHM process. Unlike some existing SHM methods, no experimental database or numerical model is required. Instead, a reference measurement of the current stage can initiate and launch the SHM system. A numerical simulation of a four-story steel structure is used to verify that the damage location and condition can be detected by the proposed SHM algorithm, and the location can be efficiently quantified by the damage index. A seven-story scaled-down benchmark structure is then employed for experimental verification. Based on the results, the damage condition can be correctly assessed, and average accuracy rates of 63.4 and 86.6% for the damage location can be achieved using the MSCE and damage index methods, respectively. As only the ambient vibration signal is required with a set of initial reference measurements, the proposed SHM system can be implemented practically with low cost.

  17. The Importance of Geographical Proximity for New Product Development Activities within Inter-firm Linkages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgren, Johan Henrich

    important as a resource and where collaboration partners are important. Hypotheses are tested by means of a quantitative analysis of a data set containing information about 4842 domestic and international inter-firm linkages of Danish firms in manufacturing industries. The findings in this analysis exhibit...... for international linkages. It is further suggested closer geographical distance for inter-firm linkages with medium and high level of interaction, suppliers or customers accounting for more than one third of total purchases or sales, and for linkages lasting for at least 10 years.Key words: capabilities, economics...

  18. INTERACTION OF TRADE AND FINANCIAL LINKAGES IN THE FREE TRADE ZONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Shevchenko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Different models of free trade agreements (FTA and free trade zones (FTZ are considered in the article, argued the complex approach to their structures and results under unstable global economic environment. The typology of the free trade zones models and financial linkages types between countries have been developed. Approaches to the results of the free trade zones have been argued. It has been discovered that for the free trade zones of transitional countries the prevailing are tarde flows concentration whereas financial and investment linkages are acting with developed countries. The main directions of increasing of the financial linkages results in the free trade zones have been discovered.

  19. A new method for assessing how sensitivity and specificity of linkage studies affects estimation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia L Moore

    Full Text Available While the importance of record linkage is widely recognised, few studies have attempted to quantify how linkage errors may have impacted on their own findings and outcomes. Even where authors of linkage studies have attempted to estimate sensitivity and specificity based on subjects with known status, the effects of false negatives and positives on event rates and estimates of effect are not often described.We present quantification of the effect of sensitivity and specificity of the linkage process on event rates and incidence, as well as the resultant effect on relative risks. Formulae to estimate the true number of events and estimated relative risk adjusted for given linkage sensitivity and specificity are then derived and applied to data from a prisoner mortality study. The implications of false positive and false negative matches are also discussed.Comparisons of the effect of sensitivity and specificity on incidence and relative risks indicate that it is more important for linkages to be highly specific than sensitive, particularly if true incidence rates are low. We would recommend that, where possible, some quantitative estimates of the sensitivity and specificity of the linkage process be performed, allowing the effect of these quantities on observed results to be assessed.

  20. Reduced linear noise approximation for biochemical reaction networks with time-scale separation: The stochastic tQSSA+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herath, Narmada; Del Vecchio, Domitilla

    2018-03-01

    Biochemical reaction networks often involve reactions that take place on different time scales, giving rise to "slow" and "fast" system variables. This property is widely used in the analysis of systems to obtain dynamical models with reduced dimensions. In this paper, we consider stochastic dynamics of biochemical reaction networks modeled using the Linear Noise Approximation (LNA). Under time-scale separation conditions, we obtain a reduced-order LNA that approximates both the slow and fast variables in the system. We mathematically prove that the first and second moments of this reduced-order model converge to those of the full system as the time-scale separation becomes large. These mathematical results, in particular, provide a rigorous justification to the accuracy of LNA models derived using the stochastic total quasi-steady state approximation (tQSSA). Since, in contrast to the stochastic tQSSA, our reduced-order model also provides approximations for the fast variable stochastic properties, we term our method the "stochastic tQSSA+". Finally, we demonstrate the application of our approach on two biochemical network motifs found in gene-regulatory and signal transduction networks.

  1. Point-of-Care HIV Testing and Linkage in an Urban Cohort in the Southern US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Zinski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Southern states experience the highest rates of HIV and AIDS in the US, and point-of-care (POC testing outside of primary care may contribute to status awareness in medically underserved populations in this region. To evaluate POC screening and linkage to care at an urban south site, analyses were performed on a dataset of 3,651 individuals from an integrated rapid-result HIV testing and linkage program to describe this test-seeking cohort and determine trends associated with screening, results, and linkage to care. Four percent of the population had positive results. We observed significant differences by test result for age, race and gender, reported risk behaviors, test location, and motivation for screening. The overall linkage rate was 86%, and we found significant differences for clients who were linked to HIV care versus persons whose linkage could not be confirmed with respect to race and gender, location, and motivation. The linkage rate for POC testing that included a comprehensive intake visit and colocated primary care services for in-state residents was 97%. Additional research on integrated POC screening and linkage methodologies that provide intake services at time of testing is essential for increasing status awareness and improving linkage to HIV care in the US.

  2. Cross-Cultural Validation of the Korean Version of the Chalder Fatigue Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Hyeju; Jeong, Donghee; Hahm, Bong-Jin; Shim, Eun-Jung

    2018-06-01

    University students are vulnerable to fatigue. If not adequately dealt with, fatigue might develop into various health problems and negatively affect quality of life (QOL). The present study examined psychometric properties of the Korean version of the Chalder Fatigue Scale (K-CFQ) in university students. Data were obtained from two samples of undergraduate students in Korea. The first dataset (N = 557) was collected in a cross-sectional survey in 2015 and the second dataset (N = 338) from a longitudinal survey with three time points over a semester period in 2016. Participants completed measures of fatigue, QOL, depression, anxiety, and sleep quality. Three-factor model (physical fatigue, low energy, and mental fatigue) rather than the original two-factor model (physical and mental fatigue) provided a better goodness of fit indices to the data. Internal consistency of the K-CFQ was satisfactory, with Cronbach's α value of 0.88 for the total scale and those of subscales ranging from 0.73 to 0.87. Its convergent validity was supported by its significant association with anxiety, depression, sleep quality, and QOL. Significant association between T1 K-CFQ with physical QOL at T2 and T3 supported its predictive validity. Its known-group validity was proven with higher K-CFQ scores observed in the participants with depression and those with poor sleep quality. Current results suggest that K-CFQ is a valid and reliable measure of fatigue, and a better model fit of the three-factor structure of the K-CFQ implies potential cross-cultural differences in the dimensionality of fatigue.

  3. Progress on scaling up integrated services for sexual and reproductive health and HIV

    OpenAIRE

    Dickinson, Clare; Attawell, Kathy; Druce, Nel

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers new developments to strengthen sexual and reproductive health and HIV linkages and discusses factors that continue to impede progress. It is based on a previous review undertaken for the United Kingdom Department for International Development in 2006 that examined the constraints and opportunities to scaling up these linkages. We argue that, despite growing evidence that linking sexual and reproductive health and HIV is feasible and beneficial, few countries have achieved...

  4. Translation, Cross-Cultural Adaptation, and Validation of the Activity Rating Scale for Disorders of the Knee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flosadottir, Vala; Roos, Ewa M; Ageberg, Eva

    2017-01-01

    and cross-culturally adapt the ARS into Swedish and to assess measurement properties of the Swedish version of the ARS. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. METHODS: The COSMIN guidelines were followed. Participants (N = 100 [55 women]; mean age, 27 years) who were undergoing...... rehabilitation for a knee injury completed the ARS twice for test-retest reliability. The Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), Tegner Activity Scale (TAS), and modernized Saltin-Grimby Physical Activity Level Scale (SGPALS) were administered at baseline to validate the ARS. Construct validity...

  5. The Physician Attrition Crisis: A Cross-Sectional Survey of the Risk Factors for Reduced Job Satisfaction Among US Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Theresa N; Pearcy, Chris P; Khorgami, Zhamak; Agrawal, Vaidehi; Taubman, Kevin E; Truitt, Michael S

    2018-05-01

    A physician shortage is on the horizon, and surgeons are particularly vulnerable due to attrition. Reduced job satisfaction leads to increased job turnover and earlier retirement. The purpose of this study is to delineate the risk factors that contribute to reduced job satisfaction. A cross-sectional survey of US surgeons was conducted from September 2016 to May 2017. Screening for job satisfaction was performed using the abridged Job in General scale. Respondents were grouped into more and less satisfied using the median split. Twenty-five potential risk factors were examined that included demographic, occupational, psychological, wellness, and work-environment variables. Overall, 993 respondents were grouped into more satisfied (n = 502) and less satisfied (n = 491) cohorts. Of the demographic variables, female gender and younger age were associated with decreased job satisfaction (p = 0.003 and p = 0.008). Most occupational variables (specialty, experience, academics, practice size, payment model) were not significant. However, increased average hours worked correlated with less satisfaction (p = 0.008). Posttraumatic stress disorder, burnout, wellness, all eight work-environment variables, and unhappiness with career choice were linked to reduced job satisfaction (p = 0.001). A surgeon shortage has serious implications for health care. Job satisfaction is associated with physician retention. Our results suggest women and younger surgeons may be at increased risk for job dissatisfaction. Targeted work-environment interventions to reduce work-hours, improve hospital culture, and provide adequate financial reimbursement may promote job satisfaction and wellness.

  6. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Diabetes Empowerment Scale – Short Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Figueredo Chaves

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To translate, cross-culturally adapt and validate the Diabetes Empowerment Scale – Short Form for assessment of psychosocial self-efficacy in diabetes care within the Brazilian cultural context. METHODS Assessment of the instrument’s conceptual equivalence, as well as its translation and cross-cultural adaptation were performed following international standards. The Expert Committee’s assessment of the translated version was conducted through a web questionnaire developed and applied via the web tool e-Surv. The cross-culturally adapted version was used for the pre-test, which was carried out via phone call in a group of eleven health care service users diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The pre-test results were examined by a group of experts, composed by health care consultants, applied linguists and statisticians, aiming at an adequate version of the instrument, which was subsequently used for test and retest in a sample of 100 users diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus via phone call, their answers being recorded by the web tool e-Surv. Internal consistency and reproducibility of analysis were carried out within the statistical programming environment R. RESULTS Face and content validity were attained and the Brazilian Portuguese version, entitled Escala de Autoeficácia em Diabetes – Versão Curta, was established. The scale had acceptable internal consistency with Cronbach’s alpha of 0.634 (95%CI 0.494– 0.737, while the correlation of the total score in the two periods was considered moderate (0.47. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.50. CONCLUSIONS The translated and cross-culturally adapted version of the instrument to spoken Brazilian Portuguese was considered valid and reliable to be used for assessment within the Brazilian population diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The use of a web tool (e-Surv for recording the Expert Committee responses as well as the responses in the

  7. Threats to cross-border wildlife linkages in the Sky Islands Wildlands Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim Vacariu

    2005-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges facing conservationists in the Sky Islands region is finding a realistic means to maintain historic travel routes for wide-ranging species crossing the United States-Mexico border. This challenge is made difficult due to the ongoing efforts by the Federal government to install additional security infrastructure to stem the flood of...

  8. High-Resolution Genome-Wide Linkage Mapping Identifies Susceptibility Loci for BMI in the Chinese Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Dong Feng; Pang, Zengchang; Li, Shuxia

    2012-01-01

    The genetic loci affecting the commonly used BMI have been intensively investigated using linkage approaches in multiple populations. This study aims at performing the first genome-wide linkage scan on BMI in the Chinese population in mainland China with hypothesis that heterogeneity in genetic...... linkage could exist in different ethnic populations. BMI was measured from 126 dizygotic twins in Qingdao municipality who were genotyped using high-resolution Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP arrays containing about 1 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Nonparametric linkage analysis...... in western countries. Multiple loci showing suggestive linkage were found on chromosome 1 (lod score 2.38 at 242 cM), chromosome 8 (2.48 at 95 cM), and chromosome 14 (2.2 at 89.4 cM). The strong linkage identified in the Chinese subjects that is consistent with that found in populations of European origin...

  9. New generation pharmacogenomic tools: a SNP linkage disequilibrium Map, validated SNP assay resource, and high-throughput instrumentation system for large-scale genetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Vega, Francisco M; Dailey, David; Ziegle, Janet; Williams, Julie; Madden, Dawn; Gilbert, Dennis A

    2002-06-01

    Since public and private efforts announced the first draft of the human genome last year, researchers have reported great numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We believe that the availability of well-mapped, quality SNP markers constitutes the gateway to a revolution in genetics and personalized medicine that will lead to better diagnosis and treatment of common complex disorders. A new generation of tools and public SNP resources for pharmacogenomic and genetic studies--specifically for candidate-gene, candidate-region, and whole-genome association studies--will form part of the new scientific landscape. This will only be possible through the greater accessibility of SNP resources and superior high-throughput instrumentation-assay systems that enable affordable, highly productive large-scale genetic studies. We are contributing to this effort by developing a high-quality linkage disequilibrium SNP marker map and an accompanying set of ready-to-use, validated SNP assays across every gene in the human genome. This effort incorporates both the public sequence and SNP data sources, and Celera Genomics' human genome assembly and enormous resource ofphysically mapped SNPs (approximately 4,000,000 unique records). This article discusses our approach and methodology for designing the map, choosing quality SNPs, designing and validating these assays, and obtaining population frequency ofthe polymorphisms. We also discuss an advanced, high-performance SNP assay chemisty--a new generation of the TaqMan probe-based, 5' nuclease assay-and high-throughput instrumentation-software system for large-scale genotyping. We provide the new SNP map and validation information, validated SNP assays and reagents, and instrumentation systems as a novel resource for genetic discoveries.

  10. Strike-slip tectonics during rift linkage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagli, C.; Yun, S. H.; Ebinger, C.; Keir, D.; Wang, H.

    2017-12-01

    The kinematics of triple junction linkage and the initiation of transforms in magmatic rifts remain debated. Strain patterns from the Afar triple junction provide tests of current models of how rifts grow to link in area of incipient oceanic spreading. Here we present a combined analysis of seismicity, InSAR and GPS derived strain rate maps to reveal that the plate boundary deformation in Afar is accommodated primarily by extensional tectonics in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden rifts, and does not require large rotations about vertical axes (bookshelf faulting). Additionally, models of stress changes and seismicity induced by recent dykes in one sector of the Afar triple junction provide poor fit to the observed strike-slip earthquakes. Instead we explain these patterns as rift-perpendicular shearing at the tips of spreading rifts where extensional strains terminate against less stretched lithosphere. Our results demonstrate that rift-perpendicular strike-slip faulting between rift segments achieves plate boundary linkage during incipient seafloor spreading.

  11. Nonlinear Analysis of Time Series in Genome-Wide Linkage Disequilibrium Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Lemus, Enrique; Estrada-Gil, Jesús K.; Silva-Zolezzi, Irma; Fernández-López, J. Carlos; Hidalgo-Miranda, Alfredo; Jiménez-Sánchez, Gerardo

    2008-02-01

    The statistical study of large scale genomic data has turned out to be a very important tool in population genetics. Quantitative methods are essential to understand and implement association studies in the biomedical and health sciences. Nevertheless, the characterization of recently admixed populations has been an elusive problem due to the presence of a number of complex phenomena. For example, linkage disequilibrium structures are thought to be more complex than their non-recently admixed population counterparts, presenting the so-called ancestry blocks, admixed regions that are not yet smoothed by the effect of genetic recombination. In order to distinguish characteristic features for various populations we have implemented several methods, some of them borrowed or adapted from the analysis of nonlinear time series in statistical physics and quantitative physiology. We calculate the main fractal dimensions (Kolmogorov's capacity, information dimension and correlation dimension, usually named, D0, D1 and D2). We also have made detrended fluctuation analysis and information based similarity index calculations for the probability distribution of correlations of linkage disequilibrium coefficient of six recently admixed (mestizo) populations within the Mexican Genome Diversity Project [1] and for the non-recently admixed populations in the International HapMap Project [2]. Nonlinear correlations showed up as a consequence of internal structure within the haplotype distributions. The analysis of these correlations as well as the scope and limitations of these procedures within the biomedical sciences are discussed.

  12. A comparison of a patient-rated visual analogue scale with the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale for social anxiety disorder: A cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    興津, 裕美

    2014-01-01

    博士(医学) 乙第2814号, 著者名:Hiromi Okitsu・Jitsuki Sawamura・Katsuji Nishimura・Yasuto Sato・Jun Ishigooka,タイトル:A comparison of a patient-rated visual analogue scale with the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale for social anxiety disorder: A cross-sectional study,掲載誌:Open Journal of Psychiatry (2161-7325),巻・頁・年:4巻1号 p.68~74 (2014),著作権関連情報:Copyright © 2014 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.,DOI:10.4236/ojpsych.2014.41010...

  13. Data analysis strategies for reducing the influence of the bias in cross-cultural research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindik, Josko

    2012-03-01

    In cross-cultural research, researchers have to adjust the constructs and associated measurement instruments that have been developed in one culture and then imported for use in another culture. Importing concepts from other cultures is often simply reduced to language adjustment of the content in the items of the measurement instruments that define a certain (psychological) construct. In the context of cross-cultural research, test bias can be defined as a generic term for all nuisance factors that threaten the validity of cross-cultural comparisons. Bias can be an indicator that instrument scores based on the same items measure different traits and characteristics across different cultural groups. To reduce construct, method and item bias,the researcher can consider these strategies: (1) simply comparing average results in certain measuring instruments; (2) comparing only the reliability of certain dimensions of the measurement instruments, applied to the "target" and "source" samples of participants, i.e. from different cultures; (3) comparing the "framed" factor structure (fixed number of factors) of the measurement instruments, applied to the samples from the "target" and "source" cultures, using explorative factor analysis strategy on separate samples; (4) comparing the complete constructs ("unframed" factor analysis, i.e. unlimited number of factors) in relation to their best psychometric properties and the possibility of interpreting (best suited to certain cultures, applying explorative strategy of factor analysis); or (5) checking the similarity of the constructs in the samples from different cultures (using structural equation modeling approach). Each approach has its advantages and disadvantages. The advantages and lacks of each approach are discussed.

  14. Numerical study on similarity of plume infrared radiation between reduced-scale solid rocket motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiaoying

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to determine the similarities in plume radiation between reduced and full-scale solid rocket models in ground test conditions through investigation of flow and radiation for a series of scale ratios ranging from 0.1 to 1. The radiative transfer equation (RTE considering gas and particle radiation in a non-uniform plume has been adopted and solved by the finite volume method (FVM to compute the three dimensional, spectral and directional radiation of a plume in the infrared waveband 2–6 μm. Conditions at wavelengths 2.7 μm and 4.3 μm are discussed in detail, and ratios of plume radiation for reduced-scale through full-scale models are examined. This work shows that, with increasing scale ratio of a computed rocket motor, area of the high-temperature core increases as a 2 power function of the scale ratio, and the radiation intensity of the plume increases with 2–2.5 power of the scale ratio. The infrared radiation of plume gases shows a strong spectral dependency, while that of Al2O3 particles shows spectral continuity of gray media. Spectral radiation intensity of a computed solid rocket plume’s high temperature core increases significantly in peak radiation spectra of plume gases CO and CO2. Al2O3 particles are the major radiation component in a rocket plume. There is good similarity between contours of plume spectral radiance from different scale models of computed rockets, and there are two peak spectra of radiation intensity at wavebands 2.7–3.0 μm and 4.2–4.6 μm. Directed radiation intensity of the entire plume volume will rise with increasing elevation angle.

  15. Meta-analysis of genome-wide linkage scans of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, K.; Dempfle, A.; Arcos-Burgos, M.; Bakker, S.C.; Banaschewski, T.; Biederman, J; Buitelaar, J.K.; Castellanos, F.X.; Doyle, A.; Ebstein, R.; Ekholm, J.; Forabosco, P.; Franke, F.; Freitag, C.; Friedel, S.; Gill, M.; Hebebrand, J.; Hinney, A.; Jacob, C.; Lesch, K.P.; Loo, S.K.; Lopera, F.; McCracken, J.T.; McGough, J.J.; Meyer, J.; Mick, E.; Miranda, A.; Muenkel, M.; Mulas, F.; Nelson, S.F.; Nguyen, T.T.; Oades, R.D.; Ogdie, M.N.; Palacio, J.D.; Pineda, D.; Reif, A.; Renner, T.J.; Roeyers, H.; Romanos, M.; Rothenberger, A.; Schäfer, H.; Sergeant, J.A.; Sinke, R.J.; Smalley, S.L.; Sonuga-Barke, E.; Steinhausen, H.C.; van der Meulen, E.; Walitza, S.; Warnke, A.; Lewis, C.M.; Faraone, S.V.; Asherson, P.

    2008-01-01

    Genetic contribution to the development of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is well established. Seven independent genome-wide linkage scans have been performed to map loci that increase the risk for ADHD. Although significant linkage signals were identified in some of the studies,

  16. Meta-analysis of genome-wide linkage scans of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, K.; Dempfle, A.; Arcos-Burgos, M.; Bakker, S.C.; Banaschewski, T.; Biederman, J.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Castellanos, F.X.; Doyle, A.; Ebstein, R.P.; Ekholm, J.; Forabosco, P.; Franke, B.; Freitag, C.; Friedel, S.; Gill, M.; Hebebrand, J.; Hinney, A.; Jacob, C.; Lesch, K.P.; Loo, S.K.; Lopera, F.; McCracken, J.T.; McGough, J.J.; Meyer, J.; Mick, E.; Miranda, A.; Muenke, M.; Mulas, F.; Nelson, S.F.; Nguyen, T.T.; Oades, R.D.; Ogdie, M.N.; Palacio, J.D.; Pineda, D.; Reif, A.; Renner, T.J.; Roeyers, H.; Romanos, M.; Rothenberger, A.; Schafer, H.; Sergeant, J.A.; Sinke, R.J.; Smalley, S.L.; Sonuga-Barke, E.J.S.; Steinhausen, H.C.; Meulen, E. van der; Walitza, S.; Warnke, A.; Lewis, C.M.; Faraone, S.V.; Asherson, P.

    2008-01-01

    Genetic contribution to the development of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is well established. Seven independent genome-wide linkage scans have been performed to map loci that increase the risk for ADHD. Although significant linkage signals were identified in some of the studies,

  17. Analysis of Linkage Effects among Currency Networks Using REER Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haishu Qiao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We modeled the currency networks through the use of REER (real effective exchange rate instead of a bilateral exchange rate in order to overcome the confusion in selecting base currencies. Based on the MST (minimum spanning tree approach and the rolling-window method, we constructed time-varying and correlation-based networks with which we investigate the linkage effects among different currencies. In particular, and as the source of empirical data, we chose the monthly REER data for a set of 61 major currencies during the period from 1994 to 2014. The study demonstrated that obvious linkage effects existed among currency networks and the euro (EUR was confirmed as the predominant world currency. Additionally, we used the rolling-window method to investigate the stability of linkage effects, doing so by calculating the mean correlations and mean distances as well as the normalized tree length and degrees of those currencies. The results showed that financial crises during the study period had a great effect on the currency network’s topology structure and led to more clustered currency networks. Our results suggested that it is more appropriate to estimate the linkage effects among currency networks through the use of REER data.

  18. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Identification, Characterization, and Linkage Mapping in Quinoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Maughan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa ( Willd. is an important seed crop throughout the Andean region of South America. It is important as a regional food security crop for millions of impoverished rural inhabitants of the Andean Altiplano (high plains. Efforts to improve the crop have led to an increased focus on genetic research. We report the identification of 14,178 putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs using a genomic reduction protocol as well as the development of 511 functional SNP assays. The SNP assays are based on KASPar genotyping chemistry and were detected using the Fluidigm dynamic array platform. A diversity screen of 113 quinoa accessions showed that the minor allele frequency (MAF of the SNPs ranged from 0.02 to 0.50, with an average MAF of 0.28. Structure analysis of the quinoa diversity panel uncovered the two major subgroups corresponding to the Andean and coastal quinoa ecotypes. Linkage mapping of the SNPs in two recombinant inbred line populations produced an integrated linkage map consisting of 29 linkage groups with 20 large linkage groups, spanning 1404 cM with a marker density of 3.1 cM per SNP marker. The SNPs identified here represent important genomic tools needed in emerging plant breeding programs for advanced genetic analysis of agronomic traits in quinoa.

  19. Reducibility mill scale industrial waste via coke breeze at 850-950ºC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaballah N.M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mill scale is a very attractive industrial waste due to its elevated iron content (about = 69.33% Fe besides being suiTab. for direct recycling to the blast furnace via sintering plant. In this paper the characteristics of raw materials and the briquettes produced from this mill scale were studied by different methods of analyses. The produced briquettes were reduced with different amounts of coke breeze at varying temperatures, and the reduction kinetics was determined. The activation energy of this reaction ≈ 61.5 kJ/mole for reduction of mill scale with coke breeze in the form of briquettes with 2% molasses where the chemical reaction interface model is applicable.

  20. Impact of the Hepatitis Testing and Linkage to Care (HepTLC) Initiative on Linkage to Care for Minnesota Refugees with Hepatitis B, 2012-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Ann C; Sweet, Kristin A; Nelson, Kailey; Mamo, Blain; Chute, Sara M

    2016-01-01

    The Hepatitis Testing and Linkage to Care (HepTLC) initiative promoted viral hepatitis B and hepatitis C screening, posttest counseling, and linkage to care at 34 U.S. sites from 2012 to 2014. Through the HepTLC initiative, the Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) and clinic partners began conducting linkage-to-care activities with hepatitis B-positive refugees in October 2012. This intervention provided culturally appropriate support to link refugees to follow-up care for hepatitis B. MDH refugee health and viral hepatitis surveillance programs, along with clinics that screened newly arrived refugees in Hennepin and Ramsey counties in Minnesota, collaborated on the project, which took place from October 1, 2012, through September 30, 2014. Bilingual care navigators contacted refugees to provide education, make appointments, and arrange transportation. We compared the linkage-to-care rate for participants with the rates for refugees screened the year before project launch using a two-sample test of proportions. In the year preceding the project (October 2011 through September 2012), 87 newly arrived refugees had a positive hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) test. Fifty-six (64%) refugees received follow-up care, 12 (14%) refugees did not receive follow-up care, and 19 (22%) refugees could not be located and had no record of follow-up care. During the project, 174 HBsAg-positive, newly arrived refugees were screened. Of those 174 refugees, 162 (93%) received follow-up care, seven (4%) did not receive follow-up care, and five (3%) could not be located and had no record of follow-up care. The one-year linkage-to-care rate for project participants (93%) was significantly higher than the rate for refugees screened the previous year (64%) (prefugees.

  1. Nonhomologous Synapsis and Reduced Crossing over in a Heterozygous Paracentric Inversion in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresser, M. E.; Ewing, D. J.; Harwell, S. N.; Coody, D.; Conrad, M. N.

    1994-01-01

    Homologous chromosome synapsis (``homosynapsis'') and crossing over are well-conserved aspects of meiotic chromosome behavior. The long-standing assumption that these two processes are causally related has been challenged recently by observations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae of significant levels of crossing over (1) between small sequences at nonhomologous locations and (2) in mutants where synapsis is abnormal or absent. In order to avoid problems of local sequence effects and of mutation pleiotropy, we have perturbed synapsis by making a set of isogenic strains that are heterozygous and homozygous for a large chromosomal paracentric inversion covering a well marked genetic interval and then measured recombination. We find that reciprocal recombination in the marked interval in heterozygotes is reduced variably across the interval, on average to ~55% of that in the homozygotes, and that positive interference still modulates crossing over. Cytologically, stable synapsis across the interval is apparently heterologous rather than homologous, consistent with the interpretation that stable homosynapsis is required to initiate or consummate a large fraction of the crossing over observed in wild-type strains. When crossing over does occur in heterozygotes, dicentric and acentric chromosomes are formed and can be visualized and quantitated on blots though not demonstrated in viable spores. We find that there is no loss of dicentric chromosomes during the two meiotic divisions and that the acentric chromosome is recovered at only 1/3 to 1/2 of the expected level. PMID:7851761

  2. Learning Expressive Linkage Rules for Entity Matching using Genetic Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Isele, Robert

    2013-01-01

    A central problem in data integration and data cleansing is to identify pairs of entities in data sets that describe the same real-world object. Many existing methods for matching entities rely on explicit linkage rules, which specify how two entities are compared for equivalence. Unfortunately, writing accurate linkage rules by hand is a non-trivial problem that requires detailed knowledge of the involved data sets. Another important issue is the efficient execution of link...

  3. Local and regional palm (Arecaceae) species richness patterns and their cross-scale determinants in the western Amazon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Thea; Svenning, J.-C.; Pedersen, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    divergent environmental conditions or biogeographic histories. 2. We investigated the cross-scale determinants of palm alpha and gamma diversity across the western Amazon using a large field-based data set: a census of all palm individuals in 312 transects, totalling 98 species. We used regression...

  4. Reducing Vulnerability to Sexual and Gender-Based Violence in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Of those cases, 80% were rapes, 9% physical assaults, 7% domestic violence, ... This study explores strategies that will reduce the vulnerability of women to SGBV ... The research findings will be used to strengthen linkages between Kenya's ...

  5. Construction of an almond linkage map in an Australian population Nonpareil × Lauranne

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite a high genetic similarity to peach, almonds (Prunus dulcis) have a fleshless fruit and edible kernel, produced as a crop for human consumption. While the release of peach genome v1.0 provides an excellent opportunity for almond genetic and genomic studies, well-assessed segregating populations and the respective saturated genetic linkage maps lay the foundation for such studies to be completed in almond. Results Using an almond intraspecific cross between 'Nonpareil' and 'Lauranne' (N × L), we constructed a moderately saturated map with SSRs, SNPs, ISSRs and RAPDs. The N × L map covered 591.4 cM of the genome with 157 loci. The average marker distance of the map was 4.0 cM. The map displayed high synteny and colinearity with the Prunus T × E reference map in all eight linkage groups (G1-G8). The positions of 14 mapped gene-anchored SNPs corresponded approximately with the positions of homologous sequences in the peach genome v1.0. Analysis of Mendelian segregation ratios showed that 17.9% of markers had significantly skewed genotype ratios at the level of P almond map, which is highly syntenic and collinear with the Prunus reference map and peach genome V1.0. Therefore, the well-assessed almond population reported here can be used to investigate the traits of interest under Australian growing conditions, and provides more information on the almond genome for the international community. PMID:20932335

  6. Cross-validation of the Spanish HP-Version of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy confirmed with some cross-cultural differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelina Alcorta-Garza

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Context: Medical educators agree that empathy is essential for physicians’ professionalism. The Health Professional Version of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy (JSE-HP was developed in response to a need for a psychometrically sound instrument to measure empathy in the context of patient care. Although extensive support for its validity and reliability is available, the authors recognize the necessity to examine psychometrics of the JSE-HP in different socio-cultural contexts to assure the psychometric soundness of this instrument. The first aim of this study was to confirm its psychometric properties in the cross-cultural context of Spain and Latin American countries. The second aim was to measure the influence of social and cultural factors on the development of medical empathy in health practitioners.Methods: The original English version of the JSE-HP was translated into International Spanish using back-translation procedures. The Spanish version of the JSE-HP was administered to 896 physicians from Spain and thirteen Latin American countries. Data were subjected to exploratory factor analysis using principal component analysis with oblique rotation (promax to allow for correlation among the resulting factors, followed by a second analysis, using confirmatory factor analysis. Two theoretical models, one based on the English JSE-HP and another on the first Spanish student version of the JSE (JSE-S, were tested. Demographic variables were compared using group comparisons.Results: A total of 715 (80% surveys were returned fully completed. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of the JSE for the entire sample was 0.84. The psychometric properties of the Spanish JSE-HP matched those of the original English JSE-HP. However, the Spanish JSE-S model proved more appropriate than the original English model for the sample in this study. Group comparisons among physicians classified by gender, medical specialties, cultural and cross-cultural backgrounds yielded

  7. The molecular genetic linkage map of the model legume Medicago truncatula: an essential tool for comparative legume genomics and the isolation of agronomically important genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ané Jean-Michel

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The legume Medicago truncatula has emerged as a model plant for the molecular and genetic dissection of various plant processes involved in rhizobial, mycorrhizal and pathogenic plant-microbe interactions. Aiming to develop essential tools for such genetic approaches, we have established the first genetic map of this species. Two parental homozygous lines were selected from the cultivar Jemalong and from the Algerian natural population (DZA315 on the basis of their molecular and phenotypic polymorphism. Results An F2 segregating population of 124 individuals between these two lines was obtained using an efficient manual crossing technique established for M. truncatula and was used to construct a genetic map. This map spans 1225 cM (average 470 kb/cM and comprises 289 markers including RAPD, AFLP, known genes and isoenzymes arranged in 8 linkage groups (2n = 16. Markers are uniformly distributed throughout the map and segregation distortion is limited to only 3 linkage groups. By mapping a number of common markers, the eight linkage groups are shown to be homologous to those of diploid alfalfa (M. sativa, implying a good level of macrosynteny between the two genomes. Using this M. truncatula map and the derived F3 populations, we were able to map the Mtsym6 symbiotic gene on linkage group 8 and the SPC gene, responsible for the direction of pod coiling, on linkage group 7. Conclusions These results demonstrate that Medicago truncatula is amenable to diploid genetic analysis and they open the way to map-based cloning of symbiotic or other agronomically-important genes using this model plant.

  8. Cross-cultural adaptation of the EMIC Stigma Scale for people with leprosy in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado, Fabiane Frota da Rocha; Silveira, Erika Maria Kopp Xavier da; Sales, Anna Maria; Nascimento, Lilian Pinheiro Rodrigues do; Sarno, Euzenir Nunes; Nery, José Augusto da Costa; Oliveira, Aldair J; Illarramendi, Ximena

    2017-09-04

    Describe the process of cross-cultural adaptation of the "Explanatory Model Interview Catalog - Stigma Scale" for people affected by leprosy in Brazil. After being authorized by the author of the scale to use it in the national context, we initiated the five steps process of cross-cultural adaptation: (1) translation, (2) synthesis meeting, (3) back-translation, (4) committee of experts and (5) pre-test. The internal consistency of the scale was evaluated using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The 15 items of the scale's original version were translated into Brazilian Portuguese. The adapted scale showed evidence of a good understanding of its content, attested both by experts and members of the target population. Its internal consistency was 0.64. The adapted instrument shows satisfactory internal consistency. It may be useful in future studies that intend to provide broad situational analysis that supports solid public health programs with a focus on effective stigma reduction. In a later study, the construct's validity, criterion, and reproducibility will be evaluated. Descrever o processo de adaptação transcultural da "Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue - Stigma Scale" para pessoas afetadas por hanseníase no Brasil. Após a autorização do autor da escala para seu uso no contexto nacional, deu-se início aos cinco passos do processo de adaptação transcultural: (1) tradução, (2) reunião de síntese, (3) retrotradução, (4) comitê de peritos e (5) pré-teste. A consistência interna da escala foi avaliada utilizando o coeficiente alfa de Cronbach. Os 15 itens da versão original da escala foram traduzidos para a língua portuguesa do Brasil. A escala adaptada apresentou evidência de boa compreensão de seu conteúdo, atestada tanto por peritos como por membros da população alvo. Sua consistência interna foi de 0,64. O instrumento adaptado apresenta consistência interna satisfatória. Pode ser útil em estudos futuros que intencionem viabilizar

  9. 'Linkage' pharmaceutical evergreening in Canada and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunce, Thomas A; Lexchin, Joel

    2007-01-01

    'Evergreening' is not a formal concept of patent law. It is best understood as a social idea used to refer to the myriad ways in which pharmaceutical patent owners utilise the law and related regulatory processes to extend their high rent-earning intellectual monopoly privileges, particularly over highly profitable (either in total sales volume or price per unit) 'blockbuster' drugs. Thus, while the courts are an instrument frequently used by pharmaceutical brand name manufacturers to prolong their patent royalties, 'evergreening' is rarely mentioned explicitly by judges in patent protection cases. The term usually refers to threats made to competitors about a brand-name manufacturer's tactical use of pharmaceutical patents (including over uses, delivery systems and even packaging), not to extension of any particular patent over an active product ingredient. This article focuses in particular on the 'evergreening' potential of so-called 'linkage' provisions, imposed on the regulatory (safety, quality and efficacy) approval systems for generic pharmaceuticals of Canada and Australia, by specific articles in trade agreements with the US. These 'linkage' provisions have also recently appeared in the Korea-US Free Trade Agreement (KORUSFTA). They require such drug regulators to facilitate notification of, or even prevent, any potential patent infringement by a generic pharmaceutical manufacturer. This article explores the regulatory lessons to be learnt from Canada's and Australia's shared experience in terms of minimizing potential adverse impacts of such 'linkage evergreening' provisions on drug costs and thereby potentially on citizen's access to affordable, essential medicines. PMID:17543113

  10. Development of a SNP resource and a genetic linkage map for Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higgins Brent

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua is a species with increasing economic significance for the aquaculture industry. The genetic improvement of cod will play a critical role in achieving successful large-scale aquaculture. While many microsatellite markers have been developed in cod, the number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs is currently limited. Here we report the identification of SNPs from sequence data generated by a large-scale expressed sequence tag (EST program, focusing on fish originating from Canadian waters. Results A total of 97976 ESTs were assembled to generate 13448 contigs. We detected 4753 SNPs that met our selection criteria (depth of coverage ≥ 4 reads; minor allele frequency > 25%. 3072 SNPs were selected for testing. The percentage of successful assays was 75%, with 2291 SNPs amplifying correctly. Of these, 607 (26% SNPs were monomorphic for all populations tested. In total, 64 (4% of SNPs are likely to represent duplicated genes or highly similar members of gene families, rather than alternative alleles of the same gene, since they showed a high frequency of heterozygosity. The remaining polymorphic SNPs (1620 were categorised as validated SNPs. The mean minor allele frequency of the validated loci was 0.258 (± 0.141. Of the 1514 contigs from which validated SNPs were selected, 31% have a significant blast hit. For the SNPs predicted to occur in coding regions (141, we determined that 36% (51 are non-synonymous. Many loci (1033 SNPs; 64% are polymorphic in all populations tested. However a small number of SNPs (184 that are polymorphic in the Western Atlantic were monomorphic in fish tested from three European populations. A preliminary linkage map has been constructed with 23 major linkage groups and 924 mapped SNPs. Conclusions These SNPs represent powerful tools to accelerate the genetic improvement of cod aquaculture. They have been used to build a genetic linkage map that can be applied to

  11. Measurement of the High-Mass Drell-Yan Cross Section and Limits on Quark-Electron Compositeness Scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinstein, S.; Mostafa, M.; Piegaia, R.; Alves, G.A.; Carvalho, W.; Maciel, A.K.; Motta, H. da; Oliveira, E.; Santoro, A.; Lima, J.G.; Oguri, V.; Gomez, B.; Hoeneisen, B.; Mooney, P.; Negret, J.P.; Ducros, Y.; Beri, S.B.; Bhatnagar, V.; Kohli, J.M.; Singh, J.B.; Shivpuri, R.K.; Acharya, B.S.; Banerjee, S.; Dugad, S.R.; Gupta, A.; Krishnaswamy, M.R.; Mondal, N.K.; Narasimham, V.S.; Parua, N.; Shankar, H.C.; Park, Y.M.; Choi, S.; Kim, S.K.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Gonzalez Solis, J.L.; Hernandez-Montoya, R.; Magana-Mendoza, L.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Pawlik, B.; Gavrilov, V.; Gershtein, Y.; Kuleshov, S.; Belyaev, A.; Dudko, L.V.; Ermolov, P.; Karmanov, D.; Leflat, A.; Manankov, V.; Merkin, M.; Shabalina, E.; Abramov, V.; Babintsev, V.V.; Bezzubov, V.A.; Bojko, N.I.; Burtovoi, V.S.; Chekulaev, S.V.; Denisov, S.P.; Dyshkant, A.; Eroshin, O.V.; Evdokimov, V.N.; Galyaev, A.N.; Goncharov, P.I.; Gurzhiev, S.N.; Kostritskiy, A.V.; Kozelov, A.V.; Kozlovsky, E.A.; Mayorov, A.A.; Babukhadia, L.; Davis, K.; Fein, D.; Forden, G.E.; Guida, J.A.; Johns, K.; Nang, F.; Narayanan, A.; Rutherfoord, J.; Shupe, M.; Aihara, H.; Barberis, E.; Clark, A.R.

    1999-01-01

    We present a measurement of the Drell-Yan cross section at high dielectron invariant mass using 120 pb -1 of data collected in p bar p collisions at √ (s) =1.8 TeV by the D0 Collaboration during 1992 - 1996. No deviation from standard model expectations is observed. We use the data to set limits on the quark-electron compositeness scale. The 95% confidence level lower limits on the compositeness scale vary between 3.3 and 6.1thinspthinspTeV depending on the assumed form of the effective contact interaction. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  12. Cytogenetical anchoring of sheep linkage map and syntenic groups using a sheep BAC library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cribiu Edmond-Paul

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to simultaneously integrate linkage and syntenic groups to the ovine chromosomal map, a sheep bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC library was screened with previously assigned microsatellites using a sheep-hamster hybrid panel and genetic linkage. Thirty-three BACs were obtained, fluorescently labelled and hybridised on sheep-goat hybrid metaphases (2n = 57. This study allowed us, (i, to anchor all linkage groups on sheep chromosomes, (ii, to give information on the probable position of the centromere on the linkage map for the centromeric chromosomes, (iii, to contradict the previous orientation of the ovine × linkage group by the mapping of BMS1008 on OARXq38. Concerning our somatic cell hybrid panel, this study resulted in the assignment of all the previously unassigned groups to ovine chromosomes and a complete characterisation of the hybrid panel. In addition, since hybridisations were performed on a sheep-goat hybrid, new marker/anchoring points were added to the caprine cytogenetic map.

  13. A mixed multiscale model better accounting for the cross term of the subgrid-scale stress and for backscatter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiry, Olivier; Winckelmans, Grégoire

    2016-02-01

    In the large-eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent flows, models are used to account for the subgrid-scale (SGS) stress. We here consider LES with "truncation filtering only" (i.e., that due to the LES grid), thus without regular explicit filtering added. The SGS stress tensor is then composed of two terms: the cross term that accounts for interactions between resolved scales and unresolved scales, and the Reynolds term that accounts for interactions between unresolved scales. Both terms provide forward- (dissipation) and backward (production, also called backscatter) energy transfer. Purely dissipative, eddy-viscosity type, SGS models are widely used: Smagorinsky-type models, or more advanced multiscale-type models. Dynamic versions have also been developed, where the model coefficient is determined using a dynamic procedure. Being dissipative by nature, those models do not provide backscatter. Even when using the dynamic version with local averaging, one typically uses clipping to forbid negative values of the model coefficient and hence ensure the stability of the simulation; hence removing the backscatter produced by the dynamic procedure. More advanced SGS model are thus desirable, and that better conform to the physics of the true SGS stress, while remaining stable. We here investigate, in decaying homogeneous isotropic turbulence, and using a de-aliased pseudo-spectral method, the behavior of the cross term and of the Reynolds term: in terms of dissipation spectra, and in terms of probability density function (pdf) of dissipation in physical space: positive and negative (backscatter). We then develop a new mixed model that better accounts for the physics of the SGS stress and for the backscatter. It has a cross term part which is built using a scale-similarity argument, further combined with a correction for Galilean invariance using a pseudo-Leonard term: this is the term that also does backscatter. It also has an eddy-viscosity multiscale model part that

  14. Linkage Map Construction and Quantitative Trait Locus Analysis of Agronomic and Fiber Quality Traits in Cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Gore

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The superior fiber properties of L. serve as a source of novel variation for improving fiber quality in Upland cotton ( L., but introgression from has been largely unsuccessful due to hybrid breakdown and a lack of genetic and genomic resources. In an effort to overcome these limitations, we constructed a linkage map and conducted a quantitative trait locus (QTL analysis of 10 agronomic and fiber quality traits in a recombinant inbred mapping population derived from a cross between TM-1, an Upland cotton line, and NM24016, an elite line with stabilized introgression from . The linkage map consisted of 429 simple-sequence repeat (SSR and 412 genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS-based single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP marker loci that covered half of the tetraploid cotton genome. Notably, the 841 marker loci were unevenly distributed among the 26 chromosomes of tetraploid cotton. The 10 traits evaluated on the TM-1 × NM24016 population in a multienvironment trial were highly heritable, and most of the fiber traits showed considerable transgressive variation. Through the QTL analysis, we identified a total of 28 QTLs associated with the 10 traits. Our study provides a novel resource that can be used by breeders and geneticists for the genetic improvement of agronomic and fiber quality traits in Upland cotton.

  15. Broad scan linkage analysis in a large Tourette family pedigree

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peiffer, A.; Leppert, M. [Univ. of Utah Health Sciences Center, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Wetering, B.J.M. van der [Univ. Hospital Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    1994-09-01

    Attempts to find a gene causing Tourette syndrome (TS) using linkage analysis have been unsuccessful even though as much as 65% of the autosomal genetic map has been excluded by the pooled results from several laboratories collaborating worldwide. One reason for this failure may be the misclassification of affection status of marry-in spouses. Specifically, we have found that six unrelated spouses in our Utah TS pedigree suffer from TS, obsessive-compulsive disorder or chronic motor tics. In light of these findings we decided to conduct a complete genomic scan from this Utah kindred with polymorphic markers in three related sibships in which there was no assortative mating. A linkage study assuming autosomal dominant inheritance was done using tetranucleotide repeat markers developed at the University of Utah. We selected markers that were less than 300 bp in size and that gave a heterozygosity of over 70% upon analysis in 4 CEPH families. Results to date with 95 markers run at an interval of 30 cM (covering 61% of the genome) show no evidence of linkage. We intend to extend the coverage to 100% of the genome. Pending completion of this scan, failure to provide evidence of linkage in our TS pedigree might then be attributed to phenotypic misclassification or erroneous assumptions regarding the genetic model of transmission.

  16. Impact of the Hepatitis Testing and Linkage to Care (HepTLC) Initiative on Linkage to Care for Minnesota Refugees with Hepatitis B, 2012–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Kristin A.; Nelson, Kailey; Mamo, Blain; Chute, Sara M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The Hepatitis Testing and Linkage to Care (HepTLC) initiative promoted viral hepatitis B and hepatitis C screening, posttest counseling, and linkage to care at 34 U.S. sites from 2012 to 2014. Through the HepTLC initiative, the Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) and clinic partners began conducting linkage-to-care activities with hepatitis B-positive refugees in October 2012. This intervention provided culturally appropriate support to link refugees to follow-up care for hepatitis B. Methods MDH refugee health and viral hepatitis surveillance programs, along with clinics that screened newly arrived refugees in Hennepin and Ramsey counties in Minnesota, collaborated on the project, which took place from October 1, 2012, through September 30, 2014. Bilingual care navigators contacted refugees to provide education, make appointments, and arrange transportation. We compared the linkage-to-care rate for participants with the rates for refugees screened the year before project launch using a two-sample test of proportions. Results In the year preceding the project (October 2011 through September 2012), 87 newly arrived refugees had a positive hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) test. Fifty-six (64%) refugees received follow-up care, 12 (14%) refugees did not receive follow-up care, and 19 (22%) refugees could not be located and had no record of follow-up care. During the project, 174 HBsAg-positive, newly arrived refugees were screened. Of those 174 refugees, 162 (93%) received follow-up care, seven (4%) did not receive follow-up care, and five (3%) could not be located and had no record of follow-up care. The one-year linkage-to-care rate for project participants (93%) was significantly higher than the rate for refugees screened the previous year (64%) (prefugees. PMID:27168670

  17. Cross sections and oscillator strengths for electron-impact excitation of electronic states in polyatomic molecules. Application examples of the BEf- scaling model in optically-allowed transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, H.; Kawahara, H.; Hoshino, M.

    2009-12-01

    Integral cross sections for optically allowed electronic-state excitations by electron impact, are reviewed for polyatomic molecules by applying the Binary-Encounter-Bethe (BEB) scaling model. Following the context of the present review, the scaling model originally proposed by Yong-Ki Kim to determine electron-impact cross sections for ionization of atoms and molecules is also summarized briefly for its wide range of applications [Electron-Impact Cross Section Database, NIST, Y.-K. Kim]. The present report not only focuses on the need for the cross-section data, but also elucidates the verification of the scaling model in the general application for atoms and molecules. Since this report is for a data base, it is summarized for data base users by citing (copying) the descriptions in the original papers and the references within those papers in the style of a textbook. (author)

  18. Allele-sharing models: LOD scores and accurate linkage tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, A; Cox, N J

    1997-11-01

    Starting with a test statistic for linkage analysis based on allele sharing, we propose an associated one-parameter model. Under general missing-data patterns, this model allows exact calculation of likelihood ratios and LOD scores and has been implemented by a simple modification of existing software. Most important, accurate linkage tests can be performed. Using an example, we show that some previously suggested approaches to handling less than perfectly informative data can be unacceptably conservative. Situations in which this model may not perform well are discussed, and an alternative model that requires additional computations is suggested.

  19. Scale-adaptive simulation of a hot jet in cross flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duda, B M; Esteve, M-J [AIRBUS Operations S.A.S., Toulouse (France); Menter, F R; Hansen, T, E-mail: benjamin.duda@airbus.com [ANSYS Germany GmbH, Otterfing (Germany)

    2011-12-22

    The simulation of a hot jet in cross flow is of crucial interest for the aircraft industry as it directly impacts aircraft safety and global performance. Due to the highly transient and turbulent character of this flow, simulation strategies are necessary that resolve at least a part of the turbulence spectrum. The high Reynolds numbers for realistic aircraft applications do not permit the use of pure Large Eddy Simulations as the spatial and temporal resolution requirements for wall bounded flows are prohibitive in an industrial design process. For this reason, the hybrid approach of the Scale-Adaptive Simulation is employed, which retains attached boundary layers in well-established RANS regime and allows the resolution of turbulent fluctuations in areas with sufficient flow instabilities and grid refinement. To evaluate the influence of the underlying numerical grid, three meshing strategies are investigated and the results are validated against experimental data.

  20. Scale-adaptive simulation of a hot jet in cross flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duda, B M; Esteve, M-J; Menter, F R; Hansen, T

    2011-01-01

    The simulation of a hot jet in cross flow is of crucial interest for the aircraft industry as it directly impacts aircraft safety and global performance. Due to the highly transient and turbulent character of this flow, simulation strategies are necessary that resolve at least a part of the turbulence spectrum. The high Reynolds numbers for realistic aircraft applications do not permit the use of pure Large Eddy Simulations as the spatial and temporal resolution requirements for wall bounded flows are prohibitive in an industrial design process. For this reason, the hybrid approach of the Scale-Adaptive Simulation is employed, which retains attached boundary layers in well-established RANS regime and allows the resolution of turbulent fluctuations in areas with sufficient flow instabilities and grid refinement. To evaluate the influence of the underlying numerical grid, three meshing strategies are investigated and the results are validated against experimental data.

  1. Plasma parameter estimations for the Large Helical Device based on the gyro-reduced Bohm scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Masao; Nakajima, Noriyoshi; Sugama, Hideo.

    1991-10-01

    A model of gyro-reduced Bohm scaling law is incorporated into a one-dimensional transport code to predict plasma parameters for the Large Helical Device (LHD). The transport code calculations reproduce well the LHD empirical scaling law and basic parameters and profiles of the LHD plasma are calculated. The amounts of toroidal currents (bootstrap current and beam-driven current) are also estimated. (author)

  2. Quantitative linkage genome scan for atopy in a large collection of Caucasian families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webb, BT; van den Oord, E; Akkari, A

    2007-01-01

    adulthood, asthma is frequently associated also with quantitative measures of atopy. Genome wide quantitative multipoint linkage analysis was conducted for serum IgE levels and percentage of positive skin prick test (SPT(per)) using three large groups of families originally ascertained for asthma....... In this report, 438 and 429 asthma families were informative for linkage using IgE and SPT(per) which represents 690 independent families. Suggestive linkage (LOD >/= 2) was found on chromosomes 1, 3, and 8q with maximum LODs of 2.34 (IgE), 2.03 (SPT(per)), and 2.25 (IgE) near markers D1S1653, D3S2322-D3S1764...... represents one of the biggest genome scans so far reported for asthma related phenotypes. This study also demonstrates the utility of increased sample sizes and quantitative phenotypes in linkage analysis of complex disorders....

  3. Applying Topographic Classification, Based on the Hydrological Process, to Design Habitat Linkages for Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongwon Mo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of biodiversity surrogates has been discussed in the context of designing habitat linkages to support the migration of species affected by climate change. Topography has been proposed as a useful surrogate in the coarse-filter approach, as the hydrological process caused by topography such as erosion and accumulation is the basis of ecological processes. However, some studies that have designed topographic linkages as habitat linkages, so far have focused much on the shape of the topography (morphometric topographic classification with little emphasis on the hydrological processes (generic topographic classification to find such topographic linkages. We aimed to understand whether generic classification was valid for designing these linkages. First, we evaluated whether topographic classification is more appropriate for describing actual (coniferous and deciduous and potential (mammals and amphibians habitat distributions. Second, we analyzed the difference in the linkages between the morphometric and generic topographic classifications. The results showed that the generic classification represented the actual distribution of the trees, but neither the morphometric nor the generic classification could represent the potential animal distributions adequately. Our study demonstrated that the topographic classes, according to the generic classification, were arranged successively according to the flow of water, nutrients, and sediment; therefore, it would be advantageous to secure linkages with a width of 1 km or more. In addition, the edge effect would be smaller than with the morphometric classification. Accordingly, we suggest that topographic characteristics, based on the hydrological process, are required to design topographic linkages for climate change.

  4. Norethindrone antisera: anomalous cross-reactivities with use of 3H-tetrahydro-reduced norethindrone as radioligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, H.; Menzies, J.A.; Jordan, N.; Loo, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    Anomalous cross-reactions with the dihydro- and tetrahydro-reduced metabolites of norethindrone were observed utilizing antisera raised against norethindrone-3-bovine serum albumin. Whereas displacement of 3H-norethindrone from the antiserum by the metabolites was generally minimal, where one of the metabolites was used as radiotracer, displacement by the metabolites was equal to or greater than that achieved by norethindrone. This unexpected finding was examined for its usefulness in developing a radioimmunoassay system for norethindrone metabolites in plasma. The sensitivity of the resulting standard curve was such as to permit quantitation of pg amounts of the reduced metabolites

  5. Influence network linkages across implementation strategy conditions in a randomized controlled trial of two strategies for scaling up evidence-based practices in public youth-serving systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palinkas, Lawrence A; Holloway, Ian W; Rice, Eric; Brown, C Hendricks; Valente, Thomas W; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2013-11-14

    Given the importance of influence networks in the implementation of evidence-based practices and interventions, it is unclear whether such networks continue to operate as sources of information and advice when they are segmented and disrupted by randomization to different implementation strategy conditions. The present study examines the linkages across implementation strategy conditions of social influence networks of leaders of youth-serving systems in 12 California counties participating in a randomized controlled trial of community development teams (CDTs) to scale up use of an evidence-based practice. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 38 directors, assistant directors, and program managers of county probation, mental health, and child welfare departments. A web-based survey collected additional quantitative data on information and advice networks of study participants. A mixed-methods approach to data analysis was used to create a sociometric data set (n = 176) to examine linkages between treatment and standard conditions. Of those network members who were affiliated with a county (n = 137), only 6 (4.4%) were directly connected to a member of the opposite implementation strategy condition; 19 (13.9%) were connected by two steps or fewer to a member of the opposite implementation strategy condition; 64 (46.7%) were connected by three or fewer steps to a member of the opposite implementation strategy condition. Most of the indirect steps between individuals who were in different implementation strategy conditions were connections involving a third non-county organizational entity that had an important role in the trial in keeping the implementation strategy conditions separate. When these entities were excluded, the CDT network exhibited fewer components and significantly higher betweenness centralization than did the standard condition network. Although the integrity of the RCT in this instance was not compromised by study participant influence

  6. Construction of 2 intraspecific linkage maps and identification of resistance QTLs for Phytophthora capsici root-rot and foliar-blight diseases of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogundiwin, Ebenezer A; Berke, Terry F; Massoudi, Mark; Black, Lowell L; Huestis, Gordon; Choi, Doil; Lee, Sanghyeob; Prince, James P

    2005-08-01

    Two linkage maps of pepper were constructed and used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) conferring resistance to Phytophthora capsici. Inoculations were done with 7 isolates: 3 from Taiwan, 3 from California, and 1 from New Mexico. The first map was constructed from a set of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of the PSP-11 (susceptible) x PI201234 (resistant) cross; and the second map was from a set of F(2) lines of the Joe E. Parker' (susceptible) x 'Criollo de Morelos 334' (resistant) cross. The RIL map covered 1466.1 cM of the pepper genome, and it consisted of 144 markers -- 91 amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs), 34 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPDs), 15 simple sequence repeats (SSRs), 1 sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR), and 3 morphological markers -- distributed over 17 linkage groups. The morphological markers mapped on this population were erect fruit habit (up), elongated fruit shape (fs(e)), and fasciculate fruit clusters (fa). The F(2) map consisted of 113 markers (51 AFLPs, 45 RAPDs, 14 SSRs, and 3 SCARs) distributed in 16 linkage groups, covering a total of 1089.2 cM of the pepper genome. Resistance to both root rot and foliar blight were evaluated in the RIL population using the 3 Taiwan isolates; the remaining isolates were used for the root-rot test only. Sixteen chromosomal regions of the RIL map contained single QTLs or clusters of resistance QTLs that had an effect on root rot and (or) foliar blight, revealing a complex set of genetics involved in resistance to P. capsici. Five QTLs were detected in the F(2) map that had an effect on resistance to root rot.

  7. Reduced risk insecticides to control scale insects and protect natural enemies in the production and maintenance of urban landscape plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Steven D

    2012-04-01

    Armored scale insects are among the most difficult to manage and economically important arthropod pests in the production and maintenance of urban landscape plants. This is because of morphological traits that protect them from contact insecticides. I compared initial and season-long control of euonymus scale, Unaspis euonymi Comstock (Hemiptera: Diaspidae), by reduced-risk insecticides (insect growth regulators [IGRs], neonicotinoids, spirotetramat) to determine if they controlled scale as well as more toxic insecticides such as the organophosphate, acephate, and pyrethroid, bifenthrin. I also evaluated how these insecticides affected natural enemy abundance on experimental plants and survival when exposed to insecticide residue. All insecticides tested reduced first generation euonymus scale abundance. In 2009, reinfestation by second generation euonymus scale was highest on plants treated with acetamiprid and granular dinotefuran. In 2010, systemic neonicotinoids and spirotetramat prevented cottony cushion scale infestation 133 d after treatment whereas scale readily infested plants treated with bifenthrin and horticultural oil. Encarsia spp. and Cybocephalus spp. abundance was related to scale abundance. These natural enemies were generally less abundant than predicted by scale abundance on granular dinotefuran treated plants and more abundant on granular thiamethoxam treated plants. Bifenthrin residue killed 90-100% of O. insidiosus and E. citrina within 24 h. My results indicate that reduced risk insecticides can provide season-long scale control with less impact on natural enemies than conventional insecticides. This could have economic and environmental benefits by reducing the number of applications necessary to protect nursery and landscape plants from scale.

  8. Increased level of linkage disequilibrium in rural compared with urban communities: a factor to consider in association-study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitart, Veronique; Carothers, Andrew D; Hayward, Caroline; Teague, Peter; Hastie, Nicholas D; Campbell, Harry; Wright, Alan F

    2005-05-01

    Few studies have investigated genetic differentiation within nonisolate European populations, despite the initiation of large national sample collections such as U.K. Biobank. Here, we used short tandem repeat markers to explore fine-scale genetic structure and to examine the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) within national subpopulations. We studied 955 unrelated individuals of local ancestry from nine Scottish rural regions and the urban center of Edinburgh, as well as 96 unrelated individuals from the general U.K. population. Despite little overall differentiation on the basis of allele frequencies, there were clear differences among subpopulations in the extent of pairwise LD, measured between a subset of X-linked markers, that reflected presumed differences in the depths of the underlying genealogies within these subpopulations. Therefore, there are strategic advantages in studying rural subpopulations, in terms of increased power and reduced cost, that are lost by sampling across regions or within urban populations. Similar rural-urban contrasts are likely to exist in many other populations with stable rural subpopulations, which could influence the design of genetic association studies and national biobank data collections.

  9. Analysis of precipitation data in Bangladesh through hierarchical clustering and multidimensional scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md. Habibur; Matin, M. A.; Salma, Umma

    2017-12-01

    The precipitation patterns of seventeen locations in Bangladesh from 1961 to 2014 were studied using a cluster analysis and metric multidimensional scaling. In doing so, the current research applies four major hierarchical clustering methods to precipitation in conjunction with different dissimilarity measures and metric multidimensional scaling. A variety of clustering algorithms were used to provide multiple clustering dendrograms for a mixture of distance measures. The dendrogram of pre-monsoon rainfall for the seventeen locations formed five clusters. The pre-monsoon precipitation data for the areas of Srimangal and Sylhet were located in two clusters across the combination of five dissimilarity measures and four hierarchical clustering algorithms. The single linkage algorithm with Euclidian and Manhattan distances, the average linkage algorithm with the Minkowski distance, and Ward's linkage algorithm provided similar results with regard to monsoon precipitation. The results of the post-monsoon and winter precipitation data are shown in different types of dendrograms with disparate combinations of sub-clusters. The schematic geometrical representations of the precipitation data using metric multidimensional scaling showed that the post-monsoon rainfall of Cox's Bazar was located far from those of the other locations. The results of a box-and-whisker plot, different clustering techniques, and metric multidimensional scaling indicated that the precipitation behaviour of Srimangal and Sylhet during the pre-monsoon season, Cox's Bazar and Sylhet during the monsoon season, Maijdi Court and Cox's Bazar during the post-monsoon season, and Cox's Bazar and Khulna during the winter differed from those at other locations in Bangladesh.

  10. Production Cells in Construction: Considering Time, Space and Information Linkages to Seek Broader Implementations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Nunes Mariz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of production cells in manufacturing has achieved many benefits, motivating researchers to apply them in the construction environment. The aim of this research is to identify time, space, and information linkages in construction’s production cells applications, seeking opportunities for broader implementations. We adopted a literature review approach focusing on cases in the Brazilian construction sector that addressed cell applications. Subsequently, comparative tables of these publications were prepared, analyzing the consideration of time, space, and information linkages, as well as identified results. The article pointed out that there is a gap in publications that address the application of a production cell in almost all construction flows, except the job site flow, reflecting the tendency of most companies of applying lean concepts firstly in physical flows. By analyzing these aspects (group of features that enhance the use of the cell, it was found that “material flow and pull systems” and “operators interaction” were the aspects most often considered, but mostly partially. Few cases reported the use of “flexibility” and “equipment maintenance”. No case reported comprehensive considerations of the three important linkages of time, space, and information. Space was the linkage better considered compared to time and information linkages. Lead time reduction, cost savings and increased productivity were among the greatest benefits reported from the applications of production cells. There is also a positive correlation between the linkages coverage and the number of benefits obtained. Further research is suggested in order to investigate the results of a more comprehensive application considering all linkages.

  11. High-Throughput Sequencing and Linkage Mapping of a Clownfish Genome Provide Insights on the Distribution of Molecular Players Involved in Sex Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Laura; Saenz-Agudelo, Pablo; Irigoien, Xabier

    2018-03-06

    Clownfishes are an excellent model system for investigating the genetic mechanism governing hermaphroditism and socially-controlled sex change in their natural environment because they are broadly distributed and strongly site-attached. Genomic tools, such as genetic linkage maps, allow fine-mapping of loci involved in molecular pathways underlying these reproductive processes. In this study, a high-density genetic map of Amphiprion bicinctus was constructed with 3146 RAD markers in a full-sib family organized in 24 robust linkage groups which correspond to the haploid chromosome number of the species. The length of the map was 4294.71 cM, with an average marker interval of 1.38 cM. The clownfish linkage map showed various levels of conserved synteny and collinearity with the genomes of Asian and European seabass, Nile tilapia and stickleback. The map provided a platform to investigate the genomic position of genes with differential expression during sex change in A. bicinctus. This study aims to bridge the gap of genome-scale information for this iconic group of species to facilitate the study of the main gene regulatory networks governing social sex change and gonadal restructuring in protandrous hermaphrodites.

  12. High-Throughput Sequencing and Linkage Mapping of a Clownfish Genome Provide Insights on the Distribution of Molecular Players Involved in Sex Change

    KAUST Repository

    Casas, Laura

    2018-02-28

    Clownfishes are an excellent model system for investigating the genetic mechanism governing hermaphroditism and socially-controlled sex change in their natural environment because they are broadly distributed and strongly site-attached. Genomic tools, such as genetic linkage maps, allow fine-mapping of loci involved in molecular pathways underlying these reproductive processes. In this study, a high-density genetic map of Amphiprion bicinctus was constructed with 3146 RAD markers in a full-sib family organized in 24 robust linkage groups which correspond to the haploid chromosome number of the species. The length of the map was 4294.71 cM, with an average marker interval of 1.38 cM. The clownfish linkage map showed various levels of conserved synteny and collinearity with the genomes of Asian and European seabass, Nile tilapia and stickleback. The map provided a platform to investigate the genomic position of genes with differential expression during sex change in A. bicinctus. This study aims to bridge the gap of genome-scale information for this iconic group of species to facilitate the study of the main gene regulatory networks governing social sex change and gonadal restructuring in protandrous hermaphrodites.

  13. Testing the robustness of best worst scaling for cross-national segmentation with different numbers of choice sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone; Lockshin, Larry

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study is to showcase how cross-cultural research can take advantage of the measurement invariance of best-worst scales. The study utilises best-worst scaling (BWS) to assess the importance of environmental sustainability among other experience and credence product attributes...... for the purchase of wine across five countries. Three consumer segments with distinct product preferences were identified across all five countries, which differ in their relative size in each market. This case study demonstrates different analysis methods suitable for the analysis of BWS data on aggregated...

  14. Prospective Linkages between Peer Victimization and Externalizing Problems in Children: A Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijntjes, A.; Kamphuis, J.H.; Prinzie, P.; Boelen, P.A.; van der Schoot, M.; Telch, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Previous meta-analytic research has shown both concurrent and prospective linkages between peer victimization and internalizing problems in youth. However, the linkages between peer victimization and externalizing problems over time have not been systematically examined, and it is therefore unknown

  15. Icefield-to-ocean linkages across the northern Pacific coastal temperate rainforest ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neel, Shad; Hood, Eran; Bidlack, Allison L.; Fleming, Sean W.; Arimitsu, Mayumi L.; Arendt, Anthony; Burgess, Evan W.; Sergeant, Christopher J.; Beaudreau, Anne E.; Timm, Kristin; Hayward, Gregory D.; Reynolds, Joel H.; Pyare, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Rates of glacier mass loss in the northern Pacific coastal temperate rainforest (PCTR) are among the highest on Earth, and changes in glacier volume and extent will affect the flow regime and chemistry of coastal rivers, as well as the nearshore marine ecosystem of the Gulf of Alaska. Here we synthesize physical, chemical and biological linkages that characterize the northern PCTR ecosystem, with particular emphasis on the potential impacts of glacier change in the coastal mountain ranges on the surface–water hydrology, biogeochemistry, coastal oceanography and aquatic ecology. We also evaluate the relative importance and interplay between interannual variability and long-term trends in key physical drivers and ecological responses. To advance our knowledge of the northern PCTR, we advocate for cross-disciplinary research bridging the icefield-to-ocean ecosystem that can be paired with long-term scientific records and designed to inform decisionmakers.

  16. Cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric evaluations of the Turkish version of Parkinson Fatigue Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Erhan Arif; Kocer, Bilge Gonenli; Umay, Ebru; Cakci, Aytul

    2018-06-07

    The objectives of the present study were to translate and cross-culturally adapt the English version of the Parkinson Fatigue Scale into Turkish, to evaluate its psychometric properties, and to compare them with that of other language versions. A total of 144 patients with idiopathic Parkinson disease were included in the study. The Turkish version of Parkinson Fatigue Scale was evaluated for data quality, scaling assumptions, acceptability, reliability, and validity. The questionnaire response rate was 100% for both test and retest. The percentage of missing data was zero for items, and the percentage of computable scores was full. Floor and ceiling effects were absent. The Parkinson Fatigue Scale provides an acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha was 0.974 for 1st test and 0.964 for a retest, and corrected item-to-total correlations were ranged from 0.715 to 0.906) and test-retest reliability (Cohen's kappa coefficients were ranged from 0.632 to 0.786 for individuals items, and intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.887 for the overall Parkinson Fatigue Scale Score). An exploratory factor analysis of the items revealed a single factor explaining 71.7% of variance. The goodness-of-fit statistics for the one-factorial confirmatory factor analysis were Tucker Lewis index = 0.961, comparative fit index = 0.971 and root mean square error of approximation = 0.077 for a single factor. The average Parkinson Fatigue Scale Score was correlated significantly with sociodemographic data, clinical characteristics and scores of rating scales. The Turkish version of the Parkinson Fatigue Scale seems to be culturally well adapted and have good psychometric properties. The scale can be used in further studies to assess the fatigue in patients with Parkinson's disease.

  17. Space, Scale and Languages: Identity Construction of Cross-Boundary Students in a Multilingual University in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Mingyue Michelle; Tong, Ho Kin

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on the notions of scale and space, this paper investigates identity construction among a group of mainland Chinese cross-boundary students by analysing their language choices and linguistic practices in a multilingual university in Hong Kong. The research illustrates how movement across spaces by these students produces varying index…

  18. Linkages between landscapes and human well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bieling, Claudia; Plieninger, Tobias; Pirker, Heidemarie

    2014-01-01

    in Germany and Austria by performing open, single-question interviews with 262 respondents. Data reveal an outstanding relevance of nonmaterial values. Linkages between landscapes and human well-being are tied to specific features of the material environment but, likewise, practices and experiences play...

  19. From eV to EeV: Neutrino cross sections across energy scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Formaggio, J. A.; Zeller, G. P.

    2012-09-01

    Since its original postulation by Wolfgang Pauli in 1930, the neutrino has played a prominent role in our understanding of nuclear and particle physics. In the intervening 80 years, scientists have detected and measured neutrinos from a variety of sources, both man-made and natural. Underlying all of these observations, and any inferences we may have made from them, is an understanding of how neutrinos interact with matter. Knowledge of neutrino interaction cross sections is an important and necessary ingredient in any neutrino measurement. With the advent of new precision experiments, the demands on our understanding of neutrino interactions is becoming even greater. The purpose of this article is to survey our current knowledge of neutrino cross sections across all known energy scales: from the very lowest energies to the highest that we hope to observe. The article covers a wide range of neutrino interactions including coherent scattering, neutrino capture, inverse beta decay, low energy nuclear interactions, quasi-elastic scattering, resonant pion production, kaon production, deep inelastic scattering and ultra-high energy interactions. Strong emphasis is placed on experimental data whenever such measurements are available.

  20. Linkage Map Construction and QTL Analysis of Fruit Traits in Melon (Cucumis melo L.) Based on CAPS Markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, A. M.; Liu, S.; Wang, X.; Luan, F.; Baloch, A. W.; Baloch, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    In the current experiment, the quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was done by composite interval mapping method to detect QTLs in edge, central parts and fruit shape of melon. In this context, 235 F/sub 2/ populations along with their parents were evaluated for fruit size, shape and color under replicated trail at Horticulture Experimental Station of Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, China, during the growing year 2014. Moreover, 96 pairs of CAPS markers were used to construct a linkage map using F/sub 2/ population that was derived from the cross between two contrasting parents (MR-1 and Topmark). The total length of linkage map was found to be 4984.1cM with an average of 51.9177 cM between the markers. In a total, we detected ten QTLs, in which one was major, while others were minor. Five QTLs were detected in the edge part of melon fruit and three QTLs were detected in central parts of melon and all were considered as Brix content. Two QTLs were related with fruit shape. Our present genetic and QTLs mapping would be proved useful in plant breeding programs for the improvement of economically important horticultural traits. (author)

  1. A second-generation anchored genetic linkage map of the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Hardip R

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii, a small kangaroo used for decades for studies of reproduction and metabolism, is the model Australian marsupial for genome sequencing and genetic investigations. The production of a more comprehensive cytogenetically-anchored genetic linkage map will significantly contribute to the deciphering of the tammar wallaby genome. It has great value as a resource to identify novel genes and for comparative studies, and is vital for the ongoing genome sequence assembly and gene ordering in this species. Results A second-generation anchored tammar wallaby genetic linkage map has been constructed based on a total of 148 loci. The linkage map contains the original 64 loci included in the first-generation map, plus an additional 84 microsatellite loci that were chosen specifically to increase coverage and assist with the anchoring and orientation of linkage groups to chromosomes. These additional loci were derived from (a sequenced BAC clones that had been previously mapped to tammar wallaby chromosomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, (b End sequence from BACs subsequently FISH-mapped to tammar wallaby chromosomes, and (c tammar wallaby genes orthologous to opossum genes predicted to fill gaps in the tammar wallaby linkage map as well as three X-linked markers from a published study. Based on these 148 loci, eight linkage groups were formed. These linkage groups were assigned (via FISH-mapped markers to all seven autosomes and the X chromosome. The sex-pooled map size is 1402.4 cM, which is estimated to provide 82.6% total coverage of the genome, with an average interval distance of 10.9 cM between adjacent markers. The overall ratio of female/male map length is 0.84, which is comparable to the ratio of 0.78 obtained for the first-generation map. Conclusions Construction of this second-generation genetic linkage map is a significant step towards complete coverage of the tammar wallaby

  2. A second-generation anchored genetic linkage map of the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenwei; Webley, Lee; Wei, Ke-jun; Wakefield, Matthew J; Patel, Hardip R; Deakin, Janine E; Alsop, Amber; Marshall Graves, Jennifer A; Cooper, Desmond W; Nicholas, Frank W; Zenger, Kyall R

    2011-08-19

    The tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii, a small kangaroo used for decades for studies of reproduction and metabolism, is the model Australian marsupial for genome sequencing and genetic investigations. The production of a more comprehensive cytogenetically-anchored genetic linkage map will significantly contribute to the deciphering of the tammar wallaby genome. It has great value as a resource to identify novel genes and for comparative studies, and is vital for the ongoing genome sequence assembly and gene ordering in this species. A second-generation anchored tammar wallaby genetic linkage map has been constructed based on a total of 148 loci. The linkage map contains the original 64 loci included in the first-generation map, plus an additional 84 microsatellite loci that were chosen specifically to increase coverage and assist with the anchoring and orientation of linkage groups to chromosomes. These additional loci were derived from (a) sequenced BAC clones that had been previously mapped to tammar wallaby chromosomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), (b) End sequence from BACs subsequently FISH-mapped to tammar wallaby chromosomes, and (c) tammar wallaby genes orthologous to opossum genes predicted to fill gaps in the tammar wallaby linkage map as well as three X-linked markers from a published study. Based on these 148 loci, eight linkage groups were formed. These linkage groups were assigned (via FISH-mapped markers) to all seven autosomes and the X chromosome. The sex-pooled map size is 1402.4 cM, which is estimated to provide 82.6% total coverage of the genome, with an average interval distance of 10.9 cM between adjacent markers. The overall ratio of female/male map length is 0.84, which is comparable to the ratio of 0.78 obtained for the first-generation map. Construction of this second-generation genetic linkage map is a significant step towards complete coverage of the tammar wallaby genome and considerably extends that of the first

  3. Two-loop corrections to the triple Higgs boson production cross section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florian, Daniel de [International Center for Advanced Studies (ICAS), ECyT-UNSAM, Campus Miguelete, 25 de Mayo y Francia (1650) Buenos Aires (Argentina); Mazzitelli, Javier [International Center for Advanced Studies (ICAS), ECyT-UNSAM, Campus Miguelete, 25 de Mayo y Francia (1650) Buenos Aires (Argentina); Physik-Institut, Universität Zürich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2017-02-22

    In this paper we compute the QCD corrections for the triple Higgs boson production cross section via gluon fusion, within the heavy-top approximation. We present, for the first time, analytical results for the next-to-leading order corrections, and also compute the soft and virtual contributions of the next-to-next-to-leading order cross section. We provide predictions for the total cross section and the triple Higgs invariant mass distribution. We find that the QCD corrections are large at both perturbative orders, and that the scale uncertainty is substantially reduced when the second order perturbative corrections are included.

  4. Reduced egfr, elevated urine protein and low level of personal protective equipment compliance among artisanal small scale gold miners at Bibiani-Ghana: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrifa, Justice; Essien-Baidoo, Samuel; Ephraim, Richard K D; Nkrumah, Daniel; Dankyira, Daniel Osei

    2017-06-27

    Mercury is a toxic metal with its effects on human health ranging from acute to chronic in a very short time of exposure. Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is the main source of direct human exposure to mercury. To access the effect of mercury exposure on the renal function and level of personal protective equipment (PPE) compliance among small-scale gold miners in Bibiani District of the Western Region of Ghana METHOD: 110 consenting male gold miners were purposively recruited for this study. A structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic information from the participants. Work place assessment and interviews were conducted. Urine samples were analysed for protein; blood was analysed for mercury and creatinine. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the chronic kidney disease-epidemiology collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation. Of the 110 participants, 61(55.5%) exceeded the occupational exposure threshold (blood mercury <5μg/L). Urine protein (41.72±68.34, P<0.0001), serum creatinine (2.24±1.19, P<0.0001) and blood mercury (18.37±10.47, P<0.0001) were significantly elevated among the exposed group compared to the non-exposed group. However, the exposed group had a significantly reduced eGFR (P<0.0001). There was a significant correlation (r=0.7338, p<0.0001) between blood mercury concentration and urine protein concentration. An increase in blood mercury correlated negatively (r = -0.8233, P<0.0001) with eGFR among the exposed group. High urine protein (P< 0.0001) and high serum creatinine (P< 0.0001) were significantly associated with increased mercury exposure. Increased mercury exposure was significantly associated with burning of amalgam (P=0.0196), sucking of excess mercury (P=0.0336), longer work duration (P=0.0314) and low educational background (P=0.0473). Small scale miners at the Bibiani work site are exposed to excess mercury. Proteinuria and reduced eGFR is common in mine workers exposed to excess

  5. Synthesis and properties of ApA analogues with shortened phosphonate internucleotide linkage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Králíková, Sárka; Buděšínský, Miloš; Barvík, Ivan; Masojídková, Milena; Točík, Zdeněk; Rosenberg, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    A complete series of the 2 '-5 ' and 3 '-5 ' regioisomeric types of r(ApA) and 2 '-d(ApA) analogues with the α-hydroxy-phosphonate C3 '-O-P-CH(OH)-C4 ″ internucleotide linkage, isopolar but non-isosteric with the phosphodiester one, were synthesized and their hybridization properties with polyU studied. Due to the chirality on the 5 '-carbon atom of the modified internucleotide linkage bearing phosphorus and hydroxy moieties, each regioisomeric type of ApA dimer is split into epimeric pairs. To examine the role of the 5 '-hydroxyl of the α-hydroxy-phosphonate moiety during hybridization, the appropriate r(ApA) analogues with 3 '(2 ')-O-P-CH(2)-C4 ″ linkage lacking the 5 '-hydroxyl were synthesized. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy study on the conformation of the modified sugar-phosphate backbone, along with the hybridization measurements, revealed remarkable differences in the stability of complexes with polyU, depending on the 5 '-carbon atom configuration. Potential usefulness of the α-hydroxy-phosphonate linkage in modified oligoribonucleotides is discussed.

  6. To cross or not to cross: modeling wildlife road crossings as a binary response variable with contextual predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siers, Shane R.; Reed, Robert N.; Savidge, Julie A.

    2016-01-01

    Roads are significant barriers to landscape-scale movements of individuals or populations of many wildlife taxa. The decision by an animal near a road to either cross or not cross may be influenced by characteristics of the road, environmental conditions, traits of the individual animal, and other aspects of the context within which the decision is made. We considered such factors in a mixed-effects logistic regression model describing the nightly road crossing probabilities of invasive nocturnal Brown Treesnakes (Boiga irregularis) through short-term radiotracking of 691 snakes within close proximity to 50 road segments across the island of Guam. All measures of road magnitude (traffic volume, gap width, surface type, etc.) were significantly negatively correlated with crossing probabilities. Snake body size was the only intrinsic factor associated with crossing rates, with larger snakes crossing roads more frequently. Humidity was the only environmental variable affecting crossing rate. The distance of the snake from the road at the start of nightly movement trials was the most significant predictor of crossings. The presence of snake traps with live mouse lures during a portion of the trials indicated that localized prey cues reduced the probability of a snake crossing the road away from the traps, suggesting that a snake's decision to cross roads is influenced by local foraging opportunities. Per capita road crossing rates of Brown Treesnakes were very low, and comparisons to historical records suggest that crossing rates have declined in the 60+ yr since introduction to Guam. We report a simplified model that will allow managers to predict road crossing rates based on snake, road, and contextual characteristics. Road crossing simulations based on actual snake size distributions demonstrate that populations with size distributions skewed toward larger snakes will result in a higher number of road crossings. Our method of modeling per capita road crossing

  7. Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Male Genital Self-Image Scale in Iranian Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffari, Mohsen; Pakpour, Amir H; Burri, Andrea

    2016-03-01

    Certain sexual health problems in men can be attributed to genital self-image. Therefore, a culturally adapted version of a Male Genital Self-Image Scale (MGSIS) could help health professionals understand this concept and its associated correlates. To translate the original English version of the MGSIS into Persian and to assess the psychometric properties of this culturally adapted version (MGSIS-I) for use in Iranian men. In total, 1,784 men were recruited for this cross-sectional study. Backward and forward translations of the MGSIS were used to produce the culturally adapted version. Reliability of the MGSIS-I was assessed using Cronbach α and intra-class correlation coefficients. Divergent and convergent validities were examined using Pearson correlation and known-group validity was assessed in subgroups of participants with different sociodemographic statuses. Factor validity of the scale was investigated using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Demographic information, the International Index of Erectile Function, the Body Appreciation Scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the MGSIS. Mean age of participants was 38.13 years (SD = 11.45) and all men were married. Cronbach α of the MGSIS-I was 0.89 and interclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.70 to 0.94. Significant correlations were found between the MGSIS-I and the International Index of Erectile Function (P scale with non-similar scales was lower than with similar scale (confirming convergent and divergent validity). The scale could differentiate between subgroups in age, smoking status, and income (known-group validity). A single-factor solution that explained 70% variance of the scale was explored using exploratory factor analysis (confirming uni-dimensionality); confirmatory factor analysis indicated better fitness for the five-item version than the seven-item version of the MGSIS-I (root mean square error of approximation = 0.05, comparative fit index > 1.00 vs root mean

  8. Quantitative linkage genome scan for atopy in a large collection of Caucasian families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webb, BT; van den Oord, E; Akkari, A

    2007-01-01

    Quantitative phenotypes correlated with a complex disorder offer increased power to detect linkage in comparison to affected-unaffected classifications. Asthma is a complex disorder characterized by periods of bronchial obstruction and increased bronchial hyper reactivity. In childhood and early...... adulthood, asthma is frequently associated also with quantitative measures of atopy. Genome wide quantitative multipoint linkage analysis was conducted for serum IgE levels and percentage of positive skin prick test (SPT(per)) using three large groups of families originally ascertained for asthma....... In this report, 438 and 429 asthma families were informative for linkage using IgE and SPT(per) which represents 690 independent families. Suggestive linkage (LOD >/= 2) was found on chromosomes 1, 3, and 8q with maximum LODs of 2.34 (IgE), 2.03 (SPT(per)), and 2.25 (IgE) near markers D1S1653, D3S2322-D3S1764...

  9. Biosynthesis of riboflavin: mechanism of formation of the ribitylamino linkage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, P.J.; Van, Q.L.; Kim, S.U.; Bown, D.H.; Chen, H.C.; Kohnle, A.; Bacher, A.; Floss, H.G.

    1988-01-01

    Feeding experiments with Ashbya gossypii followed by NMR analysis of the resulting riboflavin showed incorporation of deuterium from D-[2- 2 H]ribose at C-2' and from D-[1- 2 H] ribose in the pro-R position at C-1' of the ribityl side chain. The results rule out an Amadori rearrangement mechanism for the reduction of the ribosylamino to the ribitylamino linkage and point to formation of a Schiff base that is reduced stereospecifically opposite to the face from which the oxygen has departed. As prerequisite for the analysis, the 1 H NMR signals for the pro-R and pro-S hydrogens at C-1' of 6,7-dimethyl-8-ribityllumazine and riboflavin and its tetraacetate were assigned with the aid of synthetic stereospecifically deuteriated samples

  10. Linear models for joint association and linkage QTL mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Rohan L

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Populational linkage disequilibrium and within-family linkage are commonly used for QTL mapping and marker assisted selection. The combination of both results in more robust and accurate locations of the QTL, but models proposed so far have been either single marker, complex in practice or well fit to a particular family structure. Results We herein present linear model theory to come up with additive effects of the QTL alleles in any member of a general pedigree, conditional to observed markers and pedigree, accounting for possible linkage disequilibrium among QTLs and markers. The model is based on association analysis in the founders; further, the additive effect of the QTLs transmitted to the descendants is a weighted (by the probabilities of transmission average of the substitution effects of founders' haplotypes. The model allows for non-complete linkage disequilibrium QTL-markers in the founders. Two submodels are presented: a simple and easy to implement Haley-Knott type regression for half-sib families, and a general mixed (variance component model for general pedigrees. The model can use information from all markers. The performance of the regression method is compared by simulation with a more complex IBD method by Meuwissen and Goddard. Numerical examples are provided. Conclusion The linear model theory provides a useful framework for QTL mapping with dense marker maps. Results show similar accuracies but a bias of the IBD method towards the center of the region. Computations for the linear regression model are extremely simple, in contrast with IBD methods. Extensions of the model to genomic selection and multi-QTL mapping are straightforward.

  11. Heritability and linkage analysis of personality in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Tiffany A; Badner, Judith A; Byerley, William; Keck, Paul E; McElroy, Susan L; Remick, Ronald A; Dessa Sadovnick, A; Kelsoe, John R

    2013-11-01

    The many attempts that have been made to identify genes for bipolar disorder (BD) have met with limited success, which may reflect an inadequacy of diagnosis as an informative and biologically relevant phenotype for genetic studies. Here we have explored aspects of personality as quantitative phenotypes for bipolar disorder through the use of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), which assesses personality in seven dimensions. Four temperament dimensions are assessed: novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA), reward dependence (RD), and persistence (PS). Three character dimensions are also included: self-directedness (SD), cooperativeness (CO), and self-transcendence (ST). We compared personality scores between diagnostic groups and assessed heritability in a sample of 101 families collected for genetic studies of BD. A genome-wide SNP linkage analysis was then performed in the subset of 51 families for which genetic data was available. Significant group differences were observed between BD subjects, their first-degree relatives, and independent controls for all but RD and PS, and all but HA and RD were found to be significantly heritable in this sample. Linkage analysis of the heritable dimensions produced several suggestive linkage peaks for NS (chromosomes 7q21 and 10p15), PS (chromosomes 6q16, 12p13, and 19p13), and SD (chromosomes 4q35, 8q24, and 18q12). The relatively small size of our linkage sample likely limited our ability to reach genome-wide significance in this study. While not genome-wide significant, these results suggest that aspects of personality may prove useful in the identification of genes underlying BD susceptibility. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Linkage studies on Gilles de la Tourette syndrome: What is the strategy of choice?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heutink, P.; Wetering, J.M. van de; Oostra, B.A. [Erasmus Univ. Rotterdam (Netherlands)] [and others

    1995-08-01

    For a linkage study it is important to ascertain family material that is sufficiently informative. The statistical power of linkage sample can be determined via computer simulation. For complex traits uncertain parameters such as incomplete penetrance, frequency of phenocopies, gene frequency and variable expression have to be taken into account. One can either include only the most severe phenotype in the analysis or apply multiple linkage tests for a gradually broadened disease phenotype. Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is a chronic neurological disorder characterized by multiple, intermittent motor and vocal tics. Segregation analyses suggests that GTS and milder phenotypes are caused by a single dominant gene. We report here the results of an extensive simulation study on a large set of families. We compared the effectiveness of linkage tests with only the GTS phenotype versus multiple tests that included various milder phenotypes and different gene frequencies. The scenario of multiple tests yielded superior power. Our results show that computer simulation can indicate the strategy of choice in linkage studies of multiple, complex phenotypes. 33 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Linkage disequilibrium and association mapping of drought ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drought stress is a major abiotic stress that limits crop production. Molecular association mapping techniques through linkage disequilibrium (LD) can be effectively used to tag genomic regions involved in drought stress tolerance. With the association mapping approach, 90 genotypes of cotton Gossypium hirsutum, from ...

  14. principles, realities and challenges regarding institutional linkages ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2333147

    (2) Compromise between proximity to community and effective coordination. If organisational linkage structures are to facilitate effective participation and ownership, it stands to reason that they should be as close to the grassroots community as possible. Unless community members regard such organisational structures as.

  15. Scaling Projections on Spin-Transfer Torque Magnetic Tunnel Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Debasis; Tulapurkar, Ashwin; Muralidharan, Bhaskaran

    2018-02-01

    We investigate scaling of technologically relevant magnetic tunnel junction devices in the trilayer and pentalayer configurations by varying the cross-sectional area along the transverse direction using the non-equilibrium Green's function spin transport formalism. We study the geometry dependence by considering square and circular cross-sections. As the transverse dimension in each case reduces, we demonstrate that the transverse mode energy profile plays a major role in the resistance-area product. Both types of devices show constant tunnel magnetoresistance at larger cross-sectional areas but achieve ultra-high magnetoresistance at small cross-sectional areas, while maintaining low resistance-area products. We notice that although the critical switching voltage for switching the magnetization of the free layer nanomagnet in the trilayer case remains constant at larger areas, it needs more energy to switch at smaller areas. In the pentalayer case, we observe an oscillatory behavior at smaller areas as a result of double barrier tunneling. We also describe how switching characteristics of both kinds of devices are affected by the scaling.

  16. A genetic linkage map for the saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lance Stacey L

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome elucidation is now in high gear for many organisms, and whilst genetic maps have been developed for a broad array of species, surprisingly, no such maps exist for a crocodilian, or indeed any other non-avian member of the Class Reptilia. Genetic linkage maps are essential tools for the mapping and dissection of complex quantitative trait loci (QTL, and in order to permit systematic genome scans for the identification of genes affecting economically important traits in farmed crocodilians, a comprehensive genetic linage map will be necessary. Results A first-generation genetic linkage map for the saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus was constructed using 203 microsatellite markers amplified across a two-generation pedigree comprising ten full-sib families from a commercial population at Darwin Crocodile Farm, Northern Territory, Australia. Linkage analyses identified fourteen linkage groups comprising a total of 180 loci, with 23 loci remaining unlinked. Markers were ordered within linkage groups employing a heuristic approach using CRIMAP v3.0 software. The estimated female and male recombination map lengths were 1824.1 and 319.0 centimorgans (cM respectively, revealing an uncommonly large disparity in recombination map lengths between sexes (ratio of 5.7:1. Conclusion We have generated the first genetic linkage map for a crocodilian, or indeed any other non-avian reptile. The uncommonly large disparity in recombination map lengths confirms previous preliminary evidence of major differences in sex-specific recombination rates in a species that exhibits temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD. However, at this point the reason for this disparity in saltwater crocodiles remains unclear. This map will be a valuable resource for crocodilian researchers, facilitating the systematic genome scans necessary for identifying genes affecting complex traits of economic importance in the crocodile industry. In addition

  17. Reduced Mastication Impairs Memory Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima-Nakayama, Y; Ono, Takehito; Hayashi, M; Inoue, M; Wake, H; Ono, Takashi; Nakashima, T

    2017-08-01

    Mastication is an indispensable oral function related to physical, mental, and social health throughout life. The elderly tend to have a masticatory dysfunction due to tooth loss and fragility in the masticatory muscles with aging, potentially resulting in impaired cognitive function. Masticatory stimulation has influence on the development of the central nervous system (CNS) as well as the growth of maxillofacial tissue in children. Although the relationship between mastication and cognitive function is potentially important in the growth period, the cellular and molecular mechanisms have not been sufficiently elucidated. Here, we show that the reduced mastication resulted in impaired spatial memory and learning function owing to the morphological change and decreased activity in the hippocampus. We used an in vivo model for reduced masticatory stimuli, in which juvenile mice were fed with powder diet and found that masticatory stimulation during the growth period positively regulated long-term spatial memory to promote cognitive function. The functional linkage between mastication and brain was validated by the decrease in neurons, neurogenesis, neuronal activity, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the hippocampus. These findings taken together provide in vivo evidence for a functional linkage between mastication and cognitive function in the growth period, suggesting a need for novel therapeutic strategies in masticatory function-related cognitive dysfunction.

  18. An improved recommendation algorithm via weakening indirect linkage effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Guang; Qiu Tian; Shen Xiao-Quan

    2015-01-01

    We propose an indirect-link-weakened mass diffusion method (IMD), by considering the indirect linkage and the source object heterogeneity effect in the mass diffusion (MD) recommendation method. Experimental results on the MovieLens, Netflix, and RYM datasets show that, the IMD method greatly improves both the recommendation accuracy and diversity, compared with a heterogeneity-weakened MD method (HMD), which only considers the source object heterogeneity. Moreover, the recommendation accuracy of the cold objects is also better elevated in the IMD than the HMD method. It suggests that eliminating the redundancy induced by the indirect linkages could have a prominent effect on the recommendation efficiency in the MD method. (paper)

  19. Can Network Linkage Effects Determine Return? Evidence from Chinese Stock Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Haishu; Xia, Yue; Li, Ying

    2016-01-01

    This study used the dynamic conditional correlations (DCC) method to identify the linkage effects of Chinese stock market, and further detected the influence of network linkage effects on magnitude of security returns across different industries. Applying two physics-derived techniques, the minimum spanning tree and the hierarchical tree, we analyzed the stock interdependence within the network of the China Securities Index (CSI) industry index basket. We observed that that obvious linkage effects existed among stock networks. CII and CCE, CAG and ITH as well as COU, CHA and REI were confirmed as the core nodes in the three different networks respectively. We also investigated the stability of linkage effects by estimating the mean correlations and mean distances, as well as the normalized tree length of these indices. In addition, using the GMM model approach, we found inter-node influence within the stock network had a pronounced effect on stock returns. Our results generally suggested that there appeared to be greater clustering effect among the indexes belonging to related industrial sectors than those of diverse sectors, and network comovement was significantly affected by impactive financial events in the reality. Besides, stocks that were more central within the network of stock market usually had higher returns for compensation because they endured greater exposure to correlation risk.

  20. Genetic linkage map and QTL identification for adventitious rooting traits in red gum eucalypts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumathi, Murugan; Bachpai, Vijaya Kumar Waman; Mayavel, A; Dasgupta, Modhumita Ghosh; Nagarajan, Binai; Rajasugunasekar, D; Sivakumar, Veerasamy; Yasodha, Ramasamy

    2018-05-01

    The eucalypt species, Eucalyptus tereticornis and Eucalyptus camaldulensis , show tolerance to drought and salinity conditions, respectively, and are widely cultivated in arid and semiarid regions of tropical countries. In this study, genetic linkage map was developed for interspecific cross E. tereticornis  ×  E. camaldulensis using pseudo-testcross strategy with simple sequence repeats (SSRs), intersimple sequence repeats (ISSRs), and sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers. The consensus genetic map comprised totally 283 markers with 84 SSRs, 94 ISSRs, and 105 SRAP markers on 11 linkage groups spanning 1163.4 cM genetic distance. Blasting the SSR sequences against E. grandis sequences allowed an alignment of 64% and the average ratio of genetic-to-physical distance was 1.7 Mbp/cM, which strengths the evidence that high amount of synteny and colinearity exists among eucalypts genome. Blast searches also revealed that 37% of SSRs had homologies with genes, which could potentially be used in the variety of downstream applications including candidate gene polymorphism. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis for adventitious rooting traits revealed six QTL for rooting percent and root length on five chromosomes with interval and composite interval mapping. All the QTL explained 12.0-14.7% of the phenotypic variance, showing the involvement of major effect QTL on adventitious rooting traits. Increasing the density of markers would facilitate the detection of more number of small-effect QTL and also underpinning the genes involved in rooting process.

  1. Salmonid Chromosome Evolution as Revealed by a Novel Method for Comparing RADseq Linkage Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Thierry; Normandeau, Eric; Lamothe, Manuel; Isabel, Nathalie; Audet, Céline; Bernatchez, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Whole genome duplication (WGD) can provide material for evolutionary innovation. Family Salmonidae is ideal for studying the effects of WGD as the ancestral salmonid underwent WGD relatively recently, ∼65 Ma, then rediploidized and diversified. Extensive synteny between homologous chromosome arms occurs in extant salmonids, but each species has both conserved and unique chromosome arm fusions and fissions. Assembly of large, outbred eukaryotic genomes can be difficult, but structural rearrangements within such taxa can be investigated using linkage maps. RAD sequencing provides unprecedented ability to generate high-density linkage maps for nonmodel species, but can result in low numbers of homologous markers between species due to phylogenetic distance or differences in library preparation. Here, we generate a high-density linkage map (3,826 markers) for the Salvelinus genera (Brook Charr S. fontinalis), and then identify corresponding chromosome arms among the other available salmonid high-density linkage maps, including six species of Oncorhynchus, and one species for each of Salmo, Coregonus, and the nonduplicated sister group for the salmonids, Northern Pike Esox lucius for identifying post-duplicated homeologs. To facilitate this process, we developed MapComp to identify identical and proximate (i.e. nearby) markers between linkage maps using a reference genome of a related species as an intermediate, increasing the number of comparable markers between linkage maps by 5-fold. This enabled a characterization of the most likely history of retained chromosomal rearrangements post-WGD, and several conserved chromosomal inversions. Analyses of RADseq-based linkage maps from other taxa will also benefit from MapComp, available at: https://github.com/enormandeau/mapcomp/ PMID:28173098

  2. A hybrid genetic linkage map of two ecologically and morphologically divergent Midas cichlid fishes (Amphilophus spp.) obtained by massively parallel DNA sequencing (ddRADSeq).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recknagel, Hans; Elmer, Kathryn R; Meyer, Axel

    2013-01-01

    Cichlid fishes are an excellent model system for studying speciation and the formation of adaptive radiations because of their tremendous species richness and astonishing phenotypic diversity. Most research has focused on African rift lake fishes, although Neotropical cichlid species display much variability as well. Almost one dozen species of the Midas cichlid species complex (Amphilophus spp.) have been described so far and have formed repeated adaptive radiations in several Nicaraguan crater lakes. Here we apply double-digest restriction-site associated DNA sequencing to obtain a high-density linkage map of an interspecific cross between the benthic Amphilophus astorquii and the limnetic Amphilophus zaliosus, which are sympatric species endemic to Crater Lake Apoyo, Nicaragua. A total of 755 RAD markers were genotyped in 343 F(2) hybrids. The map resolved 25 linkage groups and spans a total distance of 1427 cM with an average marker spacing distance of 1.95 cM, almost matching the total number of chromosomes (n = 24) in these species. Regions of segregation distortion were identified in five linkage groups. Based on the pedigree of parents to F(2) offspring, we calculated a genome-wide mutation rate of 6.6 × 10(-8) mutations per nucleotide per generation. This genetic map will facilitate the mapping of ecomorphologically relevant adaptive traits in the repeated phenotypes that evolved within the Midas cichlid lineage and, as the first linkage map of a Neotropical cichlid, facilitate comparative genomic analyses between African cichlids, Neotropical cichlids and other teleost fishes.

  3. Biomechanical design of escalading lower limb exoskeleton with novel linkage joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guoan; Liu, Gangfeng; Ma, Sun; Wang, Tianshuo; Zhao, Jie; Zhu, Yanhe

    2017-07-20

    In this paper, an obstacle-surmounting-enabled lower limb exoskeleton with novel linkage joints that perfectly mimicked human motions was proposed. Currently, most lower exoskeletons that use linear actuators have a direct connection between the wearer and the controlled part. Compared to the existing joints, the novel linkage joint not only fitted better into compact chasis, but also provided greater torque when the joint was at a large bend angle. As a result, it extended the angle range of joint peak torque output. With any given power, torque was prioritized over rotational speed, because instead of rotational speed, sufficiency of torque is the premise for most joint actions. With insufficient torque, the exoskeleton will be a burden instead of enhancement to its wearer. With optimized distribution of torque among the joints, the novel linkage method may contribute to easier exoskeleton movements.

  4. Association and linkage analysis of aluminum tolerance genes in maize.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison M Krill

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aluminum (Al toxicity is a major worldwide constraint to crop productivity on acidic soils. Al becomes soluble at low pH, inhibiting root growth and severely reducing yields. Maize is an important staple food and commodity crop in acidic soil regions, especially in South America and Africa where these soils are very common. Al exclusion and intracellular tolerance have been suggested as two important mechanisms for Al tolerance in maize, but little is known about the underlying genetics. METHODOLOGY: An association panel of 282 diverse maize inbred lines and three F2 linkage populations with approximately 200 individuals each were used to study genetic variation in this complex trait. Al tolerance was measured as net root growth in nutrient solution under Al stress, which exhibited a wide range of variation between lines. Comparative and physiological genomics-based approaches were used to select 21 candidate genes for evaluation by association analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Six candidate genes had significant results from association analysis, but only four were confirmed by linkage analysis as putatively contributing to Al tolerance: Zea mays AltSB like (ZmASL, Zea mays aluminum-activated malate transporter2 (ALMT2, S-adenosyl-L-homocysteinase (SAHH, and Malic Enzyme (ME. These four candidate genes are high priority subjects for follow-up biochemical and physiological studies on the mechanisms of Al tolerance in maize. Immediately, elite haplotype-specific molecular markers can be developed for these four genes and used for efficient marker-assisted selection of superior alleles in Al tolerance maize breeding programs.

  5. Localization of the homolog of a mouse craniofacial mutant to human chromosome 18q11 and evaluation of linkage to human CLP and CPO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, A.J.; Burgess, D.L.; Kohrman, D.C.; Yu, J. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)] [and others

    1996-06-15

    The transgene-induced mutation 9257 and the spontaneous mutation twirler cause craniofacial and inner ear malformations and are located on mouse chromosome 18 near the ataxia locus ax. To map the human homolog of 9257, a probe from the transgene insertion site was used to screen a human genomic library. Analysis of a cross-hybridizing human clone identified a 3-kb conserved sequence block that does not appear to contain protein coding sequence. Analysis of somatic cell hybrid panels assigned the human locus to 18q11. The polymorphic microsatellite markers D18S1001 and D18S1002 were isolated from the human locus and mapped by linkage analysis using the CEPH pedigrees. The 9257 locus maps close to the centromeres of human chromosome 18q and mouse chromosome 18 at the proximal end of a conserved linkage group. To evaluate the role of this locus in human craniofacial disorders, linkage to D18S1002 was tested in 11 families with autosomal dominant nonsyndromic cleft lip and palate and 3 families with autosomal dominant cleft palate only. Obligatory recombinants were observed in 8 of the families, and negative lod scores from the other families indicated that these disorders are not linked to the chromosome 18 loci. 23 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Genomewide Linkage Scan for Diabetic Renal Failure and Albuminuria: The FIND Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igo, Robert P.; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Nicholas, Susanne B.; Goddard, Katrina A.B.; Langefeld, Carl D.; Hanson, Robert L.; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Divers, Jasmin; Abboud, Hanna; Adler, Sharon G.; Arar, Nedal H.; Horvath, Amanda; Elston, Robert C.; Bowden, Donald W.; Guo, Xiuqing; Ipp, Eli; Kao, W.H. Linda; Kimmel, Paul L.; Knowler, William C.; Meoni, Lucy A.; Molineros, Julio; Nelson, Robert G.; Pahl, Madeline V.; Parekh, Rulan S.; Rasooly, Rebekah S.; Schelling, Jeffrey R.; Shah, Vallabh O.; Smith, Michael W.; Winkler, Cheryl A.; Zager, Philip G.; Sedor, John R.; Freedman, Barry I.

    2011-01-01

    Background Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The multicenter FIND consortium aims to identify genes for DN and its associated quantitative traits, e.g. the urine albumin:creatinine ratio (ACR). Herein, the results of whole-genome linkage analysis and a sparse association scan for ACR and a dichotomous DN phenotype are reported in diabetic individuals. Methods A genomewide scan comprising more than 5,500 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphism markers (average spacing of 0.6 cM) was performed on 1,235 nuclear and extended pedigrees (3,972 diabetic participants) ascertained for DN from African-American (AA), American-Indian (AI), European-American (EA) and Mexican-American (MA) populations. Results Strong evidence for linkage to DN was detected on chromosome 6p (p = 8.0 × 10−5, LOD = 3.09) in EA families as well as suggestive evidence for linkage to chromosome 7p in AI families. Regions on chromosomes 3p in AA, 7q in EA, 16q in AA and 22q in MA displayed suggestive evidence of linkage for urine ACR. The linkage peak on chromosome 22q overlaps the MYH9/APOL1 gene region, previously implicated in AA diabetic and nondiabetic nephropathies. Conclusion These results strengthen the evidence for previously identified genomic regions and implicate several novel loci potentially involved in the pathogenesis of DN. PMID:21454968

  7. Bench-scale cross flow filtration of Tank S-107 sludge slurries and Tank C-107 supernatant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geeting, J.G.H.; Reynolds, B.A.

    1996-10-01

    Hanford tank waste filtration experiments were conducted using a bench-scale cross flow filter on 8 wt%, 1.5 wt%, and 0.05 wt% Tank S- 107 sludge slurries and on Tank C-107 supernatant. For comparison, two simulants each with solids loadings of 8 wt% and 0.05 wt% were also tested. The purpose of the tests was to determine the efficacy of cross flow filtration on slurries of various solids loadings. -In addition, filtrate flux dependency on axial velocity and transmembrane pressure was sought so that conditions for future experiments might be better selected. The data gathered are compared to the simulants and three cross flow filtration models. A two- parameter central composite design which tested. transmembrane pressure from 5 to 40 psig and axial Velocity from 3 to 9 ft/s was used for all feeds. The cross flow filter effectively removed solids from the liquid, as 19 of 20 filtrate samples had particle concentrations below the resolution limit of the photon correlation spectrometer used in the Hanford Radiocolloid Laboratory. Radiochemical analysis indicate that all filtrate samples were below Class A waste classification standards for 9OSr and transuranics

  8. Ascertainment correction for Markov chain Monte Carlo segregation and linkage analysis of a quantitative trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jianzhong; Amos, Christopher I; Warwick Daw, E

    2007-09-01

    Although extended pedigrees are often sampled through probands with extreme levels of a quantitative trait, Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods for segregation and linkage analysis have not been able to perform ascertainment corrections. Further, the extent to which ascertainment of pedigrees leads to biases in the estimation of segregation and linkage parameters has not been previously studied for MCMC procedures. In this paper, we studied these issues with a Bayesian MCMC approach for joint segregation and linkage analysis, as implemented in the package Loki. We first simulated pedigrees ascertained through individuals with extreme values of a quantitative trait in spirit of the sequential sampling theory of Cannings and Thompson [Cannings and Thompson [1977] Clin. Genet. 12:208-212]. Using our simulated data, we detected no bias in estimates of the trait locus location. However, in addition to allele frequencies, when the ascertainment threshold was higher than or close to the true value of the highest genotypic mean, bias was also found in the estimation of this parameter. When there were multiple trait loci, this bias destroyed the additivity of the effects of the trait loci, and caused biases in the estimation all genotypic means when a purely additive model was used for analyzing the data. To account for pedigree ascertainment with sequential sampling, we developed a Bayesian ascertainment approach and implemented Metropolis-Hastings updates in the MCMC samplers used in Loki. Ascertainment correction greatly reduced biases in parameter estimates. Our method is designed for multiple, but a fixed number of trait loci. Copyright (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Linkage of the National Health Interview Survey to air quality data

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, JD; Kravets, N; Woodruff, TJ

    2012-01-01

    Objective This report describes the linkage between the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and air monitoring data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). There have been few linkages of these data sources, partly because of restrictions on releasing geographic detail from NHIS on public-use files in order to protect participant confidentiality. Methods Pollution exposures for NHIS respondents were calculated by averaging the annual average exposure estimates from EPA air mo...

  10. The large-scale cross-correlation of Damped Lyman alpha systems with the Lyman alpha forest: first measurements from BOSS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Font-Ribera, Andreu [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Zurich, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Miralda-Escudé, Jordi [Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats, Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Arnau, Eduard [Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (IEEC/UB), Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Carithers, Bill; Ross, Nicholas P.; White, Martin [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Lee, Khee-Gan [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany); Noterdaeme, Pasquier; Pâris, Isabelle; Petitjean, Patrick; Rollinde, Emmanuel [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, Université Paris 6 et CNRS, 98bis blvd. Arago, 75014 Paris (France); Rich, James [CEA, Centre de Saclay, IRFU, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); York, Donald G., E-mail: font@physik.uzh.ch, E-mail: miralda@icc.ub.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics and The Fermi Institute, Chicago University, 5640 So. Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2012-11-01

    We present the first measurement of the large-scale cross-correlation of Lyα forest absorption and Damped Lyman α systems (DLA), using the 9th Data Release of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). The cross-correlation is clearly detected on scales up to 40h{sup −1}Mpc and is well fitted by the linear theory prediction of the standard Cold Dark Matter model of structure formation with the expected redshift distortions, confirming its origin in the gravitational evolution of structure. The amplitude of the DLA-Lyα cross-correlation depends on only one free parameter, the bias factor of the DLA systems, once the Lyα forest bias factors are known from independent Lyα forest correlation measurements. We measure the DLA bias factor to be b{sub D} = (2.17±0.20)β{sub F}{sup 0.22}, where the Lyα forest redshift distortion parameter β{sub F} is expected to be above unity. This bias factor implies a typical host halo mass for DLAs that is much larger than expected in present DLA models, and is reproduced if the DLA cross section scales with halo mass as M{sub h}{sup α}, with α = 1.1±0.1 for β{sub F} = 1. Matching the observed DLA bias factor and rate of incidence requires that atomic gas remains extended in massive halos over larger areas than predicted in present simulations of galaxy formation, with typical DLA proper sizes larger than 20 kpc in host halos of masses ∼ 10{sup 12}M{sub ☉}. We infer that typical galaxies at z ≅ 2 to 3 are surrounded by systems of atomic clouds that are much more extended than the luminous parts of galaxies and contain ∼ 10% of the baryons in the host halo.

  11. In-Culture Cross-Linking of Bacterial Cells Reveals Large-Scale Dynamic Protein-Protein Interactions at the Peptide Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Luitzen; de Koning, Edward A; Roseboom, Winfried; Buncherd, Hansuk; Wanner, Martin J; Dapic, Irena; Jansen, Petra J; van Maarseveen, Jan H; Corthals, Garry L; Lewis, Peter J; Hamoen, Leendert W; de Koster, Chris G

    2017-07-07

    Identification of dynamic protein-protein interactions at the peptide level on a proteomic scale is a challenging approach that is still in its infancy. We have developed a system to cross-link cells directly in culture with the special lysine cross-linker bis(succinimidyl)-3-azidomethyl-glutarate (BAMG). We used the Gram-positive model bacterium Bacillus subtilis as an exemplar system. Within 5 min extensive intracellular cross-linking was detected, while intracellular cross-linking in a Gram-negative species, Escherichia coli, was still undetectable after 30 min, in agreement with the low permeability in this organism for lipophilic compounds like BAMG. We were able to identify 82 unique interprotein cross-linked peptides with cross-links occur in assemblies involved in transcription and translation. Several of these interactions are new, and we identified a binding site between the δ and β' subunit of RNA polymerase close to the downstream DNA channel, providing a clue into how δ might regulate promoter selectivity and promote RNA polymerase recycling. Our methodology opens new avenues to investigate the functional dynamic organization of complex protein assemblies involved in bacterial growth. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD006287.

  12. Linkage disequilibrium and demographic history of the isolated population of the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, Tove H; Degn, Birte; Wang, August G

    2002-01-01

    The isolated population of the Faroe Islands has a history of recent expansion after being limited to a small size for centuries. Such an isolated population may be ideal for linkage disequilibrium mapping of disease genes if linkage disequilibrium (LD) extends over large regions. Analyses of 18 ...

  13. Optimizing Opt-Out Consent for Record Linkage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Marcel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on a study testing the effects of different ways of administering an opt-out consent for record linkage in a probability-based Internet panel. First, we conducted cognitive interviews to explore reactions to a draft version of the opt-out consent text. Second, we conducted a two-factor experiment to test the effects of content manipulations and mode. The results indicate that the way in which respondents were informed did not have much effect on opting out. Results from a follow-up survey on attitudes regarding privacy, confidentiality, and trust, along with knowledge questions about the process of linking, showed no evidence that presenting the opt-out consent statement makes respondents more concerned about privacy. Knowledge about the aspects of record linkage is generally not high. When looking at long-term effects of sending an opt-out consent statement, we found no evidence that this leads to higher attrition or lower participation rates.

  14. Initial Reactivity of Linkages and Monomer Rings in Lignin Pyrolysis Revealed by ReaxFF Molecular Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tingting; Li, Xiaoxia; Guo, Li

    2017-10-24

    The initial conversion pathways of linkages and their linked monomer units in lignin pyrolysis were investigated comprehensively by ReaxFF MD simulations facilitated by the unique VARxMD for reaction analysis. The simulated molecular model contains 15 920 atoms and was constructed on the basis of Adler's softwood lignin model. The simulations uncover the initial conversion ratio of various linkages and their linked aryl monomers. For linkages and their linked monomer aryl rings of α-O-4, β-O-4 and α-O-4 & β-5, the C α /C β ether bond cracking dominates the initial pathway accounting for at least up to 80% of their consumption. For the linkage of β-β & γ-O-α, both the C α -O ether bond cracking and its linked monomer aryl ring opening are equally important. Ring-opening reactions dominate the initial consumption of other 4-O-5, 5-5, β-1, β-2, and β-5 linkages and their linked monomers. The ether bond cracking of C α -O and C β -O occurs at low temperature, and the aryl ring-opening reactions take place at relatively high temperature. The important intermediates leading to the stable aryl ring opening are the phenoxy radicals, the bridged five-membered and three-membered rings and the bridged six-membered and three-membered rings. In addition, the reactivity of a linkage and its monomer aryl ring may be affected by other linkages. The ether bond cracking of α-O-4 and β-O-4 linkages can activate its neighboring linkage or monomer ring through the formed phenoxy radicals as intermediates. The important intermediates revealed in this article should be of help in deepening the understanding of the controlling mechanism for producing aromatic chemicals from lignin pyrolysis.

  15. A Fuel-Sensitive Reduced-Order Model (ROM) for Piston Engine Scaling Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-29

    of high Reynolds number nonreacting and reacting JP-8 sprays in a constant pressure flow vessel with a detailed chemistry approach . J Energy Resour...for rapid grid generation applied to in-cylinder diesel engine simulations. Society of Automotive Engineers ; 2007 Apr. SAE Technical Paper No.: 2007...ARL-TR-8172 ● Sep 2017 US Army Research Laboratory A Fuel-Sensitive Reduced-Order Model (ROM) for Piston Engine Scaling Analysis

  16. Cross-cultural validation of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kui; Shi, Hai-Song; Geng, Fu-Lei; Zou, Lai-Quan; Tan, Shu-Ping; Wang, Yi; Neumann, David L; Shum, David H K; Chan, Raymond C K

    2016-05-01

    The gap between the demand and delivery of mental health services in mainland China can be reduced by validating freely available and psychometrically sound psychological instruments. The present research examined the Chinese version of the 21-item Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21). Study 1 administered the DASS-21 to 1,815 Chinese college students and found internal consistency indices (Cronbach's alpha) of .83, .80, and .82 for the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress subscales, respectively, and .92 for the total DASS total. Test-retest reliability over a 6-month interval was .39 to .46 for each of the 3 subscales and .46 for the total DASS. Moderate convergent validity of the Depression and Anxiety subscales was demonstrated via significant correlations with the Chinese Beck Depression Inventory (r = .51 at Time 1 and r = .64 at Time 2) and the Chinese State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (r = .41), respectively. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the original 3-factor model with 1 minor change (nonnormed fit index [NNFI] = .964, comparative fit index [CFI] = .968, and root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA] = .079). Study 2 examined the clinical utility of the Chinese DASS-21 in 166 patients with schizophrenia and 90 matched healthy controls. Patients had higher Depression and Anxiety but not Stress subscale scores than healthy controls. A discriminant function composed of the linear combination of 3 subscale scores correctly discriminated 69.92% of participants, which again supported the potential clinical utility of the DASS in mainland China. Taken together, findings in these studies support the cross-cultural validity of the DASS-21 in China. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Cross-cultural adaptation and measurement properties testing of the Iconographical Falls Efficacy Scale (Icon-FES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Marcia Rodrigues; Pinto, Rafael Zambelli; Delbaere, Kim; Eto, Bianca Yumie; Faria, Maíra Sgobbi; Aoyagi, Giovana Ayumi; Steffens, Daniel; Pastre, Carlos Marcelo

    2018-02-14

    The Iconographical Falls Efficacy Scale (Icon-FES) is an innovative tool to assess concern of falling that uses pictures as visual cues to provide more complete environmental contexts. Advantages of Icon-FES over previous scales include the addition of more demanding balance-related activities, ability to assess concern about falling in highly functioning older people, and its normal distribution. To perform a cross-cultural adaptation and to assess the measurement properties of the 30-item and 10-item Icon-FES in a community-dwelling Brazilian older population. The cross-cultural adaptation followed the recommendations of international guidelines. We evaluated the measurement properties (i.e. internal consistency, test-retest reproducibility, standard error of the measurement, minimal detectable change, construct validity, ceiling/floor effect, data distribution and discriminative validity), in 100 community-dwelling people aged ≥60 years. The 30-item and 10-item Icon-FES-Brazil showed good internal consistency (alpha and omega >0.70) and excellent intra-rater reproducibility (ICC 2,1 =0.96 and 0.93, respectively). According to the standard error of the measurement and minimal detectable change, the magnitude of change needed to exceed the measurement error and variability were 7.2 and 3.4 points for the 30-item and 10-item Icon-FES, respectively. We observed an excellent correlation between both versions of the Icon-FES and Falls Efficacy Scale - International (rho=0.83, pmeasurement properties to evaluate concern about falling among the community-dwelling older population. Copyright © 2018 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Reduced fine-scale spatial genetic structure in grazed populations of Dianthus carthusianorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, Y; Wagner, H H

    2016-11-01

    Strong spatial genetic structure in plant populations can increase homozygosity, reducing genetic diversity and adaptive potential. The strength of spatial genetic structure largely depends on rates of seed dispersal and pollen flow. Seeds without dispersal adaptations are likely to be dispersed over short distances within the vicinity of the mother plant, resulting in spatial clustering of related genotypes (fine-scale spatial genetic structure, hereafter spatial genetic structure (SGS)). However, primary seed dispersal by zoochory can promote effective dispersal, increasing the mixing of seeds and influencing SGS within plant populations. In this study, we investigated the effects of seed dispersal by rotational sheep grazing on the strength of SGS and genetic diversity using 11 nuclear microsatellites for 49 populations of the calcareous grassland forb Dianthus carthusianorum. Populations connected by rotational sheep grazing showed significantly weaker SGS and higher genetic diversity than populations in ungrazed grasslands. Independent of grazing treatment, small populations showed significantly stronger SGS and lower genetic diversity than larger populations, likely due to genetic drift. A lack of significant differences in the strength of SGS and genetic diversity between populations that were recently colonized and pre-existing populations suggested that populations colonized after the reintroduction of rotational sheep grazing were likely founded by colonists from diverse source populations. We conclude that dispersal by rotational sheep grazing has the potential to considerably reduce SGS within D. carthusianorum populations. Our study highlights the effectiveness of landscape management by rotational sheep grazing to importantly reduce genetic structure at local scales within restored plant populations.

  19. Cross-Cultural Validity of the Ruminative Responses Scale in Argentina and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arana, Fernán G; Rice, Kenneth G

    2017-09-01

    Although frequently used in the United States, the Ruminative Response Scale (RRS) has not been extensively studied in cross-cultural samples. The present study evaluated the factor structure of Treynor et al.'s 10-item version of the RRS in samples from Argentina ( N = 308) and the United States ( N = 371). In addition to testing measurement invariance between the countries, we evaluated whether the maladaptive implications of rumination were weaker for the Argentinians than for the U.S. group. Self-critical perfectionism was the criterion in those tests. Partial scalar invariance supported an 8-item version of the RRS. There were no differences in factor means or factor correlations in RRS dimensions between countries. Brooding and Reflection were positively correlated with self-critical perfectionism in both countries, with no significant differences in the sizes of these relations between the two samples. Results are discussed in terms of psychometric and cross-cultural implications for rumination.

  20. The Self-esteem Stability Scale (SESS) for Cross-Sectional Direct Assessment of Self-esteem Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Tobias; Roth, Marcus

    2018-01-01

    Self-esteem stability describes fluctuations in the level of self-esteem experienced by individuals over a brief period of time. In recent decades, self-esteem stability has repeatedly been shown to be an important variable affecting psychological functioning. However, measures of self-esteem stability are few and lacking in validity. In this paper, we present the Self-Esteem Stability Scale (SESS), a unidimensional and very brief scale to directly assess self-esteem stability. In four studies (total N = 826), we describe the development of the SESS and present evidence for its validity with respect to individual outcomes (life satisfaction, neuroticism, and vulnerable narcissism) and dyadic outcomes (relationship satisfaction in self- and partner ratings) through direct comparisons with existing measures. The new SESS proved to be a stronger predictor than the existing scales and had incremental validity over and above self-esteem level. The results also showed that all cross-sectional measures of self-esteem stability were only moderately associated with variability in self-esteem levels assessed longitudinally with multiple administrations of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. We discuss this validity issue, arguing that direct and indirect assessment approaches measure relevant, yet different aspects of self-esteem stability.

  1. The Self-esteem Stability Scale (SESS) for Cross-Sectional Direct Assessment of Self-esteem Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Tobias; Roth, Marcus

    2018-01-01

    Self-esteem stability describes fluctuations in the level of self-esteem experienced by individuals over a brief period of time. In recent decades, self-esteem stability has repeatedly been shown to be an important variable affecting psychological functioning. However, measures of self-esteem stability are few and lacking in validity. In this paper, we present the Self-Esteem Stability Scale (SESS), a unidimensional and very brief scale to directly assess self-esteem stability. In four studies (total N = 826), we describe the development of the SESS and present evidence for its validity with respect to individual outcomes (life satisfaction, neuroticism, and vulnerable narcissism) and dyadic outcomes (relationship satisfaction in self- and partner ratings) through direct comparisons with existing measures. The new SESS proved to be a stronger predictor than the existing scales and had incremental validity over and above self-esteem level. The results also showed that all cross-sectional measures of self-esteem stability were only moderately associated with variability in self-esteem levels assessed longitudinally with multiple administrations of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. We discuss this validity issue, arguing that direct and indirect assessment approaches measure relevant, yet different aspects of self-esteem stability. PMID:29487551

  2. Cross-cultural measurement invariance in the satisfaction with food-related life scale in older adults from two developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnettler, Berta; Miranda-Zapata, Edgardo; Lobos, Germán; Lapo, María; Grunert, Klaus G; Adasme-Berríos, Cristian; Hueche, Clementina

    2017-05-30

    Nutrition is one of the major determinants of successful aging. The Satisfaction with Food-related Life (SWFL) scale measures a person's overall assessment regarding their food and eating habits. The SWFL scale has been used in older adult samples across different countries in Europe, Asia and America, however, there are no studies that have evaluated the cross-cultural measurement invariance of the scale in older adult samples. Therefore, we evaluated the measurement invariance of the SWFL scale across older adults from Chile and Ecuador. Stratified random sampling was used to recruit a sample of older adults of both genders from Chile (mean age = 71.38, SD = 6.48, range = 60-92) and from Ecuador (mean age = 73.70, SD = 7.45, range = 60-101). Participants reported their levels of satisfaction with food-related life by completing the SWFL scale, which consists of five items grouped into a single dimension. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to examine cross-cultural measurement invariance of the SWFL scale. Results showed that the SWFL scale exhibited partial measurement invariance, with invariance of all factor loadings, invariance in all but one item's threshold (item 1) and invariance in all items' uniqueness (residuals), which leads us to conclude that there is a reasonable level of partial measurement invariance for the CFA model of the SWFL scale, when comparing the Chilean and Ecuadorian older adult samples. The lack of invariance in item 1 confirms previous studies with adults and emerging adults in Chile that suggest this item is culture-sensitive. We recommend revising the wording of the first item of the SWFL in order to relate the statement with the person's life. The SWFL scale shows partial measurement invariance across older adults from Chile and Ecuador. A 4-item version of the scale (excluding item 1) provides the basis for international comparisons of satisfaction with food-related life in older adults from developing

  3. An Analysis of Cross Racial Identity Scale Scores Using Classical Test Theory and Rasch Item Response Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Joshua; Beaujean, A. Alexander; Worrell, Frank C.; Watson, Stevie

    2013-01-01

    Item response models (IRMs) were used to analyze Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS) scores. Rasch analysis scores were compared with classical test theory (CTT) scores. The partial credit model demonstrated a high goodness of fit and correlations between Rasch and CTT scores ranged from 0.91 to 0.99. CRIS scores are supported by both methods.…

  4. Revealing the fate of the phenylcoumaran linkage during lignin oxidation reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahive, Ciaran W; Lancefield, Christopher S; Codina, Anna; Kamer, Paul C J; Westwood, Nicholas J

    2018-03-14

    The fate of most lignin linkages, other than the β-O-4, under selective oxidation conditions is largely unknown. In this work we use advanced β-5 lignin model compounds to identify the fate of phenylcoumaran units in a softwood lignin during oxidation with DDQ. By using model compounds combined with detailed characterisation of the oxidised lignin polymer using HSQC and HMBC NMR we show that phenylcoumarones are a major product, and therefore constitute a novel non-native β-5 linkage in oxidised lignins. Additionally, the reactivity of these units in lignin led us to further investigate their connectivity in lignin, showing that they are found as both phenolic and etherified units. The findings and approach developed here will help improve the efficiency of selective oxidative lignin depolymerisation processes, particularly those aimed at the upgrading of softwood lignin in which phenylcoumarans are a major linkage.

  5. Meta-analysis of genome-wide linkage studies in BMI and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Catherine L; Chiodini, Benedetta D; Sham, Pak; Lewis, Cathryn M; Abkevich, Victor; Adeyemo, Adebowale A; de Andrade, Mariza; Arya, Rector; Berenson, Gerald S; Blangero, John; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B; Chagnon, Yvon C; Chen, Wei; Comuzzie, Anthony G; Deng, Hong-Wen; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Feitosa, Mary F; Froguel, Philippe; Hanson, Robert L; Hebebrand, Johannes; Huezo-Dias, Patricia; Kissebah, Ahmed H; Li, Weidong; Luke, Amy; Martin, Lisa J; Nash, Matthew; Ohman, Miina; Palmer, Lyle J; Peltonen, Leena; Perola, Markus; Price, R Arlen; Redline, Susan; Srinivasan, Sathanur R; Stern, Michael P; Stone, Steven; Stringham, Heather; Turner, Stephen; Wijmenga, Cisca; Collier, David A

    2007-09-01

    The objective was to provide an overall assessment of genetic linkage data of BMI and BMI-defined obesity using a nonparametric genome scan meta-analysis. We identified 37 published studies containing data on over 31,000 individuals from more than >10,000 families and obtained genome-wide logarithm of the odds (LOD) scores, non-parametric linkage (NPL) scores, or maximum likelihood scores (MLS). BMI was analyzed in a pooled set of all studies, as a subgroup of 10 studies that used BMI-defined obesity, and for subgroups ascertained through type 2 diabetes, hypertension, or subjects of European ancestry. Bins at chromosome 13q13.2- q33.1, 12q23-q24.3 achieved suggestive evidence of linkage to BMI in the pooled analysis and samples ascertained for hypertension. Nominal evidence of linkage to these regions and suggestive evidence for 11q13.3-22.3 were also observed for BMI-defined obesity. The FTO obesity gene locus at 16q12.2 also showed nominal evidence for linkage. However, overall distribution of summed rank p values <0.05 is not different from that expected by chance. The strongest evidence was obtained in the families ascertained for hypertension at 9q31.1-qter and 12p11.21-q23 (p < 0.01). Despite having substantial statistical power, we did not unequivocally implicate specific loci for BMI or obesity. This may be because genes influencing adiposity are of very small effect, with substantial genetic heterogeneity and variable dependence on environmental factors. However, the observation that the FTO gene maps to one of the highest ranking bins for obesity is interesting and, while not a validation of this approach, indicates that other potential loci identified in this study should be investigated further.

  6. Irish study of high-density Schizophrenia families: Field methods and power to detect linkage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendler, K.S.; Straub, R.E.; MacLean, C.J. [Virginia Commonwealth Univ., Richmond, VA (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-09

    Large samples of multiplex pedigrees will probably be needed to detect susceptibility loci for schizophrenia by linkage analysis. Standardized ascertainment of such pedigrees from culturally and ethnically homogeneous populations may improve the probability of detection and replication of linkage. The Irish Study of High-Density Schizophrenia Families (ISHDSF) was formed from standardized ascertainment of multiplex schizophrenia families in 39 psychiatric facilities covering over 90% of the population in Ireland and Northern Ireland. We here describe a phenotypic sample and a subset thereof, the linkage sample. Individuals were included in the phenotypic sample if adequate diagnostic information, based on personal interview and/or hospital record, was available. Only individuals with available DNA were included in the linkage sample. Inclusion of a pedigree into the phenotypic sample required at least two first, second, or third degree relatives with non-affective psychosis (NAP), one of whom had schizophrenia (S) or poor-outcome schizoaffective disorder (PO-SAD). Entry into the linkage sample required DNA samples on at least two individuals with NAP, of whom at least one had S or PO-SAD. Affection was defined by narrow, intermediate, and broad criteria. 75 refs., 6 tabs.

  7. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the South African Pain Catastrophizing Scale (SA-PCS among patients with fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris Linzette D

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pain catastrophization has recently been recognized as a barrier to the healthy development of physical functioning among chronic pain patients. Levels of pain catastrophization in chronic pain patients are commonly measured using the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS. Objective To cross-culturally adapt and validate the South African PCS (SA-PCS among English-, Afrikaans- and Xhosa-speaking patients with fibromyalgia living in the Cape Metropole area, Western Cape, South Africa. Methods The original PCS was cross-culturally adapted in accordance with international standards to develop an English, Afrikaans and Xhosa version of the SA-PCS using a repeated measures study design. Psychometric testing included face/content validity, internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha-α, test-retest reliability (intraclass coefficient correlations-ICC, sensitivity-to-change and cross-sectional convergent validity (by comparing the adapted SA-PCS to related constructs. Results The cross-culturally adapted English, Afrikaans and Xhosa SA-PCS showed good face and content validity, excellent internal consistency (with Chronbach’s α = 0.98, 0.98 and 0.97 for the English, Afrikaans and Xhosa SA-PCS, as a whole, respectively, excellent test-retest reliability (with ICC’s of 0.90, 0.91 and 0.89 for the English, Afrikaans and Xhosa SA-PCS, respectively; as well as satisfactory sensitivity-to-change (with a minimum detectable change of 8.8, 9.0 and 9.3 for the English, Afrikaans and Xhosa SA-PCS, respectively and cross-sectional convergent validity (when compared to pain severity as well as South African versions of the Tampa scale for Kinesiophobia and the revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire. Conclusion The SA-PCS can therefore be recommended as simple, efficient, valid and reliable tool which shows satisfactory sensitivity-to-change and cross-sectional convergent validity, for use among English, Afrikaans and Xhosa-speaking patients with

  8. A comparison of genetic map distance and linkage disequilibrium between 15 polymorphic dinucleotide repeat loci in two populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbanek, M.; Goldman, D.; Long, J.C. [Lab. of Neurogenetics, Rockville, MD (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Linkage disequilibrium has recently been used to map the diastrophic dysplasia gene in a Finnish sample. One advantage of this method is that the large pedigrees required by some other methods are unnecessary. Another advantage is that linkage disequilibrium mapping capitalizes on the cumulative history of recombination events, rather than those occurring within the sampled individuals. A potential limitation of linkage disequilibrium mapping is that linkage equilibrium is likely to prevail in all but the most isolated populations, e.g., those which have recently experienced founder effects or severe population bottlenecks. In order to test the method`s generality, we examined patterns of linkage disequilibrium between pairs of loci within a known genetic map. Two populations were analyzed. The first population, Navajo Indians (N=45), is an isolate that experienced a severe bottleneck in the 1860`s. The second population, Maryland Caucasians (N=45), is cosmopolitan. We expected the Navajo sample to display more linkage disequilibrium than the Caucasian sample, and possibly that the Navajo disequilibrium pattern would reflect the genetic map. Linkage disequilibrium coefficients were estimated between pairs of alleles at different loci using maximum likelihood. The genetic isolate structure of Navajo Indians is confirmed by the DNA typings. Heterozygosity is lower than in the Caucasians, and fewer different alleles are observed. However, a relationship between genetic map distance and linkage disequilibrium could be discerned in neither the Navajo nor the Maryland samples. Slightly more linkage disequilibrium was observed in the Navajos, but both data sets were characterized by very low disequilibrium levels. We tentatively conclude that linkage disequilibrium mapping with dinucleotide repeats will only be useful with close linkage between markers and diseases, even in very isolated populations.

  9. Mapping Linked Genes in "Drosophila Melanogaster" Using Data from the F2 Generation of a Dihybrid Cross

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Pamela A.

    2008-01-01

    "Drosophila melanogaster" is a commonly utilized organism for testing hypotheses about inheritance of traits. Students in both high school and university labs study the genetics of inheritance by analyzing offspring of appropriate "Drosophila" crosses to determine inheritance patterns, including gene linkage. However, most genetics investigations…

  10. Imitating intrinsic alignments: a bias to the CMB lensing-galaxy shape cross-correlation power spectrum induced by the large-scale structure bispectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, Philipp M.; Schäfer, Björn Malte

    2017-10-01

    Cross-correlating the lensing signals of galaxies and comic microwave background (CMB) fluctuations is expected to provide valuable cosmological information. In particular, it may help tighten constraints on parameters describing the properties of intrinsically aligned galaxies at high redshift. To access the information conveyed by the cross-correlation signal, its accurate theoretical description is required. We compute the bias to CMB lensing-galaxy shape cross-correlation measurements induced by non-linear structure growth. Using tree-level perturbation theory for the large-scale structure bispectrum, we find that the bias is negative on most angular scales, therefore mimicking the signal of intrinsic alignments. Combining Euclid-like galaxy lensing data with a CMB experiment comparable to the Planck satellite mission, the bias becomes significant only on smallest scales (ℓ ≳ 2500). For improved CMB observations, however, the corrections amount to 10-15 per cent of the CMB lensing-intrinsic alignment signal over a wide multipole range (10 ≲ ℓ ≲ 2000). Accordingly, the power spectrum bias, if uncorrected, translates into 2σ and 3σ errors in the determination of the intrinsic alignment amplitude in the case of CMB stage III and stage IV experiments, respectively.

  11. Combined linkage and association mapping of flowering time in Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadic, Elena; Coque, Marie; Vear, Felicity; Grezes-Besset, Bruno; Pauquet, Jerôme; Piquemal, Joël; Lippi, Yannick; Blanchard, Philippe; Romestant, Michel; Pouilly, Nicolas; Rengel, David; Gouzy, Jerôme; Langlade, Nicolas; Mangin, Brigitte; Vincourt, Patrick

    2013-05-01

    Association mapping and linkage mapping were used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) and/or causative mutations involved in the control of flowering time in cultivated sunflower Helianthus annuus. A panel of 384 inbred lines was phenotyped through testcrosses with two tester inbred lines across 15 location × year combinations. A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population comprising 273 lines was phenotyped both per se and through testcrosses with one or two testers in 16 location × year combinations. In the association mapping approach, kinship estimation using 5,923 single nucleotide polymorphisms was found to be the best covariate to correct for effects of panel structure. Linkage disequilibrium decay ranged from 0.08 to 0.26 cM for a threshold of 0.20, after correcting for structure effects, depending on the linkage group (LG) and the ancestry of inbred lines. A possible hitchhiking effect is hypothesized for LG10 and LG08. A total of 11 regions across 10 LGs were found to be associated with flowering time, and QTLs were mapped on 11 LGs in the RIL population. Whereas eight regions were demonstrated to be common between the two approaches, the linkage disequilibrium approach did not detect a documented QTL that was confirmed using the linkage mapping approach.

  12. Kempe's Linkages and the Universality Theorem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sriranga

    that between BO and OA (i.e., \\BOA). Let these two angles be denoted by µ. Thus, if link OA makes an angle. µ with link OB, OE makes the same angle on the other side of OB. Kempe therefore referred to this linkage as the (angle) reversor. This is true irrespective of how OA and OB are placed relative to each other. Also ...

  13. A study of inter linkage effects on Candu feeder piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, M.; Aggarwal, M.L.; Meysner, A.

    2005-01-01

    A CANDU (Canadian Deuterium Uranium) reactor core consists of a large number of fuel channels where heat is generated. Two feeder pipes are connected to each fuel channel to transport D 2 O coolant into and out of the reactor core. The feeder piping is designed to the requirements of Class 1 piping of Section III NB of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel and CSA Codes. Feeder piping stress analysis is being performed to demonstrate the code compliance check and the fitness for service of feeders. In the past, stress analyses were conducted for each individual feeder without including interaction effects among connected feeders. Interaction effects occur as a result of linkages that exist between feeders to prevent fretting and impacting damage during normal, abnormal and accident conditions. In this paper, a 'combined' approach is adopted to include all feeders connected by inter linkages into one feeder piping model. MSC/NASTRAN finite element software was used in the stress simulation, which contains up to 127 feeder pipes. The ASME Class 1 piping analysis was conducted to investigate the effects of the linkages between feeders. Both seismic time history and broadened response spectra methods were used in the seismic stress calculation. The results show that the effect of linkages is significant in dynamic stresses for all feeder configurations, as well as in static stresses for certain feeder configurations. The single feeder analysis could either underestimate or overestimate feeder stresses depending on the pipe geometry and bend wall thickness. (authors)

  14. Can Network Linkage Effects Determine Return? Evidence from Chinese Stock Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Haishu; Xia, Yue; Li, Ying

    2016-01-01

    This study used the dynamic conditional correlations (DCC) method to identify the linkage effects of Chinese stock market, and further detected the influence of network linkage effects on magnitude of security returns across different industries. Applying two physics-derived techniques, the minimum spanning tree and the hierarchical tree, we analyzed the stock interdependence within the network of the China Securities Index (CSI) industry index basket. We observed that that obvious linkage effects existed among stock networks. CII and CCE, CAG and ITH as well as COU, CHA and REI were confirmed as the core nodes in the three different networks respectively. We also investigated the stability of linkage effects by estimating the mean correlations and mean distances, as well as the normalized tree length of these indices. In addition, using the GMM model approach, we found inter-node influence within the stock network had a pronounced effect on stock returns. Our results generally suggested that there appeared to be greater clustering effect among the indexes belonging to related industrial sectors than those of diverse sectors, and network comovement was significantly affected by impactive financial events in the reality. Besides, stocks that were more central within the network of stock market usually had higher returns for compensation because they endured greater exposure to correlation risk. PMID:27257816

  15. High-density Integrated Linkage Map Based on SSR Markers in Soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Tae-Young; Sayama, Takashi; Takahashi, Masakazu; Takada, Yoshitake; Nakamoto, Yumi; Funatsuki, Hideyuki; Hisano, Hiroshi; Sasamoto, Shigemi; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Kono, Izumi; Hoshi, Masako; Hanawa, Masayoshi; Yano, Chizuru; Xia, Zhengjun; Harada, Kyuya; Kitamura, Keisuke; Ishimoto, Masao

    2009-01-01

    A well-saturated molecular linkage map is a prerequisite for modern plant breeding. Several genetic maps have been developed for soybean with various types of molecular markers. Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are single-locus markers with high allelic variation and are widely applicable to different genotypes. We have now mapped 1810 SSR or sequence-tagged site markers in one or more of three recombinant inbred populations of soybean (the US cultivar ‘Jack’ × the Japanese cultivar ‘Fukuyutaka’, the Chinese cultivar ‘Peking’ × the Japanese cultivar ‘Akita’, and the Japanese cultivar ‘Misuzudaizu’ × the Chinese breeding line ‘Moshidou Gong 503’) and have aligned these markers with the 20 consensus linkage groups (LGs). The total length of the integrated linkage map was 2442.9 cM, and the average number of molecular markers was 90.5 (range of 70–114) for the 20 LGs. We examined allelic diversity for 1238 of the SSR markers among 23 soybean cultivars or lines and a wild accession. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 7, with an average of 2.8. Our high-density linkage map should facilitate ongoing and future genomic research such as analysis of quantitative trait loci and positional cloning in addition to marker-assisted selection in soybean breeding. PMID:19531560

  16. Construction of microsatellite-based linkage map and mapping of nectarilessness and hairiness genes in Gossypium tomentosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Meiying; Cai, Caiping; Zhang, Shuwen; Guo, Wangzhen; Zhang, Tianzhen; Zhou, Baoliang

    2013-12-01

    Gossypium tomentosum, a wild tetraploid cotton species with AD genomes, possesses genes conferring strong fibers and high heat tolerance. To effectively transfer these genes into Gossypium hirsutum, an entire microsatellite (simple sequence repeat, SSR)-based genetic map was constructed using the interspecific cross of G. hirsutum x G. tomentosum (HT). We detected 1800 loci from 1347 pairs of polymorphic primers. Of these, 1204 loci were grouped into 35 linkage groups at LOD ≥ 4. The map covers 3320.8 cM, with a mean density of 2.76 cM per locus. We detected 420 common loci (186 in the At subgenome and 234 in Dt) between the HT map and the map of TM-1 (G. hirsutum) and Hai 7124 (G. barbadense; HB map). The linkage groups were assigned chromosome numbers based on location of common loci and the HB map as reference. A comparison of common markers revealed that no significant chromosomal rearrangement exist between G. tomentosum and G. barbadense. Interestingly, however, we detected numerous (33.7%) segregation loci deviating from 3:1 ratio (P constructed in this study will be useful for further genetic studies on cotton breeding, including mapping loci controlling quantitative traits associated with fiber quality, stress tolerance and developing chromosome segment specific introgression lines from G. tomentosum into G. hirsutum using marker-assisted selection.

  17. A dynamic birth-death model via Intrinsic Linkage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Schoen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Dynamic population models, or models with changing vital rates, are only beginning to receive serious attention from mathematical demographers. Despite considerable progress, there is still no general analytical solution for the size or composition of a population generated by an arbitrary sequence of vital rates. OBJECTIVE The paper introduces a new approach, Intrinsic Linkage, that in many cases can analytically determine the birth trajectory of a dynamic birth-death population. METHODS Intrinsic Linkage assumes a weighted linear relationship between (i the time trajectory of proportional increases in births in a population and (ii the trajectory of the intrinsic rates of growth of the projection matrices that move the population forward in time. Flexibility is provided through choice of the weighting parameter, w, that links these two trajectories. RESULTS New relationships are found linking implied intrinsic and observed population patterns of growth. Past experience is "forgotten" through a process of simple exponential decay. When the intrinsic growth rate trajectory follows a polynomial, exponential, or cyclical pattern, the population birth trajectory can be expressed analytically in closed form. Numerical illustrations provide population values and relationships in metastable and cyclically stable models. Plausible projection matrices are typically found for a broad range of values of w, although w appears to vary greatly over time in actual populations. CONCLUSIONS The Intrinsic Linkage approach extends current techniques for dynamic modeling, revealing new relationships between population structures and the changing vital rates that generate them.

  18. Cross tropopause flux observed at sub-daily scales over the south Indian monsoon regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemanth Kumar, A.; Venkat Ratnam, M.; Sunilkumar, S. V.; Parameswaran, K.; Krishna Murthy, B. V.

    2018-03-01

    The effect of deep convection on the thermal structure and dynamics of the tropical tropopause at sub daily scales is investigated using data from radiosondes launched over two sites in the Indian Monsoon region (Gadanki (13.5°N, 79.2°E) and Trivandrum (8.5°N, 76.9°E)) conducted between December 2010 and March 2014. The data from these soundings are classified into 5 convective categories based on the past, present and future cloudiness over the launching region after the radiosonde has reached tropopause altitude. They are denoted as category 1 (no convection), category 2 (convection may occur in any of the next 3 h), category 3 (convection occurred prior 3 h), category 4 (convection terminated within 3 h of launching) and category 5 (convection persistent throughout the considered period). The anomalies from the background in temperature, relative humidity and wind speed are grouped into the aforementioned five different convective categories for both the stations. Cooling and moisture anomalies are found during the active convection (category 5). The horizontal wind speed showed a strong anomaly indicating the presence of synoptic scale features. Vertical wind obtained simultaneously from the MST radar over Gadanki clearly showed strong updraft during the active convection. The ozone profiles from ozonesondes launched during the same period are also segregated according to the above convective categories. During the active convection, high and low ozone values are found in the upper troposphere and the lower troposphere, respectively. The cross tropopause ozone mass flux and vertical wind at the tropopause and convective outflow level estimated from the ozonesonde, and MST radar/ERA-Interim data showed positive values indicating the transport of ozone between troposphere and stratosphere during deep convection. Similarly, the total mass flux crossing the cold point tropopause over Gadanki showed upward flux during the active convection. The variability of

  19. Small-scale cyclic deposition in the Frasnian (Upper Devonian) of the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierek, Aleksandra

    2014-12-01

    In sections exposing Frasnian limestones at five outcrops in the Holy Cross Mountains, five lithofacies (L1 to L5) that represent upper slope to basinal environments are identified. These lithofacies are characterised by dark-coloured micritic limestones-marly shale couplets with many light-coloured intercalations of fine- to coarse-grained limestones (= event beds). This lithofacies pattern characterises mostly low-energy domains punctuated by storm episodes. In addition, these upper-slope to basinal lithofacies are arranged into small-scale, coarsening-upward beds and cycles. The cycles are locally composed of fining/thinning-upward beds. The small-scale cycles have a calculated duration of 19 to 42 kyr. The differential thickness of beds and cycles within and between sections was probably caused by differential subsidence and local tectonics. Possible evidence of tectonic activity is also related to a difference in number of cycles recorded in the time-equivalent sections. The recognised cyclicity shows sea-level fluctuations and a few deepening episodes. Some of them are correlated with the Timan global eustatic events. However, local tectonics and episodic subsidence may have played a significant role in recording brief deepening pulses. Thus, low-amplitude sea-level changes were major factors in platform generation and evolution in the Frasnian of the Holy Cross Mountains modified by local, block-related subsidence.

  20. Small-scale cyclic deposition in the Frasnian (Upper Devonian of the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vierek Aleksandra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In sections exposing Frasnian limestones at five outcrops in the Holy Cross Mountains, five lithofacies (L1 to L5 that represent upper slope to basinal environments are identified. These lithofacies are characterised by dark-coloured micritic limestones-marly shale couplets with many light-coloured intercalations of fine- to coarse-grained limestones (= event beds. This lithofacies pattern characterises mostly low-energy domains punctuated by storm episodes. In addition, these upper-slope to basinal lithofacies are arranged into small-scale, coarsening-upward beds and cycles. The cycles are locally composed of fining/thinning-upward beds. The small-scale cycles have a calculated duration of 19 to 42 kyr. The differential thickness of beds and cycles within and between sections was probably caused by differential subsidence and local tectonics. Possible evidence of tectonic activity is also related to a difference in number of cycles recorded in the time-equivalent sections. The recognised cyclicity shows sea-level fluctuations and a few deepening episodes. Some of them are correlated with the Timan global eustatic events. However, local tectonics and episodic subsidence may have played a significant role in recording brief deepening pulses. Thus, low-amplitude sea-level changes were major factors in platform generation and evolution in the Frasnian of the Holy Cross Mountains modified by local, block-related subsidence.

  1. Effects of reduced surface tension on two-phase diversion cross-flow between subchannels simplifying triangle tight lattice rod bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawahara, Akimaro; Sadatomi, Michio; Higuchi, Tatsuya

    2009-01-01

    Two-phase diversion cross-flow between tight lattice subchannels has been investigated experimentally and analytically. For hydraulically non-equilibrium flows with the pressure difference between the subchannels, experiments were conducted using a vertical multiple-channel with two subchannels simplifying a triangle tight lattice rod bundle. To know the effects of the reduced surface tension on the diversion cross-flow, water and water with a surfactant were used as the test liquids. Data were obtained on the axial variations in the pressure difference between the subchannels, gas and liquid flow rates and void fraction in each subchannel for slug-churn and annular flows. In the analysis, flow redistribution processes due to the diversion cross-flow have been calculated by our subchannel analysis code based on a two-fluid model. From a comparison between the experiment and the code calculation, the code was found to be valid against the present data if the improved constitutive equations of wall and interfacial friction reported in our previous paper were incorporated to account for the reduced surface tension effects. (author)

  2. Translation, Cross-cultural Adaptation and Psychometric Validation of the Korean-Language Cardiac Rehabilitation Barriers Scale (CRBS-K).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Sora; Park, Hee-Won; Lee, Yookyung; Grace, Sherry L; Kim, Won-Seok

    2017-10-01

    To perform a translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Cardiac Rehabilitation Barriers Scale (CRBS) for use in Korea, followed by psychometric validation. The CRBS was developed to assess patients' perception of the degree to which patient, provider and health system-level barriers affect their cardiac rehabilitation (CR) participation. The CRBS consists of 21 items (barriers to adherence) rated on a 5-point Likert scale. The first phase was to translate and cross-culturally adapt the CRBS to the Korean language. After back-translation, both versions were reviewed by a committee. The face validity was assessed in a sample of Korean patients (n=53) with history of acute myocardial infarction that did not participate in CR through semi-structured interviews. The second phase was to assess the construct and criterion validity of the Korean translation as well as internal reliability, through administration of the translated version in 104 patients, principle component analysis with varimax rotation and cross-referencing against CR use, respectively. The length, readability, and clarity of the questionnaire were rated well, demonstrating face validity. Analysis revealed a six-factor solution, demonstrating construct validity. Cronbach's alpha was greater than 0.65. Barriers rated highest included not knowing about CR and not being contacted by a program. The mean CRBS score was significantly higher among non-attendees (2.71±0.26) than CR attendees (2.51±0.18) (pKorea.

  3. Cross-scale modelling of the climate-change mitigation potential of biochar systems: Global implications of nano-scale processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf, Dominic; Lehmann, Johannes

    2014-05-01

    With CO2 emissions still tracking the upper bounds of projected emissions scenarios, it is becoming increasingly urgent to reduce net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and increasingly likely that restricting future atmospheric GHG concentrations to within safe limits will require an eventual transition towards net negative GHG emissions. Few measures capable of providing negative emissions at a globally-significant scale are currently known. Two that are most often considered include carbon sequestration in biomass and soil, and biomass energy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS). In common with these two approaches, biochar also relies on the use of photosynthetically-bound carbon in biomass. But, because biomass and land are limited, it is critical that these resources are efficiently allocated between biomass/soil sequestration, bioenergy, BECCS, biochar, and other competing uses such as food, fiber and biodiversity. In many situations, biochar can offer advantages that may make it the preferred use of a limited biomass supply. These advantages include that: 1) Biochar can provide valuable benefits to agriculture by improving soil fertility and crop production, and reducing fertlizer and irrigation requirements. 2) Biochar is significantly more stable than biomass or other forms of soil carbon, thus lowering the risk of future losses compared to sequestration in biomass or soil organic carbon. 3) Gases and volatiles produced by pyrolysis can be combusted for energy (which may offset fossil fuel emissions). 4) Biochar can further lower GHG emissions by reducing nitrous oxide emissions from soil and by enhancing net primary production. Determining the optimal use of biomass requires that we are able to model not only the climate-change mitigation impact of each option, but also their economic and wider environmental impacts. Thus, what is required is a systems modelling approach that integrates components representing soil biogeochemistry, hydrology, crop

  4. PolyUbiquitin chain linkage topology selects the functions from the underlying binding landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitin (Ub can generate versatile molecular signals and lead to different celluar fates. The functional poly-valence of Ub is believed to be resulted from its ability to form distinct polymerized chains with eight linkage types. To provide a full picture of ubiquitin code, we explore the binding landscape of two free Ub monomers and also the functional landscapes of of all eight linkage types by theoretical modeling. Remarkably, we found that most of the compact structures of covalently connected dimeric Ub chains (diUbs pre-exist on the binding landscape. These compact functional states were subsequently validated by corresponding linkage models. This leads to the proposal that the folding architecture of Ub monomer has encoded all functional states into its binding landscape, which is further selected by different topologies of polymeric Ub chains. Moreover, our results revealed that covalent linkage leads to symmetry breaking of interfacial interactions. We further propose that topological constraint not only limits the conformational space for effective switching between functional states, but also selects the local interactions for realizing the corresponding biological function. Therefore, the topological constraint provides a way for breaking the binding symmetry and reaching the functional specificity. The simulation results also provide several predictions that qualitatively and quantitatively consistent with experiments. Importantly, the K48 linkage model successfully predicted intermediate states. The resulting multi-state energy landscape was further employed to reconcile the seemingly contradictory experimental data on the conformational equilibrium of K48-diUb. Our results further suggest that hydrophobic interactions are dominant in the functional landscapes of K6-, K11-, K33- and K48 diUbs, while electrostatic interactions play a more important role in the functional landscapes of K27, K29, K63 and linear linkages.

  5. PolyUbiquitin chain linkage topology selects the functions from the underlying binding landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Tang, Chun; Wang, Erkang; Wang, Jin

    2014-07-01

    Ubiquitin (Ub) can generate versatile molecular signals and lead to different celluar fates. The functional poly-valence of Ub is believed to be resulted from its ability to form distinct polymerized chains with eight linkage types. To provide a full picture of ubiquitin code, we explore the binding landscape of two free Ub monomers and also the functional landscapes of of all eight linkage types by theoretical modeling. Remarkably, we found that most of the compact structures of covalently connected dimeric Ub chains (diUbs) pre-exist on the binding landscape. These compact functional states were subsequently validated by corresponding linkage models. This leads to the proposal that the folding architecture of Ub monomer has encoded all functional states into its binding landscape, which is further selected by different topologies of polymeric Ub chains. Moreover, our results revealed that covalent linkage leads to symmetry breaking of interfacial interactions. We further propose that topological constraint not only limits the conformational space for effective switching between functional states, but also selects the local interactions for realizing the corresponding biological function. Therefore, the topological constraint provides a way for breaking the binding symmetry and reaching the functional specificity. The simulation results also provide several predictions that qualitatively and quantitatively consistent with experiments. Importantly, the K48 linkage model successfully predicted intermediate states. The resulting multi-state energy landscape was further employed to reconcile the seemingly contradictory experimental data on the conformational equilibrium of K48-diUb. Our results further suggest that hydrophobic interactions are dominant in the functional landscapes of K6-, K11-, K33- and K48 diUbs, while electrostatic interactions play a more important role in the functional landscapes of K27, K29, K63 and linear linkages.

  6. Leontief Input-Output Method for The Fresh Milk Distribution Linkage Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riski Nur Istiqomah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This research discusses about linkage analysis and identifies the key sector in the fresh milk distribution using Leontief Input-Output method. This method is one of the application of Mathematics in economy. The current fresh milk distribution system includes dairy farmers →collectors→fresh milk processing industries→processed milk distributors→consumers. Then, the distribution is merged between the collectors’ axctivity and the fresh milk processing industry. The data used are primary and secondary data taken in June 2016 in Kecamatan Jabung Kabupaten Malang. The collected data are then analysed using Leontief Input-Output Matriks and Python (PYIO 2.1 software. The result is that the merging of the collectors’ and the fresh milk processing industry’s activities shows high indices of forward linkages and backward linkages. It is shown that merging of the two activities is the key sector which has an important role in developing the whole activities in the fresh milk distribution.

  7. A new method of linkage analysis using LOD scores for quantitative traits supports linkage of monoamine oxidase activity to D17S250 in the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism pedigrees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, David; Knight, Jo; Sham, Pak C

    2005-09-01

    Although LOD score methods have been applied to diseases with complex modes of inheritance, linkage analysis of quantitative traits has tended to rely on non-parametric methods based on regression or variance components analysis. Here, we describe a new method for LOD score analysis of quantitative traits which does not require specification of a mode of inheritance. The technique is derived from the MFLINK method for dichotomous traits. A range of plausible transmission models is constructed, constrained to yield the correct population mean and variance for the trait but differing with respect to the contribution to the variance due to the locus under consideration. Maximized LOD scores under homogeneity and admixture are calculated, as is a model-free LOD score which compares the maximized likelihoods under admixture assuming linkage and no linkage. These LOD scores have known asymptotic distributions and hence can be used to provide a statistical test for linkage. The method has been implemented in a program called QMFLINK. It was applied to data sets simulated usi