James M. Raymo
Full Text Available Background: Recent research on fertility in industrialized countries focuses primarily on delayed childbearing, despite the facts that large numbers of women continue to enter parenthood at relatively young ages and that early childbearing has been linked to economic disadvantage. Objective: This cross-national comparative study describes relationships between women's educational attainment and young age at first birth and evaluates the extent to which these differences have changed over time for women born 1955-1981. Methods: Defining 'early' childbearing as the age by which 20Š of first births have occurred to women in a given birth cohort and country, we describe differences in early childbearing by educational attainment across three cohorts of women in 20 countries. Results: We find a strong negative educational gradient in early childbearing across all 20 countries and some evidence of an increase in the relative prevalence of early childbearing among the least-educated women. In 10 countries, the relative prevalence of early childbearing among women with low education is significantly higher for one or both of the more recent birth cohorts compared to the earliest cohort. However, many countries show no significant change, and in one country (Poland there is modest evidence of a decreasing educational gap. Conclusions: Evidence that educational differences in early childbearing have grown in some countries is generally consistent with the notion of family bifurcation and 'diverging destinies' by socioeconomic status. However, the pattern is not universal and future work should examine the various factors that shape these patterns, including the role of public policies.
Chai, Jun; Friedler, Louis M.; Wolff, Edward F.; Li, Jun; Rhea, Karen
The results from a cross-national study comparing calculus performance of students at East China Normal University (ECNU) in Shanghai and students at the University of Michigan before and after their first university calculus course are presented. Overall, ECNU significantly outperformed Michigan on both the pre- and post-tests, but the Michigan…
Sundling, Vibeke; Sundler, Annelie J; Holmström, Inger K; Kristensen, Dorte Vesterager; Eide, Hilde
The aim of this study was to compare student nurses' communication self-efficacy, empathy, and mindfulness across two countries, and to analyse the relationship between these qualities. The study had a cross-sectional design. Data was collected from final year student nurses in Norway and Sweden. Communication self-efficacy, empathy, and mindfulness were reported by questionnaires; Clear-cut communication with patients, Jefferson Scale of Empathy, and Langer 14 items mindfulness scale. The study included 156 student nurses, 94 (60%) were Swedish. The mean communication self-efficacy score was 119 (95% CI 116-122), empathy score 115 (95% CI 113-117) and mindfulness score 79 (95% CI 78-81). A Mann-Whitney test showed that Swedish students scored significantly higher on communication self-efficacy, empathy, and mindfulness than Norwegian students did. When adjusted for age, gender, and country in a multiple linear regression, mindfulness was the only independent predictor of communication self-efficacy. The Swedish student nurses in this study scored higher on communication self-efficacy, empathy, and mindfulness than Norwegian students did. Student nurses scoring high on mindfulness rated their communication self-efficacy higher. A mindful learning approach may improve communication self-efficacy and possibly the effect of communication skills training. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Simpson, Alan; Hannigan, Ben; Coffey, Michael; Jones, Aled; Barlow, Sally; Cohen, Rachel; Všetečková, Jitka; Faulkner, Alison; Haddad, Mark
The collaborative care planning study (COCAPP) is a cross-national comparative study of care planning and coordination in community mental healthcare settings. The context and delivery of mental health care is diverging between the countries of England and Wales whilst retaining points of common interest, hence providing a rich geographical comparison for research. Across England the key vehicle for the provision of recovery-focused, personalised, collaborative mental health care is the care programme approach (CPA). The CPA is a form of case management introduced in England in 1991, then revised in 2008. In Wales the CPA was introduced in 2003 but has now been superseded by The Mental Health (Care Co-ordination and Care and Treatment Planning) (CTP) Regulations (Mental Health Measure), a new statutory framework. In both countries, the CPA/CTP requires providers to: comprehensively assess health/social care needs and risks; develop a written care plan (which may incorporate risk assessments, crisis and contingency plans, advanced directives, relapse prevention plans, etc.) in collaboration with the service user and carer(s); allocate a care coordinator; and regularly review care. The overarching aim of this study is to identify and describe the factors that ensure CPA/CTP care planning and coordination is personalised, recovery-focused and conducted collaboratively. COCAPP will employ a concurrent transformative mixed methods approach with embedded case studies. Phase 1 (Macro-level) will consider the national context through a meta-narrative mapping (MNM) review of national policies and the relevant research literature. Phase 2 (Meso-level and Micro-level) will include in-depth micro-level case studies of everyday 'frontline' practice and experience with detailed qualitative data from interviews and reviews of individual care plans. This will be nested within larger meso-level survey datasets, senior-level interviews and policy reviews in order to provide
Jørgensen, Clara Rübner
This paper discusses the strengths of using ethnographic research methods in cross-national comparative research. It focuses particularly on the potential of applying such methods to the study of migrants and minority ethnic youth in education, where large-scale quantitative studies or single-sited ethnographies are currently dominant. By linking…
Breuer, C.; Hoekman, R.H.A.; Nagel, S.; Werff, H. van der
This book presents an up-to-date portrait of the characteristics of sport clubs in various European countries and their role in society and the national sport system. Furthermore, it offers a cross-national comparative perspective of sport clubs in twenty European countries. Containing both
Full Text Available Background: Precarious employment is a major social determinant of health and health inequalities with effects beyond the health of workers. Objective: To investigate the association between precarious employment and sickness absence in 4 Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. Methods: Logistic regression analyses were conducted separately for each country on data from 4186 respondents aged 15–65 years in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden derived from the 2010 European Working Conditions Survey. Sickness absence was based on self-reports and defined as absence of seven or more day per year. Precarious employment was operationalized as a multidimensional construct of indicators. Analyses were also conducted separately for men and women. Results: The prevalence of sickness absence was lowest in Sweden (18%, and highest in Finland (28%. 3 precarious employment indicators were positively associated with sickness absence; the pattern being largely similar in the total sample. In the sex-disaggregated sample, 5 precarious employment indicators increased the likelihood of sickness absence; the pattern was heterogeneous, with women generally having significantly higher odds of sickness absence than men. “Low household income” and “sickness presenteeism” were strong predictors of sickness absence among both sexes in most of the 4 studied countries. Sickness absence varied between the Nordic countries in the sex-disaggregated analyses. Conclusion: Precarious employment indicators predicted sickness absence in the Nordic countries. Findings emphasize the need to prioritize informed and monitored collective bargaining for all workers, increase working time flexibility, and improving work conditions.
Oke, A; Braithwaite, P; Antai, D
Precarious employment is a major social determinant of health and health inequalities with effects beyond the health of workers. To investigate the association between precarious employment and sickness absence in 4 Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. Logistic regression analyses were conducted separately for each country on data from 4186 respondents aged 15-65 years in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden derived from the 2010 European Working Conditions Survey. Sickness absence was based on self-reports and defined as absence of seven or more day per year. Precarious employment was operationalized as a multidimensional construct of indicators. Analyses were also conducted separately for men and women. The prevalence of sickness absence was lowest in Sweden (18%), and highest in Finland (28%). 3 precarious employment indicators were positively associated with sickness absence; the pattern being largely similar in the total sample. In the sex-disaggregated sample, 5 precarious employment indicators increased the likelihood of sickness absence; the pattern was heterogeneous, with women generally having significantly higher odds of sickness absence than men. "Low household income" and "sickness presenteeism" were strong predictors of sickness absence among both sexes in most of the 4 studied countries. Sickness absence varied between the Nordic countries in the sex-disaggregated analyses. Precarious employment indicators predicted sickness absence in the Nordic countries. Findings emphasize the need to prioritize informed and monitored collective bargaining for all workers, increase working time flexibility, and improving work conditions.
Torsheim, Torbjørn; Nygren, Jens M; Rasmussen, Mette; Arnarsson, Arsæll M; Bendtsen, Pernille; Schnohr, Christina W; Nielsen, Line; Nyholm, Maria
We aimed to estimate the magnitude of socioeconomic inequality in self-rated health among Nordic adolescents (aged 11, 13 and 15 years) using the Family Affluence Scale (a composite measure of material assets) and perceived family wealth as indicators of socioeconomic status. Data were collected from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey in 2013-2014. A sample of 32,560 adolescents from Denmark, Norway, Finland, Iceland, Greenland and Sweden was included in the study. Age-adjusted regression analyses were used to estimate associations between fair or poor self-rated health and the ridit scores for family affluence and perceived wealth. The pooled relative index of inequality of 2.10 indicates that the risk of fair or poor health was about twice as high for young people with the lowest family affluence relative to those with the highest family affluence. The relative index of inequality for observed family affluence was highest in Denmark and lowest in Norway. For perceived family wealth, the pooled relative index of inequality of 3.99 indicates that the risk of fair or poor health was about four times as high for young people with the lowest perceived family wealth relative to those with the highest perceived family wealth. The relative index of inequality for perceived family wealth was highest in Iceland and lowest in Greenland. Social inequality in self-rated health among adolescents was found to be robust across subjective and objective indicators of family affluence in the Nordic welfare states.
McCall, Patricia L.; Nieuwbeerta, Paul
Most previous empirical comparative studies of homicide examine homicide rates across nations or subnational units within a single country. This study is the first in which a European cross-national city comparison is made. The article aims to provide insight into the extent that the homicide rates
Bochsler, Daniel; Hug, Simon
Referendums are often viewed as a threat to the rights of minorities. Empirical studies, so far, have tried to deal with the impact of referendums on minorities and civil rights at the subnational level by comparing either referendum or policy outcomes across subnational units. These units are......' preferences, either by protecting minority rights or reducing them. We test this proposition with national-level information on preferences and institutions as well as minority policies from countries spanning the whole globe......., however, often constrained by the national level of government. Hence, to understand the full effect of referendums on minority policies, cross-national comparisons are required. Based on existing game-theoretical models, we argue that referendums and initiatives push policies towards the voters...
Schnohr, Christina W.; Gobina, Inese; Santos, Teresa
indicates that there are what may be called semantic issues affecting comparability in international studies, since the same original word (in an English original) is interpreted differently across countries and cultures. The paper test and discuss a few possible explanations to this, however, only leaving...
Wu, Yili; Zhang, Dongfeng; Pang, Zengchang
Aim: Studies carried out in Western populations have shown age-related changes in multiple health domains together with gender-specific patterns. By focusing on five health domains, self-rated health, hand grip strength, sit-to-stand test, cognitive performance and depression, we examined the age....... Conclusion: Our cross population analysis identified significant gender and population differences suggesting endogenous biological, physical and social environmental determinants in age-related decline in general health. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2011; ••: ••-••....... trajectories in general health in a cross-sectional Chinese sample representing the world's largest ethnic population and compare with Danish data that represent Western populations in developed countries. Methods: Multiple regression models were fitted to compare patterns across genders and populations...
Agyemang, Charles; Kunst, Anton; Bhopal, Raj; Zaninotto, Paola; Unwin, Nigel; Nazroo, James; Nicolaou, Mary; Redekop, William Ken; Stronks, Karien
BACKGROUND We compare patterns of blood pressure (BP) and prevalence of hypertension between white-Dutch and their South-Asian and African minority groups with their corresponding white-English and their South-Asian and African ethnic minority groups; and the contribution of physical activity, body
Era, P; Avlund, K; Jokela, J
OBJECTIVE: To study postural balance in relation to self-reported functional ability (mobility and ADL) and general physical activity in elderly men and women living in three different Nordic environments. PARTICIPANTS: A random sample of 448 men and 556 women from among the 75-year-old residents...... of forces than in the mediolateral direction. The performance in the balance tests was also significantly better among the subjects reporting a higher level of general physical activity than in their less active counterparts. Physical activity and than in their less active counterparts. Physical activity...... in Glostrup, Denmark, and Göteborg, Sweden, and all the residents of relevant age (127 men and 261 women) in Jyväskylä, Finland. MEASUREMENTS: Assessment of postural balance with eyes open and closed using a piezoelectric force platform. A structured interview on self-reported functional ability and physical...
Oerlemans, Simone; Smith, Sophia K; Crespi, Catherine M; Zimmerman, Sheryl; van de Poll-Franse, Lonneke V; Ganz, Patricia A
To understand cultural differences in the impact of cancer (IOC) by (i) performing an independent psychometric evaluation of the Dutch version of the Impact of Cancer Scale version 2 (IOCv2) in a non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) sample and (ii) examining differences between Dutch and American NHL survivors in perceived IOC and identifying associations with socio-demographic and clinical characteristics. Data collected from 491 Dutch and 738 American NHL survivors were used in this study. IOCv2 responses were obtained from all survivors; the Dutch survivors also completed the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Core questionnaire, which measures quality of life. Exploratory factor analysis of the Dutch version yielded a factor solution similar to the American structure but with some subscales merging into single factors. Internal consistency was good; Cronbach's alpha was 0.88 for the Positive and 0.94 for the Negative summary scales. Large differences were observed between survivors, whereby Dutch survivors reported fewer Positive (Δ -0.4, p Dutch sample, providing evidence that IOCv2 scales measure common and important survivor concerns across two different Western nations. Higher positive impacts for US survivors might be explained by more personal control and availability of supportive services. Future research should focus on determinants of the IOC in both Dutch and American survivors to gain better understanding of the factors that might improve it and suggest how health care may be modified toward that end. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Węziak-Białowolska, Dorota; Isac, Maria Magdalena
Perception of school autonomy was measured by the International Civic and Citizenship Education Study (ICCS) 2009, allowing potential cross-national comparison. The possibility of a common, general scale for all countries participating in the study was investigated. Using multi-group confirmatory
Peter Saunders; Timothy M. Smeeding
This paper uses microdata from the Luxembourg Income Study How Do the Elderly in Taiwan Fare Cross-Nationally? Evidence from the Luxembourg Income Study Project Peter Saunders and Timothy M. Smeeding Social Policy Research Centre, Discussion Paper, No.81 Abstract This paper uses microdata from the Luxembourg Income Study (LIS) to estimate and compare four dimensions of the well-being of the aged in Taiwan and eight other countries - the United States, Japan, Australia, Poland, Finland, German...
Chin, David Teckleong
The primary purpose of the study is to gain a clearer understanding of the phenomenon of servant leadership through the analysis of historical and contemporary empirical data. The study was prompted by recent reports of leadership practices in progressive organizations from leading economies where the traditional way of leading by command and control i.e. the authoritarian type of leadership, is giving way to a more humane and inclusive form of leadership. "Servant leadership" describes leade...
Wiepking, Pamala; Maas, Ineke
In this paper we describe and explain country differences in the effect of gender on the risk of becoming poor, using data from the Luxembourg Income Study on 22 industrialized countries. Although in most countries women are more likely to become poor than men, this is not the case for all
Wiepking, P.; Maas, W.A.F.
In this paper we describe and explain country differences in the effect of gender on the risk of becoming poor, using data from the Luxembourg Income Study on 22 industrialized countries. Although in most countries women are more likely to become poor than men, this is not the case for all
Campbell, James Reed, Ed.
The eight chapters of this theme issue use quantitative and qualitative methods to explore the nature and nurture of young participants in the mathematics Olympiad from five countries. Parallel studies are presented of winners from China, Taiwan, and the United States, along with descriptions of programs in Japan and Russia. (SLD)
Vecchione, Michele; Schwartz, Shalom H; Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Schoen, Harald; Cieciuch, Jan; Silvester, Jo; Bain, Paul; Bianchi, Gabriel; Kirmanoglu, Hasan; Baslevent, Cem; Mamali, Catalin; Manzi, Jorge; Pavlopoulos, Vassilis; Posnova, Tetyana; Torres, Claudio; Verkasalo, Markku; Lönnqvist, Jan-Erik; Vondráková, Eva; Welzel, Christian; Alessandri, Guido
Using data from 28 countries in four continents, the present research addresses the question of how basic values may account for political activism. Study 1 (N = 35,116) analyses data from representative samples in 20 countries that responded to the 21-item version of the Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ-21) in the European Social Survey. Study 2 (N = 7,773) analyses data from adult samples in six of the same countries (Finland, Germany, Greece, Israel, Poland, and United Kingdom) and eight other countries (Australia, Brazil, Chile, Italy, Slovakia, Turkey, Ukraine, and United States) that completed the full 40-item PVQ. Across both studies, political activism relates positively to self-transcendence and openness to change values, especially to universalism and autonomy of thought, a subtype of self-direction. Political activism relates negatively to conservation values, especially to conformity and personal security. National differences in the strength of the associations between individual values and political activism are linked to level of democratization. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.
Jansen, Ellen P. W. A.; van der Meer, Jacques
Students' preparedness for higher education is seen as one of the main factors affecting first-year attrition or study success. In this paper we report on a cross-national study in which students' preparedness for university was measured "before" students commenced their study at a university in New Zealand or in the Netherlands. This…
Jansen, E.P.W.A.; van der Meer, J.
Students' preparedness for higher education is seen as one of the main factors affecting first-year attrition or study success. In this paper we report on a cross-national study in which students' preparedness for university was measured before students commenced their study at a university in New
Møller Hansen, Kasper; Leth Olsen, Asmus; Bech, Mickael
performance comparisons—even when accounting for classic national sociotropic and egotropic items. Specifically, voters respond strongly to how the prospective wealth of Denmark evolves relative to the neighboring Sweden. Interestingly, voters are more negative in their response to cross-national losses......Comparing performance between countries is both a theoretically and intuitively useful yardstick for voters. Cross-national comparisons provide voters with heuristics that are less cognitively demanding, less ambiguous, and less uncertain than solely national, absolute performance measurements. We...... test this proposition using a unique, choice experiment embedded in the 2011 Danish National Election Study. This design allows to contrast cross-national comparisons with more traditional national sociotropic and egotropic concerns. The findings suggest that voters are strongly influenced by cross-national...
Yanagida, Takuya; Gradinger, Petra; Strohmeier, Dagmar; Solomontos-Kountouri, Olga; Trip, Simona; Bora, Carmen
Many large-scale cross-national studies rely on a single-item measurement when comparing prevalence rates of traditional bullying, traditional victimization, cyberbullying, and cyber-victimization between countries. However, the reliability and validity of single-item measurement approaches are highly problematic and might be biased. Data from…
Jimenez, Juan E.; de la Cadena, Claudia Garcia; Siegel, Linda S.; O'Shanahan, Isabel; Garcia, Eduardo; Rodriguez, Cristina
The purpose of this study was to analyze possible gender-related differences in the prevalence of dyslexia. A cross-national comparison of Spain and Guatemala was conducted. Both countries speak the same language but have a different standard of living and educational level. A second purpose of this study was to analyze the cognitive profile of…
Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; Pereira, Joaquin; Packer, Claire; Schwarzinger, Michael; Burstrom, Kristina
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the sources of cross-national variation in disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) in the European Disability Weights Project. METHODS: Disability weights for 15 disease stages were derived empirically in five countries by means of a standardized procedure and the
Nordhoff, S.; de Winter, J.C.F.; Kyriakidis, M.; van Arem, B.; Happee, R.
Shuttles that operate without an onboard driver are currently being developed and tested in various projects worldwide. However, there is a paucity of knowledge on the determinants of acceptance of driverless shuttles in large cross-national samples. In the present study, we surveyed 10,000
This article provides new cross-national measures of two dimensions of democratic citizenship with great import for the study of democratic quality, expressive participation, and intolerance of diversity. Using data from the 2000-2001 wave of the World Values Survey, the paper present new ways to measure participation and intolerance, as well as a…
Fraser, Barry J.; Aldridge, Jill M.; Adolphe, F. S. Gerard
This article reports a cross-national study of classroom environments in Australia and Indonesia. A modified version of the What Is Happening In this Class? (WIHIC) questionnaire was used simultaneously in these two countries to: 1) cross validate the modified WIHIC; 2) investigate differences between countries and sexes in perceptions of…
Austin, Kelly F
This article draws on world-system theorizing to explore the relationship between deforestation and the vertical flow of soybean exports from less-developed nations to more-developed nations as a specific form of ecologically unequal exchange. Despite overwhelming case-study research exploring soybean-deforestation dynamics in less-developed countries, the current literature lacks any cross-national investigation of this trend. Ordinary least squares regression is used to examine whether soybean exports are associated with deforestation and if the magnitude of this relationship varies by region. Overall, the findings confirm the proposed hypotheses and suggest that having a comparative advantage in soybean production is not a viable development strategy.
Nordhoff, Sina; de Winter, Joost; Kyriakidis, Miltos; van Arem, Bart; Happee, Riender
Shuttles that operate without an onboard driver are currently being developed and tested in various projects worldwide. However, there is a paucity of knowledge on the determinants of acceptance of driverless shuttles in large cross-national samples. In the present study, we surveyed 10,000 respondents on the acceptance of driverless vehicles and sociodemographic characteristics, using a 94-item online questionnaire. After data filtering, data of 7,755 respondents from 116 countries were reta...
Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Wallien, Madeleine; Johnson, Laurel L; Owen-Anderson, Allison F H; Bradley, Susan J; Zucker, Kenneth J
A one-factor, 14-item parent-report Gender Identity Questionnaire for Children (GIQC) was developed in a sample of 325 clinic-referred children with gender identity problems and 504 controls from Toronto, Canada (Johnson et al., 2004). In this study, we report a cross-national, cross-clinic comparative analysis of the GIQC on gender-referred children (N = 338) from Toronto and gender-referred children (N = 175) from Utrecht, The Netherlands. Across clinics, the results showed both similarities and differences. Gender-referred boys from Utrecht had a significantly higher total score (indicating more cross-gender behavior) than did gender-referred boys from Toronto, but there was no significant difference for girls. In the Toronto sample, the gender-referred girls had a significantly higher total score than the gender-referred boys, but there was no significant sex difference in the Utrecht sample. Across both clinics, gender-referred children who met the complete DSM criteria for gender identity disorder (GID) had a significantly higher cross-gender score than the gender-referred children who were subthreshold for GID (Cohen's d = 1.11). The results of this study provide the first empirical evidence of relative similarity in cross-gender behavior in a sample of gender-referred children from western Europe when compared to North American children. The results also provide some support for cross-clinic consistency in clinician-based diagnosis of GID.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An inverse relationship between obesity and suicide has been observed in younger adults, but this has not been examined in the elderly. METHODS: A cross-national ecological study examined the independent relationship between the prevalence of obesity and elderly suicide rates, by controlling for potentially confounding variables, using data from the World Health Organization and the United Nations. RESULTS: Elderly suicide rates in females were independently associated with the prevalence of obesity. CONCLUSIONS: Caution should be exercised in attributing a causal relationship from this cross-sectional ecological study due to ecological fallacy and requires confirmation in individual-level case-control or cohort studies.
Shah, Ajit; Chandia, Mahmood
Traditionally, suicide rates were low in Islamic countries. However, the process of modernization can erode the ties of the individual to society and lead to questioning of religion and weakening of faith. Therefore, a cross-national study with the null hypothesis that there will be no relationship between general population suicide rates and the percentage of adherents of Islam was undertaken. The correlation between general population suicide rates and the percentage of people in the general population adherent to Islam, whilst controlling for socioeconomic status and income inequality, was examined using cross-national data from the World Health Organization and the United Nations. There were significant negative correlations between general population suicide rate and the percentage of people adherent to Islam in males and females whilst controlling for socioeconomic status and income inequality. Caution should be exercised in attributing a causal relationship and the direction of causality from this ecological study due to ecological fallacy. However, there is case to study further the impact of Islam on suicide by in-depth study of adherents Islam with and without suicidal ideation and behaviors.
Faraz Vahid Shahidi
Full Text Available Flexicurity policies comprise a relatively novel approach to the regulation of work and welfare that aims to combine labour market flexibility with social security. Advocates of this approach argue that, by striking the right balance between flexibility and security, flexicurity policies allow firms to take advantage of loose contractual arrangements in an increasingly competitive economic environment while simultaneously protecting workers from the adverse health and social consequences of flexible forms of employment. In this study, we use multilevel Poisson regression models to test the theoretical claim of the flexicurity approach using data for 23 countries across three waves of the European Social Survey. We construct an institutional typology of labour market regulation and social security to evaluate whether inequalities in self-reported health and limiting longstanding illness between temporary workers and their permanent counterparts are smaller in countries that most closely approximate the ideal type described by advocates of the flexicurity approach. Our results indicate that, while the association between temporary employment and health varies across countries, institutional configurations of labour market regulation and social security do not provide a meaningful explanation for this cross-national variation. Contrary to the expectations of the flexicurity hypothesis, our data do not indicate that employment-related inequalities are smaller in countries that approximate the flexicurity approach. We discuss potential explanations for these findings and conclude that there remains a relative lack of evidence in support of the theoretical claims of the flexicurity approach. Keywords: Health inequalities, Cross-national, Temporary, Employment, Flexicurity, Multilevel
da Silva, Wanderson Roberto; Santana, Moema de Souza; Maroco, João; Maloa, Benvindo Felismino Samuel
Background Body weight concerns are common among individuals with eating disorders, and this construct can be assessed using psychometric instruments. The Weight Concerns Scale (WCS) is commonly used to assess body weight concerns. Aims To evaluate the psychometric properties of the WCS with Brazilian, Portuguese, and Mozambican female college students; to estimate body weight concerns; and to identify factors related to eating disorders. Methods Confirmatory factor analysis was performed. Factorial, convergent, concurrent, and divergent validity, as well as reliability, were assessed. Cross-national invariance was tested by means of multigroup analysis. Structural models were tested using the WCS as the dependent variable, while demographic and academic variables and body mass index were used as independent variables. Logistic models were tested to estimate the likelihood of eating disorders being developed in specific groups. Results Participants were 2,068 female students. The psychometric properties of the WCS were adequate for the Portuguese sample; however, for the Brazilian and Mozambican samples, it was necessary to correlate the errors of two items to improve model fit. The WCS did not show cross-national invariance. The variables “thoughts about dropping out of college,” “medication use because of studies,” “medication and supplements use for body change,” “body mass index,” “socioeconomic status,” “age,” and “performance in course” were significant predictors of body weight concerns. Overall, 24.4% (95% confidence interval = 22.9–26.7) of the students were likely to develop eating disorders. Students under 21 years old, who use medication and supplements for body change, and who were classified as overweight/obese have increased likelihood of developing eating disorders. Conclusion The WCS showed good psychometric properties with Brazilian, Portuguese, and Mozambican students; however, it did not show cross-national
Fuse, Kana; Crenshaw, Edward M
Sex differentials in infant mortality vary widely across nations. Because newborn girls are biologically advantaged in surviving to their first birthday, sex differentials in infant mortality typically arise from genetic factors that result in higher male infant mortality rates. Nonetheless, there are cases where mortality differentials arise from social or behavioral factors reflecting deliberate discrimination by adults in favor of boys over girls, resulting in atypical male to female infant mortality ratios. This cross-national study of 93 developed and developing countries uses such macro-social theories as modernization theory, gender perspectives, human ecology, and sociobiology/evolutionary psychology to predict gender differentials in infant mortality. We find strong evidence for modernization theory, human ecology, and the evolutionary psychology of group process, but mixed evidence for gender perspectives.
Mandel, Hadas; Semyonov, Moshe
The present study examines whether and to what extent welfare-family policies are likely to affect earnings inequality between economically active men and women. Using hierarchical linear models, we combine individual-level variables (obtained from the Luxembourg Income Study) with country level data (obtained from secondary sources) to evaluate the net effects of welfare family policies on gender earnings inequality across 20 industrialized countries. The analysis reveals that net of individ...
Vergeer, M.R.M.; Hermans, E.A.H.M.; Cunha, C.
Political communication has transformed drastically since the Internet made its way into the political arena. Political parties seem unable to do without a website or a social networking profile any longer, particularly in election campaigns. One of the many approaches to studying online political
Suicide rates generally increase with age. Internet websites and chat rooms have been reported both to promote suicides and to have a positive beneficial effect on suicidal individuals. The role of the internet in elderly suicides has not been studied. The relationship between elderly suicide rates and the prevalence of internet users was examined in a cross-national study using data from the World Health Organization and the United Nations website. The prevalence of internet users was significantly and positively correlated with suicide rates in both genders in the age bands 65-74 years and 75+ years. On multiple regression analysis the prevalence of internet users was independently associated with suicide rates in both genders in both age bands. Caution should be exercised in the attribution of a causal relationship and the direction of this relationship because of the cross-sectional and ecological study design whereby the findings are subject to ecological fallacy. However, the findings identify and support a need for further research.
Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Owen, Allison; Kaijser, Vanessa G; Bradley, Susan J; Zucker, Kenneth J
This study examined demographic characteristics, social competence, and behavior problems in clinic-referred children with gender identity problems in Toronto, Canada (N = 358), and Utrecht, The Netherlands (N = 130). The Toronto sample was, on average, about a year younger than the Utrecht sample at referral, had a higher percentage of boys, had a higher mean IQ, and was less likely to be living with both parents. On the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), both groups showed, on average, clinical range scores in both social competence and behavior problems. A CBCL-derived measure of poor peer relations showed that boys in both clinics had worse ratings than did the girls. A multiple regression analysis showed that poor peer relations were the strongest predictor of behavior problems in both samples. This study-the first cross-national, cross-clinic comparative analysis of children with gender identity disorder-found far more similarities than differences in both social competence and behavior problems. The most salient demographic difference was age at referral. Cross-national differences in factors that might influence referral patterns are discussed.
Digiuni, Malena; Jones, Fergal W; Camic, Paul M
Given the potential value of undergoing psychological therapy when training as a therapist, it is important to understand what influences students' decisions regarding seeking therapy. The study examined the relationship between clinical psychology students' perception of the social stigma attached to receiving therapy and their attitudes toward seeking therapy. Students from Argentina (n = 121), England (n = 211), and the United States (n = 130) completed measures of demographic characteristics, perceived social stigma, attitudes, and other variables associated with therapy-seeking. The results revealed significant cross-national differences, with Argentinean students showing the lowest levels of perceived social stigma for receiving therapy, followed by English and Americans. English students showed relatively less positive attitudes toward seeking therapy than their Argentinean and American counterparts. Social stigma predicted students' attitudes toward seeking therapy among English and American but not Argentinean students. The relationship between perceived social stigma and attitudes was moderated by nationality. Implications for training are discussed, including English and American clinical psychology courses encouraging their students to reflect on the effect of perceived social stigma on their decision-making.
Full Text Available Cross-border e-commerce has been very successful in the last decade. Merchants and consumers have been encouraged to participate in e-commerce, including B2C or B2B. B2C is not limited to a domestic market anymore. Consumers across countries are interested in overseas direct purchases. They are willing to purchase products from major online shopping sites such as Amazon and eBay. We aim at gaining a better understanding of overseas direct purchases. Determinants of overseas direct purchases based on cross-national data are identified. Accordingly, we investigate logistics and regulatory determinants. Furthermore, external environments such as regulatory institutions and globalization are discussed in terms of overseas direct purchases. This study incorporates theoretical foundations into empirical findings. Specifically, the institutional theory and the resource-based view are applied to explain the internal and external determinants to increase overseas direct purchases. We conduct an empirical test using panel data for each country to identify the various determinants associated with overseas direct purchases.
Model the global distribution of public mass shooters around the world. Negative binomial regression is used to test the effects of homicide rates, suicide rates, firearm ownership rates, and several control variables on public mass shooters per country from 1966 to 2012. The global distribution of public mass shooters appears partially attributable to cross-national differences in firearms availability but not associated with cross-national homicide or suicide rates. The United States and other nations with high firearm ownership rates may be particularly susceptible to future public mass shootings, even if they are relatively peaceful or mentally healthy according to other national indicators.
Ute, S.; Uhlaner, L.M.
This paper is a cross-national study testing a framework relating cultural descriptive norms to entrepreneurship in a sample of 40 nations. Based on data from the Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness project, we identify two higher-order dimensions of culture – socially
Achterberg, W.P.; Gambassi, G.; Finne-Soveri, H.; Liperoti, R.; Noro, A.; Frijters, D.H.M.; Cherubini, A.; Dell'Aquila, G.; Ribbe, M.W.
There have been very few and limited cross-national comparisons concerning pain among residents of long-term care facilities in Europe. The aim of the present cross-sectional study has been to document the prevalence of pain, its frequency and severity as well as its correlates in three European
Cicognani, E.; Klimstra, T.A.; Goossens, L.
The aim of this cross-national study was to assess the relationships among sense of community (SoC) vis-à-vis the residential community (i.e., one's home town), identity formation processes, and feelings of loneliness toward parents and peers. The sample included 431 Italian adolescents (59.4%
Ciairano, Silvia; Molinengo, Giorgia; Bonino, Silvia; Miceli, Renato; van Schuur, Wijbrandt
There is still limited knowledge about the interrelations among the age of initiation of different substances and the diverse aspects of adolescent functioning. The present cross-national study aimed at exploring the presence of a time-order pattern of age of initiation of different substances and
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Two recent studies reported a curvilinear (U-shaped between elderly suicide rates and educational attainment measured by the United Nation’s Education Index. A study examining the curvilinear (U-shaped relationship between elderly suicide rates and the individual components of the Education Index (adult literacy rate, percentage of children of relevant age group enrolled in primary schools and percentage of children of relevant age group enrolled for secondary schools and one other measure of educational attainment (youth literacy rate was undertaken to partial out the effects of the individual components of Education Index on elderly suicides. METHODS: A cross-national study examining the relationship between elderly suicide rates (Y-axis and different measures of educational attainment (X-axis was undertaken using data from the World Health Organization and the United Nations data banks using Curve estimation regression models. RESULTS: The relationship between elderly suicide rates with the adult literacy rate, the percentage of children of relevant age group enrolled for secondary schools and the youth literacy rate was curvilinear (U-shaped curve. This relationship was absent with the percentage of children of relevant age group enrolled in primary schools. CONCLUSIONS: Given the cross-sectional study design, a causal relationship between elderly suicide rates and measures of educational attainment, including the adult literacy rate, the percentage of children of relevant age group enrolled for secondary schools and the youth literacy rate, cannot be assumed. However, the findings suggest that future studies of elderly suicide rates and educational attainment should focus on the adult literacy rate, the percentage of children of relevant age group enrolled for secondary schools and the youth literacy rate as measures of educational attainment.
Shahidi, Faraz Vahid; De Moortel, Deborah; Muntaner, Carles; Davis, Owen; Siddiqi, Arjumand
Flexicurity policies comprise a relatively novel approach to the regulation of work and welfare that aims to combine labour market flexibility with social security. Advocates of this approach argue that, by striking the right balance between flexibility and security, flexicurity policies allow firms to take advantage of loose contractual arrangements in an increasingly competitive economic environment while simultaneously protecting workers from the adverse health and social consequences of flexible forms of employment. In this study, we use multilevel Poisson regression models to test the theoretical claim of the flexicurity approach using data for 23 countries across three waves of the European Social Survey. We construct an institutional typology of labour market regulation and social security to evaluate whether inequalities in self-reported health and limiting longstanding illness between temporary workers and their permanent counterparts are smaller in countries that most closely approximate the ideal type described by advocates of the flexicurity approach. Our results indicate that, while the association between temporary employment and health varies across countries, institutional configurations of labour market regulation and social security do not provide a meaningful explanation for this cross-national variation. Contrary to the expectations of the flexicurity hypothesis, our data do not indicate that employment-related inequalities are smaller in countries that approximate the flexicurity approach. We discuss potential explanations for these findings and conclude that there remains a relative lack of evidence in support of the theoretical claims of the flexicurity approach.
Full Text Available Background: The study aimed to identify the most burdensome functioning domains in depression and their differential impact on the quality of life (QoL of individuals from nine countries in Asia, Africa, Europe, and Latin America. Material and Methods: Data from two multi-country projects—the World Health Organization’s Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE and the Collaborative Research on Ageing in Europe (COURAGE—were analyzed. Eight functioning domains (pain, mobility, self-care, cognition, interpersonal activities, domestic life and work, sleep and energy, and affect and QoL were assessed in 4051 individuals with depression. Results: The analyses of the pooled sample showed that affect (ß=-0.21, p<0.001, domestic life and work (ß=-0.16, p<.001 and interpersonal activities (ß=-0.15, p<.001 were the most affected functioning domains. When the analysis was stratified by gender, women showed similar patterns to the total sample, whereas mobility, self-care, cognition and pain were not significant amongst men. The cross-national analysis revealed that difficulties in affect and interpersonal activities were common across countries, whereas the rest of the domains showed country variability. In addition, being a woman (ß=-0.05, being older (ß=0.07, being married (ß=0.05, not having a comorbid condition (ß=-0.03 and having a higher education (ß=0.04 were all factors associated with higher levels of QoL. Conclusions: There was a variation in the level of decrements in different functioning domains across countries. This is in line with the growing evidence that reporting functioning sum-scores obscures potential differences among people. Functioning tools should capture the distinctiveness among individuals in order to provide tailored responses.
Full Text Available Shuttles that operate without an onboard driver are currently being developed and tested in various projects worldwide. However, there is a paucity of knowledge on the determinants of acceptance of driverless shuttles in large cross-national samples. In the present study, we surveyed 10,000 respondents on the acceptance of driverless vehicles and sociodemographic characteristics, using a 94-item online questionnaire. After data filtering, data of 7,755 respondents from 116 countries were retained. Respondents reported that they would enjoy taking a ride in a driverless vehicle (mean = 4.90 on a scale from 1 = disagree strongly to 6 = agree strongly. We further found that the scores on the questionnaire items were most appropriately explained through a general acceptance component, which had loadings of about 0.7 for items pertaining to the usefulness of driverless vehicles and loadings between 0.5 and 0.6 for items concerning the intention to use, ease of use, pleasure, and trust in driverless vehicles, as well as knowledge of mobility-related developments. Additional components were identified as thrill seeking, wanting to be in control manually, supporting a car-free environment, and being comfortable with technology. Correlations between sociodemographic characteristics and general acceptance scores were small (<0.20, yet interpretable (e.g., people who reported difficulty with finding a parking space were more accepting towards driverless vehicles. Finally, we found that the GDP per capita of the respondents’ country was predictive of countries’ mean general acceptance score (ρ=-0.48 across 43 countries with 25 or more respondents. In conclusion, self-reported acceptance of driverless vehicles is more strongly determined by domain-specific attitudes than by sociodemographic characteristics. We recommend further research, using objective measures, into the hypothesis that national characteristics are a predictor of the acceptance of
Steensma, Thomas D; Zucker, Kenneth J; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Vanderlaan, Doug P; Wood, Hayley; Fuentes, Amanda; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T
For gender dysphoric children and adolescents, the school environment may be challenging due to peer social ostracism and rejection. To date, information on the psychological functioning and the quality of peer relations in gender dysphoric children and adolescents has been studied via parental report, peer sociometric methods, and social interactions in laboratory play groups. The present study was the first cross-national investigation that assessed behavior and emotional problems and the quality of peer relations, both measured by the Teacher's Report Form (TRF), in a sample of 728 gender dysphoric patients (554 children, 174 adolescents), who were referred to specialized gender identity clinics in the Netherlands and Canada. The gender dysphoric adolescents had significantly more teacher-reported emotional and behavioral problems than the gender dysphoric children. In both countries, gender dysphoric natal boys had poorer peer relations and more internalizing than externalizing problems compared to the gender dysphoric natal girls. Furthermore, there were significant between-clinic differences: both the children and the adolescents from Canada had more emotional and behavioral problems and a poorer quality of peer relations than the children and adolescents from the Netherlands. In conclusion, gender dysphoric children and adolescents showed the same pattern of emotional and behavioral problems in both countries. The extent of behavior and emotional problems was, however, higher in Canada than in the Netherlands, which appeared, in part, an effect of a poorer quality of peer relations. Per Bronfenbrenner's (American Psychologist, 32, 513-531, 1977) ecological model of human development and well-being, we consider various interpretations of the cross-national, cross-clinic differences on TRF behavior problems at the level of the family, the peer group, and the culture at large.
Ute Stephan; Lorraine M Uhlaner
This paper is a cross-national study testing a framework relating cultural descriptive norms to entrepreneurship in a sample of 40 nations. Based on data from the Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness project, we identify two higher-order dimensions of culture – socially supportive culture (SSC) and performance-based culture (PBC) – and relate them to entrepreneurship rates and associated supply-side and demand-side variables available from the Global Entrepreneurship Mo...
Haar, Jarrod M.; Suñé Torrents, Albert; Russo, Marcello; Ollier-Malaterre, Ariane
Drawing on the perceived work–family fit and balance perspective, this study investigates demands and resources as antecedents of work–life balance (WLB) across four countries (New Zealand, France, Italy and Spain), so as to provide empirical cross-national evidence. Using structural equation modelling analysis on a sample of 870 full time employees, we found that work demands, hours worked and family demands were negatively related to WLB, while job autonomy and supervisor support were posit...
Jensen, Olaf C
Until recently, maritime health and safety policies and regulations were sparsely based on health and safety research, and only a small number of countries contributed to new research. To strengthen maritime health and safety research activities by presenting a study example and discussing the possibilities and needs for more national and cross-national research. In a cross-national epidemiological study example, the seafarers from eleven countries completed small, anonymous questionnaires concerning the working conditions on their latest tours at sea while waiting for their health examinations. Significant disparities were pointed out among the nationalities, e.g., the length of the tours at sea, the proportional distribution of officers and non-officers, the mean age structure, the injury incidence rates, and the differences of occupational safety standards. The analysis of all data together increased the statistical strength of the multivariate analyses and allowed for valid comparisons among the nationalities. The questionnaire data was used successfully in the collaborative study example, but other data sources and methods are useful for health and safety research in seafaring as well. More national and cross-national research on maritime health and safety is warranted.
Full Text Available Abstract This study uses cross-national evidence to estimate the effect of school peer performance on the size of the gender gap in the formation of STEM career aspirations. We argue that STEM aspirations are influenced not only by gender stereotyping in the national culture but also by the performance of peers in the local school environment. Our analyses are based on the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA. They investigate whether 15-year-old students from 55 different countries expect to have STEM jobs at the age of 30. We find considerable gender differences in the plans to pursue careers in STEM occupations in all countries. Using PISA test scores in math and science aggregated at the school level as a measure of school performance, we find that stronger performance environments have a negative impact on student career aspirations in STEM. Although girls are less likely than boys to aspire to STEM occupations, even when they have comparable abilities, boys respond more than girls to competitive school performance environments. As a consequence, the aspirations gender gap narrows for high-performing students in stronger performance environments. We show that those effects are larger in countries that do not sort students into different educational tracks.
Mann, Allison; Legewie, Joscha; DiPrete, Thomas A
This study uses cross-national evidence to estimate the effect of school peer performance on the size of the gender gap in the formation of STEM career aspirations. We argue that STEM aspirations are influenced not only by gender stereotyping in the national culture but also by the performance of peers in the local school environment. Our analyses are based on the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA). They investigate whether 15-year-old students from 55 different countries expect to have STEM jobs at the age of 30. We find considerable gender differences in the plans to pursue careers in STEM occupations in all countries. Using PISA test scores in math and science aggregated at the school level as a measure of school performance, we find that stronger performance environments have a negative impact on student career aspirations in STEM. Although girls are less likely than boys to aspire to STEM occupations, even when they have comparable abilities, boys respond more than girls to competitive school performance environments. As a consequence, the aspirations gender gap narrows for high-performing students in stronger performance environments. We show that those effects are larger in countries that do not sort students into different educational tracks.
de Munter, Jeroen S L; Agyemang, Charles; van Valkengoed, Irene G M; Bhopal, Raj; Zaninotto, Paola; Nazroo, James; Kunst, Anton E; Stronks, Karien
Variations between countries in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) can be used to test the convergence thesis, which expects that ethnic minority groups change towards the LTPA levels of the native population of host countries. The aim of this study was to test whether similar differences in LTPA between the native populations of England and the Netherlands are also observed among the Indian and African descent groups living in these countries. We used English and Dutch population-based health surveys that included participants aged 35-60 years of European (n(english) = 14,723, n(dutch) = 567), Indian (n(english) = 1264, n(dutch) = 370) and African-Caribbean (n(english) = 1112, n(dutch) = 689) descent. Levels of LTPA (30-minute walking, any reported cycling, gardening, dancing and playing sports) were estimated with age-sex-standardized prevalence rates. Comparisons among groups were made using adjusted Prevalence Ratios (PRs). Within both countries and compared with the European group, Indian and African groups had lower levels of gardening and cycling, whereas the African groups had higher levels of dancing. Between countries, among the European groups, the Netherlands showed higher prevalence of cycling than England, PR = 2.26 (95% CI: 2.06-2.48), and this was 2.85 (1.94-4.19) among Indian descent, and 2.77 (2.05-3.73) among African descent. For playing sports, this was PR = 1.30 (1.23-1.38), 1.43 (1.24-1.66) and 1.22 (1.10-1.34), whereas for gardening this was PR = 0.71 (0.65-0.78), 0.65 (0.52-0.81) and 0.75 (0.62-0.90), respectively. Walking and dancing showed inconsistent differences between the countries and ethnic groups. This cross-national comparison supports the expectation that LTPA of Indian and African descent groups converge towards the national levels of England and the Netherlands respectively.
Feng, Zhanlian; Hirdes, John P; Smith, Trevor F; Finne-Soveri, Harriet; Chi, Iris; Du Pasquier, Jean-Noel; Gilgen, Ruedi; Ikegami, Naoki; Mor, Vincent
This study compares inter- and intra-country differences in the prevalence of physical restraints and antipsychotic medications in nursing homes, and examines aggregated resident conditions and organizational characteristics correlated with these treatments. Population-based, cross-sectional data were collected using a standardized Resident Assessment Instrument (RAI) from 14,504 long-term care facilities providing nursing home level services in five countries participating in the interRAI consortium, including Canada, Finland, Hong Kong (Special Administrative Region, China), Switzerland, and the United States. Facility-level prevalence rates of physical restraints and antipsychotic use were examined both between and within the study countries. The prevalence of physical restraint use varied more than five-fold across the study countries, from an average 6% in Switzerland, 9% in the US, 20% in Hong Kong, 28% in Finland, and over 31% in Canada. The prevalence of antipsychotic use ranged from 11% in Hong Kong, between 26-27% in Canada and the US, 34% in Switzerland, and nearly 38% in Finland. Within each country, substantial variations existed across facilities in both physical restraint and antipsychotic use rates. In all countries, neither facility case mix nor organizational characteristics were particularly predictive of the prevalence of either treatment. There exists large, unexplained variability in the prevalence of physical restraint and antipsychotic use in nursing home facilities both between and within countries. Since restraints and antipsychotics are associated with adverse outcomes, it is important to understand the idiosyncratic factors specific to each country that contribute to variation in use rates. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Breslau, Joshua; Borges, Guilherme; Saito, Naomi; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Benjet, Corina; Hinton, Ladson; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Kravitz, Richard; Vega, William; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena
Context Twin studies suggest that Conduct Disorder (CD) is under substantial genetic influence, which is stronger for aggressive than for non-aggressive symptoms. Studies of migrating populations offer an alternative strategy for separating environmental and genetic influences on psychopathology. Objective To examine variation in the prevalence of CD associated with migration from Mexico to the US and whether this variation is similar for aggressive and non-aggressive CD symptoms and symptom profiles. Design The prevalence of CD, different types of CD symptoms and CD symptom profiles were compared across three generations of people of Mexican origin with increasing levels of exposure to American culture: families of origin of migrants (in Mexico), children of Mexican migrants raised in the US and Mexican-American children of US-born parents. Setting General population surveys conducted in Mexico and the US using the same diagnostic interview. Participants Adults age 18–44 in the household population of Mexico and the household population of people of Mexican descent in the US. Main Outcome Measures CD criteria assessed using the World Mental Health version of the Composite International Diagnostic Instrument (WMH-CIDI). Results Compared with families of origin of migrants, risk of CD is lower in the general population of Mexico (OR=0.54, 95% CI 0.19–1.51), higher in children of Mexican-born immigrants who are raised in the US (OR=4.12, 95% CI 1.47–11.52) and higher still in Mexican-American children of US-born parents (OR=7.64, 95% CI 3.20–18.27). The association with migration is markedly weaker for aggressive than for non-aggressive symptoms. Conclusions The prevalence of CD increases dramatically across generations of the Mexican-origin population following migration to the US. This increase is of larger magnitude for non-aggressive than for aggressive symptoms, consistent with the suggestion that non-aggressive symptoms are more strongly influenced by
Rizzi, Matteo; Strandroth, Johan; Kullgren, Anders; Tingvall, Claes; Fildes, Brian
This study set out to evaluate the effectiveness of motorcycle antilock braking systems (ABS) in reducing real-life crashes. Since the European Parliament has voted on legislation making ABS mandatory on all new motorcycles over 125 cc from 2016, the fitment rate in Europe is likely to increase in the coming years. Though previous research has focused on mostly large displacement motorcycles, this study used police reports from Spain (2006-2009), Italy (2009), and Sweden (2003-2012) in order to analyze a wide range of motorcycles, including scooters, and compare countries with different motorcycling habits. The statistical analysis used odds ratio calculations with an induced exposure approach. Previous research found that head-on crashes were the least ABS-affected crash type and was therefore used as the nonsensitive crash type for ABS in these calculations. The same motorcycle models, with and without ABS, were compared and the calculations were carried out for each country separately. Crashes involving only scooters were further analyzed. The effectiveness of motorcycle ABS in reducing injury crashes ranged from 24% (95% confidence interval [CI], 12-36) in Italy to 29% (95% CI, 20-38) in Spain, and 34% (95% CI, 16-52) in Sweden. The reductions in severe and fatal crashes were even greater, at 34% (95% CI, 24-44) in Spain and 42% (95% CI, 23-61) in Sweden. The overall reductions of crashes involving ABS-equipped scooters (at least 250 cc) were 27% (95% CI, 12-42) in Italy and 22% (95% CI, 2-42) in Spain. ABS on scooters with at least a 250 cc engine reduced severe and fatal crashes by 31% (95% CI, 12-50), based on Spanish data alone. At this stage, there is more than sufficient scientific-based evidence to support the implementation of ABS on all motorcycles, even light ones. Further research should aim at understanding the injury mitigating effects of motorcycle ABS, possibly in combination with combined braking systems.
Arnold, Fred; Fawcett, James T.
The document, one in a series of seven reports from the Value of Children Project, discusses results of the survey in Hawaii. Specifically, the study investigated the social, psychological, and economic costs and benefits associated with having children. The volume is presented in seven chapters. Chapter I describes the background of the study and…
In this paper, we focus on a rare scholarly theme of highly productive academics, statistically confirming their pivotal role in knowledge production across 11 systems studied. The upper 10% of highly productive academics in 11 European countries studied (N = 17,211) provide on average almost half of all academic knowledge production. In contrast…
Tubergen, Frank van
This study examines the role of immigrants' country of origin, country of destination and combinations thereof (settings or communities) in the likelihood of immigrants being self-employed. I pooled census data from three classic immigrant countries (Australia, Canada and the United States) and labor-force surveys from 14 countries in the European…
Tubergen, Frank van
This study examines the role of immigrants’ country of origin, country of destination and combinations thereof (settings or communities) in the likelihood of immigrants being selfemployed. I pooled census data from three classic immigrant countries (Australia, Canada and the United States) and
Notten, N.; Peter, J.; Kraaykamp, G.; Valkenburg, P.M.
In this study, we analyse digital divides in terms of social inequality in digital access and use patterns from a hierarchical perspective. Using data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2003 in 30 nations, we focus on social cleavages in mid-adolescents’ access and use of
Bulatao, Rodolfo A.
This volume, second in a series of seven reports of the Value of Children Project, discusses results of the survey in the Philippines. The study identifies major values and disvalues that Filipino parents attach to children. It also examines characteristics of parents that are related to values and disvalues. The document is presented in seven…
Lund, Thomas; Christensen, Karl Bang; Vaez, Marjan
AIM: To investigate potential differences in sickness absence among public sector employees in Sweden and Denmark, and to what extent a difference was associated with age, gender, physical and psychosocial work environment exposures, lifestyle factors, self-rated health or work ability. METHODS...... of dependent and independent variables in the two sub-cohorts. Stratified logistic regression analysis was performed to identify causes for absence within the two sub-cohorts, and logistic regression analysis was performed to study differences in sickness absence levels between the two sub-cohorts. RESULTS......: More subjects from the Swedish study population reported more than 7 days of sickness absence. Factors associated with sickness absence were largely similar in the two countries. The difference in absence level between Sweden and Denmark was not associated with differences in age, gender, skill level...
Ritesh Bhandarkar; Ajit Shah
Abstract: Background: Adversity early in life has been suggested as a protective factor for elderly suicides. However, studies examining this relationship in general population suicide rates are scarce. Methods: The relationship between general population suicide rates and four proxy measures of adversity earlier in life was examined using data from the World Health Organization and the United Nations data banks. Results: General population suicide rates were negatively correlated with the pe...
Tosun, Sümeyra; Faghihi, Nafiseh; Vaid, Jyotsna
To explore lay conceptions of characteristics of an ideal sense of humor as embodied in a known individual, our study examined elicited written narratives by male and female participants from three different countries of origin: United States, Iran, and Turkey. As reported in an earlier previous study with United States-based participants (Crawford and Gressley, 1991), our study also found that the embodiment of an ideal sense of humor was predominantly a male figure. This effect was more pronounced for male than for female participants but did not differ by country. Relative mention of specific humor characteristics differed by participant gender and by country of origin. Whereas all groups mentioned creativity most often as a component of an ideal sense of humor, this attribute was mentioned significantly more often by Americans than by the other two groups; hostility/sarcasm was also mentioned significantly more often by Americans than Turkish participants who mentioned it more often than Iranian participants. Caring was mentioned significantly more often by Americans and Iranians than by Turkish participants. These findings show a shared pattern of humor characteristics by gender but group differences in the relative prominence given to specific humor characteristics. Further work is needed to corroborate the group differences observed and to pinpoint their source.
Alba Mohedano Roldán
Full Text Available Stakeholder participation in natural resource management has spread widely, even to nondemocracies, driven by expectations of beneficial outcomes such as multidirectional learning. However, can we expect participation to be equally effective in achieving multidirectional learning in democracies and nondemocracies? Unsurprisingly, previous studies indicate the relevance of power distribution for learning. Higher levels of repression and accumulation of political capital in nondemocracies should limit the distribution of power across stakeholders. Yet, the relationship between political regime, participation, and learning has rarely been studied empirically. I address this gap by analysing multidirectional learning in stakeholder participation in 81 Man and the Biosphere reserves across 35 countries using ordinary least squares regression, Firth logistic regression, and heat maps. The results suggest that the amount of stakeholders sharing knowledge and learning is similar in both regimes. However, a closer analysis reveals differences in the impact different stakeholders have on the learning process. More concretely, local actors share knowledge more often and have a greater impact on stakeholders’ learning in democracies, while state actors display similar behavior across regimes in terms of learning and sharing knowledge. Thus, although there are notable similarities across regimes, multidirectional learning through stakeholder participation is influenced by the political context.
Ortega, Rosario; Elipe, Paz; Mora-Merchán, Joaquin A; Genta, M Luisa; Brighi, Antonella; Guarini, Annalisa; Smith, Peter K; Thompson, Fran; Tippett, Neil
Past research has demonstrated the effects of bullying can be severe and long term for the individuals involved. The main aim of this study is to analyze the emotional impact on victims of traditional bullying, both direct and indirect forms, and of cyberbullying through mobile phones and the Internet. A sample of 5,862 adolescents from three different countries, Italy (N = 1,964), Spain (N = 1,671), and England (N = 2,227), responded to a questionnaire that asked if they had experience of various forms of bullying, and the consequent emotional impact. The results show that both traditional bullying and cyberbullying have a significant prevalence in the samples. Emotional responses are linked to types of bullying. Analysis of answers identified specific emotional profiles for the different types of bullying and cyberbullying. Direct bullying and cyberbullying via mobile phone showed similar profiles, and also indirect bullying and cyberbullying using the Internet. Similarities and differences between profiles are discussed and some hypotheses are presented to explain the results. In addition, school grade, gender, country, and severity of bullying episodes were related to the specific emotional profiles of each type of bullying. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Knuth, Daniela; Kehl, Doris; Hulse, Lynn; Schmidt, Silke
Understanding public risk perceptions and their underlying processes is important in order to learn more about the way people interpret and respond to hazardous emergency events. Direct experience with an involuntary hazard has been found to heighten the perceived risk of experiencing the same hazard and its consequences in the future, but it remains unclear if cross-over effects are possible (i.e., experience with one hazard influencing perceived risk for other hazards also). Furthermore, the impact of objective risk and country of residence on perceived risk is not well understood. As part of the BeSeCu (Behavior, Security, and Culture) Project, a sample of 1,045 survivors of emergencies from seven European countries (i.e., Germany, the Czech Republic, Poland, Sweden, Spain, Turkey, and Italy) was drawn. Results revealed heightened perceived risk for emergency events (i.e., domestic and public fires, earthquakes, floods, and terrorist attacks) when the event had been experienced previously plus some evidence of cross-over effects, although these effects were not so strong. The largest country differences in perceived risk were observed for earthquakes, but this effect was significantly reduced by taking into account the objective earthquake risk. For fires, floods, terrorist attacks, and traffic accidents, only small country differences in perceived risk were found. Further studies including a larger number of countries are welcomed. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.
Shah, Ajit; Bhandarkar, Ritesh
Adversity early in life has been suggested as a protective factor for elderly suicides. However, studies examining this relationship in general population suicide rates are scarce. The relationship between general population suicide rates and four proxy measures of adversity earlier in life was examined using data from the World Health Organization and the United Nations data banks. General population suicide rates were negatively correlated with the percentage of children under the age of 5 years who were underweight, the percentage of children under the age of 5 years who were under height, the percentage of infants with low birth weight babies, and the percentage of the general population that was undernourished. The only independent predictor general population suicide rates in both sexes, on multiple regression analysis, was the Gini coefficient (a measure of income inequality). Income inequality may lead to low birth weight, undernourishment, underweight and under height because income inequality results in poor access to healthcare and nutrition. These adversities may increase child mortality rates and reduce life expectancy. Those surviving into adulthood in countries with greater adversity early in life may be at reduced risk of suicide because of selective survival of those at reduced risk of suicide due to constitutional or genetic factors and development of greater tolerance to hardship in adulthood.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adversity early in life has been suggested as a protective factor for elderly suicides. However, studies examining this relationship in general population suicide rates are scarce. METHODS: The relationship between general population suicide rates and four proxy measures of adversity earlier in life was examined using data from the World Health Organization and the United Nations data banks. RESULTS: General population suicide rates were negatively correlated with the percentage of children under the age of 5 years who were underweight, the percentage of children under the age of 5 years who were under height, the percentage of infants with low birth weight babies, and the percentage of the general population that was undernourished. The only independent predictor general population suicide rates in both sexes, on multiple regression analysis, was the Gini coefficient (a measure of income inequality. CONCLUSIONS: Income inequality may lead to low birth weight, undernourishment, underweight and under height because income inequality results in poor access to healthcare and nutrition. These adversities may increase child mortality rates and reduce life expectancy. Those surviving into adulthood in countries with greater adversity early in life may be at reduced risk of suicide because of selective survival of those at reduced risk of suicide due to constitutional or genetic factors and development of greater tolerance to hardship in adulthood.
Full Text Available This study examined the combined influences of national levels of socioeconomic status, social capital, and rights and freedoms on population level physical and mental health outcomes. Indicators of mental health were suicide rates, alcohol consumption and tobacco use. Indicators of physical health included life expectancy, infant mortality rates, and prevalence of HIV. Using pathway analysis on international data from a selected sample of European, North American, South American and South Caucasus countries, similar models for mental health and physical health were developed. In the first model, the positive effects of socioeconomic status and social capital on physical health were completely mediated via rights and freedoms. In the second model, the positive effect of socioeconomic status on mental health was completely mediated, while the impact of social capital was partially mediated through rights and freedoms. We named the models, the rights and freedoms gradient of health in recognition of this latter construct’s crucial role in determining both physical and mental health.
Baker, S R; Foster Page, L; Thomson, W M; Broomhead, T; Bekes, K; Benson, P E; Aguilar-Diaz, F; Do, L; Hirsch, C; Marshman, Z; McGrath, C; Mohamed, A; Robinson, P G; Traebert, J; Turton, B; Gibson, B J
Much research on children's oral health has focused on proximal determinants at the expense of distal (upstream) factors. Yet, such upstream factors-the so-called structural determinants of health-play a crucial role. Children's lives, and in turn their health, are shaped by politics, economic forces, and social and public policies. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between children's clinical (number of decayed, missing, and filled teeth) and self-reported oral health (oral health-related quality of life) and 4 key structural determinants (governance, macroeconomic policy, public policy, and social policy) as outlined in the World Health Organization's Commission for Social Determinants of Health framework. Secondary data analyses were carried out using subnational epidemiological samples of 8- to 15-y-olds in 11 countries ( N = 6,648): Australia (372), New Zealand (three samples; 352, 202, 429), Brunei (423), Cambodia (423), Hong Kong (542), Malaysia (439), Thailand (261, 506), United Kingdom (88, 374), Germany (1498), Mexico (335), and Brazil (404). The results indicated that the type of political regime, amount of governance (e.g., rule of law, accountability), gross domestic product per capita, employment ratio, income inequality, type of welfare regime, human development index, government expenditure on health, and out-of-pocket (private) health expenditure by citizens were all associated with children's oral health. The structural determinants accounted for between 5% and 21% of the variance in children's oral health quality-of-life scores. These findings bring attention to the upstream or structural determinants as an understudied area but one that could reap huge rewards for public health dentistry research and the oral health inequalities policy agenda.
Ryan P Thombs
Full Text Available This cross-national study employs a time-series cross-sectional Prais-Winsten regression model with panel-corrected standard errors to examine the relationship between renewable energy consumption and economic growth, and its impact on total carbon dioxide emissions and carbon dioxide emissions per unit of GDP. Findings indicate that renewable energy consumption has its largest negative effect on total carbon emissions and carbon emissions per unit of GDP in low-income countries. Contrary to conventional wisdom, renewable energy has little influence on total carbon dioxide emissions or carbon dioxide emissions per unit of GDP at high levels of GDP per capita. The findings of this study indicate the presence of a “renewable energy paradox,” where economic growth becomes increasingly coupled with carbon emissions at high levels of renewable energy, and the negative effect of economic growth on carbon emissions per unit of GDP lessens as renewable energy increases. These findings suggest that public policy should be directed at deploying renewable energy in developing countries, while focusing on non-or-de-growth strategies accompanied with renewable energy in developed nations.
A positive correlation between elderly dependency ratios and elderly suicide rates has been observed using one-year cross-sectional data on elderly suicide rates. A cross-national study designed to replicate this positive correlation between elderly dependency ratios and elderly suicide rates was undertaken by: (i) using one-year average of five years data on suicide rates; and (ii) using more recent data on both elderly suicide rates and elderly dependency ratios. Data on elderly suicide rates, and the total number of elderly and young people was ascertained from the World Health Organization website. The main findings were of significant positive correlations between elderly dependency ratios and suicide rates in both sexes in both the elderly age-bands (65-74 years and 75+ years). The replication of the positive correlations between elderly dependency ratios and elderly suicide rates by using one-year average of five years data on suicide rates suggests that this relationship is robust and accurate.
Abstract: Background: A positive correlation between elderly dependency ratios and elderly suicide rates has been observed using one-year cross-sectional data on elderly suicide rates. Methods: A cross-national study designed to replicate this positive correlation between elderly dependency ratios and elderly suicide rates was undertaken by: (i) using one-year average of five years data on suicide rates; and (ii) using more recent data on both elderly suicide rates and elderly dependency ratios. Data on elderly suicide rates, and the total number of elderly and young people was ascertained from the World Health Organization website. Results: The main findings were of significant positive correlations between elderly dependency ratios and suicide rates in both sexes in both the elderly age-bands (65-74 years and 75+ years). Conclusions: The replication of the positive correlations between elderly dependency ratios and elderly suicide rates by using one-year average of five years data on suicide rates suggests that this relationship is robust and accurate. PMID:21483194
Kapoutsis, Ilias; Papalexandris, Alexandros; Nikolopoulos, Andreas; Hochwarter, Wayne A.; Ferris, Gerald R.
We developed a two-study, cross-national, constructive replication to examine the role of organizational politics perceptions as a contextual moderator of the political skill-job performance relationship. Specifically, we hypothesized that high levels of political skill would demonstrate its strongest positive effects on job performance when…
Eisinga, R.; Teelken, Ch.; Doorewaard, H.
This study examined cross-national invariance of Meyer and Allen’s three-component model of organizational commitment using samples of university faculty from six European countries. The analysis revealed strict factorial measurement invariance of affective, continuance, and normative organizational
Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to present partial results of an independent research project. The author´s choice of the position “Brand Manager” was influenced by the fact that branding is a very powerful tool in striving for competitiveness in the 21st century. The paper focuses on a set of requirements in terms of educational level, professional experience, knowledge, technical competence, and business management skills for candidates for the position of “Brand Manager”. Berelson´s content analysis method was used to study recruitment advertisement texts. A cross-national study was conducted to compare requirements in the US and in the Czech Republic. The result of the present research project in the US confirmed a fundamental need for a university education, knowledge of marketing, and experience in the field of the advertising company´s business. An unexpected result was that the groups of technical competences as well as required practices and work experience for brand managers in the US and the Czech Republic had statistically significant differences. The article concludes with a number of recommendations formulated for the implementation of the human resource management practices of recruiting and selection, as their inappropriate strategy and implementation is common and the consequences are costly.
Stefler, Denes; Bobak, Martin
Difference in fruit and vegetable consumption has been suggested as a possible reason for the large gap in cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality rates between Eastern and Western European populations. However, individual-level dietary data which allow direct comparison across the two regions are rare. In this systematic review we aimed to answer the question whether cross-national studies with comparable individual-level dietary data reveal any systematic differences in fruit and vegetable consumption between populations in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and the Former Soviet Union (FSU) compared to Western Europe (WE). Studies were identified by electronic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science databases from inception to September 2014, and hand search. Studies which reported data on fruit, vegetable consumption or carotene and vitamin C intake or tissue concentrations of adult participants from both CEE/FSU and WE countries were considered for inclusion. Quality of the included studies was assessed by a modified STROBE statement. Power calculation was performed to determine the statistical significance of the comparison results. Twenty-two studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Fruit consumption was found to be consistently lower in CEE/FSU participants compared to Western Europeans. Results on vegetable intake were less unambiguous. Antioxidant studies indicated lower concentration of beta-carotene in CEE/FSU subjects, but the results for vitamin C were not consistent. This systematic review suggests that populations in CEE and FSU consume less fruit than Western Europeans. The difference in the consumption of fruit may contribute to the CVD gap between the two regions.
Huerta, Consuelo; Abbing-Karahagopian, Victoria; Requena, Gema; Oliva, Belén; Alvarez, Yolanda; Gardarsdottir, Helga; Miret, Montserrat; Schneider, Cornelia; Gil, Miguel; Souverein, Patrick C; De Bruin, Marie L; Slattery, Jim; De Groot, Mark C H; Hesse, Ulrik; Rottenkolber, Marietta; Schmiedl, Sven; Montero, Dolores; Bate, Andrew; Ruigomez, Ana; García-Rodríguez, Luis Alberto; Johansson, Saga; de Vries, Frank; Schlienger, Raymond G; Reynolds, Robert F; Klungel, Olaf H; de Abajo, Francisco José
Studies on drug utilization usually do not allow direct cross-national comparisons because of differences in the respective applied methods. This study aimed to compare time trends in BZDs prescribing by applying a common protocol and analyses plan in seven European electronic healthcare databases. Crude and standardized prevalence rates of drug prescribing from 2001-2009 were calculated in databases from Spain, United Kingdon (UK), The Netherlands, Germany and Denmark. Prevalence was stratified by age, sex, BZD type [(using ATC codes), i.e. BZD-anxiolytics BZD-hypnotics, BZD-related drugs and clomethiazole], indication and number of prescription. Crude prevalence rates of BZDs prescribing ranged from 570 to 1700 per 10,000 person-years over the study period. Standardization by age and sex did not substantially change the differences. Standardized prevalence rates increased in the Spanish (+13%) and UK databases (+2% and +8%) over the study period, while they decreased in the Dutch databases (-4% and -22%), the German (-12%) and Danish (-26%) database. Prevalence of anxiolytics outweighed that of hypnotics in the Spanish, Dutch and Bavarian databases, but the reverse was shown in the UK and Danish databases. Prevalence rates consistently increased with age and were two-fold higher in women than in men in all databases. A median of 18% of users received 10 or more prescriptions in 2008. Although similar methods were applied, the prevalence of BZD prescribing varied considerably across different populations. Clinical factors related to BZDs and characteristics of the databases may explain these differences. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Payne, Collin F; Gómez-Olivé, Francesc Xavier; Kahn, Kathleen; Berkman, Lisa
We use recently-collected data from the Health and Aging in Africa: a Longitudinal Study of an INDEPTH Community in South Africa (HAALSI) cohort from Agincourt, South Africa, to describe physical functioning in this aging population, and place the overall level and age-trajectories of physical health in the context of other Health and Retirement Study (HRS) sister studies in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We conduct multiple regression to estimate associations of physical functioning assessed from both self-report (activities of daily living [ADL] limitation, self-reported health) and performance (grip strength, gait speed) with socio-demographic and health characteristics in HAALSI, and use fully-interacted regression models to compare age-patterns of physical functioning outcomes cross-nationally. Gender differences in self-reported health are minimal, and men had 30% higher odds of being ADL limited controlling for socio-demographic and health characteristics. Measured physical performance is closely tied with socioeconomic conditions, but self-reported measures have a much smaller or weaker socioeconomic gradient. In international age-adjusted comparisons, the HAALSI sample had lower physical performance outcomes than most comparison populations. As the first HRS sister study undertaken in Africa, HAALSI adds vital information on population aging and health in the region. Continuing waves of HAALSI data will be a key resource for understanding differences in the complex processes of disability across LMIC contexts. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Smeeding, Timothy Michael; Saunders, Peter
This paper uses microdata from the Luxembourg Income Study (LIS) to estimate and compare four dimensions of the well-being of the aged in Taiwan and eight other countries - the United States, Japan, Australia, Poland, Finland, Germany, Hungary and Canada. Together, these nine countries cover a broad variety of economic experience, institutional development and cultural tradition which complicate the task of comparing them. The four dimensions studies are (relative) poverty, income distributio...
Higgerson, James; Birt, Christopher A; van Ameijden, Erik; Verma, Arpana
Despite much research focusing on the impact of the city condition upon health, there still remains a lack of consensus over what constitutes an urban area (UA). This study was conducted to establish comparable boundaries for the UAs participating in EURO-URHIS 2, and to test whether the sample reflected the heterogeneity of urban living. Key UA contacts ( n = 28) completed a cross-sectional questionnaire, which included where available comparison between Urban Audit city and larger urban zone (LUZ) boundaries and public health administration areas (PHAAs). Additionally, broad health and demographic indicators were sought to test for heterogeneity of the EURO-URHIS 2 sample. Urban Audit city boundaries were found to be suitable for data collection in 100% ( n = 21) of UAs where Urban Audit data were available. The remainder ( n = 7) identified PHAA boundaries akin to the 'city' level. Heterogeneity was observed in the sample for population size and infant mortality rate. Heterogeneity could not be established for male and female life expectancy. This study was able to establish comparable boundaries for EURO-URHIS 2 data collection, with the 'city' area being selected for data collection. The homogeneity of life expectancy indicators was reflective of sub-regional similarities in life expectancy, whilst population estimates and rates of infant mortality indicated the presence of heterogeneity within the sample. Future work would trial these methods with a larger number of indicators and for a larger number of UAs. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
Espelt, Albert; Marí-Dell'Olmo, Marc; Penelo, Eva; Bosque-Prous, Marina
To examine the differences between Prevalence Ratio (PR) and Odds Ratio (OR) in a cross-sectional study and to provide tools to calculate PR using two statistical packages widely used in substance use research (STATA and R). We used cross-sectional data from 41,263 participants of 16 European countries participating in the Survey on Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). The dependent variable, hazardous drinking, was calculated using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test - Consumption (AUDIT-C). The main independent variable was gender. Other variables used were: age, educational level and country of residence. PR of hazardous drinking in men with relation to women was estimated using Mantel-Haenszel method, log-binomial regression models and poisson regression models with robust variance. These estimations were compared to the OR calculated using logistic regression models. Prevalence of hazardous drinkers varied among countries. Generally, men have higher prevalence of hazardous drinking than women [PR=1.43 (1.38-1.47)]. Estimated PR was identical independently of the method and the statistical package used. However, OR overestimated PR, depending on the prevalence of hazardous drinking in the country. In cross-sectional studies, where comparisons between countries with differences in the prevalence of the disease or condition are made, it is advisable to use PR instead of OR.
Breslau, Joshua; Borges, Guilherme; Tancredi, Daniel; Saito, Naomi; Kravitz, Richard; Hinton, Ladson; Vega, William; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio
Objective To test the hypothesized increase in risk for depressive and anxiety disorders following arrival in the US among Mexican-origin migrants. Method Data from surveys conducted in Mexico and the US were combined. The surveys were conducted separately, but used the same structured diagnostic interview. Discrete time survival models were specified to estimate the relative odds of first onset of depressive (major depressive episode, dysthymia) and anxiety (generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder) disorders among migrants after their arrival in the US compared with non-migrant Mexicans who have a migrant in their immediate family. Results After arrival in the US, migrants had signficantly higher risk for first onset of any depressive or anxiety disorder than non-migrant family members of migrants in Mexico (OR=1.4, 95% CI =1.04–1.94). Associations between migration and disorder varied across birth cohorts. Elevated risk among migrants relative to non-migrants was restricted to the two younger cohorts, those 18–25 or 26–35 years old at interview. In the most recent cohort, the association between migration and first onset of any depressive or anxiety disorder was particularly strong (OR=3.89, 95% CI=2.74–5.53). Conclusions This is the first study to compare risk for first onset of psychaitric disorder between representative samples of migrants in the US and non-migrants in Mexico. The findings are consistent with the hypothesized adverse effect of migration from Mexico to the US on the mental health of migrants, but only among migrants in recent birth cohorts. PMID:21464367
Breslau, Joshua; Borges, Guilherme; Tancredi, Daniel; Saito, Naomi; Kravitz, Richard; Hinton, Ladson; Vega, William; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio
Migration is suspected to increase risk for depressive and anxiety disorders. To test the hypothesized increase in risk for depressive and anxiety disorders after arrival in the United States among Mexican migrants. We combined data from surveys conducted separately in Mexico and the United States that used the same diagnostic interview. Discrete time survival models were specified to estimate the relative odds of first onset of depressive disorders (major depressive episode and dysthymia) and anxiety disorders (generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, panic disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder) among migrants after their arrival in the United States compared with nonmigrant Mexicans who have a migrant in their immediate family. Population surveys in the United States and Mexico. Two thousand five hundred nineteen nonmigrant family members of migrants in Mexico and 554 Mexican migrants in the United States. First onset of any depressive or anxiety disorder. After arrival in the United States, migrants had a significantly higher risk for first onset of any depressive or anxiety disorder than did nonmigrant family members of migrants in Mexico (odds ratio, 1.42; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.94). Associations between migration and disorder varied across birth cohorts. Elevated risk among migrants relative to nonmigrants was restricted to the 2 younger cohorts (those aged 18-25 or 26-35 years at interview). In the most recent birth cohort, the association between migration and first onset of any depressive or anxiety disorder was particularly strong (odds ratio, 3.89; 95% confidence interval, 2.74-5.53). This is, to our knowledge, the first study to compare risk for first onset of psychiatric disorder between representative samples of migrants in the United States and nonmigrants in Mexico. The findings are consistent with the hypothesized adverse effect of migration from Mexico to the United States on the mental health of migrants, but only among
Oksuzyan, Anna; Singh, Prashant Kumar; Christensen, Kaare
and cognitive function were used to investigate gender differences in health. Results: A consistent female disadvantage was found in India and in China for all three health measures. Compared to their male counterparts, women in the Indian and the Chinese samples had, respectively, 38% (95% confidence interval...
Wachs, Sebastian; Jiskrova, Gabriela Ksinan; Vazsonyi, Alexander T.; Wolf, Karsten D.; Junger, Marianne
The present study reports frequency rates of cybergrooming, profiled characteristics of cybergrooming perpetrators, and examine direct and indirect associations between cyberbullying victimization, self-esteem, and cybergrooming victimization. The study sample included 2,162 adolescents between 11
Van Tuyckom, Charlotte; Scheerder, Jeroen; Bracke, Piet
This article provides a unique opportunity to compare gender inequalities in sports participation across Europe, and the extent to which this varies by age using large, cross-sections of the population. The Eurobarometer Survey 62.0 (carried out in 2004 at the request of the European Commission and covering the adult population of 25 European member states, N = 23,909) was used to analyse differences in regular sports participation by gender and by age in the different countries. For the majority of countries, the occurrence of regular sporting activity was less than 40%. Additionally, binary logistic regression analyses identified significant gender differences in sports participation in 12 countries. In Belgium, France, Greece, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovakia, Spain, and the UK, men were more likely to report being regularly active in sports than women, whereas in Denmark, Finland, Sweden, and the Netherlands the opposite was true. Moreover, the extent to which these gender inequalities differ by age varies considerably across countries. The results imply that: (i) in some European countries more efforts must be undertaken to promote the original goals of the Sport for All Charter, and (ii) to achieve more female participation in sports will require different policy responses in the diverse European member states.
de Munter, Jeroen S. L.; Agyemang, Charles; van Valkengoed, Irene G. M.; Bhopal, Raj; Zaninotto, Paola; Nazroo, James; Kunst, Anton E.; Stronks, Karien
Variations between countries in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) can be used to test the convergence thesis, which expects that ethnic minority groups change towards the LTPA levels of the native population of host countries. The aim of this study was to test whether similar differences in LTPA
van Hemert, D.A.; van de Vijver, F.J.R.; Poortinga, Y.H.
The present study examined the question whether the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), which is one of the most widely used instruments to assess depression, can be used to measure differences in subjective well-being at national level. In order to establish the meaning of depression scores at country
Notten, N.J.W.R.; Peter, J.; Kraaykamp, G.L.M.; Valkenburg, P.M.
In this study, we analyse digital divides in terms of social inequality in digital access and use patterns from a hierarchical perspective. Using data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2003 in 30 nations, we focus on social cleavages in mid-adolescents access and use of
Notten, N.; Peter, J.; Kraaykamp, G.; Valkenburg, P.M.
In this study, we analyse digital divides in terms of social inequality in digital access and use patterns from a hierarchical perspective. Using data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2003 in 30 nations, we focus on social cleavages in mid-adolescents’ access and use of
McRoy, James J.
The content of essays written by randomly selected samples of 1500 U.S. and 500 British secondary students on the topic "What have I learned about Adolf Hitler?" were partitioned into theme-related assertions and analyzed. An experimental group of 150 9th- and 11th-grade male students who had studied the Holocaust also contributed papers…
Knibbe, Ronald Arnold; Joosten, Jan; Choquet, Marie; Derickx, Mieke; Morin, Delphine; Monshouwer, Karin
Our main goal was to establish whether French and Dutch adolescents differ in rates of substance-related adverse events (e.g. fights, robbery), problems with peers or socializing agents even when controlling for pattern of substance use. For problems with peers and socializing agents due to alcohol we hypothesized that, because of stronger informal control of drinking in France, French adolescents are more likely to report problems with peers and socializing agents. For adverse events due to alcohol no difference was expected after controlling for consumption patterns. For drug-related problems, the hypothesis was that, due to the more restrictive drug policy in France, French adolescents are more likely to report problems with peers, socializing agents and adverse events. Comparable surveys based on samples of adolescent schoolchildren in France (n=9646) and the Netherlands (n=4291) were used. Data were analysed using multilevel logistic regression in which school, age and gender, indicators of substance use and country were used as predictors of substance-related problems. The outcomes show that French adolescents are more likely to report problems with peers and socializing agents due to alcohol even when consumption pattern is controlled for. For adverse events due to alcohol no difference was found between French and Dutch adolescents. For drug-related problems the expected differences were found; i.e. French adolescents are more likely to report problems with peers, socializing agents and adverse events even when controlling for pattern of drug use. It is concluded that there are culturally embedded differences in the rates of some types of problems due to alcohol or drug use. With respect to alcohol use, these differences are most likely due to culturally embedded differences in the informal social control of alcohol use. The differences in rates of drug-related problems are interpreted in the context of national differences in drug policy.
As a result of globalization, the number of multinational mergers and acquisitions across the globe has grown steadily over the years. In this article I have conducted research based on two key studies: the failure and success of two companies, BenQ and Foxconn, through the mergers and acquisitions. I gain the conclusion that effective cross-border culture communication is an absolute, decisive factor in building successful relationships among companies; enterprises must develop a "cross-border culture communication motivation function" from both the acquiring and the acquired parts of the partnership. It is only then, that enterprises can exert their market and financial synergy influence to the fullest extents.
Full Text Available Background: Literature underline that attachment styles can be considered as an important factor that facilitates exploration of the self and environment, and influences individual’s thoughts, feelings and behavior, above all during adolescence. The purposes of the present study were the following: to investigate the relation between parenting, alexithymia and adult attachment styles; to measure the predictive variables of the adult attachment-related anxiety and avoidance, and the predictors of the level of alexithymia. Method: The participants were 217 students, of which: a group of 97 Andalusian academic students (44.7%, aged between 18 and 29 (M = 19.47; SD = 2.23; a group of 120 students from Sicilian academic students (55.3%, aged between 18 and 23 (M = 18.85; SD = 1.11. The participants were assigned to complete the following questionnaires: the Parental Bonding Instrument, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, and the Experience in Close Relationships. Results: Findings suggest that there are differences between Italy and Spain in adult attachment styles: in particular, Italian students appeared to manifest a higher tendency to use the avoidance style than Spanish ones, which manifested a higher level of anxiety. Furthermore, belonging to the Andalusian culture, and above all, having an elevated perception of the paternal and maternal overprotection could represent possible predictive variables to the general level of alexithymia. Conclusions: The results of this study support the research hypothesis that alexithymia is associated with the perceived parental bonding and attachment style.
Brinda, Ethel Mary; Rajkumar, Anto P; Enemark, Ulrika
Gender inequality weakens maternal health and harms children through many direct and indirect pathways. Allied biological disadvantage and psychosocial adversities challenge the survival of children of both genders. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) has recently developed a Gender Inequality Index to measure the multidimensional nature of gender inequality. The global impact of Gender Inequality Index on the child mortality rates remains uncertain. We employed an ecological study to investigate the association between child mortality rates and Gender Inequality Indices of 138 countries for which UNDP has published the Gender Inequality Index. Data on child mortality rates and on potential confounders, such as, per capita gross domestic product and immunization coverage, were obtained from the official World Health Organization and World Bank sources. We employed multivariate non-parametric robust regression models to study the relationship between these variables. Women in low and middle income countries (LMICs) suffer significantly more gender inequality (p Gender Inequality Index (GII) was positively associated with neonatal (β = 53.85; 95% CI 41.61-64.09), infant (β = 70.28; 95% CI 51.93-88.64) and under five mortality rates (β = 68.14; 95% CI 49.71-86.58), after adjusting for the effects of potential confounders (p gender inequality and child mortality. We present the socio-economic problems, which sustain higher gender inequality and child mortality in LMICs. We further discuss the potential solutions pertinent to LMICs. Dissipating gender barriers and focusing on social well-being of women may augment the survival of children of both genders.
Currie, Candace; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Godeau, Emmanuelle
This paper traces the history of the HBSC study from its origins in the early 1980's to the present day describing how it was first conceptualised scientifically and how this influenced issues of study design. The challenges of managing a cross-national study are explained as are changes and adaptations over time with growth of the study from 3 to over forty country members. The key partnership with the World Health Organisation and its benefits are presented. With developments in scientific management and theoretical perspectives, HBSC has made a substantial contribution to the area of youth health. The last decade has seen increased dissemination to policy makers and evidence that scientific information arising from the study has influenced strategic policy development and practical health improvement programmes. This paper considers some of the key success factors and challenges for the study as it attempts to maximise its scientific output and channels the research findings into health improvement for young people. Future challenges for the study are also considered.
de Vries, Annelou L C; Steensma, Thomas D; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; VanderLaan, Doug P; Zucker, Kenneth J
This study is the third in a series to examine behavioral and emotional problems in children and adolescents with gender dysphoria in a comparative analysis between two clinics in Toronto, Ontario, Canada and Amsterdam, the Netherlands. In the present study, we report Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Youth Self-Report (YSR) data on adolescents assessed in the Toronto clinic (n = 177) and the Amsterdam clinic (n = 139). On the CBCL and the YSR, we found that the percentage of adolescents with clinical range behavioral and emotional problems was higher when compared to the non-referred standardization samples but similar to the referred adolescents. On both the CBCL and the YSR, the Toronto adolescents had a significantly higher Total Problem score than the Amsterdam adolescents. Like our earlier studies of CBCL data of children and Teacher's Report Form data of children and adolescents, a measure of poor peer relations was the strongest predictor of CBCL and YSR behavioral and emotional problems in gender dysphoric adolescents.
Gardner, Grant E.; Jones, M. Gail; Albe, Virginie; Blonder, Ron; Laherto, Antti; Macher, Daniel; Paechter, Manuela
Recent efforts in the science education community have highlighted the need to integrate research and theory from science communication research into more general science education scholarship. These synthesized research perspectives are relatively novel but serve an important need to better understand the impacts that the advent of rapidly emerging technologies will have on a new generation of scientists and engineers including their formal communication with engaged citizenry. This cross-national study examined postsecondary science and engineering students' ( n = 254 from five countries: Austria, Finland, France, Israel, and USA) perspectives on the role of science communication in their own formal science and engineering education. More broadly, we examined participants' understanding of their perceived responsibilities of communicating science and engineering to the general public when an issue contains complex social and ethical implications (SEI). The study is contextualized in the emergent technology of nanotechnology for which SEI are of particular concern and for which the general public often perceives conflicting risks and benefits. Findings indicate that student participants' hold similar views on the need for their own training in communication as future scientists and engineers. When asked about the role that ethics and risk perception plays in research, development, and public communication of nanotechnology, participants demonstrate similar trajectories of perspectives that are, however, often anchored in very different levels of beginning concern. Results are discussed in the context of considerations for science communication training within formal science education curricula globally.
Smith, Peter K.; Lopez-Castro, Leticia
Until recently, there were four sources of large-scale self-report survey data on victim rates, cross-nationally: EU Kids Online, Global School Health Survey, Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study, and Health Behaviour of School-aged Children. Smith, Robinson, and Marchi (2016) examined the internal validity and external validity…
Agnich, Laura E.; Miyazaki, Yasuo
The detrimental effects of school violence on students' physical and emotional health are well studied, and research has shown that school violence affects students in every nation across the globe. However, few cross-national studies have compared direct, physical forms of school violence to indirect, emotional forms such as teasing. Using…
Steensma, T.D.; Zucker, K.J.; Kreukels, B.P.C.; VanderLaan, D.P.; Wood, H.; Fuentes, A.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.
For gender dysphoric children and adolescents, the school environment may be challenging due to peer social ostracism and rejection. To date, information on the psychological functioning and the quality of peer relations in gender dysphoric children and adolescents has been studied via parental
Cohen-Kettenis, PT; Owen, A; Kaijser, VG; Bradley, SJ; Zucker, KJ
This study examined demographic characteristics, social competence, and behavior problems in clinic-referred children with gender identity problems in Toronto, Canada (N = 358), and Utrecht, The Netherlands (N = 130). The Toronto sample was, on average, about a year younger than the Utrecht sample
Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Larsen, Helmer Bøving
Cross National Comparisons: Youth Population Surveys About Child Maltreatment In this multi-session track, researchers will present the results concerning the epidemiology of child maltreatment from over one dozen general population surveys of youth, covering four continents and portions...... of the world where epidemiologic data has not been previously available. Organizers will request in advance that the presenters include some data in formats that can be compared across studies. In a final session, the organizers will lead a discussion about the challenges of national surveys and cross national...
Oostindjer, Marije; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Wang, Qing; Skuland, Silje Elisabeth; Egelandsdal, Bjørg; Amdam, Gro V; Schjøll, Alexander; Pachucki, Mark C; Rozin, Paul; Stein, Jarrett; Lengard Almli, Valerie; Van Kleef, Ellen
There is little agreement among governments, institutions, scientists and food activists as to how to best tackle the challenging issues of health and sustainability in the food sector. This essay discusses the potential of school meals as a platform to promote healthy and sustainable food behavior. School meal programs are of particular interest for improving public diet because they reach children at a population scale across socio-economic classes and for over a decade of their lives, and because food habits of children are more malleable than those of adults. Current research on the history and health implications of school meal programs is reviewed in a cross-national comparative framework, and arguments explored that speak for the need of a new developmental phase of school meals as an integrative learning platform for healthy and sustainable food behavior. Nutritional, social, practical, educational, economical, political, and cultural perspectives and challenges linked to the implementation of healthy and sustainable school meals are discussed. Finally, the need for long-term interventions and evaluations is highlighted and new research directions are proposed.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents and children joint activities are considered to be an important factor on healthy lifestyle development throughout adolescence. This study is a part of the Cross-National Survey on Health Behaviour in School-aged Children – World Health Organization Collaborative Study (HBSC. It aims to describe family time in joint activities and to clarify the role of social and structural family profile in a cross-national perspective. Methods The research was carried out according to the methodology of the HBSC study using the anonymous standardized questionnaire. In total, 17,761 students (8,649 boys and 9,112 girls aged 13 and 15 years from 6 European countries (Czech Republic, Finland, Greenland, Lithuania, Spain, and Ukraine were surveyed in the 2001–2002 school-year. The evaluation of joint family activity is based on 8 items: (1 watching TV or a video, (2 playing indoor games, (3 eating meals, (4 going for a walk, (5 going places, (6 visiting friends or relatives, (7 playing sports, (8 sitting and talking about things (chatting. Results Students from Spain and Ukraine reported spending the most time together with their families in almost all kinds of joint activities, whereas students from Greenland and Finland reported spending the least of this time. Boys were more likely than girls to be spending time together with family. Joint family activity goes into decline in age from 13 to 15 years. Variability of family time in a cross-national perspective was relatively small and related to children age category. Considering national, gender and age differences of studied population groups, we found that the distribution of joint family activities tends to be dispersed significantly by family structure (intact/restructured family and family wealth. Conclusion Our study compares children and parent joint activities in European countries and reveals differences and similarities in these patterns between countries. The findings
Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Zemaitiene, Nida; Borup, Ina; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Moreno, Carmen
Parents and children joint activities are considered to be an important factor on healthy lifestyle development throughout adolescence. This study is a part of the Cross-National Survey on Health Behaviour in School-aged Children--World Health Organization Collaborative Study (HBSC). It aims to describe family time in joint activities and to clarify the role of social and structural family profile in a cross-national perspective. The research was carried out according to the methodology of the HBSC study using the anonymous standardized questionnaire. In total, 17,761 students (8,649 boys and 9,112 girls) aged 13 and 15 years from 6 European countries (Czech Republic, Finland, Greenland, Lithuania, Spain, and Ukraine) were surveyed in the 2001-2002 school-year. The evaluation of joint family activity is based on 8 items: (1) watching TV or a video, (2) playing indoor games, (3) eating meals, (4) going for a walk, (5) going places, (6) visiting friends or relatives, (7) playing sports, (8) sitting and talking about things (chatting). Students from Spain and Ukraine reported spending the most time together with their families in almost all kinds of joint activities, whereas students from Greenland and Finland reported spending the least of this time. Boys were more likely than girls to be spending time together with family. Joint family activity goes into decline in age from 13 to 15 years. Variability of family time in a cross-national perspective was relatively small and related to children age category. Considering national, gender and age differences of studied population groups, we found that the distribution of joint family activities tends to be dispersed significantly by family structure (intact/restructured family) and family wealth. Our study compares children and parent joint activities in European countries and reveals differences and similarities in these patterns between countries. The findings underline the role of family structure (intact
Townsley, M.; Birks, D.; Bernasco, W.; Johnson, S.D.; Ruiter, S.; White, G.
Objectives: This study builds on research undertaken by Bernasco and Nieuwbeerta and explores the generalizability of a theoretically derived offender target selection model in three cross-national study regions. Methods: Taking a discrete spatial choice approach, we estimate the impact of both
Townsley, Michael; Birks, Daniel; Bernasco, Wim; Ruiter, Stijn; Johnson, Shane D.; White, Gentry; Baum, Scott
Objectives: This study builds on research undertaken by Bernasco and Nieuwbeerta and explores the generalizability of a theoretically derived offender target selection model in three cross-national study regions. Methods: Taking a discrete spatial choice approach, we estimate the impact of both
This thesis presents a comparative study of workplace bullying in Australia and Pakistan to advance knowledge on sources of cross-cultural convergence and divergence for managing this issue in international contexts. To achieve this goal, views of 636 cross-national participants from equivalent work settings were analysed, and a culturally nuanced account of workplace bullying extracted. This thesis shows that, despite workplace bullying’s constant meaning across cultures, there are stark dif...
Brons, M.D.; Härkönen, Juho
This is the first study to systematically analyze whether the association between parental education and family dissolution varies cross-nationally and over time. The authors use meta-analytic tools to study cross-national variation between 17 countries with data from the Generations and Gender
Robbins, Blaine; Pettinicchio, David
This article draws from an ongoing debate over explanations of homicide. Within this debate, we investigate the pro-social effects of civil society and social capital. Few cross-national studies explore whether elements of social capital either increase or decrease homicide. The cross-national work that does is often characterized by small,…
Mesman, Esther; Birmaher, Boris B; Goldstein, Benjamin I; Goldstein, Tina; Derks, Eske M; Vleeschouwer, Marloes; Hickey, Mary Beth; Axelson, David; Monk, Kelly; Diler, Rasim; Hafeman, Danella; Sakolsky, Dara J; Reichart, Catrien G; Wals, Marjolein; Verhulst, Frank C; Nolen, Willem A; Hillegers, Manon H J
Accumulating evidence suggests cross-national differences in adults with bipolar disorder (BD), but also in the susceptibility of their offspring (bipolar offspring). This study aims to explore and clarify cross-national variation in the prevalence of categorical and dimensional psychopathology between bipolar offspring in the US and The Netherlands. We compared levels of psychopathology in offspring of the Pittsburgh Bipolar Offspring Study (n=224) and the Dutch Bipolar Offspring Study (n=136) (age 10-18). Categorical psychopathology was ascertained through interviews using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children (K-SADS-PL), dimensional psychopathology by parental reports using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Higher rates of categorical psychopathology were observed in the US versus the Dutch samples (66% versus 44%). We found no differences in the overall prevalence of mood disorders, including BD-I or -II, but more comorbidity in mood disorders in US versus Dutch offspring (80% versus 34%). The strongest predictors of categorical psychopathology were maternal BD (OR: 1.72, ppsychopathology based on CBCL reports. Preliminary measure of inter-site reliability. We found cross-national differences in prevalence of categorical diagnoses of non-mood disorders in bipolar offspring, but not in mood disorder diagnoses nor in parent-reported dimensional psychopathology. Cross-national variation was only partially explained by between-sample differences. Cultural and methodological explanations for these findings warrant further study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mesman, Esther; Birmaher, Boris B.; Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Goldstein, Tina; Derks, Eske M.; Vleeschouwer, Marloes; Hickey, Mary Beth; Axelson, David; Monk, Kelly; Diler, Rasim; Hafeman, Danella; Sakolsky, Dara J.; Reichart, Catrien G.; Wals, Marjolein; Verhulst, Frank C.; Nolen, Willem A.; Hillegers, Manon H.J.
Objective Accumulating evidence suggests cross-national differences in adults with bipolar disorder (BD), but also in the susceptibility of their offspring (bipolar offspring). This study aims to explore and clarify cross-national variation in the prevalence of categorical and dimensional psychopathology between bipolar offspring in the US and The Netherlands. Methods We compared levels of psychopathology in offspring of the Pittsburgh Bipolar Offspring Study (n=224) and the Dutch Bipolar Offspring Study (n=136) (age 10–18). Categorical psychopathology was ascertained through interviews using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children (K-SADS-PL), dimensional psychopathology by parental reports using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Results Higher rates of categorical psychopathology were observed in the US versus the Dutch samples (66% versus 44%). We found no differences in the overall prevalence of mood disorders, including BD-I or -II, but more comorbidity in mood disorders in US versus Dutch offspring (80% versus 34%). The strongest predictors of categorical psychopathology were maternal BD (OR: 1.72, ppsychopathology based on CBCL reports. Limitations Preliminary measure of inter-site reliability. Conclusions We found cross-national differences in prevalence of categorical diagnoses of non-mood disorders in bipolar offspring, but not in mood disorder diagnoses nor in parent-reported dimensional psychopathology. Cross-national variation was only partially explained by between-sample differences. Cultural and methodological explanations for these findings warrant further study. PMID:27423424
Juan Ignacio Piovani
Full Text Available In this article some historical, epistemological and methodological issues related to comparative studies in the social sciences are addressed, with specific reference to the field of education. The starting point is a discussion of the meaning of comparison, its logical structure and its presence in science and in everyday life. It follows the presentation and critical appraisal of the perspectives regarding comparison as a scientific method. It is argued that, even rejecting this restrictive meaning of comparison as a method, there is some consensus on the specificity of comparative studies within the social sciences. And in relation to them, the article address in more detail those studies that can be defined as trans-contextual (cross-national and cross-cultural, with emphasis on the main methodological and technical challenges they face. The socio-historical comparative perspective, which has gained importance in recent years in the field of education, is also discussed.
Full Text Available Background: Different NHS patient empowerment policies have been adopted in England and Greece; the voluntary sector development and its influence also differ. Although various aspects of patient empowerment have been explored in England, the patient empowerment systems’ application is under-researched. In Greece, the few relevant attempts looking at patients’ experiences focus on patient satisfaction, with only one study exploring the public hospitals managers’ perspectives on user involvement. However, patient empowerment questions may be similar in both countries.Aims and Objectives:The study aimed to explore and compare the general patient empowerment settings in the two countries, with main objectives to:a. identify and explore the relationships of national voluntary and governmental organisations,b. explore the cross-national challenges and facilitators, and make cross-national recommendations.Methodology: This is a cross-national comparative research study. A ‘diagnostic analysis’ approach, an assessment of potential and actual barriers and facilitators, including the context and potential change, was chosen. The methods used were:a. a network analysis of national voluntary and governmental organisations;b. semi-structured interviews with key representatives of these, andc. documentary analysis.Results: The network analysis revealed the potential of English organisations to influence more people, withextensive memberships and stronger interrelationship between them than the Greek organisations. Different levels of awareness, knowledge and perceptions of application of the national patient empowerment policies, systems and mechanisms were identified; being generally good in England, limited in Greece. Variable generalinformation provision, with good verbal information in England, and limited, written and verbal, information in Greece was also identified. Although the commonest cross-national perceived challenges were
Woodford, Michael R.; Luke, Katherine P.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I.; Gutierrez, Lorraine
Attention to same-sex marriage has increased in the past decade. This study examines the perceptions of same-sex marriage among social work faculty. Faculty play a critical role in preparing future social workers for competent, ethical practice--including advocacy for social policies inclusive of sexual minorities. The present study investigates…
Minicuci, Nadia; Naidoo, Nirmala; Chatterji, Somnath; Kowal, Paul
Four longitudinal studies were included in this rigorous harmonization process: the Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE); English Longitudinal Study on Ageing (ELSA); US Health and Retirement Study (HRS); and Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). An ex-post harmonized process was applied to nine health-related thematic domains (socio-demographic and economic, health states, overall self-report of health and mental state, health examinations, physical and mental performance tests, risk factors, chronic conditions, social network and subjective well-being) for data from the 2004 wave of each study. Large samples of adults aged 50 years and older were available from each study: SAGE, n = 18 886; ELSA, n = 9181; HRS, n = 19 303; and SHARE, n = 29 917. The microdata, along with further details about the harmonization process and all metadata, are available through the World Health Organization (WHO) data archive at [http://apps.who.int/healthinfo/systems/surveydata/index.php/catalog]. Further information and enquiries can be made to [email@example.com] or the corresponding author. The data resource will continue to be updated with data across additional waves of these surveys and new waves. © The Author 2016; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.
Bloom, Benjamin S.
Twelve chapters describe an 18-nation study of educational attainment at the elementary and secondary school levels. Professional researchers participated in the project, developed through UNESCO and conducted under the auspices of educational research centers in Australia, Belgium, Chile, England, the Federal Republic of Germany, Finland, France,…
Rözer, J.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/338041494; Kraaykamp, G.
In this study we raise the question how a nation’s income inequality affects subjective well-being. Using information on 195,091 individuals from 85 different countries from the World Value Surveys and the European Value Surveys, we established that in general, people living in more unequal
Peyrot, M.; Rubin, R.R.; Lauritzen, T.; Snoek, F.J.; Matthews, D.R.; Skovlund, S.E.
Aims: To examine patient- and provider-reported psychosocial problems and barriers to effective self-care and resources for dealing with those barriers. Methods: Cross-sectional study using face-to-face or telephone interviews with diabetic patients and health-care providers in 13 countries in Asia,
Dingemans, Ellen; van Ingen, Erik
Many previous studies have linked religiosity to social trust. Yet much of this relation remains insufficiently understood, which is partly due to the fact that religiosity is a multidimensional phenomenon. In this article, we identify several of those dimensions, including the integration in
Phillimore, Jenny; Bradby, Hannah; Knecht, Michi; Padilla, Beatriz; Brand, Tilman; Cheung, Sin Yi; Pemberton, Simon; Zeeb, Hajo
Diversity in Europe has both increased and become more complex posing challenges to both national and local welfare state regimes. Evidence indicates specific barriers for migrant, faith and minority ethnic groups when accessing healthcare. However, previous studies of health in diverse cities in European countries have mainly adopted an ethno-national focus. Taking into account the new complexity of diversity within cities, a deeper and multi-faceted understanding of everyday health practices in superdiverse contexts is needed to support appropriate healthcare provision. This protocol describes a mixed method study investigating how residents in superdiverse neighbourhoods access healthcare. The study will include participant observation and qualitative interviewing as well as a standardised health survey and will be carried out in eight superdiverse neighbourhoods - with varying deprivations levels and trajectories of change - in four European countries (Germany, Portugal, Sweden and UK). In each neighbourhood, trained polylingual community researchers together with university researchers will map formal and informal provision and infrastructures supportive to health and healthcare. In-depth interviews with residents and healthcare providers in each country will investigate local health-supportive practices. Thematic analysis will be used to identify different types of help-seeking behaviours and support structures across neighbourhoods and countries. Using categories identified from analyses of interview material, a health survey will be set up investigating determinants of access to healthcare. Complex models, such as structural equation modelling, will be applied to analyse commonalities and differences between population groups, neighbourhoods and countries. This study offers the potential to contribute to a deeper understanding of how residents in superdiverse neighbourhoods deal with health and healthcare in everyday practices. The findings will inform
Pivodic, Lara; Pardon, Koen; Morin, Lucas; Addington-Hall, Julia; Miccinesi, Guido; Cardenas-Turanzas, Marylou; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje; Naylor, Wayne; Ruiz Ramos, Miguel; Van den Block, Lieve; Wilson, Donna M; Loucka, Martin; Csikos, Agnes; Rhee, Yong Joo; Teno, Joan; Deliens, Luc; Houttekier, Dirk; Cohen, Joachim
Studying where people die across countries can serve as an evidence base for health policy on end-of-life care. This study describes the place of death of people who died from diseases indicative of palliative care need in 14 countries, the association of place of death with cause of death, sociodemographic and healthcare availability characteristics in each country and the extent to which these characteristics explain country differences in the place of death. Death certificate data for all deaths in 2008 (age ≥1 year) in Belgium, Canada, the Czech Republic, England, France, Hungary, Italy, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, South Korea, Spain (Andalusia), the USA and Wales caused by cancer, heart/renal/liver failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diseases of the nervous system or HIV/AIDS were linked with national or regional healthcare statistics (N=2,220,997). 13% (Canada) to 53% (Mexico) of people died at home and 25% (the Netherlands) to 85% (South Korea) died in hospital. The strength and direction of associations between home death and cause of death, sociodemographic and healthcare availability factors differed between countries. Differences between countries in home versus hospital death were only partly explained by differences in these factors. The large differences between countries in and beyond Europe in the place of death of people in potential need of palliative care are not entirely attributable to sociodemographic characteristics, cause of death or availability of healthcare resources, which suggests that countries' palliative and end-of-life care policies may influence where people die. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Lian, Qiguo; Su, Qiru; Li, Ruili; Elgar, Frank J; Liu, Zhihao; Zheng, Dongpeng
Childhood obesity and school bullying are pervasive public health issues and known to co-occur in adolescents. However, the association between underweight or thinness and chronic bullying victimization is unclear. The current study examined whether chronic bullying victimization is associated with weight status and body self-image. A school-based, cross-sectional study in 39 North American and European countries and regions was conducted. A total of 213,595 adolescents aged 11, 13, and 15 years were surveyed in 2009/10. Chronic bullying victimization was identified using the Revised Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire. Weight status was determined using self-reported height and weight and the body mass index (BMI), and body self-image was based on perceived weight. We tested associations between underweight and bullying victimization using three-level logistic regression models. Of the 213,595 adolescents investigated, 11.28% adolescents reported chronic bullying victimization, 14.80% were classified as overweight/obese according to age- and sex-specific BMI criteria, 12.97% were underweight, and 28.36% considered themselves a little bit fat or too fat, 14.57% were too thin. Bullying victimization was less common in older adolescent boys and girls. Weight status was associated with chronic bullying victimization (adjusted OR underweight = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.05-1.16, p = 0.002; adjusted OR overweight = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.32-1.49, p self-image also related to chronic bullying victimization (adjusted OR too thin = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.36-1.49, p self-rated overweight are associated with chronic bullying victimization. Both overweight and underweight children are at risk of being chronically bullied.
Full Text Available Background Childhood obesity and school bullying are pervasive public health issues and known to co-occur in adolescents. However, the association between underweight or thinness and chronic bullying victimization is unclear. The current study examined whether chronic bullying victimization is associated with weight status and body self-image. Methods A school-based, cross-sectional study in 39 North American and European countries and regions was conducted. A total of 213,595 adolescents aged 11, 13, and 15 years were surveyed in 2009/10. Chronic bullying victimization was identified using the Revised Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire. Weight status was determined using self-reported height and weight and the body mass index (BMI, and body self-image was based on perceived weight. We tested associations between underweight and bullying victimization using three-level logistic regression models. Results Of the 213,595 adolescents investigated, 11.28% adolescents reported chronic bullying victimization, 14.80% were classified as overweight/obese according to age- and sex-specific BMI criteria, 12.97% were underweight, and 28.36% considered themselves a little bit fat or too fat, 14.57% were too thin. Bullying victimization was less common in older adolescent boys and girls. Weight status was associated with chronic bullying victimization (adjusted ORunderweight = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.05–1.16, p = 0.002; adjusted ORoverweight = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.32–1.49, p < 0.0001; adjusted ORobese = 1.91, 95% CI = 1.71–2.14, p < 0.0001. Body self-image also related to chronic bullying victimization (adjusted ORtoo thin = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.36–1.49, p < 0.0001; adjusted ORa little bit fat = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.48–1.61, p < 0.0001; adjusted ORtoo fat = 3.30, 95% CI = 2.96–3.68, p < 0.0001. Conclusion Both perceived weight and self-rated overweight are associated with chronic bullying victimization. Both overweight and underweight children are at risk of being
Scherbov, Sergei; Weber, Daniela
Objective To project the proportion of population 65+ years with severe long-term activity limitations from 2017 to 2047. Design Large population study. Setting Population living in private households of the European Union (EU) and neighbouring countries. Participants Participants from the EU Statistics on Income and Living Conditions aged 55 years and older and living in one of 26 EU and neighbouring countries, who answered the health section of the questionnaire. Outcome measures Prevalence of severe long-term activity limitations of particular subpopulations (ie, 55+, 65+, 75+ and 85+ years) by sex and country. Results We find a huge variation in the prevalence of self-reported severe long-term limitations across Europe for both sexes. However, in 2017, about 20% of the female population aged 65 years and above and about 16% of their male counterparts are expected to report severe long-term activity limitations after accounting for differences in reporting. Accounting for cultural differences in reporting, we expect that European countries will have about 21% (decile 1: 19.5%; decile 9: 22.9%) of female and about 16.8% (decile 1: 15.4%; decile 9: 18.1%) of male 65+ years population with severe long-term activity limitations by 2047. Conclusions Overall, despite the expected increase of life expectancy in European countries, our results suggest almost constant shares of older adults with severe long-term activity limitations within the next 30 years. PMID:29061570
Full Text Available Purpose of the article: The author’s interest focuses on human factor of brand managers, as brands and their added value are considered to be among the most important sources of competitive advantage for business in a competitive marketplace. There is no doubt that for succeeding in their job role, brand managers must have knowledge, dispositional traits and concomitant soft skills that arise from these traits. The purpose of the article is to provide the insight into the offering of brand manager posts in the Czech Republic and in the U.S.A. and to analyse the collected data with the special interest in finding the answer whether the employers are searching the brand managers possessing personal dispositions and skills of knowledge workers, and if there is no significant difference in the requirements between the Czech and American recruitment advertisers. Methodology/methods: For a successful empirical research, the content analysis method by Berelson was used to study the texts in the advertisements publicly available on career portals. The statistical verifications of results were conducted using the chi-square test. Scientific aim:The goal of the primary survey was to provide the answers to the research questions that arise from the following research assumptions: (1 employers do not publish different requirements for candidates for the job of Brand Manager in the U.S.A. and in the Czech Republic, (2 the set of requirements for candidates for the job of Brand Manager in the U.S.A. will confirm that a brand manager is one of the workers who has skills and personality prerequisites expected from knowledge workers. Findings: The results of the actual research project confirmed the fundamental need for excellent communication skills (69.0% and presentation skills (65.5%. Unlike employers in the Czech Republic, the American companies are more interested in people with a high degree of responsibility (41.4% that is the third highest relative
Küttel, Andreas; Boyle, Elanore; Christensen, Mette Krogh
athletes relocated mainly in jobs connected to the sport and thus rated their previous sport network as more important for finding an occupation compared to Swiss and Danish athletes. Based on our results and in line with findings of previous cross-national studies, we emphasize that it is important...... to consider the socio-cultural context when studying athletes’ retirement process. Some context-specific recommendations for career counseling and career assistance programs for athletes are provided....
Boeckmann, Irene; Budig, Michelle
Studies find fatherhood earnings premiums in several European countries and the United States. Yet little research investigates how intra-household dynamics shape the size of the fatherhood premium cross-nationally. Using data from the Luxembourg Income Study we examine how the division of labor in two-parent households is associated with the fatherhood premium in fourteen countries. We find cross-national variation in the presence and size of the fatherhood premium. Our findings also show th...
de Hoon, Sean; Keizer, Renske; Dykstra, Pearl
Using data from 29 countries from the Luxemburg Income Study, we demonstrate that married men earn on average 7% more than unmarried men. Unmarried men would have to work 43 hours per week in order to earn the same as married men working 40 hours. We find substantial cross-national variation: in some countries married men make 25% more than unmarried men, while in others no difference in earnings exists. We extend existing research in several ways: (1) by distinguishing intra-household specia...
Kandyla, A.-A.; de Vreese, C.
This study is a cross-national comparative content analysis of the broadsheet press coverage of EU Common Foreign and Security issues (n=1453) focusing on the presence of indicators of a European Public Sphere. Specifically, we investigated the visibility of Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP)
Full Text Available Objective: Migration rates of dual-earner couples are lower than those of male-breadwinner couples. We revisit this issue using a cross-national comparative perspective and examine heterogeneity in the role of female employment in couple relocations. We propose a theoretical framework in which national levels of support for female employment and normative expectations about gender roles act as moderators of the relationship between couple type (i.e., dual-earner and male-breadwinner and family migration. Methods: We deploy discrete-time event history analyses of harmonised longitudinal data from four large-scale datasets from Australia, Britain, Germany, and Sweden, covering the 1992-2011 period. Results: Consistent with prior research, we find that male-breadwinner couples migrate more often than dual-earner couples in all countries, suggesting that traditional gender structures affecting family migration operate across very different contexts. We also find cross-country differences in the estimated effects of different sorts of absolute and relative partner resources on family migration. Conclusions: We take our results as preliminary evidence that national contexts can serve as moderators of the relationship between within-couple employment arrangements and family migration decisions. Contribution: Our study contributes to family migration literature by illustrating how cross-national comparisons are a valuable methodological approach to put prevailing micro-level explanations of the relationship between female employment and family migration in context.
de Jonge, Peter; Wardenaar, Klaas J; Lim, Carmen C W; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Andrade, Laura Helena; Bunting, Brendan; Chatterji, Somnath; Ciutan, Marius; Gureje, Oye; Karam, Elie G; Lee, Sing; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Pennell, Beth-Ellen; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, José; Torres, Yolanda; Kessler, Ronald C; Scott, Kate
The patterns of comorbidity among mental disorders have led researchers to model the underlying structure of psychopathology. While studies have suggested a structure including internalizing and externalizing disorders, less is known with regard to the cross-national stability of this model. Moreover, little data are available on the placement of eating disorders, bipolar disorder and psychotic experiences (PEs) in this structure. We evaluated the structure of mental disorders with data from the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview, including 15 lifetime mental disorders and six PEs. Respondents (n = 5478-15 499) were included from 10 high-, middle- and lower middle-income countries across the world aged 18 years or older. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) were used to evaluate and compare the fit of different factor structures to the lifetime disorder data. Measurement invariance was evaluated with multigroup CFA (MG-CFA). A second-order model with internalizing and externalizing factors and fear and distress subfactors best described the structure of common mental disorders. MG-CFA showed that this model was stable across countries. Of the uncommon disorders, bipolar disorder and eating disorder were best grouped with the internalizing factor, and PEs with a separate factor. These results indicate that cross-national patterns of lifetime common mental-disorder comorbidity can be explained with a second-order underlying structure that is stable across countries and can be extended to also cover less common mental disorders.
Dahlin, Johanna; Härkönen, Juho
Multiple studies have found that women report being in worse health despite living longer. Gender gaps vary cross-nationally, but relatively little is known about the causes of comparative differences. Existing literature is inconclusive as to whether gender gaps in health are smaller in more gender equal societies. We analyze gender gaps in self-rated health (SRH) and limiting longstanding illness (LLI) with five waves of European Social Survey data for 191,104 respondents from 28 countries. We use means, odds ratios, logistic regressions, and multilevel random slopes logistic regressions. Gender gaps in subjective health vary visibly across Europe. In many countries (especially in Eastern and Southern Europe), women report distinctly worse health, while in others (such as Estonia, Finland, and Great Britain) there are small or no differences. Logistic regressions ran separately for each country revealed that individual-level socioeconomic and demographic variables explain a majority of these gaps in some countries, but contribute little to their understanding in most countries. In yet other countries, men had worse health when these variables were controlled for. Cross-national variation in the gender gaps exists after accounting for individual-level factors. Against expectations, the remaining gaps are not systematically related to societal-level gender inequality in the multilevel analyses. Our findings stress persistent cross-national variability in gender gaps in health and call for further analysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
R. Veenhoven (Ruut); J.J. Ehrhardt (Joop)
textabstractABSTRACT. Predictions about level and dispersion of happiness in nations are derived from three theories of happiness: comparison-theory, folklore-theory and livability-theory. The predictions are tested on two cross national data-sets: a comparative survey among university students in
John K. Cochran
Full Text Available One of the biggest challenges facing researchers trying to empirically test structural or institutional anomie theories is the operationalization of the key concept of anomie. This challenge is heightened by the data constraints involved in cross-national research. As a result, researchers have been forced to rely on surrogate or proxy measures of anomie and indirect tests of the theories. The purpose of this study is to examine an innovative and more theoretically sound measure of anomie and to test its ability to make cross-national predictions of serious crime. Our results are supportive of the efficacy of this construct to explain cross-national variations in crime rates. Nations with the highest rates of structural anomie also have the highest predicted rates of homicide.
Ryan J. Watson
Full Text Available A cross-national study of young adult sexual minorities was conducted in order to explore the associations between sexual orientation and measures of depression, suicidality, and substance use. Two nationally representative data sets were explored from the United States (N = 14,335 and Norway (N = 2423. Results indicated that sexual minorities experienced multiple health disparities (depression, suicidality, and substance use compared to their heterosexual counterparts. We found similar patterns of depression, suicidality, and substance use for sexual minorities in both the United States and Norway. The highest odds of substance use were among heterosexual-identified Norwegian youth who reported same-sex sexual activity, and the highest odds of suicidality were found for bisexual young adults in Norway. These findings have implications for how we consider culture and social policy as barriers and/or opportunities for sexual minorities.
Full Text Available Background: With rising union instability across Europe, more individuals now re-enter the partner market and eventually repartner. The increase in cohabitation may also be influencing repartnering behaviour. While several studies examine individual-level characteristics related to repartnering, few take a broader view and compare repartnering levels or explore how demographic characteristics associated with repartnering differ across Europe. Objective: We describe levels of repartnering and the characteristics of those exposed to repartnering in 11 European countries. We then examine whether the relationship between women's demographic characteristics at union dissolution and repartnering are similar or different across countries. Given the recent increase in cohabitation, we pay particular attention to prior cohabitation and marriage, but we also compare age at first union dissolution, first union duration, and presence of children. Methods: Using the Harmonized Histories database, we apply discrete-time hazard models separately by country and to pooled cross-national data. Results: Despite large differences in levels of repartnering, in most countries we find similar associations between demographic characteristics and repartnering. First union type did not matter after controlling for age and children, except in France, where those who previously cohabited had significantly lower risks of repartnering. Age at union dissolution and presence of children are negatively associated with repartnering in almost all countries. Conclusions: Although cohabitation has increased everywhere, prior experience of a coresidential partnership outside of formal marriage makes little difference to repartnering behaviour after controls (except in France. However, regardless of country, older women and/or mothers are less likely to form second unions. Contribution: This study contributes to previous research by examining whether the effects of women
DRONKERS, Jaap; HARKONEN, Juho
Published online: 20 Oct 2008 We used data on women's first marriages from the Fertility and Family Surveys to analyse the intergenerational transmission of divorce across 18 countries and to seek explanations in macro-level characteristics for the cross-national variation. Our results show that women whose parents divorced have a significantly higher risk of divorce in 17 countries. There is some cross-national variation. When compared with the USA, the association is stronger in six coun...
The present study investigates EFL students' perceptions of power differentials and their negotiation strategies when communicating with native English-speaking students via emails. The study involved 28 Taiwanese and American undergraduates who participated in a semester-long cross-national email writing activity. Findings show that students in…
Agyemang, Charles; Stronks, Karien; Tromp, Neelke; Bhopal, Raj; Zaninotto, Paola; Unwin, Nigel; Nazroo, James; Kunst, Anton E.
Evidence suggests that Dutch people smoke substantially more than their British counterparts. These differences have been suggested to relate, in part, to the health-related policy differences between the two countries. It is unclear whether these differences affect smoking among ethnic minority
Schroll, Marianne; Pertti, Era; Avlund, Kirsten
Social medicine, postural balance, functional ability, activities of daily living, physical activity, ageing......Social medicine, postural balance, functional ability, activities of daily living, physical activity, ageing...
This paper explores the ways in which globalisation influences social identity. Combining a psychological social-identity framework with sociological considerations regarding the contextual impact of globalisation, it tests whether global identification-that is, people's identification as global citizens-constitutes an inclusive category, negatively linked to xenophobic attitudes towards immigrants across countries and whether the actual country level of globalisation moderates the relationship between global identification and xenophobia. Unlike most psychological studies of globalisation, it draws its data from 124 national samples across 86 countries, with 154,760 respondents overall, using three different cross-national surveys. Study 1 (International Social Survey Program National Identity Module III 2013; N = 39,426, countries = 32) evinces that while global identification is in fact negatively linked to xenophobia, the correlation is moderated by the country level of globalisation, countries marked by higher levels of globalisation exhibiting a stronger negative relation between global identification and xenophobia than those characterised by a lower level of globalisation. Study 2 (European Values Study 2008; N = 53,083, countries = 44) and Study 3 (World Values Survey 6; N = 65,251, countries = 48) replicated these results across other countries employing dissimilar scales for global identification and xenophobia. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.
Medina, Tait Runnfeldt
The increasing global reach of survey research provides sociologists with new opportunities to pursue theory building and refinement through comparative analysis. However, comparison across a broad array of diverse contexts introduces methodological complexities related to the development of constructs (i.e., measurement modeling) that if not adequately recognized and properly addressed undermine the quality of research findings and cast doubt on the validity of substantive conclusions. The motivation for this dissertation arises from a concern that the availability of cross-national survey data has outpaced sociologists' ability to appropriately analyze and draw meaningful conclusions from such data. I examine the implicit assumptions and detail the limitations of three commonly used measurement models in cross-national analysis---summative scale, pooled factor model, and multiple-group factor model with measurement invariance. Using the orienting lens of the double tension I argue that a new approach to measurement modeling that incorporates important cross-national differences into the measurement process is needed. Two such measurement models---multiple-group factor model with partial measurement invariance (Byrne, Shavelson and Muthen 1989) and the alignment method (Asparouhov and Muthen 2014; Muthen and Asparouhov 2014)---are discussed in detail and illustrated using a sociologically relevant substantive example. I demonstrate that the former approach is vulnerable to an identification problem that arbitrarily impacts substantive conclusions. I conclude that the alignment method is built on model assumptions that are consistent with theoretical understandings of cross-national comparability and provides an approach to measurement modeling and construct development that is uniquely suited for cross-national research. The dissertation makes three major contributions: First, it provides theoretical justification for a new cross-national measurement model and
This paper discusses most of the variables or factors that have been advanced to explain the success or failure of the various national nuclear reactor programs. From the comparative analysis of these experiences, it is apparent that the inclusion of the relevant factors in the ''technology delivery systems'' (TDS) and multiple research approaches offer the most convincing evidence explaining the ultimate acceptance/rejection of the national RD and D programs. It is equally apparent that these two variables are closely related. The policy implications which might thus be drawn from this cross-national survey suggest the inclusion of all the relevant actions in the RD and D process (i.e., ex cathedra policies are likely to fail) and the preservation of multiple research approaches until the major technical uncertainties are resolved. Many might consider these as obvious, but a brief review of the U.S. development of the FBR gives one reason to wonder if the ''obvious'' lessons of the LWR development have, in fact, been recognized, let alone appreciated
Zinkhan, George M.; Balazs, Anne L.
Contributes to scholarship on advertising and cross-cultural studies by exploring cultural factors affecting customer confidence in advertising. Uses a sample of 16 European nations to test G. Hofstede's theory of cross-national values. Finds that Hofstede's dimensions of uncertainty avoidance, masculinity, and individualism are important…
Ripley, David; Hudson, Irene; Turner, Robin; Osman-Gani, AAhad
This exploratory study examines cross-national similarities and differences in employee perceptions of issues in the work environment in 17 organizational work settings in seven Asia-Pacific countries; Australia, Malaysia, New Zealand, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and the United States. Employees at these 17 sites indicated their degree of…
Meeuwesen, L.; Brink, A. van den; Hofstede, G.
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated at a country level how cross-national differences in medical communication can be understood from the first four of Hofstede's cultural dimensions, i.e. power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism/collectivism and masculinity/femininity, together with
Lewis, Andrew J; Rowland, Bosco; Tran, Aiden; Solomon, Renatti F; Patton, George C; Catalano, Richard F; Toumbourou, John W
The present study compares depressive symptoms in adolescents from three countries: Mumbai, India; Seattle, United States; and Melbourne, Australia measured using the Short Moods and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ). The study cross nationally compares SMFQ depressive symptom responses by age and gender. Data from a cross-nationally matched survey were used to compare factorial and measurement characteristics from samples of students from Grade 7 and 9 in Mumbai, India (n=3268) with the equivalent cohorts in the Washington State, USA (n=1907) and Victoria, Australia (n=1900). Exploratory Structural Equation Modelling (ESEM) was used to cross-nationally examine factor structure and measurement invariance. A number of reports suggesting that SMFQ is uni-dimensional were not supported in findings from any country. A model with two factors was a better fit and suggested a first factor clustering symptoms that were affective and physiologically based symptoms and a second factor of self-critical, cognitive symptoms. The two-factor model showed convincing cross national configural invariance and acceptable measurement invariance. The present findings revealed that adolescents in Mumbai, India, reported substantially higher depressive symptoms in both factors, but particularly for the self-critical dimension, as compared to their peers in Australia and the USA and that males in Mumbai report high levels of depressive symptoms than females in Mumbai. the cross sectional study collected data for adolescents in Melbourne and Seattle in 2002 and the data for adolescents in Mumbai was obtained in 2010-2011 CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that previous findings in developed nations of higher depressive symptoms amongst females compared to males may have an important cultural component and cannot be generalised as a universal feature of adolescent development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
attitudes , and was fully involved in activities concerning questionnaire design including a new experimental design in the survey, pilot testing, and...DeMarco; (4) a working paper on "Effects of interviewer gender, religious style of dress, and attitudes on responses to a nationally-representative...research team studied Howard Schuman’s survey work on memory and drafted survey items for use in Tunisia to ask respondents about knowledge of political
Newspaper data are popular in Comparative Migration Studies as they allow diachronic and cross-national comparison and are relatively easy and inexpensive to acquire. Critics, however, warn that newspaper data are hampered by selection, description and researcher bias. This article argues that
Pedro Guedes de Carvalho
Full Text Available ISCPES stands for International Society for Comparative Physical Education and Sports and it is going to celebrate its 40th anniversary in 2018. Since the beginning (Israel 1978 the main goals of the Society were established under a worldwide mind set considering five continents and no discrimination of any kind. The founders wanted to compare Physical Education and Sports across the world, searching for the best practices deserving consideration and applied on the purpose of improving citizen quality of life. The mission still stands for “Compare to learn and improve”. As all the organizations lasting for 39 years, ISCPES experienced several vicissitudes, usually correlated with world economic cycles, social and sports changes, which are in ISS journal articles - International Sport Studies. ISS journal is Scopus indexed, aiming to improve its quality (under evaluation to reach more qualified students, experts, professionals and researchers; doing so it will raise its indexation, which we know it is nowadays a more difficult task. First, because there are more journals trying to compete on this academic fierce competitive market; secondly, because the basic requirements are getting more and more hard to gather in the publishing environment around Physical Education and Sports issues. However, we can promise this will be one of our main strategic goals. Another goal I would like to address on this Editorial is the language issue. We have this second strategic goal, which is to reach most of languages spoken in different continents; besides the English language, we will reach Chinese, Spanish and Portuguese speaking countries. For that reason, we already defined that all the abstracts in English will be translated into Chinese, Spanish and Portuguese words so people can find them on any search browser. That will expand the demand for our journal and articles, increasing the number of potential readers. Of course this opportunity, given by
Ramly, Noor Nashriq; Ismail, Ahmad Zuhairi; Aziz, Mohd Haris; Ahmad, Nurul Haszeli
In this present days and age, there are increasing needs for companies to monitor application and infrastructure health. Apart from having proactive measures to secure their application and infrastructure, many see monitoring dashboards as crucial investment in disaster preparedness. As companies struggle to find the best solution to cater for their needs and interest for monitoring their application and infrastructure's health, this paper summarizes the studies made on several known off-the-shelf operations dashboard and in-house developed dashboard. A few criteria of good dashboard are collected from previous studies carried out by several researchers and rank them according to importance and business needs. The finalized criteria that will be discussed in later sections are data visualization, performance indicator, dashboard personalization, audit capability and alert/ notification. Comparative studies between several popular dashboards were then carried out to determine whether they met these criteria that we derived from the first exercise. The findings hopefully can be used to educate and provide an overview of selecting the best IT application and infrastructure operations dashboard that suit business needs, thus become the main contribution of this paper.
The provocative hypothesis that income inequality harms population health has sparked a large body of research, some of which has reported strong associations between income inequality and population health. Cross-national evidence is frequently cited in support of this important hypothesis, but the hypothesis remains controversial, and the…
M.S.S.E. Janssen (Susanne)
textabstractThis article aims to portray long-term developments and cross-national differences in the editorial prominence, artistic focus and international orientation of the coverage given to designer fashion by a central, intermediary agency within national, cultural fields: the journalism of art
Tsai, Ming-Chang; Laczko, Leslie; Bjornskov, Christian
This cross-national investigation examines hypotheses derived from two major alternative perspectives on the determinants of trust in contemporary societies. Is a society's level of generalized trust a function of its ethnic composition, or of its type of governance and political system? The argument that social diversity (ethnic, linguistic, and…
Wald, J.W.; Lokken, R.O.; Shade, J.W.; Rusin, J.M.
A number of alternative process and waste form options exist for the immobilization of nuclear wastes. Although data exists on the characterization of these alternative waste forms, a straightforward comparison of product properties is difficult, due to the lack of standardized testing procedures. The characterization study described in this report involved the application of the same volatility, mechanical strength and leach tests to ten alternative waste forms, to assess product durability. Bulk property, phase analysis and microstructural examination of the simulated products, whose waste loading varied from 5% to 100% was also conducted. The specific waste forms investigated were as follows: Cold Pressed and Sintered PW-9 Calcine; Hot Pressed PW-9 Calcine; Hot Isostatic Pressed PW-9 Calcine; Cold Pressed and Sintered SPC-5B Supercalcine; Hot Isostatic pressed SPC-5B Supercalcine; Sintered PW-9 and 50% Glass Frit; Glass 76-68; Celsian Glass Ceramic; Type II Portland Cement and 10% PW-9 Calcine; and Type II Portland Cement and 10% SPC-5B Supercalcine. Bulk property data were used to calculate and compare the relative quantities of waste form volume produced at a spent fuel processing rate of 5 metric ton uranium/day. This quantity ranged from 3173 L/day (5280 Kg/day) for 10% SPC-5B supercalcine in cement to 83 L/day (294 Kg/day) for 100% calcine. Mechanical strength, volatility, and leach resistance tests provide data related to waste form durability. Glass, glass-ceramic and supercalcine ranked high in waste form durability where as the 100% PW-9 calcine ranked low. All other materials ranked between these two groupings
Joseph, Jyothy; K, Shinto Kurian
In the fast growing mobile revolutionary era, many operating systems are playing vital role in present market. This study is intending to identify the apt and secure mobile based on mobile operating systems capability and user requirements.
Perchonok, Michele H.; Oziomek, Thomas V.
Future long duration manned space flights beyond low earth orbit will require the food system to remain safe, acceptable and nutritious. Development of high barrier food packaging will enable this requirement by preventing the ingress and egress of gases and moisture. New high barrier food packaging materials have been identified through a trade study. Practical application of this packaging material within a shelf life test will allow for better determination of whether this material will allow the food system to meet given requirements after the package has undergone processing. The reason to conduct shelf life testing, using a variety of packaging materials, stems from the need to preserve food used for mission durations of several years. Chemical reactions that take place during longer durations may decrease food quality to a point where crew physical or psychological well-being is compromised. This can result in a reduction or loss of mission success. The rate of chemical reactions, including oxidative rancidity and staling, can be controlled by limiting the reactants, reducing the amount of energy available to drive the reaction, and minimizing the amount of water available. Water not only acts as a media for microbial growth, but also as a reactant and means by which two reactants may come into contact with each other. The objective of this study is to evaluate three packaging materials for potential use in long duration space exploration missions.
Küttel, Andreas; Boyle, Eleanor; Christensen, Mette Krogh
The main purpose of this study was to compare the transition out of elite sport of former Swiss, Danish, and Polish athletes in terms of (a) preconditions of retirement, (b) the transitional and adaptation period, and (c) consequences of the transition. The sample consisted of 231 Swiss, 86 Danish...... athletes relocated mainly in jobs connected to the sport and thus rated their previous sport network as more important for finding an occupation compared to Swiss and Danish athletes. Based on our results and in line with findings of previous cross-national studies, we emphasize that it is important...... from the three countries. Athletes differed significantly in their educational level, their athletic identity, and their working experience while active in the sport. Swiss athletes experienced the least distress during the transition, while Polish athletes reported the highest difficulties. Polish...
Meeuwesen, L.; Brink, A. van den; Hofstede, G.
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated at a country level how cross-national differences in medical communication can be understood from the first four of Hofstede's cultural dimensions, i.e. power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism/collectivism and masculinity/femininity, together with national wealth. METHODS: A total of 307 general practitioners (GPs) and 5820 patients from Belgium, Estonia, Germany, Great Britain, the Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland par...
Güss, C Dominik; Tuason, Ma Teresa; Gerhard, Christiane
Research in the fields of complex problem solving (CPS) and dynamic decision making using microworlds has been mainly conducted in Western industrialized countries. This study analyzes the CPS process by investigating thinking-aloud protocols in five countries. Participants were 511 students from Brazil, Germany, India, the Philippines, and the United States who worked on two microworlds. On the basis of cultural-psychological theories, specific cross-national differences in CPS strategies were hypothesized. Following theories of situatedness of cognition, hypotheses about the specific frequency of problem-solving strategies in the two microworlds were developed. Results of the verbal protocols showed (a) modification of the theoretical CPS model, (b) task dependence of CPS strategies, and (c) cross-national differences in CPS strategies. Participants' CPS processes were particularly influenced by country-specific problem-solving strategies. Copyright © 2009 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Christiaens, Wendy; Bracke, Piet
expectations about childbirth. This study confirms the multidimensionality of childbirth satisfaction and demonstrates that different factors predict the various dimensions of satisfaction. The model applies to both Belgian and Dutch women. Cross-national comparative research should further assess the dependence of the determinants of childbirth satisfaction on the organisation of maternity care.
No difference in the intention to engage others in academic transgression among medical students from neighboring countries: a cross-national study on medical students from Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, and Macedonia.
Đogaš, Varja; Donev, Doncho M; Kukolja-Taradi, Sunčana; Đogaš, Zoran; Ilakovac, Vesna; Novak, Anita; Jerončić, Ana
To asses if the level of intention to engage others in academic transgressions was comparable among medical students from five schools from neighboring Southern-European countries: Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Macedonia; and medical students from western EU studying at Split, Croatia. Five medical schools were surveyed in 2011, with ≥87% of the targeted population sampled and a response rate of ≥76%. Students' intention to engage a family member, friend, colleague, or a stranger in academic transgression was measured using a previously validated the Intention to Engage Others in Academic Transgression (IEOAT) questionnaire and compared with their intention to ask others for a non-academic, material favor. Data on students' motivation measured by Work Preference Inventory scale, and general data were also collected. Multiple linear regression models of the intention to engage others in a particular behavior were developed. The most important determinants of the intention to engage others in academic transgression were psychological factors, such as intention to ask others for a material favor, or students' motivation (median determinant's β of 0.18, P≤0.045 for all), whereas social and cultural factors associated with the country of origin were either weak (median β of 0.07, P≤0.031) or not relevant. A significant proportion of students were aware of the ethical violations in academic transgressions (P≤0.004 for all transgressions), but a large proportion of students also perceived academic cheating as a collective effort and were likely to engage people randomly (P≤0.001 for all, but the most severe transgression). This collective effort was more pronounced for academic than non-academic behavior. Culture differences among neighboring Southern-European countries were not an important determinant of the intention to engage others in academic cheating.
Rudenberg, Stephanie Linda; Jansen, Patricia; Fridjohn, Peter
Investigated the effectiveness of analyzing drawings of 8- to 12-year-old children as a method of understanding the effects of living and coping with ongoing civic unrest. Compared drawings by white and black South African children with those of children from Belfast, Ireland. Found cross-national differences in stress, emotion, adjustment, and…
Siddiqi, Arjumand; Brown, Rashida; Nguyen, Quynh C; Loopstra, Rachel; Kawachi, Ichiro
Prior cross-national studies of socioeconomic inequalities in obesity have only compared summary indices of inequality but not specific, policy-relevant dimensions of inequality: (a) shape of the socioeconomic gradient in obesity, (b) magnitude of differentials in obesity across socioeconomic levels and, (c) level of obesity at any given socioeconomic level. We use unique data on two highly comparable societies - U.S. and Canada - to contrast each of these inequality dimensions. Data came from the 2002/2003 Joint Canada/U.S. Survey of Health. We calculated adjusted prevalence ratios (APRs) for obesity (compared to normal weight) by income quintile and education group separately for both nations and, between Canadians and Americans in the same income or education group. In the U.S., every socioeconomic group except the college educated had significant excess prevalence of obesity. By contrast in Canada, only those with less than high school were worse off, suggesting that the shape of the socioeconomic gradient differs in the two countries. U.S. differentials between socioeconomic levels were also larger than in Canada (e.g., PR quintile 1 compared to quintile 5 was 1.82 in the U.S. [95 % CI: 1.52-2.19] but 1.45 in Canada [95 % CI: 1.10-1.91]). At the lower end of the socioeconomic gradient, obesity was more prevalent in the U.S. than in Canada. Our results suggest there is variation between U.S. and Canada in different dimensions of socioeconomic inequalities in obesity. Future research should examine a broader set of nations and test whether specific policies or environmental exposures can explain these differences.
Ira N. Gang; John Landon-Lane; Myeong-Su Yun
We compare male and female upward labor income mobility in Germany and the United States using the GSOEP-PSID Cross-National Equivalent File. Our main interest is to test whether a glass ceiling exists for women. Conventional thinking about the glass ceiling highlights the belief that the playing field is level for women and men in the labor market up to a certain point, after which there is an effective limit on advancement for women. We examine the glass ceiling hypothesis by looking at the...
Gang, Ira N.; Landon-Lane, John S.; Yun, Myeong-Su
We compare male and female upward labor income mobility in Germany and the United States using the GSOEP-PSID Cross National Equivalent File. Our main interest is to test whether a glass ceiling exists for women. The standard glass ceiling hypothesis highlights the belief that the playing field is level for women and men in the labor market up to a point, after which there is an effective limit on advancement for women. We examine the glass ceiling hypothesis by looking at the dynamics of the...
Fromm, Germán; Hallinger, Philip; Volante, Paulo; Wang, Wen Chung
The purposes of this study were to report on a systematic approach to validating a Spanish version of the Principal Instructional Management Rating Scale and then to apply the scale in a cross-national comparison of principal instructional leadership. The study yielded a validated Spanish language version of the PIMRS Teacher Form and offers a…
Van Tuyckom, Charlotte
Although there is a growing agreement among researchers that the modern environment contributes to the current trend of decreasing leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), there are very few studies addressing environmental and policy correlates of LTPA within a cross-national European context. This study describes LTPA patterns across the European Union and identifies some macro-environmental factors associated with LTPA rates at a national level. Data on LTPA and indicators of the economic, physical, and policy environment were assembled from international databases for the 27 European member states. To examine the association of each of the independent macro-environmental variables and LTPA as a continuous dependent variable, bivariate linear regression models were employed. Separate analyses were done for the overall, male, and female groups. With respect to LTPA, striking differences between European member states and genders were found, with higher rates in Western and Northern European countries, and among males. Statistical significant associations were observed between overall LTPA and variables from the economic (GDP, real GDP, and public expenditures on health), food (available fat, available fruit, and vegetables), urbanisation (urban population, total and new passenger cars), and policy (all governance indicators) domains. Associations for male and female LTPA were similar, except that for males available fruit and vegetables, and for females available fat and urban population were not significant. This exploratory study seeks to plead for the need for cross-nationally comparable LTPA data and more sophisticated research in order to understand the role of macro-economic environments, with a special focus on policy-related variables and gender-specific differences.
Social sciences and comparative research in Europe : cross-national and multi-disciplinary projects for urban development. The role of geography Sciences sociales et recherche comparative en Europe : projets transnationaux et projets multidisciplinaires de développement urbain. Le rôle de la géographie
Full Text Available In the aftermath of the Second World War, UNESCO sought to build peace in the world through the exchange of knowledge. To this end, it developed a number of initiatives to encourage international cooperation among social scientists. These initiatives were of particular importance in Europe, where there was a clear divide between Eastern and Western European countries. After the fall of the Berlin Wall, comparative research came to signify the transfer of knowledge and the promotion of innovation. Over the past two decades the study of urban phenomena, alongside social and economic issues, has taken on a strategic role in reducing pollution, safeguarding the environment and improving the quality of life of inhabitants. The process of enlarging the scope and objectives of policy has also led to a change in the role played by geography, which is increasingly required to offer instruments of scientific communication between the natural and social sciences.Après la Seconde Guerre mondiale, l’UNESCO a tenté de construire la paix dans le monde à travers l’échange de savoirs. A cette fin, elle a mis sur pied un certain nombre d’initiatives visant à encourager la coopération scientifique. Celles-ci revêtaient une ampleur toute particulière en Europe, où existait un clivage net entre pays de l’Est et de l’Ouest. Suite à la chute du Mur de Berlin la recherche comparative signifia le transfert de savoirs et la promotion de l’innovation. Ces deux dernières décennies, l’étude des phénomènes urbains, de même que les questions sociales et économiques, ont pris un rôle stratégique par la réduction de la pollution, la sauvegarde de l’environnement et l’amélioration de la qualité de vie des habitants. Les processus d’élargissement du champ et des objectifs politiques ont également mené à une modification du rôle joué par la géographie, qui est de plus en plus sollicitée pour offrir des instruments de communication
Tierney, Robert J.; Kan, Wei
The study examines globalization within and across China and the United States in conjunction with a portrayal of the nature of the scholarly endeavors over the past 10 years in the two preeminent educational research journals of these countries. By extensive analyses of topics, methodology, and citations the research clarifies the global and…
Carmel, Sara; King, David B; O'Rourke, Norm; Bachner, Yaacov G
Subjective well-being (SWB) has become an important concept in evaluating older adults' quality of life. The cognitive and emotional evaluations which are used to appraise it differ in structure, characteristics, and effects on life. The purpose of this study was to support hypotheses regarding expected Holocaust survivors-specific effects and cross-cultural differences on three indicators of SWB. We recruited samples of 50 male and female Israeli Holocaust survivors, other older Israelis, and older Canadians (N = 300) for allowing us to distinguish survivors-specific effects from cross-national differences. State anxiety, depressive symptoms, and life-satisfaction were compared across groups of men and women. Where univariate differences were detected, post hoc comparisons were computed to determine which of the groups significantly differed. In general, a higher level of SWB was found among Canadians in comparison to both comparative Israeli groups. Level of depressive symptoms was significantly higher among women survivors than in the other two groups. Both groups of Israeli women had higher scores on anxiety than Canadian Women; less apparent were differences across groups of men. Life-satisfaction did not differ among the groups. Our findings regarding depression support the survivor-specific effect hypothesis for women, and a national effect on anxiety, but not any effect on life-satisfaction. These findings suggest significant differences in impacts of traumatic life events on cognitive versus emotional indicators of SWB. This issue should be further investigated due to its practical implications in use of various measures of SWB with people who experienced traumatic events.
Harris, Matthew; Weisberger, Emily; Silver, Diana; Macinko, James
Country-of-origin of a product can negatively influence its rating, particularly if the product is from a low-income country. It follows that how non-traditional sources of innovation, such as low-income countries, are perceived is likely to be an important part of a diffusion process, particularly given the strong social and cognitive boundaries associated with the healthcare professions. Between September and December 2014, we conducted eleven in-depth face-to-face or telephone interviews with key informants from innovation, health and social policy circles, experts in international comparative policy research and leaders in Reverse Innovation in the United States. Interviews were open-ended with guiding probes into the barriers and enablers to Reverse Innovation in the US context, specifically also to understand whether, in their experience translating or attempting to translate innovations from low-income contexts into the US, the source of the innovation matters in the adopter context. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed thematically using the process of constant comparison. Our findings show that innovations from low-income countries tend to be discounted early on because of prior assumptions about the potential for these contexts to offer solutions to healthcare problems in the US. Judgments are made about the similarity of low-income contexts with the US, even though this is based oftentimes on flimsy perceptions only. Mixing levels of analysis, local and national, leads to country-level stereotyping and missed opportunities to learn from low-income countries. Our research highlights that prior expectations, invoked by the Low-income country cue, are interfering with a transparent and objective learning process. There may be merit in adopting some techniques from the cognitive psychology and marketing literatures to understand better the relative importance of source in healthcare research and innovation diffusion. Counter
Zhang, Xiaozhou; Tze, Virginia M. C.; Buhr, Erin; Klassen, Robert M.; Daniels, Lia M.
The current study provided evidence for the factor structure of the Academic Expectation Stress Inventory (AESI) in a sample of 213 Mainland Chinese and 184 South Korean high school students. We examined cross-national invariance of the AESI using multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis across two Asian cultural samples. Results suggested a…
McRoy, James J.
A content analysis of essays written by students from Great Britain and the United States on the topic "What I have heard about Adolf Hitler" showed that today's youth have only a very superficial knowledge about the events surrounding Hitler and Nazism. (RM)
Farndale, E.; Murrer, I.N.J.
Purpose In light of increasing globalization of workforces, the purpose of this paper is to explore the moderating effect of country on the relationship between job resources and employee engagement. Design/methodology/approach Questionnaire responses from 19,260 employees of a large multinational
Zhao, Ruohui; Cao, Liqun
We apply Durkheim's social transitional theory to explain the variation of anomie in 30 nations in the world. Combining data from two sources--the 1995 "World Values Survey and the United Nations University's World Income Inequality Database" or WIID--we test the hypothesis that rapid sociopolitical change at the structural level disrupts social…
Whisman, Mark A; Judd, Charles M
Measurement invariance of the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) was examined in probability samples of adults 50-79 years of age living in the United States, England, and Japan. Confirmatory factor analysis modeling was used to test for multigroup measurement invariance of a single-factor structure of the SWLS. Results support a single-factor structure of the SWLS across the 3 countries, with tests of measurement invariance of the SWLS supporting its configural invariance and metric invariance. These results suggest that the SWLS may be used as a single-factor measure of life satisfaction in the United States, England, and Japan, and that it is appropriate to compare correlates of the SWLS in middle-aged and older adults across these 3 countries. However, results provided evidence for only partial scalar invariance, with the intercept for SWLS Item 4 varying across countries. Cross-national comparisons of means revealed a lower mean at the latent variable level for the Japanese sample than for the other 2 samples. In addition, over and above the latent mean difference, the Japanese sample also manifested a significantly lower intercept on Item 4. Implications of the findings for research on cross-national comparisons of life satisfaction in European American and East Asian countries are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies show wide variability in the occurrence of cannabis smoking and related disorders across countries. This study aims to estimate cross-national variation in cannabis users' experience of clinically significant cannabis-related problems in three countries of the Americas, with a focus on cannabis users who may have tried alcohol or tobacco, but who have not used cocaine, heroin, LSD, or other internationally regulated drugs. Methods Data are from the World Mental Health Surveys Initiative and the National Latino and Asian American Study, with probability samples in Mexico (n = 4426, Colombia (n = 5,782 and the United States (USA; n = 8,228. The samples included 212 'cannabis only' users in Mexico, 260 in Colombia and 1,724 in the USA. Conditional GLM with GEE and 'exact' methods were used to estimate variation in the occurrence of clinically significant problems in cannabis only (CO users across these surveyed populations. Results The experience of cannabis-related problems was quite infrequent among CO users in these countries, with weighted frequencies ranging from 1% to 5% across survey populations, and with no appreciable cross-national variation in general. CO users in Colombia proved to be an exception. As compared to CO users in the USA, the Colombia smokers were more likely to have experienced cannabis-associated 'social problems' (odds ratio, OR = 3.0; 95% CI = 1.4, 6.3; p = 0.004 and 'legal problems' (OR = 9.7; 95% CI = 2.7, 35.2; p = 0.001. Conclusions This study's most remarkable finding may be the similarity in occurrence of cannabis-related problems in this cross-national comparison within the Americas. Wide cross-national variations in estimated population-level cumulative incidence of cannabis use disorders may be traced to large differences in cannabis smoking prevalence, rather than qualitative differences in cannabis experiences. More research is needed to identify conditions that
Kentor, Jeffrey; Jorgenson, Andrew K; Kick, Edward
Military expenditures have escalated over the last three decades in both developed and less developed countries, without a corresponding expansion of military personnel. Spending has instead been directed towards hi-tech weaponry, what we refer to as the "new" military. We hypothesize that this new, increasingly capital-intensive military is no longer a pathway of upward mobility or employer of last resort for many uneducated, unskilled, or unemployed people, with significant consequences for those individuals and society as a whole. One such consequence, we argue, is an increase in income inequality. We test this hypothesis with cross-national panel models, estimated for 82 developed and less developed countries from 1970 to 2000. Findings indicate that military capital-intensiveness, as measured by military expenditures per soldier, exacerbates income inequality net of control variables. Neither total military expenditures/GDP nor military participation has a significant effect. It appears from these findings that today's "new" military establishment is abrogating its historical role as an equalizing force in society, with important policy implications. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shircliff, Eric J; Shandra, John M
Despite the scale, reach, and global impact of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), its study has remained largely at the purview of various micro-level analyses (e.g., Gutmann 2007; Levi and Vitória 2002). However, differences in prevalence rates at the national level suggest that other forces might be at work. Following the work of McIntosh and Thomas (2004), the only cross-national study of HIV/AIDS published to our knowledge, we conduct a cross-national analysis that examines world polity ideas that higher levels of health and women’s non-governmental organizations (NGOs) should be associated with lower levels of HIV prevalence. Initially, we find no support for these hypotheses. However, we respecify our models to test a political opportunity structure hypothesis that democracy enhances the ability of health and women’s NGOs to deal with HIV. We test this line of reasoning by including an interaction term between democracy and the health and women’s NGO variables. In doing so, we find that health and women’s NGOs are associated with lower levels of HIV prevalence in democratic rather than repressive nations.
Marquart-Pyatt, Sandra T
Environmental issues continue to grow in international prominence, as environmental conditions are recognized as some of the most important problems facing the world. Research examining this globalization of environmental concern shown in public opinion surveys emphasizes the importance of context yet is currently underspecified. To address this gap, this research uses a multi-level, cross-national study to examine individual-level and country-level influences on three measures of environmental concern: environmental threat awareness, environmental efficacy, and willingness to pay. At the individual level, education, age, and gender affect environmental concerns. At the national level, economic, political, and environmental factors affect environmental concerns. Importantly, contextual factors differ in their effects depending on the dimension of environmental concern measured. Results from cross-level interactions for education confirm these complexities across these measures, supporting a dimensionality argument. The importance of the measurement of environmental concern shown in this research is emphasized for future cross-national scholarship. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This cross-national scenario based study exam-ined fourth-grade students’ perceptions of high-performing classmates in terms of their ex-pected intellectual abilities, positive social qual-ities and popularity among their peers across seven countries. The overall results show that high academic achievements predominantly lead to positive expectations within the peer group. However, pronounced differences were found between the countries. The results indi-cated that students from Spanish-speaking countries viewed their potential high-perform-ing peers most favorably, followed by students from Australia, the United Kingdom and Ger-many. The least favorable expectations, but by no means negative attitude, were exhibited by students from the two East-Asian countries Ko-rea and Vietnam. In contrast, the respondents’ gender and the gender of the hypothetical suc-cessful classmates had less influence on student perceptions of high-performers. These findings have implications for the educational provision of high performing students in different cross-national contexts.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Antibiotics are widely-used medicines for which a more prudent use has been advocated to minimize development of resistance. There are considerable cross-national differences that can only partially be explained by epidemiological difference and variations in health care structure. The aim of this study was to explore whether cross-national differences in use of antibiotics (prescribed and non-prescribed are associated with differences between national cultures as described in Hofstede's model of cultural dimensions (Power Distance, Individualism, Masculinity, Uncertainty Avoidance and Long-Term Orientation. Methods Country-level data of prescribed antibiotic use and self-medication with antibiotics were correlated to country-specific scores of cultural dimensions obtained from Hofstede. Data on use of antibiotics were provided by three European studies, based on different methods and/or countries: Self-medication with Antibiotics and Resistance in Europe (SAR, based on a survey in 2003 on reported use of antibiotics in 19 countries, the European Surveillance on Antimicrobial Consumption, based on distribution and reimbursement of antibiotics in ambulatory care (1997–2002, and the 2002 interview-based Eurobarometer study, asking whether respondents had taken antibiotics in the previous 12 months. These studies provided data on antibiotics use for 27 European countries in total, for which scores of cultural dimensions were also available. The SAR-study differentiated between prescribed antibiotics and self-medication with antibiotics. Results Significant positive correlations were found for Power Distance Index with use of prescribed antibiotics in the three studies (rho between 0.59 and 0.62 and with self-medication (rho = 0.54 in the SAR study. Positive significant correlations were found for the Uncertainty Avoidance Index with the use of antibiotics as reported in two studies (rho between 0.57 and 0.59; for the SAR study
Deschepper, Reginald; Grigoryan, Larissa; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby; Hofstede, Geert; Cohen, Joachim; Kelen, Greta Van Der; Deliens, Luc; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M
Antibiotics are widely-used medicines for which a more prudent use has been advocated to minimize development of resistance. There are considerable cross-national differences that can only partially be explained by epidemiological difference and variations in health care structure. The aim of this study was to explore whether cross-national differences in use of antibiotics (prescribed and non-prescribed) are associated with differences between national cultures as described in Hofstede's model of cultural dimensions (Power Distance, Individualism, Masculinity, Uncertainty Avoidance and Long-Term Orientation). Country-level data of prescribed antibiotic use and self-medication with antibiotics were correlated to country-specific scores of cultural dimensions obtained from Hofstede. Data on use of antibiotics were provided by three European studies, based on different methods and/or countries: Self-medication with Antibiotics and Resistance in Europe (SAR), based on a survey in 2003 on reported use of antibiotics in 19 countries, the European Surveillance on Antimicrobial Consumption, based on distribution and reimbursement of antibiotics in ambulatory care (1997-2002), and the 2002 interview-based Eurobarometer study, asking whether respondents had taken antibiotics in the previous 12 months. These studies provided data on antibiotics use for 27 European countries in total, for which scores of cultural dimensions were also available. The SAR-study differentiated between prescribed antibiotics and self-medication with antibiotics. Significant positive correlations were found for Power Distance Index with use of prescribed antibiotics in the three studies (rho between 0.59 and 0.62) and with self-medication (rho = 0.54) in the SAR study. Positive significant correlations were found for the Uncertainty Avoidance Index with the use of antibiotics as reported in two studies (rho between 0.57 and 0.59; for the SAR study the correlations were insignificant). Masculinity
Dronkers, Jaap; Harkonen, Juho
We used data on women's first marriages from the Fertility and Family Surveys to analyse the intergenerational transmission of divorce across 18 countries and to seek explanations in macro-level characteristics for the cross-national variation. Our results show that women whose parents divorced have a significantly higher risk of divorce in 17 countries. There is some cross-national variation. When compared with the USA, the association is stronger in six countries. This variation is negatively associated with the proportion of women in each cohort who experienced the divorce of their parents and with the national level of women's participation in the labour force during childhood. We conclude that differences in the contexts in which children of divorce learn marital and interpersonal behaviour affect the strength of the intergenerational transmission of divorce.
In the past decade, more and more Taiwanese men have married women from Southeast Asian countries and China. Children of cross-national marriages now account for one-tenth of primary school pupils. Previous research on primary and secondary school pupils' performance in different subjects has indicated that the children of cross-national marriages…
Jensen, Rasmus Eskild; Nardi, Bonnie
Global software teams work on interdependent tasks across geographies, time zones, and cultures. Studies of cross-national software teams report that the main challenges are sharing knowledge, creating trust, and establishing common ground. In this study we examine another challenge—the use...... of the word “culture” as an exclusionary act of closure. As theorized by Metiu, who builds on Weber, closure occurs when one group seeks to preserve the advantages of their situation relative to another group. We conducted an ethnographic study of a cross-national software department with members in Denmark...... and the Philippines. We found that “culture” was invoked by employees in the Danish office to explain failed collaborations, but not by employees in the Philippines. Filipino employees formulated other explanations for problems, and actively resisted cultural explanations. We argue that employees in the Danish office...
Jensen, Helene Nordahl; Krølner, Rikke; Páll, Gabrilla
Indicators such as country of birth and language spoken at home have been used as proxy measures for ethnic background, but the validity of these indicators in surveys among school children remains unclear. This study aimed at comparing item response and student-parent agreement on four questions...
Every human being is proficient in face recognition. However, the reason for and the manner in which humans have attained such an ability remain unknown. These questions can be best answered-through comparative studies of face recognition in non-human animals. Studies in both primates and non-primates show that not only primates, but also non-primates possess the ability to extract information from their conspecifics and from human experimenters. Neural specialization for face recognition is shared with mammals in distant taxa, suggesting that face recognition evolved earlier than the emergence of mammals. A recent study indicated that a social insect, the golden paper wasp, can distinguish their conspecific faces, whereas a closely related species, which has a less complex social lifestyle with just one queen ruling a nest of underlings, did not show strong face recognition for their conspecifics. Social complexity and the need to differentiate between one another likely led humans to evolve their face recognition abilities.
Britto, Pia Rebello; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; van Ravens, Jan; Ponguta, Liliana Angelica; Reyes, Maria; Oh, Soojin; Dimaya, Roland; Nieto, Ana María; Seder, Richard
While there has been substantial growth in early childhood development (ECD) services in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), there is considerable inequity in their distribution and quality. Evidence-based governance strategies are necessary, but currently they are insufficient for widespread, quality implementation. In particular, there is a limited understanding of the use of systems approaches for the analysis of ECD services as they go to scale. The aim of this paper is to present findings from four countries, using a cross-national case study approach to explore governance mechanisms required to strengthen national systems of ECD services. While different sets of governance strategies and challenges were identified in each country, overarching themes also emerged with implications for systems strengthening. Study results focus on local, mid-level and central governance, with recommendations for effective coordination and the integration of ECD services in LMICs. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.
Buffel, Veerle; Beckfield, Jason; Bracke, Piet
In this study, we question (1) whether the relationship between unemployment and mental healthcare use, controlling for mental health status, varies across European countries and (2) whether these differences are patterned by a combination of unemployment and healthcare generosity. We hypothesize that medicalization of unemployment is stronger in countries where a low level of unemployment generosity is combined with a high level of healthcare generosity. A subsample of 36,306 working-age respondents from rounds 64.4 (2005-2006) and 73.2 (2010) of the cross-national survey Eurobarometer was used. Country-specific logistic regression and multilevel analyses, controlling for public disability spending, changes in government spending, economic capacity, and unemployment rate, were performed. We find that unemployment is medicalized, at least to some degree, in the majority of the 24 nations surveyed. Moreover, the medicalization of unemployment varies substantially across countries, corresponding to the combination of the level of unemployment and of healthcare generosity.
Cao, Liqun; Zhang, Yan
Criminological theories of cross-national studies of homicide have underestimated the effects of quality governance of liberal democracy and region. Data sets from several sources are combined and a comprehensive model of homicide is proposed. Results of the spatial regression model, which controls for the effect of spatial autocorrelation, show that quality governance, human development, economic inequality, and ethnic heterogeneity are statistically significant in predicting homicide. In addition, regions of Latin America and non-Muslim Sub-Saharan Africa have significantly higher rates of homicides ceteris paribus while the effects of East Asian countries and Islamic societies are not statistically significant. These findings are consistent with the expectation of the new modernization and regional theories. © The Author(s) 2015.
Durvasula and Lysonski's paper presented a shorter version of the Acculturation to Global Consumer Culture Scale (hereafter AGCC), which was developed by Cleveland and Laroche to address scarcity of measurements that determined how individuals acquired and became a part of the emerging global consumer culture. The following critique discusses a few concerns and three major shortcomings of the paper, including skewed sample frame and incorrect choice of countries for assessing cross-national applicability of the scale, not discussing the differences in the means of the seven distinct dimensions of AGCC across the four nations studied by the authors, and absence of any critical review of existing consumer acculturation scales vis-à-vis AGCC. © The Author(s) 2016.
Full Text Available We conduct the first cross-national study to consider the impact of the World Banks International Finance Corporation loans on forests. In doing so, we analyze data for a sample of sixty-one low and middle income nations for the period of 1990 to 2005. We find substantial support for dependency theory that low and middle income nations that receive an International Finance Corporation loan tend to have higher rates of deforestation than low and middle income nations that do not receive such a loan. We also find that other aspects of World Bank lending affect forest loss including structural adjustment and investment lending. We conclude with a discussion of the findings, theoretical implications, methodological implications, policy implications, and possible directions for future research.
Meeuwesen, Ludwien; van den Brink-Muinen, Atie; Hofstede, Geert
This study investigated at a country level how cross-national differences in medical communication can be understood from the first four of Hofstede's cultural dimensions, i.e. power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism/collectivism and masculinity/femininity, together with national wealth. A total of 307 general practitioners (GPs) and 5820 patients from Belgium, Estonia, Germany, Great Britain, the Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland participated in the study. Medical communication was videotaped and assessed using Roter's interaction analysis system (RIAS). Additional context information of physicians (gender, job satisfaction, risk-taking and belief of psychological influence on diseases) and patients (gender, health condition, diagnosis and medical encounter expectations) was gathered by using questionnaires. Countries differ considerably form each other in terms of culture dimensions. The larger a nation's power distance, the less room there is for unexpected information exchange and the shorter the consultations are. Roles are clearly described and fixed. The higher the level of uncertainty avoidance, the less attention is given to rapport building, e.g. less eye contact. In 'masculine' countries there is less instrumental communication in the medical interaction, which was contrary to expectations. In wealthy countries, more attention is given to psychosocial communication. The four culture dimensions, together with countries' wealth, contribute importantly to the understanding of differences in European countries' styles of medical communication. Their predictive power reaches much further than explanations along the north/south or east/west division of Europe. The understanding of these cross-national differences is a precondition for the prevention of intercultural miscommunication. Improved understanding may occur at microlevel in the medical encounter, as well as on macrolevel in pursuing more effective cooperation and
McCarthy, Bill; Benoit, Cecilia; Jansson, Mikael
Explanations of adult involvement in sex work typically adopt one of two approaches. One perspective highlights a variety of negative experiences in childhood and adolescence, including physical and sexual abuse, family instability, poverty, associations with "pimps" and other exploiters, homelessness, and drug use. An alternative account recognizes that some of these factors may be involved, but underscores the contribution of more immediate circumstances, such as current economic needs, human capital, and employment opportunities. Prior research offers a limited assessment of these contrasting claims: most studies have focused exclusively on people working in the sex industry and they have not assessed the independent effects of life course variables central to these two perspectives. We add to this literature with an analysis that drew on insights from life course and life-span development theories and considered the contributions of factors from childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Our comparative approach examined predictors of employment in sex work relative to two other low-income service or care work occupations: food and beverage serving and barbering and hairstyling. Using data from a study of almost 600 workers from two cities, one in Canada and the other in the United States, we found that both immediate circumstances and negative experiences from early life are related to current sex work involvement: childhood poverty, abuse, and family instability were independently associated with adult sex work, as were limited education and employment experience, adult drug use, and marital status.
J. Herché (Joel); M.J. Swenson (Michael); W.J.M.I. Verbeke (Willem)
textabstractEvaluates transportability of personal selling measures across cultural boundaries. Concept of measurement development; Emic and etic approaches to developing measures for cross-cultural applications; Cross-national dimensionality, reliability and construct validity of adaptive selling
Steenkamp, JBEM; ter Hofstede, F; Wedel, M
The authors examine antecedents of consumer innovativeness in a cross-national context. They propose a framework that distinguishes individual difference variables and national cultural variables. Two types of individual difference variables are considered: personal values and
Full Text Available Abstract Background Large-scale cross-national studies designed to measure student achievement use different social, cultural, economic and other background variables to explain observed differences in that achievement. Prior to their inclusion into a prediction model, these variables are commonly scaled into latent background indices. To allow cross-national comparisons of the latent indices, measurement invariance is assumed. However, it is unclear whether the assumption of measurement invariance has some influence on the results of the prediction model, thus challenging the reliability and validity of cross-national comparisons of predicted results. Methods To establish the effect size attributed to different degrees of measurement invariance, we rescaled the ‘home resource for learning index’ (HRL for the 37 countries ( $$n=166,709$$ n = 166 , 709 students that participated in the IEA’s combined ‘Progress in International Reading Literacy Study’ (PIRLS and ‘Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study’ (TIMSS assessments of 2011. We used (a two different measurement models [one-parameter model (1PL and two-parameter model (2PL] with (b two different degrees of measurement invariance, resulting in four different models. We introduced the different HRL indices as predictors in a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM with mathematics achievement as the dependent variable. We then compared three outcomes across countries and by scaling model: (1 the differing fit-values of the measurement models, (2 the estimated discrimination parameters, and (3 the estimated regression coefficients. Results The least restrictive measurement model fitted the data best, and the degree of assumed measurement invariance of the HRL indices influenced the random effects of the GLMM in all but one country. For one-third of the countries, the fixed effects of the GLMM also related to the degree of assumed measurement invariance. Conclusion The
Moreno Reyes, J. C.; Macias Jaen, J.; Jimenez Ortega, E.
Has been developed in JAVA a software application called JJGAMMA, capable of manipulating the environment BEAMNRC and Pinnacle output formats 3 , comfortable, fast and accurately. As particular application you can use to compare dose distributions (plans for treatments, checking fields for modeling and clinical accelerators Commissioner) using, as objective criteria, function or Gamma index. (Author)
Cullen, S; Kenny, D; Ward, O C; Sabra, K
Paracetamol suppositories in two different bases were given to children who had fever after operations. Plasma concentrations and the effect on temperature were compared. There was a significant correlation between peak plasma concentrations and maximum drop in temperature. A lipophilic base produced better results than a hydrophilic base. PMID:2817936
Cullen, S; Kenny, D; Ward, O C; Sabra, K
Paracetamol suppositories in two different bases were given to children who had fever after operations. Plasma concentrations and the effect on temperature were compared. There was a significant correlation between peak plasma concentrations and maximum drop in temperature. A lipophilic base produced better results than a hydrophilic base.
Bredahl, Lone; Grunert, Klaus G.
Food markets are claimed to be characterized by two opposing tendencies: On the one hand, food culture seems to be a domain of increasingly transnational character. On the other hand, there is substantial evidence that food culture has considerabl inertia. This papers reports a series of studies...... aimed at investigating whether cross-national food consumer segments can be found. Food consumer segments are derived using the food-related lifestyle instrument, which characterizes consumers by ho employ food and eating to obtain life values. The instrument, which has been developed especially...... have at least weak cross-cultural comparability. Nation-wise cluster analysis using Ward method yielded sets of five or six segments per country. The segments were named the uninvolved, the careless, the rational, the conservative, and the adventurous food consumers. A comparison of the segment...
Brunsø, Karen; Grunert, Klaus G.; Bredahl, Lone
Executive summary 1. Food markets are claimed to be characterized by two opposing tendencies. On the one hand, food culture seems to be a domain of increasingly transnational character. On the other hand, there is substantial evidence that food culture has considerable inertia. This paper reports...... a series of studies aimed at investigating whether cross-national food consumer segments can be found. 2. Food consumer segments are derived using the food-related lifestyle instrument, which characterizes consumers by how they employ food and eating to obtain life values. The instrument, which has been...... of cross-cultural comparability. 5. Nation-wise cluster analysis using Ward's method yielded sets of five or six segments per country. The segments were labelled the uninvolved food consumer, the careless food consumer, the rational food consumer, the conservative food consumer, the adventurous consumer...
Sachse, Karoline A.; Haag, Nicole
Standard errors computed according to the operational practices of international large-scale assessment studies such as the Programme for International Student Assessment's (PISA) or the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) may be biased when cross-national differential item functioning (DIF) and item parameter drift are…
Eduardo J. Gómez
Full Text Available Background This article conducts a comparative national and subnational government analysis of the political, economic, and ideational constructivist contextual factors facilitating the adoption of obesity and diabetes policy. Methods We adopt a nested analytical approach to policy analysis, which combines cross-national statistical analysis with subnational case study comparisons to examine theoretical prepositions and discover alternative contextual factors; this was combined with an ideational constructivist approach to policy-making. Results Contrary to the existing literature, we found that with the exception of cross-national statistical differences in access to healthcare infrastructural resources, the growing burden of obesity and diabetes, rising healthcare costs and increased citizens’ knowledge had no predictive affect on the adoption of obesity and diabetes policy. We then turned to a subnational comparative analysis of the states of Mississippi in the United States and Rio Grande do Norte in Brazil to further assess the importance of infrastructural resources, at two units of analysis: the state governments versus rural municipal governments. Qualitative evidence suggests that differences in subnational healthcare infrastructural resources were insufficient for explaining policy reform processes, highlighting instead other potentially important factors, such as state-civil societal relationships and policy diffusion in Mississippi, federal policy intervention in Rio Grande do Norte, and politicians’ social construction of obesity and the resulting differences in policy roles assigned to the central government. Conclusion We conclude by underscoring the complexity of subnational policy responses to obesity and diabetes, the importance of combining resource and constructivist analysis for better understanding the context of policy reform, while underscoring the potential lessons that the United States can learn from Brazil.
Ramli, Rindra M.; Tyhurst, Janis
This presentation provides an analysis of services provided by the benchmarked library websites. The exploratory study includes comparison of these websites against a list of criterion and presents a list of services that are most commonly deployed by the selected websites. In addition to that, the investigators proposed a list of services that could be provided via the KAUST library website.
Full Text Available Corporate governance is a key element of today’s economic reality being more and more present in many countries around the world. This paper has two main objectives. The first one is to offer more insight into the concept of corporate governance by a thorough literature review and by presenting and analyzing a framework of corporate governance. The second objective of this paper is to investigate the corporate governance situation in three developing economies (Romania, Bulgaria and Hungary. The World Bank and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development published a series of reports on corporate governance. The present study uses data from these reports in order to illustrate how these developing economies are dealing with corporate governance. Based on ROSC Reports a corporate governance score was calculated. As this score shows, there is room for improvement for all three developing economies. This study is important because it shows the differences in corporate governance among developing economies and the need to study these nations at the individual country level. Corporate governance has many benefits for developing economies. It helps developing economies to register sustainable growth rates, to increases investors’ confidence in the national economy, and to increase the ability of capital markets to mobilize savings.
Galmes Belmonte, F.B.
This work tries to justify the hydrodynamic butterfly valves performance, using the EPRI tests, results carried out in laboratory and in situ. This justification will be possible if: - The valves to study are similar - Their performance is calculated using EPRI's methodology Looking for this objective, the elements of the present work are: 1. Brief EPRI butterfly valve description it wild provide the factors which are necessary to define the butterfly valves similarity. 2. EPRI tests description and range of validation against test data definition. 3. Description of the spanish butterfly analyzed valves, and comparison with the EPRI performance results, to prove that this valves are similar to the EPRI test valves. In this way, it will not be necessary to carry out particular dynamic tests on the spanish valves to describe their hydrodynamic performance. (Author)
Kumar, Santosh; Calvo, Rocio; Avendano, Mauricio; Sivaramakrishnan, Kavita; Berkman, Lisa F
High levels of social capital and social integration are associated with self-rated health in many developed countries. However, it is not known whether this association extends to non-western and less economically advanced countries. We examine associations between social support, volunteering, and self-rated health in 139 low-, middle- and high-income countries. Data come from the Gallup World Poll, an internationally comparable survey conducted yearly from 2005 to 2009 for those 15 and over. Volunteering was measured by self-reports of volunteering to an organization in the past month. Social support was based on self-reports of access to support from relatives and friends. We started by estimating random coefficient (multi-level) models and then used multivariate logistic regression to model health as a function of social support and volunteering, controlling for age, gender, education, marital status, and religiosity. We found statistically significant evidence of cross-national variation in the association between social capital variables and self-rated health. In the multivariate logistic model, self-rated health were significantly associated with having social support from friends and relatives and volunteering. Results from stratified analyses indicate that these associations are strikingly consistent across countries. Our results indicate that the link between social capital and health is not restricted to high-income countries but extends across many geographical regions regardless of their national-income level. Copyright Â© 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jun 4, 2015 ... applied in the field of media and communication studies. The point of ... Example of Swedish-Ugandan Climate Change Communication ...... What Can Scientists Say about Ethics and Economics of Combating Climate.
NELSON, Peter; PISTRE, Pierre; RICHARD, Frédéric; DELLIER, Julien
For the last 20 years, many scholars interested in dimensions of rural change have applied the concept of 'gentrification' as a framework for understanding certain types of demographic and economic shifts playing out in rural spaces. While rural gentrification has gained acceptance and spawned a sizeable literature, especially amongst scholars working in the UK and the US, methodologically, this scholarship has been dominated by case study approaches. These case study approaches provide deep...
Full Text Available The diffusion of fashionable management concepts is an important research topic in management and organization studies. Researchers have pointed out that various actors such as consultants, conference organizers and the business media comprise the so-called “management fashion arena” around a management concept. However, a weakness of extant conceptualizations of management fashion arenas is in the lack of an explicit consideration of the dynamics between local and international actors. Drawing on the notion of “institutional duality”, we argue that the concept’s trajectory at the national level is shaped by both country-specific actors and international actors. Furthermore, we recognize that the presence and involvement of different types of actors may vary across different countries. Empirically, we analyze the level of involvement of actors such as consultants, professional groups, software firms, and conference organizers in the cross-national diffusion of the Balanced Scorecard (BSC in the three Scandinavian countries. The comparative analysis of the data shows both similarities and differences between the three countries in terms of which actors have been the most influential players. Despite certain similarities and overlaps, the three markets can be considered largely national with key local players. Furthermore, country-specific actors appear to have played a particularly important role in the early phase in terms of establishing the concept in the local markets. These findings are used to elaborate on present conceptualizations of the management fashion arena, and to discuss the role of local and international actors in the cross-national diffusion of management concepts.
Foran, Heather M; Garber, Bryan G; Zamorski, Mark A; Wray, Mariane; Mulligan, Kathleen; Greenberg, Neil; Castro, Carl Andrew; Adler, Amy B
Deployments increase risk for adjustment problems in service members. To mitigate this increased risk, mental health training programs have been developed and implemented in several nations. As part of a coordinated effort, three nations adapted a U.S. mental health training program that had been validated by a series of group randomized trials demonstrating improvement in postdeployment adjustment. Implementation of evidence-based programs in a new context is challenging: How much of the original program needs to remain intact in order to retain its utility? User satisfaction rates can provide essential data to assess how well a program is accepted. This article summarizes service member ratings of postdeployment mental health training and compares ratings from service members across four nations. The participating nations (Canada, New Zealand, United Kingdom, and the United States) administered mental health training to active duty military personnel in their respective nations. Following the training, military personnel completed an evaluation of the training. Overall, across the four nations, more than 70% of military personnel agreed or strongly agreed that they were satisfied with the mental health training. Although some differences in evaluations were observed across nations, components of training that were most important to overall satisfaction with the training were strikingly similar across nations. Fundamentally, it appears feasible that despite cultural and organizational differences, a mental health training program developed in one nation can be successfully adapted for use in other nations. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Lippert, B; Berger, K; Berntorp, E; Giangrande, P; van den Berg, M; Schramm, W; Siebert, U
The aim of this study was to assess the incremental cost effectiveness of on-demand versus prophylactic haemophilia therapy in Germany, Sweden, the United Kingdom and The Netherlands from the third-party payers' perspective. Using a decision tree model, the cost effectiveness of on-demand versus
Germain, Marie-Line; Ruiz, Carlos Enrique
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to offer a comparison of how human expertise is perceived by human resource development (HRD) scholars across several Western European countries and in the USA. Design/methodology/approach: A qualitative, exploratory approach using electronic mail was used for this study. In total, 36 leading HRD scholars from…
Radl, Jonas; Salazar, Leire; Cebolla-Boado, Héctor
This study addresses the relationship between various family forms and the level of cognitive and non-cognitive skills among 15- to 16-year-old students. We measure cognitive skills using standardized scores in mathematics; non-cognitive abilities are captured by a composite measure of internal locus of control related to mathematics. A particular focus lies on father absence although we also examine the role played by co-residence with siblings and grandparents. We use cross-nationally comparable data on students participating in the Programme for International Student Assessment's release for 2012. By mapping inequalities by family forms across 33 developed countries, this study provides robust cross-country comparable evidence on the relationship of household structure with both cognitive and non-cognitive skills. The study produces three key results: first, the absence of fathers from the household as well as co-residence with grandparents is associated with adverse outcomes for children in virtually all developed countries. Second, this is generally true in terms of both cognitive and non-cognitive skills, although the disadvantage connected to both family forms is notably stronger in the former than in the latter domain. Finally, there is marked cross-national diversity in the effects associated with the presence in the household of siblings and especially grandparents which furthermore differs across the two outcomes considered.
Treas, Judith; Lui, Jonathan; Gubernskaya, Zoya
BACKGROUND Consistent with the deinstitutionalization-of-marriage thesis, studies report a decline in support for marital conventions and increased approval of other relationship types. Generalizations are limited by the lack of cross-national research for a broad domain of attitudes on marriage and alternative arrangements, and by the lack of consensus on what counts as evidence. OBJECTIVE Acknowledging the conceptual distinction between expectations for behavior inside and outside marriage, we address the deinstitutionalization debate by testing whether support for marital conventions has declined for a range of attitudes across countries. METHODS Based on eleven International Social Survey Program items replicated between the late 1980s and the 2000s, OLS regressions evaluate attitude changes in up to 21 countries. RESULTS Consistent with the deinstitutionalization argument, disapproval declined for marital alternatives (cohabitation, unmarried parents, premarital and same-sex sex). For attitudes on the behavior of married people and the nature of marriage the results are mixed: despite a shift away from gender specialization, disapproval of extramarital sex increased over time. On most items, most countries changed as predicted by the deinstitutionalization thesis. CONCLUSIONS Attitude changes on ‘new relationships’ and marital alternatives are compatible with the deinstitutionalization of marriage. Beliefs arguably more central to the marital institution do not conform as neatly to this thesis. Because results are sensitive to the indicators used, the deinstitutionalization of marriage argument merits greater empirical and conceptual attention. PMID:26052248
Malka, Ariel; Soto, Christopher J; Inzlicht, Michael; Lelkes, Yphtach
We examine whether individual differences in needs for security and certainty predict conservative (vs. liberal) position on both cultural and economic political issues and whether these effects are conditional on nation-level characteristics and individual-level political engagement. Analyses with cross-national data from 51 nations reveal that valuing conformity, security, and tradition over self-direction and stimulation (a) predicts ideological self-placement on the political right, but only among people high in political engagement and within relatively developed nations, ideologically constrained nations, and non-Eastern European nations, (b) reliably predicts right-wing cultural attitudes and does so more strongly within developed and ideologically constrained nations, and (c) on average predicts left-wing economic attitudes but does so more weakly among people high in political engagement, within ideologically constrained nations, and within non-Eastern European nations. These findings challenge the prevailing view that needs for security and certainty organically yield a broad right-wing ideology and that exposure to political discourse better equips people to select the broad ideology that is most need satisfying. Rather, these findings suggest that needs for security and certainty generally yield culturally conservative but economically left-wing preferences and that exposure to political discourse generally weakens the latter relation. We consider implications for the interactive influence of personality characteristics and social context on political attitudes and discuss the importance of assessing multiple attitude domains, assessing political engagement, and considering national characteristics when studying the psychological origins of political attitudes.
Are people with ill health more prone to unemployment during the ongoing economic crisis? Is this health selection more visible among people with low education, women, or the young? The current paper investigates these questions in the Scandinavian context using the longitudinal part of the EU-SILC data material. Generalized least squares analysis indicates that people with ill health are laid off to a higher degree than their healthy counterparts in Denmark, but not in Norway and Sweden. Additionally, young individuals (Norway and Sweden, but not in Denmark. Neither women with ill health, nor individuals with low educational qualifications and ill health, are more likely to lose their jobs in Scandinavia. Individual level (and calendar year) fixed effects analysis confirms the existence of health selection out of employment in Denmark, whereas there is no suggestion of health selection in Sweden and Norway, except among young individuals. This finding could be related to the differing labor market demand the three Scandinavian countries have experienced during and preceding the study period (2007-2010). Another possible explanation for the cross-national differences is connected to the Danish "flexicurity" model, where the employment protection is rather weak. People with ill health, and hence more unstable labor market attachment, could be more vulnerable in such an arrangement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Skolnick, Alexander J.; Dzokoto, Vivian A.
The emotion of disgust, with feelings of revulsion and behavioral withdrawal, make it a prime emotion to aid in the avoidance of sources of contamination, including sources of potential infectious disease. We tested the theory that living in a region with a historically high prevalence of infectious diseases would promote higher levels of disgust and contamination sensitivity as a protective measure. A sample of undergraduates from Ghana (n = 103, 57 women), a country with a historically high prevalence of infectious diseases, showed significantly higher scores on scales assessing disgust, contamination, and disease susceptibility than a sample of undergraduates from the United States (n = 96, 58 women), a country with lower levels of disease threat. Contamination sensitivity mediated the national differences in disgust. Disgust connoting contamination also produced larger cross-national effect sizes than other types of disgust. Finally, a factor analysis on the Ghanaian responses to one of the disgust scales did not resemble the usual three-factor solution found in West. Taken together, the results were consistent with the hypothesis that a region with a higher prevalence of infectious disease threats would produce greater sensitivity to disgust and contamination than seen in lower disease threat regions. This first study on disgust in Africa showed that disgust sensitivity could differ considerably from that in the West. PMID:23450744
Kosher, Hanita; Ben-Arieh, Asher
Recent years have brought a growing social and public commitment to the promotion of children's rights and children's well-being around the world, and these have become important goals of all those striving to improve children's lives. In spite of the intimate ideological connection between the concepts of children's rights and children's well-being, they have evolved separately both theoretically and empirically. In the current article, we present a study exploring the empirical association between these 2 concepts based on data from the International Survey on Children's Well-Being. This unique survey explores children's own perspectives on their well-being (subjective well-being), their perceptions and knowledge of their rights, and their reports on their right to participation. It includes data from more than 54,000 children aged 8-12 from 16 countries around the world. Our results showed clear cross-national differences between children's knowledge and perceptions of their rights and their reports on participation. Also, children's participation in different contexts in their lives showed an association with their subjective well-being; a weaker association was found between children's knowledge and perceptions of their rights. These results indicate that children's right to participation and, to some degree, their knowledge and thinking about their rights is an indicator of their well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Shim, Jae-Mahn; Kim, Jibum
Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has been one of the popular strategies for health promotion. Traditional East Asian medicine (TEAM) is one of the most popular CAM practices in the world and there are suggestions that its holistic utilization is important for users to gain its effects for health promotion. In this context, this study investigates the extent to which TEAM users in East Asian countries utilize various modalities of TEAM holistically. It provides a model that explains cross-national differences in the extent of the holistic use of TEAM between China, Japan, Korea and Taiwan. Using the 2010 East Asian Social Survey, regression models specify the relationship between the holistic use of TEAM and the geographical location (country). The presence of TEAM doctors who hold the comprehensive and exclusive practice rights over TEAM is found to be conducive to the holistic utilization of various TEAM modalities. Thus, Taiwanese and Koreans use TEAM more holistically than Chinese and even more so than Japanese. The result suggests that the manner in which TEAM is institutionalized affect the extent to which TEAM users utilize various TEAM modalities together and potentially the health promotion effects of TEAM. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Puhl, R M; Latner, J D; O'Brien, K; Luedicke, J; Forhan, M; Danielsdottir, S
No cross-national studies have examined public perceptions about weight-based bullying in youth. To conduct a multinational examination of public views about (i) the prevalence/seriousness of weight-based bullying in youth; (ii) the role of parents, educators, health providers and government in addressing this problem and (iii) implementing policy actions to reduce weight-based bullying. A cross-sectional survey of adults in the United States, Canada, Iceland and Australia (N = 2866). Across all countries, weight-based bullying was identified as the most prevalent reason for youth bullying, by a substantial margin over other forms of bullying (race/ethnicity, sexual orientation and religion). Participants viewed parents and teachers as playing major roles in efforts to reduce weight-based bullying. Most participants across countries (77-94%) viewed healthcare providers to be important intervention agents. Participants (65-87%) supported government augmentation of anti-bullying laws to include prohibiting weight-based bullying. Women expressed higher agreement for policy actions than men, with no associations found for participants' race/ethnicity or weight. Causal beliefs about obesity were associated with policy support across countries. Across countries, strong recognition exists of weight-based bullying and the need to address it. These findings may inform policy-level actions and clinical practices concerning youth vulnerable to weight-based bullying. © 2015 World Obesity.
Jared B. Fitzgerald
Full Text Available Water scarcity is an important social and ecological issue that is becoming increasingly problematic with the onset of climate change. This study explores the extent to which water resources in developing countries are affected by the vertical flow of exports to high-income countries. In examining this question, the authors engage the sociological theory of ecologically unequal exchange, which argues that high-income countries are able to partially externalize the environmental costs of their consumption to lower-income countries. The authors use a relatively new and underutilized measure of water usage, the water footprint, which quantifies the amount of water used in the entire production process. Ordinary least squares (OLS and robust regression techniques are employed in the cross-national analysis of 138 countries. The results provide partial support of the propositions of ecologically unequal exchange theory. In particular, the results highlight the importance of structural position in the global economy for understanding the effects of trade on water resources.
Full Text Available Background: Consistent with the deinstitutionalization-of-marriage thesis, studies report a decline in support for marital conventions and increased approval of other relationship types. Generalizations are limited by the lack of cross-national research for a broad domain of attitudes on marriage and alternative arrangements, and by the lack of consensus on what counts as evidence. Objective: Acknowledging the conceptual distinction between expectations for behavior inside and outside marriage, we address the deinstitutionalization debate by testing whether support for marital conventions has declined for a range of attitudes across countries. Methods: Based on eleven International Social Survey Program items replicated between the late 1980s and the 2000s, OLS regressions evaluate attitude changes in up to 21 countries. Results: Consistent with the deinstitutionalization argument, disapproval declined for marital alternatives (cohabitation, unmarried parents, premarital and same-sex sex. For attitudes on the behavior of married people and the nature of marriage the results are mixed: despite a shift away from gender specialization, disapproval of extramarital sex increased over time. On most items, most countries changed as predicted by the deinstitutionalization thesis. Conclusions: Attitude changes on 'new relationships' and marital alternatives are compatible with the deinstitutionalization of marriage. Beliefs arguably more central to the marital institution do not conform as neatly to this thesis. Because results are sensitive to the indicators used, the deinstitutionalization of marriage argument merits greater empirical and conceptual attention.
Stack, Steven; Kposowa, Augustine J
Four perspectives (moral community thesis, religious integration, religious commitment, and social networks) guide the selection of variables in this study. Data are from the combined World Values/European Values Surveys for 2000 (50,547 individuals nested in 56 nations). The results of a multivariate hierarchical linear model support all four perspectives. Persons residing in nations with relatively high levels of religiosity, who are affiliated with one of four major faiths, are religiously committed, and are engaged with a religious network are found to be lower in suicide acceptability. The religious integration perspective, in particular, is empirically supported; affiliation with Islam is associated with low suicide acceptability. The findings provide strong support for an integrated model and demonstrate the usefulness of the moral community thesis in understanding suicide acceptability.
Full Text Available The transportation infrastructure plays a significant role in the development of agriculture. In this study we examine the relationship between transport and agricultural performance by employing the World Bank’s roads infrastructure indicators. Based on a cross-country sample, a classic method is employed to test the hypothesis that better transport fosters agricultural productivity. The empirical results of the method support the hypothesis. As for this method, the estimation results of the widely-used inter-country aggregate agricultural production function describe that a country with better transport can produce more agricultural outputs given the same amounts of agricultural inputs and the same education level. Our empirical work lends support to the claim of Gollin and Rogerson (2010  that transport is a basic factor explaining the poor economic performance of many developing countries, apart from physical and education investments, more emphasis should be placed on improving the transport infrastructure of these countries.
Ajrouch, Kristine J; Fuller, Heather R; Akiyama, Hiroko; Antonucci, Toni C
This study examines national variations in social networks among older adults across 4 countries in diverse regions of the world: Japan, Lebanon, Mexico, and the United States. The aim is to provide insights into universal as well as unique attributes of social networks in later life. The analyses examine convoy characteristics among adults aged 50+ in metropolitan areas of Japan (N = 557), Lebanon (N = 284), Mexico (N = 556), and the United States (N = 583). Data were collected using the hierarchical mapping technique on representative samples in each locale. Multilevel models were conducted by nation to examine whether convoy characteristics vary by age and closeness. Network size and geographic proximity were dimensions of social networks sensitive to national context. By contrast, how age and feelings of closeness varied with contact frequency and the presence of children in networks revealed universal patterns. Furthermore, feelings of closeness varied by age with regard to size and contact frequency in Lebanon, proximity in Japan, and composition in Mexico. Identifying universal and unique characteristics of social networks in later life provide a preliminary empirical basis upon which to advance a global perspective on convoys of social relations and how they inform policies that can facilitate health and well-being among middle-aged and older people around the world.
Abayomi, Kobi; Pizarro, Gonzalo
We offer a straightforward framework for measurement of progress, across many dimensions, using cross-national social indices, which we classify as linear combinations of multivariate country level data onto a univariate score. We suggest a Bayesian approach which yields probabilistic (confidence type) intervals for the point estimates of country…
Zielke, Stephan; Komor, Marcin
This paper analyzes differences in price–role orientations between economically developed and emerging markets and how these differences influence store brand and store format preferences. It extends cross-national research on price–role orientations by (1) focusing on culturally similar...
R. Kloppenburg; V. Gevorgianiene; V. Jakutiene; Peter Hendriks
This article presents the results of a pilot of a cross-national learning process within the context of social work education. The pilot was carried out in the electronic environment by students from four European universities (Hogeschool Utrecht, Sheffield, Tartu and Vilnius). The analysis of the
Ligorio, Maria Beatrice; van Veen, Klaas
Virtual environments are more and more used in primary schools. One of the most interesting potentialities of these environments is to foster cross-national applications. Yet, this specific feature is not fully exploited. This paper presents a successful virtual learning environment for primary
Herché, Joel; Swenson, Michael; Verbeke, Willem
textabstractEvaluates transportability of personal selling measures across cultural boundaries. Concept of measurement development; Emic and etic approaches to developing measures for cross-cultural applications; Cross-national dimensionality, reliability and construct validity of adaptive selling (ADAPTS) and customer-oriented selling (SOCO).
Lee, Kristen Schultz; Ono, Hiroshi
The authors investigated how the reported happiness of married and cohabiting individuals varies cross-nationally with societal gender beliefs and religious context. They used the 2002 International Social Survey Programme data from 27 countries (N = 36,889) and specified hierarchical linear models with macro-micro level interactions in order to…
This paper examines cross-national differences in the labour force attachment of two specific subgroups of mothers: the stay-at-home mothers (homemakers) and those on maternity or parental leave. The justification for focusing on homemakers is that these women constitute an untapped source of labour
van der Veer, C.G.; Ommundsen, R.; Yakushko, O.; Higler, L.E.A.; Woelders, S.; Hagen, K.A.
The article reports the results of a Mokken Scale Procedure (MSP) developing a hierarchical cross-national scale to measure xenophobia, and a qualitative validation of this scale. A pool of 30 xenophobic scale items were collected from several sources and edited according to established
Nivette, Amy E.; Eisner, Manuel
This research is concerned with developing and testing models of political legitimacy as a predictor of homicide on the cross-national level. Specifically, we used Bruce Gilley’s (2006) theoretically driven indicator of political legitimacy to examine its direct and moderating effects on homicide.
Treas, Judith; van der Lippe, Tanja; Tai, Tsui-o Chloe
A long-standing debate questions whether homemakers or working wives are happier. Drawing on cross-national data for 28 countries, this research uses multi-level models to provide fresh evidence on this controversy. All things considered, homemakers are slightly happier than wives who work fulltime, but they have no advantage over part-time…
Dückers, M.L.A.; Alisic, E.; Brewin, C.R.
Background: Determinants of cross-national differences in the prevalence of mental illness are poorly understood. Aims: To test whether national post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) rates can be explained by (a) rates of exposure to trauma and (b) countries’ overall cultural and socioeconomic
Arrindell, W.A.; Hatzichristou, C; Wensink, J; Rosenberg, E; van Twillert, B; Stedema, J; Meijer, D
The value of predicting cross-national variations in Subjective Well-Being (SWB) from Hofstede's dimensions of national culture (1980) was examined using data collected in 36 nations; The Hofstede dimensions were: Individualism-Collectivism (IDV), Power Distance (PDI), Masculinity-Femininity (MAS),
P.A. Dykstra (Pearl)
textabstractFocusing mostly on Europe,this overview reveals how the research on cross-national differences in intergenerational family relations has movedfrombasic descriptions to a focus on understanding how support exchanges are shaped by macro-level processes.A key issue concerns generational
Bioenergy is expected to play a significant role in the global energy mix of the next decades, transforming the current fossil fuel-based economy into a low-carbon energy economy. There is a significant research gap in our understanding of the societal aspects of bioenergy and it becomes even limited in the context of evaluating young citizens' awareness of bioenergy from an international perspective. This dissertation has investigated young students' knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes related to bioenergy with the help of cross-national data and used statistical models to explain their intentions to use bioenergy. A self-constructed survey instrument was used in the study to collect data from 15-year-old 1903 school students in Finland, Taiwan, Turkey, and Slovakia. The study found that the majority of the students appeared to have basic level of bioenergy knowledge, whereas only a minority among them demonstrated a higher level of such knowledge. The study did not reveal any statistically significant gender and living area differences related to the students' knowledge of bioenergy. The students appeared to be very critical in their perceptions of forest-based bioenergy production; however, they demonstrated their positive attitudes to bioenergy including their intentions to use it in the future. It became apparent that the students with a higher level of bioenergy-knowledge were more critical in terms of their both perceptions of and attitudes to bioenergy than those with a shallow knowledge of it. The study has found that school, home, and media discussions of bioenergy, as perceived by the Finnish students, have significant effects on their knowledge, perceptions and attitudes related to bioenergy. One of the most significant findings to emerge from this study is the key dimensions of the students' perceptions of and attitudes to bioenergy. The study found three key dimensions from the cross-national data depicting different facets of the students
Bioenergy is expected to play a significant role in the global energy mix of the next decades, transforming the current fossil fuel-based economy into a low-carbon energy economy. There is a significant research gap in our understanding of the societal aspects of bioenergy and it becomes even limited in the context of evaluating young citizens' awareness of bioenergy from an international perspective. This dissertation has investigated young students' knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes related to bioenergy with the help of cross-national data and used statistical models to explain their intentions to use bioenergy. A self-constructed survey instrument was used in the study to collect data from 15-year-old 1903 school students in Finland, Taiwan, Turkey, and Slovakia. The study found that the majority of the students appeared to have basic level of bioenergy knowledge, whereas only a minority among them demonstrated a higher level of such knowledge. The study did not reveal any statistically significant gender and living area differences related to the students' knowledge of bioenergy. The students appeared to be very critical in their perceptions of forest-based bioenergy production; however, they demonstrated their positive attitudes to bioenergy including their intentions to use it in the future. It became apparent that the students with a higher level of bioenergy-knowledge were more critical in terms of their both perceptions of and attitudes to bioenergy than those with a shallow knowledge of it. The study has found that school, home, and media discussions of bioenergy, as perceived by the Finnish students, have significant effects on their knowledge, perceptions and attitudes related to bioenergy. One of the most significant findings to emerge from this study is the key dimensions of the students' perceptions of and attitudes to bioenergy. The study found three key dimensions from the cross-national data depicting different facets of
Full Text Available To develop an innovative information and communication technology (ICT tool intended to help older people in their search for optimal housing solutions, a first step in the development process is to gain knowledge from the intended users. Thus the aim of this study was to deepen the knowledge about needs and expectations about housing options as expressed and prioritized by older people, people ageing with disabilities and professionals. A participatory design focus was adopted; 26 people with a range of functional limitations representing the user perspective and 15 professionals with a variety of backgrounds, participated in research circles that were conducted in four European countries. An additional 20 experts were invited as guests to the different research circle meetings. Three themes illustrating cross-national user priorities for housing provision and accessibility were identified: “Information barrier: accessible housing”, “Information barrier: housing adaptation benefits”, and “Cost barrier: housing adaptations”. In conclusion, early user involvement and identification of cross-national differences in priorities and housing options will strengthen the development of a user-friendly ICT tool that can empower older people and people with disabilities to be more active consumers regarding housing provision.
Steenstrup, S; dalle Rose, LFD; Jones, WG; Tugulea, L; van Steenwijk, FJ
What are the differences and similarities between physics studies at different universities across Europe (here the definition of Europe is broad)? How much does a student have to work to obtain a degree in physics? Questions like those prompted EUPEN (European Physics Education Network) to make a
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the global obesity epidemic, few studies have performed cross-national comparisons of adolescents' attempts to lose weight and weight control practices. This study aims to investigate matters mentioned above by weight status in Europe, Israel, and North America. Methods Nationally representative samples of adolescents from over 30 countries completed an anonymous, standardized questionnaire as part of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children 2001/2002 survey. The prevalence and likelihood of attempts to lose weight were determined. The effect of weight status, self-perception of overweight, age and country of residence upon the likelihood of current attempts to lose weight were evaluated using multilevel multivariate logistic regression in separate analyses for boys and girls. The study also presented the prevalence of weight control practices of overweight and non-overweight adolescents who had controlled their weight in seven countries. Results In general, overweight and obese adolescents were more likely to be engaged in current attempts to lose weight and had tried to control their weight during the past 12 months more often than non-overweight adolescents. Besides weight status, self-perception of overweight and age were significant individual-level factors determining current attempts to lose weight. Country of residence was a significant second-level factor but no clear geographical pattern was found. Several gender-related differences existed. Conclusion The findings indicated that most overweight adolescents were motivated to reduce their weight. The importance of promoting a healthy body image for all adolescents was highlighted by the fact that self-perception of overweight was found to be the most important factor leading to attempts to lose weight.
Kim, Daniel; Baum, Christopher F; Ganz, Michael L; Subramanian, S V; Kawachi, Ichiro
Past research on the associations between area-level/contextual social capital and health has produced conflicting evidence. However, interpreting this rapidly growing literature is difficult because estimates using conventional regression are prone to major sources of bias including residual confounding and reverse causation. Instrumental variable (IV) analysis can reduce such bias. Using data on up to 167,344 adults in 64 nations in the European and World Values Surveys and applying IV and ordinary least squares (OLS) regression, we estimated the contextual effects of country-level social trust on individual self-rated health. We further explored whether these associations varied by gender and individual levels of trust. Using OLS regression, we found higher average country-level trust to be associated with better self-rated health in both women and men. Instrumental variable analysis yielded qualitatively similar results, although the estimates were more than double in size in both sexes when country population density and corruption were used as instruments. The estimated health effects of raising the percentage of a country's population that trusts others by 10 percentage points were at least as large as the estimated health effects of an individual developing trust in others. These findings were robust to alternative model specifications and instruments. Conventional regression and to a lesser extent IV analysis suggested that these associations are more salient in women and in women reporting social trust. In a large cross-national study, our findings, including those using instrumental variables, support the presence of beneficial effects of higher country-level trust on self-rated health. Previous findings for contextual social capital using traditional regression may have underestimated the true associations. Given the close linkages between self-rated health and all-cause mortality, the public health gains from raising social capital within and across
Scott, K M; Lim, C C W; Hwang, I; Adamowski, T; Al-Hamzawi, A; Bromet, E; Bunting, B; Ferrand, M P; Florescu, S; Gureje, O; Hinkov, H; Hu, C; Karam, E; Lee, S; Posada-Villa, J; Stein, D; Tachimori, H; Viana, M C; Xavier, M; Kessler, R C
This is the first cross-national study of intermittent explosive disorder (IED). A total of 17 face-to-face cross-sectional household surveys of adults were conducted in 16 countries (n = 88 063) as part of the World Mental Health Surveys initiative. The World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0) assessed DSM-IV IED, using a conservative definition. Lifetime prevalence of IED ranged across countries from 0.1 to 2.7% with a weighted average of 0.8%; 0.4 and 0.3% met criteria for 12-month and 30-day prevalence, respectively. Sociodemographic correlates of lifetime risk of IED were being male, young, unemployed, divorced or separated, and having less education. The median age of onset of IED was 17 years with an interquartile range across countries of 13-23 years. The vast majority (81.7%) of those with lifetime IED met criteria for at least one other lifetime disorder; co-morbidity was highest with alcohol abuse and depression. Of those with 12-month IED, 39% reported severe impairment in at least one domain, most commonly social or relationship functioning. Prior traumatic experiences involving physical (non-combat) or sexual violence were associated with increased risk of IED onset. Conservatively defined, IED is a low prevalence disorder but this belies the true societal costs of IED in terms of the effects of explosive anger attacks on families and relationships. IED is more common among males, the young, the socially disadvantaged and among those with prior exposure to violence, especially in childhood.
Randomized, interventional, prospective, comparative study to evaluate the antihypertensive efficacy and tolerability of ramipril versus telmisartan in stage 1 hypertensive patients with diabetes mellitus.
Thompson, Lindsay A; Goodman, David C; Little, George A
Despite high per capita health care expenditure, the United States has crude infant survival rates that are lower than similarly developed nations. Although differences in vital recording and socioeconomic risk have been studied, a systematic, cross-national comparison of perinatal health care systems is lacking. To characterize systems of reproductive care for the United States, Australia, Canada, and the United Kingdom, including a detailed analysis of neonatal intensive care and mortality. Comparison of selected indicators of reproductive care and mortality from 1993-2000 through a systematic review of journal and government publications and structured interviews of leaders in perinatal and neonatal care. Compared with the other 3 countries, the United States has more neonatal intensive care resources yet provides proportionately less support for preconception and prenatal care. Unlike the United States, the other countries provided free family planning services and prenatal and perinatal physician care, and the United Kingdom and Australia paid for all contraception. The United States has high neonatal intensive care capacity, with 6.1 neonatologists per 10 000 live births; Australia, 3.7; Canada, 3.3; and the United Kingdom, 2.7. For intensive care beds, the United States has 3.3 per 10 000 live births; Australia and Canada, 2.6; and the United Kingdom, 0.67. Greater neonatal intensive care resources were not consistently associated with lower birth weight-specific mortality. The relative risk (United States as reference) of neonatal mortality for infants birth weight rates were notably higher in the United States, partially explaining the high crude mortality rates. The United States has significantly greater neonatal intensive care resources per capita, compared with 3 other developed countries, without having consistently better birth weight-specific mortality. Despite low birth weight rates that exceed other countries, the United States has proportionately
de Jonge, Peter; Roest, Annelieke M.; Lim, Carmen C.W.; Florescu, Silvia E.; Bromet, Evelyn; Stein, Dan; Harris, Meredith; Nakov, Vladimir; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; Levinson, Daphna; Al-Hamzawi, Ali O.; Haro, Josep Maria; Viana, Maria Carmen; Borges, Gui; O’Neill, Siobhan; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Demyttenaere, Koen; Gureje, Oye; Iwata, Noboru; Lee, Sing; Hu, Chiyi; Karam, Aimee; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Browne, Mark Oakley; Piazza, Maria; Posada-Villa, José; Torres, Yolanda; ten Have, Margreet L.; Kessler, Ronald C.; Scott, Kate M.
Context The scarcity of cross-national reports and the changes in DSM-5 regarding panic disorder (PD) and panic attacks (PAs) call for new epidemiological data on PD and PAs and its subtypes in the general population. Objective To present representative data about the cross-national epidemiology of PD and PAs in accordance with DSM-5 definitions. Design and Setting Nationally representative cross-sectional surveys using the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0. Participants Respondents (n=142,949) from 25 high, middle and lower-middle income countries across the world aged 18 years or older. Main Outcome Measures PD and presence of single and recurrent PAs. Results Lifetime prevalence of PAs was 13.2% (s.e. 0.1%). Among persons that ever had a PA, the majority had recurrent PAs (66.5%; s.e. 0.5%), while only 12.8% fulfilled DSM-5 criteria for PD. Recurrent PAs were associated with a subsequent onset of a variety of mental disorders (OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.8–2.2) and their course (OR 1.3; 95% CI 1.2–2.4) whereas single PAs were not (OR 1.1; 95% CI 0.9–1.3 and OR 0.7; 95% CI 0.6–0.8). Cross-national lifetime prevalence estimates were 1.7% (s.e. 0.0%) for PD with a median age of onset of 32 (IQR 20–47). Some 80.4% of persons with lifetime PD had a lifetime comorbid mental disorder. Conclusions We extended previous epidemiological data to a cross-national context. The presence of recurrent PAs in particular is associated with subsequent onset and course of mental disorders beyond agoraphobia and PD, and might serve as a generic risk marker for psychopathology. PMID:27775828
Mair, Christine A
Although previous research theorizes that cross-national variation in the relationship between family ties and health is due to nation-level differences in culture and policy/economics, no study has examined this theorization empirically. Using data from the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), this study uses multilevel modeling to analyze individual-, nation-, and cross-level effects for 30,291 older adults in 14 nations. Family ties to spouses/partners and parents are associated with better health, but ties to coresident children are associated with poorer health in certain contexts. Familistic culture and public pension spending have a weak but statistically significant moderating effect on the relationship between intergenerational family ties and health. This article underscores the complexity of family and highlights the need for continued theorization and measurement at the nation level to promote older adults' health in diverse contexts.
The objective of this study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of smear and culture methods with rapid serological EIA myco kits manufactured by Omega diagnostics, for the early detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) complex. Sera from various categories of smear and culture results were compared ...
Porte, Caroline de la; van Dalen, Arjen
This paper studies the Europeanization of media coverage of the European Union's (EU) socio-economic strategy, which is a crucial building block for developing a European Public Sphere. As the EU level increasingly influences public policy in member states, there should correspondingly be a more...... intense and visible media debate with attention for EU-level and cross-national policies and developments. On the basis of a content analysis (2000–2010) in Denmark, France, Poland and the UK, we find that media attention for the EU's growth and jobs strategy is limited, that it does not increase over...... in terms of benchmarking and reporting on criticism and advice to member states. This criticism is more often diffuse than aimed at specific member states. Therefore, we conclude that media coverage of the EU's socio-economic strategy is Europeanized, but that it remains a debate by and for EU...
Most scholars argue that cross-national research is indispensable for establishing the generalizability of theories and the validity of interpretations derived from single-nation studies. Another important aspect of comparative studies is that they force us to test our interpretations against cross-cultural diferences and inconsistencies. In journalism studies, the advantages of cross-national research are obvious. While the empirical inquiry into news-making has generated a vast quantity of ...
Koundinya, Sridarshan Umesh
inter-relationships among various elements at different levels of the policy design map in a cross-national context. The study adds value with a comprehensive design map that helps to organize and give coherence to the policy prescriptions made by Indian experts as they converge on one institutional model. Thus the dissertation contributes to the transfer of knowledge about regulatory practice from the US to India.
Wagner RODRIGUES VALENTE
Full Text Available This paper has as its aims: to characterize the area of research «history of mathematics education» and to defend the idea that mathematics education has constituted a privileged research theme within the field of comparative historical studies. To achieve these aims, the text includes references to a review of the literature concerning comparative studies, the analysis of two fundamental moments focused on attempts to internationalize the mathematics curriculum, both of which occurred during the 20th century, and, to end, a case study emanating from an international cooperation between researchers in Brazil and Portugal.
The study was designed to compare the bioethanol production from Zymomonas mobilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae using molasses as production medium. The focus was on the retention time at lab scale. Bioethanol and petroleum blend can be used in existing gasoline engines. Present study showed a more ...
Page 1. Supplementary data: Comparative studies on sequence characteristics around translation initiation codon in four eukaryotes. Qingpo Liu and Qingzhong Xue. J. Genet. 84, 317–322. Table 1. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients of 39 base positions around the AUG codon in the four eukaryotic species studied.
Wu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Chun
Title: A Comparative Study on Error Analysis Subtitle: - Belgian (L1) and Danish (L1) learners’ use of Chinese (L2) comparative sentences in written production Xiaoli Wu, Chun Zhang Abstract: Making errors is an inevitable and necessary part of learning. The collection, classification and analysis...... the occurrence of errors either in linguistic or pedagogical terms. The purpose of the current study is to demonstrate the theoretical and practical relevance of error analysis approach in CFL by investigating two cases - (1) Belgian (L1) learners’ use of Chinese (L2) comparative sentences in written production...... of errors in the written and spoken production of L2 learners has a long tradition in L2 pedagogy. Yet, in teaching and learning Chinese as a foreign language (CFL), only handful studies have been made either to define the ‘error’ in a pedagogically insightful way or to empirically investigate...
Bouvin, Niels Olof; Brodersen, Ann Christina; Bødker, Susanne
We present a study comparing the handling of three kinds of maps, each on a physical device: a paper map, a tablet-PC based map, and a cellular phone based one. Six groups of users were asked to locate eight landmarks, looking out a window, and using a particular map. We have begun analyzing video...
A comparative study of microbiological and physicochemical characteristics of water distributed from two water treatment plants in Rwanda. ... Thus, as recommendation to WASAC authority, there is a need for improvement in the water management strategy for better water quality especially along the distribution network.
Amore, Paolo; Aranda, Alfredo; De Pace, Arturo; Lopez, Jorge A.
We perform a study of various anharmonic potentials using a recently developed method. We calculate both the wave functions and the energy eigenvalues for the ground and first excited states of the quartic, sextic and octic potentials with high precision, comparing the results with other techniques available in the literature
Comparative study of potato cultivation through micropropagation and conventional farming methods .... and Murate potash were used as fertilizer source of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, respectively (Table 1) ..... through Tissue culture- Application and Feasibility. U.S.D.A.,. Beltsville. Agric. Res. Sci. Educ. Admin.
The purpose of this study was to introduce the Education System of the United States of America (USA) and to compare it with the Turkish Education System. The Education System of the United States of America was held from different factors (e.g., education structure, curriculum and instruction, principal selection, educational supervision, special education ,teacher education, finance for education, international examinations, vs.) and these factors were explained under headlines in the study...
Momota, H.; Tomita, Y.; Nomura, Y.
For the purpose of comparing the merits and demerits of various advanced fuel cycles, parametric studies of operation conditions are examined. The effects of nuclear elastic collisions and synchrotron radiation are taken into account. It is found that the high-#betta# Catalyzed DD fuel cycle with the transmutation of fusion-produced tritium into helium-3 is most feasible from the point of view of neutron production and tritium handling. The D-D fuel cycles seem to be less attractive compared to the Catalyzed DD. The p- 11 B and p- 6 Li fusion plasmas hardly attain the plasma Q value relevant to reactors. (author)
Zulhaimi, H. I.; Rosli, I. R.; Kasim, K. F.; Akmal, H. Muhammad; Nuradibah, M. A.; Sam, S. T.
In recent year, bioactive compound in plant has become a limelight in the food and pharmaceutical market, leading to research interest to implement effective technologies for extracting bioactive substance. Therefore, this study is focusing on extraction of Averrhoabilimbi by different extraction technique namely, maceration and ultrasound-assisted extraction. Fewplant partsof Averrhoabilimbiweretaken as extraction samples which are fruits, leaves and twig. Different solvents such as methanol, ethanol and distilled water were utilized in the process. Fruit extractsresult in highest extraction yield compared to other plant parts. Ethanol and distilled water have significant role compared to methanol in all parts and both extraction technique. The result also shows that ultrasound-assisted extraction gave comparable result with maceration. Besides, the shorter period on extraction process gives useful in term of implementation to industries.
Health and environmental impacts associated with energy production and industrial activities as well as food production and agricultural activities have had great concern in the last decades. Early activities emerged in late 80s of the last century through an Inter- Agency project (lAEA, UNDY, WHO, ... ) on the comparative risk assessment from energy systems and industrial complexes. A work-shop on Risk Assessment and Management in large industrial areas was held in Alexandria Egypt on 20-33 Det 1993, sponsored by IAEA. Several conferences, experts work groups and workshops were held there of Recent trends in determining risks are: 1. Use of probabilistic risk assessment approach to identify hazardous activities and accident scenario. 2. development of data base on failure probabilities and appropriate physical models. 3. Development of related directives and regulations and criteria Comparative risk assessment case study as a tool for comparing risk is emphasized Criteria of exposure to human and ecological risks are addressed
Full Text Available Early indication of bancruptcy is important for a company. If companies aware of potency of their bancruptcy, they can take a preventive action to anticipate the bancruptcy. In order to detect the potency of a bancruptcy, a company can utilize a a model of bancruptcy prediction. The prediction model can be built using a machine learning methods. However, the choice of machine learning methods should be performed carefully. Because the suitability of a model depends on the problem specifically. Therefore, in this paper we perform a comparative study of several machine leaning methods for bancruptcy prediction. According to the comparative study, the performance of several models that based on machine learning methods (k-NN, fuzzy k-NN, SVM, Bagging Nearest Neighbour SVM, Multilayer Perceptron(MLP, Hybrid of MLP + Multiple Linear Regression, it can be showed that fuzzy k-NN method achieve the best performance with accuracy 77.5%
Branco, JA; Croux, Christophe; Filzmoser, P; Oliveira, MR
Several approaches for robust canonical correlation analysis will be presented and discussed. A first method is based on the definition of canonical correlation analysis as looking for linear combinations of two sets of variables having maximal (robust) correlation. A second method is based on alternating robust regressions. These methods axe discussed in detail and compared with the more traditional approach to robust canonical correlation via covariance matrix estimates. A simulation study ...
Yang, Liang; Yang, Hao; Yan, Shiqiang; Ma, Qingwei; Bihnam, Maria
This paper presents a comparative numerical study for the water impact problems due to dropping of triangular wedges or ship sections. In the numerical investigation, both the dynamic mesh technique and immersed boundary method adopting fixed Cartesian grids have been adopted in order to conform to the motion of the structure. For the former, a multiple-phase solver with the volume of fluid for identifying the free surface is implemented. In the simulation using this method, both the compress...
Full Text Available The paper presents a comparative study of the performance of single-acting cylinders, diaphragm cylinders and pneumatic muscles, and offers users information that allows the selection of an optimum technical solution. Such a study was necessary, in view of the numerous papers on pneumatic muscle applications found in literature, that assert the superiority of pneumatic muscles over other pneumatic linear motors in relation to quantities like dimensions, mass, developed force or energy-to-mass ratios, however without offering concrete data.
Degani, A; Asfour, S S; Waly, S M; Koshy, J G
In the present study a modified shovel design with two perpendicular shafts is presented. This modified, two-shaft shovel was compared with a regular shovel. The modified shovel was evaluated and tested in a controlled laboratory environment using surface electromyography recorded from the lumbar paraspinal muscles. The new shovel design was also tested in a field study using ratings of perceived exertion. The results indicate that there was a significant reduction in EMG values of the lumbar paraspinal muscles and a consistent reduction in perceived exertion ratings while the modified shovel was being used for removing dirt in digging trenches up to 90 cm in depth.
Kagan, V E
Etiopathogenesis of the childhood autism syndrome of a non-process nature is discussed on the basis of a comparative study of 156 children aged from 3 to 16 years. In the etiological complex there is a prevalence of early exogenous-organic noxious factors, which is reflected in disturbances of mental divelopment, maturation of the system of hemispheric pair work. The data of follow-up studies and treatment confirm a conclusion about a residual-organic basis in the syndrome of childhood autism.
Bécares, Laia; Nazroo, James; Jackson, James; Heuvelman, Hein
Studies indicate an ethnic density effect, whereby an increase in the proportion of racial/ethnic minority people in an area is associated with reduced morbidity among its residents, though evidence is varied. Discrepancies may arise due to differences in the reasons for and periods of migration, and socioeconomic profiles of the racial/ethnic groups and the places where they live. It is important to increase our understanding of how these factors might promote or mitigate ethnic density effects. Cross-national comparative analyses might help in this respect, as they provide greater heterogeneity in historical and contemporary characteristics in the populations of interest, and it is when we consider this heterogeneity in the contexts of peoples’ lives that we can more fully understand how social conditions and neighbourhood environments influence the health of migrant and racial/ethnic minority populations. This study analysed two cross-sectional nationally representative surveys, in the US and in England, to explore and contrast the association between two ethnic density measures (black and Caribbean ethnic density) and health and experienced racism among Caribbean people. Results of multilevel logistic regressions show that nominally similar measures of ethnic density perform differently across health outcomes and measures of experienced racism in the two countries. In the US, increased Caribbean ethnic density was associated with improved health and decreased experienced racism, but the opposite was observed in England. On the other hand, increased black ethnic density was associated with improved health and decreased experienced racism of Caribbean English (results not statistically significant), but not of Caribbean Americans. By comparing mutually adjusted Caribbean and black ethnic density effects in the US and England, this study examined the social construction of race and ethnicity as it depends on the racialised and stigmatised meaning attributed to
Bécares, Laia; Nazroo, James; Jackson, James; Heuvelman, Hein
Studies indicate an ethnic density effect, whereby an increase in the proportion of racial/ethnic minority people in an area is associated with reduced morbidity among its residents, though evidence is varied. Discrepancies may arise due to differences in the reasons for and periods of migration, and socioeconomic profiles of the racial/ethnic groups and the places where they live. It is important to increase our understanding of how these factors might promote or mitigate ethnic density effects. Cross-national comparative analyses might help in this respect, as they provide greater heterogeneity in historical and contemporary characteristics in the populations of interest, and it is when we consider this heterogeneity in the contexts of peoples' lives that we can more fully understand how social conditions and neighbourhood environments influence the health of migrant and racial/ethnic minority populations. This study analysed two cross-sectional nationally representative surveys, in the US and in England, to explore and contrast the association between two ethnic density measures (black and Caribbean ethnic density) and health and experienced racism among Caribbean people. Results of multilevel logistic regressions show that nominally similar measures of ethnic density perform differently across health outcomes and measures of experienced racism in the two countries. In the US, increased Caribbean ethnic density was associated with improved health and decreased experienced racism, but the opposite was observed in England. On the other hand, increased black ethnic density was associated with improved health and decreased experienced racism of Caribbean English (results not statistically significant), but not of Caribbean Americans. By comparing mutually adjusted Caribbean and black ethnic density effects in the US and England, this study examined the social construction of race and ethnicity as it depends on the racialised and stigmatised meaning attributed to it
CROSS-NATIONAL TRANSFERABILITY OF THE 2-FACTOR MODEL OF PARENTAL REARING BEHAVIOR - A CONTRAST OF DATA FROM CANADA, THE FEDERAL-REPUBLIC-OF-GERMANY, HUNGARY, JAPAN, SINGAPORE AND VENEZUELA WITH DUTCH TARGET RATINGS ON THE EMBU
ARRINDELL, WA; PERRIS, C; EISEMANN, M; DEALDAZ, EG; VANDERENDE, J; GUAN, DKS; RICHTER, J; GASZNER, P; IWAWAKI, S; BARON, P; JOUBERT, N; PRUDHOMME, L
In order to contribute to the cross-cultural study of child-rearing practices and psychopathology, this pilot study sought to examine the cross-national generalizability of parental rearing constructs by analyzing self-report data on the EMBU, an instrument designed to assess memories of parental
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess five daylighting calculation method commonly used in architectural study. The methods used include hand calculation methods (SNI/DPMB method and BRE Daylighting Protractors, scale models studied in an artificial sky simulator and computer programs using Dialux and Velux lighting software. The test room is conditioned by the uniform sky conditions, simple room geometry with variations of the room reflectance (black, grey, and white color. The analyses compared the result (including daylight factor, illumination, and coefficient of uniformity value and examines the similarity and contrast the result different. The color variations trial is used to analyses the internally reflection factor contribution to the result.
More than a decade ago the development of comparative risk assessment studies aroused overwhelming interest. There was no doubt that data on the health and safety aspects of energy systems would greatly benefit, or even end, the debate on nuclear energy. Although such attempts are still strongly supported, the rose-coloured expectations of the early days have faded. The high uncertainties, and the contradictory aspect, of the first results might explain this evolution. The loose connection between the range of computed risk indices and the questions on which the debate was focused is another reason for this decline in interest. Important research work is being carried out aiming at reducing the different kinds of uncertainties. Rather than the uncertainties, the paper considers the meaning of available risk indices and proposes more significant indices with respect to the goals of risk assessment. First, the indices which are of frequent use in comparative studies are listed. The stress is put on a French comparative study from which most examples are drawn. Secondly, the increase in magnitude of the indices and the decrease in the attributability of the risk to a given system is shown to be a consequence of the trend towards more comprehensive analyses. Thirdly, the ambiguity of such indices as the collective occupational risk is underlined, and a possible solution is suggested. Whenever risk assessments are related to pragmatic decision making problems it is possible to find satisfactory risk indices. The development of cost-effectiveness analyses and the proposals for quantitative safety goals clearly demonstrate this point. In the field of comparison of social impacts some proposals are made, but there remain some gaps still to be filled. (author)
Goldman, Ronald; Goldman, Juliette
The purpose of this cross-national descriptive study is to measure the extent of children's sexual knowledge and sexual understanding at various ages and to identify what processes of thought children use in trying to explain biological functions and the phenomena of their own bodies as they grow and change. Sexual thinking is defined as thinking…
Borah, Deva K.; Horan, Stephen
This report presents a comparative study on Enhanced Feher's Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (EFQPSK) and Constrained Envelope Root Nyquist (CERN) techniques. These two techniques have been developed in recent times to provide high spectral and power efficiencies under nonlinear amplifier environment. The purpose of this study is to gain insights into these techniques and to help system planners and designers with an appropriate set of guidelines for using these techniques. The comparative study presented in this report relies on effective simulation models and procedures. Therefore, a significant part of this report is devoted to understanding the mathematical and simulation models of the techniques and their set-up procedures. In particular, mathematical models of EFQPSK and CERN, effects of the sampling rate in discrete time signal representation, and modeling of nonlinear amplifiers and predistorters have been considered in detail. The results of this study show that both EFQPSK and CERN signals provide spectrally efficient communications compared to filtered conventional linear modulation techniques when a nonlinear power amplifier is used. However, there are important differences. The spectral efficiency of CERN signals, with a small amount of input backoff, is significantly better than that of EFQPSK signals if the nonlinear amplifier is an ideal clipper. However, to achieve such spectral efficiencies with a practical nonlinear amplifier, CERN processing requires a predistorter which effectively translates the amplifier's characteristics close to those of an ideal clipper. Thus, the spectral performance of CERN signals strongly depends on the predistorter. EFQPSK signals, on the other hand, do not need such predistorters since their spectra are almost unaffected by the nonlinear amplifier, Ibis report discusses several receiver structures for EFQPSK signals. It is observed that optimal receiver structures can be realized for both coded and uncoded EFQPSK
Full Text Available The main objective of the study is the determination of students’ satisfaction regarding curricular activities. The study has been accomplished using the qualitative and quantitative research, using the bibliographic study, various secondary sources and different primary sources. The study is developed with a marketing research and accomplished using the survey method. 699 students from four universities have been questioned. Due to a comparative study the University of Applied Sciences Worms, University of Applied Sciences Wiesbaden Rüsselsheim, University of Applied Sciences Frankfurt am Main and Nürtingen-Geislingen University have been analysed and their similarities and differences have been identified. The collected data, based on the established sample, is evaluated through univariate and bivariate analysis. In accordance with the evaluated sample, specific gaps from each region are identified regarding the curricular offer of the analysed universities. As a result to the conducted study, recommendations for the University of Applied Sciences Worms regarding the student’s satisfaction concerning the curricular offer are presented.
Cho, Jaehee; Lee, H Erin; Quinlan, Margaret
Based on the technology acceptance model (TAM), we explored the nationally-bounded roles of four predictors (subjective norms, entertainment, recordability, and networkability) in determining the TAM variables of perceived usefulness (PU), perceived ease of use (PEOU), and behavioral intention (BI) to use diet/fitness apps on smartphones. College students in the US and South Korea were invited to participate in a survey. We obtained 508 questionnaires (304 from the US and 204 from Korea). Data were analyzed mainly through path analysis. The four factors positively predicted the PU and PEOU of diet/fitness apps. While the effects of the predictors on the three TAM components were generally stronger among the US students than Korean students, the effect of subjective norms on the BI of diet/fitness apps was weaker among Korean students. Findings from the cross-national comparisons were helpful for thoroughly understanding the contextualized mechanisms involved in the adoption of diet/fitness apps.
Hoeyer, Klaus; Tupasela, Aaro; Rasmussen, Malene B.
of scientific work. This paper takes its point of departure in the practices of a Danish laboratory with great experience in international collaboration regarding genetic research. We focus on a simple query, what makes genetic material and health data flow, and which hopes and concerns travel along with them......In recent years, cross-national collaboration in medical research has gained increased policy attention. Policies are developed to enhance data sharing, ensure open-access, and harmonize international standards and ethics rules in order to promote access to existing resources and increase...... scientific output. In tandem with this promotion of data sharing, numerous ethics policies are developed to control data flows and protect privacy and confidentiality. Both sets of policy making, however, pay limited attention to the moral decisions and social ties enacted in the everyday routines...
Wardenaar, Klaas J.; Lim, Carmen C.W.; Al-Hamzawi, Ali O.; Alonso, Jordi; Andrade, Laura H.; Benjet, Corina; Bunting, Brendan; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Demyttenaere, Koen; Florescu, Silvia E.; Gureje, Oye; Hisateru, Tachi; Hu, Chiyi; Huang, Yueqin; Karam, Elie; Kiejna, Andrzej; Lepine, Jean Pierre; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Browne, Mark Oakley; Piazza, Maria; Posada-Villa, José; ten Have, Margreet L.; Torres, Yolanda; Xavier, Miguel; Zarkov, Zahari; Kessler, Ronald C.; Scott, Kate M.; de Jonge, Peter
Background Although specific phobia is highly prevalent, associated with impairment, and an important risk factor for the development of other mental disorders, cross-national epidemiological data are scarce, especially from low and middle-income countries. This paper presents epidemiological data from 22 low, lower-middle, upper-middle and high-income countries. Method Data came from 25 representative population-based surveys conducted in 22 countries (2001–2011) as part of the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys initiative (N=124,902). The presence of specific phobia as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition was evaluated using the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Results The cross-national lifetime and 12-month prevalence rates of specific phobia were, respectively, 7.4% and 5.5%, being higher in females (9.8% and 7.7%) than in males (4.9% and 3.3%) and higher in high and higher-middle income countries than in low/lower-middle income countries. The median age of onset was young (8 years). Of the 12-month patients, 18.7% reported severe role impairment (13.3%–21.9% across income groups) and 23.1% reported any treatment (9.6%–30.1% across income groups). Lifetime comorbidity was observed in 60.2% of those with lifetime specific phobia, with the onset of specific phobia preceding the other disorder in most cases (72.6%). Interestingly, rates of impairment, treatment-use and comorbidity increased with the number of fear subtypes. Conclusion Specific phobia is common and associated with impairment in a considerable percentage of cases. Importantly, specific phobia often precedes the onset of other mental disorders, making it a possible early-life indicator of psychopathology vulnerability. PMID:28222820
Hsu, Simon C. C.; Pai, Yuan Chi; Chen, Charlie; Yu, Chun Chi; Hsing, Henry; Wu, Hsing-Chien; Kuo, Kelly T. L.; Amir, Nuriel
Most fabrication facilities today use imaging overlay measurement methods, as it has been the industry's reliable workhorse for decades. In the last few years, third-generation Scatterometry Overlay (SCOL™) or Diffraction Based Overlay (DBO-1) technology was developed, along another DBO technology (DBO-2). This development led to the question of where the DBO technology should be implemented for overlay measurements. Scatterometry has been adopted for high volume production in only few cases, always with imaging as a backup, but scatterometry overlay is considered by many as the technology of the future. In this paper we compare imaging overlay and DBO technologies by means of measurements and simulations. We outline issues and sensitivities for both technologies, providing guidelines for the best implementation of each. For several of the presented cases, data from two different DBO technologies are compared as well, the first with Pupil data access (DBO-1) and the other without pupil data access (DBO-2). Key indicators of overlay measurement quality include: layer coverage, accuracy, TMU, process robustness and robustness to process changes. Measurement data from real cases across the industry are compared and the conclusions are also backed by simulations. Accuracy is benchmarked with reference OVL, and self-consistency, showing good results for Imaging and DBO-1 technology. Process sensitivity and metrology robustness are mostly simulated with MTD (Metrology Target Designer) comparing the same process variations for both technologies. The experimental data presented in this study was done on ten advanced node layers and three production node layers, for all phases of the IC fabrication process (FEOL, MEOL and BEOL). The metrology tool used for most of the study is KLA-Tencor's Archer 500LCM system (scatterometry-based and imaging-based measurement technologies on the same tool) another type of tool is used for DBO-2 measurements. Finally, we conclude that
Mahavarkar, S H; Madhu, C K; Mule, V D
Teenage pregnancy is a global problem and is considered a high-risk group, in spite of conflicting evidence. Our objective was to compare obstetric outcomes of pregnancy in teenagers and older women. This was a retrospective study of case records of pregnancies from August 2000 to July 2001. Girls aged pregnancy outcomes in older women (19-35 years) in the same hospital. The study took place in the Government General Hospital, Sangli, India, a teaching hospital in rural India, with an annual delivery rate of over 3,500. A total of 386 teenage pregnancies were compared with pregnancies in 3,326 older women. Socioeconomic data, age, number of pregnancies, antenatal care and complications, mode of delivery, and neonatal outcomes were considered. The incidence of teenage pregnancy in the study was 10%. A significant proportion of teenage pregnant mothers were in their first pregnancies. The teenage mothers were nearly three times more at risk of developing anaemia (OR = 2.83, 95% CI = 2.2-3.7, p Teenage mothers were twice as likely to develop hypertensive problems in pregnancy (OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.5-3.2, p teenage pregnancies are still a common occurrence in rural India in spite of various legislations and government programmes and teenage pregnancy is a risk factor for poor obstetric outcome in rural India. Cultural practices, poor socioeconomic conditions, low literacy rate and lack of awareness of the risks are some of the main contributory factors. Early booking, good care during pregnancy and delivery and proper utilisation of contraceptive services can prevent the incidence and complications in this high-risk group.
Wee, Jung Hee; Park, Jeong Ho; Park, Kyu Nam; Choi, Seung Pill
Because of the increased number of bicycle riders and governmental promotions, a recent increase in the construction of bicycle lanes has occurred. We aimed to characterize injuries specific to bicycle lane accidents by comparing them with injuries that occurred on regular roadways. On the basis of our findings, we provide suggestions on proper preventive strategies. We performed a retrospective study on 408 cases obtained between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2010. Of these cases, 387 met the criterion that the location of the injury could be confirmed by telephone or via review of the patient's chart. Data regarding age, gender, Injury Severity Score, time of the accident, location of the accident, and other characteristics were collected. Data were analyzed using SPSS 12.0K. Of the 387 cases, 204 (52.7%) patients were injured in bicycle lanes and 183 (47.3%) were injured on regular roadways. Comparing cases of bicycle lane injuries and non-bicycle lane injuries, there were no differences in age, day of the week, season, or the time at which the accident occurred. Bicycle helmets were used more frequently in bicycle lane injuries (33.2% vs. 13.7%; p cases, falls (42.6%) and collisions with other vehicles (39.3%) were the most common causes of injury. Although the severity of injuries was slightly lower in bicycle lane cases, it was not significantly lower than non-bicycle lane cases. Although people are increasingly using bicycle lanes for safety, this study shows that they are not definitively safer. Therefore, improvements in the policies related to implementing bicycle lane safety are needed, for example, by enforcing the use of protective gear or preventing the use of bicycle lanes by pedestrians. More safety education programs are also needed. III.
Shirazi, B.; Naureen Ali, N.; Shamim, M.S.
Objective: To compare the results of open with laparoscopic appendectomy in terms of postoperative pain, rate of wound infection and hospital stay. Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted in Department of Surgery, Ziauddin University Hospital, Karachi, over a period of six months. Patients undergoing surgery for acute appendicitis were randomly assigned into one of the two groups (A or B) after obtaining written and informed consent. In Group-A patients underwent open appendectomy and in Group B laparoscopic appendectomy was performed. Post operatively pain chart and wound infection was recorded and, at the time of discharge, number of days in hospital was calculated. Result: Sixty patients (38 male, 22 female), with clinical diagnosis of acute appendicitis based on Alvarado score of six and above, were included in the study. They were randomized into 2 groups of A and B with 30 patients in each group. Group-A comprised open appendectomy procedure and Group-B comprised laparoscopic appendectomy. Mean comparison of postoperative pain by visual analogue scale, was significantly low in Group B, compared with Group A, on day 0, 1 and 2. Number of days in Hospital was 4.1 +- 0.8 days in Group A and 1.5 +- 0.06 days in Group B. None of the patients in Group B, while 8 (26.67%) patients in-Group A, developed postoperative wound infection at 1 week follow up. Conclusion: Laparoscopic appendectomy is safe and effective. Wound infection and postoperative pain is significantly lower after this mode of surgery. (author)
Brady, David; Fullerton, Andrew S; Cross, Jennifer Moren
Despite its centrality to contemporary inequality, working poverty is often popularly discussed but rarely studied by sociologists. Using the Luxembourg Income Study (2009), we analyze whether an individual is working poor across 18 affluent democracies circa 2000. We demonstrate that working poverty does not simply mirror overall poverty and that there is greater cross-national variation in working than overall poverty. We then examine four explanations for working poverty: demographic characteristics, economic performance, unified theory, and welfare generosity. We utilize Heckman probit models to jointly model the likelihood of employment and poverty among the employed. Our analyses provide the least support for the economic performance explanation. There is modest support for unified theory as unionization reduces working poverty in some models. However, most of these effects appear to be mediated by welfare generosity. More substantial evidence exists for the demographic characteristics and welfare generosity explanations. An individual's likelihood of being working poor can be explained by (a) a lack of multiple earners or other adults in one's household, low education, single motherhood, having children and youth; and (b) the generosity of the welfare state in which he or she resides. Also, welfare generosity does not undermine employment and reduces working poverty even among demographically vulnerable groups. Ultimately, we encourage a greater role for the welfare state in debates about working poverty.
Objectives. Although previous research theorizes that cross-national variation in the relationship between family ties and health is due to nation-level differences in culture and policy/economics, no study has examined this theorization empirically. Method. Using data from the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), this study uses multilevel modeling to analyze individual-, nation-, and cross-level effects for 30,291 older adults in 14 nations. Results. Family ties to spouses/partners and parents are associated with better health, but ties to coresident children are associated with poorer health in certain contexts. Familistic culture and public pension spending have a weak but statistically significant moderating effect on the relationship between intergenerational family ties and health. Discussion. This article underscores the complexity of family and highlights the need for continued theorization and measurement at the nation level to promote older adults’ health in diverse contexts. PMID:24043356
Koopmans, Ruud; Michalowski, Ines; Waibel, Stine
Immigrant citizenship rights in the nation-state reference both theories of cross-national convergence and the resilience of national political processes. This article investigates European countries' attribution of rights to immigrants: Have these rights become more inclusive and more similar across countries? Are they affected by EU membership, the role of the judiciary, the party in power, the size of the immigrant electorate, or pressure exerted by anti-immigrant parties? Original data on 10 European countries, 1980-2008, reveal no evidence for cross-national convergence. Rights tended to become more inclusive until 2002, but stagnated afterward. Electoral changes drive these trends: growth of the immigrant electorate led to expansion, but countermobilization by right-wing parties slowed or reversed liberalizations. These electoral mechanisms are in turn shaped by long-standing policy traditions, leading to strong path dependence and the reproduction of preexisting cross-national differences.
Pollution of groundwater is a primary issue because aquifers are susceptible to contamination from land use and anthropogenic impacts. Groundwater susceptibility is intrinsic and specific. Intrinsic vulnerability refers to an aquifer that is susceptible to pollution and to the geological and hydrogeological features. Vulnerability assessment is an essential step in assessing groundwater contamination. This approach provides a visual analysis for helping planners and decision makers to achieve the sustainable management of water resources. Comparative studies are applying different methodologies to result in the basic evaluation of the groundwater vulnerability. Based on the comparison of methods, there are several advantages and disadvantages. SI can be overlaid on DRASTIC and Pesticide DRASTIC to extract the divergence in sensitivity. DRASTIC identifies low susceptibility and underestimates the pollution risk while Pesticide DRASTIC and SI represents better risk and is recommended for the future. SINTACS method generates very high vulnerability zones with surface waters and aquifer interactions. GOD method could be adequate for vulnerability mapping in karstified carbonate aquifers at small-moderate scales, and EPIK method can be used for large scale. GOD method is suitable for designing large area such as land management while DRASTIC has good accuracy and more real use in geoenvironmental detailed studies.
This study investigates cross-national differences in the association between parental work hours and parent-child interaction time and explains differences in this individual-level association on the basis of country characteristics. It extends prior research by testing the moderating effects of country characteristics through multilevel analyses and by considering the possibility of selection effects. The presumption was that parents employ strategies to protect family life from work encroachments and that these strategies are enhanced by reconciliation policies, stronger parenthood ideologies, access to part-time work and higher income levels. Multilevel analyses were based on a subset of 5.183 parents in 23 countries from the 2005 European Working Conditions Survey that was complemented with country-level data. The negative association between parental work hours and parent-child time indeed varied significantly across countries and was weaker in countries where formal child care coverage was higher, part-time work was less prevalent, and earnings were lower. The effects of part-time work and earnings mainly applied to mothers. These findings suggest that child care coverage limits the availability of children and that differences in parent-child time between parents who work short and long hours are more pronounced when part-time work is more accessible and affordable.
An economic guide is developed to assess the value of anaerobic digesters used on dairy farms. Two varieties of anaerobic digesters, a conventional mixed-tank mesophilic and an innovative earthen psychrophilic, are comparatively evaluated using a cost-effectiveness index. The two case study examples are also evaluated using three other investment merit statistics: simple payback period, net present value, and internal rate of return. Life-cycle savings are estimated for both varieties, with sensitivities considered for investment risk. The conclusion is that an earthen psychrophilic digester can have a significant economic advantage over a mixed-tank mesophilic digester because of lower capital cost and reduced operation and maintenance expenses. Because of this economic advantage, additional projects are being conducted in North Carolina to increase the rate of biogas utilization. The initial step includes using biogas for milk cooling at the dairy farm where the existing psychrophilic digester is located. Further, a new project is being initiated for electricity production with thermal reclaim at a swine operation
Stroth, U; Burhenn, R; Geiger, J; Giannone, L.; Hartfuss, H J; Kuehner, G; Ledl, L; Simmet, E E; Walter, H [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Plasmaphysik, IPP-Euratom Association, Garching (Germany); ECRH Team; W7-AS Team
Transport properties in the W7-AS stellarator and in tokamaks are compared. The parameter dependences and the absolute values of the energy confinement time are similar. Indications are found that the density dependence, which is usually observed in stellarator confinement, can vanish above a critical density. The density dependence in stellarators seems to be similar to that in the linear ohmic confinement regime, which, in small tokamaks, extends to high density values, too. Because of the similarity in the gross confinement properties, transport in stellarators and tokamaks should not be dominated by the parameters which are very different in the two concepts, i.e. magnetic shear, major rational values of the rotational transform and plasma current. A difference in confinement is that there exists evidence for pinches in the particle and, possibly, energy transport channels in tokamaks whereas in stellarators no pinches have been observed, so far. In order to study the effect of plasma current and toroidal electric fields, stellarator discharges were carried out with an increasing amount of plasma current. From these experiments, no clear evidence of a connection of pinches with these parameters is found. The transient response in W7-AS plasmas can be described in terms of a non-local model. As in tokamaks, also cold pulse experiments in W7-AS indicate the importance of non-local transport. (author). 8 refs, 5 figs.
Full Text Available Placed in the international trend, Romanian accounting had experienced various changes, especially as regards of progress on disconnection between accounting and fiscality. In the present, fiscal rules should not have any role in accounting decisions, because accounting rules are applied to produce accounting information that is useful in making decisions and to provide a "true and fair view" upon financial reality of the entity. However, the barrier in the habit of accounting to thinking for fiscal point of view all economic transactions remains insurmountable, yet. Starting from this perspective on disconnection between accounting and fiscality would mean that amortization recorded in the accounting, as a result of management policy, to be different from fiscality amortization, to calculate income tax. Although formally accepted, disconnect between accounting and fiscality continues to meet many difficulties. In this sense, it is usual in practice to use the same method of amortization for accounting purposes and for fiscal purposes to prevent complications of double track amortization and prevent wandering in the rules in this field. Accounting rule is deliberately eluded in favor of the fiscal rules. This is the reason we proposed to make in this paper a comparative study between norms and rules on accounting and fiscal amortization, paper in which we intend to show the benefits of applying accounting and fiscal rules separately.
Bourdiliau, B.; Decroix, G.-M.; Averty, X.; Wident, P.; Bienvenu, Y.
Highlights: → Welding processes are used to reconstitute previously tested Charpy specimens. → Stud welding is preferred for a quick installation, almost immediately operational. → Friction welding produces better quality welds, but requires a development effort. - Abstract: Reconstitution techniques are often used to allow material from previously fractured Charpy-V specimens to be reused for additional experiments. This paper presents a comparative experimental study of various reconstitution techniques and evaluates the feasibility of these methods for future use in shielded cells. The following techniques were investigated: arc stud welding, 6.0 kW CO 2 continuous wave laser welding, 4.5 kW YAG continuous wave laser welding and friction welding. Subsize Charpy specimens were reconstituted using a 400 W YAG pulsed wave laser. The best result was obtained with arc stud welding; the resilience of the reconstituted specimens and the load-displacement curves agreed well with the reference specimens, and the temperature elevation caused by the welding process was limited to the vicinity of the weld. Good results were also obtained with friction welding; this process led to the best quality welds. Laser welding seems to have affected the central part of the specimens, thus leading to different resilience values and load-displacement curves.
Full Text Available Saposins are small proteins implicated in trafficking and loading of lipids onto Cluster of Differentiation 1 (CD1 receptor proteins that in turn present lipid antigens to T cells and a variety of T-cell receptors, thus playing a crucial role in innate and adaptive immune responses in humans. Despite their low sequence identity, the four types of human saposins share a similar folding pattern consisting of four helices linked by three conserved disulfide bridges. However, their lipid-binding abilities as well as their activities in extracting, transporting and loading onto CD1 molecules a variety of sphingo- and phospholipids in biological membranes display two striking characteristics: a strong pH-dependence and a structural change between a compact, closed conformation and an open conformation. In this work, we present a comparative computational study of structural, electrostatic, and dynamic features of human saposins based upon their available experimental structures. By means of structural alignments, surface analyses, calculation of pH-dependent protonation states, Poisson-Boltzmann electrostatic potentials, and molecular dynamics simulations at three pH values representative of biological media where saposins fulfill their function, our results shed light into their intrinsic features. The similarities and differences in this class of proteins depend on tiny variations of local structural details that allow saposins to be key players in triggering responses in the human immune system.
Jara, J.R.; Solano, F.; Lozano, J.A.
This work describes a comparative study of the tyrosinase activity determined using three methods which are the most extensively employed; two radiometric assays using L-tyrosine as substrate (tyrosine hydroxylase and melanin formation activities) and one spectrophotometric assay using L-dopa (dopa oxidase activity). The three methods were simultaneously employed to measure the activities of the soluble, melanosomal, and microsomal tyrosinase isozymes from Harding-Passey mouse melanoma through their purification processes. The aim of this study was to find any correlation among the tyrosinase activities measured by the three different assays and to determine whether that correlation varied with the isozyme and its degree of purification. The results show that mammalian tyrosinase has a greater turnover number for L-dopa than for L-tyrosine. Thus, enzyme activity, expressed as mumol of substrate transformed per min, is higher in assays using L-dopa as substrate than those using L-tyrosine. Moreover, the percentage of hydroxylated L-tyrosine that is converted into melanin is low and is affected by several factors, apparently decreasing the tyrosinase activity measured by the melanin formation assay. Bearing these considerations in mind, average interassay factors are proposed. Their values are 10 to transform melanin formation into tyrosine hydroxylase activity, 100 to transform tyrosine hydroxylase into dopa oxidase activity, and 1,000 to transform melanin formation into dopa oxidase activity. Variations in these values due to the presence in the tyrosinase preparations of either inhibitors or regulatory factors in melanogenesis independent of tyrosinase are also discussed
Petit, M. Loretta
Comparative education research and courses are needed to identify real revolutionary movements in the current cultural revolution in the United States. The presence of cultural revolution is indicated by, among other things, the development of microcultures. Intranational instead of cross-national studies are of importance in the next few years to…
Duell, Natasha; Steinberg, Laurence; Chein, Jason; Al-Hassan, Suha M; Bacchini, Dario; Lei, Chang; Chaudhary, Nandita; Di Giunta, Laura; Dodge, Kenneth A; Fanti, Kostas A; Lansford, Jennifer E; Malone, Patrick S; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T; Sorbring, Emma; Tapanya, Sombat; Uribe Tirado, Liliana Maria; Alampay, Liane Peña
In the present analysis, we test the dual systems model of adolescent risk taking in a cross-national sample of over 5,200 individuals aged 10 through 30 (M = 17.05 years, SD = 5.91) from 11 countries. We examine whether reward seeking and self-regulation make independent, additive, or interactive contributions to risk taking, and ask whether these relations differ as a function of age and culture. To compare across cultures, we conduct 2 sets of analyses: 1 comparing individuals from Asian and Western countries, and 1 comparing individuals from low- and high-GDP countries. Results indicate that reward seeking and self-regulation have largely independent associations with risk taking and that the influences of each variable on risk taking are not unique to adolescence, but that their link to risk taking varies across cultures. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available International media assistance programs accompanied the democratic media transition in Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Macedonia and Serbia with varying intensity. These countries untertook a range of media reforms to conform with accession requirements of the European Union (EU and the standards of the Council of Europe, among others. This article explores the nexus between the democratic transformation of the media and international media assistance (IMA as constrained by the local political conditions in the five countries of the Western Balkans. It aims to enhance the understanding of conditions and factors that influence media institution building in the region and evaluates the role of international assistance programs and conditionality mechanisms herein. The cross-national analysis concludes that the effects of IMA are highly constrained by the local context. A decade of IMA of varying intensity is not sufficient to construct media institutions when, in order to function properly, they have to outperform their local context. From today’s vantage point it becomes obvious, that in the short-term scaling-up IMA does not necessarily improve outcomes. The experiences in the region suggest that imported solutions have not been sufficiently cognitive of all aspects of local conditions and international strategies have tended to be rather schematic and have lacked strategic approaches to promote media policy stability, credible media reform and implementation. To a certain extent, the loss of IMA effectiveness is also self-inflicted.
This article investigates cross-national patterns of public and private higher education institution (HEI) foundings from 1960 to 2006. It argues that in addition to national demographic and economic factors, patterns of HEI foundings also reflect world-level models about how nations should structure their higher education systems. Findings…
Roosmaa, Eve-Liis; Saar, Ellu
This article explores cross-national differences in the intensity of perceived barriers to adult learning in Europe focusing on the barriers recognised by those not participating and having no intention to do so. This relatively large subgroup has received scant scholarly attention, yet exploring their participation barriers is critical for…
Clarke, Philippa; Smith, Jacqui
We investigate cross-national differences in late-life health outcomes and focus on an intriguing difference in beliefs about personal control found between older adult populations in the U.K. and United States. We examine the moderating role of control beliefs in the relationship between physical function and self-reported difficulty with daily activities. Using national data from the United States (Health and Retirement Study) and England (English Longitudinal Study on Ageing), we examine the prevalence in disability across the two countries and show how it varies according to the sense of control. Poisson regression was used to examine the relationship between objective measures of physical function (gait speed) and disability and the modifying effects of control. Older Americans have a higher sense of personal control than the British, which operates as a psychological resource to reduce disability among older Americans. However, the benefits of control are attenuated as physical impairments become more severe. These results emphasize the importance of carefully considering cross-national differences in the disablement process as a result of cultural variation in underlying psychosocial resources. This paper highlights the role of culture in shaping health across adults aging in different sociopolitical contexts.
Industrial and nutritional processes have increased the demands for oil and this in turn has led to the search for oils from different types of seeds. It is in this vein that baobab seed oil was extracted, analyzed and some of it physicochemical properties compared with those of vegetable, peanut and palm oils. The percentage ...
Full Text Available are compared in terms of the quality of the skeletons they produce (i.e. connectivity and spurious branches) as well as the time complexity associated with each algorithm. Results show that faster algorithms have difficulty preserving connectivity. Zhang...
With one of the world's most comprehensive universal healthcare systems, medical tourism in Costa Rica has increased significantly over the past few decades. American tourists save up to 80% of comparative costs for procedures, from heart surgery to root canal treatment. Although many Costa Rican healthcare professionals receive training in North…
Schepers, Tim; van Lieshout, Esther M. M.; Ginai, Abida Z.; Mulder, Paul G. H.; Heetveld, Martin J.; Patka, Peter
Comparing different types of calcaneal fractures, associated treatment options, and outcome data is currently hampered by the lack of consensus regarding fracture classification. A systematic search for articles dealing with calcaneal fracture was performed, and the prevalence of use of each
College-level anthropology teaching in various countries, including Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Portugal, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and Yugoslavia, is compared. Terminology is examined and historical background is provided. Also discussed are educational crises, the organization of teaching, and teaching methods. (RM)
Lancaster, Kari; Duke, Karen; Ritter, Alison
The notion of 'recovery' as an overarching approach to drug policy remains controversial. This cross-national analysis considers how the problem of drugs was constructed and represented in two key reports on the place of 'recovery' in drug policy, critically examining how the problem of drugs (and the people who use them) are constituted in recovery discourse, and how these problematisations are shaped and disseminated. Bacchi's poststructuralist approach is applied to two documents (one in Britain and one in Australia) to analyse how the 'problem of drugs' and the people who use them are constituted: as problematic users, constraining alternative understandings of the shifting nature of drug use; as responsibilised individuals (in Britain) and as patients (in Australia); as worthy of citizenship in the context of treatment and recovery, silencing the assumption of unworthiness and the loss of rights for those who continue to use drugs in 'problematic' ways. The position of the organisations which produced the reports is considered, with the authority of both organisations resting on their status as independent, apolitical bodies providing 'evidence-based' advice. There is a need to carefully weigh up the desirable and undesirable political effects of these constructions. The meaning of 'recovery' and how it could be realised in policy and practice is still being negotiated. By comparatively analysing how the problem of drugs was produced in 'recovery' discourse in two jurisdictions, at two specific points in the policy debate, we are reminded that ways of thinking about 'problems' reflect specific contexts, and how we are invoked to think about policy responses will be dependent upon these conditions. As 'recovery' continues to evolve, opening up spaces to discuss its contested meanings and effects will be an ongoing endeavour. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Carter, Anthony Michael; Mess, A
Hans Strahl, a contemporary of Duval and Hubrecht, made many important contributions to comparative placentation. Despite this he is not well known and some of his original observations tend to be attributed to later authors. Strahl published a classification of placental types based on their shape...... of the most important findings made by Strahl including work on placentation in carnivores and higher primates that remains unsurpassed....
Alzimami, K.S.; Maghraby, Ahmed M.; Bradley, D.A.
Investigations have been made of four new radiation dosimetry EPR candidates from the same family of materials: sulfamic acid, sulfanillic acid, homotaurine, and taurine. Mass energy attenuation coefficients, mass stopping power values and the time dependence of the radiation induced radicals are compared. Also investigated are the microwave saturation behavior and the effect of applied modulation amplitude on both peak-to-peak line width (W PP ) and peak-to-peak signal height (H PP ). The dosimeters are characterized by simple spectra and stable radiation-induced radicals over reasonable durations, especially in taurine dosimeters. Sulfamic acid dosimeters possessed the highest sensitivity followed by taurine and homotaurine and sulfanillic. - Highlights: ► Several EPR dosimeters were suggested based on SO 3 − radical. ► Taurine, homotaurine, sulfanilic, and sulfamic acid all possess simple EPR spectra. ► Dosimeters were compared to each other in terms of the dosimetric point of view. ► Energy dependence curves of the selected dosimeters were compared to eachother
Gapud, Albert; Wu, Judy; Yan, Shaolin; Xie, Yi-Yuan; Kang, Byeongwon; Siegal, Michael P.; Overmyer, Donald L.
HgBa 2 CaCu 2 O 6+δ (Hg-1212) thin films were fabricated by exchanging the TI cations in TlBa 2 CaCu 2 O 7-δ (Tl-1212) thin films with Hg cations, causing a 30-K increase in Tc. To determine how this exchange effects such a Tc increase, the irreversibility lines, temperature dependence of critical current density, and temperature dependence of Hall angle of Hg-1212 and T1-1212 thin films were measured and then compared. The results strongly suggest that the Tc shift is caused by a doubling of charge carrier density
Schaufeli, Wilmar B.; Bakker, Arnold B.; Salanova, Marisa
This article reports on the development of a short questionnaire to measure work engagement--a positive work-related state of fulfillment that is characterized by vigor, dedication, and absorption. Data were collected in 10 different countries (N = 14,521), and results indicated that the original 17-item Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) can be…
Sala, M.N.; Molina, P.; Abler, B.; Kessler, H.; Vanbrabant, L.G.F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/355587327; Van de Schoot, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304833207
The goal of this research was to examine the measurement invariance of the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ; Gross & John, 2003) across two European nations. Participants were Italian and German undergraduate students. First, confirmatory factor analysis was used to test for the two-factor
Engel, Laura C.; Rutkowski, Leslie; Rutkowski, David
With globalization, the world has become more interconnected and interdependent, with people, capital, and ideas rapidly migrating across borders. Yet, along with greater global interdependence and increased diversity within societies, economic and social inequalities have deepened, making poverty one of the leading global problems. To lessen…
Jorgenson, Andrew; Longhofer, Wesley; Grant, Don
Past research on the disproportionality of pollution suggests a small subset of a sector’s facilities often produces the lion’s share of toxic emissions. Here we extend this idea to the world’s electricity sectors by calculating national-level disproportionality Gini coefficients for plant-level carbon emissions in 161 nations based on data from 19,941 fossil-fuel burning power plants. We also evaluate if disproportionalities in plant-level emissions are associated with increased national carbon emissions from fossil-fuel based electricity production, while accounting for other well-established human drivers of greenhouse gas emissions. Results suggest that one potential pathway to decreasing nations’ greenhouse gas emissions could involve reducing disproportionality among fossil-fuel power plants by targeting those plants in the upper end of the distribution that burn fuels more inefficiently to produce electricity. PMID:27363677
Shi, Yuyan; Lenzi, Michela; An, Ruopeng
Aims To assess the associations between types of cannabis control policies at country level and prevalence of adolescent cannabis use. Setting, Participants and Design Multilevel logistic regressions were performed on 172,894 adolescents 15 year of age who participated in the 2001/2002, 2005/2006, or 2009/2010 cross-sectional Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) survey in 38 European and North American countries. Measures Self-reported cannabis use status was classified into ever use in life time, use in past year, and regular use. Country-level cannabis control policies were categorized into a dichotomous measure (whether or not liberalized) as well as 4 detailed types (full prohibition, depenalization, decriminalization, and partial prohibition). Control variables included individual-level sociodemographic characteristics and country-level economic characteristics. Findings Considerable intra-class correlations (.15-.19) were found at country level. With respect to the dichotomized cannabis control policy, adolescents were more likely to ever use cannabis (odds ratio (OR) = 1.10, p = .001), use in past year (OR = 1.09, p = .007), and use regularly (OR = 1.26, p = .004). Although boys were substantially more likely to use cannabis, the correlation between cannabis liberalization and cannabis use was smaller in boys than in girls. With respect to detailed types of policies, depenalization was associated with higher odds of past-year use (OR = 1.14, p = .013) and regular use (OR = 1.23, p = .038), and partial prohibition was associated with higher odds of regular use (OR = 2.39, p = .016). The correlation between cannabis liberalization and regular use was only significant after the policy had been introduced for more than 5 years. Conclusions Cannabis liberalization with depenalization and partial prohibition policies was associated with higher levels of regular cannabis use among adolescents. The correlations were heterogeneous between genders and between short- and long-terms. PMID:26605550
Callueng, Carmelo M.
Temperament has a long history of scholarship dating back as early as 350 BC when Hippocrates (1984) associated body fluids or temperament with behavior. Temperament is broadly described as stylistic and relatively stable traits that subsume intrinsic tendencies to act and react in somewhat predictable ways to people, events, and other stimuli.…
Moor, J.A.; de Graaf, P.M.; Komter, A.
The availability of family can be considered a protective factor for aging well. In this article, we examine to what extent the family situation of older people creates vulnerability with respect to their quality of life. Because not everyone is vulnerable to the same degree, we try to identify the
Full Text Available Previous research has found that there are certain personality characteristics that predict whether one is likely to become a target of workplace mistreatment, and that these characteristics provoke such behavior (Milam, Spitzmüller, & Penney, 2009. The present paper aims to replicate and expand Milam et al.’s paper by looking at workplace incivility in two parts of the world, the United States and Romania, and two types of sources (self and coworker to see if this phenomenon is uniquely American, or if it is present in another, very different culture. Our findings indicate that in both countries, low levels of agreeableness and high levels of neuroticism are associated with individuals’ reports of receiving higher levels of workplace incivility than their counterparts, and that from the coworkers’ perspectives, this incivility is provoked by the targets of the mistreatment.
Full Text Available Los estudios internacionales sobre el acoso sexual en la adolescencia han mostrado que este fenómeno es más frecuente de lo esperado, aunque la prevalencia del acoso sexual varía de unos estudios a otros. Algunas de estas diferencias han sido explicadas en función de los modelos y dimensiones explicativas de las que parten los diferentes estudios. La presente estudio descriptivo intenta contribuir a esta línea de investigación, evaluando diferentes modelos explicativos del acoso sexual en 318 chicas adolescentes (edad media 17,05 años de dos países europeos (España e Italia. Aplicando análisis confirmatorios y modelos de múltiples grupos para medir la invarianza en ambos países, los resultados mostraron que un modelo bi-dimensional, compuesto por la dimensión acoso verbal/visual y la dimensión acoso físico fue el que mejor ajustó los datos. El modelo de Fitzgerald también fue evaluado aunque los índices de ajuste no alcanzaron niveles tan satisfactorios. Los resultados se discuten con relación a las investigaciones previas en este campo y respecto a las implicaciones que estos resultados tienen para la prevención y la intervención sobre acoso sexual y cortejo en la adolescencia.
Peyrol, Mark; Rubin, Richard R.; Lauritzen, Torsten
the relationships between outcomes and both country and respondent characteristics, and the interaction between these two factors. Results Providers rated chronic-care systems and remuneration for chronic care as mediocre. Patients reported that ease of access to care was high, but not without financial barriers....... Patients reported moderate levels of collaboration among providers, and providers indicated that several specialist disciplines were not readily available to them. Patients reported high levels of collaboration with providers in their own care. Provider endorsement of primary prevention strategies for type...... 2 diabetes was high. Patients with fewer socio-economic resources and more diabetes complications had lower access (and/or higher barriers) to care and lower quality of patient–provider collaboration. Countries differed significantly for all outcomes, and the relationships between respondent...
Subbarao, K.; Raney, Laura
This paper on the social gains from female education is part of a series, prepared by the World Bank, on the benefits of improving opportunities for women. The paper suggests that expanding women's opportunities enhances their productivity and earning potential and thus contributes to better economic performance and poverty alleviation. Education…
Fernandez-Hermida, Jose-Ramon; Calafat, Amador; Becoña, Elisardo; Secades-Villa, Roberto; Juan, Montse; Sumnall, Harry
Previous research has shown that parents underestimate their children's substance use. The aim of the present work was to analyze parental estimation of their children's use of alcohol in five countries from northern, central, and southern Europe, and to explore the variables that influenced this perceptual bias. The sample comprised 1,181…
Ludin, Samantha; Bottiani, Jessika H; Debnam, Katrina; Solis, Mercedes Gabriela Orozco; Bradshaw, Catherine P
Involvement in dating violence has been linked with negative health outcomes including depressive symptomology, substance use, and later expressions of aggressing and victimizing behaviors. Less is known about the prevalence and mental health correlates of teen dating violence in countries like Mexico where adult partner violence is high. Additional research on teen dating violence is also needed, as it may be an important precursor to adult partner violence and linked to other mental health problems. The current study used self-report ratings to assess the similarities and differences in risk factors associated with dating violence among middle school students in Mexico and the United States. The US sample (N us = 15,099; M us = 12.8; 49.5% female) included non-Hispanic Caucasian (24.9%), Hispanic American (20.3%), and African American (24.2%) adolescents. The Mexican sample (N Mexico = 2211; M Mexico = 13.67; 51% female) included 93.1% adolescents of Hispanic or Latin descent. Logistic regressions showed that dating violence victimization was reported at similar rates in the cross-national samples, though exposure to risk factors like deviant peers and substance use differed significantly by country. Our analyses indicated that, although the country of residence was not significantly associated with dating violence victimization, the strength of the association between some known risk factors and dating violence victimization varied as a function of nationality, such that there was a significant interaction between country of residence, Mexico or the US, and experiencing internalizing symptoms on experiencing physical dating violence victimization. This study contributes to the growing body of literature on dating violence, both inside and outside the US.
Abdelaal, Noureldin Mohamed; Sase, Amal Saleh
This study aimed at analyzing two advertisements, and investigating how advertisers use discourse and semiotics to make people and customers buy into their ideas, beliefs, or simply their products. The two advertisements analyzed are beauty products which have been selected from internet magazines. The methodology adopted in this study is…
The present study aims to evaluate two molecular methods for epidemiological typing of multi drug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from Mansoura Hospitals. In this study, a total of 300 clinical isolates were collected from different patients distributed among Mansoura Hospitals, Dakahlia governorate, Egypt.
Kjeldsen, Christian Christrup; Ley, Thomas; Jensen, Niels Rosendal
Denne konklusion sammenfatter hovedtrækkene af de gennemførte case studies i WorkAble-projektet. Vigtige pointer er, at unge på tværs af de forskellige case studies har vanskeligt ved at blive hørt og taget alvorligt. I stedet spises de af med "realistisk vejledning" eller dårlige uddannelses- og...
This study aims to introduce and systematically investigate the environmental issues during important decision-making stages. Meanwhile, impacts of development on the environmental components will be also analyzed. This research studies various methods of predicting the environmental changes and determining the ...
Jiang Kai; Wang Xiaofan; Xi Yugeng
Random Early Detection (RED) is an active queue management (AQM) mechanism for routers on the Internet. In this paper, performance of RED and Adaptive RED are compared from the viewpoint of nonlinear dynamics. In particular, we reveal the relationship between the performance of the network and its nonlinear dynamical behavior. We measure the maximal Lyapunov exponent and Hurst parameter of the average queue length of RED and Adaptive RED, as well as the throughput and packet loss rate of the aggregate traffic on the bottleneck link. Our simulation scenarios include FTP flows and Web flows, one-way and two-way traffic. In most situations, Adaptive RED has smaller maximal Lyapunov exponents, lower Hurst parameters, higher throughput and lower packet loss rate than that of RED. This confirms that Adaptive RED has better performance than RED
Borges, R.C.; Freitas, R.L.
Some models for the calculation of void fraction in water in sub-cooled boiling and saturated vertical upward flow with forced convection have been selected and compared with experimental results in the pressure range of 1 to 150 bar. In order to know the void fraction axial distribution it is necessary to determine the net generation of vapour and the fluid temperature distribution in the slightly sub-cooled boiling region. It was verified that the net generation of vapour was well represented by the Saha-Zuber model. The selected models for the void fraction calculation present adequate results but with a tendency to super-estimate the experimental results, in particular the homogeneous models. The drift flux model is recommended, followed by the Armand and Smith models. (F.E.) [pt
Jiang Kai; Wang Xiaofan E-mail: email@example.com; Xi Yugeng
Random Early Detection (RED) is an active queue management (AQM) mechanism for routers on the Internet. In this paper, performance of RED and Adaptive RED are compared from the viewpoint of nonlinear dynamics. In particular, we reveal the relationship between the performance of the network and its nonlinear dynamical behavior. We measure the maximal Lyapunov exponent and Hurst parameter of the average queue length of RED and Adaptive RED, as well as the throughput and packet loss rate of the aggregate traffic on the bottleneck link. Our simulation scenarios include FTP flows and Web flows, one-way and two-way traffic. In most situations, Adaptive RED has smaller maximal Lyapunov exponents, lower Hurst parameters, higher throughput and lower packet loss rate than that of RED. This confirms that Adaptive RED has better performance than RED.
The four case studies are taken from four different continents, four different wars under .... and revolutionary changes in the structures and power relations in society and ..... general public accept nowadays that although states' rights were the ...
Jun 30, 2013 ... Objectives: In this study, methanol, ethanol and aqueous extracts of ... of resistance in bacteria previously susceptible to ... increase in antibiotic resistance in hospitals and ..... extraction process (Masoko et al., 2008). Use of ...
Jun 30, 2014 ... content, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, color intensity ... used in this study on the basis of date of harvest, geographical origin. ... The determination of physical and chemical parameters such as content of water, ...
Kennedy, Jonathan; McKee, Martin; King, Lawrence
There is widespread agreement that civil war obstructs efforts to eradicate polio. It is suggested that Islamist insurgents have a particularly negative effect on vaccination programmes, but this claim is controversial. We analyse cross-national data for the period 2003-14 using negative binomial regressions to investigate the relationship between Islamist and non-Islamist insurgency and the global distribution of polio. The dependent variable is the annual number of polio cases in a country according to the WHO. Insurgency is operationalized as armed conflict between the state and an insurgent organization resulting in ≥25 battle deaths per year according to the Uppsala Conflict Data Programme. Insurgencies are divided into Islamist and non-Islamist insurgencies. We control for other possible explanatory variables. Islamist insurgency did not have a significant positive relationship with polio throughout the whole period. But in the past few years - since the assassination of Osama bin Laden in 2011- Islamist insurgency has had a strong effect on where polio cases occur. The evidence for a relationship between non-Islamist insurgency and polio is less compelling and where there is a relationship it is either spurious or driven by ecological fallacy. Only particular forms of internal armed conflict - those prosecuted by Islamist insurgents - explain the current global distribution of polio. The variation over time in the relationship between Islamist insurgency and polio suggests that Islamist insurgent's hostility to polio vaccinations programmes is not the result of their theology, as the core tenets of Islam have not changed over the period of the study. Rather, our analysis indicates that it is a plausibly a reaction to the counterinsurgency strategies used against Islamist insurgents. The assassination of Osama bin Laden and the use of drone strikes seemingly vindicated Islamist insurgents' suspicions that immunization drives are a cover for espionage
Esslinger, Adelheid Susanne; Meier, Florian; Roller-Wirnsberger, Regina E; Heppner, Hans Jürgen
Expenditure on health-care is increasing over the last years and the demographic shift leads to more elderly patients in the health-care system. Debates about the financial situation and solution about this topic are common. Direct, as well as hidden, rationing is verified by experts. This article discusses the concept of age-dependent prioritization and rationing of health-care expenditures in a cross-national setting. With a standardised questionnaire geriatric physicians in Germany and Austria were asked about their attitude and experience with health-care expenditures in elderly patients. Dimension of medical staff, organising institution and financial resources were also evaluated. The sample was tested with t-test, Mann-Whitney-U-test and explorative factor analysis. All the data were calculated with PASW 17 Statistics(®). From 419 standardised questionnaires 288 forms (60%, Germany: 123, Austria: 165) were evaluated. Differences were shown in patient-age (Germany: 80.4 y, Austria: 71.8 y), carrying capacity (Germany: 74.8, Austria: 110.8) and in medical staff as physicians (Germany: 6.8, Austria: 12.7) and nursing (Germany: 32.2, Austria: 84.3). In infrastructural basic services and normative focusing there was only marginal discrepancy, the public/ecclesiastical organising institution was 71% in both countries. Related to the different financial systems, there was less cost pressure in taking care of elderly patients in Austria. Age-dependent rationing was approved, but there was also a clear endorsement for making resources available for elderly patients in future. The discussion about rationing of health-care expenditures will still go on and therefore the impact of ageism has to be evaluated in further studies.
Singh, Indra Pratap; Kapoor, Lily; Daman, Repu; Mishra, Saroj Kanta
Communication links are the lifelines for telemedicine practice. Various terrestrial and satellite media can be used; however, each has its own plus and minus side. The current study was designed to evaluate three types of telecommunication media used for telemedical videoconference at the Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow Telemedicine program over a period of 20 months. The evaluation was based on analysis of technical parameters recorded in a prescribed proforma designed for the study purpose and maintained prospectively after completion of each event. Only technical issues were addressed. At the end of the study period, analysis of data revealed that leased line-based terrestrial Internet Protocol (IP) was better than Sky IP. Integrated Services Digital Network media were found technically less acceptable for telemedical videoconference.
Canagarajah, Sudharshan; Nielsen, Helena Skyt
This paper analyzes the determinants of child labor in Africa as inferred from recent empirical studies. The empirical analysis is based upon five country studies undertaken in three different African countries, namely Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, and Zambia. Some support is found for the popular belief...... of poverty as a determinant of child labor, however other determinants are of similar importance. Among school costs, transportation costs have the greatest effect on child labor and school attendance, whereas the hypothesis of imperfect capital markets and that of household composition generally find some...
Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Canagarajah, Sudharshan
This paper analyzes the determinants of child labor in Africa as inferred from recent empirical studies. The empirical analysis is based upon five country studies undertaken in three different African countries, namely Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, and Zambia. Some support is found for the popular belief...... of poverty as a determinant of child labor, however other determinants are of similar importance. Among school costs, transportation costs have the greatest effect on child labor and school attendance, whereas the hypothesis of imperfect capital markets and that of household composition generally find some...
Paula Regina Rodrigues Salgado
Full Text Available Stereoisomers of the monoterpene epoxycarvone (EC, namely (+-cis-EC, (−-cis-EC, (+-trans-EC, and (−-trans-EC, were comparatively evaluated for anticonvulsant activity in specific methodologies. In the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ-induced anticonvulsant test, all of the stereoisomers (at 300 mg/kg increased the latency to seizure onset, and afforded 100% protection against the death of the animals. In the maximal electroshock-induced seizures (MES test, prevention of tonic seizures was also verified for all of the isomers tested. However, the isomeric forms (+ and (−-trans-EC showed 25% and 12.5% inhibition of convulsions, respectively. In the pilocarpine-induced seizures test, all stereoisomers demonstrated an anticonvulsant profile, yet the stereoisomers (+ and (−-trans-EC (at 300 mg/kg showed a more pronounced effect. A strychnine-induced anticonvulsant test was performed, and none of the stereoisomers significantly increased the latency to onset of convulsions; the stereoisomers probably do not act in this pathway. However, the stereoisomers (+-cis-EC and (+-trans-EC greatly increased the latency to death of the animals, thus presenting some protection. The four EC stereoisomers show promise for anticonvulsant activity, an effect emphasized in the isomers (+-cis-EC, (+-trans-EC, and (−-trans-EC for certain parameters of the tested methodologies. These results serve as support for further research and development of antiepileptic drugs from monoterpenes.
Mihai Liviu DESPA
Full Text Available This paper focuses on the current state of knowledge in the field of software development methodologies. It aims to set the stage for the formalization of a software development methodology dedicated to innovation orientated IT projects. The paper starts by depicting specific characteristics in software development project management. Managing software development projects involves techniques and skills that are proprietary to the IT industry. Also the software development project manager handles challenges and risks that are predominantly encountered in business and research areas that involve state of the art technology. Conventional software development stages are defined and briefly described. Development stages are the building blocks of any software development methodology so it is important to properly research this aspect. Current software development methodologies are presented. Development stages are defined for every showcased methodology. For each methodology a graphic representation is illustrated in order to better individualize its structure. Software development methodologies are compared by highlighting strengths and weaknesses from the stakeholder's point of view. Conclusions are formulated and a research direction aimed at formalizing a software development methodology dedicated to innovation orientated IT projects is enunciated.
Seki, Yasuaki; Bodde, Sara G; Meyers, Marc A
The structure and mechanical behavior of Toco Toucan (Ramphastos toco) and Wreathed Hornbill (Rhyticeros undulatus) beaks were compared. The beak of both species is a sandwich-structured composite, having an exterior, or rhamphotheca, consisting of multiple layers of keratin scales and a core composed of a fibrous network of bony closed-cell foam. The rhamphotheca is an arrangement of approximately 50microm diameter, overlapping, keratin tiles. The hornbill rhamphotheca exhibits a surface morphology on the ridged casque that is distinguishable from that observed on the bill proper. Intermediate filaments in the keratin matrix were observed by transmission electron microscopy. The Young's modulus measurements of toucan rhamphotheca indicate isotropy in longitudinal and transverse directions, whereas those of hornbill rhamphotheca may suggest anisotropy. The compressive response of beak foam is governed by brittle crushing behavior. The crushing strength of hornbill foam is six times higher than that of toucan foam. Micro- and nanoindentation hardness values were measured for rhamphotheca and foam trabeculae of toucan and hornbill specimens. The sandwich design of beaks was analyzed using the Karam-Gibson and Dawson-Gibson models. The presence of a cellular core increases the bending resistance (Brazier moment) by a factor of 3-6 while decreasing the compressive strength by only 50%.
Ramos Caballero, L. J.; Quinones Rodriguez, L. A.; Lupiani Castellanos, J.
In this study of the comparison of the clinical dosimetry between planners can deduce that the differences are in the majority of the cases below 3%, and only in cases where the field size is small, we found significant discrepancies, although justifiable. On the one hand it is different calculation algorithm and implementation on the other, the modeling of the accelerator. (Author)
May 5, 1999 ... Depmment of Surgery, University Teaching Hospital, PMB 2076. Jos, Nigeria ... Design: A retrospective study of patients with thyroid cancers that were managed during an ... This logical basis for either cure or palliation of a .... palliative purposes. A mixed ... Pulmonary metastasis are usually of the classical.
Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.
In this study, metacognition refers to performing visual analysis and discrimination of real life events and situations in naïve psychology, naïve physics, and naïve biology domains. It is used, along with measuring reaction time, to examine differences in the ability of four groups of students to select appropriate pictures that correspond with…
Yu, SeonYeong; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Fowler, Susan A.
Establishing friendships is an important developmental goal of early childhood, but little research has addressed ways in which parents support the friendship development of their young children with disabilities. The purpose of this survey study was to explore the support strategies that parents use to facilitate their children's friendships.…
Engelke, U.; Liu, H.; Wang, Junle; Callet, Le P.; Heynderickx, I.E.J.; Zepernick, H.-J.; Maeder, A.
Fixation density maps (FDM) created from eye tracking experiments are widely used in image processing applications. The FDM are assumed to be reliable ground truths of human visual attention and as such, one expects a high similarity between FDM created in different laboratories. So far, no studies
Krishna Mohan, T. R.; Revathi, P. G.
We quantify the correlation between earthquakes and use the same to extract causally connected earthquake pairs. Our correlation metric is a variation on the one introduced by Baiesi and Paczuski [M. Baiesi and M. Paczuski, Phys. Rev. E EULEEJ1539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.69.06610669, 066106 (2004)]. A network of earthquakes is then constructed from the time-ordered catalog and with links between the more correlated ones. A list of recurrences to each of the earthquakes is identified employing correlation thresholds to demarcate the most meaningful ones in each cluster. Data pertaining to three different seismic regions (viz., California, Japan, and the Himalayas) are comparatively analyzed using such a network model. The distribution of recurrence lengths and recurrence times are two of the key features analyzed to draw conclusions about the universal aspects of such a network model. We find that the unimodal feature of recurrence length distribution, which helps to associate typical rupture lengths with different magnitude earthquakes, is robust across the different seismic regions. The out-degree of the networks shows a hub structure rooted on the large magnitude earthquakes. In-degree distribution is seen to be dependent on the density of events in the neighborhood. Power laws, with two regimes having different exponents, are obtained with recurrence time distribution. The first regime confirms the Omori law for aftershocks while the second regime, with a faster falloff for the larger recurrence times, establishes that pure spatial recurrences also follow a power-law distribution. The crossover to the second power-law regime can be taken to be signaling the end of the aftershock regime in an objective fashion.
Krishna Mohan, T. R.; Revathi, P. G.
We quantify the correlation between earthquakes and use the same to extract causally connected earthquake pairs. Our correlation metric is a variation on the one introduced by Baiesi and Paczuski [M. Baiesi and M. Paczuski, Phys. Rev. E 69, 066106 (2004)]. A network of earthquakes is then constructed from the time-ordered catalog and with links between the more correlated ones. A list of recurrences to each of the earthquakes is identified employing correlation thresholds to demarcate the most meaningful ones in each cluster. Data pertaining to three different seismic regions (viz., California, Japan, and the Himalayas) are comparatively analyzed using such a network model. The distribution of recurrence lengths and recurrence times are two of the key features analyzed to draw conclusions about the universal aspects of such a network model. We find that the unimodal feature of recurrence length distribution, which helps to associate typical rupture lengths with different magnitude earthquakes, is robust across the different seismic regions. The out-degree of the networks shows a hub structure rooted on the large magnitude earthquakes. In-degree distribution is seen to be dependent on the density of events in the neighborhood. Power laws, with two regimes having different exponents, are obtained with recurrence time distribution. The first regime confirms the Omori law for aftershocks while the second regime, with a faster falloff for the larger recurrence times, establishes that pure spatial recurrences also follow a power-law distribution. The crossover to the second power-law regime can be taken to be signaling the end of the aftershock regime in an objective fashion.
Full Text Available Background: Conjunctivitis of the newborn is defined as hyperemia and eye discharge in the neonates and is a common infection occurring in the neonates in the first month of life. In the United States, the incidence of neonatal conjunctivitis ranges from 1-2%, in India, the prevalence is 0.5-33% and varies in the world from 0.9-21% depending on the socioeconomic status. Aim: To study the organisms causing conjunctivitis of the newborn and to correlate the etiology with the mode of delivery. Design: Single center, prospective, observational study. Materials and Methods: A total of 300 mothers and their newborns, born over a period of one year, were included in the study. Of these 200 newborns were delivered through vaginal route (Group A and 100 (Group B delivered by lower segment caesarean section (LSCS. At the time of labour, high vaginal swabs were taken from the mothers. Two conjunctival swabs each from both eyes of the newborn were collected at birth and transported to Microbiology department in a candle jar immediately. Results: Eight babies in Group A, developed conjunctivitis at birth. None of the babies in Group B developed conjunctivitis, this difference was statistically highly significant (P<0.000. The organisms found in the conjunctiva of the newborns in Group A were Coagulase negative Staphylococcus, α hemolytic Streptococcus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas spps. However, the commonest organism leading to conjunctivitis in the newborn in this study was Coagulase negative Staphylococcus. It was observed that the mothers of 5 out of 8 babies (60% developing conjunctivitis gave history of midwife interference and premature rupture of membranes so the presence of risk factors contribute to the occurrence of conjunctivitis in the newborn. Conclusions: It is inferred that the mode of delivery and the presence of risk factors is responsible for conjunctivitis in the newborn.
Gharbi, Shaza Ismail Mohammed
This study was conducted primarily to contribute radon data for radon map in Sudan and identify regions with elevated radon levels and improve data collection and analysis for the future radon levels evaluation. This study partially covered three states of Sudan ( Red Sea - Khartoum - South Khordofan). Previous work done has been considered in this study which focused and investigated the levels of radon concentration in ( indoor radon gas and water) by using gamma spectrometry equipped with ( HPGe detector) or (Na1 (T1) detector). The results obtained are within the acceptable levels and dose not poses any risk from radiation protection point of view. Red Sea state ( port-sudan): (124.39±6.21) Bq/m 3 . Khartoum state ( Suba): (151.52) Bq/m 3 . (Omdurman): ( 127±23) Bq/m 3 . Radon in water: (59) Bq/L. South Kordofan State: (102.8) Bq/m 3 . In water (Kadugli): (3 1 39)) Bq/L.(Author)
Full Text Available Background : Study of fibrilar, cellular and sub cellular structures of mineralized tissues is only possible after the removal of the calcium apatite of these tissues by the process of demineralization. Aims: The present study aims to evaluate six commonly used demineralizing agents to identify the best decalcifying agent. Materials and Methods: The present study included six different decalcifying solutions: 10% formal nitric acid, 8% formal nitric acid, 10% formic acid, 8% formic acid, Perenyi′s fluid and Ethylene Di-Amine Tetra Acetic Acid. eight samples of posterior mandible of rat were decalcified in each of the decalcifying solutions and subjected to chemical end-point test. Ehrlich′s Hematoxylin stain was used. Statistical Analysis Used: One way ANOVA was used for multiple group comparisons and Chi-square test was used for analyzing categorical data. P value of 0.05/less was set for statistical significance. Results: Samples treated with EDTA showed the best overall histological impression and the tissue integrity were well preserved. Formal nitric of both the percentages 10 and 8% gave fairly good cellular detail and were rapid in their action. Conclusion: The final impression led to the proposition that EDTA was indeed the best decalcifying agent available. However, with time constraint, the use of formal nitric acid is advocated.
Full Text Available Aim: In this study we aim to get more information about agoraphobia (AG which is an independent diagnosis in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5 and to evaluate overlaps or differences between agoraphobia and panic disorder (PD upon sociodemographic features and comorbidity with considering relation of these two disorders. Material and Method: Sociodemographic Data Form was given and Structural Clinical Interview for DSM Axis I Disorders (SCID-I was applied to 33 patients diagnosed as AG and 34 patients diagnosed as PD with AG (PDA.Results: AG group consisted of 21 females (63.1%, 12 males (36%, totally 33 patients and PDA group consisted of 23 females (67.6%, 11 males (32.4%, totally 34 patients. Mean age of onset was 32.4±10.2 in PDA group and 31.1±12.1 in AG group. According to sociodemographic features, violence in family and smoking rates were significantly higher in PDA group than AG group. Major Depressive Disorder (MDD as a comorbidity was higher in PDA group. Discussion: In this study, we tried to identify the overlaps and differences of PDA and AG. For a better recognition of AG, further studies are needed.
Dal Poz Mario R
Full Text Available Abstract Background Health facility assessments are being increasingly used to measure and monitor indicators of health workforce performance, but the global evidence base remains weak. Partly this is due to the wide variability in assessment methods and tools, hampering comparability across and within countries and over time. The World Health Organization coordinated a series of facility-based surveys using a common approach in six countries: Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Jamaica, Mozambique, Sri Lanka and Zimbabwe. The objectives were twofold: to inform the development and monitoring of human resources for health (HRH policy within the countries; and to test and validate the use of standardized facility-based human resources assessment tools across different contexts. Methods The survey methodology drew on harmonized questionnaires and guidelines for data collection and processing. In accordance with the survey's dual objectives, this paper presents both descriptive statistics on a number of policy-relevant indicators for monitoring and evaluation of HRH as well as a qualitative assessment of the usefulness of the data collection tool for comparative analyses. Results The findings revealed a large diversity in both the organization of health services delivery and, in particular, the distribution and activities of facility-based health workers across the sampled countries. At the same time, some commonalities were observed, including the importance of nursing and midwifery personnel in the skill mix and the greater tendency of physicians to engage in dual practice. While the use of standardized questionnaires offered the advantage of enhancing cross-national comparability of the results, some limitations were noted, especially in relation to the categories used for occupations and qualifications that did not necessarily conform to the country situation. Conclusion With increasing experience in health facility assessments for HRH monitoring comes
Full Text Available In the hasty budding plethoric technological space, mobile technology & devices play a noteworthy role. It’s imperative to take a cognizance of the fact that mobile market is contributing substantially to global economy as well as to an individual nation’s economy. Mobile devices market is predominantly consumer driven & this research work emphasizes on cross national comparative study among mobile consumers across India & USA. The study focuses on a thirty leading factors that influence consumers principally in their buying decision making process. An empirical survey of four hundred consumers was conducted across India & USA using a questionnaire. The study reveals that ‘Price’ is the pivotal factor that an Indian consumer considers at first place whereas an American buyer stresses upon ‘Brand Name’. Furthermore, it unveils that a US consumer looks for ‘EMI options’ for buying while Indian consumers concentrates on ‘Design of the device’. This study will aid mobile manufacturing firms to frame effective marketing strategies & help marketing managers to design effective marketing communications.
Anderson Annie S
Full Text Available Abstract This editorial introduces the special series in the International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity on the Pro Children study (Promoting and Sustaining Health through Increased vegetable and Fruit Consumption among European Schoolchildren. The Pro Children study is a new and innovative study that takes a cross -national approach to identifying the factors associated with fruit and vegetables consumption in European children (from nine countries and evaluating a multi-centre intervention programme. A full set of papers on many aspects of the study will appear as a series in the IJBPNA allowing a more detailed view of design, behavioural theoretical constructs, action, methods for implementation, assessment tools, impacts and outcomes to be reported. Areas for future work will also be identified and discussed in the context of the 21st century developed world environment which is superb at encouraging the promotion of energy dense foods and drinks.
Mahdi Mohsenian Rad
Full Text Available The present article is to study the characteristics and general nature of audience and is described it as "Audience phantasm" in developing countries. It firstly notes that there will be consequences such as audience distancing themselves from local and official media if policy makers and media officials' imaginations of audiences become far from related bare facts have happened in the era of global media and the nature of audiences. Knowing and analyzing the image of audiences presented in new communication theories. Accordingly, as the abovementioned authorities’ viewpoint of audiences exposed to media messages keeps distance from the true nature of media activities, media‐message receivers and their current position in the booming market of media, as termed by Mohsenyan Rad as “Message Bazaar”, there will possibly be disastrous social, cultural, political, and even economic consequences with regard to media uses.Then the history and definitions of “audience”, "uses & gratifications theory" and the concept of "Audience Phantasm" is described. After that, based on those and the increased options as well as the right of selecting of today-audience in the situation of message bazaar, as a result the characteristics of them are explained.
Slade, Tim; Chiu, Wai-Tat; Glantz, Meyer; Kessler, Ronald C.; Lago, Luise; Sampson, Nancy; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Florescu, Silvia; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Murphy, Sam; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; de Galvis, Yolanda Torres; Viana, Maria Carmen; Xavier, Miguel; Degenhardt, Louisa
Aims To examine the diagnostic overlap in DSM-IV and DSM-5 alcohol use disorder (AUD) and determine the clinical correlates of changing diagnostic status across the two classification systems. Design DSM-IV and DSM-5 definitions of AUD were compared using cross-national community survey data. Setting Nine low-, middle- and high-income countries. Participants/Cases 31,367 respondents to surveys in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey Initiative. Measures Composite International Diagnostic Interview, version 3.0 was used to derive DSM-IV and DSM-5 lifetime diagnoses of AUD. Clinical characteristics, also assessed in the surveys, included lifetime DSM-IV anxiety, mood and drug use disorders, lifetime suicidal ideation, plan and attempt, general functional impairment and psychological distress. Findings Compared to DSM-IV AUD (12.3%, SE=0.3%), the DSM-5 definition yielded slightly lower prevalence estimates (10.8%, SE=0.2%). Almost one third (n=802) of all DSM-IV Abuse cases switched to sub-threshold according to DSM-5 and one quarter (n=467) of all DSM-IV diagnostic orphans switched to mild AUD according to DSM-5. New cases of DSM-5 AUD were largely similar to those who maintained their AUD across both classifications. Similarly, new DSM-5 non-cases were similar to those who were sub-threshold across both classifications. The exception to this was with regards to the prevalence of any lifetime drug use disorder. Conclusions In this large cross-national community sample, the prevalence of DSM-5 lifetime AUD was only slightly lower than the prevalence of DSM-IV lifetime AUD. Nonetheless there was considerable diagnostic switching, with a large number of people inconsistently identified across the two DSM classifications. PMID:27426631
Akiba, Motoko; Chiu, Yu-Lun; Shimizu, Kazuhiko; Liang, Guodong
Using national teacher salary data from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and student achievement data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), this study compared secondary school teacher salary in 30 countries and examined the relationship between average teacher salary and national…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Behavioral factors such as (excessive alcohol consumption play a major role in the explanation of social inequalities in health. The unequal distribution of health risk behaviors among socio-economic groups has important consequences for both the current and future health status of the younger generation. However, little is known about socio-economic differences in unhealthy lifestyles during adolescence. The purpose of the present study is to investigate socio-economic differences in adolescent drinking behaviour among 11–15 year old adolescents in Europe and North America. Methods Data was obtained from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC study 2001/02, a cross-national survey conducted in collaboration with the World Health Organization. The present analysis is based on 69249 male and 73619 female students from 28 countries. The effect of parental occupation and family affluence on episodes of drunkenness was assessed using separate logistic regression models controlling for age. Results Socio-economic circumstances of the family had only a limited effect on repeated drunkenness in adolescence. For girls only in one out of 28 countries a significant association between family affluence and repeated drunkenness was observed, while boys from low and/or medium affluent families in nine countries faced a lower risk of drunkenness than boys from more affluent families. Regarding parental occupation, significant differences in episodes of drunkenness were found in nine countries for boys and in six countries for girls. Compared to family affluence, which was positively related to risk of drunkenness, a decreasing occupational status predicted an increasing risk of drunkenness. This pattern was identified within a number of countries, most noticeably for boys. Conclusion Parental socio-economic status is only of limited importance for episodes of drunkenness in early adolescence, and this very limited role seems
Center on Contemporary Conflict
FY 2013-2014. Project Lead: Anne Clunan & Kirsten Rodine Hardy While those in the nanotechnology field emphasize the benefits for medicine, travel, and manufacturing, it is a dual-use technology that could lead to a disruptive and expensive arms race for technology dominance. Nanotechnology has significant implications for globalization, technological governance, and national sovereignty. Through a cross-national and strategic lens, the project will analyze the potential threats to nati...
Coid, Jeremy; Hu, Junmei; Kallis, Constantinos; Ping, Yuan; Zhang, Juying; Hu, Yueying; Bui, Laura; Ullrich, Simone; Bebbington, Paul
Public health psychiatry has a key role in violence prevention. Cross-national comparisons of violence and associated psychiatric morbidity can indicate targets for preventive interventions. Data on young adult men in households, 18-34 years, were drawn from the Second Men's Modern Lifestyles survey in Great Britain (n = 2046) and from a corresponding survey in Chengdu, China (n = 4132), using a translated questionnaire. Binary logistic regression models were carried out to estimate the cross-national differences for different types of violence and to identify explanatory variables. Chinese men were less likely to report violence in the past 5 years (AOR 0.59, 95% CI 0.48-0.72, P violence were lower among Chinese men except intimate partner violence (AOR 2.43, 95% CI 1.65-3.59, P violence persisting into adulthood, confidence in fighting ability, perception that violence is acceptable behaviour, and experience of violent victimization. More British men screened positive for antisocial personality disorder and substance misuse. Attitudes which condone violence and a serious problem of alcohol-related, male-on-male violence are key targets for preventive interventions among British men. The higher prevalence of life course-persistent antisocial behaviour among British men is of concern and requires further investigation. Higher prevalence of intimate partner violence among Chinese men reflects patriarchal approaches to conflict resolution and confirms an important public health problem in China which requires further cross-national investigation.
Wotipka, Christine Min
Over the years, attention to the issue of women in science has tended to focus on individual and organizational efforts to encourage women's greater participation in science and engineering fields of study and occupations. With more intense globalization processes that increasingly shape and are shaped by science, national- and global-level understandings of the situation of women in science and engineering as well as methods to boost their greater and more equal participation in these fields are necessary. This study is a cross-national and longitudinal study of women's participation in science and engineering fields of study at the higher education level. In order to explain the growth in women's participation in these fields of study between 1972--1992, I use a world society theoretical perspective to argue that national linkages to global models regarding women's educational equality and women in science may positively influence their participation in these fields. In multivariate statistical analyses, women's participation in higher education, measured as female enrollment in non-science and non-engineering fields of study, exerted a positive effect on women in science and engineering as did male enrollment in science and engineering higher education. The fact that linkage variables and those measuring women's status and other national-level factors were not found to be influential suggests that world-level factors may be contributing to women's greater participation in these fields. To better understand processes at this level, I use feminist critiques of science to examine the efforts made by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), and the World Bank to address women in science and engineering education over a thirty year time period. My examination of their publications as well as conference declarations and platforms of action from ten international conferences finds a
Peña, Juan B; Masyn, Katherine E; Thorpe, Lorna E; Peña, Stephanie M; Caine, Eric D
We compared suicide attempts, depressed mood, and drug use of 1,710 Dominican public high school students in New York City (NYC) and 9,573 in the Dominican Republic (DR) in 2009. Compared to DR Dominicans, NYC Dominicans were more likely to have reported lifetime marijuana use (27.6% vs. 1.5%), lifetime inhalant use (11.0% vs. 7.6%), lifetime other drug use (9.9% vs. 3.0%), depressed mood (31.3% vs. 27.2%), and suicide attempt (13.8% vs. 8.8%). The results of this study supported the hypothesis that substantial increases in illicit drug use, especially cocaine, heroin, ecstasy, and methamphetamines, among NYC Dominican youth account for their increased risk for suicide attempts compared to their DR Dominican counterparts. It also identified suicide attempts as a public health problem among NYC Dominicans, the largest NYC Latino immigrant population. © 2015 The American Association of Suicidology.
Winskell, Kate; Singleton, Robyn; Sabben, Gaelle
Distinctive longitudinal narrative data, collected during a critical 18-year period in the history of the HIV epidemic, offer a unique opportunity to examine how young Africans are making sense of evolving developments in HIV prevention and treatment. More than 200,000 young people from across sub-Saharan Africa took part in HIV-themed scriptwriting contests held at eight discrete time points between 1997 and 2014, creating more than 75,000 narratives. This article describes the data reduction and management strategies developed for our cross-national and longitudinal study of these qualitative data. The study aims to inform HIV communication practice by identifying cultural meanings and contextual factors that inform sexual behaviors and social practices, and also to help increase understanding of processes of sociocultural change. We describe our sampling strategies and our triangulating methodologies, combining in-depth narrative analysis, thematic qualitative analysis, and quantitative analysis, which are designed to enable systematic comparison without sacrificing ethnographic richness.
Varhama, Lasse M; Báguena, María José; Toldos, María Paz; Beleña, María Angeles; Roldán, María Consuelo; Díaz, Amelia; Osterman, Karin; Björkqvist, Kaj
A comparative study measuring differences in the prevalence of conflicts, burnout, bullying, and sexual harassment among municipal employees between two European cities was conducted using a self-report instrument, the Psychosocial Workplace Inventory. The cities were Valencia, Spain (n=1,007) and Vaasa, Finland (n=1,979). Significant differences were found between reports of employees from the two cities. The Spanish employees reported higher scores on every type of dysfunctional workplace behavior measured: conflicts, burnout, bullying, and sexual harassment.
Sociologists, political scientists, and economists all suggest that culture plays a pivotal role in the development of large-scale cooperation. In this study, I used generalized trust as a measure of culture to explore if and how culture impacts intentional homicide, my operationalization of cooperation. I compiled multiple cross-national data sets and used pooled time-series linear regression, single-equation instrumental-variables linear regression, and fixed- and random-effects estimation techniques on an unbalanced panel of 118 countries and 232 observations spread over a 15-year time period. Results suggest that culture and large-scale cooperation form a tenuous relationship, while economic factors such as development, inequality, and geopolitics appear to drive large-scale cooperation.
Iannotti Ronald J
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Australia and the USA, national guidelines exist for limiting children's screen-exposure to two hours per day. This study aims to determine whether exceeding the suggested guidelines for screen-based sedentary behavior is associated with reduced levels of physical activity across different geographical regions. Methods Data material were taken from the 2005/2006 survey of "Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC study; A WHO cross-National Survey". Data were collected through questionnaires from 11-,13- and,15- year olds. The final sample included 200,615 adolescents from 39 different countries in Europe and North America. Gender and country stratified analyses regressed time spent in leisure-time vigorous physical activity (VPA and days of 60 minutes moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA on time spent in screen-based sedentary behaviors. To simplify interpretation, the estimates from each country were pooled using a meta-analytic procedure. Results Exceeding 2 hrs of daily total screen-time was negatively associated with MVPA for both boys and girls, and with VPA for girls. When investigating the different types of screen-based behaviors separately, exceeding 2 hrs daily of TV viewing was associated with less MVPA for both boys and girls and less VPA for girls. Gaming was associated with less MVPA and VPA for boys, and non-gaming computer use was associated with higher levels of VPA for both genders. Stronger negative associations between physical activity and screen-based sedentary behaviors were found in countries where mean levels of physical activity were relatively high. The association between physical activity and sedentary behavior was not significantly associated with national levels of screen-based sedentary behaviors. Conclusions The displacement mechanism does not appear to be universal across countries. On a national level, negative associations between physical activity and screen
Gould, Laurie A; Agnich, Laura E
The concept of state failure has only recently emerged in the political science and legal literature. Although state failure has been used to predict violent conflicts, and all citizens are affected by violence in failed/fragile states, women are especially at risk. Using data from the WomanStats project, this study's findings reveal that the physical security of women is lower in failed/fragile states compared with more sustainable nations. The characteristics of failed states that increase the likelihood of various forms of violence against women are identified, including high levels of militarization, countries with neighboring states at war, and massive movement of refugees. © The Author(s) 2016.
The issue of comparison is a vexing one in religious and theological studies, not least for teachers of comparative religion in study abroad settings. We try to make familiar ideas fresh and strange, in settings where students may find it hard not to take "fresh" and "strange" as signs of existential threat. The author explores…
Full Text Available Background: Antiepileptic drug (AEDconsumption has increased in recent years mainly from those AEDs marketed since 1990. The purpose is to describe and compare AED consumption in Catalonia, Denmark and Norway.Methods: Population-based descriptive study set in the outpatient healthcare sector. Data were retrieved from the Norwegian Prescription Register, Danish Register of Medicinal Product Statistics and DATAMART® in Catalonia, for 2007-2011.We calculated defined daily doses/1000 inhabitants/day (DID, by age and gender. AEDs were defined according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification (N03A. We reviewed the population covered by the databases, the drug data source and the definition of outpatient healthcare sector to compare the results across the three settings.Results: Total AED use steadily increased over the study period in the three settings. In 2011, consumption was highest in Catalonia (15.20 DID, followed by Denmark (15.06 DID and Norway (14.24 DID. The “other AEDs” (N03AX subgroup represented 60% of all AED use. The N03A pattern by gender did not differ across the three settings. Marked differences by age and gender appeared when studying lamotrigine, topiramate, gabapentin, pregabalin and levetiracetam. Differences among the databases were mainly in the definition of outpatient healthcare setting.Conclusions: There was a rapid increase in “other AEDs” in all three settings. Although we did not have information on the indication for the use of AEDs, the drug data source, population coverage of the database and definition of the healthcare setting helped us interpret the results.
Full Text Available The latest nationwide survey of Pakistan showed that considerable progress has been made toward reducing all child mortality indicators except neonatal mortality. The aim of this study is to compare Pakistan’s under-five mortality, neonatal mortality, and postnatal newborn care rates with those of other countries. Neonatal mortality rates and postnatal newborn care rates from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHSs of nine low- and middle-income countries (LMIC from Asia and Africa were analyzed. Pakistan’s maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH policies and programs, which have been implemented in the country since 1990, were also analyzed. The results highlighted that postnatal newborn care in Pakistan was higher compared with the rest of countries, yet its neonatal mortality remained the worst. In Zimbabwe, both mortality rates have been increasing, whereas the neonatal mortality rates in Nepal and Afghanistan remained unchanged. An analysis of Pakistan’s MNCH programs showed that there is no nationwide policy on neonatal health. There were only a few programs concerning the health of newborns, and those were limited in scale. Pakistan’s example shows that increased coverage of neonatal care without ensuring quality is unlikely to improve neonatal survival rates. It is suggested that Pakistan needs a comprehensive policy on neonatal health similar to other countries, and its effective programs need to be scaled up, in order to obtain better neonatal health outcomes.
Ahmed, Mansoor; Won, Youngjoon
The latest nationwide survey of Pakistan showed that considerable progress has been made toward reducing all child mortality indicators except neonatal mortality. The aim of this study is to compare Pakistan's under-five mortality, neonatal mortality, and postnatal newborn care rates with those of other countries. Neonatal mortality rates and postnatal newborn care rates from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHSs) of nine low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) from Asia and Africa were analyzed. Pakistan's maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH) policies and programs, which have been implemented in the country since 1990, were also analyzed. The results highlighted that postnatal newborn care in Pakistan was higher compared with the rest of countries, yet its neonatal mortality remained the worst. In Zimbabwe, both mortality rates have been increasing, whereas the neonatal mortality rates in Nepal and Afghanistan remained unchanged. An analysis of Pakistan's MNCH programs showed that there is no nationwide policy on neonatal health. There were only a few programs concerning the health of newborns, and those were limited in scale. Pakistan's example shows that increased coverage of neonatal care without ensuring quality is unlikely to improve neonatal survival rates. It is suggested that Pakistan needs a comprehensive policy on neonatal health similar to other countries, and its effective programs need to be scaled up, in order to obtain better neonatal health outcomes.
Manser, Tanja; Imhof, Michael; Lessing, Constanze; Briner, Matthias
This study aimed to empirically compare incident reporting systems (IRS) in two European countries and to explore the relationship of IRS characteristics with context factors such as hospital characteristics and characteristics of clinical risk management (CRM). We performed exploratory, secondary analyses of data on characteristics of IRS from nationwide surveys of CRM practices. The survey was originally sent to 2136 hospitals in Germany and Switzerland. Persons responsible for CRM in 622 hospitals completed the survey (response rate 29%). None. Differences between IRS in German and Swiss hospitals were assessed using Chi2, Fisher's Exact and Freeman-Halton-Tests, as appropriate. To explore interrelations between IRS characteristics and context factors (i.e. hospital and CRM characteristics) we computed Cramer's V. Comparing participating hospitals across countries, Swiss hospitals had implemented IRS earlier, more frequently and more often provided introductory IRS training systematically. German hospitals had more frequently systematically implemented standardized procedures for event analyses. IRS characteristics were significantly associated with hospital characteristics such as hospital type as well as with CRM characteristics such as existence of strategic CRM objectives and of a dedicated position for central CRM coordination. This study contributes to an improved understanding of differences in the way IRS are set up in two European countries and explores related context factors. This opens up new possibilities for empirically informed, strategic interventions to further improve dissemination of IRS and thus support hospitals in their efforts to move patient safety forward. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Full Text Available A prime objective of welfare state activities is to take action to enhance population health and to decrease mortality risks. For several centuries, poverty has been seen as a key social risk factor in these respects. Consequently, the fight against poverty has historically been at the forefront of public health and social policy. The relationship between relative poverty rates and population health indicators is less self-evident, notwithstanding the obvious similarity to the debated topic of the relationship between population health and income inequality. In this study we undertake a comparative analysis of the relationship between relative poverty and mortality across 26 countries over time, with pooled cross-sectional time series analysis. We utilize data from the Luxembourg Income Study to construct age-specific poverty rates across countries and time covering the period from around 1980 to 2005, merged with data on age- and gender-specific mortality data from the Human Mortality Database. Our results suggest not only an impact of relative poverty but also clear differences by welfare regime that partly goes beyond the well-known differences in poverty rates between welfare regimes.
Kinoshita, Seiya; Sato, Naoyoshi; Matsumoto, Naoya
Contractor evaluation methods in Japan's public works procurement, beginning with construction business licensure, going through biennial preliminary firm rating, up to project-by-project prequalification and comprehensive point rating, were developed during the period when public works were mostly procured through designated competitive bidding. It is essential to focus attention on contractor evaluation methods for introducing different types of procurement procedures which enhance the use of technological capabilities held by private businesses. An overall review of contractor evaluation procedures should be conducted in view of the present situation, where the open competitive bidding has become mainly used in combination with comprehensive evaluation, as well as to allow for further diversification of procurement methods. In Western countries, improvements have been made for the past several years in contractor evaluation procedures with more emphasis on "Value for Money." Advanced efforts made by these countries will be useful as a reference for overhauling Japan's contractor evaluation system. This study conducts a comparative review of contractor evaluation procedures for public procurement in Western countries such as the United States, the United Kingdom and France by identifying similarities and differences between those of Japan and the above mentioned countries. This reveals that a contractor's technical or professional ability is looked at separately from its economic and financial standing in those countries studied, and there is no case like Japan in which those two factors are integrated into one for evaluation.
Duftschmid, K.E. E-mail: email@example.com
Cross-border movement of radioactive materials and contaminated items, in particular metallurgical scrap, has become a problem of increasing importance. Radioactive sources out of regulatory control, now often called 'orphan sources', have frequently caused serious, even deadly, radiation exposures and widespread contamination. The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission reported over 2300 incidents of radioactive materials found in recycled metal scrap and more than 50 accidental smeltings of radioactive sources. A further potentially serious problem is illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive materials. In 1995 the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) started a programme to combat illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive materials, which includes an international database on incidents of illicit trafficking, receiving reports from some 80 member states. For the period 1993-2000 the IAEA database includes 345 confirmed incidents. While from 1994-1996 the frequency declined significantly, this trend has been reversed since 1997, largely due to radioactive sources rather than nuclear material. This paper compares monitoring techniques for radioactive materials in scrap applied at steel plants and scrap yards with monitoring at borders, a completely different situation. It discusses the results of the 'Illicit Trafficking Radiation Detection Assessment Program', a large international pilot study, conducted in cooperation between the IAEA, the Austrian Government and the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf. The aim of this exercise was to derive realistic and internationally agreed requirements for border monitoring instrumentation. Finally the present extent of border monitoring installations is discussed. (author)
It is often assumed that in the historical transformation to modern industrial society, the integration of women into the economy occurred everywhere as a three-phase process: in pre-modern societies, the extensive integration of women into societal production; then, their wide exclusion with the shift to industrial society; and finally, their re-integration into paid work during the further course of modernization. Results from the author's own international comparative study of the historical development of the family and the economic integration of women have shown that this was decidedly not the case even for western Europe. Hence the question arises: why is there such historical variation in the development and importance of the housewife model of the male breadwinner family? In the article, an explanation is presented. It is argued that the historical development of the urban bourgeoisie was especially significant for the historical destiny of this cultural model: the social and political strength of the urban bourgeoisie had central societal importance in the imposition of the housewife model of the male breadwinner family as the dominant family form in a given society. In this, it is necessary to distinguish between the imposition of the breadwinner marriage at the cultural level on the one hand, and at the level of social practice in the family on the other.
Vulliamy, Graham; Webb, Rosemary
Some methodological issues are discussed that arise from our comparative research conducted since the early 1990s into primary schooling in Finland and England. This research has been identified as part of a "new" comparative education that uses qualitative research strategies and which prioritises sensitivity to cultural context in data…
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Belgian and Dutch societies present many similarities but differ with regard to the organisation of maternity care. The Dutch way of giving birth is well known for its high percentage of home births and its low medical intervention rate. In contrast, home births in Belgium are uncommon and the medical model is taken for granted. Dutch and Belgian maternity care systems are compared with regard to the influence of being referred to specialist care during pregnancy or intrapartum while planning for a home birth. We expect that a referral will result in lower satisfaction with childbirth, especially in Belgium. Methods Two questionnaires were filled out by 605 women, one at 30 weeks of pregnancy and one within the first two weeks after childbirth, either at home or in a hospital. Of these, 563 questionnaires were usable for analysis. Women were invited to participate in the study by independent midwives and obstetricians during antenatal visits in 2004–2005. Satisfaction with childbirth was measured by the Mackey Satisfaction with Childbirth Rating Scale, which takes into account the multidimensional nature of the concept. Results Belgian women are more satisfied than Dutch women and home births are more satisfying than hospital births. Women who are referred to the hospital while planning for a home birth are less satisfied than women who planned to give birth in hospital and did. A referral has a greater negative impact on satisfaction for Dutch women. Conclusion There is no reason to believe Dutch women receive hospital care of lesser quality than Belgian women in case of a referral. Belgian and Dutch attach different meaning to being referred, resulting in a different evaluation of childbirth. In the Dutch maternity care system home births lead to higher satisfaction, but once a referral to the hospital is necessary satisfaction drops and ends up lower than satisfaction with hospital births that were planned in advance
COMPAR works on FORTRAN arrays with four indices: A = A(i,j,k,l) where, for each fixed k 0 ,l 0 , only the 'plane' [A(i,j,k 0 ,l 0 ), i = 1, isub(max), j = 1, jsub(max)] is held in fast memory. Given two arrays A, B of this type COMPAR has the capability to 1) re-norm A and B ind different ways; 2) calculate the deviations epsilon defined as epsilon(i,j,k,l): =[A(i,j,k,l) - B(i,j,k,l)] / GEW(i,j,k,l) where GEW (i,j,k,l) may be chosen in three different ways; 3) calculate mean, standard deviation and maximum in the array epsilon (by several intermediate stages); 4) determine traverses in the array epsilon; 5) plot these traverses by a printer; 6) simplify plots of these traverses by the PLOTEASY-system by creating input data blocks for this system. The main application of COMPAR is given (so far) by the comparison of two- and three-dimensional multigroup neutron flux-fields. (orig.) [de
Cahyono, Bambang Yudi
This article is a part of a larger study comparing various aspects of policies on plagiarism in two university contexts. It compares policies on plagiarism in universities in Australia and Indonesia. The results of this comparative study showed that Australian and Indonesian universities treat plagiarism differently. Australian universities treat plagiarism explicitly in their university policies. In Australian universities, plagiarism is defined clearly and forms of plagiarism are explained ...
Comparative study on current trading system and online trading: the case of ... of online trading and factors affecting its feasibility of implementation in ECX. ... The study found that there is significant capacity problem with major skills gap with ...
Genetic diversity, classification and comparative study on the larval phenotypic ... B. mori showed different performance based on larval phenotypic data. The analysis of variance regarding the studied traits showed that different strains have ...
Background. As many as 10% of airline passengers travelling without prophylaxis for long distances may develop a venous thrombosis. There is, however, no evidence that economy class travellers are at increased risk of thrombosis. Objectives. A suitably powered prospective study, based on the incidence of deep-vein ...
Rosenfeld, Rachel A.; Kalleberg, Arne L.
Compares labor market samples from two dualist countries--the United States and Canada whose employment and family-related policies are decentralized--and two corporatist countries--Norway and Sweden whose policies are centralized. Hypothesizes that Scandinavian countries would show less effect from family responsibilities and fewer gender…
Vliegenthart, R.; Schröder, H.
In this paper we compare the newspaper attention for and framing of the Iraq issue in four Western countries (US, UK, Germany and the Netherlands) during the period September 2002 until August 2003. Using computer assisted coding based on wordlists constructed by human coders, we analyzed more than
This study investigated the comparative study of regular and casual workers' job satisfaction and commitment in two selected banks in Lagos State, A descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. A total of 145 respondents were selected for the study using proportionate stratified sampling technique.
Craig, Wendy; Harel-Fisch, Yossi; Fogel-Grinvald, Haya
OBJECTIVES: (1) To compare the prevalence of bullying and victimization among boys and girls and by age in 40 countries. (2) In 6 countries, to compare rates of direct physical, direct verbal, and indirect bullying by gender, age, and country. METHODS: Cross-sectional self-report surveys including...... items on bullying and being bullied were obtained from nationally representative samples of 11, 13 and 15 year old school children in 40 countries, N = 202,056. Six countries (N = 29,127 students) included questions about specific types of bullying (e. g., direct physical, direct verbal, indirect......). RESULTS: Exposure to bullying varied across countries, with estimates ranging from 8.6% to 45.2% among boys, and from 4.8% to 35.8% among girls. Adolescents in Baltic countries reported higher rates of bullying and victimization, whereas northern European countries reported the lowest prevalence. Boys...
Georgakis, Steve; Graham, Jessica
In the last two decades forces of globalization and the rise of and access to information technology have transformed the nature of educational research. Traditional disciplines such as comparative education have not been immune to these transformational impacts. Although one might expect globalization to promote the study of comparative…
Ekholm, Ola; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik
AIMS: A newly published study showed that the life expectancy for Danes was below the European Union (EU) average. Furthermore, the study showed that healthy life years (HLYs) at 50 years of age were much higher in Denmark than in the other EU countries in 2005. However, the results of this study...
The issue of the "identity" of comparative education as a field of study or a discipline has been discussed for decades. Yet a kind of systematic structure that provides the basic principles for a coherent exposition of the field remains open. "Comparative education" is no longer conceived as an imaginary field's coherence but,…
This research was a laboratory based work which compared Biogas yield patterns in some animal and household wastes. The parameters studied included dilution and concentration of substrates, the effect of available space in the digester, and the comparative biogas yield from different wastes. The method of research ...
Furió, D.; Juan, M.-C.; Seguí, I.; Vivó, R.
Different methods can be used for learning, and they can be compared in several aspects, especially those related to learning outcomes. In this paper, we present a study in order to compare the learning effectiveness and satisfaction of children using an iPhone game for learning the water cycle vs. the traditional classroom lesson. The iPhone game…
The return to competitive level of sport dates were also documented and compared. A single blind randomised control study comparing the JSFB rehabilitation programme with conventional ankle rehabilitation programmes was used. Ultrasound examinations were done on all first time lateral ankle ligament injuries 72 ...
A comparative study of child marriage and parenthood in Ethiopia, India, Peru and Zambia ... By taking an approach that emphasizes life course poverty and gender ... Goal #5, Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls.
http://ww.bioline.org.br/ja. Comparative Studies on the Cardiovascular System in the Wistar Rat (Rattus .... norvegicus) were gotten from the animal house of the. Department of Anatomy .... Locomotion and Respiration in. Marine Air – Breathing ...
Jan 19, 2018 ... especially when compared with synthetic drugs. Moreso, due to their ... 1992), antihypertensive (Kamanyi et al., 1991) and antiglycaemic agents ..... extensive toxicity study on both plants needs to be done to ascertain their ...
Eklöf, Hanna; Pavešic, Barbara Japelj; Grønmo, Liv Sissel
The purpose of the study was to measure students' reported test-taking effort and the relationship between reported effort and performance on the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) Advanced mathematics test. This was done in three countries participating in TIMSS Advanced 2008 (Sweden, Norway, and Slovenia), and the…
In this study, comparative morphological and ecological studies of Stachys balansae and S. carduchorum were investigated. Morphologically, general views of taxa and micromorphological features of the trichomes were studied. S. balansae differs from S. carduchorum in its leaves sericeouspilose on the upper surface and ...
The education sector has been undergoing regular reviews so that to improve efficiency and cost effectiveness in resource utilization. This study was designed to make a comparative study of internal efficiency in both private and public primary schools of Manga Division, Nyamira District, Kenya. Specifically, the study not ...
van Noort, G.; Kruikemeier, S.; Aparaschivei, A.; Boomgaarden, H.; Vliegenthart, R.
This study provides a systematic investigation of party and candidate websites in five European countries: Germany, Romania, Hungary, The Netherlands and Great Britain. It examines three features of online political communication that are presented on political websites (interactivity,
Santini, D. J.; Vyas, A. D.
Japanese automakers have introduced hybrid passenger cars in Japan and will soon do so in the US. In this paper, we report how we used early computer simulation model results to compare the commercial viability of a hypothetical near-term (next decade) hybrid mid-size passenger car configuration under varying fuel price and driving patterns. The fuel prices and driving patterns evaluated are designed to span likely values for major OECD nations. Two types of models are used. One allows the ''design'' of a hybrid to a specified set of performance requirements and the prediction of fuel economy under a number of possible driving patterns (called driving cycles). Another provides an estimate of the incremental cost of the hybrid in comparison to a comparably performing conventional vehicle. In this paper, the models are applied to predict the NPV cost of conventional gasoline-fueled vehicles vs. parallel hybrid vehicles. The parallel hybrids are assumed to (1) be produced at high volume, (2) use nickel metal hydride battery packs, and (3) have high-strength steel bodies. The conventional vehicle also is assumed to have a high-strength steel body. The simulated vehicles are held constant in many respects, including 0-60 time, engine type, aerodynamic drag coefficient, tire rolling resistance, and frontal area. The hybrids analyzed use the minimum size battery pack and motor to meet specified 0-60 times. A key characteristic affecting commercial viability is noted and quantified: that hybrids achieve the most pronounced fuel economy increase (best use) in slow, average-speed, stop-and-go driving, but when households consistently drive these vehicles under these conditions, they tend to travel fewer miles than average vehicles. We find that hours driven is a more valuable measure than miles. Estimates are developed concerning hours of use of household vehicles versus driving cycle, and the pattern of minimum NPV incremental cost (or benefit) of
Full Text Available The scarcity of phosphorus (P is a global concern that is not restricted to western industrialized nations. Until now, most countries in the world are highly dependent on importing mineral P fertilizers for agriculture. The industrialized nation of Germany, the emerging economy of Costa Rica, and the developing country of Nicaragua are examined with regard to their legislation in the field of environmental protection and agriculture, in particular with regard to soil protection and fertilizer law. Based on the structure of agriculture in each country, control weaknesses in legislation in the individual countries, which is largely determined by command-and-control law, are identified and compared. It becomes clear that soil protection in all three countries has not yet been adequately standardised in law and at the same time the efficient use of organic or recycled P fertilizers instead of (finite mineral P fertilizers is inadequately regulated. In particular, frugality, i.e., the strategy of lower (and not only more efficient consumption of P fertilizers, has so far played no regulatory role in land-use governance.
Holland, Tim G; Peterson, Garry D; Gonzalez, Andrew
We used socioeconomic models that included economic inequality to predict biodiversity loss, measured as the proportion of threatened plant and vertebrate species, across 50 countries. Our main goal was to evaluate whether economic inequality, measured as the Gini index of income distribution, improved the explanatory power of our statistical models. We compared four models that included the following: only population density, economic footprint (i.e., the size of the economy relative to the country area), economic footprint and income inequality (Gini index), and an index of environmental governance. We also tested the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis, but it was not supported by the data. Statistical comparisons of the models revealed that the model including both economic footprint and inequality was the best predictor of threatened species. It significantly outperformed population density alone and the environmental governance model according to the Akaike information criterion. Inequality was a significant predictor of biodiversity loss and significantly improved the fit of our models. These results confirm that socioeconomic inequality is an important factor to consider when predicting rates of anthropogenic biodiversity loss.
Onwezen, M.C.; Reinders, M.J.; Lans, van der I.A.; Sijtsema, S.J.; Jasiulewicz, A.; Guardia, M.D.; Guerrero, L.
One of the greatest challenges to developing more successful marketing strategies in the food sector is gaining an understanding of the diversity of consumer needs. The current study aims to identify consumer segments based on consumers’ self-stated general importance ratings of a range of food
Rushton, J Philippe; Bons, Trudy Ann; Ando, Juko; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Irwing, Paul; Vernon, Philip A; Petrides, K V; Barbaranelli, Claudio
In three studies, a General Factor of Personality (GFP) was found to occupy the apex of the hierarchical structure. In Study 1, a GFP emerged independent of method variance and accounted for 54% of the reliable variance in a multitrait-multimethod assessment of 391 Italian high school students that used self-, teacher-, and parent-ratings on the Big Five Questionnaire - Children. In Study 2, a GFP was found in the seven dimensions of Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory as well as the Big Five of the NEO PI-R, with the GFPtci correlating r = .72 with the GFPneo. These results indicate that the GFP is practically the same in both test batteries, and its existence does not depend on being extracted using the Big Five model. The GFP accounted for 22% of the total variance in these trait measures, which were assessed in 651 pairs of 14- to 30-year-old Japanese twins. In Study 3, a GFP accounted for 32% of the total variance in nine scales derived from the NEO PI-R, the Humor Styles Questionnaire, and the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire assessed in 386 pairs of 18- to 74-year-old Canadian and U.S. twins. The GFP was found to be 50% heritable with high scores indicating openness, conscientiousness, sociability, agreeableness, emotional stability, good humor and emotional intelligence. The possible evolutionary origins of the GFP are discussed.
Bekhuis, H.; Meuleman, R.; Lubbers, M.
This study answers the question to what extent support for national cultural protectionism differs between countries, and to what extent differences between countries are related to levels of globalization. We propose that globalization processes affect people′s support of cultural protectionism,
This study explores the way the concept of temperature was presented in lower-secondary science textbooks in France, Poland and England at the end of the 1950s and in the 2000s. I draw on history of science, history of education and book history to analyze different treatments of an apparently-similar scientific concept with regard to national…
Dodds, Josiah; Chong-de, Lin
Chinese teenagers (n=1,861) rated overpopulation and environmental pollution as their greatest concerns about the future; these were usually rated quite low by teenagers in other countries. Although still of concern to Chinese teenagers, nuclear war seemed more remote to them than it did to U.S. and former Soviet teenagers in earlier studies.…
This dissertation addressed the popularity of domestic cultural consumption. It aimed at describing and explaining the extent to which the popularity of domestic cultural consumption differs between countries and over time. We studied the popularity of domestic versus foreign film productions, the
Klitkou, Antje; Iversen, Eric; Borup, Mads
level. This paper studies the national cases of Norway and Denmark within the context of the seemingly homogenous Nordic region. The paper focuses on the different approaches taken at the national level to build battery electric vehicle (BEV) recharging infrastructure. Norway and Denmark provide apt...
Maineri, A.M.; Scherpenzeel, A.; Bristle, Johanna; Pflüger, Senta-Melissa; Butt, Sarah; Zins, Stefan; Emery, Tom; Luijkx, R.
This report addresses the quality of the population registers which are currently being used as sampling frames in countries participating in the four cross-European surveys cooperating in SERISS: the European Social Survey (ESS), the European Values Study (EVS), the Gender and Generations Program
Rantanen, Johanna; Feldt, Taru; Hakanen, Jari J.; Kokko, Katja; Huhtala, Mari; Pulkkinen, Lea; Schaufeli, Wilmar
The present study investigated the factor structure of the 10-item version of the Dutch Work Addiction Scale (DUWAS). The DUWAS-10 is intended to measure workaholism with two correlated factors: working excessively (WE) and working compulsively (WC). The factor structure of the DUWAS-10 was examined
This study focuses on the skill divide in job quality and the role of social institutions in structuring the relation of workers' qualifications to the attributes of their jobs. Four measures of job quality are examined: job security, job achievement, job content and work schedule flexibility. The study is based on the 2005 ISSP module on work orientations and encompasses 28 countries. Obtained through multilevel modeling, the findings show that low-skilled workers are disadvantaged in all aspects of job quality. However, skill inequality in the quality of employment depends on countries' characteristics, with declining inequality in countries at higher levels of technological development and to some extent also in times of technological growth. At times of high unemployment, skill disparities in job security widen while on other measures of job quality they decline. Under high market regulation, the low skilled enjoy better job security but on other measures, skill inequalities increase. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nawrotzki, Raphael J.; Pampel, Fred C.
This study explores value change across cohorts for a multinational population sample. Employing a diffusion-of-innovations approach, we combine competing theories predicting the relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and environmentalism: post-materialism and affluence theories, and global environmentalism theory. The diffusion argument suggests that high-SES groups first adopt pro-environmental views, but as time passes by, environmentalism diffuses to lower-SES groups. We test th...
Anderson, Brilé; Böhmelt, Tobias; Ward, Hugh
This article studies how public opinion is associated with the introduction of renewable energy policies in Europe. While research increasingly seeks to model the link between public opinion and environmental policies, the empirical evidence is largely based on a single case: the US. This limits the generalizability of findings and we argue accordingly for a systematic, quantitative study of how public opinion drives environmental policies in another context. Theoretically, we combine arguments behind the political survival of democratic leaders with electoral success and environmental politics. Ultimately, we suggest that office-seeking leaders introduce policies that seem favorable to the domestic audience; if the public prefers environmental protection, the government introduces such policies in turn. The main contribution of this research is the cross-country empirical analysis, where we combine data on the public’s environmental attitudes and renewable energy policy outputs in a European context between 1974 and 2015. We show that as public opinion shifts towards prioritizing the environment, there is a significant and positive effect on the rate of renewable energy policy outputs by governments in Europe. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic, quantitative study of public opinion and environmental policies across a large set of countries, and we demonstrate that the mechanisms behind the introduction of renewable energy policies follow major trends across European states.
Full Text Available High levels of social trust and social support are associated with life satisfaction around the world. However, it is not known whether this association extends to other indicators of social capital and of subjective well-being globally. We examine associations between three measures of social capital and three indicators of subjective well-being in 142 low-, middle- and high-income countries. Furthermore, we explore whether positive and negative feelings mirror each other or if they are separate constructs that behave differently in relation to social capital. Data comes from the Gallup World Poll, an international cross-sectional comparable survey conducted yearly from 2005 to 2009 for those 15 years of age and over. The poll represents 95% of the world's population. Social capital was measured with self-reports of access to support from relatives and friends, of volunteering to an organization in the past month, and of trusting others. Subjective well-being was measured with self-reports of life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect. We first estimate random coefficient (multi-level models and then use multivariate (individual-level Ordinary Least Square (OLS regression to model subjective well-being as a function of social support, volunteering and social trust, controlling for age, gender, education, marital status, household income and religiosity. We found that having somebody to count on in case of need and reporting high levels of social trust are associated with better life evaluations and more positive feelings and an absence of negative feelings in most countries around the world. Associations, however, are stronger for high- and middle-income countries. Volunteering is also associated with better life evaluations and a higher frequency of positive emotions. There is not an association, however, between volunteering and experiencing negative feelings, except for low-income countries. Finally, we present evidence that the
Calvo, Rocío; Zheng, Yuhui; Kumar, Santosh; Olgiati, Analia; Berkman, Lisa
High levels of social trust and social support are associated with life satisfaction around the world. However, it is not known whether this association extends to other indicators of social capital and of subjective well-being globally. We examine associations between three measures of social capital and three indicators of subjective well-being in 142 low-, middle- and high-income countries. Furthermore, we explore whether positive and negative feelings mirror each other or if they are separate constructs that behave differently in relation to social capital. Data comes from the Gallup World Poll, an international cross-sectional comparable survey conducted yearly from 2005 to 2009 for those 15 years of age and over. The poll represents 95% of the world's population. Social capital was measured with self-reports of access to support from relatives and friends, of volunteering to an organization in the past month, and of trusting others. Subjective well-being was measured with self-reports of life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect. We first estimate random coefficient (multi-level) models and then use multivariate (individual-level) Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regression to model subjective well-being as a function of social support, volunteering and social trust, controlling for age, gender, education, marital status, household income and religiosity. We found that having somebody to count on in case of need and reporting high levels of social trust are associated with better life evaluations and more positive feelings and an absence of negative feelings in most countries around the world. Associations, however, are stronger for high- and middle-income countries. Volunteering is also associated with better life evaluations and a higher frequency of positive emotions. There is not an association, however, between volunteering and experiencing negative feelings, except for low-income countries. Finally, we present evidence that the two affective
Pförtner, Timo-Kolja; De Clercq, Bart; Lenzi, Michela; Vieno, Alessio; Rathmann, Katharina; Moor, Irene; Hublet, Anne; Molcho, Michal; Kunst, Anton E; Richter, Matthias
To analyze how dimensions of social capital at the individual level are associated with adolescent smoking and whether associations differ by socioeconomic status. Data were from the 'Health Behaviour in School-aged Children' study 2005/2006 including 6511 15-year-old adolescents from Flemish Belgium, Canada, Romania and England. Socioeconomic status was measured using the Family Affluence Scale (FAS). Social capital was indicated by friend-related social capital, participation in school and voluntary organizations, trust and reciprocity in family, neighborhood and school. We conducted pooled logistic regression models with interaction terms and tested for cross-national differences. Almost all dimensions of social capital were associated with a lower likelihood of smoking, except for friend-related social capital and school participation. The association of family-related social capital with smoking was significantly stronger for low FAS adolescents, whereas the association of vertical trust and reciprocity in school with smoking was significantly stronger for high FAS adolescents. Social capital may act both as a protective and a risk factor for adolescent smoking. Achieving higher levels of family-related social capital might reduce socioeconomic inequalities in adolescent smoking.
Full Text Available This article is a cross-national study of the work-family balance in families with dependent children. The countries included are Denmark, Hungary, Italy and the UK. The article aims at investigating the question “why” we still, in all four European countries, seem to live according to a traditional gender role pattern in the division of paid and unpaid work, despites mothers’ entrance on the paid labour market. Women still bear the main responsibility of unpaid work. With preference theory as a starting point, the paper investigates preferences and constraints in relation to mothers’ and fathers’ work- and family lives. The paper relies on qualitative interviews. By using qualitative interviews, the analysis is based on fathers’ and mothers’ articulation of their work-life balance. The design of the interview guide has been inspired by Prue Chamberlayne’s biographical methods. Thus, the analysis is based upon both fathers’ and mothers’personal (life stories in the four countries.
Nagengast, Benjamin; Marsh, Herbert W; Scalas, L Francesca; Xu, Man K; Hau, Kit-Tai; Trautwein, Ulrich
Expectancy-value theory (EVT) is a dominant theory of human motivation. Historically, the Expectancy × Value interaction, in which motivation is high only if both expectancy and value are high, was central to EVT. However, the Expectancy × Value interaction mysteriously disappeared from published research more than 25 years ago. Using large representative samples of 15-year-olds (N = 398,750) from 57 diverse countries, we attempted to solve this mystery by testing Expectancy × Value interactions using latent-variable models with interactions. Expectancy (science self-concept), value (enjoyment of science), and the Expectancy × Value interaction all had statistically significant positive effects on both engagement in science activities and intentions of pursuing scientific careers; these results were similar for the total sample and for nearly all of the 57 countries considered separately. This study, apparently the strongest cross-national test of EVT ever undertaken, supports the generalizability of EVT predictions--including the "lost" Expectancy × Value interaction.
Hampton, Keith; Ling, Richard
The size and diversity of Americans’ core social networks has declined. Some suggest that the replacement of face-to-face contact with new media, and combined with more insular core networks is detrimental to both individual and societal well-being. Based on a cross-national comparison of the Uni......The size and diversity of Americans’ core social networks has declined. Some suggest that the replacement of face-to-face contact with new media, and combined with more insular core networks is detrimental to both individual and societal well-being. Based on a cross-national comparison...
Astudillo, Mariana; Connor, Jennie; Roiblatt, Rachel E; Ibanga, Akanidomo K J; Gmel, Gerhard
Drinking habits are socially patterned and social networks influence individuals' drinking behaviors. Previous studies have focused primarily upon the influence from family members to drink less. Those studies that have focused upon peer influence have been largely confined to social norms among adolescent and college-age drinkers. By contrast, based in adult populations, this article examines exhortations from friends not only to reduce alcohol consumption but also to increase it. Survey data in 15 countries that participate in the Gender, Alcohol and Culture: An International Study project (GENACIS) were used to test whether there were country and gender differences concerning the influence to drink less or to drink more by friends and examine if this was affected by the drinking behavior. The findings revealed that those influenced to drink less had more heavy episodic drinking (HED) occasions than those who did not report such influence. By contrast, influence to drink more, originating mainly from same-sex friends, may be more the result of social situations that encourage all drinkers, regardless of their frequency of HED occasions. At the country level, influence to drink less for both sexes decreased with the proportion of drinkers in a country. Similarly, influence to drink less for both sexes also decreased in countries where gender roles were more egalitarian. Thus, in countries where alcohol use is more widespread and fewer differences are observed between male and female gender role expectations, fewer people were influenced to drink less. These findings have implications for social and behavioral strategies designed to reduce alcohol-related harm across a wide range of cultures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Christensen, D; Roundy, S
This paper is a comparative study of the design spaces of two bio-implantable acoustically excited generator architectures: the thickness-stretch-mode circular piezoelectric plate and the bending-mode unimorph piezoelectric diaphragm. The generators are part of an acoustic power transfer system for implanted sensors and medical devices such as glucose monitors, metabolic monitors, drug delivery systems, etc. Our studies indicate that at small sizes the diaphragm architecture outperforms the plate architecture. This paper will present the results of simulation studies and initial experiments that explore the characteristics of the two architectures and compare their performance
The volume of Google searches for suicide-related terms is positively associated with suicide rates, but previous studies used data from specific, restricted geographical contexts, thus, limiting the generalizability of this finding. We investigated the correlation between suicide-related search volume and suicide rates of 50 nations from five continents. We found a positive correlation between suicide rates and search volume, even after controlling for the level of industrialization. Results give credence to the global existence of a correlation. However, the reason why suicide-related search volume is higher in countries with higher suicide rates is still unclear and up to future research.
Dodds, J.; Lin, C.D.
Teenagers in the U.S., U.S.S.R., Eastern Europe, Western Europe, and New Zealand have consistently rated death of a parent and nuclear war as their greatest concerns about the future. In the present study, however, Chinese teenagers rated overpopulation and environmental pollution as their greatest concerns; these were usually rated quite low by teenagers in other countries. While still of concern to Chinese teenagers, nuclear war seemed more remote to them than it did to U.S. and U.S.S.R. teenagers and therefore more survivable. Speculation is offered as to how teenagers' concerns reflect those of a country's general population
Howie, Sarah; Plomp, T.; Bascia, Nina; Cumming, Alister; Datnow, Amanda; Leithwood, Kenneth; Livingstone, David
The development of international comparative studies of educational achievements dates back to the early 1960s and was made possible by developments in sample survey methodology, group testing techniques, test development, and data analysis (Husén & Tuijnman, 1994, p. 6). The studies involve
Zolla, George A., Jr.
This exploratory study identifies factors that influence the adoption and diffusion of intranet technology. A comparative case study of bipolar organizations is used to identify crucial implementation factors and create an innovation adoption model. A strategic approach for the adoption and diffusion of intranet technology is then presented.
The aim of this study is to compare Turkish and European Union Countries Educations in terms of the new image qualities such as data like access to online education, digital access, foreign languages learnt per pupil, research & development investments, human resources employed in science and technology, the study opportunities offered to…
The mechanical and release properties of paracetamol tablets formulated with cashew gum (CAG), povidone (PVP) and gelatin (GEL) as binders were studied and compared. The parameters studied were tensile strength (TS), brittle fracture index (BFI), friability (F), disintegration time (DT) and percentage drug released ...
Meijler, F.L.; Tweel, I. van der
Atrial fibrillation is one ofthe most common cardiac arrhythmias in humans. It a1so occurs quite frequent1y in dogs and horses. Comparative study of this arrhythmia may contribute to better understanding of the pathophysiologica1 mechanisms involved. In this study, we present a quantitative
Bhattacharya, Sonali; Neelam, Netra; Behl, Abhishek; Acharya, Sabyasachi
Purpose: In this study we compared the learning organisation practices of Indian Businesses across sectors. Methodology: The study is based on a sample of 406 managers of banking, information technology and information technology enabled services (IT/ITES), manufacturing, hotel & hospitality and hospital and healthcare sectors. Learning…
A qualitative comparative study of the bacterial flora of the vagina and cervix of 90 non-pregnant women of childbearing age (18-35 years) in Calabar was undertaken. The study revealed that both aerobic and microaerophilic organisms as well as the strictly anaerobic bacteria constituted the microflora of the lower genital of ...
Comparative study on the level of bacteriological contamination of automatic teller machines, public toilets and public transport commercial motorcycle crash ... Conclusion: This study has revealed the ability of these public devices to serve as vehicle of transmission of microorganisms with serious health implications.
Feb 15, 2010 ... genetic source of wheat, some cytogenetic analysis reported (Chennaveeraiah, 1960; Badaeva et al., 1998,. 2001) and indicated that all A. crassa chromosomes can be identified by their morphology and C-banding patterns. Cytogenetical studies have been carried out on A. crassa but a comparative study ...
Garcia, Richard A.
The study investigated the political ideology of three Chicano youth groups in El Paso, Texas: Mexican American Youth Association (MAYA), Mexican American Political Association (MAPA), and the Alianza. Purpose of the study was to identify and compare the political ideas and attitudes of the three organizations. Questionnaires were administered to…
... a comparative study of the obstetric performance of primiparous teenagers and ... 2006-31st December, 2007) in Lagos State University Teaching Hospital,Ikeja. ... The incidence of teenage pregnancy in the study population was 1.01% with ...
A comparative study of student achievement in botany and zoology based on data of 10 studies conducted in 20 countries. Up to age 14, students achieve better in zoology; after age 14, students achieve better in botany. Based on the findings, recommendations are suggested regarding curriculum planning, laboratory work and the need for specific…
A comparative study on the effects of crude extracts of pterocarpus soyauxii and Telfairia occidentalis on haematological parameters of albino wistar rats was carried out. Forty nine albino rats of both sexes, weighing between 150 and 250 g were used for the study. The rats were divided into seven groups of seven rats each.
Full Text Available Empirical studies of public opinion on environmental protection have typically been grounded in Inglehart’s post-materialism thesis, proposing that societal affluence encourages materially-sated publics to look beyond their interests and value the environment. These studies are generally conducted within, or at best across, Western, democratic, industrialized countries. Absence of truly cross-cultural research means the theory’s limitations have gone undetected. This article draws on an exceptionally broad dataset—pooling cross-sectional survey data from 80 countries, each sampled at up to three different points over 15 years—to investigate environmental attitudes. We find that post-materialism provides little account of pro-environment attitudes across diverse cultures, and a far from adequate explanation even in the affluent West. We suggest that unique domestic interests, more than broad value systems, are driving emerging global trends in environmental attitudes. The environment’s future champions may be the far from ‘post-material’ citizens of those developing nations most at risk of real material harm from climate change and environmental degradation.
Schwartz, Shalom H; Rubel-Lifschitz, Tammy
How does gender equality relate to men's and women's value priorities? It is hypothesized that, for both sexes, the importance of benevolence, universalism, stimulation, hedonism, and self-direction values increases with greater gender equality, whereas the importance of power, achievement, security, and tradition values decreases. Of particular relevance to the present study, increased gender equality should also permit both sexes to pursue more freely the values they inherently care about more. Drawing on evolutionary and role theories, the authors postulate that women inherently value benevolence and universalism more than men do, whereas men inherently value power, achievement, and stimulation more than women do. Thus, as gender equality increases, sex differences in these values should increase, whereas sex differences in other values should not be affected by increases in gender equality. Studies of 25 representative national samples and of students from 68 countries confirmed the hypotheses except for tradition values. Implications for cross-cultural research on sex differences in values and traits are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).
Why are comparisons interesting, or what are comparisons all about? In this article, the comparative ambition in the social constructivist tradition is scrutinized, and the other articles of the issue are used as examples of what is seen as principle problems of comparative studies. The first part of the article deals with the need of reflexivity in order for the researcher to avoid implicit notions of «good gender equality» or «real feminism». In the second part, the problems of comparative ...
Ososkov, G.A.; Shitov, A.B.; Stadnik, A.V.
In order to compare efficiency a comprehensive set of benchmarking tests is developed, which is used to compare abilities of continuous wavelet transform of the vanishing momenta type as well as the second generation wavelets constructed on the basis of the lifting scheme. It is based on processing of various types of pure and contaminated harmonic signals, delta-function, study of the signal phase dependence and the gain-frequency characteristics. The results of a comparative multiscale analysis allow one to reveal advantages and flaws of the considered types of wavelets
Veera V. S. M. Chintapalli
Full Text Available Advances in mobile screen sizes and feature enhancement for mobile applications have increased the number of users accessing spreadsheets on mobile devices. This paper reports a comparative usability study on four popular mobile spreadsheet applications: OfficeSuite Viewer 6, Documents To Go, ThinkFree Online, and Google Drive. We compare them against three categories of usability criteria: visibility; navigation, scrolling, and feedback; and interaction, satisfaction, simplicity, and convenience. Measures for each criterion were derived in a survey. Questionnaires were designed to address the measures based on the comparative criteria provided in the analysis.
Barna, L.; Lelea, D.
This document proposes for analysis, comparative study of the turbocharged, compression-ignition engine, equipped with EGR valve, operation in case the injection in intake manifold thereof a maximum flow rate of 1l/min oxyhydrogen resulted of water electrolysis, at two different injection pressures, namely 100 Pa and 3000 Pa, from the point of view of flue gas opacity. We found a substantial reduction of flue gas opacity in both cases compared to conventional diesel operation, but in different proportions.
VPN and Tor is a technology based on anonymity communication. These two technologies have their advantage and disadvantage. The objective of this paper is to find the difference between VPN and Tor technologies by comparing their security of communication on the public network based on the CIA triad concept. The comparative study in this paper is based on the survey method. At last, the result of this paper is a recommendation on when to use a VPN and Tor to secure communication
This article uses the data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2000 to examine whether the influence of family background on educational achievement is sensitive to different measures of the family's socio-economic status (SES). The study finds that, when a multidimensional measure of SES is used, the family background has a stronger influence on achievement across countries than if the simpler measure of SES is used. The new measure, which incorporated aspects of parental occupation, education and cultural resources, was not biased towards more wealthy nations, Western nations, or urban population. However, when a proxy of wealth was included in the measure of SES, this reduced the other measured effects of family background on achievement in many countries.
Shen, Gordon C; Snowden, Lonnie R
Policies generate accountability in that they offer a standard against which government performance can be assessed. A central question of this study is whether ideological imprint left by policy is realized in the time following its adoption. National mental health policy expressly promotes the notion of deinstitutionalization, which mandates that individuals be cared for in the community rather than in institutional environments. We investigate whether mental health policy adoption induced a transformation in the structure of mental health systems, namely psychiatric beds, using panel data on 193 countries between 2001 and 2011. Our striking regression results demonstrate that late-adopters of mental health policy are more likely to reduce psychiatric beds in mental hospitals and other biomedical settings than innovators, whereas they are less likely than non-adopters to reduce psychiatric beds in general hospitals. It can be inferred late adopters are motivated to implement deinstitutionalization for technical efficiency rather than social legitimacy reasons.
Persaud, D; Narine, L
In this paper we review the performance of the capitation payment systems of three countries--the Adjusted Average Per Capita Cost (AAPCC) system used in the United States to reimburse Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs) for insuring Medicare recipients, a somewhat similar system in the Netherlands which reimburses third-party payers for insuring the entire population and a weighted system utilized in Britain for regional funding. Our review revealed significant problems with the current version of the AAPCC formula as there is evidence of the biased selection of beneficiaries and actual losses to Medicare through its use. Furthermore, several studies show that the demographic adjusters utilized in the AAPCC formula are extremely poor predictors of future healthcare utilization relative to the potential of direct and indirect health status measures. The Dutch experience with capitated funding has been similar to that of the United States. While Dutch researchers have built on the work of their American counterparts they acknowledge that further work is needed before a fully functional system is implemented. Britain's weighted system has fulfilled its original mandate to redistribute healthcare resources based on population need but recent changes giving increased influence to age weighting could reverse some of these gains. A number of proposed improvements to these risk adjustment problems were reviewed including the development of diagnostic cost groups, the coexisting hierarchical conditions model and the use of community-rated high-risk pooling. The findings from this study can help others narrow the alternatives they need to consider when thinking of introducing capitation funding or refining already existing systems.
Seedat, Soraya; Scott, Kate Margaret; Angermeyer, Matthias C.; Berglund, Patricia; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Brugha, Traolach S.; Demyttenaere, Koen; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Haro, Josep Maria; Jin, Robert; Karam, Elie G.; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Levinson, Daphna; Mora, Maria Elena Medina; Ono, Yutaka; Ormel, Johan; Pennell, Beth-Ellen; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sampson, Nancy A.; Williams, David; Kessler, Ronald C.
Context Gender differences in mental disorders, including more anxiety-mood disorders among women and more externalizing disorders among men, are found consistently in epidemiological surveys. The “gender roles” hypothesis suggests that these differences should narrow as the roles of women and men become more equal. Objective To study time-space (i.e., cohort-country) variation in gender differences in lifetime DSM-IV mental disorders across cohorts in 15 countries in the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative and determine if this variation is significantly related to time-space variation in female gender role traditionality (GRT) as measured by aggregate patterns of female education, employment, marital timing, and use of birth control. Design/Setting and Participants Face-to face household surveys of 72,933 community-dwelling adults in Africa, the Americas, Asia, Europe, the Middle East, and the Pacific. Main Outcomes The WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) assessed lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset of 18 DSM-IV anxiety, mood, externalizing, and substance disorders. Survival analyses estimated time-space variation in Female:Male (F:M) odds-ratios (ORs) of these disorders across cohorts defined by age ranges 18–34, 35–49, 50–64, and 65+. Structural equation analysis examined predictive effects of variation in GRT on these ORs. Results Women had more anxiety-mood disorders than men and men more externalizing-substance disorders than women in all cohorts and countries. Although gender differences were generally consistent across cohorts, significant narrowing was found in recent cohorts for major depressive disorder (MDD) and substance disorders. This narrowing was significantly related to temporal (MDD) and spatial (substance disorders) variation in GRT. Conclusion While gender differences in most lifetime mental disorders were fairly stable over the time-space units studied, substantial inter-cohort narrowing of
Full Text Available This retrospective study presents a comparison of assessment results achieved by distancelearning students and classroom-based students undertaking the same module in a degree course. The purpose of the comparison is to provide some objective measurement of the quality of distance education in relation to conventional classroom-based education. The authors have selected three groups of students, who have all undertaken the same module in the B. Sc Health Studies degree programme offered by the University of Paisley. One group (in Paisley undertook their studies by means of conventional classroom-based education, the second (in Hong Kong by supported distance learning with face-to-face contact in the form of tutorials, and the third (in a geographically dispersed group in the United Kingdom and other countries by supported distance learning with no face-to-face contact. The results obtained by these three groups of students were analysed. Because of the differences in the size of the groups, the Kruskal- Wallis 1- Way Anova test was applied to validate the face value findings. The authors include findings from the literature comparing distance education with conventional education and from cross-cultural studies to present their data in context. Analysis of the assessment results showed that students from all three groups were successful in their studies, but the students studying by distance learning obtained significantly higher end-of-module results than their classroom-based colleagues. This latter finding reflects the conclusion that other investigators have reached In their discussion the authors identify educational, cultural and personal factors that may help to explain their findings. A limitation in the study is that it concerns only one module in the degree programme. The research now moves on to comparing students who have undertaken the whole degree programme by the means described
Vasilyeva, Marina; Laski, Elida V; Ermakova, Anna; Lai, Weng-Feng; Jeong, Yoonkyung; Hachigian, Amy
East Asian students consistently outperform students from other nations in mathematics. One explanation for this advantage is a language account; East Asian languages, unlike most Western languages, provide cues about the base-10 structure of multi-digit numbers, facilitating the development of base-10 number representations. To test this view, the current study examined how kindergartners represented two-digit numbers using single unit-blocks and ten-blocks. The participants (N=272) were from four language groups (Korean, Mandarin, English, and Russian) that vary in the extent of "transparency" of the base-10 structure. In contrast to previous findings with older children, kindergartners showed no cross-language variability in the frequency of producing base-10 representations. Furthermore, they showed a pattern of within-language variability that was not consistent with the language account and was likely attributable to experiential factors. These findings suggest that language might not play as critical a role in the development of base-10 representations as suggested in earlier research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Moniruzzaman, S; Andersson, R
To examine age- and cause-specific injury mortality differentials between low-income (LICs), middle-income (MICs) and high-income countries (HICs), and to discuss their implications in explaining changing injury mortality patterns with economic development against the background of general health transition theory. Cross-sectional study. The World Health Organization's mortality database was used as the source of injury mortality data. The grouping into LICs, MICs and HICs was based on data from World Development Indicator. Unintentional injury mortality (UIM) rates in children and adults are highest in LICs and MICs, respectively. UIM rates in the elderly population, however, increase with higher economic conditions and are highest in HICs. Based on these findings, it is hypothesized that ageing and injury interplay mutually with regard to health transition; declining rates in child UIM with economic development contributes to the ageing process, while increasing UIM among the elderly, in combination with ageing populations, boosts the absolute number of injury deaths in this segment.
Nawrotzki, Raphael J; Pampel, Fred C
This study explores value change across cohorts for a multinational population sample. Employing a diffusion-of-innovations approach, we combine competing theories predicting the relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and environmentalism: post-materialism and affluence theories, and global environmentalism theory. The diffusion argument suggests that high-SES groups first adopt pro-environmental views, but as time passes by, environmentalism diffuses to lower-SES groups. We test the diffusion argument using a sample of 18 countries for two waves (years 1993 and 2000) from the International Social Survey Project (ISSP). Cross-classified multilevel modeling allows us to identify a non-linear interaction between cohort and education, our core measure of SES, in predicting environmental concern, while controlling for age and period. We find support for the diffusion argument and demonstrate that the positive effect of education on environmental concern first increases among older cohorts, then starts to level off until a bend-point is reached for individuals born around 1940 and becomes progressively weaker for younger cohorts.
Nawrotzki, Raphael J.; Pampel, Fred C.
This study explores value change across cohorts for a multinational population sample. Employing a diffusion-of-innovations approach, we combine competing theories predicting the relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and environmentalism: post-materialism and affluence theories, and global environmentalism theory. The diffusion argument suggests that high-SES groups first adopt pro-environmental views, but as time passes by, environmentalism diffuses to lower-SES groups. We test the diffusion argument using a sample of 18 countries for two waves (years 1993 and 2000) from the International Social Survey Project (ISSP). Cross-classified multilevel modeling allows us to identify a non-linear interaction between cohort and education, our core measure of SES, in predicting environmental concern, while controlling for age and period. We find support for the diffusion argument and demonstrate that the positive effect of education on environmental concern first increases among older cohorts, then starts to level off until a bend-point is reached for individuals born around 1940 and becomes progressively weaker for younger cohorts. PMID:24179313
Full Text Available Abstract Background Disability weights represent the relative severity of disease stages to be incorporated in summary measures of population health. The level of agreement on disability weights in Western European countries was investigated with different valuation methods. Methods Disability weights for fifteen disease stages were elicited empirically in panels of health care professionals or non-health care professionals with an academic background following a strictly standardised procedure. Three valuation methods were used: a visual analogue scale (VAS; the time trade-off technique (TTO; and the person trade-off technique (PTO. Agreement among England, France, the Netherlands, Spain, and Sweden on the three disability weight sets was analysed by means of an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC in the framework of generalisability theory. Agreement among the two types of panels was similarly assessed. Results A total of 232 participants were included. Similar rankings of disease stages across countries were found with all valuation methods. The ICC of country agreement on disability weights ranged from 0.56 [95% CI, 0.52–0.62] with PTO to 0.72 [0.70–0.74] with VAS and 0.72 [0.69–0.75] with TTO. The ICC of agreement between health care professionals and non-health care professionals ranged from 0.64 [0.58–0.68] with PTO to 0.73 [0.71–0.75] with VAS and 0.74 [0.72–0.77] with TTO. Conclusions Overall, the study supports a reasonably high level of agreement on disability weights in Western European countries with VAS and TTO methods, which focus on individual preferences, but a lower level of agreement with the PTO method, which focuses more on societal values in resource allocation.
Saltman, Richard B
This paper assesses recent health sector reform strategies across Europe adopted since the onset of the 2008 financial crisis. It begins with a brief overview of the continued economic pressure on public funding for health care services, particularly in tax-funded Northern European health care systems. While economic growth rates across Europe have risen a bit in the last year, they remain below the level necessary to provide the needed expansion of public health sector revenues. This continued public revenue shortage has become the central challenge that policymakers in these health systems confront, and increasingly constrains their potential range of policy options. The paper then examines the types of targeted reforms that various European governments have introduced in response to this increased fiscal stringency. Particularly in tax-funded health systems, these efforts have been focused on two types of changes on the production side of their health systems: consolidating and/or centralizing administrative authority over public hospitals, and revamping secondary and primary health services as well as social services to reduce the volume, cost and less-than-optimal outcomes of existing public elderly care programs. While revamping elderly care services also was pursued in the social health insurance (SHI) system in the Netherlands, both the Dutch and the German health systems also made important changes on the financing side of their health systems. Both types of targeted reforms are illustrated through short country case studies. Each of these country assessments flags up new mechanisms that have been introduced and which potentially could be reshaped and applied in other national health sector contexts. Reflecting the tax-funded structure of the Canadian health system, the preponderance of cases discussed focus on tax-funded countries (Norway, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, England, Ireland), with additional brief assessments of recent changes in the SHI
Comparative risk studies make use of a large number of methods and models based upon a set of assumptions incompletely formulated or of value judgements. Owing to the multidimensionality of risks and benefits, the economic and social context may notably influence the final result. Five classes of models are briefly reviewed: accounting of fluxes of effluents, radiation and energy; transport models and health effects; systems reliability and bayesian analysis; economic analysis of reliability and cost-risk-benefit analysis; decision theory in presence of uncertainty and multiple objectives. Purpose and prospect of comparative studies are assessed in view of probable diminishing returns for large generic comparisons [fr
Bambang Yudi Cahyono
Full Text Available This article is a part of a larger study comparing various aspects of policies on plagiarism in two university contexts. It compares policies on plagiarism in universities in Australia and Indonesia. The results of this comparative study showed that Australian and Indonesian universities treat plagiarism differently. Australian universities treat plagiarism explicitly in their university policies. In Australian universities, plagiarism is defined clearly and forms of plagiarism are explained thoroughly, policies on plagiarism are informed to all university academic members, and there are mechanisms to manage cases related to plagiarism. In contrast, not all Indonesian universities treat plagiarism directly. Some universities depend on religious morality and academic ethics in dealing with plagiarism. Accordingly, this article recommends the explicit treatment of plagiarism in Indonesian universities.
Comparative studies have remained an exception in qualitative reception and audience studies (Jensen, 1998b), although recent years have witnessed ambitious projects (e.g. Barker & Mathijs, 2008) and increased cross-national research collaborations. This paper will present the design...... of an empirical comparative study of the cultural, cognitive and linguistic determinants of news comprehension and a discussion of the challenges, issues and benefits found in engaging with a comparative methodology in the context of reception and discourse analyses. The research project on which this paper...... is based sought to understand the processes by which mediated discourse such as news is comprehended by its audience (Mathieu, 2009). The empirical study consisted in a cross-cultural comparison of the reading processes between Danes and Canadians over a set of news texts from both countries...
The study was conducted in goats to compare the pathogenic effects of .... membrane was examined, the rectal temperature of the goats was recorded ... the plasma layer, the content was expressed on the slide and covered with slip. ... measure analysis of variance in SPSS version 15.0 (2000). ..... Canadanian Journal of.
Jun 14, 2010 ... The comparative study of Aspergillus niger and Penicillium sp. in the biodegradation of automotive gas oil (AGO) and premium motor spirit (PMS) was carried out to ascertain the effectiveness of using these microorganisms in cleaning and restoring the ecosystem when polluted by petroleum products.
Background: Any substance that increases erectile function, sexual performance and enjoyment is considered an aphrodisiac. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of food plants Mondia whitei, Chenopodium album, Cucurbita pepo and Sclerocarya birrea extracts at a fixed dose of 200mg/kg body weight on ...
Teaching methods are teacher's skills and manipulations on the subject matter and the desired responses from the learner. With the application of effective method, the teaching of agricultural science will be facilitated. The study compared the influence of lecture method and demonstration method on the teaching of ...
Comparative study on corpus development for Malay investment fraud detection in website. ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... The aim of this research is to develop a corpus for Malay investment fraud so that it can be used in ...
0.630, p=0.068 and p=0.047, respectively) (Table 2). A comparative study assessing a new tool for occluding parenchymal blood flow during liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma. S Zhou, X-J Xue, R-R Li, D-F Chen, W-Y Chen, G-X Liu, ...
Comparative phytochemical and growth inhibitory studies on the leaf and root bark extracts of securinega Virosa (roxb ex. Willd) baill ... The growth inhibitory tests were carried out between 1-30 mg/ in a period of 24-96 h while the phytochemical screening was carried out on the plant parts using standard methods. At 24 h ...
The study explored metakaolin as alternative material to cement. It compares the properties of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) concrete and binary concrete containing metakaolin as partial replacement of OPC. Two set of concrete samples; one with 10% Metakaolin (MK) replacing OPC by weight, and the other without ...
Nott, Brooke Dolenc; Vuchinich, Samuel
Background: While some recent research has addressed homeless youth from a strengths-based approach, comparative studies of homeless and non-homeless youth from a strengths perspective are few; research that includes youth's views on positive youth development are also limited. Objective: Addressing these gaps and using an inductive approach,…
A Comparative Study on the Influence of Formal (School) Career Guidance and Non-Formal (Parents) Career Guidance on Secondary School Students' ... These participants were purposively selected from a population of four research sites in Harare; (Ministry of education, Ministry of health, Business office and industry).
Methods: The effects of drinking 10% alcohol solution for 12 weeks on daily body weight, and drinking and feeding behaviour were studied in Sprague – Dawley rats of both sexes. Daily measurement of body weight, fluid intake and food consumption were recorded and compared. Multiple linear regression analysis was ...
Comparative Studies of Some Polypores Using High Performance Liquid. Chromatography. Ofodile L. N., Attah L. E. Agbaje Williams and Simmonds, M. S. J ... Chromatography characteristics of their secondary metabolites. ..... Roja, G. and Rao, P. S. (1998) Biotechnology investigation in medicinal plants for the product.
A comparative study of granule flow enhancing property of bentonite, magnesium stearate, talc and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was undertaken. Bentonite was processed into fine powder. A 10 %w/w of starch granules was prepared and separated into different sizes (˂180, 180-500, 500-710 and 710-850 μm).
A comparative analysis of some physiochemical and structural parameters of brown (mature) and green (immature) coconut fibre as adsorbents was studied. The physiochemical and structural properties evaluated were surface area, moisture content, pH, bulk density, pore volume, porosity, ash content, tortuocity and metal ...
This study determined the better irrigation method between large scale and motorised pump to recommend to farmers in Katsina state of Nigeria. The target populations were Farmers Under Large Scale (FULS) and Farmers Using Motorised Pumps (FUMP) and were compared along their socio-economic characteristics, ...
tional or electronic devices. Recent advances in experi- mental techniques have allowed ... stimulates us to study the electronic conduction in azulene molecule and to compare that with its isomer, naphthalene. ..... ernment of India, for funding and (SD) acknowledges CSIR,. Government of India, for a research fellowship.
Comparative study of oven and traditionally roasted suya: an indigenous Nigerian meat. M C Okafor, H U Nwanjo, G O Oze. Abstract. No Abstract. Animal Production Research Avancees Vol. 3 (2) 2007: pp. 131-136. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.
journal of. April 2015 physics pp. 653–665. Comparative studies of ... MS received 16 April 2013; revised 5 February 2014; accepted 28 May 2014 ... RF plasma polymerization; poly(o-toluidine); Fourier transform infrared; UV–visible ... tial applications, e.g., as electrodes and membranes for electrochemical energy ...
A Comparative Study of Igala and Igbo Culture and Communication Systems in Ata Igala ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... I adopted particpant observation as an instrument of ethnographic design of fact finding, ... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...
Relying on the comparative study of Nigeria and South Africa, it is the contention in this paper that ethnic conflict which has been at the heart of African countries development problem is a product of skewed economy, authoritarian governance and religious bigotry. There is no gainsaying the fact that African countries in ...