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Sample records for cross-linked high temperature

  1. Epoxides cross-linked hexafluoropropylidene polybenzimidazole membranes for application as high temperature proton exchange membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jingshuai; Xu, Yixin; Liu, Peipei; Gao, Liping; Che, Quantong; He, Ronghuan

    2015-01-01

    Covalently cross-linked hexafluoropropylidene polybenzimidazole (F 6 PBI) was prepared and used to fabricate high temperature proton exchange membranes with enhanced mechanical strength against thermoplastic distortion. Three different epoxides, i.e. bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (R 1 ), bisphenol A propoxylate diglycidyl ether (R 2 ) and poly(ethylene glycol) diglycidyl ether (R 3 ), were chosen as the cross-linkers to investigate the influence of their structures on the properties of the cross-linked F 6 PBI membranes. All the cross-linked F 6 PBI membranes displayed excellent stability towards the radical oxidation. Comparing with the pure F 6 PBI membrane, the cross-linked F 6 PBI membranes showed high acid doping level but less swelling after doping phosphoric acid at elevated temperatures. The mechanical strength at 130 °C was improved from 0.4 MPa for F 6 PBI membrane to a range of 0.8–2.0 MPa for the cross-linked F 6 PBI membranes with an acid doping level as high as around 14, especially for that crosslinking with the epoxide (R 3 ), which has a long linear structure of alkyl ether. The proton conductivity of the cross-linked membranes was increased accordingly due to the high acid doping levels. Fuel cell tests demonstrated the technical feasibility of the acid doped cross-linked F 6 PBI membranes for high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells

  2. Cross-linked aromatic cationic polymer electrolytes with enhanced stability for high temperature fuel cell applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Wenjia; Zhao, Chengji; Yang, Jingshuai

    2012-01-01

    Diamine-cross-linked membranes were prepared from cross-linkable poly(arylene ether ketone) containing pendant cationic quaternary ammonium group (QPAEK) solution by a facile and general thermal curing method using 4,4′-diaminodiphenylmethane with rigid framework and 1,6-diaminohexane with flexible...... anchoring of the molecule. Combining the excellent thermal stability, the addition of a small amount of diamines enhanced both the chemical and mechanical stability and the phosphoric acid doping (PA) ability of membranes. Fuel cell performance based on impregnated cross-linked membranes have been...... successfully operated at temperatures up to 120 °C and 180 °C with unhumidified hydrogen and air under ambient pressure, the maximum performance of diamine-cross-linked membrane is observed at 180 °C with a current density of 1.06 A cm−2 and the peak power density of 323 mW cm−2. The results also indicate...

  3. Temperature dependence of creep compliance of highly cross-linked epoxy: A molecular simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khabaz, Fardin; Khare, Ketan S.; Khare, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    We have used molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to study the effect of temperature on the creep compliance of neat cross-linked epoxy. Experimental studies of mechanical behavior of cross-linked epoxy in literature commonly report creep compliance values, whereas molecular simulations of these systems have primarily focused on the Young’s modulus. In this work, in order to obtain a more direct comparison between experiments and simulations, atomistically detailed models of the cross-linked epoxy are used to study their creep compliance as a function of temperature using MD simulations. The creep tests are performed by applying a constant tensile stress and monitoring the resulting strain in the system. Our results show that simulated values of creep compliance increase with an increase in both time and temperature. We believe that such calculations of the creep compliance, along with the use of time temperature superposition, hold great promise in connecting the molecular insight obtained from molecular simulation at small length- and time-scales with the experimental behavior of such materials. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first reported effort that investigates the creep compliance behavior of cross-linked epoxy using MD simulations

  4. Cross-linked polybenzimidazole membranes for high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells with dichloromethyl phosphinic acid as a cross-linker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noye, Pernille; Li, Qingfeng; Pan, Chao

    2008-01-01

    Phosphoric acid doped polybenzimidazole (PBI) membranes have been covalently cross-linked with dichloromethyl phosphinic acid (DCMP). FT-IR measurements showed new bands originating from bonds between the hydrogen bearing nitrogen in the imidazole group of PBI and the CH2 group in DCMP. The produ......Phosphoric acid doped polybenzimidazole (PBI) membranes have been covalently cross-linked with dichloromethyl phosphinic acid (DCMP). FT-IR measurements showed new bands originating from bonds between the hydrogen bearing nitrogen in the imidazole group of PBI and the CH2 group in DCMP.......e. within the temperature range of operation of PBI-based fuel cells....

  5. In vivo oxidation in remelted highly cross-linked retrievals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currier, B H; Van Citters, D W; Currier, J H; Collier, J P

    2010-10-20

    Elimination of free radicals to prevent oxidation has played a major role in the development and product differentiation of the latest generation of highly cross-linked ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene bearing materials. In the current study, we (1) examined oxidation in a series of retrieved remelted highly cross-linked ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene bearings from a number of device manufacturers and (2) compared the retrieval results with findings for shelf-stored control specimens. The hypothesis was that radiation-cross-linked remelted ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene would maintain oxidative stability in vivo comparable with the stability during shelf storage and in published laboratory aging tests. Fifty remelted highly cross-linked ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene acetabular liners and nineteen remelted highly cross-linked ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene tibial inserts were received after retrieval from twenty-one surgeons from across the U.S. Thirty-two of the retrievals had been in vivo for two years or more. Each was measured for oxidation with use of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. A control series of remelted highly cross-linked ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene acetabular liners from three manufacturers was analyzed with electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy to measure free radical content and with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to measure oxidation initially and after eight to nine years of shelf storage in air. The never-implanted, shelf-aged controls had no measurable free-radical content initially or after eight to nine years of shelf storage. The never-implanted controls showed no increase in oxidation during shelf storage. Oxidation measurements showed measurable oxidation in 22% of the retrieved remelted highly cross-linked liners and inserts after an average of two years in vivo. Because never-implanted remelted highly cross-linked ultra-high molecular weight

  6. Characterization of the degree of cross-linking in radiation cross-linked low and high density polyethylenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posselt, K.; Haedrich, W.

    1986-01-01

    In practice the cross-linking of irradiated polyethylene is mostly characterized by solubility and thermomechanical data. The irradiation of samples of a LDPE and a HDPE yields very different gel-dose curves. But for a quantitative comparison the complicated connection between the gel values and the corresponding densities of cross-links, especially the dependence on the initial molecular size distribution, has to take into consideration. The analysis of the solubility data according to the statistical theory of cross-linking developed by Inokuti and Saito shows that at equal doses in both investigated PE types in spite of the different gel values nearly the same densities of cross-links are present. That result is confirmed by the densities of cross-links determined from stress-strain measurements at 423 K. (author)

  7. Core Cross-linked Star Polymers for Temperature/pH Controlled Delivery of 5-Fluorouracil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Sánchez-Bustos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available RAFT polymerization with cross-linking was used to prepare core cross-linked star polymers bearing temperature sensitive arms. The arms consisted of a diblock copolymer containing N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm and 4-methacryloyloxy benzoic acid (4MBA in the temperature sensitive block and poly(hexyl acrylate forming the second hydrophobic block, while ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate was used to form the core. The acid comonomer provides pH sensitivity to the arms and also increases the transition temperature of polyNIPAAm to values in the range of 40 to 46°C. Light scattering and atomic force microscopy studies suggest that loose core star polymers were obtained. The star polymers were loaded with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU, an anticancer agent, in values of up to 30 w/w%. In vitro release experiments were performed at different temperatures and pH values, as well as with heating and cooling temperature cycles. Faster drug release was obtained at 42°C or pH 6, compared to normal physiological conditions (37°C, pH 7.4. The drug carriers prepared acted as nanopumps changing the release kinetics of 5-FU when temperatures cycles were applied, in contrast with release rates at a constant temperature. The prepared core cross-linked star polymers represent advanced drug delivery vehicles optimized for 5-FU with potential application in cancer treatment.

  8. Vitamin E-diffused highly cross-linked UHMWPE particles induce less osteolysis compared to highly cross-linked virgin UHMWPE particles in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bichara, David A; Malchau, Erik; Sillesen, Nanna H

    2014-01-01

    when compared to virgin gamma irradiated cross-linked UHMWPE. Groups received equal amount of particulate debris overlaying the calvarium for 10 days. Calvarial bone was examined using high resolution micro-CT and histomorphometric analyses. There was a statistically significant difference between...

  9. Reprocessing and Recycling of Highly Cross-Linked Ion-Conducting Networks through Transalkylation Exchanges of C-N Bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obadia, Mona M; Mudraboyina, Bhanu P; Serghei, Anatoli; Montarnal, Damien; Drockenmuller, Eric

    2015-05-13

    Exploiting exchangeable covalent bonds as dynamic cross-links recently afforded a new class of polymer materials coined as vitrimers. These permanent networks are insoluble and infusible, but the network topology can be reshuffled at high temperatures, thus enabling glasslike plastic deformation and reprocessing without depolymerization. We disclose herein the development of functional and high-value ion-conducting vitrimers that take inspiration from poly(ionic liquid)s. Tunable networks with high ionic content are obtained by the solvent- and catalyst-free polyaddition of an α-azide-ω-alkyne monomer and simultaneous alkylation of the resulting poly(1,2,3-triazole)s with a series of difunctional cross-linking agents. Temperature-induced transalkylation exchanges of C-N bonds between 1,2,3-triazolium cross-links and halide-functionalized dangling chains enable recycling and reprocessing of these highly cross-linked permanent networks. They can also be recycled by depolymerization with specific solvents able to displace the transalkylation equilibrium, and they display a great potential for applications that require solid electrolytes with excellent mechanical performances and facile processing such as supercapacitors, batteries, fuel cells, and separation membranes.

  10. Physical Characterization Of High Amylose/Pectin Mixtures Cross-Linked With Sodium Trimetaphosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbinatto, F.M.; Cury, B.S.F.; Evangelista, R.C.

    2010-01-01

    Some researches have reported that pectin and high amylose mixtures presented superior mechanical properties in relation to those of the isolated polymers. In this work, mixtures at different ratios (1:4; 1:1) of pectin and high amylose were crosslinked with sodium trimetaphosphate at different degrees by varying reaction conditions. All samples were characterized by rheological and X-ray diffraction analyses. Samples without cross-linker were prepared as control. The oscillatory dynamic tests showed that all samples exhibited predominant elastic behavior, although cross-linked samples presented higher G' values, suggesting that crosslinking by phosphorylation resulted in more strength structures. The diffractograms showed that cross-linked samples underwent structural modifications that resulted in increase of crystallinity due to cross-linking process. (author)

  11. Chemical cross-linked polyvinyl alcohol/cellulose nanocrystal composite films with high structural stability by spraying Fenton reagent as initiator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Meili; Yu, Houyong; Gu, Jiping; Ye, Shounuan; Zhou, Yuwei

    2018-07-01

    Cross-linked polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) composite films with high structural stability were prepared by free radical copolymerization between cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) and maleic anhydride (MAH) modified PVA through spraying Fenton free radical as initiator. The influence of chemical cross-linked and physical network structure on mechanical, thermal and water absorption properties of the composite films were investigated. Compared to PVA and PVA/CNC composite film, significant improvements in the mechanical, thermal and water uptake properties of the cross-linked composite film were found. The tensile strength of the cross-linked composite film was enhanced from 23.1MPa (neat PVA film) and 32.6MPa (PVA/CNC-10%) to 42.5MPa, and the maximum thermal degradation temperature was increased from 266.8°C and 281.2°C to 366.7°C (cross-linked composite film). Besides, the water absorption was reduced from 385.9% and 220.6% to 175.7% for cross-linked composite film. It indicates that compared with physical network structure in PVA/CNC composite film, the multiple cross-linked networks showed excellent thermal stability, resistance of water swelling and structural stability at the same CNC loading level. Thus, the PVA/CNC composite film with the multiple cross-linked network shows greater property reinforcements. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Vitamin E diffused highly cross-linked polyethylene in total hip arthroplasty at five years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nebergall, Audrey K; Greene, M. E.; Laursen, M B

    2017-01-01

    Aims: The objective of this five-year prospective, blinded, randomised controlled trial (RCT) was to compare femoral head penetration into a Vitamin E diffused highly cross-linked polyethylene (HXLPE) liner with penetration into a medium cross-linked polyethylene control liner using......, ArComXL. This is the longest-term RCT comparing the wear performance and clinical outcome of Vitamin E diffused HXLPE with a previous generation of medium cross-linked polyethylene....... radiostereometric analysis. Patients and Methods: Patients scheduled for total hip arthroplasty (THA) were randomised to receive either the study E1 (32 patients) or the control ArComXL polyethylene (35 patients). The median age (range) of the overall cohort was 66 years (40 to 76). Results: The five-year median...

  13. Low-Temperature Cross-Linking of PEDOT:PSS Films Using Divinylsulfone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantione, Daniele; Del Agua, Isabel; Schaafsma, Wandert; ElMahmoudy, Mohammed; Uguz, Ilke; Sanchez-Sanchez, Ana; Sardon, Haritz; Castro, Begoña; Malliaras, George G; Mecerreyes, David

    2017-05-31

    Recent interest in bioelectronics has prompted the exploration of properties of conducting polymer films at the interface with biological milieus. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) from a commercially available source has been used as a model system for these studies. Different cross-linking schemes have been used to stabilize films of this material against delamination and redispersion, but the cost is a decrease in the electrical conductivity and/or additional heat treatment. Here we introduce divinylsulfone (DVS) as a new cross-linker for PEDOT:PSS. Thanks to the higher reactiveness of the vinyl groups of DVS, the cross-linking can be performed at room temperature. In addition, DVS does not reduce electronic conductivity of PEDOT:PSS but rather increases it by acting as a secondary dopant. Cell culture studies show that PEDOT:PSS:DVS films are cytocompatible and support neuroregeneration. As an example, we showed that this material improved the transconductance value and stability of an organic electrochemical transistor (OECT) device. These results open the way for the utilization of DVS as an effective cross-linker for PEDOT:PSS in bioelectronics applications.

  14. Highly conductive carbon nanotube buckypapers with improved doping stability via conjugational cross-linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I-Wen Peter; Liang, Richard; Zhao, Haibo; Wang, Ben; Zhang, Chuck

    2011-12-02

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) sheets or buckypapers have demonstrated promising electrical conductivity and mechanical performance. However, their electrical conductivity is still far below the requirements for engineering applications, such as using as a substitute for copper mesh, which is currently used in composite aircraft structures for lightning strike protection. In this study, different CNT buckypapers were stretched to increase their alignment, and then subjected to conjugational cross-linking via chemical functionalization. The conjugationally cross-linked buckypapers (CCL-BPs) demonstrated higher electrical conductivity of up to 6200 S cm( - 1), which is more than one order increase compared to the pristine buckypapers. The CCL-BPs also showed excellent doping stability in over 300 h in atmosphere and were resistant to degradation at elevated temperatures. The tensile strength of the stretched CCL-BPs reached 220 MPa, which is about three times that of pristine buckypapers. We attribute these property improvements to the effective and stable conjugational cross-links of CNTs, which can simultaneously improve the electrical conductivity, doping stability and mechanical properties. Specifically, the electrical conductivity increase resulted from improving the CNT alignment and inter-tube electron transport capability. The conjugational cross-links provide effective 3D conductive paths to increase the mobility of electrons among individual nanotubes. The stable covalent bonding also enhances the thermal stability and load transfer. The significant electrical and mechanical property improvement renders buckypaper a multifunctional material for various applications, such as conducting composites, battery electrodes, capacitors, etc.

  15. Core Cross-Linked Multiarm Star Polymers with Aggregation-Induced Emission and Temperature Responsive Fluorescence Characteristics

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhen

    2017-05-19

    Aggregation-induced emission (AIE) active core cross-linked multiarm star polymers, carrying polystyrene (PS), polyethylene (PE), or polyethylene-b-polycaprolactone (PE-b-PCL) arms, have been synthesized through an “arm-first” strategy, by atom transfer radical copolymerization (ATRP) of a double styrene-functionalized tetraphenylethene (TPE-2St) used as a cross-linker with linear arm precursors possessing terminal ATRP initiating moieties. Polyethylene macroinitiator (PE–Br) was prepared via the polyhomologation of dimethylsulfoxonium methylide with triethylborane followed by oxidation/hydrolysis and esterification of the produced PE–OH with 2-bromoisobutyryl bromide; polyethylene-block-poly(ε-caprolactone) diblock macroinitiator was derived by combining polyhomologation with ring-opening polymerization (ROP). All synthesized star polymers showed AIE-behavior either in solution or in bulk. At high concentration in good solvents (e.g., THF, or toluene) they exhibited low photoluminescence (PL) intensity due to the inner filter effect. In sharp contrast to the small molecule TPE-2St, the star polymers were highly emissive in dilute THF solutions. This can be attributed to the cross-linked structure of poly(TPE-2St) core which restricts the intramolecular rotation and thus induces emission. In addition, the PL intensity of PE star polymers in THF(solvent)/n-hexane(nonsolvent) mixtures, due to their nearly spherical shape, increased when the temperature decreased from 55 to 5 °C with a linear response in the range 40–5 °C.

  16. Characterization of radiation-cross-linked, high-density polyethylene for thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitaker, R.B.; Craven, S.M.; Etter, D.E.; Jendrek, E.F.; Nease, A.B.

    1983-01-01

    Electron beam cross-linked high-density polyethylene (HDPE) pellets (DuPont Alathon, 0.93 MI) have been characterized for potential utility in thermal energy storage applications, before and after up to 500 melt-freeze cycles in ethylene glycol. Up to 95% of the HDPE's initial DSC differential scanning calorimetry Δ H/sub f/ value (44.7 cal/g) (at 1.25 0 C/min cooling rates) was retained up to 9.0 Mrad radiation dosage. Form-stability after 500 melt-freeze cycles was very good at this dosage level. X-ray diffraction measurements showed little difference between irradiated HDPE's and the unirradiated control, indicating that cross-linking occurred primarily in the amorphous regions. FTIR spectroscopy showed the pellets to be uniformly reacted. The ratios of the 965-cm -1 absorption band (trans RCH=CRH') to the 909-cm -1 band (RCH=CH 2 ) increased with increasing radiation dosage, up to 18 Mrad. Gel contents reached a maximum of 75% at the 13.5 Mrad dosage, indicating that other reactions, in addition to cross-linking, occurred at the highest (18 Mrad) dosage level. 15 references, 5 figures, 4 tables

  17. Insights into the swelling process and drug release mechanisms from cross-linked pectin/high amylose starch matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda M. Carbinatto

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cross-linked pectin/high amylose mixtures were evaluated as a new excipient for matrix tablets formulations, since the mixing of polymers and cross-linking reaction represent rational tools to reach materials with modulated and specific properties that meet specific therapeutic needs. Objective: In this work the influence of polymer ratio and cross-linking process on the swelling and the mechanism driving the drug release from swellable matrix tablets prepared with this excipient was investigated. Methods: Cross-linked samples were characterized by their micromeritic properties (size and shape, density, angle of repose and flow rate and liquid uptake ability. Matrix tablets were evaluated according their physical properties and the drug release rates and mechanisms were also investigated. Results: Cross-linked samples demonstrated size homogeneity and irregular shape, with liquid uptake ability insensible to pH. Cross-linking process of samples allowed the control of drug release rates and the drug release mechanism was influenced by both polymer ratio and cross-linking process. The drug release of samples with minor proportion of pectin was driven by an anomalous transport and the increase of the pectin proportion contributed to the erosion of the matrix. Conclusion: The cross-linked mixtures of high amylose and pectin showed a suitable excipient for slowing the drug release rates.

  18. Temperature-controlled cross-linking of silver nanoparticles with Diels-Alder reaction and its application on antibacterial property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Lian; Yang, Pengfei, E-mail: ypf@qlu.edu.cn; Li, Junying; Zhang, Zhiliang; Yu, Xi; Lu, Ling

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • Silver nanoparticles were functionalized by furan groups. • The DA reaction of furan with bismaleimide was used to cross-link the particles. • The reverse cross-linking could be controlled by temperature. • The antibacterial activity of silvers could be adjusted by the cross-linking. - Abstract: Sliver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized and functionalized with furan group on their surface, followed by the reverse Diels-Alder (DA) reaction with bismaleimide to vary the particle size, so as to give different antibacterial activities. These nanoparticles were characterized using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Ultraviolet-Visible (UV–vis), Nanoparticle Size Analyzer and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). It was found that the cross-linking reaction with bismaleimide had a great effect on the size of AgNPs. The size of the AgNPs could be controlled by the temperature of DA/r-DA equilibrium. The antibacterial activity was assessed using the inhibition zone diameter by introducing the particles into a media containing Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. It was found that these particles were effective bactericides. Furthermore, the antibacterial activity of the nanoparticles decreased orderly as the particle size enlarged.

  19. Temperature-controlled cross-linking of silver nanoparticles with Diels-Alder reaction and its application on antibacterial property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Lian; Yang, Pengfei; Li, Junying; Zhang, Zhiliang; Yu, Xi; Lu, Ling

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Silver nanoparticles were functionalized by furan groups. • The DA reaction of furan with bismaleimide was used to cross-link the particles. • The reverse cross-linking could be controlled by temperature. • The antibacterial activity of silvers could be adjusted by the cross-linking. - Abstract: Sliver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized and functionalized with furan group on their surface, followed by the reverse Diels-Alder (DA) reaction with bismaleimide to vary the particle size, so as to give different antibacterial activities. These nanoparticles were characterized using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Ultraviolet-Visible (UV–vis), Nanoparticle Size Analyzer and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). It was found that the cross-linking reaction with bismaleimide had a great effect on the size of AgNPs. The size of the AgNPs could be controlled by the temperature of DA/r-DA equilibrium. The antibacterial activity was assessed using the inhibition zone diameter by introducing the particles into a media containing Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. It was found that these particles were effective bactericides. Furthermore, the antibacterial activity of the nanoparticles decreased orderly as the particle size enlarged.

  20. A cross-linking study on the particle species of human plasma high density lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yachida, Y; Minari, O

    1983-08-01

    The present investigation was on the particle species of human plasma high density lipoprotein (HDL) characterized by the stoichiometry of their apoprotein components. HDL2-1, HDL2-2, HDL3-1, and HDL3-2 isolated from normal human plasma by sequential ultracentrifugal flotation were further subfractionated by Bio Gel A-5m gel chromatography or hydroxyapatite column chromatography, and three distinct subfractions were obtained. Subfraction 1 was obtained from all the HDL fractions and it contained mostly apolipoprotein A-I (A-I). Subfraction 2 was obtained from HDL2-2 and HDL3-1 and it contained A-I and apolipoprotein A-II (A-II) in the molar ratio of one to one, and subfraction 3 from HDL2-2 and HDL3-1 contained A-I and apolipoprotein C (C). Each subfraction was treated with bifunctional cross-linking reagents, and the intraparticle cross-linked products of apolipoproteins were examined by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The results of the cross-linking studies indicated that the HDL2 fraction consisted mainly of lipoprotein particles of the (A-I)4 type and a few of the (A-I)5, (A-I)2(A-II)2, and (A-I)4(C)2 types, and that the HDL3 fraction consisted mainly of (A-I)2(A-II)2 type particles and a few (A-I)4, (A-I)3, (A-I)2, (A-I), and (A-I)3(C)2 type particles. From the results of analyses of the lipid components in the HDL of each type, it was suggested that the function of the particle species of the (A-I)n type (n = 1--5), which contained more cholesteryl ester than the (A-I)2(A-II)2 type, was concerned mainly with cholesterol metabolism.

  1. Highly Cross-Linked Polyethylene in Total Hip and Knee Replacement: Spatial Distribution of Molecular Orientation and Shape Recovery Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhito Takahashi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated effects of processing procedures on morphology of highly cross-linked and re-melted UHMWPE (XLPE in total hip and knee arthroplasty (THA, TKA. The shape recovery behavior was also monitored via uniaxial compression test at room temperature after non-destructive characterizations of the in-depth microstructure by confocal/polarized Raman spectroscopy. The goal of this study was to relate the manufacturing-induced morphology to the in vivo micromechanical performance, and ultimately to explore an optimal structure in each alternative joint bearing. It was clearly confirmed that the investigated XLPE hip and knee implants, which were produced from different orthopaedic grade resins (GUR 1050 and GUR 1020, consisted of two structural regions in the as-received states: the near-surface transitional anisotropic layer (≈100 μm thickness and the bulk isotropic structural region. These XLPEs exhibited a different crystalline anisotropy and molecular texture within the near-surface layers. In addition, the knee insert showed a slightly higher efficiency of shape recovery against the applied strain over the hip liner owing to a markedly higher percentage of the bulk amorphous phase with intermolecular cross-linking. The quantitative data presented in this study might contribute to construct manufacturing strategies for further rationalized structures as alternative bearings in THA and TKA.

  2. Wear of PEEK-OPTIMA® and PEEK-OPTIMA®-Wear Performance articulating against highly cross-linked polyethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Rebecca H; Briscoe, Adam; Unsworth, Anthony

    2015-03-01

    The idea of all polymer artificial joints, particularly for the knee and finger, has been raised several times in the past 20 years. This is partly because of weight but also to reduce stress shielding in the bone when stiffer materials such as metals or ceramics are used. With this in mind, pin-on-plate studies of various polyetheretherketone preparations against highly cross-linked polyethylene were conducted to investigate the possibility of using such a combination in the design of a new generation of artificial joints. PEEK-OPTIMA(®) (no fibre) against highly cross-linked polyethylene gave very low wear factors of 0.0384 × 10(-6) mm(3)/N m for the polyetheretherketone pins and -0.025 × 10(-6) mm(3)/N m for the highly cross-linked polyethylene plates. The carbon-fibre-reinforced polyetheretherketone (PEEK-OPTIMA(®)-Wear Performance) also produced very low wear rates in the polyetheretherketone pins but produced very high wear in the highly cross-linked polyethylene, as might have been predicted since the carbon fibres are quite abrasive. When the fibres were predominantly tangential to the sliding plane, the mean wear factor was 0.052 × 10(-6) mm(3)/N m for the pins and 49.3 × 10(-6) mm(3)/N m for the highly cross-linked polyethylene plates; a half of that when the fibres ran axially in the pins (0.138 × 10(-6) mm(3)/N m for the pins and 97.5 × 10(-6) mm/ N m for the cross-linked polyethylene plates). PEEK-OPTIMA(®) against highly cross-linked polyethylene merits further investigation. © IMechE 2015.

  3. Highly stable ionic-covalent cross-linked sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) for direct methanol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Linfeng; Zhu, Xingye; Xu, Jianfeng; Qian, Huidong; Zou, Zhiqing; Yang, Hui

    2017-05-01

    A novel ionic cross-linked sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) containing equal content of sulfonic acid and pendant tertiary amine groups (TA-SPEEK) has been initially synthesized for the application in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). By adjusting the ratio of p-xylene dibromide to tertiary amine groups of TA-SPEEK, a series of ionic-covalent cross-linked membranes (C-SPEEK-x) with tunable degree of cross-linking are prepared. Compared with the pristine membrane, the ionic and ionic-covalent cross-linked proton exchange membranes (PEMs) exhibit reduced methanol permeability and improved mechanical properties, dimensional and oxidative stability. The proton conductivity and methanol selectivity of protonated TA-SPEEK and C-SPEEK-x at 25 °C is up to 0.109 S cm-1 and 3.88 × 105 S s cm-3, respectively, which are higher than that of Nafion 115. The DMFC incorporating C-SPEEK-25 exhibits a maximum power density as high as 35.3 mW cm-2 with 4 M MeOH at 25 °C (31.8 mW cm-2 for Nafion 115). Due to the highly oxidative stability of the membrane, no obvious performance degradation of the DMFC is observed after more than 400 h operation, indicating such cost-effective ionic-covalent cross-linked membranes have substantial potential as alternative PEMs for DMFC applications.

  4. Cross-linked lysozyme crystal templated synthesis of Au nanoparticles as high-performance recyclable catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Miao; Liu Xia; Qi Wei; Su Rongxin; Huang Renliang; Yu Yanjun; He Zhimin; Wang Libing

    2013-01-01

    Bio-nanomaterials fabricated using a bioinspired templating technique represent a novel class of composite materials with diverse applications in biomedical, electronic devices, drug delivery, and catalysis. In this study, Au nanoparticles (NPs) are synthesized within the solvent channels of cross-linked lysozyme crystals (CLLCs) in situ without the introduction of extra chemical reagents or physical treatments. The as-prepared AuNPs-in-protein crystal hybrid materials are characterized by light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy analyses. Small AuNPs with narrow size distribution reveal the restriction effects of the porous structure in the lysozyme crystals. These composite materials are proven to be active heterogeneous catalysts for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol. These catalysts can be easily recovered and reused at least 20 times because of the physical stability and macro-dimension of CLLCs. This work is the first to use CLLCs as a solid biotemplate for the preparation of recyclable high-performance catalysts. (paper)

  5. Heat shrinkable behavior, physico-mechanical and structure properties of electron beam cross-linked blends of high-density polyethylene with acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinholds, Ingars; Kalkis, Valdis; Merijs-Meri, Remo; Zicans, Janis; Grigalovica, Agnese

    2016-01-01

    In this study, heat-shrinkable composites of electron beam irradiated high-density polyethylene (HDPE) composites with acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) were investigated. HDPE/NBR blends at a ratio of components 100/0, 90/10, 80/20, 50/50 and 20/80 wt% were prepared using a two-roll mill. The compression molded films were irradiated high-energy (5 MeV) accelerated electrons up to irradiation absorbed doses of 100–300 kGy. The effect of electron beam induced cross-linking was evaluated by the changes of mechanical properties, gel content and by the differences of thermal properties, detected by differential scanning calorimetry. The thermo-shrinkage forces were determined as the kinetics of thermorelaxation and the residual shrinkage stresses of previously oriented (stretched up to 100% at above melting temperature of HDPE and followed by cooling to room temperature) specimens of irradiated HDPE/NBR blends under isometric heating–cooling mode. The compatibility between the both components was enhanced due to the formation of cross-linked sites at amorphous interphase. The results showed increase of mechanical stiffness of composites with increase of irradiation dose. The values of gel fraction compared to thermorelaxation stresses increased with the growth of irradiation dose level, as a result of formation cross-linked sites in amorphous PP/NBR interphase. - Highlights: • Binary blends of HDPE/NBR have been irradiated with 5 MeV accelerated electrons. • Increase of NBR content and irradiation dose improves cross-linking efficiency. • Thermo-shrinkage and residual stresses are investigated for oriented specimens. • Cross-linked HDPE/NBR composites can be successfully used as thermos-shrinkable materials.

  6. Differences in Femoral Head Penetration Between Highly Cross-Linked Polyethylene Cemented Sockets and Uncemented Liners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Daigo; Seki, Taisuke; Higuchi, Yoshitoshi; Takegami, Yasuhiko; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed at investigating differences in femoral head penetration between highly cross-linked polyethylene (HXLPE) cemented sockets and uncemented liners during 5 years postoperatively. Ninety-six patients (106 hips) with a mean age of 64.4 (range, 35-83) years underwent total hip arthroplasty using a HXLPE cemented socket or liner and were respectively divided into cemented (35 patients [37 hips]) and uncemented (61 patients [69 hips]) groups. Femoral head penetrations were evaluated on both anteroposterior (AP)-view and Lauenstein-view radiographs, and mean polyethylene (PE) wear rates were calculated based on femoral head penetration from 2 to 5 years. Multivariate analyses were performed to assess risk factors for PE wear. At 5 years postoperatively, the cemented and uncemented groups exhibited proximal direction femoral head penetrations of 0.103 mm and 0.124 mm (P = .226) and anterior direction penetrations of 0.090 mm and 0.151 mm (P = .002), respectively. The corresponding mean PE wear rates were 0.004 mm/y and 0.009 mm/y in the AP-view (P = .286) and 0.005 mm/y and 0.012 mm/y in the Lauenstein-view (P = .168), respectively. Left-side operation and high activity were independent risk factors for PE wear on AP-view. When HXLPE was used, all mean PE wear rates were very low and those of cemented sockets and uncemented liners were very similar. PE particle theory suggests that the occurrence of osteolysis and related aseptic loosening might consequently decrease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A Filtration-based Method of Preparing High-quality Nuclei from Cross-linked Skeletal Muscle for Chromatin Immunoprecipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohara, Kazunari; Chen, Zheng; Yoo, Seung-Hee

    2017-07-06

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is a powerful method to determine protein binding to chromatin DNA. Fiber-rich skeletal muscle, however, has been a challenge for ChIP due to technical difficulty in isolation of high-quality nuclei with minimal contamination of myofibrils. Previous protocols have attempted to purify nuclei before cross-linking, which incurs the risk of altered DNA-protein interaction during the prolonged nuclei preparation process. In the current protocol, we first cross-linked the skeletal muscle tissue collected from mice, and the tissues were minced and sonicated. Since we found that ultracentrifugation was not able to separate nuclei from myofibrils using cross-linked muscle tissue, we devised a sequential filtration procedure to obtain high-quality nuclei devoid of significant myofibril contamination. We subsequently prepared chromatin by using an ultrasonicator, and ChIP assays with anti-BMAL1 antibody revealed robust circadian binding pattern of BMAL1 to target gene promoters. This filtration protocol constitutes an easily applicable method to isolate high-quality nuclei from cross-linked skeletal muscle tissue, allowing consistent sample processing for circadian and other time-sensitive studies. In combination with next-generation sequencing (NGS), our method can be deployed for various mechanistic and genomic studies focusing on skeletal muscle function.

  8. Temperature-controlled cross-linking of silver nanoparticles with diels-alder reaction and its application on antibacterial property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lian; Yang, Pengfei; Li, Junying; Zhang, Zhiliang; Yu, Xi; Lu, Ling

    2017-05-01

    Sliver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized and functionalized with furan group on their surface, followed by the reverse Diels-Alder (DA) reaction with bismaleimide to vary the particle size, so as to give different antibacterial activities. These nanoparticles were characterized using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-vis), Nanoparticle Size Analyzer and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). It was found that the cross-linking reaction with bismaleimide had a great effect on the size of AgNPs. The size of the AgNPs could be controlled by the temperature of DA/r-DA equilibrium. The antibacterial activity was assessed using the inhibition zone diameter by introducing the particles into a media containing Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. It was found that these particles were effective bactericides. Furthermore, the antibacterial activity of the nanoparticles decreased orderly as the particle size enlarged.

  9. Heat shrinkable behavior, physico-mechanical and structure properties of electron beam cross-linked blends of high-density polyethylene with acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinholds, Ingars; Kalkis, Valdis; Merijs-Meri, Remo; Zicans, Janis; Grigalovica, Agnese

    2016-03-01

    In this study, heat-shrinkable composites of electron beam irradiated high-density polyethylene (HDPE) composites with acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) were investigated. HDPE/NBR blends at a ratio of components 100/0, 90/10, 80/20, 50/50 and 20/80 wt% were prepared using a two-roll mill. The compression molded films were irradiated high-energy (5 MeV) accelerated electrons up to irradiation absorbed doses of 100-300 kGy. The effect of electron beam induced cross-linking was evaluated by the changes of mechanical properties, gel content and by the differences of thermal properties, detected by differential scanning calorimetry. The thermo-shrinkage forces were determined as the kinetics of thermorelaxation and the residual shrinkage stresses of previously oriented (stretched up to 100% at above melting temperature of HDPE and followed by cooling to room temperature) specimens of irradiated HDPE/NBR blends under isometric heating-cooling mode. The compatibility between the both components was enhanced due to the formation of cross-linked sites at amorphous interphase. The results showed increase of mechanical stiffness of composites with increase of irradiation dose. The values of gel fraction compared to thermorelaxation stresses increased with the growth of irradiation dose level, as a result of formation cross-linked sites in amorphous PP/NBR interphase.

  10. Radiostereometric analysis comparison of wear of highly cross-linked polyethylene against 36- vs 28-mm femoral heads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragdon, Charles R; Greene, Meridith E; Freiberg, Andrew A; Harris, William H; Malchau, Henrik

    2007-09-01

    This study used radiostereometric analysis (RSA) to compare the femoral head penetration of 28- vs 36-mm-diameter femoral heads into highly cross-linked polyethylene in 2 groups of total hip arthroplasty patients. Thirty patients were enrolled in this RSA study using highly cross-linked polyethylene (Longevity, Zimmer Inc, Warsaw, Idaho) against either 28- or 36-mm-diameter cobalt chrome femoral heads. At 3-year follow-up, there was no significant difference in the total average femoral head penetration, including both creep and wear, using 3 methods of RSA measurement between the 2 groups. Importantly, after bedding-in, there was no further significant increase in the amount of femoral head penetration (ie, wear) with either head size between years 1 and 3. There were no radiographic signs of lysis or radiolucencies at a minimum 3-year follow-up.

  11. Heating tubes of cross-linked polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoeppler, H.; Hoffmann, M.

    1981-01-01

    Oxygen permeability of plastic tubes for floor heating systems was measured as a function of the reduced oxygen content of water in plastic tubes at a flow rate of 0.5 m/s and a temperature of 30 0 C and as a function of oxygen uptake of low-oxygen water in floor heating tubes. Pipes of VEP, periodically cross-linked polyethylene (Engels process), polypropylene copolymeride, and polybutene were compared. The permeability of periodically cross-linked polyethylene is twice as high as that of VEP. Measurements, results, and consequences for floor heating systems are discussed. (KH) [de

  12. Core Cross-Linked Multiarm Star Polymers with Aggregation-Induced Emission and Temperature Responsive Fluorescence Characteristics

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhen; Bilalis, Panagiotis; Zhang, Hefeng; Gnanou, Yves; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos

    2017-01-01

    Aggregation-induced emission (AIE) active core cross-linked multiarm star polymers, carrying polystyrene (PS), polyethylene (PE), or polyethylene-b-polycaprolactone (PE-b-PCL) arms, have been synthesized through an “arm-first” strategy, by atom

  13. High mobility group protein number17 cross-links primarily to histone H2A in the reconstituted HMG 17 - nucleosome core particle complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, G.R.; Yau, P.; Yasuda, H.; Traut, R.R.; Bradbury, E.M.

    1986-01-01

    The neighbor relationship of lamb thymus High Mobility Group (HMG) protein 17 to native HeLa nucleosome core particle histones in the reconstituted complex has been studied. 125 I-labeled HMG 17 was cross-linking to core histones using the protein-protein cross-linking reagent 2-iminothiolane. Specific cross-linked products were separated on a two-dimensional Triton-acid-urea/SDS gel system, located by autoradiography, excised and quantified. Disulfide bonds in the cross links were then cleaved and the protein constituents were identified by SDS gel electrophoresis. HMG 17 cross-linked primarily to histone H2A while lower levels of cross-linking occurred between HMG 17 and the other histones. In contrast, cross-linking between two HMG 17 molecules bound on the same nucleosome was relatively rare. It is concluded that the same nucleosome was relatively rare. It is concluded that H2A comprises part of the HMG 17 binding site but that HMG 17 is sufficiently elongated and mobile to permit cross-linking to the other histones and to a second HMG 17 molecule. These results are in agreement with the current model for the structure of the nucleosome and the proposed binding sites for HMG 17

  14. Yield and Failure Behavior Investigated for Cross-Linked Phenolic Resins Using Molecular Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Joshua D.; Lawson, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were conducted to fundamentally evaluate the yield and failure behavior of cross-linked phenolic resins at temperatures below the glass transition. Yield stress was investigated at various temperatures, strain rates, and degrees of cross-linking. The onset of non-linear behavior in the cross-linked phenolic structures was caused by localized irreversible molecular rearrangements through the rotation of methylene linkers followed by the formation or annihilation of neighboring hydrogen bonds. The yield stress results, with respect to temperature and strain rate, could be fit by existing models used to describe yield behavior of amorphous glasses. The degree of cross-linking only indirectly influences the maximum yield stress through its influence on glass transition temperature (Tg), however there is a strong relationship between the degree of cross-linking and the failure mechanism. Low cross-linked samples were able to separate through void formation, whereas the highly cross-linked structures exhibited bond scission.

  15. Interplay between human high mobility group protein 1 and replication protein A on psoralen-cross-linked DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reddy, Madhava C; Christensen, Jesper; Vasquez, Karen M

    2005-01-01

    -DNA interstrand cross-link (ICL) to a specific site to determine the effect of HMGB proteins on recognition of these lesions. Our results reveal that human HMGB1 (but not HMGB2) binds with high affinity and specificity to psoralen ICLs, and interacts with the essential NER protein, replication protein A (RPA......), at these lesions. RPA, shown previously to bind tightly to these lesions, also binds in the presence of HMGB1, without displacing HMGB1. A discrete ternary complex is formed, containing HMGB1, RPA, and psoralen-damaged DNA. Thus, HMGB1 has the ability to recognize ICLs, can cooperate with RPA in doing so...

  16. Highly Efficient Thin-Film Transistor via Cross-Linking of 1T Edge Functional 2H Molybdenum Disulfides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hanleem; Bak, Sora; An, Sung-Jin; Kim, Jung Ho; Yun, Eunbhin; Kim, Meeree; Seo, Sohyeon; Jeong, Mun Seok; Lee, Hyoyoung

    2017-12-26

    Thin-film transistors (TFTs) have received great attention for their use in lightweight, large area, and wearable devices. However, low crystalline materials and inhomogeneous film formation limit the realization of high-quality electrical properties for channels in commercial TFTs, especially for flexible electronics. Here, we report a field-effect TFT fabricated via cross-linking of edge-1T basal-2H MoS 2 sheets that are prepared by edge functional exfoliation of bulk MoS 2 with soft organic exfoliation reagents. For edge functional exfoliation, the electrophilic 4-carboxy-benzenediazonium used as the soft organic reagent attacks the nucleophilic thiolates exposed at the edge of the bulk MoS 2 with the help of an amine catalyst, resulting in 1T edge-functional HOOC-benzene-2H basal MoS 2 nanosheets (e-MoS 2 ). The cross-linking via hydrogen bonding of the negatively charged HOOC of the e-MoS 2 sheets with the help of a cationic polymer, polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride, results in a good film formation for a channel of the solution processing TFT. The TFT exhibits an extremely high mobility of 170 cm 2 /(V s) at 1 V (on/off ratio of 10 6 ) on SiO 2 /Si substrate and also a high mobility of 36.34 cm 2 /(V s) (on/off ratio of 10 3 ) on PDMS/PET substrate.

  17. Temperature dependence of electrochemical properties of cross-linked poly(ethylene oxide)–lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide–N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide solid polymer electrolytes for lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetjen, Morten; Kim, Guk-Tae; Joost, Mario; Winter, Martin; Passerini, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Solid-state electrolyte for lithium batteries. ► Polymer electrolyte with improved mechanical properties by cross-linking. ► Enhanced performance of polymer electrolytes using water- and air-stable ionic liquids as co-salts. ► Polymer electrolyte with high rate capability at moderate temperatures. - Abstract: An advanced electrochemical characterization of cross-linked ternary solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs), prepared by a solvent-free hot-pressing process, is reported. Ionic conductivity, electrochemical stability window and limiting current measurements were performed as a function of the temperature by using both potentiodynamic and galvanostatic techniques. Additionally, the lithium cycleability was evaluated with respect to its dependence on both the operating temperature and the current density by using a new multi-rate Li-stripping-plating procedure. The results clearly indicate the beneficial effect of higher operating temperatures on the rate-capability, without major degradation of the electrochemical stability of the SPE. All-solid-state lithium metal polymer batteries (LMPBs), comprising a lithium metal anode, the cross-linked ternary solid polymer electrolyte and a LiFePO 4 composite cathode, were manufactured and investigated in terms of the interdependencies of the delivered capacity, operating temperature and discharge rate. The results prove quite exceptional delivered capacities both at medium current densities at ambient temperatures and even more impressive capacities above 160 mAh g −1 at high discharge rates (1 C) and temperatures above 60 °C.

  18. Highly stable pyridinium-functionalized cross-linked anion exchange membranes for all vanadium redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, L.; Zhao, T. S.; Wei, L.; Zeng, Y. K.; Zhang, Z. H.

    2016-11-01

    It has recently been demonstrated that the use of anion exchange membranes (AEMs) in vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs) can reduce the migration of vanadium ions through the membrane due to the Donnan exclusion effect among the positively charged functional groups and vanadium ions. However, AEMs are plagued by low chemical stability in harsh chemical environments. Here we propose and fabricate a pyridinium-functionalized cross-linked AEM for VRFBs. The pyridinium-functionalized bromomethylated poly (2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) exhibits a superior chemical stability as a result of the strengthened internal cross-linking networks and the chemical inertness of the polymer backbone. Therefore, the membrane exhibits littler decay in a harsh environment for 20 days during the course of an ex situ immersion test. A cycling test also demonstrates that the VRFB assembled with the membrane enable to retain 80% of the initial discharge capacity over 537 cycles with a capacity decay rate of 0.037% cycle-1. Meanwhile, the membrane also shows a low vanadium permeability and a reasonably high conductivity in supporting electrolytes. Hence, all the measurements and performance tests reported in this work suggest that the membrane is a promising AEM for redox flow batteries to achieve excellent cycling stability and superior cell performance.

  19. Novel configuration of polyimide matrix-enhanced cross-linked gel separator for high performance lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Yin; Yao, Zhikan; John, Angelin Ebanezar; Li, Yang; Li, Weishan; Zhu, Baoku

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • For the first time, a cross-linked gel polymer electrolyte with additional lithium ions, was introduced into a nonwoven separator. • The PI nonwoven is employed to ensure enhanced thermal stability and mechanical strength of the IACS. • With the introduction of PAMPS(Li"+), the migration and mobility rate of anions could be hindered by the -SO_3"− group, giving rise to a high lithium ion transference number. • This IACS is recommended as a promising candidate for the high-power and high-safety lithium ion batteries. - Abstract: A novel composite nonwoven separator exhibiting high heat resistance, high ionic conductivity and high lithium ion transference number is fabricated by a simple dip-coating and heat treatment method. The thermal stable polyimide (PI) nonwoven matrix is chosen as a mechanical support and contributes to improving the thermal shrinkage of the composite nonwoven separator (abbreviated as IACS). The cross-linked poly(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid) PAMPS(Li"+) gel polymer electrolyte (GPE), lithium ion sources of a single ion conductor, is introduced into the PI nonwoven matrix and acts as a functional filler. This PAMPS (Li"+) GPE is proved to be able to provide internal short circuit protection, to alleviate liquid electrolyte leakage effectively, to supply more lithium ions dissociating from PAMPS (Li"+) by liquid electrolyte solvent, to contribute a more stable interfacial resistance, and thus resulting in an excellent cyclability. More notably, the migration and mobility rate of anions could be hindered by the −SO_3"− group in the PAMPS (Li"+) polymer based on electrostatic interaction, giving rise to a very high lithium ion transference number. These fascinating characteristics endow the IACS a great promise for the application in the high power and high safety lithium ion batteries.

  20. Mechanisms of plastic deformation in highly cross-linked UHMWPE for total hip components--the molecular physics viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yasuhito; Shishido, Takaaki; Yamamoto, Kengo; Masaoka, Toshinori; Kubo, Kosuke; Tateiwa, Toshiyuki; Pezzotti, Giuseppe

    2015-02-01

    Plastic deformation is an unavoidable event in biomedical polymeric implants for load-bearing application during long-term in-vivo service life, which involves a mass transfer process, irreversible chain motion, and molecular reorganization. Deformation-induced microstructural alterations greatly affect mechanical properties and durability of implant devices. The present research focused on evaluating, from a molecular physics viewpoint, the impact of externally applied strain (or stress) in ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) prostheses, subjected to radiation cross-linking and subsequent remelting for application in total hip arthroplasty (THA). Two different types of commercial acetabular liners, which belong to the first-generation highly cross-linked UHMWPE (HXLPE), were investigated by means of confocal/polarized Raman microprobe spectroscopy. The amount of crystalline region and the spatial distribution of molecular chain orientation were quantitatively analyzed according to a combined theory including Raman selection rules for the polyethylene orthorhombic structure and the orientation distribution function (ODF) statistical approach. The structurally important finding was that pronounced recrystallization and molecular reorientation increasingly appeared in the near-surface regions of HXLPE liners with increasing the amount of plastic (compressive) deformation stored in the microstructure. Such molecular rearrangements, occurred in response to external strains, locally increase surface cross-shear (CS) stresses, which in turn trigger microscopic wear processes in HXLPE acetabular liners. Thus, on the basis of the results obtained at the molecular scale, we emphasize here the importance of minimizing the development of irrecoverable deformation strain in order to retain the pristine and intrinsically high wear performance of HXLPE components. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Biophysical principles of collagen cross-linking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spörl, E; Raiskup-Wolf, F; Pillunat, L E

    2008-02-01

    The reduced mechanical stability of the cornea in keratoconus or in keratectasia after Lasik may be increased by photooxidative cross-linking of corneal collagen. The biophysical principles are compiled for the safe and effective application of this new treatment method. The setting of the therapy parameters should be elucidated from the absorption behaviour of the cornea. The safety of the method for the endothelium cells and the lens will be discussed. The induced cross-links are shown to be the result of changes in the physico-chemical properties of the cornea. To reach a high absorption of the irradiation energy in the cornea, riboflavin of a concentration of 0.1% and UV light of a wavelength of 370 nm, corresponding to the relative maximum of absorption of riboflavin, were used. An irradiance of 3 mW/cm(2) and an irradiation time of 30 min lead to an increase of the mechanical stiffness. The endothelium cells will be protected due to the high absorption within the cornea, that means the damaging threshold of the endothelium cells will not be reached in a 400 microm thick stroma. As evidence for cross-links we can consider the increase of the biomechanical stiffness, the increased resistance against enzymatic degradation, a higher shrinkage temperature, a lower swelling rate and an increased diameter of collagen fibres. The therapy parameters were tested experimentally and have been proven clinically in the corneal collagen cross-linking. These parameters should be respected to reach a safe cross-linking effect without damage of the adjacent tissues.

  2. Soft Functional Silicone Elastomers with High Dielectric Permittivty: Simple Additives vs. Cross-Linked Synthesized Copolymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Yu, Liyun; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    Though dielectric elastomers (DEs) have many favorable properties, the issue of high driving voltages limits the commercial viability of the technology. Improved actuation at lower voltages can be obtained by decreasing the Young’s modulus and/or decreasing the dielectric permittivity of the elas......Though dielectric elastomers (DEs) have many favorable properties, the issue of high driving voltages limits the commercial viability of the technology. Improved actuation at lower voltages can be obtained by decreasing the Young’s modulus and/or decreasing the dielectric permittivity...... of the elastomer. A decrease in Young’s modulus, however, is often accompanied by the loss of mechanical stability and thereby the lifetime of the DE whereas addition of high permittivity fillers such as metal oxides often increases Young’s modulus such that improved actuation is not accomplished. New soft...... silicone elastomers with high dielectric permittivity were prepared through the use of chloropropyl-functional silicones. One method was through the synthesis of modular cross-linkable chloropropyl-functional copolymers that allow for a high degree of chemical freedom such that a tuneable silicone...

  3. Fabrication of manganese dioxide nanoplates anchoring on biomass-derived cross-linked carbon nanosheets for high-performance asymmetric supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiju; Yu, Neng; Yan, Peng; Li, Yuguang; Zhou, Xuemei; Chen, Shuangling; Wang, Guiling; Wei, Tong; Fan, Zhuangjun

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, MnO2 nanoplates loading on biomass-derived cross-linked carbon nanosheets have been prepared by a two-step synthesis. At first, the cross-linked carbon nanosheets derived from willow catkin are synthesized by one-step pyrolysis and activation method, then the MnO2 anchored cross-linked carbon nanosheets is prepared via in-situ hydrothermal deposition. The asymmetric supercapacitor with terrific energy and power density is assembled by employing the MnO2 anchored cross-linked carbon nanosheets as the positive electrode and the cross-linked carbon nanosheets as the negative electrode in a 1 M Na2SO4 electrolyte. The asymmetric supercapacitor displays a high energy density of 23.6 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 188.8 W kg-1 within a wide voltage rage of 0-1.9 V. In addition, the asymmetric supercapacitor exhibits excellent cycling stability with only 1.4% capacitance loss after 10000 cycles at 1 A g-1. These discoveries open up the prospect of biomass/biowaste derived carbon-based composites for high-voltage asymmetric supercapacitors with superb energy and power density performance.

  4. Red Phosphorus-Embedded Cross-Link-Structural Carbon Films as Flexible Anodes for Highly Reversible Li-Ion Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruan, Jiafeng [School of Materials; Yuan, Tao [School of Materials; Pang, Yuepeng [School of Materials; Xu, Xinbo [School of Materials; Yang, Junhe [School of Materials; Hu, Wenbin; Zhong, Cheng; Ma, Zi-Feng [Shanghai Electrochemical Energy Devices Research Center,; Bi, Xuanxuan [Chemical; Zheng, Shiyou [School of Materials

    2017-10-06

    Red phosphorus (P) is considered to be one of the most attractive anodic materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) due to its high theoretical capacity of 2596 mAh g–1. However, intrinsic characteristics such as the poor electronic conductivity and large volume expansion at lithiation impede the development of red P. Here, we design a new strategy to embed red P particles into a cross-link-structural carbon film (P–C film), in order to improve the electronic conductivity and accommodate the volume expansion. The red P/carbon film is synthesized via vapor phase polymerization (VPP) followed by the pyrolysis process, working as a flexible binder-free anode for LIBs. High cycle stability and good rate capability are achieved by the P–C film anode. With 21% P content in the film, it displays a capacity of 903 mAh g–1 after 640 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g–1 and a capacity of 460 mAh g–1 after 1000 cycles at 2.0 A g–1. Additionally, the Coulombic efficiency reaches almost 100% for each cycle. The superior properties of the P–C films together with their facile fabrication make this material attractive for further flexible and high energy density LIB applications.

  5. Physical Characterization Of High Amylose/Pectin Mixtures Cross-Linked With Sodium Trimetaphosphate; Caracterizacao fisica de misturas alta amilose/pectina reticuladas com trimetafosfato de sodio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbinatto, F.M.; Cury, B.S.F.; Evangelista, R.C., E-mail: curybsf@fcfar.unesp.b [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas

    2010-07-01

    Some researches have reported that pectin and high amylose mixtures presented superior mechanical properties in relation to those of the isolated polymers. In this work, mixtures at different ratios (1:4; 1:1) of pectin and high amylose were crosslinked with sodium trimetaphosphate at different degrees by varying reaction conditions. All samples were characterized by rheological and X-ray diffraction analyses. Samples without cross-linker were prepared as control. The oscillatory dynamic tests showed that all samples exhibited predominant elastic behavior, although cross-linked samples presented higher G' values, suggesting that crosslinking by phosphorylation resulted in more strength structures. The diffractograms showed that cross-linked samples underwent structural modifications that resulted in increase of crystallinity due to cross-linking process. (author)

  6. Ultra-high mechanical properties of porous composites based on regenerated cellulose and cross-linked poly(ethylene glycol).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Jian; Yang, Biao; Zhang, Liang-Qing; Lin, Sheng-Qiang; Xu, Ling; Zhong, Gan-Ji; Tang, Jian-Hua; Li, Zhong-Ming

    2018-01-01

    The ultra-high mechanical, biocompatible and biodegradable porous regenerated cellulose/poly(ethylene glycol) (RC/PEG) composites with double network structure were fabricated via an simple method to dissolve cellulose followed by UV irradiation. The porous structure of RC/PEG was sensitively altered by PEG contents, which led to the porous structure morphology transition from 3D fibrillar network to close-grained sheet-like-network with the loading of cross-linked PEG. The porous RC/PEG showed excellent mechanical properties, i.e., the compressive strength can reach 33 times higher than that of neat RC (0.07MPa) at the compressive strain of 30%. Porous RC/PEG also displayed outstanding properties with openly porous structure and structural stabilization. Besides, porous RC/PEG exhibited good water absorbency, which the water absorbency ratio at equilibrium state was 83% higher than that of porous RC. This work provides an environmentally friendly and simple pathway to prepare non-toxic and biocompatible porous regenerated cellulose-based composites with high strength, structural stabilization and good water absorbency, which could be useful for packaging, biomedical applications, sewage purification, etc. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Novel myopic refractive correction with transepithelial very high-fluence collagen cross-linking applied in a customized pattern: early clinical results of a feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanellopoulos AJ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Anastasios John Kanellopoulos LaserVision.gr Institute, Athens, Greece, and New York Medical School, New York, NY, USA Background: The purpose of this study is to report the safety and efficacy of a new application of collagen cross-linking using a novel device to achieve predictable refractive myopic changes in virgin corneas. Methods: Four cases were treated with a novel device employing very high-fluence collagen cross-linking applied in a myopic pattern. Prior to treatment, riboflavin solution was applied to the intact epithelium. The collagen cross-linking device was then engaged for a total of 12 J/cm2, to be applied transepithelially in a predetermined pattern. Cornea clarity, corneal keratometry, and corneal topography were evaluated by both Placido disc and Scheimpflug imaging, along with cornea anterior segment optical coherence tomography and endothelial cell counts. Results: An average of 2.3 diopters was achieved in the first week in all four cases treated with the very high-fluence myopic collagen cross-linking intervention. There was a slight regression to 1.44 diopters at 1 month, which remained stable at 6-month follow-up. The mean keratometry change was from 44.90 diopters to 43.46 diopters. There was no significant change in endothelial cell counts or corneal clarity. There was some mild change in epithelial thickness distribution, with the treated area showing a slight but homogeneous reduction in mean thickness from 52 µm to 44 µm. Conclusion: This report describes the novel application of very high-fluence collagen cross-linking with a predictable well defined myopic refractive (flattening corneal effect. This technique has the advantages of essentially no postoperative morbidity, immediate visual rehabilitation, and the potential for tapering until the desired result is achieved. Keywords: myopia, refractive correction, high-fluence collagen cross-linking, clinical results

  8. Engineering sodium alginate-based cross-linked beads with high removal ability of toxic metal ions and cationic dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zi-Jian; Huang, Xue-Lian; Yang, Fan; Zhao, Wei-Feng; Zhou, Xin-Zhi; Zhao, Chang-Sheng

    2018-05-01

    Sodium alginate (SA) beads with ultrahigh adsorption capacity were prepared via hydrogen bonds between SA and 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropa-1-propanesulfonic acid (AMPS), and the AMPS was then post-cross-linked to manufacture SA/PAMPS beads. The equilibrium adsorption capacities of methylene blue (MB) and Pb 2+ for the SA/PAMPS10 beads were 2977 and 2042 mg/g, respectively. Although the SA beads exhibited higher equilibrium adsorption capacities of MB and Pb 2+ than those of the SA/PAMPS10 beads, the SA/PAMPS10 beads had better mechanical property and higher stability. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the Langmuir isotherm described the adsorption processes of the SA/PAMPS10 beads for MB well. In addition, the SA/PAMPS10 beads could be reused with stable adsorption capacity for at least three cycles. The beads also had excellent performances on absorbing methylene violet and other heavy metal ions (Cu 2+ , Cd 2+ and Ni 2+ ). Therefore, the SA-based beads with high adsorption capacity might be good candidates for industrial pollutant treatments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Three Year RSA Evaluation of Vitamin E Diffused Highly Cross-linked Polyethylene Liners and Cup Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillesen, Nanna H; Greene, Meridith E; Nebergall, Audrey K; Nielsen, Poul T; Laursen, Mogens B; Troelsen, Anders; Malchau, Henrik

    2015-07-01

    Vitamin E diffusion into highly cross-linked polyethylene (E-XLPE) is a method for enhancing oxidative stability of acetabular liners. The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vivo penetration of E-XLPE using radiostereometric analysis (RSA). Eighty-four hips were recruited into a prospective 10-year RSA. This is the first evaluation of the multicenter cohort after 3-years. All patients received E-XLPE liners (E1, Biomet) and porous-titanium coated cups (Regenerex, Biomet). There was no difference (P=0.450) in median femoral head penetration into the E-XLPE liners at 3-years comparing cobalt-chrome heads (-0.028mm; inter-quartile range (IQR) - 0.065 to 0.047) with ceramic heads (-0.043mm, IQR - 0.143to0.042). The 3-year follow-up indicates minimal E-XLPE liner penetration regardless of head material and minimal early cup movement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cross-linking of polymer and ionic liquid as high-performance gel electrolyte for flexible solid-state supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Xiongwei; Tang, Jun; Cao, Lujie; Kong, Weiguang; Sun, Zheng; Cheng, Hua; Lu, Zhouguang; Pan, Hui; Xu, Baomin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •A facile method to prepare gel polymer electrolyte with high conductivity is proposed. •A flexible symmetric capacitor based on the prepared GPE shows ultra-flexibility. •The capacitor with high voltage can power up a 3.0 V LED even bended to a angle of 180°. -- Abstract: It is highly desirable to develop flexible solid-state electrochemical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) with non-liquid electrolyte. However, it is still a great challenge to prepare gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) possessing high ionic conductivity and good mechanical property. In this work, a simple and novel method to improve the conductivity and mechanical properties of GPE film for their applications as electrolyte and separator in EDLC is presented. The GPE film is prepared by cross-linking ionic liquid (IL) with poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) and benzophenone (Bp) followed by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Then, a non-woven cellulose separator (FPC) is used to absorb the GPE. By tuning the mass ratio (n) between IL and PEO, the flexible EDLC cooperated with low-cost active carbon and the electrolyte film with n = 10 has a high capacitance of 70.84 F∙g −1 , a wide and stable electrochemical window of 3.5 V, an energy density of 30.13 Wh∙kg −1 and a power density of 874.8 W∙kg −1 at a current density of 1 A∙g −1 , which can drive a 3.0 V light-emitting diode (LED). Importantly, the excellent performance of the flexible and low-cost EDLC can be maintained at a bending angle up to 180°, indicating the ultra-flexibility. It is expected that the IL-PEO-FPC electrolyte film is a promising candidate of GPE for flexible devices and energy storage systems.

  11. Three-dimensional cross-linked carbon network wrapped with ordered polyaniline nanowires for high-performance pseudo-supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Huan; Liu, Shuwu; Hanif, Muddasir; Chen, Shuiliang; Hou, Haoqing

    2014-12-01

    The polyaniline (PANI)-based pseudo-supercapacitor has been extensively studied due to its good conductivity, ease of synthesis, low-cost monomer, tunable properties and remarkable specific capacitance. In this work, a three-dimensional cross-linked carbon network (3D-CCN) was used as a contact-resistance-free substrate for PANI-based pseudo-supercapacitors. The ordered PANI nanowires (PaNWs) were grown on the 3D-CCN to form PaNWs/3D-CCN composites by in-situ polymerization. The PaNWs/3D-CCN composites exhibited a specific capacitance (Cs) of 1191.8 F g-1 at a current density of 0.5 A g-1 and a superior rate capability with 66.4% capacitance retention at 100.0 A g-1. The high specific capacitance is attributed to the thin PaNW coating and the spaced PANI nanowire array, which ensure a higher utilization of PANI due to the ease of diffusion of protons through/on the PANI nanowires. In addition, the unique 3D-CCN was used as a high-conductivity platform (or skeleton) with no contact resistance for fast electron transfer and facile charge transport within the composites. Therefore, the binder-free composites can process rapid gains or losses of electrons and ions, even at a high current density. As a result, the specific capacitance and rate capability of our composites are remarkably higher than those of other PANI composites.

  12. Covalently Cross-Linked Sulfone Polybenzimidazole Membranes with Poly(Vinylbenzyl Chloride) for Fuel Cell Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Jingshuai; Aili, David; Li, Qingfeng

    2013-01-01

    Covalently cross-linked polymer membranes were fabricated from poly(aryl sulfone benzimidazole) (SO(2) PBI) and poly(vinylbenzyl chloride) (PVBCl) as electrolytes for high-temperature proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells. The cross-linking imparted organo insolubility and chemical stability against...

  13. 3D Bi2S3/TiO2 cross-linked heterostructure: An efficient strategy to improve charge transport and separation for high photoelectrochemical performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Minmin; Jia, Junhong

    2016-10-01

    A novel 3D cross-linked heterostructure of TiO2 nanorods connecting with each other via ultrathin Bi2S3 nanosheets is constructed by a facile and effective strategy. The growth mechanism has been investigated and proposed based on the evolution of microstructure by changing the reaction parameters. Benefiting from the unique cross-linked heterostructure, the as-prepared Bi2S3 nanosheets modified TiO2 nanorods arrays could achieve a high energy conversion efficiency of 3.29% which is the highest value to date for Bi2S3-only sensitized solar cells as the reported highest value is 2.23% and other reported values are less than 1%. Furthermore, the photoelectrochemical studies clearly reveal that the novel cross-linked heterostructure exhibits much better activity than 0D nanoparticles decorated TiO2 nanorods under visible light irradiation, which may be primarily ascribed to the efficient electron transfer from 2D ultrathin Bi2S3 nanosheets to 1D TiO2 nanorod arrays. The promising results in this work confirm the advantages of cross-linked heterostructure and also undoubtedly offer an attractive synthesis strategy to fabricate other nanorod-based hierarchical architecture as well as nano-devices for solar energy conversion.

  14. Two Players Make a Formidable Combination: In Situ Generated Poly(acrylic anhydride-2-methyl-acrylic acid-2-oxirane-ethyl ester-methyl methacrylate) Cross-Linking Gel Polymer Electrolyte toward 5 V High-Voltage Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yue; Ma, Jun; Chai, Jingchao; Liu, Zhihong; Ding, Guoliang; Xu, Gaojie; Liu, Haisheng; Chen, Bingbing; Zhou, Xinhong; Cui, Guanglei; Chen, Liquan

    2017-11-29

    Electrochemical performance of high-voltage lithium batteries with high energy density is limited because of the electrolyte instability and the electrode/electrolyte interfacial reactivity. Hence, a cross-linking polymer network of poly(acrylic anhydride-2-methyl-acrylic acid-2-oxirane-ethyl ester-methyl methacrylate) (PAMM)-based electrolyte was introduced via in situ polymerization inspired by "shuangjian hebi", which is a statement in a traditional Chinese Kungfu story similar to the synergetic effect of 1 + 1 > 2. A poly(acrylic anhydride) and poly(methyl methacrylate)-based system is very promising as electrolyte materials for lithium-ion batteries, in which the anhydride and acrylate groups can provide high voltage resistance and fast ionic conductivity, respectively. As a result, the cross-linking PAMM-based electrolyte possesses a significant comprehensive enhancement, including electrochemical stability window exceeding 5 V vs Li + /Li, an ionic conductivity of 6.79 × 10 -4 S cm -1 at room temperature, high mechanical strength (27.5 MPa), good flame resistance, and excellent interface compatibility with Li metal. It is also demonstrated that this gel polymer electrolyte suppresses the negative effect resulting from dissolution of Mn 2+ ions at 25 and 55 °C. Thus, the LiNi 0.5 Mn 1.5 O 4 /Li and LiNi 0.5 Mn 1.5 O 4 /Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 cells using the optimized in situ polymerized cross-linking PAMM-based gel polymer electrolyte deliver stable charging/discharging profiles and excellent rate performance at room temperature and even at 55 °C. These findings suggest that the cross-linking PAMM is an intriguing candidate for 5 V class high-voltage gel polymer electrolyte toward high-energy lithium-on batteries.

  15. Preparation and Characterization of Epoxy Resin Cross-Linked with High Wood Pyrolysis Bio-Oil Substitution by Acetone Pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Liu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of cost effective solvents may be necessary to store wood pyrolysis bio-oil in order to stabilize and control its viscosity, but this part of the production system has not been explored. Conversely, any rise in viscosity during storage, that would occur without a solvent, will add variance to the production system and render it cost ineffective. The purpose of this study was to modify bio-oil with a common solvent and then react the bio-oil with an epoxy for bonding of wood without any loss in properties. The acetone pretreatment of the bio-oil/epoxy mixture was found to improve the cross-linking potential and substitution rate based on its mechanical, chemical, and thermal properties. Specifically, the bio-oil was blended with epoxy resin at weight ratios ranging from 2:1 to 1:5 and were then cured. A higher bio-oil substitution rate was found to lower the shear bond strength of the bio-oil/epoxy resins. However, when an acetone pretreatment was used, it was possible to replace the bio-oil by as much as 50% while satisfying usage requirements. Extraction of the bio-oil/epoxy mixture with four different solvents demonstrated an improvement in cross-linking after acetone pretreatment. ATR-FTIR analysis confirmed that the polymer achieved a higher cross-linked structure. DSC and TGA curves showed improved thermal stability with the addition of the acetone pretreatment. UV-Vis characterization showed that some functional groups of the bio-oil to epoxy system were unreacted. Finally, when the resin mixture was utilized to bond wood, the acetone pretreatment coupled with precise tuning of the bio-oil:epoxy ratio was an effective method to control cross-linking while ensuring acceptable bond strength.

  16. Wear resistant performance of highly cross-linked and annealed ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene against ceramic heads in total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Taishi; Nakashima, Yasuharu; Akiyama, Mio; Yamamoto, Takuaki; Mawatari, Taro; Itokawa, Takashi; Ohishi, Masanobu; Motomura, Goro; Hirata, Masanobu; Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of ceramic femoral head material, size, and implantation periods on the wear of annealed, cross-linked ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) (XLPE) in total hip arthroplasty compared to non-cross-linked conventional UHMWPE (CPE). XLPE was fabricated by cross-linking with 60 kGy irradiation and annealing. Femoral heads made from zirconia and alumina ceramics and cobalt-chrome (CoCr) of 22 or 26 mm diameter were used. In this retrospective cohort study, the femoral head penetration into the cup was measured digitally on radiographs of 367 hips with XLPE and 64 hips with CPE. The average follow-up periods were 6.3 and 11.9 years, respectively. Both XLPE creep and wear rates were significantly lower than those of CPE (0.19 mm vs. 0.44 mm, 0.0001 mm/year vs. 0.09 mm/year, respectively). Zirconia displayed increased wear rates compared to alumina in CPE; however, there was no difference among head materials in XLPE (0.0008, 0.00007, and -0.009 mm/year for zirconia, alumina, and CoCr, respectively). Neither head size or implantation period impacted XLPE wear. In contrast to CPE, XLPE displayed low wear rates surpassing the effects of varying femoral head material, size, implantation period, and patient demographics. Further follow-up is required to determine the long-term clinical performance of the annealed XLPE. Copyright © 2012 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  17. Radiation cross-linked polymers: Recent developments and new applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouif, Sophie

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to review the innovative and recent applications of radiation cross-linking of polymers that reinforces their dimensional stability in chemically aggressive and high temperature conditions. Radiation cross-linking can be applied to a great number of plastics: thermoplastics, elastomers and thermoplastic elastomers (TPE). Some of them can cross-link on their own, some others need to be formulated with a cross-linking agent (promoter) or to be modified during their polymerization. Some results of chemical and thermomechanical characterizations of radiation cross-linked plastics based on engineering polymers will be described, and their advantages will be emphasized in relation with their applications in various sectors: pipes and cables, packaging, automotive, electrical engineering and electronics, including connectors, surface mounted devices, integrated circuits, 3D-MID technology, etc. The paper will conclude with a short review of the industrial irradiation facilities (EB facilities and gamma plants) adapted to the treatment of such various products

  18. Long-term safety and efficacy follow-up of prophylactic higher fluence collagen cross-linking in high myopic laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanellopoulos AJ

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Anastasios John KanellopoulosLaservision.gr Institute, Athens, Greece, and New York University Medical School, New York, NY, USABackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of ultraviolet A irradiation cross-linking on completion for cases of high myopic laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK.Methods: Forty-three consecutive LASIK cases treated with femtosecond laser flap and the WaveLight excimer platform were evaluated perioperatively for uncorrected visual acuity, best corrected spectacle visual acuity, refraction, keratometry, topography, total and flap pachymetry, corneal optical coherence tomography, and endothelial cell count. All eyes at the completion of LASIK had cross-linking through the repositioned flap, with higher fluence (10 mW/cm2 ultraviolet light of an average 370 µm wavelength and 10 mW/cm2 fluence applied for 3 minutes following an earlier single instillation of 0.1% riboflavin within the flap interface. Mean follow-up duration was 3.5 (range 1.0–4.5 years.Results: Mean uncorrected visual acuity changed from 0.2 to 1.2, best corrected spectacle visual acuity from 1.1 to 1.2, spherical equivalent from -7.5 diopters (D to -0.2 D, keratometry from 44.5 D to 38 D, flap pachymetry from 105 µm to, total pachymetry from 525 to 405, and endothelial cell count from 2750 to 2800. None of the cases developed signs of ectasia or significant regression during follow-up.Conclusion: Prophylactic collagen cross-linking for high-risk LASIK cases appears to be a safe and effective adjunctive treatment for refractive regression and potential ectasia. This application may be viewed as prophylactic customization of the biomechanical behavior of corneal collagen.Keywords: prophylactic collagen cross-linking, laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis, high-risk, post-LASIK ectasia

  19. Prediction of Adsorption Equilibrium of VOCs onto Hyper-Cross-Linked Polymeric Resin at Environmentally Relevant Temperatures and Concentrations Using Inverse Gas Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Lijuan; Ma, Jiakai; Shi, Qiuyi; Long, Chao

    2017-01-03

    Hyper-cross-linked polymeric resin (HPR) represents a class of predominantly microporous adsorbents and has good adsorption performance toward VOCs. However, adsorption equilibrium of VOCs onto HPR are limited. In this research, a novel method for predicting adsorption capacities of VOCs on HPR at environmentally relevant temperatures and concentrations using inverse gas chromatography data was proposed. Adsorption equilibrium of six VOCs (n-pentane, n-hexane, dichloromethane, acetone, benzene, 1, 2-dichloroethane) onto HPR in the temperature range of 403-443 K were measured by inverse gas chromatography (IGC). Adsorption capacities at environmentally relevant temperatures (293-328 K) and concentrations (P/P s = 0.1-0.7) were predicted using Dubinin-Radushkevich (DR) equation based on Polany's theory. Taking consideration of the swelling properties of HPR, the volume swelling ratio (r) was introduced and r·V micro was used instead of V micro determined by N 2 adsorption data at 77 K as the parameter q 0 (limiting micropore volume) of the DR equation. The results showed that the adsorption capacities of VOCs at environmentally relevant temperatures and concentrations can be predicted effectively using IGC data, the root-mean-square errors between the predicted and experimental data was below 9.63%. The results are meaningful because they allow accurate prediction of adsorption capacities of adsorbents more quickly and conveniently using IGC data.

  20. Boron cross-linked graphene oxide/polyvinyl alcohol nanocomposite gel electrolyte for flexible solid-state electric double layer capacitor with high performance

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Yi-Fu; Wu, Peng-Fei; Zhang, Ming-Qiu; Ruan, Wen-Hong; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.

    2014-01-01

    A new family of boron cross-linked graphene oxide/polyvinyl alcohol (GO-B-PVA) nanocomposite gels is prepared by freeze-thaw/boron cross-linking method. Then the gel electrolytes saturated with KOH solution are assembled into electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs). Structure, thermal and mechanical properties of GO-B-PVA are explored. The electrochemical properties of EDLCs using GO-B-PVA/KOH are investigated, and compared with those using GO-PVA/KOH gel or KOH solution electrolyte. FTIR shows that boron cross-links are introduced into GO-PVA, while the boronic structure inserted into agglomerated GO sheets is demonstrated by DMA analysis. The synergy effect of the GO and the boron crosslinking benefits for ionic conductivity due to unblocking ion channels, and for improvement of thermal stability and mechanical properties of the electrolytes. Higher specific capacitance and better cycle stability of EDLCs are obtained by using the GO-B-PVA/KOH electrolyte, especially the one at higher GO content. The nanocomposite gel electrolytes with excellent electrochemical properties and solid-like character are candidates for the industrial application in high-performance flexible solid-state EDLCs. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Boron cross-linked graphene oxide/polyvinyl alcohol nanocomposite gel electrolyte for flexible solid-state electric double layer capacitor with high performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yi-Fu; Wu, Peng-Fei; Zhang, Ming-Qiu; Ruan, Wen-Hong; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Gel electrolyte is prepared and used in electric double layer capacitor. • Insertion of boron crosslinks into GO agglomerates opens channels for ion migration. • Solid supercapacitors show excellent specific capacitance and cycle stability. • Nanocomposite electrolyte shows better thermal stability and mechanical properties. - Abstract: A new family of boron cross-linked graphene oxide/polyvinyl alcohol (GO-B-PVA) nanocomposite gels is prepared by freeze-thaw/boron cross-linking method. Then the gel electrolytes saturated with KOH solution are assembled into electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs). Structure, thermal and mechanical properties of GO-B-PVA are explored. The electrochemical properties of EDLCs using GO-B-PVA/KOH are investigated, and compared with those using GO-PVA/KOH gel or KOH solution electrolyte. FTIR shows that boron cross-links are introduced into GO-PVA, while the boronic structure inserted into agglomerated GO sheets is demonstrated by DMA analysis. The synergy effect of the GO and the boron crosslinking benefits for ionic conductivity due to unblocking ion channels, and for improvement of thermal stability and mechanical properties of the electrolytes. Higher specific capacitance and better cycle stability of EDLCs are obtained by using the GO-B-PVA/KOH electrolyte, especially the one at higher GO content. The nanocomposite gel electrolytes with excellent electrochemical properties and solid-like character are candidates for the industrial application in high-performance flexible solid-state EDLCs

  2. Measurement of cross-linked elastin synthesis in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis using a highly sensitive assay for desmosine and isodesmosine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantor, J.O.; Osman, M.; Keller, S.; Cerreta, J.M.; Mandl, I.; Turino, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    Cross-linked elastin synthesis was measured in the intratracheal bleomycin model of interstitial pulmonary fibrosis by incorporation of 14C-lysine into the elastin-specific crosslinks, desmosine and isodesmosine. Detection of the labeled crosslinks was facilitated by development of a highly sensitive assay utilizing thin-layer electrophoresis. The results indicate that crosslinked elastin synthesis is significantly elevated from controls (p less than 0.05) at 1 to 3 weeks after exposure to bleomycin and returns to normal by 5 weeks. The increases in labeled elastin synthesis are not directly related to changes in either total lung protein synthesis or the pool size of the 14C-lysine. In comparison with collagen and glycosaminoglycan synthesis in this model of lung injury, maximal increases in cross-linked elastin formation occur later, but overlap with the elevated synthesis of these other connective tissue components. The marked increase from normal in cross-linked elastin synthesis in this model suggests that this tissue component is an important part of the fibrotic response of the pulmonary parenchyma and may play a role in the observed alterations in lung structure and function

  3. Boron cross-linked graphene oxide/polyvinyl alcohol nanocomposite gel electrolyte for flexible solid-state electric double layer capacitor with high performance

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Yi-Fu

    2014-06-01

    A new family of boron cross-linked graphene oxide/polyvinyl alcohol (GO-B-PVA) nanocomposite gels is prepared by freeze-thaw/boron cross-linking method. Then the gel electrolytes saturated with KOH solution are assembled into electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs). Structure, thermal and mechanical properties of GO-B-PVA are explored. The electrochemical properties of EDLCs using GO-B-PVA/KOH are investigated, and compared with those using GO-PVA/KOH gel or KOH solution electrolyte. FTIR shows that boron cross-links are introduced into GO-PVA, while the boronic structure inserted into agglomerated GO sheets is demonstrated by DMA analysis. The synergy effect of the GO and the boron crosslinking benefits for ionic conductivity due to unblocking ion channels, and for improvement of thermal stability and mechanical properties of the electrolytes. Higher specific capacitance and better cycle stability of EDLCs are obtained by using the GO-B-PVA/KOH electrolyte, especially the one at higher GO content. The nanocomposite gel electrolytes with excellent electrochemical properties and solid-like character are candidates for the industrial application in high-performance flexible solid-state EDLCs. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. IN SITU PREPARED TiO2 NANOPARTICLES CROSS-LINKED SULFONATED PVA MEMBRANES WITH HIGH PROTON CONDUCTIVITY FOR DMFC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jignasa N. Solanki

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Organic/inorganic membranes based on sulfonated poly(vinyl alcohol (SPVA and in situ prepared TiO2 nanoparticles nanocomposite membranes with various compositions were prepared to use as proton exchange membranes in direct membrane fuel cells. Poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA was sulfonated and cross-linked separately by 4-formylbenzene-1,3-disulfonic acid disodium salt hydrate and glutaraldehyde. The ion exchange capacity and proton conductivity of the membranes increased with increasing amount of TiO2 nanoparticles. The composite membranes with 15 wt% TiO2 exhibited excellent proton conductivity of 0.0822 S cm-1, as well as remarkably low methanol permeability of 1.11×10-9 cm2 s-1. The thermal stability and durability were also superior and performance in methanol fuel cell was also reasonably good

  5. Stabilized Sulfonated Aromatic Polymers by in situ Solvothermal Cross-Linking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Vona, Maria Luisa, E-mail: divona@uniroma2.it; Sgreccia, Emanuela [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche, Università di Roma Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy); Narducci, Riccardo; Pasquini, Luca [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche, Università di Roma Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy); MAtériaux Divisés, Interfaces, Réactivité, ELectrochimie (MADIREL – UMR 7246), Aix Marseille Université, Marseille (France); Hou, Hongying [Faculty of Material and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming (China); Knauth, Philippe [MAtériaux Divisés, Interfaces, Réactivité, ELectrochimie (MADIREL – UMR 7246), Aix Marseille Université, Marseille (France)

    2014-10-10

    The cross-link reaction via sulfone bridges of sulfonated polyether ether ketone (SPEEK) by thermal treatment at 180°C in presence of dimethylsulfoxide is discussed. The modifications of properties subsequent to the cross-linking are presented. The mechanical strength as well as the hydrolytic stability increased with the thermal treatment time, i.e., with the degree of cross-linking. The proton conductivity was determined as function of temperature, IEC, degree of cross-linking, and hydration number. The memory effect, which is the membrane ability to “remember” the water uptake reached at high temperature also at lower temperature, is exploited in order to achieve high values of conductivity. Membranes swelled at 110°C can reach a conductivity of 0.14 S/cm at 80°C with a hydration number (λ) of 73.

  6. Stabilized sulfonated aromatic polymers by in situ solvothermal cross-linking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa eDi Vona

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The cross-link reaction via sulfone bridges of sulfonated polyetheretherketone (SPEEK by thermal treatment at 180 °C in presence of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO is discussed. The modifications of properties subsequent to the cross-linking are presented. The mechanical strength as well as the hydrolytic stability increased with the thermal treatment time, i.e., with the degree of cross-linking. The proton conductivity was determined as function of temperature, IEC, degree of cross-linking and hydration number. The memory effect, which is the membrane ability to remember the water uptake reached at high temperature also at lower temperature, is exploited in order to achieve high values of conductivity. Membranes swelled at 110 °C can reach a conductivity of 0.14 S/cm at 80°C with a hydration number ( of 73.

  7. Five-Year Experience of Vitamin E-Diffused Highly Cross-Linked Polyethylene Wear in Total Hip Arthroplasty Assessed by Radiostereometric Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nebergall, Audrey K; Troelsen, Anders; Rubash, Harry E

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vitamin E-diffused highly cross-linked polyethylene (VEPE) was developed to reduce oxidation without compromising mechanical strength. The purpose of this study was to evaluate VEPE in vivo using radiostereometric analysis (RSA) and patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs). METHODS......: Fifty-one hips were enrolled. Each patient received a VEPE liner, a porous titanium shell, and an uncemented stem with a 32-mm cobalt-chrome femoral head. Tantalum beads were inserted into the VEPE to measure femoral head penetration using RSA. RSA radiographs and PROMs were obtained preoperatively...

  8. Preliminary histopathological study of intra-articular injection of a novel highly cross-linked hyaluronic acid in a rabbit model of knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannitti, Tommaso; Elhensheri, Mohamed; Bingöl, Ali O; Palmieri, Beniamino

    2013-04-01

    Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease mostly occurring in the knee and commonly seen in middle-aged and elderly adults. Intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid has been widely used for treatment of knee osteoarthritis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of intra-articular injection of a novel highly cross-linked hyaluronic acid, alone or in combination with ropivacaine hydrochloride and triamcinolone acetonide, on knee articular cartilage in a rabbit model of collagenase-induced knee osteoarthritis. After induction of experimental osteoarthritis by intra-articular injection of collagenase, adult New Zealand white rabbits (n = 12) were divided into 3 groups. Group 1 (control group) received 0.3 ml phosphate buffered saline into the right knee joint. Group 2 received 0.3 ml cross-linked hyaluronic acid (33 mg/ml) into the right knee joint. Group 3 received a mixture of 0.15 ml cross-linked hyaluronic acid (33 mg/ml), 0.05 ml ropivacaine hydrochloride 1 % and 0.1 ml triamcinolone acetonide (10 mg/ml) into the right knee joint. Intra-articular injections were given 4 weeks after first collagenase injection and were administered once a week for 3 weeks. Gross pathology and histological evaluation of rabbits' knee joints were performed after 16 weeks following initial collagenase injection. Histological analysis of sections of right knee joints at lesion sites showed a significant decrease in Mankin's score in groups treated with hyaluronic acid alone or in combination with ropivacaine hydrochloride and triamcinolone acetonide versus control group (p hyaluronic acid, alone or in combination with ropivacaine hydrochloride and triamcinolone acetonide, produces a significant improvement in knee articular cartilage degeneration in a rabbit model of collagenase-induced osteoarthritis.

  9. Novel thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPVs based on silicone rubber and polyamide exploring peroxide cross-linking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Naskar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Novel thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPVs based on silicone rubber (PDMS and polyamide (PA12 have been prepared by dynamic vulcanization process. The effect of dynamic vulcanization and influence of various types of peroxides as cross-linking agents were studied in detail. All the TPVs were prepared at a ratio of 50/50 wt% of silicone rubber and polyamide. Three structurally different peroxides, namely dicumyl peroxide (DCP, 3,3,5,7,7-pentamethyl 1,2,4-trioxepane (PMTO and cumyl hydroperoxide (CHP were taken for investigation. Though DCP was the best option for curing the silicone rubber, at high temperature it suffers from scorch safety. An inhibitor 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyloxyl (TEMPO was added with DCP to stabilize the radicals in order to increase the scorch time. Though CHP (hydroperoxide had higher half life time than DCP at higher temperature, it has no significant effect on cross-linking of silicone rubber. PMTO showed prolonged scorch safety and better cross-linking efficiency rather than the other two. TPVs of DCP and PMTO were made up to 11 minutes of mixing. Increased values of tensile strength and elongation at break of PMTO cross-linked TPV indicate the superiority of PMTO. Scanning electron micrographs correlate with mechanical properties of the TPVs. High storage modulus (E' and lower loss tangent value of the PMTO cross-linked TPV indicate the higher degree of cross-linking which is also well supported by the overall cross-link density value. Thus PMTO was found to be the superior peroxide for cross-linking of silicone rubber at high temperature.

  10. Comparative study of PBI Cross Linked Utilizing Agents of Varying Steric Configurations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkebcek, Andreas; Aili, David; Li, Qingfeng

    2016-01-01

    ionic or covalent cross linking. When considering such, little attention is devoted to explore the effect of the sterical configuration of the cross linking agent. In this contribution three different cross linking agents are utilized to evaluate how these affects final membrane properties.......The high thermal and chemical stability of poly[2,2'-(m-phenylene)-5,5' bibenzimidazole] (PBI) accounts for its wise spread use in high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (HT- PEMFC). By doping the membrane with phosphoric acid (PA) ionic conductivity is obtained. Thus conductivity...... is dependent on the amount of PA present within the membrane. However mechanical properties are reduced are significantly reduced due to the plasticizing effect shown by PA [1]. This effect is due to PBI chain displacement. This effect can be lessened by use of cross linking [2-4]. This can be obtained using...

  11. Thirteen-Year Evaluation of Highly Cross-Linked Polyethylene Articulating With Either 28-mm or 36-mm Femoral Heads Using Radiostereometric Analysis and Computerized Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nebergall, Audrey K; Greene, Meridith E; Rubash, Harry E

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The objective of this 13-year prospective evaluation of highly cross-linked ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (HXLPE) was to (1) assess the long-term wear of HXLPE articulating with 2 femoral head sizes using radiostereometric analysis (RSA) and to (2) determine if osteolysis...... is a concern with this material through the use of plain radiographs and computerized tomography (CT). METHODS: All patients received a Longevity HXLPE liner with tantalum beads and either a 28-mm or 36-mm femoral head. Twelve patients (6 in each head size group) agreed to return for 13-year RSA, plain...... scan revealed areas of remodeling of this graft. One patient's 13-year plain radiographs showed evidence of cup loosening and linear radiolucencies in zones 2 and 3. CONCLUSION: There was no evidence of significant wear over time using RSA. The CT scans did not show evidence of osteolysis due to wear...

  12. Can nature's design be improved upon? High strength, transparent nacre-like nanocomposites with double network of sacrificial cross links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podsiadlo, Paul; Kaushik, Amit K; Shim, Bong Sup; Agarwal, Ashish; Tang, Zhiyong; Waas, Anthony M; Arruda, Ellen M; Kotov, Nicholas A

    2008-11-20

    The preparation of a high-strength and highly transparent nacre-like nanocomposite via layer-by-layer assembly technique from poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and Na+-montmorillonite clay nanosheets is reported in this article. We show that a high density of weak bonding interactions between the polymer and the clay particles: hydrogen, dipole-induced dipole, and van der Waals undergoing break-reform deformations, can lead to high strength nanocomposites: sigmaUTS approximately 150 MPa and E' approximately 13 GPa. Further introduction of ionic bonds into the polymeric matrix creates a double network of sacrificial bonds which dramatically increases the mechanical properties: sigmaUTS approximately 320 MPa and E' approximately 60 GPa.

  13. Development of a method of partial discharge detection in extra-high voltage cross-linked polyethylene insulated cable lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsuta, G.; Toya, A.; Muraoka, K.; Endoh, T.; Sekii, Y.; Ikeda, C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that deterioration in the insulation performance of extra-high voltage XLPE cables is believed to be attributable to the deterioration caused by partial discharges. In the authors study, after using an XLPE cable to investigate the behavior of partial discharges under various adverse conditions, we succeeded in developing a highly sensitive new method of measuring partial discharge in XLPE cable lines. Partial discharges in a 275 kV XLPE cable live line has been measured using this newly developed method. As a result, a detection sensitivity of 1 pC has been achieved

  14. Sub- T g Cross-Linking of a Polyimide Membrane for Enhanced CO 2 Plasticization Resistance for Natural Gas Separation

    KAUST Repository

    Qiu, Wulin

    2011-08-09

    Decarboxylation-induced thermal cross-linking occurs at elevated temperatures (∼15 °C above glass transition temperature) for 6FDA-DAM:DABA polyimides, which can stabilize membranes against swelling and plasticization in aggressive feed streams. Despite this advantage, such a high temperature might result in collapse of substructure and transition layers in the asymmetric structure of a hollow fibers based on such a material. In this work, the thermal cross-linking of the 6FDA-DAM:DABA at temperatures much below the glass transition temperature (∼387 °C by DSC) was demonstrated. This sub-Tg cross-linking capability enables extension to asymmetric structures useful for large scale membranes. The resulting polymer membranes were characterized by swelling in known solvents for the un-cross-linked materials, TGA analysis, and permeation tests of aggressive gas feed stream at higher pressure. The annealing temperature and time clearly influence the degree of cross-linking of the membranes, and results in a slight difference in selectivity for membranes under various cross-linking conditions. Results indicate that the sub-Tg thermal cross-linking of 6FDA-DAM:DABA dense film membrane can be carried out completely even at a temperature as low as 330 °C. Permeabilities were tested for the polyimide membranes using both pure gases (He, O2, N2, CH4, CO2) and mixed gases (CO2/CH4). The selectivity of the cross-linked membrane can be maintained even under very aggressive CO2 operating conditions that are not possible without cross-linking. Moreover, the plasticization resistance was demonstrated up to 700 psia for pure CO 2 gas or 1000 psia for 50% CO2 mixed gas feeds. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  15. Sub-6 nm Thin Cross-Linked Dopamine Films with High Pressure Stability for Organic Solvent Nanofiltration

    KAUST Repository

    Perez Manriquez, Liliana

    2016-07-11

    Interfacial polymerization of dopamine and terephtaloyl chloride is performed on a porous crosslinked polyacrylonitrile support membrane. The resulting polymer layer has a smooth surface and is ultrathin (about 5 nm). The chemical nature of the interfacially polymerized layer is characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The thin-film composite membrane is stable in aggressive solvents like dimethylformamide (DMF) and the membrane shows high solvent permeances combined with a molecular weight cut-off below 800 g mol-1. The remarkable stability in DMF, the ease of preparation as well as the extremely thin and smooth selective layer make this new type of bioinspired membrane attractive for solvent resistant nanofiltration. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Three-Dimensional Porous Nickel Frameworks Anchored with Cross-Linked Ni(OH)2 Nanosheets as a Highly Sensitive Nonenzymatic Glucose Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Weiwei; He, Haiping; Sun, Pengcheng; Ye, Zhizhen; Huang, Jingyun

    2018-05-02

    A facile and scalable in situ microelectrolysis nanofabrication technique is developed for preparing cross-linked Ni(OH) 2 nanosheets on a novel three-dimensional porous nickel template (Ni(OH) 2 @3DPN). For the constructed template, the porogen of NaCl particles not only induces a self-limiting surficial hot corrosion to claim the "start engine stop" mechanism but also serves as the primary battery electrolyte to greatly accelerate the growth of Ni(OH) 2 . As far as we know, the microelectrolysis nanofabrication is superior to the other reported Ni(OH) 2 synthesis methods due to the mild condition (60 °C, 6 h, NaCl solution, ambient environment) and without any post-treatment. The integrated Ni(OH) 2 @3DPN electrode with a highly suitable microstructure and a porous architecture implies a potential application in electrochemistry. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, the electrode was employed for nonenzymatic glucose sensing, which exhibits an outstanding sensitivity of 2761.6 μA mM -1 cm -2 ranging from 0.46 to 2100 μM, a fast response, and a low detection limit. The microelectrolysis nanofabrication is a one-step, binder-free, entirely green, and therefore it has a distinct advantage to improve clean production and reduce energy consumption.

  17. Collagen cross linking: Current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas K Rao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Keratoconus is a common ectatic disorder occurring in more than 1 in 1,000 individuals. The condition typically starts in adolescence and early adulthood. It is a disease with an uncertain cause and its progression is unpredictable, but in extreme cases, vision deteriorates and can require corneal transplant surgery. Corneal collagen cross-linking (CCL with riboflavin (C3R is a recent treatment option that can enhance the rigidity of the cornea and prevent disease progression. Since its inception, the procedure has evolved with newer instrumentation, surgical techniques, and is also now performed for expanded indications other than keratoconus. With increasing experience, newer guidelines regarding optimization of patient selection, the spectrum of complications and their management, and combination procedures are being described. This article in conjunction with the others in this issue, will try and explore the uses of collagen cross-linking (CXL in its current form.

  18. Preparation and properties of silk sericin/cellulose cross-linking films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Kunyan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Silk sericin/cellulose cross-linked films were successfully prepared using glutaraldehyde as cross-linkinger. FTIR was applied to characterize the chemical structure of films. Cross-linked silk sericin film was found the peak intensity of FTIR for cross-linked film decreased markedly compared to pure silk sericin, which indicating cross-linking reaction has been occurred. The increasing value of swelling ratio also indicated the cross-linking has been happened. The cross-linking reaction increased the thermal decomposition temperature.

  19. Recent advances in corneal collagen cross-linking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitansha Shreyas Sachdev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Corneal collagen cross-linking has become the preferred modality of treatment for corneal ectasia since its inception in late 1990s. Numerous studies have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of the conventional protocol. Our understanding of the cross-linking process is ever evolving, with its wide implications in the form of accelerated and pulsed protocols. Newer advancements in technology include various riboflavin formulations and the ability to deliver higher fluence protocols with customised irradiation patterns. A greater degree of customisation is likely the path forward, which will aim at achieving refractive improvements along with disease stability. The use of cross-linking for myopic correction is another avenue under exploration. Combination of half fluence cross-linking with refractive correction for high errors to prevent post LASIK regression is gaining interest. This review aims to highlight the various advancements in the cross-linking technology and its clinical applications.

  20. Cross-linking multiwall carbon nanotubes using PFPA to build robust, flexible and highly aligned large-scale sheets and yarns

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Inoue, Y.; Nakamura, K.; Miyasaka, Y.; Nakano, T.; Kletetschka, Günther

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 11 (2016) ISSN 0957-4484 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : multi-walled carbon nanotube * nano-mechanical properties * cross-linking * PFPA * dry spinning * yarn Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.440, year: 2016

  1. Preliminary study of highly cross-linked hyaluronic acid-based combination therapy for management of knee osteoarthritis-related pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmieri B

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Beniamino Palmieri,1,2 Valentina Rottigni,1,2 Tommaso Iannitti2,31Department of General Surgery and Surgical Specialties, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia Medical School, Surgical Clinic, Modena, Italy; 2Poliambulatorio del Secondo Parere, Modena, Italy; 3Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, University of Kentucky Medical Center, Lexington, KY, USABackground: Hyaluronic acid has been extensively used for treatment of knee osteoarthritis due to its anti-inflammatory properties and its ability to act as a synovial lubricant. Furthermore, it has found application in combination with other drugs in the dermatological field and in pre-clinical studies in animal models of osteoarthritis. Experimental evidence suggests that a combination of this macromolecule with other drugs may act as a slow-release depot. However, to date, to the best of our knowledge, no one has tested local intra-articular delivery of highly cross-linked hyaluronic acid combined with bisphosphonate or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for management of knee osteoarthritis pain in the clinical setting. The aim of the present randomized double-blind study was to investigate, for the first time, the effect of a highly cross-linked hyaluronic acid, Variofill®, alone or in combination with diclofenac sodium or sodium clodronate, for management of bilateral knee osteoarthritis-related pain.Methods: Sixty-two patients with symptomatic bilateral medial tibiofemoral knee osteoarthritis (Kellgren–Lawrence grade II and III and pain in both knees corresponding to a daily visual analog scale (VAS score ≥ 30 in the month before the beginning of the study were included in this investigation. Patients were divided into three groups: group 1, treated with an injection of hyaluronic acid alone (66 mg into each knee; group 2, treated with an injection of hyaluronic acid (49.5 mg plus diclofenac sodium (5 mg into each knee; group 3, treated with an injection of hyaluronic acid

  2. 2500 high-quality genomes reveal that the biogeochemical cycles of C, N, S and H are cross-linked by metabolic handoffs in the terrestrial subsurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantharaman, K.; Brown, C. T.; Hug, L. A.; Sharon, I.; Castelle, C. J.; Shelton, A.; Bonet, B.; Probst, A. J.; Thomas, B. C.; Singh, A.; Wilkins, M.; Williams, K. H.; Tringe, S. G.; Beller, H. R.; Brodie, E.; Hubbard, S. S.; Banfield, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Microorganisms drive the transformations of carbon compounds in the terrestrial subsurface, a key reservoir of carbon on earth, and impact other linked biogeochemical cycles. Our current knowledge of the microbial ecology in this environment is primarily based on 16S rRNA gene sequences that paint a biased picture of microbial community composition and provide no reliable information on microbial metabolism. Consequently, little is known about the identity and metabolic roles of the uncultivated microbial majority in the subsurface. In turn, this lack of understanding of the microbial processes that impact the turnover of carbon in the subsurface has restricted the scope and ability of biogeochemical models to capture key aspects of the carbon cycle. In this study, we used a culture-independent, genome-resolved metagenomic approach to decipher the metabolic capabilities of microorganisms in an aquifer adjacent to the Colorado River, near Rifle, CO, USA. We sequenced groundwater and sediment samples collected across fifteen different geochemical regimes. Sequence assembly, binning and manual curation resulted in the recovery of 2,542 high-quality genomes, 27 of which are complete. These genomes represent 1,300 non-redundant organisms comprising both abundant and rare community members. Phylogenetic analyses involving ribosomal proteins and 16S rRNA genes revealed the presence of up to 34 new phyla that were hitherto unknown. Less than 11% of all genomes belonged to the 4 most commonly represented phyla that constitute 93% of all currently available genomes. Genome-specific analyses of metabolic potential revealed the co-occurrence of important functional traits such as carbon fixation, nitrogen fixation and use of electron donors and electron acceptors. Finally, we predict that multiple organisms are often required to complete redox pathways through a complex network of metabolic handoffs that extensively cross-link subsurface biogeochemical cycles.

  3. Effects of Thermal Cross-Linking on the Structure and Property of Asymmetric Membrane Prepared from the Polyacrylonitrile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Jin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Improving the thermal and chemical stabilities of classical polymer membranes will be beneficial to extend their applications in the high temperature or aggressive environment. In this work, the asymmetric ultrafiltration membranes prepared from the polyacrylonitrile (PAN were used to fabricate the cross-linking asymmetric (CLA PAN membranes via thermal cross-linking in air to improve their thermal and chemical stabilities. The effects of thermal cross-linking parameters such as temperature and holding time on the structure, gas separation performance, thermal and chemical stabilities of PAN membranes were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, thermogravimetic analysis (TGA and gas permeation test. The thermal cross-linking significantly influences the chemical structure, microstructure and pore structure of PAN membrane. During the thermal cross-linking, the shrinkage of membrane and coalescence or collapse of pore and microstructure make large pores diminish, small pores disappear and pore volumes reduce. The gas permeances of CLA-PAN membranes increase as the increasing of cross-linking temperature and holding time due to the volatilization of small molecules. The CLA-PAN membranes demonstrate excellent thermal and chemical stabilities and present good prospects for application in ultrafiltration for water treatment and for use as a substrate for nanofiltration or gas separation with an aggressive and demanding environment.

  4. In vivo confocal laser microscopy of morphologic changes after small incision lenticule extraction with accelerated cross-linking (SMILE Xtra) in patients with thin corneas and high myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yugui; Liu, Manli; Zhang, Ting; Zheng, Hua; Sun, Yuan; Yang, Xiaonan; Weng, Shengbei; Lin, Haiqin; Liu, Quan

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the microstructural modifications and safety of small incision lenticule extraction combined with accelerated cross-linking (SMILE Xtra) in high myopia and thin corneas by means of in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) and 3D-OCT after a 6-month follow-up. Forty-three eyes with high myopia and thin corneas were enrolled. All eyes underwent SMILE procedure. After the lenticule was extracted, 0.25% riboflavin was injected into the interface and allowed to diffuse for 60 s. The eye was irradiated with UVA radiation of 30 mW/cm 2 for 90 s through the cap. The total energy delivered was 2.7 J/cm 2 . Morphologic modifications of corneal architecture were evaluated prior to SMILE Xtra and 7 days, 1, 3, and 6 months after SMILE by in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) and 3D-OCT. The corneal epithelial cells showed slight damage until 3 months postoperatively. The subepithelial nerve plexus decreased but no absence within the treatment zone at the first week after treatment, recolonized at 3 months postoperatively, and had mostly recovered at the 6 months postoperative but remained less than its normal baseline state. Keratocytes were absent in the surgical interface area, and the presence of strong reflective particles and cicatricial reaction in the anterior stroma were observed during the entire 6-month examination period. Increased hyperreflectivity was observed from the cap side at a depth of 60 µm to stroma bed at a depth of 388 µm through 6 months. The depth of the demarcation line in 40 eyes (93.0%) was at a mean depth of 296.12 ± 47.86 μm (range, 211-388 μm). No particular change between preoperative and postoperative corneal endothelium was observed. Confocal microscopy showed increased hyperreflectivity in the SMILE Xtra eyes, and no changes in corneal endothelium. We confirmed the safety of the SMILE Xtra but recognize that larger and longer-term studies of SMILE Xtra are necessary.

  5. X-ray-mediated cross linking of protein and DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minsky, B.D.; Braun, A.

    1977-01-01

    Using a simple filter assay for the binding of BSA or lysozyme to DNA, two mechanisms of x-ray-mediated cross linking are shown to occur. One, a fast reaction, appears to involve a radical intermediate, is inhibited by high pH and salt, and seems to be enhanced by deoxygenation. The second mechanism, a slow time-dependent component, differs from the fast reaction in its stimulation by histidine, its inhibition by catalase, and the lack of an oxygen effect. Separate irradiation of DNA or water does not lead to cross linking. However, separate irradiation of protein leads to cross linking which proceeds with slow-component kinetics

  6. Effects of Supercritical CO 2 Conditioning on Cross-Linked Polyimide Membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Kratochvil, Adam M.; Koros, William J.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of supercritical CO2 (scCO2) conditioning on high-performance cross-linked polyimide membranes is examined through gas permeation and sorption experiments. Under supercritical conditions, the cross-linked polymers do not exhibit a

  7. Exposure of tropoelastin to peroxynitrous acid gives high yields of nitrated tyrosine residues, di-tyrosine cross-links and altered protein structure and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degendorfer, Georg; Chuang, Christine Yu-Nung; Mariotti, Michele

    2018-01-01

    Elastin is an abundant extracellular matrix protein in elastic tissues, including the lungs, skin and arteries, and comprises 30–57% of the aorta by dry mass. The monomeric precursor, tropoelastin (TE), undergoes complex processing during elastogenesis to form mature elastic fibres. Peroxynitrous......-protein di-tyrosine cross-links have been characterized by mass spectrometry. Examination of human atherosclerotic lesions shows colocalization of 3-nitroTyr with elastin epitopes, consistent with TE or elastin modification in vivo, and also an association of 3-nitroTyr containing proteins and elastin...

  8. Practice insights on patient care-management overview for chemoradiation toxic mucositis-guidelines, guideline-supported therapies and high potency polymerized cross-linked sucralfate (ProThelial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Ricky W

    2018-01-01

    Aim To offer a practice insight for the management of chemoradiation toxic mucositis. Method Review chemoradiation toxic mucositis, its pathobiology and breadth of symptom presentation. Review mucositis guidelines and guideline-supported anti-mucositis therapies. Offer guidance on guidelines and an abbreviated review of high potency cross-linked sucralfate for management of chemoradiation toxic mucositis. Result There are six major mucositis guidelines but only one that is current and regularly updated. Guidelines from the Multinational Association Supportive Cancer Care suggest 14 interventions gleaned from controlled trials, 12 of which are off-label uses of therapies that offer statistically significant but incrementally beneficial outcomes. Several evidence-based limitations of guidelines are discussed. Data on high potency polymerized cross-linked sucralfate confirming complete prevention and rapid (2-3 days) elimination, sustained throughout cancer treatment is verified as high quality evidence in accordance to standards adopted by Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. A 96-97% reduction in mucositis duration qualifies as a positive Glasziou treatment effect, which is discussed as an additional measure of evidence-based medicine. Conclusion Statistically significant but fractional treatment effects of guideline-supported interventions are not likely to substantially alter the course of mucositis when it occurs nor completely prevent its onset. Complete prevention and rapid sustained elimination should be the goal, therefore high potency polymerized cross-linked sucralfate may be useful. Where guidelines fail, institution-based protocols led by oncology pharmacists could succeed. In an effort to eliminate toxic mucositis, enhance compliance to chemoradiation regimens, and improve survival, such protocols for practice may verify pharmacoeconomic benefits, if any, in using high potency polymerized cross-linked sucralfate to manage toxic mucositis.

  9. Enzymatic digestibility of peptides cross-linked by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dizdaroglu, M.; Gajewski, E.; Simic, M.G.

    1984-01-01

    Digestibility by proteolytic enzymes of peptides cross-linked by ionizing radiation was investigated. Small peptides of alanine and phenylalanine were chosen as model compounds and aminopeptidases and carboxypeptidases were used as proteolytic enzymes. Peptides exposed to γ-radiation in aqueous solution were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography before and after hydrolysis by aminopeptidase M, leucine aminopeptidase carboxypeptidase A and carboxypeptidase Y. The results obtained clearly demonstrate the different actions of these enzymes on cross-linked aliphatic and aromatic peptides. Peptide bonds of cross-linked dipeptides of alanine were completely resistant to enzymatic hydrolysis whereas the enzymes, except for carboxypeptidase Y, cleaved all peptide bonds of cross-linked peptides of phenylalanine. The actions of the enzymes on these particular compounds are discussed in detail. (author)

  10. Novel magnetic cross-linked lipase aggregates for improving the resolution of (R, S)-2-octanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Guo, Chen; Liu, Chun-Zhao

    2015-03-01

    Novel magnetic cross-linked lipase aggregates were fabricated by immobilizing the cross-linked lipase aggregates onto magnetic particles with a high number of -NH2 terminal groups using p-benzoquinone as the cross-linking agent. At the optimal fabrication conditions, 100% of immobilization efficiency and 139% of activity recovery of the magnetic cross-linked lipase aggregates were achieved. The magnetic cross-linked lipase aggregates were able to efficiently resolve (R, S)-2-octanol, and retained 100% activity and 100% enantioselectivity after 10 cycles of reuse, whereas the cross-linked lipase aggregates only retained about 50% activity and 70% enantioselectivity due to insufficient cross-linking. These results provide a great potential for industrial applications of the magnetic cross-linked lipase aggregates. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Membrane-Based Separation of Phenol/Water Mixtures Using Ionically and Covalently Cross-Linked Ethylene-Methacrylic Acid Copolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Mixa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Membrane-based separation of phenol/water mixtures with concentrations of phenol between 3 wt% and 8 wt% in the feed has been performed with nonmodified as well as cross-linked ethylene-methacrylic acid (E-MAA copolymers with different amounts of methacrylic acid. As cross-linking agents, aluminium acetyl acetonate, which leads to ionically cross-linked membranes, and 2,3,5,6-tetramethyl-1,4-phenylene diamine and glycerine digycidether, leading to covalently cross-linked membranes, have been used. Generally, it was found that with increasing phenol content in the feed, the total flux is increasing whereas the enrichment factor is decreasing. Using nonmodified membranes with higher methacrylic acid monomer content in the polymer, lower fluxes and higher enrichment factors were observed. Investigation of different cross-linked membranes showed that with high phenol concentration in the feed, ionic cross-linking seems to be very promising. Furthermore, variation of feed temperature shows that ionically cross-linked membranes reached higher fluxes as well as higher enrichment factors at elevated temperatures. The temperature-dependent data were fitted based on an Arrhenius-type equation, and activation energies for the permeation of phenol and water through the membrane were calculated.

  12. Chemical cross-linking of Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkelund, Svend; Lundemose, AG; Christiansen, Gunna

    1988-01-01

    Purified elementary bodies (EBs) of Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 were analyzed by chemical cross-linking with disuccinimidyl selenodipropionate. The effect of the cross-linking was analyzed by immunoblotting sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis-separated components which...

  13. Cross-linking of polymeric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, L.I.; Du Plessis, T.A.; Meij, G.O.

    1991-01-01

    The invention provides a method of producing a cured polymeric artifact from a polymeric thermoplastic starting material, the material of the artifact having reduced thermoplasticity relative to the starting material and exhibiting an enhanced degree of cross-linking relative to the starting material. The method includes subjecting a polymeric thermoplastic starting material, which is capable of being cross-linked by irradiation, to sufficient irradiation partially to cross-linked the starting material to produce a thermoplastic partially cross-linked intermediate material. The thermoplasticity of the intermediate material is then reduced by heating it to raise its melting point. The invention also provides a method of making a partially cross-linked feedstocks and a master batch for use in making such artifacts

  14. Laccase-Based CLEAs: Chitosan as a Novel Cross-Linking Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Arsenault

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Laccase from Coriolopsis Polyzona was insolubilized as cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs for the first time with chitosan as the cross-linking agent. Concentrations between 0.01 and 1.867 g/L of chitosan were used and between 0.05 and 600 mM of 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropylcarbodiimide hydrochloride. The laccase was precipitated using ammonium sulphate and cross-linked simultaneously. Specific activity and thermal stability of these biocatalysts were measured. Activities of up to 737 U/g were obtained when 2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS was used as a substrate. Moreover, the stability of these biocatalysts was improved with regards to thermal degradation compared to free laccase when exposed to denaturing conditions of high temperature and low pH. The CLEAs stability against chemical denaturants was also tested but no significant improvement was detected. The total amount of ABTS to be oxidized during thermal degradation by CLEAs and free laccase was calculated and the insolubilized enzymes were reported to oxidize more substrate than free laccase. The formation conditions were analyzed by response surface methodology in order to determine an optimal environment for the production of efficient laccase-based CLEAs using chitosan as the cross-linking agent. After 24 hours of formation at pH 3 and at 4°C without agitation, the CLEAs exhibit the best specific activity.

  15. Light-induced cross-linking and post-cross-linking modification of polyglycidol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, F; Bruns, M; Keul, H; Yagci, Y; Möller, M

    2018-02-08

    The photoinduced radical generation process has received renewed interest due to its economic and ecological appeal. Herein the light-induced cross-linking of functional polyglycidol and its post-cross-linking modification are presented. Linear polyglycidol was first functionalized with a tertiary amine in a two-step reaction. Dimethylaminopropyl functional polyglycidol was cross-linked in a UV-light mediated reaction with camphorquinone as a type II photoinitiator. The cross-linked polyglycidol was further functionalized by quaternization with various organoiodine compounds. Aqueous dispersions of the cross-linked polymers were investigated by means of DLS and zeta potential measurements. Polymer films were evaluated by DSC and XPS.

  16. Practical application of thermoreversibly Cross-linked rubber products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polgar, L. M.; Picchioni, F.; de Ruiter, E.; van Duin, M.

    2017-07-01

    Currently, rubber products cannot simply be reprocessed after their product life, due to the irreversible cross-linking methods traditionally applied. The purpose of this work is to investigate how thermoreversible cross-linking of rubbers via Diels Alder chemistry can be used for the development of recyclable rubber products. Unfortunately, the applicability of the thermoreversible EPM-g-furan/BM system appears to be limited to room temperature applications, because of the rapid deterioration of the compression set at elevated temperatures compared to irreversibly cross-linked EPM. However, the use of EPM rubber modified with thiophene or cyclopentadiene moieties may extend the temperature application range and results in rubber products with acceptable properties. Finally, rubber products generally comprise fillers such as silica, carbon black or fibers. In this context, the reinforcing effect of short cut aramid fibers on the material properties of the newly developed thermoreversibly cross-linked EPM rubbers was also studied. The material properties of the resulting products were found to be comparable to those of a fiber reinforced, peroxide cured reference sample.

  17. Wear performance of neat and vitamin E blended highly cross-linked PE under severe conditions: The combined effect of accelerated ageing and third body particles during wear test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affatato, Saverio; De Mattia, Jonathan Salvatore; Bracco, Pierangiola; Pavoni, Eleonora; Taddei, Paola

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of third-body particles on the in vitro wear behaviour of three different sets of polyethylene acetabular cups after prolonged testing in a hip simulator and accelerated ageing. Vitamin E-blended, cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE_VE), cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) and conventional polyethylene (STD_PE) acetabular cups were simulator tested for two million cycles under severe conditions (i.e. by adding third-body particles to the bovine calf serum lubricant). Micro-Fourier Transform Infrared and micro-Raman spectroscopic analyses, differential scanning calorimetry, and crosslink density measurements were used to characterize the samples at a molecular level. The STD_PE cups had twice mass loss than the XLPE_VE components and four times than the XLPE samples; statistically significant differences were found between the mass losses of the three sets of cups. The observed wear trend was justified on the basis of the differences in cross-link density among the samples (XLPE>XLPE_VE>STD_PE). FTIR crystallinity profiles, bulk DSC crystallinity and surface micro-Raman crystallinity seemed to have a similar behaviour upon testing: all of them (as well as the all-trans and ortho-trans contents) revealed the most significant changes in XLPE and XLPE_VE samples. The more severe third-body wear testing conditions determined more noticeable changes in all spectroscopic markers with respect to previous tests. Unexpectedly, traces of bulk oxidation were found in both STD_PE (unirradiated) and XLPE (remelting-stabilized), which were expected to be stable to oxidation; on the contrary, XLPE_VE demonstrated a high oxidative stability in the present, highly demanding conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Betanin reduces the accumulation and cross-links of collagen in high-fructose-fed rat heart through inhibiting non-enzymatic glycation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Junyan; Tan, Chang; Wang, Yiheng; Yang, Shaobin; Tan, Dehong

    2015-02-05

    We attempted to determine whether betanin (from natural pigments) that has antioxidant properties would be protective against fructose-induced diabetic cardiac fibrosis in Sprague-Dawley rats. Fructose water solution (30%) was accessed freely, and betanin (25 and 100 mg/kg/d) was administered by intra-gastric gavage continuously for 60 d. Rats were sacrificed after overnight fast. The rat blood and left ventricle were collected. In vitro antiglycation assay in bovine serum albumin/fructose system was also performed. In rats treated only with fructose, levels of plasma markers: glucose, insulin, HOMA and glycated hemoglobin rised, left ventricle collagen accumulated and cross-linked, profibrotic factor-transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) protein expression increased, and soluble collagen decreased, compared with those in normal rats, showing fructose induces diabetic cardiac fibrosis. Treatment with betanin antagonized the changes of these parameters, demonstrating the antifibrotic role of betanin in the selected diabetic models. In further mechanistic study, betanin decreased protein glycation indicated by the decreased levels of protein glycation reactive intermediate (methylglyoxal), advanced glycation end product (N(ε)-(carboxymethyl) lysine) and receptors for advanced glycation end products (AGEs), antagonized oxidative stress and nuclear factor-κB activation elicited by fructose feeding, suggesting inhibition of glycation, oxidative stress and nuclear factor-κB activation may be involved in the antifibrotic mechanisms. Betanin also showed anitglycative effect in BSA/fructose system, which supported that anitglycation was involved in betanin's protective roles in vivo. Taken together, the potential for using betanin as an auxillary therapy for diabetic cardiomyopathy deserves to be explored further. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of new cross-linked polyethylene for atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimura, Shun-ichi; Ohya, Shingo; Kubo, Masaji; Tsutsumi, Yukihiro; Seguchi, Tadao.

    1988-01-01

    Cross-linked polyethylene is the material which is used most as the insulating material for electric wires and cables, but for the cables for nuclear power stations and the wiring materials within machinery and equipment, the cross-linked polyethylene which is hard to burn by mixing burning-retarding agent is frequently used as the disaster-preventing countermeasures. As the burning-retarding agent for cross-linked polyethylene, bromine system agent that gives high burning retardation, chlorine system agent that can prevent melting and dripping at the time of burning and so on have been used so as to meet the objective. However by the addition of burning-retarding agents, the electrical and mechanical characteristics of cross-linked polyethylene lower, therefore consideration must be given to the use. In this paper, the results of the examination on the application of condensed acenaphthylene bromide as a new burning-retarding agent to cross-linked polyethylene are reported. White lead was effective for catching HBr. It was confirmed that more than 30 parts of this agent ensured burning retardation. By mixing this agent, the tensile strength increased, but the elongation lowered. It was found that the good radiation resistance was obtained by adding this agent. (K.I.)

  20. Reactive electrospinning and biodegradation of cross-linked methacrylated polycarbonate nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Ruizhi; Zhang Jianfeng; Fan Yuwei; Xu Xiaoming [Department of Comprehensive Dentistry and Biomaterials, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, 1100 Florida Avenue, Box 137, New Orleans, LA 70119 (United States); Stoute, Diana; Lallier, Thomas, E-mail: xxu@lsuhsc.edu [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, Louisiana State University Health Science Center, 1100 Florida Avenue, Box 137, New Orleans, LA 70119 (United States)

    2011-06-15

    The objectives of this study were to fabricate cross-linked biodegradable polycarbonate nanofibers and to investigate their biodegradability by different enzymes. Poly(2,3-dihydroxycarbonate) was synthesized from naturally occurring l-tartaric acid. The hydroxyl groups on the functional polycarbonate were converted to methacrylate groups to enable the polymer to cross-link under UV irradiation. Smooth cross-linked methacrylated polycarbonate nanofibers (300-1800 nm) were fabricated by a reactive electrospinning process with in situ UV radiation from a mixed solution of linear methacrylated polycarbonate (MPC) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) (MPC:PEO = 9:1) in methanol/chloroform (50/50). These cross-linked nanofibers have shown excellent solvent resistance and their solubility decreases with increasing degree of cross-linking. The thermal properties of linear and cross-linked polycarbonate nanofibers were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis. The cross-linked polycarbonate nanofibers show no melting point below 200 {sup 0}C and their decomposition temperature increases with increasing cross-linking degree. Their biodegradation products by five different enzymes were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The biodegradability of the polycarbonate nanofibers decreases with increasing cross-linking degree. These nanofibers were found to support human fibroblast survival and to promote cell attachment. This study demonstrates that cross-linked biodegradable polycarbonate nanofibers with different chemical properties and biodegradability can be fabricated using the novel reactive electrospinning technology to meet the needs of different biomedical applications.

  1. Early experience with dual mobility acetabular systems featuring highly cross-linked polyethylene liners for primary hip arthroplasty in patients under fifty five years of age: an international multi-centre preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epinette, Jean-Alain; Harwin, Steven F; Rowan, Fiachra E; Tracol, Philippe; Mont, Michael A; Chughtai, Morad; Westrich, Geoffrey H

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate early performance of contemporary dual mobility acetabular systems with second generation annealed highly cross-linked polyethylene for primary hip arthroplasty of patients under 55 years of age. A prospective observational five years study across five centers in Europe and the USA of 321 patients with a mean age of 48.1 years was performed. Patients were assessed for causes of revision, hip instability, intra-prosthetic dissociation, Harris hip score and radiological signs of osteolysis. There were no dislocations and no intra-prosthetic dissociations. Kaplan Meier analysis demonstrated 97.51% survivorship for all cause revision and 99.68% survivorship for acetabular component revision at five years. Mean Harris hip score was 93.6. Two acetabular shells were revised for neck-rim implant impingement without dislocation and ten femoral stems were revised for causes unrelated to dual mobility implants. Contemporary highly cross-linked polyethylene dual mobility systems demonstrate excellent early clinical, radiological, and survivorship results in a cohort of patients that demand high performance from their implants. It is envisaged that DM and second generation annealed HXLPE may reduce THA instability and wear, the two most common causes of THA revision in hip arthroplasty.

  2. Molecular Model for HNBR with Tunable Cross-Link Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, N; Khawaja, M; Sutton, A P; Mostofi, A A

    2016-12-15

    We introduce a chemically inspired, all-atom model of hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber (HNBR) and assess its performance by computing the mass density and glass-transition temperature as a function of cross-link density in the structure. Our HNBR structures are created by a procedure that mimics the real process used to produce HNBR, that is, saturation of the carbon-carbon double bonds in NBR, either by hydrogenation or by cross-linking. The atomic interactions are described by the all-atom "Optimized Potentials for Liquid Simulations" (OPLS-AA). In this paper, first, we assess the use of OPLS-AA in our models, especially using NBR bulk properties, and second, we evaluate the validity of the proposed model for HNBR by investigating mass density and glass transition as a function of the tunable cross-link density. Experimental densities are reproduced within 3% for both elastomers, and qualitatively correct trends in the glass-transition temperature as a function of monomer composition and cross-link density are obtained.

  3. UV laser-induced cross-linking in peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Gabriella; Altucci, Carlo; Bourgoin-Voillard, Sandrine; Gravagnuolo, Alfredo M.; Esposito, Rosario; Marino, Gennaro; Costello, Catherine E.; Velotta, Raffaele; Birolo, Leila

    2013-01-01

    RATIONALE The aim of this study was to demonstrate, and to characterize by high resolution mass spectrometry, that it is possible to preferentially induce covalent cross-links in peptides by using high energy femtosecond UV laser pulses. The cross-link is readily formed only when aromatic amino acids are present in the peptide sequence. METHODS Three peptides, xenopsin, angiotensin I, interleukin, individually or in combination, were exposed to high energy femtosecond UV laser pulses, either alone or in the presence of spin trapping molecules, the reaction products being characterized by high resolution mass spectrometry. RESULTS High resolution mass spectrometry and spin trapping strategies showed that cross-linking occurs readily, proceeds via a radical mechanism, and is the highly dominant reaction, proceeding without causing significant photo-damage in the investigated range of experimental parameters. CONCLUSIONS High energy femtosecond UV laser pulses can be used to induce covalent cross-links between aromatic amino acids in peptides, overcoming photo-oxidation processes, that predominate as the mean laser pulse intensity approaches illumination conditions achievable with conventional UV light sources. PMID:23754800

  4. Tailoring the properties of cholecyst-derived extracellular matrix using carbodiimide cross-linking.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burugapalli, Krishna

    2009-01-01

    Modulation of properties of extracellular matrix (ECM) based scaffolds is key for their application in the clinical setting. In the present study, cross-linking was used as a tool for tailoring the properties of cholecyst-derived extracellular matrix (CEM). CEM was cross-linked with varying cross-linking concentrations of N,N-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl)-N\\'-ethyl carbodiimide (EDC) in the presence of N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS). Shrink temperature measurements and ATR-FT-IR spectra were used to determine the degree of cross-linking. The effect of cross-linking on degradation was tested using the collagenase assay. Uniaxial tensile properties and the ability to support fibroblasts were also evaluated as a function of cross-linking. Shrink temperature increased from 59 degrees C for non-cross-linked CEM to 78 degrees C for the highest EDC cross-linking concentration, while IR peak area ratios for the free -NH(2) group at 3290 cm(-1) to that of the amide I band at 1635 cm(-1) decreased with increasing EDC cross-linking concentration. Collagenase assay demonstrated that degradation rates for CEM can be tailored. EDC concentrations 0 to 0.0033 mmol\\/mg CEM were the cross-linking concentration range in which CEM showed varied susceptibility to collagenase degradation. Furthermore, cross-linking concentrations up to 0.1 mmol EDC\\/mg CEM did not have statistically significant effect on the uniaxial tensile strength, as well as morphology, viability and proliferation of fibroblasts on CEM. In conclusion, the degradation rates of CEM can be tailored using EDC-cross-linking, while maintaining the mechanical properties and the ability of CEM to support cells.

  5. Functionalisation of cross-linked polyethylenimine for the removal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and describe the experimental data. The thermodynamic study of the adsorption process indicated high activation energies (55.91 kJ mol-1) which confirms chemisorption as a mechanism of interaction between As and PCPEI. Keywords: Adsorption; arsenic; phosphonated cross-linked polyethylenimine, functionalisation ...

  6. Lithium polymer cell assembled by in situ chemical cross-linking of ionic liquid electrolyte with phosphazene-based cross-linking agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Ji-Ae; Kang, Yongku; Kim, Dong-Won

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ionic liquid-based cross-linked gel polymer electrolytes were synthesized and their electrochemical properties were investigated. ► Lithium polymer cells with in situ cross-linked gel polymer electrolytes exhibited reversible cycling behavior with good capacity retention. ► The use of ionic liquid-based cross-linked gel polymer electrolytes significantly improved the thermal stability of the cells. -- Abstract: Ionic liquid-based cross-linked gel polymer electrolytes were prepared with a phosphazene-based cross-linking agent, and their electrochemical properties were investigated. Lithium polymer cells composed of lithium anode and LiCoO 2 cathode were assembled with ionic liquid-based cross-linked gel polymer electrolyte and their cycling performance was evaluated. The interfacial adhesion between the electrodes and the electrolyte by in situ chemical cross-linking resulted in stable capacity retention of the cell. A reduction in the ionic mobility in both the electrolyte and the electrode adversely affected discharge capacity and high rate performance of the cell. DSC studies demonstrated that the use of ionic liquid-based cross-linked gel polymer electrolytes provided a significant improvement in the thermal stability of the cell

  7. Radiation cross-linked plastics: a versatile material solution for packaging, automotive, Electrotechnic and Electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouif, Sophie

    2004-01-01

    Used since the beginning of the 1970s for the production of halogen-free and heat-resistant cables and wires, for conditioning polyethylene hot-water pipes or for the manufacture of heat shrinkable tubes and of tyres, radiation cross-linking is developing fastly today on the scale of plastic-moulded parts, and not only by the mean of EB, but also under gamma rays. Indeed, it improves considerably the performances of a great number of plastics among thermoplastics, elastomers and thermoplastic elastomers (TPE). Radiation cross-linking reinforces the dimensional stability of polymers in chemically aggressive and high-temperature conditions. Radiation cross-linked-based engineering plastics offers OEM and end users in many branches of industry both technical and economical advantages in comparison with high-performances plastics. They constitute a technical and economical compromise between engineering plastics that failed and high-performances plastic, often over-tailored and expensive. This modern industrial technology gives way to new applications and perspectives in various sectors (packaging, automotive, electrotechnic and electronics, including connectors, surface-mounted devices, integrated circuits, 3D-MID, etc.) that are described in the paper

  8. pH-induced inversion of water-in-oil emulsions to oil-in-water high internal phase emulsions (HIPEs) using core cross-linked star (CCS) polymer as interfacial stabilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qijing; Deng, Xiaoyong; An, Zesheng

    2014-06-01

    A pH-responsive core cross-linked star (CCS) polymer containing poly(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) arms was used as an interfacial stabilizer for emulsions containing toluene (80 v%) and water (20 v%). In the pH range of 12.1-9.3, ordinary water-in-oil emulsions were formed. Intermediate multiple emulsions of oil-in-water-in-oil and water-in-oil-in-water were formed at pH 8.6 and 7.5, respectively. Further lowering the pH resulted in the formation of gelled high internal phase emulsions of oil-in-water type in the pH range of 6.4-0.6. The emulsion behavior was correlated with interfacial tension, conductivity and configuration of the CCS polymer at different pH. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Cross-linked structure of network evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassett, Danielle S., E-mail: dsb@seas.upenn.edu [Department of Bioengineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Sage Center for the Study of the Mind, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Wymbs, Nicholas F.; Grafton, Scott T. [Department of Psychology and UCSB Brain Imaging Center, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Porter, Mason A. [Oxford Centre for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford OX2 6GG (United Kingdom); CABDyN Complexity Centre, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 1HP (United Kingdom); Mucha, Peter J. [Carolina Center for Interdisciplinary Applied Mathematics, Department of Mathematics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Department of Applied Physical Sciences, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    We study the temporal co-variation of network co-evolution via the cross-link structure of networks, for which we take advantage of the formalism of hypergraphs to map cross-link structures back to network nodes. We investigate two sets of temporal network data in detail. In a network of coupled nonlinear oscillators, hyperedges that consist of network edges with temporally co-varying weights uncover the driving co-evolution patterns of edge weight dynamics both within and between oscillator communities. In the human brain, networks that represent temporal changes in brain activity during learning exhibit early co-evolution that then settles down with practice. Subsequent decreases in hyperedge size are consistent with emergence of an autonomous subgraph whose dynamics no longer depends on other parts of the network. Our results on real and synthetic networks give a poignant demonstration of the ability of cross-link structure to uncover unexpected co-evolution attributes in both real and synthetic dynamical systems. This, in turn, illustrates the utility of analyzing cross-links for investigating the structure of temporal networks.

  10. Cross-linked structure of network evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassett, Danielle S.; Wymbs, Nicholas F.; Grafton, Scott T.; Porter, Mason A.; Mucha, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    We study the temporal co-variation of network co-evolution via the cross-link structure of networks, for which we take advantage of the formalism of hypergraphs to map cross-link structures back to network nodes. We investigate two sets of temporal network data in detail. In a network of coupled nonlinear oscillators, hyperedges that consist of network edges with temporally co-varying weights uncover the driving co-evolution patterns of edge weight dynamics both within and between oscillator communities. In the human brain, networks that represent temporal changes in brain activity during learning exhibit early co-evolution that then settles down with practice. Subsequent decreases in hyperedge size are consistent with emergence of an autonomous subgraph whose dynamics no longer depends on other parts of the network. Our results on real and synthetic networks give a poignant demonstration of the ability of cross-link structure to uncover unexpected co-evolution attributes in both real and synthetic dynamical systems. This, in turn, illustrates the utility of analyzing cross-links for investigating the structure of temporal networks

  11. Analytical characterisation of glutardialdehyde cross-linking products in gelatine-gum arabic complex coacervates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuguet, Elisabet [Advanced Measurement and Imaging, Unilever Food and Health Research Institute, Olivier van Noortlaan 120, 3133 AT Vlaardingen (Netherlands)], E-mail: eli.fuguet@gmail.com; Platerink, Chris van [Advanced Measurement and Imaging, Unilever Food and Health Research Institute, Olivier van Noortlaan 120, 3133 AT Vlaardingen (Netherlands); Department of Biomolecular Mass Spectrometry, Bijvoet Center for Biomolecular Research, Utrecht University, Sorbonnelaan 16, 3584 CA Utrecht (Netherlands); Janssen, Hans-Gerd [Advanced Measurement and Imaging, Unilever Food and Health Research Institute, Olivier van Noortlaan 120, 3133 AT Vlaardingen (Netherlands); van' t Hoff Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Achtergracht 166, 1018 WV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2007-11-26

    Encapsulates having shells of cross-linked mixtures of proteins and polysaccharides are widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industry for controlled release of actives and flavour compounds. In order to be able to predict the behaviour and the release characteristics of the microcapsules, a better understanding of the nature and extent of the cross-linking reaction is needed. Several analytical techniques were applied for the characterisation of glutardialdehyde (GDA) cross-linked encapsulates made of gelatine and gum arabic. To allow the use of sensitive, high-resolution methods such as chromatography and mass spectrometry, the sample first had to be hydrolysed. In this way, a mixture of amino acids, small peptides and the cross-link moieties was obtained. High-resolution liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) was applied to detect possible cross-link markers through a comparison of HPLC-MS mass-chromatograms obtained for cross-linked and non-cross-linked coacervates. HPLC-MS/MS was used to identify the species responsible for the differences. Cross-linking occurred between GDA molecules and lysine and hydroxylysine {epsilon}-amino groups, and up to eight cross-link products of different nature could be identified. They included pyridinium ions and Schiff bases, and also unreacted GDA condensation products. Next, based on the insight gained in the possible chemical structures present in the cross-link markers, methods for selective labelling of these functionalities were employed to allow easier detection of related reaction products. Both liquid chromatography (LC) and gas chromatography (GC) were used in these experiments. Unfortunately, these approaches failed to detect new cross-link markers, most likely as a result of the low levels at which these are present.

  12. Analytical characterisation of glutardialdehyde cross-linking products in gelatine-gum arabic complex coacervates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuguet, Elisabet; Platerink, Chris van; Janssen, Hans-Gerd

    2007-01-01

    Encapsulates having shells of cross-linked mixtures of proteins and polysaccharides are widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industry for controlled release of actives and flavour compounds. In order to be able to predict the behaviour and the release characteristics of the microcapsules, a better understanding of the nature and extent of the cross-linking reaction is needed. Several analytical techniques were applied for the characterisation of glutardialdehyde (GDA) cross-linked encapsulates made of gelatine and gum arabic. To allow the use of sensitive, high-resolution methods such as chromatography and mass spectrometry, the sample first had to be hydrolysed. In this way, a mixture of amino acids, small peptides and the cross-link moieties was obtained. High-resolution liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) was applied to detect possible cross-link markers through a comparison of HPLC-MS mass-chromatograms obtained for cross-linked and non-cross-linked coacervates. HPLC-MS/MS was used to identify the species responsible for the differences. Cross-linking occurred between GDA molecules and lysine and hydroxylysine ε-amino groups, and up to eight cross-link products of different nature could be identified. They included pyridinium ions and Schiff bases, and also unreacted GDA condensation products. Next, based on the insight gained in the possible chemical structures present in the cross-link markers, methods for selective labelling of these functionalities were employed to allow easier detection of related reaction products. Both liquid chromatography (LC) and gas chromatography (GC) were used in these experiments. Unfortunately, these approaches failed to detect new cross-link markers, most likely as a result of the low levels at which these are present

  13. The cross linking of EPDM and NBR rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samardžija-Jovanović Suzana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the process of macromolecule cross linking, the choice of type and quantity of the components and the experimental conditions are important to obtain the new cross linked materials with better mechanical and chemical characteristics. The cross linking method depends on the rubber type and structure. Intermolecular cross linking results in the formation elastomer network. The basis of the cross linking process, between ethylene propylene diene rubber (EPDM and acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR, is a chemical reaction. Fillers and other additives are present in different mass ratios in the material. The exploitation properties of the cross linked materials depend on the quantity of additive in the cross linked systems.

  14. Preliminary In Vitro Assessment of Stem Cell Compatibility with Cross-Linked Poly(ε-caprolactone urethane Scaffolds Designed through High Internal Phase Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Changotade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available By using a high internal phase emulsion process, elastomeric poly(ε-caprolactone urethane (PCLU scaffolds were designed with pores size ranging from below 150 μm to 1800 μm and a porosity of 86% making them suitable for bone tissue engineering applications. Moreover, the pores appeared to be excellently interconnected, promoting cellularization and future bone ingrowth. This study evaluated the in vitro cytotoxicity of the PCLU scaffolds towards human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs through the evaluation of cell viability and metabolic activity during extract test and indirect contact test at the beginning of the scaffold lifetime. Both tests demonstrated that PCLU scaffolds did not induce any cytotoxic response. Finally, direct interaction of hMSCs and PCLU scaffolds showed that PCLU scaffolds were suitable for supporting the hMSCs adhesion and that the cells were well spread over the pore walls. We conclude that PCLU scaffolds may be a good candidate for bone tissue regeneration applications using hMSCs.

  15. Computer simulation of randomly cross-linked polymer networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Timothy Philip

    2002-01-01

    In this work, Monte Carlo and Stochastic Dynamics computer simulations of mesoscale model randomly cross-linked networks were undertaken. Task parallel implementations of the lattice Monte Carlo Bond Fluctuation model and Kremer-Grest Stochastic Dynamics bead-spring continuum model were designed and used for this purpose. Lattice and continuum precursor melt systems were prepared and then cross-linked to varying degrees. The resultant networks were used to study structural changes during deformation and relaxation dynamics. The effects of a random network topology featuring a polydisperse distribution of strand lengths and an abundance of pendant chain ends, were qualitatively compared to recent published work. A preliminary investigation into the effects of temperature on the structural and dynamical properties was also undertaken. Structural changes during isotropic swelling and uniaxial deformation, revealed a pronounced non-affine deformation dependant on the degree of cross-linking. Fractal heterogeneities were observed in the swollen model networks and were analysed by considering constituent substructures of varying size. The network connectivity determined the length scales at which the majority of the substructure unfolding process occurred. Simulated stress-strain curves and diffraction patterns for uniaxially deformed swollen networks, were found to be consistent with experimental findings. Analysis of the relaxation dynamics of various network components revealed a dramatic slowdown due to the network connectivity. The cross-link junction spatial fluctuations for networks close to the sol-gel threshold, were observed to be at least comparable with the phantom network prediction. The dangling chain ends were found to display the largest characteristic relaxation time. (author)

  16. Effects of Supercritical CO 2 Conditioning on Cross-Linked Polyimide Membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Kratochvil, Adam M.

    2010-05-25

    The effects of supercritical CO2 (scCO2) conditioning on high-performance cross-linked polyimide membranes is examined through gas permeation and sorption experiments. Under supercritical conditions, the cross-linked polymers do not exhibit a structural reorganization of the polymer matrix that was observed in the non-cross-linkable, free acid polymer. Pure gas permeation isotherms and mixed gas permeabilities and selectivities show the cross-linked polymers to be much more stable to scCO2 conditioning than the free acid polymer. In fact, following scCO2 conditioning, the mixed gas CO2 permeabilities of the cross-linked polymers increased while the CO2/CH4 separation factors remained relatively unchanged. This response highlights the stability and high performance of these cross-linked membranes in aggressive environments. In addition, this response reveals the potential for the preconditioning of cross-linked polymer membranes to enhance productivity without sacrificing efficiency in practical applications which, in effect, provides another tool to \\'tune\\' membrane properties for a given separation. Finally, the dual mode model accurately describes the sorption and dilation characteristics of the cross-linked polymers. The changes in the dual mode sorption model parameters before and after the scCO2 exposure also provide insights into the alterations in the different glassy samples due to the cross-linking and scCO2 exposure. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  17. Carboxymethyl starch cross-linked by electron beam radiation in presence of acrylic acid sensitizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doan Binh; Nguyen Thanh Duoc; Pham Thi Thu Hong

    2013-01-01

    Carboxymethyl starch (CMS) can be cross-linked by electron beam radiation to form a biocompatible and environment-friendly hydrogel at a high absorbed dose and a condensed CMS concentration. Acrylic acid (AAc) can be used as a sensitizer in order to reduce the absorbed doses to an acceptable certain level. At an absorbed dose of 3-4 kGy, the gel content of crosslinked CMS can be obtained about 50% with 5% (w/w) AAc concentration used. The compressive strength of CMS samples increased with increasing their cross-linked densities due to raising absorbed doses. The swelling ratio of cross-linked CMS was also attainable at a maximum of 50 times in the distilled water. The enzymatic degradation of cross-linked CMS was carried out in acetate buffer pH 4.6 with 0.1% α-amylase enzymatic solution incubated at 40℃ for 6 h. The crosslinked CMS samples were degraded slower than uncrosslinked CMS ones. The results indicated that the highly cross-linked CMS was almost fully degradable when the enzymatic hydrolysis was performed during 6 h. The FT IR spectra of cross-linked CMS in the presence of AAc were examined to observe the carboxyl group of AAc in the structure of cross-linked CMS. The hydrophilic of cross-linked CMS surface was determined by a contact-angle analysis. (authors)

  18. Collagen cross-linking in thin corneas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prema Padmanabhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Collagen cross-linking (CXL has become the standard of care for progressive keratoconus, after numerous clinical studies have established its efficacy and safety in suitably selected eyes. The standard protocol is applicable in eyes which have a minimum corneal thickness of 400 μm after epithelial debridement. This prerequisite was stipulated to protect the corneal endothelium and intraocular tissues from the deleterious effect of ultraviolet-A (UVA radiation. However, patients with keratoconus often present with corneal thickness of less than 400 μm and could have otherwise benefited from this procedure. A few modifications of the standard procedure have been suggested to benefit these patients without a compromise in safety. Transepithelial cross-linking, pachymetry-guided epithelial debridement before cross-linking, and the use of hypoosmolar riboflavin are some of the techniques that have been attempted. Although clinical data is limited at the present time, these techniques are worth considering in patients with thin corneas. Further studies are needed to scientifically establish their efficacy and safety.

  19. Aluminum-induced dreierketten chain cross-links increase the mechanical properties of nanocrystalline calcium aluminosilicate hydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Guoqing; Myers, Rupert J.; Li, Jiaqi; Maboudian, Roya; Carraro, Carlo; Shapiro, David A.; Monteiro, Paulo J. M.

    2017-03-01

    The incorporation of Al and increased curing temperature promotes the crystallization and cross-linking of calcium (alumino)silicate hydrate (C-(A-)S-H), which is the primary binding phase in most contemporary concrete materials. However, the influence of Al-induced structural changes on the mechanical properties at atomistic scale is not well understood. Herein, synchrotron radiation-based high-pressure X-ray diffraction is used to quantify the influence of dreierketten chain cross-linking on the anisotropic mechanical behavior of C-(A-)S-H. We show that the ab-planar stiffness is independent of dreierketten chain defects, e.g. vacancies in bridging tetrahedra sites and Al for Si substitution. The c-axis of non-cross-linked C-(A-)S-H is more deformable due to the softer interlayer opening but stiffens with decreased spacing and/or increased zeolitic water and Ca2+ of the interlayer. Dreierketten chain cross-links act as ‘columns’ to resist compression, thus increasing the bulk modulus of C-(A-)S-H. We provide the first experimental evidence on the influence of the Al-induced atomistic configurational change on the mechanical properties of C-(A-)S-H. Our work advances the fundamental knowledge of C-(A-)S-H on the lowest level of its hierarchical structure, and thus can impact the way that innovative C-(A-)S-H-based cementitious materials are developed using a ‘bottom-up’ approach.

  20. Studies in cross-linking PVC footwear soling compounds using gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, L.I.

    1983-01-01

    Irradiation cross-linking of polymeric materials has been known for some time but it is only in recent years that it has been put to commercial advantage. Well known uses are the modification of PVC for high temperature applications such as under-bonnet wiring, stove wiring, post office telecommunication wire and shrink tubing. In South Africa interest in developing commercial applications for cross-linkable polymeric materials was initially stimulated through the work of the Atomic Energy Board at Pelindaba in late 1971 using a cobalt - 60 gamma radiation unit

  1. Immobilization of cross-linked tannase enzyme on multiwalled carbon nanotubes and its catalytic behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Chong-Boon; Annuar, Mohamad S M

    2018-02-07

    Immobilization of cross-linked tannase on pristine multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) was successfully performed. Cross-linking of tannase molecules was made through glutaraldehyde. The immobilized tannase exhibited significantly improved pH, thermal, and recycling stability. The optimal pH for both free and immobilized tannase was observed at pH 5.0 with optimal operating temperature at 30°C. Moreover, immobilized enzyme retained greater biocatalytic activities upon 10 repeated uses compared to free enzyme in solution. Immobilization of tannase was accomplished by strong hydrophobic interaction most likely between hydrophobic amino acid moieties of the glutaraldehyde-cross-linked tannase to the MWCNT.

  2. Competition between dewetting and cross-linking in poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone)/polystyrene bilayer films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telford, Andrew M; Thickett, Stuart C; James, Michael; Neto, Chiara

    2011-12-06

    We investigated the dewetting of metastable poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PNVP) thin films (45 nm) on top of polystyrene (PS) thin films (58 nm) as a function of annealing temperature and molecular weight of PS (96 and 6850 kg/mol). We focused on the competition between dewetting, occurring as a result of unfavorable intermolecular interactions at the PNVP/PS interface, and spontaneous cross-linking of PNVP, occurring during thermal annealing, as we recently reported (Telford, A. M.; James, M.; Meagher, L.; Neto, C. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2010, 2, 2399-2408). Using optical microscopy, we studied how the dewetting morphology and dynamics at different temperatures depended on the relative viscosity of the top PNVP film, which increased with cross-linking time, and of the bottom PS film. In the PNVP/PS96K system, cross-linking dominated over dewetting at temperatures below 180 °C, reducing drastically nucleated hole density and their maximum size, while above 180 °C the two processes reversed, with complete dewetting occurring at 200 °C. On the other hand, the PNVP/PS6850K system never achieved advanced dewetting stages as the dewetting was slower than cross-linking in the investigated temperature range. In both systems, dewetting of the PNVP films could be avoided altogether by thermally annealing the bilayers at temperatures where cross-linking dominated. The cross-linking was characterized quantitatively using neutron reflectometry, which indicated shrinkage and densification of the PNVP film, and qualitatively through selective removal of the bottom PS film. A simple model accounting for progressive cross-linking during the dewetting process predicted well the observed hole growth profiles and produced estimates of the PNVP cross-linking rate coefficients and of the activation energy of the process, in good agreement with literature values for similar systems. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  3. Cross-linking for microbial keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayesh Vazirani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The success of collagen cross-linking as a clinical modality to modify the clinical course in keratoconus seems to have fueled the search for alternative applications for this treatment. Current clinical data on its efficacy is limited and laboratory data seems to indicate that it performs poorly against resistant strains of bacteria and against slow growing organisms. However, the biological plausibility of crosslinking and the lack of effective strategies in managing infections with these organisms continue to focus attention on this potential treatment. Well-conducted experimental and clinical studies with controls are required to answer the questions of its efficacy in future.

  4. An Investigation on Rheology of Peroxide Cross-linking of Low Density Polyethylene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghasemi, Ismaeil; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Szabo, Peter

    2005-01-01

    One of the most important post-reactor modifications of polyethylene is cross-linking. It improves some properties of polyethylene such as environmental stress cracking resistance, chemical and abrasion resistance, and service temperature. In this study, the effect of peroxide cross-linking on th......One of the most important post-reactor modifications of polyethylene is cross-linking. It improves some properties of polyethylene such as environmental stress cracking resistance, chemical and abrasion resistance, and service temperature. In this study, the effect of peroxide cross......-linking on the rheological behaviour of low density polyethylene was investigated by using a combination of creep test and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) in isotherm condition. The used peroxide was di-cumyl peroxide and its concentration was 2 wt%. The experiments were carried out at 150,160, and 170 degrees C...

  5. General protein-protein cross-linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegria-Schaffer, Alice

    2014-01-01

    This protocol describes a general protein-to-protein cross-linking procedure using the water-soluble amine-reactive homobifunctional BS(3) (bis[sulfosuccinimidyl] suberate); however, the protocol can be easily adapted using other cross-linkers of similar properties. BS(3) is composed of two sulfo-NHS ester groups and an 11.4 Å linker. Sulfo-NHS ester groups react with primary amines in slightly alkaline conditions (pH 7.2-8.5) and yield stable amide bonds. The reaction releases N-hydroxysuccinimide (see an application of NHS esters on Labeling a protein with fluorophores using NHS ester derivitization). © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of cross-linked gelatin membranes as delivery carriers for retinal sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Jui-Yang, E-mail: jylai@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Institute of Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, 33302 Taiwan (China); Biomedical Engineering Research Center, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, 33302 Taiwan (China); Molecular Medicine Research Center, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, 33302 Taiwan (China); Li, Ya-Ting [Institute of Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, 33302 Taiwan (China)

    2010-06-15

    The delivery of intact sheet transplants to the subretinal space can prevent cell loss that is generally associated with the injection of cell suspensions or cell aggregates. The aim of this study was to develop chemically modified gelatin matrices that enhance the delivery efficiency and analyze whether the gelatin membranes cross-linked with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) can be considered as potential carriers for retinal sheets. The characteristics of EDC cross-linked gelatin membranes were determined by mechanical and in vitro degradation tests, melting point measurements, cell proliferation assays, cytokine expression analyses, and tissue delivery studies. Gelatin membranes without cross-linking and glutaraldehyde cross-linked gelatin samples were used for comparison. Results of this study indicated that introduction of cross-links is capable of rendering the gelatin network more stable against mechanical stresses and deformations as well as rapid hydrolysis during intraocular delivery of delicate tissue sheets. In comparison with the glutaraldehyde treated samples, the EDC cross-linked gelatin membranes showed a better degradation profile and a relatively higher cytocompatibility. In addition, after EDC cross-linking, the gelatin matrices having an acceptable melting point could be used for the fabrication of a sandwich-like carrier with a high transfer and encapsulation efficiency. These findings suggest that the cross-linking agent type gives an influence on delivery functionality of gelatin membranes. In summary, the EDC cross-linked gelatin is an ideal candidate for use as a carrier material in retinal sheet delivery applications.

  7. Efficacy and safety of single injection of cross-linked sodium hyaluronate vs. three injections of high molecular weight sodium hyaluronate for osteoarthritis of the knee: a double-blind, randomized, multi-center, non-inferiority study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Chul-Won; Park, Yong-Beom; Choi, Chong-Hyuk; Kyung, Hee-Soo; Lee, Ju-Hong; Yoo, Jae Doo; Yoo, Ju-Hyung; Choi, Choong-Hyeok; Kim, Chang-Wan; Kim, Hee-Chun; Oh, Kwang-Jun; Bin, Seong-Il; Lee, Myung Chul

    2017-05-26

    This randomized, double-blind, multi-center, non-inferiority trial was conducted to assess the efficacy and safety of a cross-linked hyaluronate (XLHA, single injection form) compared with a linear high molecular hyaluronate (HMWHA, thrice injection form) in patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. Two hundred eighty seven patients with osteoarthritis (Kellgren-Lawrence grade I to III) were randomized to each group. Three weekly injections were given in both groups but two times of saline injections preceded XLHA injection to maintain double-blindness. Primary endpoint was the change of weight-bearing pain (WBP) at 12 weeks after the last injection. Secondary endpoints included Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis index; patient's and investigator's global assessment; pain at rest, at night, or in motion; OMERACT-OARSI responder rate; proportion of patients achieving at least 20 mm or 40% decrease in WBP; and rate of rescue medicine use and its total consumption. Mean changes of WBP at 12 weeks after the last injection were -33.3 mm with XLHA and -29.2 mm with HMWHA, proving non-inferiority of XLHA to HMWHA as the lower bound of 95% CI (-1.9 mm, 10.1 mm) was well above the predefined margin (-10 mm). There were no significant between-group differences in all secondary endpoints. Injection site pain was the most common adverse event and no remarkable safety issue was identified. This study demonstrated that a single injection of XLHA was non-inferior to three weekly injections of HMWHA in terms of WBP reduction, and supports XLHA as an effective and safe treatment for knee osteoarthritis. ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT01510535 ). This trial was registered on January 6, 2012.

  8. Mechanism of high-temperature resistant water-base mud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, P

    1981-01-01

    Based on experiments, the causes and laws governing the changes in the performance of water-base mud under high temperature are analyzed, and the requisites and mechanism of treating agents resisting high temperature are discussed. Ways and means are sought for inhibiting, delaying and making use of the effect of high temperature on the performance of mud, while new ideas and systematic views have been expressed on the preparation of treating agents and set-up of a high temperature resistant water-base mud system. High temperature dispersion and high temperature surface inactivation of clay in the mud, as well as their effect and method of utilization are reviewed. Subjects also touched upon include degradation and cross-linking of the high-temperature resistant treating agents, their use and effect. Based on the above, the preparation of a water-base and system capable of resisting 180 to 250/sup 0/C is recommended.

  9. Sub- T g Cross-Linking of a Polyimide Membrane for Enhanced CO 2 Plasticization Resistance for Natural Gas Separation

    KAUST Repository

    Qiu, Wulin; Chen, Chien-Chiang; Xu, Liren; Cui, Lili; Paul, Donald R.; Koros, William J.

    2011-01-01

    Decarboxylation-induced thermal cross-linking occurs at elevated temperatures (∼15 °C above glass transition temperature) for 6FDA-DAM:DABA polyimides, which can stabilize membranes against swelling and plasticization in aggressive feed streams

  10. Supermacroporous chemically cross-linked poly(aspartic acid) hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyarmati, Benjámin; Mészár, E Zsuzsanna; Kiss, Lóránd; Deli, Mária A; László, Krisztina; Szilágyi, András

    2015-08-01

    Chemically cross-linked poly(aspartic acid) (PASP) gels were prepared by a solid-liquid phase separation technique, cryogelation, to achieve a supermacroporous interconnected pore structure. The precursor polymer of PASP, polysuccinimide (PSI) was cross-linked below the freezing point of the solvent and the forming crystals acted as templates for the pores. Dimethyl sulfoxide was chosen as solvent instead of the more commonly used water. Thus larger temperatures could be utilized for the preparation and the drawback of increase in specific volume of water upon freezing could be eliminated. The morphology of the hydrogels was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and interconnectivity of the pores was proven by the small flow resistance of the gels. Compression tests also confirmed the interconnected porous structure and the complete re-swelling and shape recovery of the supermacroporous PASP hydrogels. The prepared hydrogels are of interest for several biomedical applications as scaffolding materials because of their cytocompatibility, controllable morphology and pH-responsive character. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cross-link guided molecular modeling with ROSETTA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Kahraman

    Full Text Available Chemical cross-links identified by mass spectrometry generate distance restraints that reveal low-resolution structural information on proteins and protein complexes. The technology to reliably generate such data has become mature and robust enough to shift the focus to the question of how these distance restraints can be best integrated into molecular modeling calculations. Here, we introduce three workflows for incorporating distance restraints generated by chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry into ROSETTA protocols for comparative and de novo modeling and protein-protein docking. We demonstrate that the cross-link validation and visualization software Xwalk facilitates successful cross-link data integration. Besides the protocols we introduce XLdb, a database of chemical cross-links from 14 different publications with 506 intra-protein and 62 inter-protein cross-links, where each cross-link can be mapped on an experimental structure from the Protein Data Bank. Finally, we demonstrate on a protein-protein docking reference data set the impact of virtual cross-links on protein docking calculations and show that an inter-protein cross-link can reduce on average the RMSD of a docking prediction by 5.0 Å. The methods and results presented here provide guidelines for the effective integration of chemical cross-link data in molecular modeling calculations and should advance the structural analysis of particularly large and transient protein complexes via hybrid structural biology methods.

  12. Development of extremely low wear cross-link polyethylene for 30 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oonishi, Hironobu; Fujita, Hiroshi; Kim, Seok-Cheol; Ito, Shigeru; Masuda, Shingo; Clarke, I.C.

    2003-01-01

    In this report we present our long-term developmental and clinical results with both highly cross-linked and extensively cross-linked polyethylene materials. Beginning in 1970s, we performed wear screening studies on ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) (GUR412) sterilized by gamma-irradiation in air (range 0 to 10,000 kGy). From these scientific studies the 1,000 kGy dose (100 Mrad) appeared optimal, and so we began clinical use in 1971, and that continued into 1978. The radiographic wear-rates in patients with 1,000 kGy sockets, assessed by radiography, appeared 6-fold reduced compared to our standard UHMWPE sockets. Note also that we had not used any post-sterilization heat treatment for these pioneering extensively cross-linked polyethylene sockets. With clinical use now over 30 years, it was also clear that there was no adverse oxidation created by any free radicals present in our extensively cross-linked polyethylene sockets. With these encouraging clinical results, we further studied laboratory wear results with the modern UHMWPE resins, using the irradiation doses 1,000, 5,000, 10,000 and 15,000 kGy and with both saline and serum lubricants in hip simulators. These more recent studies demonstrated that the wear in extensively cross-linked polyethylene sockets was undetectable, less even than the measurement errors in the simulator techniques. It was unfortunate that the physical properties of such extensively cross-linked polyethylene sockets did not meet the current International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards. Thus, despite the excellent wear performance of these materials, we decided to investigate also the properties of the 60 kGy irradiated UHMWPE. The polyethylene sheet (GUR1050) was first irradiated with 35 kGy under N2 and then heat treated to remove free radicals. The socket liners were then machined to shape and resterilized with 25 kGy under N2 gas. The

  13. Cross-linked Composite Gel Polymer Electrolyte using Mesoporous Methacrylate-Functionalized SiO2 Nanoparticles for Lithium-Ion Polymer Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Won-Kyung; Cho, Jinhyun; Kannan, Aravindaraj G.; Lee, Yoon-Sung; Kim, Dong-Won

    2016-01-01

    Liquid electrolytes composed of lithium salt in a mixture of organic solvents have been widely used for lithium-ion batteries. However, the high flammability of the organic solvents can lead to thermal runaway and explosions if the system is accidentally subjected to a short circuit or experiences local overheating. In this work, a cross-linked composite gel polymer electrolyte was prepared and applied to lithium-ion polymer cells as a safer and more reliable electrolyte. Mesoporous SiO2 nanoparticles containing reactive methacrylate groups as cross-linking sites were synthesized and dispersed into the fibrous polyacrylonitrile membrane. They directly reacted with gel electrolyte precursors containing tri(ethylene glycol) diacrylate, resulting in the formation of a cross-linked composite gel polymer electrolyte with high ionic conductivity and favorable interfacial characteristics. The mesoporous SiO2 particles also served as HF scavengers to reduce the HF content in the electrolyte at high temperature. As a result, the cycling performance of the lithium-ion polymer cells with cross-linked composite gel polymer electrolytes employing methacrylate-functionalized mesoporous SiO2 nanoparticles was remarkably improved at elevated temperatures. PMID:27189842

  14. Riboflavin for corneal cross-linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brart, D P S

    2016-06-01

    Corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) with riboflavin and ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation is the first therapeutic modality that appears to arrest the progression of keratoconus and other corneal ectasias. Riboflavin is central to the process, acting as a photosensitizer for the production of oxygen singlets and riboflavin triplets. These free radicals drive the CXL process within the proteins of the corneal stroma, altering its biomechanical properties. Riboflavin also absorbs the majority of the UVA radiation, which is potentially cytotoxic and mutagenic, within the anterior stroma, preventing damage to internal ocular structures, such as the corneal endothelium, lens and retina. Clinical studies report cessation of ectatic progression in over 90% of cases and the majority document significant improvements in visual, keratometric and topographic parameters. Clinical follow-up is limited to 5-10 years, but suggests sustained stability and enhancement in corneal shape. Sight-threatening complications are rare. The optimal stromal riboflavin dosage for CXL is as yet undetermined. Copyright 2016 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  15. UV cross-linking of polypeptides associated with 3'-terminal exons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolow, D.T.; Berget, S.M.

    1990-01-01

    Association of nuclear proteins with chimeric vertebrate precursor RNAs containing both polyadenylation signals and an intron was examined by UV cross-linking. One major difference in cross-linking pattern was observed between this chimeric precursor RNA and precursors containing only polyadenylation or splicing signals. The heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) polypeptide C cross-linked strongly to sequences downstream of the A addition site in polyadenylation precursor RNA containing only the polyadenylation signal from the simian virus 40 (SV40) late transcription unit. In contrast, the hnRNP C polypeptide cross-linked to chimeric RNA containing the same SV40 late poly(A) cassette very poorly, at a level less than 5% of that observed with the precursor RNA containing just the poly(A) site. Observation that cross-linking of the hnRNP C polypeptide to elements within the SV40 late poly(A) site was altered by the presence of an upstream intron suggests differences in the way nuclear factors associate with poly(A) sites in the presence and absence of an upstream intron. Cross-linking of C polypeptide to chimeric RNA increased with RNAs mutated for splicing or polyadenylation consensus sequences and under reaction conditions (high magnesium) that inhibited polyadenylation. Furthermore, cross-linking of hnRNP C polypeptide to precursors containing just the SV40 late poly(A) site was eliminated in the presence of competing poly(U); polyadenylation, however, was unaffected. Correlation of loss of activity with high levels of hnRNP C polypeptide cross-linking raises questions about the specificity of the interaction between the hnRNP C polypeptide and polyadenylation precursor RNAs in vitro

  16. Supersymmetry at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, A.; Kaku, M.

    1978-01-01

    We investigate the properties of Green's functions in a spontaneously broken supersymmetric model at high temperatures. We show that, even at high temperatures, we do not get restoration of supersymmetry, at least in the one-loop approximation

  17. Interstrand cross-links arising from strand breaks at true abasic sites in duplex DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhiyu; Price, Nathan E; Johnson, Kevin M; Wang, Yinsheng; Gates, Kent S

    2017-06-20

    Interstrand cross-links are exceptionally bioactive DNA lesions. Endogenous generation of interstrand cross-links in genomic DNA may contribute to aging, neurodegeneration, and cancer. Abasic (Ap) sites are common lesions in genomic DNA that readily undergo spontaneous and amine-catalyzed strand cleavage reactions that generate a 2,3-didehydro-2,3-dideoxyribose sugar remnant (3'ddR5p) at the 3'-terminus of the strand break. Interestingly, this strand scission process leaves an electrophilic α,β-unsaturated aldehyde residue embedded within the resulting nicked duplex. Here we present evidence that 3'ddR5p derivatives generated by spermine-catalyzed strand cleavage at Ap sites in duplex DNA can react with adenine residues on the opposing strand to generate a complex lesion consisting of an interstrand cross-link adjacent to a strand break. The cross-link blocks DNA replication by ϕ29 DNA polymerase, a highly processive polymerase enzyme that couples synthesis with strand displacement. This suggests that 3'ddR5p-derived cross-links have the potential to block critical cellular DNA transactions that require strand separation. LC-MS/MS methods developed herein provide powerful tools for studying the occurrence and properties of these cross-links in biochemical and biological systems. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  18. Interstrand cross-links arising from strand breaks at true abasic sites in duplex DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhiyu; Price, Nathan E.; Johnson, Kevin M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Interstrand cross-links are exceptionally bioactive DNA lesions. Endogenous generation of interstrand cross-links in genomic DNA may contribute to aging, neurodegeneration, and cancer. Abasic (Ap) sites are common lesions in genomic DNA that readily undergo spontaneous and amine-catalyzed strand cleavage reactions that generate a 2,3-didehydro-2,3-dideoxyribose sugar remnant (3’ddR5p) at the 3’-terminus of the strand break. Interestingly, this strand scission process leaves an electrophilic α,β-unsaturated aldehyde residue embedded within the resulting nicked duplex. Here we present evidence that 3’ddR5p derivatives generated by spermine-catalyzed strand cleavage at Ap sites in duplex DNA can react with adenine residues on the opposing strand to generate a complex lesion consisting of an interstrand cross-link adjacent to a strand break. The cross-link blocks DNA replication by ϕ29 DNA polymerase, a highly processive polymerase enzyme that couples synthesis with strand displacement. This suggests that 3’ddR5p-derived cross-links have the potential to block critical cellular DNA transactions that require strand separation. LC-MS/MS methods developed herein provide powerful tools for studying the occurrence and properties of these cross-links in biochemical and biological systems. PMID:28531327

  19. Role of solvent-mediated carbodiimide cross-linking in fabrication of electrospun gelatin nanofibrous membranes as ophthalmic biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Shih-Feng; Luo, Li-Jyuan; Lai, Jui-Yang; Ma, David Hui-Kang

    2017-01-01

    Due to their ability to mimic the structure of extracellular matrix, electrospun gelatin nanofibers are promising cell scaffolding materials for tissue engineering applications. However, the hydrophilic gelatin molecules usually need stabilization before use in aqueous physiological environment. Considering that biomaterials cross-linked via film immersion technique may have a more homogeneous cross-linked structure than vapor phase cross-linking, this work aims to investigate the chemical modification of electrospun gelatin nanofibrous membranes by liquid phase carbodiimide in the presence of ethanol/water co-solvents with varying ethanol concentrations ranging from 80 to 99.5 vol%. The results of characterization showed that increasing water content in the binary reaction solvent system increases the extent of cross-linking of gelatin nanofibers, but simultaneously promotes the effect of biopolymer swelling and distortion in fiber mat structure. As compared to non-cross-linked counterparts, carbodiimide treated gelatin nanofibrous mats exhibited better thermal and biological stability where the shrinkage temperature and resistance to enzymatic degradation varied in response to ethanol/water solvent composition-mediated generation of cross-links. Irrespective of their cross-linking density, all studied membrane samples did not induce any responses in ocular epithelial cell cultures derived from cornea, lens, and retina. Unlike many other cross-linking agents and/or methods (e.g., excessive vapor phase cross-linking) that may pose a risk of toxicity, our study demonstrated that these nanofibrous materials are well tolerated by anterior segment tissues. These findings also indicate the safety of using ethanol/water co-solvents for chemical cross-linking of gelatin to engineer nanofibrous materials with negligible biological effects. In summary, the present results suggest the importance of solvent-mediated carbodiimide cross-linking in modulating structure

  20. Role of solvent-mediated carbodiimide cross-linking in fabrication of electrospun gelatin nanofibrous membranes as ophthalmic biomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Shih-Feng [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at Tyler, Tyler, TX 75799 (United States); Luo, Li-Jyuan [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 33302, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lai, Jui-Yang, E-mail: jylai@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Institute of Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 33302, Taiwan, ROC (China); Biomedical Engineering Research Center, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 33302, Taiwan, ROC (China); Center for Tissue Engineering, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan 33305, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Ophthalmology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan 33305, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Materials Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, New Taipei City 24301, Taiwan, ROC (China); Ma, David Hui-Kang [Center for Tissue Engineering, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan 33305, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Ophthalmology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan 33305, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Chinese Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 33302, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2017-02-01

    Due to their ability to mimic the structure of extracellular matrix, electrospun gelatin nanofibers are promising cell scaffolding materials for tissue engineering applications. However, the hydrophilic gelatin molecules usually need stabilization before use in aqueous physiological environment. Considering that biomaterials cross-linked via film immersion technique may have a more homogeneous cross-linked structure than vapor phase cross-linking, this work aims to investigate the chemical modification of electrospun gelatin nanofibrous membranes by liquid phase carbodiimide in the presence of ethanol/water co-solvents with varying ethanol concentrations ranging from 80 to 99.5 vol%. The results of characterization showed that increasing water content in the binary reaction solvent system increases the extent of cross-linking of gelatin nanofibers, but simultaneously promotes the effect of biopolymer swelling and distortion in fiber mat structure. As compared to non-cross-linked counterparts, carbodiimide treated gelatin nanofibrous mats exhibited better thermal and biological stability where the shrinkage temperature and resistance to enzymatic degradation varied in response to ethanol/water solvent composition-mediated generation of cross-links. Irrespective of their cross-linking density, all studied membrane samples did not induce any responses in ocular epithelial cell cultures derived from cornea, lens, and retina. Unlike many other cross-linking agents and/or methods (e.g., excessive vapor phase cross-linking) that may pose a risk of toxicity, our study demonstrated that these nanofibrous materials are well tolerated by anterior segment tissues. These findings also indicate the safety of using ethanol/water co-solvents for chemical cross-linking of gelatin to engineer nanofibrous materials with negligible biological effects. In summary, the present results suggest the importance of solvent-mediated carbodiimide cross-linking in modulating structure

  1. Molecular contacts for chlorosome envelope proteins revealed by cross-linking studies with chlorosomes from Chlorobium tepidum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hui; Frigaard, Niels-Ulrik; Bryant, Donald A

    2006-01-01

    type and mutants lacking a single chlorosome protein were cross-linked with the zero-length cross-linker 1-ethyl-3-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]carbodiimide (EDC) and analyzed by gel electrophoresis. Similar cross-linking products were observed when the time and temperature were varied or when EDC...... was replaced with glutaraldehyde. Specific interactions between chlorosome proteins in cross-linked products were identified by immunoblotting with polyclonal antibodies raised against recombinant chlorosome proteins. We confirmed these interactions by demonstrating that these products were missing...... in appropriate mutants. Confirming the location of CsmA in the paracrystalline baseplate, cross-linking showed that CsmA forms dimers, trimers, and homomultimers as large as dodecamers and that CsmA directly interacts with the Fenna-Matthews-Olson protein. Cross-linking further suggests that the precursor form...

  2. Impact of styrenic polymer one-step hyper-cross-linking on volatile organic compound adsorption and desorption performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafari, Mohsen; Atkinson, John D

    2018-06-05

    A novel one-step hyper-cross-linking method, using 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE) and 1,6-dichlorohexane (DCH) cross-linkers, expands the micropore volume of commercial styrenic polymers. Performance of virgin and modified polymers was evaluated by measuring hexane, toluene, and methyl-ethyl-ketone (MEK) adsorption capacity, adsorption/desorption kinetics, and desorption efficiency. Hyper-cross-linked polymers have up to 128% higher adsorption capacity than virgin polymers at P/P 0  = 0.05 due to micropore volume increases up to 330%. Improvements are most pronounced with the DCE cross-linker. Hyper-cross-linking has minimal impact on hexane adsorption kinetics, but adsorption rates for toluene and MEK decrease by 6-41%. Desorption rates decreased (3-36%) for all materials after hyper-cross-linking, with larger decreases for DCE hyper-cross-linked polymers due to smaller average pore widths. For room temperature desorption, 20-220% more adsorbate remains in hyper-cross-linked polymers after regeneration compared to virgin materials. DCE hyper-cross-linked polymers have 13-92% more residual adsorbate than DCH counterparts. Higher temperatures were required for DCE hyper-cross-linked polymers to completely desorb VOCs compared to the DCH hyper-cross-linked and virgin counterparts. Results show that the one-step hyper-cross-linking method for modifying styrenic polymers improves adsorption capacity because of added micropores, but decreases adsorption/desorption kinetics and desorption efficiency for large VOCs due to a decrease in average pore width. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Dually cross-linked single network poly(acrylic acid) hydrogels with superior mechanical properties and water absorbency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Ming; Liu, Yi-Tao; Liu, Xiao-Ying; Shi, Fu-Kuan; Zhang, Li-Qin; Zhu, Mei-Fang; Xie, Xu-Ming

    2016-06-28

    Poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) hydrogels with superior mechanical properties, based on a single network structure with dual cross-linking, are prepared by one-pot free radical polymerization. The network structure of the PAA hydrogels is composed of dual cross-linking: a dynamic and reversible ionic cross-linking among the PAA chains enabled by Fe(3+) ions, and a sparse covalent cross-linking enabled by a covalent cross-linker (Bis). Under deformation, the covalently cross-linked PAA chains remain intact to maintain their original configuration, while the Fe(3+)-enabled ionic cross-linking among the PAA chains is broken to dissipate energy and then recombined. It is found that the mechanical properties of the PAA hydrogels are significantly influenced by the contents of covalent cross-linkers, Fe(3+) ions and water, which can be adjusted within a substantial range and thus broaden the applications of the hydrogels. Meanwhile, the PAA hydrogels have excellent recoverability based on the dynamic and reversible ionic cross-linking enabled by Fe(3+) ions. Moreover, the swelling capacity of the PAA hydrogels is as high as 1800 times in deionized water due to the synergistic effects of ionic and covalent cross-linkings. The combination of balanced mechanical properties, efficient recoverability, high swelling capacity and facile preparation provides a new method to obtain high-performance hydrogels.

  4. Cross-linked polyelectrolyte multilayers for marine antifouling applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, X.; Janczewski, D.; Lee, S.S.C.; Teo, S.L-M.; Vancso, Gyula J.

    2013-01-01

    A polyionic multilayer film was fabricated by layer-by-layer (LbL) sequential deposition followed by cross-linking under mild conditions on a substrate surface to inhibit marine fouling. A novel polyanion, featuring methyl ester groups for an easy cross-linking was used as a generic solution for

  5. Hydrogels Prepared from Cross-Linked Nanofibrillated Cellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandeep S. Nair; J.Y. Zhu; Yulin Deng; Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2014-01-01

    Nanocomposite hydrogels were developed by cross-linking nanofibrillated cellulose with poly(methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic acid) and polyethylene glycol. The cross-linked hydrogels showed enhanced water absorption and gel content with the addition of nanocellulose. In addition, the thermal stability, mechanical strength, and modulus increased with an increase in the...

  6. Improvement of the cycling performance of LiCoO2 with assistance of cross-linked PAN for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xinhe; Shen, Lanyao; Wu, Bin; Zuo, Zicheng; Mu, Daobin; Wu, Borong; Zhou, Henghui

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Cross-linked PAN coating was prepared without damaging the surface of LiCoO 2 . • The coating layer owns good electronic conductivity and mechanical strength. • The cross-linked PAN coating layer is more sufficient than Al 2 O 3 coating. • It shows much improved cyclability than that of bare and Al 2 O 3 coated LiCoO 2 . - Abstract: LiCoO 2 has been widely used in lithium ion batteries for digital electronic products. However, the limited cycling performance under high cut-off voltage hinders its commercial application. Many metal oxides and/or phosphorus coating have been reported to improve the cycling performance of LiCoO 2 . In this paper, we report on cross-linked PAN coated LiCoO 2 composite as a cathode material for lithium ion batteries. The coating layer was obtained by intermolecular crosslinking of PAN polymer chain by heat treatment at high temperature in air. The air heating process avoids the possible damage arising from the carbon thermal reduction to the surface structure of LiCoO 2 . Electrochemical test indicates that the LiCoO 2 with the cross-linked PAN coating layer shows much improved cycle performance compared with that of bare and Al 2 O 3 coated LiCoO 2 . These findings might also open new avenues to explore polymer coating for other cathode materials of lithium ion batteries

  7. Cross-linked hyaluronic acid in pressure ulcer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beniamino, P; Vadalà, M; Laurino, C

    2016-07-02

    Long-term bedridden patients are at high risk of acquring pressure ulcers (PUs). In this group of patients, prevention is necessary to cut the health costs, improve quality of life and reduce the mortality. Here, we evaluated the effectiveness of a cross-linked hyaluronic acid (HA) as plastic bulking-agent filling and remodelling the deep dermis and subcutaneous space of the skin areas exposed to the risk of necrosis. Our work hypothesis has been to inflate a sub-dermal elastic cushion, filled with a natural ECM component, with the aim to induce a stronger tissue background resistant to the ulcerative process. All the patients had an increased risk of PUs, at the sacral, ileum or heel skin. Patients were being nursed accordingly to the standard orthopaedic ward management with a pressure relieveing air mattress. The standard protocol consisted in body mobilisation every 3 hours, 24 hours a day and accurate cleaning of the skin with liquid soap and water without any towel friction and without adding any cream or lotion for the skin protection. Our filling protocol enclosed: accurate disinfection of the skin to be injected with povidone-iodine solution, followed by a local anaesthesia with 28G 13 mm needle, injecting 1.5 ml of 1% xylocaine. Then slow, deep, subcutaneous injection of cross-linked HA was performed with a 18G long needle, in order to deliver a homogeneous, soft gel layer underneath and around the whitish erythematous skin edges at risk of ulceration. Patients' tolerability of the compound and adverse events were also recorded. There were 15 patients (78-94 years old) who participated in the study. All tolerated the procedure very well and no serious side effects were declared. No skin pressure ulceration was detected in the four weeks follow-up Conclusion: We have demonstrated the safety and tolerability of a cross-linked HA subdermal injection in PUs prevention. The compound stratifies in a soft, elastic, interstitial bulk into the deep dermis, thus

  8. DNA oligonucleotide duplexes containing intramolecular platinated cross-links: energetics, hydration, sequence, and ionic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankia, Besik I; Soto, Ana Maria; Burns, Nicole; Shikiya, Ronald; Tung, Chang-Shung; Marky, Luis A

    2002-11-05

    The anticancer activity of cisplatin arises from its ability to bind covalently to DNA, forming primarily intrastrand cross-links to adjacent purine residues; the most common adducts involve d(GpG) (65%) and d(ApG) (25%) intrastrand cross-links. The incorporation of these platinum adducts in a B-DNA helix induces local distortions, causing bending and unwinding of the DNA. In this work, we used temperature-dependent UV spectroscopy to investigate the unfolding thermodynamics, and associated ionic effects, of two sets of DNA decamer duplexes containing either cis-[Pt(NH(3))(2)[d(GpG

  9. Radiation cross-linking of PTC conductive polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doljack, F.A.; Jacobs, S.M.; Taylor, J.M.; McTavish, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    An electrical device comprising a PTC conductive polymer is irradiated so that it is very highly cross-linked. A dosage of at least 50 Mrads, preferably at least 80 Mrads, especially at least 120 Mrads is used except that where the device includes planar electrodes which are present during irradiation the minimum dose is 120 Mrads. In this way, for example, it is possible to make a circuit protection device which will continue to provide effective protection even after repeated exposure to a voltage of 200 volts. A PTC protection device may be produced by moulding carbon loaded polymer round three electrodes the centre one of which is then removed to leave an aperture between the other two electrodes. (author)

  10. Radiation cross-linked collagen/dextran dermal scaffolds: effects of dextran on cross-linking and degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaqing; Zhang, Xiangmei; Xu, Ling; Wei, Shicheng; Zhai, Maolin

    2015-01-01

    Ionizing radiation effectively cross-links collagen into network with enhanced anti-degradability and biocompatibility, while radiation-cross-linked collagen scaffold lacks flexibility, satisfactory surface appearance, and performs poor in cell penetration and ingrowth. To make the radiation-cross-linked collagen scaffold to serve as an ideal artificial dermis, dextran was incorporated into collagen. Scaffolds with the collagen/dextran (Col/Dex) ratios of 10/0, 7/3, and 5/5 were fabricated via (60)Co γ-irradiation cross-linking, followed by lyophilization. The morphology, microstructure, physicochemical, and biological properties were investigated. Compared with pure collagen, scaffolds with dextran demonstrated more porous appearance, enhanced hydrophilicity while the cross-linking density was lower with the consequence of larger pore size, higher water uptake, as well as reduced stiffness. Accelerated degradation was observed when dextran was incorporated in both the in vitro and in vivo assays, which led to earlier integration with cell and host tissue. The effect of dextran on degradation was ascribed to the decreased cross-linking density, looser microstructure, more porous and hydrophilic surface. Considering the better appearance, softness, moderate degradation rate due to controllable cross-linking degree and good biocompatibility as well, radiation-cross-linked collagen/dextran scaffolds are expected to serve as promising artificial dermal substitutes.

  11. High temperature refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steyert, W.A. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A high temperature magnetic refrigerator is described which uses a Stirling-like cycle in which rotating magnetic working material is heated in zero field and adiabatically magnetized, cooled in high field, then adiabatically demagnetized. During this cycle the working material is in heat exchange with a pumped fluid which absorbs heat from a low temperature heat source and deposits heat in a high temperature reservoir. The magnetic refrigeration cycle operates at an efficiency 70% of Carnot

  12. Dehydration of an ethanol/water azeotrope through alginate-DNA membranes cross-linked with metal ions by pervaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uragami, Tadashi; Banno, Masashi; Miyata, Takashi

    2015-12-10

    To obtain high dehydration membranes for an ethanol/water azeotrope, dried blend membranes prepared from mixtures of sodium alginate (Alg-Na) and sodium deoxyribonucleate (DNA-Na) were cross-linked by immersing in a methanol solution of CaCl2 or MaCl2. In the dehydration of an ethanol/water azeotropic mixture by pervaporation, the effects of immersion time in methanol solution of CaCl2 or MaCl2 on the permeation rate and water/ethanol selectivity through Alg-DNA/Ca(2+) and Alg-DNA/Mg(2+) cross-linked membranes were investigated. Alg-DNA/Mg(2+) cross-linked membrane immersed for 12h in methanol solution of MaCl2 exhibited the highest water/ethanol selectivity. This results from depressed swelling of the membranes by formation of a cross-linked structure. However, excess immersion in solution containing cross-linker led to an increase in the hydrophobicity of cross-linked membrane. Therefore, the water/ethanol selectivity of Alg-DNA/Mg(2+) cross-linked membranes with an excess immersion in cross-linking solution was lowered. The relationship between the structure of Alg-DNA/Ca(2+) and Alg-DNA/Mg(2+) cross-linked membranes and their permeation and separation characteristics during pervaporation of an ethanol/water azeotropic mixture is discussed in detail. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. An electron microscopic study of the photochemical cross-linking of DNA in guinea pig epidermis by psoralen derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cech, T.; Pathak, M.A.; Biswas, R.K.

    1979-01-01

    Albino guinea pigs were treated with psoralen derivatives plus 320-400 nm ultraviolet radiation, and DNA was extracted from their epidermis. The DNA was assayed for the presence of interstrand cross-links by standard denaturation-renaturation assays and by a new technique, electron microscopy of the DNA under totally denaturing conditions. The latter method allows individual cross-links to be directly observed and counted. When either 4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen or 8-methoxypsoralen was applied topically to the skin (8-20 μg/cm 2 ) or administered orally (10-12 mg/kg body weight), followed by exposure to 320-400 nm ultraviolet radiation, most of the epidermal DNA was found to contain a high frequency of cross-links. For example, oral or topical trimethylpsoralen treatment gave an average of one cross-link per 250 nucleotide pairs or about 3 . 10 5 cross-links per guinea pig chromosome. When the dose of either drug was decreased 20-fold to the level used in the clinical treatment of psoriasis, however, no cross-links could be detected in the epidermal DNA. The electron microscopic assay is sensitive enough that one can put an upper limit of 1 cross-link per 10 6 nucleotide pairs (80 cross-links per chromosome) for the low dose studies. The significance of these findings to the understanding of the effectiveness of psoralens in psoriasis therapy is discussed. (Auth.)

  14. High-temperature superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynn, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    This book discusses development in oxide materials with high superconducting transition temperature. Systems with Tc well above liquid nitrogen temperature are already a reality and higher Tc's are anticipated. The author discusses how the idea of a room-temperature superconductor appears to be a distinctly possible outcome of materials research

  15. Analysis of glycation induced protein cross-linking inhibitory effects of some antidiabetic plants and spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Handunge Kumudu Irani; Handuwalage, Charith Sandaruwan

    2015-06-09

    Protein cross-linking which occurs towards the latter part of protein glycation is implicated in the development of chronic diabetic complications. Glycation induced protein cross-linking inhibitory effects of nine antidiabetic plants and three spices were evaluated in this study using a novel, simple, electrophoresis based method. Methanol extracts of thirteen plants including nine antidiabetic plants and three spices were used. Lysozyme and fructose were incubated at 37 °C in the presence or absence of different concentrations of plant extracts up to 31 days. Standard glycation inhibitor aminoguanidine and other appropriate controls were included. A recently established sodium dodecyl polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) method was used to detect the products of protein cross-linking in the incubation mixtures. High molecular weight protein products representing the dimer, trimer and tetramer of lysozyme were detected in the presence of fructose. Among the nine antidiabetic plants, seven showed glycation induced protein cross-linking inhibitory effects namely Ficus racemosa (FR) stem bark, Gymnema sylvestre (GS) leaves, Musa paradisiaca (MP) yam, Phyllanthus debilis (PD) whole plant, Phyllanthus emblica (PE) fruit, Pterocarpus marsupium (PM) latex and Tinospora cordifolia (TC) leaves. Inhibition observed with Coccinia grandis (CG) leaves and Strychnos potatorum (SP) seeds were much low. Leaves of Gymnema lactiferum (GL), the plant without known antidiabetic effects showed the lowest inhibition. All three spices namely Coriandrum sativum (CS) seeds, Cinnamomum zeylanicum (CZ) bark and Syzygium aromaticum (SA) flower buds showed cross-link inhibitory effects with higher effects in CS and SA. PD, PE, PM, CS and SA showed almost complete inhibition on the formation of cross-linking with 25 μg/ml extracts. Methanol extracts of PD, PE, PM, CS and SA have shown promising inhibitory effects on glycation induced protein cross-linking.

  16. Sensitizing capacity and allergenicity of enzymatically cross-linked sodium caseinate in comparison to sodium caseinate in a mouse model for cow's milk allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Esch, Betty C A M; Gros-van Hest, Marjan; Westerbeek, Hans; Garssen, Johan

    2013-03-27

    A transglutaminase cross-linked caseinate was designed for use in dairy products to increase the viscosity of food matrices. The difference in structure of cross-linked caseinate might have implications for the risk of developing cow's milk allergy. The sensitizing capacity and the allergenicity (the potency to induce an allergic effector response) of cross-linked sodium caseinate was investigated using a mouse model for cow's milk allergy. Mice were orally sensitized with cross-linked caseinate or caseinate using cholera toxin as adjuvant. Anaphylactic shock reactions, change in body temperature, acute allergic skin response, caseinate-, cross-linked caseinate-IgE and mMCP-1 concentrations were determined after challenge with cross-linked caseinate or caseinate. Sensitization with cross-linked caseinate did not result in anaphylactic shock symptoms, drop in body temperature or release of serum mMCP-1. A tendency toward decreased casein-specific IgE levels was observed. The allergenicity did not differ between both products. These results indicate that in already caseinate-sensitized mice, cross-linked caseinate did not provoke more pronounced allergenic reactions compared to sodium caseinate. On top of that, reduced sensitization to cross-linked caseinate was observed. Cross-linked caseinate might therefore be an interesting new dietary concept for humans at risk for food allergy although more mechanistic studies and clinical trials are needed for validation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Manufacture of polyethylene foam by electron beam cross-linking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamai, Isamu

    1976-01-01

    The manufacturing process of polyethylene foam, comparison between electron beam cross-linking process and chemical cross-linking process, the electron beam irradiation technique for continuous sheets, the characteristics and uses of polyethylene foam are reviewed. The pore diameter can be controlled by selecting the dose rate, because there is strong relationship between the pore diameter and the dose rate. As the dose if higher, the foam becomes finer. The electron accelerators having large capacity show the lowest cost as the radiation source, and are applicable industrially. If the production capacity exceeds about 200 tons per month, the costs of electron beam irradiation process may be more advantageous than that of chemical process according to the circumstances. It is difficult to obtain the uniform distribution of absorption dose in the direction of thickness. General characteristics of cross-linked polyethylene foam are listed. The special feature of electron beam process is that the degree of cross-linking can be controlled arbitrarily before foaming. The products obtained by the electron beam cross-linking process have finer foams and smoother surfaces than those obtained by the chemical process, because the separation of the decomposition of foaming agents from that of cross-linking agents in the chemical cross-linking is difficult. (Iwakiri, K.)

  18. Highly efficient high temperature electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauch, Anne; Ebbesen, Sune; Jensen, Søren Højgaard

    2008-01-01

    High temperature electrolysis of water and steam may provide an efficient, cost effective and environmentally friendly production of H-2 Using electricity produced from sustainable, non-fossil energy sources. To achieve cost competitive electrolysis cells that are both high performing i.e. minimum...... internal resistance of the cell, and long-term stable, it is critical to develop electrode materials that are optimal for steam electrolysis. In this article electrolysis cells for electrolysis of water or steam at temperatures above 200 degrees C for production of H-2 are reviewed. High temperature...... electrolysis is favourable from a thermodynamic point of view, because a part of the required energy can be supplied as thermal heat, and the activation barrier is lowered increasing the H-2 production rate. Only two types of cells operating at high temperature (above 200 degrees C) have been described...

  19. Current status of accelerated corneal cross-linking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Mrochen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Corneal cross-linking with riboflavin is a technique to stabilize or reduce corneal ectasia, in diseases such as keratoconus and post-laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK ectasia. There is an interest by patient as well as clinicians to reduce the overall treatment time. Especially, the introduction of corneal cross-linking in combination with corneal laser surgery demands a shorter treatment time to assure a sufficient patient flow. The principles and techniques of accelerated corneal cross-linking is discussed.

  20. Surface characteristics determining the cell compatibility of ionically cross-linked alginate gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida-Sano, Ikuko; Hirakawa, Makoto; Matsumoto, Hiroki; Kamada, Mitsuki; Ogawa, Sakito; Satoh, Nao; Namiki, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    In this study we investigated differences in the characteristics determining the suitability of five types of ion (Fe 3+ , Al 3+ , Ca 2+ , Ba 2+ and Sr 2+ )-cross-linked alginate films as culture substrates for cells. Human dermal fibroblasts were cultured on each alginate film to examine the cell affinity of the alginates. Since cell behavior on the surface of a material is dependent on the proteins adsorbed to it, we investigated the protein adsorption ability and surface features (wettability, morphology and charge) related to the protein adsorption abilities of alginate films. We observed that ferric, aluminum and barium ion-cross-linked alginate films supported better cell growth and adsorbed higher amounts of serum proteins than other types. Surface wettability analysis demonstrated that ferric and aluminum ion-cross-linked alginates had moderate hydrophilic surfaces, while other types showed highly hydrophilic surfaces. The roughness was exhibited only on barium ion-cross-linked alginate surface. Surface charge measurements revealed that alginate films had negatively charged surfaces, and showed little difference among the five types of gel. These results indicate that the critical factors of ionically cross-linked alginate films determining the protein adsorption ability required for their cell compatibility may be surface wettability and morphology. (paper)

  1. Mechanical Strength Improvements of Carbon Nanotube Threads through Epoxy Cross-Linking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingyue Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Individual Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs have a great mechanical strength that needs to be transferred into macroscopic fiber assemblies. One approach to improve the mechanical strength of the CNT assemblies is by creating covalent bonding among their individual CNT building blocks. Chemical cross-linking of multiwall CNTs (MWCNTs within the fiber has significantly improved the strength of MWCNT thread. Results reported in this work show that the cross-linked thread had a tensile strength six times greater than the strength of its control counterpart, a pristine MWCNT thread (1192 MPa and 194 MPa, respectively. Additionally, electrical conductivity changes were observed, revealing 2123.40 S·cm−1 for cross-linked thread, and 3984.26 S·cm−1 for pristine CNT thread. Characterization suggests that the obtained high tensile strength is due to the cross-linking reaction of amine groups from ethylenediamine plasma-functionalized CNT with the epoxy groups of the cross-linking agent, 4,4-methylenebis(N,N-diglycidylaniline.

  2. Polymeric micelles with ionic cores containing biodegradable cross-links for delivery of chemotherapeutic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Oh; Sahay, Gaurav; Kabanov, Alexander V; Bronich, Tatiana K

    2010-04-12

    Novel functional polymeric nanocarriers with ionic cores containing biodegradable cross-links were developed for delivery of chemotherapeutic agents. Block ionomer complexes (BIC) of poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(methacylic acid) (PEO-b-PMA) and divalent metal cations (Ca(2+)) were utilized as templates. Disulfide bonds were introduced into the ionic cores by using cystamine as a biodegradable cross-linker. The resulting cross-linked micelles with disulfide bonds represented soft, hydrogel-like nanospheres and demonstrated a time-dependent degradation in the conditions mimicking the intracellular reducing environment. The ionic character of the cores allowed to achieve a very high level of doxorubicin (DOX) loading (50% w/w) into the cross-linked micelles. DOX-loaded degradable cross-linked micelles exhibited more potent cytotoxicity against human A2780 ovarian carcinoma cells as compared to micellar formulations without disulfide linkages. These novel biodegradable cross-linked micelles are expected to be attractive candidates for delivery of anticancer drugs.

  3. Improvement on Physical Properties of Pullulan Films by Novel Cross-Linking Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chieh-Ting; Chen, Kuan-I; Chiang, Hsin-Han; Chen, Yu-Kuo; Cheng, Kuan-Chen

    2017-01-01

    Pullulan based films possess several advantages, including high transparency, low toxicity, good biodegradability, good mechanical properties, and low oxygen permeability, are preferable for food packaging. The application of pullulan films on food packaging, however, has inherent disadvantage of high water solubility. In this study, glutaraldehyde and glycerol were used as the cross-linking reagent and the plasticizer respectively to improve water resistance and physical properties of the pullulan films. Effects of cross-linking degree on physical properties, including water absorptions, swelling behaviors, water vapor permeability and tensile strengths of films were evaluated. FTIR results demonstrated that the pullulan films were successfully cross-linked by glutaraldehyde. The tensile strength of pullulan films could be enhanced significantly (P permeability. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  4. 21 CFR 177.1211 - Cross-linked polyacrylate copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1211 Cross-linked polyacrylate... shall be determined using size exclusion chromatography or an equivalent method. When conducting the...

  5. Photoreactivities and thermal properties of psoralen cross-links

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeung, A.T.; Jones, B.K.; Chu, C.T.

    1988-01-01

    The authors have studied the photoreaction of 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP), 4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen (TMP), and 4'-(hydroxymethyl)-4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen (HMT) with a pair of 18-base-long oligonucleotides in which a 14-base region is complementary. Only one 5'TpA site, favored for both monoadduct and cross-link formation with psoralen, is present in this oligonucleotide pair. They have used this model system to demonstrate, for the first time, strand specificity in the photoreaction of psoralen with DNA. They found that the two types of cross-links which form at this site have large differences in thermal stabilities. In addition, the denaturation of each cross-links isomer duplex occurred in at least three stages, which can be visualized as three bands in thermal equilibrium under the conditions of a denaturing polyacrylamide gel. This novel observation suggests that there are several domains differing in thermal stability in a psoralen cross-link

  6. Shaped articles of cross-linked fluorocarbon polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotcher, A.J.; Germeraad, P.B.

    1981-01-01

    A process is described which comprises (1) contacting (a) a shaped article of a polymeric composition wherein the polymer is a fluorocarbon polymer having a melting point of at least 200 0 C, the article having a tensile strength of at least 3,000 psi, with (b) a fluid composition comprising a cross-linking agent, until the article contains at least 2.5% by weight of the cross-linking agent; and (2) irradiating the shaped article with ionising radiation to a dosage not exceeding 50 Mrads under conditions such that the composition is cross-linked sufficiently to impart thereto an M 100 value of at least 300 psi, while maintaining a tensile strength of at least 3000 psi, the shaped article containing a specified proportion of the cross-linking agent. (author)

  7. Formulation and Characterization of Glutaraldehyde Cross-Linked ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... drug/polymer ratio, volume of cross linking agent and volume of surfactant were ... The microspheres were characterized for entrapment efficiency, drug loading, ... size distribution (105 – 219 μm) and an entrapment efficiency of up to 73 %.

  8. Covalently cross-linked polyetheretherketone proton exchange membrane for DMFC

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Luo, H

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available -7 cm2/s) and good electrochemical stability. The results suggested that cross-linked polyetheretherketone membrane is particularly promising to be used as proton exchange membrane for the direct methanol fuel cell application....

  9. Donor cross-linking for keratoplasty: a laboratory evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Achyut; Hayes, Sally; Aslanides, Ioannis; Lanchares, Elena; Meek, Keith M

    2015-12-01

    This laboratory-based investigation compares the topographic outcomes of conventional penetrating keratoplasty with that of a novel procedure in which donor corneas are cross-linked prior to keratoplasty. Penetrating keratoplasty procedures with continuous running sutures were carried out in a porcine whole globe model. Sixty eyes were randomly paired as 'donor' and 'host' tissue before being assigned to one of two groups. In the cross-linked group, donor corneas underwent riboflavin/UVA cross-linking prior to being trephined and sutured to untreated hosts. In the conventional keratoplasty group, both host and donor corneas remained untreated prior to keratoplasty. Topographic and corneal wavefront measurements were performed following surgery, and technical aspects of the procedure evaluated. Mean keratometric astigmatism was significantly lower in the cross-linked donor group at 3.67D (SD 1.8 D), vs. 8.43 D (SD 2.4 D) in the conventional keratoplasty group (p < 0.005). Mean wavefront astigmatism was also significantly reduced in the cross-linked donor group 4.71 D (SD 2.1) vs. 8.29D (SD 3.6) in the conventional keratoplasty group (p < 0.005). Mean RMS higher order aberration was significantly lower in the cross-linked donor group at 1.79 um (SD 0.98), vs. 3.05 um (SD 1.9) in the conventional keratoplasty group (P = 0.02). Qualitative analysis revealed less tissue distortion at the graft-host junction in the cross-linked group. Cross-linking of donor corneas prior to keratoplasty reduces intraoperative induced astigmatism and aberrations in an animal model. Further studies are indicated to evaluate the implications of this potential modification of keratoplasty surgery.

  10. In vitro calcification and in vivo biocompatibility of the cross-linked polypentapeptide of elastin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, S.A.; Lemons, J.E.; Prasad, K.U.; Urry, D.W.

    1986-01-01

    The in vitro calcifiability and molecular weight dependence of calcification of the polypentapeptide, (L X Val1-L X Pro2-Gly3-L X Val4-Gly5)n, which had been gamma-irradiation cross-linked have been determined when exposed to dialyzates of normal, nonaugmented fetal bovine serum. The material was found to calcify: calcifiability was found to be highly molecular weight dependent and to be most favored when the highest molecular weight polymers (n approximately equal to 240) had been used for cross-linking. The in vivo biocompatibility, biodegradability, and calcifiability of the gamma-irradiation cross-linked polypentapeptide were examined in rabbits in both soft and hard tissue sites. The material was found to be biocompatible irrespective of its physical form and to be biodegradable but with n of 200 or less it was not shown to calcify or ossify in the rabbit tibial nonunion model

  11. Physical and mechanical properties of gamma radiation cross-linked polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Maria E.; Romero, G.; Smolko, Eduardo E.

    1999-01-01

    Granulated LDPE 2003 polyethylene was extruded and irradiated under nitrogen with 150, 200 and 300 kGy gamma rays doses to produce cross-linking. The study of the physical and mechanical properties shows that the product has a high degree of molecular cross-linking, can be heated up to 200 C for 2 hours without deformation and that the mechanical properties improve. Preliminary aging tests indicate that after heating at 60 C for 4 weeks no physical or mechanical deterioration can be observed. (author)

  12. High temperature battery. Hochtemperaturbatterie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulling, M.

    1992-06-04

    To prevent heat losses of a high temperature battery, it is proposed to make the incoming current leads in the area of their penetration through the double-walled insulating housing as thermal throttle, particularly spiral ones.

  13. High temperature structural silicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovic, J.J.

    1997-01-01

    Structural silicides have important high temperature applications in oxidizing and aggressive environments. Most prominent are MoSi 2 -based materials, which are borderline ceramic-intermetallic compounds. MoSi 2 single crystals exhibit macroscopic compressive ductility at temperatures below room temperature in some orientations. Polycrystalline MoSi 2 possesses elevated temperature creep behavior which is highly sensitive to grain size. MoSi 2 -Si 3 N 4 composites show an important combination of oxidation resistance, creep resistance, and low temperature fracture toughness. Current potential applications of MoSi 2 -based materials include furnace heating elements, molten metal lances, industrial gas burners, aerospace turbine engine components, diesel engine glow plugs, and materials for glass processing

  14. Nitric oxide-induced interstrand cross-links in DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Jennifer L; Wishnok, John S; Tannenbaum, Steven R

    2003-05-01

    The DNA damaging effects of nitrous acid have been extensively studied, and the formation of interstrand cross-links have been observed. The potential for this cross-linking to occur through a common nitrosating intermediate derived from nitric oxide is investigated here. Using a HPLC laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) system, the amount of interstrand cross-link formed on nitric oxide treatment of the 5'-fluorescein-labeled oligomer ATATCGATCGATAT was determined. This self-complimentary sequence contains two 5'-CG sequences, which is the preferred site for nitrous acid-induced cross-linking. Nitric oxide was delivered to an 0.5 mM oligomer solution at 15 nmol/mL/min to give a final nitrite concentration of 652 microM. The resulting concentration of the deamination product, xanthine, in this sample was found to be 211 +/- 39 nM, using GC/MS, and the amount of interstrand cross-link was determined to be 13 +/- 2.5 nM. Therefore, upon nitric oxide treatment, the cross-link is found at approximately 6% of the amount of the deamination product. Using this system, detection of the cross-link is also possible for significantly lower doses of nitric oxide, as demonstrated by treatment of the same oligomer with NO at a rate of 18 nmol/mL/min resulting in a final nitrite concentration of 126 microM. The concentration of interstrand cross-link was determined to be 3.6 +/- 0.1 nM in this sample. Therefore, using the same dose rate, when the total nitric oxide concentration delivered drops by a factor of approximately 5, the concentration of cross-link drops by a factor of about 4-indicating a qausi-linear response. It may now be possible to predict the number of cross-links in a small genome based on the number of CpG sequences and the yield of xanthine derived from nitrosative deamination.

  15. Optimization of Formaldehyde Cross-Linking for Protein Interaction Analysis of Non-Tagged Integrin β1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordula Klockenbusch

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Formaldehyde cross-linking of protein complexes combined with immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry analysis is a promising technique for analysing protein-protein interactions, including those of transient nature. Here we used integrin β1 as a model to describe the application of formaldehyde cross-linking in detail, particularly focusing on the optimal parameters for cross-linking, the detection of formaldehyde cross-linked complexes, the utility of antibodies, and the identification of binding partners. Integrin β1 was found in a high molecular weight complex after formaldehyde cross-linking. Eight different anti-integrin β1 antibodies were used for pull-down experiments and no loss in precipitation efficiency after cross-linking was observed. However, two of the antibodies could not precipitate the complex, probably due to hidden epitopes. Formaldehyde cross-linked complexes, precipitated from Jurkat cells or human platelets and analyzed by mass spectrometry, were found to be composed of integrin β1, α4 and α6 or β1, α6, α2, and α5, respectively.

  16. Optimization of Formaldehyde Cross-Linking for Protein Interaction Analysis of Non-Tagged Integrin β1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klockenbusch, Cordula; Kast, Juergen

    2010-01-01

    Formaldehyde cross-linking of protein complexes combined with immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry analysis is a promising technique for analysing protein-protein interactions, including those of transient nature. Here we used integrin β1 as a model to describe the application of formaldehyde cross-linking in detail, particularly focusing on the optimal parameters for cross-linking, the detection of formaldehyde cross-linked complexes, the utility of antibodies, and the identification of binding partners. Integrin β1 was found in a high molecular weight complex after formaldehyde cross-linking. Eight different anti-integrin β1 antibodies were used for pull-down experiments and no loss in precipitation efficiency after cross-linking was observed. However, two of the antibodies could not precipitate the complex, probably due to hidden epitopes. Formaldehyde cross-linked complexes, precipitated from Jurkat cells or human platelets and analyzed by mass spectrometry, were found to be composed of integrin β1, α4 and α6 or β1, α6, α2, and α5, respectively. PMID:20634879

  17. Improved biodegradation of synthetic azo dye by horseradish peroxidase cross-linked on nano-composite support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Huaiyan; Jin, Xinyu; Long, Nengbing; Zhang, Ruifeng

    2017-02-01

    A ZnO nanowires/macroporous SiO 2 composite was used as support to immobilize horseradish peroxidase (HRP) by in-situ cross-linking method. Using diethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (DDE) as a long-chained cross-linker, it was adsorbed on the surface of ZnO nanowires before reaction with HRPs, the resulted composite was quite different from the traditional cross-linking enzyme aggregates (CLEAs) on both structure and catalytic performance. The immobilized HRP showed high activity in the decolorization of azo dyes. The effect of various conditions such as the loading amount of HRP, solution pH, temperature, contact time and concentration of dye were optimized on the decolorization. The decolorization percentage of Acid Blue 113 and Acid black 10 BX reached as high as 95.4% and 90.3%, respectively. The immobilized HRP gave the highest decolorization rate under dye concentration as 50mg/L and reaction time of 35min. The immobilized HRP exhibited much better resistance to temperature and pH inactivation than free HRP. The storage stability and reusability were greatly improved through the immobilization, from the decolorization of Acid blue 113 it was found that 80.4% of initial efficiency retained after incubation at 4°C for 60 days, and that 79.4% of decolorization efficiency retained after 12 cycles reuse. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Design and Preparation of Cross-Linked Polystyrene Nanoparticles for Elastomer Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Lu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cross-linked polystyrene (PS particles in a latex form were synthesized by free radical emulsion polymerization. The nano-PS-filled elastomer composites were prepared by the energy-saving latex compounding method. Results showed that the PS particles took a spherical shape in the size of 40–60 nm with a narrow size distribution, and the glass-transition temperature of the PS nanoparticles increased with the cross-linking density. The outcomes from the mechanical properties demonstrated that when filled into styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR, nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR, and natural rubber (NR, the cross-linked PS nano-particles exhibited excellent reinforcing capabilities in all the three matrices, and the best in the SBR matrix. In comparison with that of the carbon black filled composites, another distinguished advantage of the cross-linked PS particles filled elastomer composites was found to be light weight in density, which could help to save tremendous amount of energy when put into end products.

  19. ROMP-based thermosetting polymers from modified castor oil with various cross-linking agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Rui

    Polymers derived from bio-renewable resources are finding an increase in global demand. In addition, polymers with distinctive functionalities are required in certain advanced fields, such as aerospace and civil engineering. In an attempt to meet both these needs, the goal of this work aims to develop a range of bio-based thermosetting matrix polymers for potential applications in multifunctional composites. Ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP), which recently has been explored as a powerful method in polymer chemistry, was employed as a unique pathway to polymerize agricultural oil-based reactants. Specifically, a novel norbornyl-functionalized castor oil alcohol (NCA) was investigated to polymerize different cross-linking agents using ROMP. The effects of incorporating dicyclopentadiene (DCPD) and a norbornene-based crosslinker (CL) were systematically evaluated with respect to curing behavior and thermal mechanical properties of the polymers. Isothermal differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to investigate the conversion during cure. Dynamic DSC scans at multiple heating rates revealed conversion-dependent activation energy by Ozawa-Flynn-Wall analysis. The glass transition temperature, storage modulus, and loss modulus for NCA/DCPD and NCA/CL copolymers with different cross-linking agent loading were compared using dynamic mechanical analysis. Cross-link density was examined to explain the very different dynamic mechanical behavior. Mechanical stress-strain curves were developed through tensile test, and thermal stability of the cross-linked polymers was evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis to further investigate the structure-property relationships in these systems.

  20. High temperature reaction kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonah, C.D.; Beno, M.F.; Mulac, W.A.; Bartels, D.

    1985-01-01

    During the last year the dependence of the apparent rate of OD + CO on water pressure was measured at 305, 570, 865 and 1223 K. An explanation was found and tested for the H 2 O dependence of the apparent rate of OH(OD) + CO at high temperatures. The isotope effect for OH(D) with CO was determined over the temperature range 330 K to 1225 K. The reason for the water dependence of the rate of OH(OD) + CO near room temperatures has been investigated but no clear explanation has been found. 1 figure

  1. High-temperature superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, V.L.

    1987-07-01

    After a short account of the history of experimental studies on superconductivity, the microscopic theory of superconductivity, the calculation of the control temperature and its possible maximum value are presented. An explanation of the mechanism of superconductivity in recently discovered superconducting metal oxide ceramics and the perspectives for the realization of new high-temperature superconducting materials are discussed. 56 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  2. Development of optimum process for electron beam cross-linking of high density polyethylene thermal energy storage pellets, process scale-up and production of application qualities of material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salyer, I. O.

    1980-01-01

    The electron irradiation conditions required to prepare thermally from stable high density polyethylene (HDPE) were defined. The conditions were defined by evaluating the heat of fusion and the melting temperature of several HDPE specimens. The performance tests conducted on the specimens, including the thermal cycling tests in the thermal energy storage unit are described. The electron beam irradiation tests performed on the specimens, in which the total radiation dose received by the pellets, the electron beam current, the accelerating potential, and the atmospheres were varied, are discussed.

  3. High temperature pipeline design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenslade, J.G. [Colt Engineering, Calgary, AB (Canada). Pipelines Dept.; Nixon, J.F. [Nixon Geotech Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Dyck, D.W. [Stress Tech Engineering Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    It is impractical to transport bitumen and heavy oil by pipelines at ambient temperature unless diluents are added to reduce the viscosity. A diluted bitumen pipeline is commonly referred to as a dilbit pipeline. The diluent routinely used is natural gas condensate. Since natural gas condensate is limited in supply, it must be recovered and reused at high cost. This paper presented an alternative to the use of diluent to reduce the viscosity of heavy oil or bitumen. The following two basic design issues for a hot bitumen (hotbit) pipeline were presented: (1) modelling the restart problem, and, (2) establishing the maximum practical operating temperature. The transient behaviour during restart of a high temperature pipeline carrying viscous fluids was modelled using the concept of flow capacity. Although the design conditions were hypothetical, they could be encountered in the Athabasca oilsands. It was shown that environmental disturbances occur when the fluid is cooled during shut down because the ground temperature near the pipeline rises. This can change growing conditions, even near deeply buried insulated pipelines. Axial thermal loads also constrain the design and operation of a buried pipeline as higher operating temperatures are considered. As such, strain based design provides the opportunity to design for higher operating temperature than allowable stress based design methods. Expansion loops can partially relieve the thermal stress at a given temperature. As the design temperature increase, there is a point at which above grade pipelines become attractive options, although the materials and welding procedures must be suitable for low temperature service. 3 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs.

  4. Robust cross-links in molluscan adhesive gels: testing for contributions from hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A M; Robinson, T M; Salt, M D; Hamilton, K S; Silvia, B E; Blasiak, R

    2009-02-01

    The cross-linking interactions that provide cohesive strength to molluscan adhesive gels were investigated. Metal-based interactions have been shown to play an important role in the glue of the slug Arion subfuscus (Draparnaud), but other types of interactions may also contribute to the glue's strength and their role has not been investigated. This study shows that treatments that normally disrupt hydrophobic or electrostatic interactions have little to no effect on the slug glue. High salt concentrations and non-ionic detergent do not affect the solubility of the proteins in the glue or the ability of the glue proteins to stiffen gels. In contrast, metal chelation markedly disrupts the gel. Experiments with gel filtration chromatography identify a 40 kDa protein that is a central component of the cross-links in the glue. This 40 kDa protein forms robust macromolecular aggregations that are stable even in the presence of high concentrations of salt, non-ionic detergent, urea or metal chelators. Metal chelation during glue secretion, however, may block some of these cross-links. Such robust, non-specific interactions in an aqueous environment are highly unusual for hydrogels and reflect an intriguing cross-linking mechanism.

  5. Effects of cross-linking modification with phosphoryl chloride (POCl3 on pysiochemical properties of barely starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Malekpour

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Chemical methods are one of the comon method in starch modification. This study aimed at investigating of cross-link affection of phosphoryl chloride with two different levels 0.5 and 1g.kg-1 in order to enhance funciotnal proeprties and physiochemical changes on extracted starch from barely variety Bahman which cultivates in Chahr-Mahal Bakhtiari Province of Iran. Obtained results indicated that cross-linking leads to reduce sweeling power of strach granuls compred to natural starch and the amount of reduciton increase via the substitituin level. Powerfull cross-linkingnetween starch chains casue more resistance of granules to seweeling which is increased by means of cross-linking dgree. Additioally,  investigationresults from synersis revealed that releasing water percentage in cross-linked starches increase in comparison to natural starches and this amount depends onthe amount of cross-link surface with a significantly difference in (α <0.05. Gelatinization temperature in both levels negligibly increased by modification where in low level of cross-linking was more. Furthermoe evaluating gelation temperatures of both natural and cross-linked modified starches showed that addition of phosphate groups in starch and creating extra coovalent bonds make granues more compressed reulting in slight increase of To, Tp, Tcin barely starch. Icreasing of temperature observed more in less concentration of cross-links. Evaluation of viscosity changes also revealed that this modification depending on increasing the amount of Phosphoryl Chloride led to increasing peak temperature, diminish peak and setback viscosity. Result also exhibited that in morphological level, cross-link causes to incidence changes in particles' diameter size. The comparison of diameter average and frequency between natural starch and cross-links starch exhibited that in cross-linkd treatment with 0.5% phosphoryl chloride, increase in frequency of granules with diameter of 6 - 10µm

  6. Synthesis and Properties of Cross-Linked Polyamide Aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jarrod C.; Meador, Mary Ann; McCorkle, Linda

    2015-01-01

    We report the first synthesis of cross-linked polyamide aerogels through step growth polymerization using a combination of diamines, diacid chloride and triacid chloride. Polyamide oligomers endcapped with amines are prepared as stable solutions in N-methylpyrrolidinone from several different diamine precursors and 1,3-benzenedicarbonyl dichloride. Addition of 1,3,5-benzenetricarbonyl trichloride yields gels which form in under five minutes according to the scheme shown. Solvent exchange of the gels into ethanol, followed by drying using supercritical CO2 extraction gives colorless aerogels with densities around 0.1 to 0.2 gcm3. Thicker monolithes of the polyamide aerogels are stiff and strong, while thin films of certain formulations are highly flexible, durable, and even translucent. These materials may have use as insulation for deployable space structures, rovers, habitats or extravehicular activity suits as well as in many terrestrial applications. Strucure property relationships of the aerogels, including surface area, mechanical properties, and thermal conductivity will be discussed.

  7. High temperature storage loop :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, David Dennis; Kolb, William J.

    2013-07-01

    A three year plan for thermal energy storage (TES) research was created at Sandia National Laboratories in the spring of 2012. This plan included a strategic goal of providing test capability for Sandia and for the nation in which to evaluate high temperature storage (>650ÀC) technology. The plan was to scope, design, and build a flow loop that would be compatible with a multitude of high temperature heat transfer/storage fluids. The High Temperature Storage Loop (HTSL) would be reconfigurable so that it was useful for not only storage testing, but also for high temperature receiver testing and high efficiency power cycle testing as well. In that way, HTSL was part of a much larger strategy for Sandia to provide a research and testing platform that would be integral for the evaluation of individual technologies funded under the SunShot program. DOEs SunShot program seeks to reduce the price of solar technologies to 6/kWhr to be cost competitive with carbon-based fuels. The HTSL project sought to provide evaluation capability for these SunShot supported technologies. This report includes the scoping, design, and budgetary costing aspects of this effort

  8. High-Temperature Shape Memory Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoonessi, Mitra; Weiss, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    physical conformation changes when exposed to an external stimulus, such as a change in temperature. Such materials have a permanent shape, but can be reshaped above a critical temperature and fixed into a temporary shape when cooled under stress to below the critical temperature. When reheated above the critical temperature (Tc, also sometimes called the triggering or switching temperature), the materials revert to the permanent shape. The current innovation involves a chemically treated (sulfonated, carboxylated, phosphonated, or other polar function group), high-temperature, semicrystalline thermoplastic poly(ether ether ketone) (Tg .140 C, Tm = 340 C) mix containing organometallic complexes (Zn++, Li+, or other metal, ammonium, or phosphonium salts), or high-temperature ionic liquids (e.g. hexafluorosilicate salt with 1-propyl-3- methyl imidazolium, Tm = 210 C) to form a network where dipolar or ionic interactions between the polymer and the low-molecular-weight or inorganic compound forms a complex that provides a physical crosslink. Hereafter, these compounds will be referred to as "additives". The polymer is semicrystalline, and the high-melt-point crystals provide a temporary crosslink that acts as a permanent crosslink just so long as the melting temperature is not exceeded. In this example case, the melting point is .340 C, and the shape memory critical temperature is between 150 and 250 C. PEEK is an engineering thermoplastic with a high Young fs modulus, nominally 3.6 GPa. An important aspect of the invention is the control of the PEEK functionalization (in this example, the sulfonation degree), and the thermal properties (i.e. melting point) of the additive, which determines the switching temperature. Because the compound is thermoplastic, it can be formed into the "permanent" shape by conventional plastics processing operations. In addition, the compound may be covalently cross - linked after forming the permanent shape by S-PEEK by applying ionizing

  9. The mechanism of collagen cross-linking in diabetes: a puzzle nearing resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnier, V M; Glomb, M; Elgawish, A; Sell, D R

    1996-07-01

    Considerable interest has been focused in recent years on the mechanism of collagen cross-linking by high glucose in vitro and in vivo. Experiments in both diabetic humans and in animals have shown that over time collagen becomes less soluble, less digestible by collagenase, more stable to heat-induced denaturation, and more glycated. In addition, collagen becomes more modified by advanced products of the Maillard reaction, i.e., immunoreactive advanced glycation end products and the glycoxidation markers carboxymethyllysine and pentosidine. Mechanistic studies have shown that collagen cross-linking in vitro can be uncoupled from glycation by the use of antioxidants and chelating agents. Experiments in the authors' laboratory revealed that approximately 50% of carboxymethyllysine formed in vitro originates from pathways other than oxidation of Amadori products, i.e., most likely the oxidation of Schiff base-linked glucose. In addition, the increase in thermal stability of rat tail tendons exposed to high glucose in vitro or in vivo was found to strongly depend on H2O2 formation. The final missing piece of the puzzle is that of the structure of the major cross-link. We speculate that it is a nonfluorescent nonultraviolet active cross-link between two lysine residues, which includes a fragmentation product of glucose linked in a nonreducible bond labile to both strong acids and bases.

  10. Application of polymers cross-linked by electron beam irradiation to electric wire industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Eisuke

    1976-01-01

    Applications of the polymers cross-linked by electron beam irradiation to electric wire industry as an example of dully developed utilization are reviewed. The report is divided into five parts, namely 1) radiation sources and irradiation processes, 2) development of crosslinking materials, 3) accumulation of electric charge and accumulation of heat, 4) examples of application, and 5) future prospect. Such a phenomenon as discharge destruction pattern (Lichtenberg figure) must be solved, when cable insulation materials are cross-linked by electron beam irradiation. The measures for preventing the discharge destruction are required, especially when the layers of polyethylene insulation for high voltage cables are irradiated. The accumulation of heat causes the troubles in foaming, degeneration and wire running of high potential cables, when the layers of insulation are thick. Effective promoters for cross-linking must be studied to reduce the radiation dose. The irradiators capable of irradiating wires uniformly are desirable. Electron beam accelerators will be used, as far as the radiation dose of 10 or more Mrad is required for cross-linking irradiation. If the dose of one tenth or less of the above value is required, gamma-ray sources (RI) are rather easily applicable than focused strong beam. The utilization of spent nuclear fuel is desirable. (Iwakiri, K.)

  11. Formaldehyde cross-linking and structural proteomics: Bridging the gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasa, Savita; Ding, Xuan; Kast, Juergen

    2015-11-01

    Proteins are dynamic entities constantly moving and altering their structures based on their functions and interactions inside and outside the cell. Formaldehyde cross-linking combined with mass spectrometry can accurately capture interactions of these rapidly changing biomolecules while maintaining their physiological surroundings. Even with its numerous established uses in biology and compatibility with mass spectrometry, formaldehyde has not yet been applied in structural proteomics. However, formaldehyde cross-linking is moving toward analyzing tertiary structure, which conventional cross-linkers have already accomplished. The purpose of this review is to describe the potential of formaldehyde cross-linking in structural proteomics by highlighting its applications, characteristics and current status in the field. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The effect of pH on hydrolysis, cross-linking and barrier properties of starch barriers containing citric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Erik; Menzel, Carolin; Johansson, Caisa; Andersson, Roger; Koch, Kristine; Järnström, Lars

    2013-11-06

    Citric acid cross-linking of starch for e.g. food packaging applications has been intensely studied during the last decade as a method of producing water-insensitive renewable barrier coatings. We managed to improve a starch formulation containing citric acid as cross-linking agent for industrial paper coating applications by adjusting the pH of the starch solution. The described starch formulations exhibited both cross-linking of starch by citric acid as well as satisfactory barrier properties, e.g. fairly low OTR values at 50% RH that are comparable with EVOH. Furthermore, it has been shown that barrier properties of coated papers with different solution pH were correlated to molecular changes in starch showing both hydrolysis and cross-linking of starch molecules in the presence of citric acid. Hydrolysis was shown to be almost completely hindered at solution pH≥4 at curing temperatures≤105 °C and at pH≥5 at curing temperatures≤150 °C, whereas cross-linking still occurred to some extent at pH≤6.5 and drying temperatures as low as 70 °C. Coated papers showed a minimum in water vapor transmission rate at pH 4 of the starch coating solution, corresponding to the point where hydrolysis was effectively hindered but where a significant degree of cross-linking still occurred. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. High temperature niobium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojcik, C.C.

    1991-01-01

    Niobium alloys are currently being used in various high temperature applications such as rocket propulsion, turbine engines and lighting systems. This paper presents an overview of the various commercial niobium alloys, including basic manufacturing processes, properties and applications. Current activities for new applications include powder metallurgy, coating development and fabrication of advanced porous structures for lithium cooled heat pipes

  14. High Temperature Electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elder, Rachael; Cumming, Denis; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2015-01-01

    High temperature electrolysis of carbon dioxide, or co-electrolysis of carbon dioxide and steam, has a great potential for carbon dioxide utilisation. A solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC), operating between 500 and 900. °C, is used to reduce carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide. If steam is also i...

  15. Cross-linked sulfonated aromatic ionomers via SO2 bridges: Conductivity properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Vona, M. L.; Pasquini, L.; Narducci, R.; Pelzer, K.; Donnadio, A.; Casciola, M.; Knauth, P.

    2013-12-01

    The proton conductivity of SPEEK membranes in situ cross-linked by thermal treatment at 180 °C for various times was investigated by impedance spectroscopy. The conductivity measurements were made on fully humidified membranes between 25 and 65 °C and on membranes exposed to different relative humidity between 80 and 140 °C. The Ionic Exchange Capacity (IEC) was determined by acid-base titration and the water uptake by gravimetry. The proton conductivity was determined as function of temperature, IEC, degree of cross-linking and hydration number. A curve of proton conductivity vs. hydration number allows predicting that in order to reach a value of 0.1 S/cm at 100 °C a hydration number above 20 is necessary. The measured conductivity at this temperature is 0.16 S/cm for a hydration number of 60.

  16. High temperature thermometric phosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Stephen W.; Cates, Michael R.; Boatner, Lynn A.; Gillies, George T.

    1999-03-23

    A high temperature phosphor consists essentially of a material having the general formula LuPO.sub.4 :Dy.sub.(x),Eu.sub.y) wherein: 0.1 wt %.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.20 wt % and 0.1 wt %.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.20 wt %. The high temperature phosphor is in contact with an article whose temperature is to be determined. The article having the phosphor in contact with it is placed in the environment for which the temperature of the article is to be determined. The phosphor is excited by a laser causing the phosphor to fluoresce. The emission from the phosphor is optically focused into a beam-splitting mirror which separates the emission into two separate emissions, the emission caused by the dysprosium dopant and the emission caused by the europium dopent. The separated emissions are optically filtered and the intensities of the emission are detected and measured. The ratio of the intensity of each emission is determined and the temperature of the article is calculated from the ratio of the intensities of the separate emissions.

  17. Rheological Behavior, Granule Size Distribution and Differential Scanning Calorimetry of Cross-Linked Banana (Musa paradisiaca) Starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Santiago, María C.; Maristany-Cáceres, Amira J.; Suárez, Francisco J. García; Bello-Pérez, Arturo

    2008-07-01

    Rheological behavior at 60 °C, granule size distribution and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) tests were employed to study the effect of diverse reaction conditions: adipic acid concentration, pH and temperature during cross-linking of banana (Musa paradisiaca) starch. These properties were determined in native banana starch pastes for the purpose of comparison. Rheological behavior from pastes of cross-linked starch at 60 °C did not show hysteresis, probably due the cross-linkage of starch that avoided disruption of granules, elsewhere, native starch showed hysteresis in a thixotropic loop. All pastes exhibited non-Newtonian shear thinning behavior. In all cases, size distribution showed a decrease in the median diameter in cross-linked starches. This condition produces a decrease in swelling capacity of cross-linked starch. The median diameter decreased with an increase of acid adipic concentration; however, an increase of pH and Temperature produced an increase in this variable. Finally, an increase in gelatinization temperature and entalphy (ΔH) were observed as an effect of cross-linkage. An increase in acid adipic concentration produced an increase in Tonset and a decrease in ΔH. pH and temperature. The cross-linked of banana starch produced granules more resistant during the pasting procedure.

  18. Cross-linking methods of electrospun fibrinogen scaffolds for tissue engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sell, Scott A; Garg, Koyal; McClure, Michael J; Bowlin, Gary L; Francis, Michael P; Simpson, David G

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to enhance the mechanical properties and slow the degradation of an electrospun fibrinogen scaffold, while maintaining the scaffold's high level of bioactivity. Three different cross-linkers were used to achieve this goal: glutaraldehyde vapour, 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) in ethanol and genipin in ethanol. Scaffolds with a fibrinogen concentration of 120 mg ml -1 were electrospun and cross-linked with one of the aforementioned cross-linkers. Mechanical properties were determined through uniaxial tensile testing performed on scaffolds incubated under standard culture conditions for 1 day, 7 days and 14 days. Cross-linked scaffolds were seeded with human foreskin fibroblasts (BJ-GFP-hTERT) and cultured for 7, 14 and 21 days, with histology and scanning electron microscopy performed upon completion of the time course. Mechanical testing revealed significantly increased peak stress and modulus values for the EDC and genipin cross-linked scaffolds, with significantly slowed degradation. However, cross-linking with EDC and genipin was shown to have some negative effect on the bioactivity of the scaffolds as cell migration throughout the thickness of the scaffold was slowed.

  19. Effect of dual modification with hydroxypropylation and cross-linking on physicochemical properties of taro starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Bidyut Jyoti; Sit, Nandan

    2016-04-20

    Dual modification of taro starch by hydroxypropylation and cross-linking was carried out and the properties of the modified starches were investigated. Two different levels of hydroxypropylation (5 and 10%) and cross-linking (0.05 and 0.10%) were used in different sequences. The amylose contents of the starch decreased due to single and dual modification. For the dual-modified starches, the swelling, solubility and clarity was found to increase with level of hydroxypropylation and decrease with level of cross-linking. The freeze-thaw stability of the dual-modified starches was also affected by the sequence of modification. The viscosities of the cross-linked and dual-modified starches were more than native and hydroxypropylated starches. The firmness of the dual-modified starches was also higher than native and single modified starches. The dual-modified starches have benefits of both type of modifications and could be used for specific purposes e.g. food products requiring high viscosity as well as freeze-thaw stability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cross-linked polyethylene does not reduce wear in total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasurt-Bachs, S; Torner, P; Maculé, F; Prats, E; Menéndez-García, F; Ríos-Guillermo, J; Torrents, A

    To compare two different types of inserts: Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) and cross-linked polyethylene with a quantitative and qualitative study of polyethylene wear particles in synovial fluid 3 years after total knee arthroplasty. A prospective, randomized, controlled cohort study with blinded evaluation was carried out on 25 patients undergoing staged bilateral total knee replacement, 6 months apart. Knee arthrocentesis was performed on 12 patients 3 years after surgery, and the polyethylene particles were analyzed. No significant differences were found in the number of particles generated by the two different types of inserts at 3 years from total knee arthroplasty (3,000×: x¯ cross-linked=849.7; x¯ UHMWPE=796.9; P=.63; 20,000×: x¯ cross-linked=66.3; x¯ UHMWPE=73.1; P=.76). Likewise, no differences in the probability of finding elongated (χ 2 =0.19; P=.66) or rounded (χ 2 =1.44; P=.23) particles in both types of inserts were observed. However, the probability of finding fibrillar particles is 3.08 times greater in UHMWPE. Cross-linked polyethylene does not significantly reduce the generation of polyethylene particles in patients with total knee arthroplasty, 3 years after the surgical procedure. Copyright © 2018 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Studies in cross-linking PVC footwear soling compounds using gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, L.I.

    1983-01-01

    Irradiation cross-linking of polymeric materials has been known for some time, but it is only in recent years that it has been put to commercial advantage. Well known uses are the modification of PVC for higher temperature applications. Fundamental studies were carried out on amongst other materials, plasticised PVC compounds for use in cable applications. The results of this work, encouraged the author to investigate cross-linkable PVC in areas such as footwear soling

  2. Ligand-Induced Cross-Linking of Z-Elastin-like Polypeptide-Functionalized E2 Protein Nanoparticles for Enhanced Affinity Precipitation of Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Andrew R; Sun, Qing; Chen, Wilfred

    2017-05-08

    Affinity precipitation is an ideal alternative to chromatography for antibody purification because it combines the high selectivity of an affinity ligand with the operational benefits of precipitation. However, the widespread use of elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) capture scaffolds for antibody purification has been hindered by the high salt concentrations and temperatures necessary for efficient ELP aggregation. In this paper, we employed a tandem approach to enhance ELP aggregation by enlarging the dimension of the capturing scaffold and by creating IgG-triggered scaffold cross-linking. This was accomplished by covalently conjugating the Z-domain-ELP (Z-ELP) capturing scaffold to a 25 nm diameter E2 protein nanocage using Sortase A ligation. We demonstrated the isothermal recovery of IgG in the virtual absence of salt due to the significantly increased scaffold dimension and cross-linking from multivalent IgG-E2 interactions. Because IgG cross-linking is reversible at low pH, it may be feasible to achieve a high yielding IgG purification by isothermal phase separation using a simple pH trigger.

  3. High temperature materials characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Gary L.

    1990-01-01

    A lab facility for measuring elastic moduli up to 1700 C was constructed and delivered. It was shown that the ultrasonic method can be used to determine elastic constants of materials from room temperature to their melting points. The ease in coupling high frequency acoustic energy is still a difficult task. Even now, new coupling materials and higher power ultrasonic pulsers are being suggested. The surface was only scratched in terms of showing the full capabilities of either technique used, especially since there is such a large learning curve in developing proper methodologies to take measurements into the high temperature region. The laser acoustic system does not seem to have sufficient precision at this time to replace the normal buffer rod methodology.

  4. Porous Cross-Linked Polyimide-Urea Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, Mary Ann B. (Inventor); Nguyen, Baochau N. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Porous cross-linked polyimide-urea networks are provided. The networks comprise a subunit comprising two anhydride end-capped polyamic acid oligomers in direct connection via a urea linkage. The oligomers (a) each comprise a repeating unit of a dianhydride and a diamine and a terminal anhydride group and (b) are formulated with 2 to 15 of the repeating units. The subunit was formed by reaction of the diamine and a diisocyanate to form a diamine-urea linkage-diamine group, followed by reaction of the diamine-urea linkage-diamine group with the dianhydride and the diamine to form the subunit. The subunit has been cross-linked via a cross-linking agent, comprising three or more amine groups, at a balanced stoichiometry of the amine groups to the terminal anhydride groups. The subunit has been chemically imidized to yield the porous cross-linked polyimide-urea network. Also provided are wet gels, aerogels, and thin films comprising the networks, and methods of making the networks.

  5. Scleral lens tolerance after corneal cross-linking for keratoconus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Esther Simone; Soeters, Nienke; Tahzib, Nayyirih G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Subjective and objective evaluation of scleral lens tolerance and fitting before and after corneal cross-linking (CXL) for progressive keratoconus. Methods. In this prospective cohort, evaluations were made of 18 unilateral eyes in patients who underwent CXL and had been wearing scleral

  6. Fabrication of chemically cross-linked porous gelatin matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzini, Sabrina; Petrini, Paola; Altomare, Lina; Tanzi, Maria Cristina

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to chemically cross-link gelatin, by reacting its free amino groups with an aliphatic diisocyanate. To produce hydrogels with controllable properties, the number of reacting amino groups was carefully determined. Porosity was introduced into the gelatin-based hydrogels through the lyophilization process. Porous and non-porous matrices were characterized with respect to their chemical structure, morphology, water uptake and mechanical properties. The physical, chemical and mechanical properties of the porous matrices are related to the extent of their cross-linking, showing that they can be controlled by varying the reaction parameters. Water uptake values (24 hours) vary between 160% and 200% as the degree of cross-linking increases. The flexibility of the samples also decreases by changing the extent of cross-linking. Young's modulus shows values between 0.188 KPa, for the highest degree, and 0.142 KPa for the lowest degree. The matrices are potential candidates for use as tissue-engineering scaffolds by modulating their physical chemical properties according to the specific application.

  7. Chitosan Cross-linked Reconstituted Amniotic Collagen Membrane ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Chitosan Cross-linked Reconstituted Amniotic Collagen Membrane – An Excellent Cell Substratum. The KERATINOCYTE proliferation and Differentiation into multiple layers is due to the presence of type - IV collagen in the amnion. Cultured FIBROBLASTS had good ...

  8. Swelling of cross-linked polymers: interpretations and misinterpretations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dušek, Karel; Dušková-Smrčková, Miroslava

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 254, 20 August (2017), s. 102 ISSN 0065-7727. [ACS National Meeting & Exposition /254./. 20.08.2017-24.08.2017, Washington] Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : swelling * cross-linked polymer Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science

  9. Lactoferrin binding to transglutaminase cross-linked casein micelles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anema, S.G.; de Kruif, C.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073609609

    2012-01-01

    Casein micelles in skim milk were either untreated (untreated milk) or were cross-linked using transglutaminase (TGA-milk). Added lactoferrin (LF) bound to the casein micelles and followed Langmuir adsorption isotherms. The adsorption level was the same in both milks and decreased the micellar zeta

  10. Hyper-cross-linked, hybrid membranes via interfacial polymerization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaijmakers, Michiel

    2015-01-01

    Hyper-cross-linked, hybrid membranes consist of covalent networks of alternating organic and inorganic, or biological groups. This thesis reports on the preparation of such hybrid networks via interfacial polymerization. The structure-property relationships of the hybrid networks depend strongly on

  11. Mechanocatalytic polymerization and cross-linking in a polymeric matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakobs, R.T.M.; Ma, Shuang; Sijbesma, R.P.

    2013-01-01

    A latent olefin metathesis catalyst, bearing two polymeric NHC ligands, was embedded in a semicrystalline polymer matrix containing cyclic olefins. The catalyst was activated by straining the solid material under compression, resulting in polymerization and cross-linking reactions of the monomers in

  12. Radiation cross-linked PVC and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan Junming; Chen Ruyan; Jia Chaoxing; Li Min; Li Chengxin

    1990-04-01

    The radiation cross-linking technique is adopted for improving the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) heat-resistance and reducing its thermocontractibility. For examining its properties a small insulation sheath made from modified PVC material has been tested at 260 0 5 seconds. The results obtained were satisfactory

  13. Cross-Linked Solid Polymer Electrolyte for All-Solid-State Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben youcef, Hicham; Garcia-Calvo, Oihane; Lago, Nerea; Devaraj, Shanmukaraj; Armand, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Semi-interpenetrated network Solid Polymer Electrolytes (SPEs) were fabricated by UV-induced cross-linking of poly(ethyleneglycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) and divinylbenzene (DVB) within a poly(ethyleneoxide) (PEO) matrix (M v = 5 × 10 6 g mol −1 ), comprising lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide salt (LiTFSI), at a molar ratio of EO:Li ∼ 30:1. The influence of the DVB content on the final SPE properties was investigated in detail. An increase of DVB concentration resulted in self-standing polymer electrolytes. The DVB cross-linker incorporation was found to decrease the crystallinity of the PEO matrix from 34% to 23%, with a decrease in the melting temperature (T m ) of the membrane from 50 °C to 34 °C. Moreover, the influence of the DVB concentration on the ionic conductivity was determined for polymer electrolytes with 0, 10, 20 and 45% DVB from room temperature (RT) to 80 °C. The resulting SPEs showed a high electrochemical stability of 4.3 V as well as practical conductivity values exceeding 10 −4 S cm −1 at 70 °C. Cycling performance of these semi-interpenetrated SPE’s have been shown with a Li metal polymer battery and all solid -state Li sulphur battery.

  14. High temperature materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this workshop is to share the needs of high temperature and nuclear fuel materials for future nuclear systems, to take stock of the status of researches in this domain and to propose some cooperation works between the different research organisations. The future nuclear systems are the very high temperature (850 to 1200 deg. C) gas cooled reactors (GCR) and the molten salt reactors (MSR). These systems include not only the reactor but also the fabrication and reprocessing of the spent fuel. This document brings together the transparencies of 13 communications among the 25 given at the workshop: 1) characteristics and needs of future systems: specifications, materials and fuel needs for fast spectrum GCR and very high temperature GCR; 2) high temperature materials out of neutron flux: thermal barriers: materials, resistance, lifetimes; nickel-base metal alloys: status of knowledge, mechanical behaviour, possible applications; corrosion linked with the gas coolant: knowledge and problems to be solved; super-alloys for turbines: alloys for blades and discs; corrosion linked with MSR: knowledge and problems to be solved; 3) materials for reactor core structure: nuclear graphite and carbon; fuel assembly structure materials of the GCR with fast neutron spectrum: status of knowledge and ceramics and cermets needs; silicon carbide as fuel confinement material, study of irradiation induced defects; migration of fission products, I and Cs in SiC; 4) materials for hydrogen production: status of the knowledge and needs for the thermochemical cycle; 5) technologies: GCR components and the associated material needs: compact exchangers, pumps, turbines; MSR components: valves, exchangers, pumps. (J.S.)

  15. High temperature radioisotope capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradshaw, G.B.

    1976-01-01

    A high temperature radioisotope capsule made up of three concentric cylinders, with the isotope fuel located within the innermost cylinder is described. The innermost cylinder has hemispherical ends and is constructed of a tantalum alloy. The intermediate cylinder is made of a molybdenum alloy and is capable of withstanding the pressure generated by the alpha particle decay of the fuel. The outer cylinder is made of a platinum alloy of high resistance to corrosion. A gas separates the innermost cylinder from the intermediate cylinder and the intermediate cylinder from the outer cylinder

  16. Poly(vinylpyridine-co-styrene) based in situ cross-linked gel polymer electrolyte for lithium-ion polymer batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Sijin; Kim, Dong Wook; Lee, Changjin; Lee, Myong-Hoon; Kang, Yongku

    2011-01-01

    A gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) was successfully prepared by means of an in situ cross-linking reaction of poly(2-vinylpyridine-co-styrene) and oligo(ethylene oxide) with epoxide functional groups at 65 °C without using a polymerization initiator. A stable gel polymer electrolyte could be obtained by adding only 1% of a polymer gelator. The ionic conductivity of the GPE containing 99 wt% of liquid electrolyte was measured to be ca. 10 −2 S/cm at the ambient temperature. The ionic conductivity of the resulting GPE was comparable to that of a pure liquid electrolyte. The electrochemical stability window of the prepared gel polymer electrolytes was measured to be 5.2 V. The test cell carried a discharge capacity of 133.2 mAh/g at 0.1 C and showed good cycling performance with negligible capacity fading after the 200th cycle, maintaining 99.5% coulombic efficiency throughout 200 cycles. The resulting gel polymer electrolyte prepared by in situ thermal cross-linking without a polymerization initiator holds promise for application to on the high power lithium-ion polymer batteries.

  17. High-temperature uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timusk, T.

    2005-01-01

    Recent experiments reveal that the mechanism responsible for the superconducting properties of cuprate materials is even more mysterious than we thought. Two decades ago, Georg Bednorz and Alex Mueller of IBM's research laboratory in Zurich rocked the world of physics when they discovered a material that lost all resistance to electrical current at the record temperature of 36 K. Until then, superconductivity was thought to be a strictly low-temperature phenomenon that required costly refrigeration. Moreover, the IBM discovery - for which Bednorz and Mueller were awarded the 1987 Nobel Prize for Physics - was made in a ceramic copper-oxide material that nobody expected to be particularly special. Proposed applications for these 'cuprates' abounded. High-temperature superconductivity, particularly if it could be extended to room temperature, offered the promise of levitating trains, ultra-efficient power cables, and even supercomputers based on superconducting quantum interference devices. But these applications have been slow to materialize. Moreover, almost 20 years on, the physics behind this strange state of matter remains a mystery. (U.K.)

  18. Multi-stimulus-responsive shape-memory polymer nanocomposite network cross-linked by cellulose nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ye; Li, Ying; Yang, Guang; Zheng, Xiaotong; Zhou, Shaobing

    2015-02-25

    In this study, we developed a thermoresponsive and water-responsive shape-memory polymer nanocomposite network by chemically cross-linking cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) with polycaprolactone (PCL) and polyethylene glycol (PEG). The nanocomposite network was fully characterized, including the microstructure, cross-link density, water contact angle, water uptake, crystallinity, thermal properties, and static and dynamic mechanical properties. We found that the PEG[60]-PCL[40]-CNC[10] nanocomposite exhibited excellent thermo-induced and water-induced shape-memory effects in water at 37 °C (close to body temperature), and the introduction of CNC clearly improved the mechanical properties of the mixture of both PEG and PCL polymers with low molecular weights. In addition, Alamar blue assays based on osteoblasts indicated that the nanocomposites possessed good cytocompatibility. Therefore, this thermoresponsive and water-responsive shape-memory nanocomposite could be potentially developed into a new smart biomaterial.

  19. Novel chemically cross-linked solid state electrolyte for dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Xiong; Tan Weiwei; Xiang Wangchun; Lin Yuan; Zhang Jingbo; Xiao Xurui; Li Xueping; Zhou Xiaowen; Fang Shibi

    2010-01-01

    Poly(vinylpyridine-co-ethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate) (P(VP-co-MEOMA)) and α,ω-diiodo poly(ethylene oxide-co-propylene oxide) (I[(EO) 0.8 -co-(PO) 0.2 ] y I) were synthesized and used as chemically cross-linked precursors of the electrolyte for dye-sensitized solar cells. Meanwhile, α-iodo poly(ethylene oxide-co-propylene oxide) methyl ether (CH 3 O[(EO) 0.8 -co-(PO) 0.2 ] x I) was synthesized and added into the electrolyte as an internal plasticizer. Novel polymer electrolyte resulting from chemically cross-linked precursors was obtained by the quaterisation at 90 o C for 30 min. The characteristics for this kind of electrolyte were investigated by means of ionic conductivity, thermogravimetric and photocurrent-voltage. The ambient ionic conductivity was significantly enhanced to 2.3 x 10 -4 S cm -1 after introducing plasticizer, modified-ionic liquid. The weight loss of the solid state electrolyte at 200 o C was 1.8%, and its decomposition temperature was 287 o C. Solid state dye-sensitized solar cell based on chemically cross-linked electrolyte presented an overall conversion efficiency of 2.35% under AM1.5 irradiation (100 mW cm -2 ). The as-fabricated device maintained 88% of its initial performance at room temperature even without sealing for 30 days, showing a good stability.

  20. High Temperature Piezoelectric Drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Shrout, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Venus is one of the planets in the solar systems that are considered for potential future exploration missions. It has extreme environment where the average temperature is 460 deg C and its ambient pressure is about 90 atm. Since the existing actuation technology cannot maintain functionality under the harsh conditions of Venus, it is a challenge to perform sampling and other tasks that require the use of moving parts. Specifically, the currently available electromagnetic actuators are limited in their ability to produce sufficiently high stroke, torque, or force. In contrast, advances in developing electro-mechanical materials (such as piezoelectric and electrostrictive) have enabled potential actuation capabilities that can be used to support such missions. Taking advantage of these materials, we developed a piezoelectric actuated drill that operates at the temperature range up to 500 deg C and the mechanism is based on the Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) configuration. The detailed results of our study are presented in this paper

  1. Conformational analysis of a covalently cross-linked Watson-Crick base pair model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Erik A; Allen, Benjamin D; Kishi, Yoshito; O'Leary, Daniel J

    2008-11-15

    Low-temperature NMR experiments and molecular modeling have been used to characterize the conformational behavior of a covalently cross-linked DNA base pair model. The data suggest that Watson-Crick or reverse Watson-Crick hydrogen bonding geometries have similar energies and can interconvert at low temperatures. This low-temperature process involves rotation about the crosslink CH(2)C(5') (psi) carbon-carbon bond, which is energetically preferred over the alternate CH(2)N(3) (phi) carbon-nitrogen bond rotation.

  2. Conformational Analysis of a Covalently Cross-Linked Watson-Crick Base Pair Model

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Erik A.; Allen, Benjamin D.; Kishi, Yoshito; O'Leary, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    Low temperature NMR experiments and molecular modeling have been used to characterize the conformational behavior of a covalently cross-linked DNA base pair model. The data suggest that Watson-Crick or reverse Watson-Crick hydrogen bonding geometries have similar energies and can interconvert at low temperatures. This low-temperature process involves rotation about the crosslink CH2–C(5′) (ψ) carbon-carbon bond, which is energetically preferred over the alternate CH2–N(3) (ϕ) carbon-nitrogen ...

  3. Investigation of anisotropic thermal transport in cross-linked polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simavilla, David Nieto

    Thermal transport in lightly cross-linked polyisoprene and polybutadine subjected to uniaxial elongation is investigated experimentally. We employ two experimental techniques to assess the effect that deformation has on this class of materials. The first technique, which is based on Forced Rayleigh Scattering (FRS), allows us to measure the two independent components of the thermal diffusivity tensor as a function of deformation. These measurements along with independent measurements of the tensile stress and birefringence are used to evaluate the stress-thermal and stress-optic rules. The stress-thermal rule is found to be valid for the entire range of elongations applied. In contrast, the stress-optic rule fails for moderate to large stretch ratios. This suggests that the degree of anisotropy in thermal conductivity depends on both orientation and tension in polymer chain segments. The second technique, which is based on infrared thermography (IRT), allows us to measure anisotropy in thermal conductivity and strain induced changes in heat capacity. We validate this method measurements of anisotropic thermal conductivity by comparing them with those obtained using FRS. We find excellent agreement between the two techniques. Uncertainty in the infrared thermography method measurements is estimated to be about 2-5 %. The accuracy of the method and its potential application to non-transparent materials makes it a good alternative to extend current research on anisotropic thermal transport in polymeric materials. A second IRT application allows us to investigate the dependence of heat capacity on deformation. We find that heat capacity increases with stretch ratio in polyisoprene specimens under uniaxial extension. The deviation from the equilibrium value of heat capacity is consistent with an independent set of experiments comparing anisotropy in thermal diffusivity and conductivity employing FRS and IRT techniques. We identify finite extensibility and strain

  4. Combination of supramolecular cross-linking with covalent cross-linking through epoxide ring-opening including gel studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmeier, H.; El-Ghayoury, A.; Schubert, U.S.

    2003-01-01

    Terpolymers based on poly(methyl methacrylate), containing terpyridine-moieties as well as epoxide groups, were synthesized via free-radical polymeri-zation. The products were cross-linked non-covalently with iron(II) ions and cova-lently by treatment with AlCl3. Both steps could be combined in

  5. Combination of supramolecular cross-linking with covalent cross-linking through epoxide ring-opening including gel studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmeier, H.; El-Ghayoury, A.; Schubert, U.S.

    2003-01-01

    Terpolymers based on poly(methyl methacrylate), containing terpyridinemoieties as well as epoxide groups, were synthesized via free-radical polymerization. The products were cross-linked non-covalently with iron(II) ions and covalently by treatment with AlCl3. Both steps could be combined in

  6. High temperature materials and mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The use of high-temperature materials in current and future applications, including silicone materials for handling hot foods and metal alloys for developing high-speed aircraft and spacecraft systems, has generated a growing interest in high-temperature technologies. High Temperature Materials and Mechanisms explores a broad range of issues related to high-temperature materials and mechanisms that operate in harsh conditions. While some applications involve the use of materials at high temperatures, others require materials processed at high temperatures for use at room temperature. High-temperature materials must also be resistant to related causes of damage, such as oxidation and corrosion, which are accelerated with increased temperatures. This book examines high-temperature materials and mechanisms from many angles. It covers the topics of processes, materials characterization methods, and the nondestructive evaluation and health monitoring of high-temperature materials and structures. It describes the ...

  7. High temperature superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Paranthaman, Parans

    2010-01-01

    This essential reference provides the most comprehensive presentation of the state of the art in the field of high temperature superconductors. This growing field of research and applications is currently being supported by numerous governmental and industrial initiatives in the United States, Asia and Europe to overcome grid energy distribution issues. The technology is particularly intended for densely populated areas. It is now being commercialized for power-delivery devices, such as power transmission lines and cables, motors and generators. Applications in electric utilities include current limiters, long transmission lines and energy-storage devices that will help industries avoid dips in electric power.

  8. Nanomechanics of layer-by-layer polyelectrolyte complexes: a manifestation of ionic cross-links and fixed charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Biao; Chery, Daphney R; Yin, Jie; Lu, X Lucas; Lee, Daeyeon; Han, Lin

    2016-01-28

    This study investigates the roles of two distinct features of ionically cross-linked polyelectrolyte networks - ionic cross-links and fixed charges - in determining their nanomechanical properties. The layer-by-layer assembled poly(allylamine hydrochloride)/poly(acrylic acid) (PAH/PAA) network is used as the model material. The densities of ionic cross-links and fixed charges are modulated through solution pH and ionic strength (IS), and the swelling ratio, elastic and viscoelastic properties are quantified via an array of atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based nanomechanical tools. The roles of ionic cross-links are underscored by the distinctive elastic and viscoelastic nanomechanical characters observed here. First, as ionic cross-links are highly sensitive to solution conditions, the instantaneous modulus, E0, exhibits orders-of-magnitude changes upon pH- and IS-governed swelling, distinctive from the rubber elasticity prediction based on permanent covalent cross-links. Second, ionic cross-links can break and self-re-form, and this mechanism dominates force relaxation of PAH/PAA under a constant indentation depth. In most states, the degree of relaxation is >90%, independent of ionic cross-link density. The importance of fixed charges is highlighted by the unexpectedly more elastic nature of the network despite low ionic cross-link density at pH 2.0, IS 0.01 M. Here, the complex is a net charged, loosely cross-linked, where the degree of relaxation is attenuated to ≈50% due to increased elastic contribution arising from fixed charge-induced Donnan osmotic pressure. In addition, this study develops a new method for quantifying the thickness of highly swollen polymer hydrogel films. It also underscores important technical considerations when performing nanomechanical tests on highly rate-dependent polymer hydrogel networks. These results provide new insights into the nanomechanical characters of ionic polyelectrolyte complexes, and lay the ground for further

  9. The spectra character of photodegraded the pyridinoline cross-links by Hypocrellin B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jucheng; Chen Rui; Liu Wei; Chen Zhuo; Shu Lidan; Liu Yingji

    2011-01-01

    Pyridinoline cross-links is one of the cross-link formation in collagen which in cell matrix, many research shown that this cross-link cause the fibrosis. Hypocrellin B (HB) is one of the nature photosensitizers, this work investigated the pyridinoline cross-link in collagen was photodegraded by HB. The result shown HB can degrade the pyridinoline cross-link with photo. This is to say, HB may be use as the photodynamic reagent to study the fibrosis.

  10. Dialing in the Ratio of Covalent and Coordination Cross-links in Self-healing Hydrogels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Amanda; Krogsgaard, Marie; Birkedal, Henrik

    ; it is of great interest to control the degree of which these are present; i.e. controlling the degree of catechol oxidation. Here, we report hydrogels in which the catechols participating in reversible (oxidation resistant catechol-analogue6) and irreversible oxidation cross-links are separated, enabling one...... to predefine the ratio of the two by altering the composition. The oxidation-resistant catechol-analogue was grafted onto polyallylamine,4 while the oxidation cross-links are introduced by addition of tannic acid that has the same useful properties as catechols.5,7,8 This affords hydrogels that retain self......-healing abilities even at high pH but that can be stiffened at will by dialing in the required degree of covalent crosslinking. This dial-in method thus harnesses two aspects of catechol-type chemistries to yield double network hydrogels in a straightforward and highly controllable manner....

  11. Novel Magnetic Cross-Linked Cellulase Aggregates with a Potential Application in Lignocellulosic Biomass Bioconversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junqi Jia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of renewable biomass resources to produce high-value chemicals by enzymatic processes is beneficial for alternative energy production, due to the accelerating depletion of fossil fuels. As immobilization techniques can improve enzyme stability and reusability, a novel magnetic cross-linked cellulase aggregate has been developed and applied for biomass bioconversion. The crosslinked aggregates could purify and immobilize enzymes in a single operation, and could then be combined with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs, which provides easy separation of the materials. The immobilized cellulase showed a better activity at a wider temperature range and pH values than that of the free cellulase. After six cycles of consecutive reuse, the immobilized cellulase performed successful magnetic separation and retained 74% of its initial activity when carboxylmethyl cellulose (CMC was used as the model substrate. Furthermore, the structure and morphology of the immobilized cellulase were studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Moreover, the immobilized cellulase was shown to hydrolyze bamboo biomass with a yield of 21%, and was re-used in biomass conversion up to four cycles with 38% activity retention, which indicated that the immobilized enzyme has good potential for biomass applications.

  12. Novel Magnetic Cross-Linked Cellulase Aggregates with a Potential Application in Lignocellulosic Biomass Bioconversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Junqi; Zhang, Weiwei; Yang, Zengjie; Yang, Xianling; Wang, Na; Yu, Xiaoqi

    2017-02-10

    The utilization of renewable biomass resources to produce high-value chemicals by enzymatic processes is beneficial for alternative energy production, due to the accelerating depletion of fossil fuels. As immobilization techniques can improve enzyme stability and reusability, a novel magnetic cross-linked cellulase aggregate has been developed and applied for biomass bioconversion. The crosslinked aggregates could purify and immobilize enzymes in a single operation, and could then be combined with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), which provides easy separation of the materials. The immobilized cellulase showed a better activity at a wider temperature range and pH values than that of the free cellulase. After six cycles of consecutive reuse, the immobilized cellulase performed successful magnetic separation and retained 74% of its initial activity when carboxylmethyl cellulose (CMC) was used as the model substrate. Furthermore, the structure and morphology of the immobilized cellulase were studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, the immobilized cellulase was shown to hydrolyze bamboo biomass with a yield of 21%, and was re-used in biomass conversion up to four cycles with 38% activity retention, which indicated that the immobilized enzyme has good potential for biomass applications.

  13. Azide-based cross-linking of polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIMs) for condensable gas separation

    KAUST Repository

    Du, Naiying; Dal-Cin, Mauro M D; Pinnau, Ingo; Nicalek, Andrzej; Robertson, Gilles P.; Guiver, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Cross-linked polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIM)s for gas separation membranes, were prepared by a nitrene reaction from a representative PIM in the presence of two different diazide cross-linkers. The reaction temperature was optimized using TGA. The homogenous membranes were cast from THF solutions of different ratios of PIM to azides. The resulting cross-linked structures of the PIMs membranes were formed at 175 °C after 7.5 h and confirmed by TGA, XPS, FT-IR spectroscopy and gel content analysis. These resulting cross-linked polymeric membranes showed excellent gas separation performance and can be used for O 2/N 2 and CO 2/N 2 gas pairs, as well as for condensable gases, such as CO 2/CH 4, propylene/propane separation. Most importantly, and differently from typical gas separation membranes derived from glassy polymers, the crosslinked PIMs showed no obvious CO 2 plasticization up to 20 atm pressure of pure CO 2 and CO 2/CH 4 mixtures. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Azide-based cross-linking of polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIMs) for condensable gas separation

    KAUST Repository

    Du, Naiying

    2011-03-11

    Cross-linked polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIM)s for gas separation membranes, were prepared by a nitrene reaction from a representative PIM in the presence of two different diazide cross-linkers. The reaction temperature was optimized using TGA. The homogenous membranes were cast from THF solutions of different ratios of PIM to azides. The resulting cross-linked structures of the PIMs membranes were formed at 175 °C after 7.5 h and confirmed by TGA, XPS, FT-IR spectroscopy and gel content analysis. These resulting cross-linked polymeric membranes showed excellent gas separation performance and can be used for O 2/N 2 and CO 2/N 2 gas pairs, as well as for condensable gases, such as CO 2/CH 4, propylene/propane separation. Most importantly, and differently from typical gas separation membranes derived from glassy polymers, the crosslinked PIMs showed no obvious CO 2 plasticization up to 20 atm pressure of pure CO 2 and CO 2/CH 4 mixtures. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. An atomistic model for cross-linked HNBR elastomers used in seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, Nicola; Sutton, Adrian; Stevens, John; Mostofi, Arash

    2015-03-01

    Hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber (HNBR) is one of the most common elastomeric materials used for seals in the oil and gas industry. These seals sometimes suffer ``explosive decompression,'' a costly problem in which gases permeate a seal at the elevated temperatures and pressures pertaining in oil and gas wells, leading to rupture when the seal is brought back to the surface. The experimental evidence that HNBR and its unsaturated parent NBR have markedly different swelling properties suggests that cross-linking may occur during hydrogenation of NBR to produce HNBR. We have developed a code compatible with the LAMMPS molecular dynamics package to generate fully atomistic HNBR configurations by hydrogenating initial NBR structures. This can be done with any desired degree of cross-linking. The code uses a model of atomic interactions based on the OPLS-AA force-field. We present calculations of the dependence of a number of bulk properties on the degree of cross-linking. Using our atomistic representations of HNBR and NBR, we hope to develop a better molecular understanding of the mechanisms that result in explosive decompression.

  16. High temperature interface superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gozar, A.; Bozovic, I.

    2016-01-01

    Highlight: • This review article covers the topic of high temperature interface superconductivity. • New materials and techniques used for achieving interface superconductivity are discussed. • We emphasize the role played by the differences in structure and electronic properties at the interface with respect to the bulk of the constituents. - Abstract: High-T_c superconductivity at interfaces has a history of more than a couple of decades. In this review we focus our attention on copper-oxide based heterostructures and multi-layers. We first discuss the technique, atomic layer-by-layer molecular beam epitaxy (ALL-MBE) engineering, that enabled High-T_c Interface Superconductivity (HT-IS), and the challenges associated with the realization of high quality interfaces. Then we turn our attention to the experiments which shed light on the structure and properties of interfacial layers, allowing comparison to those of single-phase films and bulk crystals. Both ‘passive’ hetero-structures as well as surface-induced effects by external gating are discussed. We conclude by comparing HT-IS in cuprates and in other classes of materials, especially Fe-based superconductors, and by examining the grand challenges currently laying ahead for the field.

  17. Cross-linked polymeric membranes for carbon dioxide separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Tao; Chatterjee, Sabornie; Mahurin, Shannon Mark; Long, Brian Keith; Jiang, De-en; Mays, Jimmy Wayne; Sokolov, Alexei P.; Saito, Tomonori

    2018-01-23

    A membrane useful in gas separation, the membrane comprising a cross-linked polysiloxane structure having a cross-link density of about 0.1.times.10.sup.-5 mol/cm.sup.3 to about 6.times.10.sup.-5 mol/cm.sup.3, where, in particular embodiments, the cross-linked polysiloxane structure has the following general structure: ##STR00001## wherein R.sup.1, R.sup.2, R.sup.3, R.sup.4, R.sup.5, and R.sup.6 are independently selected from hydrocarbon groups having at least 1 and up to 6 carbon atoms; A.sup.1 and A.sup.2 are independently selected from cyclic hydrocarbon groups; L.sup.1 and L.sup.2 are linking groups or covalent bonds; n is an integer of at least 1; r and s are independently selected from integers of at least 1; and p is an integer of at least 10. The invention also includes methods for making and using the above-described membranes for gas separation.

  18. Chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry as structure determination tools

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, Petr; Giannakopulos, A.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 13, - (2007), s. 105-113 ISSN 1469-0667 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB400200501; GA MŠk LC545 Grant - others:SE(XE) Marie Curie Actions TOK, Contract No. MTKD-CT-2004-014407 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : cross-linking * protein * high order structure Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.198, year: 2007

  19. Procedure for the fabrication of a cross-linked polyester material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Alelio, G.F.

    1972-01-01

    The procedures are described for the production of a cross-linked polyester material by means of the irradiation of a radiosensitive polyester with a dose of over 0.5 megarad and under 8 megarads high energy, ionising radiation, corresponding to at least 100,000 ev. The polyester is of the telomerised diacrylpolyester type, and may be in a mixture containing about 1% of a coplymerisable aliphatic monomer, or about 30-90% of an unsaturated aliphatic alkyd resin. (JIW)

  20. Design of Self-Healing Supramolecular Rubbers by Introducing Ionic Cross-Links into Natural Rubber via a Controlled Vulcanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chuanhui; Cao, Liming; Lin, Baofeng; Liang, Xingquan; Chen, Yukun

    2016-07-13

    Introducing ionic associations is one of the most effective approaches to realize a self-healing behavior for rubbers. However, most of commercial rubbers are nonpolar rubbers without now available functional groups to be converted into ionic groups. In this paper, our strategy was based on a controlled peroxide-induced vulcanization to generate massive ionic cross-links via polymerization of zinc dimethacrylate (ZDMA) in natural rubber (NR) and exploited it as a potential self-healable material. We controlled vulcanization process to retard the formation of covalent cross-link network, and successfully generated a reversible supramolecular network mainly constructed by ionic cross-links. Without the restriction of covalent cross-linkings, the NR chains in ionic supramolecular network had good flexibility and mobility. The nature that the ionic cross-links was easily reconstructed and rearranged facilitating the self-healing behavior, thereby enabling a fully cut sample to rejoin and retain to its original properties after a suitable self-healing process at ambient temperature. This study thus demonstrates a feasible approach to impart an ionic association induced self-healing function to commercial rubbers without ionic functional groups.

  1. Cross Linked Metal Particles for Low Noise Bolometer Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-12

    Our results indicate that the CLMPs can simultaneously have a high temperature coefficient of resistivity and a low noise, and therefore have a...indicate that the CLMPs can simultaneously have a high temperature co- efficient of resistivity and a low noise, and therefore have a great potential...current as a function of the inverse of applied bias for CLMP films at different temperatures. It is seen that the I-V curves are highly nonlinear as 7 0

  2. High temperature metallic recuperator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, M. E.; Solmon, N. G.; Smeltzer, C. E.

    1981-06-01

    An industrial 4.5 MM Btu/hr axial counterflow recuperator, fabricated to deliver 1600 F combustion air, was designed to handle rapid cyclic loading, a long life, acceptable costs, and a low maintenance requirement. A cost benefit anlysis of a high temperature waste heat recovery system utilizing the recurperator and components capable of 1600 F combustion air preheat shows that this system would have a payback period of less than two years. Fifteen companies and industrial associations were interviewed and expressed great interest in recuperation in large energy consuming industries. Determination of long term environmental effects on candidate recuperator tubing alloys was completed. Alloys found to be acceptable in the 2200 F flue gas environment of a steel billet reheat furnace, were identified.

  3. Ionic liquids in a poly ethylene oxide cross-linked gel polymer as an electrolyte for electrical double layer capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudoy, V.; Tran Van, F.; Deschamps, M.; Ghamouss, F.

    2017-02-01

    In the present work, we developed a gel polymer electrolyte via the incorporation of a room temperature ionic liquid into a cross-linked polymer matrix. The cross-linked gel electrolyte was prepared using a free radical polymerization of methacrylate and dimethacrylate oligomers dissolved in 1-propyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide. Combining the advantages of the ionic liquids and of conventional polymers, the cross-linked gel polymer electrolyte was used both as a separator and as an electrolyte for a leakage-free and non-flammable EDLC supercapacitor. The quasi-all solid-state supercapacitors showed rather good capacitance, power and energy densities by comparison to a liquid electrolyte-based EDLC.

  4. High temperature homogenization improves impact toughness of vitamin E-diffused, irradiated UHMWPE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral, Ebru; O'Brien, Caitlin; Doshi, Brinda; Muratoglu, Orhun K

    2017-06-01

    Diffusion of vitamin E into radiation cross-linked ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is used to increase stability against oxidation of total joint implant components. The dispersion of vitamin E throughout implant preforms has been optimized by a two-step process of doping and homogenization. Both of these steps are performed below the peak melting point of the cross-linked polymer (homogenization of antioxidant-doped, radiation cross-linked UHMWPE could improve its toughness. We found that homogenization at 300°C for 8 h resulted in an increase in the impact toughness (74 kJ/m 2 compared to 67 kJ/m 2 ), the ultimate tensile strength (50 MPa compared to 43 MPa) and elongation at break (271% compared to 236%). The high temperature treatment did not compromise the wear resistance or the oxidative stability as measured by oxidation induction time. In addition, the desired homogeneity was achieved at a much shorter duration (8 h compared to >240 h) by using high temperature homogenization. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:1343-1347, 2017. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Adsorption of hexavalent chromium on modified corn stalk using different cross-linking agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Suhong; Zhu, Yi; Han, Zhijun; Feng, Gao; Jia, Yuling; Fu, Kaifang; Yue, Qinyan

    2017-12-01

    In this study, four different types of adsorbents modified from corn stalk were synthesized after the reaction with epichlorohydrin, N,N-dimethylformamide, triethylamine and different cross-linking agents. The surface functional groups and thermal stability of modified corn stalk (MCSs) were characterized using FTIR and TG analysis, respectively. The feasibility of using MCSs to remove Cr(VI) were evaluated. Adsorption isotherms were determined and modeled with Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin equations. The experimental results showed that MCS modified using diethylenetriamine (DETA) had the best modification effect, and the adsorption capacity of Cr(VI) reached as high as 227.27 mg/g at 323 K. Thermodynamic study showed that the Cr(VI) adsorption onto MCSs was endothermic processes. As a result, MCS by using DETA as cross-linking agent has good potential for the removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions.

  6. Cross-linked self-assembled micelle based nanosensor for intracellular pH measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ek, Pramod Kumar; Søndergaard, Rikke Vicki; Windschiegl, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    A micelle based nanosensor was synthesized and investigated as a ratiometric pH sensor for use in measurements in living cells by fluorescent microscopy. The nanosensor synthesis was based on self-assembly of an amphiphilic triblock copolymer, which was chemically cross-linked after micelle......-linked by an amidation reaction using 3,6,9-trioxaundecandioic acid cross-linker. The cross-linked micelle was functionalized with two pH sensitive fluorophores and one reference fluorophore, which resulted in a highly uniform ratiometric pH nanosensor with a diameter of 29 nm. The use of two sensor fluorophores...... provided a sensor with a very broad measurement range that seems to be influenced by the chemical design of the sensor. Cell experiments show that the sensor is capable of monitoring the pH distributions in HeLa cells....

  7. Hydrothermal growth of cross-linked hyperbranched copper dendrites using copper oxalate complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Quang Duc; Kakihana, Masato

    2012-06-01

    A facile and surfactant-free approach has been developed for the synthesis of cross-linked hyperbranched copper dendrites using copper oxalate complex as a precursor and oxalic acid as a reducing and structure-directing agent. The synthesized particles are composed of highly branched nanostructures with unusual cross-linked hierarchical networks. The formation of copper dendrites can be explained in view of both diffusion control and aggregation-based growth model accompanied by the chelation-assisted assembly. Oxalic acid was found to play dual roles as reducing and structure-directing agent based on the investigation results. The understanding on the crystal growth and the roles of oxalic acid provides clear insight into the formation mechanism of hyperbranched metal dendrites.

  8. Glutaraldehyde cross-linking of amniotic membranes affects their nanofibrous structures and limbal epithelial cell culture characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jui-Yang; Ma, David Hui-Kang

    2013-01-01

    Given that the cells can sense nanometer dimensions, the chemical cross-linking-mediated alteration in fibrillar structure of collagenous tissue scaffolds is critical to determining their cell culture performances. This article explores, for the first time, the effect of nanofibrous structure of glutaraldehyde (GTA) cross-linked amniotic membrane (AM) on limbal epithelial cell (LEC) cultivation. Results of ninhydrin assays demonstrated that the amount of new cross-links formed between the collagen chains is significantly increased with increasing the cross-linking time from 1 to 24 hours. By transmission electron microscopy, the AM treated with GTA for a longer duration exhibited a greater extent of molecular aggregation, thereby leading to a considerable increase in nanofiber diameter and resistance against collagenase degradation. In vitro biocompatibility studies showed that the samples cross-linked with GTA for 24 hours are not well-tolerated by the human corneal epithelial cell cultures. When the treatment duration is less than 6 hours, the biological tissues cross-linked with GTA for a longer time may cause slight reductions in 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt, and anti-inflammatory activities. Nevertheless, significant collagen molecular aggregation also enhances the stemness gene expression, indicating a high ability of these AM matrices to preserve the progenitors of LECs in vitro. It is concluded that GTA cross-linking of collagenous tissue materials may affect their nanofibrous structures and corneal epithelial stem cell culture characteristics. The AM treated with GTA for 6 hours holds promise for use as a niche for the expansion and transplantation of limbal epithelial progenitor cells.

  9. Cross-Linking GPVI-Fc by Anti-Fc Antibodies Potentiates Its Inhibition of Atherosclerotic Plaque- and Collagen-Induced Platelet Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Jamasbi, RPh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available To enhance the antithrombotic properties of recombinant glycoprotein VI fragment crystallizable (GPVI-Fc, the authors incubated GPVI-Fc with anti-human Fc antibodies to cross-link the Fc tails of GPVI-Fc. Cross-linking potentiated the inhibition of human plaque- and collagen-induced platelet aggregation by GPVI-Fc under static and flow conditions without increasing bleeding time in vitro. Cross-linking with anti-human-Fc Fab2 was even superior to anti-human-Fc immunoglobulin G (IgG. Advanced optical imaging revealed a continuous sheath-like coverage of collagen fibers by cross-linked GPVI-Fc complexes. Cross-linking of GPVI into oligomeric complexes provides a new, highly effective, and probably safe antithrombotic treatment as it suppresses platelet GPVI-plaque interaction selectively at the site of acute atherothrombosis.

  10. Electric long-term behaviour of polyethylene insulations for medium-voltage cables cross-linked chemically or by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharff, C.; Eberhardt, M.

    1989-01-01

    The electric long-term behaviour of cross-linked polyethylene (CLPE) was studied at room temperature by measuring the channel operating time under needling and the total charge before channel operation. It is found that the decomposition products formed in CLPE act as tension stabilizers. They have a dominating influence on the electric long-term behaviour

  11. Protein cross-linking by chlorinated polyamines and transglutamylation stabilizes neutrophil extracellular traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csomós, Krisztián; Kristóf, Endre; Jakob, Bernadett; Csomós, István; Kovács, György; Rotem, Omri; Hodrea, Judit; Bagoly, Zsuzsa; Muszbek, Laszlo; Balajthy, Zoltán; Csősz, Éva; Fésüs, László

    2016-08-11

    Neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) ejected from activated dying neutrophils is a highly ordered structure of DNA and selected proteins capable to eliminate pathogenic microorganisms. Biochemical determinants of the non-randomly formed stable NETs have not been revealed so far. Studying the formation of human NETs we have observed that polyamines were incorporated into the NET. Inhibition of myeloperoxidase, which is essential for NET formation and can generate reactive chlorinated polyamines through hypochlorous acid, decreased polyamine incorporation. Addition of exogenous primary amines that similarly to polyamines inhibit reactions catalyzed by the protein cross-linker transglutaminases (TGases) has similar effect. Proteomic analysis of the highly reproducible pattern of NET components revealed cross-linking of NET proteins through chlorinated polyamines and ɛ(γ-glutamyl)lysine as well as bis-γ-glutamyl polyamine bonds catalyzed by the TGases detected in neutrophils. Competitive inhibition of protein cross-linking by monoamines disturbed the cross-linking pattern of NET proteins, which resulted in the loss of the ordered structure of the NET and significantly reduced capacity to trap bacteria. Our findings provide explanation of how NETs are formed in a reproducible and ordered manner to efficiently neutralize microorganisms at the first defense line of the innate immune system.

  12. Collagen cross-linking: insights on the evolution of metazoan extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Pascual, Fernando; Slatter, David Anthony

    2016-11-23

    Collagens constitute a large family of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins that play a fundamental role in supporting the structure of various tissues in multicellular animals. The mechanical strength of fibrillar collagens is highly dependent on the formation of covalent cross-links between individual fibrils, a process initiated by the enzymatic action of members of the lysyl oxidase (LOX) family. Fibrillar collagens are present in a wide variety of animals, therefore often being associated with metazoan evolution, where the emergence of an ancestral collagen chain has been proposed to lead to the formation of different clades. While LOX-generated collagen cross-linking metabolites have been detected in different metazoan families, there is limited information about when and how collagen acquired this particular modification. By analyzing telopeptide and helical sequences, we identified highly conserved, potential cross-linking sites throughout the metazoan tree of life. Based on this analysis, we propose that they have importantly contributed to the formation and further expansion of fibrillar collagens.

  13. Application of cross-linked and hydrolyzed arabinoxylans in baking of model rye bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buksa, Krzysztof; Nowotna, Anna; Ziobro, Rafał

    2016-02-01

    The role of water extractable arabinoxylan with varying molar mass and structure (cross-linked vs. hydrolyzed) in the structure formation of rye bread was examined using a model bread. Instead of the normal flour, the dough contained starch, arabinoxylan and protein, which were isolated from rye wholemeal. It was observed that the applied mixes of these constituents result in a product closely resembling typical rye bread, even if arabinoxylan was modified (by cross-linking or hydrolysis). The levels of arabinoxylan required for bread preparation depended on its modification and mix composition. At 3% protein, the maximum applicable level of poorly soluble cross-linked arabinoxylan was 3%, as higher amounts of this preparation resulted in an extensively viscous dough and diminished bread volume. On the other hand highly soluble, hydrolyzed arabinoxylan could be used at a higher level (6%) together with larger amounts of rye protein (3% or 6%). Further addition of arabinoxylan leads to excessive water absorption, resulting in a decreased viscosity of the dough during baking and insufficient gas retention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Two-photon induced collagen cross-linking in bioartificial cardiac tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuetemeyer, Kai; Kensah, George; Heidrich, Marko; Meyer, Heiko; Martin, Ulrich; Gruh, Ina; Heisterkamp, Alexander

    2011-08-01

    Cardiac tissue engineering is a promising strategy for regenerative therapies to overcome the shortage of donor organs for transplantation. Besides contractile function, the stiffness of tissue engineered constructs is crucial to generate transplantable tissue surrogates with sufficient mechanical stability to withstand the high pressure present in the heart. Although several collagen cross-linking techniques have proven to be efficient in stabilizing biomaterials, they cannot be applied to cardiac tissue engineering, as cell death occurs in the treated area. Here, we present a novel method using femtosecond (fs) laser pulses to increase the stiffness of collagen-based tissue constructs without impairing cell viability. Raster scanning of the fs laser beam over riboflavin-treated tissue induced collagen cross-linking by two-photon photosensitized singlet oxygen production. One day post-irradiation, stress-strain measurements revealed increased tissue stiffness by around 40% being dependent on the fibroblast content in the tissue. At the same time, cells remained viable and fully functional as demonstrated by fluorescence imaging of cardiomyocyte mitochondrial activity and preservation of active contraction force. Our results indicate that two-photon induced collagen cross-linking has great potential for studying and improving artificially engineered tissue for regenerative therapies.

  15. Seed-mediated synthesis of cross-linked Pt-NiO nanochains for methanol oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Zhulan; Bin, Duan; Feng, Yue; Zhang, Ke; Wang, Jin; Yan, Bo; Li, Shumin; Xiong, Zhiping; Wang, Caiqin; Shiraishi, Yukihide; Du, Yukou, E-mail: duyk@suda.edu.cn

    2017-07-31

    Highlights: • Cross-linked Pt-NiO nanochains using seed-mediated growth method are synthesized. • The as-prepared catalysts exhibit higher electrocatalytic activity than Pt/C for MOR. • The Pt-NiO(1:1 by molar) catalyst shows the best electrocatalytic property towards MOR. - Abstract: A simple method was reported for employing NiO nanoparticles act as seeds and then different amounts of Pt{sup 2+} were reduced on the NiO nanoparticles, forming a cross-linked Pt-NiO nanocatalysts. These as-prepared catalysts were characterized using different physical-chemical techniques, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicate that the morphology of the cross-linked Pt-NiO nanochain was successfully produced regardless of the molar ratio of Pt{sup 2+} to NiO precursors. The electrochemical characteristics of Pt-NiO nanochain catalysts were evaluated for the oxidation of methanol as a model reaction, which verify that the Pt-NiO catalysts show enhanced activity and high stability in comparison with the commercial Pt/C catalyst. The optimized ratio of Pt to NiO is 1:1, then tuned by simple adjusting the feed ratio of the precursors as well. The synthesized nanocatalysts will be found the great potential applications as electrocatalysts for fuel cells owe to their enhanced catalytic performance and long-term stability.

  16. Capacity of cognitive radio under imperfect secondary and cross link channel state information

    KAUST Repository

    Sboui, Lokman

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, we study the ergodic capacity of secondary user channel in a spectrum sharing scenario in which the secondary transmitter is instantaneously aware of estimated versions of the cross link (between the secondary transmitter and the primary receiver) and the secondary link Channel State Information (CSI). The secondary link optimal power profile along with the ergodic capacity are derived for a class of fading channels, under an average power constraint and an instantaneous interference outage constraint. We also show that our framework is rather general as it encompasses several previously studied spectrum sharing settings as special cases. In order to gain some insights on the capacity behavior, numerical results are shown for independent Rayleigh fading channels where it is found for instance, that at low SNR regime, only the secondary channel estimation matters and that the cross link CSI has no effect on the ergodic capacity; whereas at high SNR regime, the capacity is rather driven by the cross link CSI. © 2011 IEEE.

  17. Seed-mediated synthesis of cross-linked Pt-NiO nanochains for methanol oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Zhulan; Bin, Duan; Feng, Yue; Zhang, Ke; Wang, Jin; Yan, Bo; Li, Shumin; Xiong, Zhiping; Wang, Caiqin; Shiraishi, Yukihide; Du, Yukou

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Cross-linked Pt-NiO nanochains using seed-mediated growth method are synthesized. • The as-prepared catalysts exhibit higher electrocatalytic activity than Pt/C for MOR. • The Pt-NiO(1:1 by molar) catalyst shows the best electrocatalytic property towards MOR. - Abstract: A simple method was reported for employing NiO nanoparticles act as seeds and then different amounts of Pt 2+ were reduced on the NiO nanoparticles, forming a cross-linked Pt-NiO nanocatalysts. These as-prepared catalysts were characterized using different physical-chemical techniques, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicate that the morphology of the cross-linked Pt-NiO nanochain was successfully produced regardless of the molar ratio of Pt 2+ to NiO precursors. The electrochemical characteristics of Pt-NiO nanochain catalysts were evaluated for the oxidation of methanol as a model reaction, which verify that the Pt-NiO catalysts show enhanced activity and high stability in comparison with the commercial Pt/C catalyst. The optimized ratio of Pt to NiO is 1:1, then tuned by simple adjusting the feed ratio of the precursors as well. The synthesized nanocatalysts will be found the great potential applications as electrocatalysts for fuel cells owe to their enhanced catalytic performance and long-term stability.

  18. Effectiveness of trimethylopropane trimethacrylate for the electron-beam-irradiation-induced cross-linking of polylactic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Hon-Meng [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Jalan Genting Kelang, 53300 Setapak, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Bee, Soo-Tueen, E-mail: beest@utar.edu.my [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Jalan Genting Kelang, 53300 Setapak, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Ratnam, C.T. [Radiation Processing Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Sin, Lee Tin; Phang, Yee-Yao; Tee, Tiam-Ting [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Jalan Genting Kelang, 53300 Setapak, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Rahmat, A.R. [Department of Polymer Engineering, Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor (Malaysia)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Investigation of trimethylopropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) on electron beam irradiated PLA. • Irradiated PLA blends were weakened by incorporation of high amount of TMPTMA. • TMPTMA interacts with polymer free radicals to build crosslinking network. -- Abstract: The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of various loading levels of trimethylopropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) on the properties of polylactic acid (PLA) cross-linked via electron-beam irradiation. PLA was compounded with 3–5 wt.% of TMPTMA to induce cross-linking upon subjection to electron-beam irradiation doses of 25–250 kGy. The physical properties of the PLA samples were characterised by means of X-ray diffraction, gel fraction and scanning electron microscopy analyses on fractured surfaces after tensile tests. The presence of TMPTMA in PLA was found to effectively increase the crystallite size and gel fraction. However, higher loading levels of TMPTMA could compromise the properties of the PLA/TMPTMA samples, indicating that a larger amount of monomer free radicals might promote degradation within the substantially cross-linked amorphous phase. Irradiation-induced cross-linking in the samples could improve the cross-linking density while decreasing the elongation and interfering with the crystallisation. These effects are caused by the intensive irradiation-induced chain scission that is responsible for the deterioration of the mechanical and crystalline properties of the samples.

  19. Effectiveness of trimethylopropane trimethacrylate for the electron-beam-irradiation-induced cross-linking of polylactic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Hon-Meng; Bee, Soo-Tueen; Ratnam, C.T.; Sin, Lee Tin; Phang, Yee-Yao; Tee, Tiam-Ting; Rahmat, A.R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Investigation of trimethylopropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) on electron beam irradiated PLA. • Irradiated PLA blends were weakened by incorporation of high amount of TMPTMA. • TMPTMA interacts with polymer free radicals to build crosslinking network. -- Abstract: The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of various loading levels of trimethylopropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) on the properties of polylactic acid (PLA) cross-linked via electron-beam irradiation. PLA was compounded with 3–5 wt.% of TMPTMA to induce cross-linking upon subjection to electron-beam irradiation doses of 25–250 kGy. The physical properties of the PLA samples were characterised by means of X-ray diffraction, gel fraction and scanning electron microscopy analyses on fractured surfaces after tensile tests. The presence of TMPTMA in PLA was found to effectively increase the crystallite size and gel fraction. However, higher loading levels of TMPTMA could compromise the properties of the PLA/TMPTMA samples, indicating that a larger amount of monomer free radicals might promote degradation within the substantially cross-linked amorphous phase. Irradiation-induced cross-linking in the samples could improve the cross-linking density while decreasing the elongation and interfering with the crystallisation. These effects are caused by the intensive irradiation-induced chain scission that is responsible for the deterioration of the mechanical and crystalline properties of the samples

  20. Entropic benefit of a cross-link in protein association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Muhammad H; Berry, R Stephen; Sosnick, Tobin R

    2002-08-01

    We introduce a method to estimate the loss of configurational entropy upon insertion of a cross-link to a dimeric system. First, a clear distinction is established between the loss of entropy upon tethering and binding, two quantities that are often considered to be equivalent. By comparing the probability distribution of the center-to-center distances for untethered and cross-linked versions, we are able to calculate the loss of translational entropy upon cross-linking. The distribution function for the untethered helices is calculated from the probability that a given helix is closer to its partner than to all other helices, the "Nearest Neighbor" method. This method requires no assumptions about the nature of the solvent, and hence resolves difficulties normally associated with calculations for systems in liquids. Analysis of the restriction of angular freedom upon tethering indicates that the loss of rotational entropy is negligible. The method is applied in the context of the folding of a ten turn helical coiled coil with the tether modeled as a Gaussian chain or a flexible amino acid chain. After correcting for loop closure entropy in the docked state, we estimate the introduction of a six-residue tether in the coiled coil results in an effective concentration of the chain to be about 4 or 100 mM, depending upon whether the helices are denatured or pre-folded prior to their association. Thus, tethering results in significant stabilization for systems with millimolar or stronger dissociation constants. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Multiple and sequential data acquisition method: an improved method for fragmentation and detection of cross-linked peptides on a hybrid linear trap quadrupole Orbitrap Velos mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudashevskaya, Elena L; Breitwieser, Florian P; Huber, Marie L; Colinge, Jacques; Müller, André C; Bennett, Keiryn L

    2013-02-05

    The identification and validation of cross-linked peptides by mass spectrometry remains a daunting challenge for protein-protein cross-linking approaches when investigating protein interactions. This includes the fragmentation of cross-linked peptides in the mass spectrometer per se and following database searching, the matching of the molecular masses of the fragment ions to the correct cross-linked peptides. The hybrid linear trap quadrupole (LTQ) Orbitrap Velos combines the speed of the tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) duty circle with high mass accuracy, and these features were utilized in the current study to substantially improve the confidence in the identification of cross-linked peptides. An MS/MS method termed multiple and sequential data acquisition method (MSDAM) was developed. Preliminary optimization of the MS/MS settings was performed with a synthetic peptide (TP1) cross-linked with bis[sulfosuccinimidyl] suberate (BS(3)). On the basis of these results, MSDAM was created and assessed on the BS(3)-cross-linked bovine serum albumin (BSA) homodimer. MSDAM applies a series of multiple sequential fragmentation events with a range of different normalized collision energies (NCE) to the same precursor ion. The combination of a series of NCE enabled a considerable improvement in the quality of the fragmentation spectra for cross-linked peptides, and ultimately aided in the identification of the sequences of the cross-linked peptides. Concurrently, MSDAM provides confirmatory evidence from the formation of reporter ions fragments, which reduces the false positive rate of incorrectly assigned cross-linked peptides.

  2. Cross-Linked Hydrogel for Pharmaceutical Applications: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabinarayan parhi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogels are promising biomaterials because of their important qualities such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, hydrophilicity and non-toxicity. These qualities make hydrogels suitable for application in medical and pharmaceutical field. Recently, a tremendous growth of hydrogel application is seen, especially as gel and patch form, in transdermal drug delivery. This review mainly focuses on the types of hydrogels based on cross-linking and; secondly to describe the possible synthesis methods to design hydrogels for different pharmaceutical applications. The synthesis and chemistry of these hydrogels are discussed using specific pharmaceutical examples. The structure and water content in a typical hydrogel have also been discussed.

  3. Mapping protein structural changes by quantitative cross-linking

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kukačka, Zdeněk; Strohalm, Martin; Kavan, Daniel; Novák, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 89, NOV 2015 (2015), s. 112-120 ISSN 1046-2023 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0055; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0003; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Grant - others:OPPC(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/24023 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Chemical cross-linking * Proteolysis * Mass spectrometry Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.503, year: 2015

  4. Peripheral hepatic arterial embolization with cross-linked collagen fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, J.R.; Kerlan, R.K. Jr.; Dodds, L.; McLaughlin, P.; La Berge, J.M.; Harrington, D.; Daniels, A.M.; Ring, E.J.

    1986-01-01

    Hepatic artery embolization with a nonimmunogenic, cross-linked collagen preparation (Angiostat, collagen for embolization, Target Therapeutics) was studied in mongrel dogs. Flow-directed technique was used to achieve complete distal arterial occlusion. Serial liver function evaluation demonstrated marked alterations at 48 to 72 hours, partial correction at 1 week, and resolution of abnormalities by 1 month. Restoration of large-vessel blood flow was angiographically demonstrable at 1 week. Recanalization, achieved by migration of endothelial cells around the collagen, resulted in complete restoration of normal hepatic vascular and tissue anatomy at 1 month. Repeated embolization at biweekly intervals was well tolerated

  5. Effect of carbon nanotube dispersion on glass transition in cross-linked epoxy-carbon nanotube nanocomposites: role of interfacial interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Ketan S; Khare, Rajesh

    2013-06-20

    We have used atomistic molecular simulations to study the effect of nanofiller dispersion on the glass transition behavior of cross-linked epoxy-carbon nanotube (CNT) nanocomposites. Specific chemical interactions at the interface of CNTs and cross-linked epoxy create an interphase region, whose impact on the properties of their nanocomposites increases with an increasing extent of dispersion. To investigate this aspect, we have compared the volumetric, structural, and dynamical properties of three systems: neat cross-linked epoxy, cross-linked epoxy nanocomposite containing dispersed CNTs, and cross-linked epoxy nanocomposite containing aggregated CNTs. We find that the nanocomposite containing dispersed CNTs shows a depression in the glass transition temperature (Tg) by ~66 K as compared to the neat cross-linked epoxy, whereas such a large depression is absent in the nanocomposite containing aggregated CNTs. Our results suggest that the poor interfacial interactions between the CNTs and the cross-linked epoxy matrix lead to a more compressible interphase region between the CNTs and the bulk matrix. An analysis of the resulting dynamic heterogeneity shows that the probability of percolation of immobile domains becomes unity near the Tg calculated from volumetric properties. Our observations also lend support to the conceptual analogy between polymer nanocomposites and the nanoconfinement of polymer thin films.

  6. Advances in high temperature chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Eyring, Leroy

    1969-01-01

    Advances in High Temperature Chemistry, Volume 2 covers the advances in the knowledge of the high temperature behavior of materials and the complex and unfamiliar characteristics of matter at high temperature. The book discusses the dissociation energies and free energy functions of gaseous monoxides; the matrix-isolation technique applied to high temperature molecules; and the main features, the techniques for the production, detection, and diagnosis, and the applications of molecular beams in high temperatures. The text also describes the chemical research in streaming thermal plasmas, as w

  7. Protein analysis by 31p NMR spectroscopy in ionic liquid: quantitative determination of enzymatically created cross-links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monogioudi, Evanthia; Permi, Perttu; Filpponen, Ilari; Lienemann, Michael; Li, Bin; Argyropoulos, Dimitris; Buchert, Johanna; Mattinen, Maija-Liisa

    2011-02-23

    Cross-linking of β-casein by Trichoderma reesei tyrosinase (TrTyr) and Streptoverticillium mobaraense transglutaminase (Tgase) was analyzed by (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in ionic liquid (IL). According to (31)P NMR, 91% of the tyrosine side chains were cross-linked by TrTyr at high dosages. When Tgase was used, no changes were observed because a different cross-linking mechanism was operational. However, this verified the success of the phosphitylation of phenolics within the protein matrix in the IL. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) in solid state showed that disk-shaped nanoparticles were formed in the reactions with average diameters of 80 and 20 nm for TrTyr and Tgase, respectively. These data further advance the current understanding of the action of tyrosinases on proteins on molecular and chemical bond levels. Quantitative (31)P NMR in IL was shown to be a simple and efficient method for the study of protein modification.

  8. Damage and fatigue in cross-linked rubbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikov, Alexei

    Damage and fatigue of elastomers have not been fundamentally understood because of the complex nature of these materials. All currently existing models are completely phenomenological. Therefore two problems have been investigated in this research to address those fundamental issues. The first problem was creating an innovative concept with a mathematical modeling, which would be able to describe the damage using molecular characteristics of elastomers. The second problem is developing new approaches to study fatigue, and especially impact fatigue of elastomers. The following results have been obtained in this research. A theoretical model of damage has been developed which involves the basic molecular characteristics of cross-linked elastomers and takes into account the effects of viscoelasticity and stress-induced crystallization. This model was found very reliable and successful in description of numerous quasi-static simple extension experiments for monotonous and repeating loadings. It also roughly predicts in molecular terms the failure of elastomers with various degrees of cross-linking. Quasi-impact fatigue tests with different geometry of an indenter have also been performed. Some microscopic features of rubber damage have been investigated using optical microscopy and SEM. In particular, the accumulation of a completely de-vulcanized, liquid-like substance was observed under intense, multi-cycle impacts. All the findings discovered in quasi-impact experiments are consistent with the damage model predictions.

  9. Collagen Cross-Linking: Current Status and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine Hovakimyan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Collagen cross-linking (CXL using UVA light and riboflavin (vitamin B2 was introduced as a clinical application to stabilize the cornea by inducing cross-links within and between collagen fibers. CXL has been investigated extensively and has been shown clinically to arrest the progression of keratoconic or post-LASIK ectasia. With its minimal cost, simplicity, and proven positive clinical outcome, CXL can be regarded as a useful approach to reduce the number of penetrating keratoplasties performed. Small case series have also indicated that CXL is beneficial in corneal edema by reducing stromal swelling behavior and in keratitis by inhibiting pathogen growth. Despite these encouraging results, CXL remains a relatively new method that is potentially associated with complications. Aspects such as side effects and recurrence rates have still to be elucidated. In light of the growing interest in CXL, our paper summarizes present knowledge about this promising approach. We have intentionally endeavored to include the more relevant studies from the recent literature to provide an overview of the current status of CXL.

  10. Cross-linking e segmento de anel corneano intraestromal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adimara da Candelaria Renesto

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available O cross-linking corneano é um procedimento usado para a estabilização mecânica e aumento da rigidez corneana em pacientes com ceratocone (reduzindo a possibilidade de progressão, e também em processos inflamatórios de afinamento corneano. Os segmentos de anéis corneanos intraestromais têm como princípio o aplanamento central da córnea. Inicialmente utilizados para correção de baixa miopia, a principal indicação atual é em pacientes com ceratocone, para melhorar a acuidade visual não corrigida, a acuidade visual corrigida e permitir uma melhor tolerância ao uso de lentes de contato como também retardar a necessidade de um transplante de córnea. O objetivo deste artigo é revisar algumas publicações relacionadas ao cross-linking corneano e à inserção do segmento de anel intraestromal, apresentando suas indicações, resultados e complicações relatadas até o momento.

  11. Preparation of Thermo-Responsive and Cross-Linked Fluorinated Nanoparticles via RAFT-Mediated Aqueous Polymerization in Nanoreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jiachen; Zhang, Luqing; Geng, Bing; Azhar, Umair; Xu, Anhou; Zhang, Shuxiang

    2017-01-25

    In this work, a thermo-responsive and cross-linked fluoropolymer poly(2,2,2-Trifluoroethyl) methacrylate (PTFEMA) was successfully prepared by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) mediated aqueous polymerization with a thermo-responsive diblock poly(dimethylacrylamide- b - N -isopropylacrylamide) (PDMA- b -PNIPAM) that performed a dual function as both a nanoreactor and macro-RAFT agent. The cross-linked polymer particles proved to be in a spherical-like structure of about 50 nm in diameter and with a relatively narrow particle size distribution. ¹H-NMR and 19 F-NMR spectra showed that thermo-responsive diblock P(DMA- b -NIPAM) and cross-linked PTFEMA particles were successfully synthesized. Influence of the amount of ammonium persulfate (APS), the molar ratio of monomers to RAFT agent, influence of the amount of cross-linker on aqueous polymerization and thermo-responsive characterization of the particles are investigated. Monomer conversion increased from 44% to 94% with increasing the molar ratio of APS and P(DMA- b -NIPAM) from 1:9 to1:3. As the reaction proceeded, the particle size increased from 29 to 49 nm due to the consumption of TFEMA monomer. The size of cross-linked nanoparticles sharply decreased from 50.3 to 40.5 nm over the temperature range 14-44 °C, suggesting good temperature sensitivity for these nanoparticles.

  12. A cross-linked manganese porphyrin as highly efficient ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The catalyst is found to oxidize the alkenes selectively and it is not destroyed even 5% in ... the catalysts have been prepared by covalent approach. These materials are ... reagents under argon or obtained as dehydrated reagent from Merck's ...

  13. High-Temperature Piezoelectric Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoning Jiang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric sensing is of increasing interest for high-temperature applications in aerospace, automotive, power plants and material processing due to its low cost, compact sensor size and simple signal conditioning, in comparison with other high-temperature sensing techniques. This paper presented an overview of high-temperature piezoelectric sensing techniques. Firstly, different types of high-temperature piezoelectric single crystals, electrode materials, and their pros and cons are discussed. Secondly, recent work on high-temperature piezoelectric sensors including accelerometer, surface acoustic wave sensor, ultrasound transducer, acoustic emission sensor, gas sensor, and pressure sensor for temperatures up to 1,250 °C were reviewed. Finally, discussions of existing challenges and future work for high-temperature piezoelectric sensing are presented.

  14. High temperature superconductor accelerator magnets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nugteren, J.

    2016-01-01

    For future particle accelerators bending dipoles are considered with magnetic fields exceeding 20T. This can only be achieved using high temperature superconductors (HTS). These exhibit different properties from classical low temperature superconductors and still require significant research and

  15. Cross-linking of dermal sheep collagen using a water-soluble carbodiimide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damink, LHHO; Dijkstra, PJ; vanLuyn, MJA; vanWachem, PB; Nieuwenhuis, P; Feijen, J

    A cross-linking method for collagen-based biomaterials was developed using the water-soluble carbodiimide 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC). Cross-linking using EDC involves the activation of carboxylic acid groups to give O-acylisourea groups, which form cross-links

  16. Cross-linking of dermal sheep collagen using a water-soluble carbodiimide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olde damink, L.H.H.; Olde Damink, L.H.H.; Dijkstra, Pieter J.; van Luyn, M.J.A.; van Wachem, P.B.; Nieuwenhuis, P.; Feijen, Jan

    1996-01-01

    A cross-linking method for collagen-based biomaterials was developed using the water-soluble carbodiimide 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC). Cross-linking using EDC involves the activation of carboxylic acid groups to give O-acylisourea groups, which form cross-links

  17. Permanent Set of Cross-Linking Networks: Comparison of Theory with Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottach, Dana R.; Curro, John G.; Budzien, Joanne

    2006-01-01

    The permanent set of cross-linking networks is studied by molecular dynamics. The uniaxial stress for a bead-spring polymer network is investigated as a function of strain and cross-link density history, where cross-links are introduced in unstrained and strained networks. The permanent set...

  18. Small Strain Topological Effects of Biopolymer Networks with Rigid Cross-Links

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zagar, G.; Onck, P. R.; Van der Giessen, E.; Garikipati, K; Arruda, EM

    2010-01-01

    Networks of cross-linked filamentous biopolymers form topological structures characterized by L, T and X cross-link types of connectivity 2, 3 and 4, respectively. The distribution of cross-links over these three types proofs to be very important for the initial elastic shear stiffness of isotropic

  19. Cross-linking of wheat gluten using a water-soluble carbodiimide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tropini, V.; Lens, J.P.; Mulder, W.J.; Silvestre, F.

    2000-01-01

    Wheat gluten was cross-linked using water-soluble 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide HCl (EDC). To enhance cross-linking, N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) was added to the reaction mixture. The cross-linking efficiency was evaluated by the decrease in the amount of amino groups, the solubility

  20. CrossWork: Software-assisted identification of cross-linked peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten; Refsgaard, Jan; Peng, Li

    2011-01-01

    Work searches batches of tandem mass-spectrometric data, and identifies cross-linked and non-cross-linked peptides using a standard PC. We tested CrossWork by searching mass-spectrometric datasets of cross-linked complement factor C3 against small (1 protein) and large (1000 proteins) search spaces, and show...

  1. Polymer nanocomposites for high-temperature composite repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, Xia [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    A novel repair agent for resin-injection repair of advanced high temperature composites was developed and characterized. The repair agent was based on bisphenol E cyanate ester (BECy) and reinforced with alumina nanoparticles. To ensure good dispersion and compatibility with the BECy matrix in nanocomposites, the alumina nanoparticles were functionalized with silanes. The BECy nanocomposites, containing bare and functionalized alumina nanoparticles, were prepared and evaluated for their thermal, mechanical, rheological, and viscoelastic properties. The monomer of BECy has an extremely low viscosity at ambient temperature, which is good for processability. The cured BECy polymer is a highly cross-linked network with excellent thermal mechanical properties, with a high glass transition temperature (Tg) of 270 C and decomposition temperature above 350 C. The incorporation of alumina nanoparticles enhances the mechanical and rheological properties of the BECy nanocomposites. Additionally, the alumina nanoparticles are shown to catalyze the cure of BECy. Characterization of the nanocomposites included dynamic mechanical analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, rheological and rheokinetic evaluation, and transmission electron microscopy. The experimental results show that the BECy nanocomposite is a good candidate as repair agent for resin-injection repair applications.

  2. bis-Nitrile and bis-Dialkylcyanamide Platinum(II) Complexes as Efficient Catalysts for Hydrosilylation Cross-Linking of Siloxane Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islamova, Regina M; Dobrynin, Mikhail V; Ivanov, Daniil M; Vlasov, Andrey V; Kaganova, Elena V; Grigoryan, Galina V; Kukushkin, Vadim Yu

    2016-03-05

    cis- and trans-Isomers of the platinum(II) nitrile complexes [PtCl2(NCR)2] (R = NMe2, N(C₅H10), Ph, CH2Ph) were examined as catalysts for hydrosilylation cross-linking of vinyl-terminated polydimethylsiloxane and trimethylsilyl-terminated poly(dimethylsiloxane-co-ethylhydrosiloxane) producing high quality silicone rubbers. Among the tested platinum species the cis-complexes are much more active catalysts than their trans-congeners and for all studied platinum complexes cis-[PtCl2(NCCH2Ph)2] exhibits the best catalytic activity (room temperature, c = 1.0 × 10(-4) mol/L, τpot-life 60 min, τcuring 6 h). Although cis-[PtCl₂(NCCH2Ph)2] is less active than the widely used Karstedt's catalyst, its application for the cross-linking can be performed not only at room temperature (c = 1.0 × 10(-4) mol/L), but also, more efficiently, at 80 °C (c = 1.0 × 10(-4)-1.0 × 10(-5) mol/L) and it prevents adherence of the formed silicone rubbers to equipment. The usage of the cis- and trans-[PtCl2(NCR)2] complexes as the hydrosilylation catalysts do not require any inhibitors and, moreover, the complexes and their mixtures with vinyl- and trimethylsilyl terminated polysiloxanes are shelf-stable in air. Tested catalysts do not form colloid platinum particles after the cross-linking.

  3. Comprehensive protein profiling by multiplexed capillary zone electrophoresis using cross-linked polyacrylamide coated capillaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaorong; Gao, Lin; Pu, Qiaosheng; Lu, Joann J; Wang, Xingjia

    2006-02-01

    We have recently developed a new process to create cross-linked polyacrylamide (CPA) coatings on capillary walls to suppress protein-wall interactions. Here, we demonstrate CPA-coated capillaries for high-efficiency (>2 x 10(6) plates per meter) protein separations by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). Because CPA virtually eliminates electroosmotic flow, positive and negative proteins cannot be analyzed in a single run. A "one-sample-two-separation" approach is developed to achieve a comprehensive protein analysis. High throughput is achieved through a multiplexed CZE system.

  4. High temperature materials; Materiaux a hautes temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this workshop is to share the needs of high temperature and nuclear fuel materials for future nuclear systems, to take stock of the status of researches in this domain and to propose some cooperation works between the different research organisations. The future nuclear systems are the very high temperature (850 to 1200 deg. C) gas cooled reactors (GCR) and the molten salt reactors (MSR). These systems include not only the reactor but also the fabrication and reprocessing of the spent fuel. This document brings together the transparencies of 13 communications among the 25 given at the workshop: 1) characteristics and needs of future systems: specifications, materials and fuel needs for fast spectrum GCR and very high temperature GCR; 2) high temperature materials out of neutron flux: thermal barriers: materials, resistance, lifetimes; nickel-base metal alloys: status of knowledge, mechanical behaviour, possible applications; corrosion linked with the gas coolant: knowledge and problems to be solved; super-alloys for turbines: alloys for blades and discs; corrosion linked with MSR: knowledge and problems to be solved; 3) materials for reactor core structure: nuclear graphite and carbon; fuel assembly structure materials of the GCR with fast neutron spectrum: status of knowledge and ceramics and cermets needs; silicon carbide as fuel confinement material, study of irradiation induced defects; migration of fission products, I and Cs in SiC; 4) materials for hydrogen production: status of the knowledge and needs for the thermochemical cycle; 5) technologies: GCR components and the associated material needs: compact exchangers, pumps, turbines; MSR components: valves, exchangers, pumps. (J.S.)

  5. High Temperature Superconductor Resonator Detectors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) infrared detectors were studied for years but never matured sufficiently for infusion into instruments. Several recent...

  6. High Temperature Superconductor Machine Prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijatovic, Nenad; Jensen, Bogi Bech; Træholt, Chresten

    2011-01-01

    A versatile testing platform for a High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) machine has been constructed. The stationary HTS field winding can carry up to 10 coils and it is operated at a temperature of 77K. The rotating armature is at room temperature. Test results and performance for the HTS field...

  7. Thermally reversible cross-linked poly(ether-urethanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Gaina

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cross-linked poly(ether-urethanes were prepared by Diels-Alder (DA reaction of the furan-containing poly(ether-urethane to bismaleimides and showed thermal reversibility evidenced by differential scanning calorimetry and attenuated total reflectance in conjunction with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR. The furan-containing poly(ether-urethanes were synthesized by the polyaddition reaction of 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HMDI or 4,4'- dibenzyl diisocyanate (DBDI to poly(tetramethylene ether glycol (PTMEG having Mn = 250, 650, 1000, 1500 and 2000 and 2-[N,N-bis(2-methyl-2-hydroxyethylamino]furfuryl as chain extender by the solution prepolymer method. The molar ratio of isocyanate: PTMEG:chain extender varied from 2:1:1 to 4:1:3, which produces a molar concentration of furyl group ranging between 3.65•10–4 and 1.25•10–3 mol/g.

  8. Encapsulation of cobalt nanoparticles in cross-linked-polymer cages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatamie, Shadie [Department of Electronic-Science, Fergusson College, Pune 411 004 (India); Dhole, S.D. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India); Ding, J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, 7, Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117574 (Singapore); Kale, S.N. [Department of Electronic-Science, Fergusson College, Pune 411 004 (India)], E-mail: sangeetakale2004@gmail.com

    2009-07-15

    Nanoparticles embedded in polymeric cages give rise to interesting applications ranging from nanocatalysis to drug-delivery systems. In this context, we report on synthesis of cobalt (Co) nanoparticles trapped in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix to yield self-supporting magnetic films in PVA slime. A 20 nm, Co formed in FCC geometry encapsulated with a weak citrate coat when caged in PVA matrix exhibited persistence of magnetism and good radio-frequency response. Cross-linking of PVA chains to form cage-like structures to arrest Co nanoparticles therein, is believed to be the reason for oxide-free nature of Co, promising applications in biomedicine as well as in radio-frequency shielding.

  9. Study of the Conformational State of Non-Cross-Linked and Cross-Linked Poly(alkylmethyldiallylammonium chlorides) in Aqueous Solution by Fluorescence Probing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Guang-Jia; Engberts, Jan B.F.N.

    The aggregation behaviour of novel non-cross-linked and cross-linked poly(alkylmethyldiallylammonium chlorides) in aqueous solutions has been investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy using pyrene as a probe. These copolymers were found to exhibit similar aggregate properties as the corresponding

  10. Synthesis and Catalytic Properties of Non-Cross-Linked and Cross-Linked Poly(alkylmethyldiallylammonium bromides) Having Decyl, Octyl, and Hexyl Side Chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, G.J; Engberts, J.B.F.N.

    1995-01-01

    A family of non-cross-linked and cross-linked copolymers containing decyl, octyl, and hexyl groups as side chains ((CL)-CopolC1-10, (CL)-CopolC1-8, and (CL)-CopolC1-6, respectively) were synthesized by radical-initiated cyclocopolymerization of alkylmethyldiallylammonium bromide monomers without and

  11. Bifunctional alkylating agent-mediated MGMT-DNA cross-linking and its proteolytic cleavage in 16HBE cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Jin; Ye, Feng; Dan, Guorong; Zhao, Yuanpeng; Wang, Bin; Zhao, Jiqing; Sai, Yan; Zou, Zhongmin

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen mustard (NM), a bifunctional alkylating agent (BAA), contains two alkyl arms and can act as a cross-linking bridge between DNA and protein to form a DNA-protein cross-link (DPC). O 6 -methylguanine–DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), a DNA repair enzyme for alkyl adducts removal, is found to enhance cell sensitivity to BAAs and to promote damage, possibly due to its stable covalent cross-linking with DNA mediated by BAAs. To investigate MGMT-DNA cross-link (mDPC) formation and its possible dual roles in NM exposure, human bronchial epithelial cell line 16HBE was subjected to different concentrations of HN2, a kind of NM, and we found mDPC was induced by HN2 in a concentration-dependent manner, but the mRNA and total protein of MGMT were suppressed. As early as 1 h after HN2 treatment, high mDPC was achieved and the level maintained for up to 24 h. Quick total DPC (tDPC) and γ-H2AX accumulation were observed. To evaluate the effect of newly predicted protease DVC1 on DPC cleavage, we applied siRNA of MGMT and DVC1, MG132 (proteasome inhibitor), and NMS-873 (p97 inhibitor) and found that proteolysis plays a role. DVC1 was proven to be more important in the cleavage of mDPC than tDPC in a p97-dependent manner. HN2 exposure induced DVC1 upregulation, which was at least partially contributed to MGMT cleavage by proteolysis because HN2-induced mDPC level and DNA damage was closely related with DVC1 expression. Homologous recombination (HR) was also activated. Our findings demonstrated that MGMT might turn into a DNA damage promoter by forming DPC when exposed to HN2. Proteolysis, especially DVC1, plays a crucial role in mDPC repair. - Highlights: • Nitrogen mustard-induced MGMT-DNA cross-linking was detected in a living cell. • Concentration- and time-dependent manners of MGMT-DNA cross-linking were revealed. • Proteolysis played an important role in protein (MGMT)-DNA cross-linking repair. • DVC1 acts as a proteolytic enzyme in cross-linking repair in a p

  12. Induction and repair of DNA cross-links induced by sulfur mustard in the A-549 cell line followed by a comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Petr; Svobodova, Hana; Stetina, Rudolf

    2015-07-25

    Sulfur mustard is a highly toxic chemical warfare agent with devastating impact on intoxicated tissues. DNA cross-links are probably the most toxic DNA lesions induced in the cell by sulfur mustard. The comet assay is a very sensitive method for measuring DNA damage. In the present study using the A-549 lung cell line, the comet assay protocol was optimized for indirect detection of DNA cross-links induced by sulfur mustard. The method is based on the additional treatment of the assayed cells containing cross-links with the chemical mutagen, styrene oxide. Alkali-labile adducts of styrene oxide cause DNA breaks leading to the formation of comets. A significant dose-dependent reduction of DNA migration of the comet's tail was found after exposing cells to sulfur mustard, indicative of the amount of sulfur mustard induced cross-links. The remarkable decrease of % tail DNA could be observed as early as 5min following exposure to sulfur mustard and the maximal effect was found after 30min, when DNA migration was reduced to the minimum. Sulfur mustard preincubated in culture medium without cells lost its ability to induce cross-links and had a half-life of about 15min. Pre-incubation longer than 30min does not lead to a significant increase in cross-links when applied to cells. However, the amount of cross-links is decreased during further incubation due to repair. The current modification of the comet assay provides a useful tool for detecting DNA cross-links induced by sulfur mustard and could be used for detection of other DNA cross-linking agents such as chemotherapeutic drugs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Preliminary Characterization of Genipin-Cross-Linked Silk Sericin/Poly(vinyl alcohol Films as Two-Dimensional Wound Dressings for the Healing of Superficial Wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tippawan Siritientong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The genipin-cross-linked silk sericin/poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA films were developed aiming to be applied as two-dimensional wound dressings for the treatment of superficial wounds. The effects of genipin cross-linking concentration on the physical and biological properties of the films were investigated. The genipin-cross-linked silk sericin/PVA films showed the increased surface density, tensile strength, and percentage of elongation, but decreased percentage of light transmission, water vapor transmission rate, and water swelling, compared to the non-cross-linked films. This explained that the cross-linking bonds between genipin and silk sericin would reduce the mobility of molecular chains within the films, resulting in the more rigid molecular structure. Silk sericin was released from the genipin-cross-linked films in a sustained manner. In addition, either L929 mouse fibroblast or HaCat keratinocyte cells showed high percentage of viability when cultured on the silk sericin/PVA films cross-linked with 0.075 and 0.1% w/v genipin. The in vivo safety test performed according to ISO 10993-6 confirmed that the genipin-cross-linked silk sericin/PVA films were safe for the medical usages. The efficacy of the films for the treatment of superficial skin wounds will be further investigated in vivo and clinically. The genipin-cross-linked silk sericin/PVA films would be promising choices of two-dimensional wound dressings for the treatment of superficial wounds.

  14. Utilizing Mechanistic Cross-Linking Technology to Study Protein-Protein Interactions: An Experiment Designed for an Undergraduate Biochemistry Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finzel, Kara; Beld, Joris; Burkart, Michael D.; Charkoudian, Louise K.

    2017-01-01

    Over the past decade, mechanistic cross-linking probes have been used to study protein-protein interactions in natural product biosynthetic pathways. This approach is highly interdisciplinary, combining elements of protein biochemistry, organic chemistry, and computational docking. Herein, we described the development of an experiment to engage…

  15. Application of a fast sorting algorithm to the assignment of mass spectrometric cross-linking data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrotchenko, Evgeniy V; Borchers, Christoph H

    2014-09-01

    Cross-linking combined with MS involves enzymatic digestion of cross-linked proteins and identifying cross-linked peptides. Assignment of cross-linked peptide masses requires a search of all possible binary combinations of peptides from the cross-linked proteins' sequences, which becomes impractical with increasing complexity of the protein system and/or if digestion enzyme specificity is relaxed. Here, we describe the application of a fast sorting algorithm to search large sequence databases for cross-linked peptide assignments based on mass. This same algorithm has been used previously for assigning disulfide-bridged peptides (Choi et al., ), but has not previously been applied to cross-linking studies. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Comparative Results From a National Joint Registry Hip Data Set of a New Cross-Linked Annealed Polyethylene vs Both Conventional Polyethylene and Ceramic Bearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epinette, Jean-Alain; Jolles-Haeberli, Brigitte M

    2016-07-01

    Major concerns in hip arthroplasty concern the fate of bearing surfaces. Highly cross-linked polyethylene materials (HXLPE) currently demonstrate successful in vitro results with new technical procedures of cross-linking the polyethylene material, whereas processing the polyethylene below its melting temperature to produce so-called "annealed HXLPE" would allow retention of important mechanical properties. Data released by the National Joint Registry of England and Wales addressing in 45,877 hips the same Trident uncemented cup, allowed us to compare the performance of a consecutive cohort of patients implanted with the newest generation of annealed HXLPE acetabular bearings (X3: 21,470) vs 2 consecutive nonselected cohorts, one with conventional polyethylene (N2vac: 8225) and one with ceramic-on-ceramic (CoC) hip bearings (AL: 16,182). The main end point in survivorship has been first defined as revision for any cause, then for any cause which could be related to a failure of the bearing couple. At 6-year follow-up, all Trident cups demonstrated encouraging global survival cumulative rates all between 95% and 99%. A first study demonstrated better survivorship with X3-HXLPE liners vs conventional ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene. On the second parallel study, the cumulative survival rates were better for X3 liners as compared to CoC bearings. Moreover, when ranking the yearly cumulative percent revision rates, again the best results were obtained with X3 liners with small alumina heads (cumulative percent revision rate at 0.298). Within the frame of this Trident study, the use of this X3 highly cross-linked annealed polyethylene could be considered as a reliable alternate solution to CoC bearings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Transparent, Superflexible Doubly Cross-Linked Polyvinylpolymethylsiloxane Aerogel Superinsulators via Ambient Pressure Drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Guoqing; Shimizu, Taiyo; Kanamori, Kazuyoshi; Zhu, Yang; Maeno, Ayaka; Kaji, Hironori; Shen, Jun; Nakanishi, Kazuki

    2018-01-23

    Aerogels have many attractive properties but are usually costly and mechanically brittle, which always limit their practical applications. While many efforts have been made to reinforce the aerogels, most of the reinforcement efforts sacrifice the transparency or superinsulating properties. Here we report superflexible polyvinylpolymethylsiloxane, (CH 2 CH(Si(CH 3 )O 2/2 )) n , aerogels that are facilely prepared from a single precursor vinylmethyldimethoxysilane or vinylmethyldiethoxysilane without organic cross-linkers. The method is based on consecutive processes involving radical polymerization and hydrolytic polycondensation, followed by ultralow-cost, highly scalable, ambient-pressure drying directly from alcohol as a drying medium without any modification or additional solvent exchange. The resulting aerogels and xerogels show a homogeneous, tunable, highly porous, doubly cross-linked nanostructure with the elastic polymethylsiloxane network cross-linked with flexible hydrocarbon chains. An outstanding combination of ultralow cost, high scalability, uniform pore size, high surface area, high transparency, high hydrophobicity, excellent machinability, superflexibility in compression, superflexibility in bending, and superinsulating properties has been achieved in a single aerogel or xerogel. This study represents a significant progress of porous materials and makes the practical applications of transparent flexible aerogel-based superinsulators realistic.

  18. Comparative Study of One-Step Cross-Linked Electrospun Chitosan-Based Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanet E. Aguirre-Chagala

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan membranes are widely applied for tissue engineering; however, a major drawback is their low resistance in aqueous phases and therefore the structure collapses impeding their long-term use. Although there is extensive research, because of chitosan’s importance as a biomaterial, studies involving chitosan-based membranes are still needed. Herein, a detailed investigation of diverse chemical routes to cross-link fibers in situ by electrospinning process is described. In case of using genipin as cross-linker, a close relationship with the content and the mean diameter values is reported, suggesting a crucial effect over the design of nanostructures. Also, the physical resistance is enhanced for the combination of two types of methods, such as chemical and physical methods. Cross-linked fibers upon exposure to long wave ultraviolet A (UVA light change their morphology, but not their chemical composition. When they are incubated in aqueous phase for 70 days, they show an extensive improvement of their macrostructural integrity which makes them attractive candidates for tissue engineering application. As a result, the thermal properties of these materials reveal less crystallinity and higher temperature of degradation.

  19. In Situ Cross-Linking of Stimuli-Responsive Hemicellulose Microgels during Spray Drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Chemical cross-linking during spray drying offers the potential for green fabrication of microgels with a rapid stimuli response and good blood compatibility and provides a platform for stimuli-responsive hemicellulose microgels (SRHMGs). The cross-linking reaction occurs rapidly in situ at elevated temperature during spray drying, enabling the production of microgels in a large scale within a few minutes. The SRHMGs with an average size range of ∼1–4 μm contain O-acetyl-galactoglucomannan as a matrix and poly(acrylic acid), aniline pentamer (AP), and iron as functional additives, which are responsive to external changes in pH, electrochemical stimuli, magnetic field, or dual-stimuli. The surface morphologies, chemical compositions, charge, pH, and mechanical properties of these smart microgels were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy, IR, zeta potential measurements, pH evaluation, and quantitative nanomechanical mapping, respectively. Different oxidation states were observed when AP was introduced, as confirmed by UV spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Systematic blood compatibility evaluations revealed that the SRHMGs have good blood compatibility. This bottom-up strategy to synthesize SRHMGs enables a new route to the production of smart microgels for biomedical applications. PMID:25630464

  20. Polymeric redox-responsive delivery systems bearing ammonium salts cross-linked via disulfides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Dollendorf

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A redox-responsive polycationic system was synthesized via copolymerization of N,N-diethylacrylamide (DEAAm and 2-(dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA. N,N’-bis(4-chlorobutanoylcystamine was used as disulfide-containing cross-linker to form networks by the quaternization of tertiary amine groups. The insoluble cationic hydrogels become soluble by reduction of disulfide to mercaptanes by use of dithiothreitol (DTT, tris(2-carboxyethylphosphine (TCEP or cysteamine, respectively. The soluble polymeric system can be cross-linked again by using oxygen or hydrogen peroxide under basic conditions. The redox-responsive polymer networks can be used for molecular inclusion and controlled release. As an example, phenolphthalein, methylene blue and reactive orange 16 were included into the network. After treatment with DTT a release of the dye could be recognized. Physical properties of the cross-linked materials, e.g., glass transition temperature (Tg, swelling behavior and cloud points (Tc were investigated. Redox-responsive behavior was further analyzed by rheological measurements.

  1. Probing Rubber Cross-Linking Generation of Industrial Polymer Networks at Nanometer Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielle, Brice; Gomez, Emmanuel; Korb, Jean-Pierre

    2016-06-23

    We present improved analyses of rheometric torque measurements as well as (1)H double-quantum (DQ) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) buildup data on polymer networks of industrial compounds. This latter DQ NMR analysis allows finding the distribution of an orientation order parameter (Dres) resulting from the noncomplete averaging of proton dipole-dipole couplings within the cross-linked polymer chains. We investigate the influence of the formulation (filler and vulcanization systems) as well as the process (curing temperature) ending to the final polymer network. We show that DQ NMR follows the generation of the polymer network during the vulcanization process from a heterogeneous network to a very homogeneous one. The time variations of microscopic Dres and macroscopic rheometric torques present power-law behaviors above a threshold time scale with characteristic exponents of the percolation theory. We observe also a very good linear correlation between the kinetics of Dres and rheometric data routinely performed in industry. All these observations confirm the description of the polymer network generation as a critical phenomenon. On the basis of all these results, we believe that DQ NMR could become a valuable tool for investigating in situ the cross-linking of industrial polymer networks at the nanometer scale.

  2. In situ cross-linking of stimuli-responsive hemicellulose microgels during spray drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Weifeng; Nugroho, Robertus Wahyu N; Odelius, Karin; Edlund, Ulrica; Zhao, Changsheng; Albertsson, Ann-Christine

    2015-02-25

    Chemical cross-linking during spray drying offers the potential for green fabrication of microgels with a rapid stimuli response and good blood compatibility and provides a platform for stimuli-responsive hemicellulose microgels (SRHMGs). The cross-linking reaction occurs rapidly in situ at elevated temperature during spray drying, enabling the production of microgels in a large scale within a few minutes. The SRHMGs with an average size range of ∼ 1-4 μm contain O-acetyl-galactoglucomannan as a matrix and poly(acrylic acid), aniline pentamer (AP), and iron as functional additives, which are responsive to external changes in pH, electrochemical stimuli, magnetic field, or dual-stimuli. The surface morphologies, chemical compositions, charge, pH, and mechanical properties of these smart microgels were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy, IR, zeta potential measurements, pH evaluation, and quantitative nanomechanical mapping, respectively. Different oxidation states were observed when AP was introduced, as confirmed by UV spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Systematic blood compatibility evaluations revealed that the SRHMGs have good blood compatibility. This bottom-up strategy to synthesize SRHMGs enables a new route to the production of smart microgels for biomedical applications.

  3. Characterization of a bombesin receptor on Swiss mouse 3T3 cells by affinity cross-linking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinnett-Smith, J.; Zachary, I.; Rozengurt, E.

    1988-01-01

    We have previously identified by chemical cross-linking a cell surface protein in Swiss 3T3 cells of apparent Mr 75,000-85,000, which may represent a major component of the receptor for peptides of the bombesin family in these cells. Because bombesin-like peptides may interact with other cell surface molecules, it was important to establish the correlation between receptor binding and functions of this complex and further characterize the Mr 75,000-85,000 cross-linked protein. Detailed time courses carried out at different temperatures demonstrated that the Mr 75,000-85,000 affinity-labelled band was the earliest cross-linked complex detected in Swiss 3T3 cells incubated with 125I-labelled gastrin-releasing peptide (125I-GRP). Furthermore, the ability of various nonradioactive bombesin agonists and antagonists to block the formation of the Mr 75,000-85,000 cross-linked complex correlated extremely well (r = 0.994) with the relative capacity of these peptides to inhibit 125I-GRP specific binding. Pretreatment with unlabelled GRP for up to 6 h caused only a slight decrease in both specific 125I-GRP binding and the affinity labelling of the Mr 75,000-85,000 protein. We also show that the cross-linked complex is a glycoprotein. First, solubilized affinity labelled Mr 75,000-85,000 complex applied to wheat germ lectin-sepharose columns was eluted by addition of 0.3 M N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. Second, treatment with endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase F reduced the apparent molecular weight of the affinity-labelled band from 75,000-85,000 to 43,000, indicating the presence of N-linked oligosaccharide groups

  4. Photo-cross-linked PLA-PEO-PLA hydrogels from self-assembled physical networks: mechanical properties and influence of assumed constitutive relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanabria-DeLong, Naomi; Crosby, Alfred J; Tew, Gregory N

    2008-10-01

    Poly(lactide)-block-poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(lactide) (PLA-PEO-PLA) triblock copolymers are known to form physical hydrogels in water as a result of the polymer's amphiphilicity. Their mechanical properties, biocompatibility, and biodegradability have made them attractive for use as soft tissue scaffolds. However, the network junction points are not covalently cross-linked, and in a highly aqueous environment these hydrogels adsorb more water, transform from gel to sol, and lose the designed mechanical properties. In this article, a hydrogel was formed by the use of a novel two-step approach. In the first step, the end-functionalized PLA-PEO-PLA triblock was self-assembled into a physical hydrogel through hydrophobic micelle network junctions, and in the second step, this self-assembled physical network structure was locked into place by photo-cross-linking the terminal acrylate groups. In contrast with physical hydrogels, the photo-cross-linked gels remained intact in phosphate-buffered solution at body temperature. The swelling, degradation, and mechanical properties were characterized, and they demonstrated an extended degradation time (approximately 65 days), an exponential decrease in modulus with degradation time, and a tunable shear modulus (1.6-133 kPa). We also discuss the various constitutive relationships (Hookean, neo-Hookean, and Mooney-Rivlin) that can be used to describe the stress-strain behavior of these hydrogels. The chosen model and assumptions used for data fitting influenced the obtained modulus values by as much as a factor of 3.5, which demonstrates the importance of clearly stating one's data fitting parameters so that accurate comparisons can be made within the literature.

  5. DNA cross-linking by dehydromonocrotaline lacks apparent base sequence preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieben, W Kurt; Coulombe, Roger A

    2004-12-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are ubiquitous plant toxins, many of which, upon oxidation by hepatic mixed-function oxidases, become reactive bifunctional pyrrolic electrophiles that form DNA-DNA and DNA-protein cross-links. The anti-mitotic, toxic, and carcinogenic action of PAs is thought to be caused, at least in part, by these cross-links. We wished to determine whether the activated PA pyrrole dehydromonocrotaline (DHMO) exhibits base sequence preferences when cross-linked to a set of model duplex poly A-T 14-mer oligonucleotides with varying internal and/or end 5'-d(CG), 5'-d(GC), 5'-d(TA), 5'-d(CGCG), or 5'-d(GCGC) sequences. DHMO-DNA cross-links were assessed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) of 32P endlabeled oligonucleotides and by HPLC analysis of cross-linked DNAs enzymatically digested to their constituent deoxynucleosides. The degree of DNA cross-links depended upon the concentration of the pyrrole, but not on the base sequence of the oligonucleotide target. Likewise, HPLC chromatograms of cross-linked and digested DNAs showed no discernible sequence preference for any nucleotide. Added glutathione, tyrosine, cysteine, and aspartic acid, but not phenylalanine, threonine, serine, lysine, or methionine competed with DNA as alternate nucleophiles for cross-linking by DHMO. From these data it appears that DHMO exhibits no strong base preference when forming cross-links with DNA, and that some cellular nucleophiles can inhibit DNA cross-link formation.

  6. Towards a fully synthetic substitute of alginate: optimization of a thermal gelation/chemical cross-linking scheme ("tandem" gelation) for the production of beads and liquid-core capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellesi, F; Weber, W; Fussenegger, M; Hubbell, J A; Tirelli, N

    2004-12-20

    Fully synthetic polymers were used for the preparation of hydrogel beads and capsules, in a processing scheme that, originally designed for calcium alginate, was adapted to a "tandem" process, that is the combination a physical gelation with a chemical cross-linking. The polymers feature a Tetronic backbone (tetra armed Pluronics), which exhibits a reverse thermal gelation in water solutions within a physiological range of temperatures and pHs. The polymers bear terminal reactive groups that allow for a mild, but effective chemical cross-linking. Given an appropriate temperature jump, the thermal gelation provides a hardening kinetics similar to that of alginate. With slower kinetics, the chemical cross-linking then develops an irreversible and elastic gel structure, and determines its transport properties. In the present article this process has been optimized for the production of monodisperse, high elastic, hydrogel microbeads, and liquid-core microcapsules. We also show the feasibility of the use of liquid-core microcapsules in cell encapsulation. In preliminary experiments, CHO cells have been successfully encapsulated preserving their viability during the process and after incubation. The advantages of this process are mainly in the use of synthetic polymers, which provide great flexibility in the molecular design. This, in principle, allows for a precise tailoring of mechanical and transport properties and of bioactivity of the hydrogels, and also for a precise control in material purification.

  7. Structure of the Dispase Autolysis-inducing Protein from Streptomyces mobaraensis and Glutamine Cross-linking Sites for Transglutaminase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiebig, David; Schmelz, Stefan; Zindel, Stephan; Ehret, Vera; Beck, Jan; Ebenig, Aileen; Ehret, Marina; Fröls, Sabrina; Pfeifer, Felicitas; Kolmar, Harald; Fuchsbauer, Hans-Lothar; Scrima, Andrea

    2016-09-23

    Transglutaminase from Streptomyces mobaraensis (MTG) is an important enzyme for cross-linking and modifying proteins. An intrinsic substrate of MTG is the dispase autolysis-inducing protein (DAIP). The amino acid sequence of DAIP contains 5 potential glutamines and 10 lysines for MTG-mediated cross-linking. The aim of the study was to determine the structure and glutamine cross-linking sites of the first physiological MTG substrate. A production procedure was established in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) to obtain high yields of recombinant DAIP. DAIP variants were prepared by replacing four of five glutamines for asparagines in various combinations via site-directed mutagenesis. Incorporation of biotin cadaverine revealed a preference of MTG for the DAIP glutamines in the order of Gln-39 ≫ Gln-298 > Gln-345 ∼ Gln-65 ≫ Gln-144. In the structure of DAIP the preferred glutamines do cluster at the top of the seven-bladed β-propeller. This suggests a targeted cross-linking of DAIP by MTG that may occur after self-assembly in the bacterial cell wall. Based on our biochemical and structural data of the first physiological MTG substrate, we further provide novel insight into determinants of MTG-mediated modification, specificity, and efficiency. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Evaluation of nanohydroxyapaptite (nano-HA) coated epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) cross-linked collagen membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chenyu; Deng, Jia; Man, Yi; Qu, Yili

    2017-09-01

    Collagen is the main component of extracellular matrix (ECM) with desirable biological activities and low antigenicity. Collagen materials have been widely utilized in guided bone regeneration (GBR) surgery due to its abilities to maintain space for hard tissue growth. However, pure collagen lacks optimal mechanical properties. In our previous study, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) cross-linked collagen membranes, with better biological activities and enhanced mechanical properties, may promote osteoblast proliferation, but their effect on osteoblast differentiation is not very significant. Nanohydroxyapatite (nano-HA) is the main component of mineral bone, which possesses exceptional bioactivity properties including good biocompatibility, high osteoconductivity and osteoinductivity, non-immunogenicity and non-inflammatory behavior. Herein, by analyzing the physical and chemical properties as well as the effects on promoting bone regeneration, we have attempted to present a novel EGCG-modified collagen membrane with nano-HA coating, and have found evidence that the novel collagen membrane may promote bone regeneration with a better surface morphology, without destroying collagen backbone. To evaluate the surface morphologies, chemical and mechanical properties of pure collagen membranes, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) cross-linked collagen membranes, nano-HA coated collagen membranes, nano-HA coated EGCG-collagen membranes, (ii) to evaluate the bone regeneration promoted by theses membranes. In the present study, collagen membranes were divided into 4 groups: (1) untreated collagen membranes (2) EGCG cross-linked collagen membranes (3) nano-HA modified collagen membranes (4) nano-HA modified EGCG-collagen membranes. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to evaluate surface morphologies and chemical properties, respectively. Mechanical properties were determined by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC

  9. Advanced High Temperature Structural Seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newquist, Charles W.; Verzemnieks, Juris; Keller, Peter C.; Rorabaugh, Michael; Shorey, Mark

    2002-10-01

    This program addresses the development of high temperature structural seals for control surfaces for a new generation of small reusable launch vehicles. Successful development will contribute significantly to the mission goal of reducing launch cost for small, 200 to 300 pound payloads. Development of high temperature seals is mission enabling. For instance, ineffective control surface seals can result in high temperature (3100 F) flows in the elevon area exceeding structural material limits. Longer sealing life will allow use for many missions before replacement, contributing to the reduction of hardware, operation and launch costs.

  10. HIGH TEMPERATURE POLYMER FUEL CELLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Oluf; Qingfeng, Li; He, Ronghuan

    2003-01-01

    This paper will report recent results from our group on polymer fuel cells (PEMFC) based on the temperature resistant polymer polybenzimidazole (PBI), which allow working temperatures up to 200°C. The membrane has a water drag number near zero and need no water management at all. The high working...

  11. Flexible Ultrahigh-Temperature Polymer-Based Dielectrics with High Permittivity for Film Capacitor Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zejun Pu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this report, flexible cross-linked polyarylene ether nitrile/functionalized barium titanate(CPEN/F-BaTiO3 dielectrics films with high permittivitywere prepared and characterized. The effects of both the F-BaTiO3 and matrix curing on the mechanical, thermal and dielectric properties of the CPEN/F-BaTiO3 dielectric films were investigated in detail. Compared to pristine BaTiO3, the surface modified BaTiO3 particles effectively improved their dispersibility and interfacial adhesion in the polymer matrix. Moreover, the introduction of F-BaTiO3 particles enhanced dielectric properties of the composites, with a relatively high permittivity of 15.2 and a quite low loss tangent of 0.022 (1 kHz when particle contents of 40 wt % were utilized. In addition, the cyano (–CN groups of functional layer also can serve as potential sites for cross-linking with polyarylene ether nitrile terminated phthalonitrile (PEN-Ph matrix and make it transform from thermoplastic to thermosetting. Comparing with the pure PEN-ph film, the latter results indicated that the formation of cross-linked network in the polymer-based system resulted in increased tensile strength by ~67%, improved glass transition temperature (Tg by ~190 °C. More importantly, the CPEN/F-BaTiO3 composite films filled with 30 wt % F-BaTiO3 particles showed greater energy density by nearly 190% when compared to pure CPEN film. These findings enable broader applications of PEN-based composites in high-performance electronics and energy storage devices materials used at high temperature.

  12. Wear of cross-linked polyethylene against itself: a material suitable for surface replacement of the finger joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibly, T F; Unsworth, A

    1991-05-01

    Cross-linking of polyethylene (XLPE) has dramatically improved its properties in industrial applications, and it may also have some application in the field of human joint replacement. Additionally it has the advantage of permitting a lower molecular weight base material to be used, so that components may be injection moulded rather than machined. This study therefore investigates the wear resistance of medical grade cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE), cross-linked by a silane-grafting process, with a molecular weight between cross links of 5430 g mol(-1). This first report investigates the wear resistance of XLPE against itself, because for certain joints, such as the metacarpo-phalangeal joint, the material may have a high enough wear resistance to allow both bearing surfaces to be made from it. Tests were carried out both on a reciprocating pin and plate machine with pins loaded at 10 and 40 N and also on a new finger joint simulator, which simulates the loads applied to and the movements of, the metacarpo-phalangeal joint. An average wear rate of 1.8 x 10(-6) mm3 N-1 m-1 was found (range 0.9-2.75 x 10(-6) mm3 N-1 m-1). This is about six times greater than the wear rate of non-cross-linked ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) against stainless steel, but for applications with low loading, such as the metacarpo-phalangeal joint, this material is shown to have adequate wear resistance. The coefficient of friction was 0.1, which is similar to that of UHMWPE on stainless steel.

  13. Energy harvesting from vibration with cross-linked polypropylene piezoelectrets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Zhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectret films are prepared by modification of the microstructure of polypropylene foam sheets cross-linked by electronic irradiation (IXPP, followed by proper corona charging. Young’s modulus, relative permittivity, and electromechanical coupling coefficient of the fabricated films, determined by dielectric resonance spectra, are about 0.7 MPa, 1.6, and 0.08, respectively. Dynamic piezoelectric d33 coefficients up to 650 pC/N at 200 Hz are achieved. The figure of merit (FOM, d33 ⋅ g33 for a more typical d33 value of 400 pC/N is about 11.2 GPa−1. Vibration-based energy harvesting with one-layer and two-layer stacks of these films is investigated at various frequencies and load resistances. At an optimum load resistance of 9 MΩ and a resonance frequency of 800 Hz, a maximum output power of 120 μW, referred to the acceleration g due to gravity, is obtained for an energy harvester consisting of a one-layer IXPP film with an area of 3.14 cm2 and a seismic mass of 33.7 g. The output power can be further improved by using two-layer stacks of IXPP films in electric series. IXPP energy harvesters could be used to energize low-power electronic devices, such as wireless sensors and LED lights.

  14. Energy harvesting from vibration with cross-linked polypropylene piezoelectrets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiaoqing [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Special Artificial Microstructure Materials and Technology & School of Physics Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Institute for Telecommunications Technology, Merckstrasse 25, 64283 Darmstadt (Germany); Wu, Liming [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Special Artificial Microstructure Materials and Technology & School of Physics Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Sessler, Gerhard M., E-mail: g.sessler@nt.tu-darmstadt.de [Institute for Telecommunications Technology, Merckstrasse 25, 64283 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2015-07-15

    Piezoelectret films are prepared by modification of the microstructure of polypropylene foam sheets cross-linked by electronic irradiation (IXPP), followed by proper corona charging. Young’s modulus, relative permittivity, and electromechanical coupling coefficient of the fabricated films, determined by dielectric resonance spectra, are about 0.7 MPa, 1.6, and 0.08, respectively. Dynamic piezoelectric d{sub 33} coefficients up to 650 pC/N at 200 Hz are achieved. The figure of merit (FOM, d{sub 33} ⋅ g{sub 33}) for a more typical d{sub 33} value of 400 pC/N is about 11.2 GPa{sup −1}. Vibration-based energy harvesting with one-layer and two-layer stacks of these films is investigated at various frequencies and load resistances. At an optimum load resistance of 9 MΩ and a resonance frequency of 800 Hz, a maximum output power of 120 μW, referred to the acceleration g due to gravity, is obtained for an energy harvester consisting of a one-layer IXPP film with an area of 3.14 cm{sup 2} and a seismic mass of 33.7 g. The output power can be further improved by using two-layer stacks of IXPP films in electric series. IXPP energy harvesters could be used to energize low-power electronic devices, such as wireless sensors and LED lights.

  15. Elasticity in Physically Cross-Linked Amyloid Fibril Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yiping; Bolisetty, Sreenath; Adamcik, Jozef; Mezzenga, Raffaele

    2018-04-01

    We provide a constitutive model of semiflexible and rigid amyloid fibril networks by combining the affine thermal model of network elasticity with the Derjaguin-Landau-Vervey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory of electrostatically charged colloids. When compared to rheological experiments on β -lactoglobulin and lysozyme amyloid networks, this approach provides the correct scaling of elasticity versus both concentration (G ˜c2.2 and G ˜c2.5 for semiflexible and rigid fibrils, respectively) and ionic strength (G ˜I4.4 and G ˜I3.8 for β -lactoglobulin and lysozyme, independent from fibril flexibility). The pivotal role played by the screening salt is to reduce the electrostatic barrier among amyloid fibrils, converting labile physical entanglements into long-lived cross-links. This gives a power-law behavior of G with I having exponents significantly larger than in other semiflexible polymer networks (e.g., actin) and carrying DLVO traits specific to the individual amyloid fibrils.

  16. Cross-linking da cornea: protocolo padrão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcony R. Santhiago

    Full Text Available RESUMO O objetivo desta revisão é de determinar as indicações e eficácia da cirurgia que promove novas ligações covalentes entre as fibras de colágeno da córnea, conhecida como Cross-Linking (CXL, assim como esclarecer seus objetivos. O ceratocone é uma doença ectasica da córnea, bilateral, assimétrica, que, principalmente, cursa com encurvamento e afinamentos progressivo, e se inicia em geral na segunda década de vida. O uso primário do CXL tem sido na interrupção da progressão do Ceratocone. Apesar do conhecido encurvamento no estroma da córnea ocorrer nesses pacientes, a fisiopatologia por trás do ceratocone ainda é desconhecida e parece ser multifatorial. Pela evidencia literária disponível até o momento, o CXL da córnea esta, portanto indicado nos pacientes com doença em progressão. Concluímos que existe evidencia suficiente para afirmar que o CXL da córnea é eficaz na estabilização da doença ectásica da cornea.

  17. DFT Modeling of Cross-Linked Polyethylene: Role of Gold Atoms and Dispersion Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaško, Martin; Mach, Pavel; Antušek, Andrej; Urban, Miroslav

    2018-02-08

    Using DFT modeling, we analyze the concerted action of gold atoms and dispersion interactions in cross-linked polyethylene. Our model consists of two oligomer chains (PEn) with 7, 11, 15, 19, or 23 carbon atoms in each oligomer cross-linked with one to three Au atoms through C-Au-C bonds. In structures with a single gold atom the C-Au-C bond is located in the central position of the oligomer. Binding energies (BEs) with respect to two oligomer radical fragments and Au are as high as 362-489 kJ/mol depending on the length of the oligomer chain. When the dispersion contribution in PEn-Au-PEn oligomers is omitted, BE is almost independent of the number of carbon atoms, lying between 293 and 296 kJ/mol. The dispersion energy contributions to BEs in PEn-Au-PEn rise nearly linearly with the number of carbon atoms in the PEn chain. The carbon-carbon distance in the C-Au-C moiety is around 4.1 Å, similar to the bond distance between saturated closed shell chains in the polyethylene crystal. BEs of pure saturated closed shell PEn-PEn oligomers are 51-187 kJ/mol. Both Au atoms and dispersion interactions contribute considerably to the creation of nearly parallel chains of oligomers with reasonably high binding energies.

  18. High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The six user centers in the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML), a DOE User Facility, are dedicated to solving materials problems that limit the efficiency...

  19. Rapid and high throughput fabrication of high temperature stable structures through PDMS transfer printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenberger, Erik; Freitag, Nathan; Korampally, Venumadhav

    2017-07-01

    We report on a facile and low cost fabrication approach for structures—gratings and enclosed nanochannels, through simple solution processed chemistries in conjunction with nanotransfer printing techniques. The ink formulation primarily consisting of an organosilicate polymeric network with a small percentage of added 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane crosslinker allows one to obtain robust structures that are not only stable towards high temperature processing steps as high as 550 °C but also exhibit exceptional stability against a host of organic solvent washes. No discernable structure distortion was observed compared to the as-printed structures (room temperature processed) when printed structures were subjected to temperatures as high as 550 °C. We further demonstrate the applicability of this technique towards the fabrication of more complex nanostructures such as enclosed channels through a double transfer method, leveraging the exceptional room temperature cross-linking ability of the printed structures and their subsequent resistance to dissolution in organic solvent washes. The exceptional temperature and physico-chemical stability of the nanotransfer printed structures makes this a useful fabrication tool that may be applied as is, or integrated with conventional lithographic techniques for the large area fabrication of functional nanostructures and devices.

  20. Biocatalytic cross-linking of pectic polysaccharides for designed food functionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaidel, Dayang Norulfairuz Abang; Meyer, Anne S.

    2012-01-01

    the mechanisms of formation of functional pectic polysaccharide cross-links, including covalent cross-links (notably phenolic esters and uronyl ester linkages) and non-covalent, ionic cross-links (which involve calcium and borate ester links). The treatise examines how such cross-links can be designed via......Recent research has demonstrated how cross-linking of pectic polysaccharides to obtain gel formation can be promoted by enzymatic catalysis reactions, and provide opportunities for functional upgrading of pectic polysaccharides present in agro-industrial sidestreams. This review highlights...... specific enzymatic reactions, and highlights the most recent data concerning enzyme catalyzed engineering of cross-links for in situ structural design of functional properties of foods....

  1. Glutaraldehyde cross-linking of amniotic membranes affects their nanofibrous structures and limbal epithelial cell culture characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai JY

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Jui-Yang Lai,1–3 David Hui-Kang Ma4,5 1Institute of Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering, 2Biomedical Engineering Research Center, 3Molecular Medicine Research Center, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 4Limbal Stem Cell Laboratory, Department of Ophthalmology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 5Department of Chinese Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan Abstract: Given that the cells can sense nanometer dimensions, the chemical cross-linking-mediated alteration in fibrillar structure of collagenous tissue scaffolds is critical to determining their cell culture performances. This article explores, for the first time, the effect of nanofibrous structure of glutaraldehyde (GTA cross-linked amniotic membrane (AM on limbal epithelial cell (LEC cultivation. Results of ninhydrin assays demonstrated that the amount of new cross-links formed between the collagen chains is significantly increased with increasing the cross-linking time from 1 to 24 hours. By transmission electron microscopy, the AM treated with GTA for a longer duration exhibited a greater extent of molecular aggregation, thereby leading to a considerable increase in nanofiber diameter and resistance against collagenase degradation. In vitro biocompatibility studies showed that the samples cross-linked with GTA for 24 hours are not well-tolerated by the human corneal epithelial cell cultures. When the treatment duration is less than 6 hours, the biological tissues cross-linked with GTA for a longer time may cause slight reductions in 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl-2-(4-sulfophenyl-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt, and anti-inflammatory activities. Nevertheless, significant collagen molecular aggregation also enhances the stemness gene expression, indicating a high ability of these AM matrices to preserve the progenitors of LECs in vitro. It is concluded that GTA cross-linking of collagenous tissue materials may affect their nanofibrous

  2. High temperature divertor plasma operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyabu, Nobuyoshi.

    1991-02-01

    High temperature divertor plasma operation has been proposed, which is expected to enhance the core energy confinement and eliminates the heat removal problem. In this approach, the heat flux is guided through divertor channel to a remote area with a large target surface, resulting in low heat load on the target plate. This allows pumping of the particles escaping from the core and hence maintaining of the high divertor temperature, which is comparable to the core temperature. The energy confinement is then determined by the diffusion coefficient of the core plasma, which has been observed to be much lower than the thermal diffusivity. (author)

  3. High temperature high vacuum creep testing facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matta, M.K.

    1985-01-01

    Creep is the term used to describe time-dependent plastic flow of metals under conditions of constant load or stress at constant high temperature. Creep has an important considerations for materials operating under stresses at high temperatures for long time such as cladding materials, pressure vessels, steam turbines, boilers,...etc. These two creep machines measures the creep of materials and alloys at high temperature under high vacuum at constant stress. By the two chart recorders attached to the system one could register time and temperature versus strain during the test . This report consists of three chapters, chapter I is the introduction, chapter II is the technical description of the creep machines while chapter III discuss some experimental data on the creep behaviour. Of helium implanted stainless steel. 13 fig., 3 tab

  4. Characterization of Chemical and Physical Properties of Hydroxypropylated and Cross-linked Arrowroot (Marantha arundinacea Starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rijanti Rahaju Maulani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The modern food industry and a variety of food products require tolerant starch as raw material for processing in a broad range of techniques, from preparation to storage and distribution. Dual modification of arrowroot starch using hydroxypropylation and cross-linking was carried out to overcome the lack of native arrowroot starch in food processing application. The modifications applied were: combined propylene oxide (8%, 10%, and 12%; sodium tri meta phosphate/STMP (1%, 2%, and 3%; and sodium tri poly phosphate/STPP (4%, 5%, and 6%. These modifications significantly affected the composition of the amylose and amylopectin and the amount of phosphorus in the granules. Higher amounts of phosphate salt gave a higher phosphorus content, which increased the degree of substitution (DS and the degree of cross-link. Arrowroot starch that was modified using a concentration of 8-10% propylene oxide and 1-2% STMP : 3-5% STPP produced a starch with < 0.4% phosphorus content. A higher concentration of propylene oxide provided a higher degree of hydroxypropyl. The changed physical properties of the modified granular arrowroot starch were examined through SEM testing, and its changed crystalline patterns through X-ray diffraction measurements. Especially, provision of a high concentration of propylene oxide (12% combined with 3% STMP : 6% STPP affected the granular morphology and the crystallinity.

  5. Gastrin receptor characterization: affinity cross-linking of the gastrin receptor on canine gastric parietal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, M.; Park, J.; Yamada, T.

    1987-01-01

    The authors applied affinity cross-linking methods to label the gastrin receptor on isolated canine gastric parietal cells in order to elucidate the nature of its chemical structure. 125 I-labeled Leu 15 -gastrin and 125 I-labeled gastrin/sub 2-17/ bound to intact parietal cells and their membranes with equal affinity, and half-maximal inhibition of binding was obtained at an incubation concentration of 3.2 x 10 -10 M unlabeled gastrin. 125 I-gastrin/sub 2-17/ was cross-linked to plasma membranes or intact parietal cells by incubation in disuccinimidyl suberate. The membrane pellets were solubilized with or without dithiothreitol and applied to electrophoresis on 7.5% sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gels. Autoradiograms revealed a band of labeling at M/sub r/ 76,000 and labeling of this band was inhibited in a dose-dependent fashion by addition of unlabeled gastrin to the incubation mixture. Dithiothreitol in concentrations as high as 100 mM did not later the electrophoretic mobility of the labeled band. After taking into account the molecular weight of 125 I-gastrin/sub 2-17/, the results suggest that the gastrin receptor on parietal cells is a single protein of M/sub r/ 74,000 without disulfide-linked subunits

  6. Seed-mediated synthesis of cross-linked Pt-NiO nanochains for methanol oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Zhulan; Bin, Duan; Feng, Yue; Zhang, Ke; Wang, Jin; Yan, Bo; Li, Shumin; Xiong, Zhiping; Wang, Caiqin; Shiraishi, Yukihide; Du, Yukou

    2017-07-01

    A simple method was reported for employing NiO nanoparticles act as seeds and then different amounts of Pt2+ were reduced on the NiO nanoparticles, forming a cross-linked Pt-NiO nanocatalysts. These as-prepared catalysts were characterized using different physical-chemical techniques, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicate that the morphology of the cross-linked Pt-NiO nanochain was successfully produced regardless of the molar ratio of Pt2+ to NiO precursors. The electrochemical characteristics of Pt-NiO nanochain catalysts were evaluated for the oxidation of methanol as a model reaction, which verify that the Pt-NiO catalysts show enhanced activity and high stability in comparison with the commercial Pt/C catalyst. The optimized ratio of Pt to NiO is 1:1, then tuned by simple adjusting the feed ratio of the precursors as well. The synthesized nanocatalysts will be found the great potential applications as electrocatalysts for fuel cells owe to their enhanced catalytic performance and long-term stability.

  7. On spray drying of oxidized corn starch cross-linked gelatin microcapsules for drug release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, Xugang; Yang, Mao; Shan, Zhihua; Mansouri, Shahnaz; May, Bee K; Chen, Xiaodong; Chen, Hui; Woo, Meng Wai

    2017-01-01

    Spray-dried gelatin/oxidized corn starch (G/OCS) microcapsules were produced for drug release application. The prepared microcapsules were characterized through a scanning electron microscope (SEM) picture and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The swelling characteristics of the G/OCS microcapsules and release properties of vitamin C were then investigated. The results from structural analysis indicated that the presence of miscibility and compatibility between oxidized corn starch and gelatin, and exhibits high thermal stability up to 326 °C. The swelling of G/OCS microcapsules increased with increasing pH and reduced with decreasing ionic strength, attributed to the cross-linking between gelatin and oxidized corn starch, ionization of functional groups. Vitamin C release characteristic revealed controlled release behavior in the first 3 h of contact with an aqueous medium. This release behavior was independent of the swelling behavior indicating the potential of the encapsulating matrix to produce controlled release across a spectrum of pH environment. - Highlights: • It's first time to prepare microencapsulation with gelatin and oxidized corn starch. • The microencapsulation material can be biodegradable completely. • The production technology of microcapsule is convenient. • This work explores the potential to use oxidized starch cross-linked gelatin. • The microencapsulation material can be used for drug release.

  8. Structuring of Amide Cross-Linked Non-Bridged and Bridged Alkyl-Based Silsesquioxanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, S C; de Zea Bermudez, V

    2018-02-06

    The development of sophisticated organized materials exhibiting enhanced properties is a challenging topic of the domain of organic/inorganic hybrid materials. This review, composed of four sections, reports the work we have carried out over the last 10 years on the synthesis of amide cross-linked alkyl/siloxane hybrids by means of sol-gel chemistry and self-directed assembly/self-organization routes relying on weak interactions (hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding). The various as-produced lamellar structures displaying a myriad of morphologies, often closely resembling those found in natural materials, are discussed. The major role played by the synthetic conditions (pH, water content, co-solvent(s) nature/concentration and dopant presence/concentration), the alkyl chains (length and presence of ramification or not) and the number of the amide cross-links present in the precursor, is evidenced. Examples of highly organized hybrids structures incorporating ionic species (alkali and alkaline earth metal salts) and optically-active centers (organic dyes and lanthanide ions) are described. A useful qualitative relationship deduced between the emission quantum yield of the ordered hybrid materials and the degree of order of the hydrogen-bonded network is highlighted. © 2018 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Removal of anionic azo dyes from aqueous solution by functional ionic liquid cross-linked polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Hejun; Kan, Taotao; Zhao, Siyuan; Qian, Yixia; Cheng, Xiyuan; Wu, Wenli; Wang, Xiaodong; Zheng, Liqiang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic of adsorption of dyes onto PDVB-IL was investigated. • PDVB-IL has a high adsorption capacity to treat dyes solution. • Higher adsorption capacity is due to the functional groups of PDVB-IL. • Molecular structure of dyes influences the adsorption capacity. -- Abstract: A novel functional ionic liquid based cross-linked polymer (PDVB-IL) was synthesized from 1-aminoethyl-3-vinylimidazolium chloride and divinylbenzene for use as an adsorbent. The physicochemical properties of PDVB-IL were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The adsorptive capacity was investigated using anionic azo dyes of orange II, sunset yellow FCF, and amaranth as adsorbates. The maximum adsorption capacity could reach 925.09, 734.62, and 547.17 mg/g for orange II, sunset yellow FCF and amaranth at 25 °C, respectively, which are much better than most of the other adsorbents reported earlier. The effect of pH value was investigated in the range of 1–8. The result shows that a low pH value is found to favor the adsorption of those anionic azo dyes. The adsorption kinetics and isotherms are well fitted by a pseudo second-order model and Langmuir model, respectively. The adsorption process is found to be dominated by physisorption. The introduction of functional ionic liquid moieties into cross-linked poly(divinylbenzene) polymer constitutes a new and efficient kind of adsorbent

  10. On spray drying of oxidized corn starch cross-linked gelatin microcapsules for drug release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dang, Xugang; Yang, Mao; Shan, Zhihua [National Engineering Laboratory for Clean Technology Leather Manufacture, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610065 (China); Mansouri, Shahnaz [Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia); May, Bee K [School of Applied Science, RMIT University, 124 La Trobe St, Melbourne, VIC 3001 (Australia); Chen, Xiaodong [Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia); School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Material Science, Soochow University (China); Chen, Hui, E-mail: leather2088@sina.com [National Engineering Laboratory for Clean Technology Leather Manufacture, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610065 (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia); Woo, Meng Wai, E-mail: meng.woo@monash.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia)

    2017-05-01

    Spray-dried gelatin/oxidized corn starch (G/OCS) microcapsules were produced for drug release application. The prepared microcapsules were characterized through a scanning electron microscope (SEM) picture and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The swelling characteristics of the G/OCS microcapsules and release properties of vitamin C were then investigated. The results from structural analysis indicated that the presence of miscibility and compatibility between oxidized corn starch and gelatin, and exhibits high thermal stability up to 326 °C. The swelling of G/OCS microcapsules increased with increasing pH and reduced with decreasing ionic strength, attributed to the cross-linking between gelatin and oxidized corn starch, ionization of functional groups. Vitamin C release characteristic revealed controlled release behavior in the first 3 h of contact with an aqueous medium. This release behavior was independent of the swelling behavior indicating the potential of the encapsulating matrix to produce controlled release across a spectrum of pH environment. - Highlights: • It's first time to prepare microencapsulation with gelatin and oxidized corn starch. • The microencapsulation material can be biodegradable completely. • The production technology of microcapsule is convenient. • This work explores the potential to use oxidized starch cross-linked gelatin. • The microencapsulation material can be used for drug release.

  11. Effects of Genipin Concentration on Cross-Linked Chitosan Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering: Structural Characterization and Evidence of Biocompatibility Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Dimida

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Genipin (GN is a natural molecule extracted from the fruit of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis according to modern microbiological processes. Genipin is considered as a favorable cross-linking agent due to its low cytotoxicity compared to widely used cross-linkers; it cross-links compounds with primary amine groups such as proteins, collagen, and chitosan. Chitosan is a biocompatible polymer that is currently studied in bone tissue engineering for its capacity to promote growth and mineral-rich matrix deposition by osteoblasts in culture. In this work, two genipin cross-linked chitosan scaffolds for bone repair and regeneration were prepared with different GN concentrations, and their chemical, physical, and biological properties were explored. Scanning electron microscopy and mechanical tests revealed that nonremarkable changes in morphology, porosity, and mechanical strength of scaffolds are induced by increasing the cross-linking degree. Also, the degradation rate was shown to decrease while increasing the cross-linking degree, with the high cross-linking density of the scaffold disabling the hydrolysis activity. Finally, basic biocompatibility was investigated in vitro, by evaluating proliferation of two human-derived cell lines, namely, the MG63 (human immortalized osteosarcoma and the hMSCs (human mesenchymal stem cells, as suitable cell models for bone tissue engineering applications of biomaterials.

  12. The Influence of Chitosan Cross-linking on the Properties of Alginate Microparticles with Metformin Hydrochloride—In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Szekalska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium alginate is a polymer with unique ability to gel with different cross-linking agents in result of ionic and electrostatic interactions. Chitosan cross-linked alginate provides improvement of swelling and mucoadhesive properties and might be used to design sustained release dosage forms. Therefore, the aim of this research was to develop and evaluate possibility of preparing chitosan cross-linked alginate microparticles containing metformin hydrochloride by the spray-drying method. In addition, influence of cross-linking agent on the properties of microparticles was evaluated. Formulation of microparticles prepared by the spray drying of 2% alginate solution cross-linked by 0.1% chitosan was characterized by good mucoadhesive properties, high drug loading and prolonged metformin hydrochloride release. It was shown that designed microparticles reduced rat glucose blood level, delayed absorption of metformin hydrochloride and provided stable plasma drug concentration. Additionally, histopathological studies of pancreas, liver and kidneys indicated that all prepared microparticles improved degenerative changes in organs of diabetic rats. Moreover, no toxicity effect and no changes in rats behavior after oral administration of chitosan cross-linked alginate microparticles were noted.

  13. High temperature corrosion of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quadakkers, W.J.; Schuster, H.; Ennis, P.J.

    1988-08-01

    This paper covers three main topics: 1. high temperature oxidation of metals and alloys, 2. corrosion in sulfur containing environments and 3. structural changes caused by corrosion. The following 21 subjects are discussed: Influence of implanted yttrium and lanthanum on the oxidation behaviour of beta-NiA1; influence of reactive elements on the adherence and protective properties of alumina scales; problems related to the application of very fine markers in studying the mechanism of thin scale formation; oxidation behaviour of chromia forming Co-Cr-Al alloys with or without reactive element additions; growth and properties of chromia-scales on high-temperature alloys; quantification of the depletion zone in high temperature alloys after oxidation in process gas; effects of HC1 and of N2 in the oxidation of Fe-20Cr; investigation under nuclear safety aspects of Zircaloy-4 oxidation kinetics at high temperatures in air; on the sulfide corrosion of metallic materials; high temperature sulfide corrosion of Mn, Nb and Nb-Si alloys; corrosion behaviour or NiCrAl-based alloys in air and air-SO2 gas mixtures; sulfidation of cobalt at high temperatures; preoxidation for sulfidation protection; fireside corrosion and application of additives in electric utility boilers; transport properties of scales with complex defect structures; observations of whiskers and pyramids during high temperature corrosion of iron in SO2; corrosion and creep of alloy 800H under simulated coal gasification conditions; microstructural changes of HK 40 cast alloy caused by exploitation in tubes in steam reformer installation; microstructural changes during exposure in corrosive environments and their effect on mechanical properties; coatings against carburization; mathematical modeling of carbon diffusion and carbide precipitation in Ni-Cr-based alloys. (MM)

  14. Effects of acetic acid and lactic acid on physicochemical characteristics of native and cross-linked wheat starches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majzoobi, Mahsa; Beparva, Paniz

    2014-03-15

    The effects of two common organic acids; lactic and acetic acids (150 mg/kg) on physicochemical properties of native and cross-linked wheat starches were investigated prior and after gelatinization. These acids caused formation of some cracks and spots on the granules. The intrinsic viscosity of both starches decreased in the presence of the acids particularly after gelatinization. Water solubility increased while water absorption reduced after addition of the acids. The acids caused reduction in gelatinization temperature and enthalpy of gelatinization of both starches. The starch gels became softer, less cohesive, elastic and gummy when acids were added. These changes may indicate the degradation of the starch molecules by the acids. Cross-linked wheat starch was more resistant to the acids. However, both starches became more susceptible to the acids after gelatinization. The effect of lactic acid on physicochemical properties of both starches before and after gelatinization was greater than acetic acid. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The theory and art of corneal cross-linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuaid, Rebecca; Cummings, Arthur B; Mrochen, Michael

    2013-08-01

    Before the discovery of corneal cross-linking (CXL), patients with keratoconus would have had to undergo corneal transplantation, or wear rigid gas permeable lenses (RGPs) that would temporarily flatten the cone, thereby improving the vision. The RGP contact lens (CL) would not however alter the corneal stability and if the keratoconus was progressive, the continued steepening of the cone would occur under the RGP CL. To date, the Siena Eye has been the largest study to investigate long term effects of standard CXL. Three hundred and sixty-three eyes were treated and monitored over 4 years, producing reliable long-term results proving long-term stability of the cornea by halting the progression of keratoconus, and proving the safety of the procedure. Traditionally, CXL requires epithelial removal prior to corneal soakage of a dextran-based 0.1% riboflavin solution, followed by exposure of ultraviolet-A (UV-A) light for 30 min with an intensity of 3 mW/cm2. A series of in vitro investigations on human and porcine corneas examined the best treatment parameters for standard CXL, such as riboflavin concentration, intensity, wavelength of UV-A light, and duration of treatment. Photochemically, CXL is achieved by the generation of chemical bonds within the corneal stroma through localized photopolymerization, strengthening the cornea whilst minimizing exposure to the surrounding structures of the eye. In vitro studies have shown that CXL has an effect on the biomechanical properties of the cornea, with an increased corneal rigidity of approximately 70%. This is a result of the creation of new chemical bonds within the stroma.

  16. The theory and art of corneal cross-linking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca McQuaid

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Before the discovery of corneal cross-linking (CXL, patients with keratoconus would have had to undergo corneal transplantation, or wear rigid gas permeable lenses (RGPs that would temporarily flatten the cone, thereby improving the vision. The RGP contact lens (CL would not however alter the corneal stability and if the keratoconus was progressive, the continued steepening of the cone would occur under the RGP CL. To date, the Siena Eye has been the largest study to investigate long term effects of standard CXL. Three hundred and sixty-three eyes were treated and monitored over 4 years, producing reliable long-term results proving long-term stability of the cornea by halting the progression of keratoconus, and proving the safety of the procedure. Traditionally, CXL requires epithelial removal prior to corneal soakage of a dextran-based 0.1% riboflavin solution, followed by exposure of ultraviolet-A (UV-A light for 30 min with an intensity of 3 mW/cm2. A series of in vitro investigations on human and porcine corneas examined the best treatment parameters for standard CXL, such as riboflavin concentration, intensity, wavelength of UV-A light, and duration of treatment. Photochemically, CXL is achieved by the generation of chemical bonds within the corneal stroma through localized photopolymerization, strengthening the cornea whilst minimizing exposure to the surrounding structures of the eye. In vitro studies have shown that CXL has an effect on the biomechanical properties of the cornea, with an increased corneal rigidity of approximately 70%. This is a result of the creation of new chemical bonds within the stroma.

  17. High temperature electronic gain device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormick, J.B.; Depp, S.W.; Hamilton, D.J.; Kerwin, W.J.

    1979-01-01

    An integrated thermionic device suitable for use in high temperature, high radiation environments is described. Cathode and control electrodes are deposited on a first substrate facing an anode on a second substrate. The substrates are sealed to a refractory wall and evacuated to form an integrated triode vacuum tube

  18. RPC operation at high temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Aielli, G; Cardarelli, R; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Stante, L; Liberti, B; Paoloni, A; Pastori, E; Santonico, R

    2003-01-01

    The resistive electrodes of RPCs utilised in several current experiments (ATLAS, CMS, ALICE, BABAR and ARGO) are made of phenolic /melaminic polymers, with room temperature resistivities ranging from 10**1**0 Omega cm, for high rate operation in avalanche mode, to 5 multiplied by 10**1**1 Omega cm, for streamer mode operation at low rate. The resistivity has however a strong temperature dependence, decreasing exponentially with increasing temperature. We have tested several RPCs with different electrode resistivities in avalanche as well as in streamer mode operation. The behaviours of the operating current and of the counting rate have been studied at different temperatures. Long-term operation has also been studied at T = 45 degree C and 35 degree C, respectively, for high and low resistivity electrodes RPCs.

  19. HIgh Temperature Photocatalysis over Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westrich, Thomas A.

    Due in large part to in prevalence of solar energy, increasing demand of energy production (from all sources), and the uncertain future of petroleum energy feedstocks, solar energy harvesting and other photochemical systems will play a major role in the developing energy market. This dissertation focuses on a novel photochemical reaction process: high temperature photocatalysis (i.e., photocatalysis conducted above ambient temperatures, T ≥ 100°C). The overarching hypothesis of this process is that photo-generated charge carriers are able to constructively participate in thermo-catalytic chemical reactions, thereby increasing catalytic rates at one temperature, or maintaining catalytic rates at lower temperatures. The photocatalytic oxidation of carbon deposits in an operational hydrocarbon reformer is one envisioned application of high temperature photocatalysis. Carbon build-up during hydrocarbon reforming results in catalyst deactivation, in the worst cases, this was shown to happen in a period of minutes with a liquid hydrocarbon. In the presence of steam, oxygen, and above-ambient temperatures, carbonaceous deposits were photocatalytically oxidized over very long periods (t ≥ 24 hours). This initial experiment exemplified the necessity of a fundamental assessment of high temperature photocatalytic activity. Fundamental understanding of the mechanisms that affect photocatalytic activity as a function of temperatures was achieved using an ethylene photocatalytic oxidation probe reaction. Maximum ethylene photocatalytic oxidation rates were observed between 100 °C and 200 °C; the maximum photocatalytic rates were approximately a factor of 2 larger than photocatalytic rates at ambient temperatures. The loss of photocatalytic activity at temperatures above 200 °C is due to a non-radiative multi-phonon recombination mechanism. Further, it was shown that the fundamental rate of recombination (as a function of temperature) can be effectively modeled as a

  20. High temperature thermoelectric energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, C.

    1986-01-01

    Considerable advances were made in the late '50's and early early '60's in the theory and development of materials for high-temperature thermoelectric energy conversion. This early work culminated in a variety of materials, spanning a range of temperatures, with the product of the figure of merit, Z, and temperature, T, i.e., the dimensionless figure of merit, ZT, of the order of one. This experimental limitation appeared to be universal and led a number of investigators to explore the possibility that a ZT - also represents a theoretical limitation. It was found not to be so

  1. Reorientational motion of a cross-link junction in a poly(dimethylsiloxane) network measured by time-resolved fluorescence depolarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, A.D. (Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)); Hoffman, D.A. (Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)); Frank, C.W. (Department of Chemical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)); Fayer, M.D. (Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States))

    1992-02-15

    The reorientational dynamics of a cross-link junction in poly(dimethylsiloxane) networks, measured by the fluorescence anisotropy decay of a chromophore tagged to the cross-link, have been investigated over a range of temperatures from {ital T}{sub {ital g}}+75 to {ital T}{sub {ital g}}+150. The probe chromophore, 1-dimethylamino-5-sulfonylnaphthalene amide (dansyl amide), is pendant to a trifunctional silane that acts as a cross-linking molecule. In cyclohexanol, the fluorescence anisotropy decay is in agreement with Debye--Stokes--Einstein hydrodynamic theory (rotational diffusion) demonstrating that the cross-linker can be used as a probe of orientational relaxation. The fluorescence anisotropy decays at a rapid rate in an end-linked poly(dimethyl siloxane) network reflecting fast reorientational motion of the cross-link junction. This reorientation appears diffusive and has a temperature dependence in accord with the Williams--Landel--Ferry equation. A model is proposed that suggests that reorientation and translational motion of the cross-link occur simultaneously and are both coupled to fluctuations of the polymer chain ends.

  2. Reorientational motion of a cross-link junction in a poly(dimethylsiloxane) network measured by time-resolved fluorescence depolarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, A.D.; Hoffman, D.A.; Frank, C.W.; Fayer, M.D.

    1992-01-01

    The reorientational dynamics of a cross-link junction in poly(dimethylsiloxane) networks, measured by the fluorescence anisotropy decay of a chromophore tagged to the cross-link, have been investigated over a range of temperatures from T g +75 to T g +150. The probe chromophore, 1-dimethylamino-5-sulfonylnaphthalene amide (dansyl amide), is pendant to a trifunctional silane that acts as a cross-linking molecule. In cyclohexanol, the fluorescence anisotropy decay is in agreement with Debye--Stokes--Einstein hydrodynamic theory (rotational diffusion) demonstrating that the cross-linker can be used as a probe of orientational relaxation. The fluorescence anisotropy decays at a rapid rate in an end-linked poly(dimethyl siloxane) network reflecting fast reorientational motion of the cross-link junction. This reorientation appears diffusive and has a temperature dependence in accord with the Williams--Landel--Ferry equation. A model is proposed that suggests that reorientation and translational motion of the cross-link occur simultaneously and are both coupled to fluctuations of the polymer chain ends

  3. Cross-Linked Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropene (PVDF-co-HFP Gel Polymer Electrolyte for Flexible Li-Ion Battery Integrated with Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilhwan Kim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Here, we fabricate poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropene (PVDF-co-HFP by electrospinning for a gel polymer electrolyte (GPE for use in flexible Li-ion batteries (LIBs. As a solvent, we use N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP, which helps produce the cross-linked morphology of PVDF-co-HFP separator, owing to its low volatility. The cross-linked PVDF-co-HFP separator shows an uptake rate higher than that of a commercialized polypropylene (PP separator. Moreover, the PVDF-co-HFP separator shows an ionic conductivity of 2.3 × 10−3 S/cm at room temperature, comparable with previously reported values. An LIB full-cell assembled with the PVDF-co-HFP-based GPE shows capacities higher than its counterpart with the commercialized PP separator, confirming that the cross-linked PVDF-co-HFP separator provides highly efficient ionic conducting pathways. In addition, we integrate a flexible LIB cell using the PVDF-co-HFP GPE with a flexible organic light emitting diode (OLED, demonstrating a fully flexible unit of LIB and OLED.

  4. High Temperature Transparent Furnace Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Stephen C.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the use of novel techniques for heat containment that could be used to build a high temperature transparent furnace. The primary objective of the work was to experimentally demonstrate transparent furnace operation at 1200 C. Secondary objectives were to understand furnace operation and furnace component specification to enable the design and construction of a low power prototype furnace for delivery to NASA in a follow-up project. The basic approach of the research was to couple high temperature component design with simple concept demonstration experiments that modify a commercially available transparent furnace rated at lower temperature. A detailed energy balance of the operating transparent furnace was performed, calculating heat losses through the furnace components as a result of conduction, radiation, and convection. The transparent furnace shells and furnace components were redesigned to permit furnace operation at at least 1200 C. Techniques were developed that are expected to lead to significantly improved heat containment compared with current transparent furnaces. The design of a thermal profile in a multizone high temperature transparent furnace design was also addressed. Experiments were performed to verify the energy balance analysis, to demonstrate some of the major furnace improvement techniques developed, and to demonstrate the overall feasibility of a high temperature transparent furnace. The important objective of the research was achieved: to demonstrate the feasibility of operating a transparent furnace at 1200 C.

  5. "Green" High-Temperature Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, Michael A.

    1998-01-01

    PMR-15 is a processable, high-temperature polymer developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center in the 1970's principally for aeropropulsion applications. Use of fiber-reinforced polymer matrix composites in these applications can lead to substantial weight savings, thereby leading to improved fuel economy, increased passenger and payload capacity, and better maneuverability. PMR-15 is used fairly extensively in military and commercial aircraft engines components seeing service temperatures as high as 500 F (260 C), such as the outer bypass duct for the F-404 engine. The current world-wide market for PMR-15 materials (resins, adhesives, and composites) is on the order of $6 to 10 million annually.

  6. High-temperature metallography setup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumenfeld, M.; Shmarjahu, D.; Elfassy, S.

    1979-06-01

    A high-temperature metallography setup is presented. In this setup the observation of processes such as that of copper recrystallization was made possible, and the structure of metals such as uranium could be revealed. A brief historical review of part of the research works that have been done with the help of high temperature metallographical observation technique since the beginning of this century is included. Detailed description of metallographical specimen preparation technique and theoretical criteria based on the rate of evaporation of materials present on the polished surface of the specimens are given

  7. High temperature corrosion in gasifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakker Wate

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Several commercial scale coal gasification combined cycle power plants have been built and successfully operated during the last 5-10 years. Supporting research on materials of construction has been carried out for the last 20 years by EPRI and others. Emphasis was on metallic alloys for heat exchangers and other components in contact with hot corrosive gases at high temperatures. In this paper major high temperature corrosion mechanisms, materials performance in presently operating gasifiers and future research needs will be discussed.

  8. High temperature creep of vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhasz, A.; Kovacs, I.

    1978-01-01

    The creep behaviour of polycrystalline vanadium of 99.7% purity has been investigated in the temperature range 790-880 0 C in a high temperature microscope. It was found that the creep properties depend strongly on the history of the sample. To take this fact into account some additional properties such as the dependence of the yield stress and the microhardness on the pre-annealing treatment have also been studied. Samples used in creep measurements were selected on the basis of their microhardness. The activation energy of creep depends on the microhardness and on the creep temperature. In samples annealed at 1250 0 C for one hour (HV=160 kgf mm -2 ) the rate of creep is controlled by vacancy diffusion in the temperature range 820-880 0 C with an activation energy of 78+-8 kcal mol -1 . (Auth.)

  9. Covalent-ionically cross-linked polyetheretherketone proton exchange membrane for direct methanol fuel cell

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Luo, H

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available cross-linked PEEK-WC membrane, this covalent-ionically cross-linked PEEK-WC membrane exhibits extremely reduced water uptake and methanol permeability, but just slightly sacrificed proton conductivity. The proton conductivity of the covalent...

  10. Cell protein cross-linking by erbstatin and related compounds | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The scheme depicts a possible mechanism of cross-linking by erbstatin and related analogues. A mechanism of action is proposed which involves initial oxidation to reactive quinone intermediates that subsequently cross-link protein nucleophiles via multiple 1,4-Michael-type additions. Similar alkylation of protein by protein-tyrosine kinase inhibitors, such as herbimycin A, has

  11. Analysis of protein-nucleic acid interactions by photochemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen, Hanno; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2002-01-01

    . Mass spectrometry (MS) has emerged as a sensitive and efficient analytical technique for determination of such cross-linking sites in proteins. The present review of the field describes a number of MS-based approaches for the characterization of cross-linked protein-nucleic acid complexes...

  12. SYNTHESIS AND CATALYTIC PROPERTIES OF CROSS-LINKED HYDROPHOBICALLY ASSOCIATING POLY(ALKYLMETHYLDIALLYLAMMONIUM BROMIDES)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WANG, GJ; ENGBERTS, JBFN

    1994-01-01

    Cross-linked, hydrophobically associating homo- and copolymers were synthesized by free-radical cyclo(co)polymerization of alkylmethyldiallylammonium bromide monomers with a small amount of N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide in aqueous solution using ammonium persulfate as the initiator. The cross-linked

  13. Models for stiffening in cross-linked biopolymer networks : A comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dillen, T.; Onck, P. R.; Van der Giessen, E.

    In a recent publication, we studied the mechanical stiffening behavior in two-dimensional (2D) cross-linked networks of semiflexible biopolymer filaments under simple shear [Onck, P.R., Koeman, T., Van Dillen, T., Van der Giessen, E., 2005. Alternative explanation of stiffening in cross-linked

  14. Rheological properties of dispersions of enzymatically cross-linked apo-α-lactalbumin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saricay, Yunus; Wierenga, Peter A.; Vries, de Renko

    2016-01-01

    The enzymatic cross-linking of apo-α-lactalbumin (α-LA) with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) leads to the formation of hydrophilic protein aggregates with controlled size and architecture. We explore the rheological properties of dispersions of these HRP-cross-linked α-LA aggregates with a

  15. SECONDARY CYTOTOXICITY OF CROSS-LINKED DERMAL SHEEP COLLAGENS DURING REPEATED EXPOSURE TO HUMAN FIBROBLASTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANLUYN, MJA; VANWACHEM, PB; DAMINK, LHHO; DIJKSTRA, PJ; FEIJEN, J; NIEUWENHUIS, P

    1992-01-01

    We investigated commercially available dermal sheep collagen either cross-linked with hexamethylenedlisocyanate, or cross-linked with glutaraldehyde. In previous in vitro studies we could discriminate primary, i.e. extractable, and secondary cytotoxicity, due to cell-biomaterial interactions, i.e.

  16. Thermoreversible cross-linking of maleated ethylene/propylene copolymers with diamines and amino-alcohols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mee, van der M.A.J.; Goossens, J.G.P.; Duin, van M.

    2008-01-01

    Maleated ethylene/propylene copolymers (MAn-g-EPM) were thermoreversibly cross-linked using diamines and amino-alcohols. Covalent cross-links are formed via the equilibrium reaction of the grafted anhydride groups with di-functional cross-linkers containing combinations of primary (1°) and secondary

  17. Utilization of cross-linked carboxymethyl κ-carrageenan as adsorbent for hexavalent chromium (Cr+6) ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonio, Princess Joyce R.; Punzalan, Mark Emile H.; Saturno, Rochelle Anne B.; Bayquen, Aristea V.

    2009-01-01

    The sorption behavior of cross-linked carboxymethyl κ-carrageenan as an alternative adsorbent for hexavalent chromium was studies. The κ-carrageenan had been carboxymethylated three times with 40% NaOH and monochloroacetic acid (MCA) in 80% isopropyl alcohol at 40 0 C. Carboxymethylated κ-carrageenan was crosslinked using Co 60 irradiation facility at PNRI. Batch experiments were conducted using prepared stock solution of Cr 6+ (70 ppm) under different sorption parameters at room temperature. These parameters include effects of pH, initial metal ion concentration, and contact time. Carboxymethylation and cross-linking was successfully achieved under optimum parameters. It was observed that cross-linked carboxymethyl κ-carrageenan best adsorbs chromium (VI) ion at pH 6, removing 41.59% of the metal ions present in the solution. Freundlich isotherm gave the highest correlation, R 2 , which is equal to 0.9880. This suggests the existence of mutilayer adsorption of the hexavalent chromium ions. Maximum adsorption was found to be at contact time of 2.5 hours and the concentration of the solution remains almost constant after 5 hours. The adsorption kinetics could be approximated favorably by the Lagergren pseudo-second-order kinetic model giving a correlation, R 2 , of 0.9985 and adsorption capacity, qmax, equal to 27.88 mg g +1 . (author)

  18. High-temperature plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furth, H.P.

    1988-03-01

    Both magnetic and inertial confinement research are entering the plasma parameter range of fusion reactor interest. This paper reviews the individual and common technical problems of these two approaches to the generation of thermonuclear plasmas, and describes some related applications of high-temperature plasma physics

  19. High-Temperature Vibration Damper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Alan; Litwin, Joel; Krauss, Harold

    1987-01-01

    Device for damping vibrations functions at temperatures up to 400 degrees F. Dampens vibrational torque loads as high as 1,000 lb-in. but compact enough to be part of helicopter rotor hub. Rotary damper absorbs energy from vibrating rod, dissipating it in turbulent motion of viscous hydraulic fluid forced by moving vanes through small orifices.

  20. Containment of high temperature plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, R.W.; Ferguson, H.R.P.; Fletcher, H. Jr.; Gardner, J.; Harrison, B.K.; Larsen, K.M.

    1973-01-01

    Apparatus is described for confining a high temperature plasma which comprises: 1) envelope means shaped to form a toroidal hollow chamber containing a plasma, 2) magnetic field line generating means for confining the plasma in a smooth toroidal shape without cusps. (R.L.)

  1. Chemistry of high temperature superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    1991-01-01

    This review volume contains the most up-to-date articles on the chemical aspects of high temperature oxide superconductors. These articles are written by some of the leading scientists in the field and includes a comprehensive list of references. This is an essential volume for researchers working in the fields of ceramics, materials science and chemistry.

  2. Properties of high temperature SQUIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falco, C.M.; Wu, C.T.

    1978-01-01

    A review is given of the present status of weak links and dc and rf biased SQUIDs made with high temperature superconductors. A method for producing reliable, reproducible devices using Nb 3 Sn is outlined, and comments are made on directions future work should take

  3. High temperature component life assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Webster, G A

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this book is to investigate and explain the rapid advances in the characterization of high temperature crack growth behaviour which have been made in recent years, with reference to industrial applications. Complicated mathematics has been minimized with the emphasis placed instead on finding solutions using simplified procedures without the need for complex numerical analysis.

  4. The effect of different treatment modalities on the calcification potential and cross-linking stability of bovine pericardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Den Heever, J.J.; Neethling, W.M.L.; Smit, F.E.; Litthauer, D.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Glutaraldehyde (GA)-Fixed bovine pericardium is widely used as substitution material in cardiac surgery, but calcify severely. Pretreatment with glycosaminoglycans(GAG) before GA-fixation to mitigate calcification without sacrificing other requirements, was investigated and compared with Glycar commercial patches. Fresh pericardium was treated with with a) 0.625% GA, b) 0.1 M AICI 3 + GA, c) 0.01 M GAGs, d) GA + propylene glycol. GA-and Aluminium-treated tissue (179.48 and and 140.99 μg Ca 2+ /mg DM) calcified severely (p<0.05) following 8 weeks subcutaneous implantation in rats compared to GAG and Glycar patches (9.11 and 0.93 μg Ca?2?+/mg DM), and had significantly (p<)0.0001) lower extractable water content (36.01 and 46.50 % compared to 75.90 and 64.79%). Protein denaturation temperatures (DSC) decrease with an increase in GAG concentration, while GA (85.46 degree C) and Glycar (87.32 degree C) were significantly (pd?0.0005) higher, indicating a very high degree of collagen cross-linking. Treatments with [GAG] above 0.01 M fell below the benchmark minimum of 80 degree C, identifying this as the optimal [GAG] to be used. GA-fixed tissue demonstrated a significantly (p=0.03) reduced tensile strength compared to GAG - and Glycar-treated tissue, due to reduced elasticity. All explants showed moderate presence of GAG in surrounding host tissue and limited presence on the outer surface of treated implants, indicating a leaching out of GAG into surrounding host tissue because of inadequate GAG stabilization, making the tissue prone to calcification and tissue failure. Mild to moderate presence of lymphocytes in superficial layers was seen in all implants, and in some cases mild infiltration into deeper collagen layers. This correlates with normal immune response from recipient to a foreign devitalized substance in the body, with no correlation to its calcification. All tissue treatments indicate similar resistance to enzymatic digestion following

  5. Novel thermally cross-linked polyimide membranes for ethanol dehydration via pervaporation

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Sheng

    2015-12-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. In this work, two novel carboxyl-containing polyimides, 2,2\\'-bis(3,4-dicarboxyphenyl) hexafluoropropane dianhydride-4,4\\'-diaminodiphenylmethane/3,5-diaminobenzoic acid (6FDA-MDA/DABA, FMD) and 3,3\\',4,4\\'-benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride-4,4\\'-diaminodiphenylmethane/3,5-diaminobenzoic acid (BTDA-MDA/DABA, BMD), are synthesized via chemical and thermal imidization methods, respectively, and employed as pervaporation membranes for ethanol dehydration. Chemical structures of the two polyimides are examined by FTIR and TGA to confirm the successful synthesis. A post thermal treatment of the polyimide membranes with the temperature range of 250 to 400. °C is applied, and its effects on the membrane morphology and separation performance are studied and characterized by FTIR, TGA, WXRD, solubility and sorption test. It is believed that the thermal treatment of the carboxyl-containing polyimide membrane at a relative low temperature only leads to the physical annealing, while it may cause the decarboxylation-induced cross-linking at a higher temperature. In addition, the operation temperature in pervaporation is also varied and shown to be an important factor to affect the final membrane performance. Performance benchmarking shows that the developed polyimide membranes both have superior pervaporation performance to most other flat-sheet dense membranes. This work is believed to shed useful insights on polyimide membranes for pervaporation applications.

  6. Novel thermally cross-linked polyimide membranes for ethanol dehydration via pervaporation

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Sheng; Wang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. In this work, two novel carboxyl-containing polyimides, 2,2'-bis(3,4-dicarboxyphenyl) hexafluoropropane dianhydride-4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane/3,5-diaminobenzoic acid (6FDA-MDA/DABA, FMD) and 3,3',4,4'-benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride-4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane/3,5-diaminobenzoic acid (BTDA-MDA/DABA, BMD), are synthesized via chemical and thermal imidization methods, respectively, and employed as pervaporation membranes for ethanol dehydration. Chemical structures of the two polyimides are examined by FTIR and TGA to confirm the successful synthesis. A post thermal treatment of the polyimide membranes with the temperature range of 250 to 400. °C is applied, and its effects on the membrane morphology and separation performance are studied and characterized by FTIR, TGA, WXRD, solubility and sorption test. It is believed that the thermal treatment of the carboxyl-containing polyimide membrane at a relative low temperature only leads to the physical annealing, while it may cause the decarboxylation-induced cross-linking at a higher temperature. In addition, the operation temperature in pervaporation is also varied and shown to be an important factor to affect the final membrane performance. Performance benchmarking shows that the developed polyimide membranes both have superior pervaporation performance to most other flat-sheet dense membranes. This work is believed to shed useful insights on polyimide membranes for pervaporation applications.

  7. Computational investigation of kinetics of cross-linking reactions in proteins: importance in structure prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Pradipta; Kuntz, Irwin D

    2009-01-01

    The determination of protein structure using distance constraints is a new and promising field of study. One implementation involves attaching residues of a protein using a cross-linking agent, followed by protease digestion, analysis of the resulting peptides by mass spectroscopy, and finally sequence threading to detect the protein folds. In the present work, we carry out computational modeling of the kinetics of cross-linking reactions in proteins using the master equation approach. The rate constants of the cross-linking reactions are estimated using the pKas and the solvent-accessible surface areas of the residues involved. This model is tested with fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and cytochrome C. It is consistent with the initial experimental rate data for individual lysine residues for cytochrome C. Our model captures all observed cross-links for FGF and almost 90% of the observed cross-links for cytochrome C, although it also predicts cross-links that were not observed experimentally (false positives). However, the analysis of the false positive results is complicated by the fact that experimental detection of cross-links can be difficult and may depend on specific experimental conditions such as pH, ionic strength. Receiver operator characteristic plots showed that our model does a good job in predicting the observed cross-links. Molecular dynamics simulations showed that for cytochrome C, in general, the two lysines come closer for the observed cross-links as compared to the false positive ones. For FGF, no such clear pattern exists. The kinetic model and MD simulation can be used to study proposed cross-linking protocols.

  8. High temperature fusion reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harkness, S.D.; dePaz, J.F.; Gohar, M.Y.; Stevens, H.C.

    1979-01-01

    Fusion energy may have unique advantages over other systems as a source for high temperature process heat. A conceptual design of a blanket for a 7 m tokamak reactor has been developed that is capable of producing 1100 0 C process heat at a pressure of approximately 10 atmospheres. The design is based on the use of a falling bed of MgO spheres as the high temperature heat transfer system. By preheating the spheres with energy taken from the low temperature tritium breeding part of the blanket, 1086 MW of energy can be generated at 1100 0 C from a system that produces 3000 MW of total energy while sustaining a tritium breeding ratio of 1.07. The tritium breeding is accomplished using Li 2 O modules both in front of (6 cm thick) and behind (50 cm thick) the high temperature ducts. Steam is used as the first wall and front tritium breeding module coolant while helium is used in the rear tritium breeding region. The system produces 600 MW of net electricity for use on the grid

  9. High Temperature, High Power Piezoelectric Composite Transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeong Jae; Zhang, Shujun; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, StewarT.

    2014-01-01

    Piezoelectric composites are a class of functional materials consisting of piezoelectric active materials and non-piezoelectric passive polymers, mechanically attached together to form different connectivities. These composites have several advantages compared to conventional piezoelectric ceramics and polymers, including improved electromechanical properties, mechanical flexibility and the ability to tailor properties by using several different connectivity patterns. These advantages have led to the improvement of overall transducer performance, such as transducer sensitivity and bandwidth, resulting in rapid implementation of piezoelectric composites in medical imaging ultrasounds and other acoustic transducers. Recently, new piezoelectric composite transducers have been developed with optimized composite components that have improved thermal stability and mechanical quality factors, making them promising candidates for high temperature, high power transducer applications, such as therapeutic ultrasound, high power ultrasonic wirebonding, high temperature non-destructive testing, and downhole energy harvesting. This paper will present recent developments of piezoelectric composite technology for high temperature and high power applications. The concerns and limitations of using piezoelectric composites will also be discussed, and the expected future research directions will be outlined. PMID:25111242

  10. Corneal changes following collagen cross linking and simultaneous topography guided photoablation with collagen cross linking for keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prema Padmanabhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the outcome of Collagen cross-linking (CXL with that following topography-guided customized ablation treatment (T-CAT with simultaneous CXL in eyes with progressive keratoconus. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective, non-randomized single centre study of 66 eyes with progressive keratoconus. Of these, 40 eyes underwent CXL and 26 eyes underwent T-CAT + CXL. The refractive, topographic, tomographic and aberrometric changes measured at baseline, 1, 3 and 6 months post-operatively were compared between both groups. Results: After a mean follow-up of 7.7 ± 1.3 months, the mean retinoscopic cylinder decreased by 1.02 ± 3.16 D in the CXL group ( P = 0.1 and 2.87 ± 3.22 D in the T-CAT + CXL group ( P = 0.04. The Best corrected visual acuity increased by 2 lines or more in 10% of eyes in the CXL group and in 23.3% of eyes in the T-CAT + CXL group. The mean steepest-K reduced by 0.40 ± 3.71 D ( P = 0.77 in the CXL group and by 2.91 ± 2.01D ( P = 0.03 in the T-CAT + CXL group. The sag factor and surface asymmetry index showed no significant change in the CXL group but reduced by 3.59 ± 5.94 D ( P = 0.01 and 0.72 ± 1.18 ( P = 0.02 respectively in the T-CAT + CXL group. There was a significant increase in the highest posterior corneal elevation in both groups (9.57 ± 14.93 μ in the CXL group and 7.85 ± 9.25 μ in the T-CAT + CXL group, P ≤ 0.001 for both. There was significantly greater reduction of mean coma ( P < 0.001 and mean higher-order aberrations ( P = 0.01 following T-CAT + CXL compared to CXL. Conclusions: CAT + CXL is an effective approach to confer biomechanical stability and to improve the corneal contour in eyes with keratoconus and results in better refractive, topographic and aberrometric outcomes than CXL alone.

  11. Characterization of the somatogenic receptor in rat liver. Hydrodynamic properties and affinity cross-linking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husman, B.; Haldosen, L.A.; Andersson, G.; Gustafsson, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    Rat liver somatogenic receptors have been characterized by gel permeation chromatography, sucrose density gradients in H 2 O and D 2 O, and affinity cross-linking using 125 I-bovine growth hormone (bGH) as a specific somatogenic receptor ligand. Cross-linking of 125 I-bovine growth hormone to a Triton X-100-treated low density fraction isolated from livers of late pregnant rats followed by sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under reducing conditions showed three major binders with Mr 95,000, 86,000, and 43,000 and a minor binder of Mr 55,000, after correction for bound ligand assuming a 1:1 binding ratio of ligand-receptor. The Mr 86,000, 55,000, and 43,000 species were recovered in the detergent-soluble supernatant after high-speed centrifugation, whereas the Mr 95,000 species remained Triton X-100 insoluble. Detergent-soluble 125 I-bGH-receptor complexes were further analyzed by sedimentation into sucrose density gradients. The sedimentation coefficient was S20,w = 5.2 S and the partial specific volume v = 0.72 ml/g. Gel permeation chromatography on a Sepharose S-400 column indicated a Stokes radius of 61 A for the 125 I-bGH-receptor-Triton X-100 complex. Based on these figures, the molecular weight of the complex was calculated as 131,100. The molecular weight of the ligand-free receptor-Triton X-100 complex was calculated as Mr 109,100. Affinity cross-linking and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the 61 A peak from Sephacryl S-400 chromatography (cf. above) showed two binding entities, one major and one minor with Mr values 86,000 and 43,000, respectively, in the absence of reductant. When electrophoresis was run in the presence of reductant the Mr 43,000 species was the major binding entity

  12. Red emissive cross-linked chitosan and their nanoparticles for imaging the nucleoli of living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Yuan, Xun; Guo, Zhenpeng; Xu, Jiying; Chen, Yi

    2014-02-15

    Biocompatible glutaraldehyde-cross-linked chitosan with new red fluorescence were prepared for the first time and were shaped into nanoparticles via inverse-microemulsion method. They could luminesce at ca. 670 nm either as powders and nanoparticles or in real and gelling solutions or suspensions, having a lifetime of 1.353 ns and a quantum yield of 0.08 in solution or 0.01 in solid state. The new-formed pyridinium structures and the intramolecular charge transfer effect are considered to be responsible for the new red emission, which have been proved by FTIR, (13)C NMR, and some calculation using Gaussian 09, respectively. Strikingly, they are quite inert and anti-photobleaching, with only nucleoli of living HeLa cells with low cytotoxicity for high contrast imaging inspections. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of epoxy resin for cryogenic use by positron annihilation method. Change of characteristics of epoxy resin with cross-linking density and positron lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishijima, Shigehiro; Honda, Yoshihide; Okada, Toichi; Kobayashi, Yoshinori; Namba, Shingo.

    1994-01-01

    The positron annihilation method has been applied to evaluate unoccupied space in epoxy aiming at the design of the molecular structure for cryogenic use. To confirm the model in which molecular free space is needed in the epoxy for cryogenic use, the molecular weight between cross-linkings in epoxy was changed. The increase of molecular weight between cross-linkings brought an increase of fracture toughness even at liquid helium temperature and the model was found to be confirmed. The increase of molecular weight between cross-linkings was also found to decrease the 3rd lifetime of positrons. It suggested that the epoxy main chains were folded and this was confirmed by the molecular mechanical calculation. (author)

  14. Combined application of prophylactic corneal cross-linking and laser in-situ keratomileusis - a review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Tommy C Y; Ng, Alex L K; Chan, Karen K W; Cheng, George P M; Wong, Ian Y H; Jhanji, Vishal

    2017-11-01

    Laser in-situ keratomileusis (LASIK) is safe and effective laser refractive procedures in treating refractive errors. However, regression of treatment and iatrogenic keratectasia remain to be a major concern, especially in treating thin cornea with high ametropia. Collagen cross-linking (CXL) is an effective method in stopping keratoconus progression through increasing the biomechanical strength of the cornea. Adjuvant cross-linking to refractive procedures can theoretically help prevent regression and reduce the risk of keratectasia development by increasing the mechanical stability of cornea. During the procedure, riboflavin is directly applied to the corneal stroma, thereby reducing the need of de-epithelialization as in the conventional protocol for keratoconus. Currently, there is still no consensus regarding the indication of CXL during refractive procedure, nor any standardized treatment protocol. This article aims to summarize the current evidence regarding the use of adjuvant CXL in LASIK. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Summary: High Temperature Downhole Motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond, David W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Directional drilling can be used to enable multi-lateral completions from a single well pad to improve well productivity and decrease environmental impact. Downhole rotation is typically developed with a motor in the Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA) that develops drilling power (speed and torque) necessary to drive rock reduction mechanisms (i.e., the bit) apart from the rotation developed by the surface rig. Historically, wellbore deviation has been introduced by a “bent-sub,” located in the BHA, that introduces a small angular deviation, typically less than 3 degrees, to allow the bit to drill off-axis with orientation of the BHA controlled at the surface. The development of a high temperature downhole motor would allow reliable use of bent subs for geothermal directional drilling. Sandia National Laboratories is pursuing the development of a high temperature motor that will operate on either drilling fluid (water-based mud) or compressed air to enable drilling high temperature, high strength, fractured rock. The project consists of designing a power section based upon geothermal drilling requirements; modeling and analysis of potential solutions; and design, development and testing of prototype hardware to validate the concept. Drilling costs contribute substantially to geothermal electricity production costs. The present development will result in more reliable access to deep, hot geothermal resources and allow preferential wellbore trajectories to be achieved. This will enable development of geothermal wells with multi-lateral completions resulting in improved geothermal resource recovery, decreased environmental impact and enhanced well construction economics.

  16. NSTX High Temperature Sensor Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormack, B.; Kugel, H.W.; Goranson, P.; Kaita, R.

    1999-01-01

    The design of the more than 300 in-vessel sensor systems for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has encountered several challenging fusion reactor diagnostic issues involving high temperatures and space constraints. This has resulted in unique miniature, high temperature in-vessel sensor systems mounted in small spaces behind plasma facing armor tiles, and they are prototypical of possible high power reactor first-wall applications. In the Center Stack, Divertor, Passive Plate, and vessel wall regions, the small magnetic sensors, large magnetic sensors, flux loops, Rogowski Coils, thermocouples, and Langmuir Probes are qualified for 600 degrees C operation. This rating will accommodate both peak rear-face graphite tile temperatures during operations and the 350 degrees C bake-out conditions. Similar sensor systems including flux loops, on other vacuum vessel regions are qualified for 350 degrees C operation. Cabling from the sensors embedded in the graphite tiles follows narrow routes to exit the vessel. The detailed sensor design and installation methods of these diagnostic systems developed for high-powered ST operation are discussed

  17. Development of high temperature turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahara, Kitao; Nouse, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Toyoaki; Minoda, Mitsuhiro; Matsusue, Katsutoshi; Yanagi, Ryoji

    1988-07-01

    For the contribution to the development of FJR710, high by-pass ratio turbofan engine, with the study for many years of the development of high efficiency turbine for the jet engine, the first technical prize from the Energy Resource Research Committee was awarded in April, 1988. This report introduced its technical contents. In order to improve the thermal efficiency and enlarge the output, it is very effective to raise the gas temperature at the inlet of gas turbine. For its purpose, by cooling the nozzle and moving blades and having those blades operate at lower temperature than that of the working limitation, they realized, for the first time in Japan, the technique of cooling turbine to heighten the operational gas temperature. By that technique, it was enabled to raise the gas temperature at the inlet of turbine, to 1,350/sup 0/C from 850/sup 0/C. This report explain many important points of study covering the basic test, visualizing flow experiment, material discussion and structural design in the process of development. (9 figs)

  18. High temperature structural sandwich panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakonstantinou, Christos G.

    High strength composites are being used for making lightweight structural panels that are being employed in aerospace, naval and automotive structures. Recently, there is renewed interest in use of these panels. The major problem of most commercial available sandwich panels is the fire resistance. A recently developed inorganic matrix is investigated for use in cases where fire and high temperature resistance are necessary. The focus of this dissertation is the development of a fireproof composite structural system. Sandwich panels made with polysialate matrices have an excellent potential for use in applications where exposure to high temperatures or fire is a concern. Commercial available sandwich panels will soften and lose nearly all of their compressive strength temperatures lower than 400°C. This dissertation consists of the state of the art, the experimental investigation and the analytical modeling. The state of the art covers the performance of existing high temperature composites, sandwich panels and reinforced concrete beams strengthened with Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP). The experimental part consists of four major components: (i) Development of a fireproof syntactic foam with maximum specific strength, (ii) Development of a lightweight syntactic foam based on polystyrene spheres, (iii) Development of the composite system for the skins. The variables are the skin thickness, modulus of elasticity of skin and high temperature resistance, and (iv) Experimental evaluation of the flexural behavior of sandwich panels. Analytical modeling consists of a model for the flexural behavior of lightweight sandwich panels, and a model for deflection calculations of reinforced concrete beams strengthened with FRP subjected to fatigue loading. The experimental and analytical results show that sandwich panels made with polysialate matrices and ceramic spheres do not lose their load bearing capability during severe fire exposure, where temperatures reach several

  19. FTIR spectroscopy and thermodynamics of hydrogen adsorbed in a cross-linked polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoto, Giuseppe; Vitillo, Jenny G; Cocina, Donato; Damin, Alessandro; Bonino, Francesca; Zecchina, Adriano

    2007-09-28

    The adsorption of H(2) in a cross-linked poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) (St-DVB) microporous polymer (BET surface area 920 m(2) g(-1)) is studied by volumetric and gravimetric methods, FTIR spectroscopy at variable temperature (300-14 K) and ab initio calculations. At 77 K the polymer reversibly stores up to 1.3 mass% H(2) at a pressure of 1 bar and 1.8 mass% at 10 bar. The adsorption process involves the specific interaction of H(2) with the structural phenyl rings through weak dispersive forces. The interacting molecules become IR active and give rise to vibrational and rotational-vibrational manifestations which are affected by the temperature, the contact time and the H(2) equilibrium pressure. The spectra of the H(2)/St-DVB system reported here represent the first IR evidence of the adsorption of hydrogen on unsaturated molecules. The adsorption enthalpy is evaluated by the VTIR (variable temperature IR spectroscopy) method (C. Otero Areán et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2007, DOI: 10.1039/b615535a) and compared with the results of ab initio calculations for the H(2)/benzene interaction and with literature data.

  20. Ceramics for high temperature applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mocellin, A.

    1977-01-01

    Problems related to materials, their fabrication, properties, handling, improvements are examined. Silicium nitride and silicium carbide are obtained by vacuum hot-pressing, reaction sintering and chemical vapour deposition. Micrographs are shown. Mechanical properties i.e. room and high temperature strength, creep resistance fracture mechanics and fatigue resistance. Recent developments of pressureless sintered Si C and the Si-Al-O-N quaternary system are mentioned

  1. High-temperature geothermal cableheads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coquat, J. A.; Eifert, R. W.

    1981-11-01

    Two high temperature, corrosion resistant logging cable heads which use metal seals and a stable fluid to achieve proper electrical terminations and cable sonde interfacings are described. A tensile bar provides a calibrated yield point, and a cone assembly anchors the cable armor to the head. Electrical problems of the sort generally ascribable to the cable sonde interface were absent during demonstration hostile environment loggings in which these cable heads were used.

  2. Modified gum arabic cross-linked gelatin scaffold for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarika, P.R.; Cinthya, Kuriakose; Jayakrishnan, A.; Anilkumar, P.R.; James, Nirmala Rachel

    2014-01-01

    The present work deals with development of modified gum arabic cross-linked gelatin scaffold for cell culture. A new biocompatible scaffold was developed by cross-linking gelatin (Gel) with gum arabic, a polysaccharide. Gum arabic was subjected to periodate oxidation to obtain gum arabic aldehyde (GAA). GAA was reacted with gelatin under appropriate pH to prepare the cross-linked hydrogel. Cross-linking occurred due to Schiff's base reaction between aldehyde groups of oxidized gum arabic and amino groups of gelatin. The scaffold prepared from the hydrogel was characterized by swelling properties, degree of cross-linking, in vitro degradation and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cytocompatibility evaluation using L-929 and HepG2 cells confirmed non-cytotoxic and non-adherent nature of the scaffold. These properties are essential for generating multicellular spheroids and hence the scaffold is proposed to be a suitable candidate for spheroid cell culture. - Highlights: • Gum arabic cross-linked gelatin scaffold was developed for tissue engineering. • Cross-linking was achieved by Schiff's base reaction. • The scaffold is non-cytotoxic and non adherent to fibroblast and hepatocytes. • The scaffolds are potential candidates for spheroid cell culture

  3. Modified gum arabic cross-linked gelatin scaffold for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarika, P.R. [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 547 (India); Cinthya, Kuriakose [Tissue Culture Laboratory, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Poojappura, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 012 (India); Jayakrishnan, A. [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Anilkumar, P.R., E-mail: anilkumarpr@sctimst.ac.in [Tissue Culture Laboratory, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Poojappura, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 012 (India); James, Nirmala Rachel, E-mail: nirmala@iist.ac.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 547 (India)

    2014-10-01

    The present work deals with development of modified gum arabic cross-linked gelatin scaffold for cell culture. A new biocompatible scaffold was developed by cross-linking gelatin (Gel) with gum arabic, a polysaccharide. Gum arabic was subjected to periodate oxidation to obtain gum arabic aldehyde (GAA). GAA was reacted with gelatin under appropriate pH to prepare the cross-linked hydrogel. Cross-linking occurred due to Schiff's base reaction between aldehyde groups of oxidized gum arabic and amino groups of gelatin. The scaffold prepared from the hydrogel was characterized by swelling properties, degree of cross-linking, in vitro degradation and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cytocompatibility evaluation using L-929 and HepG2 cells confirmed non-cytotoxic and non-adherent nature of the scaffold. These properties are essential for generating multicellular spheroids and hence the scaffold is proposed to be a suitable candidate for spheroid cell culture. - Highlights: • Gum arabic cross-linked gelatin scaffold was developed for tissue engineering. • Cross-linking was achieved by Schiff's base reaction. • The scaffold is non-cytotoxic and non adherent to fibroblast and hepatocytes. • The scaffolds are potential candidates for spheroid cell culture.

  4. Transglutaminase catalyzed cross-linking of sodium caseinate improves oxidative stability of flaxseed oil emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hairan; Forssell, Pirkko; Kylli, Petri; Lampi, Anna-Maija; Buchert, Johanna; Boer, Harry; Partanen, Riitta

    2012-06-20

    Sodium caseinate was modified by transglutaminase catalyzed cross-linking reaction prior to the emulsification process in order to study the effect of cross-linking on the oxidative stability of protein stabilized emulsions. The extent of the cross-linking catalyzed by different dosages of transglutaminase was investigated by following the ammonia production during the reaction and using SDS-PAGE gel. O/W emulsions prepared with the cross-linked and non-cross-linked sodium caseinates were stored for 30 days under the same conditions. Peroxide value measurement, oxygen consumption measurement, and headspace gas chromatography analysis were used to study the oxidative stability of the emulsions. The emulsion made of the cross-linked sodium caseinate showed an improved oxidative stability with reduced formation of fatty acid hydroperoxides and volatiles and a longer period of low rate oxygen consumption. The improving effect of transglutaminase catalyzed cross-linking could be most likely attributed to the enhanced physical stability of the interfacial protein layer against competitive adsorption by oil oxidation products.

  5. On the Reproducibility of Label-Free Quantitative Cross-Linking/Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Fränze; Fischer, Lutz; Chen, Zhuo Angel; Auchynnikava, Tania; Rappsilber, Juri

    2018-02-01

    Quantitative cross-linking/mass spectrometry (QCLMS) is an emerging approach to study conformational changes of proteins and multi-subunit complexes. Distinguishing protein conformations requires reproducibly identifying and quantifying cross-linked peptides. Here we analyzed the variation between multiple cross-linking reactions using bis[sulfosuccinimidyl] suberate (BS3)-cross-linked human serum albumin (HSA) and evaluated how reproducible cross-linked peptides can be identified and quantified by LC-MS analysis. To make QCLMS accessible to a broader research community, we developed a workflow that integrates the established software tools MaxQuant for spectra preprocessing, Xi for cross-linked peptide identification, and finally Skyline for quantification (MS1 filtering). Out of the 221 unique residue pairs identified in our sample, 124 were subsequently quantified across 10 analyses with coefficient of variation (CV) values of 14% (injection replica) and 32% (reaction replica). Thus our results demonstrate that the reproducibility of QCLMS is in line with the reproducibility of general quantitative proteomics and we establish a robust workflow for MS1-based quantitation of cross-linked peptides.

  6. Hydroxyl radical induced cross-linking of cytosine and tyrosine in nucleohistone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajewski, E.; Dizdaroglu, M.

    1990-01-01

    Hydroxyl radical induced formation of a DNA-protein cross-link involving cytosine and tyrosine in nucleohistone in buffered aqueous solution is reported. The technique of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used for this investigation. A γ-irradiated aqueous mixture of cytosine and tyrosine was first investigated in order to obtain gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric properties of possible cytosine-tyrosine cross-links. One cross-link was observed, and its structure was identified as the product from the formation of a covalent bond between carbon 6 of cytosine and carbon 3 of tyrosine. With the use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with selected-ion monitoring, this cytosine-tyrosine cross-link was identified in acidic hydrolysates of calf thymus nucleohistone γ-irradiated in N 2 O-saturated aqueous solution. The yield of this DNA-protein cross-link in nucleohistone was found to be a linear function of the radiation dose in the range of 100-500 Gy (J·kg -1 ). This yield amounted to 0.05 nmol·J -1 . Mechanisms underlying the formation of the cytosine-tyrosine cross-link in nucleohistone were proposed to involve radical-radical and/or radical addition reactions of hydroxyl adduct radicals of cytosine and tyrosine moieties, forming a covalent bond between carbon 6 of cytosine and carbon 3 of tyrosine. When oxygen was present in irradiated solutions, no cytosine-tyrosine cross-links were observed

  7. Composition of cross-linked 125I-follitropin-receptor complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, J.; Ji, T.H.

    1985-10-15

    Both of the alpha and beta subunits of intact human follitropin (FSH) were radioiodinated with SVI-sodium iodide and chloramine-T and could be resolved on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. Radioiodinated FSH was affinity-cross-linked with a cleavable (nondisulfide) homobifunctional reagent to its membrane receptor on the porcine granulosa cell surface as well as to a Triton X-100-solubilized form of the receptor. Cross-linked samples revealed three additional bands of slower electrophoretic mobility, corresponding to 65, 83, and 117 kDa, in addition to the hormone bands. The hormone alpha beta dimer band corresponded to 43 kDa. Formation of the three bands requires the SVI-hormone to bind specifically to the receptor with subsequent cross-linking. Binding was prevented by an excess of the native hormone but not by other hormones. A monofunctional analog of the cross-linking reagent failed to produce the three bands. Reagent concentration-dependent cross-linking revealed that their formation was sequential; smaller complexes formed first and then larger ones. When gels of cross-linked complexes were treated to cleave covalent cross-links and then electrophoresed in a second dimension, 18-, 22-, and 34-kDa components were released, in addition to the alpha and beta subunits of the hormone.

  8. MICROWAVE IRRADIATION AND CROSS-LINKING OF COLLAGEN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VISSER, CE; VOUTE, ABE; OOSTING, J; BOON, ME; KOK, LP

    1992-01-01

    In a multifactorial experiment, dermal sheep collagen was treated in diluted glutaraldehyde solutions, 70% ethyl alcohol, Cialit 1:5000, and distilled water for 1, 3 and 5 min, respectively, in combination with microwave irradiation at different temperature settings. The shrinkage temperature

  9. Cross-Linked Hyaluronan Gel Reduces the Acute Rectal Toxicity of Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilder, Richard B.; Barme, Greg A.; Gilbert, Ronald F.; Holevas, Richard E.; Kobashi, Luis I.; Reed, Richard R.; Solomon, Ronald S.; Walter, Nancy L.; Chittenden, Lucy; Mesa, Albert V.; Agustin, Jeffrey; Lizarde, Jessica; Macedo, Jorge; Ravera, John; Tokita, Kenneth M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To prospectively analyze whether cross-linked hyaluronan gel reduces the mean rectal dose and acute rectal toxicity of radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Between September 2008 and March 2009, we transperitoneally injected 9mL of cross-linked hyaluronan gel (Hylaform; Genzyme Corporation, Cambridge, MA) into the anterior perirectal fat of 10 early-stage prostate cancer patients to increase the separation between the prostate and rectum by 8 to 18mm at the start of radiotherapy. Patients then underwent high-dose rate brachytherapy to 2,200cGy followed by intensity-modulated radiation therapy to 5,040cGy. We assessed acute rectal toxicity using the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0 grading scheme. Results: Median follow-up was 3 months. The anteroposterior dimensions of Hylaform at the start and end of radiotherapy were 13 ± 3mm (mean ± SD) and 10 ± 4mm, respectively. At the start of intensity-modulated radiation therapy, daily mean rectal doses were 73 ± 13cGy with Hylaform vs. 106 ± 20cGy without Hylaform (p = 0.005). There was a 0% incidence of National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0 Grade 1, 2, or 3 acute diarrhea in 10 patients who received Hylaform vs. a 29.7% incidence (n = 71) in 239 historical controls who did not receive Hylaform (p = 0.04). Conclusions: By increasing the separation between the prostate and rectum, Hylaform decreased the mean rectal dose. This led to a significant reduction in the acute rectal toxicity of radiotherapy for prostate cancer.

  10. A Comparative Study of the Characteristics of Cross-Linked, Oxidized and Dual-Modified Rice Starches

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Hua-Xi; Lin, Qin-Lu; Liu, Gao-Qiang; Yu, Feng-Xiang

    2012-01-01

    Rice starch was cross-linked with epichlorohydrin (0.3%, w/w, on a dry starch basis) and oxidized with sodium hypochlorite (2.5% w/w), respectively. Two dual-modified rice starch samples (oxidized cross-linked rice starch and cross-linked oxidized rice starch) were obtained by the oxidation of cross-linked rice starch and the cross-linking of oxidized rice starch at the same level of reagents. The physicochemical properties of native rice starch, cross-linked rice starch and oxidized rice sta...

  11. Mussel-Inspired Self-Healing Double-Cross-Linked Hydrogels by Controlled Combination of Metal Coordination and Covalent Cross-Linking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Amanda; Krogsgaard, Marie; Birkedal, Henrik

    2018-01-01

    a catechol-based hydrogel design that allows for the degree of oxidative covalent cross-linking to be controlled. Double cross-linked hydrogels with tunable stiffness are constructed by adding the oxidizable catechol analogue, tannic acid, to an oxidation-resistant hydrogel construct held together...... by coordination of the dihydroxy functionality of 1-(2'-carboxyethyl)-2-methyl-3-hydroxy-4-pyridinone to trivalent metal ions. By varying the amount of tannic acid, the hydrogel stiffness can be customized to a given application while retaining the self-healing capabilities of the hydrogel's coordination chemical...

  12. Cellular Repair of DNA–DNA Cross-Links Induced by 1,2,3,4-Diepoxybutane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa N. Chesner

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Xenobiotic-induced interstrand DNA–DNA cross-links (ICL interfere with transcription and replication and can be converted to toxic DNA double strand breaks. In this work, we investigated cellular responses to 1,4-bis-(guan-7-yl-2,3-butanediol (bis-N7G-BD cross-links induced by 1,2,3,4-diepoxybutane (DEB. High pressure liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI+-MS/MS assays were used to quantify the formation and repair of bis-N7G-BD cross-links in wild-type Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts (V79 and the corresponding isogenic clones V-H1 and V-H4, deficient in the XPD and FANCA genes, respectively. Both V-H1 and V-H4 cells exhibited enhanced sensitivity to DEB-induced cell death and elevated bis-N7G-BD cross-links. However, relatively modest increases of bis-N7G-BD adduct levels in V-H4 clones did not correlate with their hypersensitivity to DEB. Further, bis-N7G-BD levels were not elevated in DEB-treated human clones with defects in the XPA or FANCD2 genes. Comet assays and γ-H2AX focus analyses conducted with hamster cells revealed that ICL removal was associated with chromosomal double strand break formation, and that these breaks persisted in V-H4 cells as compared to control cells. Our findings suggest that ICL repair in cells with defects in the Fanconi anemia repair pathway is associated with aberrant re-joining of repair-induced double strand breaks, potentially resulting in lethal chromosome rearrangements.

  13. Induction of DNA-protein cross-linking in Chinese hamster cells by monochromatic 365 and 405 NM ultraviolet light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, A.; Peak, M.J.; Peak, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    The survival, the induction of DNA-protein cross-linking, and the number of T4-endonuclease sensitive sites were measured in Chinese hamster cells that had been irradiated with 365 and 405 nm monochromatic light. The survival measurements show that cells are somewhat less sensitive to 405 nm light than to 365 nm light. The difference is expressed predominantly in the shoulder widths of the survival curves, whereas the slopes of the two curves are about the same. Induction of pyrimidine dimers, as indicated by the number of endonuclease-sensitive sites, after exposures that produce about 10% survival is very low at 365 nm (approx. 4 endonuclease sites per 2 x 10 8 daltons), while no dimers are detected at 405 nm. In contrast, DNA-protein cross-links are induced rather effectively at either wavelength even after exposures that result in a relatively high survival (60-20%). These measurements support the conclusion that lethality in mammalian cells after irradiations with 365 or 405 nm light is caused by a nondimer damage, possibly DNA-protein cross-links. (author)

  14. Structural and Functional Characterization of an Ancient Bacterial Transglutaminase Sheds Light on the Minimal Requirements for Protein Cross-Linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Catarina G; Plácido, Diana; Lousa, Diana; Brito, José A; Isidro, Anabela; Soares, Cláudio M; Pohl, Jan; Carrondo, Maria A; Archer, Margarida; Henriques, Adriano O

    2015-09-22

    Transglutaminases are best known for their ability to catalyze protein cross-linking reactions that impart chemical and physical resilience to cellular structures. Here, we report the crystal structure and characterization of Tgl, a transglutaminase from the bacterium Bacillus subtilis. Tgl is produced during sporulation and cross-links the surface of the highly resilient spore. Tgl-like proteins are found only in spore-forming bacteria of the Bacillus and Clostridia classes, indicating an ancient origin. Tgl is a single-domain protein, produced in active form, and the smallest transglutaminase characterized to date. We show that Tgl is structurally similar to bacterial cell wall endopeptidases and has an NlpC/P60 catalytic core, thought to represent the ancestral unit of the cysteine protease fold. We show that Tgl functions through a unique partially redundant catalytic dyad formed by Cys116 and Glu187 or Glu115. Strikingly, the catalytic Cys is insulated within a hydrophobic tunnel that traverses the molecule from side to side. The lack of similarity of Tgl to other transglutaminases together with its small size suggests that an NlpC/P60 catalytic core and insulation of the active site during catalysis may be essential requirements for protein cross-linking.

  15. Photosensitized UVA-Induced Cross-Linking between Human DNA Repair and Replication Proteins and DNA Revealed by Proteomic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Long wavelength ultraviolet radiation (UVA, 320–400 nm) interacts with chromophores present in human cells to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) that damage both DNA and proteins. ROS levels are amplified, and the damaging effects of UVA are exacerbated if the cells are irradiated in the presence of UVA photosensitizers such as 6-thioguanine (6-TG), a strong UVA chromophore that is extensively incorporated into the DNA of dividing cells, or the fluoroquinolone antibiotic ciprofloxacin. Both DNA-embedded 6-TG and ciprofloxacin combine synergistically with UVA to generate high levels of ROS. Importantly, the extensive protein damage induced by these photosensitizer+UVA combinations inhibits DNA repair. DNA is maintained in intimate contact with the proteins that effect its replication, transcription, and repair, and DNA–protein cross-links (DPCs) are a recognized reaction product of ROS. Cross-linking of DNA metabolizing proteins would compromise these processes by introducing physical blocks and by depleting active proteins. We describe a sensitive and statistically rigorous method to analyze DPCs in cultured human cells. Application of this proteomics-based analysis to cells treated with 6-TG+UVA and ciprofloxacin+UVA identified proteins involved in DNA repair, replication, and gene expression among those most vulnerable to cross-linking under oxidative conditions. PMID:27654267

  16. Characterization of solid UV cross-linked PEGDA for biological applications

    KAUST Repository

    Castro, David

    2013-10-20

    This paper reports on solid UV cross-linked Poly(ethylene)-glycol-diacrylate (PEGDA) as a material for microfluidic devices for biological applications. We have evaluated biocompatibility of PEGDA through two separate means: 1) by examining cell viability and attachment on cross-linked PEGDA surfaces for cell culture applications, and 2) by determining if cross-linked PEGDA inhibits the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) processes for on-chip PCR. Through these studies a correlation has been found between degree of curing and cell viability, attachment, as well as on PCR outcome.

  17. High temperature PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jianlu; Xie, Zhong; Zhang, Jiujun; Tang, Yanghua; Song, Chaojie; Navessin, Titichai; Shi, Zhiqing; Song, Datong; Wang, Haijiang; Wilkinson, David P.; Liu, Zhong-Sheng; Holdcroft, Steven [Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation, National Research Council Canada, Vancouver, BC (Canada V6T 1W5)

    2006-10-06

    There are several compelling technological and commercial reasons for operating H{sub 2}/air PEM fuel cells at temperatures above 100{sup o}C. Rates of electrochemical kinetics are enhanced, water management and cooling is simplified, useful waste heat can be recovered, and lower quality reformed hydrogen may be used as the fuel. This review paper provides a concise review of high temperature PEM fuel cells (HT-PEMFCs) from the perspective of HT-specific materials, designs, and testing/diagnostics. The review describes the motivation for HT-PEMFC development, the technology gaps, and recent advances. HT-membrane development accounts for {approx}90% of the published research in the field of HT-PEMFCs. Despite this, the status of membrane development for high temperature/low humidity operation is less than satisfactory. A weakness in the development of HT-PEMFC technology is the deficiency in HT-specific fuel cell architectures, test station designs, and testing protocols, and an understanding of the underlying fundamental principles behind these areas. The development of HT-specific PEMFC designs is of key importance that may help mitigate issues of membrane dehydration and MEA degradation. (author)

  18. Temperature uniformity mapping in a high pressure high temperature reactor using a temperature sensitive indicator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grauwet, T.; Plancken, van der I.; Vervoort, L.; Matser, A.M.; Hendrickx, M.; Loey, van A.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the first prototype ovomucoid-based pressure–temperature–time indicator (pTTI) for high pressure high temperature (HPHT) processing was described. However, for temperature uniformity mapping of high pressure (HP) vessels under HPHT sterilization conditions, this prototype needs to be

  19. Evaluating the Toxicity/Fixation Balance for Corneal Cross-Linking With Sodium Hydroxymethylglycinate (SMG) and Riboflavin-UVA (CXL) in an Ex Vivo Rabbit Model Using Confocal Laser Scanning Fluorescence Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su-Young; Babar, Natasha; Munteanu, Emilia Laura; Takaoka, Anna; Zyablitskaya, Mariya; Nagasaki, Takayuki; Trokel, Stephen L; Paik, David C

    2016-04-01

    To develop methods to delineate the relationship between endothelial cell toxicity and tissue fixation (toxicity/fixation) using sodium hydroxymethylglycinate (SMG), a formaldehyde releaser, and riboflavin-UVA photochemical corneal cross-linking (CXL) for therapeutic tissue cross-linking of the cornea. Eleven fresh cadaveric rabbit heads were used for ex vivo corneal cross-linking simulation. After epithelial debridement, the tissue was exposed to 1/4 max (9.8 mM) or 1/3 max (13 mM) SMG at pH 8.5 for 30 minutes or riboflavin-UVA (CXL). The contralateral cornea served as a paired control. Postexposure, cross-linking efficacy was determined by thermal denaturation temperature (Tm) and endothelial damage was assessed using calcein AM and ethidium homodimer staining (The Live/Dead Kit). Confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy was used to generate live/dead cell counts using a standardized algorithm. The ΔTm after CXL, 1/3 SMG, and 1/4 SMG was 2.2 ± 0.9°C, 1.3 ± 0.5°C, and 1.1 ± 0.5°C, respectively. Endothelial cell damage was expressed as the percent of dead cells/live + dead cells counted per high-power field. The values were 3 ± 1.7% (control) and 8.9 ± 11.1% (CXL) (P = 0.390); 1 ± 0.2% (control) and 19.5 ± 32.2% (1/3 max SMG) (P = 0.426); and 2.7 ± 2.4% (control) and 2.8 ± 2.2% (1/4 max SMG) (P = 0.938). The values for endothelial toxicity were then indexed over the shift in Tm to yield a toxicity/fixation index. The values were as follows: 2.7 for CXL, 14 for 1/3 max, and 0.1 for 1/4 max. Quarter max (1/4 max = 9.8 mM) SMG effectively cross-linked tissue and was nontoxic to endothelial cells. Thus, SMG is potentially a compound that could achieve both desired effects.

  20. Passivation of high temperature superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Richard P. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    The surface of high temperature superconductors such as YBa2Cu3O(7-x) are passivated by reacting the native Y, Ba and Cu metal ions with an anion such as sulfate or oxalate to form a surface film that is impervious to water and has a solubility in water of no more than 10(exp -3) M. The passivating treatment is preferably conducted by immersing the surface in dilute aqueous acid solution since more soluble species dissolve into the solution. The treatment does not degrade the superconducting properties of the bulk material.

  1. CONFINEMENT OF HIGH TEMPERATURE PLASMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, H.R.

    1963-05-01

    The confinement of a high temperature plasma in a stellarator in which the magnetic confinement has tended to shift the plasma from the center of the curved, U-shaped end loops is described. Magnetic means are provided for counteracting this tendency of the plasma to be shifted away from the center of the end loops, and in one embodiment this magnetic means is a longitudinally extending magnetic field such as is provided by two sets of parallel conductors bent to follow the U-shaped curvature of the end loops and energized oppositely on the inside and outside of this curvature. (AEC)

  2. High temperature superconductors and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruvalds, J.J.

    1977-01-01

    This invention comprises a superconductive compound having the formula: Ni/sub 1-x/M/sub x/Z/sub y/ wherein M is a metal which will destroy the magnetic character of nickel (preferably copper, silver or gold); Z is hydrogen or deuterium; x is 0.1 to 0.9; and y, correspondingly, 0.9 to 0.1, and method of conducting electric current with no resistance at relatively high temperature of T>1 0 K comprising a conductor consisting essentially of the superconducting compound noted above

  3. Cross-linking of rubber in the presence of multi-functional cross-linking aids via thermoreversible Diels-Alder chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polgar, L. M.; Fortunato, G.; Araya-Hermosilla, R.; van Duin, M.; Pucci, A.; Picchioni, F.

    Furan-functionalized polyketone (PK-FU) was added to a furan-functionalized ethylene-propylene rubber (EPM-FU). The mixture was subsequently cross-linked with a bismaleimide through Diels-Alder chemistry in order to improve the mechanical properties of the rubber. Infrared spectroscopy showed the

  4. Characterization of solid UV cross-linked PEGDA for biological applications

    KAUST Repository

    Castro, David; Ingram, Patrick; Kodzius, Rimantas; Conchouso Gonzalez, David; Yoon, Euisik; Foulds, Ian G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on solid UV cross-linked Poly(ethylene)-glycol-diacrylate (PEGDA) as a material for microfluidic devices for biological applications. We have evaluated biocompatibility of PEGDA through two separate means: 1) by examining cell

  5. A Thermally Re-mendable Cross-Linked Polymeric Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangxu; Dam, Matheus A.; Ono, Kanji; Mal, Ajit; Shen, Hongbin; Nutt, Steven R.; Sheran, Kevin; Wudl, Fred

    2002-03-01

    We have developed a transparent organic polymeric material that can repeatedly mend or ``re-mend'' itself under mild conditions. The material is a tough solid at room temperature and below with mechanical properties equaling those of commercial epoxy resins. At temperatures above 120°C, approximately 30% (as determined by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy) of ``intermonomer'' linkages disconnect but then reconnect upon cooling, This process is fully reversible and can be used to restore a fractured part of the polymer multiple times, and it does not require additional ingredients such as a catalyst, additional monomer, or special surface treatment of the fractured interface.

  6. Interstrand cross-links arising from strand breaks at true abasic sites in duplex DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Zhiyu; Price, Nathan E.; Johnson, Kevin M.; Wang, Yinsheng; Gates, Kent S.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Interstrand cross-links are exceptionally bioactive DNA lesions. Endogenous generation of interstrand cross-links in genomic DNA may contribute to aging, neurodegeneration, and cancer. Abasic (Ap) sites are common lesions in genomic DNA that readily undergo spontaneous and amine-catalyzed strand cleavage reactions that generate a 2,3-didehydro-2,3-dideoxyribose sugar remnant (3?ddR5p) at the 3?-terminus of the strand break. Interestingly, this strand scission process leaves an electr...

  7. Collagen and elastin cross-linking is altered during aberrant late lung development associated with hyperoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mižíková, Ivana; Ruiz-Camp, Jordi; Steenbock, Heiko; Madurga, Alicia; Vadász, István; Herold, Susanne; Mayer, Konstantin; Seeger, Werner; Brinckmann, Jürgen; Morty, Rory E

    2015-06-01

    Maturation of the lung extracellular matrix (ECM) plays an important role in the formation of alveolar gas exchange units. A key step in ECM maturation is cross-linking of collagen and elastin, which imparts stability and functionality to the ECM. During aberrant late lung development in bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) patients and animal models of BPD, alveolarization is blocked, and the function of ECM cross-linking enzymes is deregulated, suggesting that perturbed ECM cross-linking may impact alveolarization. In a hyperoxia (85% O2)-based mouse model of BPD, blunted alveolarization was accompanied by alterations to lung collagen and elastin levels and cross-linking. Total collagen levels were increased (by 63%). The abundance of dihydroxylysinonorleucine collagen cross-links and the dihydroxylysinonorleucine-to-hydroxylysinonorleucine ratio were increased by 11 and 18%, respectively, suggestive of a profibrotic state. In contrast, insoluble elastin levels and the abundance of the elastin cross-links desmosine and isodesmosine in insoluble elastin were decreased by 35, 30, and 21%, respectively. The lung collagen-to-elastin ratio was threefold increased. Treatment of hyperoxia-exposed newborn mice with the lysyl oxidase inhibitor β-aminopropionitrile partially restored normal collagen levels, normalized the dihydroxylysinonorleucine-to-hydroxylysinonorleucine ratio, partially normalized desmosine and isodesmosine cross-links in insoluble elastin, and partially restored elastin foci structure in the developing septa. However, β-aminopropionitrile administration concomitant with hyperoxia exposure did not improve alveolarization, evident from unchanged alveolar surface area and alveoli number, and worsened septal thickening (increased by 12%). These data demonstrate that collagen and elastin cross-linking are perturbed during the arrested alveolarization of developing mouse lungs exposed to hyperoxia. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Assessment of UVA-Riboflavin Corneal Cross-Linking Using Small Amplitude Oscillatory Shear Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslanides, Ioannis M; Dessi, Claudia; Georgoudis, Panagiotis; Charalambidis, Georgios; Vlassopoulos, Dimitris; Coutsolelos, Athanassios G; Kymionis, George; Mukherjee, Achyut; Kitsopoulos, Theofanis N

    2016-04-01

    The effect of ultraviolet (UV)-riboflavin cross-linking (CXL) has been measured primarily using the strip extensometry technique. We propose a simple and reliable methodology for the assessment of CXL treatment by using an established rheologic protocol based on small amplitude oscillatory shear (SAOS) measurements. It provides information on the average cross-link density and the elastic modulus of treated cornea samples. Three fresh postmortem porcine corneas were used to study the feasibility of the technique, one serving as control and two receiving corneal collagen cross-linking treatment. Subsequently, five pairs of fresh postmortem porcine corneas received corneal collagen cross-linking treatment with riboflavin and UVA-irradiation (370 nm; irradiance of 3 mW/cm2) for 30 minutes (Dresden protocol); the contralateral porcine corneas were used as control samples. After the treatment, the linear viscoelastic moduli of the corneal samples were measured using SAOS measurements and the average cross-linking densities extracted. For all cases investigated, the dynamic moduli of the cross-linked corneas were higher compared to those of the corresponding control samples. The increase of the elastic modulus of the treated samples was between 122% and 1750%. The difference was statistically significant for all tested samples (P = 0.018, 2-tailed t-test). We report a simple and accurate methodology for quantifying the effects of cross-linking on porcine corneas treated with the Dresden protocol by means of SAOS measurements in the linear regime. The measured dynamic moduli, elastic and viscous modulus, represent the energy storage and energy dissipation, respectively. Hence, they provide a means to assess the changing physical properties of the cross-linked collagen networks after CXL treatment.

  9. Effect of Cross-linking Density on Creep and Recovery Behavior in Epoxy-Based Shape Memory Polymers (SMEPs) for Structural Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Kavitha V.; Ananthapadmanabha, G. S.; Dayananda, G. N.

    2016-12-01

    Epoxy-based shape memory polymers (SMEPs) are gaining importance in the area of aerospace structures due to their high strength and stiffness which is a primary requirement for an SMEP in structural applications. The understanding of viscoelastic behavior of SMEPs is very essential to assess their shape memory effect. In the present work, three types of SMEPs with varying cross-linking densities were developed by curing an aromatic epoxy resin with aliphatic amines. Glass transition temperature ( T g) was measured for these SMEPs using advanced rheometric expansion system, and from the T g measurements, a range of temperatures from glassy to rubbery regimes were chosen. At selected temperatures, creep-recovery tests were performed in order to evaluate the viscoelastic behavior of SMEPs and also to investigate the effect of temperature on creep-recovery. Further, a three-parameter viscoelastic model (Zener) was used to fit the data obtained from experiments. Model parameters like moduli of the springs and viscosity of the dashpot were evaluated by curve fitting. Results revealed that Zener model was well suited to describe the viscoelastic behavior of SMEPs as a function of test temperatures.

  10. Modern high-temperature superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ching Wu Chu

    1988-01-01

    Ever since the discovery of superconductivity in 1911, its unusual scientific challenge and great technological potential have been recognized. For the past three-quarters of a century, superconductivity has done well on the science front. This is because sueprconductivity is interesting not only just in its own right but also in its ability to act as a probe to many exciting nonsuperconducting phenomena. For instance, it has continued to provide bases for vigorous activities in condensed matter science. Among the more recent examples are heavy-fermion systems and organic superconductors. During this same period of time, superconductivity has also performed admirably in the applied area. Many ideas have been conceived and tested, making use of the unique characteristics of superconductivity - zero resistivity, quantum interference phenomena, and the Meissner effect. In fact, it was not until late January 1987 that it became possible to achieve superconductivity with the mere use of liquid nitrogen - which is plentiful, cheap, efficient, and easy to handle - following the discovery of supercondictivity above 90 K in Y-Ba-Cu-O, the first genuine quaternary superconductor. Superconductivity above 90 K poses scientific and technological challenges not previously encountered: no existing theories can adequately describe superconductivity above 40 K and no known techniques can economically process the materials for full-scale applications. In this paper, therefore, the author recalls a few events leading to the discovery of the new class of quaternary compounds with a superconducting transition temperature T c in the 90 K range, describes the current experimental status of high-temperature superconductivity and, finally, discusses the prospect of very-high-temperature superconductivity, i.e., with a T c substantially higher than 100 K. 97 refs., 7 figs

  11. Effect of Cross-Linking on the Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Poly(amidoamine Dendrimer/Poly(vinyl alcohol Hybrid Membranes for CO2 Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhong Duan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Poly(amidoamine (PAMAM dendrimers were incorporated into cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA matrix to improve carbon dioxide (CO2 separation performance at elevated pressures. In our previous studies, PAMAM/PVA hybrid membranes showed high CO2 separation properties from CO2/H2 mixed gases. In this study, three types of organic Ti metal compounds were selected as PVA cross-linkers that were used to prepare PAMAM/cross-linked PVA hybrid membranes. Characterization of the PAMAM/cross-linked PVA hybrid membranes was conducted using nanoindentation and thermogravimetric analyses. The effects of the cross-linker and CO2 partial pressure in the feed gas on CO2 separation performance were discussed. H2O and CO2 sorption of the PAMAM/PVA hybrid membranes were investigated to explain the obtained CO2 separation efficiencies.

  12. Effect of Cross-Linking on the Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Poly(amidoamine) Dendrimer/Poly(vinyl alcohol) Hybrid Membranes for CO2 Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Shuhong; Kai, Teruhiko; Saito, Takashi; Yamazaki, Kota; Ikeda, Kenichi

    2014-04-08

    Poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers were incorporated into cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) matrix to improve carbon dioxide (CO2) separation performance at elevated pressures. In our previous studies, PAMAM/PVA hybrid membranes showed high CO2 separation properties from CO2/H2 mixed gases. In this study, three types of organic Ti metal compounds were selected as PVA cross-linkers that were used to prepare PAMAM/cross-linked PVA hybrid membranes. Characterization of the PAMAM/cross-linked PVA hybrid membranes was conducted using nanoindentation and thermogravimetric analyses. The effects of the cross-linker and CO2 partial pressure in the feed gas on CO2 separation performance were discussed. H2O and CO2 sorption of the PAMAM/PVA hybrid membranes were investigated to explain the obtained CO2 separation efficiencies.

  13. Studies of high temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narlikar, A.

    1989-01-01

    The high temperature superconductors (HTSCs) discovered are from the family of ceramic oxides. Their large scale utilization in electrical utilities and in microelectronic devices are the frontal challenges which can perhaps be effectively met only through consolidated efforts and expertise of a multidisciplinary nature. During the last two years the growth of the new field has occurred on an international scale and perhaps has been more rapid than in most other fields. There has been an extraordinary rush of data and results which are continually being published as short texts dispersed in many excellent journals, some of which were started to ensure rapid publication exclusively in this field. As a result, the literature on HTSCs has indeed become so massive and so diffuse that it is becoming increasingly difficult to keep abreast with the important and reliable facets of this fast-growing field. This provided the motivation to evolve a process whereby both professional investigators and students can have ready access to up-to- date in-depth accounts of major technical advances happening in this field. The present series Studies of High Temperature Superconductors has been launched to, at least in part, fulfill this need

  14. High temperature superconductor current leads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeimetz, B.; Liu, H.K.; Dou, S.X.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: The use of superconductors in high electrical current applications (magnets, transformers, generators etc.) usually requires cooling with liquid Helium, which is very expensive. The superconductor itself produces no heat, and the design of Helium dewars is very advanced. Therefore most of the heat loss, i.e. Helium consumption, comes from the current lead which connects the superconductor with its power source at room temperature. The current lead usually consists of a pair of thick copper wires. The discovery of the High Temperature Superconductors makes it possible to replace a part of the copper with superconducting material. This drastically reduces the heat losses because a) the superconductor generates no resistive heat and b) it is a very poor thermal conductor compared with the copper. In this work silver-sheathed superconducting tapes are used as current lead components. The work comprises both the production of the tapes and the overall design of the leads, in order to a) maximize the current capacity ('critical current') of the superconductor, b) minimize the thermal conductivity of the silver clad, and c) optimize the cooling conditions

  15. Container floor at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reutler, H.; Klapperich, H.J.; Mueller-Frank, U.

    1978-01-01

    The invention describes a floor for container which is stressed at high, changing temperatures and is intended for use in gas-cooled nuclear reactors. Due to the downward cooling gas flow in these types of reactor, the reactor floor is subjected to considerable dimensional changes during switching on and off. In the heating stage, the whole graphite structure of the reactor core and floor expands. In order to avoid arising constraining forces, sufficiently large expansion spaces must be allowed for furthermore restoring forces must be present to close the gaps again in the cooling phase. These restoring forces must be permanently present to prevent loosening of the core cuits amongst one another and thus uncontrollable relative movement. Spring elements are not suitable due to fast fatigue as a result of high temperatures and radiation exposure. It is suggested to have the floor elements supported on rollers whose rolling planes are downwards inclined to a fixed point for support. The construction is described in detail by means of drawings. (GL) [de

  16. High Temperature Radio Frequency Loads

    CERN Document Server

    Federmann, S; Grudiev, A; Montesinos, E; Syratchev, I

    2011-01-01

    In the context of energy saving and recovery requirements the design of reliable and robust RF power loads which permit a high outlet temperature and high pressure of the cooling water is desirable. Cooling water arriving at the outlet withmore than 150 ◦C and high pressure has a higher value than water with 50 ◦C under low pressure. Conventional RF power loads containing dielectric and magnetic materials as well as sensitive ceramic windows usually do not permit going much higher than 90 ◦C. Here we present and discuss several design concepts for "metal only" RF high power loads. One concept is the application of magnetic steel corrugated waveguides near cutoff – this concept could find practical use above several GHz. Another solution are resonant structures made of steel to be installed in large waveguides for frequencies of 500 MHz or lower. Similar resonant structures above 100 MHz taking advantage of the rather high losses of normal steel may also be used in coaxial line geometries with large di...

  17. Comparison of Conductor-Temperature Calculations Based on Different Radial-Position-Temperature Detections for High-Voltage Power Cable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the calculation of the conductor temperature is related to the temperature sensor position in high-voltage power cables and four thermal circuits—based on the temperatures of insulation shield, the center of waterproof compound, the aluminum sheath, and the jacket surface are established to calculate the conductor temperature. To examine the effectiveness of conductor temperature calculations, simulation models based on flow characteristics of the air gap between the waterproof compound and the aluminum are built up, and thermocouples are placed at the four radial positions in a 110 kV cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE insulated power cable to measure the temperatures of four positions. In measurements, six cases of current heating test under three laying environments, such as duct, water, and backfilled soil were carried out. Both errors of the conductor temperature calculation and the simulation based on the temperature of insulation shield were significantly smaller than others under all laying environments. It is the uncertainty of the thermal resistivity, together with the difference of the initial temperature of each radial position by the solar radiation, which led to the above results. The thermal capacitance of the air has little impact on errors. The thermal resistance of the air gap is the largest error source. Compromising the temperature-estimation accuracy and the insulation-damage risk, the waterproof compound is the recommended sensor position to improve the accuracy of conductor-temperature calculation. When the thermal resistances were calculated correctly, the aluminum sheath is also the recommended sensor position besides the waterproof compound.

  18. Recyclable cross-linked anion exchange membrane for alkaline fuel cell application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jianqiu; Liu, Yazhi; Ge, Qianqian; Yang, Zhengjin; Wu, Liang; Xu, Tongwen

    2018-01-01

    Cross-linking can effectively solve the conductivity-swelling dilemma in anion exchange membranes (AEMs) but will generate solid wastes. To address this, we developed an AEM cross-linked via disulfide bonds, bearing quaternary ammonium groups, which can be easily recycled. The membrane (RC-QPPO) with IEC of 1.78 mmol g-1, when cross-linked, showed enhanced mechanical properties and good hydroxide conductivity (24.6 mS cm-1 at 30 °C). Even at higher IEC value (2.13 mmol g-1), it still has low water uptake, low swelling ratio and delivers a peak power density of 150 mW cm-2 at 65 °C. Exploiting the formation of disulfide bonds from -SH groups, the membrane can be readily cross-linked in alkaline condition and recycled by reversibly breaking disulfide bonds with dithiothreitol (DTT). The recycled membrane solution can be directly utilized to cast a brand-new AEM. By washing away the residual DTT with water and exposure to air, it can be cross-linked again and this process is repeatable. During the recycling and cross-linking processes, the membrane showed a slight IEC decrease of 5% due to functional group degradation. The strategy presented here is promising in enhancing AEM properties and reducing the impact of artificial polymers on the environment.

  19. Riboflavin/UVA Collagen Cross-Linking-Induced Changes in Normal and Keratoconus Corneal Stroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Sally; Boote, Craig; Kamma-Lorger, Christina S.; Rajan, Madhavan S.; Harris, Jonathan; Dooley, Erin; Hawksworth, Nicholas; Hiller, Jennifer; Terill, Nick J.; Hafezi, Farhad; Brahma, Arun K.; Quantock, Andrew J.; Meek, Keith M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To determine the effect of Ultraviolet-A collagen cross-linking with hypo-osmolar and iso-osmolar riboflavin solutions on stromal collagen ultrastructure in normal and keratoconus ex vivo human corneas. Methods Using small-angle X-ray scattering, measurements of collagen D-periodicity, fibril diameter and interfibrillar spacing were made at 1 mm intervals across six normal post-mortem corneas (two above physiological hydration (swollen) and four below (unswollen)) and two post-transplant keratoconus corneal buttons (one swollen; one unswollen), before and after hypo-osmolar cross-linking. The same parameters were measured in three other unswollen normal corneas before and after iso-osmolar cross-linking and in three pairs of swollen normal corneas, in which only the left was cross-linked (with iso-osmolar riboflavin). Results Hypo-osmolar cross-linking resulted in an increase in corneal hydration in all corneas. In the keratoconus corneas and unswollen normal corneas, this was accompanied by an increase in collagen interfibrillar spacing (priboflavin solutions are more likely a consequence of treatment-induced changes in tissue hydration rather than cross-linking. PMID:21850225

  20. Role of special cross-links in structure formation of bacterial DNA polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Tejal; Manjunath, G. P.; Habib, Farhat; Lakshmi Vaddavalli, Pavana; Chatterji, Apratim

    2018-01-01

    Using data from contact maps of the DNA-polymer of Escherichia coli (E. Coli) (at kilobase pair resolution) as an input to our model, we introduce cross-links between monomers in a bead-spring model of a ring polymer at very specific points along the chain. Via suitable Monte Carlo simulations, we show that the presence of these cross-links leads to a particular organization of the chain at large (micron) length scales of the DNA. We also investigate the structure of a ring polymer with an equal number of cross-links at random positions along the chain. We find that though the polymer does get organized at the large length scales, the nature of the organization is quite different from the organization observed with cross-links at specific biologically determined positions. We used the contact map of E. Coli bacteria which has around 4.6 million base pairs in a single circular chromosome. In our coarse-grained flexible ring polymer model, we used 4642 monomer beads and observed that around 80 cross-links are enough to induce the large-scale organization of the molecule accounting for statistical fluctuations caused by thermal energy. The length of a DNA chain even of a simple bacterial cell such as E. Coli is much longer than typical proteins, hence we avoided methods used to tackle protein folding problems. We define new suitable quantities to identify the large scale structure of a polymer chain with a few cross-links.

  1. Solution processed organic light-emitting diodes using the plasma cross-linking technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Kongduo [Department of Light Sources and Illuminating Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Liu, Yang [Department of Light Sources and Illuminating Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Engineering Research Center of Advanced Lighting Technology, Ministry of Education, Shanghai 200433 (China); Gong, Junyi; Zeng, Pan; Kong, Xun; Yang, Xilu; Yang, Cheng; Yu, Yan [Department of Light Sources and Illuminating Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Liang, Rongqing [Department of Light Sources and Illuminating Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Engineering Research Center of Advanced Lighting Technology, Ministry of Education, Shanghai 200433 (China); Ou, Qiongrong, E-mail: qrou@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Light Sources and Illuminating Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Engineering Research Center of Advanced Lighting Technology, Ministry of Education, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2016-09-30

    Highlights: • Mixed acetylene and Ar plasma treatment makes the organic film surface cross-linked. • The plasma treatment for 30 s does not affect the performance of OLEDs. • Cross-linking surface can resist rinsing and corrosion of organic solvent. • The surface morphology is nearly unchanged after plasma treatment. • The plasma cross-linking method can realize solution processed multilayer OLEDs. - Abstract: Solution processed multilayer organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) present challenges, especially regarding dissolution of the first layer during deposition of a second layer. In this work, we first demonstrated a plasma cross-linking technology to produce a solution processed OLED. The surfaces of organic films can be cross-linked after mixed acetylene and Ar plasma treatment for several tens of seconds and resist corrosion of organic solvent. The film thickness and surface morphology of emissive layers (EMLs) with plasma treatment and subsequently spin-rinsed with chlorobenzene are nearly unchanged. The solution processed triple-layer OLED is successfully fabricated and the current efficiency increases 50% than that of the double-layer OLED. Fluorescent characteristics of EMLs are also observed to investigate factors influencing the efficiency of the triple-layer OLED. Plasma cross-linking technology may open up a new pathway towards fabrication of all-solution processed multilayer OLEDs and other soft electronic devices.

  2. Multiple repair pathways mediate tolerance to chemotherapeutic cross-linking agents in vertebrate cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nojima, Kuniharu; Hochegger, Helfrid; Saberi, Alihossein; Fukushima, Toru; Kikuchi, Koji; Yoshimura, Michio; Orelli, Brian J; Bishop, Douglas K; Hirano, Seiki; Ohzeki, Mioko; Ishiai, Masamichi; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Takata, Minoru; Arakawa, Hiroshi; Buerstedde, Jean-Marie; Yamazoe, Mitsuyoshi; Kawamoto, Takuo; Araki, Kasumi; Takahashi, Jun A; Hashimoto, Nobuo; Takeda, Shunichi; Sonoda, Eiichiro

    2005-12-15

    Cross-linking agents that induce DNA interstrand cross-links (ICL) are widely used in anticancer chemotherapy. Yeast genetic studies show that nucleotide excision repair (NER), Rad6/Rad18-dependent postreplication repair, homologous recombination, and cell cycle checkpoint pathway are involved in ICL repair. To study the contribution of DNA damage response pathways in tolerance to cross-linking agents in vertebrates, we made a panel of gene-disrupted clones from chicken DT40 cells, each defective in a particular DNA repair or checkpoint pathway, and measured the sensitivities to cross-linking agents, including cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II) (cisplatin), mitomycin C, and melphalan. We found that cells harboring defects in translesion DNA synthesis (TLS), Fanconi anemia complementation groups (FANC), or homologous recombination displayed marked hypersensitivity to all the cross-linking agents, whereas NER seemed to play only a minor role. This effect of replication-dependent repair pathways is distinctively different from the situation in yeast, where NER seems to play a major role in dealing with ICL. Cells deficient in Rev3, the catalytic subunit of TLS polymerase Polzeta, showed the highest sensitivity to cisplatin followed by fanc-c. Furthermore, epistasis analysis revealed that these two mutants work in the same pathway. Our genetic comprehensive study reveals a critical role for DNA repair pathways that release DNA replication block at ICLs in cellular tolerance to cross-linking agents and could be directly exploited in designing an effective chemotherapy.

  3. A novel strategy for preparing mechanically robust ionically cross-linked alginate hydrogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jejurikar, Aparna; Lawrie, Gwen; Groendahl, Lisbeth; Martin, Darren

    2011-01-01

    The properties of alginate films modified using two cross-linker ions (Ca 2+ and Ba 2+ ), comparing two separate cross-linking techniques (the traditional immersion (IM) method and a new strategy in a pressure-assisted diffusion (PD) method), are evaluated. This was achieved through measuring metal ion content, water uptake and film stability in an ionic solution ([Ca 2+ ] = 2 mM). Characterization of the internal structure and mechanical properties of hydrated films were established by cryogenic scanning electron microscopy and tensile testing, respectively. It was found that gels formed by the PD technique possessed greater stability and did not exhibit any delamination after 21 day immersion as compared to gels formed by the IM technique. The Ba 2+ cross-linked gels possessed significantly higher cross-linking density as reflected in lower water content, a more dense internal structure and higher Young's modulus compared to Ca 2+ cross-linked gels. For the Ca 2+ cross-linked gels, a large improvement in the mechanical properties was observed in gels produced by the PD technique and this was attributed to thicker pore walls observed within the hydrogel structure. In contrast, for the Ba 2+ cross-linked gels, the PD technique resulted in gels that had lower tensile strength and strain energy density and this was attributed to phase separation and larger macropores in this gel.

  4. The conformational stability and flexibility of insulin with an additional intramolecular cross-link

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brems, D.N.; Brown, P.L.; Nakagawa, S.H.; Tager, H.S.

    1991-01-01

    The conformational stability and flexibility of insulin containing a cross-link between the alpha-amino group of the A-chain to the epsilon-amino group of Lys29 of the B-chain was examined. The cross-link varied in length from 2 to 12 carbon atoms. The conformational stability was determined by guanidine hydrochloride-induced equilibrium denaturation and flexibility was assessed by H2O/D2O amide exchange. The cross-link has substantial effects on both conformational stability and flexibility which depend on its length. In general, the addition of a cross-link enhances conformational stability and decreases flexibility. The optimal length for enhanced stability and decreased flexibility was the 6-carbon link. For the 6-carbon link the Gibbs free energy of unfolding was 8.0 kcal/mol compared to 4.5 kcal/mol for insulin, and the amide exchange rate decreased by at least 3-fold. A very short cross-link (i.e. the 2-carbon link) caused conformational strain that was detectable by a lack of stabilization in the Gibbs free energy of unfolding and enhancement in the amide exchange rate compared to insulin. The effect of the cross-link length on insulin hydrodynamic properties is discussed relative to previously obtained receptor binding results

  5. High concentration agglomerate dynamics at high temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, M C; Pratsinis, S E

    2006-11-21

    The dynamics of agglomerate aerosols are investigated at high solids concentrations that are typical in industrial scale manufacture of fine particles (precursor mole fraction larger than 10 mol %). In particular, formation and growth of fumed silica at such concentrations by chemical reaction, coagulation, and sintering is simulated at nonisothermal conditions and compared to limited experimental data and commercial product specifications. Using recent chemical kinetics for silica formation by SiCl4 hydrolysis and neglecting aerosol polydispersity, the evolution of the diameter of primary particles (specific surface area, SSA), hard- and soft-agglomerates, along with agglomerate effective volume fraction (volume occupied by agglomerate) is investigated. Classic Smoluchowski theory is fundamentally limited for description of soft-agglomerate Brownian coagulation at high solids concentrations. In fact, these high concentrations affect little the primary particle diameter (or SSA) but dominate the soft-agglomerate diameter, structure, and volume fraction, leading to gelation consistent with experimental data. This indicates that restructuring and fragmentation should affect product particle characteristics during high-temperature synthesis of nanostructured particles at high concentrations in aerosol flow reactors.

  6. Oxidation and Free Radical Decay in Vitamin E-stabilized, Radiation Cross-linked UHMWPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oral, E.

    2006-01-01

    A novel a-tocopherol (vitamin E, α-T)-stabilized, cross-linked ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) (αTPE) was developed for total joint arthroplasty as a bearing surface with low wear and improved mechanical properties. Accelerated aging showed α-T protects irradiated UHMWPE against oxidation. However, accelerated aging may not truly reflect in vivo and shelf oxidation. We used real-time aging to monitor the evolution of oxidation and free radical signals of α-T to determine the mechanism of oxidative stability. UHMWPE blocks (30x30x10 mm) were machined and γ-irradiated (85 kGy) in argon. The blocks were doped in α-T for 5 hours at 120 degree and homogenized for 64 hours at 120 degree in argon, packaged in vacuum and γ-sterilized (25 kGy). Samples were aged in air at room temperature, in air at 40 degree and in water at 40 degree. Measurements were at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 7 months. Sections cut from the aged blocks (150μm) were boiled in hexane overnight to extract free species and evaluated by FTIR. Oxidation indices were calculated by taking the area under the carbonyl peak and normalizing it to a skeletal peak. ESR was used to determine the content and type of free radicals. Control was 100-kGy irradiated, unstabilized UHMWPE. αTPE showed a small amount of oxidation, which stabilized after 2 months. This indicated that the decay of the hydroperoxides formed by the reaction of the residual free radicals with oxygen was exhausted by α-T due to its ability to scavenge free radicals. In contrast, control UHMWPE continued to oxidize because the residual free radicals likely continued to form hydroperoxides and additional free radicals, furthering the oxidation reactions. There was a shift in the free radical signature of both αTPE and control from the sextet alkyl/allyl radicals to a sharp singlet during aging. Most likely, trapped free radicals move along the crystal stems until they react with another free radical or until they reach the crystal

  7. Synthesis and Characterization of Poly(maleic Anhydride)s Cross-linked Polyimide Aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Haiquan; Meador, Mary Ann B.

    2015-01-01

    With the development of technology for aerospace applications, new thermal insulation materials are required to be flexible and capable of surviving high heat flux. For instance, flexible insulation is needed for inflatable aerodynamic decelerators which are used to slow spacecraft for entry, descent and landing (EDL) operations. Polyimide aerogels have low density, high porosity, high surface area, and better mechanical properties than silica aerogels and can be made into flexible thin films, thus they are potential candidates for aerospace needs. The previously reported cross-linkers such as octa(aminophenyl)silsesquioxane (OAPS) and 1,3,5-triaminophenoxybenzene (TAB) are either expensive or not commercially available. Here, we report the synthesis of a series of polyimide aerogels cross-linked using various commercially available poly(maleic anhydride)s, as seen in Figure 1. The amine end capped polyimide oligomers were made with 3,3,4,4-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride (BPDA) and diamine combinations of dimethylbenzidine (DMBZ) and 4, 4-oxydianiline (ODA). The resulting aerogels have low density (0.12 gcm3 to 0.16 gcm3), high porosity (90) and high surface area (380-554 m2g). The effect of the different poly(maleic anhydride) cross-linkers and polyimide backbone structures on density, shrinkage, porosity, surface area, mechanical properties, moisture resistance and thermal properties will be discussed.

  8. High Temperature Superconductor Accelerator Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2079328; de Rijk, Gijs; Dhalle, Marc

    2016-11-10

    For future particle accelerators bending dipoles are considered with magnetic fields exceeding $20T$. This can only be achieved using high temperature superconductors (HTS). These exhibit different properties from classical low temperature superconductors and still require significant research and development before they can be applied in a practical accelerator magnet. In order to study HTS in detail, a five tesla demonstrator magnet named Feather-M2 is designed and constructed. The magnet is based on ReBCO coated conductor, which is assembled into a $10kA$ class Roebel cable. A new and optimized Aligned Block layout is used, which takes advantage of the anisotropy of the conductor. This is achieved by providing local alignment of the Roebel cable in the coil windings with the magnetic field lines. A new Network Model capable of analyzing transient electro-magnetic and thermal phenomena in coated conductor cables and coils is developed. This model is necessary to solve critical issues in coated conductor ac...

  9. Adsorption of Congo red dye onto antimicrobial terephthaloyl thiourea cross-linked chitosan hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Harby, Nouf F; Ibrahim, Shaimaa M A; Mohamed, Nadia A

    2017-11-01

    Adsorption capacity of three antimicrobial terephthaloyl thiourea cross-linked chitosan hydrogels for Congo red dye removal from its aqueous solution has been investigated for the first time in this work. These hydrogels were prepared by reacting chitosan with various amounts of terephthaloyl diisothiocyanate cross-linker. The effect of the hydrogel structural variations and several dye adsorption processing parameters to achieve the best adsorption capacity were investigated. The hydrogels' structural variations were obtained by varying their terephthaloyl thiourea moieties content. The processing variables included initial concentration of the dye solution, temperature and time of exposure to the dye. The adsorption kinetics and isotherms showed that the sorption processes were better fitted by the pseudo-second-order equation and the Langmuir equation, respectively. On the basis of the Langmuir analysis Congo red dye gave the maximum sorption capacity of 44.248 mg/g. The results obtained confirmed that the sorption phenomena are most likely to be controlled by chemisorption process. The adsorption reaction was endothermic and spontaneous according to the calculated results of adsorption thermodynamics.

  10. Cross Linking Polymers (PVA & PEG with TiO2 Nanoparticles for Humidity Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Joshi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Humidity Sensors of different types are being used for various applications. Resistive Humidity Sensor has advantage over others for being small, low cost, interchangeable and long term stable. This makes them suitable for industrial, commercial and residential applications. In the present investigation humidity sensing behavior of various composite films made of Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA, Polyethylene glycol (PEG, alkalies and oxide nanoparticles has been studied. It was found that relationship of resistance v/s relative humidity (RH was linear from 40 RH to 60 RH for a composite film made of PVA + PEG+ alkalies .The film can work with reliable efficiency for more than 100 days for the above range of humidity at room temperature. In order to improve the efficiency of composite polymer film TiO2 nanoparticles were added in the film and studied for resistance vs. RH responses. It was found that humidity range expands from 30 RH to 65 RH indicating the proportional decrease in resistance with increase in humidity at both ends as a result of the presence of TiO2 nanoparticles. The composite film with TiO2 nanoparticles can thus be used for wider range of humidity with reasonable stability and consistency. The observed behavior of the film has been attributed to the transportation of charge through TiO2 nanoparticles enhancing the conduction with the cross linked polymers.

  11. The high-temperature reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, U.

    1991-01-01

    The book deals with the development of the German high-temperature reactor (pebble-bed), the design of a prototype plant and its (at least provisional) shut-down in 1989. While there is a lot of material on the HTR's competitor, the fast breeder, literature is very incomplete on HTRs. The author describes HTR's history as a development which was characterised by structural divergencies but not effectively steered and monitored. There was no project-oriented 'community' such as there was for the fast breeder. Also, the new technology was difficult to control there were situations where no one quite knew what was going on. The technical conditions however were not taken as facts but as a basis for interpretation, wishes and reservations. The HTR gives an opportunity to consider the conditions under which large technical projects can be carried out today. (orig.) [de

  12. High temperature industrial heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berghmans, J. (Louvain Univ., Heverlee (Belgium). Inst. Mechanica)

    1990-01-01

    The present report intends to describe the state of the art of high temperature industrial heat pumps. A description is given of present systems on the market. In addition the research and development efforts on this subject are described. Compression (open as well as closed cycle) systems, as well as absorption heat pumps (including transformers), are considered. This state of the art description is based upon literature studies performed by a team of researchers from the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium. The research team also analysed the economics of heat pumps of different types under the present economic conditions. The heat pumps are compared with conventional heating systems. This analysis was performed in order to evaluate the present condition of the heat pump in the European industry.

  13. Faraday imaging at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackel, Lloyd A.; Reichert, Patrick

    1997-01-01

    A Faraday filter rejects background light from self-luminous thermal objects, but transmits laser light at the passband wavelength, thus providing an ultra-narrow optical bandpass filter. The filter preserves images so a camera looking through a Faraday filter at a hot target illuminated by a laser will not see the thermal radiation but will see the laser radiation. Faraday filters are useful for monitoring or inspecting the uranium separator chamber in an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process. Other uses include viewing welds, furnaces, plasma jets, combustion chambers, and other high temperature objects. These filters are can be produced at many discrete wavelengths. A Faraday filter consists of a pair of crossed polarizers on either side of a heated vapor cell mounted inside a solenoid.

  14. Faraday imaging at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackel, L.A.; Reichert, P.

    1997-01-01

    A Faraday filter rejects background light from self-luminous thermal objects, but transmits laser light at the passband wavelength, thus providing an ultra-narrow optical bandpass filter. The filter preserves images so a camera looking through a Faraday filter at a hot target illuminated by a laser will not see the thermal radiation but will see the laser radiation. Faraday filters are useful for monitoring or inspecting the uranium separator chamber in an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process. Other uses include viewing welds, furnaces, plasma jets, combustion chambers, and other high temperature objects. These filters are can be produced at many discrete wavelengths. A Faraday filter consists of a pair of crossed polarizers on either side of a heated vapor cell mounted inside a solenoid. 3 figs

  15. Identification of cross-linked amino acids in the protein pair HmaL23-HmaL29 from the 50S ribosomal subunit of the archaebacterium Haloarcula marismortui.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, U; Wittmann-Liebold, B

    1993-03-23

    50S ribosomal subunits from the extreme halophilic archaebacterium Haloarcula marismortui were treated with the homobifunctional protein-protein cross-linking reagents diepoxybutane (4 A) and dithiobis(succinimidyl propionate) (12 A). The dominant product with both cross-linking reagents was identified on the protein level as HmaL23-HmaL29, which is homologous to the protein pair L23-L29 from Escherichia coli [Walleczek, J., Martin, T., Redl, B., Stöffler-Meilicke, M., & Stöffler, G. (1989) Biochemistry 28, 4099-4105] and from Bacillus stearothermophilus [Brockmöller, J., & Kamp, R. M. (1986) Biol. Chem. Hoppe-Seyler 367, 925-935]. To reveal the exact cross-linking site in HmaL23-HmaL29, the cross-linked complex was purified on a preparative scale by conventional and high-performance liquid chromatography. After endoproteolytic fragmentation of the protein pair, the amino acids engaged in cross-link formation were unambiguously identified by N-terminal sequence analysis and mass spectrometry of the cross-linked peptides. The cross-link is formed between lysine-57 in the C-terminal region of HmaL29 and the alpha-amino group of the N-terminal serine in protein HmaL23, irrespective of the cross-linking reagent. This result demonstrates that the N-terminal region of protein HmaL23 and the C-terminal domain of HmaL29 are highly flexible so that the distance between the two polypeptide chains can vary by at least 8 A. Comparison of our cross-linking results with those obtained with B. stearothermophilus revealed that the fine structure within this ribosomal domain is at least partially conserved.

  16. High temperature incineration. Densification of granules from high temperature incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voorde, N. van de; Claes, J.; Taeymans, A.; Hennart, D.; Gijbels, J.; Balleux, W.; Geenen, G.; Vangeel, J.

    1982-01-01

    The incineration system of radioactive waste discussed in this report, is an ''integral'' system, which directly transforms a definite mixture of burnable and unburnable radioactive waste in a final product with a sufficient insolubility to be safely disposed of. At the same time, a significant volume reduction occurs by this treatment. The essential part of the system is a high temperature incinerator. The construction of this oven started in 1974, and while different tests with simulated inactive or very low-level active waste were carried out, the whole system was progressively and continuously extended and adapted, ending finally in an installation with completely remote control, enclosed in an alpha-tight room. In this report, a whole description of the plant and of its auxiliary installations will be given; then the already gained experimental results will be summarized. Finally, the planning for industrial operation will be briefly outlined. An extended test with radioactive waste, which was carried out in March 1981, will be discussed in the appendix

  17. Concentration-dependent oligomerization of cross-linked complexes between ferredoxin and ferredoxin–NADP+ reductase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimata-Ariga, Yoko; Kubota-Kawai, Hisako; Lee, Young-Ho; Muraki, Norifumi; Ikegami, Takahisa; Kurisu, Genji; Hase, Toshiharu

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Cross-linked complexes of ferredoxin (Fd) and Fd–NADP + reductase form oligomers. •In the crystal structures, Fd- and FNR moieties swap across the molecules. •The complexes exhibit concentration-dependent oligomerization at sub-milimolar order. -- Abstract: Ferredoxin–NADP + reductase (FNR) forms a 1:1 complex with ferredoxin (Fd), and catalyzes the electron transfer between Fd and NADP + . In our previous study, we prepared a series of site-specifically cross-linked complexes of Fd and FNR, which showed diverse electron transfer properties. Here, we show that X-ray crystal structures of the two different Fd–FNR cross-linked complexes form oligomers by swapping Fd and FNR moieties across the molecules; one complex is a dimer from, and the other is a successive multimeric form. In order to verify whether these oligomeric structures are formed only in crystal, we investigated the possibility of the oligomerization of these complexes in solution. The mean values of the particle size of these cross-linked complexes were shown to increase with the rise of protein concentration at sub-milimolar order, whereas the size of dissociable wild-type Fd:FNR complex was unchanged as analyzed by dynamic light scattering measurement. The oligomerization products were detected by SDS–PAGE after chemical cross-linking of these complexes at the sub-milimolar concentrations. The extent and concentration-dependent profile of the oligomerizaion were differentiated between the two cross-linked complexes. These results show that these Fd–FNR cross-linked complexes exhibit concentration-dependent oligomerization, possibly through swapping of Fd and FNR moieties also in solution. These findings lead to the possibility that some native multi-domain proteins may present similar phenomenon in vivo

  18. A structural and kinetic study on myofibrils prevented from shortening by chemical cross-linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, C; Sleep, J; Chaussepied, P; Travers, F; Barman, T

    1993-07-20

    In previous work, we studied the early steps of the Mg(2+)-ATPase activity of Ca(2+)-activated myofibrils [Houadjeto, M., Travers, F., & Barman, T. (1992) Biochemistry 31, 1564-1569]. The myofibrils were free to contract, and the results obtained refer to the ATPase cycle of myofibrils contracting with no external load. Here we studied the ATPase of myofibrils contracting isometrically. To prevent shortening, we cross-linked them with 1-ethyl-3-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]carbodiimide (EDC). SDS-PAGE and Western blot analyses showed that the myosin rods were extensively cross-linked and that 8% of the myosin heads were cross-linked to the thin filament. The transient kinetics of the cross-linked myofibrils were studied in 0.1 M potassium acetate, pH 7.4 and 4 degrees C, by the rapid-flow quench method. The ATP binding steps were studied by the cold ATP chase and the cleavage and release of products steps by the Pi burst method. In Pi burst experiments, the sizes of the bursts were equal within experimental error to the ATPase site concentrations (as determined by the cold ATP chase methods) for both cross-linked (isometric) and un-cross-linked (isotonic) myofibrils. This shows that in both cases the rate-limiting step is after the cleavage of ATP. When cross-linked, the kcat of Ca(2+)-activated myofibrils was reduced from 1.7 to 0.8 s-1. This is consistent with the observation that fibers shortening at moderate velocity have a higher ATPase activity than isometric fibers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Fabrication and characterization of hydrothermal cross-linked chitosan porous scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamekhi, Mohammad Amin; Rabiee, Ahmad; Mirzadeh, Hamid; Mahdavi, Hamid; Mohebbi-Kalhori, Davod; Baghaban Eslaminejad, Mohamadreza

    2017-11-01

    The use of various chemical cross-linking agents for the improvement of scaffolds physical and mechanical properties is a common practical method, which is limited by cytotoxicity effects. Due to exerting contract type forces, chondrocytes are known to implement shrinkage on the tissue engineered constructs, which can be avoided by the scaffold cross-linking. In the this research, chitosan scaffolds are cross-linked with hydrothermal treatment with autoclave sterilization time of 0, 10, 20 and 30min, to avoid the application of the traditional chemical toxic materials. The optimization studies with gel content and crosslink density measurements indicate that for 20min sterilization time, the gel content approaches to ~80%. The scaffolds are fully characterized by the conventional techniques such as SEM, porosity and permeability, XRD, compression, thermal analysis and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). FT-IR studies shows that autoclave inter-chain cross-linking reduces the amine group absorption at 1560cm -1 and increase the absorption of N-acetylated groups at 1629cm -1 . It is anticipated, that this observation evidenced by chitosan scaffold browning upon autoclave cross-linking is an indication of the familiar maillard reaction between amine moieties and carbonyl groups. The biodegradation rate analysis shows that chitosan scaffolds with lower concentrations, possess suitable degradation rate for cartilage tissue engineering applications. In addition, cytotoxicity analysis shows that fabricated scaffolds are biocompatible. The human articular chondrocytes seeding into 3D cross-linked scaffolds shows a higher viability and proliferation in comparison with the uncross-linked samples and 2D controls. Investigation of cell morphology on the scaffolds by SEM, shows a more spherical morphology of chondrocytes on the cross-linked scaffolds for 21days of in vitro culture. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Cross-linked poly(tetrahydrofuran) as promising sorbent for organic solvent/oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yati, Ilker; Ozan Aydin, Gulsah; Bulbul Sonmez, Hayal, E-mail: hayalsonmez@gtu.edu.tr

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Poly(tetrahydrofuran) based sorbents were prepared. • PTHF sorbents demonstrate reusability at least for ten times. • PTHF based sorbents show fast and quick absorption-desorption process. • 19 g of oil can be absorbed by 1 g of PTHF based sorbent. - Abstract: In this study, a series of different molecular weights of poly(tetrahydrofuran) (PTHF), which is one of the most important commercial polymers around the world, was condensed with tris[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]isocyanurate (ICS) to generate a cross-linked 3-dimensional network in order to obtain organic solvent/oil sorbents having high swelling capacity. The prepared sorbents show high and fast swelling capacity in oils such as dichloromethane (DCM), tetrahydrofuran (THF), acetone, t-butyl methyl ether (MTBE), gasoline, euro diesel, and crude oil. The recovery of the absorbed oils from contaminated surfaces, especially from water, and the regeneration of the sorbents after several applications are effective. The characterization and thermal properties of the sorbents are identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), solid-state {sup 13}C and {sup 29}Si cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analyses (TGA), respectively. The new usage area of PTHF is emerged by the preparation of PTHF-based network structure with high oil absorption capacity and having excellent reusability as an oil absorbent for the removal of organic liquids from the spill site.

  1. Evaluation of synthesized cross linked polyvinyl alcohol as potential disintegrant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ashok R; Vavia, Pradeep R

    2010-01-01

    The present study deals with evaluation of crosslinked poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) as a potential disintegrant. Crosslinking of PVA was carried out using glutaraldehyde as a crosslinker, in presence of acidic conditions. The crosslinking reaction was optimized for a) polymer: crosslinker ratio; b) temperature requirement and c) reaction duration. Certain physical parameters of the disintegrant (including sedimentation volume, hydration capacity, specific surface area and bulk and tap density) were determined and compared to the known disintegrants. Characterization was carried out using FT-IR, DSC, XRD, SEM and Photo microscopy studies. The developed excipient was also studied for acute toxicity in rats and found to be safe for oral use. Disintegration property of formed product was compared to known disintegrant (Ac-Di-Sol) and it was found to give better results. The disintegration mechanism of developed disintegrant was postulated based on results obtained from various physical evaluations including: Study of effect of disintegrant concentration, fillers, and hardness, mode of incorporation and method of granulation on disintegration activity. By changing the condition parameters of well known crosslinking reaction of PVA, we obtained a crosslinked product which had excellent disintegration activity, good flow and optimal tableting properties.

  2. Functionalisation of cross-linked polyethylenimine for the removal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-25

    Mar 25, 2013 ... High concen- trations of toxic elements result from intensive anthropogenic .... from wastewater samples collected in the vicinity of gold- mining activities in ..... contaminated soil using water-soluble polymers. J. Environ. Eng. ... L (2009) Radioactive disequilibrium and geochemical modelling as evidence of ...

  3. In-situ Plasticized Cross-linked Polymer Composite Electrolyte Enhanced with Lithium-ion Conducting Nanofibers for Ambient All-Solid-State Lithium-ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Chaoyi; Zhu, Pei; Jia, Hao; Zhu, Jiadeng; Selvan, R. Kalai; Li, Ya; Dong, Xia; Du, Zhuang; Angunawela, Indunil; Wu, Nianqiang; Dirican, Mahmut

    2018-04-29

    Solid electrolytes have been gaining attention recently for the development of next-generation Li-ion batteries due to the substantial improvements in stability and safety. Among various types of solid electrolytes, composite solid electrolytes (CSEs) exhibit both high ionic conductivity and excellent interfacial contact with the electrodes. Incorporating active nanofibers into the polymer matrix demonstrates an effective method to fabricate CSEs. However, current CSEs based on traditional poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) polymer suffer from the poor ionic conductivity of PEO and agglomeration effect of inorganic fillers at high concentrations, which limit further improvements in Li+ conductivity and electrochemical stability. Herein, we synthesize a novel PEO based cross-linked polymer (CLP) as the polymer matrix with naturally amorphous structure and high room-temperature ionic conductivity of 2.40 × 10-4 S cm-1. Li0.3La0.557TiO3 (LLTO) nanofibers incorporated composite solid electrolytes (L-CLPCSE) exhibit enhanced ionic conductivity without showing filler agglomeration. The high content of Li-conductive nanofibers improves the mechanical strength, ensures the conductive networks, and increases the total Li+ conductivity to 3.31 × 10-4 S cm-1. The all-solid-state Li|LiFePO4 batteries with L-CLPCSE are able to deliver attractive specific capacity of 147 mAh g-1 at room temperature, and no evident dendrite is found at the anode/electrolyte interface after 100 cycles.

  4. Novel enzymatically cross-linked hyaluronan hydrogels support the formation of 3D neuronal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broguiere, Nicolas; Isenmann, Luca; Zenobi-Wong, Marcy

    2016-08-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is an essential component of the central nervous system's extracellular matrix and its high molecular weight (MW) form has anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic properties relevant for regenerative medicine. Here, we introduce a new hydrogel based on high MW HA which is cross-linked using the transglutaminase (TG) activity of the activated blood coagulation factor XIII (FXIIIa). These HA-TG gels have significant advantages for neural tissue engineering compared to previous HA gels. Due to their chemical inertness in the absence of FXIIIa, the material can be stored long-term, is stable in solution, and shows no cytotoxicity. The gelation is completely cell-friendly due to the specificity of the enzyme and the gelation rate can be tuned from seconds to hours at physiological pH and independently of stiffness. The gels are injectable, and attach covalently to fibrinogen and fibrin, two common bioactive components in in vitro tissue engineering, as well as proteins present in vivo, allowing the gels to covalently bind to brain or spinal cord defects. These optimal chemical and bioactive properties of HA-TG gels enabled the formation of 3D neuronal cultures of unprecedented performance, showing fast neurite outgrowth, axonal and dendritic speciation, strong synaptic connectivity in 3D networks, and rapidly-occurring and long-lasting coordinated electrical activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. IMMOBILIZATION OF MICROALGAE ON THE SURFACE OF NEW CROSS-LINKED POLYETHYLENIMINE-BASED SORBENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilieva, Svetlana; Shibzukhova, Karina; Morozov, Alexey; Solovchenko, Alexei; Bessonov, Ivan; Kopitsyna, Maria; Lukyanov, Alexander; Chekanov, Konstantin; Lobakova, Elena

    2018-04-11

    We report on the use of the polyethylenimine-based (PEI) sorbents for immobilization and harvesting of microalgae (MA) cells. Specific materials assessed were porous solid polymers from highly-branched PEI synthesized by cross-linking with epichlorohydrin (ECH) or diethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (DGDE). We estimated the effect of PEI/cross-linker ratio on the MA attachment and biocompatibility of the sorbents with the MA cells. A decrease in the cross-linker percentage resulted in the enhancement of the immobilization efficiency but impaired the cell viability as was manifested by inhibition of the photosynthetic activity of the MA cells. The rate of Chlorella vulgaris cell attachment to the sorbents with ECH was faster as compared to that of the PEI-DGDE-based polymers. The cells immobilized on the PEI-ECH sorbents showed a more profound decline in their viability (assessed via photosynthetic activity). The sorbents with 60% of DGDE were characterized by high immobilization efficiency. These sorbents supported a prolonged cultivation of the immobilized MA without impairing their viability and metabolic activity. We conclude that the sorbents with a lower percentage of DGDE (<30%) and sorbents with ECH are suitable for harvesting of the MA cells intended for immediate downstream processing, potentially without the cell desorption. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on successful application of PEI-based sorbents in microalgal biotechnology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Alkali reversal of psoralen cross-link for the targeted delivery of psoralen monoadduct lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeung, A.T.; Dinehart, W.J.; Jones, B.K.

    1988-01-01

    Psoralen intercalates into double-stranded DNA and photoreacts mainly with thymines to form monoadducts and interstrand cross-links. The authors used an oligonucleotide model to demonstrate a novel mechanism: the reversal of psoralen cross-links by base-catalyzed rearrangement at 90 0 C (BCR). The BCR reaction is more efficient than the photoreversal reaction. They show that the BCR occurs predominantly on the furan side of a psoralen cross-link. The cleavage does not result in the breaking of the DNA backbone, and the thymine based freed from the cross-link by the cleavage reaction appears to be unmodified. Similarly, BCR of the furan-side monoadduct of psoralen removed the psoralen molecule and regenerated the unaltered native oligonucleotide. The pyrone-side psoralen monoadduct is relatively resistant to BCR. One can use BCR to perform efficient oligonucleotide-directed, site-specific delivery of a psoralen monoadduct. As a demonstration of this approach, they have hybridized a 19 base long oligonucleotide vehicle containing a furan-side psoralen monoadduct to a 56 base long complementary oligonucleotide target strand and formed a specific cross-link at the target site with 365-nm UV. Subsequent BCR released the oligonucleotide vehicle and deposited the psoralen at the target site

  7. Formulation and in vitro evaluation of sustained release matrix tablets using cross-linked natural gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Qurratul Ain; Masood, Muhammad Irfan; Jamil, Muhammad Nauman; Masood, Imran; Iqbal, Shahid Muhammad

    2017-03-01

    Polysaccharide gums because of their biocompatibility, biodegradability and non-immunogenic properties are considered as the best choice for preparing sustained release tablets as compared to their synthetic counterpart. The cross linking of natural gums in matrix tablets increase the sustained release property of matrix tablets. Isoniazid is a first line therapy of tuberculosis, belongs to BCS I with half-life of 3-4 hours. These characteristics make isoniazid a good candidate for sustained release dosage form. Karaya gum crossed linked with trisodium tri metaphosphate was used as release rate retardant for preparing isoniazid cross-linked matrix tablet. Total 8 sustained release formulations were prepared. Both granules and tablets were evaluated under in vitro condition against different parameters. Dissolution studies were performed with all eight formulations for 12 hours using USP apparatus I. Four formulations designated as F1, F2, F3, F4 have drug and karaya gum while other four formulations F5, F6, F7, F8 have drug and crossed linked polymer in ratios of 1:1, 1:2, 1:3 and 1:4 respectively. Dissolution data was analyzed by using different kinetic models. Best fit model for most efficient formulation was zero order while release mechanism was super case I. Formulation 8 showed sufficiently slow release kinetics and about 83% of drug was released in 10 hours, indicating that cross-linked karaya gum proved efficient in preparing sustained release tablets.

  8. A General Method for Targeted Quantitative Cross-Linking Mass Spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan D Chavez

    Full Text Available Chemical cross-linking mass spectrometry (XL-MS provides protein structural information by identifying covalently linked proximal amino acid residues on protein surfaces. The information gained by this technique is complementary to other structural biology methods such as x-ray crystallography, NMR and cryo-electron microscopy[1]. The extension of traditional quantitative proteomics methods with chemical cross-linking can provide information on the structural dynamics of protein structures and protein complexes. The identification and quantitation of cross-linked peptides remains challenging for the general community, requiring specialized expertise ultimately limiting more widespread adoption of the technique. We describe a general method for targeted quantitative mass spectrometric analysis of cross-linked peptide pairs. We report the adaptation of the widely used, open source software package Skyline, for the analysis of quantitative XL-MS data as a means for data analysis and sharing of methods. We demonstrate the utility and robustness of the method with a cross-laboratory study and present data that is supported by and validates previously published data on quantified cross-linked peptide pairs. This advance provides an easy to use resource so that any lab with access to a LC-MS system capable of performing targeted quantitative analysis can quickly and accurately measure dynamic changes in protein structure and protein interactions.

  9. Cross-Linked Amylose Bio-Plastic: A Transgenic-Based Compostable Plastic Alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Sagnelli

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Bio-plastics and bio-materials are composed of natural or biomass derived polymers, offering solutions to solve immediate environmental issues. Polysaccharide-based bio-plastics represent important alternatives to conventional plastic because of their intrinsic biodegradable nature. Amylose-only (AO, an engineered barley starch with 99% amylose, was tested to produce cross-linked all-natural bioplastic using normal barley starch as a control. Glycerol was used as plasticizer and citrate cross-linking was used to improve the mechanical properties of cross-linked AO starch extrudates. Extrusion converted the control starch from A-type to Vh- and B-type crystals, showing a complete melting of the starch crystals in the raw starch granules. The cross-linked AO and control starch specimens displayed an additional wide-angle diffraction reflection. Phospholipids complexed with Vh-type single helices constituted an integrated part of the AO starch specimens. Gas permeability tests of selected starch-based prototypes demonstrated properties comparable to that of commercial Mater-Bi© plastic. The cross-linked AO prototypes had composting characteristics not different from the control, indicating that the modified starch behaves the same as normal starch. The data shows the feasibility of producing all-natural bioplastic using designer starch as raw material.

  10. Cross-Linked Amylose Bio-Plastic: A Transgenic-Based Compostable Plastic Alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagnelli, Domenico; Hooshmand, Kourosh; Kemmer, Gerdi Christine; Kirkensgaard, Jacob J K; Mortensen, Kell; Giosafatto, Concetta Valeria L; Holse, Mette; Hebelstrup, Kim H; Bao, Jinsong; Stelte, Wolfgang; Bjerre, Anne-Belinda; Blennow, Andreas

    2017-09-30

    Bio-plastics and bio-materials are composed of natural or biomass derived polymers, offering solutions to solve immediate environmental issues. Polysaccharide-based bio-plastics represent important alternatives to conventional plastic because of their intrinsic biodegradable nature. Amylose-only (AO), an engineered barley starch with 99% amylose, was tested to produce cross-linked all-natural bioplastic using normal barley starch as a control. Glycerol was used as plasticizer and citrate cross-linking was used to improve the mechanical properties of cross-linked AO starch extrudates. Extrusion converted the control starch from A-type to Vh- and B-type crystals, showing a complete melting of the starch crystals in the raw starch granules. The cross-linked AO and control starch specimens displayed an additional wide-angle diffraction reflection. Phospholipids complexed with Vh-type single helices constituted an integrated part of the AO starch specimens. Gas permeability tests of selected starch-based prototypes demonstrated properties comparable to that of commercial Mater-Bi © plastic. The cross-linked AO prototypes had composting characteristics not different from the control, indicating that the modified starch behaves the same as normal starch. The data shows the feasibility of producing all-natural bioplastic using designer starch as raw material.

  11. Effects of alginate hydrogel cross-linking density on mechanical and biological behaviors for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jinah; Seol, Young-Joon; Kim, Hyeon Ji; Kundu, Joydip; Kim, Sung Won; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2014-09-01

    An effective cross-linking of alginate gel was made through reaction with calcium carbonate (CaCO3). We used human chondrocytes as a model cell to study the effects of cross-linking density. Three different pore size ranges of cross-linked alginate hydrogels were fabricated. The morphological, mechanical, and rheological properties of various alginate hydrogels were characterized and responses of biosynthesis of cells encapsulated in each gel to the variation in cross-linking density were investigated. Desired outer shape of structure was maintained when the alginate solution was cross-linked with the applied method. The properties of alginate hydrogel could be tailored through applying various concentrations of CaCO3. The rate of synthesized GAGs and collagens was significantly higher in human chondrocytes encapsulated in the smaller pore structure than that in the larger pore structure. The expression of chondrogenic markers, including collagen type II and aggrecan, was enhanced in the smaller pore structure. It was found that proper structural morphology is a critical factor to enhance the performance and tissue regeneration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. WICH, a member of WASP-interacting protein family, cross-links actin filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Masayoshi; Takenawa, Tadaomi

    2005-01-01

    In yeast, Verprolin plays an important role in rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton. There are three mammalian homologues of Verprolin, WIP, CR16, and WICH, and all of them bind actin and Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) and/or neural-WASP. Here, we describe a novel function of WICH. In vitro co-sedimentation analysis revealed that WICH not only binds to actin filaments but also cross-links them. Fluorescence and electron microscopy detected that this cross-linking results in straight bundled actin filaments. Overexpression of WICH alone in cultured fibroblast caused the formation of thick actin fibers. This ability of WICH depended on its own actin cross-linking activity. Importantly, the actin cross-linking activity of WICH was modified through a direct association with N-WASP. Taken together, these data suggest that WICH induces a bundled form of actin filament with actin cross-linking activity and the association with N-WASP suppresses that activity. WICH thus appears to be a novel actin bundling protein

  13. Cross-Linked Amylose Bio-Plastic: A Transgenic-Based Compostable Plastic Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagnelli, Domenico; Kemmer, Gerdi Christine; Holse, Mette; Hebelstrup, Kim H.; Bao, Jinsong; Stelte, Wolfgang; Bjerre, Anne-Belinda; Blennow, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Bio-plastics and bio-materials are composed of natural or biomass derived polymers, offering solutions to solve immediate environmental issues. Polysaccharide-based bio-plastics represent important alternatives to conventional plastic because of their intrinsic biodegradable nature. Amylose-only (AO), an engineered barley starch with 99% amylose, was tested to produce cross-linked all-natural bioplastic using normal barley starch as a control. Glycerol was used as plasticizer and citrate cross-linking was used to improve the mechanical properties of cross-linked AO starch extrudates. Extrusion converted the control starch from A-type to Vh- and B-type crystals, showing a complete melting of the starch crystals in the raw starch granules. The cross-linked AO and control starch specimens displayed an additional wide-angle diffraction reflection. Phospholipids complexed with Vh-type single helices constituted an integrated part of the AO starch specimens. Gas permeability tests of selected starch-based prototypes demonstrated properties comparable to that of commercial Mater-Bi© plastic. The cross-linked AO prototypes had composting characteristics not different from the control, indicating that the modified starch behaves the same as normal starch. The data shows the feasibility of producing all-natural bioplastic using designer starch as raw material. PMID:28973963

  14. Physico-chemical/biological properties of tripolyphosphate cross-linked chitosan based nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, Soumi Dey [School of Medical Science and Technology, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur-721302 (India); Farrugia, Brooke L.; Dargaville, Tim R. [Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Kelvin Groove, Queensland-4059 (Australia); Dhara, Santanu, E-mail: sdhara@smst.iitkgp.ernet.in [School of Medical Science and Technology, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur-721302 (India)

    2013-04-01

    In this study, chitosan-PEO blend, prepared in a 15 M acetic acid, was electrospun into nanofibers (∼ 78 nm diameter) with bead free morphology. While investigating physico-chemical parameters of blend solutions, effect of yield stress on chitosan based nanofiber fabrication was clearly evidenced. Architectural stability of nanofiber mat in aqueous medium was achieved by ionotropic cross-linking of chitosan by tripolyphosphate (TPP) ions. The TPP cross-linked nanofiber mat showed swelling up to ∼ 300% in 1 h and ∼ 40% degradation during 30 day study period. 3T3 fibroblast cells showed good attachment, proliferation and viability on TPP treated chitosan based nanofiber mats. The results indicate non-toxic nature of TPP cross-linked chitosan based nanofibers and their potential to be explored as a tissue engineering matrix. - Highlights: ► Chitosan based nanofiber fabrication through electrospinning. ► Roles of solution viscosity and yield stress on spinnability of chitosan evidenced. ► Tripolyphosphate (TPP) cross-linking rendered structural stability to nanofibers. ► TPP cross-linking also improved cellular response on chitosan based nanofibers. ► Thus, chitosan based nanofibers are suitable for tissue engineering application.

  15. Physico-chemical/biological properties of tripolyphosphate cross-linked chitosan based nanofibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, Soumi Dey; Farrugia, Brooke L.; Dargaville, Tim R.; Dhara, Santanu

    2013-01-01

    In this study, chitosan-PEO blend, prepared in a 15 M acetic acid, was electrospun into nanofibers (∼ 78 nm diameter) with bead free morphology. While investigating physico-chemical parameters of blend solutions, effect of yield stress on chitosan based nanofiber fabrication was clearly evidenced. Architectural stability of nanofiber mat in aqueous medium was achieved by ionotropic cross-linking of chitosan by tripolyphosphate (TPP) ions. The TPP cross-linked nanofiber mat showed swelling up to ∼ 300% in 1 h and ∼ 40% degradation during 30 day study period. 3T3 fibroblast cells showed good attachment, proliferation and viability on TPP treated chitosan based nanofiber mats. The results indicate non-toxic nature of TPP cross-linked chitosan based nanofibers and their potential to be explored as a tissue engineering matrix. - Highlights: ► Chitosan based nanofiber fabrication through electrospinning. ► Roles of solution viscosity and yield stress on spinnability of chitosan evidenced. ► Tripolyphosphate (TPP) cross-linking rendered structural stability to nanofibers. ► TPP cross-linking also improved cellular response on chitosan based nanofibers. ► Thus, chitosan based nanofibers are suitable for tissue engineering application

  16. Studies on Cross-linking of succinic acid with chitosan/collagen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapas Mitra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study summarizes the cross-linking property of succinic acid with chitosan /collagen. In detail, the chemistry behind the cross-linking and the improvement in mechanical and thermal properties of the cross-linked material were discussed with suitable instruments and bioinformatics tools. The concentration of succinic acid with reference to the chosen polymers was optimized. A 3D scaffold prepared using an optimized concentration of succinic acid (0.2% (w/v with chitosan (1.0% (w/v and similarly with collagen (0.5% (w/v, was subjected to surface morphology, FT-IR analysis, tensile strength assessment, thermal stability and biocompatibility. Results revealed, cross-linking with succinic acid impart appreciable mechanical strength to the scaffold material. In silico analysis suggested the prevalence of non-covalent interactions, which played a crucial role in improving the mechanical and thermal properties of the cross-linked scaffold. The resultant 3D scaffold may find application as wound dressing material, as an implant in clinical applications and as a tissue engineering material.

  17. High Temperature Superconducting Underground Cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, Roger A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this Project was to design, build, install and demonstrate the technical feasibility of an underground high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable installed between two utility substations. In the first phase two HTS cables, 320 m and 30 m in length, were constructed using 1st generation BSCCO wire. The two 34.5 kV, 800 Arms, 48 MVA sections were connected together using a superconducting joint in an underground vault. In the second phase the 30 m BSCCO cable was replaced by one constructed with 2nd generation YBCO wire. 2nd generation wire is needed for commercialization because of inherent cost and performance benefits. Primary objectives of the Project were to build and operate an HTS cable system which demonstrates significant progress towards commercial progress and addresses real world utility concerns such as installation, maintenance, reliability and compatibility with the existing grid. Four key technical areas addressed were the HTS cable and terminations (where the cable connects to the grid), cryogenic refrigeration system, underground cable-to-cable joint (needed for replacement of cable sections) and cost-effective 2nd generation HTS wire. This was the worlds first installation and operation of an HTS cable underground, between two utility substations as well as the first to demonstrate a cable-to-cable joint, remote monitoring system and 2nd generation HTS.

  18. High-temperature axion potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowrick, N.J.; McDougall, N.A.

    1989-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of new terms in the high-temperature axion potential arising from the dynamical nature of the axion field and from higher-order corrections to the θ dependence in the free energy of the quark-gluon plasma. We find that the dynamical nature of the axion field does not affect the potential but that the higher-order effects lead to new terms in the potential which are larger than the term previously considered. However, neither the magnitude nor the sign of the potential can be calculated by a perturbative expansion of the free energy since the coupling is too large. We show that a change in the magnitude of the potential does not significantly affect the bound on the axion decay constant but that the sign of the potential is of crucial importance. By investigating the formal properties of the functional integral within the instanton dilute-gas approximation, we find that the sign of the potential does not change and that the minimum remains at θ=0. We conclude that the standard calculation of the axion energy today is not significantly modified by this investigation

  19. Creep of high temperature composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadananda, K.; Feng, C.R.

    1993-01-01

    High temperature creep deformation of composites is examined. Creep of composites depends on the interplay of many factors. One of the basic issues in the design of the creep resistant composites is the ability to predict their creep behavior from the knowledge of the creep behavior of the individual components. In this report, the existing theoretical models based on continuum mechanics principles are reviewed. These models are evaluated using extensive experimental data on molydisilicide-silicon carbide composites obtained by the authors. The analysis shows that the rule of mixture based on isostrain and isostress provides two limiting bounds wherein all other theoretical predictions fall. For molydisilicide composites, the creep is predominantly governed by the creep of the majority phase, i.e. the matrix with fibers deforming elastically. The role of back stresses both on creep rates and activation energies are shown to be minimum. Kinetics of creep in MoSi 2 is shown to be controlled by the process of dislocation glide with climb involving the diffusion of Mo atoms

  20. Method of modifying a vinyl chloride resin by utilizing radiation cross-linking polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kagiya, T; Fujimoto, T; Hosoi, F; Tsuneta, K; Atogawa, M

    1970-08-26

    The polyvinyl chloride is improved in its mechanical, thermal and chemical properties, with particular advantages gained in dimensional stability at temperatures higher than the plasticizing temperature. The process comprises irradiating a vinyl chloride resin with ionizing radiations in the presence of a vinyl acetate monomer. In this process, the irradiation of vinyl acetate effects cross-linking and the polymerization of the monomer simultaneously. The vinyl chloride resin may be a copolymer along with another monomer, a polyvinyl chloride derivative, a graft polymer of polyvinyl chloride, a mixture of vinyl chloride with another resin and a graft copolymer of vinyl chloride on another resin in any form. The addition of the vinyl acetate monomer to the vinyl chloride is not limited to any particular procedure. The vinyl acetate monomer may be added to the polyvinyl chloride in a quantity ranging from a trace to 200% by weight. The radiation dose may be 10/sup 2/ to 10/sup 9/, but preferably 10/sup 3/ roentgen. In one example, 36 parts by weight of market available vinyl acetate monomer immersed in 100 parts by weight of hard vinyl tube were placed in a stainless reacting vessel. After the replacement of inner air with nitrogen, the vessel was exposed to ..gamma.. beams of 4.8 x 10 roentgen from a Co-60 source. After dipping the exposed samples in boiled tetrahydrofuran for 48 hours, the insoluble substance in the samjle was 78.9% by weight. In addition, after heating at 180/sup 0/C for 30 minutes, the sample did not show any deformation.

  1. Migration of melamine from can coatings cross-linked with melamine-based resins, into food simulants and foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, E L; Castle, L; Day, J S; Leak, J

    2011-02-01

    Resins based on melamine-formaldehyde and related analogues such as methylolated melamine are used to cross-link coatings used inside food cans and on the metal closures of glass jars. Thirteen commercially coated cans and closures representing 80% of the European market were tested using simulants under realistic industrial heat-processing conditions for canned and jarred foods. The food simulants and the retort conditions used were 3% acetic acid for 1 h at 100 °C and 10% ethanol for 1 h at 130 °C. The highest migration level seen for melamine into simulant was 332 µg kg⁻¹. There was no detectable migration of the melamine analogues cyanuric acid (food simulant and foods themselves were then conducted using two experimental coatings made using amino-based cross-linking resins. Coated metal panels were exposed to the food simulant 10% (v/v) aqueous ethanol and to three foodstuffs under a range of time and temperature conditions both in the laboratory and in a commercial food canning facility using proprietary time and temperature conditions. The highest migration into a food was 152 µg kg⁻¹ from the first coating processed for a long time at a moderate sterilisation temperature. The highest migration into simulant was also from this coating at 220 µg kg⁻¹ when processed at 134 °C for 60 min, dropping to 190 µg k⁻¹ when processed at 123 °C for 70 min. Migration from the second coating was quite uniformly two to three times lower under all tests. These migration results were significantly higher than the levels of melamine extractable using 95% ethanol at room temperature. The experiments show that commercial canning and retorting can be mimicked in an acceptable way using laboratory tests with an autoclave or a simple pressure cooker. The results overall show there is hydrolytic degradation of the melamine cross-linked resins to release additional melamine. There is a strong influence of the temperature of heat treatment applied with foods or

  2. SINTESIS PATI SAGU IKATAN SILANG FOSFAT BERDERAJAT SUBSTITUSI FOSFAT TINGGI DALAM SUASANA ASAM [Synthesis of Cross-Linked Sago Starch Phosphate with the Highest Degree of Substitution of Phosphate Under Acidic Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorion Romengga*

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cross-linked sago starch phosphate (SgP with high phosphorus contents was successfully synthesized by reacting sago with a mixture of primary and secondary sodium phosphates under acidic condition. The experimental variables investigated include pH, temperature, reaction time, and mixture rate. The physicochemical properties evaluated were moisture, swelling power, water binding capacity, transmittance (%T and percent amylose (%Am, while the pasting properties examined were pasting time, pasting temperature, viscosity at peak, final, and setback. The granule structure was observed by scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. The results showed that the maximum degree of phosphate substitution was obtained at pH of 6.50, 40°C, 20 minutes of reaction time and 300 rpm of mixing rate. The physicochemical (%T and %Am and pasting (viscosity at peak, final, and setback properties of SgP were significantly different (P<0.01 from Sg. Structure of SgP was characterized by FT-IR and the results indicated a new absorption peak at 2362.87 cm-1 which was characterized as the phospho-diester (RO-PO3-R’ stretching vibration. In the fingerprint area, there were two new absorption peaks at 1242.05 and 989.79 cm-1 which were characterized as the P=O and C-O-P vibration, respectively. Sago granules were substantially altered after cross-linking.

  3. High Temperature Chemistry at NASA: Hot Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.

    2014-01-01

    High Temperature issues in aircraft engines Hot section: Ni and Co based Superalloys Oxidation and Corrosion (Durability) at high temperatures. Thermal protection system (TPS) and RCC (Reinforced Carbon-Carbon) on the Space Shuttle Orbiter. High temperatures in other worlds: Planets close to their stars.

  4. High temperature vapors science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hastie, John

    2012-01-01

    High Temperature Vapors: Science and Technology focuses on the relationship of the basic science of high-temperature vapors to some areas of discernible practical importance in modern science and technology. The major high-temperature problem areas selected for discussion include chemical vapor transport and deposition; the vapor phase aspects of corrosion, combustion, and energy systems; and extraterrestrial high-temperature species. This book is comprised of seven chapters and begins with an introduction to the nature of the high-temperature vapor state, the scope and literature of high-temp

  5. Mechanically Strong, Polymer Cross-linked Aerogels (X-Aerogels)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventis, Nicholas

    2006-01-01

    Aerogels comprise a class of low-density, high porous solid objects consisting of dimensionally quasi-stable self-supported three-dimensional assemblies of nanoparticles. Aerogels are pursued because of properties above and beyond those of the individual nanoparticles, including low thermal conductivity, low dielectric constant and high acoustic impedance. Possible applications include thermal and vibration insulation, dielectrics for fast electronics, and hosting of functional guests for a wide variety of optical, chemical and electronic applications. Aerogels, however, are extremely fragile materials, hence they have found only limited application in some very specialized environments, for example as Cerenkov radiation detectors in certain types of nuclear reactors, aboard spacecraft as collectors of hypervelocity particles (refer to NASA's Stardust program) and as thermal insulators on planetary vehicles on Mars (refer to Sojourner Rover in 1997 and Spirit and Opportunity in 2004). Along these lines, the X-Aerogel is a new NASA-developed strong lightweight material that has resolved the fragility problem of traditional (native) aerogels. X-Aerogels are made by applying a conformal polymer coating on the surfaces of the skeletal nanoparticles of native aerogels (see Scanning Electron Micrographs). Since the relative amounts of the polymeric crosslinker and the backbone are comparable, X-Aerogels can be viewed either as aerogels modified by the templated accumulation of polymer on the skeletal nanoparticles, or as nanoporous polymers made by remplated casting of polymer on a nanostructured framework. The most striking feature of X-Aerogels is that for a nominal 3-fold increase in density (still a ultralighweight material), the mechanical strength can be up to 300 times higher than the strength of the underlying native aerogel. Thus, X-Aerogels combine a multiple of the specific compressive strength of steel, with the the thermal conductivity of styrofoam. X

  6. Evaluation of high temperature pressure sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, In-Mook; Woo, Sam-Yong; Kim, Yong-Kyu

    2011-01-01

    It is becoming more important to measure the pressure in high temperature environments in many industrial fields. However, there is no appropriate evaluation system and compensation method for high temperature pressure sensors since most pressure standards have been established at room temperature. In order to evaluate the high temperature pressure sensors used in harsh environments, such as high temperatures above 250 deg. C, a specialized system has been constructed and evaluated in this study. The pressure standard established at room temperature is connected to a high temperature pressure sensor through a chiller. The sensor can be evaluated in conditions of changing standard pressures at constant temperatures and of changing temperatures at constant pressures. According to the evaluation conditions, two compensation methods are proposed to eliminate deviation due to sensitivity changes and nonlinear behaviors except thermal hysteresis.

  7. Effects of diaspirin cross-linked hemoglobin (DCLHb) during and post-CPR in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, M S; Fan, C; Tran, H; Zhao, H; Zhou, L

    2001-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to test the hypothesis that diaspirin cross-linked hemoglobin (DCLHb) can produce improved resuscitation during cardiac arrest. DCLHb, a derivative of human hemoglobin, has previously been demonstrated to produce a vasopressor response that is associated with increased blood flow to vital organs. In addition, it is an oxygen carrier. These effects may be beneficial to extreme low flow states, such as that during cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Experimental cardiac arrest and CPR were carried out in 32 anesthetized immature pigs. In each animal, ventricular fibrillation was induced for 5 min, followed by 10 min of standard CPR with a pneumatic device and room air ventilation. High (15 ml/kg) and low (5 ml/kg) doses of DCLHb or equivalent volume of normal saline were infused at the beginning of CPR in a random and blind manner. Cardiac output, organ blood flow, aortic pressure, coronary perfusion pressure, blood gases, and lactate concentrations were obtained before and during CPR. Following the 10-min CPR, the animals were defibrillated and the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) determined. DCLHb treatment achieved 75% ROSC compared with 25% in the saline group (p CPR significantly improves ROSC. This is most likely related to its improvement in coronary perfusion and myocardial oxygen delivery.

  8. Cross-Linked CoMoO4/rGO Nanosheets as Oxygen Reduction Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaqi Fu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of inexpensive and robust electrocatalysts towards oxygen reduction reaction (ORR is crucial for the cost-affordable manufacturing of metal-air batteries and fuel cells. Here we show that cross-linked CoMoO4 nanosheets and reduced graphene oxide (CoMoO4/rGO can be integrated in a hybrid material under one-pot hydrothermal conditions, yielding a composite material with promising catalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR. Cyclic voltammetry (CV and linear sweep voltammetry (LSV were used to investigate the efficiency of the fabricated CoMoO4/rGO catalyst towards ORR in alkaline conditions. The CoMoO4/rGO composite revealed the main reduction peak and onset potential centered at 0.78 and 0.89 V (vs. RHE, respectively. This study shows that the CoMoO4/rGO composite is a highly promising catalyst for the ORR under alkaline conditions, and potential noble metal replacement cathode in fuel cells and metal-air batteries.

  9. Virtual Cross-Linking of the Active Nemorubicin Metabolite PNU-159682 to Double-Stranded DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalabrin, Matteo; Quintieri, Luigi; Palumbo, Manlio; Riccardi Sirtori, Federico; Gatto, Barbara

    2017-02-20

    The DNA alkylating mechanism of PNU-159682 (PNU), a highly potent metabolite of the anthracycline nemorubicin, was investigated by gel-electrophoretic, HPLC-UV, and micro-HPLC/mass spectrometry (MS) measurements. PNU quickly reacted with double-stranded oligonucleotides, but not with single-stranded sequences, to form covalent adducts which were detectable by denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (DPAGE). Ion-pair reverse-phase HPLC-UV analysis on CG rich duplex sequences having a 5'-CCCGGG-3' central core showed the formation of two types of adducts with PNU, which were stable and could be characterized by micro-HPLC/MS. The first type contained one alkylated species (and possibly one reversibly bound species), and the second contained two alkylated species per duplex DNA. The covalent adducts were found to produce effective bridging of DNA complementary strands through the formation of virtual cross-links reminiscent of those produced by classical anthracyclines in the presence of formaldehyde. Furthermore, the absence of reactivity of PNU with CG-rich sequence containing a TA core (CGTACG), and the minor reactivity between PNU and CGC sequences (TACGCG·CGCGTA) pointed out the importance of guanine sequence context in modulating DNA alkylation.

  10. Structure of a DNA glycosylase that unhooks interstrand cross-links

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullins, Elwood A.; Warren, Garrett M.; Bradley, Noah P.; Eichman, Brandt F. (Vanderbilt)

    2017-04-10

    DNA glycosylases are important editing enzymes that protect genomic stability by excising chemically modified nucleobases that alter normal DNA metabolism. These enzymes have been known only to initiate base excision repair of small adducts by extrusion from the DNA helix. However, recent reports have described both vertebrate and microbial DNA glycosylases capable of unhooking highly toxic interstrand cross-links (ICLs) and bulky minor groove adducts normally recognized by Fanconi anemia and nucleotide excision repair machinery, although the mechanisms of these activities are unknown. Here we report the crystal structure of Streptomyces sahachiroi AlkZ (previously Orf1), a bacterial DNA glycosylase that protects its host by excising ICLs derived from azinomycin B (AZB), a potent antimicrobial and antitumor genotoxin. AlkZ adopts a unique fold in which three tandem winged helix-turn-helix motifs scaffold a positively charged concave surface perfectly shaped for duplex DNA. Through mutational analysis, we identified two glutamine residues and a β-hairpin within this putative DNA-binding cleft that are essential for catalytic activity. Additionally, we present a molecular docking model for how this active site can unhook either or both sides of an AZB ICL, providing a basis for understanding the mechanisms of base excision repair of ICLs. Given the prevalence of this protein fold in pathogenic bacteria, this work also lays the foundation for an emerging role of DNA repair in bacteria-host pathogenesis.

  11. On spray drying of oxidized corn starch cross-linked gelatin microcapsules for drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Xugang; Yang, Mao; Shan, Zhihua; Mansouri, Shahnaz; May, Bee K; Chen, Xiaodong; Chen, Hui; Woo, Meng Wai

    2017-05-01

    Spray-dried gelatin/oxidized corn starch (G/OCS) microcapsules were produced for drug release application. The prepared microcapsules were characterized through a scanning electron microscope (SEM) picture and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The swelling characteristics of the G/OCS microcapsules and release properties of vitamin C were then investigated. The results from structural analysis indicated that the presence of miscibility and compatibility between oxidized corn starch and gelatin, and exhibits high thermal stability up to 326°C. The swelling of G/OCS microcapsules increased with increasing pH and reduced with decreasing ionic strength, attributed to the cross-linking between gelatin and oxidized corn starch, ionization of functional groups. Vitamin C release characteristic revealed controlled release behavior in the first 3h of contact with an aqueous medium. This release behavior was independent of the swelling behavior indicating the potential of the encapsulating matrix to produce controlled release across a spectrum of pH environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Chitosan supramolecularly cross linked with trimesic acid - Facile synthesis, characterization and evaluation of adsorption potential for chromium(VI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Ronak; Sreedhar, B; Padmaja, P

    2017-11-01

    A facile synthesis of Chitosan Supramolecularly cross-linked with Trimesic Acid (CTMA) is reported in this work. The adsorption potential of CTMA for removal of hexavalent chromium was evaluated and the influence of pH, temperature, contact time and adsorbent dose on the adsorption process was investigated. The experimental results showed that CTMA could efficiently adsorb Cr 6+ and partially reduce it to the less toxic Cr 3+ state. The maximum adsorption capacity of CTMA for Cr 6+ was found to be 129.53mg/g at pH 2.0. CTMA and chromium loaded CTMA were characterised by FT-IR, Raman, TGA-DSC, SEM-EDX, XRD, ESR and XPS spectroscopic techniques. Chitosan was observed to be cross- linked with TMA via ionic, hydrogen bonding and pi-pi supramolecular interactions while adsorption of chromium onto CTMA was by electrostatic forces and hydrogen bonding. From the observed results it was evident that CTMA was successfully applied for simultaneous removal of chromium, lead and iron from chrome plating effluent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Genipin Cross-Linked Glucose Oxidase and Catalase Multi-enzyme for Gluconic Acid Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Caixia; Chen, Haibin; Chen, Biqiang; Tan, Tianwei

    2017-02-01

    In this work, glucose oxidase (GOD) and catalase (CAT) were used simultaneously to produce gluconic acid from glucose. In order to reduce the distance between the two enzymes, and therefore improve efficiency, GOD and CAT were cross-linked together using genipin. Improvements in gluconic acid production were due to quick removal of harmful intermediate hydrogen peroxide by CAT. GOD activity was significantly affected by the proportion of CAT in the system, with GOD activity in the cross-linked multi-enzyme (CLME) being 10 times higher than that in an un-cross-linked GOD/CAT mixture. The glucose conversion rate after 15 h using 15 % glucose was also 10 % higher using the CLME than was measured using a GOD/CAT mixture.

  14. Cross-linked PAN-based thin-film composite membranes for non-aqueous nanofiltration

    KAUST Repository

    Pérez-Manríquez, Liliana

    2015-01-01

    A new approach on the development of cross-linked PAN based thin film composite (TFC) membranes for non-aqueous application is presented in this work. Polypropylene backed neat PAN membranes fabricated by phase inversion process were cross-linked with hydrazine to get excellent solvent stability toward dimethylformamide (DMF). By interfacial polymerization a selective polyamide active layer was coated over the cross-linked PAN using N,N′-diamino piperazine (DAP) and trimesoyl chloride (TMC) as monomers. Permeation and molecular weight cut off (MWCO) experiments using various dyes were done to evaluate the performance of the membranes. Membranes developed by such method show excellent solvent stability toward DMF with a permeance of 1.7 L/m2 h bar and a molecular weight cut-off of less than 600 Da.

  15. Specific cross-linking of capsid proteins to virus RNA by ultraviolet irradiation of polio virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetz, K.; Habermehl, K.O. (Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany, F.R.))

    1982-04-01

    Poliovirus was irradiated with u.v. light under conditions causing approx. 5% cross-linking of capsid protein to virus RNA. Cross-linked RNA-protein complexes, freed from unbound protein, were treated with nuclease, and then analysed on SDS-polyacrylamide gels. The smallest capsid polypeptide VP4 was found to be associated with the RNA to the greatest degree, followed by VP2 and VP1, while VP3 was attached only in trace amounts. Low radiation doses, which produced cross-linking of RNA to protein, did not cause breakdown of the virus particles or conformational changes of the capsid as examined physically and serologically. However, higher doses caused structural alterations of the virus capsid.

  16. Specific cross-linking of capsid proteins to virus RNA by ultraviolet irradiation of polio virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetz, K.; Habermehl, K.-O.

    1982-01-01

    Poliovirus was irradiated with u.v. light under conditions causing approx. 5% cross-linking of capsid protein to virus RNA. Cross-linked RNA-protein complexes, freed from unbound protein, were treated with nuclease, and then analysed on SDS-polyacrylamide gels. The smallest capsid polypeptide VP4 was found to be associated with the RNA to the greatest degree, followed by VP2 and VP1, while VP3 was attached only in trace amounts. Low radiation doses, which produced cross-linking of RNA to protein, did not cause breakdown of the virus particles or conformational changes of the capsid as examined physically and serologically. However, higher doses caused structural alterations of the virus capsid. (author)

  17. Controlled swollen and drug release from urea-cross-linked polyether/siloxane hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santilli, Celso V.; Lopes, Leandro; Pulcinelli, Sandra H.; Chiavacci, Leila A.; Oliveira, Anselmo G.

    2009-01-01

    From a simple synthesis method we produced transparent ureasil cross-linked polyether (poly(ethylene oxide), PEO, or poly (propylene oxide), PPO) networks, whose designed inter cross-linking distance and tunable swell ability was assessed by small angle X-ray scattering on the D11A-SAXS1 beamline of the LNLS, we demonstrated that the controlled drug release from swell able hydrophilic ureasil-PEO materials can be sustained during some days, while from the unswell able ureasil-PPO ones, during some weeks. This outstanding feature conjugated with the bio medically safe formulation of the ureasil cross-linked polyether/siloxane hybrid widen their scope of application to include the domain of soft and implantable drug delivery devices. (author)

  18. Cross-linking of streptomycin to the 16S ribosomal RNA of Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravel, M.; Melancon, P.; Barkier-Gingras, L.

    1987-01-01

    [ 3 H]Dihydrostreptomycin was cross-linked to the 30S ribosomal subunit from Escherichia coli with the bifunctional reagent nitrogen mustard. The cross-linking primarily involved the 16S RNA. To localize the site of cross-linking of streptomycin to the 16S RNA, the authors hybridized RNA labeled with streptomycin to restriction fragments of the 16S RNA gene. Labeled RNA hybridized to DNA fragments corresponding to bases 892-917 and bases 1394-1415. These two segments of the ribosomal RNA must by juxtaposed in the ribosome, since there is a single binding site for streptomycin. This region has been implicated both in the decoding site and in the binding of initiation factor IF-3, indicating its functional importance

  19. Genipin Cross-Linked Polymeric Alginate-Chitosan Microcapsules for Oral Delivery: In-Vitro Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmei Chen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We have previously reported the preparation of the genipin cross-linked alginate-chitosan (GCAC microcapsules composed of an alginate core with a genipin cross-linked chitosan membrane. This paper is the further investigation on their structural and physical characteristics. Results showed that the GCAC microcapsules had a smooth and dense surface and a networked interior. Cross-linking by genipin substantially reduced swelling and physical disintegration of microcapsules induced by nongelling ions and calcium sequestrants. Strong resistance to mechanical shear forces and enzymatic degradation was observed. Furthermore, the GCAC membranes were permeable to bovine serum albumin and maintained a molecular weight cutoff at 70 KD, analogous to the widely studied alginate-chitosan, and alginate-poly-L-lysine-alginate microcapsules. The release features and the tolerance of the GCAC microcapsules in the stimulated gastrointestinal environment were also investigated. This GCAC microcapsule formulation offers significant potential as a delivery vehicle for many biomedical applications.

  20. In vitro cross-linking of elastin peptides and molecular characterization of the resultant biomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinz, Andrea; Ruttkies, Christoph K H; Jahreis, Günther

    2013-01-01

    -link desmosine or isodesmosine was unexpected, however, could be confirmed by tandem mass spectrometry and molecular dynamics simulations. CONCLUSIONS: The study demonstrated that it is possible to produce biopolymers containing polyfunctional cross-links characteristic of mature elastin from small elastin......BACKGROUND: Elastin is a vital protein and the major component of elastic fibers which provides resilience to many vertebrate tissues. Elastin's structure and function are influenced by extensive cross-linking, however, the cross-linking pattern is still unknown. METHODS: Small peptides containing...... and the insoluble polymers, after digestion with pancreatic elastase or trypsin, were furthermore comprehensively characterized on the molecular level using MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. RESULTS: MS(2) data was used to develop the software PolyLinX, which is able to sequence not only linear and bifunctionally...

  1. Adsorption of Amido Black 10B from aqueous solutions onto Zr (IV) surface-immobilized cross-linked chitosan/bentonite composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Lujie; Hu, Pan; Wang, Jing; Huang, Ruihua

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Zr-CCB was prepared and characterized. • The adsorption of AB10B followed the Langmuir isotherm model. • The pseudo-second-order model described the kinetic behavior. - Abstract: Zr(IV) surface-immobilized cross-linked chitosan/bentonite composite was synthesized by immersing cross-linked chitosan/bentonite composite in zirconium oxychloride solution, and characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscopy techniques. The adsorption of an anionic dye, Amido Black 10B, from aqueous solution by Zr(IV) loaded cross-linked chitosan/bentonite composite was investigated as a function of loading amount of Zr(IV), adsorbent dosage, pH value of initial dye solution, and ionic strength. The removal of Amido Black 10B increased with an increase in loading amount of Zr(IV) and adsorbent dosage, but decreased with an increase in pH or ionic strength. The adsorption of AB10B onto Zr(IV) loaded cross-linked chitosan/bentonite composite was favored at lower pH values and higher temperatures. The Langmuir isotherm model fitted well with the equilibrium adsorption isotherm data and the maximum monolayer adsorption capacity was 418.4 mg/g at natural pH value and 298 K. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model well described the adsorption process of Amido Black 10B onto Zr(IV) loaded cross-linked chitosan/bentonite composite. The possible mechanisms controlling Amido Black 10B adsorption included hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions.

  2. Adsorption of Amido Black 10B from aqueous solutions onto Zr (IV) surface-immobilized cross-linked chitosan/bentonite composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lujie; Hu, Pan; Wang, Jing; Huang, Ruihua, E-mail: hrh20022002@163.com

    2016-04-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Zr-CCB was prepared and characterized. • The adsorption of AB10B followed the Langmuir isotherm model. • The pseudo-second-order model described the kinetic behavior. - Abstract: Zr(IV) surface-immobilized cross-linked chitosan/bentonite composite was synthesized by immersing cross-linked chitosan/bentonite composite in zirconium oxychloride solution, and characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscopy techniques. The adsorption of an anionic dye, Amido Black 10B, from aqueous solution by Zr(IV) loaded cross-linked chitosan/bentonite composite was investigated as a function of loading amount of Zr(IV), adsorbent dosage, pH value of initial dye solution, and ionic strength. The removal of Amido Black 10B increased with an increase in loading amount of Zr(IV) and adsorbent dosage, but decreased with an increase in pH or ionic strength. The adsorption of AB10B onto Zr(IV) loaded cross-linked chitosan/bentonite composite was favored at lower pH values and higher temperatures. The Langmuir isotherm model fitted well with the equilibrium adsorption isotherm data and the maximum monolayer adsorption capacity was 418.4 mg/g at natural pH value and 298 K. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model well described the adsorption process of Amido Black 10B onto Zr(IV) loaded cross-linked chitosan/bentonite composite. The possible mechanisms controlling Amido Black 10B adsorption included hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions.

  3. High temperature turbine engine structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carruthers, W.D.; Boyd, G.L.

    1993-07-20

    A hybrid ceramic/metallic gas turbine is described comprising; a housing defining an inlet, an outlet, and a flow path communicating the inlet with the outlet for conveying a flow of fluid through the housing, a rotor member journaled by the housing in the flow path, the rotor member including a compressor rotor portion rotatively inducting ambient air via the inlet and delivering this air pressurized to the flow path downstream of the compressor rotor, a combustor disposed in the flow path downstream of the compressor receiving the pressurized air along with a supply of fuel to maintain combustion providing a flow of high temperature pressurized combustion products in the flow path downstream thereof, the rotor member including a turbine rotor portion disposed in the flow path downstream of the combustor and rotatively expanding the combustion products toward ambient for flow from the turbine engine via the outlet, the turbine rotor portion providing shaft power driving the compressor rotor portion and an output shaft portion of the rotor member, a disk-like metallic housing portion journaling the rotor member to define a rotational axis therefore, and a disk-like annular ceramic turbine shroud member bounding the flow path downstream of the combustor and circumscribing the turbine rotor portion to define a running clearance therewith, the disk-like ceramic turbine shroud member having a reference axis coaxial with the rotational axis and being spaced axially from the metallic housing portion in mutually parallel concentric relation therewith and a plurality of spacers disposed between ceramic disk-like shroud member and the metallic disk-like housing portion and circumferentially spaced apart, each of the spacers having a first and second end portion having an end surface adjacent the shroud member and the housing portion respectively, the end surfaces having a cylindrical curvature extending transversely relative to the shroud member and the housing portion.

  4. Development of horseradish peroxidase-based cross-linked enzyme aggregates and their environmental exploitation for bioremediation purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Muhammad; Iqbal, Hafiz M N; Hu, Hongbo; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Xuehong

    2017-03-01

    In the present study, horseradish peroxidase (HRP), in-house isolated crude cocktail enzyme, from Armoracia rusticana was cross-linked using a new type of cross-linking agent, i.e., ethylene glycol-bis [succinic acid N-hydroxysuccinimide, (EG-NHS)], which is mild in nature as compared to the glutaraldehyde (GA). The HRP-immobilized cross-linked enzyme aggregates (HRP-CLEAs) were developed using a wider range of EG-NHS and notably no adverse effect was observed. In a comparative evaluation, in the case of EG-NHS, a high-level stability in the residual activity was recorded, whereas a sharp decrease was observed in the case of glutaraldehyde. Following initial cross-linker evaluation, the HRP-CLEAs were tested to investigate their bio-catalytic efficacy for bioremediation purposes using a newly developed packed bed reactor system (PBRS). A maximal of 94.26% degradation of textile-based methyl orange dye was recorded within the shortest time frame, following 91.73% degradation of basic red 9, 84.35% degradation of indigo, 81.47% degradation of Rhodamin B, and 73.6% degradation of Rhodamine 6G, respectively, under the same working environment. Notably, the HRP-CLEAs retained almost 60% of its original activity after methyl orange dye degradation in seven consecutive cycles using PBRS. Furthermore, after HRP-CLEAs-mediated treatment in the PBRS, a significant toxicity reduction in the dye samples was recorded as compared to their pristine counterparts. In conclusion, the results suggest that the newly developed HRP-CLEAs have a great potential for industrial exploitation, to tackle numerous industrial dye-based emergent pollutants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Defective DNA cross-link removal in Chinese hamster cell mutants hypersensitive to bifunctional alkylating agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoy, C.A.; Thompson, L.H.; Mooney, C.L.; Salazar, E.P.

    1985-01-01

    DNA repair-deficient mutants from five genetic complementation groups isolated previously from Chinese hamster cells were assayed for survival after exposure to the bifunctional alkylating agents mitomycin C or diepoxybutane. Groups 1, 3, and 5 exhibited 1.6- to 3-fold hypersensitivity compared to the wild-type cells, whereas Groups 2 and 4 exhibited extraordinary hypersensitivity. Mutants from Groups 1 and 2 were exposed to 22 other bifunctional alkylating agents in a rapid assay that compared cytotoxicity of the mutants to the wild-type parental strain, AA8. With all but two of the compounds, the Group 2 mutant (UV4) was 15- to 60-fold more sensitive than AA8 or the Group 1 mutant (UV5). UV4 showed only 6-fold hypersensitivity to quinacrine mustard. Alkaline elution measurements showed that this compound produced few DNA interstrand cross-links but numerous strand breaks. Therefore, the extreme hypersensitivity of mutants from Groups 2 and 4 appeared specific for compounds the main cytotoxic lesions of which were DNA cross-links. Mutant UV5 was only 1- to 4-fold hypersensitive to all the compounds. Although the initial number of cross-links was similar for the three cell lines, the efficiency of removal of cross-links was lowest in UV4 and intermediate in UV5. These results suggest that the different levels of sensitivity are specifically related to different efficiencies of DNA cross-link removal. The phenotype of hypersensitivity to both UV radiation and cross-link damage exhibited by the mutants in Groups 2 and 4 appears to differ from those of the known human DNA repair syndromes

  6. Enzymatic cross-linking of human recombinant elastin (HELP) as biomimetic approach in vascular tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzini, Sabrina; Giuliano, Liliana; Altomare, Lina; Petrini, Paola; Bandiera, Antonella; Conconi, Maria Teresa; Farè, Silvia; Tanzi, Maria Cristina

    2011-12-01

    The use of polymers naturally occurring in the extracellular matrix (ECM) is a promising strategy in regenerative medicine. If compared to natural ECM proteins, proteins obtained by recombinant DNA technology have intrinsic advantages including reproducible macromolecular composition, sequence and molecular mass, and overcoming the potential pathogens transmission related to polymers of animal origin. Among ECM-mimicking materials, the family of recombinant elastin-like polymers is proposed for drug delivery applications and for the repair of damaged elastic tissues. This work aims to evaluate the potentiality of a recombinant human elastin-like polypeptide (HELP) as a base material of cross-linked matrices for regenerative medicine. The cross-linking of HELP was accomplished by the insertion of cross-linking sites, glutamine and lysine, in the recombinant polymer and generating ε-(γ-glutamyl) lysine links through the enzyme transglutaminase. The cross-linking efficacy was estimated by infrared spectroscopy. Freeze-dried cross-linked matrices showed swelling ratios in deionized water (≈2500%) with good structural stability up to 24 h. Mechanical compression tests, performed at 37°C in wet conditions, in a frequency sweep mode, indicated a storage modulus of 2/3 kPa, with no significant changes when increasing number of cycles or frequency. These results demonstrate the possibility to obtain mechanically resistant hydrogels via enzymatic crosslinking of HELP. Cytotoxicity tests of cross-linked HELP were performed with human umbilical vein endothelial cells, by use of transwell filter chambers for 1-7 days, or with its extracts in the opportune culture medium for 24 h. In both cases no cytotoxic effects were observed in comparison with the control cultures. On the whole, the results suggest the potentiality of this genetically engineered HELP for regenerative medicine applications, particularly for vascular tissue regeneration.

  7. Biomimetic acellular detoxified glutaraldehyde cross-linked bovine pericardium for tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathapati, Santosh; Bishi, Dillip Kumar; Guhathakurta, Soma; Cherian, Kotturathu Mammen; Venugopal, Jayarama Reddy; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Verma, Rama Shanker

    2013-01-01

    Glutaraldehyde (GLUT) processing, cellular antigens, calcium ions in circulation, and phospholipids present in the native tissue are predominantly responsible for calcification, degeneration, and lack of natural microenvironment for host progenitor cell migration in tissue implants. The study presents an improved methodology for adhesion and proliferation of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) without significant changes in biomechanical and biodegradation properties of the processed acellular bovine pericardium. The anti-calcification potential of the processed tissue was enhanced by detoxification of GLUT-cross-linked bovine pericardium by decellularization, pretreating it with ethanol or removing the free aldehydes by citric acid treatment and lyophilization. The treated tissues were assessed for biomechanical properties, GLUT ligand quantification, adhesion, proliferation of EPCs, and biodegradability. The results indicate that there was no significant change in biomechanical properties and biodegradability when enzymatic hydrolysis (p > 0.05) is employed in detoxified acellular GLUT cross-linked tissue (DBP–G–CA–ET), compared with the native detoxified GLUT cross-linked bovine pericardium (NBP–G–CA–ET). DBP–G–CA–ET exhibited a significant (p > 0.05) increase in the viability of EPCs and cell adhesion as compared to acellular GLUT cross-linked bovine pericardium (p < 0.05). Lyophilized acellular detoxified GLUT cross-linked bovine pericardium, employed in our study as an alternative to conventional GLUT cross-linked bovine pericardium, might provide longer durability and better biocompatibility, and reduce calcification. The developed bovine pericardium patches could be used in cardiac reconstruction and repair, arteriotomy, soft tissue repair, and general surgical procedures with tissue regeneration dimensions. - Highlights: ► We improved the quality of patch biomaterial for cardiovascular surgical procedures. ► Bovine pericardium was

  8. Solvent Composition is Critical for Carbodiimide Cross-Linking of Hyaluronic Acid as an Ophthalmic Biomaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Yang Lai

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Hyaluronic acid (HA is one of the most important ophthalmic biomaterials, while also being used for tissue engineering and drug delivery. Although chemical cross-linking is an effective way to improve the material performance, it may as a consequence be detrimental to the living cells/tissues. Given that the cross-linking efficiency is mediated by the solvent composition during the chemical modification, this study aims to explore the stability and biocompatibility of carbodiimide cross-linked HA in relation to material processing conditions by varying the acetone/water volume ratio (from 70:30 to 95:5 at a constant 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl carbodiimide (EDC concentration of 100 mM. Our results indicated that after the EDC treatment in the presence of an acetone/water mixture (85:15, v/v, the HA hydrogel membranes have the lowest equilibrium water content, the highest stress at break and the greatest resistance to hyaluronidase digestion. Live/Dead assays and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression analyses showed that the cross-linked HA hydrogel membranes, irrespective of the solvent composition, are compatible with human RPE cell lines without causing toxicity and inflammation. However, it should be noted that the test samples prepared by the cross-linking in the presence of acetone/water mixtures containing 70, 75, and 95 vol % of acetone slightly inhibit the metabolic activity of viable ARPE-19 cultures, probably due to the alteration in the ionic interaction between the medium nutrients and polysaccharide biomaterials. In summary, the water content, mechanical strength and RPE cell proliferative capacity strongly depends on the solvent composition for carbodiimide cross-linking of HA materials.

  9. CLMSVault: A Software Suite for Protein Cross-Linking Mass-Spectrometry Data Analysis and Visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courcelles, Mathieu; Coulombe-Huntington, Jasmin; Cossette, Émilie; Gingras, Anne-Claude; Thibault, Pierre; Tyers, Mike

    2017-07-07

    Protein cross-linking mass spectrometry (CL-MS) enables the sensitive detection of protein interactions and the inference of protein complex topology. The detection of chemical cross-links between protein residues can identify intra- and interprotein contact sites or provide physical constraints for molecular modeling of protein structure. Recent innovations in cross-linker design, sample preparation, mass spectrometry, and software tools have significantly improved CL-MS approaches. Although a number of algorithms now exist for the identification of cross-linked peptides from mass spectral data, a dearth of user-friendly analysis tools represent a practical bottleneck to the broad adoption of the approach. To facilitate the analysis of CL-MS data, we developed CLMSVault, a software suite designed to leverage existing CL-MS algorithms and provide intuitive and flexible tools for cross-platform data interpretation. CLMSVault stores and combines complementary information obtained from different cross-linkers and search algorithms. CLMSVault provides filtering, comparison, and visualization tools to support CL-MS analyses and includes a workflow for label-free quantification of cross-linked peptides. An embedded 3D viewer enables the visualization of quantitative data and the mapping of cross-linked sites onto PDB structural models. We demonstrate the application of CLMSVault for the analysis of a noncovalent Cdc34-ubiquitin protein complex cross-linked under different conditions. CLMSVault is open-source software (available at https://gitlab.com/courcelm/clmsvault.git ), and a live demo is available at http://democlmsvault.tyerslab.com/ .

  10. Cross-linked compared with historical polyethylene in THA: an 8-year clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerdink, Carel H; Grimm, Bernd; Vencken, Wendy; Heyligers, Ide C; Tonino, Alphons J

    2009-04-01

    Wear particle-induced osteolysis is a major cause of aseptic loosening in THA. Increasing wear resistance of polyethylene (PE) occurs by increasing the cross-link density and early reports document low wear rates with such implants. To confirm longer-term reductions in wear we compared cross-linked polyethylene (irradiation in nitrogen, annealing) with historical polyethylene (irradiation in air) in a prospective, randomized clinical study involving 48 patients who underwent THAs with a minimum followup of 7 years (mean, 8 years; range, 7-9 years). The insert material was the only variable. The Harris hip score, radiographic signs of osteolysis, and polyethylene wear were recorded annually. Twenty-three historical and 17 moderately cross-linked polyethylene inserts were analyzed (five patients died, three were lost to followup). At 8 years, the wear rate was lower for cross-linked polyethylene (0.088 +/- 0.03 mm/year) than for the historical polyethylene (0.142 +/- 0.07 mm/year). This reduction (38%) did not diminish with time (33% at 5 years). Acetabular cyst formation was less frequent (39% versus 12%), affected fewer DeLee and Charnley zones (17% versus 4%), and was less severe for the cross-linked polyethylene. The only revision was for an aseptically loose cup in the historical polyethylene group. Moderately cross-linked polyethylene maintained its wear advantage with time and produced less osteolysis, showing no signs of aging at mid-term followup. Level I, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  11. Biomimetic acellular detoxified glutaraldehyde cross-linked bovine pericardium for tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathapati, Santosh; Bishi, Dillip Kumar [Stem Cell and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai (India); Frontier Lifeline Pvt Ltd. and Dr. K. M. Cherian Heart Foundation, Mogappair, Chennai (India); Healthcare and Energy Materials Laboratory, NUSNNI, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Guhathakurta, Soma [Departmet of Engineering Design, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai (India); Cherian, Kotturathu Mammen [Frontier Lifeline Pvt Ltd. and Dr. K. M. Cherian Heart Foundation, Mogappair, Chennai (India); Venugopal, Jayarama Reddy; Ramakrishna, Seeram [Healthcare and Energy Materials Laboratory, NUSNNI, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Verma, Rama Shanker, E-mail: vermars@iitm.ac.in [Stem Cell and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai (India)

    2013-04-01

    Glutaraldehyde (GLUT) processing, cellular antigens, calcium ions in circulation, and phospholipids present in the native tissue are predominantly responsible for calcification, degeneration, and lack of natural microenvironment for host progenitor cell migration in tissue implants. The study presents an improved methodology for adhesion and proliferation of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) without significant changes in biomechanical and biodegradation properties of the processed acellular bovine pericardium. The anti-calcification potential of the processed tissue was enhanced by detoxification of GLUT-cross-linked bovine pericardium by decellularization, pretreating it with ethanol or removing the free aldehydes by citric acid treatment and lyophilization. The treated tissues were assessed for biomechanical properties, GLUT ligand quantification, adhesion, proliferation of EPCs, and biodegradability. The results indicate that there was no significant change in biomechanical properties and biodegradability when enzymatic hydrolysis (p > 0.05) is employed in detoxified acellular GLUT cross-linked tissue (DBP–G–CA–ET), compared with the native detoxified GLUT cross-linked bovine pericardium (NBP–G–CA–ET). DBP–G–CA–ET exhibited a significant (p > 0.05) increase in the viability of EPCs and cell adhesion as compared to acellular GLUT cross-linked bovine pericardium (p < 0.05). Lyophilized acellular detoxified GLUT cross-linked bovine pericardium, employed in our study as an alternative to conventional GLUT cross-linked bovine pericardium, might provide longer durability and better biocompatibility, and reduce calcification. The developed bovine pericardium patches could be used in cardiac reconstruction and repair, arteriotomy, soft tissue repair, and general surgical procedures with tissue regeneration dimensions. - Highlights: ► We improved the quality of patch biomaterial for cardiovascular surgical procedures. ► Bovine pericardium was

  12. Dialing in the Ratio of Covalent and Coordination Cross-links in Self-healing Hydrogels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Amanda; Krogsgaard, Marie; Birkedal, Henrik

    -linking and as these impacts the abovementioned properties, it is of great interest to control the degree of which these are present; i.e. controlling the degree of catechol oxidation. Until now, the catechols participating in the two cross-linking types have been the same. This way the actual ratio between the two types...... cannot be either predefined or controlled, as it is determined by the oxidation rate within the hydrogel. Here, we report hydrogels in which the catechols participating in reversible (oxidation resistant catechol) and irreversible (classical catechol) cross-links are separated, enabling one to predefine...... the ratio of the two by altering the composition....

  13. Kinetics of enzyme-catalyzed cross-linking of feruloylated arabinan from sugar beet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abang Zaidel, Dayang Norulfairuz; Arnous, Anis; Holck, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    the kinetics of HRP catalyzed cross-linking of FA esterified to α-(1,5)-linked arabinans are affected by the length of the arabinan chains carrying the feruloyl substitutions. The kinetics of the HRP-catalyzed cross-linking of four sets of arabinan samples from sugar beet pulp, having different molecular...... weights and hence different degrees of polymerization, were monitored by the disappearance of FA absorbance at 316 nm. MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS analysis confirmed that the sugar beet arabinans were feruloyl-substituted, and HPLC analysis verified that the amounts of diFAs increased when FA levels decreased...

  14. Stabilization of collagen nanofibers with l-lysine improves the ability of carbodiimide cross-linked amniotic membranes to preserve limbal epithelial progenitor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai JY

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Jui-Yang Lai,1–3 Pei-Ran Wang,1 Li-Jyuan Luo,1 Si-Tan Chen1 1Institute of Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering, 2Biomedical Engineering Research Center, 3Molecular Medicine Research Center, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan, Republic of ChinaAbstract: To overcome the drawbacks associated with limited cross-linking efficiency of carbodiimide modified amniotic membrane, this study investigated the use of L-lysine as an additional amino acid bridge to enhance the stability of a nanofibrous tissue matrix for a limbal epithelial cell culture platform. Results of ninhydrin assays and zeta potential measurements showed that the amount of positively charged amino acid residues incorporated into the tissue collagen chains is highly correlated with the L-lysine -pretreated concentration. The cross-linked structure and hydrophilicity of amniotic membrane scaffolding materials affected by the lysine molecular bridging effects were determined. With an increase in the L-lysine-pretreated concentration from 1 to 30 mM, the cross-linking density was significantly increased and water content was markedly decreased. The variations in resistance to thermal denaturation and enzymatic degradation were in accordance with the number of cross-links per unit mass of amniotic membrane, indicating L-lysine-modulated stabilization of collagen molecules. It was also noteworthy that the carbodiimide cross-linked tissue samples prepared using a relatively high L-lysine-pretreated concentration (ie, 30 mM appeared to have decreased light transmittance and biocompatibility, probably due to the influence of a large nanofiber size and a high charge density. The rise in stemness gene and protein expression levels was dependent on improved cross-link formation, suggesting the crucial role of amino acid bridges in constructing suitable scaffolds to preserve limbal progenitor cells. It is concluded that mild to moderate pretreatment conditions (ie, 3–10 mM L-lysine can

  15. Fabrication of Si negative electrodes for Li-ion batteries (LIBs) using cross-linked polymer binders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Suk-Yong; Han, Sien-Ho

    2016-12-19

    Currently, Si as an active material for LIBs has been attracting much attention due to its high theoretical specific capacity (3572 mAh g -1 ). However, a disadvantage when using a Si negative electrode for LIBs is the abrupt drop of its capabilities during the cycling process. Therefore, there have been a few studies of polymers such as poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVdF), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) and polyacrylic acid (PAA) given that the robust structure of a polymeric binder to LIBs anodes is a promising means by which to enhance the performance of high-capacity anodes. These studies essentially focused mainly on modifying of the linear-polymer component or on copolymers dissolved in solvents. Cross-linking polymers as a binder may be preferred due to their good scratch resistance, excellent chemical resistance and high levels of adhesion and resilience. However, because these types of polymers (with a rigid structure and cross-linking points) are also insoluble in general organic solvents, applying these types in this capacity is virtually impossible.

  16. Haptoglobin preferentially binds β but not α subunits cross-linked hemoglobin tetramers with minimal effects on ligand and redox reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yiping; Wood, Francine; Buehler, Paul W; Alayash, Abdu I

    2013-01-01

    Human hemoglobin (Hb) and haptoglobin (Hp) exhibit an extremely high affinity for each other, and the dissociation of Hb tetramers into dimers is generally believed to be a prerequisite for complex formation. We have investigated Hp interactions with native Hb, αα, and ββ cross-linked Hb (ααXLHb and ββXLHb, respectively), and rapid kinetics of Hb ligand binding as well as the redox reactivity in the presence of and absence of Hp. The quaternary conformation of ββ subunit cross-linking results in a higher binding affinity than that of αα subunit cross-linked Hb. However, ββ cross-linked Hb exhibits a four fold slower association rate constant than the reaction rate of unmodified Hb with Hp. The Hp contact regions in the Hb dimer interfaces appear to be more readily exposed in ββXLHb than ααXLHb. In addition, apart from the functional changes caused by chemical modifications, Hp binding does not induce appreciable effects on the ligand binding and redox reactions of ββXLHb. Our findings may therefore be relevant to the design of safer Hb-based oxygen therapeutics by utilizing this preferential binding of ββXLHb to Hp. This may ultimately provide a safe oxidative inactivation and clearance pathway for chemically modified Hbs in circulation.

  17. Effect of cross-linking of interfacial sodium caseinate by natural processing on the oxidative stability of oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoon, Pui Yeu; Paul, Lake N; Burgner, John W; San Martin-Gonzalez, M Fernanda; Narsimhan, Ganesan

    2014-04-02

    This study investigated how enzymatic cross-linking of interfacial sodium caseinate and emulsification, via high-pressure homogenization, influenced the intrinsic oxidative stability of 4% (w/v) menhaden oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by 1% (w/v) caseinate at pH 7. Oil oxidation was monitored by the ferric thiocyanate perioxide value assay. Higher homogenization pressure resulted in improved intrinsic emulsion oxidative stability, which is attributed to increased interfacial cross-linking as indicated by higher weighted average sedimentation coefficients of interfacial protein species (from 11.2 S for 0 kpsi/0.1 MPa to 18 S for 20 kpsi/137.9 MPa). Moderate dosage of transglutaminase at 0.5-1.0 U/mL emulsion enhanced intrinsic emulsion oxidative stability further, despite a contradictory reduction in the antioxidant property of cross-linked caseinate as tested by the 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) assay. This implied the prominent role of cross-linked interfacial caseinate as a physical barrier for oxygen transfer, hence its efficacy in retarding oil oxidation.

  18. LFQProfiler and RNP(xl): Open-Source Tools for Label-Free Quantification and Protein-RNA Cross-Linking Integrated into Proteome Discoverer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veit, Johannes; Sachsenberg, Timo; Chernev, Aleksandar; Aicheler, Fabian; Urlaub, Henning; Kohlbacher, Oliver

    2016-09-02

    Modern mass spectrometry setups used in today's proteomics studies generate vast amounts of raw data, calling for highly efficient data processing and analysis tools. Software for analyzing these data is either monolithic (easy to use, but sometimes too rigid) or workflow-driven (easy to customize, but sometimes complex). Thermo Proteome Discoverer (PD) is a powerful software for workflow-driven data analysis in proteomics which, in our eyes, achieves a good trade-off between flexibility and usability. Here, we present two open-source plugins for PD providing additional functionality: LFQProfiler for label-free quantification of peptides and proteins, and RNP(xl) for UV-induced peptide-RNA cross-linking data analysis. LFQProfiler interacts with existing PD nodes for peptide identification and validation and takes care of the entire quantitative part of the workflow. We show that it performs at least on par with other state-of-the-art software solutions for label-free quantification in a recently published benchmark ( Ramus, C.; J. Proteomics 2016 , 132 , 51 - 62 ). The second workflow, RNP(xl), represents the first software solution to date for identification of peptide-RNA cross-links including automatic localization of the cross-links at amino acid resolution and localization scoring. It comes with a customized integrated cross-link fragment spectrum viewer for convenient manual inspection and validation of the results.

  19. Characterization of cross-linked porous gelatin carriers and their interaction with corneal endothelium: biopolymer concentration effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Yang Lai

    Full Text Available Cell sheet-mediated tissue regeneration is a promising approach for corneal reconstruction. However, the fragility of bioengineered corneal endothelial cell (CEC monolayers allows us to take advantage of cross-linked porous gelatin hydrogels as cell sheet carriers for intraocular delivery. The aim of this study was to further investigate the effects of biopolymer concentrations (5-15 wt% on the characteristic and safety of hydrogel discs fabricated by a simple stirring process combined with freeze-drying method. Results of scanning electron microscopy, porosity measurements, and ninhydrin assays showed that, with increasing solid content, the pore size, porosity, and cross-linking index of carbodiimide treated samples significantly decreased from 508±30 to 292±42 µm, 59.8±1.1 to 33.2±1.9%, and 56.2±1.6 to 34.3±1.8%, respectively. The variation in biopolymer concentrations and degrees of cross-linking greatly affects the Young's modulus and swelling ratio of the gelatin carriers. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements and glucose permeation studies indicated that for the samples with a highest solid content, the highest pore wall thickness and the lowest fraction of mobile water may inhibit solute transport. When the biopolymer concentration is in the range of 5-10 wt%, the hydrogels have high freezable water content (0.89-0.93 and concentration of permeated glucose (591.3-615.5 µg/ml. These features are beneficial to the in vitro cultivation of CECs without limiting proliferation and changing expression of ion channel and pump genes such as ATP1A1, VDAC2, and AQP1. In vivo studies by analyzing the rabbit CEC morphology and count also demonstrate that the implanted gelatin discs with the highest solid content may cause unfavorable tissue-material interactions. It is concluded that the characteristics of cross-linked porous gelatin hydrogel carriers and their triggered biological responses are in relation to biopolymer

  20. On the Formation and Properties of Interstrand DNA-DNA Cross-links Forged by Reaction of an Abasic Site With the Opposing Guanine Residue of 5′-CAp Sequences in Duplex DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kevin M.; Price, Nathan E.; Wang, Jin; Fekry, Mostafa I.; Dutta, Sanjay; Seiner, Derrick R.; Wang, Yinsheng; Gates, Kent S.

    2014-01-01

    We recently reported that the aldehyde residue of an abasic (Ap) site in duplex DNA can generate an interstrand cross-link via reaction with a guanine residue on the opposing strand. This finding is intriguing because the highly deleterious nature of interstrand cross-links suggests that even small amounts of Ap-derived cross-links could make a significant contribution to the biological consequences stemming from the generation of Ap sites in cellular DNA. Incubation of 21-bp duplexes containing a central 5′-CAp sequence under conditions of reductive amination (NaCNBH3, pH 5.2) generated much higher yields of cross-linked DNA than reported previously. At pH 7, in the absence of reducing agents, these Ap-containing duplexes also produced cross-linked duplexes that were readily detected on denaturing polyacrylamide gels. Cross-link formation was not highly sensitive to reaction conditions and, once formed, the cross-link was stable to a variety of work-up conditions. Results of multiple experiments including MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, gel mobility, methoxyamine capping of the Ap aldehyde, inosine-for-guanine replacement, hydroxyl radical footprinting, and LCMS/MS were consistent with a cross-linking mechanism involving reversible reaction of the Ap aldehyde residue with the N2-amino group of the opposing guanine residue in 5′-CAp sequences to generate hemiaminal, imine, or cyclic hemiaminal cross-links (7-10) that were irreversibly converted under conditions of reductive amination (NaCNBH3/pH 5.2) to a stable amine linkage. Further support for the importance of the exocyclic N2-amino group in this reaction was provided by an experiment showing that installation of a 2-aminopurine-thymine base pair at the cross-linking site produced high yields (15-30%) of a cross-linked duplex at neutral pH, in the absence of NaCNBH3. PMID:23215239