WorldWideScience

Sample records for cross-cultural comparative analysis

  1. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF CORPORATE CROSS CULTURAL MANAGEMENT IN IT VS NON IT ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namrata KAPUR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The globalization of business which is considered a 'second industrial revolution' is a trend that makes Cross cultural Human Resource management crucial for all organizations. Multicultural workforce congregations and increasing global interactions in business, finance, culture etc. have become today's workplace realities.Cross-cultural differences are the cause of failed negotiations and interactions, resulting in losses to the firms. This study examines the best practices in managing across a culturally diverse and geographically dispersed workforce in IT and non IT organizations and makes comparative evaluation of these practices and strategies. The results of the comparative analysis study will lead to cross fertilization of ideas as the best practices for IT companies can be imbibed by and applied to the non IT companies and vice versa. This study ellucidates that cross-cultural management will give managers on international assignments the cultural understanding essential to accomplish their tasks leading to a committed workforce thereby resulting in better financial performance of the organization.

  2. Cross-Cultural Comparative Analysis of Lay and Stake holder Reasoning about Fusion Energy in Spain and the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prades, A; Horlick-Jones, T; Oltra, C; Navajas, J

    2009-07-01

    This report presents the results of a cross-cultural comparative analysis of two corpora of data from Spain and the UK on lay and stake holders understanding and reasoning about fusion energy. The very same novel methodological approach was applied in Spain and the UK to promote a learning and deliberative process about fusion energy. A brief description of the method is included first, followed by the description of the two corpora of data. Next the main Spanish findings data are discussed in the light of the UK data and then vice versa (in other words, we first interrogate the UK corpus of data to look for resonances or places of tension with the Spanish findings, and then the other way around). Then we present the results of evaluating the Spanish and UK group-based processes as engagement exercises. Finally, the key conclusions of this cross-cultural data analysis are summarized. (Author) 40 refs.

  3. Cross-Cultural Comparative Analysis of Lay and Stake holder Reasoning about Fusion Energy in Spain and the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prades, A.; Horlick-Jones, T.; Oltra, C.; Navajas, J.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the results of a cross-cultural comparative analysis of two corpora of data from Spain and the UK on lay and stake holders understanding and reasoning about fusion energy. The very same novel methodological approach was applied in Spain and the UK to promote a learning and deliberative process about fusion energy. A brief description of the method is included first, followed by the description of the two corpora of data. Next the main Spanish findings data are discussed in the light of the UK data and then vice versa (in other words, we first interrogate the UK corpus of data to look for resonances or places of tension with the Spanish findings, and then the other way around). Then we present the results of evaluating the Spanish and UK group-based processes as engagement exercises. Finally, the key conclusions of this cross-cultural data analysis are summarized. (Author) 40 refs.

  4. Piper umbellatum L.: a comparative cross-cultural analysis of its medicinal uses and an ethnopharmacological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roersch, Carles M F B

    2010-10-05

    This review assesses the botany, traditional medicinal uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of P. umbellatum. Information on P. umbellatum was gathered via the internet (using Scirus, Google Scholar, CAB-Abstracts, MedlinePlus, Embase, Scielo, and Web of Science) and libraries. Additionally, previously unpublished work on the traditional uses of P. umbellatum from our National Study of the Medicinal Plants of the Dominican Republic has been included. Piper umbellatum is a Neotropical plant species widely distributed in Mexico, Central America, South America and the West Indian Islands. It has also been introduced to Africa and South-East Asia. Traditional uses for this plant are recorded in 24 countries in three continents, America, Africa and Asia for a wide range of ailments such as kidney, women diseases, diarrhea, skin affections, burns, rheumatism, malaria, intestinal parasites, inflammation and fever. We have analyzed the cross-cultural agreement among traditional uses in different countries and found a high degree of consensus for the indications kidney/diuretic, stomachache and wounds. Phytochemical studies of P. umbellatum have demonstrated the presence of terpenes (mainly found in the essential oil), alkaloids, flavonoids, sterols and other classes of secondary metabolites. The extracts and pure compounds derived from P. umbellatum show a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities including antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant, cytotoxic, antimalarial, antileishmanial, and antitrypanosomal activity. A first commercial product is in development, based on the plant's protective characteristics against UV irradiation. The interesting biological activities of P. umbellatum need further research in in vivo experiments and clinical studies. The outcome of these investigations will determine the possible development of drugs from P. umbellatum. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A Frame Analysis Approach To Cross-Cultural Television Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Noel M. Murray

    2011-01-01

    The role of visuals in advertising research is examined. An argument is developed to support a theory of frame analysis for cross-cultural television advertising. Frame analysis is explained and commercials from Japan and the Dominican Republic are used to illustrate application of the theory. It is hoped that frame analysis will supplement content analysis as a methodological approach to cross-cultural television advertising.

  6. Cultural Understanding Through Cross-Cultural Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briere, Jean-Francois

    1986-01-01

    A college course used an explicit intercultural approach and collective research activities to compare French and American cultures and to examine the reasons for cultural attitudes and culture conflict. Class assignments dealt with contrastive analyses of American and French institutions like advertising, cinema, feminism, etc. (MSE)

  7. Cultural Analysis - towards cross-cultural understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gullestrup, Hans

    The book considers intercultural understanding and co-action, partly by means of general insight into concept of culture and the dimensions which bring about cultural differences, and partly as a methodology to analyse a certain culture - whether one's own or others'. This leads towards an unders......The book considers intercultural understanding and co-action, partly by means of general insight into concept of culture and the dimensions which bring about cultural differences, and partly as a methodology to analyse a certain culture - whether one's own or others'. This leads towards...... a theoretical/abstract proposal for cultural understanding. The second part presents a theoretical/abstract proposal for under-standing intercultural plurality and complexity. The third part provides an empirical model for the analysis of intercultural co-action. Finally, the fourth part present and discusses...

  8. Dialogue, Eurocentrism, and Comparative Political Theory: A View from Cross-Cultural Intellectual History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shogimen, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Comparative political theory is an emerging sub-field of political theory; it is a response to the dissatisfaction with the prevalent Eurocentric mode of political theorizing in the age of globalization. A methodological characteristic of comparative political theory is cross-cultural engagement through dialogue with foreign political ideas. The present paper argues that the dialogical mode of cross-cultural engagement is distinctively European. While the dialogical engagement with foreign worldviews constitutes a mainstream of the European literary tradition, it is largely absent, for example, from the Japanese counterpart. Despite its anti-Eurocentric motivations, comparative political theory is methodologically rooted in the European tradition.

  9. Cross Cultural Comparative Education--Fortifying Preconceptions or Transformation of Knowledge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkeland, Åsta

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to carry out a critical inquiry of comparative education by using an example of a comparative programme within kindergarten teacher education in Norway. The article discusses the inclination, in cross-cultural comparative studies, to emphasise cultural essentialism, to evaluate educational practice from a…

  10. Towards Comparative Educational Administration: Building the Case for a Cross-Cultural School-Based Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmock, Clive; Walker, Allan

    1998-01-01

    Advocates a stronger comparative emphasis in the study of educational administration and management while acknowledging comparative educational administration's weak knowledge base. Clarifies the potential import of a comparative, cross-cultural perspective embracing five societal/cultural dimensions: individualism versus collectivism, power…

  11. Application of item response theory to achieve cross-cultural comparability of occupational stress measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsutsumi, A.; Iwata, N.; Watanabe, N.; Jonge, de J.; Pikhart, H.; Férnandez-López, J.A.; Xu, Liying; Peter, R.; Knutsson, A.; Niedhammer, I.; Kawakami, N.; Siegrist, J.

    2009-01-01

    Our objective was to examine cross-cultural comparability of standard scales of the Effort-Reward Imbalance occupational stress scales by item response theory (IRT) analyses. Data were from 20,256 Japanese employees, 1464 Dutch nurses and nurses' aides, 2128 representative employees from

  12. Data analysis strategies for reducing the influence of the bias in cross-cultural research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindik, Josko

    2012-03-01

    In cross-cultural research, researchers have to adjust the constructs and associated measurement instruments that have been developed in one culture and then imported for use in another culture. Importing concepts from other cultures is often simply reduced to language adjustment of the content in the items of the measurement instruments that define a certain (psychological) construct. In the context of cross-cultural research, test bias can be defined as a generic term for all nuisance factors that threaten the validity of cross-cultural comparisons. Bias can be an indicator that instrument scores based on the same items measure different traits and characteristics across different cultural groups. To reduce construct, method and item bias,the researcher can consider these strategies: (1) simply comparing average results in certain measuring instruments; (2) comparing only the reliability of certain dimensions of the measurement instruments, applied to the "target" and "source" samples of participants, i.e. from different cultures; (3) comparing the "framed" factor structure (fixed number of factors) of the measurement instruments, applied to the samples from the "target" and "source" cultures, using explorative factor analysis strategy on separate samples; (4) comparing the complete constructs ("unframed" factor analysis, i.e. unlimited number of factors) in relation to their best psychometric properties and the possibility of interpreting (best suited to certain cultures, applying explorative strategy of factor analysis); or (5) checking the similarity of the constructs in the samples from different cultures (using structural equation modeling approach). Each approach has its advantages and disadvantages. The advantages and lacks of each approach are discussed.

  13. A Cross-Cultural Perspective on Challenges Facing Comparative Cancer Survivorship Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syse, A.; Syse, A.; Geller, B.

    2011-01-01

    Cancer survivorship research includes the study of physical, psychosocial, and economic consequences of cancer diagnosis and treatment among pediatric and adult cancer survivors. Historically, the majority of cancer survivorship studies were from the United States, but survivorship issues are increasingly being addressed in other developed countries. Cross-cultural studies remain, however, scarce. The degree to which knowledge attained may or may not be transferred across cultures, countries, or regions is not known. Some important challenges for comparative research are therefore discussed in a cross-cultural perspective. Several substantive and methodological challenges that complicate the execution of cross-cultural cancer survivorship research are presented with examples and discussed to facilitate comparative research efforts in the establishment of new survivorship cohorts and in the planning and implementation of survivorship studies. Comparative research is one key to understanding the nature of cancer survivorship, distinguishing modifiable from non modifiable factors at individual, hospital, societal, and system levels and may thus guide appropriate interventions. Lastly, suggested future courses of action within the field of comparative cancer survivorship research are provided.

  14. An Investigation of the Cross-Cultural Comparability of Social Skills

    OpenAIRE

    ISHII, Hidetoki; SUGIMURA, Niwako; ZHANG, Yiping; WATANABE, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    The inclusion of the measurement of social skills in the PISA administered by OECD is currently under consideration. However, it is often argued that standards for evaluation of social skills are set within the framework of a given society and that any cross-cultural comparison beyond this framework is essentially impossible. In this study, an investigation was conducted in cities in the Asian region (Shanghai, Shenzhen, Yangon) whose cultures are comparatively closer to Japan's. The Social S...

  15. Choosing an adequate design and analysis in cross-cultural personality research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia He

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The flourishing of cross-cultural personality research requires a keen eye for rigorous methodology in such research. With decades of experience in cross-cultural research methods, we have come to appreciate that methodological aspects of such studies are critical for obtaining valid findings. Ill-designed or -conducted studies may produce results that are difficult to interpret. A careful design and analysis can help to deal with various methodological problems in cross-cultural personality studies. Drawing on the extensive knowledge that has been accumulated in cross-cultural and personality research in the past decades, we describe a framework of bias and equivalence that enables the choice of adequate research methods and the avoidance of pitfalls that endanger valid conclusions in cross-cultural personality research. Specifically, we focus on sampling issues, test adaptations, and the combination of emic and etic approaches in this short review article. We encourage researchers to use the tools and experience that are available to considerably enlarge our insights in cross-cultural differences and similarities in personality research.

  16. Why developmental psychology is incomplete without comparative and cross-cultural perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Mark; Haun, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    As a discipline, developmental psychology has a long history of relying on animal models and data collected among distinct cultural groups to enrich and inform theories of the ways social and cognitive processes unfold through the lifespan. However, approaches that draw together developmental, cross-cultural and comparative perspectives remain rare. The need for such an approach is reflected in the papers by Heyes (2015 Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 371, 20150069. (doi:10.1098/rstb.2015.0069)), Schmelz & Call (2015 Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 371, 20150067. (doi:10.1098/rstb.2015.0067)) and Keller (2015 Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 371, 20150070. (doi:10.1098/rstb.2015.0070)) in this theme issue. Here, we incorporate these papers into a review of recent research endeavours covering a range of core aspects of social cognition, including social learning, cooperation and collaboration, prosociality, and theory of mind. In so doing, we aim to highlight how input from comparative and cross-cultural empiricism has altered our perspectives of human development and, in particular, led to a deeper understanding of the evolution of the human cultural mind. PMID:26644590

  17. Why developmental psychology is incomplete without comparative and cross-cultural perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Mark; Haun, Daniel

    2016-01-19

    As a discipline, developmental psychology has a long history of relying on animal models and data collected among distinct cultural groups to enrich and inform theories of the ways social and cognitive processes unfold through the lifespan. However, approaches that draw together developmental, cross-cultural and comparative perspectives remain rare. The need for such an approach is reflected in the papers by Heyes (2015 Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 371, 20150069. (doi:10.1098/rstb.2015.0069)), Schmelz & Call (2015 Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 371, 20150067. (doi:10.1098/rstb.2015.0067)) and Keller (2015 Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 371, 20150070. (doi:10.1098/rstb.2015.0070)) in this theme issue. Here, we incorporate these papers into a review of recent research endeavours covering a range of core aspects of social cognition, including social learning, cooperation and collaboration, prosociality, and theory of mind. In so doing, we aim to highlight how input from comparative and cross-cultural empiricism has altered our perspectives of human development and, in particular, led to a deeper understanding of the evolution of the human cultural mind. © 2015 The Author(s).

  18. Cross-cultural comparisons among the sensory characteristics of fermented soybean using Korean and Japanese descriptive analysis panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, L; Chung, S-J

    2007-11-01

    One of the most important initial steps in exporting a food product to another country from the R&D perspective is to describe and translate the sensory characteristics of a food product appropriately into the language of the target country. The objectives of this study were to describe and compare the sensory characteristics of Korean and Japanese style fermented soybean products, and to cross-culturally compare the lexicons of the identical product generated by the Korean and Japanese panelists. Four types of Korean and 4 types of Japanese style fermented soybean consisting of whole bean type and paste type were analyzed. Ten Korean and 9 Japanese panelists were recruited in Korea. Two separate descriptive analyses were conducted, with the panelists differing in their country of origin. Each group was trained, developed lexicon, and conducted descriptive analysis independently. Analysis of variance and various multivariate analyses were applied to delineate the sensory characteristics of the samples and to compare the cross-cultural differences in the usage of lexicon. The Korean and Japanese panelists generated 48 and 36 sensory attributes, respectively. Cross-cultural consensus was shown for evaluating the whole bean type fermented soybean and white miso, which were relatively distinctive samples. However, for the less distinctive samples, the panelists tend to rate higher in negative attributes for the fermented soybeans that originated from the other country. The Japanese panelists grouped the samples by their country of origin and soy sauce flavor was the main attribute for cross-cultural differentiation. However, the Korean panelists did not make a cross-cultural distinction among the samples.

  19. Cross-cultural nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhonen, Riitta; Saarikoski, Mikko; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2009-04-01

    International cross-cultural comparative nursing research is considered important for the advancement of nursing knowledge offering a global perspective for nursing. Although this is recognised in policy statements and quality standards, international comparative studies are rare in database citations. To highlight the need for cross-cultural comparative research in nursing and to share some of the insights gained after conducting three international/cross-cultural comparative studies. These are: an examination of patients' autonomy, privacy and informed consent in nursing interventions BIOMED 1998-2001, the ICProject International Patient Study 2002-2006 and the Ethical Codes in Nursing (ECN) project 2003-2005. There are three critical issues raised here for discussion from the international cross-cultural studies. These are: the planning and formulating of an international study, the conduct of cross-cultural research including the implementation of rigorous data collection and analysis and the reporting and implementing the results. International and cross-cultural nursing research is powerful tool for the improvement of clinical nursing practise, education and management and advancement of knowledge. Such studies should be carried out in order to improve European evidence based health care development in which the patients' perspective plays an important part in the evaluation and benchmarking of services.

  20. A Cross-Cultural Analysis of Children's Television Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohoori, Ali Reza

    1988-01-01

    Describes a 1981 study that compared uses of U.S. television by foreign children residing in the United States and American children in light of theories of acculturation, cultivation, and uses and gratifications. Children's television viewing is discussed, research methodology is described, and results are analyzed. (22 references) (Author/LRW)

  1. Cross-Cultural Patterns of Attachment: A Meta-Analysis of t?Y Strange Situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Kroonenberg, Pieter M.

    1988-01-01

    Examines 2,000 Strange Situation classifications obtained in eight different countries. Differences and similarities between distributions in classifications of samples are investigated using correspondence analysis. Substantial intracultural differences are established; data also suggest a pattern of cross-cultural differences. (Author/RWB)

  2. Cross-cultural validity of the ABILOCO questionnaire for individuals with stroke, based on Rasch analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avelino, Patrick Roberto; Magalhães, Lívia Castro; Faria-Fortini, Iza; Basílio, Marluce Lopes; Menezes, Kênia Kiefer Parreiras; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci Fuscaldi

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cross-cultural validity of the Brazilian version of the ABILOCO questionnaire for stroke subjects. Cross-cultural adaptation of the original English version of the ABILOCO to the Brazilian-Portuguese language followed standardized procedures. The adapted version was administered to 136 stroke subjects and its measurement properties were assessed using Rash analysis. Cross-cultural validity was based on cultural invariance analyses. Goodness-of-fit analysis revealed one misfitting item. The principal component analysis of the residuals showed that the first dimension explained 45% of the variance in locomotion ability; however, the eigenvalue was 1.92. The ABILOCO-Brazil divided the sample into two levels of ability and the items into about seven levels of difficulty. The item-person map showed some ceiling effect. Cultural invariance analyses revealed that although there were differences in the item calibrations between the ABILOCO-original and ABILOCO-Brazil, they did not impact the measures of locomotion ability. The ABILOCO-Brazil demonstrated satisfactory measurement properties to be used within both clinical and research contexts in Brazil, as well cross-cultural validity to be used in international/multicentric studies. However, the presence of ceiling effect suggests that it may not be appropriate for the assessment of individuals with high levels of locomotion ability. Implications for rehabilitation Self-report measures of locomotion ability are clinically important, since they describe the abilities of the individuals within real life contexts. The ABILOCO questionnaire, specific for stroke survivors, demonstrated satisfactory measurement properties, but may not be most appropriate to assess individuals with high levels of locomotion ability The results of the cross-cultural validity showed that the ABILOCO-Original and the ABILOCO-Brazil calibrations may be used interchangeable.

  3. A Cross-Cultural Analysis of Personality Structure Through the Lens of the HEXACO Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ion, Andrei; Iliescu, Dragos; Aldhafri, Said; Rana, Neeti; Ratanadilok, Kattiya; Widyanti, Ari; Nedelcea, Cătălin

    2017-01-01

    Across 5 different samples, totaling more than 1,600 participants from India, Indonesia, Oman, Romania, and Thailand, the authors address the question of cross-cultural replicability of a personality structure, while exploring the utility of exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) as a data analysis technique in cross-cultural personality research. Personality was measured with an alternative, non-Five-Factor Model (FFM) personality framework, provided by the HEXACO-PI (Lee & Ashton, 2004 ). The results show that the HEXACO framework was replicated in some of the investigated cultures. The ESEM data analysis technique proved to be especially useful in investigating the between-group measurement equivalence of broad personality measures across different cultures.

  4. A Comparative Cross-Cultural Examination of Community Art Education Programs in South Korea and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ryan; Kim, Junghee

    2014-01-01

    The authors conducted comparative cross-cultural research to examine a select group of the available and more noteworthy art education organizations and their programs after observing significant differences in the community art education programs offered in Tucson, Arizona, and Anyang, South Korea. The study reports several major differences…

  5. A Comparative Study between Chinese and Western Food Culture in Cross-cultural Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦体霞

    2014-01-01

    The differences of food culture play an important role in cross-cultural communication. Learn the cultural rooted causes of food culture between Chinese and Western countries, will promote mutual understanding between people and enjoy different feelings different foods brings, enhance cultural exchange, complement and integration.

  6. Modern Attitudes Toward Older Adults in the Aging World: A Cross-Cultural Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Michael S; Fiske, Susan T

    2015-09-01

    Prevailing beliefs suggest that Eastern cultures hold older adults in higher esteem than Western cultures do, due to stronger collectivist traditions of filial piety. However, in modern, industrialized societies, the strain presented by dramatic rises in population aging potentially threatens traditional cultural expectations. Addressing these competing hypotheses, a literature search located 37 eligible papers, comprising samples from 23 countries and 21,093 total participants, directly comparing Easterners and Westerners (as classified per U.N. conventions) in their attitudes toward aging and the aged. Contradicting conventional wisdom, a random-effects meta-analysis on these articles found such evaluations to be more negative in the East overall (standardized mean difference = -0.31). High heterogeneity in study comparisons suggested the presence of moderators; indeed, geographical region emerged as a significant moderating factor, with the strongest levels of senior derogation emerging in East Asia (compared with South and Southeast Asia) and non-Anglophone Europe (compared with North American and Anglophone Western regions). At the country level, multiple-moderator meta-regression analysis confirmed recent rises in population aging to significantly predict negative elder attitudes, controlling for industrialization per se over the same time period. Unexpectedly, these analyses also found that cultural individualism significantly predicted relative positivity-suggesting that, for generating elder respect within rapidly aging societies, collectivist traditions may backfire. The findings suggest the importance of demographic challenges in shaping modern attitudes toward elders-presenting considerations for future research in ageism, cross-cultural psychology, and even economic development, as societies across the globe accommodate unprecedented numbers of older citizens. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Perceptions and practices of commensality and solo-eating among Korean and Japanese university students: A cross-cultural analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Wookyoun; Takeda, Wakako; Oh, Yujin; Aiba, Naomi; Lee, Youngmee

    2015-10-01

    Commensality, eating together with others, is a major representation of human sociality. In recent time, environments around commensality have changed significantly due to rapid social changes, and the decline of commensality is perceived as a serious concern in many modern societies. This study employs a cross-cultural analysis of university students in two East Asian countries, and examines cross-cultural variations of perceptions and actual practices of commensality and solo-eating. The analysis was drawn from a free-list survey and a self-administrative questionnaires of university students in urban Korea and Japan. The free-listing survey was conducted with a small cohort to explore common images and meanings of commensality and solo-eating. The self-administrative questionnaire was developed based on the result of the free-list survey, and conducted with a larger cohort to examine reasons and problems of practices and associated behaviors and food intake. We found that Korean subjects tended to show stronger associations between solo-eating and negative emotions while the Japanese subjects expressed mixed emotions towards the practice of solo-eating. In the questionnaire, more Korean students reported they prefer commensality and tend to eat more quantities when they eat commensally. In contrast, more Japanese reported that they do not have preference on commensality and there is no notable difference in food quantities when they eat commensally and alone. Compared to the general Korean cohort finding, more proportion of overweight and obese groups of Korean subjects reported that they tend to eat more when they are alone than normal and underweight groups. This difference was not found in the overweight Japanese subjects. Our study revealed cross-cultural variations of perceptions and practices of commensality and solo-eating in a non-western setting.

  8. The cross-cultural transition experience: Phenomenological analysis on a group of international students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Grazia Novara

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is focused on exploration of experience of cultural transition that has lived a group of international students (European and not European host at an Italian University during particular experiential segment marking the transition from their culture of belonging to the new social and cultural context. From an epistemological point of view that aligns with the phenomenological tradition with individual and group interviews, it was monitored with a longitudinal methodology as the representation of the transit cross-cultural adaptation to the context it emerged from the interviews are associated through the dominant narrative themes. The results show how in the early stage of contact with the new culture, the group of students, both European and not, have felt a sense of disorientation associated with the loss of its cultural matrix. Over the next step of analysis is rather more clearly the difference between the group of European students, whose performances evoke an adjustment process easier and less based on feelings of ambivalence and close relationships that characterize the group of non-European students.Keywords: Cross-cultural transition; International students: Phenomenology  

  9. Choosing an adequate design and analysis in cross-cultural personality research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, Jia; van de Vijver, Fons

    2017-01-01

    The flourishing of cross-cultural personality research requires a keen eye for rigorous methodology in such research. With decades of experience in cross-cultural research methods, we have come to appreciate that methodological aspects of such studies are critical for obtaining valid findings.

  10. Approach--avoidance motivation and information processing: a cross-cultural analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamura, Takeshi; Meijer, Zita; Heine, Steven J; Kamaya, Kengo; Hori, Izumi

    2009-04-01

    Much recent research suggests that North Americans more frequently experience approach motivations and East Asians more frequently experience avoidance motivations. The current research explores some cognitive implications of this cultural difference. North Americans should be more attentive to approach-oriented information, whereas East Asians should be more attentive to avoidance-oriented information. Three studies confirmed this hypothesis. When asked to recall information framed in either approach or avoidance terms, a predicted interaction between culture and information frame was observed (Study 1 and 2). Moreover, analyses of consumer book reviews found that among reviews that were rated as helpful, approach-focused content was more prevalent in American reviews compared to Japanese reviews, in which avoidance-focused content was more prevalent (Study 3). Findings from the current research add to the growing literature of cross-cultural research on approach-avoidance motivations.

  11. A cross-cultural investigation of college student alcohol consumption: a classification tree analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitsantas, Panagiota; Kitsantas, Anastasia; Anagnostopoulou, Tanya

    2008-01-01

    In this cross-cultural study, the authors attempted to identify high-risk subgroups for alcohol consumption among college students. American and Greek students (N = 132) answered questions about alcohol consumption, religious beliefs, attitudes toward drinking, advertisement influences, parental monitoring, and drinking consequences. Heavy drinkers in the American group were younger and less religious than were infrequent drinkers. In the Greek group, heavy drinkers tended to deny the negative results of drinking alcohol and use a permissive attitude to justify it, whereas infrequent drinkers were more likely to be monitored by their parents. These results suggest that parental monitoring and an emphasis on informing students about the negative effects of alcohol on their health and social and academic lives may be effective methods of reducing alcohol consumption. Classification tree analysis revealed that student attitudes toward drinking were important in the classification of American and Greek drinkers, indicating that this is a powerful predictor of alcohol consumption regardless of ethnic background.

  12. The implications of extreme response style (ERS for cross-cultural and comparative research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Watkins

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Cross-cultural research in which fivepoint, Likert-type and semantic-differential scales are utilized, is a popular research practice. Extreme response style (ERS may contaminate the validity of research results, however this possibility is often ignored in behavioural science research. In this study, the influence of biographical variables on extreme response style and the contaminating effect thereof on the validity of research results is investigated. The results of the study reveal that culture separately, and interaction with age and gender has a meaningful influence on ERS when five-point scales are utilized. The underlying causes of the phenomenon can however not exclusively be ascribed to biographical variables. Opsomming Kruiskulturele navorsing waarin vyfpunt, Likerttipe- en semanties-differensiale skale benut word, is 'n bekende navorsingspraktyk. Ekstreme responsiestyl is egter daartoe in staat om die geldigheid van sondanige navorsingsresultate te kontamineer, maar hierdie moontlikheid word dikwels in die gedragswetenskaplike navorsingspraktyk geignoreer. In hierdie studie word ondersoek ingestel na die invloed van biografiese faktore op ekstreme responsiestyl en die kontaminerende effek daarvan op die geldigheid van navorsingsresultate. Daar is gevind dat kultuur in interaksie met ouderdom en geslag, ERS betekenisvol beinvloed wanneer vyfpuntskale gebruik word. Die onderliggende oorsake van die verskynsel kan egter nie uitsluitlik aan biografiese veranderlikes toegeskryf word nie.

  13. Sociocultural Conventions in Avatar-Mediated Nonverbal Communication: A Cross-Cultural Analysis of Virtual Proxemics

    OpenAIRE

    Hasler B.S.; Friedman D.A.

    2012-01-01

    We examined whether virtual worlds in which participants interact as avatars could be used as a novel instrument for cross cultural and intercultural communication research. We explored differences between Asian and European cultures regarding their social spatial behavior (i.e. proxemics) in dyadic avatar interactions. Asian dyads interacted at larger distances than European dyads which is consistent with the cross cultural differences typically observed in face to face interactions. Mixed c...

  14. [Attitudes towards psychotherapy in South Korea and Germany : A cross-cultural comparative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, W; Shin, M A; Schmid-Ott, G

    2018-01-01

    Due to the relatively recent introduction of psychotherapy in South Korea and against the background of collectivist and Confucian values, it has been suggested that South Koreans harbor more negative attitudes towards psychotherapy compared to Germans and that the social acceptance of psychotherapy is lower. We compared the attitudes of 99 women from South Korea with 98 German women using the questionnaire on attitudes towards psychotherapeutic treatment (FEP). For the study of the South Korean women we translated the questionnaire into the Korean language. The results of the psychometric analysis suggest that the Korean version of the FEP is of acceptable quality. South Korean women reported a significantly more negative attitude towards psychotherapy compared to German women. Furthermore, South Korean women anticipated a more skeptical social attitude towards psychotherapy compared to Germans. The presented results suggest the relevance of cultural imprinting in psychotherapy. They are discussed with respect to culture-specific self-concepts, concepts of disease and healing expectations and the increase of individualistic values in the Korean society.

  15. Caregivers' Agreement and Validity of Indirect Functional Analysis: A Cross Cultural Evaluation across Multiple Problem Behavior Topographies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virues-Ortega, Javier; Segui-Duran, David; Descalzo-Quero, Alberto; Carnerero, Jose Julio; Martin, Neil

    2011-01-01

    The Motivation Assessment Scale is an aid for hypothesis-driven functional analysis. This study presents its Spanish cross-cultural validation while examining psychometric attributes not yet explored. The study sample comprised 80 primary caregivers of children with autism. Acceptability, scaling assumptions, internal consistency, factor…

  16. A cross-cultural analysis of Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh (India) medicinal plant use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gairola, Sumeet; Sharma, Jyotsana; Bedi, Yashbir Singh

    2014-09-11

    plants between Jammu and Kashmir. Maximum numbers of plant taxa were used for treating dermatological problems (321), followed by cold, cough and throat related ailments (250), fever (224), joint and muscle related ailments (215), gastrointestinal disorders (210), urogenital ailments (199), respiratory ailments (151), body pain (135) and gynecological disorders (127). This is the first study from the J&K state, which has examined the medicinal plant use in three divisions of J&K and discussed the promising medicinal plant species with cross-cultural consensus. The analysis of the data suggested that while large numbers of plants are used medicinally in each division, there is a low interregional consensus and high variation between medicinal plants used in these divisions, which is due to both cultural divergence as well as biological distinctness. The issues related to current status of knowledge on medicinal plants used by indigenous communities of J&K have been discussed and some recommendations have been made for future studies on medicinal plants in J&K region. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Are cannabis prevalence estimates comparable across countries and regions? A cross-cultural validation using search engine query data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steppan, Martin; Kraus, Ludwig; Piontek, Daniela; Siciliano, Valeria

    2013-01-01

    Prevalence estimation of cannabis use is usually based on self-report data. Although there is evidence on the reliability of this data source, its cross-cultural validity is still a major concern. External objective criteria are needed for this purpose. In this study, cannabis-related search engine query data are used as an external criterion. Data on cannabis use were taken from the 2007 European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD). Provincial data came from three Italian nation-wide studies using the same methodology (2006-2008; ESPAD-Italia). Information on cannabis-related search engine query data was based on Google search volume indices (GSI). (1) Reliability analysis was conducted for GSI. (2) Latent measurement models of "true" cannabis prevalence were tested using perceived availability, web-based cannabis searches and self-reported prevalence as indicators. (3) Structure models were set up to test the influences of response tendencies and geographical position (latitude, longitude). In order to test the stability of the models, analyses were conducted on country level (Europe, US) and on provincial level in Italy. Cannabis-related GSI were found to be highly reliable and constant over time. The overall measurement model was highly significant in both data sets. On country level, no significant effects of response bias indicators and geographical position on perceived availability, web-based cannabis searches and self-reported prevalence were found. On provincial level, latitude had a significant positive effect on availability indicating that perceived availability of cannabis in northern Italy was higher than expected from the other indicators. Although GSI showed weaker associations with cannabis use than perceived availability, the findings underline the external validity and usefulness of search engine query data as external criteria. The findings suggest an acceptable relative comparability of national (provincial) prevalence

  18. The influence of cultural differences between China and Western countries on cross-cultural communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    次仁德吉

    2017-01-01

    Cross-cultural communication refers to the communication between peoples of different cultural backgrounds. To solve and avoid the cultural conflicts and blocks, it is high time to enhance the actual skills of cross-cultural communication. This paper gives a comparative analysis of the concrete representations of differences between Chinese and western culture in cross-cultural communication. And it gives some communication principles on the cross-cultural communication.

  19. Cross-cultural analysis of Type D (distressed) personality in 6222 patients with ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kupper, Nina; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Höfer, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Type D (distressed) personality, the conjoint effect of negative affectivity (NA) and social inhibition (SI), predicts adverse cardiovascular outcomes, and is assessed with the 14-item Type D Scale (DS14). However, potential cross-cultural differences in Type D have not been examined yet in a dir......Type D (distressed) personality, the conjoint effect of negative affectivity (NA) and social inhibition (SI), predicts adverse cardiovascular outcomes, and is assessed with the 14-item Type D Scale (DS14). However, potential cross-cultural differences in Type D have not been examined yet...

  20. Types of cross-cultural studies in cross-cultural psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Vijver, F.J.R.; Lonner, W.J.; Dinnel, D.L.; Hayes, S.A.; Sattler, D.N.

    2003-01-01

    From a methodological perspective cross-cultural studies in psychology differ in three dimensions. First, cross-cultural psychological studies can be exploratory or test specific hypotheses. Second, some cross-cultural studies compare countries or ethnic groups while other cross-cultural studies

  1. Acculturation Strategies, Social Support, and Cross-Cultural Adaptation: A Mediation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Ting Kin; Tsang, Kwok Kuen; Lian, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Previous acculturation research has established the influences of acculturation strategies and social support on cross-cultural adaptation. The present study attempted to elaborate these direct associations by proposing that social support and the use of the integration and marginalization strategies might affect psychological adaptation…

  2. Cross-Cultural Socialization at Tibetan Classes (Schools) in the Interior: An Empirical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Longyan

    2010-01-01

    Education by means of the Tibetan Classes (schools) in "neidi," or China's interior regions (or the Tibet Class), was a creative measure in the history of China's ethnic minority education, and the cross-cultural growth and experiences of the Tibetan students as they went to school in China's interior regions was of special significance…

  3. Towards a Theory of Urban Fragmentation: A Cross-Cultural Analysis of Fear, Privatization, and the State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setha Low

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper employs a cross-cultural analysis to explore regional and national variations in residential gating and enclosure as a first step in developing an integrated theory of urban fragmentation. Utilizing data from the urban and suburban United States, Latin America and China, a series of dimensions are compared: 1 domestic architecture, 2 urban/suburban settlement pattern, 3 the role of the state, 4 governance, 5 citizenship, 6 cultural meaning, 7 identity, 8 provision of goods and services, 9 taxation, 10 degree of privatization, 11 cultural pattern of social sanction, and 12 fear of crime and others. This comparative analysis locates culturally meaningful and theoretically significant distinctions among the regions and provides data for the development of explanatory models in which each region varies along a dimensional continuum.  At the macro-level of analysis, the impact of globalization and flexible accumulation with increased local heterogeneity, increases in inequality and changes in perceived crime rate emerge as the major underlying factors in the fear of crime and others found in all three regions.  At a micro-level, differences in cultural meanings are explained by local social and political contexts, while provision of goods and services and governance depend on club realm economic explanations.  

  4. Comparing Perceptions of Biotechnology in Fresh versus Processed Foods: A Cross-Cultural Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyeyoung; House, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    This study focused on investigating how respondents’ perceptions of biotechnology used in food production differs depending on the level of product transformation (i.e. fresh versus processed food). Using cluster analysis, respondents were clustered into two groups, genetically engineered (GE) tolerant and GE sensitive, based on changes in their perceptions about fresh apples and apple juice produced with and without biotechnology. Comparisons of respondents from six countries were performed ...

  5. Measuring moderations: a cross cultural and comparative research in services between brazilians and canadians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio de Oliveira Mota

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationship of relational benefits and their consequent variables by moderating cultural idiosyncrasies. The field research was conducted among 297 Brazilians and 207 Canadians. The collected data were analyzed by statistical tests such as comparing means, MANOVA, canonical correlation and moderation in regressive models in order to test the proposed technique. There were also methodological contributions through the development of computational scripts that identified the power and direction of each construct and path. The comparative analyses confirm that Brazilians are possibly more demanding than Canadians when evaluate services. On the one hand, due to Brazilians are culturally with greater power distance, we may indicate that to give them special treatment is an important factor in increasing satisfaction with employees. On the other hand, due to Canadians belong to a more egalitarian society, there are feelings that these privileges and "jeitinhos" should not be just for a few. The results obtained in this study may also be useful in strengthening business ties between Brazil and Canada in order to raise awareness among both countries.

  6. Psychobiological model of temperament and character: Validation and cross-cultural comparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Džamonja-Ignjatović Tamara

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents research results regarding Psychobiological model of personality by Robert Cloninger. The primary research goal was to test the new TCI-5 inventory and compare our results with US normative data. We also analyzed the factor structure of the model and the reliability of basic TCI-5 scales and sub-scales. The sample consisted of 473 subjects from the normal population, age range between 18-50 years. Results showed significant differences between Serbian and American samples. Compared to the American sample, Novelty seeking was higher in the Serbian sample, while Persistence Self-directedness and Cooperativeness were lower. For the most part results of the present study confirmed a seven factor structure model although some sub-scales did not coincide with basic dimensions as predicted by the theoretical model. Therefore certain theoretical revisions of the model are required in order to fit in the empirical findings. Similarly, the discrepancy between the theoretical and empirical was also noticed regarding the reliability of TCI-5 scales. They also need to be re-examined. Thus the results of the study showed satisfactory reliability of Persistence (.90, Self-directedness (.89 and Harm avoidance (.87, but low reliability of the Novelty seeking (.78, Reward dependence (.79 and Self-transcendence (.78.

  7. Perception and Consumption of Global Luxury Brands in Russia and Romania: Comparative Cross-Cultural Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina OCHKOVSKAYA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper compares the luxury consumption in Russia with that in the post-communist countries of the former Soviet bloc. The aim of this research is to find out the common and specific about an attitude to global luxury brands in Russia and Romania. We investigate the motives for buying luxury brands in these two countries, as well as the brands’ preferences for Russian and Romanian consumers. Furthermore, the portrait of an average luxury consumer in Russia and Romania is introduced and analyzed in the study. The current investigation consisted of two parts. First, it was qualitative research, as in-depth interviews with luxury brands consumers. It allowed us to formulate the hypotheses. Then to verify the hypotheses, we conducted on-line survey in which 45 female respondents from each country took part. As can be seen from the study, Russian and Romanian luxury brands connoisseurs have much in common. Both of them prefer global brands to local ones. The majority of Russian respondents agree that luxury brands are bought to demonstrate the status and welfare or at least it is a kind of reward for being hard working. As for Romanians, the key reason for luxury consumption is a very high quality and perfectionism in details. Although the consumers from the countries have shown some common characteristics, they are different in their attitude to Louis Vuitton (LV is not № 1 in Romania. What is more, the brands ratings and products choice are completely different in Russia and Romania. All our respondents have very strong cultural background: they visit opera, museums, listen to classical music and read serious books. Furthermore, their touristic destinations have cultural purposes as well. It means that people appreciate not only material brands, but also try to do their best to follow the cultural life style. This research contributes to some extent to the understanding of luxury brands consumption in Russia and Romania. The study can

  8. Religion, Ethnicity and Geography: A Cross-Cultural Analysis of Demand for Education in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blunch, Niels-Hugo

    2003-01-01

    Most cross-cultural research of demand behavior is focused at cross-country studies. For Sub-Saharan Africa, however, the fact that the borders were more or less arbitrarily drawn by the colonial powers suggests that demand behavior - including the demand for education - in this context are more...... affected by within country factors such as ethnicity, geographical location and religion. On this premise, we analyze the demand for education in Ghana from a cross-cultural perspective. A substantial share of Ghanaian youth and young adults has never attended school. As education is an important vehicle...... for economic development this is (or should be) a point of concern to both the national government and international development organizations. On this background, this study analyzes the demand for education in Ghana to try to understand the main factors underlying this. The focus is on cross...

  9. Cross-cultural analysis of the verbal conflict behavior of the graduate mining engineers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pevneva Inna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the crucial issue of the interpersonal communication skills of engineering graduates and studies the verbal behavior of the graduates majoring in mining engineering in conflict professional communication considered in a cross-cultural aspect. The research is based on the needs that future mining engineers have for conducting successful communication, work in teams and run an effective discourse both verbally and in writing. Verbal communication involves a strategic process by which a speaker defines the language resources for its implementation. By choosing a strategy which should contribute to the goals and objectives of the interaction a speaker makes the process of communication either successful or leading to a communicative failure. The scientific importance of this work is in multidiscipline approach and cross-cultural study of ethnic and cultural influences, gender and other characteristics of the verbal behavior of Russian and American engineering graduates.

  10. Factors associated with intensiveness of use of child preventive health services in Taiwan: a comparative study between cross-cultural immigrant families and native-born families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Su-Chen; Yeh, Yen-Po; Wu, Jyun-Yi; Lin, Chun-Hsiu; Chang, Pei-Chi; Fang, Chiung-Hui; Yang, Hao-Jan

    2013-01-01

    To compare intensiveness of use of child preventive health services (CPHS) between cross-cultural immigrant families and native-born families in Taiwan and to explore factors associated with differences in intensiveness of CPHS use. Cross-cultural immigrant families were defined as families where the mother was an immigrant from another southeast Asian country. In native-born families, both parents were Taiwanese-born. Data were collected from 318 immigrant mothers and 340 native-born mothers of children aged 7 years or younger in a cross-sectional survey in central Taiwan. A social determinants framework of health inequities was constructed, and ordinal logistic regression models were used to examine the effect of four domains of intermediary determinants on the relationship between family type and underuse of CPHS: CPHS-related factors, medical-related factors, maternal acculturation factors, and sociodemographic/socioeconomic characteristics. Cross-cultural immigrant families were less likely to intensively use CPHS than native-born families. This difference appeared to be mediated by the greater likelihood of having an older child or a lower educated father in cross-cultural families. Findings of this study highlight the importance of promoting health behaviors and combating health inequities and social inequalities for cross-cultural immigrant families in Taiwan from a sociodemographic/socioeconomic and political context.

  11. A multidimensional approach to explore cross-cultural differences in coping behavior: comparing Druze and Jews in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israelashvili, Moshe; Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit; Hochdorf, Zipora

    2011-01-01

    Assuming that culture is a multidimensional variable, the current study explored the possibility that the interactions between ethnicity and other culture-related variables--rather than ethnicity alone--will better describe differences in coping behavior. In the study, cross-cultural differences among Israeli Jews and Israeli Druze in the use of various ways of coping were examined while also taking into account respondents' gender, age, self-esteem, sense of coherence, national identification, and religiosity. Comparing Israeli Jews and Israeli Druze, results indicate significant differences in levels of religiosity and coherence. Referring to coping behavior, findings show that differences in ways of coping could be attributed mainly to gender differences rather than ethnic differences Thus, at least in the case of comparing Israeli Jews vs. Israeli Druze, religiosity and gender are powerful determinants of coping behavior, while ethnicity has only a limited contribution in explaining variance in a preferred way of coping. It is suggested that ethnicity has a moderating role in shaping coping behavior, as it might influence person's self-perception and level of emotionality, which in turn shape the person's ways of coping. Future explorations among various age and ethnic groups are needed to enable generalization of the current study findings.

  12. Emotional Learning and Identity Development in Medicine: A Cross-Cultural Qualitative Study Comparing Taiwanese and Dutch Medical Undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmich, Esther; Yeh, Huei-Ming; Yeh, Chi-Chuan; de Vries, Joy; Fu-Chang Tsai, Daniel; Dornan, Tim

    2017-06-01

    Current knowledge about the interplay between emotions and professional identity formation is limited and largely based on research in Western settings. This study aimed to broaden understandings of professional identity formation cross-culturally. In fall 2014, the authors purposively sampled 22 clinical students from Taiwan and the Netherlands and asked them to keep audio diaries, narrating emotional experiences during clerkships using three prompts: What happened? What did you feel/think/do? How does this interplay with your development as a doctor? Dutch audio diaries were supplemented with follow-up interviews. The authors analyzed participants' narratives using a critical discourse analysis informed by Figured Worlds theory and Bakhtin's concept of dialogism, according to which people's spoken words create identities in imagined future worlds. Participants talked vividly, but differently, about their experiences. Dutch participants' emotions related to individual achievement and competence. Taiwanese participants' rich, emotional language reflected on becoming both a good person and a good doctor. These discourses constructed doctors' and patients' autonomy in culturally specific ways. The Dutch construct centered on "hands-on" participation, which developed the identity of a technically skilled doctor, but did not address patients' self-determination. The Taiwanese construct located physicians' autonomy within moral values more than practical proficiency, and gave patients agency to influence doctor-patient relationships. Participants' cultural constructs of physician and patient autonomy led them to construct different professional identities within different imagined worlds. The contrasting discourses show how medical students learn about different meanings of becoming doctors in culturally specific contexts.

  13. A Comparative Cross-Cultural Study of the Prevalence and Nature of Misconceptions in Physics amongst English and Chinese Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahams, Ian; Homer, Matt; Sharpe, Rachael; Zhou, Mengyuan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the large body of literature regarding student misconceptions, there has been relatively little cross-cultural research to directly compare the prevalence of common scientific misconceptions amongst students from different cultural backgrounds. Whilst previous research does suggest the international nature of many…

  14. ' Emotional Learning and Identity Development in Medicine : A Cross-Cultural Qualitative Study Comparing Taiwanese and Dutch Medical Undergraduates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmich, Esther; Yeh, Huei-Ming; Yeh, Chi-Chuan; de Vries-Erich, Joy M; Tsai, Daniel Fu-Chang; Dornan, Tim

    Purpose Current knowledge about the interplay between emotions and professional identity formation is limited and largely based on research in Western settings. This study aimed to broaden understandings of professional identity formation cross-culturally. Method In fall 2014, the authors

  15. Cross-Cultural Findings on Community Violence Exposure and Internalizing Psychopathology: Comparing Adolescents in the United States, Russia, and Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwab-Stone, M.; Koposov, R.; Vermeiren, R.R.J.M.; Ruchkin, V.

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate cross-cultural differences in the relation between community violence and psychopathology. A self-report survey was conducted in a representative sample of 3,309 14-17 year old adolescents from urban communities in the US (N = 1,343), Belgium (N = 946) and Russia (N =

  16. Developing Culturally Competent Health Knowledge: Issues of Data Analysis of Cross-Cultural, Cross-Language Qualitative Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Hsin-Chun Tsai

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing awareness and interest in the development of culturally competent health knowledge. Drawing on experience using a qualitative approach to elicit information from Mandarin- or Cantonese-speaking participants for a colorectal cancer prevention study, the authors describe lessons learned through the analysis process. These lessons include benefits and drawbacks of the use of coders from the studied culture group, challenges posed by using translated data for analysis, and suitable analytic approaches and research methods for cross-cultural, cross-language qualitative research. The authors also discuss the implications of these lessons for the development of culturally competent health knowledge.

  17. A time series analysis of macroeconomic determinants of household spending in the era of cross-cultural dynamics: Czech Republic as a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Verter, Nahanga; Osakwe, Christian Nedu

    2014-01-01

    The paper investigates selected macroeconomic variables where are seemingly influencing household spending in the Republic in the present era of evolving cross-cultural interactions from 1993-2012. Based on the estimated regression model, it plausible to state that net disposable income, cross-cultural dynamics, inflation rate, and saving rate as a proportion of household income impact significantly on household spending. Moreover, the Granger causality analysis provides evidence of feedback ...

  18. A cross-cultural analysis of posthumous reproduction: The significance of the gender and margins-of-life perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Hashiloni-Dolev

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The scholarly discussion of posthumous reproduction (PHR focuses on informed consent and the welfare of the future child, for the most part overlooking cultural differences between societies. Based on a cross-cultural comparison of legal and regulatory documents, analysis of pivotal cases and study of scholarly and media discussions in Israel and Germany, this paper analyses the relevant ethical and policy issues, and questions how cultural differences shape the practice of PHR. The findings challenge the common classifications of PHR by highlighting the gender perspective and adding brain-dead pregnant women to the debate. Based on this study’s findings, four neglected cultural factors affecting social attitudes towards PHR are identified: (i the relationship between the pregnant woman and her future child; (ii what constitutes the beginning of life; (iii what constitutes dying; and (iv the social agent(s seeking to have the future child. The paper argues that PHR can be better understood by adding the gender and margins-of-life perspectives, and that future ethical and practical discussions of this issue could benefit from the criteria emerging from this cross-cultural analysis.

  19. Developing the Polish Educational Needs Assessment Tool (Pol-ENAT) in rheumatoid arthritis and systemic sclerosis: a cross-cultural validation study using Rasch analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierakowska, Matylda; Sierakowski, Stanisław; Sierakowska, Justyna; Horton, Mike; Ndosi, Mwidimi

    2015-03-01

    To undertake cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the educational needs assessment tool (ENAT) for use with people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic sclerosis (SSc) in Poland. The study involved two main phases: (1) cross-cultural adaptation of the ENAT from English into Polish and (2) Cross-cultural validation of Polish Educational Needs Assessment Tool (Pol-ENAT). The first phase followed an established process of cross-cultural adaptation of self-report measures. The second phase involved completion of the Pol-ENAT by patients and subjecting the data to Rasch analysis to assess the construct validity, unidimensionality, internal consistency and cross-cultural invariance. An adequate conceptual equivalence was achieved following the adaptation process. The dataset for validation comprised a total of 278 patients, 237 (85.3 %) of which were female. In each disease group (145, RA and 133, SSc), the 7 domains of the Pol-ENAT were found to fit the Rasch model, X (2)(df) = 16.953(14), p = 0.259 and 8.132(14), p = 0.882 for RA and SSc, respectively. Internal consistency of the Pol-ENAT was high (patient separation index = 0.85 and 0.89 for SSc and RA, respectively), and unidimensionality was confirmed. Cross-cultural differential item functioning (DIF) was detected in some subscales, and DIF-adjusted conversion tables were calibrated to enable cross-cultural comparison of data between Poland and the UK. Using a standard process in cross-cultural adaptation, conceptual equivalence was achieved between the original (UK) ENAT and the adapted Pol-ENAT. Fit to the Rasch model, confirmed that the construct validity, unidimensionality and internal consistency of the ENAT have been preserved.

  20. Cross-cultural analysis of type D (distressed) personality in 6222 patients with ischemic heart disease: a study from the International HeartQoL Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupper, Nina; Pedersen, Susanne S; Höfer, Stefan; Saner, Hugo; Oldridge, Neil; Denollet, Johan

    2013-06-20

    Type D (distressed) personality, the conjoint effect of negative affectivity (NA) and social inhibition (SI), predicts adverse cardiovascular outcomes, and is assessed with the 14-item Type D Scale (DS14). However, potential cross-cultural differences in Type D have not been examined yet in a direct comparison of countries. To examine the cross-cultural validity of the Type D construct and its relation with cardiovascular risk factors, cardiac symptom severity, and depression/anxiety. In 22 countries, 6222 patients with ischemic heart disease (angina, 33%; myocardial infarction, 37%; or heart failure, 30%) completed the DS14 as part of the International HeartQoL Project. Type D personality was assessed reliably across countries (αNA>.80; αSI>.74; except Russia, which was excluded from further analysis). Cross-cultural measurement equivalence was established for Type D personality at all measurement levels, as the factor-item configuration, factor loadings, and error structure were not different across countries (fit: CFI=.91; NFI=.88; RMSEA=.018), as well as across gender and diagnostic subgroups. Type D personality was more prevalent in Southern (37%) and Eastern (35%) European countries compared to Northern (24%) and Western European and English-speaking (both 27%) countries (pcultural measurement equivalence was demonstrated for the Type D scale in 21 countries. There is a pan-cultural relationship between Type D personality and some cardiovascular risk factors, supporting the role of Type D personality across countries and cardiac conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cross-cultural organizational behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, Michele J; Erez, Miriam; Aycan, Zeynep

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews research on cross-cultural organizational behavior (OB). After a brief review of the history of cross-cultural OB, we review research on work motivation, or the factors that energize, direct, and sustain effort across cultures. We next consider the relationship between the individual and the organization, and review research on culture and organizational commitment, psychological contracts, justice, citizenship behavior, and person-environment fit. Thereafter, we consider how individuals manage their interdependence in organizations, and review research on culture and negotiation and disputing, teams, and leadership, followed by research on managing across borders and expatriation. The review shows that developmentally, cross-cultural research in OB is coming of age. Yet we also highlight critical challenges for future research, including moving beyond values to explain cultural differences, attending to levels of analysis issues, incorporating social and organizational context factors into cross-cultural research, taking indigenous perspectives seriously, and moving beyond intracultural comparisons to understand the dynamics of cross-cultural interfaces.

  2. Analysis of perceived risk among construction workers: a cross-cultural study and reflection on the Hofstede model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Fiestas, Myriam; Rodríguez-Garzón, Ignacio; Delgado-Padial, Antonio; Lucas-Ruiz, Valeriano

    2017-09-01

    This article presents a cross-cultural study on perceived risk in the construction industry. Worker samples from three different countries were studied: Spain, Peru and Nicaragua. The main goal was to explain how construction workers perceive their occupational hazard and to analyze how this is related to their national culture. The model used to measure perceived risk was the psychometric paradigm. The results show three very similar profiles, indicating that risk perception is independent of nationality. A cultural analysis was conducted using the Hofstede model. The results of this analysis and the relation to perceived risk showed that risk perception in construction is independent of national culture. Finally, a multiple lineal regression analysis was conducted to determine what qualitative attributes could predict the global quantitative size of risk perception. All of the findings have important implications regarding the management of safety in the workplace.

  3. Cross-Cultural Analysis of Medicinal Plants commonly used in Ethnoveterinary Practices at South Waziristan Agency and Bajaur Agency, Federally Administrated Tribal Areas (FATA), Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Muhammad Abdul; Adnan, Muhammad; Khan, Amir Hasan; Sufyan, Muhammad; Khan, Shahid Niaz

    2018-01-10

    In remote areas, medicinal plants have an imperative role in curing various livestock's ailments. In Pakistan, people residing in remote areas including South Waziristan Agency and Bajaur Agency depend on traditional herbal remedies for treating their domestic animals. Medicinal plants are an important part of the medical system in these Agencies. The prime goal of the current study is to explore the ethnoveterinary practices in the two regions and discuss cross-cultural consensus on the use of medicinal plants. In this study, we have given detailed description on the ethnoveterinary usage of certain medicinal plants and their recipes. Moreover, we have also elaborated the ethnoveterinary potential of certain plants in relation to their ethnomedicinal, pharmacological and phytochemicals reports. Fieldwork comprised of two fields surveys conducted at South Waziristan Agency and Bajaur Agency. A total of 75 informants from South Waziristan Agency and 80 informants from Bajaur Agency were interviewed with the help of semi-structured questionnaires. Use reports (URs) were recorded for all the documented taxa. Data were quantitatively analyzed by using informant consensus factor (F ic ) index in order to find out information homogeneity provided by the informants. To analyze the cross-cultural consensus, the recorded data were tabulated as well as shown by Venn diagram. Overall, 94 medicinal plant taxa were recorded in the comparative analysis. Out of these, most of the plants species (72 species) were used at Bajaur Agency than South Waziristan Agency (37 species). Cross-cultural analysis showed that only 15 medicinal plants were used in common by the indigenous communities in both Agencies, which indicates a low interregional consensus with regard to the ethnoveterinary practices of medicinal plants. Apiaceae was the dominant family in both regions by representing maximum number of plant species (11 species). Gastro intestinal complexities were common in both regions

  4. Cross Cultural Logistics and Supply Chain Management Towards Organizational Effectiveness within the Asean/Thai Automotive Industries: A Sem Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dansomboon Suwaj

    2016-09-01

    . Communication (0.836, trust (0.834 and collaboration (0.824 were ranked as significant components of cross-cultural Supply Chain Management effectiveness. The research also confirmed that the hypothesized difficulty from cultural diversity is difficult to manage and to coordinate. Analysis also confirmed the ongoing and significant problems to the global automotive supply chain by natural disasters and the consequential economic losses.

  5. What happens if we compare chopsticks with forks? The impact of making inappropriate comparisons in cross-cultural research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fang Fang

    2008-11-01

    It is a common practice to export instruments developed in one culture to another. Little is known about the consequences of making inappropriate comparisons in cross-cultural research. Several studies were conducted to fill in this gap. Study 1 examined the impact of lacking factor loading invariance on regression slope comparisons. When factor loadings of a predictor are higher in the reference group (e.g., United States), for which the scale was developed, than in the focal group (e.g., China), into which the scale was imported, the predictive relationship (e.g., self-esteem predicting life satisfaction) is artificially stronger in the reference group but weaker in the focal group, creating a bogus interaction effect of predictor by group (e.g., self-esteem by culture); the opposite pattern is found when the reference group has higher loadings in an outcome variable. Studies 2 and 3 examined the impact of lacking loading and intercept (i.e., point of origin) invariance on factor means, respectively. When the reference group has higher loadings or intercepts, the mean is overestimated in that group but underestimated in the focal group, resulting in a pseudo group difference. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. A Brief Analysis on Cross-cultural Communication Strategy of Chinese Films under the Context of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Zhiyong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available With the development of globalization waves, the cross-cultural communication becomes more and more common nowadays. Chinese films, as a kind of mass media and the carrier of ideology, must meet the challenge in the world with active attitudes and take part in cross-cultural communication worldwide extensively. The context of globalization is not only a challenge but also an opportunity for Chinese films and if Chinese films want to be successful in the process of cross-cultural communication, it must find out a conjoint point between globalization and location to implement dual-coding of them. With the objective of consensus but different for the cultural demands of cross-cultural communication, the communicational strategies in culture,subject,art and operation must extensively use for reference and boldly create to renew the situation of Chinese films.

  7. Value of children and fertility: Results from a cross-cultural comparative survey in eighteen areas in Asia, Africa, Europe and America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauck, Bernhard

    2014-09-01

    For explaining cross-cultural differences in fertility behavior, this paper conjoins three complementary approaches: the 'demand'-based economic theory of fertility (ETF), a revised version of the 'supply'-based 'value-of-children' (VOC)-approach as a special theory of the general social theory of social production functions and the framing theory of variable rationality. A comprehensive model is specified that encompasses the variable efficiency of having children for the optimization of physical well-being and of social esteem of (potential) parents; it also accounts for the variable rationality of fertility decisions. The model is tested with a data set that comprises information on VOC and fertility of women within the social settings of 18 areas (Peoples Republic of China, North and South India, Indonesia, Palestine, Israel, Turkey, Ghana, South Africa, East and West Germany, the Czech Republic, France, Russia, Poland, Estonia, the United States and Jamaica). Latent class analysis is used to establish a measurement model for the costs and benefits of children and to analyze area differences by a two-level multinomial-model. Two-level Cox-regressions are used to estimate the effects of perceived costs and benefits of children, individual resources and context opportunities, with births of different parity as dependents. This simultaneous test in a cross-cultural context goes beyond the current state of fertility research and provides evidence about the cross-cultural validity of the model, the systematic effects of VOC on fertility and the changing rationality of fertility decisions during demographic transition and socio-economic change. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevalence and predictors of clinically significant depressive symptoms among Chinese and Malawian children: a cross-cultural comparative cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgambo, Maggie; Kalembo, Fatch Welcome; Wang, Honghong; He, Guoping; Chen, Sanmei

    2014-08-14

    Multicultural comparative studies have recently increased scientific knowledge base regarding the mental health of diverse populations. This cross-cultural study was cross-sectionally designed to assess differences in the prevalence and predictors of clinically significant depressive symptoms between Chinese and Malawian children. A total of 478 children (237 Chinese and 241 Malawians) were randomly recruited in the study. The participants completed a Children Depression Inventory in the dimensions of Negative Mood, Interpersonal Problems, Ineffectiveness, Anhedonia, and Negative Self- Esteem. They further provided demographic and family structure information. Data were analyzed by Student's t-test, Chi-square test, and logistic regression. The prevalence of clinically significant depressive symptoms was 16% and 12.4% for Chinese and Malawian study participants, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that fighting among siblings (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 4.1, 95% CI, 3.5-5.9), fighting among children and parents (aOR = 7.7, 95% CI, 4.6-9.8) and living with father only (aOR = 4.1, 95% CI, 3.4-6.7) were significant predictors of clinically significant depressive symptoms among Chinese study participants. On the other hand, clinically significant depressive symptoms were predicted by employment status of a mom only among Malawian study participants (aOR = 3.0, 95% CI, 2.3-5.9). We conclude that diverse cultures affect children's mental health differently and this cluster of children has a noticeable amount of depressive symptoms that in the least requires further diagnosis and preventive measures.

  9. Cross-cultural analysis of neuroelectrical cognitive and emotional variables during the appreciation of TV commercials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Vecchiato

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the cerebral activity of a group of Eastern people during the observation of a Western and an Eastern version of the same TV commercial advertising a very popular smartphone. By comparing the electroencephalographic (EEG signals in theta, alpha and heart rate (HR activity of the population investigated, we estimated and compared the levels of memorization, attention, pleasantness and emotion perceived. Results present and increase of the pleasantness and emotion while watching particular scenes of interest of the Eastern version of the commercial. These findings suggest that this kind of technology is able to track variation of the cerebral activity related to cognitive and emotional processing across TV commercials. Moreover, there is the possibility to investigate frame segments of particular interest for marketers that could be properly adapted according to the cultural context in which the advertising campaign will be promoted.

  10. Verification of the profile of mood states-brief: cross-cultural analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeun, Eun Ja; Shin-Park, Kay KongBum

    2006-09-01

    This international study investigated whether the mood states of adults can be compared between different settings and cultures using the same instrument, namely, by comparing the psychometric properties of the Profile of Mood States-Brief (POMS-B) using data gathered in the United States and Korea. The Korean research instrument was a translation of the original POMS-B, and was evaluated psychometrically for each country separately as well as for the two countries combined, based on a convenience sample of 184 adults: The POMS-B was administered to 69 native English speakers and the Korean version (K-POMS-B) was administered to 115 native Korean speakers. The mean total mood disturbance (TMD) score was 23.59 (SD = 16.7): 26.11 (SD = 15.9) for the Americans and 21.06 (SD = 17.5) for the Koreans. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was high for both versions. The content validity index was 96% in the K-POMS-B. The Korean version of the POMS-B seems to be ready for use in research. (c) 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. THE EXPRESSIONS OF EXCLAMATION: A CROSS-CULTURAL ANALYSIS IN AUSTRALIAN ENGLISH AND BAHASA INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrefiza Adrefiza

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated and compared exclamatory expressions performed by native speakers of Australian English and Bahasa Indonesia. Three different contexts and situations were selected as the prompts for the respondents to express their exclamations: (a surprise; (b enthusiasm; and (c annoyance. Based on data from 36 respondents of both languages, the findings revealed that both Australian English and Bahasa Indonesia were likely to utilize different types of exclamatory words, phrases or expressions of surprise, enthusiastic and annoyance. Te expressions seemed to be systematic in their constructions and the selection of words or phrases remained personal and indicated the speakers‟ feeling, attitude, and emotion. In expressing surprise and enthusiasm, in particular, the selection of words or phrases by both language communities tended to use positive and socially acceptable exclamatory expressions. However, when they turned to express annoyance, most of the words, phrases, or expressions used were often taboo and socially unacceptable.

  12. A cross-cultural analysis of household energy use behaviour in Japan and Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhite, H.; Nakagami, Hidetoshi; Masuda, Takashi; Yamaga, Yukiko [Jyukankyo Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan); Haneda, Hiroshi [Kyushu Electric Power Co., Inc., Fukuoka (Japan)

    1996-09-01

    In this paper we compare and contrast the results of ethnographic investigations of energy use behaviour in Fukuoka, Japan and Oslo, Norway. These studies show significant differences in end use patterns for space heating, lighting and hot water use. We discuss how these patterns are related to cultural and economic factors. Our findings show that while energy intensive space heating and lighting habits have become an integral part of the presentation of the Norwegian home, Japanese space heat and light habits are more disciplined and less culturally significant. In Japan, the bathing routine is extremely important to the Japanese lifestyle and at the same time very energy intensive. Other energy intensive patterns are identified which do not have the same cultural significance, such as lax temperature setback in Norway and dish washing practices in Japan. The policy implications of these findings are discussed. (author)

  13. Cross-cultural differences in physical aggression between partners: a social-role analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, John

    2006-01-01

    In developed western nations, both sexes commit acts of physical aggression against their partners. Data from 16 nations showed that this pattern did not generalize to all nations. The magnitude and direction of the sex difference was highly correlated with national-level variations in gender empowerment and individualism-collectivism. As gender equality and individualism increased, the sex difference in partner violence moved in the direction of lesser female victimization and greater male victimization. A second analysis of 52 nations showed that 3 indexes of women's victimization were also inversely correlated with gender equality and individualism. Sexist attitudes and relative approval of wife beating were also associated with women's victimization rates, but general levels of violent crime were not. The findings are discussed in terms of a social role approach to variations in sex differences between cultures.

  14. Who is reducing their material consumption and why? A cross-cultural analysis of dematerialization behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmarsh, Lorraine; Capstick, Stuart; Nash, Nicholas

    2017-06-13

    The environmental and economic imperatives to dematerialize economies, or 'do more with less', have been established for some years. Yet, to date, little is known about the personal drivers associated with dematerializing. This paper explores the prevalence and profile of those who are taking action to reduce consumption in different cultural contexts (UK and Brazil) and considers influences on dematerialization behaviours. We find that exemplar behaviours (avoiding buying new things and avoiding packaging) are far less common than archetypal environmental behaviours (e.g. recycling), but also that cultural context is important (Brazilians are more likely to reduce their material consumption than people in the UK). We also find that the two dematerialization behaviours are associated with different pro-environmental actions (more radical action versus green consumption, respectively); and have distinct, but overlapping, psychological (e.g. identity) and socio-demographic (e.g. education) predictors. Comparing a more traditional value-identity model of pro-environmental behaviour with a motivation-based (self-determination) model, we find that the latter explains somewhat more variance than the former. However, overall, little variance is explained, suggesting that additional factors at the personal and structural levels are important for determining these consumption behaviours. We conclude by outlining policy implications and avenues for further research.This article is part of the themed issue 'Material demand reduction'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  15. A Cross-Cultural Web Usability Analysis of Asian Countries’ Official Tourism Websites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaslin Md. Dahlan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Demands for tourism websites from worldwide providers is now surging. It is a quality measurement of advertising, information providing and persuasive marketing all in one. The evaluation of website’s usability illuminates the specific strengths and weaknesses of each websites studied. A selection of 39 Asian countries was studied. A criterion for selection was for the country to have an official tourism website hosted and managed by a government agency. This non-commercial study is to ensure the reliability of information. A walkthrough content analysis method was used for the evaluation. The month-long evaluation experiments the seven elements of webs’ features and functions with 44 attributes. Results were varied with highest and lowest scores were tabulated and discussed. Tourism websites that scored the highest overall and categorical sections obviously placed tourism as their main industry of the economy. The study is limited by the availability of the websites during the evaluation period. No re-evaluation on another date was done, as to avoid biasness.

  16. Innovation in Sustainable Products: Cross-Cultural Analysis Of Bi-National Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber José Cunha Dutra

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Innovation has been required as a vital asset for organizational survival in many areas, especially in the sustainability organizational field of concerns. Changes in Brazilian consumers’ consumption are perceived from the growing demand for environmentally-friendly products and services which are pressuring companies to achieve environmental efficiency. Tools like Cleaner Production, Sustainable Supply-Chain Management, and Ecodesign are essential to help firms achieve this goal. However, these tools require integration between different functions in a company, demanding that members with different expertise work together as a team. Based on a long tradition of collaboration, Germany is a potential partner for Brazil, combining expertise in the development of innovations aimed at more sustainable products. In today’s global environment, transnational teams should become the most effective teams in an organization but, because of the potential for miscommunication and conflict, the management of these teams needs special attention. Cultural differences between German and Brazilian members of work teams represent risks/advantages for the management of process of innovative products development. The paper draws on previously reviewed studies to ground an analysis of cultural dimensions and national characters, within Brazilian-German teams. In essence, this study is an essay with the main aim to open perspectives for further research and to support organizations in their sustainable management practices.

  17. Relationship between Future Time Orientation and Item Nonresponse on Subjective Probability Questions: A Cross-Cultural Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunghee; Liu, Mingnan; Hu, Mengyao

    2017-06-01

    Time orientation is an unconscious yet fundamental cognitive process that provides a framework for organizing personal experiences in temporal categories of past, present and future, reflecting the relative emphasis given to these categories. Culture lies central to individuals' time orientation, leading to cultural variations in time orientation. For example, people from future-oriented cultures tend to emphasize the future and store information relevant for the future more than those from present- or past-oriented cultures. For survey questions that ask respondents to report expected probabilities of future events, this may translate into culture-specific question difficulties, manifested through systematically varying "I don't know" item nonresponse rates. This study drew on the time orientation theory and examined culture-specific nonresponse patterns on subjective probability questions using methodologically comparable population-based surveys from multiple countries. The results supported our hypothesis. Item nonresponse rates on these questions varied significantly in the way that future-orientation at the group as well as individual level was associated with lower nonresponse rates. This pattern did not apply to non-probability questions. Our study also suggested potential nonresponse bias. Examining culture-specific constructs, such as time orientation, as a framework for measurement mechanisms may contribute to improving cross-cultural research.

  18. Cross-cultural adaptation process of the "Conversation Analysis Profile for People with Aphasia" to the Portuguese language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Ferreira

    Full Text Available The Conversation Analysis Profile for People with Aphasia (CAPPA provides specific information about strengths and weaknesses of the communication between people with aphasia and their family caregiver within a conversational context.OBJECTIVE:The aim of this paper was to present the results of the first stages of cross-cultural adaptation of the CAPPA for the European Portuguese language.METHODS:This methodology study describes the translation and back-translation processes, following the recommended steps to that end. In addition, following the consent of one of the original authors, the process of content validation of the CAPPA commenced. The instrument was submitted for assessment before a panel of experts in the area, who constituted the population of this study.RESULTSAfter the translation and back-translation processes, a panel of experts was convened to adapt the Delphi technique. Some questions were excluded on the basis of ambiguity, relevance and potential repetition. Suggestions made by the expert panel were included in a revised version of the tool. 159 items obtained a 100% consensus in relevance, and 157 items were considered suitable by the expert panel, validating the content of the instrument.CONCLUSIONThe final version will now be applied to the target population in order to carry out the psychometric validation.

  19. What is lost in translation: A cross-cultural study to compare the concept of nuttiness and its perception in soymilk among Korean, Chinese, and Western groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun-Ho; Petard, Nina; Hong, Jae-Hee

    2018-03-01

    Cross-cultural communication of "nuttiness" can be problematic because the underlying conceptual elements and words used to describe its features may be largely culture-dependent. The present study was conducted to understand similarities and dissimilarities in the concept of nuttiness and its actual perception in our model food system, soymilk, among similar (Korean and Chinese) and dissimilar (Western) food cultures. In total, 110 Koreans, 103 Chinese, and 93 English-speaking, Western consumers were recruited. Subjects were asked to provide a definition of nuttiness and generate examples of nutty and non-nutty foods. They also rated the intensity of the nuttiness of 8 soymilk samples. Sensory profiles of 8 soymilk samples were obtained using 9 trained panelists. Data from the definition task were processed through textual analysis. To identify sensory drivers, consumer ratings of perceived nuttiness intensity in soymilk were projected onto a sensory space constructed from the descriptive profiles of nuttiness. We found significant association between culture and usage of specific words (χ 2 70, 0.05 =155.8, pcultures. We found that although the abstract definition of nuttiness clearly demonstrated cross-cultural differences, sensory perception of nuttiness was almost identical across all groups. This suggests that cultural background influences verbalization of one's perception, but not the actual perception itself. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cross-Cultural Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triandis, Harry C.; Brislin, Richard W.

    Cross-Cultural psychology refers to the collective efforts of researchers who work among people who live in different societies, with different languages and different forms of government. There are a number of benefits to the study of human behavior which can be accrued by carrying out research in various cultures, largely concerned with better…

  1. Cross-Cultural Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannen, Deborah

    A two-part presentation on cross-cultural communication consists of a discussion of cultural differences in interpersonal communication and an article from a Greek English-language publication concerning telephone use skills in a foreign country. Cultural differences in communication are divided into eight types and illustrated: (1) when to talk;…

  2. Cross-Cultural Leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Minelgaite Snaebjornsson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Ongoing low participation of women in global leadership calls for more research in this field. In this article, we set out to include gendered expectations toward leader behavior as part of cross-cultural leadership theory. Building on an existing body of research, we focus on propositions about the effects of gendered expectations on the leader, from the followers’ standpoint. The consideration of gendered effects from the follower standpoint is an under-researched area in leadership literature, and it is even more rarely to be found in empirical data. In every culture, there are certain expectations toward leaders of the two genders that influence their behavior. In this article, we will attempt to answer the following question: How does perceived leader behavior and gendered behavior relate to national culture and actual leader behavior? We present a conceptual model that seeks to incorporate gendered expectations into cross-cultural leadership as an answer. Moreover, we provide a conceptual guideline toward operationalization of the model. The model includes the potential of dissonance between male expectations as a dominating leadership role and female leadership. This might serve as an explanation as to why in some cases women are not seen as successful as men when they adopt a masculine leadership style. The article seeks to advance cross-cultural leadership theory by focusing on expected gendered leadership behavior. Our ideas and model could eventually contribute to the advancement of leadership theory, as well as contributing to gender studies, cross-cultural leadership, and business communication.

  3. Cross cultural usability testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil; Goyal, Shivam

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present the results of a pilot study in Denmark of cross cultural effects on Think Aloud usability testing. We provide an overview of previous research on cross cultural usability evaluation with a special focus on the relationship between the evaluator and the test user....... This relation was studied in an experiment with usability testing of a localized clipart application in which eight participants from Denmark and India formed pairs of evaluator-test user. The test users were asked to think aloud and the evaluators' role were to facilitate the test users thinking aloud...... and hereby identify usability problems with the clipart application. Data on the evaluators' and test users' behaviour were recorded and analyzed by coding and summarizing statistics on these behavioural events. The results show that Think Aloud Usability Test of a localized application is most effectively...

  4. Cross-cultural advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Пурчельянова, Н. Ю.

    2011-01-01

    The essence of successful advertising is to convince people that a product is meant for them. By purchasing it, they will receive some benefit (lifestyle, status, convenience, etc.). However, when an advertising campaign is taken abroad different values as to what enhances status or gives convenience exist. These differences make the original advertising campaign defunct. It is therefore critical to any cross cultural advertising campaign that an understanding of a particular culture is acqui...

  5. The Propositional vs. Hermeneutic Models of Cross-Cultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    What the authors attempts to address in this paper is a Kantian question: not whether, but how is cross-cultural understanding possible? And specifically, what is a more effective approach for cross-cultural understanding? The answer lies in an analysis of two different models of cross-cultural understanding, that is, ...

  6. International Business Students’ Cross-Cultural Competence Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie S. Mikhaylov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the role of educational programs in promoting students’ cross-cultural competence (CCC development in international business education. Using constructivist grounded theory methodology (GTM, a comparative analysis of four extensive case studies was conducted within four schools, all of which offer international management education in English for local and international students. This study examines institutional contributions to an environment that supports students’ CCC development. A typology model consisting of four educational approaches to students’ CCC development is presented based on student experiences. The study provides recommendations regarding the steps that higher educational institutions (HEIs can take to promote educational environments that support cross-cultural exchange, cultural knowledge creation, and individual and organizational cross-cultural competence development.

  7. Culture, parenting, and child behavioral problems: a comparative study of cross-cultural immigrant families and native-born families in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hao-Jan; Kuo, Yi-Jin; Wang, Lee; Yang, Chien-Ying

    2014-08-01

    Little is known about the interplay of cultural, parenting, and sociodemographic/socioeconomic factors on children's behavioral problems, especially within culturally mixed families in Chinese society. This study compares the presence of behavioral problems between children from families with an immigrant mother and those from native-born families in a randomly selected sample of 957 children aged 6 to 12 years from three counties in central Taiwan. Behavioral problems were assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist completed by parents and the Teacher's Report Form. Parenting styles were assessed using the Parental Bonding Instrument completed by children. Children of immigrant mothers had higher scores for all behavioral syndromes based on the parent's report. However, in the teacher's report a difference was only observed for withdrawn/depressed syndrome. Children of immigrant mothers were more likely, and children with high paternal care were less likely, to have internalizing and total problems in the parent's report. For the teacher's report, only high education in fathers was associated with decreased internalizing and total problems in children. These findings suggest that children growing up in a cross-cultural environment with an immigrant mother, as opposed to a native-born Taiwanese family environment, are more likely to have higher internalizing problems and total behavioral problem scores, due to a number of cultural, parenting, and sociodemographic factors. Children's behaviors appear to be more influenced by fathers' than mothers' parenting styles, regardless of family type. The study findings imply that unequal health and social conditions exist between cross-cultural and native-born families. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  8. The Portrayal of Older People in Television Advertisements: A Cross-Cultural Content Analysis of the United States and South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byoungkwan; Kim, Bong-Chul; Han, Sangpil

    2006-01-01

    A cross-cultural content analysis of 2,295 prime-time television ads--859 ads from the United States and 1,436 ads from South Korea--was conducted to examine the differences in the portrayal of older people between U.S. and Korean ads. In two countries, the underrepresentation of older people in ads was found in terms of proportions of the actual…

  9. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilian- Portuguese and reliability analysis of the instrument Rapid Entire Body Assessment-REBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa M. Lamarão

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Observational instruments, such as the Rapid Entire Body Assessment, quickly assess biomechanical risks present in the workplace. However, in order to use these instruments, it is necessary to conduct the translational/cross-cultural adaptation of the instrument and test its measurement properties. Objectives: To perform the translation and the cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilian-Portuguese and test the reliability of the REBA instrument. Method: The procedures of translation and cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilian-Portuguese were conducted following proposed guidelines that involved translation, synthesis of translations, back translation, committee review and testing of the pre-final version. In addition, reliability and the intra- and inter-rater percent agreement were obtained with the Linear Weighted Kappa Coefficient that was associated with the 95% Confidence Interval and the cross tabulation 2×2. Results : The procedures for translation and adaptation were adequate and the necessary adjustments were conducted on the instrument. The intra- and inter-rater reliability showed values of 0.104 to 0.504, respectively, ranging from very poor to moderate. The percentage agreement values ranged from 5.66% to 69.81%. The percentage agreement was closer to 100% at the item 'upper arm' (69.81% for the Intra-rater 1 and at the items 'legs' and 'upper arm' for the Intra-rater 2 (62.26%. Conclusions: The processes of translation and cross-cultural adaptation were conducted on the REBA instrument and the Brazilian version of the instrument was obtained. However, despite the reliability of the tests used to correct the translated and adapted version, the reliability values are unacceptable according to the guidelines standard, indicating that the reliability must be re-evaluated. Therefore, caution in the interpretation of the biomechanical risks measured by this instrument should be taken.

  10. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilian- Portuguese and reliability analysis of the instrument Rapid Entire Body Assessment-REBA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarão, Andressa M.; Costa, Lucíola C. M.; Comper, Maria L. C.; Padula, Rosimeire S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Observational instruments, such as the Rapid Entire Body Assessment, quickly assess biomechanical risks present in the workplace. However, in order to use these instruments, it is necessary to conduct the translational/cross-cultural adaptation of the instrument and test its measurement properties. Objectives: To perform the translation and the cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilian-Portuguese and test the reliability of the REBA instrument. Method: The procedures of translation and cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilian-Portuguese were conducted following proposed guidelines that involved translation, synthesis of translations, back translation, committee review and testing of the pre-final version. In addition, reliability and the intra- and inter-rater percent agreement were obtained with the Linear Weighted Kappa Coefficient that was associated with the 95% Confidence Interval and the cross tabulation 2×2. Results : The procedures for translation and adaptation were adequate and the necessary adjustments were conducted on the instrument. The intra- and inter-rater reliability showed values of 0.104 to 0.504, respectively, ranging from very poor to moderate. The percentage agreement values ranged from 5.66% to 69.81%. The percentage agreement was closer to 100% at the item 'upper arm' (69.81%) for the Intra-rater 1 and at the items 'legs' and 'upper arm' for the Intra-rater 2 (62.26%). Conclusions: The processes of translation and cross-cultural adaptation were conducted on the REBA instrument and the Brazilian version of the instrument was obtained. However, despite the reliability of the tests used to correct the translated and adapted version, the reliability values are unacceptable according to the guidelines standard, indicating that the reliability must be re-evaluated. Therefore, caution in the interpretation of the biomechanical risks measured by this instrument should be taken. PMID:25003273

  11. Food-related lifestyles in a cross-cultural context: Comparing Australia with Singapore, Britain, France and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reid, Mike; Li, Elton; Bruwer, Johan

    2001-01-01

    , to compare lifestyles across a number of different cultural contexts including Australia, Singapore, Britain, France and Denmark. The research represents the first stage in an on-going process of mapping movements in Australian consumer food-related lifestyles and linking these to global trends and changes....

  12. A Cross-Cultural Comparative Study of Apology Strategies Employed by Iranian EFL Learners and English Native Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi, Elham

    2016-01-01

    The development of speech-act theory has provided the hearers with a better understanding of what speakers intend to perform in the act of communication. One type of speech act is apologizing. When an action or utterance has resulted in an offense, the offender needs to apologize. In the present study, an attempt was made to compare the apology…

  13. Cross-cultural Leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Simona Hudea

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is meant to outline the positive effects that diversity may have on any organisation, subject to the condition that the said diversity be appropriately managed. As the leader is a person who, by power of example, makes other people adopting a similar attitude, the actions of the same oriented towards the fructification of the advantages of a cross-cultural environment, which are depicted in this study, are not only directly, but also indirectly, by synergy, impacting, in a positive way, on the organisation.Innovation, performance, competitive advantage and reputation are just some of the outcomes of finding unity in diversity.

  14. Food-related lifestyles in a cross-cultural context: Comparing Australia with Singapore, Britain, France and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reid, Mike; Li, Elton; Bruwer, Johan

    2001-01-01

    is inextricably linked to values and the processes by which people seek to achieve their values through various modes of expression, including food. This research therefore employs the Food-Related Lifestyles (FRL) instrument developed by Grunert et al. (1993), which is rooted in the personal values concept......, to compare lifestyles across a number of different cultural contexts including Australia, Singapore, Britain, France and Denmark. The research represents the first stage in an on-going process of mapping movements in Australian consumer food-related lifestyles and linking these to global trends and changes....

  15. Spiritual bonds to the dead in cross-cultural and historical perspective: comparative religion and modern grief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klass, D; Goss, R

    1999-09-01

    Contemporary spirituality within continuing bonds with the dead is placed into the comparative context of Western Christianity and Japanese Buddhism. Throughout history, humans have maintained interaction with two kinds of dead: ancestors and sacred dead, the first characterized by symmetrical relationships and the second by asymmetrical. Continuing bonds are deeply connected with, and are often in conflict with, bonds to the nation and (in the West) to God. In this framework, the authors find that continuing bonds in the present function within the private sphere and have very limited functions within the larger society, resemble traditional bonds with the sacred dead, and, at this time, offer a mild critique of the values and lifestyles on which consumer capitalism is based.

  16. Laypersons' expectation of the sequelae of whiplash injury: a cross-cultural comparative study between Canada and Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Robert; Constantoyannis, Constantine; Papadakis, Nikolas

    2003-03-01

    The objective of the present study is to compare the frequency and nature of expected 'whiplash' symptoms in Greece [a country where the chronic whiplash syndrome is rare or unknown] with that in Canada. A symptom checklist was administered to 2 subject groups selected from local companies in Patras Greece, and Edmonton, Canada, respectively. Subjects were asked to imagine having suffered a neck sprain [whiplash injury] with no loss of consciousness in a motor vehicle collision, and to check which, of a variety of symptoms, they would expect might arise from the injury. For symptoms they anticipated, they were asked to select the period of time they expected those symptoms to persist. In both the Greek and Edmontonian groups, the pattern of symptoms anticipated closely resembled the acute symptoms commonly reported by accident victims with acute neck sprain, but while up to 50% of Edmontonians also anticipated symptoms to last months or years, very few Greek subjects selected any symptoms as likely to persist. In Greece, despite the documented occurrence of neck sprain symptoms in individuals following motor vehicle collisions, there is a very low rate of expectation of any sequelae from this injury. What current or previous aspects of society that underlie this remain uncertain. This lack of expectation of chronicity in Greece may, in part, determine the low prevalence of the chronic whiplash syndrome there. Further studies of symptom expectation as an etiologic factor in the chronic whiplash syndrome are needed.

  17. Laypersons' expectation of the sequelae of whiplash injury. A cross-cultural comparative study between Canada and Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Robert; Obelieniene, Diana; Russell, Anthony; Darlington, Paul; Gervais, Roger; Green, Paul

    2002-11-01

    The objective of the present study is to compare the frequency and nature of expected 'whiplash' symptoms in Lithuania (a country where the late whiplash syndrome is rare or unknown) with that in Canada. A symptom checklist was administered to 2 subject groups selected from local companies in Kaunas, Lithuania, and Edmonton, Canada, respectively. Subjects were asked to imagine having suffered a neck sprain (whiplash injury) with no loss of consciousness in a motor vehicle accident, and to check which, of a variety of symptoms, they would expect might arise from the injury. For symptoms they anticipated, they were asked to select the period of time they expected those symptoms to persist. In both the Lithuanian and Edmontonian groups, the pattern of symptoms anticipated closely resembled the acute symptoms commonly reported by accident victims with acute neck sprain, but while up to 50% of Edmontonians also anticipated symptoms to last months or years, very few Lithuanian subjects selected any symptoms as likely to persist. In Lithuania, despite the documented occurrence of neck sprain symptoms in some 50% of individuals following motor vehicle accidents, there is a very low rate of expectation of any sequelae from this injury. What current or previous aspects of society that underlie this remain uncertain. This lack of expectation of chronicity in Lithuania may, in part, determine the low prevalence of the late whiplash syndrome there. Further studies of symptom expectation as an etiologic factor in the late whiplash syndrome are needed.

  18. A comparative cross-cultural study of the prevalence of late life depression in low and middle income countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, M.; Prina, A.M.; Ferri, C.P.; Acosta, D.; Gallardo, S.; Huang, Y.; Jacob, K.S.; Jimenez-Velazquez, I.Z.; Llibre Rodriguez, J.J.; Liu, Z.; Salas, A.; Sosa, A.L.; Williams, J.D.; Uwakwe, R.; Prince, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Current estimates of the prevalence of depression in later life mostly arise from studies carried out in Europe, North America and Asia. In this study we aimed to measure the prevalence of depression using a standardised method in a number of low and middle income countries (LMIC). Methods A one-phase cross-sectional survey involving over 17,000 participants aged 65 years and over living in urban and rural catchment areas in 13 sites from 9 countries (Cuba, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, Mexico, Venezuela, Peru, China, India and Nigeria). Depression was assessed and compared using ICD-10 and EURO-D criteria. Results Depression prevalence varied across sites according to diagnostic criteria. The lowest prevalence was observed for ICD-10 depressive episode (0.3 to 13.8%). When using the EURO-D depression scale, the prevalence was higher and ranged from 1.0% to 38.6%. The crude prevalence was particularly high in the Dominican Republic and in rural India. ICD-10 depression was also associated with increased age and being female. Limitations Generalisability of findings outside of catchment areas is difficult to assess. Conclusions Late life depression is burdensome, and common in LMIC. However its prevalence varies from culture to culture; its diagnosis poses a significant challenge and requires proper recognition of its expression. PMID:26544620

  19. A comparative cross-cultural study of the prevalence of late life depression in low and middle income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, M; Prina, A M; Ferri, C P; Acosta, D; Gallardo, S; Huang, Y; Jacob, K S; Jimenez-Velazquez, I Z; Llibre Rodriguez, J J; Liu, Z; Salas, A; Sosa, A L; Williams, J D; Uwakwe, R; Prince, M

    2016-01-15

    Current estimates of the prevalence of depression in later life mostly arise from studies carried out in Europe, North America and Asia. In this study we aimed to measure the prevalence of depression using a standardised method in a number of low and middle income countries (LMIC). A one-phase cross-sectional survey involving over 17,000 participants aged 65 years and over living in urban and rural catchment areas in 13 sites from 9 countries (Cuba, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, Mexico, Venezuela, Peru, China, India and Nigeria). Depression was assessed and compared using ICD-10 and EURO-D criteria. Depression prevalence varied across sites according to diagnostic criteria. The lowest prevalence was observed for ICD-10 depressive episode (0.3 to 13.8%). When using the EURO-D depression scale, the prevalence was higher and ranged from 1.0% to 38.6%. The crude prevalence was particularly high in the Dominican Republic and in rural India. ICD-10 depression was also associated with increased age and being female. Generalisability of findings outside of catchment areas is difficult to assess. Late life depression is burdensome, and common in LMIC. However its prevalence varies from culture to culture; its diagnosis poses a significant challenge and requires proper recognition of its expression. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. An examination of the cross-cultural validity of the Identity Capital Model: American and Japanese students compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, James E; Mizokami, Shinichi; Roberts, Sharon E; Nakama, Reiko

    2016-01-01

    The Identity Capital Model proposes that forms of personal agency are associated with identity development as part of the transition to adulthood. This model was examined in two cultural contexts, taking into account age and gender, among college and university students aged 18 to 24 (N = 995). Confirmatory Factor Analyses verified cultural, age, and gender invariance of the two key operationalizations of the model. A Structural Equation Model path analysis confirmed that the model applies in both cultures with minor variations-types of personal agency are associated with the formation of adult- and societal-identities as part of the resolution of the identity stage. It was concluded that forms of personal agency providing the most effective ways of dealing with "individualization" (e.g., internal locus of control) are more important in the transition to adulthood among American students, whereas types of personal agency most effective in dealing with "individualistic collectivism" (e.g., ego strength) are more important among Japanese students. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cross-cultural perspectives on decision making regarding noninvasive prenatal testing: A comparative study of Lebanon and Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidar, Hazar; Vanstone, Meredith; Laberge, Anne-Marie; Bibeau, Gilles; Ghulmiyyah, Labib; Ravitsky, Vardit

    2018-01-01

    Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT), based on the detection of cell-free fetal DNA in maternal blood, has transformed the landscape of prenatal care by offering clinical benefits (noninvasive, high specificity and sensitivity, early detection of abnormalities) compared to existing prenatal screening tests. NIPT has expanded rapidly and is currently commercially available in most of the world. As NIPT spreads globally, culturally sensitive and ethically sound implementation will require policies that take into consideration the social and cultural context of prenatal testing decisions. In a Western context, the main ethical argument for providing access and public funding of prenatal tests is the promotion of reproductive autonomy (also referred to as "procreative liberty" and "reproductive freedom"), by enabling pregnant women and couples to access information about the fetus in order to choose a certain course of action for pregnancy management (continuation of pregnancy and preparation for birth or termination). So how is the framework of reproductive autonomy operationalized in non-Western cultural contexts? We used Quebec, Canada, and Beirut, Lebanon, for case studies to explore what ethical considerations related to reproductive autonomy should guide the implementation of the test in various cultural contexts. To answer this question, we conducted a qualitative study to (1) explore the perceptions, values, and preferences of pregnant women and their partners about NIPT and (2) examine how these values and perceptions influence reproductive autonomy and decision making in relation to NIPT in these two different cultural settings, Lebanon and Quebec. Our findings may guide health care professionals in providing counseling and in helping women and their partners make better informed prenatal testing decisions. Further, at a policy level, such understanding might inform the development of local guidelines and policies that are appropriate to each context.

  2. A Cross-Cultural Comparative Study of Apology Strategies Employed by Iranian EFL Learners and English Native Speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Abedi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of speech-act theory has provided the hearers with a better understanding of what speakers intend to perform in the act of communication. One type of speech act is apologizing. When an action or utterance has resulted in an offense, the offender needs to apologize. In the present study, an attempt was made to compare the apology strategies employed by Iranian EFL learners and those of English native speakers in order to find out the possible differences and similarities. To this end, a discourse completion test (DCT was given to 100 male and female Iranian EFL learners and English native speakers. The respondents were supposed to complete the DCTs based on nine situations, which varied in terms of power between the interlocutors and level of imposition. This study employed Cohen and Olshtain's (1981 model to classify various types of apology strategies. The obtained results revealed some similarities along with some (statistically insignificant differences between EFL learners and American English speakers in terms of their use of apology strategies. Furthermore, it was found that the illocutionary force indicating devices (IFIDs, such as request for forgiveness and an offer of apology were the strategies mostly employed by the Iranian EFL learners while taking on responsibility such as explicit self-blame, and expression of self-deficiency were found to be the strategies mostly used by English native speakers. In terms of gender, the male and female respondents more or less used the same apology strategies in response to the situations. The findings of the present research can be used by language teachers as well as sociolinguists. Keywords: Speech act theory, Speech act of apology, Apology strategies, Iranian EFL learners, English Native speakers, Gender

  3. Laugh yourself into a healthier person: a cross cultural analysis of the effects of varying levels of laughter on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Hunaid; Hasan, Tasneem Fatema

    2009-07-28

    This cross-cultural study explored along with various personality factors the relationship between laughter and disease prevalence. Previous studies have only determined the effect of laughter on various health dimensions, whereas, this study quantified the level of laughter that was beneficial or detrimental to health. There were a total of 730 participants between the ages of eighteen and thirty-nine years. 366 participants were from Aurangabad, India (AUR), and 364 participants were from Mississauga, Canada (MISS). The participants were provided a survey assessing demographics, laughter, lifestyle, subjective well-being, life satisfaction, emotional well-being and health dimensions. In AUR, a beneficial effect of laughter was mediated through moderate levels (level two) of laughter, whereas both low (level one) and high (level three) levels had no effect. Similarly, in MISS, the beneficial effect was mediated through level two, but a negative effect was also seen at level three. This could be attributable to a higher prevalence of bronchial asthma in western countries. Laughter was associated with emotional well-being in MISS and life satisfaction in AUR, providing cross cultural models to describe the interactions between laughter and disease. This study validated the correlation between emotional well-being and life satisfaction, with a stronger correlation seen in MISS, suggesting that individualists rely more on their emotional well-being to judge their life satisfaction. In conclusion, there is a benefit to clinicians to incorporate laughter history into their general medical history taking. Future research should consider developing mechanisms to explain the effects of level two, determine specific systemic effects and obtain more samples to generalize the cross cultural differences.

  4. The psychosocial effects of cleft lip and palate in non-Anglo populations: a cross-cultural meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Kathleen; Wellman, Maria A; Noe, Douglas A; Kahn, Alice

    2011-09-01

    A meta-analytic study was conducted to examine the cross-cultural psychosocial impact of cleft lip and/or palate in non-Anglo populations. A total of 333 citations were initially identified for review using electronic and hand-search strategies. Of the six studies that met inclusion criteria, two were later excluded due to insufficient data. The four remaining studies represented a combined sample size of 2276 adolescents and adults with cleft lip and/or palate from China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Norway. Effect size using Cohen's d and confidence intervals were estimated using data from four studies of empirical, controlled study designs. The magnitude of effect sizes indicated that men (d = -0.75) with cleft lip and/or palate in non-Anglo cultures are more prone to psychosocial issues than women (d = -0.33). Adults (d = -0.50) are more impacted than adolescents (d = -0.04). Overall, regardless of age, gender, or culture, individuals with cleft lip and/or palate have lower psychosocial development than individuals without cleft lip and/or palate (d = -0.42). The effects for the cross-cultural comparisons were moderated by the age group and gender of the participants; however, most studies resulted in negative effect sizes. Health care teams for cleft lip and/or palate should recognize the importance of psychological intervention and family support in the treatment of all patients with cleft lip and/or palate throughout the life span.

  5. A Cross-Cultural Comparative Study of Undergraduate Health Care Professional Students’ Knowledge, Definitions, Education, and Training Experience of Domestic Violence in Northern Ireland and Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahla Mansour Al-Ali

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the cross-cultural differences in the knowledge, definitions, and current training and educational experiences of domestic violence (DV among third-year undergraduate nursing, dental, and medical students from two distinct universities in Northern Ireland and Jordan. A convenience sample of 774 undergraduate students was recruited. Analysis was based on gender, culture, and educational speciality, as seen through the integrated lens of a social ecological and feminist theory model. The results showed that a substantial percentage of all participants had never received any education or training on DV in their undergraduate programs. The majority of participants had good knowledge about DV, and half of the participants believed that DV is “common” in their respective countries. Significant gender and cultural differences in the definition of DV were also revealed, with Northern Irish students and female students in both cultures more likely to regard a range of behaviors as a form of DV. The research findings suggest several potential directions for change, emphasizing the importance of establishing a systematic evidence-based multidisciplinary and interagency approach to teaching and learning for student health care professionals on the topic of DV in their undergraduate programs.

  6. German cross-cultural psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Trommsdorff, Gisela

    1986-01-01

    The present study deals with German-language cross-cultural research in different fields of psychology which attempts to achieve one Or more goals of cross-cultural psychology. First, methodological problems are discussed, followed by a selective presentation of cross-cultural research in personality, clinical, ethological, developmental, and social psychology. The theoretical and methodological advancement of these studies is investigated with respect to four approaches - universals in cross...

  7. Cross-cultural and comparative epidemiology of insomnia: the Diagnostic and statistical manual (DSM), International classification of diseases (ICD) and International classification of sleep disorders (ICSD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ka-Fai; Yeung, Wing-Fai; Ho, Fiona Yan-Yee; Yung, Kam-Ping; Yu, Yee-Man; Kwok, Chi-Wa

    2015-04-01

    To compare the prevalence of insomnia according to symptoms, quantitative criteria, and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th and 5th Edition (DSM-IV and DSM-5), International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10), and International Classification of Sleep Disorders, 2nd Edition (ICSD-2), and to compare the prevalence of insomnia disorder between Hong Kong and the United States by adopting a similar methodology used by the America Insomnia Survey (AIS). Population-based epidemiological survey respondents (n = 2011) completed the Brief Insomnia Questionnaire (BIQ), a validated scale generating DSM-IV, DSM-5, ICD-10, and ICSD-2 insomnia disorder. The weighted prevalence of difficulty falling asleep, difficulty staying asleep, waking up too early, and non-restorative sleep that occurred ≥3 days per week was 14.0%, 28.3%, 32.1%, and 39.9%, respectively. When quantitative criteria were included, the prevalence dropped the most from 39.9% to 8.4% for non-restorative sleep, and the least from 14.0% to 12.9% for difficulty falling asleep. The weighted prevalence of DSM-IV, ICD-10, ICSD-2, and any of the three insomnia disorders was 22.1%, 4.7%, 15.1%, and 22.1%, respectively; for DSM-5 insomnia disorder, it was 10.8%. Compared with 22.1%, 3.9%, and 14.7% for DSM-IV, ICD-10, and ICSD-2 in the AIS, cross-cultural difference in the prevalence of insomnia disorder is less than what is expected. The prevalence is reduced by half from DSM-IV to DSM-5. ICD-10 insomnia disorder has the lowest prevalence, perhaps because excessive concern and preoccupation, one of its diagnostic criteria, is not always present in people with insomnia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Cross-Cultural Examination of Depression Expression and Help-Seeking Behavior: A Comparative Study of American and Korean College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Sung-Kyung; Skovholt, Thomas M.

    2001-01-01

    Examines cross-cultural differences in depression expression and help-seeking behavior among college students in the United States and Korea. Results indicate that the Korean students showed more somatization tendency, negative affect, and negative help-seeking behavior. Negative help-seeking behavior of Korean students was shown to relate to…

  9. A comparative cross-cultural study of the prevalence and nature of misconceptions in physics amongst English and Chinese undergraduate students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahams, Ian; Homer, Matt; Sharpe, Rachael; Zhou, Mengyuan

    2015-01-01

    Background:Despite the large body of literature regarding student misconceptions, there has been relatively little cross-cultural research to directly compare the prevalence of common scientific misconceptions amongst students from different cultural backgrounds. Whilst previous research does suggest the international nature of many misconceptions, there is little evidence as to whether the prevalence of such common misconceptions varies from culture to culture. Purpose:To undertake a preliminary examination of the prevalence and reasons for some previously studied scientific misconceptions amongst English and Chinese undergraduate students so as to ascertain whether there is any evidence of cultural difference. Such a finding could help to identify teaching approaches in either country that are more effective in reducing the prevalence of common student misconceptions. Sample:The study involved a convenience sample of 40 undergraduate students - 20 English and 20 Chinese drawn equally from two universities in the North of England - whose formal science education ended at ages 16 and 15 respectively. Design and methods:The study employed semi-structured interview schedule containing eight questions. Results:Whilst similar misconceptions existed amongst both English and Chinese undergraduates, their prevalence was significantly higher amongst the English students (Overall mean score for scientifically correct answers amongst Chinese students was 27.7% higher, p Differences in the prevalence of misconceptions amongst English and Chinese undergraduates appear to arise from differences in the way in which specific areas of physics are taught in both countries. It might be possible to reduce the prevalence of misconceptions in both countries if a better understanding could be developed of how, and why, undergraduates use certain erroneous analogies, and why some teaching approaches seem more effective in reducing the prevalence of misconceptions than others.

  10. Cross-cultural research: challenge and competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Mary Jo

    2012-07-01

    Increasing globalization, population diversity and health disparities among non-dominant cultures necessitate cross-cultural research. Research with other cultures is fraught with challenges that must be addressed by the competent cross-cultural researcher. Areas for consideration include choice of research foci, ethical concerns, cultural adaptation of research measurements and interventions, participant recruitment and retention, strategies for data collection and analysis, dissemination of findings and perspectives of time. Approaches to dealing with these challenges are addressed, with an emphasis on community-based participatory research. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. The portrayal of older people in television advertisements: a cross-cultural content analysis of the United States and South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Oungkwan; Kim, Bong-Chul; Han, Sangpil

    2006-01-01

    A cross-cultural content analysis of 2295 prime-time television ads--859 ads from the United States and 1436 ads from South Korea-was conducted to examine the differences in the portrayal of older people between U.S. and Korean ads. In two countries, the underrepresentation of older people in ads was found in terms of proportions of the actual population. The findings also showed that older people are more likely to play major roles in Korean television ads than in U.S. ads. In terms of the attributes of older people depicted in ads, differences between U.S. and Korean ads were also found. The results showed that Korean television ads are likely to more positively depict older people than American television ads are. These findings supported the basic assumption of cross-cultural advertising, in which the differences in cultural values between the two cultures are related to the differences in the contents of their advertisements. However, the problems of underrepresentation and stereotypes in the portrayal of older people were still identified both in Korean and U.S. prime-time television ads.

  12. Language and Cross-Culture Understanding—Through Cross-Culture Study of the Word'Dragon'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周玲

    2016-01-01

    This essay contributes to the analysis of the significance of cross-culture understanding in connection with language. It is important and necessary to promote cross-cultural understanding in order to communicate with people from various cultural backgrounds with the development of globalization. This essay also gives the example of the word'dragon'to illustrate that the cross-culture understanding of language will make us communicate with each other more effectively.

  13. CHALLENGES IN CROSS CULTURAL ADVERTISING

    OpenAIRE

    Yuni Retnowati

    2016-01-01

    At first, marketing practitioners and academics consider standardized approaches to marketing and advertising strategies in globalization, and then some studies proved that the standardization of advertising across culture is not valid. Therefore, cross cultural advertising takes local culture into account when conveying messages in advertisements. Cross cultural understanding is very important in order to produce successful localized advertising that would reflect the cultural values and nor...

  14. Expatriation and Cross Cultural Training

    OpenAIRE

    Kangas, Laura

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to find out how expatriation and cross cultural training are implemented in practice. This thesis studied the challenges expatriates face during and after their assignments. In this thesis the effectiveness of cross cultural training is studied and improvements considered. This thesis explains the reasons, challenges, assignments and roles of expatriates as well as how expatriates are trained. It also deals with different staffing approaches and the difference be...

  15. Cross-cultural Lifelong Learning

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Globalisation, internationalisation, multiculturalism, immigration, and growing number of cross-cultural encounters are colorising the everyday life both in Western and Eastern parts of the world. However, in most cases, lifelong learning is normally studied in and around a certain condensed culture or from the dominant Western perspective. Thus it is important to ask how we should rebuild our conceptions of 'culture' or 'learning' in the context of these global cross-cultural trends, or how ...

  16. Translating Answers to Open-Ended Survey Questions in Cross-Cultural Research: A Case Study on the Interplay between Translation, Coding, and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, Dorothée

    2015-01-01

    Open-ended probing questions in cross-cultural surveys help uncover equivalence problems in cross-cultural survey research. For languages that a project team does not understand, probe answers need to be translated into a common project language. This article presents a case study on translating open-ended, that is, narrative answers. It describes…

  17. Spatial, temporal, and health associations of eating alone: A cross-cultural analysis of young adults in urban Australia and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Wakako; Melby, Melissa K

    2017-11-01

    Eating alone is driven by social and cultural factors, not solely by individual preferences. In academic research, eating alone is often simply treated as an alternative to social, commensal eating, and little is known about the practice of eating alone itself. This study employs a cross-cultural analysis to explore social and cultural associations of eating alone. The analysis is based on 1) cultural domain data, derived from principal component analysis of freelist responses, a set of words or phrases related to the topic of eating alone; and 2) in-depth interviews with 72 young adults aged 20-40 in urban Australia and Japan. Many Australian and Japanese young adult participants associated eating alone with both pleasure and stress of being isolated from others. However, the comparison of principal components between Australian and Japanese groups and gender subgroups showed cross-cultural variations and complexity in the context of eating alone including: locations and timings of eating alone, and associations with healthy/unhealthy eating. Analyses of interviews are included to deepen understandings of cultural domains. These key associations are influenced by a range of social and cultural environments such as fast food cultures, work and life environments, and the scope of public health nutrition programs. The association between eating alone and healthy eating among young adults indicates that individualistic understandings of food intake in current public health nutrition programs are more favorable to eating alone and foster a gap between ideas of healthy eating and commensal eating as a cultural ideal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A cross-cultural comparative analysis of small group collaboration using mobile twitter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kyungsub Stephen Choi, Il Im; Hofstede, G.J.

    2016-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the distinctive user behaviors and patterns of participants communicating using Twitter on a mobile device in a small-group collaborative setting. Participants were from Western and Eastern cultures (the United States and Korea). Tweets were coded and

  19. CHALLENGES IN CROSS CULTURAL ADVERTISING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuni Retnowati

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available At first, marketing practitioners and academics consider standardized approaches to marketing and advertising strategies in globalization, and then some studies proved that the standardization of advertising across culture is not valid. Therefore, cross cultural advertising takes local culture into account when conveying messages in advertisements. Cross cultural understanding is very important in order to produce successful localized advertising that would reflect the cultural values and norms of intended audience. Challenge in cross cultural advertising is the problem of communicating to people of diverse cultural background. Cross cultural solutions are applied in areas such as language, communication style, images and cultural values. Cross cultural advertising is simply about using common sense and analyzing how the different elements of an advertising campaign are impacted by culture and modifying them to best speak to the target audience. Other challenges are determining between standardization and adaptation of cultural values content of advertising when facing different people from diverse cultures. In academic side, the challenge is preparing students to design advertisements that communicate effectively to diverse cultures.

  20. Cross-Cultural Validation of the Modified Practice Attitudes Scale: Initial Factor Analysis and a New Factor Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Heehoon; Ebesutani, Chad K; Chung, Kyong-Mee; Stanick, Cameo

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to create the Korean version of the Modified Practice Attitudes Scale (K-MPAS) to measure clinicians' attitudes toward evidence-based treatments (EBTs) in the Korean mental health system. Using 189 U.S. therapists and 283 members from the Korean mental health system, we examined the reliability and validity of the MPAS scores. We also conducted the first exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis on the MPAS and compared EBT attitudes across U.S. and Korean therapists. Results revealed that the inclusion of both "reversed-worded" and "non-reversed-worded" items introduced significant method effects that compromised the integrity of the one-factor MPAS model. Problems with the one-factor structure were resolved by eliminating the "non-reversed-worded" items. Reliability and validity were adequate among both Korean and U.S. therapists. Korean therapists also reported significantly more negative attitudes toward EBTs on the MPAS than U.S. therapists. The K-MPAS is the first questionnaire designed to measure Korean service providers' attitudes toward EBTs to help advance the dissemination of EBTs in Korea. The current study also demonstrated the negative impacts that can be introduced by incorporating oppositely worded items into a scale, particularly with respect to factor structure and detecting significant group differences.

  1. Cross-cultural Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorel Mihai PARASCHIV

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The success of international companies in providing high quality products and outstanding services is subject, on the one hand, to the increasing dynamic of the economic environment and on the other hand to the adoption of worldwide quality standards and procedures. As market place is becoming more and more global, products and services offered worldwide by international companies must face the multi-cultural environment challenges. These challenges manifest themselves not only at customer relationship level but also deep inside companies, at employee level. Important support in facing all these challenges has been provided at cognitive level by management system models and at technological level by information cutting edge technologies Business Intelligence & Knowledge Management Business Intelligence is already delivering its promised outcomes at internal business environment and, with the explosive deployment of public data bases, expand its analytical power at national, regional and international level. Quantitative measures of economic environment, wherever available, may be captured and integrated in companies’ routine analysis. As for qualitative data, some effort is still to be done in order to integrate measures of social, political, legal, natural and technological environment in companies’ strategic analysis. An increased difficulty is found in treating cultural differences, common knowledge making the most hidden part of any foreign environment. Managing cultural knowledge is crucial to success in cultivating and maintaining long-term business relationships in multicultural environments. Knowledge Management provides the long needed technological support for cross-cultural management in the tedious task of improving knowledge sharing in multi-national companies and using knowledge effectively in international joint ventures. The paper is approaching the conceptual frameworks of knowledge management and proposes an unified model

  2. Developing Culturally Competent Health Knowledge: Issues of Data Analysis of Cross-Cultural, Cross-Language Qualitative Research

    OpenAIRE

    Jenny Hsin-Chun Tsai; John H. Choe; Jeanette Mu Chen Lim; Elizabeth Acorda; Nadine L. Chan; Vicky Taylor; Shin-Ping Tu

    2004-01-01

    There is a growing awareness and interest in the development of culturally competent health knowledge. Drawing on experience using a qualitative approach to elicit information from Mandarin- or Cantonese-speaking participants for a colorectal cancer prevention study, the authors describe lessons learned through the analysis process. These lessons include benefits and drawbacks of the use of coders from the studied culture group, challenges posed by using translated data for analysis, and suit...

  3. Using Multi-Group Confirmatory Factor Analysis to Evaluate Cross-Cultural Research: Identifying and Understanding Non-Invariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gavin T. L.; Harris, Lois R.; O'Quin, Chrissie; Lane, Kenneth E.

    2017-01-01

    Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA) allows researchers to determine whether a research inventory elicits similar response patterns across samples. If statistical equivalence in responding is found, then scale score comparisons become possible and samples can be said to be from the same population. This paper illustrates the use of…

  4. The political dimension: added value for cross-cultural analysis : Nozawa and Smits, two CEO's and their public statements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Es, R.; Pels, T.

    2010-01-01

    Work-related cultural differences, which were familiarized by scholars such as Hall and Hofstede, offer important concepts to help us understand various forms of cooperation and communication. However, the predominant focus of cultural analysis on collectivistic harmony prevents us from gaining an

  5. A Cross-Cultural Validation of Stage Development: A Rasch Re-Analysis of Longitudinal Socio-Moral Reasoning Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boom, Jan; Wouters, Hans; Keller, Monika

    2007-01-01

    Kohlberg's characterization of moral development as displaying an invariant hierarchical order of structurally consistent stages is losing ground. However, by applying Rasch analysis, Dawson recently gave new interpretation and support to his characterization of stage development. Using Rasch models, we replicated and strengthened her findings in…

  6. Understanding apple consumers' expectations in terms of likes and dislikes. Use of comment analysis in a cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galmarini, M V; Symoneaux, R; Chollet, S; Zamora, M C

    2013-03-01

    Apple consumers' expectations in Argentina and France were studied by comment analysis of open-ended questions. In an on-line survey consumers stated: attributes which defined quality in an apple; visual, flavor and texture characteristics they liked/did not like to find in an apple. Influence of country, consumption frequency and cultivar knowledge were analyzed by contingency tables, Chi-square per cell tests and Multiple Factor Analysis. Consumers' quality expectations were not the same in both countries. Argentineans and French consumers agreed that quality apples should be juicy (most used term in both countries), tasty, firm and fresh. However, for Argentineans quality was more related to visual characteristics, whereas for French it was driven by flavor. Argentineans used more words but French were more specific, particularly for flavour description. Moreover, frequency of consumption, varieties knowledge and the number of terms given were highly related. Frequent consumers knew more varieties and were more prolific in relation to flavour. Less frequent consumers knew fewer apple varieties and gave more words in the visual category. The use of comment analysis allowed identifying the terms that consumers used in their day to day life to describe apples, finding separately likes and dislikes, in spite of the different languages. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of culture in forming e-loyalty intentions: A cross-cultural analysis between Argentina and Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Belanche Gracia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to increase their markets, many companies are starting e-commerce internationalization processes that involve dealing with cultural differences among countries. Although most firms start internationalization strategies to similar countries, previous research has mainly focused on understanding expansion to countries with a great cultural distance. This study analyzes the relevance of culture in the formation of e-loyalty intentions in Argentina and Spain, two countries with slight cultural differences. Specifically, culture is proposed as a moderator of e-service quality and satisfaction effects on e-loyalty intentions. Results confirm that the influence of e-service quality on e-loyalty intentions is greater for Argentinian consumers (a little more individualistic, masculine, and less pragmatic culture compared to Spain. Besides, a greater influence of satisfaction on e-loyalty is found for Spanish consumers (a more pragmatic, collectivistic, and feminine culture compared to Argentina. The introduction of socio-demographic control variables, i.e. gender, age and education level, support the moderation effect of culture. According to these results, marketers should note that e-loyalty formation process differs across cultures, even between similar cultures. Further implications for international marketing strategies are widely discussed.

  8. Cross-Cultural Knowledge Management

    CERN Document Server

    Giudice, Manlio Del; Peruta, Maria Rosaria Della

    2012-01-01

    Cross-cultural knowledge management, an elusive yet consequential phenomenon, is becoming an increasingly essential factor in organizational practice and policy in the era of globalization. In order to overcome culturally shaped blind spots in conducting research in different settings, this volume highlights how the structuring of roles, interests, and power among different organizational elements, such as teams, departments, and management hierarchies (each comprised of members from different intellectual and professional backgrounds), generates various paradoxes and tensions that bring into

  9. Cultural hegemony? Educators’ perspectives on facilitating cross-cultural dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Zareen; Verstegen, Daniëlle; Vyas, Rashmi; Hamed, Omayma; Dornan, Tim; Morahan, Page

    2016-01-01

    Background We live in an age when education is being internationalized. This can confront students with ‘cultural hegemony’ that can result from the unequal distribution of power and privilege in global society. The name that is given to awareness of social inequality is ‘critical consciousness’. Cross-cultural dialogue provides an opportunity for learners to develop critical consciousness to counter cultural hegemony. The purpose of this research was to understand how learners engage with cross-cultural dialogue, so we can help them do so more effectively in the future. Method The setting for this research was an online discussion in an international health professions educator fellowship program. We introduced scenarios with cultural references to study the reaction of participants to cultural conversation cues. We used an inductive thematic analysis to explore power and hegemony issues. Results Participants reflected that personally they were more likely to take part in cross-cultural discussions if they recognized the context discussed or had prior exposure to educational settings with cultural diversity. They identified barriers as lack of skills in facilitating cross-cultural discussions and fear of offending others. They suggested deliberately introducing cultural issues throughout the curriculum. Conclusion Our results indicate that developing critical consciousness and cross-cultural competency will require instructional design to identify longitudinal opportunities to bring up cross-cultural issues, and training facilitators to foster cross-cultural discussions by asking clarifying questions and navigating crucial/sensitive conversations. PMID:27890048

  10. Cultural hegemony? Educators’ perspectives on facilitating cross-cultural dialogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zareen Zaidi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: We live in an age when education is being internationalized. This can confront students with ‘cultural hegemony’ that can result from the unequal distribution of power and privilege in global society. The name that is given to awareness of social inequality is ‘critical consciousness’. Cross-cultural dialogue provides an opportunity for learners to develop critical consciousness to counter cultural hegemony. The purpose of this research was to understand how learners engage with cross-cultural dialogue, so we can help them do so more effectively in the future. Method: The setting for this research was an online discussion in an international health professions educator fellowship program. We introduced scenarios with cultural references to study the reaction of participants to cultural conversation cues. We used an inductive thematic analysis to explore power and hegemony issues. Results: Participants reflected that personally they were more likely to take part in cross-cultural discussions if they recognized the context discussed or had prior exposure to educational settings with cultural diversity. They identified barriers as lack of skills in facilitating cross-cultural discussions and fear of offending others. They suggested deliberately introducing cultural issues throughout the curriculum. Conclusion: Our results indicate that developing critical consciousness and cross-cultural competency will require instructional design to identify longitudinal opportunities to bring up cross-cultural issues, and training facilitators to foster cross-cultural discussions by asking clarifying questions and navigating crucial/sensitive conversations.

  11. Cultural hegemony? Educators' perspectives on facilitating cross-cultural dialogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Zareen; Verstegen, Daniëlle; Vyas, Rashmi; Hamed, Omayma; Dornan, Tim; Morahan, Page

    2016-01-01

    We live in an age when education is being internationalized. This can confront students with 'cultural hegemony' that can result from the unequal distribution of power and privilege in global society. The name that is given to awareness of social inequality is 'critical consciousness'. Cross-cultural dialogue provides an opportunity for learners to develop critical consciousness to counter cultural hegemony. The purpose of this research was to understand how learners engage with cross-cultural dialogue, so we can help them do so more effectively in the future. The setting for this research was an online discussion in an international health professions educator fellowship program. We introduced scenarios with cultural references to study the reaction of participants to cultural conversation cues. We used an inductive thematic analysis to explore power and hegemony issues. Participants reflected that personally they were more likely to take part in cross-cultural discussions if they recognized the context discussed or had prior exposure to educational settings with cultural diversity. They identified barriers as lack of skills in facilitating cross-cultural discussions and fear of offending others. They suggested deliberately introducing cultural issues throughout the curriculum. Our results indicate that developing critical consciousness and cross-cultural competency will require instructional design to identify longitudinal opportunities to bring up cross-cultural issues, and training facilitators to foster cross-cultural discussions by asking clarifying questions and navigating crucial/sensitive conversations.

  12. Navigation in Cross-cultural business relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman

    2001-01-01

    Cross-cultural business navigation concerns the process of handling the complexity of several interacting cultural spheres of influence......Cross-cultural business navigation concerns the process of handling the complexity of several interacting cultural spheres of influence...

  13. Discourse Issues in Cross-Cultural Pragmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxer, Diana

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on recent research in cross-cultural pragmatics as distinct from interlanguage pragmatics. The essential difference between the two lies in the perspective from which each views cross-cultural communication. (Author/VWL)

  14. Various aspects of cross-cultural communication

    OpenAIRE

    Tsibulya, N.

    2014-01-01

    The author considers the main cultural dimensions and tendencies in cross-cultural communication studies from the 1950s till the present day. Using one’s own experience in carrying out research of non-verbal and prosodic aspects of cross-cultural interaction, the author suggests a system of exercises useful in teaching and learning cross-cultural communication and aimed at formation and developing cross-cultural competence.

  15. Cross-Cultural Analysis of HPT: An Empirical Investigation of HPT Competencies in the Workplace in the United States and South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadivelu, Ramaswamy N.; Klein, James D.

    2008-01-01

    Recent research in the areas of human performance technology (HPT), organizational development, and cross-cultural training has suggested the need for developing managerial competencies that are effective in diverse cultural settings. Some competencies such as technical proficiency, knowledge of company systems, adaptability, and the ability to…

  16. Cross-Cultural Research and Qualitative Inquiry

    OpenAIRE

    Liamputtong, Pranee

    2010-01-01

    Cross-cultural research has become important in this postmodern world where many people have been made, and are still, marginalised and vulnerable by others in more powerful positions like colonial researchers. In this paper, I contend that qualitative research is particularly appropriate for cross-cultural research because it allows us to find answers which are more relevant to the research participants. Cross-cultural qualitative research must be situated within some theoretical frameworks....

  17. Teaching cross-cultural communication skills online: a multi-method evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Amy L; Mader, Emily M; Morley, Christopher P

    2015-04-01

    Cultural competency education is an important and required part of undergraduate medical education. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether an online cross-cultural communication module could increase student use of cross-cultural communication questions that assess the patient's definition of the problem, the way the problem affects their life, their concerns about the problem, and what the treatment should be (PACT). We used multi-method assessment of students assigned to family medicine clerkship blocks that were randomized to receive online cultural competency and PACT training added to their standard curriculum or to a control group receiving the standard curriculum only. Outcomes included comparison, via analysis of variance, of number of PACT questions used during an observed Standardized Patient Exercise, end-of-year OSCE scores, and qualitative analysis of student narratives. Students (n=119) who participated in the online module (n=60) demonstrated increased use of cross-cultural communication PACT questions compared to the control group (n=59) and generally had positive themes emerge from their reflective writing. The module had the biggest impact on students who later went on to match in high communication specialties. Online teaching of cross-cultural communication skills can be effective at changing medical student behavior.

  18. The Protective Function of Meaning of Life on Life Satisfaction among Chinese Students in Australia and Hong Kong: A Cross-Cultural Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jia-Yan; Wong, Daniel Fu Keung; Joubert, Lynette; Chan, Cecilia Lai Wan

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors compared the predictive effects of acculturative stressors and meaning of life on life satisfaction between Chinese students in Australia and in Hong Kong. Participants: In 2006, the researchers recruited 606 Chinese students studying abroad at the University of Melbourne in Australia and at 6 universities in Hong Kong.…

  19. What happens when we compare the lifespan distributions of life script events and autobiographical memories of life story events? A cross-cultural study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaragoza Scherman, Alejandra; Salgado, Sinué; Shao, Zhifang

    Cultural Life Script Theory (Berntsen and Rubin, 2004), provides a cultural explanation of the reminiscence bump: adults older than 40 years remember a significantly greater amount of life events happening between 15 - 30 years of age (Rubin, Rahal, & Poon, 1998), compared to other lifetime periods....... Most of these memories are rated as emotionally positive (Rubin & Berntsen, 2003). The cultural life script represents culturally shared expectations about the order and timing of life events in an typical, idealised life course. By comparing the lifespan distribution of the life scripts events...... and memories of life story events, we can determine the degree to which the cultural life script serves as a recall template for autobiographical memories, especially of positive life events from adolescence and early adulthood, also known as the reminiscence bump period....

  20. Can we really use available scales for child and adolescent psychopathology across cultures? A systematic review of cross-cultural measurement invariance data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanovic, Dejan; Jafari, Peyman; Knez, Rajna; Franic, Tomislav; Atilola, Olayinka; Davidovic, Nikolina; Bagheri, Zahra; Lakic, Aneta

    2017-02-01

    In this systematic review, we assessed available evidence for cross-cultural measurement invariance of assessment scales for child and adolescent psychopathology as an indicator of cross-cultural validity. A literature search was conducted using the Medline, PsychInfo, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases. Cross-cultural measurement invariance data was available for 26 scales. Based on the aggregation of the evidence from the studies under review, none of the evaluated scales have strong evidence for cross-cultural validity and suitability for cross-cultural comparison. A few of the studies showed a moderate level of measurement invariance for some scales (such as the Fear Survey Schedule for Children-Revised, Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children, Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale, Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale, Mood and Feelings Questionnaire, and Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale), which may make them suitable in cross-cultural comparative studies. The remainder of the scales either showed weak or outright lack of measurement invariance. This review showed only limited testing for measurement invariance across cultural groups of scales for pediatric psychopathology, with evidence of cross-cultural validity for only a few scales. This study also revealed a need to improve practices of statistical analysis reporting in testing measurement invariance. Implications for future research are discussed.

  1. What happens when we compare the lifespan distributions of life script events and autobiographical memories of life story events? A cross-cultural study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaragoza Scherman, Alejandra; Salgado, Sinué; Shao, Zhifang

    Cultural Life Script Theory (Berntsen and Rubin, 2004), provides a cultural explanation of the reminiscence bump: adults older than 40 years remember a significantly greater amount of life events happening between 15 - 30 years of age (Rubin, Rahal, & Poon, 1998), compared to other lifetime periods...... and memories of life story events, we can determine the degree to which the cultural life script serves as a recall template for autobiographical memories, especially of positive life events from adolescence and early adulthood, also known as the reminiscence bump period....

  2. Cross Cultural Conflicts in Not Without my Daughter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setyoningsih Setyoningsih

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify and analyze the cultural conflicts between the main characters in the novel Not Without my Daughter (NW. The analysis was carried out through the following process. The first procedure related to problems of classification i.e. cross cultural conflicts. The next phase of data analysis related to the colletion data of cross cultural conflicts in NW. The last phase is presentation the result of the analysis that had been conducted in this research. Having analyzed the data, the researcher concludes  that cultural conflicts occured in NW because of  stereotype, prejudice, and ethnocentrism. Cultural conflicts can be prevented if we increase our awareness of our own attitudes and learn to be sensitive to cross-cultural differences. However, if we develop intercultural sensitivity, it does not mean that we need to lose our cultural identities-but rather that we recognize cultural influences within ourselves and within others.

  3. Acculturative stressor and meaning of life as predictors of negative affect in acculturation: a cross-cultural comparative study between Chinese international students in Australia and Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jia-Yan; Wong, Daniel Fu Keung; Joubert, Lynette; Chan, Cecilia Lai Wan

    2007-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the predictive effects of acculturative stressor and meaning of life on negative affect in the process of acculturation between Chinese international students in Australia and Hong Kong. Four hundred mainland Chinese students studying at six universities in Hong Kong and 227 Chinese international students studying at the University of Melbourne in Australia completed a questionnaire that included measures of acculturative stressor, meaning of life, negative affect and demographic information. The Australian sample was found to have a higher level of acculturative stressor and negative affect than the Hong Kong sample. Acculturative stressor had a positive impact on negative affect in both samples, but the impact of different domains of acculturative stressor on negative affect varied between the two groups. Finally, meaning of life partially mediated the relationship between acculturative stressor and negative affect in the Hong Kong sample, but no such effect was found in the Australia sample. Acculturative stressor is a critical risk factor for negative affect in acculturation for Chinese international students in Australia and Hong Kong. Meaning of life acted as a protective factor that mitigated negative affect for mainland Chinese students in Hong Kong, but not for the Chinese international students in Australia. The theoretical and practical implications for resilience-based and meaning-oriented intervention for Chinese international students are discussed.

  4. The Cross-Cultural Knowledge Sharing Challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, John Stouby

    2013-01-01

    Cross-cultural offshoring in software development challenges effective knowledge sharing. While research has suggested temporarily co-locating participants to address this challenge, few studies are available on what knowledge sharing practices emerge over time when co-locating cross-cultural sof...

  5. Curriculum Integration and Cross-Cultural Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Susan B.

    While many undergraduate disciplines are revising curricula to address issues of diversity more effectively, it is commonly assumed that courses in cross-cultural psychology are less in need of revision due to their inherent multi-cultural focus. The field of cross-cultural psychology, however, is not immune to Eurocentric and androcentric biases.…

  6. Cross-Cultural Contact in Counseling Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Lazaro, Carlos M.; Cohen, B. Beth

    2001-01-01

    Reports on the importance of cross-cultural contact in the development of multicultural counseling competencies (MCCs). Results reveal that the greater the prior cross-cultural life experience, the higher were students' MCCs measured at the beginning of a multicultural counseling course. MCCs measured at the end of the course were significantly…

  7. Cross-cultural difference in OSH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starren, A.; Drupsteen, L.

    2014-01-01

    In this article we describe cross-cultural aspects in the context of safety management. When working abroad, cross-cultural differences ask for other competencies to enhance safe behaviour than at home due to cultural and language differences. In this wiki some guidance is given on aspects of

  8. Disability Policy Implementation From a Cross-Cultural Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdugo, Miguel A; Jenaro, Cristina; Calvo, Isabel; Navas, Patricia

    2017-07-01

    Implementation of disability policy is influenced by social, political, and cultural factors. Based on published work, this article discusses four guidelines considered critical for successful policy implementation from a cross-cultural perspective. These guidelines are to: (a) base policy implementation on a contextual analysis, (b) employ a value-based approach, (c) align the service delivery system both vertically and horizontally, and (d) engage in a partnership in policy implementation. Public policy should be understood from a systems perspective that includes cross-cultural issues, such as how different stakeholders are acting and the way they plan and implement policy.

  9. A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Anxiety among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloglu, Mustafa; Abbasi, Amir; Masten, William G.

    2007-01-01

    A number of studies have continued to investigate cross-cultural differences in anxiety. However, the cross-national research on anxiety is still far less advanced than other psychological constructs such as schizophrenia or depression. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to compare and contrast the levels of anxiety experienced by …

  10. ICT-Based, Cross-Cultural Communication: A Methodological Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Niels; Bruselius-Jensen, Maria; Danielsen, Dina; Nyamai, Rachael; Otiende, James; Aagaard-Hansen, Jens

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses how cross-cultural communication based on information and communication technologies (ICT) may be used in participatory health promotion as well as in education in general. The analysis draws on experiences from a health education research project with grade 6 (approx. 12 years) pupils in Nairobi (Kenya) and Copenhagen…

  11. Adolescent Behavior and Health in Cross-Cultural Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2012-01-01

    Specific behavioral problems appear during early adolescence, and they become more pronounced. Although these problems are universal in many aspects, cultural differences are also conspicuous. The author, in addition to analyzing the five studies in the Special Issue, addresses questions concerning the cross-cultural context. The analysis reveals…

  12. Introduction : Performing cross-cultural understanding in Pacific tourism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonnaer, A.A.C.; Tamisari, F.; Venbrux, H.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    This article is an introduction to the special issue entitled Indigenous Tourism, Performance, and Cross-Cultural Understanding in the Pacific. Based on various examples from the Pacific, we argue for the analysis of the tourist encounter as a single performative act of production and reception that

  13. Cross-cultural School Based Encounters as Health Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruselius-Jensen, Maria; Renwick, Kerry; Aagaard-Hansen, Jens

    2017-01-01

    : Qualitative analysis of 18 focus group discussions with 72 Danish and 36 Kenyan students. Results: Cross-cultural dialogues promoted students’ engagement and reflections on their own and peers’ health condition, access to education, food cultures, gender and family structures. Conclusion: Findings indicate...

  14. Disability Policy Implementation from a Cross-Cultural Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdugo, Miguel A.; Jenaro, Cristina; Calvo, Isabel; Navas, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    Implementation of disability policy is influenced by social, political, and cultural factors. Based on published work, this article discusses four guidelines considered critical for successful policy implementation from a cross-cultural perspective. These guidelines are to: (a) base policy implementation on a contextual analysis, (b) employ a…

  15. Career development in cross-cultural environment

    OpenAIRE

    Balčiūnaitienė, Asta; Barvydienė, Violeta; Petkevičiūtė, Nijolė

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the peculiarities of career development and cultural competence in crosscultural environment. The idea of career development in a cross-cultural environment is usually linked to personal, communication skills, social and cultural issues. Understanding of the concept of peculiarities of career development and cross-cultural communication competence is of crucial significance in a multicultural environment. The main factors of career development in cross-cult...

  16. Interpersonal Influence in Cross-Cultural Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    Berry, J. W., Poortinga, Y. H., Segall, M. H., & Dasen, P. R. (2002). Cross - cultural psychology : Research and applications (Second Edition). Cambridge...Annual Review of Psychology , 51, 93–120. Matsumoto , D. (1996). Culture and psychology . Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole. Oyserman, D., Coon, H. M...interpreters. Infantry, Spring, 22–27. Shiraev, E., & Levy, D. (2004). Cross - cultural psychology : Critical thinking and contemporary applications. Boston

  17. Cross-cultural Context and Politeness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱芬

    2012-01-01

    In social interaction,politeness is a universal phenomenon existing in all languages.However,for social,ethnographic and even historical reasons,politeness strategies in a specific cultural context may vary from one to another.And for most time it is not language itself but different politeness strategies that lead to cross-cultural communicative failure.Knowing about these differences will help to overcome pragmatic failure in cross-cultural communication.

  18. The adaptive nature of culture. A cross-cultural analysis of the returns of local environmental knowledge in three indigenous societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-García, Victoria; Guèze, Maximilien; Díaz-Reviriego, Isabel; Duda, Romain; Fernández-Llamazares, Álvaro; Gallois, Sandrine; Napitupulu, Lucentezza; Orta-Martínez, Martí; Pyhälä, Aili

    2016-12-01

    Researchers have argued that the behavioral adaptations that explain the success of our species are partially cultural, i.e., cumulative and socially transmitted. Thus, understanding the adaptive nature of culture is crucial to understand human evolution. We use a cross-cultural framework and empirical data purposely collected to test whether culturally transmitted and individually appropriated knowledge provides individual returns in terms of hunting yields and health and, by extension, to nutritional status, a proxy for individual adaptive success. Data were collected in three subsistence-oriented societies: the Tsimane' (Amazon), the Baka (Congo Basin), and the Punan (Borneo). Results suggest that variations in individual levels of local environmental knowledge relate to individual hunting returns and to self-reported health, but not to nutritional status. We argue that this paradox can be explained through the prevalence of sharing: individuals achieving higher returns to their knowledge transfer them to the rest of the population, which explains the lack of association between knowledge and nutritional status. The finding is in consonance with previous research highlighting the importance of cultural traits favoring group success, but pushes it forward by elucidating the mechanisms through which individual and group level adaptive forces interact.

  19. Cross-cultural examination of the structure of the Revised American Pain Society Patient Outcome Questionnaire (APS-POQ-R).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botti, Mari; Khaw, Damien; Jørgensen, Emmy Brandt; Rasmussen, Bodil; Hunter, Susan; Redley, Bernice

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the cross-cultural factor stability and internal consistency of the Revised American Pain Society Patient Outcome Questionnaire (APS-POQ-R), a measure of the quality of postoperative pain management used internationally. We conducted exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of APS-POQ-R data from 2 point prevalence studies comprising 268 and 311 surveys of Danish and Australian medical-surgical patients, respectively. Parallel analysis indicated 4- and 3-factor solutions for Danish and Australian patients, respectively, which accounted for 58.1% and 52.9% of variance. Internal consistency was unsatisfactory among both Danish (Cronbach α = .54) and Australian (Cronbach α = .63) cohorts. There was a high degree of between-group similarity in item-factor loadings of variables coded as "pain experience," but not "pain management." This finding reflected cross-cultural differences in ratings of treatment satisfaction. For Danish patients, satisfaction was associated with the degree of pain severity and activity interference, whereas for Australian patients, satisfaction was associated with their perceived ability to participate in treatment. To facilitate further cross-cultural comparison, we compared our findings with past research conducted in the United States and Iceland. EFA supported the construct validity of the APS-POQ-R as a measure of "pain experience" but indicated that items measuring "pain management" may vary cross-culturally. Findings highlighted the need for further validation of the APS-POQ-R internationally. This study revealed the APS-POQ-R as a valid measure of postoperative pain experience for Danish and Australian patients. Measures of patients' perception of pain management were not robust to group differences in treatment expectations and demonstrated cross-cultural instability. Results highlighted the difficulties in establishing stable cross-cultural, cross-population subscales for the APS-POQ-R. Copyright © 2015

  20. Dysthymia in a cross-cultural perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gureje, Oye

    2011-01-01

    Dysthymia is a relatively less-studied condition within the spectrum of depressive disorders. New and important information about its status has emerged in recent scientific literature. This review highlights some of the findings of that literature. Even though studies addressing the cross-cultural validity of dysthymia are being awaited, results of studies using comparable ascertainment procedures suggest that the lifetime and 12-month estimates of the condition may be higher in high-income than in low and middle-income countries. However, the disorder is associated with elevated risks of suicidal outcomes and comparable levels of disability whereever it occurs. Dysthymia commonly carries a worse prognosis than major depressive disorder and comparable or worse clinical outcome than other forms of chronic depression. Whereas there is some evidence that psychotherapy may be less effective than pharmacotherapy in the treatment of dysthymia, the best treatment approach is one that combines both forms of treatment. Dysthymia is a condition of considerable public health importance. Our current understanding suggests that it should receive more clinical and research attention. Specifically, the development of better treatment approaches, especially those that can be implemented in diverse populations, deserves research attention.

  1. The self-concept of the elderly: a cross-cultural comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzko, M W; Steverink, N; Dittmann-Kohli, F; Herrera, R R

    1998-01-01

    This study examines the self-concept of the elderly in a cross-cultural perspective. An open-ended sentence completion methodology was employed. A sample of elderly Spanish and elderly Dutch were compared to gain an idea of the cross-cultural generality of the content of the self-concept. Analysis focuses on responses to sentences which probed the respondents' motivations and future plans and goals. Differences could be interpreted as reflecting an individualistic (Dutch) vs. collectivistic (Spanish) distinction between the two cultures. Furthermore, the findings had implications for how to interpret dimensions of meaningful aging. For example, a dimension such as "purpose in life" was more generalizable across the two samples than a dimension such as "autonomy."

  2. Cross-culture Communications in Tourism under Conditions of Globalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldoshyna Mariia V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of cross-cultural specific features of interaction within social and business communication in the international tourism. The goal of the article is analysis of the cross-cultural environment of Ukraine in the context of the world globalisation for efficient interaction in the sphere of international management and marketing. The article shows a necessity of a study of influence of national cultural features upon business activity of tourist enterprises with consideration of their international and cross-cultural nature of activity. The article identifies functions of culture and presents basic classifications of the world cultures by Geert Hofstede, Fons Trompenaars and Edward Twitchell Hall Jr. It considers specific features of activity of tourist enterprises in the spheres of cross-cultural management and marketing, formulates problems of manifestation of cultural differences in these spheres. It offers main advertising strategies in the international communication policy, which help enterprises to promote their tourist products to international markets more efficiently.

  3. Information Censorship: A Comparative Analysis of Newspaper Coverage of the "Jyllands-Posten" Editorial Caricatures in Cross-Cultural Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Julie George

    2010-01-01

    The identification and examination of cultural information strategies and censorship patterns used to propagate the controversial issue of the caricatures in two separate cultural contexts was the aim of this dissertation. It explored discourse used for the coverage of this topic by one newspaper in a restrictive information context and two…

  4. Resident cross-cultural training, satisfaction, and preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frintner, Mary Pat; Mendoza, Fernando S; Dreyer, Benard P; Cull, William L; Laraque, Danielle

    2013-01-01

    To describe the diversity of pediatric residents and examine relationships of cross-cultural training experiences with training satisfaction, perceived preparedness for providing culturally effective care, and attitudes surrounding care for underserved populations. A cross-sectional survey was conducted of a national random sample of graduating pediatric residents and an additional sample of minority residents. Using weighted analysis, we used multivariate regression to test for differences in satisfaction, preparedness, and attitudes between residents with more and less cross-cultural experiences during residency, controlling for residents' characteristics and experiences before training. The survey response rate was 57%. Eleven percent were Hispanic, 61% white, 21% Asian, 9% African American, 9% other racial/ethnic groups; 34% grew up in a bi- or multilingual family. Ninety-three percent of residents were satisfied with their residency training, 81% with the instruction they received on health and health care disparities, and 54% on global health issues. Ninety-six percent of residents felt they were prepared to care for patients from diverse backgrounds, but fewer felt prepared to care for families with beliefs at odds with Western medicine (49%) and families who receive alternative or complementary care (37%). Residents with more cross-cultural experiences during residency reported being better prepared than those with less experience to care for families with limited English proficiency (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.11; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.40-3.17), new immigrants (aOR 1.91; 95% CI 1.32-2.75), and with religious beliefs that might affect clinical care (aOR 1.62; 95% CI 1.13-2.32). Pediatric residents begin their training with diverse cross-cultural backgrounds and experiences. Residency experiences in cross-cultural care contribute to feelings of preparedness to care for diverse US children. Copyright © 2013 Academic Pediatric Association. Published

  5. Cross-cultural Human-Machine-Systems: selected aspects of a cross-cultural system engineering; Interkulturelle Mensch-Maschine-Systeme: ausgewaehlte Aspekte einer interkulturellen Systemgestaltung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roese, K. [Technische Univ. Kaiserslautern (Germany). AG Nutzergerechte Produktentwicklung

    2006-07-01

    Cross-cultural Human-Machine-Systems are one key factor for success in the global market era. Nowadays the machine producer have to offer their products worldwide. With the export to other nations they have to consider on the user behaviour in these other cultures. The analysis of cross-cultural user requirements and their integration into the product development process is a real chance to cape with these challenge. This paper describe two aspects of cross-cultural user aspects. It gives an impression of the complex and sometimes unknown cultural influencing factors and their impact on Human-Machine-System-Engineering. (orig.)

  6. Cross-cultural barriers to health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidaeff, Alex C; Kerrigan, Anthony J; Monga, Manju

    2015-01-01

    Culturally sensitive health care represents a real ethical and practical need in a Western healthcare system increasingly serving a multiethnic society. This review focuses on cross-cultural barriers to health care and incongruent aspects from a cultural perspective in the provision of health care. To overcome difficulties in culturally dissimilar interactions and eventually remove cross-cultural barriers to health care, a culturally sensitive physician considers his or her own identity, values, and beliefs; recognizes the similarities and differences among cultures; understands what those similarities and differences mean; and is able to bridge the differences to accomplish clear and effective communication.

  7. Cross-Cultural Faculty Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim, Marybelle C.

    1992-01-01

    Compares the terminal values of 24 visiting scholars from the People's Republic of China based at a midwestern community college with resident faculty values. The Chinese scholars ranked freedom, equality, and self-respect highest, whereas U.S. schools gave highest rankings to salvation, family security, and self-respect. Contrasts findings with a…

  8. A Comparison of Surgery and Family Medicine Residents' Perceptions of Cross-Cultural Care Training of Cross-Cultural Care Training

    OpenAIRE

    Chun, Maria BJ; Jackson, David S; Lin, Susan Y; Park, Elyse R

    2010-01-01

    The need for physicians formally trained to deliver care to diverse patient populations has been widely advocated. Utilizing a validated tool, Weissman and Betancourt's Cross-Cultural Care Survey, the aim of this current study was to compare surgery and family medicine residents' perceptions of their preparedness and skillfulness to provide high quality cross-cultural care. Past research has documented differences between the two groups' reported impressions of importance and level of instruc...

  9. Cyberbullying: A Cross-Cultural Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Jieun; Bullock, Lyndal M.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies conducted in different countries have focused on empirical research and literature reviews on prevalence, consequences, and strategies relative to cyberbullying; however, there is a lack of research regarding cyberbullying from a cross-cultural perspective. This article reviews recent research on cyberbullying and presents…

  10. The Drama in Cross-Cultural Marriage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As cultures from the sub-region of (Nigeria and then Africa), a continent which falls under those ... information networks and cross-cultural currents”. (IMF 101). ... that, globalisation is not about the 'integration of' but the 'opening up' of all ... growth and development, all parties concerned aspire to the same heights, view from ...

  11. Cross-Cultural Investigations of Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Rod; Brødsgaard, Inger

    1999-01-01

    Authors review all available articles illuminating cross-cultural studies about pain. Searches used Medline, PsycInfo and Sociological Abstracts. All types of pains are covered: Headache, back pain, dental pain, arthritis and cancer pain. Methodological considerations are discussed including...

  12. Problems in Cross Cultural Trust Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    Based on an explorative study of the Danish Public Diplomacy activities in Pakistan this paper brings to attention a number of issues related to cross cultural trust building. The empirical data includes information from the communication consultant at the Danish Embassy in Islamabad, and other...

  13. Cross-Cultural Conflicts within Sports Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stura, Claudia; Johnston, Linda M.

    2018-01-01

    Since sports are increasingly used a way to bring formerly conflicting parties together post-conflict, more work needs to be done to ensure that sports are actually conducted in a way that promotes peace rather than exacerbates the conflict. Since many sports-for-peace programs cross cultural boundaries, this exploratory study was conducted to…

  14. Measuring values for cross-cultural research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maseland, R.K.J.; Hoorn, A.A.J. van

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the empirical relevance of the recent critique that values surveys, as they are, suffer from the problem of measuring marginal preferences rather than values. By surveying items from cross-cultural surveys by Hofstede, Inglehart and GLOBE, we show that the marginal

  15. A cross-cultural mentoring program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang-Nissen, S.; Myers, R.Y.

    1995-04-01

    This report summarized the results of the pilot Cross-Cultural Mentoring Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, from the inception of the program idea through its implementation and assessment. It discusses the benefits of mentoring, the origins of the program, program design and implementation, program assessment, and conclusions and recommendations.

  16. Bridging the Divide: Cross-Cultural Mediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, Laura N.; Mahuna, Joshua M.

    2017-01-01

    The article strives to contribute to the growing field of conflict resolution by analyzing contrasting cross-cultural perceptions through insights from multiple areas to resolve intercultural conflicts and disputes. Western-centric mediation techniques are dissected in juxtaposition to indigenous methodologies in degrees of (1) substantiality and…

  17. Cross Cultural Differences in Unconscious Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyokawa, Sachiko; Dienes, Zoltan; Tanaka, Daisuke; Yamada, Ayumi; Crowe, Louise

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated cross cultural differences in conscious processes, such that Asians have a global preference and Westerners a more analytical one. We investigated whether these biases also apply to unconscious knowledge. In Experiment 1, Japanese and UK participants memorized strings of large (global) letters made out of small…

  18. Teaching Cross-Cultural Conflict Management Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, David A.

    One of the most important areas for business educators to address in preparing their students to compete effectively in world markets is cross-cultural negotiating and conflict management. To do so, teachers must prepare students to understand the markets into which they enter as managers. The objective is not to learn a great deal about one…

  19. Development of the Italian version of the revised Scoliosis Research Society-22 Patient Questionnaire, SRS-22r-I: cross-cultural adaptation, factor analysis, reliability, and validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monticone, Marco; Baiardi, Paola; Calabrò, David; Calabrò, Fabio; Foti, Calogero

    2010-11-15

    Evaluation of the psychometric properties of a translated and culturally adapted questionnaire. Translating, culturally adapting, and validating the Italian version of the revised Scoliosis Research Society-22 Patient Questionnaire (SRS-22r-I) in order to allow its use with Italian-speaking patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Increasing attention is being given to health-related quality of life measures as a means of adding information about the evaluation of AIS. A translated form of the revised SRS-22 has never been validated in Italian patients with AIS. The development of the SRS-22 questionnaire involved its translation and back-translation, a final review by an Expert Committee, and testing of the prefinal version to establish its correspondence to the original English version. Psychometric testing included factor analysis, reliability by internal consistency (Cronbach alpha) and test-retest repeatability (Intraclass Coefficient Correlation), and concurrent validity (Pearson correlation) by comparing the SRS-22r-I domains with the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) subscales. It took 4 months to develop a shared version of the SRS-22r-I, which proved to be satisfactorily acceptable when administered to 223 subjects with AIS. Factor analysis indicated a 4-factor solution (54% of the explained variance), and the questionnaire had an acceptable level of internal consistency (α = 0.77) and a high level of test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.957). In terms of concurrent validity, the correlations with the related Short-Form-36 subscales were moderate to good in the case of the Pain and Mental Health domains, and moderate in the case of the Function and Self-Image domains. The Italian translation of the SRS-22r has a good factorial structure and psychometric properties, and replicates the results of existing English versions of the questionnaire. Its use for research purposes can therefore be recommended.

  20. Mixed messages: residents' experiences learning cross-cultural care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Elyse R; Betancourt, Joseph R; Kim, Minah K; Maina, Angela W; Blumenthal, David; Weissman, Joel S

    2005-09-01

    An Institute of Medicine report issued in 2002 cited cross-cultural training as a mechanism to address racial and ethnic disparities in health care, but little is known about residents' training and capabilities to provide quality care to diverse populations. This article explores a select group of residents' perceptions of their preparedness to deliver quality care to diverse populations. Seven focus groups and ten individual interviews were conducted with 68 residents in locations nationwide. Qualitative analysis of focus-group and individual interview transcripts was performed to assess residents' perceptions of (1) preparedness to deliver care to diverse patients; (2) educational climate; and (3) training experiences. Most residents in this study noted the importance of cross-cultural care yet reported little formal training in this area. Residents wanted more formal training yet expressed concern that culture-specific training could lead to stereotyping. Most residents had developed ad hoc, informal skills to care for diverse patients. Although residents perceived institutional endorsement, they sensed it was a low priority due to lack of time and resources. Residents in this study reported receiving mixed messages about cross-cultural care. They were told it is important, yet they received little formal training and did not have time to treat diverse patients in a culturally sensitive manner. As a result, many developed coping behaviors rather than skills based on formally taught best practices. Training environments need to increase training to enhance residents' preparedness to deliver high-quality cross-cultural care if the medical profession is to achieve the goals set by the Institute of Medicine.

  1. Cross-cultural differences in risk perceptions of disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierlach, Elaine; Belsher, Bradley E; Beutler, Larry E

    2010-10-01

    Public risk perceptions of mass disasters carry considerable influences, both psychologically and economically, despite their oft-times imprecise nature. Prior research has identified the presence of an optimistic bias that affects risk perception, but there is a dearth of literature examining how these perceptions differ among cultures-particularly with regard to mass disasters. The present study explores differences among Japanese, Argentinean, and North American mental health workers in their rates of the optimistic bias in risk perceptions as contrasted between natural disasters and terrorist events. The results indicate a significant difference among cultures in levels of perceived risk that do not correspond to actual exposure rates. Japanese groups had the highest risk perceptions for both types of hazards and North Americans and Argentineans had the lowest risk perceptions for terrorism. Additionally, participants across all cultures rated risk to self as lower than risk to others (optimistic bias) across all disaster types. These findings suggest that cultural factors may have a greater influence on risk perception than social exposure, and that the belief that one is more immune to disasters compared to others may be a cross-cultural phenomenon. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  2. Cross-cultural comparison of maternal sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindell, Jodi A; Sadeh, Avi; Kwon, Robert; Goh, Daniel Y T

    2013-11-01

    To characterize cross-cultural sleep patterns and sleep problems in a large sample of mothers of children (ages birth to 6 years) in multiple predominantly Asian and predominantly Caucasian countries. Mothers of 10,085 young children (predominantly Asian countries/regions: China, Hong Kong, India, Korea, Japan, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand; predominantly Caucasian countries: Australia, Canada, New Zealand, United Kingdom, United States) completed an internet-based expanded version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Mothers in predominantly Asian countries/regions had later bedtimes, decreased number and duration of night wakings, more nighttime sleep, and more total sleep than mothers from predominantly Caucasian countries, P cross-cultural findings of young children. Psychosocial factors were found to be the best predictors of poor sleep, irrespective of culture. Further studies are needed to understand the impact of these findings.

  3. CROSS-CULTURAL ISSUES IN HRM

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatti, Anant Preet

    2009-01-01

    With the rapid increase in the globalization of business, workforces are becoming increasingly diverse and multicultural. Managing global workforces has increased pressure on Human Resource managers to recognize and adapt to cultural differences, which when ignored can result in cross-cultural misunderstandings. With the growing significance of developing economies in the global business environment, Human Resource Management is facing increased difficulty in managing cross-border cultural re...

  4. Cross-cultural comparison of medicinal floras used against snakebites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molander, Marianne; Saslis-Lagoudakis, C Haris; Jäger, Anna K; Rønsted, Nina

    2012-02-15

    Envenomation causes an estimated 1.8-2.5 million incidences per year with a mortality level of 100-125,000 persons annually and more than 100,000 individuals suffer from severe complications, which may end in amputation of the attacked limb. The use of plants is a major part of the traditional practitioners' treatment of snakebites. A database was created for plants used to treat snakebites worldwide. From this database, we selected five countries with a high number of entries and representing different cultures, geography and floristic zones: Brazil, Nicaragua, Nepal, China and South Africa. The datasets were analysed by regression and binominal analysis to see if any family or genus used against snakebites was overrepresented in the respective traditional medicinal systems relative to the abundance in the local flora. The families from the different geographical areas were compared to ascertain whether the same plant families are preferred by different peoples. Three 'hot' families (Apocynaceae, Lamiaceae and Rubiaceae) were recovered in at least two of the five compared countries in the regression analyses and one 'hot' family (Zingiberaceae) was recovered in two of the compared countries in the binomial analyses. Four out of five floras possess families identified as outliers in both regression and binomial analyses. Eight families were recovered by both the binomial and the regression analysis (40-62% of all highlighted families respectively). At the genus level, only Piper (Piperaceae) was recovered as a 'hot' genus in at least two floras. Seven genera were highlighted by both analyses (25-44% of the highlighted genera). Cross-cultural comparison of medicinal floras used against snakebites appears to be useful for highlighting candidate families and genera for further studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The lived experience of an American expatriate in Ghana: A rhetorical analysis of facebook postings to understand a cross-cultural behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Yawson, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    Using rhetorical analyses of the Facebook updates and postings, the lived experience of an American Expatriate in Ghana is told through the lenses of a Ghanaian living in the United States. The study reviews the contemporary understanding and importance of expatriation to organizations and provides detailed description and analysis of different models with theoretical base from cognitive and social psychology and sociology including models developed by Fons Trompenaars, Geert Hofstede, Harry ...

  6. A Theoretical Rationale for Cross-Cultural Family Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciniega, Miguel; Newlon, Betty J.

    1981-01-01

    Proposes seven Adlerian axioms of behavior for the cross-cultural pluralistic counselor working with minority families. Defines cross-cultural family counseling and urges counselors to understand minority cultures and the acculturation process. Discusses counseling techniques. (JAC)

  7. African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation: Advanced Search. Journal Home > African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation: Advanced Search. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  8. Living with own or husband's mother in the household is associated with lower number of children: a cross-cultural analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Susanne; Zahourek, Patricia; Fieder, Martin

    2017-10-01

    It has been discussed in the literature that the presence of kin, particularly the presence of a women's own mother or her mother in law, may have fertility effects. We aimed to examine the effects of the presence of a woman's own or her husband's mother in the household on a woman's fertility in terms of number of children on a broad basis by analysing census data of over two million married women aged between 15 and 34 years from 14 countries worldwide. We find that with the exception of Iraq, across all countries, the majority of women live only with their spouse in the household. We further find that the presence of any mother in the household is invariably associated with a significantly lower number of children compared to women living only with their spouse. In addition, in most countries, a woman's number of children is lower if she lives with her own mother as compared to her husband's mother in the household. Number of children is nonlinearly associated with woman's age, the presence of any mother being related with an earlier start of childbearing but a shallower increase in number of children. We speculate that the presence of a mother in the household may slow down woman's reproduction, but also discuss alternative explanations.

  9. Cross-cultural analysis of the motor development of Brazilian, Greek and Canadian infants assessed with the Alberta Infant Motor Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Saccani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the motor development of infants from three population samples (Brazil, Canada and Greece, to investigate differences in the percentile curves of motor development in these samples, and to investigate the prevalence of motor delays in Brazilian children. METHODS: Observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study with 795 Brazilian infants from zero to 18 months of age, assessed by the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS at day care centers, nurseries, basic health units and at home. The Brazilian infants' motor scores were compared to the results of two population samples from Greece (424 infants and Canada (2,400 infants. Descriptive statistics was used, with one-sample t-test and binomial tests, being significant p≤0.05. RESULTS: 65.4% of Brazilian children showed typical motor development, although with lower mean scores. In the beginning of the second year of life, the differences in the motor development among Brazilian, Canadian and Greek infants were milder; at 15 months of age, the motor development became similar in the three groups. A non-linear motor development trend was observed. CONCLUSIONS: The lowest motor percentiles of the Brazilian sample emphasized the need for national norms in order to correctly categorize the infant motor development. The different ways of motor development may be a consequence of cultural differences in infant care.

  10. Cross-cultural dimensions : organisational culture in Philip Morris, Lietuva

    OpenAIRE

    Grundey, Dainora

    2008-01-01

    Business globalization raised the new priorities for cross-cultural management theory and practice. The goal of this article is according to cross-cultural management and organizational culture theories to propose a new model of organizational culture with cross-cultural dimensions. The objectives of the paper are as follows: a) to disclose the essence of cross-cultural management and organizational culture; b) to carry out the empirical research of organizational culture in a selected Lithua...

  11. Revising and Updating the Inventory of Cross-Cultural Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Jennifer A.; Cushner, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    The following article outlines research conducted to examine cross-cultural sensitivity in a sample of 949 incoming university students in the USA. The study was conducted during the process of updating an existing measure of cross-cultural sensitivity known as the Inventory of Cross-Cultural Sensitivity (ICCS), and to examine the various levels…

  12. Cross-Cultural Psychology Newsletter. Volume 7, Number 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, John, Ed.

    The Cross-Cultural Psychology Newsletter, an official publication of the International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology, reports on recent publications and research in cross-cultural psychology. Notes on international conferences in the field are followed by annotations of new publications. In addition, recent research projects are…

  13. Cross-Cultural Collaboration - With Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryboy, N. C.

    2015-12-01

    Cross-Cultural Collaboration - with Integrity This poster will show the value of cross-cultural collaboration, between scientific institutions and Indigenous ways of knowing, as practiced by the Indigenous Education Institute. Focus is on respect for diverse worldviews, integrity as process, and academic diversity and equity. Today, as never before, traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) is of vital importance as it speaks strongly to the significance of balance to create a healthy environment. Utilizing a lens of contemporary scientific perspective along with a traditional Indigenous perspective illuminates the complementary aspects of both ways of knowing and a greater sense of understanding the earth and sky than would be possible with one perspective alone. The poster will highlight several examples of successful cross-cultural collaborations. *Collaborative partnership with University of Washington, Tacoma, Symposium on Contemporary Native American Issues in Higher Education: Intersectionality of Native Language and Culture in Modern Society (Sharing Our Skies - Looking at the Stars Through Indigenous Eyes and Western Astronomy Lenses) *AST 201, Introduction to Indigenous Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northern Arizona University: a course that fulfills the Diversity Requirement for graduation *Native Universe: a National Science Foundation funded project, which honors Indigenous Voice in science museums to deepen our relationship with nature, vital in this time of climate change *MAVEN - Imagine Mars Through Indigenous Eyes: a NASA funded project which provides middle and high school curriculum delivered in science centers and Indigenous schools *Navajo Sky: modules and shows for planetariums, funded by NASA, that juxtapose Navajo and western astronomy concepts and context, highlighting place-based science

  14. Eye contact and Cross-cultural Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘西娟

    2009-01-01

    It is commonly agreed by contemporary schohrs that it is important to understand the role of culture and its characteristics and potential impact on individuals engaged in cross-cultural communication.Nonverbal Communication often reveals basic culture traits.Eye contact,as a mediunq to convey emodon.attitudes and intention.phys an undeniably vital role in communication.The concentration of this paper is to discuss the functions of eye contact in communication,different information conveyed by eve contact on the basis of different cultures and the importance of understanding and respecting the rituals of eye contact in cross-culmral communication.

  15. A study on relationship between cultural intelligence and cross-cultural adjustment in tour management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Karroubi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of cultural intelligence (CQ and emotional intelligence (EI on a tour leader’s adjustment in a different cultural environment. Data were collected from 330 outgoing tour leaders in Tehran, Iran. The construct validity was confirmed by using confirmatory factor analysis. The data were analyzed using correlation analysis and path analysis to test the effect of CQ on cross-cultural adjustment, and the moderating effect of EI on the relationship between CQ and cross-cultural adjustment. The results showed that CQ had a positive effect on cross-cultural adjustment. In addition, we found that CQ had a positive effect on EI. The findings of the research showed that emotional intelligence in not significantly the mediator variable. Emotional intelligence has a positive and significant effect on cross-cultural adjustment. The findings of this study contribute to the body of knowledge in the field of CQ and cross-cultural research, and it provides practical implications for individuals seeking to improve their cross-cultural effectiveness, enhancing their cultural intelligence and emotional intelligence, specifically in tourism industry.

  16. Munificence of Parent Corporate Contexts and Expatriate Cross-Cultural Training in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan

    2006-01-01

    The practice of providing expatriates with cross-cultural training varies widely among business corporations. To examine the proposition that some characteristics of the parent corporation context could be munificent to the practice of providing cross-cultural training, a mail survey was addressed...... to business expatriates in China. Surprisingly, the results showed no association between corporate size, international stake, and international experience on the one hand and the extent to which the expatriates had received cross-cultural training on the other hand. Although an ad hoc analysis found...... a positive relationship between international experience and the provision of sequential cross-cultural training, there was no association between any of the variables depicting corporate context and predeparture or postarrival training. The findings and their implications are discussed in detail....

  17. Alienation: A Cross-Cultural Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomeh, Aida K.

    1974-01-01

    This study examines alienation in two different cultural groups. Students from Middle Eastern or transitional societies expressed greater feelings of alienation than American students. In the case of students in both cultures from professional backgrounds the results were reversed. The results of the study are discussed in terms of cultural…

  18. Cross-cultural Usability Issues in E/M-Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi H. Miraz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives an overview of electronic learning (E-Learning and mobile learning (M-Learning adoption and diffusion trends, as well as their particular traits, characteristics and issues, especially in terms of cross-cultural and universal usability. E-Learning and M-Learning models using web services and cloud computing, as well as associated security concerns are all addressed. The benefits and enhancements that accrue from using mobile and other internet devices for the purposes of learning in academia are discussed. The differences between traditional classroom-based learning, distance learning, E-Learning and M-Learning models are compared and some conclusions are drawn.

  19. Templates for Cross-Cultural and Culturally Specific Usability Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil

    2011-01-01

    The cultural diversity of users of technology challenges our methods for usability testing. This article suggests templates for cross-culturally and culturally specific usability testing, based on studies of usability testing in companies in Mumbai, Beijing, and Copenhagen. Study 1 was a cross...... tests. The result was the construction of templates for usability testing. The culturally specific templates were in Mumbai “user-centered evaluation,” Copenhagen “client-centered evaluation,” and Beijing “evaluator-centered evaluation.” The findings are compared with related research...

  20. Perception of radiation risk from a cross cultural perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenot, J.; Hessler, A.; Joussen, W.; Sjoeberg, L.

    1996-01-01

    Regarding radiation risk individual coping strategies range from apathy, no worry, avoidance, information seeking, changes in life style, inter alia. How they occur and when, is a necessary information for the development of better risk communication programmes. To address these points four particular situations involving radiation were chosen, namely indoor radon exposure, X-ray diagnostic, consumption of irradiated food, and radioactive waste management. Situations correspond to very different contexts, natural exposure (with indoor radon), daily life (with medical diagnostic and food consumption) and the industrial and energy context (with waste). From a cross-cultural perspective it was deemed fruitful to compare these situations in various countries. (author)

  1. Cross-Cultural Validation of the Patient Perception of Integrated Care Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietschert, Maike V; Angeli, Federica; van Raak, Arno J A; Ruwaard, Dirk; Singer, Sara J

    2017-07-20

    To test the cross-cultural validity of the U.S. Patient Perception of Integrated Care (PPIC) Survey in a Dutch sample using a standardized procedure. Primary data collected from patients of five primary care centers in the south of the Netherlands, through survey research from 2014 to 2015. Cross-sectional data collected from patients who saw multiple health care providers during 6 months preceding data collection. The PPIC survey includes 59 questions that measure patient perceived care integration across providers, settings, and time. Data analysis followed a standardized procedure guiding data preparation, psychometric analysis, and included invariance testing with the U.S. dataset. Latent scale structures of the Dutch and U.S. survey were highly comparable. Factor "Integration with specialist" had lower reliability scores and noninvariance. For the remaining factors, internal consistency and invariance estimates were strong. The standardized cross-cultural validation procedure produced strong support for comparable psychometric characteristics of the Dutch and U.S. surveys. Future research should examine the usability of the proposed procedure for contexts with greater cultural differences. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  2. Attitudes towards people with intellectual disability in the UK and Libya: A cross-cultural comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benomir, Aisha M; Nicolson, Roderick I; Beail, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    The attitude of the general population towards people with intellectual disability (ID) provides important background for policy development. Furthermore, because of changes in attitudes across cultures, it is vital to ground policy development for each country in data from that country. This paper aimed to undertake a cross-cultural study, investigating attitudes to people with ID in Libya in the year 2011, and to compare the Libyan data with those for the UK. This paper provides a cross-cultural analysis of attitudes to people with ID, using a questionnaire study of three groups in Libya and in the UK: science students, psychology students and professionals in ID support. The questionnaire used was the established Community Living Attitude Scales for Mental Retardation (CLAS-MR). In terms of the four CLAS-MR sub-scales, the Libyan sample showed significantly less favourable scores on Empowerment, Similarity and Exclusion than the UK sample, but no significant difference on the Sheltering sub-scale. Within-country analysis indicated no main effects of gender on all four sub-scales in Libya and the UK. This study is the first to undertake quantitative analysis of attitudes to people with ID in Libya. The attitudes were in general less favourable than in the UK and other Western countries, but showed similarities with studies of attitudes to people with ID in Pakistan. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cross-cultural adaptation of research instruments: language, setting, time and statistical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjersing, Linn; Caplehorn, John R M; Clausen, Thomas

    2010-02-10

    Research questionnaires are not always translated appropriately before they are used in new temporal, cultural or linguistic settings. The results based on such instruments may therefore not accurately reflect what they are supposed to measure. This paper aims to illustrate the process and required steps involved in the cross-cultural adaptation of a research instrument using the adaptation process of an attitudinal instrument as an example. A questionnaire was needed for the implementation of a study in Norway 2007. There was no appropriate instruments available in Norwegian, thus an Australian-English instrument was cross-culturally adapted. The adaptation process included investigation of conceptual and item equivalence. Two forward and two back-translations were synthesized and compared by an expert committee. Thereafter the instrument was pretested and adjusted accordingly. The final questionnaire was administered to opioid maintenance treatment staff (n=140) and harm reduction staff (n=180). The overall response rate was 84%. The original instrument failed confirmatory analysis. Instead a new two-factor scale was identified and found valid in the new setting. The failure of the original scale highlights the importance of adapting instruments to current research settings. It also emphasizes the importance of ensuring that concepts within an instrument are equal between the original and target language, time and context. If the described stages in the cross-cultural adaptation process had been omitted, the findings would have been misleading, even if presented with apparent precision. Thus, it is important to consider possible barriers when making a direct comparison between different nations, cultures and times.

  4. Cross-Cultural Agreement in Facial Attractiveness Preferences: The Role of Ethnicity and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzee, Vinet; Greeff, Jaco M.; Stephen, Ian D.; Perrett, David I.

    2014-01-01

    Previous work showed high agreement in facial attractiveness preferences within and across cultures. The aims of the current study were twofold. First, we tested cross-cultural agreement in the attractiveness judgements of White Scottish and Black South African students for own- and other-ethnicity faces. Results showed significant agreement between White Scottish and Black South African observers' attractiveness judgements, providing further evidence of strong cross-cultural agreement in facial attractiveness preferences. Second, we tested whether cross-cultural agreement is influenced by the ethnicity and/or the gender of the target group. White Scottish and Black South African observers showed significantly higher agreement for Scottish than for African faces, presumably because both groups are familiar with White European facial features, but the Scottish group are less familiar with Black African facial features. Further work investigating this discordance in cross-cultural attractiveness preferences for African faces show that Black South African observers rely more heavily on colour cues when judging African female faces for attractiveness, while White Scottish observers rely more heavily on shape cues. Results also show higher cross-cultural agreement for female, compared to male faces, albeit not significantly higher. The findings shed new light on the factors that influence cross-cultural agreement in attractiveness preferences. PMID:24988325

  5. Cross-cultural agreement in facial attractiveness preferences: the role of ethnicity and gender.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinet Coetzee

    Full Text Available Previous work showed high agreement in facial attractiveness preferences within and across cultures. The aims of the current study were twofold. First, we tested cross-cultural agreement in the attractiveness judgements of White Scottish and Black South African students for own- and other-ethnicity faces. Results showed significant agreement between White Scottish and Black South African observers' attractiveness judgements, providing further evidence of strong cross-cultural agreement in facial attractiveness preferences. Second, we tested whether cross-cultural agreement is influenced by the ethnicity and/or the gender of the target group. White Scottish and Black South African observers showed significantly higher agreement for Scottish than for African faces, presumably because both groups are familiar with White European facial features, but the Scottish group are less familiar with Black African facial features. Further work investigating this discordance in cross-cultural attractiveness preferences for African faces show that Black South African observers rely more heavily on colour cues when judging African female faces for attractiveness, while White Scottish observers rely more heavily on shape cues. Results also show higher cross-cultural agreement for female, compared to male faces, albeit not significantly higher. The findings shed new light on the factors that influence cross-cultural agreement in attractiveness preferences.

  6. Personality correlates of Managerial talent: Cross cultural comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. de Bod

    1983-11-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the worldwide use of the Managerial Assessment Centre, little, if any, cross-cultural research has been done on the method. Another neglected area of AC-research, is the study of personality. This study is aimed at making a contribution towards both these areas by investigating the relationship between the managerial dimensions and personality attributes for a group of Canadian (N = 1199 and a group of South African (N = 177 middle level managers. The first step was to compare the measuring instruments which were used to test the two groups, so as to ascertain any similarities and/or differences between the two instruments. The data which was generated by the application of the instruments was then subjected to a correlational and discriminant function analysis. The result of these analyses was used to (a define the personality correlates of managerial talent and (b to identify broad tendencies with regard to the relative influence of culture on the relationship between personality and managerial talent. Opsomming Ten spyte van die wêreldwye gebruik van die bestuursbeoordelingsentrum (AC is daar tot dusver weinig kruiskulturele navorsing hieroor gedoen. 'n Verdere verwaarloosde area van AC-navorsing, is die bestudering van persoonlikheid. Hierdie studie ondersoek die verwantskap tussen bestuursdimensies en persoonlikheidsattribute van 'n groep Kanadese (N = 1199 en 'n groep Suid-Afrikaanse (N = 177 middelvlakbestuurders. Die eerste stap was om die meetinstrumente wat gebruik is te toets en die twee groepe te vergelyk. Die ingesamelde data vir beide groepe is aan 'n korrelatiewe en diskriminant-funksie ontleding onderwerp. Die ontledings is gebruik om (a die persoonlikheidskorrelate van bestuurstalent te omlyn en (b breë tendense bloot te lê ten opsigte van die relatiewe invloed van kultuur op die verwantskap tussen persoonlikheid en bestuurstalent.

  7. Comparative analysis as a basic research orientation: Key methodological problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N P Narbut

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To date, the Sociological Laboratory of the Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia has accumulated a vast experience in the field of cross-cultural studies reflected in the publications based on the results of mass surveys conducted in Moscow, Maikop, Beijing, Guangzhou, Prague, Belgrade, and Pristina. However, these publications mainly focus on the comparisons of the empirical data rather than methodological and technical issues, that is why the aim of this article is to identify key problems of the comparative analysis in cross-cultural studies that become evident only if you conduct an empirical research yourself - from the first step of setting the problem and approving it by all the sides (countries involved to the last step of interpreting and comparing the data obtained. The authors are sure that no sociologist would ever doubt the necessity and importance of comparative analysis in the broadest sense of the word, but at the same time very few are ready to discuss its key methodological challenges and prefer to ignore them completely. We summarize problems of the comparative analysis in sociology as follows: (1 applying research techniques to the sample in another country - both in translating and adapting them to different social realities and worldview (in particular, the problematic status of standardization and qualitative approach; (2 choosing “right” respondents to question and relevant cases (cultures to study; (3 designing the research scheme, i.e. justifying the sequence of steps (what should go first - methodology or techniques; (4 accepting the procedures that are correct within one country for cross-cultural work (whether or not that is an appropriate choice.

  8. Assertiveness and tolerance in cross-cultural interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pochebut L.G.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the theoretical analysis of the concepts of tolerance and assertiveness. Problem of contemporary cross-cultural interaction is the need to shift strategy of tolerance on strategy of assertiveness. Considered the practice of multiculturalism based on the idea of tolerance. Six barriers to cross-cultural communication. Comparison of understanding tolerance in European, Arab, Eastern cultures and in Russia. Boundaries are considered manifestations of tolerance. Developed rules of tolerant behavior. Proposed in scientific analysis and in actual practice, intercultural strategy move to assertiveness. Tolerance is respect for the views of another person, provided that he respects your opinion. Assertiveness is the respect for the rights of another person, provided that it also respects your rights. Describes the ways in assertive behavior: the willingness to cooperate, the openness of conduct, allocation of responsibilities, defend their rights and interests, defining the way forward. Tactics developed in assertive behavior: “interests”, “anti-discrimination”, “achievement”, “standards”, “activity”, “goodwill”.

  9. Cross-cultural differences in visual perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Čeněk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available According to recent cross-cultural studies there exist culturally based differences between visual perception and the related cognitive processes (attention, memory. According to current research, East Asians and Westerners percieve and think about the world in very different ways. Westerners are inclined to attend to some focal object (a salient object within a perception field that is relatively big in size, fast moving, colourful focusing on and analyzing its attributes. East Asians on the other hand are more likely to attend to a broad perceptual field, noticing relationships and changes. In this paper we want to describe the recent findings in the field and propose some directions for future research.

  10. Women and alcohol: cross-cultural perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, D B

    1991-01-01

    A review of the worldwide literature about women and alcohol contradicts many stereotypes and raises some new questions, interpretations, and practical implications. Norms, values, attitudes, and expectations may be at least as important as physiological differences between the sexes with respect to patterns of drinking and their outcomes. Women have been drinking as long as men have throughout history, and they drink about as often as men in many cultures; in a few instances, they even seem to drink more, in spite of the fact that the physical impact of a given dose of alcohol is greater for women. In nonindustrial societies, women usually have more easy access to alcoholic beverages; in fact, they often monopolize production and predominate in the distribution system. A cross-cultural perspective shows that too narrow a focus on the social, psychological, and physical problems that excessive drinkers incur has severely hampered the understanding of women's diverse roles with respect to alcohol.

  11. Cross-cultural aspects of anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Stefan G; Hinton, Devon E

    2014-06-01

    A person's cultural background influences the experience and expression of emotions. In reviewing the recent literature on cross-cultural aspects of anxiety disorders, we identified some culturally related ethnopsychology/ethnophysiology factors (the culture's conceptualizations of how the mind and body function) and contextual factors that influence anxiety disorders. Ethnopsychology/ethnophysiology factors include the person's ideas about the mental and bodily processes (and their interaction), whereas contextual factors are associated with the social norms and rules that may contribute to anxiety, including individualism vs. collectivism and self-construals. From the perspective of ethnopsychology/ethnophysiology and contextual factors, we will discuss "khyâl cap" ("wind attacks"), taijin kyofusho, and ataques de nervios, three prominent examples of culture-specific expressions of anxiety disorders that have all been included in the DSM-5 list of cultural concepts of distress.

  12. Cross-Cultural Understanding of Robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peronard, Jean-Paul

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to improve our understanding of how people in a healthcare context adopt robot technology and, in particular, the importance of culture in this process. The adoption of technology can be problematic when transferring technology from one culture to another. Differences in values...... and beliefs about robotics can affect the motivation for as well as the practice of using robotics in healthcare. Therefore, this paper seeks to develop a deeper theoretical understanding of the cultural impact on robotics adoption by using a cross-cultural perspective to explain variation in priorities...... and discuss possible guidelines to help build a strategy for introducing robotics into a culture’s healthcare sector and broaden the current agenda in international technology marketing....

  13. Cross-Culturalism of Harry Potter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Suljic

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Seven books in the Harry Potter series by J. K. Rowling have broken sales records worldwide. They have been made into films which have also attracted millions of fans, and the Harry Potter brand has been a hallmark since the beginning of the new millennium. Fifteen years after publishing the first book in the heptalogy, e-books again made more than 1 million pounds in just three days in April 2012. The article "Cross-Culturalism of Harry Potter" examines what attracted readers to the first and then subsequent books in the Harry Potter series and presents some of the cross-cultural implications in socio-linguistic, educational and psychological areas. It analyzes the reasons for the sales records around the world and why the books appeal to both young and adult population. It also includes some controversy following the series' world success. The research methods include: evaluation of the primary sources (seven books in the series, the media coverage, literary reviews by scholars such as Bloom and Thomas, literary critics' essays, and a survey of English language instructors in an educational institution. The main contributing factors to the global popularity of the series are: highly entertaining, well-plotted text with fantastic setting but also realistic references to the modern era; the text which continues the archetypal story-telling traditions, incorporating the contemporary socio-economic, political and educational issues; smart marketing; excessive media coverage; the Internet; the film industry involvement; and the universal human need to believe that good can triumph over evil.

  14. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Manchester Foot Pain and Disability Index into Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gijon-Nogueron, Gabriel; Ndosi, Mwidimi; Luque-Suarez, Alejandro; Alcacer-Pitarch, Begonya; Munuera, Pedro Vicente; Garrow, Adam; Redmond, Anthony C

    2014-03-01

    The Manchester Foot Pain and Disability Index (MFPDI) is a self-assessment 19-item questionnaire developed in the UK to measure foot pain and disability. This study aimed at conducting cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the MFPDI for use in Spain. Principles of good practice for the translation and cultural adaptation process for patient-reported outcomes measures were followed in the MFPDI adaptation into Spanish. The cross-cultural validation involved Rasch analysis of pooled data sets from Spain and the UK. Spanish data set comprised 338 patients, five used in the adaptation phase and 333 in the cross-cultural validation phase, mean age (SD) = 55.2 (16.7) and 248 (74.5 %) were female. A UK data set (n = 682) added in the cross-cultural validation phase; mean age (SD) = 51.6 (15.2 %) and 416 (61.0 %) were female. A preliminary analysis of the 17-item MFPDI revealed significant local dependency of items causing significant deviation from the Rasch model. Grouping all items into testlets and re-analysing the MFPDI as a 3-testlet scale resulted in an adequate fit to the Rasch model, χ (2) (df) = 15.945 (12), p = 0.194, excellent reliability and unidimensionality. Lack of cross-cultural invariance was evident on the functional and personal appearance testlets. Splitting the affected testlets discounted the cross-cultural bias and satisfied requirements of the Rasch model. Subsequently, the MFPDI was calibrated into interval-level scales, fully adjusted to allow parametric analyses and cross-cultural data comparisons when required. Rasch analysis has confirmed that the MFPDI is a robust 3-subscale measure of foot pain, function and appearance in both its English and Spanish versions.

  15. Validation of the Cross-Cultural Alcoholism Screening Test (CCAST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorenc, K D; Peredo, S; Pacurucu, S; Llanos, R; Vincente, B; López, R; Abreu, L F; Paez, E

    1999-01-01

    When screening instruments that are used in the assessment and diagnosis of alcoholism of individuals from different ethnicities, some cultural variables based on norms and societal acceptance of drinking behavior can play an important role in determining the outcome. The accepted diagnostic criteria of current market testing are based on Western standards. In this study, the Munich Alcoholism Test (31 items) was the base instrument applied to subjects from several Hispanic-American countries (Bolivia, Chile, Ecuador, Mexico, and Peru). After the sample was submitted to several statistical procedures, these 31 items were reduced to a culture-free, 31-item test named the Cross-Cultural Alcohol Screening Test (CCAST). The results of this Hispanic-American sample (n = 2,107) empirically demonstrated that CCAST measures alcoholism with an adequate degree of accuracy when compared to other available cross-cultural tests. CCAST is useful in the diagnosis of alcoholism in Spanish-speaking immigrants living in countries where English is spoken. CCAST can be used in general hospitals, psychiatric wards, emergency services and police stations. The test can be useful for other professionals, such as psychological consultants, researchers, and those conducting expertise appraisal.

  16. Cross-Cultural Detection of Depression from Nonverbal Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghowinem, Sharifa; Goecke, Roland; Cohn, Jeffrey F; Wagner, Michael; Parker, Gordon; Breakspear, Michael

    2015-05-01

    Millions of people worldwide suffer from depression. Do commonalities exist in their nonverbal behavior that would enable cross-culturally viable screening and assessment of severity? We investigated the generalisability of an approach to detect depression severity cross-culturally using video-recorded clinical interviews from Australia, the USA and Germany. The material varied in type of interview, subtypes of depression and inclusion healthy control subjects, cultural background, and recording environment. The analysis focussed on temporal features of participants' eye gaze and head pose. Several approaches to training and testing within and between datasets were evaluated. The strongest results were found for training across all datasets and testing across datasets using leave-one-subject-out cross-validation. In contrast, generalisability was attenuated when training on only one or two of the three datasets and testing on subjects from the dataset(s) not used in training. These findings highlight the importance of using training data exhibiting the expected range of variability.

  17. Integrating social factors into cross-cultural medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Alexander R; Betancourt, Joseph R; Carrillo, J Emilio

    2002-03-01

    The field of cross-cultural medical education has blossomed in an environment of increasing diversity and increasing awareness of the effect of race and ethnicity on health outcomes. However, there is still no standardized approach to teaching doctors in training how best to care for diverse patient populations. As standards are developed, it is crucial to realize that medical educators cannot teach about culture in a vacuum. Caring for patients of diverse cultural backgrounds is inextricably linked to caring for patients of diverse social backgrounds. In this article, the authors discuss the importance of social issues in caring for patients of all cultures, and propose a practical, patient-based approach to social analysis covering four major domains--(1) social stress and support networks, (2) change in environment, (3) life control, and (4) literacy. By emphasizing and expanding the role of the social history in cross-cultural medical education, faculty can better train medical students, residents, and other health care providers to care for socioculturally diverse patient populations.

  18. Cross-cultural education in U.S. medical schools: development of an assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña Dolhun, Eduardo; Muñoz, Claudia; Grumbach, Kevin

    2003-06-01

    Medical education is responding to an increasingly diverse population and to regulatory and quality-of-care requirements by developing cross-cultural curricula in health care. This undertaking has proved problematic because there is no consensus on what elements of cross-cultural medicine should be taught. Further, less is known about what is being taught. This study hypothesized that a tool could be developed to assess common themes, concepts, learning objectives, and methods in cross-cultural education. In 2001, 31 U.S. medical schools were invited to provide the researchers all written and/or Web-based materials related to implementing cross-cultural competency in their curricula. A tool was developed to measure teaching methods, skill sets, and eight content areas in cross-cultural education. A total of 19 medical schools supplied their curricular materials. There was considerable variation in approaches to teaching and in the content of cross-cultural education across the schools. Most emphasized teaching general themes, such as the doctor-patient relationship, socioeconomic status, and racism. Most also focused on specific cultural information about the ethnic communities they served. Few schools extensively addressed health care access and language issues. This assessment tool is an important step toward developing a standard nomenclature for measuring the success of cross-cultural education curricula. On the national level, the tool can be used to compare program components and encourage the exchange of effective teaching tools by promoting a common language, which will be essential for developing and implementing curricula, for comparing programs, and evaluating their effects on quality of care.

  19. Cross-cultural Communication as a Way of Achievement of Cross-cultural Communicative Competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Andreyeva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article authors made an attempt to consider a question of cross-cultural communication as a way of achievement of cross-cultural communicative competence. In the process of Kazakhstan entry into the world community in several plans at once – economic, social and cultural – the need for the highly qualified specialists who know foreign language at the productive level, i.e. capable to conduct communication in foreign language and who have linguocultural knowledge increases. For achievement of this purpose it is necessary to consider features of students’ training which are determined by the needs of society for the improvement of their education quality, and dynamism of social phenomena demands from the future specialists constant increment of knowledge.

  20. Comparison of cross culture engineering ethics training using the simulator for engineering ethics education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Christopher

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes the use and analysis of the Simulator for Engineering Ethics Education (SEEE) to perform cross culture engineering ethics training and analysis. Details describing the first generation and second generation development of the SEEE are published in Chung and Alfred, Science and Engineering Ethics, vol. 15, 2009 and Alfred and Chung, Science and Engineering Ethics, vol. 18, 2012. In this effort, a group of far eastern educated students operated the simulator in the instructional, training, scenario, and evaluation modes. The pre and post treatment performance of these students were compared to U.S. Educated students. Analysis of the performance indicated that the far eastern educated student increased their level of knowledge 23.7 percent while U.S. educated students increased their level of knowledge by 39.3 percent.

  1. New insights in cross-cultural communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schapira, Lidia

    2012-01-01

    Improving clinician-patient communication, improving clinical decision making, and eliminating mistrust have been identified as three key areas for reducing disparities in care. An important step is the training of cancer professionals to deliver culturally competent care in clinical settings as well as increasing the proportion of underrepresented minorities in the health care workforce. Providing care that is attuned to the patient's cultural preferences begins by talking to the patient about his or her cultural history and identifying the locus of decision making, preferences for disclosure of vital health information, and goals of care. Patients with low literacy and those with poor fluency of the dominant language require additional services. Language interpretation by trained professionals is fundamental to ensure that patients are able to provide informed consent for treatment. A working definition of culture involves multiple dimensions and levels and must be viewed as both dynamic and adaptive, rather than simply as a collection of beliefs and values. Effective cross-cultural education avoids stereotyping and promotes communication and negotiation to solve problems and minimize tension and conflict. Recent research has identified that unconscious biases held by clinicians affect their behavior and recommendations for treatment.

  2. Cross-Cultural Impression Management: A Cultural Knowledge Audit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spong, Abigail; Kamau, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Many people moving into a new culture for work or study do so without prior cross-cultural training, yet successful cultural adaptation has important ramifications. The purpose of this paper is to focus on cross-cultural impression management as an element of cultural adaptation. Does cultural adaptation begin by paying strong attention…

  3. Introductory essay: new horizons in cross cultural management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Y.; Ulijn, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    In this special issue, we present a research forum on current issues in cross cultural management in New Zealand, Australia and the Asian-Pacific Region. Our theme is new horizons in cross cultural management, which is reflected in both topic and approach. Our topics are related to the Asia Pacific

  4. Can One Undergraduate Course Increase Cross-Cultural Competence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, Lois

    2015-01-01

    The majority of students who took this general education undergraduate course in developing cross-cultural understanding at a state college in the northeastern United States reported that their level of cross-cultural competence and global awareness increased by the end of the course. The primary course objective was to help students better…

  5. Improving Interpersonal Job Skills by Applying Cross-Cultural Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, S. A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study that examined the effects of cross-cultural instruction on the interpersonal job skills of students in secondary vocational programs. The findings indicated that students receiving the cross-cultural instruction had significantly higher generalizable interpersonal relations skills achievement than students…

  6. Cross-Cultural Mentoring: A Pathway to Making Excellence Inclusive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutcher, Betty Neal

    2014-01-01

    Cross-cultural mentoring involves an ongoing, intentional, and mutually enriching relationship with someone of a different race, gender, ethnicity, religion, cultural background, socioeconomic background, sexual orientation, or nationality. Generally more experienced, the cross-cultural mentor guides the intellectual and personal development of…

  7. Together We Innovate: Cross-Cultural Teamwork through Virtual Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duus, Rikke; Cooray, Muditha

    2014-01-01

    In a global business environment, marketing education must support students to develop cross-cultural agility and adeptness with an aim to enhance their employability. This article contributes with an experiential cross-cultural exercise that enables students to develop new enterprises in collaboration with other students in a different country…

  8. Importance of Cross-Cultural Counseling in Rehabilitation Counseling Curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Albert L.

    1988-01-01

    Ninety-one members of the National Council on Rehabilitation Education were surveyed concerning the level of importance placed on cross-cultural content in rehabilitation counselor education curricula. Respondents rated 27 of 32 cross-cultural educational offerings as important, and identified seven additional offerings. Respondents' demographic…

  9. Teaching Cross-Cultural Psychology: Providing the Missing Link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushner, Kenneth H.

    1987-01-01

    This article describes the development and evaluation of materials designed to facilitate the teaching of cross-cultural psychology to students who are internationally and interculturally naive. The materials consist of 100 cross-cultural incidents contained in 18 essays. Two incidents are described and evaluative evidence is presented.…

  10. Social Organization and Leadership in Cross-Cultural Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemers, Martin M.

    There is little research by social psychologists in the areas of leadership and social organization, especially from a cross-cultural perspective, though such research offers an understanding of both leadership and culture. Existing cross-cultural management studies suffer from a lack of understanding of important social and cross-cultural…

  11. The Past, Present, and Future of Cross-Cultural Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonner, Walter J.

    Cross-cultural psychology had its beginnings at the turn of the century when W. H. R. Rivers made his famous investigations on perception and other processes. In the mid 1960's and early 1970's cross-cultural research as a method in psychology gained a momentum that led to an almost unchecked acceleration. The author details the recent growth in…

  12. Mutual Relevance of Mainstream and Cross-Cultural Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Lee Anna

    1987-01-01

    Asserts that mainstream and cross-cultural psychology address many of the same basic issues and that cross-cultural studies may be a direct and logical extension of the search for causes of variation in human psychology and psychopathology. Discusses differences in theoretical orientation and methodological approach and barriers to communication…

  13. Identifying Critical Cross-Cultural School Psychology Competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Margaret R.; Lopez, Emilia C.

    2002-01-01

    Study sought to identify critical cross-cultural competencies for school psychologists. To identify the competencies, an extensive literature search about cross-cultural school psychology competencies was conducted, as well as a questionnaire to ask expert panelists. The 102 competencies identified cover 14 major domains of professional activities…

  14. A Cross-Cultural Exercise: Expat in the Marketplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddou, Gary R.

    2005-01-01

    With the increasing importance of the global marketplace, students need to be more effectively prepared to manage themselves in the context of different cultures. This article explains an effective cross-cultural exercise that is simple to set up yet effective in its simulation of a cross-cultural interaction. Debriefing notes are included to help…

  15. Cross-Cultural Training and Workplace Performance. Support Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Robert

    2008-01-01

    This document was produced by the author(s) based on their research for the report "Cross- Cultural Training and Workplace Performance" (ED503402). It contains the following materials related to the report: (1) Primary approach letters; (2) Tests for statistical significance; (3) Survey of current cross-cultural training practice; (4)…

  16. Civil Procedure in Cross-cultural Dialogue: Eurasia Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefaan Voet

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed book: Civil Procedure in Cross-cultural Dialogue: Eurasia Context: IAPL World Conference on Civil Procedure, September 18–21, 2012, Moscow, Russia (Dmitry Maleshin, ed. (Statut 2012, available at (accessed March 9, 2014 [hereinafter Civil Procedure in Cross-cultural Dialogue: Eurasia Context].

  17. A Brazilian Portuguese cross-cultural adaptation of the modified JOA scale for myelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael R. Pratali

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To develop a version of the modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (mJOA scale that had been translated into Portuguese and cross-culturally adapted for the Brazilian population. METHODS: The well-established process of forward-backward translation was employed along with cross-cultural adaptation. RESULTS: Three bilingual translators (English and native Portuguese performed the forward translation of the mJOA scale from English to Portuguese based on iterative discussions used to reach a consensus translation. The translated version of the mJOA scale was then back-translated into English by a native English-speaking translator unaware of the concepts involved with the mJOA scale. The original mJOA scale and the back-translated version were compared by a native North American neurosurgeon, and as they were considered equivalent, the final version of the mJOA scale that had been translated into Portuguese and cross-culturally adapted was defined. CONCLUSION: To facilitate global and cross-cultural comparisons of the severity of cervical myelopathy, this study presents a version of the mJOA scale that was translated into Portuguese and cross-culturally adapted for the Brazilian population.

  18. A Brazilian Portuguese cross-cultural adaptation of the modified JOA scale for myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratali, Raphael R; Smith, Justin S; Motta, Rodrigo L N; Martins, Samuel M; Motta, Marcel M; Rocha, Ricardo D; Herrero, Carlos Fernando P S

    2017-02-01

    To develop a version of the modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (mJOA) scale that had been translated into Portuguese and cross-culturally adapted for the Brazilian population. The well-established process of forward-backward translation was employed along with cross-cultural adaptation. Three bilingual translators (English and native Portuguese) performed the forward translation of the mJOA scale from English to Portuguese based on iterative discussions used to reach a consensus translation. The translated version of the mJOA scale was then back-translated into English by a native English-speaking translator unaware of the concepts involved with the mJOA scale. The original mJOA scale and the back-translated version were compared by a native North American neurosurgeon, and as they were considered equivalent, the final version of the mJOA scale that had been translated into Portuguese and cross-culturally adapted was defined. To facilitate global and cross-cultural comparisons of the severity of cervical myelopathy, this study presents a version of the mJOA scale that was translated into Portuguese and cross-culturally adapted for the Brazilian population.

  19. Improving socially constructed cross-cultural communication in aged care homes: A critical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lily Dongxia; Willis, Eileen; Harrington, Ann; Gillham, David; De Bellis, Anita; Morey, Wendy; Jeffers, Lesley

    2018-01-01

    Cultural diversity between residents and staff is significant in aged care homes in many developed nations in the context of international migration. This diversity can be a challenge to achieving effective cross-cultural communication. The aim of this study was to critically examine how staff and residents initiated effective cross-cultural communication and social cohesion that enabled positive changes to occur. A critical hermeneutic analysis underpinned by Giddens' Structuration Theory was applied to the study. Data were collected by interviews with residents or their family and by focus groups with staff in four aged care homes in Australia. Findings reveal that residents and staff are capable of restructuring communication via a partnership approach. They can also work in collaboration to develop communication resources. When staff demonstrate cultural humility, they empower residents from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds to engage in effective communication. Findings also suggest that workforce interventions are required to improve residents' experiences in cross-cultural care. This study challenges aged care homes to establish policies, criteria and procedures in cross-cultural communication. There is also the challenge to provide ongoing education and training for staff to improve their cross-cultural communication capabilities. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Import/Export: Trafficking in Cross-Cultural Shakespearean Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmet Christy

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines the phenomenon of cross-cultural Shakespearean “traffic” as an import/export “business” by analyzing the usefulness of the concept cross-cultural through a series of theoretical binaries: Global vs. Local Shakespeares, Glocal and Intercultural Shakespeare; and the very definition of space and place within the Shakespearean lexicon. The essay argues that theoretically, the opposition of global and local Shakespeares has a tendency to collapse, and both glocal and intercultural Shakespeares are the object of serious critique. However, the project of cross-cultural Shakespeare is sustained by the dialectic between memorialization and forgetting that attends all attempts to record these cross-cultural experiences. The meaning of cross-cultural Shakespeare lies in the interpreter’s agency.

  1. A Cross Cultural Model for FlexibleMotivation in Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gratiela Dana BOCA

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The importance of world business has created a demand for managers sophisticated in global management skills and working with people from other countries. Organizational behavior from different countries and cultures compares organizational behavior across countries and cultures and seeks to understand how to improve the interaction of co workers, manager’s executives, client’s suppliers and alliance partners from around the world. The economic world shows us that all the elements that we consider static have a pulsation around an equilibrium position. The present study concerning the organization’s culture the motivational factors of the employees an outlet in this field. The flexibility in a global economy is an important element on which people can communicate and the manager can exercise his leading task thus is an imperfect world that imposed the necessity of adaptation to a cross cultural model.

  2. Cross-cultural training as a source of competitive advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Mirabal Martínez

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The present article of a theoretical nature addresses cross-cultural training as a success factor to promote external adjustment. In that sense, a documentary and critical review of the subject, and the analysis pursuant to agency theories, transaction costs, and dynamic capacities allow the formulation of a body of propositions; the latter help to estimate, among other considerations, that the degree of effectiveness of the referred practice can not only differ according to cultural distance, type of expatriate employee, and strategic approach; but, as an unintended effect, the acquired technical and multicultural skills may be susceptible to personal benefit, when weaknesses in control mechanisms or inadequate human resources policies are conductive to the presence of opportunistic behavior or conflicts of interest between parties.

  3. Investigating longitudinal and cross cultural measurement Invariance of Inglehart’s short post-materialism scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ippel, L.; Gelissen, J.P.T.M.; Moors, G.B.D.

    2014-01-01

    Inglehart applies a four item ranking scale to measure post-materialism which is used for cross-cultural and cross-temporal comparative purposes. The aim of this research is to test measurement invariance of the scale to establish to what extent the scale produces comparable results in time and

  4. Cross-Cultural Comparison of Teachers' Views upon Integration and Use of Technology in Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayalar, Fethi

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to compare teachers' views upon integration and use of technology in classroom. To make cross-cultural comparison of teachers' views, we interviewed with nine teachers in a primary school in city of Erzincan, Turkey and compared the views of the teachers with those of the teachers living in foreign countries. To obtain…

  5. Previous International Experience, Cross-Cultural Training, and Expatriates' Cross-Cultural Adjustment: Effects of Cultural Intelligence and Goal Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo Moon, Hyoung; Kwon Choi, Byoung; Shik Jung, Jae

    2012-01-01

    Although various antecedents of expatriates' cross-cultural adjustment have been addressed, previous international experience, predeparture cross-cultural training, and cultural intelligence (CQ) have been most frequently examined. However, there are few attempts that explore the effects of these antecedents simultaneously or consider the possible…

  6. A Study of Cross-Cultural Interactions in“The Tempest”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Lei

    2014-01-01

    Cross-cultural analysis is becoming an important way to realize the different cultures. This article is mainly focusing on the colonialism in“The Tempest”. Colonialism is one main aspect of cross-cultural interaction. “The Tempest” is the last play written by William Shakespeare. In his play, he mentioned several characters and some special relationships between them. These can be regarded as the reflection of colonialism which is the most important theme in this play. As we all know, some colonialism can make good influence while some only produce bad influence. In this article, it introduces the negative cross-cultural interaction from several aspects. As a result, we could understand the process of formation of colonialism from these debates.

  7. A Study of Cross-Cultural Interactions in“The Tempest”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang; Lei

    2014-01-01

    Cross-cultural analysis is becoming an important way to realize the different cultures. This article is mainly focusing on the colonialism in "The Tempest". Colonialism is one main aspect of cross-cultural interaction. "The Tempest" is the last play written by William Shakespeare. In his play, he mentioned several characters and some special relationships between them. These can be regarded as the reflection of colonialism which is the most important theme in this play. As we all know, some colonialism can make good influence while some only produce bad influence. In this article, it introduces the negative cross-cultural interaction from several aspects. As a result, we could understand the process of formation of colonialism from these debates.

  8. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the VISA-A questionnaire for German-speaking achilles tendinopathy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohrer, Heinz; Nauck, Tanja

    2009-10-30

    Achilles tendinopathy is the predominant overuse injury in runners. To further investigate this overload injury in transverse and longitudinal studies a valid, responsive and reliable outcome measure is demanded. Most questionnaires have been developed for English-speaking populations. This is also true for the VISA-A score, so far representing the only valid, reliable, and disease specific questionnaire for Achilles tendinopathy. To internationally compare research results, to perform multinational studies or to exclude bias originating from subpopulations speaking different languages within one country an equivalent instrument is demanded in different languages. The aim of this study was therefore to cross-cultural adapt and validate the VISA-A questionnaire for German-speaking Achilles tendinopathy patients. According to the "guidelines for the process of cross-cultural adaptation of self-report measures" the VISA-A score was cross-culturally adapted into German (VISA-A-G) using six steps: Translation, synthesis, back translation, expert committee review, pretesting (n = 77), and appraisal of the adaptation process by an advisory committee determining the adequacy of the cross-cultural adaptation. The resulting VISA-A-G was then subjected to an analysis of reliability, validity, and internal consistency in 30 Achilles tendinopathy patients and 79 asymptomatic people. Concurrent validity was tested against a generic tendon grading system (Percy and Conochie) and against a classification system for the effect of pain on athletic performance (Curwin and Stanish). The "advisory committee" determined the VISA-A-G questionnaire as been translated "acceptable". The VISA-A-G questionnaire showed moderate to excellent test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.60 to 0.97). Concurrent validity showed good coherence when correlated with the grading system of Curwin and Stanish (rho = -0.95) and for the Percy and Conochie grade of severity (rho 0.95). Internal consistency (Cronbach

  9. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the VISA-A questionnaire for German-speaking Achilles tendinopathy patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nauck Tanja

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Achilles tendinopathy is the predominant overuse injury in runners. To further investigate this overload injury in transverse and longitudinal studies a valid, responsive and reliable outcome measure is demanded. Most questionnaires have been developed for English-speaking populations. This is also true for the VISA-A score, so far representing the only valid, reliable, and disease specific questionnaire for Achilles tendinopathy. To internationally compare research results, to perform multinational studies or to exclude bias originating from subpopulations speaking different languages within one country an equivalent instrument is demanded in different languages. The aim of this study was therefore to cross-cultural adapt and validate the VISA-A questionnaire for German-speaking Achilles tendinopathy patients. Methods According to the "guidelines for the process of cross-cultural adaptation of self-report measures" the VISA-A score was cross-culturally adapted into German (VISA-A-G using six steps: Translation, synthesis, back translation, expert committee review, pretesting (n = 77, and appraisal of the adaptation process by an advisory committee determining the adequacy of the cross-cultural adaptation. The resulting VISA-A-G was then subjected to an analysis of reliability, validity, and internal consistency in 30 Achilles tendinopathy patients and 79 asymptomatic people. Concurrent validity was tested against a generic tendon grading system (Percy and Conochie and against a classification system for the effect of pain on athletic performance (Curwin and Stanish. Results The "advisory committee" determined the VISA-A-G questionnaire as been translated "acceptable". The VISA-A-G questionnaire showed moderate to excellent test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.60 to 0.97. Concurrent validity showed good coherence when correlated with the grading system of Curwin and Stanish (rho = -0.95 and for the Percy and Conochie grade of

  10. The Decent Care Movement: Subsidiarity, Pragmatic Solidarity, and Cross-Cultural Resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niforatos, Joshua D

    2016-02-01

    Decent Care is the World Health Organization and The Ford Foundation's joint effort to articulate a healthcare paradigm that makes a patient's voice equal to the voice of the healthcare provider. In this article, the six tenants of Decent Care are outlined with particular emphasis on subsidiarity. Liberation theology's preferential option for the poor maxim is presented and compared with other major world religions to demonstrate the cross-cultural focus of "decency." The power of this paradigm is in its emphasis and proclamation of human flourishing in a healthcare setting, generally speaking, and more specifically, human flourishing in the presence of affliction from chronic disease or dying cross-culturally.

  11. Identifying food-related life style segments by a cross-culturally valid scaling device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsø, Karen; Grunert, Klaus G.

    1994-01-01

    -related life style in a cross-culturally valid way. To this end, we have col-lected a pool of 202 items, collected data in three countries, and have con-structed scales based on cross-culturally stable patterns. These scales have then been subjected to a number of tests of reliability and vali-dity. We have...... then applied the set of scales to a fourth country, Germany, based on a representative sample of 1000 respondents. The scales had, with a fe exceptions, moderately good reliabilities. A cluster ana-ly-sis led to the identification of 5 segments, which differed on all 23 scales....

  12. Practical Issues of Conducting a Q Methodology Study: Lessons Learned From a Cross-cultural Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Teresa Elizabeth; Maguire, Jane; Kang, Sook Jung; Cha, Chiyoung

    This article advances nursing research by presenting the methodological challenges experienced in conducting a multination Q-methodology study. This article critically analyzes the relevance of the methodology for cross-cultural and nursing research and the challenges that led to specific responses by the investigators. The use of focus groups with key stakeholders supplemented the Q-analysis results. The authors discuss practical issues and shared innovative approaches and provide best-practice suggestions on the use of this flexible methodology. Q methodology has the versatility to explore complexities of contemporary nursing practice and cross-cultural health research.

  13. A Comparison of Surgery and Family Medicine Residents' Perceptions of Cross-Cultural Care Training of Cross-Cultural Care Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, David S; Lin, Susan Y; Park, Elyse R

    2010-01-01

    The need for physicians formally trained to deliver care to diverse patient populations has been widely advocated. Utilizing a validated tool, Weissman and Betancourt's Cross-Cultural Care Survey, the aim of this current study was to compare surgery and family medicine residents' perceptions of their preparedness and skillfulness to provide high quality cross-cultural care. Past research has documented differences between the two groups' reported impressions of importance and level of instruction received in cross-cultural care. Twenty surgery and 15 family medicine residents participated in the study. Significant differences were found between surgery and family medicine residents on most ratings of the amount of training they received in cross-cultural skills. Specifically, family medicine residents reported having received more training on: 1) determining how patients want to be addressed, 2) taking a social history, 3) assessing their understanding of the cause of illness, 4) negotiating their treatment plan, 5) assessing whether they are mistrustful of the health care system and/or doctor, 6) identifying cultural customs, 7) identifying how patients make decisions within the family, and 8) delivering services through a medical interpreter. One unexpected finding was that surgery residents, who reported not receiving much formal cultural training, reported higher mean scores on perceived skillfulness (i.e. ability) than family medicine residents. The disconnect may be linked to the family medicine residents' training in cultural humility — more knowledge and understanding of cross-cultural care can paradoxically lead to perceptions of being less prepared or skillful in this area. PMID:21225585

  14. Cross-cultural differences in the sleep of preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindell, Jodi A; Sadeh, Avi; Kwon, Robert; Goh, Daniel Y T

    2013-12-01

    The aim of our study was to characterize cross-cultural sleep patterns and sleep problems in a large sample of preschool children ages 3-6years in multiple predominantly Asian (P-A) and predominantly Caucasian (P-C) countries/regions. Parents of 2590 preschool-aged children (P-A countries/regions: China, Hong Kong, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand; P-C countries: Australia-New Zealand, Canada, United Kingdom, United States) completed an Internet-based expanded version of the Brief Child Sleep Questionnaire (BCSQ). Overall, children from P-A countries had significantly later bedtimes, shorter nighttime sleep, and increased parental perception of sleep problems compared with those from P-C countries. Bedtimes varied from as early as 7:43pm in Australia and New Zealand to as late as 10:26pm in India, a span of almost 3h. There also were significant differences in daytime sleep with the majority of children in P-A countries continuing to nap, resulting in no differences in 24-h total sleep times (TST) across culture and minimal differences across specific countries. Bed sharing and room sharing are common in P-A countries, with no change across the preschool years. There also were a significant percentage of parents who perceived that their child had a sleep problem (15% in Korea to 44% in China). Overall, our results indicate significant cross-cultural differences in sleep patterns, sleeping arrangements, and parent-reported sleep problems in preschool-aged children. Further studies are needed to understand the underlying bases for these differences and especially for contributors to parents' perceptions of sleep problems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparative risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niehaus, F.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper, the risks of various energy systems are discussed considering severe accidents analysis, particularly the probabilistic safety analysis, and probabilistic safety criteria, and the applications of these criteria and analysis. The comparative risk analysis has demonstrated that the largest source of risk in every society is from daily small accidents. Nevertheless, we have to be more concerned about severe accidents. The comparative risk analysis of five different energy systems (coal, oil, gas, LWR and STEC (Solar)) for the public has shown that the main sources of risks are coal and oil. The latest comparative risk study of various energy has been conducted in the USA and has revealed that the number of victims from coal is 42 as many than victims from nuclear. A study for severe accidents from hydro-dams in United States has estimated the probability of dam failures at 1 in 10,000 years and the number of victims between 11,000 and 260,000. The average occupational risk from coal is one fatal accident in 1,000 workers/year. The probabilistic safety analysis is a method that can be used to assess nuclear energy risks, and to analyze the severe accidents, and to model all possible accident sequences and consequences. The 'Fault tree' analysis is used to know the probability of failure of the different systems at each point of accident sequences and to calculate the probability of risks. After calculating the probability of failure, the criteria for judging the numerical results have to be developed, that is the quantitative and qualitative goals. To achieve these goals, several systems have been devised by various countries members of AIEA. The probabilistic safety ana-lysis method has been developed by establishing a computer program permit-ting to know different categories of safety related information. 19 tabs. (author)

  16. Cross-Cultural Communication in Oncology: Challenges and Training Interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Orest; Sulstarova, Brikela; Singy, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    To survey oncology nurses and oncologists about difficulties in taking care of culturally and linguistically diverse patients and about interests in cross-cultural training.
. Descriptive, cross-sectional.
. Web-based survey.
. 108 oncology nurses and 44 oncologists. 
. 31-item questionnaire derived from preexisting surveys in the United States and Switzerland.
. Self-rated difficulties in taking care of culturally and linguistically diverse patients and self-rated interests in cross-cultural training.
. All respondents reported communication difficulties in encounters with culturally and linguistically diverse patients. Respondents considered the absence of written materials in other languages, absence of a shared common language with patients, and sensitive subjects (e.g., end of life, sexuality) to be particularly problematic. Respondents also expressed a high level of interest in all aspects of cross-cultural training (task-oriented skills, background knowledge, reflexivity, and attitudes). Nurses perceived several difficulties related to care of migrants as more problematic than physicians did and were more interested in all aspects of cross-cultural training. 
. The need for cross-cultural training is high among oncology clinicians, particularly among nurses.
. The results reported in the current study may help nurses in decision-making positions and educators in introducing elements of cross-cultural education into oncology curricula for nurses. Cross-cultural training should be offered to oncology nurses.

  17. A Cross-Cultural Study of Anxiety among Chinese and Caucasian American University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dong; Leong, Frederick T. L.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the cross-cultural differences on state, trait, and social anxiety between Chinese and Caucasian American university students. Chinese students reported higher levels of social anxiety than did Caucasian American students. Correlations between trait and state anxiety were compared in light of the trait model of…

  18. Benefits and challenges of qualitative methodologies in cross-cultural psychology studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Quadros Rigoni, R.

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative research has been considered increasingly valuable for cross-cultural psychology studies, but its contributions and challenges to the field remain under discussed. This chapter does that by analysing a qualitative study which compares interpretive beliefs and behaviour of street-level

  19. Cross-Cultural Psychology's Challenges to Our Ideas of Children and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 1979

    1979-01-01

    The Laboratory of Comparative Human Cognition has found that, if cross-cultural psychology has mounted a challenge to developmental psychology, it is because it has forced recognition of the fact that no context of observation, including the laboratory, is culturally neutral. Settings for behavior are embedded in larger systems of social…

  20. The Cross-Cultural Consistency of Marital Communication Associated with Marital Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, W. Kim; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Compared problem-solving behaviors of four samples of couples, sorted by marital happiness/distress and culture (German and Australian). Results showed cultural differences in frequency and functional significance of negative verbal communication, along with cross-culturally consistent marital behaviors associated with marital distress. (Author/TE)

  1. Cross-Cultural Comparison of Anxiety Symptoms in Colombian and Australian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya, Andrea Crane; Campbell, Marilyn

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: This cross-cultural study compared both the symptoms of anxiety and their severity in a community sample of children from Colombia and Australia. Method: The sample comprised 516 children (253 Australian children and 263 Colombian children), aged 8 to 12-years-old. The Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS) was used to measure both…

  2. Investigator Bias and Theory-Ladenness in Cross-Cultural Research: Insights from Wittgenstein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Charlene

    2016-01-01

    A relatively under-explored topic in the current literature on and methods for research in the field of comparative and international education is the problem of investigator bias in cross-cultural research. This article discusses the nature of and an approach to address investigator bias in research that originates from the theory-ladenness of…

  3. A Descriptive Study of Individual and Cross-Cultural Differences in Statistics Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloglu, Mustafa; Deniz, M. Engin; Kesici, Sahin

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated individual and cross-cultural differences in statistics anxiety among 223 Turkish and 237 American college students. A 2 x 2 between-subjects factorial multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was performed on the six dependent variables which are the six subscales of the Statistical Anxiety Rating Scale.…

  4. The cross-cultural equivalence of parental rearing measure : EAABU-C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekovic, M; ten Have, M; Vollebergh, WAM; Pels, T; Oosterwegel, A; Wissink, IB; De Winter, AF; Verhulst, FC; Ormel, J

    2006-01-01

    We examined the cross-cultural equivalence of a widely used instrument that assesses perceived parental rearing, the EMBU-C, among native Dutch and immigrant adolescents living in The Netherlands. The results of a multigroup confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the factor structure of the

  5. The Self-Concept of the Elderly: A Cross-Cultural Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzko, Michael W.; Steverink, Nardi; Dittmann-Kohli, Freya; Herrera, Ramona Rubio

    1998-01-01

    Examines the self-concept of the elderly from a cross-cultural perspective utilizing a sample of Spanish and Dutch elderly. Analysis focuses on responses to sentences which probed respondents' motivations and future plans and goals. Differences can be interpreted as reflecting an individualistic (Dutch) versus collectivistic (Spanish) distinction…

  6. Cross-Cultural Validity of the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-gwi; Park, Hyun-joo

    2011-01-01

    This study with 213 South Korean college students (113 men) examined the cross-cultural generalizability of (a) the factor structure of the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (F-MPS) and (b) the existence of adaptive perfectionists, maladaptive perfectionists, and nonperfectionists. A confirmatory factor analysis did not support the…

  7. Spirituality of American and Czech students – a cross-cultural comparison

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Říčan, Pavel; Lukavský, Jiří; Janošová, Pavlína; Štochl, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 3 (2010), s. 243-251 ISSN 0039-3320 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA700250801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : spirituality * measurement * factor analysis * cross - cultural differences Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.254, year: 2010

  8. Cross-Cultural Validation of the Five-Factor Structure of Social Goals: A Filipino Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ronnel B.; Watkins, David A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the cross-cultural validity of the five-factor structure of social goals that Dowson and McInerney proposed. Using both between-network and within-network approaches to construct validation, 1,147 Filipino high school students participated in the study. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the…

  9. Cross-cultural comparisons of drinking motives in 10 countries: Data from the DRINC project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackinnon, Sean P; Couture, Marie-Eve; Cooper, M L; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; O'Connor, Roisin M; Stewart, Sherry H

    2017-11-01

    This study tested the measurement invariance of the Drinking Motives Questionnaire-Revised Short Form (DMQ-R-SF) in undergraduates across 10 countries. We expected the four-factor structure to hold across countries, and for social motives to emerge as the most commonly endorsed motive, followed by enhancement, coping and conformity motives. We also compared individualistic and collectivistic countries to examine potential differences in the endorsement of drinking motives when countries were divided according to this broad cultural value. A sample of 8478 undergraduate drinkers from collectivistic (Portugal, Mexico, Brazil, Spain; n = 1567) and individualistic (Switzerland, Hungary, Canada, the Netherlands, the UK and Ireland, and the USA; n = 6911) countries completed the DMQ-R-SF. Countries were classified as individualistic or collectivistic based on world-wide norms. Using multigroup confirmatory factor analysis, the 4-factor model of the DMQ-R-SF showed configural and metric invariance across all 10 countries. As predicted, the rank order of undergraduates' drinking motive endorsement was identical across countries (social > enhancement > coping > conformity), although a mixed model analysis of variance revealed a significant interaction where undergraduates from individualistic countries more strongly endorsed social and enhancement motives relative to undergraduates from collectivistic countries. There was broad cross-cultural consistency in the factor structure and mean patterns of drinking motives. Undergraduate students appear to drink mainly for positive reinforcement (i.e. for social and enhancement reasons), although this tendency is particularly pronounced among those from more individualistic countries. [Mackinnon SP, Couture M-E, Cooper ML, Kuntsche E, O'Connor RM, Stewart SH, and the DRINC Team. Cross-cultural comparisons of drinking motives in 10 countries: Data from the DRINC project. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other

  10. Cross-cultural variation in symptom perception of hypoglycemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Significant cross-cultural differences related to the symptomatology of hypoglycemia are noted. Indian diabetologists should be aware of the varying presentation of hypoglycemia based on language and ethnic background.

  11. Indonesian Students’ Cross-Cultural Adaptation in Busan, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deddy Mulyana

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore the cross-cultural adaptation of Indonesian students in Busan, South Korea. It uses a qualitative approach based on the U-curve (a four-stage model of cross-cultural adjustment consisting of the phases of honeymoon, crisis, recovery and adjustment. It involves in-depth interviews with 10 Indonesian students in Busan. The study found that the U-Curve model of cross-cultural adaptation is still useful. In the context of the informants’ experiences, it is characterized by the main barriers that include differences in language and values of friendship, cross-cultural stereotypes and prejudices that led to discrimination. The study also identified culture shock faced by some of the informants as well as their coping strategies.

  12. Indonesian Students’ Cross-Cultural Adaptation in Busan, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deddy Mulyana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore the cross-cultural adaptation of Indonesian students in Busan, South Korea. It uses a qualitative approach based on the U-curve (a four-stage model of cross-cultural adjustment consisting of the phases of honeymoon, crisis, recovery and adjustment. It involves in-depth interviews with 10 Indonesian students in Busan. The study found that the U-Curve model of cross-cultural adaptation is still useful. In the context of the informants’ experiences, it is characterized by the main barriers that include differences in language and values of friendship, cross-cultural stereotypes and prejudices that led to discrimination. The study also identified culture shock faced by some of the informants as well as their coping strategies.

  13. Cross cultural adaptation of the menopause specific questionnaire ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cross cultural adaptation of the menopause specific questionnaire into the Persian language. ... Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research ... good internal consistency in vasomotor, physical and psychosocial domains, but not sexual.

  14. Theory and Method in Cross-Cultural Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malpass, Roy S.

    1977-01-01

    Cross cultural psychology is considered as a methodological strategy, as a means of evaluating hypotheses of unicultural origins with evidence of more panhuman relevance, and as a means of developing new theoretical psychological phenomena. (Author)

  15. Original Research Cross-cultural adaptation, content validation, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    study which aimed to cross culturally adapt a composite lifestyle cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors ... and a relative lack of access to adequate advice and care. .... meaning different things are distinguished by giving symbols.

  16. Cross-cultural differences in emotion suppression in everyday interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huwae, Sylvia; Schaafsma, Juliëtte

    Previous research suggests that in collectivistic cultures, people tend to suppress their emotions more than in individualistic cultures. Little research, however, has explored cross-cultural differences in emotion regulation in everyday interactions. Using a daily social interaction method, we

  17. Cross-Cultural Detection of Depression from Nonverbal Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Alghowinem, Sharifa; Goecke, Roland; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Wagner, Michael; Parker, Gordon; Breakspear, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Millions of people worldwide suffer from depression. Do commonalities exist in their nonverbal behavior that would enable cross-culturally viable screening and assessment of severity? We investigated the generalisability of an approach to detect depression severity cross-culturally using video-recorded clinical interviews from Australia, the USA and Germany. The material varied in type of interview, subtypes of depression and inclusion healthy control subjects, cultural background, and record...

  18. Development of a Korean version of the Cancer Therapy Satisfaction Questionnaire (CTSQ): cross-cultural adaptation, reliability, and validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, So Jeong; An, Soo Min; Kim, Se Hyun

    2013-03-01

    (1) To translate original English Cancer Therapy Satisfaction Questionnaire (CTSQ) into Korean and perform validation, (2) to compare CTSQ domains of expectations of therapy (ET), feelings about side effects (FSE), and satisfaction with therapy (SWT) by cancer therapy type. Cross-cultural adaptation was performed according to guidelines: translation, back translation, focus-group, and field test. We performed validation with internal consistency by Cronbach's alpha and construct validity by exploratory factor analysis (EFA) with varimax rotation method. We compared each CTSQ domain between traditional Korean Medicine (TKM) and integrative cancer therapy (ICT) of combining western and TKM by two-sample t test. Cross-cultural adaptation produced no major modifications in the items and domains. A total of 102 outpatients were participated. Mean age was 51.9 ± 12.4. Most were stage 4 (74.4 %) cancer. Mean scores of ET, FSE, and SWT were 81.2 ± 15.7, 79.5 ± 22.9, and 75.7 ± 14.8, respectively. Cronbach's alpha of ET, FSE, and SWT were 0.86, 0.78, and 0.74, respectively. EFA loaded items on the three domains, which is very close to that of the original CTSQ. ET and SWT was similar, but FSE was significantly higher in TKM than ICT (87.5 ± 19.3 vs. 74.9 ± 23.5; p = 0.0054). Cross-cultural adaptation was successful, and the adapted Korean CTSQ demonstrated good internal consistency and construct validity. Similar expectation and satisfaction was shown between the two types of therapy, but patient's reported feelings about side effects was significantly lower in patients receiving TKM than receiving ICT. Korean version of CTSQ can be used to evaluate Korean cancer patient's experiences receiving various cancer therapy types.

  19. Semantic evaluations of noise with tonal components in Japan, France, and Germany: a cross-cultural comparison.

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    Hansen, Hans; Weber, Reinhard

    2009-02-01

    An evaluation of tonal components in noise using a semantic differential approach yields several perceptual and connotative factors. This study investigates the effect of culture on these factors with the aid of equivalent listening tests carried out in Japan (n=20), France (n=23), and Germany (n=20). The data's equivalence level is determined by a bias analysis. This analysis gives insight in the cross-cultural validity of the scales used for sound character determination. Three factors were extracted by factor analysis in all cultural subsamples: pleasant, metallic, and power. By employing appropriate target rotations of the factor spaces, the rotated factors were compared and they yield high similarities between the different cultural subsamples. To check cross-cultural differences in means, an item bias analysis was conducted. The a priori assumption of unbiased scales is rejected; the differences obtained are partially linked to bias effects. Acoustical sound descriptors were additionally tested for the semantic dimensions. The high agreement in judgments between the different cultural subsamples contrast the moderate success of the signal parameters to describe the dimensions.

  20. Cross-cultural variation in disease-related concerns among patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenstein, S; Li, Z; Almer, S; Barbosa, A; Marquis, P; Moser, G; Sperber, A; Toner, B; Drossman, D A

    2001-06-01

    The aim of this work was to study cross-cultural variations in the impact of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) on health-related quality of life by an international comparison of disease-related concerns. Item and factor scores on the Rating Form of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patient Concerns and overall mean concern levels were compared by analysis of variance among 2002 IBD patients in eight countries. The overall level of concern varied from 51 out of 100 in Portugal to 19 in Sweden, with intermediate scores for Italy (43), Canada (40), United States (39), France (39), Austria (33), and Israel (25). Having surgery, an ostomy, the uncertain nature of the disease, and medication side effects were each rated among the first five in importance in six countries. Other items varied considerably. For example, concern regarding pain and suffering was high in Israel and low in Portugal, whereas concern over developing cancer was low in Italy. Concern over financial issues and access to high-quality health care were inversely associated with measures of national economic prosperity. 1) Cross-cultural comparisons of patient concerns related to IBD are feasible using translated scales. 2) Reporting tendencies vary greatly; within Europe, patients from southern countries report greater overall concern. 3) The complications and the variable evolution of disease elicit general concern, but the importance of specific issues varies among countries. 4) The reasons for national differences may have social, cultural, and/or economic determinants with relevance to the patient-physician relationship, patient education, and therapeutic decision making.

  1. Is Male Androphilia a Context-Dependent Cross-Cultural Universal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hames, Raymond; Garfield, Zachary; Garfield, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    The cross-cultural ethnographic literature has traditionally used the label male "homosexuality" to describe sexual relationships between biological males without considering whether or not the concept encompasses primary sexual attraction to adult males. Although male androphilia seems to be found in all national populations, its universal existence in tribal populations has been questioned. Our goal is to review previous cross-cultural classifications and surveys of male same sex behavior to present a system that does justice to its varied expressions, especially as it is informed by contemporary sexuality research. Previous comparative research does not effectively distinguish male same sex behavior from male androphilia. Using the standard cross-cultural sample (SCCS) as a sampling frame and the ethnographic sources in the human relations area files and elsewhere, we present distributional data on various forms of male same sex behavior. The SCCS is useful because it is designed to be representative of all historically known social formations and the sample is designed to reduce similarities as a consequence of common descent or historical origin as well as reduce the probability of diffusion of sociocultural practices from one culture to another. Our results show that male same sex behavior as well as male androphilia is much more common than previously estimated in the SCCS. With our findings, we make an argument that male androphilia is a context-dependent cross-cultural universal.

  2. Cross-Cultural Variation in Political Leadership Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramova, Petia; Blumberg, Herbert

    2017-01-01

    Guided by gaps in the literature with regard to the study of politicians the aim of the research is to explore cross-cultural differences in political leaders’ style. It compares the MLQ (Avolio & Bass, 2004) scores of elected political leaders (N = 140) in Bulgaria and the UK. The statistical exploration of the data relied on multivariate analyses of covariance. The findings of comparisons across the two groups reveal that compared to British political leaders, Bulgarian leaders were more likely to frequently use both transactional and passive/avoidant behaviours. The study tests Bass’s (1997) strong assertion about the universality of transformational leadership. It contributes to the leadership literature by providing directly measured data relating to the behaviours of political leaders. Such information on the characteristics of politicians could allow for more directional hypotheses in subsequent research, exploring the contextual influences within transformational leadership theory. The outcomes might also aid applied fields. Knowledge gained of culturally different leaders could be welcomed by multicultural political and economic unions, wherein understanding and allowances might aid communication. PMID:29358986

  3. Cross-Cultural Variation in Political Leadership Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petia Paramova

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Guided by gaps in the literature with regard to the study of politicians the aim of the research is to explore cross-cultural differences in political leaders’ style. It compares the MLQ (Avolio & Bass, 2004 scores of elected political leaders (N = 140 in Bulgaria and the UK. The statistical exploration of the data relied on multivariate analyses of covariance. The findings of comparisons across the two groups reveal that compared to British political leaders, Bulgarian leaders were more likely to frequently use both transactional and passive/avoidant behaviours. The study tests Bass’s (1997 strong assertion about the universality of transformational leadership. It contributes to the leadership literature by providing directly measured data relating to the behaviours of political leaders. Such information on the characteristics of politicians could allow for more directional hypotheses in subsequent research, exploring the contextual influences within transformational leadership theory. The outcomes might also aid applied fields. Knowledge gained of culturally different leaders could be welcomed by multicultural political and economic unions, wherein understanding and allowances might aid communication.

  4. Cross-Cultural Variation in Political Leadership Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramova, Petia; Blumberg, Herbert

    2017-11-01

    Guided by gaps in the literature with regard to the study of politicians the aim of the research is to explore cross-cultural differences in political leaders' style. It compares the MLQ (Avolio & Bass, 2004) scores of elected political leaders (N = 140) in Bulgaria and the UK. The statistical exploration of the data relied on multivariate analyses of covariance. The findings of comparisons across the two groups reveal that compared to British political leaders, Bulgarian leaders were more likely to frequently use both transactional and passive/avoidant behaviours. The study tests Bass's (1997) strong assertion about the universality of transformational leadership. It contributes to the leadership literature by providing directly measured data relating to the behaviours of political leaders. Such information on the characteristics of politicians could allow for more directional hypotheses in subsequent research, exploring the contextual influences within transformational leadership theory. The outcomes might also aid applied fields. Knowledge gained of culturally different leaders could be welcomed by multicultural political and economic unions, wherein understanding and allowances might aid communication.

  5. Pettiness: Conceptualization, measurement and cross-cultural differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Reuben; Levy, Becca

    2018-01-01

    Although pettiness, defined as the tendency to get agitated over trivial matters, is a facet of neuroticism which has negative health implications, no measure exists. The goal of the current study was to develop, and validate a short pettiness scale. In Study 1 (N = 2136), Exploratory Factor Analysis distilled a one-factor model with five items. Convergent validity was established using the Big Five Inventory, DASS, Satisfaction with Life Scale, and Conner-Davidson Resilience Scale. As predicted, pettiness was positively associated with neuroticism, depression, anxiety and stress but negatively related to extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, openness, life satisfaction and resilience. Also, as predicted, pettiness was not significantly related to physical functioning, or blind and constructive patriotism, indicating discriminant validity. Confirmatory Factor Analysis in Study 2 (N = 734) revealed a stable one-factor model of pettiness. In Study 3 (N = 532), the scale, which showed a similar factor structure in the USA and Singapore, also reflected predicted cross-cultural patterns: Pettiness was found to be significantly lower in the United States, a culture categorized as "looser" than in Singapore, a culture classified as "tighter" in terms of Gelfand and colleagues' framework of national tendencies to oppose social deviance. Results suggest that this brief 5-item tool is a reliable and valid measure of pettiness, and its use in health research is encouraged.

  6. How Many Interviews Are Enough to Identify Metathemes in Multisited and Cross-Cultural Research? Another Perspective on Guest, Bunce, and Johnson's (2006) Landmark Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagaman, Ashley K.; Wutich, Amber

    2017-01-01

    There is much debate over the number of interviews needed to reach data saturation for themes and metathemes in qualitative research. The primary purpose of this study is to determine the number of interviews needed to reach data saturation for metathemes in multisited and cross-cultural research. The analysis is based on a cross-cultural study on…

  7. Internal Medicine Residents' Perceptions of Cross-Cultural Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Elyse R; Betancourt, Joseph R; Miller, Elizabeth; Nathan, Michael; MacDonald, Ellie; Ananeh-Firempong, Owusu; Stone, Valerie E

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND Physicians increasingly face the challenge of managing clinical encounters with patients from a range of cultural backgrounds. Despite widespread interest in cross-cultural care, little is known about resident physicians' perceptions of what will best enable them to provide quality care to diverse patient populations. OBJECTIVES To assess medicine residents' (1) perceptions of cross-cultural care, (2) barriers to care, and (3) training experiences and recommendations. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS Qualitative individual interviews were conducted with 26 third-year medicine residents at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston (response rate = 87%). Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed. RESULTS Despite significant interest in cross-cultural care, almost all of the residents reported very little training during residency. Most had gained cross-cultural skills through informal learning. A few were skeptical about formal training, and some expressed concern that it is impossible to understand every culture. Challenges to the delivery of cross-cultural care included managing patients with limited English proficiency, who involve family in critical decision making, and who have beliefs about disease that vary from the biomedical model. Residents cited many implications to these barriers, ranging from negatively impacting the patient-physician relationship to compromised care. Training recommendations included making changes to the educational climate and informal and formal training mechanisms. CONCLUSIONS If cross-cultural education is to be successful, it must take into account residents' perspectives and be focused on overcoming residents' cited barriers. It is important to convey that cross-cultural education is a set of skills that can be taught and applied, in a time-efficient manner, rather than requiring an insurmountable knowledge base. PMID:16704391

  8. Primary Care Resident Perceived Preparedness to Deliver Cross-cultural Care: An Examination of Training and Specialty Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Elyse R.; Green, Alexander R.; Betancourt, Joseph R.; Weissman, Joel S.

    2007-01-01

    Objective Previous research has shown that resident physicians report differences in training across primary care specialties, although limited data exist on education in delivering cross-cultural care. The goals of this study were to identify factors that relate to primary care residents’ perceived preparedness to provide cross-cultural care and to explore the extent to which these perceptions vary across primary care specialties. Design Cross-sectional, national mail survey of resident physicians in their last year of training. Participants Eleven hundred fifty primary care residents specializing in family medicine (27%), internal medicine (23%), pediatrics (26%), and obstetrics/gynecology (OB/GYN) (24%). Results Male residents as well as those who reported having graduated from U.S. medical schools, access to role models, and a greater cross-cultural case mix during residency felt more prepared to deliver cross-cultural care. Adjusting for these demographic and clinical factors, family practice residents were significantly more likely to feel prepared to deliver cross-cultural care compared to internal medicine, pediatric, and OB/GYN residents. Yet, when the quantity of instruction residents reported receiving to deliver cross-cultural care was added as a predictor, specialty differences became nonsignificant, suggesting that training opportunities better account for the variability in perceived preparedness than specialty. Conclusions Across primary care specialties, residents reported different perceptions of preparedness to deliver cross-cultural care. However, this variation was more strongly related to training factors, such as the amount of instruction physicians received to deliver such care, rather than specialty affiliation. These findings underscore the importance of formal education to enhance residents’ preparedness to provide cross-cultural care. PMID:17516107

  9. Primary care resident perceived preparedness to deliver cross-cultural care: an examination of training and specialty differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Joseph A; Park, Elyse R; Green, Alexander R; Betancourt, Joseph R; Weissman, Joel S

    2007-08-01

    Previous research has shown that resident physicians report differences in training across primary care specialties, although limited data exist on education in delivering cross-cultural care. The goals of this study were to identify factors that relate to primary care residents' perceived preparedness to provide cross-cultural care and to explore the extent to which these perceptions vary across primary care specialties. Cross-sectional, national mail survey of resident physicians in their last year of training. Eleven hundred fifty primary care residents specializing in family medicine (27%), internal medicine (23%), pediatrics (26%), and obstetrics/gynecology (OB/GYN) (24%). Male residents as well as those who reported having graduated from U.S. medical schools, access to role models, and a greater cross-cultural case mix during residency felt more prepared to deliver cross-cultural care. Adjusting for these demographic and clinical factors, family practice residents were significantly more likely to feel prepared to deliver cross-cultural care compared to internal medicine, pediatric, and OB/GYN residents. Yet, when the quantity of instruction residents reported receiving to deliver cross-cultural care was added as a predictor, specialty differences became nonsignificant, suggesting that training opportunities better account for the variability in perceived preparedness than specialty. Across primary care specialties, residents reported different perceptions of preparedness to deliver cross-cultural care. However, this variation was more strongly related to training factors, such as the amount of instruction physicians received to deliver such care, rather than specialty affiliation. These findings underscore the importance of formal education to enhance residents' preparedness to provide cross-cultural care.

  10. Simulation experiences of paramedic students: a cross-cultural examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams B

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Brett Williams,1 Chloe Abel,1 Eihab Khasawneh,2 Linda Ross,1 Tracy Levett-Jones31Department of Community Emergency Health & Paramedic Practice, Monash University, Frankston, Victoria, Australia; 2Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan; 3School of Nursing and Midwifery, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales, AustraliaBackground: Simulation-based education is an important part of paramedic education and ­training. While accessing clinical placements that are adequate in quality and quantity continues to be challenging, simulation is being recognized by paramedic academics as a potential alternative. Examining students’ satisfaction of simulation, particularly cross-culturally is therefore important in providing feedback to academic teaching staff and the international paramedic community.Objective: This study aimed to compare simulation satisfaction among paramedic students from universities in Australia and Jordan.Methods: A cross-sectional study using a paper-based English version of the Satisfaction with Simulation Experience Scale was administered to paramedic students from all year levels.Results: A total of 511 students participated in this study; 306 students (60% from Australia (Monash University and 205 students (40% from Jordan (Jordan University of Science and Technology. There were statistically significant differences with large effect size noted in all three original factors between Australian and Jordanian students: debrief and feedback (mean =38.66 vs mean =34.15; P<0.001; d=0.86, clinical reasoning (mean =21.32 vs mean =18.28; P<0.001; d=0.90, and clinical learning (mean =17.59 vs mean =15.47; P<0.001; d=1.12.Conclusion: This study has demonstrated that simulation education is generally well received by students in Australia and Jordan although Australian students reported having higher satisfaction levels then their Jordanian counterparts. These results

  11. Cross-cultural differences in drivers' speed choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallén Warner, Henriette; Ozkan, Türker; Lajunen, Timo

    2009-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine if there are any cross-cultural differences between Swedish and Turkish drivers' rating of the variables in the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) with regard to complying with the speed limit. A sample of 219 Swedish and 252 Turkish drivers completed a questionnaire including questions based on the theory of planned behaviour (i.e. regarding attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control, intention and behaviour). The results show that country differences in drivers' intention to comply with the speed limit as well as their self-reported compliance could be explained by differences found in their attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control. Furthermore, drivers who live in a country with fewer road traffic fatalities (i.e. Sweden), compared with drivers who live in a country with more road traffic fatalities (i.e. Turkey), reported a more positive attitude towards complying with the speed limit, a more positive subjective norm, a higher perceived behavioural control, a higher intention and a larger proportion of the time spent complying.

  12. Cross-Cultural Variation of Politeness Orientation & Speech Act Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisreen Naji Al-Khawaldeh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of an empirical study which compares Jordanian and English native speakers’ perceptions about the speech act of thanking. The forty interviews conducted revealed some similarities but also of remarkable cross-cultural differences relating to the significance of thanking, the variables affecting it, and the appropriate linguistic and paralinguistic choices, as well as their impact on the interpretation of thanking behaviour. The most important theoretical finding is that the data, while consistent with many views found in the existing literature, do not support Brown and Levinson’s (1987 claim that thanking is a speech act which intrinsically threatens the speaker’s negative face because it involves overt acceptance of an imposition on the speaker.  Rather, thanking should be viewed as a means of establishing and sustaining social relationships. The study findings suggest that cultural variation in thanking is due to the high degree of sensitivity of this speech act to the complex interplay of a range of social and contextual variables, and point to some promising directions for further research.

  13. Cross-cultural comparison of neurobehavioral performance in Asian workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jong-Hak; Sakong, Joon; Kang, Pock-Soo; Kim, Chang-Yoon; Lee, Kyeong-Soo; Jeon, Man-Joong; Sung, Nak-Jung; Ahn, Sang-Ho; Won, Kyu-Chang

    2003-08-01

    Widely-used neurobehavioral tests have been developed and standardized on Western populations, but studies on subject factors for Asian populations have been very limited. For the effective application and interpretation of neurobehavioral tests in Asian populations, an evaluation of the effects of subject factors, including cultural background, is necessary. A cross-cultural study was conducted to evaluate the effects of cultural background and the interaction between cultural background and education on neurobehavioral tests in Asian populations. The Korean version of the Swedish Performance Evaluation System (Simple Reaction Time, Symbol Digit, and Finger Tapping Speed) and a pegboard test were administered to 537 workers who were not exposed to chemicals at work from Fareast (Korea and Chinese), Central (Uzbekistan and Tajikistan), and South Asia (Sri Lanka and Indonesia). The Fareast Asian group exhibited better performance in adjusted test scores than other Asian groups, achieving significance for Symbol Digit and Finger Tapping Speed in both genders. The magnitude of the effect of cultural background on Symbol Digit was comparable to the effect of about 10 years of education. Cultural background did not modify the relation between years of education and Symbol Digit in either males or females. This study may provide the first evidence that cultural background has a large impact on neurobehavioral test performance, even within Asian populations, and suggests that cultural background is a critical confounding factor that must be controlled in epidemiologic studies which include Asian populations in the sample.

  14. Misinterpretation of facial expression: a cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shioiri, T; Someya, T; Helmeste, D; Tang, S W

    1999-02-01

    Accurately recognizing facial emotional expressions is important in psychiatrist-versus-patient interactions. This might be difficult when the physician and patients are from different cultures. More than two decades of research on facial expressions have documented the universality of the emotions of anger, contempt, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise. In contrast, some research data supported the concept that there are significant cultural differences in the judgment of emotion. In this pilot study, the recognition of emotional facial expressions in 123 Japanese subjects was evaluated using the Japanese and Caucasian Facial Expression of Emotion (JACFEE) photos. The results indicated that Japanese subjects experienced difficulties in recognizing some emotional facial expressions and misunderstood others as depicted by the posers, when compared to previous studies using American subjects. Interestingly, the sex and cultural background of the poser did not appear to influence the accuracy of recognition. The data suggest that in this young Japanese sample, judgment of certain emotional facial expressions was significantly different from the Americans. Further exploration in this area is warranted due to its importance in cross-cultural clinician-patient interactions.

  15. Cross-cultural variation of memory colors of familiar objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smet, Kevin A G; Lin, Yandan; Nagy, Balázs V; Németh, Zoltan; Duque-Chica, Gloria L; Quintero, Jesús M; Chen, Hung-Shing; Luo, Ronnier M; Safi, Mahdi; Hanselaer, Peter

    2014-12-29

    The effect of cross-regional or cross-cultural differences on color appearance ratings and memory colors of familiar objects was investigated in seven different countries/regions - Belgium, Hungary, Brazil, Colombia, Taiwan, China and Iran. In each region the familiar objects were presented on a calibrated monitor in over 100 different colors to a test panel of observers that were asked to rate the similarity of the presented object color with respect to what they thought the object looks like in reality (memory color). For each object and region the mean observer ratings were modeled by a bivariate Gaussian function. A statistical analysis showed significant (p culture was found to be small. In fact, the differences between the region average observers and the global average observer were found to of the same magnitude or smaller than the typical within region inter-observer variability. Thus, although statistical differences in color appearance ratings and memory between regions were found, regional impact is not likely to be of practical importance.

  16. Predicting civil religion at a cross-cultural level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavrič Miran

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of civil religion has caught major attention among scholars studying the junction of religion and politics (J.-J. Rousseau, E. Durkheim, R. Bellah. The notion focuses on the phenomenon of cultural contents sacralizing and ritualizing the ruling political institutions of a society, extending support to the integration of the political and social system at a cultural level. The notion of civil religion has recently been operationalized crossculturally, but light has not been shed upon its predictors. In this paper authoritarianism is tested as a predictor of civil religion cross-culturally. Four student samples of Bosnian, Serbian, Slovenian and US students were analyzed. Very strong, significant associations between authoritarianism, as operationalized by a modified Lane scale, and civil religion were found in all cases. Moreover, upon introducing femininity, anxiety and gender into the analysis, a strong, dominant and significant impact on the part of authoritarianism was still found when civil religion was observed crossculturally. When the same predictors were applied to explaining general religiosity, authoritarianism fell short of being a significant predictor in most of the environments observed. Such results suggest an especially close link between civil religion and authoritarianism.

  17. The Cross-Cultural Validity of the MMPI-2-RF Higher-Order Scales in a Sample of North Korean Female Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Hyeon; Goodman, Grace M; Toruno, Joseph A; Sherry, Alissa R; Kim, Hee Kyung

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the cross-cultural factorial validity of the three Higher-Order (H-O) scales in the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) among a sample of North Korean female refugees (N = 2,732). Given the importance of the H-O scales in the overall structure of the MMPI-2-RF scales and in interpretation, we were interested in exploring their cross-cultural validity. We conducted an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) on the nine Restructured Clinical (RC) scale raw scores and fitted and compared one- to three-factor models. The three-factor model, akin to the model in Tellegen and Ben-Porath, demonstrated the best fit to the data. Furthermore, the pattern matrices of loadings across the current sample and the U.S. samples were comparable despite some differences, such as the RC2 scale's salient, negative loading on a factor analogous to the Behavioral/Externalizing Dysfunction scale. We also investigated the unique psychological characteristics of the refugees, possibly resulting from the arduous, perilous journeys out of North Korea taken by this group of female refugees and discussed the results of EFA in light of those singular psychological traits and experiences. Overall, the three H-O scales of the Korean MMPI-2-RF evidenced reasonable cross-cultural factorial validity among the sample of North Korean female refugees. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. 欠发达地区外籍员工跨文化冲突原因分析%An Analysis of the Causes of Foreign Employees’ Cross-cultural Conflicts in Underdeveloped Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于美娜; 彭小晶

    2014-01-01

    中国经济迅猛发展,来华外籍人员增多,跨文化冲突不可避免。欠发达地区民族众多且传统文化保存完整,跨文化冲突异常激烈。分析了出现跨文化冲突的原因,认为出现跨文化冲突主要是由于在交流与语言、风俗习惯和宗教信仰、文化距离、思维方式等方面的差异造成的。%With the rapid economic development,more foreign employees come to China and more cross-cultural conflicts appear.As traditions are kept intact by ethnic groups in underdeveloped areas,cross-cul-tural conflicts are serious.This article analyses the causes,including the differences in language and com-munication,in customs,in religion,in culture,and in thinking.

  19. Motivation for choice and healthiness perception of calorie-reduced dairy products. a cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Susanne Bølling; Næs, Tormod; Hersleth, Margrethe

    2011-02-01

    Understanding consumers' motives for selecting calorie-reduced dairy products are important to provide targeted communication to different consumer segments. The aim of this study was to identify motives for consumption of calorie-reduced dairy products among young consumers, and to identify how these consumers perceive the healthiness of such products compared to other food products. Consumers, aged 18-30 years, from Norway (n=118), Denmark (n=125), and California (n=127) participated in this cross-cultural study. The respondents sorted 24 statements referring to motives for choosing calorie-reduced yoghurt and cheese. The study also assessed the aspect of perceived healthiness of these products in comparison with a selection of other food products using a two-step ranking procedure. The data were analysed using chi-square analysis, Friedman's test and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The results show that fat content, healthiness and taste were the most important motivators for choice of the calorie-reduced dairy products. In all three countries salmon was perceived as the healthiest among the products presented. The calorie-reduced dairy products were ranked as relatively healthy, with yoghurt ranked as healthier than cheese. Although cross-cultural differences existed in motives for choice and perceived healthiness of the products, the similarities between the countries were evident in this study. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Personal characteristics associated with resident physicians' self perceptions of preparedness to deliver cross-cultural care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Lenny; Vranceanu, Ana-Maria; Cohen, Amy P; Betancourt, Joseph; Weissman, Joel S

    2008-12-01

    Recent reports from the Institute of Medicine emphasize patient-centered care and cross-cultural training as a means of improving the quality of medical care and eliminating racial and ethnic disparities. To determine whether, controlling for training received in medical school or during residency, resident physician socio-cultural characteristics influence self-perceived preparedness and skill in delivering cross-cultural care. National survey of resident physicians. A probability sample of residents in seven specialties in their final year of training at US academic health centers. Nine resident characteristics were analyzed. Differences in preparedness and skill were assessed using the chi(2) statistic and multivariate logistic regression. Fifty-eight percent (2047/3500) of residents responded. The most important factor associated with improved perceived skill level in performing selected tasks or services believed to be useful in treating culturally diverse patients was having received cross-cultural skills training during residency (OR range 1.71-4.22). Compared with white residents, African American physicians felt more prepared to deal with patients with distrust in the US healthcare system (OR 1.63) and with racial or ethnic minorities (OR 1.61), Latinos reported feeling more prepared to deal with new immigrants (OR 1.88) and Asians reported feeling more prepared to deal with patients with health beliefs at odds with Western medicine (1.43). Cross-cultural care skills training is associated with increased self-perceived preparedness to care for diverse patient populations providing support for the importance of such training in graduate medical education. In addition, selected resident characteristics are associated with being more or less prepared for different aspects of cross-cultural care. This underscores the need to both include medical residents from diverse backgrounds in all training programs and tailor such programs to individual resident needs in

  1. A comparison of surgery and family medicine residents' perceptions of cross-cultural care training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Maria B J; Jackson, David S; Lin, Susan Y; Park, Elyse R

    2010-12-01

    The need for physicians formally trained to deliver care to diverse patient populations has been widely advocated. Utilizing a validated tool, Weissman and Betancourt's Cross-Cultural Care Survey, the aim of this current study was to compare surgery and family medicine residents' perceptions of their preparedness and skillfulness to provide high quality cross-cultural care. Past research has documented differences between the two groups' reported impressions of importance and level of instruction received in cross-cultural care. Twenty surgery and 15 family medicine residents participated in the study. Significant differences were found between surgery and family medicine residents on most ratings of the amount of training they received in cross-cultural skills. Specifically, family medicine residents reported having received more training on: 1) determining how patients want to be addressed, 2) taking a social history, 3) assessing their understanding of the cause of illness, 4) negotiating their treatment plan, 5) assessing whether they are mistrustful of the health care system and÷or doctor, 6) identifying cultural customs, 7) identifying how patients make decisions within the family, and 8) delivering services through a medical interpreter. One unexpected finding was that surgery residents, who reported not receiving much formal cultural training, reported higher mean scores on perceived skillfulness (i.e. ability) than family medicine residents. The disconnect may be linked to the family medicine residents' training in cultural humility - more knowledge and understanding of cross-cultural care can paradoxically lead to perceptions of being less prepared or skillful in this area. Hawaii Medical Journal Copyright 2010.

  2. Cross-Cultural Studies of Implicit Theories of Creativity: A Comparative Analysis between the United States and the Main Ethnic Groups in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Suzanna J.; Puccio, Gerard J.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the extent of influence of culture on implicit theories of creativity among laypeople from the United States and Singapore, as well as the ethnic groups in Singapore. Adaptive and innovative styles of creativity were examined, as well as their own conceptions of creativity. Laypersons from the United States and Singapore were…

  3. Developing cross-cultural healthcare workers: content, process and mentoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Strand

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Career service in cross-cultural healthcare mission work is the ambition of many people around the world. However, premature termination of this expected long-term service mitigates against achieving the goals of the individual and the organization. The lingering challenge of high rates of missionary attrition impacts the long-term effectiveness of the work and the health and well-being of the workers. One of the keys to reducing premature attrition is cross-cultural training for these individuals, provided it offers the right content, through the best medium, at the time of greatest perceived need by the missionary. This paper applies the Dreyfus Model of skills acquisition to the process of mentoring career healthcare missionaries in a progressive manner, utilizing a mentoring method. These missionaries can flourish in their work and more effectively achieve their individual and organizational goals through strategic mentorship that clearly defines a pathway for growing their cross-cultural skills.

  4. Chinese engineering students' cross-cultural adaptation in graduate school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xinquan

    This study explores cross-cultural adaptation experience of Chinese engineering students in the U.S. I interact with 10 Chinese doctoral students in engineering from a public research university through in-depth interviews to describe (1) their perceptions of and responses to key challenges they encountered in graduate school, (2) their perspectives on the challenges that stem from cross-cultural differences, and (3) their conceptualization of cross-cultural adaptation in the context of graduate school. My findings reveal that the major challenges participants encounter during graduate school are academic issues related to cultural differences and difficulties of crossing cultural boundaries and integrating into the university community. These challenges include finding motivation for doctoral study, becoming an independent learner, building a close relationship with faculty, interacting and forming relationships with American people, and gaining social recognition and support. The engineering students in this study believe they are less successful in their social integration than they are in accomplishing academic goals, mainly because of their preoccupation with academics, language barriers and cultural differences. The presence of a large Chinese student community on campus has provided a sense of community and social support for these students, but it also contributes to diminishing their willingness and opportunities to interact with people of different cultural backgrounds. Depending on their needs and purposes, they have different insights into the meaning of cross-cultural adaptation and therefore, and choose different paths to establish themselves in a new environment. Overall, they agree that cross-cultural adaptation involves a process of re-establishing themselves in new academic, social, and cultural communities, and adaptation is necessary for their personal and professional advancement in the U.S. They also acknowledge that encountering and adjusting

  5. Ethics in family violence research: cross-cultural issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, L A

    1998-01-01

    This article examines ethical issues in cross-cultural research on family violence. It suggests ways for researchers to increase understanding and avoid abuses of power. Special attention to informed consent, definition of the sample, composition of the research team, research methods, and potential harm and benefit are considered key to designing ethical cross-cultural research. The discussion is illustrated with examples from the literature and from the author's experiences conducting research on sexual abuse in a shanty town in Chile and with Puerto Ricans in the U.S.

  6. Social networks and family violence in cross-cultural perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korbin, J E

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter was twofold. First, the chapter put forward a brief cross-cultural perspective indicating that multiple types of intrafamilial violence occur cross-culturally. Second, the chapter placed social networks at the core of a complex etiology of intrafamilial violence. The purpose of giving centrality to social networks is not to suggest that social networks are the sole or primary agent contributing to family violence but to broaden the context in which family violence is viewed beyond that of the perpetrator, the victim/survivor, or the violent dyad.

  7. Cross-cultural adaptation and analysis of the psychometric properties of the Balance Evaluation Systems Test and MiniBESTest in the elderly and individuals with Parkinson's disease: application of the Rasch model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica C. Maia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Older adults and individuals with neurological problems such as Parkinson's disease (PD exhibit balance deficits that might impair their mobility and independence. The assessment of balance must be useful in identifying the presence of instability and orient interventions. OBJECTIVE: To translate and perform a cross-cultural adaptation of the Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest and MiniBESTest to Brazilian Portuguese and analyze its psychometric properties. METHOD: The tests were translated and adapted to Portuguese according to a standard method and then subjected to a test-retest reliability assessment (10 older adults; 10 individuals with PD. The psychometric properties were assessed by the Rasch model (35 older adults; 35 individuals with PD. RESULTS: The reliability coefficient of the tests relative to the items and subjects varied from 0.91 and 0.98, which is indicative of the stability and reproducibility of the measures. In the BESTest, the person (4.19 and item (5.36 separation index established six balance ability levels and seven levels of difficulty, respectively. In the MiniBESTest, the person (3.16 and item (6.41 separation index established four balance ability levels and nine levels of difficulty, respectively. Two items in the BESTest did not fit with the model expectations, but the construct validity was not compromised. No item in the MiniBESTest was erratic. CONCLUSIONS: The results corroborate the diagnostic and screening functions of the BESTest and MiniBESTest, respectively, and indicate that the Brazilian versions exhibit adequate reliability, construct validity, response stability, and capacity to distinguish among various balance ability levels in older adults and individuals with PD.

  8. A cross-cultural comparison of verbal learning and memory functions in reading disabled American and Norwegian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbjørnsen, Arve E; Obrzut, John E; Oyler, James D

    2014-04-01

    The present study reports the results of a cross-cultural analysis of the role of phonetic and semantic cues in verbal learning and memory. A newly developed memory test procedure, the Bergen-Tucson Verbal Learning Test (BTVLT), expands earlier test procedures as phonetic cues are applied in addition to semantic cues in a cued recall procedure. Samples of reading disabled and typically developed adolescents from the US and from Norway were recruited as voluntary participants. The results indicate that the stimulus materials chosen for the memory test are working well in both American and in Norwegian samples, yielding acquisition results comparable to similar list learning procedures, and also yielding high internal consistency across learning trials. The procedure also reliably differentiates between reading disabled samples in both languages, and also yields cross-cultural differences that seem to reflect differences in transparency and differences in the orthography of the included languages. The BTVLT with its focus on phonetic coding is a promising supplement to established tests of verbal memory for assessment of reading and language impaired individuals. © 2014 The Authors Scandinavian Journal of Psychology published by Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. A cross-cultural comparison of the developmental evolution of expertise in diabetes self-management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yasuko; Paterson, Barbara L

    2007-11-01

    The authors compare the findings of two research studies, one conducted in Japan and the other in Canada, about the developmental evolution of self-management of diabetes. In this article, the authors identify the similarities and differences that exist in the research data, proposing that the differences are situated in the different cultural perspectives of self-management that exist in both countries. Researchers have acknowledged that self-management has cultural dimensions. Despite this, however, there are few studies that have provided a cross-cultural comparison of the experience of self-management among different cultural groups. The authors conducted a critical comparative analysis of two models of developing expertise in diabetes self-management. The review included an analysis of the cultural meanings of the various terms and the underlying assumptions of both models. The models shared many similarities; however, their differences were identified, such as the meaning and interpretation of various words or experiences, and shaped by the culturally bound perspectives of self and health. The findings serve as a caution to imposing ethnocentric views and interpretations in diabetes care. In addition, they remind us about the importance of asking people with diabetes about what they understand, desire and understand. The findings challenge nurses to reflect on how the development of self-management of diabetes in various national contexts is influenced by health care practices that focus on control or harmony.

  10. Tackling cyberbullying: A cross-cultural comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Cowie

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines cyberbullying in the UK and Japan and compares the steps that each country is taking to address the issue by exploring the general principles through which central government, parents, charities, teachers, students and ICT providers in each country are working together. It also suggests that peer support schemes have a unique contribution to make and that an emphasis on peer group relationships and processes of collaboration with young people offer useful ways forward. It is essential to acknowledge that the problem is multi-dimensional and without a full understanding of the complex ways in which young people relate to one another it is unlikely that cyberbullying will be reduced.

  11. Personas in Cross-Cultural Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Lene

    Personas are a method to communicate data about users and to aid in the perception of users. The method is supposed to create a shared perception of the users that is not built on preconceived ideas, but on field data. The paper presents an experiment where the same persona description was sent to 16 participants in 9 countries. The participants were asked to return a photo that resembled the persona and explain their choice. Analysis of the photos and the explanations show that there is a difference between the participants with professional experiences and those without. The experienced tend to interpret the text and use people in their own immediate surroundings in the explanation for choosing the photo. The second group tends to find exact words and use these as explanation. The photos they choose are of stereotypical business-persons. The different strategies might hinder engagement in the persona.

  12. Measurement in Cross-Cultural Neuropsychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedraza, Otto; Mungas, Dan

    2010-01-01

    The measurement of cognitive abilities across diverse cultural, racial, and ethnic groups has a contentious history, with broad political, legal, economic, and ethical repercussions. Advances in psychometric methods and converging scientific ideas about genetic variation afford new tools and theoretical contexts to move beyond the reflective analysis of between-group test score discrepancies. Neuropsychology is poised to benefit from these advances to cultivate a richer understanding of the factors that underlie cognitive test score disparities. To this end, the present article considers several topics relevant to the measurement of cognitive abilities across groups from diverse ancestral origins, including fairness and bias, equivalence, diagnostic validity, item response theory, and differential item functioning. PMID:18814034

  13. Caregivers in schizophrenia: A cross Cultural Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talwar, Prashant; Matheiken, Shevonne Tresa

    2010-01-01

    Schizophrenia not only influences the lives of those affected but also those around them, especially the caregivers. This study examines the different determinants that are likely to contribute to the caregivers' perception of burden of care across different countries namely Malaysia and India, using the burden assessment schedule. The goals for this study were, to study the psychosocial and demographic aspects of patients suffering from schizophrenia, to study the levels of perceived burden of the Malaysian and Indian families caring for a relative with schizophrenia, and to study the determinants that contributes to the caregivers' perception of burden of care. The study was conducted in private hospitals, both in Malaysia as well as Mangalore after obtaining the necessary approval. 50 schizophrenia patients and their caregivers in Malaysia and India were chosen using the purposive sampling technique. The inclusion criteria were a minimum of 5 years since diagnosis of schizophrenia. Although the Indian caregivers perceived difficulties in several areas such as finance, family relationship, well-being and health, they still perceived burden to be lesser compared to Malaysian counterpart. Intensified community based care can reduce burden.

  14. Cross-Cultural Color-Odor Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitan, Carmel A.; Ren, Jiana; Woods, Andy T.; Boesveldt, Sanne; Chan, Jason S.; McKenzie, Kirsten J.; Dodson, Michael; Levin, Jai A.; Leong, Christine X. R.; van den Bosch, Jasper J. F.

    2014-01-01

    Colors and odors are associated; for instance, people typically match the smell of strawberries to the color pink or red. These associations are forms of crossmodal correspondences. Recently, there has been discussion about the extent to which these correspondences arise for structural reasons (i.e., an inherent mapping between color and odor), statistical reasons (i.e., covariance in experience), and/or semantically-mediated reasons (i.e., stemming from language). The present study probed this question by testing color-odor correspondences in 6 different cultural groups (Dutch, Netherlands-residing-Chinese, German, Malay, Malaysian-Chinese, and US residents), using the same set of 14 odors and asking participants to make congruent and incongruent color choices for each odor. We found consistent patterns in color choices for each odor within each culture, showing that participants were making non-random color-odor matches. We used representational dissimilarity analysis to probe for variations in the patterns of color-odor associations across cultures; we found that US and German participants had the most similar patterns of associations, followed by German and Malay participants. The largest group differences were between Malay and Netherlands-resident Chinese participants and between Dutch and Malaysian-Chinese participants. We conclude that culture plays a role in color-odor crossmodal associations, which likely arise, at least in part, through experience. PMID:25007343

  15. Cross-cultural color-odor associations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmel A Levitan

    Full Text Available Colors and odors are associated; for instance, people typically match the smell of strawberries to the color pink or red. These associations are forms of crossmodal correspondences. Recently, there has been discussion about the extent to which these correspondences arise for structural reasons (i.e., an inherent mapping between color and odor, statistical reasons (i.e., covariance in experience, and/or semantically-mediated reasons (i.e., stemming from language. The present study probed this question by testing color-odor correspondences in 6 different cultural groups (Dutch, Netherlands-residing-Chinese, German, Malay, Malaysian-Chinese, and US residents, using the same set of 14 odors and asking participants to make congruent and incongruent color choices for each odor. We found consistent patterns in color choices for each odor within each culture, showing that participants were making non-random color-odor matches. We used representational dissimilarity analysis to probe for variations in the patterns of color-odor associations across cultures; we found that US and German participants had the most similar patterns of associations, followed by German and Malay participants. The largest group differences were between Malay and Netherlands-resident Chinese participants and between Dutch and Malaysian-Chinese participants. We conclude that culture plays a role in color-odor crossmodal associations, which likely arise, at least in part, through experience.

  16. CROSS-CULTURAL INCENTIVES FOR THE FDI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru ZAIȚ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to invest there are some incentives needed, including among them, certainly, the ones discussed and analysed in the scientific literature such as: specific earning chances (expectations of each participant (wage, profit, dividend, budget revenue, etc., potential investor’s general or current state, etc.. Less visible incentives from complex areas not obviously related to the investment are, however, less considered. Among these could be incentives arising from inherited or education and culture transmitted philosophy, generally regarding earnings, business and investment. We notice these incentives in case of FDI in different shades and intensities.Investor’s decision to acquire, sell or to carry out projects in a particular area, region or country is not only due to purely economic, commercial or financial reasoning. In such operations, meeting among businessmen, managers and other professionals in the field is, first of all, meeting in specific circumstances, among more or less different cultures.Both theory and practice must be concerned in what way and to what extent these factors influence the investment intention, outcome and yield. Our study proposes a list of the most important cultural type incentives for investment (mainly FDI, based on a set of cases, through a logical and empirical research, using some of the most relevant and recent studies and several real situations to which we got access. These are early data and analysis that will allow us to draw attention to the problem and to develop further research to reach generalizable results

  17. Cross-cultural differences in European and Asian men and women’s consumption of fragrance

    OpenAIRE

    Granleese, Jackie

    2014-01-01

    In a cross-cultural study that compares European (N=32) and Asian (N=36) men, Asian men demonstrate significantly more collectivist consumer behaviour but no significant differences in their brand loyalty behaviour for fragrance consumption. This pattern is not found for European (N=38) and Asian (N=70) women. Asian women exhibit significantly more collectivist values in their consumer behaviour for fragrance consumption, while European women exhibit significantly more individualistic values ...

  18. Privacy Issues of Electronic Monitoring Of Employees: A Cross-Cultural Examination Of Gender Differences

    OpenAIRE

    Raymond E. Taylor

    2013-01-01

    This manuscript presents the results of a study which examined the privacy issues of electronic monitoring of employees from a cross-cultural perspective comparing participants from Taiwan with those from the United States. The results of the study suggest that gender differences exist between Taiwanese and American respondents’ attitudes concerning privacy issues of electronic monitoring of employees. The study suggests that monitoring with notice was an important parameter in determining ho...

  19. Advertising in a cross-cultural environment: a study of French and Chinese consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    The globalisation of media, incomes and technology was expected as the convergence of homogeneous consumer needs, tastes and lifestyle. However, there is a debate on the fact that culture is universal or not. This paper aim is to research the possibility of initiating a new strategy for advertisement in a cross-cultural environment. By studying the concept of culture and using it to compare the way Chinese and French people consider advertising, this paper wants to outline a new pattern fo...

  20. Response Strategies and Response Styles in Cross-Cultural Surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morren, M.H.; Gelissen, J.P.T.M.; Vermunt, J.K.

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses the following research questions: Do respondents participating in cross-cultural surveys differ in their response style when responding to attitude statements? If so, are characteristics of the response process associated with their ethnicity and generation of immigration? To

  1. Curiosity and Its Role in Cross-Cultural Knowledge Creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhaylov, Natalie S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the role of curiosity in promoting cross-cultural knowledge creation and competence development. It is based on a study with four international higher educational institutions, all of which offer management and business education for local and international students. The reality of multicultural and intercultural relationships…

  2. Cross Cultural Adaptation of the Menopause Specific Questionnaire ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cross Cultural Adaptation of the Menopause Specific. Questionnaire into the Persian Language. Ghazanfarpour M, Kaviani M1, Rezaiee M2, Ghaderi E3, Zandvakili F2. Department of Midwifery, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, 1Nursing and Midwifery College, Shiraz ...

  3. Women and Slavery: A Cross-Cultural Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertz, Dorothy C.

    A cross-cultural and historical survey of the relationship between slavery and the status of women focuses on Marxian theory, the position of free women, sexual division of labor, the threat of rape, and equivalents of slavery in the modern world. Throughout history, the majority of slaves have been women, many of whom held favored positions,…

  4. Conducting Cross-Cultural Research: Controversy, Cautions, Concerns, and Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Donna Y.; Moore, James L., III; Whiting, Gilman W.; Grantham, Tarek C.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors share concerns and considerations for researchers conducting cross-cultural research in gifted education. They contend that researchers should be mindful of the need to consider their own humanness--their beliefs, assumptions, attitudes, values, paradigms--and the limitations of their humanness when working with…

  5. Epilogue: The study of care in cross cultural, interdisciplinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No abstract available for this article... Keywords: care in cross culture, interdisciplinary perspective. Research Review Supplement 16 (2004: 95-101). AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use ...

  6. Lost in Translation: Methodological Considerations in Cross-Cultural Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, Elizabeth D.

    2007-01-01

    In cross-cultural child development research there is often a need to translate instruments and instructions to languages other than English. Typically, the translation process focuses on ensuring linguistic equivalence. However, establishment of linguistic equivalence through translation techniques is often not sufficient to guard against…

  7. Cross Cultural Images: The ETSU/NAU Special Photography Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Donna; Sluss, Dorothy; Lewis, Jamie; Vervelde, Peggy; Prater, Greg; Minner, Sam

    Recreation is a significant part of a full and rich life but is frequently overlooked in relation to handicapped children. A project called Cross-Cultural Images aimed to improve the quality of life for handicapped children by teaching them avocational photography skills. The project involved mildly handicapped children aged 7-11 in Appalachia, on…

  8. Fostering Autonomy in EFL Cross-Cultural Distance Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hikyoung

    2008-01-01

    The Korea Waseda Cross Cultural Distance Learning Project (KWCCDLP) is an endeavor to promote awareness of linguistic and cultural differences of speakers from different backgrounds through the medium of English. The project fully utilizes a student centered approach to learning where learners are the agents. This project aimed at university level…

  9. Professional Training of Future Teacher in Cross-Cultural Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenog, Olena

    2014-01-01

    On the example of propaedeutic educational course "Introduction to Slavic Philology" features of future teachers' professional training of cross-cultural dialogue are considered. Among the main objectives of the course, attention is focused on native language and other languages admirer's tolerance education, students' skills formation…

  10. Cross-Cultural Interpretations of Curricular Contextual Crossings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlein, Candace; Garii, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Teachers--who are generally representatives of the cultural mainstream--are expected to use global experiences to become culturally enhanced and to bring these enhancements back to their classrooms. In this article, the authors discuss a cross-cultural exploration of investigations into the experiences of Canadian and U.S. educators with…

  11. A Cross-Cultural Study of Task Specificity in Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storme, Martin; Lubart, Todd; Myszkowski, Nils; Cheung, Ping Chung; Tong, Toby; Lau, Sing

    2017-01-01

    This study provides new evidence concerning task specificity in creativity--examining through a cross-cultural perspective the extent to which performance in graphic versus verbal creativity tasks (domain specificity) and in divergent versus convergent creativity tasks (process specificity) are correlated. The relations between different…

  12. Examining Cultural Intelligence and Cross-Cultural Negotiation Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Kevin S.; Feyerherm, Ann; Gu, Minhua

    2015-01-01

    International negotiation failures are often linked to deficiencies in negotiator cross-cultural capabilities, including limited understanding of the cultures engaged in the transaction, an inability to communicate with persons from different cultural backgrounds, and limited behavioral flexibility to adapt to culturally unfamiliar contexts.…

  13. An International Discussion about Cross-Cultural Career Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Debra S.

    2012-01-01

    Career assessments are a common resource used by career practitioners internationally to help inform individuals' career decision-making. Research on the topic of cross-cultural career assessment has been mostly limited to the applicability of an established inventory to a different culture. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the existing…

  14. Using Popular Movies in Teaching Cross-Cultural Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Satish

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The present study aims to understand context and dynamics of cognitive learning of students as an outcome of the usage of popular movies as a learning tool in the management classroom and specifically in the context of a course on cross-cultural management issues. Design/methodology/approach: This is an exploratory study based on…

  15. Cross Cultural Validation Of Perceived Workfamily Facilitation Scale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The work family interface contains four unique factors based on studies from western countries. However, some of these studies have questioned the cross cultural adoption of psychological concept, and called for a re-validation prior to adoption. The main purpose of this study is to re-validate the four factor structure that ...

  16. A Cross-Cultural Examination of Semantic Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raybeck, Douglas; Herrmann, Douglas

    1990-01-01

    Reports on a cross-cultural investigation of semantic relations, including antonyms, synonyms, and class inclusion, among bilingual adult subjects in the United States, England, Italy, Greece, Yugoslavia, Pakistan, and Hong Kong. Found significant agreement across cultures, especially for antinomy. Results in general support theories of linguistic…

  17. [The child's voice through drawings in cross-cultural psychotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaziz, Nora

    2016-01-01

    The drawing is a valuable mediation tool to encourage the active participation of the child in the cross-cultural group psychotherapeutic process. It enables the therapists and, ultimately, the family, to take into account their psychological movements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Sexual harassment in northwest Europe - A cross-cultural comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, M.C.; Bajema, C.W.

    A substantial body of research addressing the issue of sexual harassment in the workplace has been developed over the past decade. In this article we consider the complexity of cross-cultural comparisons of the incidence rates of sexual harassment and present the results of our research on sexual

  19. Cross-Cultural Validation of TEMAS, a Minority Projective Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, Giuseppe; And Others

    The theoretical framework and cross-cultural validation of Tell-Me-A-Story (TEMAS), a projective test developed to measure personality development in ethnic minority children, is presented. The TEMAS test consists of 23 chromatic pictures which incorporate the following characteristics: (1) representation of antithetical concepts which the…

  20. Counternarrative and antenarrative inquiry in two cross-cultural contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boje, David M.; Svane, Marita Susanna; Gergerich, Erika

    2016-01-01

    stereotypical representations of race, class, and gender, and offer theory and methodology resources for a more meaningful understanding of homeless life and cultures. The second case explores narrative-counternarrative and antenarrative inquiry into a cross-cultural merger between two companies. Both cases...

  1. Determining Nonequivalent Measurement in Cross-Cultural Family Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Darwin L.; Weigert, Andrew J.

    1972-01-01

    The data point to the need for cross cultural family researchers to pretest their instruments on a group of bilinguals and then discard those items and/or scales which produce nonequivalent measures before the research is carried out, as a necessary step in the research process in order to increase the probability of equivalent measurement across…

  2. Sexual harassment in northwest Europe - A cross-cultural comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, M.C.; Bajema, C.W.

    1999-01-01

    A substantial body of research addressing the issue of sexual harassment in the workplace has been developed over the past decade. In this article we consider the complexity of cross-cultural comparisons of the incidence rates of sexual harassment and present the results of our research on sexual

  3. African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation is a professional journal of the Association of Psychology in Sport and Human Behaviour. It publishes a wide variety of original articles and reports relevant to cultural and sport behaviour, theoretical propositions, research outcomes ...

  4. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Individual Work Performance Questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, L.; Bernaards, C.M.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Lerner, D.; Vet, H.C.W. de; Beek, A.J. van der

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Individual Work Performance Questionnaire (IWPQ), measuring task performance, contextual performance, and counterproductive work behavior, was developed in The Netherlands. OBJECTIVES: To cross-culturally adapt the IWPQ from the Dutch to the American-English language, and assess the

  5. Integration of basic controversies in cross-cultural psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortinga, Y.H.

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses controversies in the field of cross-cultural psychology, including cultural psychology, with a view to possible integration.1 It briefly describes the indigenisation movement as a reaction against Western scientific ethnocentrism and mentions two methodological topics, that

  6. A Cross-Cultural Study of Role Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triandis, Harry C.; And Others

    Survey responses from 1,620 subjects in the United States, Greece, India, Peru, and Taiwan provide information on cross-cultural role perceptions. Study data reveal (1) the principal factors accounting for the variance in role perception in each culture, (2) those factors that are the same in all cultures, (3) the equivalent factor scores that…

  7. Cross-cultural adaptation, content validation, and reliability of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Assessment of lifestyle risk factors must be culturally- and contextually relevant and available in local languages. This paper reports on a study which aimed to cross culturally adapt a composite lifestyle cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors questionnaire into an African language (Yoruba) and testing some ...

  8. Our Own Stories: Cross-Cultural Communication Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresser, Norine

    The textbook for students of intermediate English as a Second Language (ESL) is based on cross-cultural communication misunderstandings described in essays written by university students. It consists of 20 instructional units, each beginning with a real student's dilemma caused by cultural differences and each dealing with one particular custom.…

  9. Cross-cultural Communication and ELT in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChengTongchun

    2004-01-01

    Culture plays a significant role in teaching and learning a language. The acquisition of cultural knowledge is an indispensable part of language learning. This paper discusses the importance and necessity of cross-cultural communication in the language teaching, and focuses on three parts:

  10. Cross Cultural Perspectives of Gender and Management in Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, K.; Riordan, S.; Ozkanli, O.; Neale, J.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: This article presents preliminary results of a cross cultural study of gender and management in universities. Methodology: Qualitative interviews with senior managers in each country were analysed in relation to key concepts of career paths, support, gate keeping, management skills, disciplinary factors, gendered leadership styles and…

  11. Community Collaborative Problem Solving--Cross-Cultural Lessons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Georgia L.; Marin-Hernandez, Agueda

    1999-01-01

    Examples of Midwestern and Honduran community-based collaborative problem solving provide cross-culturally-adaptable suggestions for community coalitions: adapt the process to the culture, recognize structural constraints, understand reciprocity norms, appreciate the validity of avoidance, and remember that communication roadblocks are always…

  12. A Cross-Cultural Study of Adolescent Procrastination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Robert M.; Ang, Rebecca P.; Chong, Wan Har; Krawchuk, Lindsey L.; Huan, Vivien S.; Wong, Isabella Y. F.; Yeo, Lay See

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we explore academic procrastination and associated motivation variables in 612 adolescents from Canada and Singapore. Few studies have explored adolescent procrastination and no previous studies have investigated adolescent procrastination using a cross-cultural framework. Singaporean adolescents reported higher levels of…

  13. Understanding Cross-Cultural Meaning through Visual Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedberg, John G.; Brown, Ian

    2002-01-01

    Discusses cultural differences in Web site design for cross-cultural contexts and describes a study of Masters Degree students in Hong Kong that investigated their perceptions of Web learning environments that had been designed in Australia and delivered into Hong Kong and China. Considers the appropriateness of western interface design…

  14. Cross-cultural training for Dutch expatriates going to India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zolingen, S.J. van; Essers, C.; Vermeer, L.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to gain insight into the challenges encountered by Dutch expatriates during their stay in India and into how Cross-Cultural Training (CCT) can be improved to help them handle these challenges adequately. For this explorative, in-depth study, CCT was split into five areas:

  15. Negative Cultural Transfer in Cross-Cultural Communication for Inter-national Business

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏秋颖

    2015-01-01

    With the depth development of economic globalization,the multi-culture conflict,communication and integration are strengthened.Meanwhile,series of problems about cross-cultural communication for international business have happened.One of the core problem is negative cultural transfer.This paper gives the analysis about its causes and effects.At last,the way to solve it have been found.

  16. God(s) Know(s): Developmental and Cross-Cultural Patterns in Children Drawings

    OpenAIRE

    Konyushkova, Ksenia; Arvanitopoulos, Nikolaos; Robert, Zhargalma Dandarova; Brandt, Pierre-Yves; Süsstrunk, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel approach to data analysis designed for the needs of specialists in psychology of religion. We detect developmental and cross-cultural patterns in children's drawings of God(s) and other supernatural agents. We develop methods to objectively evaluate our empirical observations of the drawings with respect to: (1) the gravity center, (2) the average intensities of the colors \\emph{green} and \\emph{yellow}, (3) the use of different colors (palette) and (4) the visua...

  17. CROSS-CULTURAL EXPERIMENTS AS AN ADAPTATION STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    И И Подойницына

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers methodological and empirical aspects of cross-cultural communica-tions under the economic and cultural globalization that determined the free movement of labor migrants around the world though this process is accompanied by certain difficulties. The authors believe that even a theoretically prepared person that knows about the influence of cultural differences on the organizational management in different countries will experience a cultural shock when working abroad. The cultural shock is a discomfort, frustration and even depression caused by getting into an unfamiliar environment. At the applied level, the authors analyze the so-called ‘cross-cultural experiments’ - attempts of an individual (a working specialist of a certain nation to test one’s strength, skills, and professional competencies in a foreign company. The authors’ sociological study of a cultural benchmarking type consisted of two stages. At the first stage, foreigners working in the capital of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia were inter-viewed; at the second stage, the Russians working abroad, mainly in the USA, were interviewed. The migra-tion flows from China have recently intensified in Yakutia, but the overwhelming majority of labor migrants are still from West and Central Asia, mainly from Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Armenia. The foreigners working in Yakutia and Russians working abroad experience same difficulties of adaptation in a new col-lective. Friends, relatives, members of the ethnic community, but not specially trained cross-cultural coaches and mentors, help them with adaptation. Such a personnel technology as selection, recruitment and headhunt-ing works reasonably well, while other HR technologies of cross-cultural management (motivation, feedback, etc. are still lagging behind. The authors insist on introducing courses on cross-cultural adaptation in interna-tional groups both in Russia and abroad together with a system of the so

  18. Cross-cultural examination of the five-factor model of drinking motives in Spanish and Canadian undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezquita, Laura; Stewart, Sherry H; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Grant, Valerie V

    2016-06-14

    This study aims to test the cross-cultural suitability of Modified Drinking Motives Questionnaire-Revised (M DMQ-R) (Grant, Stewart, O'Connor, Blackwell, & Conrod, 2007). The sample included 571 Spanish and 571 Canadian undergraduates between the ages of 18 and 22 (65.8% women). The confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated factorial invariance between samples. The regression analysis showed that social, enhancement and low conformity motives were related to drinking frequency and drinking quantity in the total sample. No moderation effect of country on predicting alcohol consumption was found. The results suggest that M DMQ-R is a suitable instrument for comparing drinking motives across Spanish and Canadian undergraduates, and that motives-focused prevention and treatment programmes developed in one country could be generalised to another.

  19. Cross-cultural adaptation in urban ethnobotany: the Colombian folk pharmacopoeia in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceuterick, Melissa; Vandebroek, Ina; Torry, Bren; Pieroni, Andrea

    2008-12-08

    To investigate traditional health care practices and changes in medicinal plant use among the growing Colombian community in London. Ethnobotanical fieldwork consisted of qualitative, in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 23 Colombians living in London and botanical identification of 46 plant species actively used as herbal remedies. Subsequently, research data were compared with literature on ethnobotany and traditional herbal medicine in the home country, using a framework on cross-cultural adaptation, adjusted for the purpose of this study. Similarities and discrepancies between data and literature are interpreted as potential indicators of continuity and loss (or deculturation) of traditional remedies, respectively. Remedies used in London that are not corroborated by the literature suggest possible newly acquired uses. Cross-cultural adaptation related to health care practices is a multifaceted process. Persistence, loss and incorporation of remedies into the Colombian folk pharmacopoeia after migration are influenced by practical adaptation strategies as well as by symbolic-cultural motives of ethnic identity.

  20. Adjusting for cross-cultural differences in computer-adaptive tests of quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, C J; Skevington, S M

    2018-04-01

    Previous studies using the WHOQOL measures have demonstrated that the relationship between individual items and the underlying quality of life (QoL) construct may differ between cultures. If unaccounted for, these differing relationships can lead to measurement bias which, in turn, can undermine the reliability of results. We used item response theory (IRT) to assess differential item functioning (DIF) in WHOQOL data from diverse language versions collected in UK, Zimbabwe, Russia, and India (total N = 1332). Data were fitted to the partial credit 'Rasch' model. We used four item banks previously derived from the WHOQOL-100 measure, which provided excellent measurement for physical, psychological, social, and environmental quality of life domains (40 items overall). Cross-cultural differential item functioning was assessed using analysis of variance for item residuals and post hoc Tukey tests. Simulated computer-adaptive tests (CATs) were conducted to assess the efficiency and precision of the four items banks. Splitting item parameters by DIF results in four linked item banks without DIF or other breaches of IRT model assumptions. Simulated CATs were more precise and efficient than longer paper-based alternatives. Assessing differential item functioning using item response theory can identify measurement invariance between cultures which, if uncontrolled, may undermine accurate comparisons in computer-adaptive testing assessments of QoL. We demonstrate how compensating for DIF using item anchoring allowed data from all four countries to be compared on a common metric, thus facilitating assessments which were both sensitive to cultural nuance and comparable between countries.

  1. A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Three Risk Tolerance Measures: Turkey and the United States Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Ruiz-Manjivar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An individual’s attitude toward financial risk tolerance (FRT is an important preference that influences financial decision-making under uncertainty. FRT involves inter-temporal resource allocation. Accurate and reliable measures of FRT are essential for professionals advising consumers as well as researchers who are trying to predict, and understand consumer behavior. This study explores cross-cultural risk tolerance by comparing random samples from Turkey, and the United States. Similar and distinctive attitudes and patterns regarding FRT are identified. Three subjective measures of FRT are employed in this study: Grable and Lytton (1999, Hanna, Gutter and Fan’s (2001 improved version of Barsky, Juster, Kimball and Shapiro (1997, and the Survey of Consumer Finance’s item on risk tolerance. Data was collected via an online survey that used the above-mentioned FRT measures. There were two versions: the original American English version, and a culturally translated Turkish version. To explore the correlation of FRT among measures, we use bivariate analysis by individually employing Pearson Chi-square test of independence, and cross tabulations analysis to each sample. In addition, by pooling both samples, we conduct cumulative logistic regression. We delineate FRT differences and consistencies between countries across subjective financial risk tolerance measures.

  2. Cross-cultural care encounters in paediatric care: minority ethnic parents' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavallali, Azar Gashasb; Jirwe, Maria; Kabir, Zarina Nahar

    2017-03-01

    Because of worldwide migration, the healthcare staff in general as well as in paedi"atric care specifically is challenged increasingly by people from various ethnic backgrounds. The challenge is related to providing culturally competent care and effectively communicating with people from diverse cultural and ethnic backgrounds who have different health beliefs, practices, values and languages. This also applies to the Swedish society and to Swedish paediatric care. The purpose of this study was to describe the expectations and experiences of cross-cultural care encounters among minority ethnic parents in Swedish paediatric care. A qualitative design was used in the study. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews between October 2011 and March 2012. The sample consisted of 12 parents of minority ethnic backgrounds who had their child in a ward at a children's hospital in the Stockholm County Council. The interviews were analysed using manifest content analysis. The Regional Ethical Review Committee approved the study (Ref: Nr: 2011/927-31/5). The analysis of the interviews led to three categories: fundamentals in nursing, cultural sensitivity and understanding, and influencing conditions. Generic knowledge and skills of nurses outweighed the need for the nurses to have culture-specific knowledge of their patients or relatives in cross-cultural care encounters. Language skills and the availability of bilingual nurses in a multi-ethnic society can facilitate communication and increase parents' satisfaction in cross-cultural care encounters. © 2016 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  3. Cross-cultural examination of measurement invariance of the Beck Depression Inventory-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dere, Jessica; Watters, Carolyn A; Yu, Stephanie Chee-Min; Bagby, R Michael; Ryder, Andrew G; Harkness, Kate L

    2015-03-01

    Given substantial rates of major depressive disorder among college and university students, as well as the growing cultural diversity on many campuses, establishing the cross-cultural validity of relevant assessment tools is important. In the current investigation, we examined the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition (BDI-II; Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996) among Chinese-heritage (n = 933) and European-heritage (n = 933) undergraduates in North America. The investigation integrated 3 distinct lines of inquiry: (a) the literature on cultural variation in depressive symptom reporting between people of Chinese and Western heritage; (b) recent developments regarding the factor structure of the BDI-II; and (c) the application of advanced statistical techniques to the issue of cross-cultural measurement invariance. A bifactor model was found to represent the optimal factor structure of the BDI-II. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis showed that the BDI-II had strong measurement invariance across both culture and gender. In group comparisons with latent and observed variables, Chinese-heritage students scored higher than European-heritage students on cognitive symptoms of depression. This finding deviates from the commonly held view that those of Chinese heritage somatize depression. These findings hold implications for the study and use of the BDI-II, highlight the value of advanced statistical techniques such as multigroup confirmatory factor analysis, and offer methodological lessons for cross-cultural psychopathology research more broadly. 2015 APA, all rights reserved

  4. Gender, religion, and sociopolitical issues in cross-cultural online education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Zareen; Verstegen, Daniëlle; Naqvi, Rahat; Morahan, Page; Dornan, Tim

    2016-05-01

    Cross-cultural education is thought to develop critical consciousness of how unequal distributions of power and privilege affect people's health. Learners in different sociopolitical settings can join together in developing critical consciousness-awareness of power and privilege dynamics in society-by means of communication technology. The aim of this research was to define strengths and limitations of existing cross-cultural discussions in generating critical consciousness. The setting was the FAIMER international fellowship program for mid-career interdisciplinary health faculty, whose goal is to foster global advancement of health professions education. Fellows take part in participant-led, online, written, task-focused discussions on topics like professionalism, community health, and leadership. We reflexively identified text that brought sociopolitical topics into the online environment during the years 2011 and 2012 and used a discourse analysis toolset to make our content analysis relevant to critical consciousness. While references to participants' cultures and backgrounds were infrequent, narratives of political-, gender-, religion-, and other culture-related topics did emerge. When participants gave accounts of their experiences and exchanged cross-cultural stories, they were more likely to develop ad hoc networks to support one another in facing those issues than explore issues relating to the development of critical consciousness. We suggest that cross-cultural discussions need to be facilitated actively to transform learners' frames of reference, create critical consciousness, and develop cultural competence. Further research is needed into how to provide a safe environment for such learning and provide faculty development for the skills needed to facilitate these exchanges.

  5. Children's perception of parental attitudes: Russia-Kyrgyzstan cross-cultural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tikhomirova Tatiana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a cross-cultural analysis of the perception of parental attitude by children and adolescents. We focused on the indicators of maternal and paternal attitude such as Acceptance, Positive Involvement, Rejection and Hostile Detachment. The Russian sample includes 501 primary school students aged 6.8 to 11.7 years (49.9% boys and 438 adolescents aged 10.8 to 16.8 years (47.1% boys. The Kyrgyz sample includes 510 primary school students aged from 6.6 to 11.8 years (48.5% boys and 513 adolescents aged 10.3 to 16.8 years (46.3% boys. Regardless of the macro environment, schoolchildren perceive the attitude of both parents to a greater extent as emotionally accepting and to a lesser extent as rejecting. At the same time, it is shown that cross-cultural differences in the perception of maternal attitude are manifested only in younger schoolchildren: Kyrgyz children assess maternal attitude as more emotionally accepting with positive involvement and less rejecting. Cross-cultural differences in the perception of paternal attitudes are manifested both in younger schoolchildren and in adolescents: Kyrgyz children assess paternal attitude more positively than Russian peers. The results are interpreted in the context of specific socio-economic conditions.

  6. Integrating cross-cultural psychology research methods into ethnic minority psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Frederick T L; Leung, Kwok; Cheung, Fanny M

    2010-10-01

    Multicultural psychology has 2 related but often disconnected streams, namely cross-cultural psychology and racial and ethnic minority psychology (Hall & Maramba, 2001). We propose that advances in both fields will be facilitated if there is greater cross-fertilization, especially in methodological approaches given that proponents in both fields are interested in studying and understanding the role and impact of culture on human behavior. To facilitate this cross-fertilization, we present 3 methodological approaches that would be of value in racial and ethnic minority psychology. First, we present an overview of the importance of and the approaches to evaluating and establishing measurement equivalence. Second, we discuss recent advances in the understanding of conceptual equivalence in light of indigenous approaches, cultural manipulation, and multilevel analysis. Third, we present a combined etic-emic approach to cross-cultural personality research as illustrated by the Cross-Cultural Personality Assessment Inventory developed by Fanny Cheung and her colleagues. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation and validation of an HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitudinal instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zometa, Carlos S; Dedrick, Robert; Knox, Michael D; Westhoff, Wayne; Siri, Rodrigo Simán; Debaldo, Ann

    2007-06-01

    An instrument developed in the United States by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to assess HIV/AIDS knowledge and four attitudinal dimensions (Peer Pressure, Abstinence, Drug Use, and Threat of HIV Infection) and an instrument developed by Basen-Engquist et al. (1999) to measure abstinence and condom use were translated, cross-culturally adapted, and validated for use with Spanish-speaking high school students in El Salvador. A back-translation of the English version was cross-culturally adapted using two different review panels and pilot-tested with Salvadorian students. An expert panel established content validity, and confirmatory factor analysis provided support for construct validity. Results indicated that the methodology was successful in cross-culturally adapting the instrument developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the instrument developed by Basen-Engquist et al. The psychometric properties of the knowledge section were acceptable and there was partial support for the four-factor attitudinal model underlying the CDC instrument and the two-factor model underlying the Basen-Engquist et al. instrument. Additional studies with Spanish-speaking populations (either in the United States or Latin America) are needed to evaluate the generalizability of the present results.

  8. Request for information about radiological risks in the health area. A cross-cultural study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prades, A. [Ciemat, Madrid (Spain); Martinez-Arias, R. [Universidad Complutense, Madrid (Spain); Arranz, L. [Hospital Ramon y Cajal, Madrid (Spain); Macias, M.T. [CSIC, Madrid (Spain)

    2000-05-01

    This paper will present some of the key findings of a comparative Latin-American study on radiological risk perception in the health area. The project used a survey method to examine the social demands for information about radiological risks with regard to diagnostic and therapeutic applications. The following topics will be analysed: 1) The role of information as a means for feeling safe; 2) who should inform the public on radiological risks; and 3) what type of information the public would like to receive. A questionnaire was distributed to outpatient samples from ten countries: Argentine, Brazil, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, Peru, Uruguay, and Spain, thanks to the collaboration of the different National Radioprotection Societies of the above mentionned countries, and of other concerned professionals (in case they didn't had any association at the time). Correspondence analysis and other techniques of optimal scaling will be used. The paper will discuss the main cross-cultural differences with regard to social demand for information about radiological risks. Our findings may have relevant implications for radiological risks communication programs. (author)

  9. Request for information about radiological risks in the health area. A cross-cultural study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prades, A.; Martinez-Arias, R.; Arranz, L.; Macias, M.T.

    2000-01-01

    This paper will present some of the key findings of a comparative Latin-American study on radiological risk perception in the health area. The project used a survey method to examine the social demands for information about radiological risks with regard to diagnostic and therapeutic applications. The following topics will be analysed: 1) The role of information as a means for feeling safe; 2) who should inform the public on radiological risks; and 3) what type of information the public would like to receive. A questionnaire was distributed to outpatient samples from ten countries: Argentine, Brazil, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, Peru, Uruguay, and Spain, thanks to the collaboration of the different National Radioprotection Societies of the above mentionned countries, and of other concerned professionals (in case they didn't had any association at the time). Correspondence analysis and other techniques of optimal scaling will be used. The paper will discuss the main cross-cultural differences with regard to social demand for information about radiological risks. Our findings may have relevant implications for radiological risks communication programs. (author)

  10. Health problem behaviors in Iranian adolescents: A study of cross-cultural adaptation, reliability, and validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ali Eslami

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The main purpose of this study was to assess the factorial validity and reliability of the Iranian versions of the personality and behavior system scales (49 items of the AHDQ (The Adolescent Health and Development Questionnaire and interrelations among them based on Jessor′s PBT (Problem Behavior Theory. Methods: A multi-staged approach was employed. The cross-cultural adaptation was performed according to the internationally recommended methodology, using the following guidelines: translation, back-translation, revision by a committee, and pretest. After modifying and identifying of the best items, a cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the psychometric properties of Persian version using calibration and validation samples of adolescents. Also 113 of them completed it again two weeks later for stability. Results: The findings of the exploratory factor analysis suggested that the 7-factor solution with low self concept, emotional distress, general delinquency, cigarette, hookah, alcohol, and hard drugs use provided a better fitting model. The a range for these identified factors was 0.69 to 0.94, the ICC range was 0.73 to 0.93, and there was a significant difference in mean scores for these instruments in compare between the male normative and detention adolescents. The first and second-order measurement models testing found good model fit for the 7-factor model. Conclusions: Factor analyses provided support of existence internalizing and externalizing problem behavior syndrome. With those qualifications, this model can be applied for studies among Persian adolescents.

  11. Cross-cultural comparison of need importance and need satisfaction during adolescence: Turkey and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortaçsu, N

    1997-09-01

    Turkish and U.S. adolescents' views concerning the importance of different needs and instrumentality of relationships with mothers, fathers, siblings, and same-sex friends for need satisfaction were examined and compared. Questionnaires covered needs related to crucial issues of adolescence, namely, relatedness and autonomy/individuation. Participants were 12- to 17-year-old boys and girls from intact families. Cross-cultural differences in ascribed importance of needs related to some aspects of relatedness and autonomy/individuation emerged. Cross-cultural similarities in ascribed importance of needs related to feelings of basic acceptance and need for self-understanding/development also emerged. Turkish adolescents perceived mothers as more instrumental for need satisfaction than did U.S. adolescents. Gender differences in importance ascribed to different needs also emerged. Cross-cultural differences were consistent with differences in predominant values and model family dynamics of the respective countries.

  12. On Chinese-English Translation of Tourist Attraction in Cross-cultural Perspective--Taking Qi Culture as An Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张滕龙

    2014-01-01

    Tourist textsfeature vividness and distinctiveness and its translation is a typical cross-cultural activity.By applying cross-cultural consciousness to the tourist material's translation, foreigners can understand the cultural connotation easily. Therefore, cross-cultural consciousness plays an important role in the translation of tourist materials.This thesis, taking Qi culture as an exam-ple, explores some typical tourist attractions from perspectives of historical allusions and legend as well as traditional customs. The analysis of Qi cultural connotation concludes business culture, Pu culture and filial piety culture. So, in order to transmit the cul-tural information to foreign tourists accurately, it is necessary to apply inter-cultural consciousness to the translation of tourist texts.

  13. Ensuring Quality in qualitative cross-cultural research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin

    2013-01-01

    Within recent years, there has been an increasing call for qualitative research in cross-cultural psychology. Despite this general openness, there seems to be some confusion about how to evaluate the quality of such research. This has been partly due to the heterogeneity of the field...... and the epistemological underpinnings of qualitative research that do not allow for standard criteria of rigor as in the traditional psychological research. Nevertheless, there is an emerging canon of recognized standards of good practice in qualitative research which the present paper will briefly discuss. The paper...... aims at motivating cross-cultural psychologists to produce high quality qualitative research that will contribute to the further advancement of the field....

  14. Cultural hegemony? Educators? perspectives on facilitating cross-cultural dialogue

    OpenAIRE

    Zaidi, Zareen; Verstegen, Dani?lle; Vyas, Rashmi; Hamed, Omayma; Dornan, Tim; Morahan, Page

    2016-01-01

    Background: We live in an age when education is being internationalized. This can confront students with ‘cultural hegemony’ that can result from the unequal distribution of power and privilege in global society. The name that is given to awareness of social inequality is ‘critical consciousness’. Cross-cultural dialogue provides an opportunity for learners to develop critical consciousness to counter cultural hegemony. The purpose of this research was to understand how learners engage with c...

  15. The Concept Of Framing In Cross-Cultural Business Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela Dumbravă

    2010-01-01

    Starting from the concept of cultural frames and their role in signifying human experience, the paper aims at pointing out that business communication, like any social interaction, is underrun by a process of framing, according to which individuals perceive, comprehend and appropriate otherness. Expanded to cross - cultural business communication, framing provides a clearer perspective on cultural divergence and ensures the acquiring of cultural sensitivity, which, in a global business envi...

  16. RESENSI BUKU : Cross-Cultural and Intercultural Communication

    OpenAIRE

    S Agung, Sarwititi; Indah, Yatri

    2007-01-01

    Buku ini terdiri dari dua bagian yakni bagian pertama komunikasi lintas budaya (cross cultural communication) (KLB) dan bagian kedua komunikasi antar budaya (KAB) (intercultural communication) dengan masing-masing bagian diberi pengantar. Buku ini merupakan ringkasan dari dua bagian “Handbook of International and Intercultural Communication” yang disunting oleh William B Gudykunst dari California State University. Ditulis oleh berbagai ahli komunikasi antar budaya dengan beragam bu...

  17. The Need for a Cross-Cultural Empirical Musicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Leman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper by Lara Pearson shows that a case study based on qualitative description may reveal interesting aspects about the co-occurrence of hand gestures and singing in a particular music culture. However, above all the paper lets us dream about what could be possible if forces from cultural studies and music cognition research were to be combined. A cross-cultural empirical musicology holds the promise of scientific work that goes far beyond qualitative descriptions.

  18. Cross-cultural variation in symptom perception of hypoglycemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Sanjay; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Mithal, Ambrish

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cross-cultural differences in attitudes and practices related to diabetes are well-known. Similar differences in symptom reporting of endocrine conditions such as menopause are well documented. Minimal literature is available on the cross-cultural variation in reporting of hypoglycemic symptoms. Aims: This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the symptoms of hypoglycemia encountered by diabetologists who deal with patients from different language groups from various states of North and West India and Nepal. Materials and Methods: Eighty three doctors from six Indian states and Nepal, attending a continuing medical education program were requested to fill a detailed, pre-tested, Likert scale based questionnaire which assessed the frequency and symptoms with which patients presented with hypoglycemia in their clinical practice. Data were analyzed based on geographic location of the diabetologists and language spoken by their patients (Hindi vs. Gujarati). Results: Gujarati-speaking patients tended to report to their doctors, a greater inability to work under pressure and a higher frequency of intense hunger during hypoglycemia. They were less likely to report specific adrenergic (inward trembling), neuroglycopenic (feeling down over nothing), and nocturnal (crumpled bedsheets upon waking up) symptoms. Conclusion: Significant cross-cultural differences related to the symptomatology of hypoglycemia are noted. Indian diabetologists should be aware of the varying presentation of hypoglycemia based on language and ethnic background. PMID:24672191

  19. Human dignity in religion-embedded cross-cultural nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheraghi, Mohammad A; Manookian, Arpi; Nasrabadi, Alireza N

    2014-12-01

    Although human dignity is an unconditional value of every human being, it can be shattered by extrinsic factors. It is necessary to discover the authentic meaning of patients' dignity preservation from different religious perspectives to provide professional cross-cultural care in a diverse setting. This article identifies common experiences of Iranian Muslim and Armenian Christian patients regarding dignified care at the bedside. This is a qualitative study of participants' experiences of dignified care elicited by individual in-depth semi-structured interviews. A purposeful sample of 10 participants (five Iranian Muslims and five Iranian Armenians) from various private and governmental hospital settings was chosen. This study was approved by the ethics committee of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. All the participants were provided with information about the purpose and the nature of the study, the voluntary condition of their participation in this study, and the anonymous reporting of recorded interviews. The common experiences of Christian and Muslim patients regarding dignity preservation emerged as "exigency of respecting human nobility" and "providing person-centered care." It is essential to recognize the humanness and individuality of each patient to preserve and promote human dignity in diverse cross-cultural settings. The findings support and expand current understanding about the objective and subjective nature of dignity preservation in cross-cultural nursing. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Stigma and Exclusion in Cross-Cultural Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Elizabeth Pohlman

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Discriminatory and marginalising discourses affect the cultural and social realities of people in all human societies. Across time and place, these discourses manifest in numerous tangible and intangible ways, creating stigma and forms of exclusion by means particular to their cultural, historical, political and social contexts. These discourses also manifest in varying degrees of harm; from verbal abuse and behavioural forms of exclusion, to physical abuse and neglect, and exclusionary practices at institutional, legal and regulatory levels. Such forms of stigma cause direct physical and mental harm and other forms of persecution. The papers in this special issue arise from a one-day symposium held at the University of Queensland in February 2013. The symposium, ‘Stigma and Exclusion in Cross-Cultural Contexts’, brought together researchers and community-based practitioners from across Australia and overseas to explore marginalization, discriminatory discourses and stigma in a wide range of historical and cross-cultural settings. By critically engaging with experiences of social, political and cultural exclusion and marginalisation in different contexts, we aimed to elucidate how discourses of stigma are created, contested and negotiated in cross-cultural settings. We also aimed to explore stigmatisation in its lived realities: as discourses of exclusion; as the fleshy reality of discrimination in social worlds; as part of the life narratives of individuals and groups; and as discourses of agency and counter-discourses in responding to stigma.

  1. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF INTERCULTURAL COMPETENCE IN CROSS-CULTURAL COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadranka Zlomislić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to explore the influence of education and additional factors influencing students’ awareness of intercultural differences. For the purposes of this research assessment was carried out with regard to their role in promoting cultural awareness and facing cross-cultural challenges posed by unfamiliar cross-cultural contexts. Cultural education is presumed to be a key factor for achieving a significant increase of cultural sensitivity and cultural awareness in order to ensure successful cross-cultural communication and increase mobility of students/working professionals. For this study, it was assumed that the cultural awareness of students increases due to the courses they take and their overall study experience. A special questionnaire was developed for the purposes of this research, and the obtained results were statistically analyzed with the help of descriptive statistics, the non-parametric chi-square test, and the Mann-Whitney test. The research has shown that intercultural competence has a statistically significant positive effect on the readiness of students to participate in study and work programs abroad. Thus, it is mandatory that foreign language competence as well as intercultural competence be a priority of the curriculum if we are to increase the number of highly educated experts who will be capable to compete successfully as students or professionals in all fields and all cultural areas. If we recognize that globalization has made the world a global village, we all need the intercultural competence to successfully live in it.

  2. Cross-cultural psychiatric residency training: the Oregon experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehnlein, James K; Leung, Paul K; Kinzie, John David

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the goals and structure of cross-cultural psychiatric training at Oregon Health and Science University (OHSU). This training in core knowledge, skills, and attitudes of cultural psychiatry over the past three decades has included medical students, residents, and fellows, along with allied mental health personnel. The curriculum includes both didactic sessions devoted to core topics in the field and varied clinical experiences in community settings and the Intercultural Psychiatric Program under the supervision of experienced academic faculty. The authors review the central elements of the training experiences and include a detailed description of the core clinical settings and experiences. At the conclusion of their clinical experiences, trainees have specialized cross-cultural psychiatric knowledge and skills, including treatment of refugees and immigrants, sociocultural variables that influence the assessment and treatment of a wide range of psychiatric conditions, and comfort with cultural dynamics that influence both the doctor/patient relationship and collaboration with a wide range of mental health professionals. Because of rapid demographic changes in the U.S. population, providing cross-cultural training for students, residents, and fellows is an essential foundation for the education of the next generation of clinicians and health care leaders. OHSU has provided a long-term model for this training in a busy clinical and academic setting that places an emphasis on multidisciplinary and multicultural collaboration.

  3. Design and Evaluation of a Cross-Cultural Training System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarelli, Thomas; Stagl, Kevin C.

    2011-01-01

    Cross-cultural competency, and the underlying communication and affective skills required to develop such expertise, is becoming increasingly important for a wide variety of domains. To address this need, we developed a blended learning platform which combines virtual role-play with tutorials, assessment and feedback. A Middle-Eastern Curriculum (MEC) exemplar for cross-cultural training U.S. military personnel was developed to guide the refinement of an existing game-based training platform. To complement this curriculum, we developed scenario authoring tools to enable end-users to define training objectives, link performance measures and feedback/remediation to these objectives, and deploy experiential scenarios within a game-based virtual environment (VE). Lessons learned from the design and development of this exemplar cross-cultural competency curriculum, as well as formative evaluation results, are discussed. Initial findings suggest that the underlying training technology promotes deep levels of semantic processing of the key information of relevant cultural and communication skills.

  4. Cross-cultural issues in forensic psychiatry training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layde, Joseph B

    2004-01-01

    Forensic psychiatry was officially recognized as a subspecialty by the American Board of Medical Specialties in the 1990's. In 1994, the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (ABPN) gave its first written examination to certify forensic psychiatrists. In 1996, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) began to officially accredit one-year residency experiences in forensic psychiatry, which follow a 4-year residency in general psychiatry. The extra year of training, colloquially known as a fellowship, is required for candidates who wish to receive certification in the subspecialty of forensic psychiatry; since 2001, completion of a year of training in a program accredited by ACGME has been required for candidates wishing to take the ABPN forensic psychiatry subspecialty examination. With the formal recognition of the subspecialty of forensic psychiatry comes the need to examine special issues of cultural importance which apply specifically to forensic psychiatry training. This paper examines the current literature on cross-cultural issues in forensic psychiatry, sets out several of the societal reasons for the importance of emphasizing those issues in forensic psychiatric training, and discusses how those issues are addressed in the curriculum of one forensic psychiatry fellowship at the Medical College of Wisconsin (MCW). While much has been written about cross-cultural issues in general psychiatry, very little has appeared in the literature on the topic of cross-cultural issues in forensic psychiatry.

  5. On English Teaching and Cross-cultural Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琪

    2016-01-01

    Since last century, because of reforming and opening policy, many people, especially young people go abroad to get a better job or get further education and so on. Besides, many foreigners are curious about our country. Consequently, people come to realize that if we known little about cross-cultural communication, there will be many conflicts. Some experts suggest that today's English teaching should emphasize intercultural communication. Learners ought to know not only grammar or words, but should learn cultural knowledge. If not, they will meet many difficulties while they communicate with foreigners. Therefore, it is important to introduce this kind of knowledge while teaching. This paper mainly talks about cross-cultural communication in foreign language teaching in China. In the first part, we talk about the importance of learn cross-culture and discuss the relationship between language teaching and cultural teaching. Next part is talk about the problems of culture teaching nowadays. According to these problems, we explore some culture teaching methods to improve culture teaching. The aim of this paper is to emphasize the importance of culture teaching during foreign language teaching. Culture teaching is necessary for all of us, it can make it possible for learners to prevent miscommunication from occurring in intercultural communications.

  6. Social representation of hearing aids: cross-cultural study in India, Iran, Portugal, and the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manchaiah V

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Vinaya Manchaiah,1 Berth Danermark,2 Vinay,3 Tayebeh Ahmadi,4 David Tomé,5 Rajalakshmi Krishna,6 Per Germundsson7 1Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences, Lamar University, Beaumont, Texas, USA; 2Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; 3Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway; 4Department of Audiology, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 5Department of Audiology, School of Allied Health Sciences, Polytechnic Institute of Porto, Vila Nova de Gaia, Portugal; 6All India Institute of Speech and Hearing, University of Mysore, Mysore, India; 7The Department of Health and Welfare Studies, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden Background: The current study was aimed at understanding the social representation of hearing aids in India, Iran, Portugal, and the United Kingdom. We also compared these results to explore the cross-cultural differences and similarities among these countries. Methods: The study involved a cross-sectional design, and the data were collected from four different countries using the snowball sampling method. Data were analyzed using a content analysis to identify the most-similar categories of responses reported, a co-occurrences analysis to see which of these categories are reported commonly, and a chi-square analysis to study if there was any association between positive, neutral, and negative connotations among participants in different countries. Results: The current study revealed four different social representations of hearing aids from India, Iran, Portugal, and the United Kingdom, and also a global index. Conclusion: The study results provide very useful insights into how hearing aids are represented in the society. These findings may have important implications for public education and also for manufacturers from the viewpoint of designing and marketing hearing aids in different countries. Keywords: hearing aids

  7. Cross-Validation of the Spanish HP-Version of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy Confirmed with Some Cross-Cultural Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcorta-Garza, Adelina; San-Martín, Montserrat; Delgado-Bolton, Roberto; Soler-González, Jorge; Roig, Helena; Vivanco, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Medical educators agree that empathy is essential for physicians' professionalism. The Health Professional Version of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy (JSE-HP) was developed in response to a need for a psychometrically sound instrument to measure empathy in the context of patient care. Although extensive support for its validity and reliability is available, the authors recognize the necessity to examine psychometrics of the JSE-HP in different socio-cultural contexts to assure the psychometric soundness of this instrument. The first aim of this study was to confirm its psychometric properties in the cross-cultural context of Spain and Latin American countries. The second aim was to measure the influence of social and cultural factors on the development of medical empathy in health practitioners. The original English version of the JSE-HP was translated into International Spanish using back-translation procedures. The Spanish version of the JSE-HP was administered to 896 physicians from Spain and 13 Latin American countries. Data were subjected to exploratory factor analysis using principal component analysis (PCA) with oblique rotation (promax) to allow for correlation among the resulting factors, followed by a second analysis, using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Two theoretical models, one based on the English JSE-HP and another on the first Spanish student version of the JSE (JSE-S), were tested. Demographic variables were compared using group comparisons. A total of 715 (80%) surveys were returned fully completed. Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the JSE for the entire sample was 0.84. The psychometric properties of the Spanish JSE-HP matched those of the original English JSE-HP. However, the Spanish JSE-S model proved more appropriate than the original English model for the sample in this study. Group comparisons among physicians classified by gender, medical specialties, cultural and cross-cultural backgrounds yielded statistically significant differences

  8. Conducting multinational, cross-cultural research in the functional gastrointestinal disorders: issues and recommendations. A Rome Foundation working team report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperber, A D; Gwee, K A; Hungin, A P; Corazziari, E; Fukudo, S; Gerson, C; Ghoshal, U C; Kang, J-Y; Levy, R L; Schmulson, M; Dumitrascu, D; Gerson, M-J; Chen, M; Myung, S-J; Quigley, E M M; Whorwell, P J; Zarzar, K; Whitehead, W E

    2014-11-01

    Cross-cultural, multinational research can advance the field of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs). Cross-cultural comparative research can make a significant contribution in areas such as epidemiology, genetics, psychosocial modulators, symptom reporting and interpretation, extra-intestinal co-morbidity, diagnosis and treatment, determinants of disease severity, health care utilisation, and health-related quality of life, all issues that can be affected by geographical region, culture, ethnicity and race. To identify methodological challenges for cross-cultural, multinational research, and suggest possible solutions. This report, which summarises the full report of a working team established by the Rome Foundation that is available on the Internet, reflects an effort by an international committee of FGID clinicians and researchers. It is based on comprehensive literature reviews and expert opinion. Cross-cultural, multinational research is important and feasible, but has barriers to successful implementation. This report contains recommendations for future research relating to study design, subject recruitment, availability of appropriate study instruments, translation and validation of study instruments, documenting confounders, statistical analyses and reporting of results. Advances in study design and methodology, as well as cross-cultural research competence, have not matched technological advancements. The development of multinational research networks and cross-cultural research collaboration is still in its early stages. This report is intended to be aspirational rather than prescriptive, so we present recommendations, not guidelines. We aim to raise awareness of these issues and to pose higher standards, but not to discourage investigators from doing what is feasible in any particular setting. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of an Instrument to Assess Cross-Cultural Competence of Healthcare Professionals (CCCHP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, Gerda; Knibbe, Ronald A; von Wolff, Alessa; Dingoyan, Demet; Schulz, Holger; Mösko, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Cultural competence of healthcare professionals (HCPs) is recognized as a strategy to reduce cultural disparities in healthcare. However, standardised, valid and reliable instruments to assess HCPs' cultural competence are notably lacking. The present study aims to 1) identify the core components of cultural competence from a healthcare perspective, 2) to develop a self-report instrument to assess cultural competence of HCPs and 3) to evaluate the psychometric properties of the new instrument. The conceptual model and initial item pool, which were applied to the cross-cultural competence instrument for the healthcare profession (CCCHP), were derived from an expert survey (n = 23), interviews with HCPs (n = 12), and a broad narrative review on assessment instruments and conceptual models of cultural competence. The item pool was reduced systematically, which resulted in a 59-item instrument. A sample of 336 psychologists, in advanced psychotherapeutic training, and 409 medical students participated, in order to evaluate the construct validity and reliability of the CCCHP. Construct validity was supported by principal component analysis, which led to a 32-item six-component solution with 50% of the total variance explained. The different dimensions of HCPs' cultural competence are: Cross-Cultural Motivation/Curiosity, Cross-Cultural Attitudes, Cross-Cultural Skills, Cross-Cultural Knowledge/Awareness and Cross-Cultural Emotions/Empathy. For the total instrument, the internal consistency reliability was .87 and the dimension's Cronbach's α ranged from .54 to .84. The discriminating power of the CCCHP was indicated by statistically significant mean differences in CCCHP subscale scores between predefined groups. The 32-item CCCHP exhibits acceptable psychometric properties, particularly content and construct validity to examine HCPs' cultural competence. The CCCHP with its five dimensions offers a comprehensive assessment of HCPs' cultural competence, and has the

  10. Testing for Measurement and Structural Equivalence in Large-Scale Cross-Cultural Studies: Addressing the Issue of Nonequivalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Barbara M.; van de Vijver, Fons J. R.

    2010-01-01

    A critical assumption in cross-cultural comparative research is that the instrument measures the same construct(s) in exactly the same way across all groups (i.e., the instrument is measurement and structurally equivalent). Structural equation modeling (SEM) procedures are commonly used in testing these assumptions of multigroup equivalence.…

  11. A Cross-Cultural Study of Students' Behaviors and Classroom Management Strategies in the USA and Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sunwoo; Koh, Myung-sook

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-cultural study is to investigate comparative students' problem behaviors and classroom behavior management strategies for students in urban public schools between teachers in the United States and Korea. This study incorporated data collected from two different teacher self-reported survey questionnaires, the Student…

  12. The Cross-cultural Generalizability of the Theory of Planned Behavior: a study on job seeking in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A.J. van Hooft (Edwin); M.Ph. Born (Marise); T.W. Taris (Toon); H. van der Flier (Henk)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis study examined the cross-cultural generalizability of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) as applied to job seeking, by comparing samples of native-Dutch and Turkish individuals in The Netherlands. Results supported the equivalence of the measures used. Moreover, the TPB

  13. Cross-Cultural Adjustment Process of Expatriate Families in a Multinational Organization: A Family System Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbusch, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this survey based study was to examine whether the characteristics (i.e., flexibility and cohesion) of expatriate families in a multinational corporation as measured by the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale can predict cross-cultural adjustment of the expatriate (individual level of analysis) and his/her family…

  14. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the VISA-P questionnaire for German-speaking patients with patellar tendinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohrer, Heinz; Nauck, Tanja

    2011-03-01

    Clinical measurement study. To cross-culturally adapt and validate the Victorian Institute of Sports Assessment Patellar Tendinopathy Questionnaire (VISA-P) for German-speaking patients. Like most questionnaires, the VISA-P was developed for English-speaking patients. There is a need to adapt the scale for German-speaking patients and thereby add to the total body of psychometric evidence relating to this instrument. The VISA-P questionnaire was translated and cross-culturally adapted into German (VISA-P-G) in 6 steps: translation, synthesis, back translation, expert committee review, pretesting, and advisory committee appraisal. The psychometric properties of the VISA-P-G were determined using 23 patients with patellar tendinopathy and 57 active healthy persons (32 sport students and 25 basketball players). Reliability was evaluated by applying the questionnaire twice within a week to all 80 participants. Known group validity was calculated using a 1-way analysis of variance. Additionally, VISA-P-G results were correlated with the Blazina classification system for patellar tendinopathy, using the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. VISA-P-G ratings from the present study groups were further compared with respective data published in the original English, Dutch, and Swedish versions by a 2-sample t test. Internal consistency for the individual items of the questionnaire was determined within the patient group using a Cronbach alpha. Test-retest revealed excellent reliability for the patient and the asymptomatic control group (ICC = 0.88 and 0.87, respectively). Internal consistency for the patients was 0.88. Concurrent validity was almost perfect (ρ = -0.81; Pspeaking patients with patellar tendinopathy. Its psychometric properties are comparable with the original English and international adaptations (Swedish, Dutch, and Italian).

  15. In Search of Cultural Diversity: Recent Literature in Cross-Cultural and Ethnic Minority Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Gordon C. Nagayama; Maramba, Gloria Gia

    2001-01-01

    Identifies where most work on cross-cultural and ethnic minority psychology is being published and the authors. Very little overlap was found between literature in cross-cultural and ethnic minority psychology. Top scholars in cross-cultural psychology are men of European ancestry, while in ethnic minority psychology, scholars are ethnic…

  16. Transforming Cultural Competence into Cross-cultural Efficacy in Women's Health Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez, Ana E.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the importance of changing cross cultural competence to cross cultural efficacy in the context of addressing health care needs, including those of women. Explores why cross cultural education needs to expand the objectives of women's health education to go beyond traditional values and emphasizes the importance of training for real-world…

  17. Cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric evaluations of the Turkish version of Parkinson Fatigue Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Erhan Arif; Kocer, Bilge Gonenli; Umay, Ebru; Cakci, Aytul

    2018-06-07

    The objectives of the present study were to translate and cross-culturally adapt the English version of the Parkinson Fatigue Scale into Turkish, to evaluate its psychometric properties, and to compare them with that of other language versions. A total of 144 patients with idiopathic Parkinson disease were included in the study. The Turkish version of Parkinson Fatigue Scale was evaluated for data quality, scaling assumptions, acceptability, reliability, and validity. The questionnaire response rate was 100% for both test and retest. The percentage of missing data was zero for items, and the percentage of computable scores was full. Floor and ceiling effects were absent. The Parkinson Fatigue Scale provides an acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha was 0.974 for 1st test and 0.964 for a retest, and corrected item-to-total correlations were ranged from 0.715 to 0.906) and test-retest reliability (Cohen's kappa coefficients were ranged from 0.632 to 0.786 for individuals items, and intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.887 for the overall Parkinson Fatigue Scale Score). An exploratory factor analysis of the items revealed a single factor explaining 71.7% of variance. The goodness-of-fit statistics for the one-factorial confirmatory factor analysis were Tucker Lewis index = 0.961, comparative fit index = 0.971 and root mean square error of approximation = 0.077 for a single factor. The average Parkinson Fatigue Scale Score was correlated significantly with sociodemographic data, clinical characteristics and scores of rating scales. The Turkish version of the Parkinson Fatigue Scale seems to be culturally well adapted and have good psychometric properties. The scale can be used in further studies to assess the fatigue in patients with Parkinson's disease.

  18. Cross-cultural study: experience, understanding of menopause, and related therapies in Australian and Laotian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayakhot, Padaphet; Vincent, Amanda; Teede, Helena

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and compare symptom experiences, beliefs, attitudes, and understanding of menopause and menopausal therapies in Australian and Laotian women. This was a cross-cultural, questionnaire-based study involving 108 women (56 Australian women and 52 Laotian women aged 40-65 y) attending outpatient clinics in Australia and Laos. Descriptive statistics and univariate analysis were conducted using Student's t test or Mann-Whitney U test, where appropriate. Psychological symptoms, depression, vasomotor symptoms, and sexual dysfunction were significantly higher in Australian women compared with Laotian women (P menopause as aging (57%), whereas most Laotian women reported not knowing what menopause meant to them (81%). Australian women's fears about menopause included weight gain (43%), aging (41%), and breast cancer (38%), whereas Laotian women reported not knowing about potential menopausal problems (85%). Exercise (55%), education and awareness (46%), and improving lifestyle (41%) were reported by Australian women as being effective in alleviating menopausal symptoms, with only 21% reporting not knowing what was effective compared with 83% of Laotian women. Many women reported not knowing the risks/benefits of hormonal therapies (50% of Australian women and 87% of Laotian women) and herbal therapies (79% of Australian women and 92% of Laotian women). General practitioners were the most common source of menopause information for both Australians (73%) and Laotians (67%). Sociocultural factors influence women's perception of menopause. Psychological symptoms, sexual dysfunction, and vasomotor symptoms are more commonly reported by Australian women than by Laotian women. Women have a limited understanding of the risks/benefits of menopausal therapies, and culturally appropriate education is needed.

  19. Nuclear power operations: A cross-cultural perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochlin, G.I.; Meier, A. von

    1994-01-01

    The authors present here a summary of similarities and differences observed in reactor control rooms, in the context of a review of the literature that framed and shaped the inquiry. After a brief overview of the scope, background, and origins of the study, the authors set it into the context of cross-cultural research, with particular attention to the methodological strengths and shortcomings of working in depth with a small number of cases. Following a summary of the observations and a discussion of their relevance, the authors conclude that the cultural variations they observe are indeed functional adaptations to specific social and cultural environments. 149 refs

  20. Continuing bonds after bereavement:A cross-cultural perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Valentine, Christine A

    2009-01-01

    The ways in which eastern and western cultures grieve for their dead are often contrasted. Eastern cultures are seen to place greater value on traditional ritual and ceremony that, it is argued, serve to create a lasting, and comforting, bond with the deceased. By contrast, western societies are seen to be much more materialist and individualistic. This article takes a cross-cultural look at responses to death and loss in the UK and Japan, both post-industrial societies but with very differen...

  1. What do we know about cross-cultural marketing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popovici, S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The strong competition on the world market determines companies to search new marketing solutions for a successful development. In the context of an ever increasing diversity and globalisation, this article presents a new kind of marketing strategy, addressing the specific case of the multicultural markets, in order to identify and clearly define new market needs. While it is obvious that these market demands are affected by the power of the traditions and national values, the use of cross-cultural marketing opens new opportunities for companies to meet these demands, and thus to increase profit.

  2. Cross-cultural leadership: leading around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanges, Paul J; Aiken, Juliet R; Park, Joo; Su, Junjie

    2016-04-01

    Situational models of leadership have been discussed since the mid-1960s. In this paper, we review the evidence concerning one such contextual variable, societal culture. The traditional cross-cultural literature shows how culture affects the kind of leadership characteristics, attributes, and behaviors desired and believed to be important in a society. The research also shows that culture moderates the outcomes resulting from different styles of leadership. The newly emerging global leadership literature focuses on leadership when followers are culturally diverse. We review the current state of these literatures and provide research suggestions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Strategies and challenges for communicating the diagnosis of cancer in cross-cultural clinical settings-Perspectives from South African healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ottilia; Goliath, Veonna; van Rooyen, Dalena R M; Aldous, Colleen; Marais, Leonard Charles

    2017-01-01

    Communicating the diagnosis of cancer in cross-cultural clinical settings is a complex task. This qualitative research article describes the content and process of informing Zulu patients in South Africa of the diagnosis of cancer, using osteosarcoma as the index diagnosis. We used a descriptive research design with census sampling and focus group interviews. We used an iterative thematic data analysis process and Guba's model of trustworthiness to ensure scientific rigor. Our results reinforced the use of well-accepted strategies for communicating the diagnosis of cancer. In addition, new strategies emerged which may be useful in other cross-cultural settings. These strategies included using the stages of cancer to explain the disease and its progression and instilling hope using a multidisciplinary team care model. We identified several patients, professionals, and organizational factors that complicate cross-cultural communication. We conclude by recommending the development of protocols for communication in these cross-cultural clinical settings.

  4. Basic and complex emotion recognition in children with autism: cross-cultural findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridenson-Hayo, Shimrit; Berggren, Steve; Lassalle, Amandine; Tal, Shahar; Pigat, Delia; Bölte, Sven; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Golan, Ofer

    2016-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) have emotion recognition deficits when tested in different expression modalities (face, voice, body). However, these findings usually focus on basic emotions, using one or two expression modalities. In addition, cultural similarities and differences in emotion recognition patterns in children with ASC have not been explored before. The current study examined the similarities and differences in the recognition of basic and complex emotions by children with ASC and typically developing (TD) controls across three cultures: Israel, Britain, and Sweden. Fifty-five children with high-functioning ASC, aged 5-9, were compared to 58 TD children. On each site, groups were matched on age, sex, and IQ. Children were tested using four tasks, examining recognition of basic and complex emotions from voice recordings, videos of facial and bodily expressions, and emotional video scenarios including all modalities in context. Compared to their TD peers, children with ASC showed emotion recognition deficits in both basic and complex emotions on all three modalities and their integration in context. Complex emotions were harder to recognize, compared to basic emotions for the entire sample. Cross-cultural agreement was found for all major findings, with minor deviations on the face and body tasks. Our findings highlight the multimodal nature of ER deficits in ASC, which exist for basic as well as complex emotions and are relatively stable cross-culturally. Cross-cultural research has the potential to reveal both autism-specific universal deficits and the role that specific cultures play in the way empathy operates in different countries.

  5. Semiology of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures: An international cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi-Pooya, Ali A; Valente, Kette; Alessi, Ruda; Tinker, Jennifer

    2017-10-01

    We compared the semiology of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) between patients from the USA and Brazil. This international cross-cultural comparative study may expand understanding of PNES across the borders. We retrospectively investigated all patients with PNES admitted to one epilepsy center in the USA and one in Brazil. We classified their seizures into four classes: generalized motor, akinetic, focal motor, and subjective symptoms. All patients were interviewed by an epileptologist in both countries and were administered psychological assessment measures, including questions about PNES risk factors. For the statistical analyses, we compared patients from the two nations. Eighty-nine patients (49 from the USA and 40 from Brazil) were studied. Patients from the two countries were not significantly different with regard to sex and age, but patients from Brazil had earlier age at onset (26years vs. 34years; P=0.004) and a significantly greater delay in diagnosis (9.9years vs. 5.6years; P=0.001). Some characteristics of PNES were different between the two groups; patients from the USA had generally more seizure types and more often reported subjective seizures (55% in the USA vs. 10% in Brazil; P=0.0001). Clinical and historical characteristics of the patients were not significantly different. Delay in diagnosis of PNES may represent a major factor in resource-limited countries. Large multicenter cross-cultural studies may reveal subtle but significant cross-cultural differences with respect to the semiological, clinical, and historical aspects of PNES; however, patients with PNES share more similarities than differences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Conceptualizing the cross-cultural gaps in managing international aid: HIV/AIDS and TB project delivery in Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Terence

    2011-01-01

    There appears to be a gap between the billions of dollars inputted into fighting HIV/AIDS and TB and outcomes. This in part can be attributed to the lack of attention in International Development to managing programmes and projects within complex levels of cross-cultural interactions. International Development often ignores management issues, yet Management Studies is left wanting through a lack of engagement with development issues including the fight against disease and poverty. This paper attempts to link these two disciplines towards mutual benefit, through a critical cross-cultural approach. It provides contextualization of international development policies/strategies; conceptualization of dominant paradigms; structural analysis of how a programme/project fits into the global governance structure; analysis of complexities and levels of cross-cultural interaction and their consequences and the process and implications of knowledge transfer across cultural distances. It concludes with implications for policy and practice, as well as what is needed from cross-disciplinary research. This includes how feedback loops can be strengthened from local to global, how indigenous knowledge may be better understood and integrated, how power relations within the global governance structure could be managed, how cross-cultural interaction could be better understood, and how knowledge transfer/sharing should be critically managed. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Cross-cultural adaptation and preliminary psychometric properties of the Affective Reactivity Index in Brazilian Youth: implications for DSM-5 measured irritability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Araújo DeSousa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the cross-cultural adaptation of the Affective Reactivity Index (ARI to Brazilian Portuguese and to investigate preliminary psychometric properties of the adapted version. Methods: Cross-cultural adaptation was based on the investigation of the theoretical and operational equivalences of the original ARI in the Brazilian context, followed by a process of translation, back-translation, and review by a committee of experts. Data analysis was carried out in a community sample of 133 schoolchildren aged 8 to 17 years to investigate the following characteristics of the ARI: 1 factor structure; 2 internal consistency; 3 construct validity comparing differential relationships between irritability and anxiety dimensions and impairment; and 4 item response theory (IRT parameters. Results: A final Brazilian Portuguese version of the instrument was defined and is presented. Internal consistency was good, and our analysis supported the original single-factor structure of the ARI. Correlations of the ARI with distress-related anxiety dimensions were higher than with phobic-related anxiety dimensions, supporting its construct validity. In addition, higher ARI scores were associated with higher irritability-related impairment. IRT analysis underscored frequency of loss of temper as essential to inform about pathological states of irritability. Conclusion: The Brazilian Portuguese version of the ARI seems to be very similar to the original instrument in terms of conceptual, item, semantic, and operational equivalence. Our preliminary analysis replicates and extends previous evidence confirming promising psychometric properties for the ARI.

  8. Inconsistencies Between Two Cross-Cultural Adaptations of the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture Into French.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussat, Bastien; François, Patrice; Gandon, Gérald; Giai, Joris; Seigneurin, Arnaud; Perneger, Thomas; Labarère, José

    2017-11-15

    Two cross-cultural adaptations of the 12-dimension Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPSC) into French coexist: the Occelli and Vlayen versions. The objective of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Occelli version in comparison with those reported for the Vlayen and the original US versions of this instrument. Using the original data from a cross-sectional study of 5,064 employees at a single university hospital in France, we examined the acceptability, internal consistency, factorial structure, and construct validity of the Occelli version of the HSOPSC. The response rate was 76.8% (n = 3888). Our study yielded lower missing value rates (median, 0.4% [range, 0.0%-2.4%] versus 0.8% [range, 0.2%-11.4%]) and lower dimension scores (median, 3.19 [range, 2.67-3.54] versus 3.42 [range, 2.92-3.96]) than those reported for the Vlayen version. Cronbach alphas (median, 0.64; range, 0.56-0.84) compared unfavorably with those reported for the Vlayen (median, 0.73; range, 0.57-0.86) and original US (median, 0.78; range, 0.63-0.84) versions. The results of the confirmatory factor analysis were consistent between the Vlayen and Occelli versions, making it possible to conduct surveys from the 12-dimensional structure with both versions. The inconsistencies observed between the Occelli and Vlayen versions of the HSOPSC may reflect either differences between the translations or heterogeneity in the study population and context. Current evidence does not clearly support the use of one version over the other. The two cross-cultural adaptations of the HSOPSC can be used interchangeably in French-speaking countries.

  9. Privacy Issues of Electronic Monitoring Of Employees: A Cross-Cultural Examination Of Gender Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond E. Taylor

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript presents the results of a study which examined the privacy issues of electronic monitoring of employees from a cross-cultural perspective comparing participants from Taiwan with those from the United States. The results of the study suggest that gender differences exist between Taiwanese and American respondents’ attitudes concerning privacy issues of electronic monitoring of employees. The study suggests that monitoring with notice was an important parameter in determining how privacy issues of electronic monitoring of employees were viewed by the participants.

  10. Cross-cultural differences for three visual memory tasks in Brazilian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, F H; Mello, C B; Bueno, O F A; Dellatolas, G

    2005-10-01

    Norms for three visual memory tasks, including Corsi's block tapping test and the BEM 144 complex figures and visual recognition, were developed for neuropsychological assessment in Brazilian children. The tasks were measured in 127 children ages 7 to 10 years from rural and urban areas of the States of São Paulo and Minas Gerais. Analysis indicated age-related but not sex-related differences. A cross-cultural effect was observed in relation to copying and recall of Complex pictures. Different performances between rural and urban children were noted.

  11. Cross-cultural validation of the positivity-scale in five European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Heikamp, Tobias; Alessandri, Guido; Laguna, Mariola; Petrovic, Vesna; Caprara, Maria Giovanna; Trommsdorff, Gisela

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present paper was to test the cross-cultural validity of the Positivity-Scale (P-Scale), a new nquestionnaire designed for the measurement of positivity (i.e., general tendency to evaluate self, life, and future in a positive way). Participants (N = 3544) from Italy, Germany, Spain, Poland, and Serbia answered eight items of the P-Scale and responded to items from other well-validated measures. Confirmatory Factor Analysis supported the assumed one-factor structure of the P-Sca...

  12. Cultural competency of health-care providers in a Swiss University Hospital: self-assessed cross-cultural skillfulness in a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background As the diversity of the European population evolves, measuring providers’ skillfulness in cross-cultural care and understanding what contextual factors may influence this is increasingly necessary. Given limited information about differences in cultural competency by provider role, we compared cross-cultural skillfulness between physicians and nurses working at a Swiss university hospital. Methods A survey on cross-cultural care was mailed in November 2010 to front-line providers in Lausanne, Switzerland. This questionnaire included some questions from the previously validated Cross-Cultural Care Survey. We compared physicians’ and nurses’ mean composite scores and proportion of “3-good/4-very good” responses, for nine perceived skillfulness items (4-point Likert-scale) using the validated tool. We used linear regression to examine how provider role (physician vs. nurse) was associated with composite skillfulness scores, adjusting for demographics (gender, non-French dominant language), workplace (time at institution, work-unit “sensitized” to cultural-care), reported cultural-competence training, and cross-cultural care problem-awareness. Results Of 885 questionnaires, 368 (41.2%) returned the survey: 124 (33.6%) physicians and 244 (66.4%) nurses, reflecting institutional distribution of providers. Physicians had better mean composite scores for perceived skillfulness than nurses (2.7 vs. 2.5, p cross-cultural training (β = 0.14, p = 0.01) and lack of practical experience caring for diverse populations (β = 0.11, p = 0.04). In stratified analyses among physicians alone, having French as a dominant language (β = −0.34, p cross-cultural skills training with an inter-professional focus on nurses, education that attunes provider awareness to the local issues in cross-cultural care, and increased diversity efforts in the work force, particularly among physicians. PMID:24479405

  13. Cultural competency of health-care providers in a Swiss University Hospital: self-assessed cross-cultural skillfulness in a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casillas, Alejandra; Paroz, Sophie; Green, Alexander R; Wolff, Hans; Weber, Orest; Faucherre, Florence; Ninane, Françoise; Bodenmann, Patrick

    2014-01-30

    As the diversity of the European population evolves, measuring providers' skillfulness in cross-cultural care and understanding what contextual factors may influence this is increasingly necessary. Given limited information about differences in cultural competency by provider role, we compared cross-cultural skillfulness between physicians and nurses working at a Swiss university hospital. A survey on cross-cultural care was mailed in November 2010 to front-line providers in Lausanne, Switzerland. This questionnaire included some questions from the previously validated Cross-Cultural Care Survey. We compared physicians' and nurses' mean composite scores and proportion of "3-good/4-very good" responses, for nine perceived skillfulness items (4-point Likert-scale) using the validated tool. We used linear regression to examine how provider role (physician vs. nurse) was associated with composite skillfulness scores, adjusting for demographics (gender, non-French dominant language), workplace (time at institution, work-unit "sensitized" to cultural-care), reported cultural-competence training, and cross-cultural care problem-awareness. Of 885 questionnaires, 368 (41.2%) returned the survey: 124 (33.6%) physicians and 244 (66.4%) nurses, reflecting institutional distribution of providers. Physicians had better mean composite scores for perceived skillfulness than nurses (2.7 vs. 2.5, p cross-cultural training (β = 0.14, p = 0.01) and lack of practical experience caring for diverse populations (β = 0.11, p = 0.04). In stratified analyses among physicians alone, having French as a dominant language (β = -0.34, p cultural competency improvement among providers. These results support the need for cross-cultural skills training with an inter-professional focus on nurses, education that attunes provider awareness to the local issues in cross-cultural care, and increased diversity efforts in the work force, particularly among physicians.

  14. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of Persian Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Noureddin Nakhostin; Naghdi, Soofia; Hasanvand, Sahar; Fakhari, Zahra; Kordi, Ramin; Nilsson-Helander, Katarina

    2016-04-01

    To cross-culturally adapt the Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score (ATRS) to Persian language and to preliminary evaluate the reliability and validity of a Persian ATRS. A cross-sectional and prospective cohort study was conducted to translate and cross-culturally adapt the ATRS to Persian language (ATRS-Persian) following steps described in guidelines. Thirty patients with total Achilles tendon rupture and 30 healthy subjects participated in this study. Psychometric properties of floor/ceiling effects (responsiveness), internal consistency reliability, test-retest reliability, standard error of measurement (SEM), smallest detectable change (SDC), construct validity, and discriminant validity were tested. Factor analysis was performed to determine the ATRS-Persian structure. There were no floor or ceiling effects that indicate the content and responsiveness of ATRS-Persian. Internal consistency was high (Cronbach's α 0.95). Item-total correlations exceeded acceptable standard of 0.3 for the all items (0.58-0.95). The test-retest reliability was excellent [(ICC)agreement 0.98]. SEM and SDC were 3.57 and 9.9, respectively. Construct validity was supported by a significant correlation between the ATRS-Persian total score and the Persian Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (PFAOS) total score and PFAOS subscales (r = 0.55-0.83). The ATRS-Persian significantly discriminated between patients and healthy subjects. Explanatory factor analysis revealed 1 component. The ATRS was cross-culturally adapted to Persian and demonstrated to be a reliable and valid instrument to measure functional outcomes in Persian patients with Achilles tendon rupture. II.

  15. Cross-cultural Adaptation of the Self-care of Hypertension Inventory Into Brazilian Portuguese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Luana Claudia Jacoby; Rabelo-Silva, Eneida Rejane; Ávila, Christiane Whast; Beltrami Moreira, Leila; Dickson, Victoria Vaughan; Riegel, Barbara

    Lifestyle changes and treatment adherence still constitute a challenge to healthcare providers involved in the care of persons with hypertension. The lack of validated instruments measuring the ability of hypertensive patients to manage their disease has slowed research progress in this area. The Self-care of Hypertension Inventory, originally developed in the United States, consists of 23 items divided across 3 scales: Self-care Maintenance, Self-care Management, and Self-care Confidence. These scales measure how well patients with hypertension adhere to treatment and manage elevated blood pressure, as well as their confidence in their ability to perform self-care. A rigorous cross-cultural adaptation and validation process is required before this instrument can be used in other countries. The aims of this study were to translate the Self-care of Hypertension Inventory into Brazilian Portuguese with cross-cultural adaptation and to evaluate interobserver reliability and temporal stability. This methodological study involved forward translation, synthesis of forward translations, back-translation, synthesis of back-translations, expert committee review, and pretesting. Interobserver agreement and the temporal stability of the scales were assessed. The expert committee proposed semantic and cultural modifications to some items and the addition of guidance statements to facilitate administration of the scale. Interobserver analysis demonstrated substantial agreement. Analysis of temporal stability showed near-perfect agreement. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Self-care of Hypertension Inventory successfully produced a Portuguese-language version of the instrument for further evaluation of psychometric properties. Once that step is completed, the scale can be used in Brazil.

  16. Simulating trait evolution for cross-cultural comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, Charles L; Arnold, Christian; Matthews, Luke; Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique

    2010-12-12

    Cross-cultural anthropologists have increasingly used phylogenetic methods to study cultural variation. Because cultural behaviours can be transmitted horizontally among socially defined groups, however, it is important to assess whether phylogeny-based methods--which were developed to study vertically transmitted traits among biological taxa--are appropriate for studying group-level cultural variation. Here, we describe a spatially explicit simulation model that can be used to generate data with known degrees of horizontal donation. We review previous results from this model showing that horizontal transmission increases the type I error rate of phylogenetically independent contrasts in studies of correlated evolution. These conclusions apply to cases in which two traits are transmitted as a pair, but horizontal transmission may be less problematic when traits are unlinked. We also use the simulation model to investigate whether measures of homology (the consistency index and the retention index) can detect horizontal transmission of cultural traits. Higher rates of evolutionary change have a stronger depressive impact on measures of homology than higher rates of horizontal transmission; thus, low consistency or retention indices are not necessarily indicative of 'ethnogenesis'. Collectively, these studies demonstrate the importance of using simulations to assess the validity of methods in cross-cultural research.

  17. The Cross-Cultural Loss Scale: development and psychometric evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kenneth T; Wei, Meifen; Zhao, Ran; Chuang, Chih-Chun; Li, Feihan

    2015-03-01

    The Cross-Cultural Loss Scale (CCLS), a measure of loss associated with crossing national boundaries, was developed across 2 samples of international students. With Sample 1 (N = 262), exploratory factor analyses were used to select the 14 CCLS items and to determine 3 factors: Belonging-Competency (α = .87), National Privileges (α = .68), and Access to Home Familiarity (α = .72). With Sample 2, confirmatory factor analyses (N = 256) cross-validated the 3-factor oblique model as well as a bifactor model. Cronbach alphas of CCLS subscale scores in Sample 2 ranged from .73 to .87. The validity of the CCLS scores was supported by its associations with related variables in the expected directions. Perceived cross-cultural losses were positively associated with negative affect, migration grief and loss, and discrimination and were negatively associated with life satisfaction, positive affect, general self-efficacy, and social connection with mainstream society. Moreover, the CCLS total and 2 subscale scores added significant incremental variance in predicting subjective well-being over and above related constructs. The results indicated measurement invariance and validity equivalency for the CCLS scores between men and women. The overall results from these 2 samples support CCLS as a psychometrically strong measure. 2015 APA, all rights reserved

  18. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Individual Work Performance Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmans, Linda; Bernaards, Claire M; Hildebrandt, Vincent H; Lerner, Debra; de Vet, Henrica C W; van der Beek, Allard J

    2015-01-01

    The Individual Work Performance Questionnaire (IWPQ), measuring task performance, contextual performance, and counterproductive work behavior, was developed in The Netherlands. To cross-culturally adapt the IWPQ from the Dutch to the American-English language, and assess the questionnaire's internal consistency and content validity in the American-English context. A five stage translation and adaptation process was used: forward translation, synthesis, back-translation, expert committee review, and pilot-testing. During the pilot-testing, cognitive interviews with 40 American workers were performed, to examine the comprehensibility, applicability, and completeness of the American-English IWPQ. Questionnaire instructions were slightly modified to aid interpretation in the American-English language. Inconsistencies with verb tense were identified, and it was decided to consistently use simple past tense. The wording of five items was modified to better suit the American-English language. In general, participants were positive on the comprehensibility, applicability and completeness of the questionnaire during the pilot-testing phase. Furthermore, the study showed positive results concerning the internal consistency (Cronbach's alphas for the scales between 0.79-0.89) and content validity of the American-English IWPQ. The results indicate that the cross-cultural adaptation of the American-English IWPQ was successful and that the measurement properties of the translated version are promising.

  19. Müslüman Tüketicilerin İsraf Kavramına Bakışı: Türkiye, Katar ve Endonezya Ölçeğinde Kültürlerarası Bir Mukayese / The Perspective of Muslim Consumers on Extravagance: A Cross-Cultural Comparative Study in Turkey, Qatar and Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Terzi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Perspective of Muslim Consumers on Extravagance: A Cross-Cultural Comparative Study in Turkey, Qatar and Indonesia Abstract Islam encourages people to earn halal -or lawful- and sets certain rules on spending. In Quran spending in the way of Allah is praised (57:7 and besides this, eating, drinking and spending extravagantly is forbidden (6:141; 4:6; 7:31; 17:29. In Quran the term “extravagance” refers to various meanings (10:12; 3:146-147; 10:83; 5:32; 7:80-81; 7:31; 17:29. In daily life it means excessive or unnecessary expenditure or outlay of resources. In this regard the viewpoint of Muslim individuals on such phenomena which is forbidden in Quran becomes more crucial. A survey is conducted in Turkey, Qatar and Indonesia to compare the viewpoint of individuals which are adherents of the same religion but from different cultures. Müslüman Tüketicilerin İsraf Kavramına Bakışı: Türkiye, Katar ve Endonezya Ölçeğinde Kültürlerarası Bir Mukayese Öz İslam dini insanın helal yollardan kazanç elde etmesini teşvik etmiş, harcama noktasında belli kurallar getirmiştir. Kuran’da Allah yolunda harcama övülmüş (57:7, harcamada aşırıya gitmek (6:141; 4:6, ihtiyaçtan fazla yiyip içmek (7:31, israf etmek (17:29 yasaklanmıştır. Kuran’da birçok yerde geçen “israf” terimi çeşitli manalarda kullanılmış olsa da (bkz: 10:12; 3:146-147; 10:83; 5:32; 7:80-81; 7:31; 17:29 günlük hayatta gereksiz yere para, zaman, emek vb.ni harcama, savurganlık olarak ifade edilmektedir. Bu bakımdan Kuran’da yasaklanmış bir davranış biçimi olan israf olgusuna Müslüman bireylerin bakış açısı önemli hale gelmektedir. Bu bakış açısını ölçmek amacıyla Türkiye, Katar ve Endonezya’da anket çalışması yapılmıştır. Araştırma sonucunda israf kavramının bireysel ve toplumsal olmak üzere iki boyutu tespit edilmiş, bu boyutlar çerçevesinde kültürler arasında çeşitli y

  20. Cross-cultural patterns in dynamic ratings of positive and negative natural emotional behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneddon, Ian; McKeown, Gary; McRorie, Margaret; Vukicevic, Tijana

    2011-02-18

    Studies of cross-cultural variations in the perception of emotion have typically compared rates of recognition of static posed stimulus photographs. That research has provided evidence for universality in the recognition of a range of emotions but also for some systematic cross-cultural variation in the interpretation of emotional expression. However, questions remain about how widely such findings can be generalised to real life emotional situations. The present study provides the first evidence that the previously reported interplay between universal and cultural influences extends to ratings of natural, dynamic emotional stimuli. Participants from Northern Ireland, Serbia, Guatemala and Peru used a computer based tool to continuously rate the strength of positive and negative emotion being displayed in twelve short video sequences by people from the United Kingdom engaged in emotional conversations. Generalized additive mixed models were developed to assess the differences in perception of emotion between countries and sexes. Our results indicate that the temporal pattern of ratings is similar across cultures for a range of emotions and social contexts. However, there are systematic differences in intensity ratings between the countries, with participants from Northern Ireland making the most extreme ratings in the majority of the clips. The results indicate that there is strong agreement across cultures in the valence and patterns of ratings of natural emotional situations but that participants from different cultures show systematic variation in the intensity with which they rate emotion. Results are discussed in terms of both 'in-group advantage' and 'display rules' approaches. This study indicates that examples of natural spontaneous emotional behaviour can be used to study cross-cultural variations in the perception of emotion.

  1. Cross-cultural patterns in dynamic ratings of positive and negative natural emotional behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Sneddon

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies of cross-cultural variations in the perception of emotion have typically compared rates of recognition of static posed stimulus photographs. That research has provided evidence for universality in the recognition of a range of emotions but also for some systematic cross-cultural variation in the interpretation of emotional expression. However, questions remain about how widely such findings can be generalised to real life emotional situations. The present study provides the first evidence that the previously reported interplay between universal and cultural influences extends to ratings of natural, dynamic emotional stimuli.Participants from Northern Ireland, Serbia, Guatemala and Peru used a computer based tool to continuously rate the strength of positive and negative emotion being displayed in twelve short video sequences by people from the United Kingdom engaged in emotional conversations. Generalized additive mixed models were developed to assess the differences in perception of emotion between countries and sexes. Our results indicate that the temporal pattern of ratings is similar across cultures for a range of emotions and social contexts. However, there are systematic differences in intensity ratings between the countries, with participants from Northern Ireland making the most extreme ratings in the majority of the clips.The results indicate that there is strong agreement across cultures in the valence and patterns of ratings of natural emotional situations but that participants from different cultures show systematic variation in the intensity with which they rate emotion. Results are discussed in terms of both 'in-group advantage' and 'display rules' approaches. This study indicates that examples of natural spontaneous emotional behaviour can be used to study cross-cultural variations in the perception of emotion.

  2. Framing Attention in Japanese and American Comics: Cross-Cultural Differences in Attentional Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Neil; Taylor-Weiner, Amaro; Grossman, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Research on visual attention has shown that Americans tend to focus more on focal objects of a scene while Asians attend to the surrounding environment. The panels of comic books – the narrative frames in sequential images – highlight aspects of a scene comparably to how attention becomes focused on parts of a spatial array. Thus, we compared panels from American and Japanese comics to explore cross-cultural cognition beyond behavioral experimentation by looking at the expressive mediums produced by individuals from these cultures. This study compared the panels of two genres of American comics (Independent and Mainstream comics) with mainstream Japanese “manga” to examine how different cultures and genres direct attention through the framing of figures and scenes in comic panels. Both genres of American comics focused on whole scenes as much as individual characters, while Japanese manga individuated characters and parts of scenes. We argue that this framing of space from American and Japanese comic books simulate a viewer’s integration of a visual scene, and is consistent with the research showing cross-cultural differences in the direction of attention. PMID:23015794

  3. Framing attention in Japanese and American comics: Cross-cultural differences in attentional structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil eCohn

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Research on visual attention has shown that Americans tend to focus more on focal objects of a scene while Asians attend to the surrounding environment. The panels of comic books— the narrative frames in sequential images—highlight aspects of a scene comparably to how attention becomes focused on parts of a spatial array. Thus, we compared panels from American and Japanese comics to explore cross-cultural cognition beyond behavioral experimentation by looking at the expressive mediums produced by individuals from these cultures. This study compared the panels of two genres of American comics (Independent and Mainstream comics with mainstream Japanese manga to examine how different cultures and genres direct attention through the framing of figures and scenes in comic panels. Both genres of American comics focused on whole scenes as much as individual characters, while Japanese manga individuated characters and parts of scenes. We argue that this framing of space from American and Japanese comic books simulate a viewer’s integration of a visual scene, and is consistent with the research showing cross-cultural differences in the direction of attention.

  4. Framing attention in Japanese and american comics: cross-cultural differences in attentional structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Neil; Taylor-Weiner, Amaro; Grossman, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Research on visual attention has shown that Americans tend to focus more on focal objects of a scene while Asians attend to the surrounding environment. The panels of comic books - the narrative frames in sequential images - highlight aspects of a scene comparably to how attention becomes focused on parts of a spatial array. Thus, we compared panels from American and Japanese comics to explore cross-cultural cognition beyond behavioral experimentation by looking at the expressive mediums produced by individuals from these cultures. This study compared the panels of two genres of American comics (Independent and Mainstream comics) with mainstream Japanese "manga" to examine how different cultures and genres direct attention through the framing of figures and scenes in comic panels. Both genres of American comics focused on whole scenes as much as individual characters, while Japanese manga individuated characters and parts of scenes. We argue that this framing of space from American and Japanese comic books simulate a viewer's integration of a visual scene, and is consistent with the research showing cross-cultural differences in the direction of attention.

  5. Cross-cultural patterns of the association between varying levels of alcohol consumption and the common mental disorders of depression and anxiety: secondary analysis of the WHO Collaborative Study on Psychological Problems in General Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellos, Stefanos; Skapinakis, Petros; Rai, Dheeraj; Zitko, Pedro; Araya, Ricardo; Lewis, Glyn; Lionis, Christos; Mavreas, Venetsanos

    2013-12-15

    Alcohol consumption is associated with several complications of both physical and mental health. Light or moderate alcohol consumption may have beneficial effects on physical or mental health but this effect is still controversial and research in the mental health field is relatively scarce. Our aim was to investigate the association between varying levels of alcohol consumption and the common mental disorders of depression and anxiety in a large international primary care sample. The sample consisted of 5438 primary care attenders from 14 countries who participated in the WHO Collaborative Study of Psychological Problems in General Health Care. Alcohol use was assessed using Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the mental disorders were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Light to moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a lower prevalence of depression and generalized anxiety disorder compared to abstinence while excessive alcohol consumption was associated with a higher prevalence of depression. This non-linear association was not substantially affected after adjustment for a range of possible confounding variables, including the presence of chronic disease and the current physical status of participants and was evident in different drinking cultures. The study confirms that excessive drinking is associated with an increased prevalence of depression, but also raises the possibility that light/moderate drinking may be associated with a reduced prevalence of both depression and anxiety. Any causal interpretation of this association is difficult in the context of this cross-sectional study and further longitudinal studies are needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Diabetes Empowerment Scale – Short Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Figueredo Chaves

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To translate, cross-culturally adapt and validate the Diabetes Empowerment Scale – Short Form for assessment of psychosocial self-efficacy in diabetes care within the Brazilian cultural context. METHODS Assessment of the instrument’s conceptual equivalence, as well as its translation and cross-cultural adaptation were performed following international standards. The Expert Committee’s assessment of the translated version was conducted through a web questionnaire developed and applied via the web tool e-Surv. The cross-culturally adapted version was used for the pre-test, which was carried out via phone call in a group of eleven health care service users diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The pre-test results were examined by a group of experts, composed by health care consultants, applied linguists and statisticians, aiming at an adequate version of the instrument, which was subsequently used for test and retest in a sample of 100 users diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus via phone call, their answers being recorded by the web tool e-Surv. Internal consistency and reproducibility of analysis were carried out within the statistical programming environment R. RESULTS Face and content validity were attained and the Brazilian Portuguese version, entitled Escala de Autoeficácia em Diabetes – Versão Curta, was established. The scale had acceptable internal consistency with Cronbach’s alpha of 0.634 (95%CI 0.494– 0.737, while the correlation of the total score in the two periods was considered moderate (0.47. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.50. CONCLUSIONS The translated and cross-culturally adapted version of the instrument to spoken Brazilian Portuguese was considered valid and reliable to be used for assessment within the Brazilian population diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The use of a web tool (e-Surv for recording the Expert Committee responses as well as the responses in the

  7. Personality Testing in Antarctic Expeditioners: Cross Cultural Comparisons and Evidence for Generalizability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musson, D. M.; Sandal, G. M.; Harper, M. L.; Helmreich, R. L.

    Antarctica provides an ideal environment in which to study human behaviour under conditions of isolation and confinement. Such research is currently being conducted through several national Antarctic research programs, with the subject pool for these investigations necessarily consisting of individuals from multiple nationalities. Cross-cultural research has shown, however, that psychological traits and individual values may vary significantly between national and ethnic groups. Until now, there has been an implicit assumption that Antarctic personnel are essentially similar from one national program to another and that therefore findings from any one nation's Antarctic program should generalize to another, as well as to other domains such as spaceflight. We believe that it is necessary to validate this assumption through empirical research. This objective of this analysis was to determine the degree of similarity between the psychological testing profiles of Antarctic research personnel from different national Antarctic programs, and to determine the degrees of similarity or difference of these personnel to a normative population. METHODS In separate studies, Antarctic personnel from Australia (n=57), Norway (=37), and Great Britain (n=145) were administered the Personal Characteristics Inventory (PCI) before departing to Antarctica. The PCI is a battery consisting of 11 psychological scales designed to assess specific traits related to achievement and interpersonal competence that have been shown to be particularly salient to human performance under stressful and complex conditions. For comparative normative data, a group of 441 U.S. undergraduate students were also administered the PCI. Due to historical reasons, researchers in this study used 2 versions of the PCI, and only 9 of the 11 scales were directly equivalent. RESULTS For the three national Antarctic groups (Australia, Norway, and Great Britain), no significant variation was found between group mean

  8. A cross-cultural study of request speech act: Iraqi and Malay students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Farnia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have indicated that the range and linguistics expressions of external modifiers available in one language differ from those available in another language. The present study aims to investigate the cross-cultural differences and similarities with regards to the realization of request external modifications. To this end, 30 Iraqi and 30 Malay university students are selected as the participants of this study. Spencer-Oatey's (2008 rapport management theoretical framework is used to examine how face rapport is managed through the use of external modifications. The corpus consists of responses to a Discourse Completion Test (DCT consisting of eight situations. The questionnaires, adopted from Rose (1994, were distributed among Iraqi students and Malaysian Malay students studying at Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia. The corpus were then analyzed based on Blum-Kulka, House and Kasper (1989 classification of external modifiers. The primary objective of this paper is to compare the effect of situational factors on the realization patterns of request modification between Iraqi and Malay university students .The findings are hoped to have implications for comparative cross-cultural and intercultural communication studies.

  9. Cross-cultural differences and similarities underlying other-race effects for facial identity and expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaoqian; Andrews, Timothy J; Jenkins, Rob; Young, Andrew W

    2016-01-01

    Perceptual advantages for own-race compared to other-race faces have been demonstrated for the recognition of facial identity and expression. However, these effects have not been investigated in the same study with measures that can determine the extent of cross-cultural agreement as well as differences. To address this issue, we used a photo sorting task in which Chinese and Caucasian participants were asked to sort photographs of Chinese or Caucasian faces by identity or by expression. This paradigm matched the task demands of identity and expression recognition and avoided constrained forced-choice or verbal labelling requirements. Other-race effects of comparable magnitude were found across the identity and expression tasks. Caucasian participants made more confusion errors for the identities and expressions of Chinese than Caucasian faces, while Chinese participants made more confusion errors for the identities and expressions of Caucasian than Chinese faces. However, analyses of the patterns of responses across groups of participants revealed a considerable amount of underlying cross-cultural agreement. These findings suggest that widely repeated claims that members of other cultures "all look the same" overstate the cultural differences.

  10. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Italian Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire (PIDAQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, Rosaria; Rongo, Roberto; Zito, Eugenio; Galeotti, Angela; Valletta, Rosa; D'Antò, Vincenzo

    2015-03-01

    To validate and cross-culturally adapt the Italian version of the Psychological Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire (PIDAQ) among Italian young adults. After translation, back translation, and cross-cultural adaptation of the English PIDAQ, a first version of the Italian questionnaire was pretested. The final Italian PIDAQ was administered to 598 subjects aged 18-30 years, along with two other instruments: the aesthetic component of the index of orthodontic treatment need (IOTN-AC) and the perception of occlusion scale (POS), which identified the self-reporting grade of malocclusion. Structural validity was assessed by means of factorial analysis, internal consistency was measured with Cronbach's alpha coefficient (α), convergent validity was assessed by means of Spearman correlation, and test-retest reliability was calculated with intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and standard measurement error. Criterion validity was evaluated by multivariate and univariate analysis of variance with Bonferroni post hoc tests. The α of the Italian PIDAQ domains ranged between 0.79 and 0.92. The ICC was between 0.81 and 0.90. The mean scores of each PIDAQ domain showed a statistically significant difference when analysed according to the IOTN-AC and POS scores. The satisfactory psychometric properties make PIDAQ a usable tool for future studies on oral health-related quality of life among Italian young adults.

  11. Cross-cultural differences in categorical memory errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Aliza J; Boduroglu, Aysecan; Gutchess, Angela H

    2014-06-01

    Cultural differences occur in the use of categories to aid accurate recall of information. This study investigated whether culture also contributed to false (erroneous) memories, and extended cross-cultural memory research to Turkish culture, which is shaped by Eastern and Western influences. Americans and Turks viewed word pairs, half of which were categorically related and half unrelated. Participants then attempted to recall the second word from the pair in response to the first word cue. Responses were coded as correct, as blanks, or as different types of errors. Americans committed more categorical errors than did Turks, and Turks mistakenly recalled more non-categorically related list words than did Americans. These results support the idea that Americans use categories either to organize information in memory or to support retrieval strategies to a greater extent than Turks and suggest that culture shapes not only accurate recall but also erroneous distortions of memory. © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  12. Forms of Address as Cross-Cultural Code-Switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsnes, Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    , in Denmark they use T. Based on the observation that Danish studentsare very reluctant (and sometimes even opposed) to use V in the classroom in Denmark, thisarticle proposes to consider the use of V and T as a case of Cross-Cultural Code-Switching. Itis hypothesized that V causes Cultural Cognitive...... Dissonance for (young) Danes since V isinterpreted as an overt manifestation of power distance in a society which considers itself asegalitarian. Ways to cope with such cognitive dissonance in foreign language teaching arediscussed. Furthermore, the article addresses the broader question of when cultural...... behavioursare supposed to apply and – in particular – what conventions are appropriate in higher educationin Denmark when German is the language of instruction: should we use V as in Germanyor T as in Denmark? Arguments for both choices are presented and discussed....

  13. AWARENESS AND MOTIVATION IN CROSS-CULTURAL LANGUAGE TEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena SAVU

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The focus in language education in the twenty-first century does no longer fall on grammar, memorization and learning from rote, but rather on using language alongside with cultural knowledge as a means to communicate and connect to other people all over the world. Our learners are going to become part of today’s intercultural communication network and they will need to use both their language and cultural skills for real life communication. Therefore, teachers themselves should be ready to assume the responsibility of teaching their learners how to become culturally competent. To do this properly and successfully, practitioners need to build and develop their own awareness of and motivation for an intercultural approach. The current paper will present and analyze some recent research findings on higher education practitioners’ motivation to adopt a cross-cultural approach in their classrooms.

  14. Cross-cultural caregiving and the temporal dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escandon, Socorro

    2013-11-01

    The caregiving research literature has explored and documented findings from psychological, clinical, and policy/program perspectives, but little is known regarding the contextual perspectives of caregiving. Temporal factors influence the structure and functioning of the caregiving family. The proposed paradigm adaptation extends a contextual perspective that addresses the exploration of the caregiving process as a temporal, dynamic, progressive process over time, in which decisions made by caregivers may not always be based on observable tasks but, nevertheless, may have important consequences. When cultures cross, attitudes and behaviors are modified, resulting from contact with a different set of values and beliefs. Cross-cultural research aims to explore these changes that take place over time. Future research should consider the inclusion of measures that assess the temporal aspect of caregiving and the acculturation considerations of family caregivers. These measures are especially needed because of the increased influence of international migration, economic globalization, and political conflicts in today's multicultural societies.

  15. EXPATRIATE HOTEL MANAGERS' PERSPECTIVE ON CROSS-CULTURAL SKILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Cristina IORGULESCU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The globalization and expansion of multinationals has led to various studies on expatriation management, but literature regarding this issue in the hotel industry is still scarce, especially in Romania. Expatriates are critical to the success of this particular industry, as more and more hotel chains operate beyond their domestic domains and intend to enter inclusively in the Romanian market. The study presented in this article uses a qualitative research method intended to discover the perspective of practitioners on the most important management skills hotel expatriate managers should possess, the most effective cross-cultural training activities provided by parent hotel companies and other challenges faced in international assignments. The data collection method was an in-depth interview with expat hotel managers in Bucharest. The study suggests opportunities for international hotel chains to better prepare their expatriates, in order to integrate them more effectively in a new cultural environment.

  16. Merger Strategy, Cross-Cultural Involvement, and Polyphony

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, Marita; Boje, David

    2014-01-01

    to the learning from the experience. By storytelling we mean the dynamic interplay between grander narratives of the past and more emergent living stories of participants. Living story is ontological in its Being-in-the-world, its aliveness primordially in lived-life from birth to death. In this case...... (Aristotle, 350 BCE: 1450b: 25, p. 233). Design: We present a dialogic performance of the cross-cultural dynamics of a merger. The context is a two-year old merger. The merger was strategically a good decision that takes into the consideration that the market is highly competitive with a decreasing number...... of customers and many competitors. The industry is therefore characterised by a high degree of mergers and acquisitions. Despite the strategic advantages the idea of the merger was not equally attractive to both of the organisations. They had a history of being competitors with a good deal of hostility. One...

  17. Cross-cultural assessment of emotions: The expression of anger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manolete S. Moscoso

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to focus on unique issues that are encountered in the crosscultural adaptation of measures of emotions. We take into consideration the cross-cultural equivalence of the concept of emotion, and how cultural differences influence the meaning of words that are utilized to describe these concepts. The critical need to take the state-trait distinction into account in adapting measures of emotional states and personality traits is then discussed. The effects of language and culture in adapting measures of the experience, expression, and control of anger in Latin-America are also reviewed. The construction of the Latin American Multicultural State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory is described.

  18. Social skills, friendship and happiness: a cross-cultural investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Melikşah; Jaafar, Jas; Bilyk, Nicholas; Ariff, Mohammad Raduan Mohd

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the associations between social skills, friendship quality, and happiness, and tested a mediational model positing that friendship quality would mediate the relationship between social skills and happiness among American and Malaysian college students. Although American students reported significantly higher levels of psychosocial well-being than Malaysian students, the study variables were positively associated with each other in both cultures. More importantly, findings supported the proposed model in both groups. Results suggest that part of the reason why social skills are associated with positive psychological well-being is because of friendship experiences. Overall, the findings of the present study reinforce, extend and cross-culturally generalize the presumed benefits of social skills in positive well-being elaborated by Segrin and Taylor (2007). The authors also provided suggestions for future research.

  19. Cross-cultural adaptation of the instrument 'Family Needs Questionnaire'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hora, Edilene Curvelo; de Sousa, Regina Márcia Cardoso

    2009-01-01

    This is a quantitative methodological development study on the cross-cultural adaptation of the 'Family Needs Questionnaire' (FNQ), which is a structured instrument developed in the United States to measure the perceived needs of family members after the Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) of a relative. This instrument aims to identify important needs presented by family members, whether met or not. The FNQ translation and adaptation followed a particular method, which permitted to achieve semantic, idiomatic, cultural and conceptual equivalence of the instrument version labeled in Portuguese as 'Questionário de Necessidades da Família'. The results of the questionnaire application to 161 family members showed that the instrument content is valid to measure the needs of families of patients with TBI in the Brazilian context.

  20. Adapting a measure of acculturation for cross-cultural research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dela Cruz, F A; Padilla, G V; Agustin, E O

    2000-07-01

    Although Filipino Americans are projected to become the largest Asian American ethnic group in this millennium, no acculturation measure existed for this group. This article describes a systematic and replicable process used in adapting and modifying A Short Acculturation Scale for Hispanics (ASASH) for use with Filipino Americans. It depicts the multiple and iterative steps of translation and backtranslation to produce A Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans (ASASFA) in English and in Tagalog--the Philippine national language. Also, it describes the methods undertaken for the measures to achieve linguistic and cross-cultural validity through content, technical, experiential, semantic, and conceptual equivalence. With the dearth of linguistically and culturally valid measures for immigrant populations, the adaptation of valid measures developed for other cultures remains a viable option.

  1. A Cross-Cultural Analysis of Interpersonal Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambra, Ronald E.; Klopf, Donald W.

    The Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation--Behavior (FIRO-B) was administered to 504 Japanese, 219 Australian, 73 Korean, and 397 United States college students to assess interpersonal needs in the four cultures. The FIRO-B provides ratings for inclusion, control, and affection needs on an "expressed" dimension to indicate the…

  2. A cross-cultural analysis of communication patterns between two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    On this basis, this study examined the Igbo and Yoruba socio-cultural ... know what is or is not acceptable and appropriate in a given context. ... is a Postgraduate Student, Department of Communication and Language Arts, ... such individuals interact with people from other cultures and experience ..... As a child grows up, he.

  3. A cross-cultural analysis of communication patterns between two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Employing the mixed-method research design, the study revealed the cultural affinity in both ethnic groups' communication patterns in the use of honorific greeting, silence, expressiveness (direct or indirectness and touch) and eye contact. This shows that culture has a significant influence on some of the communication ...

  4. Study protocol for improving asthma outcomes through cross-cultural communication training for physicians: a randomized trial of physician training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Minal R; Thomas, Lara J; Hafeez, Kausar; Shankin, Matthew; Wilkin, Margaret; Brown, Randall W

    2014-06-16

    Massive resources are expended every year on cross-cultural communication training for physicians. Such training is a focus of continuing medical education nationwide and is part of the curriculum of virtually every medical school in America. There is a pressing need for evidence regarding the effects on patients of cross-cultural communication training for physicians. There is a need to understand the added benefit of such training compared to more general communication. We know of no rigorous study that has assessed whether cross-cultural communication training for physicians results in better health outcomes for their patients. The current study aims to answer this question by enhancing the Physician Asthma Care Education (PACE) program to cross cultural communication (PACE Plus), and comparing the effect of the enhanced program to PACE on the health outcomes of African American and Latino/Hispanic children with asthma. A three-arm randomized control trial is used to compare PACE Plus, PACE, and usual care. Both PACE and PACE Plus are delivered in two, two-hour sessions over a period of two weeks to 5-10 primary care physicians who treat African American and Latino/Hispanic children with asthma. One hundred twelve physicians and 1060 of their pediatric patients were recruited who self-identify as African American or Latino/Hispanic and experience persistent asthma. Physicians were randomized into receiving either the PACE Plus or PACE intervention or into the control group. The comparative effectiveness of PACE and PACE Plus on clinician's therapeutic and communication practices with the family/patient, children's urgent care use for asthma, asthma control, and quality of life, and parent/caretaker satisfaction with physician performance will be assessed. Data are collected via telephone survey and medical record review at baseline, 9 months following the intervention, and 21 months following the intervention. This study aims to reduce disparities in asthma

  5. Nuclear power ecology: comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trofimenko, A.P.; Lips'ka, A.Yi.; Pisanko, Zh.Yi.

    2005-01-01

    Ecological effects of different energy sources are compared. Main actions for further nuclear power development - safety increase and waste management, are noted. Reasons of restrained public position to nuclear power and role of social and political factors in it are analyzed. An attempt is undertaken to separate real difficulties of nuclear power from imaginary ones that appear in some mass media. International actions of environment protection are noted. Risk factors at different energy source using are compared. The results of analysis indicate that ecological influence and risk for nuclear power are of minimum

  6. Film Cross-culture Research under the Perspective of Language and Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗淞译

    2015-01-01

    Language as an important tool of cultural transmission, it can achieve the cross-culture development of film. With the strength of globalization, film cross-culture communication are increasing, and how to enhance the communication of film through language and culture and let more people enjoy the thought expressed in film is one of the most important content for cross-culture development of mant films. Different cultural backgrounds will produce large diversities in watching a same film, so it is helpful for the cross-culture development of film when making good use of culture and language, on the contrary, it will become a hindrance. This article do research on cross-culture development of film under the perspective of language and culture to find out the existing problems in present cross-culture development of film and put forward effective resolution strategy in order to promote certain reference for the internationalization of China’s film industry.

  7. Cross-cultural differences in the neural correlates of specific and general recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paige, Laura E; Ksander, John C; Johndro, Hunter A; Gutchess, Angela H

    2017-06-01

    Research suggests that culture influences how people perceive the world, which extends to memory specificity, or how much perceptual detail is remembered. The present study investigated cross-cultural differences (Americans vs East Asians) at the time of encoding in the neural correlates of specific versus general memory formation. Participants encoded photos of everyday items in the scanner and 48 h later completed a surprise recognition test. The recognition test consisted of same (i.e., previously seen in scanner), similar (i.e., same name, different features), or new photos (i.e., items not previously seen in scanner). For Americans compared to East Asians, we predicted greater activation in the hippocampus and right fusiform for specific memory at recognition, as these regions were implicated previously in encoding perceptual details. Results revealed that East Asians activated the left fusiform and left hippocampus more than Americans for specific versus general memory. Follow-up analyses ruled out alternative explanations of retrieval difficulty and familiarity for this pattern of cross-cultural differences at encoding. Results overall suggest that culture should be considered as another individual difference that affects memory specificity and modulates neural regions underlying these processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cross-Cultural Differences in the Processing of Nonverbal Affective Vocalizations by Japanese and Canadian Listeners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michihiko eKoeda

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Montreal Affective Voices (MAVs consist of a database of nonverbal affect bursts portrayed by Canadian actors, and high recognitions accuracies were observed in Canadian listeners. Whether listeners from other cultures would be as accurate is unclear. We tested for cross-cultural differences in perception of the MAVs: Japanese listeners were asked to rate the MAVs on several affective dimensions and ratings were compared to those obtained by Canadian listeners. Significant Group x Emotion interactions were observed for ratings of Intensity, Valence, and Arousal. Whereas Intensity and Valence ratings did not differ across cultural groups for sad and happy vocalizations, they were significantly less intense and less negative in Japanese listeners for angry, disgusted, and fearful vocalizations. Similarly, pleased vocalizations were rated as less intense and less positive by Japanese listeners. These results demonstrate important cross-cultural differences in affective perception not just of nonverbal vocalizations expressing positive affect (Sauter et al, 2010, but also of vocalizations expressing basic negative emotions.

  9. Models and mosaics: investigating cross-cultural differences in risk perception and risk preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, E U; Hsee, C K

    1999-12-01

    In this article, we describe a multistudy project designed to explain observed cross-national differences in risk taking between respondents from the People's Republic of China and the United States. Using this example, we develop the following recommendations for cross-cultural investigations. First, like all psychological research, cross-cultural studies should be model based. Investigators should commit themselves to a model of the behavior under study that explicitly specifies possible causal constructs or variables hypothesized to influence the behavior, as well as the relationship between those variables, and allows for individual, group, or cultural differences in the value of these variables or in the relationship between them. This moves the focus from a simple demonstration of cross-national differences toward a prediction of the behavior, including its cross-national variation. Ideally, the causal construct hypothesized and shown to differ between cultures should be demonstrated to serve as a moderator or a mediator between culture and observed behavioral differences. Second, investigators should look for converging evidence for hypothesized cultural effects on behavior by looking at multiple dependent variables and using multiple methodological approaches. Thus, the data collection that will allow for the establishment of conclusive causal connections between a cultural variable and some target behavior can be compared with the creation of a mosaic.

  10. Validation in the cross-cultural adaptation of the Korean version of the Oswestry Disability Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Chang-Hoon; Kim, Dong-Jae; Kim, Se-Kang; Kim, Dong-Jun; Lee, Hwan-Mo; Park, Heui-Jeon

    2006-12-01

    Disability questionnaires are used for clinical assessment, outcome measurement, and research methodology. Any disability measurement must be adapted culturally for comparability of data, when the patients, who are measured, use different languages. This study aimed to conduct cross-cultural adaptation in translating the original (English) version of the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) into Korean, and then to assess the reliability of the Korean versions of the Oswestry Disability Index (KODI). We used methodology to obtain semantic, idiomatic, experimental, and conceptual equivalences for the process of cross-cultural adaptation. The KODI were tested in 116 patients with chronic low back pain. The internal consistency and reliability for the KODI reached 0.9168 (Cronbach's alpha). The test-retest reliability was assessed with 32 patients (who were not included in the assessment of Cronbach's alpha) over a time interval of 4 days. Test-retest correlation reliability was 0.9332. The entire process and the results of this study were reported to the developer (Dr. Fairbank JC), who appraised the KODI. There is little evidence of differential item functioning in KODI. The results suggest that the KODI is internally consistent and reliable. Therefore, the KODI can be recommended as a low back pain assessment tool in Korea.

  11. Cross-Cultural Perspectives of Service Quality and Risk in Air Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Lawrence F.; Young, Clifford E.; Lee, Moonkyu

    2002-01-01

    This study compares US and Korean customers in terms of their perceptions of airline service quality based on SERVPERF and industry-based measures, as well as their perceptions of risks involved in the airline choice. SERVPERF is a set of multi-dimensional measures of customer evaluations of service quality. The results indicate that: (1) US passengers are generally more satisfied with their airline service than Korean customers on most of the SERVPERF dimensions; (2) Koreans are generally more satisfied with the bumping procedures whereas US participants feel more satisfied with the airline's baggage handling, operations/safety, and connections; and (3) US participants perceive higher levels of performance and financial risks whereas Koreans feel greater social risk in choosing an airline. This study also examines the SERVPERF, industry-based measure, and perceived risk in predicting customer satisfaction with, and intention to repatronize the airline. The results suggest that US customers consider service reliability, in-flight comfort, and connections as the key factors determining satisfaction with airline service whereas Korean passengers generally regard reliability, assurance, and risk factors as predictors of satisfaction. The determining factors of customer intention to repatronize the airline are reliability and empathy for US, and reliability and overall risk for Korean customers. The study demonstrates the applicability of SERVPERF as a cross-cultural tool and indicates the importance of perceived risk in cross-cultural studies.

  12. Suicidal behavior and attitudes in Slovak and Turkish high school students: a cross-cultural investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskin, Mehmet; Palova, Eva; Krokavcova, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Suicidal behavior and its variation across social contexts are of importance for the science of suicidology. Due to its special character controlled experimental studies on suicide are ruled out for ethical reasons. Cross-cultural studies may throw light on the etiology of both suicidal behavior and its cross-cultural variation. The present study compared suicidal behavior and attitudes in 423 Slovak and 541 Turkish high school students by means of a self-report questionnaire. The two groups reported similar percentages (Slovak = 36.4%; Turkish = 33.8%) of lifetime, past 12-months or current suicidal ideation but significantly more Turkish (12.2%) than Slovak (4.8%) students reported lifetime or past 12-months suicide attempts. Slovak adolescents displayed more liberal and permissive attitudes toward suicide, while those of Turkish adolescents were more rejecting. Turkish students rated themselves to be more religious and hence they believed to a greater extent that suicidal persons would be punished in a life after death than their Slovak peers. However, attitudes of Turkish students toward an imagined suicidal close friend were more accepting than the attitudes of Slovak students. Comparison of suicidal and nonsuicidal students revealed that those reporting suicidal ideation or attempts were more accepting of suicide and viewed suicide as a solution to a greater extent than the nonsuicidal ones. The results from this study suggest that cultural factors play a role in suicidal behavior, attitudes and reactions in a predicted direction.

  13. A cross-cultural comparison of mothers' beliefs about their parenting very young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senese, Vincenzo Paolo; Bornstein, Marc H; Haynes, O Maurice; Rossi, Germano; Venuti, Paola

    2012-06-01

    Parental beliefs are relevant to child development because they shape parenting behaviors and help to determine and regulate child cognitive and socioemotional growth. Here we investigated cross-cultural variation in Italian and U.S. mothers' parental beliefs about their social and didactic interactions with their young children. To compare parental beliefs, the Parental Style Questionnaire (PSQ) was administered to samples of 273 Italian mothers and 279 U.S. mothers of 20-month-olds (55% male). To conduct substantive cross-cultural comparisons of beliefs, the measurement invariance of the PSQ was first established by hierarchical multi-group confirmatory factor analyses. The PSQ was essentially invariant across cultures. Italian mothers reported that they engaged in both social and didactic behaviors with their young children less frequently than U.S. mothers. Results of our study confirm that mothers in different cultures differentially value parental stimulation and its relevance for early child development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Parent-Adolescent Discrepancies: Existing Findings and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rescorla, Leslie A

    2016-10-01

    As summarized in this commentary, the first generation of cross-informant agreement research focused on perceptions of child and adolescent mental health. Contributions of this research include demonstrating that modest cross-informant agreement is a very robust phenomenon, utilizing numerous statistical approaches to measure degree of agreement, and identifying many factors that moderate agreement. An important focus of this work has been using multi-society international comparisons to examine cross-cultural similarities and differences in cross-informant agreement. The articles in this Special Issue represent a significant paradigm shift in which cross-informant agreement is examined as an independent variable predicting a wide variety of outcomes. Furthermore, moving beyond perceptions of adolescent mental health, these articles compare parent and adolescent perceptions of diverse aspects of family functioning (e.g., family conflict, parent-adolescent communication, family relationships, parental authority). Additionally, the research presented in this Special Issue employs innovative and sophisticated statistical techniques. Although the Special Issue represents some first steps toward considering cross-cultural aspects of perceptions of family functioning, much work still needs to be done in this area. Some suggestions for future research strategies to accomplish this goal conclude this commentary.

  15. Pathogen prevalence predicts human cross-cultural variability in individualism/collectivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincher, Corey L; Thornhill, Randy; Murray, Damian R; Schaller, Mark

    2008-06-07

    Pathogenic diseases impose selection pressures on the social behaviour of host populations. In humans (Homo sapiens), many psychological phenomena appear to serve an antipathogen defence function. One broad implication is the existence of cross-cultural differences in human cognition and behaviour contingent upon the relative presence of pathogens in the local ecology. We focus specifically on one fundamental cultural variable: differences in individualistic versus collectivist values. We suggest that specific behavioural manifestations of collectivism (e.g. ethnocentrism, conformity) can inhibit the transmission of pathogens; and so we hypothesize that collectivism (compared with individualism) will more often characterize cultures in regions that have historically had higher prevalence of pathogens. Drawing on epidemiological data and the findings of worldwide cross-national surveys of individualism/collectivism, our results support this hypothesis: the regional prevalence of pathogens has a strong positive correlation with cultural indicators of collectivism and a strong negative correlation with individualism. The correlations remain significant even when controlling for potential confounding variables. These results help to explain the origin of a paradigmatic cross-cultural difference, and reveal previously undocumented consequences of pathogenic diseases on the variable nature of human societies.

  16. Cross-cultural differences in children's concepts of health and illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boruchovitch Evely

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In spite of general agreement that cross-cultural research is needed in the health area, most existing investigations of children's development of health and illness-related concepts have involved samples from developed countries. The study examined the development of the concepts of health and illness as a function of subject's age, socio-economic status (SES, gender and grade level in a Brazilian sample of 96 elementary and junior high school students. METHODS: Subjects were interviewed individually and their ideas of health and illness were assessed through open-ended questions. Participants' answers were transcribed verbatim and subjected to content analysis. RESULTS: Chi-square analyses revealed significant age, school grade and SES-related differences in participants' concepts of health and illness. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The themes employed by subjects to define both health and illness were broadly consistent with those found by previous research. The study showed a predictable relationship between subject's age and school grade level and increasingly more highly differentiated and multidimensional concepts of health and illness. This investigation suggests that, for the most part, cross-cultural similarities in children's concepts of health and illness may be more striking than the differences.

  17. Cross-cultural differences in children's concepts of health and illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evely Boruchovitch

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In spite of general agreement that cross-cultural research is needed in the health area, most existing investigations of children's development of health and illness-related concepts have involved samples from developed countries. The study examined the development of the concepts of health and illness as a function of subject's age, socio-economic status (SES, gender and grade level in a Brazilian sample of 96 elementary and junior high school students. METHODS: Subjects were interviewed individually and their ideas of health and illness were assessed through open-ended questions. Participants' answers were transcribed verbatim and subjected to content analysis. RESULTS: Chi-square analyses revealed significant age, school grade and SES-related differences in participants' concepts of health and illness. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The themes employed by subjects to define both health and illness were broadly consistent with those found by previous research. The study showed a predictable relationship between subject's age and school grade level and increasingly more highly differentiated and multidimensional concepts of health and illness. This investigation suggests that, for the most part, cross-cultural similarities in children's concepts of health and illness may be more striking than the differences.

  18. Engaging Karen refugee students in science learning through a cross-cultural learning community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Susan G.

    2017-02-01

    This research explored how Karen (first-generation refugees from Burma) elementary students engaged with the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) practice of constructing scientific explanations based on evidence within the context of a cross-cultural learning community. In this action research, the researcher and a Karen parent served as co-teachers for fourth- and fifth-grade Karen and non-Karen students in a science and culture after-school programme in a public elementary school in the rural southeastern United States. Photovoice provided a critical platform for students to create their own cultural discourses for the learning community. The theoretical framework of critical pedagogy of place provided a way for the learning community to decolonise and re-inhabit the learning spaces with knowledge they co-constructed. Narrative analysis of video transcripts of the after-school programme, ethnographic interviews, and focus group discussions from Photovoice revealed a pattern of emerging agency by Karen students in the scientific practice of constructing scientific explanations based on evidence and in Karen language lessons. This evidence suggests that science learning embedded within a cross-cultural learning community can empower refugee students to construct their own hybrid cultural knowledge and leverage that knowledge to engage in a meaningful way with the epistemology of science.

  19. Consumer perception of balsamic vinegar: A cross-cultural study between Korea and Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torri, Luisa; Jeon, Seon-Young; Piochi, Maria; Morini, Gabriella; Kim, Kwang-Ok

    2017-01-01

    Understanding cross-cultural differences in food perception is a key issue of food research in order to understand consumer behaviour in different countries. The objective of this study was to explore potential cultural differences of balsamic vinegar perception between Korean and Italian consumers using the sorted napping method. Nine balsamic vinegars different in terms of ingredients, aging time, and origin were evaluated by Korean (n=50) and Italian (n=49) consumers using sorted napping. Familiarity and food matching were also examined. Descriptive analysis was performed to verify the attitude of the consumers in product description. The results obtained from two groups of consumers in Korea and Italy revealed a higher description attitude of the Italians (higher number of total elicited attributes, of attributes in common with the trained panel, of attributes shared with the vocabulary reported in literature, of significant specific positive product-attribute associations). Italian subjects generated various descriptors associated with the European gastronomic culture (aromatic herbs, fortified wine, dried figs, Indian fig, Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese), whereas Korean consumers used more terms related to the Asian food culture (red ginseng, Chinese medicine, Japanese apricot, teriyaki sauce, persimmon vinegar, balloon flower roots). Moreover, cultural differences of food matching were also observed: the Italians would pair the balsamic vinegars mainly with vegetables, fruits and cheese, while Koreans would combine the balsamic vinegars preferably with bread, vegetables and meat. In conclusion, familiarity resulted the main factors for cross-cultural differentiation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Cross-cultural integration affects attitudes towards people with HIV/AIDS in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Hassan; Dadich, Ann

    2016-04-01

    The stigma associated with HIV/AIDS represents a significant issue. It can hinder help-seeking behaviours, fracture relationships, conceal prevalence rates and curtail public health initiatives to reduce HIV/AIDS. Culture is known to shape this stigma - it influences how individuals and the communities they represent understand the causes of HIV/AIDS, how it can and should be treated, and how people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) should be regarded. Following recent increases in both HIV/AIDS and cross-cultural migration, this study determines the effect of cross-cultural integration on the tendency to stigmatise PLWHA. This was achieved by surveying adults who are at the nexus of two dissimilar cultures - adults from the Australian-Iranian community (n=236). While the Iranian culture is largely collectivistic, the Australian culture is largely individualistic. Survey results indicated the respondents represented a collectivistic (44.1%), transitional (33.5%) or an individualistic (22.4%) culture. Those within the collectivistic culture held the most stigmatising views about PLWHA, supporting coercive policies and reporting they would avoid PLWHA. Those within the individualistic culture held the most positive attitudes. Furthermore, regression analysis indicated that movement from a collectivistic to an individualistic culture significantly reduced stigmatising attitudes towards PLWHA. This study is the first to demonstrate the benefits afforded by an individualist culture, particularly for PLWHA. The article concludes with a discussion on the implications associated with these findings, particularly for researchers and practitioners within the health promotion field.

  1. Arabian, Asian, western: a cross-cultural comparison of aircraft accidents from human factor perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Wardi, Yousuf

    2017-09-01

    Rates of aviation accident differ in different regions; and national culture has been implicated as a factor. This invites a discussion about the role of national culture in aviation accidents. This study makes a cross-cultural comparison between Oman, Taiwan and the USA. A cross-cultural comparison was acquired using data from three studies, including this study, by applying the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) framework. The Taiwan study presented 523 mishaps with 1762 occurrences of human error obtained from the Republic of China Air Force. The study from the USA carried out for commercial aviation had 119 accidents with 245 instances of human error. This study carried out in Oman had a total of 40 aircraft accidents with 129 incidences. Variations were found between Oman, Taiwan and the USA at the levels of organisational influence and unsafe supervision. Seven HFACS categories showed significant differences between the three countries (p culture can have an impact on aviation safety. This study revealed that national culture plays a role in aircraft accidents related to human factors that cannot be disregarded.

  2. Criteria of selection of basic linguacultural units within the context of cross-cultural communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalupo Olga Ivanovna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problems associated with the analysis and selection of basic linguacultural units that are necessary for a more effective cross-cultural communication. To make the process of dialogue between different cultures and languages more appropriate and productive, it is necessary to possess certain knowledge, skills, which are acquired by man in the process of learning. Important in our opinion in this area are the mastery means which will prepare the person to communicate in a different communicative space. Such means, in our opinion, are the basic linguacultural units, which are considered as carriers of information and expression of cultural identity. They inform choice contributes to a worldview, understanding linguacultural picture of the world community. The basis of selection of linguistic units on the following criteria: the information content, functionality, sufficiency, cultural identity, realism, pivotal importance to the basic sense, social and cultural significance. Application of the proposed criteria allowing more appropriate to make the selection of the material and linguacultural integral components of the scope of cross-cultural interaction, which are characterized by their relevant material necessary for an adequate understanding of the processes occurring in different communicative space.

  3. Cross-Cultural Competences and International Entrepreneurial Intention: A Study on Entrepreneurship Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuijing Jie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To identify and foster potential international entrepreneurs are important goals for entrepreneurship education. Based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB, we argue that International entrepreneurial intention (IEI is a predictor of international entrepreneurship (IE. In addition, cross-cultural competences are hypothesized as antecedents to IEI and moderators of the relationship between TPB elements and IEI. We integrate two elements of cross-cultural competences (global mindset and cultural intelligence in a TPB-framework to identify the drivers of students’ IEI. We analyze a sample of 84 students with OLS regression and moderation analysis. OLS regression results reveal no significant direct effects from cultural intelligence and global mindset on IEI. Moderation analyses suggest a negative, significant moderating effect of cultural intelligence on the relationship between personal attitude and IEI and on subjective norms and IEI. Therefore, simply enhancing global mindset and cultural intelligence does not contribute to students’ IEI. More is required from entrepreneurship education, such as improving the perception of international entrepreneurship as a valuable career choice.

  4. Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Rating Scale for Countertransference (RSCT to American English

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    Rafael Mondrzak

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The Rating Scale for Countertransference (RSCT - originally, Escala para Avaliação de Contratransferência (EACT - is a self-administered instrument comprising questions that assess 23 feelings (divided into three blocs, closeness, distance, and indifference that access conscious countertransferential emotions and sentiments. This paper describes the process of translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the RSCT into American English. Methods: This study employed the guidelines proposed by the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR Task Force for Translation and Cultural Adaptation which define 10 steps for translation and cross-cultural adaptation of self-report instruments. Additionally, semantic equivalence tools were employed to select the final versions of terms used. The author of the RSCT gave permission for translation and took part in the process. The instrument is available for use free of charge. Results: Analysis of the back-translation showed that just seven of the 23 terms needed to be adjusted to arrive at the final version in American English. Conclusions: This study applied rigorous standards to construct a version of the RSCT in American English. This version of the RSCT translated and adapted into American English should be of great use for accessing and researching countertransferential feelings that are part of psychodynamic treatment.

  5. BANK RATING. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batrancea Ioan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Banks in Romania offers its customers a wide range of products but which involves both risk taking. Therefore researchers seek to build rating models to help managers of banks to risk of non-recovery of loans and interest. In the following we highlight rating Raiffeisen Bank, BCR-ERSTE Bank and Transilvania Bank, based on the models CAAMPL and Stickney making a comparative analysis of the two rating models.

  6. Facilitating cross-cultural adjustment : the case of North European expatriates in China

    OpenAIRE

    Reegård, Kine

    2011-01-01

    Cross-cultural adjustment is considered crucial for expatriate success. Such adjustment may be enhanced by providing the expatriates with the knowledge and awareness of norms and appropriate behaviours of the host country by means of cross-cultural training. Language training may also facilitate interaction with host nationals, thereby providing the expatriate with insight into the host country’s culture increase their understanding of the new environment. Further, cross-cultural training and...

  7. Analysing motivation to do medicine cross-culturally: The International Motivation to do Medicine Scale - Análisis transcultural de la motivación para estudiar medicina: La Escala Internacional de Motivación para Estudiar Medicina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Sánchez Sánchez

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Vaglum, Wiers-Jensen, & Ekeberg (1999 developed an instrument to assess motivation to study medicine. This instrument has been applied in different countries but it has not been studied cross-culturally. Our aims were to develop a Motivation to do Medicine Scale for use in international studies and to compare motivations of UK and Spanish medical students (UK: n= 375; Spain: n= 149. A cross-sectional and cross-cultural study was conducted. The Vaglum et al. (1999 Motivation to do Medicine Scale (MMS was used. The original MMS factor structure was not supported by the Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Exploratory Factor Analyses within each country identified four factors: “People”, “Status”, “Natural Science” and “Research”. Students scored higher on the “People” and “Natural Science” than on the other factors. The UK sample scored higher than the Spanish sample on the “Research” factor and there were greater difference between genders in Spain for both “People” and “Research” factors. The scale is suitable for use in cross-cultural studies of medical students’ motivation. It can be used to investigate differences between countries and may be used to examine changes in motivation over time or over medical disciplines.

  8. Exploring issues and strengths of cross-cultural marriage among Korean immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junhyoung; Park, Se-Hyuk; Kim, May; Kim, Su Yeon

    2017-10-01

    Cross-cultural marriages have continuously increased in the United States. In spite of this increase, further research is needed to address the paucity of literature on cross-cultural marriage, particularly, between immigrants and their indigenous spouses. In this study, we have focused on the cross-cultural marriages between female Korean immigrants who have married Americans, aiming to identify the positive and/or negative aspects of cross-cultural marriage from the Korean women themselves. For this purpose, semi-structured interviews were conducted on a total of 14 participants. Their ages ranged from 45 to 66 years (M D 52.5 years) and the average length of time since their immigration was 25 years. Each interview lasted between 45 and 120 min and, with participants' permission, were recorded and transcribed. Based on the participants' life experiences and personal statements, we divided our findings into two sections: (a) issues and problems of cross-cultural marriages, and (b) strengths of cross-cultural marriages. With regard to the issues and problems of cross-cultural marriages experienced by participants, three major themes were identified: (a) communication barriers, (b) cultural conflicts and misunderstandings, and (c) unclear cultural identities. The strengths of cross-cultural marriages were identified as: (a) development of coping strategies, and (b) improving cultural understanding. It appears that participants developed their own coping strategies and improved their cultural understanding in order to deal with the various stressors associated with cross-cultural marriage.

  9. Cross-Cultural Concept Mapping of Standardized Datasets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kano Glückstad, Fumiko

    2012-01-01

    This work compares four feature-based similarity measures derived from cognitive sciences. The purpose of the comparative analysis is to verify the potentially most effective model that can be applied for mapping independent ontologies in a culturally influenced domain [1]. Here, datasets based...

  10. Social representation of hearing aids: cross-cultural study in India, Iran, Portugal, and the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchaiah, Vinaya; Danermark, Berth; Vinay; Ahmadi, Tayebeh; Tomé, David; Krishna, Rajalakshmi; Germundsson, Per

    2015-01-01

    Background The current study was aimed at understanding the social representation of hearing aids in India, Iran, Portugal, and the United Kingdom. We also compared these results to explore the cross-cultural differences and similarities among these countries. Methods The study involved a cross-sectional design, and the data were collected from four different countries using the snowball sampling method. Data were analyzed using a content analysis to identify the most-similar categories of responses reported, a co-occurrences analysis to see which of these categories are reported commonly, and a chi-square analysis to study if there was any association between positive, neutral, and negative connotations among participants in different countries. Results The current study revealed four different social representations of hearing aids from India, Iran, Portugal, and the United Kingdom, and also a global index. Conclusion The study results provide very useful insights into how hearing aids are represented in the society. These findings may have important implications for public education and also for manufacturers from the viewpoint of designing and marketing hearing aids in different countries. PMID:26504376

  11. Care dependency of hospitalized children: testing the Care Dependency Scale for Paediatrics in a cross-cultural comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tork, Hanan; Dassen, Theo; Lohrmann, Christa

    2009-02-01

    This paper is a report of a study to examine the psychometric properties of the Care Dependency Scale for Paediatrics in Germany and Egypt and to compare the care dependency of school-age children in both countries. Cross-cultural differences in care dependency of older adults have been documented in the literature, but little is known about the differences and similarities with regard to children's care dependency in different cultures. A convenience sample of 258 school-aged children from Germany and Egypt participated in the study in 2005. The reliability of the Care Dependency Scale for Paediatrics was assessed in terms of internal consistency and interrater reliability. Factor analysis (principal component analysis) was employed to verify the construct validity. A Visual Analogue Scale was used to investigate the criterion-related validity. Good internal consistency was detected both for the Arabic and German versions. Factor analysis revealed one factor for both versions. A Pearson's correlation between the Care Dependency Scale for Paediatrics and Visual Analogue Scale was statistically significant for both versions indicating criterion-related validity. Statistically significant differences between the participants were detected regarding the mean sum score on the Care Dependency Scale for Paediatrics. The Care Dependency Scale for Paediatrics is a reliable and valid tool for assessing the care dependency of children and is recommended for assessing the care dependency of children from different ethnic origins. Differences in care dependency between German and Egyptian children were detected, which might be due to cultural differences.

  12. Cross-cultural comparisons of bullying among university students : perspectives from Argentina, Estonia, Finland and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Pörhölä, Maili; Cvancara, Kristen; Kaal, Esta; Tampere, Kaja; Torres, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    The chapter compares bullying experiences among university students between four countries and aims to provide an understanding of the cultural features which might affect these experiences. We start by providing a summary of the results from a cross-cultural survey conducted among undergraduate students in Argentina, Estonia, Finland and the United States. We continue discussing the ways in which the current cultural, political, historical and economic status and challenges in...

  13. Cross-cultural validity of a dietary questionnaire for studies of dental caries risk in Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinga-Ishihara, Chikako; Nakai, Yukie; Milgrom, Peter; Murakami, Kaori; Matsumoto-Nakano, Michiyo

    2014-01-02

    Diet is a major modifiable contributing factor in the etiology of dental caries. The purpose of this paper is to examine the reliability and cross-cultural validity of the Japanese version of the Food Frequency Questionnaire to assess dietary intake in relation to dental caries risk in Japanese. The 38-item Food Frequency Questionnaire, in which Japanese food items were added to increase content validity, was translated into Japanese, and administered to two samples. The first sample comprised 355 pregnant women with mean age of 29.2 ± 4.2 years for the internal consistency and criterion validity analyses. Factor analysis (principal components with Varimax rotation) was used to determine dimensionality. The dietary cariogenicity score was calculated from the Food Frequency Questionnaire and used for the analyses. Salivary mutans streptococci level was used as a semi-quantitative assessment of dental caries risk and measured by Dentocult SM. Dentocult SM scores were compared with the dietary cariogenicity score computed from the Food Frequency Questionnaire to examine criterion validity, and assessed by Spearman's correlation coefficient (rs) and Kruskal-Wallis test. Test-retest reliability of the Food Frequency Questionnaire was assessed with a second sample of 25 adults with mean age of 34.0 ± 3.0 years by using the intraclass correlation coefficient analysis. The Japanese language version of the Food Frequency Questionnaire showed high test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.70) and good criterion validity assessed by relationship with salivary mutans streptococci levels (rs = 0.22; p < 0.001). Factor analysis revealed four subscales that construct the questionnaire (solid sugars, solid and starchy sugars, liquid and semisolid sugars, sticky and slowly dissolving sugars). Internal consistency were low to acceptable (Cronbach's alpha = 0.67 for the total scale, 0.46-0.61 for each subscale). Mean dietary cariogenicity scores were 50.8 ± 19.5 in the first sample, 47.4

  14. Cross-Cultural Perspectives After Participation in the YES Program: A Pilot Study

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    Vanessa E. Fuentes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:  Guided by empowerment and ecological theories, the Youth Empowerment Solutions (YES program facilitates character development through activities based in cultural differences, team building, and social change. This pilot study consisted of two focus groups (n = 13 of middle school youth conducted after their participation in an abbreviated version of the YES program. Specifically, the present study examined youth’s cross-cultural perspectives after participation. The focus groups were transcribed and coded for emergent themes using Heaton’s (2005 supplementary data analysis framework. Qualitative analysis resulted in two emergent themes: 1 enhanced appreciation for similarities and differences in cultural and ethnic backgrounds, and 2 the role of respect in understanding differences and confronting stereotypes. Specifically, youth reported that engagement in this program fostered positive awareness of cultural differences and respect for inter-ethnic relationships. The findings provide support for the benefits of the YES program on moral development and promotion of healthy peer relationships.

  15. Cross-cultural equivalence of the patient- and parent-reported quality of life in short stature youth (QoLISSY) questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullinger, Monika; Quitmann, Julia; Silva, Neuza; Rohenkohl, Anja; Chaplin, John E; DeBusk, Kendra; Mimoun, Emmanuelle; Feigerlova, Eva; Herdman, Michael; Sanz, Dolores; Wollmann, Hartmut; Pleil, Andreas; Power, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Testing cross-cultural equivalence of patient-reported outcomes requires sufficiently large samples per country, which is difficult to achieve in rare endocrine paediatric conditions. We describe a novel approach to cross-cultural testing of the Quality of Life in Short Stature Youth (QoLISSY) questionnaire in five countries by sequentially taking one country out (TOCO) from the total sample and iteratively comparing the resulting psychometric performance. Development of the QoLISSY proceeded from focus group discussions through pilot testing to field testing in 268 short-statured patients and their parents. To explore cross-cultural equivalence, the iterative TOCO technique was used to examine and compare the validity, reliability, and convergence of patient and parent responses on QoLISSY in the field test dataset, and to predict QoLISSY scores from clinical, socio-demographic and psychosocial variables. Validity and reliability indicators were satisfactory for each sample after iteratively omitting one country. Comparisons with the total sample revealed cross-cultural equivalence in internal consistency and construct validity for patients and parents, high inter-rater agreement and a substantial proportion of QoLISSY variance explained by predictors. The TOCO technique is a powerful method to overcome problems of country-specific testing of patient-reported outcome instruments. It provides an empirical support to QoLISSY's cross-cultural equivalence and is recommended for future research.

  16. Health Care Professionals' Understandings of Cross-Cultural Interaction in End-of-Life Care: A Focus Group Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milberg, Anna; Torres, Sandra; Ågård, Pernilla

    2016-01-01

    The academic debate on cross-cultural interaction within the context of end-of-life care takes for granted that this interaction is challenging. However, few empirical studies have actually focused on what health care professionals think about this interaction. This study aimed to explore health care professionals' understandings of cross-cultural interaction during end-of-life care. Sixty end-of-life care professionals were recruited from eleven care units in Sweden to take part in focus group interviews. These interviews were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The health care professionals interviewed talked about cross-cultural interaction in end-of-life care as interaction that brings about uncertainty, stress and frustration even though they had limited experience of this type of interaction. The focus group discussions brought attention to four specific challenges that they expected to meet when they care for patients with migrant backgrounds since they took for granted that they would have an ethno-cultural background that is different to their own. These challenges had to do with communication barriers, 'unusual' emotional and pain expressions, the expectation that these patients' families would be 'different' and the anticipation that these patients and their families lack knowledge. At the core of the challenges in question is the idea that cross-cultural interaction means meeting "the unknown". In addition, the end-of-life care professionals interviewed talked about patients whose backgrounds they did not share in homogenizing terms. It is against this backdrop that they worried about their ability to provide end-of-life care that is individualized enough to meet the needs of these patients. The study suggests that end-of-life care professionals who regard cross-cultural interaction in this manner could face actual challenges when caring for patients whose backgrounds they regard as "the unknown" since they anticipate a variety of challenges

  17. Health Care Professionals’ Understandings of Cross-Cultural Interaction in End-of-Life Care: A Focus Group Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Sandra; Ågård, Pernilla

    2016-01-01

    Objective The academic debate on cross-cultural interaction within the context of end-of-life care takes for granted that this interaction is challenging. However, few empirical studies have actually focused on what health care professionals think about this interaction. This study aimed to explore health care professionals’ understandings of cross-cultural interaction during end-of-life care. Methods Sixty end-of-life care professionals were recruited from eleven care units in Sweden to take part in focus group interviews. These interviews were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results The health care professionals interviewed talked about cross-cultural interaction in end-of-life care as interaction that brings about uncertainty, stress and frustration even though they had limited experience of this type of interaction. The focus group discussions brought attention to four specific challenges that they expected to meet when they care for patients with migrant backgrounds since they took for granted that they would have an ethno-cultural background that is different to their own. These challenges had to do with communication barriers, ‘unusual’ emotional and pain expressions, the expectation that these patients’ families would be ‘different’ and the anticipation that these patients and their families lack knowledge. At the core of the challenges in question is the idea that cross-cultural interaction means meeting “the unknown”. In addition, the end-of-life care professionals interviewed talked about patients whose backgrounds they did not share in homogenizing terms. It is against this backdrop that they worried about their ability to provide end-of-life care that is individualized enough to meet the needs of these patients. Conclusions The study suggests that end-of-life care professionals who regard cross-cultural interaction in this manner could face actual challenges when caring for patients whose backgrounds they regard as

  18. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of an Instrument to Assess Cross-Cultural Competence of Healthcare Professionals (CCCHP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, Gerda; Knibbe, Ronald A.; von Wolff, Alessa; Dingoyan, Demet; Schulz, Holger; Mösko, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Background Cultural competence of healthcare professionals (HCPs) is recognized as a strategy to reduce cultural disparities in healthcare. However, standardised, valid and reliable instruments to assess HCPs’ cultural competence are notably lacking. The present study aims to 1) identify the core components of cultural competence from a healthcare perspective, 2) to develop a self-report instrument to assess cultural competence of HCPs and 3) to evaluate the psychometric properties of the new instrument. Methods The conceptual model and initial item pool, which were applied to the cross-cultural competence instrument for the healthcare profession (CCCHP), were derived from an expert survey (n = 23), interviews with HCPs (n = 12), and a broad narrative review on assessment instruments and conceptual models of cultural competence. The item pool was reduced systematically, which resulted in a 59-item instrument. A sample of 336 psychologists, in advanced psychotherapeutic training, and 409 medical students participated, in order to evaluate the construct validity and reliability of the CCCHP. Results Construct validity was supported by principal component analysis, which led to a 32-item six-component solution with 50% of the total variance explained. The different dimensions of HCPs’ cultural competence are: Cross-Cultural Motivation/Curiosity, Cross-Cultural Attitudes, Cross-Cultural Skills, Cross-Cultural Knowledge/Awareness and Cross-Cultural Emotions/Empathy. For the total instrument, the internal consistency reliability was .87 and the dimension’s Cronbach’s α ranged from .54 to .84. The discriminating power of the CCCHP was indicated by statistically significant mean differences in CCCHP subscale scores between predefined groups. Conclusions The 32-item CCCHP exhibits acceptable psychometric properties, particularly content and construct validity to examine HCPs’ cultural competence. The CCCHP with its five dimensions offers a comprehensive

  19. Health Care Professionals' Understandings of Cross-Cultural Interaction in End-of-Life Care: A Focus Group Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Milberg

    Full Text Available The academic debate on cross-cultural interaction within the context of end-of-life care takes for granted that this interaction is challenging. However, few empirical studies have actually focused on what health care professionals think about this interaction. This study aimed to explore health care professionals' understandings of cross-cultural interaction during end-of-life care.Sixty end-of-life care professionals were recruited from eleven care units in Sweden to take part in focus group interviews. These interviews were analyzed using qualitative content analysis.The health care professionals interviewed talked about cross-cultural interaction in end-of-life care as interaction that brings about uncertainty, stress and frustration even though they had limited experience of this type of interaction. The focus group discussions brought attention to four specific challenges that they expected to meet when they care for patients with migrant backgrounds since they took for granted that they would have an ethno-cultural background that is different to their own. These challenges had to do with communication barriers, 'unusual' emotional and pain expressions, the expectation that these patients' families would be 'different' and the anticipation that these patients and their families lack knowledge. At the core of the challenges in question is the idea that cross-cultural interaction means meeting "the unknown". In addition, the end-of-life care professionals interviewed talked about patients whose backgrounds they did not share in homogenizing terms. It is against this backdrop that they worried about their ability to provide end-of-life care that is individualized enough to meet the needs of these patients.The study suggests that end-of-life care professionals who regard cross-cultural interaction in this manner could face actual challenges when caring for patients whose backgrounds they regard as "the unknown" since they anticipate a variety

  20. Cross-cultural differences in emotion suppression in everyday interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huwaë, Sylvia; Schaafsma, Juliette

    2016-05-11

    Previous research suggests that in collectivistic cultures, people tend to suppress their emotions more than in individualistic cultures. Little research, however, has explored cross-cultural differences in emotion regulation in everyday interactions. Using a daily social interaction method, we examined whether people from collectivistic backgrounds (Chinese exchange students and immigrants from the Moluccas, Indonesia) living in the Netherlands differed from those from individualistic backgrounds (Dutch natives) in emotion suppression during everyday interactions. We also examined whether this depended on their relationship with the interaction partner(s). We found that Chinese participants suppressed positive and negative emotions more than Dutch and Moluccan participants and that this was related to differences in interdependent and independent self-construal across the samples. We also found that Chinese participants suppressed positive emotions less in interactions with close others, whereas Dutch participants suppressed negative emotions more with non-close others. No such differences were found for Moluccans. Our findings support the idea that people from collectivistic cultures suppress emotions more than those from individualistic cultures, but they also suggest that this depends on who the interaction partner is. Furthermore, they suggest that emotion suppression may change when people with collectivistic backgrounds have been raised in individualistic cultures. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  1. Correlates of college students' physical activity: cross-cultural differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad R; Jiang, Nan; Fernandez-Rojas, Xinia; Park, Bock-Hee

    2009-10-01

    This study examined cross-cultural differences in personal and behavioral determinants of vigorous-intensity and moderate-intensity physical activity (PA) among college students living in distinctly different cultures, that is, the United States, Costa Rica, India, and South Korea. Participants of this study were recruited from randomly chosen public universities in the 4 countries during the 2006-2007 academic year. A total of 4685 students participated in the study (response rate 90%). Vigorous-intensity PA was measured by asking on how many of the past 7 days the participants participated in PA for at least 20 minutes that made them sweat or breathe hard. For moderate-intensity PA, participants were asked on how many of the past 7 days they participated in PA for at least 30 minutes that did not make them sweat or breathe hard. Findings indicate that whereas perceived overweight and fruit and vegetable consumption are relatively culture-free predictors of PA, gender and TV/video watching are culture-specific predictors. Binge drinking was not predictive of meeting the vigorous-intensity and moderate-intensity PA guidelines in any of the 4 countries.

  2. Experiences in Broker-Facilitated Participatory Cross-Cultural Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie P. Kowal

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Health researchers are increasingly using community-based participatory research approaches because of the benefits accrued through ongoing community engagement. The documentation of our research partnership highlights key ethical and analytical challenges researchers face in participatory research, particularly in projects partnering with service providers or cultural brokers in cross-cultural settings. In this article, we describe how choices made to accommodate a participatory research approach in the examination of vaccination behavior impacted the process and outcomes of our qualitative inquiries. First, we found that employing multiple interviewers influenced the breadth of discussion topics, thus reducing the ability to achieve saturation in small study populations. This was mitigated by (a having two people at each interview and (b using convergent interviewing, a technique in which multiple interviewers discuss and include concepts raised in interviews in subsequent interviews to test the validity of interview topics. Second, participants were less engaged during the informed consent process if they knew the interviewer before the interview commenced. Finally, exposing identity traits, such as age or immigration status, before the interview affected knowledge cocreation, as the focus of the conversation then mirrored those traits. For future research, we provide recommendations to reduce ethical and analytical concerns that arise with qualitative interview methods in participatory research. Specifically, we provide guidance to ensure ethical informed consent processes and rigorous interview techniques.

  3. Navigating the ethics of cross-cultural health promotion research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haintz, Greer Lamaro; Graham, Melissa; McKenzie, Hayley

    2015-12-01

    Health promotion researchers must consider the ethics of their research, and are usually required to abide by a set of ethical requirements stipulated by governing bodies (such as the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council) and human research ethics committees (HRECs). These requirements address both deontological (rule-based) and consequence-based issues. However, at times there can be a disconnect between the requirements of deontological issues and the cultural sensitivity required when research is set in cultural contexts and settings etic to the HREC. This poses a challenge for health promotion researchers who must negotiate between meeting both the requirements of the HREC and the needs of the community with whom the research is being conducted. Drawing on two case studies, this paper discusses examples from cross-cultural health promotion research in Australian and international settings where disconnect arose and negotiation was required to appropriately meet the needs of all parties. The examples relate to issues of participant recruitment and informed consent, participants under the Australian legal age of consent, participant withdrawal when this seemingly occurs in an ad hoc rather than a formal manner and reciprocity. Although these approaches are context specific, they highlight issues for consideration to advance more culturally appropriate practice in research ethics and suggest ways a stronger anthropological lens can be applied to research ethics to overcome these challenges.

  4. Cross-Cultural Competencies for the NASA International Internship Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedbala, Elizabeth M.; Feinberg, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    One of the principles that NASA upholds is to cooperate with other nations to advance science, exploration, and discovery for all. Effective cooperation across cultures, however, requires a certain level of skill. A construct called cross-cultural competency (CCC) emphasizes that individuals are capable of acquiring skills that facilitate positive and cooperative interaction with people of another culture. While some aspects of CCC stem from stable individual traits such as personality (i.e., extraversion, tolerance for ambiguity), most components can be learned and strengthened over time (i.e., empathy, mindfulness, trust). Because CCC is such a vital part of international cooperation, this summer we will design a training program to cultivate these skills between student interns, their mentors, and the Ames community as a whole. First, we will research what specific competencies are valuable for anyone to have when working in an international setting. We will then design a series of activities, events, workshops, and discussions that target and strengthen those skills. Finally, we will use both qualitative and quantitative evaluation methods to measure the success of the pilot program. This summer, the current international student interns will serve as our trial population for the program, while our goal is to launch the full program in Fall 2017. Overall, we hope to contribute to NASAs mission of optimizing international collaboration for everyone involved.

  5. Cross-cultural and psychological issues in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Swapnajeet; Padhy, Susanta Kumar

    2017-10-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders encountered by gastroenterologists worldwide. Of all the etiological factors that had been postulated to explain the pathophysiology of IBS, cultural and psychological factors are unique and difficult to understand. Culture plays an important role in coloring the presentation of IBS, and many a times, it has a significant role in several treatment aspects too. Psychological aspects like personality profiles, family relationships, societal myths, and abuse in any form are equally important in the management perspectives of IBS. In this brief review, we had tried to specifically focus on these aspects in IBS and have explained the evidences in favor of these factors. Knowledge about various cross-cultural aspects and psychological factors in patients with IBS is essential for taking an appropriate history and for undertaking a holistic approach for the management of the same. A collaborative team effort by psychiatrists and gastroenterologists could help in reducing the burden of this difficult to treat functional bowel disorder. © 2017 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  6. Understanding Muslim patients: cross-cultural dental hygiene care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirois, M L; Darby, M; Tolle, S

    2013-05-01

    Healthcare providers who understand the basic pillars of Islamic beliefs and common religious practices can apply these concepts, anticipate the needs of the Muslim patient and family, and attract Muslim patients to the practice. Cross cultural knowledge can motivate dental hygienists to adopt culturally acceptable behaviors, strengthen patient-provider relationships and optimize therapeutic outcomes. Trends in Muslim population growth, Islamic history and beliefs, modesty practices, healthcare beliefs, contraception, childbearing, childrearing, pilgrimage, dietary practices, dental care considerations and communication are explained. This paper reviews traditional Muslim beliefs and practices regarding lifestyle, customs, healthcare and religion as derived from the literature and study abroad experiences. Recommendations are offered on how to blend western healthcare with Islamic practices when making introductions, appointments, eye contact, and selecting a practitioner. The significance of fasting and how dental hygiene care can invalidate the fast are also discussed. The ultimate goal is for practitioners to be culturally competent in providing care to Muslim patients, while keeping in mind that beliefs and practices can vary widely within a culture. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Adding support to cross-cultural emotional assessment: Validation of the International Affective Picture System in a Chilean sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Mayol Troncoso

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to obtain a valid set of images of the International Affective Picture System (Lang, Bradley, & Cuthbert, 2005 –a widely used instrumentation in emotion research- in a Chilean sample, as well as to compare these results with those obtained from the US study in order to contribute to its cross-cultural validation. A sample of 135 college students assessed 188 pictures according to standard instructions in valence and arousal dimensions. The results showed the expected organization of affectivity, with main variations between sex in valence judgments, and differences between countries in the arousal dimension. It is concluded that the Chilean adaptation of the IAPS is consistent with previous evidence, adding support to it cross-cultural validity.

  8. Cultural dimension of individualism and collectivism and its perceptual and cognitive correlates in cross-cultural research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Čeněk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the current findings on the dimension of individualism/collectivism, which might be a useful tool for the comparison of different cultures and for the investigation of the effect of culture as a psychological concept on individual mental processes. The validity and reliability of the concept of the dimension of individualism/collectivism is discussed. The related theory of analytic and holistic thinking is introduced within a framework of extensive comparative research in the field of cross-cultural psychology. Several interesting research designs on cross-cultural differences in cognition and perception are described. The empirical part contains a short report of research conducted on a sample (N=92 of Czech and Czech Vietnamese university students using a scale of horizontal and vertical individualism/collectivism (Bartoš, 2010. The results do not fully support the traditional view of individualistic Europeans and collectivistic Asians.

  9. Cross-cultural and factorial validity of PTSD check list-military version (PCL-M) in Sinhalese language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semage, Saveen N; Sivayogan, Sivagurunadan; Forbes, David; O'Donnell, Meaghan; Monaragala, Roshan M M; Lockwood, Emma; Dunt, David

    2013-01-01

    There are currently no validated instruments to assess the burden of combat-related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in Sinhalese-the main spoken language in Sri Lanka. The purpose of this research was to establish the cross-cultural and structural validity of the PTSD Check List-Military Version (PCL-M) translated into Sinhalese. Expert committee consensus generation as well as translation-back translation approaches were used to establish the semantic, conceptual, and content equivalence of the Sinhalese and English versions of the PCL-M. Four translations of each item were made. In the absence of any "gold standard" psychometric instrument in Sinhalese to establish the criterion validity for the PCL-M (SIN), the study utilized more informal checks for assessment of validity and Sri Lankan cutoffs for caseness for PTSD to establish the psychometric strength of the translated instrument along with standard reliability analysis. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed on PCL-M scoring of a random sample of 1,586 soldiers to examine construct validity. Thirteen of the 17 items were selected by popular vote, and the remaining 4 through discussion and consensus. Reliability measured by Cronbach's-α was 0.944 for the total scale and 0.812, 0.869, and 0.895 for the three DSM-IV sub-scales (re-experiencing, avoidance/numbing, and hyperarousal), respectively. The desired cutoff point for the translated instrument was determined to be 44. The five-factor model by Elhai et al. and the four-factor model by King et al. fitted best, demonstrating good fit to all three fit indices, while the four-factor model and the DSM-IV three-factor model by Simms et al. only had acceptable levels of fit for root mean squared error of approximation. χ(2) difference test comparing the two better-fitting models suggests that the five-factor model by Elhai et al. has the better fit. The PCL-M (SIN) version is suitable for use in the study of PTSD in the Sri Lankan military forces, as

  10. Cross-cultural differences in sibling power balance and its concomitants across three age periods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buist, K.L.; Metindogan, A.; Coban, S.; Watve, S.; Paranipe, A.; Koot, Hans M.; Van Lier, P.; Branje, Susan; Meeus, W.H.J.

    2017-01-01

    We examined cross-cultural differences in (1) sibling power balance and (2) the associations between sibling power balance and internalizing and externalizing problems in three separate cross-cultural studies (early childhood, late childhood, and adolescence). The early childhood samples consisted

  11. On the Meaning of Cross-Cultural Differences in Simple Cognitive Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Vijver, Fons J. R.

    2008-01-01

    A set of 5 reaction time tests of increasing cognitive complexity were administered to 35 secondary school pupils in Zimbabwe and The Netherlands at 4 consecutive school days in order to explore the existence and nature of cross-cultural differences on reaction time tests measuring basic cognitive operations. No cross-cultural differences were…

  12. Cross-Cultural Differences in Sibling Power Balance and Its Concomitants across Three Age Periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buist, Kirsten L.; Metindogan, Aysegül; Coban, Selma; Watve, Sujala; Paranjpe, Analpa; Koot, Hans M.; van Lier, Pol; Branje, Susan J. T.; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2017-01-01

    We examined cross-cultural differences in (1) sibling power balance and (2) the associations between sibling power balance and internalizing and externalizing problems in three separate cross-cultural studies (early childhood, late childhood, and adolescence). The "early childhood samples" consisted of 123 Turkish and 128 Dutch mothers…

  13. Contexts in tourism and leisure studies : a cross-cultural contribution to the production of knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Platenkamp, V.

    2007-01-01

    In this PhD an attempt has been made to deliver a cross-cultural contribution to the production of knowledge in tourism and leisure studies. The necessity of this attempt originates in: thegrowing cultural complexity in a globalising world. From a cross-cultural

  14. Development and testing of a cross-culturally valid instrument: food-related life style

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsø, Karen; Grunert, Klaus G.

    1995-01-01

    -culturaly valid way. To this end we have developed a pool of 202 items, collected data in three countries, and have constructed scales based on cross-culturally stable factor patterns. We have then applie set of scales to a fourth country, in order to further test the cross-cultural validity of the instrument....

  15. Applications of Multilevel Structural Equation Modeling to Cross-Cultural Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Mike W.-L.; Au, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    Multilevel structural equation modeling (MSEM) has been proposed as an extension to structural equation modeling for analyzing data with nested structure. We have begun to see a few applications in cross-cultural research in which MSEM fits well as the statistical model. However, given that cross-cultural studies can only afford collecting data…

  16. A Cross-Cultural Study of Preschool Quality in South Korea and Sweden: ECERS Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Sonja; Giota, Joanna; Han, You-Me; Kwon, Jeong-Yoon

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study is to explore cross-cultural similarities and differences in preschool quality in South Korean and Swedish preschools as measured by two national adaptations of the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale (ECERS). The approach adopted is that cross-cultural comparisons of preschool quality are both achievable and of great…

  17. Merging experiences and perspectives in the complexity of cross-cultural design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winschiers-Theophilus, Heike; Bidwell, Nicola; Blake, Edward

    2010-01-01

    While our cross-cultural IT research continuously strives to contribute towards the development of HCI appropriate cross-cultural models and best practices, we are aware of the specificity of each development context and the influence of each participant. Uncovering the complexity within our...

  18. Is “culture” a workable concept for (cross-)cultural psychology?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortinga, Y.H.

    2015-01-01

    In this essay three points are addressed: First, despite repeated findings of limited cross-cultural variation for core areas of study, research in cross-cultural psychology continues to be directed mainly at finding differences in psychological functioning. This often happens at the cost of

  19. The World of Cross-Cultural Research: Insights for Gifted Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanTassel-Baska, Joyce

    2013-01-01

    As the world becomes smaller in a small field like gifted education, cross-cultural research gives us a unique opportunity to understand top students and academic interventions in a deeper way. In this article, the author describes the importance of cross-cultural research as a way to serve gifted children globally. A description of a…

  20. Strategies for Smooth and Effective Cross-Cultural Online Collaborative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Junfeng; Kinshuk; Yu, Huiju; Chen, Sue-Jen; Huang, Ronghuai

    2014-01-01

    As the communication between different cultures is becoming more and more frequent, the competence of cross-cultural awareness and collaboration is emerging as a key ability in the 21st century. Face to face communication is the most efficient way to cultivate the competence of cross-cultural awareness and collaboration. However, there are very…