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Sample records for cross year peer

  1. Cross-year peer tutoring on internal medicine wards: results of a qualitative focus group analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krautter M

    2014-09-01

    acts through its flat hierarchy. Nevertheless, tutors cannot represent an adequate substitute for experienced physicians. Keywords: peer-assisted learning, cross-year peer tutoring, undergraduate medical education, final year, internal medicine, clinical skills training

  2. An Example of Large-group Drama and Cross-year Peer Assessment for Teaching Science in Higher Education

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    Sloman, Katherine; Thompson, Richard

    2010-09-01

    Undergraduate students pursuing a three-year marine biology degree programme (n = 86) experienced a large-group drama aimed at allowing them to explore how scientific research is funded and the associated links between science and society. In the drama, Year 1 students played the "general public" who decided which environmental research areas should be prioritised for funding, Year 2 students were the "scientists" who had to prepare research proposals which they hoped to get funded, and Year 3 students were the "research panel" who decided which proposals to fund with input from the priorities set by the "general public". The drama, therefore, included an element of cross-year peer assessment where Year 3 students evaluated the research proposals prepared by the Year 2 students. Questionnaires were distributed at the end of the activity to gather: (1) student perceptions on the cross-year nature of the exercise, (2) the use of peer assessment, and (3) their overall views on the drama. The students valued the opportunity to interact with their peers from other years of the degree programme and most were comfortable with the use of cross-year peer assessment. The majority of students felt that they had increased their knowledge of how research proposals are funded and the perceived benefits of the large-group drama included increased critical thinking ability, confidence in presenting work to others, and enhanced communication skills. Only one student did not strongly advocate the use of this large-group drama in subsequent years.

  3. Medical students can teach communication skills - a mixed methods study of cross-year peer tutoring.

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    Nomura, Osamu; Onishi, Hirotaka; Kato, Hiroyuki

    2017-06-15

    Cross-year peer tutoring (CYPT) of medical students is recognized as an effective learning tool. The aim of this study is to investigate the non-inferiority of the objective outcome of medical interview training with CYPT compared with the results of faculty-led training (FLT), and to explore qualitatively the educational benefits of CYPT. We conducted a convergent mixed methods study including a randomized controlled non-inferiority trial and two focus groups. For the CYPT group, teaching was led by six student tutors from year 5. In the FLT group, students were taught by six physicians. Focus groups for student learners (four tutees) and student teachers (six tutors) were conducted following the training session. One hundred sixteen students agreed to participate. The OSCE scores of the CYPT group and FLT group were 91.4 and 91.2, respectively. The difference in the mean score was 0.2 with a 95% CI of -1.8 to 2.2 within the predetermined non-inferiority margin of 3.0. By analyzing the focus groups, we extracted 13 subordinate concepts and formed three categories including 'Benefits of CYPT', 'Reflections of tutees and tutors' and 'Comparison with faculty', which affected the interactions among tutees, tutors, and faculty. CYPT is effective for teaching communication skills to medical students and for enhancing reflective learning among both tutors and tutees.

  4. Cross-year peer tutoring on internal medicine wards: results of a qualitative focus group analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krautter, Markus; Andreesen, Sven; Köhl-Hackert, Nadja; Hoffmann, Katja; Herzog, Wolfgang; Nikendei, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Peer-assisted learning (PAL) has become a well-accepted teaching method within medical education. However, descriptions of on-ward PAL programs are rare. A focus group analysis of a newly established PAL program on an internal medicine ward was conducted to provide insights into PAL teaching from a student perspective. To provide insights into students' experiences regarding their on-ward training with and without accompanying PAL tutors. A total of N=168 medical students in their sixth semester participated in the investigation (intervention group: N=88; control group: N=80). The intervention group took part in the PAL program, while the control group received standard on-ward training. There were seven focus groups with N=43 participants (intervention group: four focus groups, N=28 participants; control group: three focus groups, N=15 participants). The discussions were analyzed using content analysis. The intervention group emphasized the role of the tutors as competent and well-trained teachers, most beneficial in supervising clinical skills. Tutors motivate students, help them to integrate into the ward team, and provide a non-fear-based working relationship whereby students' anxiety regarding working on ward decreases. The control group had to rely on autodidactic learning strategies when neither supervising physicians nor final-year students were available. On-ward PAL programs represent a particularly valuable tool for students' support in training clinical competencies on ward. The tutor-student working alliance acts through its flat hierarchy. Nevertheless, tutors cannot represent an adequate substitute for experienced physicians.

  5. Medical students can teach communication skills – a mixed methods study of cross-year peer tutoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osamu Nomura

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cross-year peer tutoring (CYPT of medical students is recognized as an effective learning tool. The aim of this study is to investigate the non-inferiority of the objective outcome of medical interview training with CYPT compared with the results of faculty-led training (FLT, and to explore qualitatively the educational benefits of CYPT. Methods We conducted a convergent mixed methods study including a randomized controlled non-inferiority trial and two focus groups. For the CYPT group, teaching was led by six student tutors from year 5. In the FLT group, students were taught by six physicians. Focus groups for student learners (four tutees and student teachers (six tutors were conducted following the training session. Results One hundred sixteen students agreed to participate. The OSCE scores of the CYPT group and FLT group were 91.4 and 91.2, respectively. The difference in the mean score was 0.2 with a 95% CI of −1.8 to 2.2 within the predetermined non-inferiority margin of 3.0. By analyzing the focus groups, we extracted 13 subordinate concepts and formed three categories including ‘Benefits of CYPT’, ‘Reflections of tutees and tutors’ and ‘Comparison with faculty’, which affected the interactions among tutees, tutors, and faculty. Conclusions CYPT is effective for teaching communication skills to medical students and for enhancing reflective learning among both tutors and tutees.

  6. Cross-year peer-assisted learning using the inverted ("flipped") classroom design: A pilot study in dentistry.

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    Quoß, Maximilian; Rüttermann, Stefan; Gerhardt-Szep, Susanne

    2017-10-01

    The inverted classroom model (ICM) represents a special combination of online and attendance learning. The implementation of the didactic concept of "peer-assisted learning" (PAL) within an ICM design has not yet been described in the literature for the field of restorative dentistry. It was the goal of the present study to develop an ICM offering in a cross-year PAL format (ICM-cyPAL), and then introduce and evaluate it. The pilot project was conducted at the dental clinic at the Goethe University of Frankfurt/Main, where following its conceptual development and implementation with three consecutive cohorts of students in their first clinical semester (the sixth semester at university) the ICM-cyPAL offering was evaluated. Data on acceptance, tutor effectiveness, group interaction models and learning strategies were collected using an evaluative instrument. 121 students (tutees) participated in three cohorts. The response rate reached 98.3 %. In total, the offering was given an average rating of 6.97±1.93 (from 1 = unsatisfactory to 10 = excellent). As the tutees explained the attention that the tutors employed gave to the group was "just right" (4.65±1.04; where 1 = too controlling and 4 = just right to 7 = left the group on their own too long) and talked "just the right amount" (4.54±0.95; where 1 = too much and 4 = just right to 7 = talked too little). The results for tutor effectiveness reached values between 3.26±0.94 and 3.78±0.87; for the evaluation of group interaction models average values were obtained from 3.41±0.98 to 3.89±0.73 (on a Likert scale of 1 = do not at all agree to 5 = completely agree). Concerning the surveyed learning strategies, the dimensions of "resource management" and "implementation of the learning materials" were given the highest and lowest rankings, respectively. The tutees' ratings of the newly developed and implemented ICM-cyPAL offering in the dental context were mainly positive. The thematic orientation of the

  7. Effects of participation in a cross year peer tutoring programme in clinical examination skills on volunteer tutors' skills and attitudes towards teachers and teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamora Javier

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Development of students' teaching skills is increasingly recognised as an important component of UK undergraduate medical curricula and, in consequence, there is renewed interest in the potential benefits of cross-year peer tutoring. Whilst several studies have described the use of cross-year peer tutoring in undergraduate medical courses, its use in the clinical setting is less well reported, particularly the effects of peer tutoring on volunteer tutors' views of teachers and teaching. This study explored the effects of participation in a cross-year peer tutoring programme in clinical examination skills ('OSCE tutor' on volunteer tutors' own skills and on their attitudes towards teachers and teaching. Methods Volunteer tutors were final year MBChB students who took part in the programme as part of a Student Selected Component (SSC. Tutees were year 3 MBChB students preparing for their end of year 'OSCE' examination. Pre and post participation questionnaires, including both Likert-type and open response questions, were used. Paired data was compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. All tests were two-tailed with 5% significance level. Results Tutors reflected their cohort in terms of gender but were drawn from among the more academically successful final year students. Most had previous teaching experience. They were influenced to participate in 'OSCE tutor' by a desire to improve their own teaching and associated generic skills and by contextual factors relating to the organisation or previous experience of the OSCE tutor programme. Issues relating to longer term career aspirations were less important. After the event, tutors felt that participation had enhanced their skills in various areas, including practical teaching skills, confidence in speaking to groups and communication skills; and that as a result of taking part, they were now more likely to undertake further teacher training and to make teaching a major part

  8. Perceptions about Training during Endocrinology Residency Programs in India over the Years: A Cross-sectional Study (PEER India Study)

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    Khandelwal, Deepak; Dutta, Deep; Singla, Rajiv; Surana, Vineet; Aggarwal, Sameer; Gupta, Yashdeep; Kalra, Sanjay; Khadgawat, Rajesh; Tandon, Nikhil

    2017-01-01

    Background: Residents' perception on quality of endocrinology training in India is not known. This study aimed to evaluate the perceptions about endocrinology residency programs in India among current trainees as compared to practicing endocrinologists. Methods: Trainees attending a preconference workshop at the annual conference of Endocrine Society of India (ESI) were given a questionnaire designed to evaluate their perceptions on their training. These evaluated the reasons for choosing endocrinology, their experiences during residency, and career plans. Practicing endocrinologists attending ESICON with at least 5-year experience were evaluated as controls. Results: Questionnaires from 63 endocrine trainees and 78 practicing endocrinologists were analyzed. Endocrinology is perceived to be the super-specialty with the best quality of life (QOL) but fair with regard to financial remuneration. Among current trainees, 61.89%, 31.74%, and 34.91% are satisfied with training in clinical endocrinology, laboratory endocrinology, and clinical/translational research, respectively. The corresponding figures for practicing endocrinologists are 71.78%, 25.63%, and 30.75%, respectively. Exposure to national endocrinology conferences during their endocrinology residency was adequate. However, exposure to international endocrinology conferences, research publications, project writing, and grant application are limited. Laboratory endocrinology is rated as the most neglected aspect during endocrine residency. Most of the trainees want to establish their own clinical practice in the long run. Very few trainees (17.46%) wish to join the medical education services. Conclusion: There is a good perception of QOL in endocrinology in spite of average financial remuneration. There is dissatisfaction with the quality of training in laboratory endocrinology and clinical research. Very few endocrine trainees consider academics as a long-term career option in India. PMID:28459024

  9. The effects of peer influence on adolescent pedestrian road-crossing decisions.

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    Pfeffer, K; Hunter, E

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is a high-risk period for pedestrian injury. It is also a time of heightened susceptibility to peer influence. The aim of this research was to examine the effects of peer influence on the pedestrian road-crossing decisions of adolescents. Using 10 videos of road-crossing sites, 80 16- to 18-year-olds were asked to make pedestrian road-crossing decisions. Participants were assigned to one of 4 experimental conditions: negative peer (influencing unsafe decisions), positive peer (influencing cautious decisions), silent peer (who observed but did not comment), and no peer (the participant completed the task alone). Peers from the adolescent's own friendship group were recruited to influence either an unsafe or a cautious decision. Statistically significant differences were found between peer conditions. Participants least often identified safe road-crossing sites when accompanied by a negative peer and more frequently identified dangerous road-crossing sites when accompanied by a positive peer. Both cautious and unsafe comments from a peer influenced adolescent pedestrians' decisions. These findings showed that road-crossing decisions of adolescents were influenced by both unsafe and cautious comments from their peers. The discussion highlighted the role that peers can play in both increasing and reducing adolescent risk-taking.

  10. Peer and Cross-Age Tutoring. ERIC Digest, Number 79.

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    Gaustad, Joan

    One-to-one tutoring programs, such as peer and cross-age tutoring, can result in emotional and learning benefits for the tutor and the tutee. Peer tutoring involves two students of the same age. In cross-age tutoring, the tutor is older than the tutee. The Willamette High School Peer Tutoring Program in Eugene, Oregon; the Coca-Cola Valued Youth…

  11. Peer Pressure: An Issue That Crosses Generations.

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    Kittredge, Karen; McCarthy, Alice R.

    2000-01-01

    Recent research on peer pressure shows that: parents are important to teens, today's teens face unique challenges, and teaching teens to say no does not mean losing friends. The paper presents parenting tips for countering peer pressure, noting the influence of adult peer pressure on children. A sidebar examines the right age to start talking to…

  12. Peer to peer mentoring: Outcomes of third-year midwifery students mentoring first-year students.

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    Hogan, Rosemarie; Fox, Deborah; Barratt-See, Georgina

    2017-06-01

    Undergraduate midwifery students commonly experience anxiety in relation to their first clinical placement. A peer mentoring program for midwifery students was implemented in an urban Australian university. The participants were first-year mentee and third-year mentor students studying a three-year Bachelor degree in midwifery. The program offered peer support to first-year midwifery students who had little or no previous exposure to hospital clinical settings. Mentors received the opportunity to develop mentoring and leadership skills. The aim was to explore the benefits, if any, of a peer mentoring program for midwifery students. The peer mentoring program was implemented in 2012. Sixty-three peer mentors and 170 mentees participated over three academic years. Surveys were distributed at the end of each academic year. Quantitative survey data were analysed descriptively and qualitative survey data were analysed thematically using NVivo 10 software. Over 80% of mentors and mentees felt that the program helped mentees adjust to their midwifery clinical placement. At least 75% of mentors benefited, in developing their communication, mentoring and leadership skills. Three themes emerged from the qualitative data, including 'Receiving start-up advice'; 'Knowing she was there' and 'Wanting more face to face time'. There is a paucity of literature on midwifery student peer mentoring. The findings of this program demonstrate the value of peer support for mentees and adds knowledge about the mentor experience for undergraduate midwifery students. The peer mentor program was of benefit to the majority of midwifery students. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cross-modal project prioritization : a TPCB peer exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This report highlights key recommendations and best practices identified at the peer exchange on Cross-Modal Project Prioritization, held on December 16 and 17, 2014, in Raleigh, North Carolina. This event was sponsored by the Transportation Planning...

  14. Perceptions of first-year medical students towards learning anatomy using cadaveric specimens through peer teaching.

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    Agius, Andee; Calleja, Neville; Camenzuli, Christian; Sultana, Roberta; Pullicino, Richard; Zammit, Christian; Calleja Agius, Jean; Pomara, Cristoforo

    2017-11-07

    During the last decade, global interest in the multiple benefits of formal peer teaching has increased. This study aimed to explore the perceptions of first-year medical students towards the use of peer teaching to learn anatomy using cadaveric specimens. A descriptive, cross-sectional, retrospective survey was carried out. Data were collected using an online questionnaire which was administered to all medical students who were in their second year of their medical school curriculum and who had participated in sessions taught by their peers during their first year. Peer teaching was perceived as an effective method of learning anatomy by more than half of the participants. Analysis of mean responses revealed that the peer teachers created a positive, non-intimidating learning environment. Overall, participants gave positive feedback on their peer teachers. Six categories emerged from the responses given by participants as to why they would or would not recommend peer teaching. Ways of improvement as suggested by the respondents were also reported. Variables found to be significantly associated with the perceived benefits of the peer teaching program included sex differences, educational level and recommendations for peer teaching. This study brings to light the merits and demerits of peer teaching as viewed through the eyes of the peer learners. Peer teaching provides a sound platform for teaching and learning anatomy. Further discussions at higher levels are encouraged in order to explore the feasibility of introducing formal peer teaching in the medical curriculum. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  15. An immersive virtual peer for studying social influences on child cyclists' road-crossing behavior.

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    Babu, Sabarish V; Grechkin, Timofey Y; Chihak, Benjamin; Ziemer, Christine; Kearney, Joseph K; Cremer, James F; Plumert, Jodie M

    2011-01-01

    The goal of our work is to develop a programmatically controlled peer to bicycle with a human subject for the purpose of studying how social interactions influence road-crossing behavior. The peer is controlled through a combination of reactive controllers that determine the gross motion of the virtual bicycle, action-based controllers that animate the virtual bicyclist and generate verbal behaviors, and a keyboard interface that allows an experimenter to initiate the virtual bicyclist's actions during the course of an experiment. The virtual bicyclist's repertoire of behaviors includes road following, riding alongside the human rider, stopping at intersections, and crossing intersections through specified gaps in traffic. The virtual cyclist engages the human subject through gaze, gesture, and verbal interactions. We describe the structure of the behavior code and report the results of a study examining how 10- and 12-year-old children interact with a peer cyclist that makes either risky or safe choices in selecting gaps in traffic. Results of our study revealed that children who rode with a risky peer were more likely to cross intermediate-sized gaps than children who rode with a safe peer. In addition, children were significantly less likely to stop at the last six intersections after the experience of riding with the risky than the safe peer during the first six intersections. The results of the study and children's reactions to the virtual peer indicate that our virtual peer framework is a promising platform for future behavioral studies of peer influences on children's bicycle riding behavior. © 2011 IEEE Published by the IEEE Computer Society

  16. Peer Exclusion Is Linked to Inhibition with Familiar but Not Unfamiliar Peers at Two Years of Age

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    Gazelle, Heidi; Faldowski, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the extent that inhibition among familiar peers was related to inhibition among unfamiliar peers versus exclusion by familiar peers at 2?years of age. Peer inhibition at 2?years of age was assessed by both mothers and teachers on versions of the Behavioral Inhibition Questionnaire and the Preschool Play Behavior Scale (N?=?141…

  17. An integrated 2-year clinical skills peer tutoring scheme in a UK-based medical school: perceptions of tutees and peer tutors

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    2018-01-01

    Background Several benefits of peer tutoring in medical school teaching have been described. However, there is a lack of research on the perceptions of peer tutoring, particularly from tutees who partake in a long-term clinical skills scheme integrated into the medical school curriculum. This study evaluates the opinions of preclinical tutees at the end of a 2-year peer-tutored clinical skills program and peer tutors themselves. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in a UK-based medical school that primarily utilizes peer tutoring for clinical skills teaching. A questionnaire was designed to assess the views of preclinical tutees and peer tutors. Likert scales were used to grade responses and comment boxes to collect qualitative data. Results Sixty-five questionnaires were collected (52 tutees, 13 peer tutors). Seventy-nine percent of students felt satisfied with their teaching, and 70% felt adequately prepared for clinical placements. Furthermore, 79% believed that peer tutoring is the most effective method for clinical skills teaching. When compared to faculty teaching, tutees preferred being taught by peer tutors (63%), felt more confident (73%), and were more willing to engage (77%). All peer tutors felt that teaching made them more confident in their Objective Structured Clinical Examination performance, and 91% agreed that being a tutor made them consider pursuing teaching in the future. Thematic analysis of qualitative data identified 3 themes regarding peer tutoring: a more comfortable environment (69%), a more personalized teaching approach (34%), and variation in content taught (14%). Conclusion Preclinical tutees prefer being taught clinical skills by peer tutors compared to faculty, with the peer tutors also benefitting. Studies such as this, looking at long-term schemes, further validate peer tutoring and may encourage more medical schools to adopt this method as an effective way of clinical skills teaching. PMID:29922105

  18. Bidirectional Associations between Peer Relations and Attention Problems from 9 to 16 Years.

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    Ji, Linqin; Pan, Bin; Zhang, Wenxin; Zhang, Liang; Chen, Liang; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2018-05-12

    We examined the bidirectional relations between peer relations and attention problems from middle childhood through adolescence. Using data from the Longitudinal Study of Chinese Children and Adolescents (LSCCA, N = 2157, 51.9% male), three key aspects of peer relations (acceptance, rejection, and victimization) were assessed annually from 9 to 16 years of age. Attention problems were assessed at 9 and 15 years. Latent growth modeling indicated that greater attention problems at age 9 were linked with a lower intercept for peer acceptance, and higher intercepts for rejection and victimization. Also, prior lower acceptance and greater rejection and victimization, along with a higher increase over time in rejection and lower decrease over time in victimization, predicted attention problems at age 15. Cross-lagged analysis showed that attention problems were associated with less subsequent peer acceptance and greater subsequent rejection and victimization. Only peer rejection (but neither victimization nor acceptance) predicted more subsequent attention problems. Findings point to bidirectional associations between attention problems and peer relations in the developmental transition across adolescence. Evidence for differential bidirectionality of attention problems with the multiple peer experience (group versus dyadic; good versus bad) emerged, and future replications are needed.

  19. Bidirectional Associations between Peer Victimization and Functions of Aggression in Middle Childhood: Further Evaluation across Informants and Academic Years.

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    Cooley, John L; Fite, Paula J; Pederson, Casey A

    2018-01-01

    The current 3-wave study examined bidirectional associations between peer victimization and functions of aggression across informants over a 1-year period in middle childhood, with attention to potential gender differences. Participants included 198 children (51% girls) in the third and fourth grades and their homeroom teachers. Peer victimization was assessed using both child- and teacher-reports, and teachers provided ratings of reactive and proactive aggression. Cross-classified multilevel cross-lagged models indicated that child-reports, but not teacher-reports, of peer victimization predicted higher levels of reactive aggression within and across academic years. Further, reactive aggression predicted subsequent increases in child- and teacher-reports of peer victimization across each wave of data. Several gender differences, particularly in the crossed paths between proactive aggression and peer victimization, also emerged. Whereas peer victimization was found to partially account for the stability of reactive aggression over time, reactive aggression did not account for the stability of peer victimization. Taken together with previous research, the current findings suggest that child-reports of peer victimization may help identify youth who are risk for exhibiting increased reactive aggression over time. Further, they highlight the need to target reactively aggressive behavior for the prevention of peer victimization in middle childhood.

  20. Security Issues in Cross-Organizational Peer-to-Peer Applications and Some Solutions

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    Gupta, Ankur; Awasthi, Lalit K.

    Peer-to-Peer networks have been widely used for sharing millions of terabytes of content, for large-scale distributed computing and for a variety of other novel applications, due to their scalability and fault-tolerance. However, the scope of P2P networks has somehow been limited to individual computers connected to the internet. P2P networks are also notorious for blatant copyright violations and facilitating several kinds of security attacks. Businesses and large organizations have thus stayed away from deploying P2P applications citing security loopholes in P2P systems as the biggest reason for non-adoption. In theory P2P applications can help fulfill many organizational requirements such as collaboration and joint projects with other organizations, access to specialized computing infrastructure and finally accessing the specialized information/content and expert human knowledge available at other organizations. These potentially beneficial interactions necessitate that the research community attempt to alleviate the security shortcomings in P2P systems and ensure their acceptance and wide deployment. This research paper therefore examines the security issues prevalent in enabling cross-organizational P2P interactions and provides some technical insights into how some of these issues can be resolved.

  1. The Potential of Dual-Language Cross-Cultural Peer Review

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    Ruecker, Todd

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the potential of dual-language cross-cultural peer review and how it improves on traditional monolingual and monocultural peer review. Drawing on scholarship related to international exchange programmes, peer review, and two-way immersion programmes in the United States as well as data collected while facilitating the…

  2. The third-year medical student "grapevine": managing transitions between third-year clerkships using peer-to-peer handoffs.

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    Masters, Dylan E; O'Brien, Bridget C; Chou, Calvin L

    2013-10-01

    As third-year medical students rotate between clerkships, they experience multiple transitions across workplace cultures and shifting learning expectations. The authors explored clerkship transitions from the students' perspective by examining the advice they passed on to their peers in preparation for new clerkships. Seventy-one students from three Veterans Affairs-based clerkship rotations at the University of California, San Francisco, School of Medicine participated in a peer-to-peer handoff session from 2008 to 2011. In the handoff session, they gave tips for optimizing performance to students starting the clerkship they had just completed. The authors transcribed student comments from four handoff sessions and used qualitative content analysis to identify and compare advice across clerkships. Students shared advice about workplace culture, content learning, logistics, and work-life balance. Common themes included expectations of the rotation, workplace norms, specific tasks, learning opportunities, and learning strategies. Comments about patient care and work-life balance were rare. Students emphasized different themes for each clerkship; for example, for some clerkships, students commented heavily on tasks and content learning, while in another students focused on workplace culture and exam preparation. These findings characterize the transitions that third-year students undergo as they rotate into new clinical training environments. Students emphasized different aspects of each clerkship in the advice they passed to their peers, and their comments often describe informal norms or opportunities that official clerkship orientations may not address. Peer-to-peer handoffs may help ease transitions between clerkships with dissimilar cultures and expectations.

  3. Same-gender and cross-gender peer acceptance and peer rejection and their relation to bullying and helping among preadolescents : Comparing predictions from gender-homophily and goal-framing approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Veenstra, René

    2007-01-01

    The relation between bullying and helping and same-gender and cross-gender peer acceptance and peer rejection was examined in a sample of preadolescents aged 11 and 12 years (N = 1,065). The authors tested predictions from a gender-homophily approach vs. predictions from a goal-framing approach in

  4. Same-Gender and Cross-Gender Peer Acceptance and Peer Rejection and Their Relation to Bullying and Helping among Preadolescents: Comparing Predictions from Gender-Homophily and Goal-Framing Approaches

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    Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Veenstra, Rene

    2007-01-01

    The relation between bullying and helping and same-gender and cross-gender peer acceptance and peer rejection was examined in a sample of preadolescents aged 11 and 12 years (N=1,065). The authors tested predictions from a gender-homophily approach vs. predictions from a goal-framing approach in which acceptance and rejection are seen as being…

  5. The ABC of Peer Mentoring--What Secondary Students Have to Say about Cross-Age Peer Mentoring in a Regional Australian School

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    Willis, Paul; Bland, Robert; Manka, Louise; Craft, Cec

    2012-01-01

    Cross-age peer mentoring is an educational model that builds on peer support and mentoring to assist young people to enhance social relationships, develop cognitive skills, and promote positive identity development. In this article, we outline the evaluation process of a cross-age peer-mentoring program implemented in an Australian secondary…

  6. A cross-lagged structural equation model of relational aggression, physical aggression, and peer status in a Chinese culture.

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    Tseng, Wan-Ling; Banny, Adrienne M; Kawabata, Yoshito; Crick, Nicki R; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2013-01-01

    This short-term longitudinal study examined the associations among relational aggression, physical aggression, and peer status (i.e., acceptance, rejection, and perceived popularity) across three time points, six months apart, in a Taiwanese sample. Participants were 198 fifth grade students (94 girls and 104 boys; Mean age = 10.35 years) from Taipei, Taiwan. Study variables were assessed using peer nomination procedure. Results from the cross-lagged structural equation models demonstrated that there were longitudinal associations between relational aggression and each of the peer status constructs while only one longitudinal association was found for physical aggression such that physical aggression positively predicted subsequent peer rejection. The longitudinal associations did not vary with gender. Results also showed high stabilities of relational aggression, physical aggression, and the three peer status constructs over 1 year as well as high concurrent association between relational and physical aggression. In addition, relational aggression and physical aggression were concurrently related to less acceptance, more rejection, and less perceived popularity, especially at the outset of the study. Findings of this study demonstrated both similarities and differences in relation to previous literature in primarily Western cultures. This study also highlights the bidirectional and complex nature of the association between aggression and peer status, which appears to depend on the form of aggression and on the particular indicator of peer status under study. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Cross-Age Peer Tutoring in Physics: Tutors, Tutees, and Achievement in Electricity

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    Korner, Marianne; Hopf, Martin

    2015-01-01

    International comparisons reveal that lower-secondary-level students in Austria perform below the OECD mean in science. Guided by the search for remedies and improvements in science teaching, this study investigates whether cross-age peer tutoring is an appropriate method for teaching physics. A modern and concise definition of peer tutoring is…

  8. Promoting interprofessional learning and enhancing the pre-registration student experience through reciprocal cross professional peer tutoring.

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    McLeod, Fiona; Jamison, Caroline; Treasure, Karen

    2018-05-01

    To improve collaboration and the quality of care, healthcare programmes are increasingly promoting interprofessional education thereby enabling students to learn with, from and about each other. A reciprocal peer learning model has developed among pre-registration physiotherapy and adult nursing students at Plymouth University, England. Embedded within the curriculum, it provides voluntary opportunities for year two students to become cross professional peer tutors to year one students while enhancing interprofessional understanding and skills acquisition. To explore participant experiences of two cross professional peer tutored clinical skills workshops delivered to a cohort of nursing (n = 67) and physiotherapy (n = 53) students in 2015. A mixed methods approach generated qualitative and quantitative data. Qualitative data was gathered via focus groups and individual interviews of peer tutors and learners (n = 27). These were recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed. The Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale questionnaire (n = 84) was completed before and after the workshops to consider any influence on students' attitudes towards interprofessional learning. Four themes evolved from thematic analysis; benefits of cross professional peer tutoring, interprofessional teamwork, quality of care and factors influencing the delivery of the workshops. Data showed students felt they developed greater understanding of interprofessional roles and acquired new skills. Peer tutors developed confidence in representing their profession while appearing to inspire early stage students. The Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale questionnaire data identified very positive attitudes towards interprofessional learning among the majority of students in both cohorts before and after the workshop. This study endorses the utility of enhancing the Higher Education experience by offering voluntary peer tutoring opportunities. Participating students

  9. Enhancing Proof Writing via Cross-Institutional Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Dana C.; Hodge, Angie; Schultz, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    In the Spring of 2011, two of the authors of this paper taught number theory courses at their respective institutions. Twice during the semester, students in each class submitted proofs of two to three theorems to be peer reviewed by students in the other class. Each student wrote anonymous and formal referee reports of the submitted theorems,…

  10. Relationship of Peer Mentoring to Academic Success and Social Engagement for First Year College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Brenda O.

    2013-01-01

    A correlational explanatory research design examined the relationship between peer mentoring, academic success and social engagement of first year college students participating in a peer mentoring program at a research one university in the southeastern United States. One hundred thirty-eight participants from the peer mentoring program responded…

  11. Two-year-olds use adults' but not peers' points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachel, Gregor; Moore, Richard; Tomasello, Michael

    2018-03-12

    In the current study, 24- to 27-month-old children (N = 37) used pointing gestures in a cooperative object choice task with either peer or adult partners. When indicating the location of a hidden toy, children pointed equally accurately for adult and peer partners but more often for adult partners. When choosing from one of three hiding places, children used adults' pointing to find a hidden toy significantly more often than they used peers'. In interaction with peers, children's choice behavior was at chance level. These results suggest that toddlers ascribe informative value to adults' but not peers' pointing gestures, and highlight the role of children's social expectations in their communicative development. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Correlates of Peer Violence Among 13- to 15-Year-Olds in Gampaha District Schools in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Priyadarshani Wijeratne

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Violence among adolescents in schools is a relatively new research area in South Asian countries. Limited knowledge about factors associated with peer violence hinders the design of prevention programs. This study was carried out to assess correlates of peer violence among 13- to 15-year-old adolescents in Gampaha district schools in Sri Lanka. A cross-sectional study was carried out to identify “violent” and “non-violent” adolescents. Study and control populations were identified based on their participatory roles in violence, and an unmatched case–control (1 case: 1 control analysis was carried out to assess correlates of peer violence. Bronfenbrenner’s ecological model was used, and correlates were determined for both physical and relational (verbal and non-verbal violence. Correlates of both physical and relational peer violence were male sex, being 13 years of age, mental health difficulties, dating relationships, school absenteeism, witnessing physical fights among neighbors, and crime-dense residence. Factors associated with peer violence operate at several levels: individual, family/peer relationships, community, and societal. Most of these factors are modifiable and can be targeted by prevention programs.

  13. A Study of Student Interaction in an Online Learning Environment Specially Crafted for Cross-Level Peer Mentoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruane, Regina

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the ways that students in an online teacher education program connected in a specially crafted peer mentoring program developed for cross-level peer mentoring. Program administrators developed the peer mentoring site in response to observations that enrolled students, particularly new students, were often unsure of how to…

  14. Relative effectiveness of peer and cross-age tutoring in improving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to determine the relative effectiveness of peer tutoring and cross-age tutoring on the language achievement of high need primary four pupils of public primary schools. The study adopted the equivalent group design with two experimental groups and a control group. Participants comprised of ninety ...

  15. Striving for Contribution: The Five Cs and Positive Effects of Cross-Age Peer Mentoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Eric; Larson, Heidi A.

    2018-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between cross-age peer mentoring and positive life outcomes as defined by the Five Cs: competence, character, confidence, connection, and compassion. Qualified high school juniors and seniors were randomly assigned groups of 4-5 freshmen to mentor through the challenges of transitioning to secondary school.…

  16. Poor mental health, peer drinking norms, and alcohol risk in a social network of first-year college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Shannon R; DiGuiseppi, Graham T; Meisel, Matthew K; Balestrieri, Sara G; Barnett, Nancy P

    2018-04-16

    College students with anxiety and depressive symptomatology face escalated risk for alcohol-related negative consequences. While it is well-established that normative perceptions of proximal peers' drinking behaviors influence students' own drinking behaviors, it is not clear how mental health status impacts this association. In the current study, we examined cross-sectional relationships between anxiety and depressed mood, perceived drinking behaviors and attitudes of important peers, and past month alcohol consumption and related problems in a first-semester college student social network. Participants (N = 1254, 55% female, 47% non-Hispanic White) were first-year students residing on campus at a single university who completed a web-based survey assessing alcohol use, mental health, and social connections among first-year student peers. Network autocorrelation models were used to examine the independent and interactive associations between mental health and perceptions of close peers' drinking on drinking outcomes, controlling for important variables. Mental health interacted with perceptions to predict past-month drinking outcomes, such that higher anxiety and higher perceptions that peers drink heavily was associated with more drinks consumed and consequences, and higher depression and perceptions was associated with more drinks consumed, heavy drinking frequency, and consequences. Attitudes that peers approve of heavy drinking were associated with more drinks consumed and heavy drinking frequency among students with lower (vs. higher) depressed mood. This study provides strong evidence that perceiving that close peers drink heavily is particularly risk-enhancing for anxious and depressed college students, and offers implications about alcohol intervention targeted at these subgroups. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cross-Generational Valuing among Peer Academic Librarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munde, Gail; Coonin, Bryna

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the skills, knowledge, abilities or dispositions that are most valued and respected by academic librarians, and determined how these qualities might, or might not, be associated with generational membership. Other variables included institutional classification, career length, years since first professional degree, and…

  18. Developmental Links Between Children's Working Memory and their Social Relations with Teachers and Peers in the Early School Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wilde, Amber; Koot, Hans M; van Lier, Pol A C

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the developmental links between children's working memory development and their relations with teachers and peers across 2 years of kindergarten and early elementary school. Kindergarten and first grade children, N = 1109, 50% boys, were followed across 2 school-years. Children were assessed across 3 waves, in the fall and spring of the first school-year (within school-year), and finally in the spring of the second school-year. Working memory was assessed using a visuo-spatial working memory task. The developmental links between working memory and child-reported teacher-child relationship quality (warmth and conflict) and peer-nominated likeability and friendedness were assessed using autoregressive cross-lagged models. Lower working memory scores were related to increases in teacher-child conflict and decreases in teacher-child warmth one school-year later, in addition to decreases in likeability by peers within the same school-year. Conversely, teacher-child conflict was negatively associated with the development of working memory across the studied period. Path estimates between working memory and social relational factors were similar for boys and girls. Findings show developmental links between working memory and social-relational factors and vice versa. These results suggest that children's working memory development can be fostered through pro-social relations with teachers in early elementary school children.

  19. Violence against children perpetrated by peers: A cross-sectional school-based survey in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandera, Stephen Ojiambo; Clarke, Kelly; Knight, Louise; Allen, Elizabeth; Walakira, Eddy; Namy, Sophie; Naker, Dipak; Devries, Karen

    2017-06-01

    Violence against children by peers is a global public health problem. We aimed to assess factors associated with peer violence victimization among primary school children in Uganda. We conducted multilevel multivariable logistic regression analyses of cross-sectional data from 3706 primary students in 42 Ugandan primary schools. Among primary school students, 29% and 34% had ever experienced physical and emotional violence perpetrated by their peers, respectively. Factors strongly associated with both physical and emotional violence were similar and overlapping, and included exposure to interparental violence, having an attitude supportive of violence against children from school staff, not living with biological parents, working for payment, and higher SDQ score. However, we found that younger age, sharing sleeping area with an adult and achieving a higher educational performance score, were specifically associated with physical violence. On the other hand, being female, walking to school, reporting disability and eating one meal on the previous day, were particularly associated with emotional violence. Interventions to reduce peer violence should focus on family contexts, school environments and those with poor socio-economic status may need extra support. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. A Cross-National Comparison of School Students' Perceptions Regarding High Performing Peers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyerim Oh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This cross-national scenario based study exam-ined fourth-grade students’ perceptions of high-performing classmates in terms of their ex-pected intellectual abilities, positive social qual-ities and popularity among their peers across seven countries. The overall results show that high academic achievements predominantly lead to positive expectations within the peer group. However, pronounced differences were found between the countries. The results indi-cated that students from Spanish-speaking countries viewed their potential high-perform-ing peers most favorably, followed by students from Australia, the United Kingdom and Ger-many. The least favorable expectations, but by no means negative attitude, were exhibited by students from the two East-Asian countries Ko-rea and Vietnam. In contrast, the respondents’ gender and the gender of the hypothetical suc-cessful classmates had less influence on student perceptions of high-performers. These findings have implications for the educational provision of high performing students in different cross-national contexts.

  1. Psychological Differences toward Pedestrian Red Light Crossing between University Students and Their Peers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghui Suo

    Full Text Available Based on our site investigation conducted in 2013, we found that the pedestrian red light crossing at the midblock connecting the campus of Southwest University and living area was low, where most of pedestrians are university students and staff. This paper reports a supplementary work applying the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB to identify any psychological differences toward pedestrian red light crossing between university students and their peers. Three social groups participated in the investigation. The first group is the university students in Grade one (Group 1, the other two groups are their previous senior middle school classmates who are now working full time (Group 2 or who are now out of work and school (Group 3. The statistical results indicated The TPB components accounted for 42.9%, 55.3% and 55.4% of the variance of red signal crossing intention for Group 1, Group 2 and Group 3 in the depicted road crossing scenario. The data also showed that there are obvious differences among the participants' responses to "refrain from crossing" between university students and others, and the subsequent regression analysis revealed the ability to "refrain from crossing" played the most important role in the intention of red light crossing in the depicted scenario.

  2. Predicting Change in Early Adolescent Problem Behavior in the Middle School Years: A Mesosystemic Perspective on Parenting and Peer Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Véronneau, Marie-Hélène; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    The transition into middle school may be a risky period in early adolescence. In particular, friendships, peer status, and parental monitoring during this developmental period can influence the development of problem behavior. This study examined interrelationships among peer and parenting factors that predict changes in problem behavior over the middle school years. A longitudinal sample (580 boys, 698 girls) was assessed in Grades 6 and 8. Peer acceptance, peer rejection, and their interact...

  3. Joint Rhythmic Movement Increases 4-Year-Old Children's Prosocial Sharing and Fairness Toward Peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitch, Tal-Chen; Meltzoff, Andrew N

    2017-01-01

    The allocation of resources to a peer partner is a prosocial act that is of fundamental importance. Joint rhythmic movement, such as occurs during musical interaction, can induce positive social experiences, which may play a role in developing and enhancing young children's prosocial skills. Here, we investigated whether joint rhythmic movement, free of musical context, increases 4-year-olds' sharing and sense of fairness in a resource allocation task involving peers. We developed a precise procedure for administering joint synchronous experience, joint asynchronous experience, and a baseline control involving no treatment. Then we tested how participants allocated resources between self and peer. We found an increase in the generous allocation of resources to peers following both synchronous and asynchronous movement compared to no treatment. At a more theoretical level, this result is considered in relation to previous work testing other aspects of child prosociality, for example, peer cooperation, which can be distinguished from judgments of fairness in resource allocation tasks. We draw a conceptual distinction between two types of prosocial behavior: resource allocation (an other-directed individual behavior) and cooperation (a goal-directed collaborative endeavor). Our results highlight how rhythmic interactions, which are prominent in joint musical engagements and synchronized activity, influence prosocial behavior between preschool peers.

  4. Near-peer mentoring to complement faculty mentoring of first-year medical students in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satendra; Singh, Navjeevan; Dhaliwal, Upreet

    2014-01-01

    The first year is stressful for new medical students who have to cope with curricular challenges, relocation issues, and separation from family. Mentoring reduces stress and facilitates adaptation. A program for faculty mentoring of first-semester students was initiated by the Medical Education Unit in 2009 at University College of Medical Sciences, Delhi. Feedback after the first year revealed that mentees were reluctant to meet their mentors, some of whom were senior faculty. In the following year, student mentors (near-peers) were recruited to see if that would improve the rate and quality of contact between mentees and mentors. Volunteer faculty (n=52), near-peers (n=57), and new entrants (n=148) admitted in 2010 participated in the ratio of 1:1:3. The program aims were explained through an open house meeting, for reinforcement, and another meeting was conducted 5 months later. At year-end, a feedback questionnaire was administered (response rate: faculty, 28 [54%]; mentees, 74 [50%]). Many respondent faculty (27, 96%) and mentees (65, 88%) believed that near-peer mentoring was useful. Compared to the preceding year, the proportion of meetings between faculty mentors and mentees increased from 4.0±5.2 to 7.4±8.8; mentees who reported benefit increased from 23/78 (33%) to 34/74 (46%). Benefits resulted from mentors' and near-peers' demonstration of concern/support/interaction/counseling (35, 47.3% mentees); 23 mentees (82%) wanted to become near-peers themselves. Near-peer mentoring supplements faculty mentoring of first-year medical students by increasing system effectiveness.

  5. Increases in Academic Connectedness and Self-Esteem among High School Students Who Serve as Cross-Age Peer Mentors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karcher, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Cross-age mentoring programs are peer helping programs in which high school students serve as mentors to younger children. The study in this article compared fall-to-spring changes on connectedness, attachment, and self-esteem between 46 teen mentors and 45 comparison classmates. Results revealed an association between serving as a cross-age peer…

  6. Measuring Cross-Cultural Supernatural Beliefs with Self- and Peer-Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluemke, Matthias; Jong, Jonathan; Grevenstein, Dennis; Mikloušić, Igor; Halberstadt, Jamin

    2016-01-01

    Despite claims about the universality of religious belief, whether religiosity scales have the same meaning when administered inter-subjectively-or translated and applied cross-culturally-is currently unknown. Using the recent "Supernatural Belief Scale" (SBS), we present a primer on how to verify the strong assumptions of measurement invariance required in research on religion. A comparison of two independent samples, Croatians and New Zealanders, showed that, despite a sophisticated psychometric model, measurement invariance could be demonstrated for the SBS except for two noninvariant intercepts. We present a new approach for inspecting measurement invariance across self- and peer-reports as two dependent samples. Although supernatural beliefs may be hard to observe in others, the measurement model was fully invariant for Croatians and their nominated peers. The results not only establish, for the first time, a valid measure of religious supernatural belief across two groups of different language and culture, but also demonstrate a general invariance test for distinguishable dyad members nested within the same targets. More effort needs to be made to design and validate cross-culturally applicable measures of religiosity.

  7. Measuring Cross-Cultural Supernatural Beliefs with Self- and Peer-Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluemke, Matthias; Jong, Jonathan; Grevenstein, Dennis; Mikloušić, Igor; Halberstadt, Jamin

    2016-01-01

    Despite claims about the universality of religious belief, whether religiosity scales have the same meaning when administered inter-subjectively–or translated and applied cross-culturally–is currently unknown. Using the recent “Supernatural Belief Scale” (SBS), we present a primer on how to verify the strong assumptions of measurement invariance required in research on religion. A comparison of two independent samples, Croatians and New Zealanders, showed that, despite a sophisticated psychometric model, measurement invariance could be demonstrated for the SBS except for two noninvariant intercepts. We present a new approach for inspecting measurement invariance across self- and peer-reports as two dependent samples. Although supernatural beliefs may be hard to observe in others, the measurement model was fully invariant for Croatians and their nominated peers. The results not only establish, for the first time, a valid measure of religious supernatural belief across two groups of different language and culture, but also demonstrate a general invariance test for distinguishable dyad members nested within the same targets. More effort needs to be made to design and validate cross-culturally applicable measures of religiosity. PMID:27760206

  8. Measuring Cross-Cultural Supernatural Beliefs with Self- and Peer-Reports.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Bluemke

    Full Text Available Despite claims about the universality of religious belief, whether religiosity scales have the same meaning when administered inter-subjectively-or translated and applied cross-culturally-is currently unknown. Using the recent "Supernatural Belief Scale" (SBS, we present a primer on how to verify the strong assumptions of measurement invariance required in research on religion. A comparison of two independent samples, Croatians and New Zealanders, showed that, despite a sophisticated psychometric model, measurement invariance could be demonstrated for the SBS except for two noninvariant intercepts. We present a new approach for inspecting measurement invariance across self- and peer-reports as two dependent samples. Although supernatural beliefs may be hard to observe in others, the measurement model was fully invariant for Croatians and their nominated peers. The results not only establish, for the first time, a valid measure of religious supernatural belief across two groups of different language and culture, but also demonstrate a general invariance test for distinguishable dyad members nested within the same targets. More effort needs to be made to design and validate cross-culturally applicable measures of religiosity.

  9. School, peer and family relationships and adolescent substance use, subjective wellbeing and mental health symptoms in Wales: a cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Graham; Cox, Rebecca; Evans, Rhiannon; Hallingberg, Britt; Hawkins, Jemma; Littlecott, Hannah; Long, Sara; Murphy, Simon

    2018-01-01

    Positive relationships with family, friends and school staff are consistently linked with health and wellbeing during adolescence, though fewer studies explore how these micro-systems interact to influence adolescent health. This study tests the independent and interacting roles of family, peer and school relationships in predicting substance use, subjective wellbeing and mental health symptoms among 11–16 year olds in Wales. It presents cross-sectional analyses of the 2013 Health Behaviour i...

  10. Perspectives on Peer-Review: Eight Years of Aropä

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purchase, Helen; Hamer, John

    2018-01-01

    Drawing on eight years of observation and correspondence from the Aropä project, we report on the issues important to academics who conduct on-line student peer-review activities, and the features they request to support their own instructional designs. The Aropä project is unusually broad, having so far supported over 100 instructors at 20…

  11. Developing an Embedded Peer Tutor Program in Design Studio to Support First Year Design Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamberlan, Lisa; Wilson, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    An improved first year student experience is a strategic focus for higher education in an increasingly competitive marketplace. A successful peer tutoring program creates a visible community of practice, supports the student learning experience, elevates senior students as ambassadors of the program, and reinforces an emphasis on learning through…

  12. Social Justice, Learning Centredness and a First Year Experience Peer Mentoring Program: How Might They Connect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlinson, Catherine; Willimot, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Peer mentoring is a powerful strategy to support students in their first year of tertiary education utilised by a large number of tertiary institutions. While social justice principles such as rights, access, and equity as outlined by Creagh, Nelson, & Clarke (2013) highlight the importance of "student centredness," Taylor (2013)…

  13. Student Acceptance and Application of Peer Assessment in a Final Year Genetics Undergraduate Oral Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkade, Heather; Bryson-Richardson, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Undergraduate students benefit from observation of each other's oral presentations through both exposure to content and observation of presentation style. In order to increase the engagement and reflection of final year students in an oral presentation task, a peer assessment component was introduced using a rubric that emphasised scientific…

  14. Assessment of Peer-Led Team Learning in Calculus I: A Five-Year Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, John Conrad; Brania, Abdelkrim

    2015-01-01

    This five-year study of the peer-led team learning (PLTL) paradigm examined its implementation in a Calculus I course at an all-male HBCU institution. For this study we set up a strong control group and measured the effect of PLTL in the teaching and learning of Calculus I through two points of measure: retention and success rates and learning…

  15. Near-peer mentoring to complement faculty mentoring of first-year medical students in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satendra Singh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The first year is stressful for new medical students who have to cope with curricular challenges, relocation issues, and separation from family. Mentoring reduces stress and facilitates adaptation. A program for faculty mentoring of first-semester students was initiated by the Medical Education Unit in 2009 at University College of Medical Sciences, Delhi. Feedback after the first year revealed that mentees were reluctant to meet their mentors, some of whom were senior faculty. In the following year, student mentors (near-peers were recruited to see if that would improve the rate and quality of contact between mentees and mentors. Methods: Volunteer faculty (n=52, near-peers (n=57, and new entrants (n=148 admitted in 2010 participated in the ratio of 1:1:3. The program aims were explained through an open house meeting, for reinforcement, and another meeting was conducted 5 months later. At year-end, a feedback questionnaire was administered (response rate: faculty, 28 [54%]; mentees, 74 [50%]. Results: Many respondent faculty (27, 96% and mentees (65, 88% believed that near-peer mentoring was useful. Compared to the preceding year, the proportion of meetings between faculty mentors and mentees increased from 4.0±5.2 to 7.4±8.8; mentees who reported benefit increased from 23/78 (33% to 34/74 (46%. Benefits resulted from mentors’ and near-peers’ demonstration of concern/support/interaction/counseling (35, 47.3% mentees; 23 mentees (82% wanted to become near-peers themselves. Conclusion: Near-peer mentoring supplements faculty mentoring of first-year medical students by increasing system effectiveness.

  16. Near-peer mentoring to complement faculty mentoring of first-year medical students in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The first year is stressful for new medical students who have to cope with curricular challenges, relocation issues, and separation from family. Mentoring reduces stress and facilitates adaptation. A program for faculty mentoring of first-semester students was initiated by the Medical Education Unit in 2009 at University College of Medical Sciences, Delhi. Feedback after the first year revealed that mentees were reluctant to meet their mentors, some of whom were senior faculty. In the following year, student mentors (near-peers) were recruited to see if that would improve the rate and quality of contact between mentees and mentors. Methods: Volunteer faculty (n=52), near-peers (n=57), and new entrants (n=148) admitted in 2010 participated in the ratio of 1:1:3. The program aims were explained through an open house meeting, for reinforcement, and another meeting was conducted 5 months later. At year-end, a feedback questionnaire was administered (response rate: faculty, 28 [54%]; mentees, 74 [50%]). Results: Many respondent faculty (27, 96%) and mentees (65, 88%) believed that near-peer mentoring was useful. Compared to the preceding year, the proportion of meetings between faculty mentors and mentees increased from 4.0±5.2 to 7.4±8.8; mentees who reported benefit increased from 23/78 (33%) to 34/74 (46%). Benefits resulted from mentors’ and near-peers’ demonstration of concern/support/interaction/counseling (35, 47.3% mentees); 23 mentees (82%) wanted to become near-peers themselves. Conclusion: Near-peer mentoring supplements faculty mentoring of first-year medical students by increasing system effectiveness. PMID:24980428

  17. Peer substance use overestimation among French university students: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dautzenberg Bertrand

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Normative misperceptions have been widely documented for alcohol use among U.S. college students. There is less research on other substances or European cultural contexts. This study explores which factors are associated with alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use misperceptions among French college students, focusing on substance use. Methods 12 classes of second-year college students (n = 731 in sociology, medicine, nursing or foreign language estimated the proportion of tobacco, cannabis, alcohol use and heavy episodic drinking among their peers and reported their own use. Results Peer substance use overestimation frequency was 84% for tobacco, 55% for cannabis, 37% for alcohol and 56% for heavy episodic drinking. Cannabis users (p = 0.006, alcohol (p = 0.003 and heavy episodic drinkers (p = 0.002, are more likely to overestimate the prevalence of use of these consumptions. Tobacco users are less likely to overestimate peer prevalence of smoking (p = 0.044. Women are more likely to overestimate tobacco (p Conclusions Local interventions that focus on creating realistic perceptions of substance use prevalence could be considered for cannabis and alcohol prevention in French campuses.

  18. Four-year-old Children Align their Preferences with those of their Peers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Hennefield

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Children express preferences for a wide range of options, such as objects, and frequently observe the preferences that others express towards these things. However, little is know about how these initial preferences develop. The present research investigated whether one particular type of social information – other children’s preferences – influences children’s own preferences. Four-year-old children observed, via video, two boys and two girls display the same preference for one of two stickers. Each child (peer expressed liking for one sticker and dislike for the other. Then children completed two rounds of the Dictator Game, a classic resource distribution task. In each round, children distributed either 10 'liked' stickers or 10 'disliked' stickers (counterbalanced between themselves and another child who was not present. If the preferences expressed by their peers influenced children’s own preferences, children should keep more of the 'liked' than 'disliked' stickers for themselves. In line with this prediction, more children kept more liked than disliked stickers, indicating their distribution patterns were influenced by their peers’ preferences. This finding suggests that children extracted informational content about the value of the stickers from their peers and used that information to guide their own preferences. Children might also have aligned their preferences with those of their peers to facilitate social bonding and group membership. This research demonstrates the strong influence of peers on children’s developing preferences, and reveals the effect of peer influence via video – a medium that young children are frequently exposed to but often struggle to learn from in other contexts.

  19. Peer teaching experience of the first year medical students from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cansever, Zeliha; Avsar, Zeynep; Cayir, Yasemin; Acemoglu, Hamit

    2015-02-01

    To document peer teaching activity performed by first-year medical students and their views on the teaching activity. Survey. Medical Education Department, Ataturk University, Erzurum, Turkey, in the 2012 - 2013 academic year. Volunteer students were selected for peer teaching model by an academician from the Medical Education Department. Students were taught subjects selected from classes such as biochemistry and microbiology in the same way as the academicians do. Following each class activity, the teaching student was assessed by the other students on a 5-point rating scale. Written and verbal feedback was also obtained from both teaching students and participated students. Verbal feedbacks were noted by a faculty member and similar opinions were categorized. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 20 statistical program. Eleven students took part in the program. Feedback was received from students 171 times. The mean number of students participated was 24.4 ± 14.3 in each program. Statistical analysis revealed that mean value for teaching materials, peer instructors and teaching environment were 4.62 ± 0.49, 4.63 ± 0.47 and 3.88 ± 1. 27 respectively. Peer teaching method is a pretty good way of teaching for medical students. It is a practicable technique that can be used in medical training. Taking part in this program as a lecturer, student increased students' self-confidence in the learning and teaching activities. Quite positive feedbacks were received.

  20. Peer Pressure and Tobacco Smoking among Undergraduate Students of the University of Calabar, Cross River State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukwayi, Joseph K.; Eja, Ojong Felix; Unwanede, Chibuzo C.

    2012-01-01

    Peer pressure becomes a perturbing and problematic phenomenon as children grow seeing their peers as role models. Peer pressure is a social institution that modifies adolescents' behaviours by making them indulge in risky behaviour such as smoking at early age. This phenomenon has indeed found its way into our tertiary institutions and among our…

  1. Early Adolescents' Responses upon Witnessing Peer Victimization: A Cross-Culture Comparison between Students in Taiwan and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ting-Lan; Bellmore, Amy

    2016-01-01

    To examine cross-cultural differences in behavior upon witnessing peer victimization and the reasons behind the behavior, this study evaluated the responses of early adolescents from both the United States and Taiwan. Two questions were addressed: (1) Do adolescents in Taiwan and in the United States differ in their willingness to help peer…

  2. AllergenOnline: A peer-reviewed, curated allergen database to assess novel food proteins for potential cross-reactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goodman, Richard E.; Ebisawa, Motohiro; Ferreira, Fatima; Sampson, Hugh A.; van Ree, Ronald; Vieths, Stefan; Baumert, Joseph L.; Bohle, Barbara; Lalithambika, Sreedevi; Wise, John; Taylor, Steve L.

    2016-01-01

    Increasingly regulators are demanding evaluation of potential allergenicity of foods prior to marketing. Primary risks are the transfer of allergens or potentially cross-reactive proteins into new foods. AllergenOnline was developed in 2005 as a peer-reviewed bioinformatics platform to evaluate

  3. Predicting change in early adolescent problem behavior in the middle school years: a mesosystemic perspective on parenting and peer experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Véronneau, Marie-Hélène; Dishion, Thomas J

    2010-11-01

    The transition into middle school may be a risky period in early adolescence. In particular, friendships, peer status, and parental monitoring during this developmental period can influence the development of problem behavior. This study examined interrelationships among peer and parenting factors that predict changes in problem behavior over the middle school years. A longitudinal sample (580 boys, 698 girls) was assessed in Grades 6 and 8. Peer acceptance, peer rejection, and their interaction predicted increases in problem behavior. Having high-achieving friends predicted less problem behavior. Parental monitoring predicted less problem behavior in general, but also acted as a buffer for students who were most vulnerable to developing problem behavior on the basis of being well liked by some peers, and also disliked by several others. These findings highlight the importance of studying the family-peer mesosystem when considering risk and resilience in early adolescence, and when considering implications for intervention.

  4. Year-Long Peer Mentoring Activity to Enhance the Retention of Freshmen STEM Students in a NSF Scholarship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutright, Teresa J.; Evans, Edward

    2016-01-01

    The last year of a National Science Foundation (NSF) funded scholarship program was used to provide pseudo-formal peer mentoring activities to engineering, mathematics, and science undergraduates. A one-credit class was used to afford time for peer mentors and mentees to interact. During the fall semester, seniors augmented each week's topics with…

  5. Peer sexual harassment and deliberate self-injury: longitudinal cross-lag investigations in Canada and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Sheila K; Faaborg-Andersen, Pernille; Tilton-Weaver, Lauree C; Stattin, Håkan

    2013-12-01

    Although the receipt of peer sexual harassment in schools has been linked to deliberate self-injury, the direction of association over time has not been tested. Two longitudinal studies examined whether receipt of peer sexual harassment within schools predicts engagement in deliberate self-injury or vice versa. Differences between boys and girls were also tested. Surveys were conducted in two countries, Canada and Sweden. Measures of sexual harassment and deliberate self-injury were administered yearly in classrooms. Two waves of data were collected in the Canadian study (N = 161, 59.6% girls, mean age = 13.82 years); three waves of data were collected in Sweden (N = 513, 47% girls, mean age = 13.23 years). In the Canadian study, deliberate self-injury predicted subsequent peer sexual harassment; the converse relationship was not significant. No significant gender differences were found. Across the three waves of the Swedish study, peer sexual harassment predicted self-injury from T1 to T2, and self-injury predicted peer sexual harassment from T2 to T3. However, self-injury did not mediate peer sexual harassment at T1 and T3. Tests of gender differences revealed self-injury predicted sexual harassment from T2 to T3 among Swedish girls but not boys. Adolescents who deliberately self-injure may be vulnerable to sexual harassment by peers at school. Cultural norms may have a role in whether this process applies primarily to girls or to both genders. Sexual harassment by peers may also increase self-injury, but this is not subsequently linked to increases in receipt of sexual harassment. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Crossing professional barriers with peer-assisted learning: undergraduate midwifery students teaching undergraduate paramedic students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLelland, Gayle; McKenna, Lisa; French, Jill

    2013-07-01

    Peer assisted learning (PAL) has been shown in undergraduate programmes to be as effective as learning from instructors. PAL is a shared experience between two learners often with one being more senior to the other but usually both are studying within the same discipline. Interprofessional education occurs when two or more professionals learn with, from and about each other. Benefits of PAL in an interprofessional context have not been previously explored. As part of a final year education unit, midwifery students at Monash University developed workshops for second year undergraduate paramedic students. The workshops focused on care required during and after the birth of the baby. To investigate the benefits of an interprofessional PAL for both midwifery and paramedic students. Data for this project were obtained by both quantitative and qualitative methods. Questionnaires were distributed to both cohorts of students to explore experiences of peer teaching and learning. Results were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Focus groups were conducted separately with both cohorts of students and transcripts analysed using a thematic approach. Response rates from the midwifery and paramedic students were 64.9% and 44.0% respectively. The majority of students regardless of discipline enjoyed the interprofessional activity and wanted more opportunities in their curricula. After initial anxieties about teaching into another discipline, 97.3 (n = 36) of midwifery students thought the experience was worthwhile and personally rewarding. Of the paramedic students, 76.9% (n = 60) reported enjoying the interaction. The focus groups supported and added to the quantitative findings. Both midwifery and paramedic students had a new-found respect and understanding for each other's disciplines. Midwifery students were unaware of the limited knowledge paramedics had around childbirth. Paramedic students admired the depth of knowledge displayed by the midwifery

  7. A Cross-Cultural Analysis of the Relations of Physical and Relational Aggression with Peer Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Ellyn Charlotte; Saldarriaga, Lina; Cunha, Josafa; Chen, Bin-Bin; Santo, Jonathan Bruce; Bukowski, William M.

    2018-01-01

    To better address the many consequences of peer victimization, research must identify not only aspects of individuals that put them at risk for victimization, such as aggression, but also aspects of the context that influence the extent of that risk. To this end, this study examined the contextual influences of gender, same-sex peer group norms of…

  8. Medical students' attitudes towards peer physical examination: findings from an international cross-sectional and longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Charlotte E; Wearn, Andy M; Vnuk, Anna K; Sato, Toshio J

    2009-03-01

    Although studies have begun to shed light on medical students' attitudes towards peer physical examination (PPE), they have been conducted at single sites, and have generally not examined changes in medical students' attitudes over time. Employing both cross-sectional and longitudinal designs, the current study examines medical students' attitudes towards PPE at schools from different geographical and cultural regions and assess changes in their attitudes over their first year of medical study. Students at six schools (Peninsula, UK; Durham, UK; Auckland, New Zealand; Flinders, Australia; Sapporo, Japan and Li Ka Shing, Hong Kong) completed the Examining Fellow Students (EFS) questionnaire near the start of their academic year (T1), and students at four schools (Peninsula, Durham, Auckland and Flinders) completed the EFS for a second time, around the end of their academic year (T2). Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed a high level of acceptance for PPE of non-intimate body regions amongst medical students from all schools (greater than 83%, hips, at T1 and 94.5%, hips and upper body, at T2). At T1 and T2, students' willingness to engage in PPE was associated with their gender, ethnicity, religiosity and school. Typically, students least comfortable with PPE at T1 and T2 were female, non-white, religious and studying at Auckland. Although students' attitudes towards PPE were reasonably stable over their first year of study, and after exposure to PPE, we did find some statistically significant differences in attitudes between T1 and T2. Interestingly, attitude changes were consistently predicted by gender, even when controlling for school. While male students' attitudes towards PPE were relatively stable over time, females' attitudes were changeable. In this paper, we discuss our findings in light of existing research and theory, and discuss their implications for educational practice and further research.

  9. Potentially coercive self-citation by peer reviewers: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thombs, Brett D; Levis, Alexander W; Razykov, Ilya; Syamchandra, Achyuth; Leentjens, Albert F G; Levenson, James L; Lumley, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Peer reviewers sometimes request that authors cite their work, either appropriately or via coercive self-citation to highlight the reviewers' work. The objective of this study was to determine in peer reviews submitted to one biomedical journal (1) the extent of peer reviewer self-citation; (2) the proportion of reviews recommending revision or acceptance versus rejection that included reviewer self-citations; and (3) the proportion of reviewer self-citations versus citations to others that included a rationale. Peer reviews for manuscripts submitted in 2012 to the Journal of Psychosomatic Research were evaluated. Data extraction was performed independently by two investigators. There were 616 peer reviews (526 reviewers; 276 manuscripts), of which 444 recommended revision or acceptance and 172 rejection. Of 428 total citations, there were 122 peer reviewer self-citations (29%) and 306 citations to others' work (71%). Self-citations were more common in reviews recommending revision or acceptance (105 of 316 citations; 33%) versus rejection (17/112; 15%; pcitations with no rationale (26 of 122; 21%) was higher than for citations to others' work (15 of 306; 5%; pcitation in peer reviews is common and may reflect a combination of appropriate citation to research that should be cited in published articles and inappropriate citation intended to highlight the work of the peer reviewer. Providing instructions to peer reviewers about self-citation and asking them to indicate when and why they have self-cited may help to limit self-citation to appropriate, constructive recommendations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Peer Teaching Experiences of Final Year Paramedic Students: 2011-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brett; Fellows, Holly; Eastwood, Kathryn; Wallis, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Peer assisted learning (PAL) is one method of teaching which involves peers, or people from similar social groups, in reciprocal learning where one peer educates another and in return learns through the teaching experience. There have been many reported benefits of PAL programs. PAL has a long history of use in healthcare education; however, for…

  11. A systematic review of the literature describing the outcomes of near-peer mentoring programs for first year medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinla, Olawunmi; Hagan, Pamela; Atiomo, William

    2018-05-08

    Transition into higher education has been identified as one of the most stressful periods for learners. Interventions targeting the transition phase such as near- peer mentoring might help address some of these challenges. We were however unable to identify a published systematic review of the literature describing outcomes of near-peer mentoring of medical students during the transition phase into medical school. The aim of this paper is to review the literature and describe the outcomes of near-peer mentoring schemes for first-year medical students in the transition phase. A search of different electronic databases was carried out, using the search terms peer, buddy, mentor*, counsel*, advise*, tutor*, student, medical, school. 1861 articles were identified, however only 5 studies met the inclusion criteria- primary mentees should be first-years, and mentors must be inclusive of second-years but not limited to them. In reporting this paper, the PRISMA guidelines were followed. Published material on near-peer mentoring for medical students is scarce. Three outcomes for peer mentoring were identified- professional and personal development, stress reduction, and ease of transitioning. Incidentally, peer-mentoring was also found to have facilitated the development of personal and professional attitudes in the mentors. The quality of the evaluation methods in the studies was however low to moderate. Near-peer-mentoring is a way of promoting professional and personal development. It is also promising to aid transition and maintain well-being of first-year medical students. However, larger, better quality longitudinal studies, are needed to ascertain its true value for these students.

  12. Evaluation of the acceptability of Peer Physical Examination (PPE) in medical and osteopathic students: a cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consorti, Fabrizio; Mancuso, Rosaria; Piccolo, Annalisa; Consorti, Giacomo; Zurlo, Joseph

    2013-08-22

    Peer physical examination (PPE) is a method of training in medical and osteopathic curricula. The aim of this study was to compare the acceptability of PPE in two classes of medical and osteopathic students after their first experience, to obtain comparative information useful for an understanding of the different professional approaches. The leading hypothesis was that osteopathic students enter the curriculum with a more positive attitude to bodily contact.As a secondary aim, this study validated the new version of a questionnaire to assess the acceptability of PPE. A new version of a previously validated questionnaire and an instrument from the literature (the Examining Fellow Student [EFS] questionnaire) were used for a cross-sectional survey in a class of 129 3rd year medical students and in two parallel classes of 1st year osteopathic students (total of 112 students). The mean score of the new questionnaire was significantly higher for the osteopathic students than for the medical students (53.4 ± 6.3 vs. 43.4 ± 8.9; p student. The EFS mean score also showed a significant difference between the osteopathic and medical students (30.76 ± 2.9 vs. 27.85 ± 4.3; p accounting for 62.8% of the variance. Criterion validity was assessed by correlation with the EFS (Pearson's r coefficient = 0.61). Reliability was expressed in terms of Cronbach's alpha coefficient, which equals 0.86. These quantitative results are consistent with previous qualitative research on the process of embodiment both in medicine and osteopathy. The new questionnaire proved to be valid and reliable. The objective assessment of the acceptability of PPE is a way to determine differences in students' attitudes towards contact with the body and can be used for counselling students regarding career choice. This study can also highlight differences between students from different professions and serve as a basis for reflection for improved mutual interprofessional understanding and future

  13. Influence of anterior tooth alignment on peer perception in 8- to 10-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdecchia, Federica; Bee, Marco; Lombardo, Luca; Sgarbanti, Chiara; Gracco, Antonio

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate whether anterior dental alignment in 8- to 10-year-old children influences the first impressions of their peers, and to verify the validity of the tested method. From colour photographs of two attractive children, one male and one female, Adobe Photoshop 5.0 was used to alter the images and create three versions of each photograph: one with good anterior dental alignment (OK smile), a second with proclination of the upper incisors (P-type smile), and finally one with moderate-to-severe anterior crowding (C-type smile). The six different photographs were shown to 121 subjects with mean age of 9.2 years (65 females and 56 males). Each subject was asked to view one photograph and subsequently respond to a questionnaire, the 'Smile perception questionnaire for children between the ages of 8 and 10' (SPQ 8-10), composed of 13 questions with graded responses. The responses for each photograph were analysed using linear regression analysis to determine the questionnaires validity as a whole and to investigate five area of common interest (honesty, intelligence, personal happiness, pleasantness, and extroversion). The results demonstrated that the questionnaire was reliable both from an internal coherence standpoint and from a test-retest reliability perspective. Data regarding the five areas of interest showed that 8- to 10-year-olds viewed their peers with well-aligned teeth more favourably as far as honesty, personal happiness, and intelligence were concerned. However, there was no statistically significant difference with regard to pleasantness and extroversion in children with harmonious, as opposed to crowded or proclined anterior teeth.

  14. Family, peer, and neighborhood influences on academic achievement among African-American adolescents: one-year prospective effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, N A; Cauce, A M; Friedman, R J; Mason, C A

    1996-06-01

    Using a 1-year prospective design, this study examined the influence of family status variables (family income, parental education, family structure), parenting variables (maternal support and restrictive control), peer support, and neighborhood risk on the school performance of 120 African American junior high school students. In addition to main effects of these variables, neighborhood risk was examined as a moderator of the effects of parenting and peer support. Family status variables were not predictive of adolescent school performance as indexed by self-reported grade point average. Maternal support at Time 1 was prospectively related to adolescent grades at Time 2. Neighborhood risk was related to lower grades, while peer support predicted better grades in the prospective analyses. Neighborhood risk also moderated the effects of maternal restrictive control and peer support on adolescent grades in prospective analyses. These findings highlight the importance of an ecological approach to the problem of academic underachievement within the African American Community.

  15. [Peer group influence and illicit drug use among adolescent students in Brazil: a cross-sectional study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, Kelly Oliva; Ferreira, Raquel Conceição; Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira E; Kawachi, Ichiro; Zarzar, Patrícia Maria; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida

    2018-03-08

    The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to examine illicit drug use and associations with socioeconomic factors as well as peer group influence among Brazilian adolescents aged 15 to 19 years. Two-stage cluster sampling was adopted, involving the random selection of public and private schools from the nine administrative districts of a Brazilian state capital and the random selection of classrooms at each school. Illicit drug use was the outcome and was measured through the question: "Have you ever used any illicit drugs (marijuana, inhalants, hypnotics, cocaine/crack, hallucinogens, amphetamines and opioids) in your life?". The most important group of friends was ranked as school, family, religious activities and sports/culture. The area-based Health Vulnerability Index (HVI) was used to assess socioeconomic status. Data from 891 adolescents were analyzed using the chi-squared test and logistic regression. The overall rate of illicit drug use was 15.2%. Gender heterogeneity within groups (OR = 3.14; 95%CI: 1.63-6.06), religion-based friendships (OR = 0.36; 95%CI: 0.17-0.75) and sports/culture-based friendships (OR = 0.44; 95%CI: 0.22-0.87) remained significantly associated with illicit drug use. Adolescents who lived in less vulnerable areas had higher chance of drug use in comparison with those living in more vulnerable areas. Religion-based and sports/culture-based friendships seem to demonstrate a protective effect against lifetime illicit drug use. Gender heterogeneity within groups and residing in a less vulnerable area increased the chances of adolescents reporting illicit drug use.

  16. A Pedagogical Design for ICT-Supported Cross-age Peer Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudiksen, Maria Boel Klok; Horn, Line Helverskov; Knudsen, Torben Broe

    2016-01-01

    is based on the idea that internship students’ individual learning could be shared with younger peers through online interaction. In the context of a bachelor programme in Northern Denmark, the concept was implemented as discussion forums embedded in the local LMS. In these forums, the students engaged...

  17. A Cross-Cultural Study of Family and Peer Correlates of Adolescent Misconduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuansheng; Greenberger, Ellen; Lester, Julia; Dong, Qi; Guo, Miaw-Sheue

    1998-01-01

    Groups of early adolescents (European Americans, Chinese Americans, Chinese from Taiwan, Chinese from Beijing) completed questionnaires about their involvement in misconduct and about family and peer characteristics. Mothers completed questionnaire about their relationships with their adolescents. Groups reported significantly different mean…

  18. Body Esteem, Peer Difficulties, and Perceptions of Physical Health in Overweight and Obese Urban Children Ages 5 to 7 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Natalie A.; Fournier, Jennifer; Coday, Mace; Richey, Phyllis A.; Tylavsky, Frances A.; Hare, Marion E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine whether there is an association between body mass index (BMI) and body esteem in young overweight and obese urban children, and to test peer relationship difficulties and perceived physical health as mediators of this relationship. Methods Child self-reported body esteem, and parent-reported child peer relationship difficulties (being bullied by peers and peer rejection) and physical health perceptions were obtained from 218 overweight and obese children ages 5–7 years (81% racial/ethnic minority, M BMI = 25.3) and their primary caregivers. Results Higher BMI was associated with lower body esteem for both girls and boys. This relation was mediated by poor physical health for boys but not for girls. Peer relationship difficulties did not mediate the observed association between BMI and body esteem in either group; however, girls with higher BMI experienced more bullying and being bullied by peers was associated with lower body esteem in girls. Conclusions Intervening with perceptions of physical health may buffer overweight and obese boys from developing low body esteem in early childhood. PMID:22882115

  19. The effect of a peer on VO2 and game choice in 6-10 year old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Anne Siegmund

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Relative to sedentary video games (e.g., Playstation 2 (PS2, playing physically active video games (e.g., Nintendo Wii (Wii significantly increases caloric expenditure in children. Studies have demonstrated that the presence of a peer increases physical activity in children. We sought to determine if children would expend more energy and find playing Wii more motivating than PS2 when with a peer. Seventeen children (age 8.5 ± 0.4 years rested, played PS2 and Wii Sports Boxing for 10 minutes each, in two conditions: one in which the children rested/played the games alone (alone condition and another in which they played with a peer (peer condition. Oxygen consumption (VO2, and liking (visual analog scale was assessed for each 10-minute condition. After three 10-minute resting/gaming conditions, motivation was assessed using a relative reinforcing value task (RRV in which children performed computer mouse presses to gain additional access for either PS2 or Wii. VO2 was greater (p Conclusion: The presence of a peer increased VO2 during Wii play for boys but not girls. Surprisingly, the presence of a peer decreased children’s motivation to play Wii versus PS2.

  20. Joint Rhythmic Movement Increases 4-Year-Old Children’s Prosocial Sharing and Fairness Toward Peers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tal-Chen Rabinowitch

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The allocation of resources to a peer partner is a prosocial act that is of fundamental importance. Joint rhythmic movement, such as occurs during musical interaction, can induce positive social experiences, which may play a role in developing and enhancing young children’s prosocial skills. Here, we investigated whether joint rhythmic movement, free of musical context, increases 4-year-olds’ sharing and sense of fairness in a resource allocation task involving peers. We developed a precise procedure for administering joint synchronous experience, joint asynchronous experience, and a baseline control involving no treatment. Then we tested how participants allocated resources between self and peer. We found an increase in the generous allocation of resources to peers following both synchronous and asynchronous movement compared to no treatment. At a more theoretical level, this result is considered in relation to previous work testing other aspects of child prosociality, for example, peer cooperation, which can be distinguished from judgments of fairness in resource allocation tasks. We draw a conceptual distinction between two types of prosocial behavior: resource allocation (an other-directed individual behavior and cooperation (a goal-directed collaborative endeavor. Our results highlight how rhythmic interactions, which are prominent in joint musical engagements and synchronized activity, influence prosocial behavior between preschool peers.

  1. Dietary restraint of 5-year-old girls: Associations with internalization of the thin ideal and maternal, media, and peer influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiano, Stephanie R; Paxton, Susan J; Wertheim, Eleanor H; McLean, Siân A; Gregg, Karen J

    2015-12-01

    Understanding socio-cultural factors associated with the development of dieting tendencies is important for preventing future disordered eating. We explored individual and socio-cultural factors associated with weight-focussed dietary restraint tendencies (described as dietary restraint) in 5-year-old girls. Participants were 111 5-year-old girls and 109 of their mothers. Girls were interviewed about their dietary restraint, body image, appearance ideals, positive weight bias (attributing positive characteristics to thinner figures), and peer conversations. Mothers completed self-report questionnaires assessing dietary restraint and appearance ideals, as well as measures reporting on their daughter's media exposure and peer appearance interest. Thirty-four percent of girls reported at least a moderate level of dietary restraint. While most girls were satisfied with their body size, half showed some internalization of the thin ideal. Girls' dietary restraint was correlated with weight bias favoring thinner bodies, and greater internalization of the thin ideal, media exposure, and appearance conversations with peers. Media exposure and appearance conversations were the strongest predictors of dietary restraint. These cross-sectional findings suggest that the socio-cultural environment of young girls may be important in the very early development of unhealthy dieting tendencies. Longitudinal research is necessary to identify whether these are prospective risk factors. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. AllergenOnline: A peer-reviewed, curated allergen database to assess novel food proteins for potential cross-reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Richard E; Ebisawa, Motohiro; Ferreira, Fatima; Sampson, Hugh A; van Ree, Ronald; Vieths, Stefan; Baumert, Joseph L; Bohle, Barbara; Lalithambika, Sreedevi; Wise, John; Taylor, Steve L

    2016-05-01

    Increasingly regulators are demanding evaluation of potential allergenicity of foods prior to marketing. Primary risks are the transfer of allergens or potentially cross-reactive proteins into new foods. AllergenOnline was developed in 2005 as a peer-reviewed bioinformatics platform to evaluate risks of new dietary proteins in genetically modified organisms (GMO) and novel foods. The process used to identify suspected allergens and evaluate the evidence of allergenicity was refined between 2010 and 2015. Candidate proteins are identified from the NCBI database using keyword searches, the WHO/IUIS nomenclature database and peer reviewed publications. Criteria to classify proteins as allergens are described. Characteristics of the protein, the source and human subjects, test methods and results are evaluated by our expert panel and archived. Food, inhalant, salivary, venom, and contact allergens are included. Users access allergen sequences through links to the NCBI database and relevant references are listed online. Version 16 includes 1956 sequences from 778 taxonomic-protein groups that are accepted with evidence of allergic serum IgE-binding and/or biological activity. AllergenOnline provides a useful peer-reviewed tool for identifying the primary potential risks of allergy for GMOs and novel foods based on criteria described by the Codex Alimentarius Commission (2003). © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Can Peer Mentors Improve First-Year Experiences of University Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yomtov, Dani; Plunkett, Scott W.; Efrat, Rafi; Marin, Adriana Garcia

    2017-01-01

    The effectiveness of a peer-mentoring program was examined at a university in California. Previous studies suggest university peer mentoring might increase students' feelings of engagement, which can contribute to their retention. Pretest and posttest data were collected from 304 freshmen (mentored and nonmentored) during the fall of 2012 in a…

  4. Associations between overweight, peer problems, and mental health in 12-13-year-old Norwegian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hestetun, Ingebjørg; Svendsen, Martin Veel; Oellingrath, Inger Margaret

    2015-03-01

    Overweight and mental health problems represent two major challenges related to child and adolescent health. More knowledge of a possible relationship between the two problems and the influence of peer problems on the mental health of overweight children is needed. It has previously been hypothesized that peer problems may be an underlying factor in the association between overweight and mental health problems. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the associations between overweight, peer problems, and indications of mental health problems in a sample of 12-13-year-old Norwegian schoolchildren. Children aged 12-13 years were recruited from the seventh grade of primary schools in Telemark County, Norway. Parents gave information about mental health and peer problems by completing the extended version of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Height and weight were objectively measured. Complete data were obtained for 744 children. Fisher's exact probability test and multiple logistic regressions were used. Most children had normal good mental health. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that overweight children were more likely to have indications of psychiatric disorders (adjusted OR: 1.8, CI: 1.0-3.2) and peer problems (adjusted OR: 2.6, CI: 1.6-4.2) than normal-weight children, when adjusted for relevant background variables. When adjusted for peer problems, the association between overweight and indications of any psychiatric disorder was no longer significant. The results support the hypothesis that peer problems may be an important underlying factor for mental health problems in overweight children.

  5. Cross-section and panel estimates of peer effects in early adolescent cannabis use: With a little help from my 'friends once removed'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, John; McVicar, Duncan; Higgins, Kathryn

    2016-08-01

    Peer effects in adolescent cannabis are difficult to estimate, due in part to the lack of appropriate data on behaviour and social ties. This paper exploits survey data that have many desirable properties and have not previously been used for this purpose. The data set, collected from teenagers in three annual waves from 2002 to 2004 contains longitudinal information about friendship networks within schools (N = 5020). We exploit these data on network structure to estimate peer effects on adolescents from their nominated friends within school using two alternative approaches to identification. First, we present a cross-sectional instrumental variable (IV) estimate of peer effects that exploits network structure at the second degree, i.e. using information on friends of friends who are not themselves ego's friends to instrument for the cannabis use of friends. Second, we present an individual fixed effects estimate of peer effects using the full longitudinal structure of the data. Both innovations allow a greater degree of control for correlated effects than is commonly the case in the substance-use peer effects literature, improving our chances of obtaining estimates of peer effects than can be plausibly interpreted as causal. Both estimates suggest positive peer effects of non-trivial magnitude, although the IV estimate is imprecise. Furthermore, when we specify identical models with behaviour and characteristics of randomly selected school peers in place of friends', we find effectively zero effect from these 'placebo' peers, lending credence to our main estimates. We conclude that cross-sectional data can be used to estimate plausible positive peer effects on cannabis use where network structure information is available and appropriately exploited. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Appearance Culture in Nine- to 12-Year-Old Girls: Media and Peer Influences on Body Dissatisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Levina; Tiggemann, Marika

    2006-01-01

    Little research has investigated sociocultural factors in the development of body dissatisfaction in preadolescent girls. This study examined the combined influence of media and peer factors. The participants were 100 girls aged nine to 12 years. The girls completed questionnaire measures of media exposure (television and magazines), peer…

  7. Problematic Social Situations for Peer-Rejected Students in the First Year of Elementary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Jorge Martín-Antón

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the social situations that are problematic for peer-rejected students in the first year of elementary school. For this purpose, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted on the Taxonomy of Problematic Social Situations for Children (TOPS, Dodge et al., 1985 in 169 rejected pupils, identified from a sample of 1457 first-grade students (ages 5-7 enrolled in 62 classrooms of elementary school. For each rejected student, another student of average sociometric status of the same gender was selected at random from the same classroom (naverage = 169. The model for the rejected students showed a good fit, and was also invariant in the group of average students. Four types of situations were identified in which rejected students have significantly more difficulties than average students. They are, in descending order: (a respect for authority and rules, (b being disadvantaged, (c prosocial and empathic behavior, and (d response to own success. Rejected boys have more problems in situations of prosociability and empathy than girls. The implications concerning the design of specific programs to prevent and reduce early childhood rejection in the classroom are discussed.

  8. The Hospitalist Huddle: a 1-year experience of teaching Hospital Medicine utilizing the concept of peer teaching in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhassan, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    The relatively new specialty of Hospital Medicine in the USA is one of the fastest growing fields in internal medicine. Academic hospitalists are largely involved in the medical education of postgraduate residents and medical students. Little is known about the effectiveness of peer-to-peer teaching in internal medicine residency training programs and how the medical residents perceive its educational value in learning Hospital Medicine. The Hospitalist Huddle is a weekly educational activity newly established by our Hospitalist Division to facilitate the concept of peer-to-peer teaching. It requires medical residents to teach and educate their peers about the clinical topics related to Hospital Medicine. Faculty hospitalists serve as facilitators during the teaching sessions. A survey disseminated at the end of the first year of its implementation examined the residents' perception of the educational value of this new teaching activity. Most residents reported that they see the Huddle as a useful educational forum which may improve their skills in teaching, create a better educational and learning environment during their inpatient rotation, and improve their understanding of Hospital Medicine. Most residents also prefer that their peers, rather than faculty hospitalists, run the activity and do the teaching. The survey results support the notion that teaching and learning with flat hierarchies can be an appealing educational method to medical residents to help them understand Hospital Medicine during their medical wards rotation. Some areas need to be improved and others need to be continued and emphasized in order to make this novel educational activity grow and flourish in terms of its educational value and residents' satisfaction.

  9. Peer review CALMET/CALPUFF dispersion modelling analysis : Proposed Duke Point generation facility Georgia Strait Crossing pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    A peer review of the air quality dispersion modeling analysis for the proposed gas-fired plant at Duke Point in the vicinity of Nanaimo, British Columbia was required, and SENES Consultants Limited (SENES) was commissioned to perform it. British Columbia Hydro had requested that Levelton Engineering Ltd. prepare an air quality impact assessment, and it was submitted to be included in Vancouver Island Generation Project (VIGP) permit application. This permit application was for the Joint Panel Review of the Georgia Strait Crossing Pipeline (GSX) Project and the British Columbia Environmental Assessment Office. The CALMET/CALPUFF Modelling System had been used by Levelton to conduct the air quality dispersion modelling analysis. Copies of the input and output files that had been used for the conduct of the modelling analysis were provided to SENES. The ability for SENES to reproduce the modelling results that had been published in the GSX application represented the first step in the peer review. This was accomplished by running the files received from Levelton into the CALMET/CALPUFF models. A detailed review of the methodology selected by Levelton during the conduct of the dispersion modelling analysis was then initiated by SENES. Some deficiencies were identified by SENES, despite concurrence with the overall conceptual approach adopted by Levelton. The deficiencies concerned meteorological data; startup, partial load and upset conditions; pollutant emissions; health risk assessment; cumulative impact on ambient particulate matter 10 concentrations; and collateral environmental impacts. refs., 2 tabs., 21 figs

  10. Measuring the Effects of Peer Learning on Students' Academic Achievement in First-Year Business Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancer, Diane; Morrison, Kellie; Tarr, Garth

    2015-01-01

    Peer-assisted study session (PASS) programs have been shown to positively affect students' grades in a majority of studies. This study extends that analysis in two ways: controlling for ability and other factors, with focus on international students, and by presenting results for PASS in business statistics. Ordinary least squares, random effects…

  11. Assessing Peer Leader Skill Acquisition and Group Dynamics in a First-Year Calculus Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Rebecca; Hammond, Nicholas B.; Smith, Justin; Guerra, Dalyana

    2018-01-01

    Peer-led team learning (PLTL), specifically the model known as 'Workshops', has been shown to contribute positively and significantly to student success in STEM courses across subjects (Gosser et al., 2001). Our research adds to the SOTL literature describing the effectiveness of Workshops by reporting on the changes in student leaders. We examine…

  12. Early Social Behaviors and the Trajectory of Peer Victimization across the School Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimura, Niwako; Berry, Daniel; Troop-Gordon, Wendy; Rudolph, Karen D.

    2017-01-01

    Research has established that long-term exposure to peer victimization is associated with higher levels of emotional and behavioral maladjustment. Yet, relatively little is known regarding predictors of stable versus declining victimization across extended periods of time. To fill this knowledge gap, the present study used latent growth curve…

  13. Negative Impact of Troublesome Peer Interactions and Authoritarian Parenting Style on Academic Performance of a 15 year Old Boy

    OpenAIRE

    Samruddhi Karnik; Neha Sahasrabudhe

    2017-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of great turbulence characterized by cognitive, emotional, social and physical changes. Family environment and role of peers is extremely crucial in the development of an adolescent. Presenting here is a brief case of 15 year old boy who was referred for counseling by his parents for lack of concentration in studies. In the counseling sessions with the boy and his parents it was found that the boy was psychologically disturbed as he was teased at school by ...

  14. The Importance of Specifying and Studying Causal Mechanisms in School-Based Randomised Controlled Trials: Lessons from Two Studies of Cross-Age Peer Tutoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Stephen P.; Edovald, Triin; Lloyd, Cheryl; Kiss, Zsolt

    2016-01-01

    Based on the experience of evaluating 2 cross-age peer-tutoring interventions, we argue that researchers need to pay greater attention to causal mechanisms within the context of school-based randomised controlled trials. Without studying mechanisms, researchers are less able to explain the underlying causal processes that give rise to results from…

  15. Negative Impact of Troublesome Peer Interactions and Authoritarian Parenting Style on Academic Performance of a 15 year Old Boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samruddhi Karnik

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is a period of great turbulence characterized by cognitive, emotional, social and physical changes. Family environment and role of peers is extremely crucial in the development of an adolescent. Presenting here is a brief case of 15 year old boy who was referred for counseling by his parents for lack of concentration in studies. In the counseling sessions with the boy and his parents it was found that the boy was psychologically disturbed as he was teased at school by his peers. In addition his father had an authoritarian parenting style which was adding to his troubles resulting in low academic scores. The boy’s scores on “The Study Habits Inventory” were lower, indicating poor study habits which includes study concentration. The counsellors used an eclectic approach for the boy and his parents, to develop a healthy family environment, which improved his self-esteem and study habits.

  16. Blended learning in situated contexts: 3-year evaluation of an online peer review project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, S; Chang, J W W; Chu, C H; Gardner, K

    2014-08-01

    Situated and sociocultural perspectives on learning indicate that the design of complex tasks supported by educational technologies holds potential for dental education in moving novices towards closer approximation of the clinical outcomes of their expert mentors. A cross-faculty-, student-centred, web-based project in operative dentistry was established within the Universitas 21 (U21) network of higher education institutions to support university goals for internationalisation in clinical learning by enabling distributed interactions across sites and institutions. This paper aims to present evaluation of one dental faculty's project experience of curriculum redesign for deeper student learning. A mixed-method case study approach was utilised. Three cohorts of second-year students from a 5-year bachelor of dental surgery (BDS) programme were invited to participate in annual surveys and focus group interviews on project completion. Survey data were analysed for differences between years using multivariate logistical regression analysis. Thematic analysis of questionnaire open responses and interview transcripts was conducted. Multivariate logistic regression analysis noted significant differences across items over time indicating learning improvements, attainment of university aims and the positive influence of redesign. Students perceived the enquiry-based project as stimulating and motivating, and building confidence in operative techniques. Institutional goals for greater understanding of others and lifelong learning showed improvement over time. Despite positive scores, students indicated global citizenship and intercultural understanding were conceptually challenging. Establishment of online student learning communities through a blended approach to learning stimulated motivation and intellectual engagement, thereby supporting a situated approach to cognition. Sociocultural perspectives indicate that novice-expert interactions supported student development of

  17. The effect of a peer on VO2 and game choice in 6–10 year old children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegmund, Lee A.; Naylor, Jonathan B.; Santo, Antonio S.; Barkley, Jacob E.

    2014-01-01

    Relative to sedentary video games (e.g., Playstation 2®), playing physically active video games (e.g., Nintendo Wii Sports Boxing®) significantly increases caloric expenditure in children. Studies have demonstrated that the presence of a peer increases physical activity in children. We sought to determine if children would expend more energy and find playing the “exergame” (Wii) more motivating than the sedentary video game (Playstation 2) when with a peer. Seventeen children (age 8.5 ± 0.4 years) rested, played the sedentary video game and “exergame” for 10 min each, in two conditions: one in which the children rested/played the games alone (alone condition) and another in which they played with a peer (peer condition). Oxygen consumption (VO2), and liking (visual analog scale) was assessed for each 10-min condition. After three 10-min resting/gaming conditions, motivation was assessed using a relative reinforcing value task in which children performed computer mouse presses to gain additional access for either the sedentary video game or “exergame.” VO2 was greater (p 4.1 ml·kg−1·min−1) vs. rest (mean = 5.14 ± 1.46 ml·kg−1·min−1) and the sedentary video game (mean = 5.83 ± 2.1 ml·kg−1·min−1). During the peer condition, there were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in VO2 relative to the alone condition. In an exploratory analysis boys exhibited a greater (p = 0.02) increase in VO2 from rest to “exergame” (Δ 9.0 ± 3.7 ml·kg−1·min−1), relative to girls (Δ 4.9 ± 2.9 ml·kg−1·min−1). Boys showed a significantly greater increase (p = 0.05) in VO2 from the resting condition to “exergame” in the presence of a peer (Δ 11.1 ± 5.3 ml·kg−1·min−1) vs. the alone condition (Δ 6.8 ± 3.1 ml·kg−1 ·min−1). Liking was significantly (p 4.0 ± 2.8 cm). Motivation for “exergame” significantly decreased (p = 0.03) from alone (340.8 ± 106.8 presses) to the peer condition (147.8 ± 81.6 presses). Conclusion

  18. The effect of a peer on VO2 and game choice in 6-10 year old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegmund, Lee A; Naylor, Jonathan B; Santo, Antonio S; Barkley, Jacob E

    2014-01-01

    Relative to sedentary video games (e.g., Playstation 2®), playing physically active video games (e.g., Nintendo Wii Sports Boxing®) significantly increases caloric expenditure in children. Studies have demonstrated that the presence of a peer increases physical activity in children. We sought to determine if children would expend more energy and find playing the "exergame" (Wii) more motivating than the sedentary video game (Playstation 2) when with a peer. Seventeen children (age 8.5 ± 0.4 years) rested, played the sedentary video game and "exergame" for 10 min each, in two conditions: one in which the children rested/played the games alone (alone condition) and another in which they played with a peer (peer condition). Oxygen consumption (VO2), and liking (visual analog scale) was assessed for each 10-min condition. After three 10-min resting/gaming conditions, motivation was assessed using a relative reinforcing value task in which children performed computer mouse presses to gain additional access for either the sedentary video game or "exergame." VO2 was greater (p 4.1 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) vs. rest (mean = 5.14 ± 1.46 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) and the sedentary video game (mean = 5.83 ± 2.1 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)). During the peer condition, there were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in VO2 relative to the alone condition. In an exploratory analysis boys exhibited a greater (p = 0.02) increase in VO2 from rest to "exergame" (Δ 9.0 ± 3.7 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)), relative to girls (Δ 4.9 ± 2.9 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)). Boys showed a significantly greater increase (p = 0.05) in VO2 from the resting condition to "exergame" in the presence of a peer (Δ 11.1 ± 5.3 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) vs. the alone condition (Δ 6.8 ± 3.1 ml·kg(-1) ·min(-1)). Liking was significantly (p 4.0 ± 2.8 cm). Motivation for "exergame" significantly decreased (p = 0.03) from alone (340.8 ± 106.8 presses) to the peer condition (147.8 ± 81.6 presses). VO2 was greater during "exergame

  19. The Link between Peer Relations, Prosocial Behavior, and ODD/ADHD Symptoms in 7–9-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paap, Muirne C. S.; Haraldsen, Ira R.; Breivik, Kyrre; Butcher, Phillipa R.; Hellem, Frøydis M.; Stormark, Kjell M.

    2013-01-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are characterized by symptoms that hinder successful positive interaction with peers. The main goal of this study was to examine if the presence of symptoms of ODD and ADHD affects the relationship between positive social behavior and peer status found in 7–9-year-old children who show symptoms typical of ADHD and/or ODD. Furthermore, the possible interaction with sex was investigated. We used data collected in the first wave of The Bergen Child Study of mental health (BCS), a prospective longitudinal total population study of children's developmental and mental health. The target population consisted of children in the second to the fourth, in all public, private, and special schools in Bergen, Norway, in the fall of 2002 (N = 9430). All 79 primary schools in Bergen participated in the study. Both teacher (8809 complete cases) and parent (6253 complete cases) report were used in the analyses. ADHD and ODD scores were estimated using the Swanson Noland and Pelham rating scale version IV (SNAP-IV), and peer problems and prosocial behavior were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). We replicated the relationship between peer problems and prosocial behavior found previously in typically developing children. Our results showed that the relationship between peer problems and prosocial behavior became weaker as the ODD symptoms increased in number and severity. For ADHD this effect was only found in the teacher report of the children. A sex effect for ODD symptoms was found only using the parent report: boys with ODD symptoms showed less prosocial behavior than girls with similar levels of ODD symptoms. Since this effect was not found using the teacher data, it may imply a situational effect (school/home) for girls with high levels of ODD. The moderator effect of ODD/ADHD was comparable for boys and girls. Our findings suggest that even if children with

  20. The Link between Peer Relations, Prosocial Behavior, and ODD/ADHD Symptoms in 7–9-Year-Old Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muirne C. S. Paap

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD are characterized by symptoms that hinder successful positive interaction with peers. The main goal of this study was to examine if the presence of symptoms of ODD and ADHD affects the relationship between positive social behavior and peer status found in 7–9-year-old children who show symptoms typical of ADHD and/or ODD. Furthermore, the possible interaction with sex was investigated. We used data collected in the first wave of The Bergen Child Study of mental health (BCS, a prospective longitudinal total population study of children’s developmental and mental health. The target population consisted of children in the second to the fourth, in all public, private, and special schools in Bergen, Norway, in the fall of 2002 (N=9430. All 79 primary schools in Bergen participated in the study. Both teacher (8809 complete cases and parent (6253 complete cases report were used in the analyses. ADHD and ODD scores were estimated using the Swanson Noland and Pelham rating scale version IV (SNAP-IV, and peer problems and prosocial behavior were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ. We replicated the relationship between peer problems and prosocial behavior found previously in typically developing children. Our results showed that the relationship between peer problems and prosocial behavior became weaker as the ODD symptoms increased in number and severity. For ADHD this effect was only found in the teacher report of the children. A sex effect for ODD symptoms was found only using the parent report: boys with ODD symptoms showed less prosocial behavior than girls with similar levels of ODD symptoms. Since this effect was not found using the teacher data, it may imply a situational effect (school/home for girls with high levels of ODD. The moderator effect of ODD/ADHD was comparable for boys and girls. Our findings suggest that even if

  1. The Link between Peer Relations, Prosocial Behavior, and ODD/ADHD Symptoms in 7-9-Year-Old Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paap, Muirne C S; Haraldsen, Ira R; Breivik, Kyrre; Butcher, Phillipa R; Hellem, Frøydis M; Stormark, Kjell M

    2013-01-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are characterized by symptoms that hinder successful positive interaction with peers. The main goal of this study was to examine if the presence of symptoms of ODD and ADHD affects the relationship between positive social behavior and peer status found in 7-9-year-old children who show symptoms typical of ADHD and/or ODD. Furthermore, the possible interaction with sex was investigated. We used data collected in the first wave of The Bergen Child Study of mental health (BCS), a prospective longitudinal total population study of children's developmental and mental health. The target population consisted of children in the second to the fourth, in all public, private, and special schools in Bergen, Norway, in the fall of 2002 (N = 9430). All 79 primary schools in Bergen participated in the study. Both teacher (8809 complete cases) and parent (6253 complete cases) report were used in the analyses. ADHD and ODD scores were estimated using the Swanson Noland and Pelham rating scale version IV (SNAP-IV), and peer problems and prosocial behavior were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). We replicated the relationship between peer problems and prosocial behavior found previously in typically developing children. Our results showed that the relationship between peer problems and prosocial behavior became weaker as the ODD symptoms increased in number and severity. For ADHD this effect was only found in the teacher report of the children. A sex effect for ODD symptoms was found only using the parent report: boys with ODD symptoms showed less prosocial behavior than girls with similar levels of ODD symptoms. Since this effect was not found using the teacher data, it may imply a situational effect (school/home) for girls with high levels of ODD. The moderator effect of ODD/ADHD was comparable for boys and girls. Our findings suggest that even if children with

  2. For Better or Worse: Friendship Choices and Peer Victimization Among Ethnically Diverse Youth in the First Year of Middle School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echols, Leslie; Graham, Sandra

    2016-09-01

    As children approach early adolescence, the risk of peer victimization often increases. Many children experience some form of peer victimization during this time, but children who experience chronic victimization may be particularly vulnerable to adjustment difficulties. Thus, identifying risk and protective factors associated with chronic victimization continues to be an important area of research. This study examined the effect of change in the victimization of friends on change in children's own victimization, taking into account the ethnic group representation of children in their classes. Over 3000 6th grade students (52 % female; M = 11.33 years) were drawn from 19 middle schools varying in ethnic composition. Friendships were distinguished by type-reciprocal, desired, and undesired-and a novel methodology for measuring ethnic group representation at the individual level was employed. Multilevel modeling indicated that change in friends' victimization from fall to spring of 6th grade had a differential impact on children's own victimization by friendship type and that the benefits and consequences of change in friends' victimization were especially pronounced for children in the numerical ethnic majority. The findings underscore the role of friendship choices in peer victimization, even if those choices are not reciprocated, and highlight the unique social risks associated with being in the numerical ethnic majority.

  3. Peer relationships and quality of life in 11-12-year-old children: The Health Oriented Pedagogical Project (HOPP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezhnieva, Natalia; Fredriksen, Per Morten; Bekkhus, Mona

    2018-05-01

    Social interactions play an important role in our everyday life. Studies on children's quality of life (QoL) show that peer relations are associated with both positive and negative outcomes. Popularity defines the degree to which a child is liked by his or her peers, whereas reciprocal friendship occurs when two children mutually nominate each other as friends. The overall aim was to examine associations between peer relations and children's QoL. Baseline data were from the Health Oriented Pedagogical Project (HOPP). From a sample of 2297, 691 children aged 11-12 years participated. QoL was measured using the Norwegian version of the Inventory of Life Quality in Children and Adolescents (ILC). Popularity and friendship variables were based on number of nominations and represent quantitative features of peer relationships. Both popularity and reciprocal friendship had a positive association with children's QoL. Number of nominations (both for popularity and reciprocal friendship) played a significant role for the above-mentioned associations. Consequently, popularity (β = 0.18) and reciprocal friendship (β = 0.25) were associated with children's QoL with 95% CIs of 0.12-0.27 and 0.17-0.31, respectively. Findings from the current study contribute to contemporary research focused on children's QoL. Being able to rank reciprocal friendships, as well as recognizing that having more than one reciprocal friendship increases QoL, is important and could be beneficial for developing programs that promote high QoL, hence preventing possible maladjustments in a long-term perspective.

  4. Voluntary peer-led exam preparation course for international first year students: Tutees' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhn, Daniel; Eckart, Wolfgang; Karimian-Jazi, Kianush; Amr, Ali; Herzog, Wolfgang; Nikendei, Christoph

    2015-06-18

    While the number of international students has increased over the last decade, such students face diverse challenges due to language and cultural barriers. International medical students suffer from personal distress and a lack of support. Their performance is significantly lower than non-international peers in clinical examinations. We investigated whether international students benefit from a peer-led exam preparation course. An exam preparation course was designed, and relevant learning objectives were defined. Two evaluations were undertaken: Using a qualitative approach, tutees (N = 10) were asked for their thoughts and comments in a semi-structured interview at the end of the semester. From a quantitative perspective, all participants (N = 22) were asked to complete questionnaires at the end of each course session. International students reported a range of significant benefits from the course as they prepared for upcoming exams. They benefited from technical and didactic, as well as social learning experiences. They also considered aspects of the tutorial's framework helpful. Social and cognitive congruence seem to be the key factors to success within international medical students' education. If tutors have a migration background, they can operate as authentic role models. Furthermore, because they are still students themselves, they can offer support using relevant and understandable language.

  5. A peer mentoring group for junior clinician educators: four years' experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Julie A; Mourtzanos, Emmanuel; McLaren, Kimberly; Murray, Suzanne B; Kimmel, Ryan J; Cowley, Deborah S

    2012-03-01

    To study the effect of a peer mentoring group (PMG). Six junior clinician educator faculty and one senior faculty at the University of Washington Medical Center's Department of Psychiatry formed a PMG in 2006. The PMG had 30 meetings during 2006-2010. Group format, goals, and meeting agendas were determined solely by participants. Feedback about positive and negative outcomes of participation in the PMG was determined by open-ended response to three sets of questions; qualitative analysis was performed by an outside research consultant. Program evaluation revealed benefits and undesirable or unintended outcomes. Reported benefits were increased workplace satisfaction; improved social connection; increased professional productivity and personal growth/development through accountability, collaboration, mutual learning, support, and information sharing; synergy, collaboration, and diversity of thought; increased involvement in professional activities; opportunity for peer discussions in a safe environment; and increased accountability and motivation. Undesirable or unintentional outcomes were exclusivity, lack of hierarchy, scheduling of meetings, absence of an intentional curriculum, diverse and competing interests, personal-professional enmeshment, and occasional loss of focus due to overemphasis on personal matters. Every member of the PMG was retained, and scholarly productivity increased, as did collaboration with other group members. Participants in this PMG experienced qualitative benefits and perceived advantages in career advancement and scholarly productivity. Negative consequences did not deter participation in the PMG or outweigh benefits. The self-sufficient and low-cost structure makes it particularly portable.

  6. Peer-led Stress Prevention Seminars in the First Year of Medical School – A Project Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bugaj, Till Johannes

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: From the beginning of the first year of medical studies, increased psychological stress and elevated burnout prevalence rates can be registered compared to sample populations. Characterized by learning “on an equal footing”, the principle of peer-assisted learning (PAL is widely used in medical education. This report aims to showcase the development and evaluation of peer-led stress prevention seminars for first year medical students after one year of implementation.Project description: With each of the three sessions lasting 90 min., the stress prevention seminars took place in small groups (6-10 students in the period from November 2013 to January 2014 and from November 2014 to December 2014 at the Medical Faculty of Heidelberg. Led by trained peers, the seminar content ranged from psycho-educational elements, i.e. time management strategy development and test anxiety assistance, to relaxation techniques. All seminar sessions were evaluated via questionnaire. All questions were answered on a Likert scale ranging from 1 to 7 (1=strongly agree; 7=strongly disagree.Results: 75 students consented to participate in seminars (65% female; aged 20.5±3.3 years. The series of seminars was averagely given the school grade of 1.2±0.4 (1=very good to 6=unsatisfactory in WS 2013/14 and 1.5±0.5 in the following year and the peer tutors’ competence was evaluated as very high (1.4 to 1.5 approval rate on the Likert scale.Discussion: The seminar sessions’ importance to the students is underlined by their very positive evaluations. This offer seems to have benefited students especially during the demanding transitional phase at the start of their studies. Both the implementation of the preventive measure at an early stage as well as the use of PAL seem to have proven effective.Conclusion: PAL seems to be effective in the field of stress prevention. However, specific efficacy studies are still lacking.

  7. The Relationship between Alcohol Use and Peer Pressure Susceptibility, Peer Popularity and General Conformity in Northern Irish School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Michael T.; Cole, Jon C.

    2012-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated the bivariate and more fully controlled (with socio-demographic measures) relationship between self-reported drinking behaviour and peer pressure susceptibility, desire for peer popularity and general conformity in a sample of 11-16-year-old school children in Northern Ireland. Self-reported drinking…

  8. Pygmalion in the Program: The Role of Teenage Peer Mentors' Attitudes in Shaping Their Mentees' Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karcher, Michael J.; Davidson, Alice J.; Rhodes, Jean E.; Herrera, Carla

    2010-01-01

    Cross-age peer mentoring programs, in which teenagers mentor younger children, have proliferated in recent years, yet there is disagreement about the effectiveness of such programs. This study tested whether teen mentors' attitudes about children interact with their mentees' characteristics to moderate outcomes of cross-age peer mentoring. The…

  9. Measures of aggression and victimization in portuguese adolescents: Cross-cultural validation of the Revised Peer Experience Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queirós, Andreia N; Vagos, Paula

    2016-10-01

    The goal of this research was to develop and psychometrically evaluate the Portuguese version of the Revised Peer Experience Questionnaire, which assesses aggression, victimization and prosocial behavior. Victimization and aggression among adolescents in school settings is a growing problem, not yet fully understood or properly evaluated, particularly in Portugal. A sample of 1320 adolescents was recruited (52.7% female), with ages varying from 10 to 18 years old, attending middle and high school. Confirmatory factor analysis confirms the measurement model of the instrument's bully and victim versions, as evaluating overt, relational, and reputational aggression/victimization and providing/receiving prosocial behavior, respectively. This measurement model was invariant across schooling and gender, showed adequate internal consistency indicators, and presented evidence for construct validity in relation to other variables. Descriptive analyses indicate that boys are more aggressive in overt and relational forms and victimized through overt aggression, whereas girls are more aggressive and victimized relationally. More than any form of aggression or victimization, boys and girls revealed higher values for engaging in and receiving prosocial behavior. These results suggest that this instrument is a reliable, valid, and structurally sound measure of aggression, victimization and prosocial behavior in this Portuguese school-based community sample. Hence, its use may assist researchers in gaining a better understanding of adolescent aggression and victimization. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Do fourth year pharmacy students use Facebook to form workplace-based learning peer groups during rotations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jennifer; Gettig, Jacob; Goliak, Kristen; Allen, Sheila; Fjortoft, Nancy

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study was to gain an understanding of whether pharmacy students are using Facebook ® to create formal or informal workplace-based peer groups to learn from each other and share information while completing their advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs). Fourth-year pharmacy students from two colleges of pharmacy in the same geographical area were recruited by email to participate. Inclusion criteria were: completion of two or more APPEs, current assignment to an APPE rotation in the local area, and a Facebook ® profile. Two focus groups, of eight students each were conducted on each of the two colleges' campuses. An incentive to participate was provided. Thematic analysis was used to analyze responses. Students reported using Facebook ® to learn about rotation expectations, roles/responsibilities, and preceptors. However, frequency and depth of interactions varied among the participants. Most participants noted that they prefer more private methods of communication to learn about APPE experiences. Students found Facebook ® to be a good source of motivation and support during experiential learning. The use of social media sites like Facebook ® may help students form "virtual" workplace-based peer groups during APPEs. Pharmacy schools interested in providing support for formal workplace-based learning groups should consider using social media sites as one component of this program. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Past Year Technology-Involved Peer Harassment Victimization and Recent Depressive Symptoms and Suicide Ideation Among a National Sample of Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kimberly J; Jones, Lisa M; Turner, Heather A

    2017-12-01

    This article aims to better understand the complex role of technology in peer victimization events with recent depressive symptomatology and suicide ideation (SI). Telephone interviews were conducted with a national sample of 791 youth in the United States, aged 10 to 20 years, collected from December 2013 to March 2014. Rates of any peer harassment victimization varied by past month depressive symptomatology and SI -28% of youth with no/low depressive symptomatology reported past year peer harassment as did 43% of youth with high depressive symptomatology without SI, and 66% of youth with SI. When examining the role of technology in peer harassment, youth experiencing any mixed harassment (i.e., those incidents that occurred both in-person and through technology) were almost 4 times more likely to report past month depressive symptoms without SI (RR adj = 3.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.5, 10.0], p ≤ .01) and 7.5 times (95% CI = [1.9, 28.9], p ≤ .01) more likely to report past month SI compared with youth who had no past year peer harassment. Given the multilayered relationships among these variables, schools, medical, and mental health professionals might screen youth who are involved in higher risk peer victimization situations, for depressive symptoms and SI to improve their access to appropriate mental health services.

  12. Near-peer role modeling: Can fourth-year medical students, recognized for their humanism, enhance reflection among second-year students in a physical diagnosis course?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimi McEvoy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Humanism is cultivated through reflection and self-awareness. We aimed to employ fourth-year medical students, recognized for their humanism, to facilitate reflective sessions for second-year medical students with the intention of positively influencing reflective process toward humanistic development. Methods/Analysis: A total of 186 students were randomly assigned to one of three comparison arms: eight groups of eight students (64 students were facilitated by a fourth-year student who was a Gold Humanism Honor Society member (GHHS; eight groups (64 students by a volunteer non-GHHS student; and seven groups (58 students were non-facilitated. Before sessions, second-year students set learning goals concerning interactions with patients; fourth-year students received training materials on facilitation. Groups met twice during their 10 clinical site visits. At the last session, students completed a reflective assignment on their goal progress. Comparative mixed method analyses were conducted among the three comparison arms on reflection (reflective score on in-session assignment and session satisfaction (survey in addition to a thematic analysis of responses on the in-session assignment. Results: We found significant differences among all three comparison arms on students’ reflective scores (p=0.0003 and satisfaction (p=0.0001. T-tests comparing GHHS- and non-GHHS-facilitated groups showed significantly higher mean reflective scores for GHHS-facilitated groups (p=0.033; there were no differences on session satisfaction. Thematic analysis of students’ reflections showed attempts at self-examination, but lacked depth in addressing emotions. There was a common focus on achieving comfort and confidence in clinical skills performance. Discussion/Conclusions: Near peers, recognized for their humanism, demonstrated significant influence in deepening medical students’ reflections surrounding patient interactions or humanistic

  13. Peer-Mediated Multimodal Intervention Program for the Treatment of Children with ADHD in India: One-Year Followup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Sagar; Shah, Devesh; Shah, Kushal; Mehta, Sanjiv; Mehta, Neelam; Mehta, Vivek; Mehta, Vijay; Mehta, Vaishali; Motiwala, Smita; Mehta, Naina; Mehta, Devendra

    2012-01-01

    The objective was to assess the efficacy of a one-year, peer-mediated interventional program consisting of yoga, meditation and play therapy maintained by student volunteers in a school in India. The population consisted of 69 students between the ages of 6 and 11 years, previously identified as having attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A program, known as Climb-Up, was initially embedded in the school twice weekly. Local high school student volunteers were then trained to continue to implement the program weekly over the period of one year. Improvements in ADHD symptoms and academic performance were assessed using Vanderbilt questionnaires completed by both parents and teachers. The performance impairment scores for ADHD students assessed by teachers improved by 6 weeks and were sustained through 12 months in 46 (85%) of the enrolled students. The improvements in their Vanderbilt scores assessed by parents were also seen in 92% (P < 0.0001, Wilcoxon). The Climb-Up program resulted in remarkable improvements in the students' school performances that were sustained throughout the year. These results show promise for a cost-effective program that could easily be implemented in any school. PMID:23316384

  14. Establishing Peer Mentor-Led Writing Groups in Large First-Year Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcoux, Sarah; Marken, Liv; Yu, Stan

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a pilot project designed to improve students' academic writing in a large (200-student) first-year Agriculture class at the University of Saskatchewan. In collaboration with the course's professor, the Writing Centre coordinator and a summer student designed curriculum for four two-hour Writing Group sessions…

  15. A protocol of a cross-sectional study evaluating an online tool for early career peer reviewers assessing reports of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvin, Anthony; Moher, David; Altman, Doug; Schriger, David L; Alam, Sabina; Hopewell, Sally; Shanahan, Daniel R; Recchioni, Alessandro; Ravaud, Philippe; Boutron, Isabelle

    2017-09-15

    Systematic reviews evaluating the impact of interventions to improve the quality of peer review for biomedical publications highlighted that interventions were limited and have little impact. This study aims to compare the accuracy of early career peer reviewers who use an innovative online tool to the usual peer reviewer process in evaluating the completeness of reporting and switched primary outcomes in completed reports. This is a cross-sectional study of individual two-arm parallel-group randomised controlled trials (RCTs) published in the BioMed Central series medical journals, BMJ , BMJ Open and Annals of Emergency Medicine and indexed with the publication type 'Randomised Controlled Trial'. First, we will develop an online tool and training module based (a) on the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) 2010 checklist and the Explanation and Elaboration document that would be dedicated to junior peer reviewers for assessing the completeness of reporting of key items and (b) the Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine Outcome Monitoring Project process used to identify switched outcomes in completed reports of the primary results of RCTs when initially submitted. Then, we will compare the performance of early career peer reviewers who use the online tool to the usual peer review process in identifying inadequate reporting and switched outcomes in completed reports of RCTs at initial journal submission. The primary outcome will be the mean number of items accurately classified per manuscript. The secondary outcomes will be the mean number of items accurately classified per manuscript for the CONSORT items and the sensitivity, specificity and likelihood ratio to detect the item as adequately reported and to identify a switch in outcomes. We aim to include 120 RCTs and 120 early career peer reviewers. The research protocol was approved by the ethics committee of the INSERM Institutional Review Board (21 January 2016). The study is based on voluntary

  16. Impact of five years of peer-mediated interventions on sexual behavior and sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King'ola Nzioki

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2000, peer-mediated interventions among female sex workers (FSW in Mombasa Kenya have promoted behavioural change through improving knowledge, attitudes and awareness of HIV serostatus, and aimed to prevent HIV and other sexually transmitted infection (STI by facilitating early STI treatment. Impact of these interventions was evaluated among those who attended peer education and at the FSW population level. Methods A pre-intervention survey in 2000, recruited 503 FSW using snowball sampling. Thereafter, peer educators provided STI/HIV education, condoms, and facilitated HIV testing, treatment and care services. In 2005, data were collected using identical survey methods, allowing comparison with historical controls, and between FSW who had or had not received peer interventions. Results Over five years, sex work became predominately a full-time activity, with increased mean sexual partners (2.8 versus 4.9/week; P P P = 0.36. Conclusion Peer-mediated interventions were associated with an increase in protected sex. Though peer-mediated interventions remain important, higher coverage is needed and more efficacious interventions to reduce overall vulnerability and risk.

  17. The Influence of Social Network Characteristics on Peer Clustering in Smoking: A Two-Wave Panel Study of 19- and 23-Year-Old Swedes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miething, Alexander; Rostila, Mikael; Edling, Christofer; Rydgren, Jens

    2016-01-01

    The present study examines how the composition of social networks and perceived relationship content influence peer clustering in smoking, and how the association changes during the transition from late adolescence to early adulthood. The analysis was based on a Swedish two-wave survey sample comprising ego-centric network data. Respondents were 19 years old in the initial wave, and 23 when the follow-up sample was conducted. 17,227 ego-alter dyads were included in the analyses, which corresponds to an average response rate of 48.7 percent. Random effects logistic regression models were performed to calculate gender-specific average marginal effects of social network characteristics on smoking. The association of egos' and alters' smoking behavior was confirmed and found to be stronger when correlated in the female sample. For females, the associations decreased between age 19 and 23. Interactions between network characteristics and peer clustering in smoking showed that intense social interactions with smokers increase egos' smoking probability. The influence of network structures on peer clustering in smoking decreased during the transition from late adolescence to early adulthood. The study confirmed peer clustering in smoking and revealed that females' smoking behavior in particular is determined by social interactions. Female smokers' propensity to interact with other smokers was found to be associated with the quality of peer relationships, frequent social interactions, and network density. The influence of social networks on peer clustering in smoking decreased during the transition from late adolescence to early adulthood.

  18. Peer-mentoring Program during the Preclinical Years of Medical School at Bonn University: a Project Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapp, Hendrik; Makowka, Philipp; Recker, Florian

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: To better prepare young medical students in a thorough and competent manner for the ever increasing clinical, scientific, as well as psychosocial requirements, universities should enable a close, personal transfer of experience and knowledge. Structured mentoring programs are a promising approach to incorporate clinical subjects earlier into the preclinical training. Such a mentoring program facilitates the prioritization of concepts from a broad, theory-heavy syllabus. Here we report the experiences and results of the preclinical mentoring program of Bonn University, which was introduced in the winter semester of 2012/2013. Project desciption: The program is characterized by the concept of peer-to-peer teaching during the preclinical semesters of medical school. Regular, voluntary course meetings with different clinical case examples provide students the opportunity to apply knowledge acquired from the basic science curricula; furthermore, a personal contact for advice and support is ensured. Thus, an informal exchange of experiences is made possible, which provides to the students motivational and learning aids, in particular for the oral examination at the end of the premedical semesters as well as for other examinations during medical school. Results: Over the course of the preceding three years the number of participants and the interest in the program grew steadily. The analysis of collected evaluations confirms very good communication between mentors and students (>80%), as well as consistently good to very good quality and usefulness in terms of the mentors' subject-specific and other advice. The overall final evaluation of the mentoring program was always good to very good (winter semester: very good 64.8±5.0%, good 35.2±5.0%, summer semester: very good 83.9±7.5%, good 16.1±7.5%) Summary: In summary, it has been shown that the mentoring program had a positive impact on the development, education and satisfaction of students beginning

  19. Dimensions of Peer Sexual Harassment Victimization and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence: A Longitudinal Cross-Lagged Study in a Swedish Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlqvist, Heléne Zetterström; Landstedt, Evelina; Young, Robert; Gådin, Katja Gillander

    2016-05-01

    Sexual harassment is commonly considered unwanted sexual attention and a form of gender-based violence that can take physical, verbal and visual forms and it is assumed to cause later depression in adolescents. There is a dearth of research explicitly testing this assumption and the directional pathway remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to use a feminist theoretical framework to test competing models in respect of the direction of the relationships between dimensions of peer sexual harassment victimization and dimensions of depressive symptoms from ages 14 to 16 in adolescents. The study also aimed to investigate gender differences in these pathways. Cross-lagged models were conducted using a three-wave (2010, 2011 and 2012) longitudinal study of 2330 students (51 % females) from Sweden, adjusted for social background. Girls subjected to sexual harassment in grade seven continued to experience sexual harassment the following 2 years. There was weaker evidence of repeated experience of sexual harassment among boys. Depressive symptoms were stable over time in both genders. Sexual name-calling was the dimension that had the strongest associations to all dimensions of depressive symptoms irrespective of gender. In girls, name-calling was associated with later somatic symptoms and negative affect, while anhedonia (reduced ability to experience pleasure) preceded later name-calling. Physical sexual harassment had a reciprocal relationship to somatic symptoms in girls. In boys, name-calling was preceded by all dimensions of depressive symptoms. It is an urgent matter to prevent sexual harassment victimization, as it is most likely to both cause depressive symptoms or a reciprocal cycle of victimization and depression symptoms in girls as well as boys.

  20. The Effect Social Information Processing in Six-Year-Old Children Has on Their Social Competence and Peer Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogelman, Hulya Gulay; Seven, Serdal

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect social information processing levels has on the social competence (entering a peer group, response towards provocation, response to failure, response to success, social expectations, teacher expectations, reactive aggression, proactive aggression) and peer relationship (prosocial behaviour,…

  1. The effectiveness of peer mentoring in promoting a positive transition to higher education for first-year undergraduate students: a mixed methods systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carragher, Jean; McGaughey, Jennifer

    2016-04-22

    The global transfer of nursing and midwifery education to higher education institutes has led to student nurses and midwives experiencing challenges previously faced by traditional third-level students, including isolation, loneliness, financial difficulties and academic pressure. These challenges can contribute to increased stress and anxiety levels which may be detrimental to the successful transition to higher education, thus leading to an increase in attrition rates. Peer mentoring as an intervention has been suggested to be effective in supporting students in the transition to third-level education through enhancing a sense of belongingness and improving student satisfaction, engagement and retention rates. This proposed systematic review aims to determine the effectiveness of peer mentoring in enhancing levels of student engagement, sense of belonging and overall satisfaction of first-year undergraduate students following transition into higher education. MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge, ProQuest, Embase, CINAHL, ERIC, PsycINFO and CENTRAL databases will be searched for qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods studies on the implementation of peer assessment strategies in higher education institutes (HEIs) or universities for full-time, first-year adult students (>17 years). Included studies will be limited to the English language. The quality of included studies will be assessed using a validated Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT). The findings will be presented as a narrative synthesis or meta-analysis as appropriate following sequential explanatory synthesis. The review will provide clear, non-biased evidence-based guidance to all third-level educators on the effectiveness of peer-mentoring programmes for first-year undergraduates. The review is necessary to help establish which type of peer mentoring is most effective. The evidence from qualitative and quantitative studies drawn from the international literature will be utilised to illustrate the best way

  2. Peer-led training and assessment in basic life support for healthcare students: synthesis of literature review and fifteen years practical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, P R; Higenbottam, C V; Owen, A; Hulme, J; Bion, J F

    2012-07-01

    In 1995, the University of Birmingham, UK, School of Medicine and Dentistry replaced lecture-based basic life support (BLS) teaching with a peer-led, practical programme. We present our 15-yr experience of peer-led healthcare undergraduate training and examination with a literature review. A literature review of healthcare undergraduate peer-led practical skills teaching was performed though Pubmed. The development of the Birmingham course is described, from its inception in 1995-2011. Training methods include peer-led training and assessment by senior students who complete an European Resuscitation Council-endorsed instructor course. Student assessors additionally undergo training in assessment and communication skills. The course has been developed by parallel research evaluation and peer-reviewed publication. Course administration is by an experienced student committee with senior clinician support. Anonymous feedback from the most recent courses and the current annual pass rates are reported. The literature review identified 369 publications of which 28 met our criteria for inclusion. Largely descriptive, these are highly positive about peer involvement in practical skills teaching using similar, albeit smaller, courses to that described below. Currently approximately 600 first year healthcare undergraduates complete the Birmingham course; participant numbers increase annually. Successful completion is mandatory for students to proceed to the second year of studies. First attempt pass rate is 86%, and close to 100% (565/566 students, 99.8%) following re-assessment the same day. 97% of participants enjoyed the course, 99% preferred peer-tutors to clinicians, 99% perceived teaching quality as "good" or "excellent", and felt they had sufficient practice. Course organisation was rated "good" or "excellent" by 91%. Each year 3-4 student projects have been published or presented internationally. The annual cost of providing the course is currently £15,594.70 (Eur 18

  3. Do peers matter? A review of peer and/or friends' influence on physical activity among American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Amanda; Fitzgerald, Noelle; Aherne, Cian

    2012-08-01

    This systematic review investigated the relationship between peer and/or friend variables and physical activity among adolescents by synthesising cross-sectional, longitudinal, and experimental research conducted in the US. Seven electronic databases were searched to identify related articles published within the last 10 years and the articles reviewed included adolescents between 10 and 18 years. Studies reporting a measure of physical activity for adolescents and at least one potential peer and/or friend variable were included. Research demonstrated that peers and friends have an important role to play in the physical activity behavior of adolescents. Six processes were identified through which peers and/or friends may have an influence on physical activity including: peer and/or friend support, presence of peers and friends, peer norms, friendship quality and acceptance, peer crowds, and peer victimization. The theoretical significance of these results is assessed and the development of peer-related physical activity programs for adolescents is discussed. Copyright © 2012 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. DRD4 Genotype and the Developmental Link of Peer Social Preference with Conduct Problems and Prosocial Behavior Across Ages 9-12 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buil, J Marieke; Koot, Hans M; Olthof, Tjeert; Nelson, Kelly A; van Lier, Pol A C

    2015-07-01

    The peer environment is among the most important factors for children's behavioral development. However, not all children are equally influenced by their peers, which is potentially due to their genetic make-up. The dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4) is a potential candidate gene that may influence children's susceptibility to the peer environment. In the present study, we explored whether variations in the DRD4 gene moderated the association between children's social standing in the peer group (i.e., social preference among classmates) with subsequent conduct problems and prosocial behavior among 405 (51% females) elementary school children followed annually throughout early adolescence (ages 9-12 years). The behavioral development of children with and without the DRD4 7-repeat allele was compared. The results indicated that children who had higher positive social preference scores (i.e., who were more liked relative to disliked by their peers) showed less conduct problem development in subsequent years relative to children who had lower positive social preference scores. In contrast, children who had more negative preference scores (i.e., who were more disliked relative to liked among peers) showed more conduct problem development in subsequent years, relative to children who had less negative preference scores. However, these effects only occurred when children had a 7-repeat allele. For children who did not have a 7-repeat allele, the level of social preference was not associated with subsequent conduct problems. No evidence for gene-environment interaction effects for prosocial behavior was found. The implications for our understanding of conduct problem development and its prevention are discussed.

  5. The Effect Inclusive Education Practice during Preschool Has on the Peer Relations and Social Skills of 5-6-Year Olds with Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogelman, Hulya Gulay; Secer, Zarife

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to set forth the effect preschool inclusive education practices have on the peer relations of 5-6 year olds with typical development. The study comprised of two sample groups. The children in both groups were attendees of kindergartens at primary schools governed by the Ministry of National Education located in the…

  6. Poorly cited articles in peer-reviewed cardiovascular journals from 1997 to 2007: analysis of 5-year citation rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranasinghe, Isuru; Shojaee, Abbas; Bikdeli, Behnood; Gupta, Aakriti; Chen, Ruijun; Ross, Joseph S; Masoudi, Frederick A; Spertus, John A; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K; Krumholz, Harlan M

    2015-05-19

    The extent to which articles are cited is a surrogate of the impact and importance of the research conducted; poorly cited articles may identify research of limited use and potential wasted investments. We assessed trends in the rates of poorly cited articles and journals in the cardiovascular literature from 1997 to 2007. We identified original articles published in cardiovascular journals and indexed in the Scopus citation database from 1997 to 2007. We defined poorly cited articles as those with ≤5 citations in the 5 years following publication and poorly cited journals as those with >75% of journal content poorly cited. We identified 164 377 articles in 222 cardiovascular journals from 1997 to 2007. From 1997 to 2007, the number of cardiovascular articles and journals increased by 56.9% and 75.2%, respectively. Of all the articles, 75 550 (46.0%) were poorly cited, of which 25 650 (15.6% overall) had no citations. From 1997 to 2007, the proportion of poorly cited articles declined slightly (52.1%-46.2%, trend Pjournal level, 44% of cardiovascular journals had more than three-fourths of the journal's content poorly cited at 5 years. Nearly half of all peer-reviewed articles published in cardiovascular journals are poorly cited 5 years after publication, and many are not cited at all. The cardiovascular literature and the number of poorly cited articles both increased substantially from 1997 to 2007. The high proportion of poorly cited articles and journals suggests inefficiencies in the cardiovascular research enterprise. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Poorly Cited Articles in Peer-Reviewed Cardiovascular Journals from 1997–2007: Analysis of 5-Year Citation Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranasinghe, Isuru; Shojaee, Abbas; Bikdeli, Behnood; Gupta, Aakriti; Chen, Ruijun; Ross, Joseph S.; Masoudi, Frederick; Spertus, John A.; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K.; Krumholz, Harlan M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The extent to which articles are cited is a surrogate of the impact and importance of the research conducted; poorly cited papers may identify research of limited use and potential wasted investments. We assessed trends in the rates of poorly cited articles and journals in the cardiovascular literature from 1997–2007. Methods and Results We identified original articles published in cardiovascular journals and indexed in the Scopus citation database from 1997–2007. We defined poorly cited articles as those with ≤5 citations in the 5 years following publication and poorly cited journals as those with >75% of journal content poorly cited. We identified 164,377 articles in 222 cardiovascular journals from 1997–2007. From 1997–2007, the number of cardiovascular articles and journals increased by 56.9% and 75.2% respectively. Of all the articles, 75,550 (46.0%) were poorly cited, of which 25,650 (15.6% overall) had no citations. From 1997–2007, the proportion of poorly cited articles declined slightly (52.1% to 46.2%, trend Pjournal level, 44% of cardiovascular journals had more than three quarters of the journal’s content poorly cited at 5 years. Conclusion Nearly half of all peer-reviewed articles published in cardiovascular journals are poorly cited 5 years after publication, and many are not cited at all. The cardiovascular literature, and the number of poorly cited articles, have both increased substantially from 1997–2007. The high proportion of poorly cited articles and journals suggest inefficiencies in the cardiovascular research enterprise. PMID:25812573

  8. Jupiter: Peer-to-Peer Networking Platform over Heterogeneous Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norihiro Ishikawa

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Peer-to-peer has entered the public limelight over the last few years. Several research projects are underway on peer-to-peer technologies, but no definitive conclusion is currently available. Compared with traditional Internet technologies, peer-to-peer has the potential to realize highly scalable, extensible, and efficient distributed applications. This is because its basic functions realize resource discovery, resource sharing, and load balancing in a highly distributed manner. An easy prediction is the emergence of an environment in which many sensors, people, and many different kinds of objects exist, move, and communicate with one another. Peer-to-peer is one of the most important and suitable technologies for such networking since it supports discovery mechanisms, simple one-to-one communication between devices, free and extensible distribution of resources, and distributed search to handle the enormous number of resources. The purpose of this study is to explore a universal peer-to-peer network architecture that will allow various devices to communicate with one another across various networks. We have been designing architecture and protocols for realizing peer-to-peer networking among various devices. We are currently designing APIs that are available for various peer-to-peer applications and are implementing a prototype called "Jupiter" as a peer-to-peer networking platform over heterogeneous networks.

  9. The influence of perception and peer support on STI prevention behavior (syphilis case study) in group of MSM at veterans STI-VCT clinic in Medan year 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukatendel, K.; Napitupulu, T. E.; Rusmalawati; Andayani, L. S.; Yustina, I.

    2018-03-01

    According to Behavioral and Biological Integrated Surveillance (BBIS) in Indonesia, 2011, there was an increase in syphilis surveillance in men who like to commit sexual intercourse with other men (MSM). It was 13% of the 3% in BBIS 2007 in bad STI prevention behavior. There were 478 MSM have visited STI-VCT clinic in Medan throughout 2015, and syphilis-infected 59 men. This study aims to analyze the influence of perception and peer support on prevention of STI in MSM at Veteran STI-VCT Clinic in Medan, 2016. It was a mixed method quantitative and qualitative study with the cross-sectional approach, enrolled 50 respondents. Data were collected and analyzed with SPSS 19. There was the influence of perception and peer support on STI prevention behavior of MSM group at STI-VCT Veteran Clinic in Medan.

  10. EU-stress test: Swiss national action plan. Follow-up of peer review 2012 year-end status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    of the events at Fukushima, are being processed according to their importance and urgency in a Swiss action plan. There was a lack of consistency identified with respect to natural hazards assessments where significant differences exist in national approaches and where difficulties were encountered with beyond design margins and cliff-edge effects assessments. The peer review Board recommends that the Western European Nuclear Safety Regulators Association (WENRA) develop guidance on natural hazards assessments, including earthquake, flooding and extreme weather conditions, as well as on the assessment of margins beyond the design basis and cliff-edge effects. In Switzerland, the periodic safety review is mandatory every 10 years; the risk from external hazards is re-evaluated. ENSI required a re-evaluation of severe weather conditions. A comprehensive research project on external flooding was initiated. The Fukushima disaster highlighted the importance of the containment function as the last barrier to protect the people and the environment against radioactive releases resulting from a nuclear accident. All Swiss NPPs are equipped with special bunkered safety systems designed against extreme external events. ENSI requested a new safety case to demonstrate that the Swiss NPPs have adequate protection against the 10,000-year earthquake and the combination of this earthquake and a 10,000-year flooding. The necessary analyses were submitted by the licence holders. A flood-proof and earthquake-resistant external storage facility is in place at Reitnau since June 2011, in order to strengthen the provision for accident mitigation. It contains various operational resources, in particular mobile motor-driven pumps, mobile emergency power generators, hoses and cables, radiation protection suits, tools, diesel fuel and boration agents. This storage facility is located on top of a hill and is accessible by road or by helicopter. The three independent storage buildings are

  11. EU-stress test: Swiss national action plan. Follow-up of peer review 2012 year-end status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-12-01

    of the events at Fukushima, are being processed according to their importance and urgency in a Swiss action plan. There was a lack of consistency identified with respect to natural hazards assessments where significant differences exist in national approaches and where difficulties were encountered with beyond design margins and cliff-edge effects assessments. The peer review Board recommends that the Western European Nuclear Safety Regulators Association (WENRA) develop guidance on natural hazards assessments, including earthquake, flooding and extreme weather conditions, as well as on the assessment of margins beyond the design basis and cliff-edge effects. In Switzerland, the periodic safety review is mandatory every 10 years; the risk from external hazards is re-evaluated. ENSI required a re-evaluation of severe weather conditions. A comprehensive research project on external flooding was initiated. The Fukushima disaster highlighted the importance of the containment function as the last barrier to protect the people and the environment against radioactive releases resulting from a nuclear accident. All Swiss NPPs are equipped with special bunkered safety systems designed against extreme external events. ENSI requested a new safety case to demonstrate that the Swiss NPPs have adequate protection against the 10,000-year earthquake and the combination of this earthquake and a 10,000-year flooding. The necessary analyses were submitted by the licence holders. A flood-proof and earthquake-resistant external storage facility is in place at Reitnau since June 2011, in order to strengthen the provision for accident mitigation. It contains various operational resources, in particular mobile motor-driven pumps, mobile emergency power generators, hoses and cables, radiation protection suits, tools, diesel fuel and boration agents. This storage facility is located on top of a hill and is accessible by road or by helicopter. The three independent storage buildings are

  12. Different digital paths to the keg? How exposure to peers' alcohol-related social media content influences drinking among male and female first-year college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Sarah C; LaBrie, Joseph W; Froidevaux, Nicole M; Witkovic, Yong D

    2016-06-01

    Despite speculation that peers' alcohol-related content on social media sites (SMS) may influence the alcohol use behaviors of SMS frequenting college students, this relationship has not been investigated longitudinally. The current prospective study assesses the relationship between exposure to peers' alcohol-related SMS content and later-drinking among first-year college students. Among 408 first-year students, total exposure to peers' alcohol-related content on Facebook, Instagram, and Snapchat during the initial 6 weeks of college predicted alcohol consumption 6 months later. The rather robust relationship persisted even after students' and close friends drinking were accounted for, indicating that alcohol references on SMS do not simply reflect alcohol use behaviors that would otherwise be observed in the absence of SMS and be predictive of later alcohol use. Findings also illuminate important gender differences in the degree to which peers' alcohol-related SMS content influenced later drinking behavior as well as psychological mediators of this relationship. Among females, enhancement drinking motives and beliefs about the role of alcohol in the college experience fully mediated the relationship between SMS alcohol exposure and later drinking. Males, however, evidenced a much stronger predictive relationship between SMS alcohol exposure and second semester drinking, with this relationship only partially explained by perceptions of drinking norms, enhancement drinking motives, and beliefs about the role of alcohol in the college experience. Implications of these findings for college drinking prevention efforts and directions for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Bullied by Peers in Childhood and Borderline Personality Symptoms at 11-Years of Age: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolke, Dieter; Schreier, Andrea; Zanarini, Mary C.; Winsper, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Background: Abuse by adults has been reported as a potent predictor of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Unclear is whether victimisation by peers increases the risk of borderline personality symptoms. Method: The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) prospective, longitudinal observation study of 6050 mothers and their…

  14. Peers Versus Parents: The Salience of Perceived Sources of Self-esteem Among Three- to Five-year-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, J. A. H.; Gurney, P. W.

    1988-01-01

    Studies the perceived source of self-esteem among 300 children aged three to five. Results indicate that peers are the predominant source of self-esteem in the low intensity ("like") condition and parents are the predominant source of self-esteem in the high intensity ("love") condition. (RJC)

  15. The Link between Peer Relations, Prosocial Behavior, and ODD/ADHD Symptoms in 7–9-Year-Old Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paap, Muirne; Haraldsen, Ira R.; Breivik, Kyrre; Butcher, Phillipa R.; Hellem, Froydis M.; Stormark, Kjell M.

    2013-01-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are characterized by symptoms that hinder successful positive interaction with peers. The main goal of this study was to examine if the presence of symptoms of ODD and ADHD affects the relationship between

  16. Inhibition and Exuberance in Preschool Classrooms: Associations with Peer Social Experiences and Changes in Cortisol across the Preschool Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarullo, Amanda R.; Mliner, Shanna; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2011-01-01

    Associations between behavioral inhibition and activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system, a stress-sensitive neuroendocrine system indexed by salivary cortisol, have varied widely across studies. In the current study, we examined the role of peer social experiences in moderating patterns of association between…

  17. The Assessment and Mentoring Program (AMP): Final Year Pre-Service Physical Education Peer Mentors' Perceptions of Effective Mentoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkinson, Kate A.; Benson, Amanda C.

    2017-01-01

    In the teacher education context, most peer mentoring programs have focused on pre-service teachers and a qualified teacher mentor within schools (Hobson, et.al., 2009; Ambrosetti, Knight & Dekkers, 2014). Few studies have focused on mentoring between pre-service physical education teachers. Therefore, we describe the Assessment and Mentoring…

  18. Poor peer relations predict parent- and self-reported behavioral and emotional problems of adolescents with gender dysphoria: a cross-national, cross-clinic comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Annelou L C; Steensma, Thomas D; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; VanderLaan, Doug P; Zucker, Kenneth J

    2016-06-01

    This study is the third in a series to examine behavioral and emotional problems in children and adolescents with gender dysphoria in a comparative analysis between two clinics in Toronto, Ontario, Canada and Amsterdam, the Netherlands. In the present study, we report Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Youth Self-Report (YSR) data on adolescents assessed in the Toronto clinic (n = 177) and the Amsterdam clinic (n = 139). On the CBCL and the YSR, we found that the percentage of adolescents with clinical range behavioral and emotional problems was higher when compared to the non-referred standardization samples but similar to the referred adolescents. On both the CBCL and the YSR, the Toronto adolescents had a significantly higher Total Problem score than the Amsterdam adolescents. Like our earlier studies of CBCL data of children and Teacher's Report Form data of children and adolescents, a measure of poor peer relations was the strongest predictor of CBCL and YSR behavioral and emotional problems in gender dysphoric adolescents.

  19. Teacher Support, Peer Acceptance, and Engagement in the Classroom: A Three-Wave Longitudinal Study in Late Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyns, Tessa; Colpin, Hilde; De Laet, Steven; Engels, Maaike; Verschueren, Karine

    2018-06-01

    Although research has examined the bivariate effects of teacher support, peer acceptance, and engagement, it remains unclear how these key classroom experiences evolve together, especially in late childhood. This study aims to provide a detailed picture of their transactional relations in late childhood. A sample of 586 children (M age  = 9.26 years, 47.1% boys) was followed from fourth to sixth grade. Teacher support and engagement were student-reported and peer acceptance was peer-reported. Autoregressive cross-lagged models revealed unique longitudinal effects of both peer acceptance and teacher support on engagement, and of peer acceptance on teacher support. No reverse effects of engagement on peer acceptance or teacher support were found. The study underscores the importance of examining the relative contribution of several social actors in the classroom. Regarding interventions, improving both peer acceptance and teacher support can increase children's engagement, and augmenting peer acceptance can help to increase teacher support.

  20. Evaluating the effectiveness of a peer-led education intervention to improve the patient safety attitudes of junior pharmacy students: a cross-sectional study using a latent growth curve modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walpola, Ramesh L; Fois, Romano A; McLachlan, Andrew J; Chen, Timothy F

    2015-12-08

    Despite the recognition that educating healthcare students in patient safety is essential, changing already full curricula can be challenging. Furthermore, institutions may lack the capacity and capability to deliver patient safety education, particularly from the start of professional practice studies. Using senior students as peer educators to deliver practice-based education can potentially overcome some of the contextual barriers in training junior students. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a peer-led patient safety education programme for junior pharmacy students. A repeat cross-sectional design utilising a previously validated patient safety attitudinal survey was used to evaluate attitudes prior to, immediately after and 1 month after the delivery of a patient safety education programme. Latent growth curve (LGC) modelling was used to evaluate the change in attitudes of first-year students using second-year students as a comparator group. Undergraduate university students in Sydney, Australia. 175 first-year and 140 second-year students enrolled in the Bachelor of Pharmacy programme at the University of Sydney. An introductory patient safety programme was implemented into the first-year Bachelor of Pharmacy curriculum at the University of Sydney. The programme covered introductory patient safety topics including teamwork, communication skills, systems thinking and open disclosure. The programme consisted of 2 lectures, delivered by a senior academic, and a workshop delivered by trained final-year pharmacy students. A full LGC model was constructed including the intervention as a non-time-dependent predictor of change (χ(2) (51)=164.070, root mean square error of approximation=0.084, comparative fit index=0.913, standardised root mean square=0.056). First-year students' attitudes significantly improved as a result of the intervention, particularly in relation to internalising errors (p=0.010), questioning behaviours (pmethod that

  1. The Relationship Between Father Involvement and Child Problem Behaviour in Intact Families: A 7-Year Cross-Lagged Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Midouhas, Emily; Narayanan, Martina K

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the cross-lagged relationship between father involvement and child problem behaviour across early-to-middle childhood, and tested whether temperament modulated any cross-lagged child behaviour effects on father involvement. It used data from the first four waves of the UK's Millennium Cohort Study, when children (50.3 % male) were aged 9 months, and 3, 5 and 7 years. The sample was 8302 families where both biological parents were co-resident across the four waves. Father involvement (participation in play and physical and educational activities with the child) was measured at ages 3, 5 and 7, as was child problem behaviour (assessed with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire). Key child and family covariates related to father involvement and child problem behaviour were controlled. Little evidence was found that more father involvement predicted less child problem behaviour two years later, with the exception of father involvement at child's age 5 having a significant, but small, effect on peer problems at age 7. There were two child effects. More hyperactive children at age 3 had more involved fathers at age 5, and children with more conduct problems at age 3 had more involved fathers at age 5. Child temperament did not moderate any child behaviour effects on father involvement. Thus, in young, intact UK families, child adjustment appears to predict, rather than be predicted by, father involvement in early childhood. When children showed more problematic behaviours, fathers did not become less involved. In fact, early hyperactivity and conduct problems in children seemed to elicit more involvement from fathers. At school age, father involvement appeared to affect children's social adjustment rather than vice versa.

  2. Peer Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avital, Michel

    2018-01-01

    that the community’s hunger for publication accompanies only a modest appetite for providing the necessary support to sustain the consequent increase in peer-review load. The advent of blockchain technologies and the proliferation of cryptocurrencies presents an opportunity to develop a token-based peer...

  3. Cross-linked compared with historical polyethylene in THA: an 8-year clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerdink, Carel H; Grimm, Bernd; Vencken, Wendy; Heyligers, Ide C; Tonino, Alphons J

    2009-04-01

    Wear particle-induced osteolysis is a major cause of aseptic loosening in THA. Increasing wear resistance of polyethylene (PE) occurs by increasing the cross-link density and early reports document low wear rates with such implants. To confirm longer-term reductions in wear we compared cross-linked polyethylene (irradiation in nitrogen, annealing) with historical polyethylene (irradiation in air) in a prospective, randomized clinical study involving 48 patients who underwent THAs with a minimum followup of 7 years (mean, 8 years; range, 7-9 years). The insert material was the only variable. The Harris hip score, radiographic signs of osteolysis, and polyethylene wear were recorded annually. Twenty-three historical and 17 moderately cross-linked polyethylene inserts were analyzed (five patients died, three were lost to followup). At 8 years, the wear rate was lower for cross-linked polyethylene (0.088 +/- 0.03 mm/year) than for the historical polyethylene (0.142 +/- 0.07 mm/year). This reduction (38%) did not diminish with time (33% at 5 years). Acetabular cyst formation was less frequent (39% versus 12%), affected fewer DeLee and Charnley zones (17% versus 4%), and was less severe for the cross-linked polyethylene. The only revision was for an aseptically loose cup in the historical polyethylene group. Moderately cross-linked polyethylene maintained its wear advantage with time and produced less osteolysis, showing no signs of aging at mid-term followup. Level I, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  4. The Arthur Interactive Media Study: Initial Findings From a Cross-Age Peer Mentoring and Digital Media-Based Character Development Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmond P. Bowers

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the midst of increasing emphasis on the inclusion of character education in both school and out-of-school time programs, digital technologies have become ubiquitous in these settings. Based on the potential of these technologies to enhance children’s character development, the Arthur Interactive Media (AIM study investigated if one specific unit or set of digital media-based activities engaged youth in discussions about character. First and second grade students were paired with 4th and 5th grade students, respectively, while engaging with an online interactive graphic novel (IGN about a character-relevant story based on the Arthur cartoon series. Teachers (n = 8 completed surveys about the AIM Unit, and conversations between cross-age peer dyads (n = 27 dyads during their engagement with the IGN were analyzed. Results indicated that teachers were very satisfied with the materials and reported that children were very engaged throughout. Analyses of children’s conversations indicated that children participated in character-relevant conversations involving humility, forgiveness, and future-mindedness while engaging with the IGN.

  5. Vitamin E diffused highly cross-linked polyethylene in total hip arthroplasty at five years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nebergall, Audrey K; Greene, M. E.; Laursen, M B

    2017-01-01

    Aims: The objective of this five-year prospective, blinded, randomised controlled trial (RCT) was to compare femoral head penetration into a Vitamin E diffused highly cross-linked polyethylene (HXLPE) liner with penetration into a medium cross-linked polyethylene control liner using......, ArComXL. This is the longest-term RCT comparing the wear performance and clinical outcome of Vitamin E diffused HXLPE with a previous generation of medium cross-linked polyethylene....... radiostereometric analysis. Patients and Methods: Patients scheduled for total hip arthroplasty (THA) were randomised to receive either the study E1 (32 patients) or the control ArComXL polyethylene (35 patients). The median age (range) of the overall cohort was 66 years (40 to 76). Results: The five-year median...

  6. Resistance to peer influence moderates the relationship between perceived (but not actual) peer norms and binge drinking in a college student social network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGuiseppi, Graham T; Meisel, Matthew K; Balestrieri, Sara G; Ott, Miles Q; Cox, Melissa J; Clark, Melissa A; Barnett, Nancy P

    2018-05-01

    Adolescent and young adult binge drinking is strongly associated with perceived social norms and the drinking behavior that occurs within peer networks. The extent to which an individual is influenced by the behavior of others may depend upon that individual's resistance to peer influence (RPI). Students in their first semester of college (N=1323; 54.7% female, 57% White, 15.1% Hispanic) reported on their own binge drinking, and the perceived binge drinking of up to 10 important peers in the first-year class. Using network autocorrelation models, we investigated cross-sectional relationships between participant's binge drinking frequency and the perceived and actual binge drinking frequency of important peers. We then tested the moderating role of RPI, expecting that greater RPI would weaken the relationship between perceived and actual peer binge drinking on participant binge drinking. Perceived and actual peer binge drinking were statistically significant predictors of participant binge drinking frequency in the past month, after controlling for covariates. RPI significantly moderated the association between perceptions of peer binge drinking and participant's own binge drinking; this association was weaker among participants with higher RPI compared to those with lower RPI. RPI did not interact with the actual binge drinking behavior of network peers. RPI may function to protect individuals from the effect of their perceptions about the binge drinking of peers, but not from the effect of the actual binge drinking of peers. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Peer mentoring works!

    OpenAIRE

    Andrews, Jane; Clark, Robin

    2011-01-01

    This report draws on the findings of a three year study into peer mentoring conducted at 6 Higher Education Institutions (HEIs), 5 of which were in the UK, 1 of which was in Norway. Following a multiple case-study design, quantitative and qualitative research was conducted in collaboration with the project partners. The research findings provide empirical evidence that peer mentoring works! In particular the report provides: - An Executive Summary outlining the main project findings - A synop...

  8. The Difficulty of Maintaining Positive Intervention Effects: A Look at Disruptive Behavior, Deviant Peer Relations, and Social Skills During the Middle School Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of the Fast Track preventive intervention on youths’ functioning in three domains: disruptive behavior problems, involvement with deviant peers, and social skills during the middle school years. Eight hundred ninety-one children had been randomly assigned by sets of schools within four sites to intervention (n = 445) or to control (n = 446) conditions. In contrast to prior findings of the effectiveness of the Fast Track intervention during the elementary school years, the current findings indicate that Fast Track had little overall impact on children’s functioning in these domains during this age period. There were positive intervention effects on only 2 of 17 outcomes examined. Although the intervention had positive impact on children’s hyperactive and self-reported delinquent behaviors in seventh grade, there were no intervention effects on other externalizing behavior problems or on social skills, and there was a negative intervention effect on children’s involvement with deviant peers during this age period. PMID:24319308

  9. Wear of a 5 megarad cross-linked polyethylene liner: a 6-year RSA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callary, Stuart A; Campbell, David G; Mercer, Graham; Nilsson, Kjell G; Field, John R

    2013-07-01

    One cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) liner is manufactured using a lower dose of radiation, 5 Mrad, which may result in less cross-linking. The reported in vivo wear rate of this XLPE liner in patients undergoing THA has varied, and has included some patients in each reported cohort who had greater than 0.1 mm/year of wear, which is an historical threshold for osteolysis. Previous studies have measured wear on plain radiographs, an approach that has limited sensitivity. We therefore measured the amount and direction of wear at 6 years using Radiostereometric analysis (RSA) in patients who had THAs that included a cross-linked polyethylene liner manufactured using 5 Mrad radiation. We prospectively reviewed wear in 30 patients who underwent primary THAs with the same design of cross-linked acetabular liner and a 28-mm articulation. Tantalum markers were inserted during surgery and all patients had RSA radiographic examinations at 1 week, 6 months, 1, 2, and 6 years postoperatively. The mean proximal, two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) wear rates calculated between 1 year and 6 years were 0.014, 0.014, and 0.018 mm/per year, respectively. The direction of the head penetration recorded between 1 week and 6 years was in a proximal direction for all patients, proximolateral for 16 of 24 patients, and proximomedial for eight of 24 patients. The proximal, 2-D and 3-D wear of a XLPE liner produced using 5 Mrad of radiation was low but measurable by RSA after 6 years. No patients had proximal 2-D or 3-D wear rates exceeding 0.1 mm/year. Further followup is needed to evaluate the effect of XLPE wear particles on the development of long-term osteolysis.

  10. Peer Reviewer

    OpenAIRE

    Baru Mansjur, Mansjur

    2016-01-01

    - Peer Reviewer Effects Of Histomorohometric, Bone Tu Implant Contac and Asseointegration On a novel Hybrid Micro/Nano Topografhy Modfie Dental Implant in The Mandibular Canine Premolar Area Of The Mini Pigs

  11. The Effectiveness of Peer Tutoring Programs in Elementary Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Gee, Melinda

    2004-01-01

    The present review examined the effectiveness of three peer tutoring programs: cross-age peer tutoring, Classwide Peer Tutoring (CWPT), and Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS), for elementary students in the academic areas of math and reading. The research reviewed indicates students who participated in cross-age peer tutoring and CWPT had improved test scores on basic math facts as well as increased math scores on standardized assessments. Students also showed improvement in reading flu...

  12. Developing Peer Mentoring through Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Ralph; Jaugietis, Zarni

    2011-01-01

    Peer mentoring programs are an important component in the strategy to enhance the first year undergraduate experience. The operation of these programs needs to be informed by evidence as to their effectiveness. In this article we report on a six-year study of the development of a peer mentoring program in which feedback is used to improve program…

  13. Cross-Level Peer Mentoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Sanjay

    2011-01-01

    With increasing demand for engineering education in India, universities and colleges are finding it increasingly difficult to build enough faculty capacity to provide a long term individual attention to all students. A few hours of weekly engagement of senior students in mentoring junior students can greatly supplement faculty efforts to enhance…

  14. Development of extremely low wear cross-link polyethylene for 30 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oonishi, Hironobu; Fujita, Hiroshi; Kim, Seok-Cheol; Ito, Shigeru; Masuda, Shingo; Clarke, I.C.

    2003-01-01

    In this report we present our long-term developmental and clinical results with both highly cross-linked and extensively cross-linked polyethylene materials. Beginning in 1970s, we performed wear screening studies on ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) (GUR412) sterilized by gamma-irradiation in air (range 0 to 10,000 kGy). From these scientific studies the 1,000 kGy dose (100 Mrad) appeared optimal, and so we began clinical use in 1971, and that continued into 1978. The radiographic wear-rates in patients with 1,000 kGy sockets, assessed by radiography, appeared 6-fold reduced compared to our standard UHMWPE sockets. Note also that we had not used any post-sterilization heat treatment for these pioneering extensively cross-linked polyethylene sockets. With clinical use now over 30 years, it was also clear that there was no adverse oxidation created by any free radicals present in our extensively cross-linked polyethylene sockets. With these encouraging clinical results, we further studied laboratory wear results with the modern UHMWPE resins, using the irradiation doses 1,000, 5,000, 10,000 and 15,000 kGy and with both saline and serum lubricants in hip simulators. These more recent studies demonstrated that the wear in extensively cross-linked polyethylene sockets was undetectable, less even than the measurement errors in the simulator techniques. It was unfortunate that the physical properties of such extensively cross-linked polyethylene sockets did not meet the current International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards. Thus, despite the excellent wear performance of these materials, we decided to investigate also the properties of the 60 kGy irradiated UHMWPE. The polyethylene sheet (GUR1050) was first irradiated with 35 kGy under N2 and then heat treated to remove free radicals. The socket liners were then machined to shape and resterilized with 25 kGy under N2 gas. The

  15. Patient’s Cross-border Mobility Directive: Application, Performance and Perceptions Two Years after Transposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riedel Rafał

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to analyse the directive on the application of patients’ rights in cross-border healthcare. Two years after the transposition, it is time for first evaluations of its application, performance and perception. The analysis consists of three major elements: reconstruction of the legal scope and subject matter of the new legislation, conclusions of the evaluative reports monitoring its implementation and performance as well as the public opinion polls revealing the EU citizens’ perception of its details. These three components combined together deliver a picture of the state of play about the pan-European cross-border patients’ mobility. The bottomline conclusions negatively verify the supposition present in some earlier literature on patients’ cross-border mobility that the directive has a transformative potential leading towards the creation of truly competitive pan-European medical market. After two years of its operation, there is still no increased patients’ mobility across EU internal borders observed. As regards the speculations for the future, there are only some weak symptoms identified and they may result in intensified cross-border mobility for healthcare.

  16. Four-Year Cross-Lagged Associations between Physical and Mental Health in the Medical Outcomes Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Ron D.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Applied structural equation modeling to evaluation of cross-lagged panel models. Self-reports of physical and mental health at three time points spanning four-year interval were analyzed to illustrate cross-lagged analysis methodology. Data were analyzed from 856 patients with hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, or depression. Cross-lagged…

  17. A one-year longitudinal qualitative study of peer support services in a non-Western context: The perspectives of peer support workers, service users, and co-workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Samson; Mak, Winnie W S; Lo, Iris W K; Liu, Lucia L; Yuen, Winnie W Y; Yau, Sania; Ho, Kimmy; Chan, Sau-Kam; Wong, Stephen

    2017-09-01

    This study explored the changing views of key stakeholders (peer support workers, their co-workers, and service users) about peer support services in a non-Western community, using a longitudinal qualitative approach. Five trainee peer support workers (PSWs), 15 service users, and 14 co-workers were interviewed over a 12-month period, under the auspices of the Peer Support Workers Project (also known as the Mindset project) in Hong Kong. A total of 77 interviews were transcribed and thematic analyses were conducted across the participant groups at three different time points (training, work placements, and employment). During the initial implementation of the services, uncertainty about the role of the PSWs were reported. However, trusting and beneficial relationships with service users were gradually built, showing growing resilience and confidence over time. The participants realized that PSWs' experiences of mental illnesses were a unique asset that could help service users to alleviate their own somatic symptoms and improve their connections with others. Our findings highlight that the perceptions of peer support services changed from confusion to viewing PSWs as an asset, to an awareness of the importance of family support, and to the belief that implementing such a program will benefit both service users and PSWs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Peer Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dannesboe, Christian

    Peer-teknikker brugt i undervisning vinder frem mange steder. Teknikkerne er skalerbare til meget store hold af studerende, og ses derfor som et af de værktøjer, der med fordel kan introduceres som underviser, når holdstørrelserne vokser....

  19. Shifting the Balance in First-Year Learning Support: From Staff Instruction to Peer-Learning Primacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Jacques; Scott, Carole

    2008-01-01

    Effective response to the learning needs of first-year students is a contested issue. In many learning support centres the dominant approach to developing student learning skills is through generic or tailored workshops and/or individual consultations. Although there is a place for these activities, we argue that the balance should be shifted…

  20. Clear self, better relationships : Adolescents' self-concept clarity and relationship quality with parents and peers across 5 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becht, Andrik I.; Nelemans, Stefanie A.; van Dijk, Marloes P. A.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Van Lier, Pol A. C.; Denissen, J.J.A.; Meeus, W.H.J.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined reciprocal associations between adolescents' self-concept clarity (SCC) and their relationship quality with parents and best friends in a five-wave longitudinal study from age 13 to 18years. In all, 497 adolescents (57% boys) reported on their SCC and all informants (i.e.,

  1. Developmental cascade models linking peer victimization, depression, and academic achievement in Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junsheng; Bullock, Amanda; Coplan, Robert J; Chen, Xinyin; Li, Dan; Zhou, Ying

    2018-03-01

    This study explored the longitudinal relations among peer victimization, depression, and academic achievement in Chinese primary school students. Participants were N = 945 fourth-grade students (485 boys, 460 girls; M age  = 10.16 years, SD = 2 months) attending elementary schools in Shanghai, People's Republic of China. Three waves of data on peer victimization, depression, and academic achievement were collected from peer nominations, self-reports, and school records, respectively. The results indicated that peer victimization had both direct and indirect effects on later depression and academic achievement. Depression also had both direct and indirect negative effects on later academic achievement, but demonstrated only an indirect effect on later peer victimization. Finally, academic achievement had both direct and indirect negative effects on later peer victimization and depression. The findings show that there are cross-cultural similarities and differences in the various transactions that exist among peer victimization, depression, and academic achievement. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Peer victimization directly and indirectly relates to depression and academic achievement. Depression directly and indirectly relates to academic achievement. Academic achievement directly and indirectly relates to depression. What the present study adds? A developmental cascade approach was used to assess the interrelations among peer victimization, depression, and academic achievement. Academic achievement mediates the relation between peer victimization and depression. Depression is related to peer victimization through academic achievement. Academic achievement directly and indirectly relates to peer victimization. Academic achievement is related to depression through peer victimization. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  2. Directly Improving the Quality of Radiation Treatment Through Peer Review: A Cross-sectional Analysis of Cancer Centers Across a Provincial Cancer Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouette, Julie; Gutierrez, Eric; O'Donnell, Jennifer; Reddeman, Lindsay; Hart, Margaret; Foxcroft, Sophie; Mitera, Gunita; Warde, Padraig; Brundage, Michael D

    2017-07-01

    To describe the outcomes of peer review across all 14 cancer centers in Ontario. We identified all peer-reviewed, curative treatment plans delivered in Ontario within a 3-month study period from 2013 to 2014 using a provincial cancer treatment database and collected additional data on the peer-review outcomes. Considerable variation was found in the proportion of peer-reviewed plans across the centers (average 70.2%, range 40.8%-99.2%). During the study period, 5561 curative plans underwent peer review. Of those, 184 plans (3.3%) had changes recommended. Of the 184 plans, the changes were major (defined as requiring repeat planning or having a major effect on planning or clinical outcomes, or both) in 40.2% and minor in 47.8%. For the remaining 12.0%, data were missing. The proportions of recommended changes varied among disease sites (0.0%-7.0%). The disease sites with the most recommended changes to treatment plans after peer review and with the greatest potential for benefit were the esophagus (7.0%), uterus (6.7%), upper limb (6.3%), cervix and lower limb (both 6.0%), head and neck and bilateral lung (both 5.9%), right supraclavicular lymph nodes (5.7%), rectum (5.3%), and spine (5.0%). Although the heart is an organ at risk in left-sided breast treatment plans, the proportions of recommended changes did not significantly differ between the left breast treatment plans (3.0%, 95% confidence interval 2.0%-4.5%) and right breast treatment plans (2.4%, 95% confidence interval 1.5%-3.8%). The recommended changes were more frequently made when peer review occurred before radiation therapy (3.8%) than during treatment (1.4%-2.8%; P=.0048). The proportion of plans with recommended changes was not significantly associated with patient volume (P=.23), peer-review performance (P=.36), or center academic status (P=.75). Peer review of treatment plans directly affects the quality of care by identifying important clinical and planning changes. Provincial strategies are

  3. Bullying and victimisation are common in four-year-old children and are associated with somatic symptoms and conduct and peer problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilola, Anna-Marja; Lempinen, Lotta; Huttunen, Jukka; Ristkari, Terja; Sourander, Andre

    2016-05-01

    There are few population-based studies on bullying behaviour among preschool children. The aims of the study were to investigate the prevalence of bullying behaviour among four-year-old children, as reported by their parents, the prevalence of types of bullying behaviour and the associations between bullying behaviour and psychosocial factors. This study was based on a population-based study sample of 931 children who attended their check-up at a child health clinic at four years of age. Parents completed the questionnaire about their child's bullying behaviour and risk factors during the check-up. Bullying behaviour, especially being both a bully and a victim, was a common phenomenon among four-year-old children. Being a bully or both a bully and victim were most strongly associated with conduct problems, while being a victim was associated with somatic symptoms and peer problems. Bullying behaviour was frequently found in preschool children and associated with a wide range of other problems, which indicate that routine checking of bullying behaviour should be included in child health clinic check-ups. Bullying prevention programmes are usually targeted at school-aged children, but this study highlights the importance of focusing already on preschool children. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Peer victimization and peer rejection during early childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godleski, Stephanie A.; Kamper, Kimberly E.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Hart, Emily J.; Blakely-McClure, Sarah J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The development and course of the subtypes of peer victimization is a relatively understudied topic despite the association of victimization with important developmental and clinical outcomes. Moreover, understanding potential predictors, such as peer rejection and emotion regulation, in early childhood may be especially important to elucidate possible bi-directional pathways between relational and physical victimization and rejection. The current study (N = 97) was designed to explore several gaps and limitations in the peer victimization and peer rejection literature. In particular, the prospective associations between relational and physical victimization and peer rejection over the course of 3.5 months during early childhood (i.e., 3- to 5- years-old) were investigated in an integrated model. Method The study consisted of 97 (42 girls) preschool children recruited from four early childhood schools in the northeast of the US. Using observations, research assistant report and teacher report, relational and physical aggression, relational and physical victimization, peer rejection, and emotion regulation were measured in a short-term longitudinal study. Path analyses were conducted to test the overall hypothesized model. Results Peer rejection was found to predict increases in relational victimization. In addition, emotion regulation was found to predict decreases in peer rejection and physical victimization. Conclusions Implications for research and practice are discussed, including teaching coping strategies for peer rejection and emotional distress. PMID:25133659

  5. Journal of Innovation in Health Informatics: building on the 20-year history of a BCS Health peer review journal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon de Lusignan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available After 20-years as Informatics in Primary Care the journal is renamed Journal of Innovation in Health Informatics. The title was carefully selected to reflect that:(1 informatics provides the opportunity to innovate rather than simply automates;(2 implementing informatics solutions often results in unintended consequences, and many implementations fail and benefits and innovations may go unrecognised;(3 health informatics is a boundary spanning discipline and is by its very nature likely to give rise to innovation.Informatics is an innovative science, and informaticians need to innovate across professional and discipline boundaries.

  6. Peer Mentoring Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashman, Marinda; Colvin, Janet

    2011-01-01

    Because students starting college are not always prepared to succeed, colleges and universities frequently offer courses designed to help students who need remediation in mathematics, reading, and writing. At Utah Valley University (UVU), peer mentors are integrated into the University Student Success course to help first-year students learn the…

  7. Peer Relations in Peer Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riese, Hanne; Samara, Akylina; Lillejord, Solvi

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decades, much research on peer learning practices has been conducted. Quantitative, experimental designs focusing on problems of cause and effect dominate. Consequently, effects on achievement are well documented, as is the influence of different conditions on the effect rate. In spite of the general acknowledgment of the importance…

  8. DRD4 Genotype and the Developmental Link of Peer Social Preference with Conduct Problems and Prosocial Behavior Across Ages 9-12 Years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buil, J.M.; Koot, H.M.; Olthof, T.; Nelson, K.A.; van Lier, P.A.C.

    2015-01-01

    The peer environment is among the most important factors for children’s behavioral development. However, not all children are equally influenced by their peers, which is potentially due to their genetic make-up. The dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4) is a potential candidate gene that may influence

  9. Emotion knowledge and autobiographical memory across the preschool years: a cross-cultural longitudinal investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi

    2008-07-01

    Knowledge of emotion situations facilitates the interpretation, processing, and organization of significant personal event information and thus may be an important contributor to the development of autobiographical memory. This longitudinal study tested the hypothesis in a cross-cultural context. The participants were native Chinese children, Chinese children from first-generation Chinese immigrant families in the U.S., and European American children. Children's developing emotion knowledge and autobiographical memory were assessed three times at home, when children were 3, 3.5, and 4.5 years of age. Children's emotion knowledge uniquely predicted their autobiographical memory ability across groups and time points. Emotion knowledge further mediated culture effects on autobiographical memory. The findings provide important insight into early autobiographical memory development, and extend current theoretical understandings of the emotion-memory interplay. They further have implications for the phenomenon of infantile amnesia and cross-cultural differences in childhood recollections.

  10. Social Skills as a Mediator between Anxiety Symptoms and Peer Interactions among Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoca, Luci M.; Williams, Sandra; Silverman, Wendy K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The present study used a cross-sectional design to examine the relations among youth anxiety symptoms, positive and negative peer interactions, and social skills. Also examined was the mediating role of social skills in the relations between youth anxiety symptoms and positive and negative peer interactions. Youth sex and age were examined as moderators. Method The sample consisted of 397 children and adolescents (M = 10.11 years; 53.4% boys; 74.8% Hispanic Latino) referred to an anxiety disorders clinic. Anxiety symptoms, positive and negative peer interactions, and social skills were assessed using youth and parent ratings. Results Structural equation modeling results indicated that for youth ratings only, youth anxiety symptoms were negatively related to positive peer interactions controlling for primary social phobia and comorbid depressive disorders. For both youth and parent ratings, youth anxiety symptoms were positively related to negative peer interactions and negatively related to social skills. Also for both youth and parent ratings, social skills mediated the relations between youth anxiety symptoms and positive and negative peer interactions. For parent ratings only, the effects of youth anxiety symptoms and social skills on peer interactions were significantly moderated by youth age. Youth sex was not a significant moderator using youth and parent ratings. Conclusions Findings suggest difficulties with social skills and peer interactions are problematic features of youth referred for anxiety problems. Findings highlight the need to improve understanding of anxiety symptoms, social skills, and peer interactions in this population. PMID:22471319

  11. Social skills as a mediator between anxiety symptoms and peer interactions among children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoca, Luci M; Williams, Sandra; Silverman, Wendy K

    2012-01-01

    The present study used a cross-sectional design to examine the relations among youth anxiety symptoms, positive and negative peer interactions, and social skills. Also examined was the mediating role of social skills in the relations between youth anxiety symptoms and positive and negative peer interactions. Youth sex and age were examined as moderators. The sample consisted of 397 children and adolescents (M = 10.11 years; 53.4% boys; 74.8% Hispanic Latino) referred to an anxiety disorders clinic. Anxiety symptoms, positive and negative peer interactions, and social skills were assessed using youth and parent ratings. Structural equation modeling results indicated that for youth ratings only, youth anxiety symptoms were negatively related to positive peer interactions controlling for primary social phobia and comorbid depressive disorders. For both youth and parent ratings, youth anxiety symptoms were positively related to negative peer interactions and negatively related to social skills. Also for both youth and parent ratings, social skills mediated the relations between youth anxiety symptoms and positive and negative peer interactions. For parent ratings only, the effects of youth anxiety symptoms and social skills on peer interactions were significantly moderated by youth age. Youth sex was not a significant moderator using youth and parent ratings. Findings suggest that difficulties with social skills and peer interactions are problematic features of youth referred for anxiety problems. Findings highlight the need to improve understanding of anxiety symptoms, social skills, and peer interactions in this population.

  12. Peer influence on adolescent snacking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Maria Kümpel; Hansen, Kathrine Nørgaard; Grunert, Klaus G

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of the research presented in this paper is 1) To explore peer influence and the social and symbolic meaning that adolescents (10 to 16 years) attach to snacks; and 2) to investigate the relative influence of peer influence compared to personal factors in explaining perceived...... importance of snack attributes; and 3) To investigate age and gender differences in the peer influence process. Design/methodology/approach – A web-based survey distributed via email was combined with follow-up focus groups including adolescents aged 10 to 16 years in Denmark. Findings – The survey results...... show that the youngest adolescents and the girls perceived the highest influence from peers, and that peer social influence has more effect on what adolescents perceive as important snack attributes as compared to more personal factors. The focus group results show that adolescents purchase and consume...

  13. Association between earthquake events and cholera outbreaks: a cross-country 15-year longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Steven A; Turner, Elizabeth L; Thielman, Nathan M

    2013-12-01

    Large earthquakes can cause population displacement, critical sanitation infrastructure damage, and increased threats to water resources, potentially predisposing populations to waterborne disease epidemics such as cholera. Problem The risk of cholera outbreaks after earthquake disasters remains uncertain. A cross-country analysis of World Health Organization (WHO) cholera data that would contribute to this discussion has yet to be published. A cross-country longitudinal analysis was conducted among 63 low- and middle-income countries from 1995-2009. The association between earthquake disasters of various effect sizes and a relative spike in cholera rates for a given country was assessed utilizing fixed-effects logistic regression and adjusting for gross domestic product per capita, water and sanitation level, flooding events, percent urbanization, and under-five child mortality. Also, the association between large earthquakes and cholera rate increases of various degrees was assessed. Forty-eight of the 63 countries had at least one year with reported cholera infections during the 15-year study period. Thirty-six of these 48 countries had at least one earthquake disaster. In adjusted analyses, country-years with ≥10,000 persons affected by an earthquake had 2.26 times increased odds (95 CI, 0.89-5.72, P = .08) of having a greater than average cholera rate that year compared to country-years having earthquake. The association between large earthquake disasters and cholera infections appeared to weaken as higher levels of cholera rate increases were tested. A trend of increased risk of greater than average cholera rates when more people were affected by an earthquake in a country-year was noted. However these findings did not reach statistical significance at traditional levels and may be due to chance. Frequent large-scale cholera outbreaks after earthquake disasters appeared to be relatively uncommon.

  14. Your friends know how long you will live: a 75-year study of peer-rated personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Joshua J; Connolly, James J; Garrison, S Mason; Leveille, Madeleine M; Connolly, Seamus L

    2015-03-01

    Although self-rated personality traits predict mortality risk, no study has examined whether one's friends can perceive personality characteristics that predict one's mortality risk. Moreover, it is unclear whether observers' reports (compared with self-reports) provide better or unique information concerning the personal characteristics that result in longer and healthier lives. To test whether friends' reports of personality predict mortality risk, we used data from a 75-year longitudinal study (the Kelly/Connolly Longitudinal Study on Personality and Aging). In that study, 600 participants were observed beginning in 1935 through 1938, when they were in their mid-20s, and continuing through 2013. Male participants seen by their friends as more conscientious and open lived longer, whereas friend-rated emotional stability and agreeableness were protective for women. Friends' ratings were better predictors of longevity than were self-reports of personality, in part because friends' ratings could be aggregated to provide a more reliable assessment. Our findings demonstrate the utility of observers' reports in the study of health and provide insights concerning the pathways by which personality traits influence health. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Blood Lead Concentrations in 1–3 Year Old Lebanese Children: A Cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Salem George; Mikati Mohamed; Kouzi Sarah; Muwakkit Samar; Nabulsi Mona; Nuwayhid Iman; Ariss Majd

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background Childhood lead poisoning has not made the list of national public health priorities in Lebanon. This study aims at identifying the prevalence and risk factors for elevated blood lead concentrations (B-Pb ≥ 100 μg/L) among 1–3 year old children. It also examines the need for universal blood lead screening. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of 281 well children, presenting to the pediatric ambulatory services at the American University of Beirut Medical Center in 1997–...

  16. Peer Education in Campus Suicide Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanzarite, Julie A.; Robinson, Myles D.

    2013-01-01

    Student peer educators have been used by higher education intuitions to influence the education and retention of college students for many years, and most institutions have some type of peer educator program. Newton and Ender (2010) broadly define the role of peer educators as "students who have been selected, trained, and designated by a…

  17. Peer to Peer Information Retrieval: An Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tigelaar, A.S.; Hiemstra, D.; Trieschnigg, D.

    2012-01-01

    Peer-to-peer technology is widely used for file sharing. In the past decade a number of prototype peer-to-peer information retrieval systems have been developed. Unfortunately, none of these have seen widespread real- world adoption and thus, in contrast with file sharing, information retrieval is

  18. Peer to Peer Information Retrieval: An Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tigelaar, A.S.; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Trieschnigg, Rudolf Berend

    Peer-to-peer technology is widely used for file sharing. In the past decade a number of prototype peer-to-peer information retrieval systems have been developed. Unfortunately, none of these have seen widespread real- world adoption and thus, in contrast with file sharing, information retrieval is

  19. The "peer" in "peer review"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Gad; Bertoluci, Jaime; Bury, R. Bruce; Hansen, Robert W.; Jehle, Robert; Measey, John; Moon, Brad R.; Muths, Erin L.; Zuffi, Marco A.L.

    2011-01-01

    Peer review is the best available mechanism for assessing and improving the quality of scientific work. As herpetology broadens its disciplinary and geographic boundaries, high-quality external review is ever more essential. We are writing this editorial jointly because the review process has become increasingly difficult. The resulting delays slow publication times, negatively affect performance reviews, tenure, promotions, and grant proposal success. It harms authors, agencies, and institutions (Ware 2011).

  20. Parenting Style and Family Meals: Cross-Sectional and 5-year Longitudinal Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M.; Wall, Melanie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Larson, Nicole; Story, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Background Research on family meals in the last decade has shown a positive association between family meal frequency and adolescent healthy dietary intake. However, less is known about factors within the home environment, such as parenting style, which may be associated with family meal patterns. Objective The purpose of this study is to test cross-sectional and five-year longitudinal associations between parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, neglectful) and the frequency of family meals among adolescents. Study Design Data were from Project EAT (Eating Among Teens), a population-based study comprised of youth from diverse ethnic/racial and socioeconomic backgrounds. Two cohorts of adolescents (middle school, high school) completed in-class surveys in 1999 (Time 1) and mailed surveys in 2004 (Time 2). Multiple linear regression models were used to predict mean frequency of family meals at Time 1 and Time 2 from adolescent report of parenting style (both mother and father) at Time 1. Cross-sectional analyses included both adolescent cohorts (n = 4,746) and longitudinal analyses included only the younger cohort (n = 806) because family meal frequency was not assessed in the older cohort at Time 2. Results Cross-sectional results for adolescent girls indicated a positive association between maternal and paternal authoritative parenting style and frequency of family meals. For adolescent boys, maternal authoritative parenting style was associated with more frequent family meals. Longitudinal results indicated that authoritative parenting style predicted higher frequency of family meals five years later, but only between opposite sex parent/adolescent dyads. Conclusions Future research should identify additional factors within the home environment that are associated with family meal frequency in order to develop effective interventions that result in increased family meals for youth. Also, future research should investigate the mealtime behaviors

  1. Parenting style and family meals: cross-sectional and 5-year longitudinal associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M; Wall, Melanie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Larson, Nicole; Story, Mary

    2010-07-01

    Research on family meals in the past decade has shown a positive association between family meal frequency and adolescent healthy dietary intake. However, less is known about factors within the home environment, such as parenting style, that may be associated with family meal patterns. The purpose of this study is to test cross-sectional and 5-year longitudinal associations between parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and neglectful) and the frequency of family meals among adolescents. Data were from Project Eating Among Teens, a population-based study comprised of youth from diverse ethnic/racial and socioeconomic backgrounds. Two cohorts of adolescents (middle school and high school) completed in-class surveys in 1999 (Time 1) and mailed surveys in 2004 (Time 2). Multiple linear regression models were used to predict mean frequency of family meals at Time 1 and Time 2 from adolescent report of parenting style (both mother and father) at Time 1. Cross-sectional analyses included both adolescent cohorts (n=4,746) and longitudinal analyses included only the younger cohort (n=806) because family meal frequency was not assessed in the older cohort at Time 2. Cross-sectional results for adolescent girls indicated a positive association between maternal and paternal authoritative parenting style and frequency of family meals. For adolescent boys, maternal authoritative parenting style was associated with more frequent family meals. Longitudinal results indicated that authoritative parenting style predicted higher frequency of family meals 5 years later, but only between opposite sex parent/adolescent dyads. Future research should identify additional factors within the home environment that are associated with family meal frequency to develop effective interventions that result in increased family meals for youth. Also, future research should investigate the mealtime behaviors of authoritative parents and identify specific behaviors that dietetics

  2. Prospective Links between Social Anxiety and Adolescent Peer Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillfors, Maria; Persson, Stefan; Willen, Maria; Burk, William J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines bi-directional links between social anxiety and multiple aspects of peer relations (peer acceptance, peer victimization, and relationship quality) in a longitudinal sample of 1528 adolescents assessed twice with one year between (754 females and 774 males; M = 14.7 years of age). Lower levels of peer acceptance predicted…

  3. The cross-lagged relationship between father absence and child problem behaviour in the early years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, E; Narayanan, M K; Midouhas, E

    2015-11-01

    Father absence has negative consequences for children's behaviour. Yet research has not examined how father absence and child behaviour may influence each other. This study models the cross-lagged relationship between father absence (non-residence) and child problem behaviour in the early years. We used data from the UK's Millennium Cohort Study, at children's ages 3, 5 and 7 years (Sweeps 2-4). The sample was 15,293 families in which both biological parents were co-resident at Sweep 1, when the child was aged 9 months. Child problem behaviour was assessed using the clinical cut-offs of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). We also investigated gender differences in the association between father absence and problem behaviour. Father absence at age 3 predicted a higher probability of the child scoring above cut-off for total difficulties at age 5, as did father absence at age 5 for total difficulties at age 7. There were no significant effects for total difficulties on father absence. Similar father absence effects were found for individual SDQ subscales. Using these subscales, we found few child behaviour effects, mostly during the preschool years: children's severe externalizing and social (but not emotional) problems were associated with a greater probability of the father being absent in the next sweep. All cross-lagged relationships were similar for boys and girls. Father absence seems to be mainly the cause rather than the outcome of child problem behaviour in young UK families, and to affect boys and girls similarly. There were some child (mostly externalizing) behaviour effects on father absence, particularly in the early years. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. University Data Partnership Peer Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    In March 2012, the Connecticut (CTDOT) and New Mexico (NMDOT) Departments of Transportation met in Baton Rouge, Louisiana for a two-day peer session dedicated to exploring the intricate 12-year safety data partnership between the Louisiana Department...

  5. The association of peer pressure and peer affiliation with the health risk behaviors of secondary school students in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, A Y; Mak, Y W; Wu, C S T

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between peer pressure and the health risk behaviors of secondary school students. Cross-sectional study using a self-completed questionnaire. Secondary school students in Year 3 were the target population of this study. Information was solicited from students on their perceptions of peer pressure using a questionnaire employing the Peer Pressure Inventory and their involvement in risk behaviors using a modified global school-based student health survey. A total of 840 secondary students from Hong Kong completed the questionnaires. The prevalence of secondary students who had ever smoked was 6.4%, consumed alcohol 39.2%, ever used drugs 0.5%, were sexually active 3.9%, and involved in bullying 20.5%. A higher proportion of secondary students involved in risk behaviors were affiliated with peers who were involved in the same activities: smoking (48.9%), drinking alcohol (86.5%), using drugs (18.2%), engaged in sexual activity (34.5%), and bullying (82.6%). The perception of peer conformity and peer involvement was found to be significantly correlated with the students' health risk behaviors, particularly with regard to smoking, drinking alcohol, and bullying. A logistic regression analysis showed that having friends who are involved in the same risk behaviors is the single most important factor associated with the participation of secondary students in those specific risk behaviors. The results of this study provided a better understanding of the association between peer pressure and the adoption of health behaviors. The development of effective peer-led prevention programs to reduce the uptake of health risk behaviors should therefore be promoted to prevent adolescents from developing serious health problems. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Computer literacy among first year medical students in a developing country: A cross sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The use of computer assisted learning (CAL) has enhanced undergraduate medical education. CAL improves performance at examinations, develops problem solving skills and increases student satisfaction. The study evaluates computer literacy among first year medical students in Sri Lanka. Methods The study was conducted at Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka between August-September 2008. First year medical students (n = 190) were invited for the study. Data on computer literacy and associated factors were collected by an expert-validated pre-tested self-administered questionnaire. Computer literacy was evaluated by testing knowledge on 6 domains; common software packages, operating systems, database management and the usage of internet and E-mail. A linear regression was conducted using total score for computer literacy as the continuous dependant variable and other independent covariates. Results Sample size-181 (Response rate-95.3%), 49.7% were Males. Majority of the students (77.3%) owned a computer (Males-74.4%, Females-80.2%). Students have gained their present computer knowledge by; a formal training programme (64.1%), self learning (63.0%) or by peer learning (49.2%). The students used computers for predominately; word processing (95.6%), entertainment (95.0%), web browsing (80.1%) and preparing presentations (76.8%). Majority of the students (75.7%) expressed their willingness for a formal computer training programme at the faculty. Mean score for the computer literacy questionnaire was 48.4 ± 20.3, with no significant gender difference (Males-47.8 ± 21.1, Females-48.9 ± 19.6). There were 47.9% students that had a score less than 50% for the computer literacy questionnaire. Students from Colombo district, Western Province and Student owning a computer had a significantly higher mean score in comparison to other students (p computer training was the strongest predictor of computer literacy (β = 13.034), followed by using

  7. Computer literacy among first year medical students in a developing country: A cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranasinghe Priyanga

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of computer assisted learning (CAL has enhanced undergraduate medical education. CAL improves performance at examinations, develops problem solving skills and increases student satisfaction. The study evaluates computer literacy among first year medical students in Sri Lanka. Methods The study was conducted at Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka between August-September 2008. First year medical students (n = 190 were invited for the study. Data on computer literacy and associated factors were collected by an expert-validated pre-tested self-administered questionnaire. Computer literacy was evaluated by testing knowledge on 6 domains; common software packages, operating systems, database management and the usage of internet and E-mail. A linear regression was conducted using total score for computer literacy as the continuous dependant variable and other independent covariates. Results Sample size-181 (Response rate-95.3%, 49.7% were Males. Majority of the students (77.3% owned a computer (Males-74.4%, Females-80.2%. Students have gained their present computer knowledge by; a formal training programme (64.1%, self learning (63.0% or by peer learning (49.2%. The students used computers for predominately; word processing (95.6%, entertainment (95.0%, web browsing (80.1% and preparing presentations (76.8%. Majority of the students (75.7% expressed their willingness for a formal computer training programme at the faculty. Mean score for the computer literacy questionnaire was 48.4 ± 20.3, with no significant gender difference (Males-47.8 ± 21.1, Females-48.9 ± 19.6. There were 47.9% students that had a score less than 50% for the computer literacy questionnaire. Students from Colombo district, Western Province and Student owning a computer had a significantly higher mean score in comparison to other students (p Conclusion Sri Lankan medical undergraduates had a low-intermediate level of computer

  8. HyperPeer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, R.D.; Bouvin, N.O.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents HyperPeer, a framework for developing peer-to-peer based hypermedia. The distribution of hypermedia structures is handled through a peer-to-peer (P2P) network, allowing for highly scalable sharing between users. A central challenge of all decentralized systems is to locate...

  9. Cross-cultural industrial organizational psychology and organizational behavior: A hundred-year journey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, Michele J; Aycan, Zeynep; Erez, Miriam; Leung, Kwok

    2017-03-01

    In celebration of the anniversary of the Journal of Applied Psychology ( JAP ), we take a hundred-year journey to examine how the science of cross-cultural industrial/organizational psychology and organizational behavior (CCIO/OB) has evolved, both in JAP and in the larger field. We review broad trends and provide illustrative examples in the theoretical, methodological, and analytic advances in CCIO/OB during 4 main periods: the early years (1917-1949), the middle 20th century (1950-1979), the later 20th century (1980-2000), and the 21st century (2000 to the present). Within each period, we discuss key historical and societal events that influenced the development of the science of CCIO/OB, major trends in research on CCIO/OB in the field in general and JAP in particular, and important milestones and breakthroughs achieved. We highlight pitfalls in research on CCIO/OB and opportunities for growth. We conclude with recommendations for the next 100 years of CC IO/OB research in JAP and beyond. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Self and peer perceptions of childhood aggression, social withdrawal and likeability predict adult substance abuse and dependence in men and women: a 30-year prospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Storey, Alexa; Serbin, Lisa A; Stack, Dale M; Ledingham, Jane E; Schwartzman, Alex E

    2011-12-01

    While childhood behaviors such as aggression, social withdrawal and likeability have been linked to substance abuse outcomes in adolescence and adulthood, the mechanisms by which these variables relate are not yet well established. Self and peer perceptions of childhood behaviors in men and women were compared to assess the role of context in the prediction of drug and alcohol abuse and dependence. Participants (N=676) in an ongoing longitudinal project examining the relation between childhood behavior and adult mental health outcomes completed the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM IV regarding their histories of substance abuse in mid-adulthood (mean age=34, SD=2). In women, higher levels of both self and peer reported aggression were associated with drug and alcohol abuse and dependence, and higher levels of peer reported aggression were associated with higher levels of alcohol abuse and dependence. As well, higher levels of self-perceived likeability were protective regarding substance abuse and dependence outcomes. In men, higher levels of peer perceived social withdrawal were protective regarding substance abuse and dependence outcomes. Findings support the comparison of self and peer perceptions of childhood behavior as a method of assessing the mechanisms by which childhood behaviors impact adult outcomes, and suggest the importance of gender in the relation between childhood behaviors and adult substance abuse and dependence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Minority acculturation and peer rejection: Costs of acculturation misfit with peer-group norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celeste, Laura; Meeussen, Loes; Verschueren, Karine; Phalet, Karen

    2016-09-01

    How do minority adolescents' personal acculturation preferences and peer norms of acculturation affect their social inclusion in school? Turkish and Moroccan minority adolescents (N = 681) reported their preferences for heritage culture maintenance, mainstream culture adoption, and their experiences of peer rejection as a key indicator of adjustment problems. Additionally, we aggregated peer acculturation norms of maintenance and adoption within ethnically diverse classrooms (N = 230 in 50 Belgian schools), distinguishing between co-ethnic (Turkish or Moroccan classmates only, N = 681) and cross-ethnic norms (also including N = 1,930 other classmates). Cross-ethnic peer-group norms (of adoption and maintenance) and co-ethnic norms (of maintenance, marginally) predicted minority experiences of peer rejection (controlling for ethnic composition). Moreover, misfit of minorities' own acculturation preferences with both cross-ethnic and co-ethnic peer-group norms was harmful. When cross-ethnic norms stressed adoption, 'integrationist' minority youth - who combined culture adoption with maintenance - experienced most peer rejection. Yet, when co-ethnic peers stressed maintenance, 'assimilationist' minority youth experienced most rejection. In conclusion, acculturation misfit with peer-group norms is a risk factor for minority inclusion in ethnically diverse environments. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  12. Body-esteem of pupils who attended single-sex versus mixed-sex schools: a cross-sectional study of intrasexual competition and peer victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Eryigit-Madzwamuse, Suna; Patra, Chanchala; Smith, Joshua H; Wolke, Dieter

    2014-10-01

    In intrasexual competition (competition for reproductive resources), bullying can be viewed as a tool to devalue competitors, gain a high status and a powerful, dominant position in the peer group which may lead to beneficial gains such as access to potential romantic partners. This study investigated the relationship between intrasexual competition, bullying victimization and body-esteem, in single-sex versus mixed-sex schools. 420 participants completed a body-esteem scale, a retrospective bullying questionnaire, and intrasexual competition scales. Our results showed that relational victimization was associated with low body-esteem for both females and males. Females in single-sex schools experienced higher intrasexual competition which in turn was associated with their body-esteem directly and indirectly via relational victimization. In males, intrasexual competition was indirectly associated with body-esteem via relational victimization. Interventions to improve body esteem may focus on reducing intrasexual competition and peer victimization. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Daily work-family conflict and alcohol use: testing the cross-level moderation effects of peer drinking norms and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mo; Liu, Songqi; Zhan, Yujie; Shi, Junqi

    2010-03-01

    In the current study, we conducted daily telephone interviews with a sample of Chinese workers (N = 57) for 5 weeks to examine relationships between daily work-family conflict and alcohol use. Drawn from the tension reduction theory and the stressor-vulnerability model, daily work-family conflict variables were hypothesized to predict employees' daily alcohol use. Further, social variables (i.e., peer drinking norms, family support, and coworker support) were hypothesized to moderate the relationship between work-family conflict and alcohol use. Results showed that daily work-to-family conflict but not family-to-work conflict had a significant within-subject main effect on daily alcohol use. In addition, there was significant between-subject variation in the relationship between work-to-family conflict and alcohol use, which was predicted by peer drinking norms, coworker support, and family support. The current findings shed light on the daily health behavior consequences of work-family conflict and provide important theoretical and practical implications. 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  14. Technology enhanced peer learning and peer assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Christian Bugge; Bregnhøj, Henrik; Rosthøj, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the application of learning designs featuring formalised and structured technology enhanced peer learning. These include student produced learning elements, peer review discussions and peer assessment in the BSc/MSc level summer course Restoration of European Ecosystems...... and Freshwaters (REEF), the Master thesis preparation seminars for the Master of Public Health (MPH) and the MOOC course Global Environmental Management (GEM). The application of student produced learning elements and peer review discussions is investigated by analyzing quotes from course evaluations...... and performing focus group interviews. The application of peer assessment is investigated by analyzing the agreement of peer assessment between students assessing the same assignment. Our analyses confirm previous research on the value of peer learning and peer assessment and we argue that there could also...

  15. Technology enhanced peer learning and peer assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Christian Bugge; Bregnhøj, Henrik; Rosthøj, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the application of learning designs featuring formalised and structured technology enhanced peer learning. These include student produced learning elements, peer review discussions and peer assessment in the BSc/MSc level summer course Restoration of European Ecosystems and Fr...... be a huge benefit from developing learning design patterns that facilitate informal peer learning and reinforce knowledge sharing practices.......This paper explores the application of learning designs featuring formalised and structured technology enhanced peer learning. These include student produced learning elements, peer review discussions and peer assessment in the BSc/MSc level summer course Restoration of European Ecosystems...... and Freshwaters (REEF), the Master thesis preparation seminars for the Master of Public Health (MPH) and the MOOC course Global Environmental Management (GEM). The application of student produced learning elements and peer review discussions is investigated by analyzing quotes from course evaluations...

  16. The influence of descriptive and injunctive peer norms on adolescents' risky sexual online behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumgartner, S.E.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Peter, J.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of descriptive and injunctive peer norms on the engagement in risky sexual online behavior. A four-wave longitudinal study among a representative sample of 1,016 Dutch adolescents (12-17 years old) was conducted. Two autoregressive cross-lagged

  17. The Impact of Peer Mentoring on Pupils' Emotional Literacy Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Donna

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that peer mentoring can positively impact on emotional literacy competencies. This study explored the effects of peer mentoring on the emotional literacy competencies of Year 7 peer mentees using a quasi-experimental pre-test and post-test control group design. Results supported the hypothesis that peer mentoring has a positive…

  18. Peer assessment in architecture education

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira de Sampayo, Mafalda; Sousa-Rodrigues, David; Jimenez-Romero, Cristian; Johnson, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    The role of peer assessment in education has become of particular interest in recent years, mainly because of its potential benefits in improving student’s learning and benefits in time management by allowing teachers and tutors to use their time more efficiently to get the results of student’s assessments quicker. Peer assessment has also relevant in the context of distance learning and massive open online courses (MOOCs).

  19. Information Propagation in Peer-to-Peer Networking : Modeling and Empirical Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, S.

    2010-01-01

    Although being a young technology, peer-to-peer (P2P) networking has spurred dramatic evolution on the Internet over the recent twenty years. Unlike traditional server-client mode, P2P networking applications are user-centric. Users (peers) generate their own content and share it with others across

  20. Exploration of the attitudes of nursing students to peer physical examination and physical examination of patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wearn, Andy M; Bhoopatkar, Harsh; Mathew, Thomas K; Stewart, Lisa

    2013-08-01

    The use of peer physical examination (PPE) in early clinical skills has been studied amongst medical students. The majority of students are comfortable with using peer physical examination, when sensitive areas are excluded. Students' attitudes are related to their personal characteristics: gender, age, religious faith, and ethnicity. There is no data on nursing students' attitudes to peer physical examination. Identify and explore: Dual cohort, cross-sectional, anonymous survey. Three-year undergraduate nursing programme, skills centre and service clinical learning. All first and third year nursing students were asked to complete a modified Examining Fellow Students questionnaire at the end of 2008. The questionnaire asked students to indicate which of 12 body areas they would not be willing to examine/have examined by a peer of the same/opposite gender. This study also asked students which of the 12 body areas they felt uncomfortable examining on patients. The response rate was 76% (128/168). The students were predominantly female (93% female; 7% male). Most students were comfortable with examining non-sensitive body regions of peers (78.2%-100% willing) and patients (92.3-100% willing). Male gender was significantly associated with willingness to examine and be examined by peers (p=0.001); Asian students were significantly less willing to engage in peer physical examination with opposite gender (pexamining patients of either gender (pexamination shows similarities and differences to other studies. Student characteristics were not related to patient examination attitudes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Disturbed eating behavior in Iranian adolescent and young females with type-1 diabetes compared to non diabetic peers: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Roohafza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: An association of eating disorder with diabetes mellitus may lead to a serious lack of metabolic control, higher mortality and morbidity. There is no recent study conducted in the Iranian population about eating disorder and its variants. The aim of the present study is investigation of frequency of disturbed eating behaviors in adolescent girls with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM compared to non-diabetics. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, disturbed eating behavior were evaluated and compared in two groups of 12-22 year old adolescent and young females (126 with diabetes and 325 without diabetes. A self-report questionnaire including demographic data, Children′s Depression Inventory (CDI, and Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26 was used for data gathering. Independent t-test, Chi-square test, and logistic regression [odds ratio (OR] were used for data analyses in SPSS 15. Results: Findings revealed that higher percentage of diabetic girls are likely to have eating disturbances (67.9% vs. 53.8%, P = 0.01. Diabetic group obtained higher scores in both dieting (14.95 ± 6.28 vs. 11.79 ± 5.62, P < 0.001 and bulimia scales (4.9 ± 3.13 vs. 4.12 ± 2.89, P = 0.017, which supports a role for T1DM in inducing the symptoms. Diabetic girls were at more than double the risk of developing eating disturbance. Conclusions: The results indicate that a significantly higher percentage of diabetic girls are likely to have eating disturbances. Also, diabetic subjects had an increased probability of getting higher scores in all three EAT-26 subscales. Therefore, healthcare professionals, especially diabetic nurses, should be aware of the potential effects of the subclinical and clinical eating behaviors on adolescents with T1DM and evaluate them for these disturbances.

  2. A 4-Year Longitudinal Investigation of the Processes by Which Parents and Peers Influence the Development of Early Adolescent Girls' Bulimic Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blodgett Salafia, Elizabeth H.; Gondoli, Dawn M.

    2011-01-01

    Bulimic symptoms are fairly common among adolescent girls, and the dual pathway model outlines one possible etiological chain leading to bulimic symptoms. The present study seeks to longitudinally examine the pathways proposed by this model while focusing on the relative contribution of parents and peers (via direct encouragement or pressure to be…

  3. Peer acceptance, parent-child fantasy play interactions, and subjective experience of the self-in-relation : a study of 4- to 5-year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeyer, E.L. de

    2001-01-01

    This study was aimed at investigating direct links between peer acceptance and parent-child interactions, and exploring whether subjective experience of the self-in-relation would function as a mediator. A central assumption was that better accepted children are more capable of

  4. Peer-harassment prevalence in self-reports by primary and lower secondary school students. Statistical comparisons of samples from years 2000 and 2013, investigating traditional and cyber-harassment.

    OpenAIRE

    Hjelmen, Kari Jeanette Langseth

    2015-01-01

    Comparative investigation of traditional peer-harassment and cyber-harassment prevalence, examining first year baseline sample of a longitudinal project in a North-Norwegian setting. Thesis contributes into a main study, “Trivsel i Tromsø” (“Well-being in Tromsø”), which aims to examine psychosocial and psychiatric risk factor associations with bullying and cyberbullying, using a combination of survey tools. The thesis explore one of the three survey tools. Investigation of sample administere...

  5. A CROSS-SECTIONAL MORPHOLOGICAL AND FUNCTIONAL EVALUATION OF FILTERING BLEBS FIVE YEARS POST TRABECULECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Shetty

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND After trabeculectomy, wound remodelling and fibrosis continues lifelong and can affect bleb filtration. Ethnicity plays an important role in wound healing. Wound modulation with Mitomycin C affects the morphology as well as long-term functional success of the bleb. The aim of the study is to assess the morphology of blebs 5 years post trabeculectomy using clinical methods (slit lamp biomicroscopy and Moorfields Bleb Grading System MBGS along with Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography (ASOCT and to correlate it with its functional outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS This prospective cross-sectional study evaluated 40 eyes of 30 patients who had undergone trabeculectomy with adjuvant mitomycin C and had a postoperative duration of 5 years or more. Following a comprehensive ophthalmic examination, grading of filtering bleb was performed using MBGS. Internal bleb morphology was imaged using AS-OCT. RESULTS At the time of surgery, the age of the patients ranged from 33-71 years. The average postoperative duration was 8.6 ± 3.3 years. Based on slit lamp biomicroscopy, we found that 47% of the total blebs were diffuse, 30% were cystic and 23% were flat. MBGS parameters were studied in relation to bleb type on slit lamp. Bleb height (p=0.001 and central bleb vascularity (p=0.010 were found to have statistically significant association. There is a statistically significant agreement between the bleb type on slit lamp examination and morphological classification based on AS-OCT at p<0.05 (p=0.000. We observed complete success in 90% of eyes and qualified success in 100%. IOP at the time of study was found to have negative correlation with total bleb height on AS-OCT (r: -0.3592; p=0.022909. CONCLUSION This case series with a long-term followup period showed that trabeculectomy augmented with Mitomycin C (MMC can achieve good long-term IOP control. The filtering bleb morphology using clinical methods (slit lamp biomicroscopy and MBGS and

  6. Cross-Scale Modelling of Subduction from Minute to Million of Years Time Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolev, S. V.; Muldashev, I. A.

    2015-12-01

    Subduction is an essentially multi-scale process with time-scales spanning from geological to earthquake scale with the seismic cycle in-between. Modelling of such process constitutes one of the largest challenges in geodynamic modelling today.Here we present a cross-scale thermomechanical model capable of simulating the entire subduction process from rupture (1 min) to geological time (millions of years) that employs elasticity, mineral-physics-constrained non-linear transient viscous rheology and rate-and-state friction plasticity. The model generates spontaneous earthquake sequences. The adaptive time-step algorithm recognizes moment of instability and drops the integration time step to its minimum value of 40 sec during the earthquake. The time step is then gradually increased to its maximal value of 5 yr, following decreasing displacement rates during the postseismic relaxation. Efficient implementation of numerical techniques allows long-term simulations with total time of millions of years. This technique allows to follow in details deformation process during the entire seismic cycle and multiple seismic cycles. We observe various deformation patterns during modelled seismic cycle that are consistent with surface GPS observations and demonstrate that, contrary to the conventional ideas, the postseismic deformation may be controlled by viscoelastic relaxation in the mantle wedge, starting within only a few hours after the great (M>9) earthquakes. Interestingly, in our model an average slip velocity at the fault closely follows hyperbolic decay law. In natural observations, such deformation is interpreted as an afterslip, while in our model it is caused by the viscoelastic relaxation of mantle wedge with viscosity strongly varying with time. We demonstrate that our results are consistent with the postseismic surface displacement after the Great Tohoku Earthquake for the day-to-year time range. We will also present results of the modeling of deformation of the

  7. Dark Energy Survey Year 1 results: cross-correlation redshifts - methods and systematics characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, M.; Vielzeuf, P.; Davis, C.; Cawthon, R.; Rau, M. M.; DeRose, J.; De Vicente, J.; Alarcon, A.; Rozo, E.; Gaztanaga, E.; Hoyle, B.; Miquel, R.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bonnett, C.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Castander, F. J.; Chang, C.; da Costa, L. N.; Gruen, D.; Gschwend, J.; Hartley, W. G.; Lin, H.; MacCrann, N.; Maia, M. A. G.; Ogando, R. L. C.; Roodman, A.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Troxel, M. A.; Wechsler, R. H.; Asorey, J.; Davis, T. M.; Glazebrook, K.; Hinton, S. R.; Lewis, G.; Lidman, C.; Macaulay, E.; Möller, A.; O'Neill, C. R.; Sommer, N. E.; Uddin, S. A.; Yuan, F.; Zhang, B.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Allam, S.; Annis, J.; Bechtol, K.; Brooks, D.; Burke, D. L.; Carollo, D.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Cunha, C. E.; D'Andrea, C. B.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Eifler, T. F.; Evrard, A. E.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; García-Bellido, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Goldstein, D. A.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; Hoormann, J. K.; Jain, B.; James, D. J.; Jarvis, M.; Jeltema, T.; Johnson, M. W. G.; Johnson, M. D.; Krause, E.; Kuehn, K.; Kuhlmann, S.; Kuropatkin, N.; Li, T. S.; Lima, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Melchior, P.; Menanteau, F.; Nichol, R. C.; Nord, B.; Plazas, A. A.; Reil, K.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sheldon, E.; Smith, M.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Tucker, B. E.; Tucker, D. L.; Vikram, V.; Walker, A. R.; Weller, J.; Wester, W.; Wolf, R. C.

    2018-06-01

    We use numerical simulations to characterize the performance of a clustering-based method to calibrate photometric redshift biases. In particular, we cross-correlate the weak lensing source galaxies from the Dark Energy Survey Year 1 sample with redMaGiC galaxies (luminous red galaxies with secure photometric redshifts) to estimate the redshift distribution of the former sample. The recovered redshift distributions are used to calibrate the photometric redshift bias of standard photo-z methods applied to the same source galaxy sample. We apply the method to two photo-z codes run in our simulated data: Bayesian Photometric Redshift and Directional Neighbourhood Fitting. We characterize the systematic uncertainties of our calibration procedure, and find that these systematic uncertainties dominate our error budget. The dominant systematics are due to our assumption of unevolving bias and clustering across each redshift bin, and to differences between the shapes of the redshift distributions derived by clustering versus photo-zs. The systematic uncertainty in the mean redshift bias of the source galaxy sample is Δz ≲ 0.02, though the precise value depends on the redshift bin under consideration. We discuss possible ways to mitigate the impact of our dominant systematics in future analyses.

  8. Twelve Years Since Importance of Cross-Cultural Competency Recognized: Where Are We Now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Remi A; Coates, Wendy C; Chanmugam, Arjun

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the content and volume of literature that has been written on cultural competency in emergency medicine (EM) since its educational imperative was first described by the Institute of Medicine in 2002. We conducted a comprehensive literature search through the PubMed portal in January 2015 to identify all articles and reviews that addressed cultural competency in EM. Articles were included in the review if cultural competency was described or if its impact on healthcare disparities or curriculum development was described. Two reviewers independently investigated all relevant articles. These articles were then summarized. Of the 73 abstracts identified in the initial search, only 10 met criteria for inclusion. A common theme found among these 10 articles is that cultural competency in EM is essential to reducing healthcare disparities and improving patient care. These articles were consistent in their support for cross-cultural educational advancements in the EM curriculum. Despite the documented importance of cultural competency education in medicine, there appears to be only 10 articles over the past 12 years regarding its development and implementation in EM. This comprehensive literature review underscores the relative dearth of publications related to cultural competency in EM. The limited number of articles found is striking when compared to the growth of EM research over the same time period and can serve as a stimulus for further research in this significant area of EM education.

  9. Blood lead concentrations in 1-3 year old Lebanese children: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuwayhid, Iman; Nabulsi, Mona; Muwakkit, Samar; Kouzi, Sarah; Salem, George; Mikati, Mohamed; Ariss, Majd

    2003-04-15

    Childhood lead poisoning has not made the list of national public health priorities in Lebanon. This study aims at identifying the prevalence and risk factors for elevated blood lead concentrations (B-Pb >or= 100 microg/L) among 1-3 year old children. It also examines the need for universal blood lead screening. This is a cross-sectional study of 281 well children, presenting to the pediatric ambulatory services at the American University of Beirut Medical Center in 1997-98. Blood was drawn on participating children for lead analysis and a structured questionnaire was introduced to mothers asking about social, demographic, and residence characteristics, as well as potential risk factors for lead exposure. Children with B-Pb >or= 100 microg/L were compared to those with B-Pb or= 100 microg/L. Logistic regression analysis showed that elevated B-Pb was associated with paternal manual jobs (odds ratio [OR]: 4.74), residence being located in high traffic areas (OR: 4.59), summer season (OR: 4.39), using hot tap water for cooking (OR: 3.96), exposure to kohl (OR: 2.40), and living in older buildings (OR: 2.01). Lead screening should be offered to high-risk children. With the recent ban of leaded gasoline in Lebanon, emphasis should shift to other sources of exposure in children.

  10. Visual impairment among 10-14-year school children in Puducherry: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnuprasad, R; Bazroy, Joy; Madhanraj, K; Prashanth, Hannah Ranjee; Singh, Zile; Samuel, Abel K; Muthukumar, T

    2017-01-01

    According to the 2010 estimates by the World Health Organization, nearly 285 million (4.24% of total population) people of all ages worldwide are visually impaired. Almost 18.9 million children under 15 years of age are visually impaired globally. In developing countries, 7%-31% of childhood blindness and visual impairment is avoidable. The study was conducted as a cross-sectional study among 1884 school students in Puducherry, in the age group of 10-14 years. A child with presenting maximum vision ≤6/12 Snellen equivalent in the better eye is considered visually impaired. Data were entered in Microsoft Excel 2013 and analyzed using the statistical software SPSS version 21.0. Chi-square test was applied for testing difference in proportion and a P visual impairment (vision ≤6/12) among the study participants was 6.37% (95% confidence interval = 5.27-7.47). The prevalence of visual impairment increased with age and it was found to be high among male students (6.6%) when compared to female students (6%). Presenting vision of 6/6 was observed in 79.8% of the children while with pinhole correction, the proportion increased to 94.6%. The prevalence of visual impairment in our study population was found to be 6.37% and the prevalence was even higher among children who belonged to schools of urban region or private schools. Children with a positive family history of spectacle use were more likely to have visual impairment.

  11. Changes in corneal topography and biomechanical properties after collagen cross linking for keratoconus: 1-year results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedaghat, Mohammadreza; Bagheri, Mansooreh; Ghavami, Shahri; Bamdad, Shahram

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate changes in corneal topography and biomechanical properties after collagen cross-linking (CXL) for progressive keratoconus. Collagen cross-linking was performed on 97 eyes. We assessed uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA). Corneal topography indices were evaluated using placido disc topography, scanning slit anterior topography (Orbscan II), and rotating Scheimpflug topography (Pentacam). Specular microscopy and corneal biomechanics were evaluated. A 1-year-follow-up results revealed that UCVA improved from 0.31 to 0.45 and BCVA changed from 0.78 to 0.84 (P < 0.001). The mean of average keratometry value decreased from 49.62 to 47.95 D (P < 0.001). Astigmatism decreased from 4.84 to 4.24 D (P < 0.001). Apex corneal thickness decreased from 458.11 to 444.46 μm. Corneal volume decreased from 56.66 to 55.97 mm(3) (P < 0.001). Posterior best fit sphere increased from 55.50 to 46.03 mm (P = 0.025). Posterior elevation increased from 99.2 to 112.22 μm (P < 0.001). Average progressive index increased from 2.26 to 2.56 (P < 0.001). A nonsignificant decrease was observed in mean endothelial count from 2996 to 2928 cell/mm(2) (P = 0.190). Endothelial coefficient of variation (CV) increased nonsignificantly from 18.26 to 20.29 (P = 0.112). Corneal hysteresis changed from 8.18 to 8.36 (P = 0.552) and corneal resistance factor increased from 6.98 to 7.21 (P = 0.202), so these changes were not significant. Visual acuity and K values improved after CXL. In spite of the nonsignificant increase in endothelial cell count and increase in the CV, CLX seems to be a safe treatment for keratoconus. Further studies with larger sample sizes and longer follow-up periods are recommended.

  12. Peer Influences on Risk-taking in Middle Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Bradbury, Kirsten

    1999-01-01

    Unintentional injury is the leading cause of death and disability in children. Many injuries to school-aged children occur during unsupervised peer activities, but peer influences on risky behavior in preadolescence remain under-investigated. We examined peer context effects on reported risk-taking, identified predictors of peer influence, and compared peer influence in high- and low-social-functioning groups. Forty-one boys aged 8-10 years listened to scenarios in which they encountered oppo...

  13. Controlling HIV Epidemics among Injection Drug Users: Eight Years of Cross-Border HIV Prevention Interventions in Vietnam and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammett, Theodore M.; Des Jarlais, Don C.; Kling, Ryan; Kieu, Binh Thanh; McNicholl, Janet M.; Wasinrapee, Punneeporn; McDougal, J. Stephen; Liu, Wei; Chen, Yi; Meng, Donghua; Huu Nguyen, Tho; Ngoc Hoang, Quyen; Van Hoang, Tren

    2012-01-01

    Introduction HIV in Vietnam and Southern China is driven by injection drug use. We have implemented HIV prevention interventions for IDUs since 2002–2003 in Lang Son and Ha Giang Provinces, Vietnam and Ning Ming County (Guangxi), China. Methods Interventions provide peer education and needle/syringe distribution. Evaluation employed serial cross-sectional surveys of IDUs 26 waves from 2002 to 2011, including interviews and HIV testing. Outcomes were HIV risk behaviors, HIV prevalence and incidence. HIV incidence estimation used two methods: 1) among new injectors from prevalence data; and 2) a capture enzyme immunoassay (BED testing) on all HIV+ samples. Results We found significant declines in drug-related risk behaviors and sharp reductions in HIV prevalence among IDUs (Lang Son from 46% to 23% [pHIV incidence to low levels among new injectors through 36–48 months, then some rebound, particularly in Ning Ming, but BED-based estimates revealed significant reductions in incidence through 96 months. Discussion This is one of the longest studies of HIV prevention among IDUs in Asia. The rebound in incidence among new injectors may reflect sexual transmission. BED-based estimates may overstate incidence (because of false-recent results in patients with long-term infection or on ARV treatment) but adjustment for false-recent results and survey responses on duration of infection generally confirm BED-based incidence trends. Combined trends from the two estimation methods show sharp declines in incidence to low levels. The significant downward trends in all primary outcome measures indicate that the Cross-Border interventions played an important role in bringing HIV epidemics among IDUs under control. The Cross-Border project offers a model of HIV prevention for IDUs that should be considered for large-scale replication. PMID:22952640

  14. Peer interaction does not always improve children's mental state talk production in oral narratives. A study in six- to ten-year-old Italian children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana Pinto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Joint narratives are a mean through which children develop and practice their Theory of Mind, thus they represent an ideal means to explore children’s use and development of mental state talk. However, creating a learning environment for storytelling based on peer interaction, does not necessarily mean that students will automatically exploit it by engaging in productive collaboration, thus it is important to explore under what conditions peer interaction promotes children’s ToM. This study extends our understanding of social aspects of ToM, focusing on the effect of joint narratives on school-age children’s mental state talk. Fifty-six Italian primary school children participated in the study (19 females and 37 males. Children created a story in two different experimental conditions (individually and with a partner randomly assigned. Each story told by the children, as well as their dialogues were recorded and transcribed. Transcriptions of narratives were coded in terms of text quality and mental state talk, whereas transcriptions of dialogues were coded in terms of quality of interaction. The results from this study confirmed that peer interaction does not always improve children’s mental state talk performances in oral narratives, but certain conditions need to be satisfied. Peer interaction was more effective on mental state talk with lower individual levels and productive interactions, particularly in terms of capacity to regulate the interactions. When children were able to focus on the interaction, as well as the product, they were also exposed to each other’s reasoning behind their viewpoint. This level of intersubjectivity, in turn, allowed them to take more in consideration the contribution of mental states to the narrative.

  15. Popularity among Same-Sex and Cross-Sex Peers: A Process-Oriented Examination of Links to Aggressive Behaviors and Depressive Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troop-Gordon, Wendy; Ranney, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Popularity has been linked to heightened aggression and fewer depressive symptoms. The current study extends this literature by examining the unique contributions of same-sex and cross-sex popularity to children's development, as well as potential mediating processes. Third- and 4th-graders (212 boys, 250 girls) provided data at 3 time points over…

  16. Blood Lead Concentrations in 1–3 Year Old Lebanese Children: A Cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem George

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood lead poisoning has not made the list of national public health priorities in Lebanon. This study aims at identifying the prevalence and risk factors for elevated blood lead concentrations (B-Pb ≥ 100 μg/L among 1–3 year old children. It also examines the need for universal blood lead screening. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of 281 well children, presenting to the pediatric ambulatory services at the American University of Beirut Medical Center in 1997–98. Blood was drawn on participating children for lead analysis and a structured questionnaire was introduced to mothers asking about social, demographic, and residence characteristics, as well as potential risk factors for lead exposure. Children with B-Pb ≥ 100 μg/L were compared to those with B-Pb Results Mean B-Pb was 66.0 μg/L (median 60.0; range 10–160; standard deviation 26.3 with 39 (14% children with B-Pb ≥ 100 μg/L. Logistic regression analysis showed that elevated B-Pb was associated with paternal manual jobs (odds ratio [OR]: 4.74, residence being located in high traffic areas (OR: 4.59, summer season (OR: 4.39, using hot tap water for cooking (OR: 3.96, exposure to kohl (OR: 2.40, and living in older buildings (OR: 2.01. Conclusion Lead screening should be offered to high-risk children. With the recent ban of leaded gasoline in Lebanon, emphasis should shift to other sources of exposure in children.

  17. Blood Lead Concentrations in 1–3 Year Old Lebanese Children: A Cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuwayhid, Iman; Nabulsi, Mona; Muwakkit, Samar; Kouzi, Sarah; Salem, George; Mikati, Mohamed; Ariss, Majd

    2003-01-01

    Background Childhood lead poisoning has not made the list of national public health priorities in Lebanon. This study aims at identifying the prevalence and risk factors for elevated blood lead concentrations (B-Pb ≥ 100 μg/L) among 1–3 year old children. It also examines the need for universal blood lead screening. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of 281 well children, presenting to the pediatric ambulatory services at the American University of Beirut Medical Center in 1997–98. Blood was drawn on participating children for lead analysis and a structured questionnaire was introduced to mothers asking about social, demographic, and residence characteristics, as well as potential risk factors for lead exposure. Children with B-Pb ≥ 100 μg/L were compared to those with B-Pb < 100 μg/L. Results Mean B-Pb was 66.0 μg/L (median 60.0; range 10–160; standard deviation 26.3) with 39 (14%) children with B-Pb ≥ 100 μg/L. Logistic regression analysis showed that elevated B-Pb was associated with paternal manual jobs (odds ratio [OR]: 4.74), residence being located in high traffic areas (OR: 4.59), summer season (OR: 4.39), using hot tap water for cooking (OR: 3.96), exposure to kohl (OR: 2.40), and living in older buildings (OR: 2.01). Conclusion Lead screening should be offered to high-risk children. With the recent ban of leaded gasoline in Lebanon, emphasis should shift to other sources of exposure in children. PMID:12780938

  18. Peer observation and feedback of resident teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snydman, Laura; Chandler, Daniel; Rencic, Joseph; Sung, Yung-Chi

    2013-02-01

    Resident doctors (residents) play a significant role in the education of medical students. Morning work rounds provide an optimal venue to assess resident teaching. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of peer observation of resident work rounds, to evaluate resident perceptions of peer observation and to evaluate resident perceptions of peer feedback.   Twenty-four internal medicine residents were simultaneously observed by an attending physician and a peer while teaching during work rounds (between August2008 and May 2009). At year-end, residents received a survey to characterise their attitudes towards peer observation and feedback. Twenty-one residents (87.5%) completed the survey. Half (52.4%) felt that participating in the peer observation study stimulated their interest in teaching during work rounds. Prior to participation in the study, fewer than half (42.9%) felt comfortable being observed by their peers, compared with 71.4 percent after participation (p=0.02). The proportion of residents who felt comfortable giving feedback to peers increased from 26.3 to 65.0percent (p=0.004), and the proportion of residents who felt comfortable receiving feedback from peers increased from 76.2 to 95.2 percent (p=0.02). Peer observation and feedback of resident teaching during work rounds is feasible and rewarding for the residents involved. Comfort with regards to being observed by peers, with receiving feedback from peers and with giving feedback to peers significantly increased after the study. Most residents reported changes in their teaching behaviour resulting from feedback. Residents felt that observing a peer teach on work rounds was one of the most useful activities to improve their own teaching on work rounds. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2013.

  19. Peer-to-Peer Service Sharing Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Magnus; Hjalmarsson, Anders; Avital, Michel

    2013-01-01

    The sharing economy has been growing continuously in the last decade thanks to the proliferation of internet-based platforms that allow people to disintermediate the traditional commercial channels and to share excess resources and trade with one another effectively at a reasonably low transaction...... cost. Whereas early peer-to-peer platforms were designed to enable file sharing and goods trading, we recently witness the emergence of a new breed of peer-to-peer platforms that are designed for ordinary service sharing. Ordinary services entail intangible provisions and are defined as an economic...... activity that generates immaterial benefits and does not result in ownership of material goods. Based on a structured analysis of 41 internet-based rideshare platforms, we explore and layout the unique characteristics of peer-to-peer service sharing platforms based on three distinct temporal patterns...

  20. Malnutrition among 3 to 5 Years Old Children in Baghdad City, Iraq: A Cross-sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ghazi, Hasanain Faisal; Mustafa, Jamsiah; Aljunid, Syed; Isa, Zaleha Md.; Abdalqader, Mohammed A.

    2013-01-01

    The unstable geopolitical situation in Iraq since 2003 still affects the health of people, especially children. Several factors may indirectly affect a child's nutritional status. The main aim of this study was to identify factors contributing to malnutrition among 3 to 5 years old children in Baghdad city, Iraq. Two hundred twenty children aged 3 to 5 years were chosen randomly from four kindergartens in Baghdad city according to the cross-sectional design. The nutritional status of the chil...

  1. Health Care Utilisation by Bullying Victims: A Cross-Sectional Study of A 9-Year-Old Cohort in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine Hayes; Dervla Kelly; Cristina Taut; Elizabeth Nixon; Lina Zgaga; James Williams; Thomas O’Dowd; Udo Reulbach

    2018-01-01

    Children frequently refrain from disclosing being bullied. Early identification of bullying by healthcare professionals in children may prevent adverse health consequences. The aim of our study was to determine whether Health Care Utilisation (HCU) is higher in 9-year-olds who report being bullied and factors influencing type of HCU. The study consists of cross-sectional surveys of Child Cohort of Irish National Longitudinal Study of Children (Wave 1), 8,568 9-year-olds, and their carers. Bei...

  2. o'Peer: open peer review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, J H

    2014-01-01

    I have built a ''demonstration'' website at http://oPeer.org to illustrate how peer review and publication might be improved relative to the current model, which was designed and implemented in an era when scientific communication was either face-to-face or relied upon human delivery of ink marks on dead trees

  3. o'Peer: open peer review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    I have built a "demonstration" website at http://oPeer.org to illustrate how peer review and publication might be improved relative to the current model, which was designed and implemented in an era when scientific communication was either face-to-face or relied upon human delivery of ink marks on dead trees.

  4. Digital portfolio og peer to peer feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Ditte; Bahrenscheer, Jesper Glarborg

    2017-01-01

    studerende og øget transfer mellem teori og praksis. Artiklen tager afsæt i erfaringerne fra udvikling, anvendelse og evaluering af den digitale portfolio og peer to peer feedback. Portfolien er digital og tilknyttet Metropols Learning Management System. De studerende uploader individuelt ugentligt deres...

  5. Mobility Helps Peer-to-Peer Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capkun, Srdjan; Hubaux, Jean-Pierre; Buttyan, Levente

    2006-01-01

    We propose a straightforward technique to provide peer-to-peer security in mobile networks. We show that far from being a hurdle, mobility can be exploited to set up security associations among users. We leverage on the temporary vicinity of users, during which appropriate cryptographic protocols...

  6. It's not what you say, it's how many different ways you can say it: links between divergent peer resistance skills and delinquency a year later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, A Jordan; Nichols, Tracy R; Graber, Julia A; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Botvin, Gilbert J

    2004-11-01

    To examine whether generation of 'socially appropriate' responses or divergent responses to continued peer pressure is a more effective deterrent of actual delinquency. The sample of 129 urban adolescents included both boys and girls (51.9% male) and was predominantly black (48.%) and Hispanic (28.7%). They were studied longitudinally from seventh to eighth grade in New York City from 2000-2001. Resistance strategies to offers to smoke and to shoplift were assessed in two separate videotaped role-plays. Socially appropriate responses were defined as assertive and nonaggressive, including the use of a simple no; direct, declarative statements; and offering prosocial alternatives. Divergent responses were defined as multiple unique response types within the same situation regardless of appropriateness. Data were analyzed using hierarchical logistic regressions. High use of divergent responses was consistently associated favorably with changes in delinquency from seventh to eighth grade. High use of divergent responses was associated with lowered likelihood to vandalize, steal or shoplift, and commit multiple acts of any type of delinquency, even after controlling for seventh grade delinquency. Socially appropriate responses showed little association to any delinquent behavior. Different social pressure situations and contexts may require different responses. As trying to teach effective responses for every single potential peer pressure situation would be impossible, promoting divergent thinking may be an attractive alternative.

  7. Bilateral cross-bite treated by repeated rapid maxillary expansions: a 17-year follow-up case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzani, M; Mazzotta, L; Caprioglio, A

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to show the clinical results after the repeated application of a Haas expander for rapid maxillary expansion (RME) anchored onto deciduous teeth in a 7-year-old patient that presented bilateral cross-bite, superior crowding and no space for permanent lateral incisors eruption. A first Haas expander was applied to the patient. She was told to activate it once a day, each activation was equal to 0.20 mm. After the first RME, the bilateral cross-bite was solved but still there was not enough space for lateral incisor eruption. A second and then a third Haas expander were applied, with the same activation protocol as the first one, in order to gain space in the anterior region and to achieve proper eruption of the lateral incisors. The patient was then treated with fixed appliances. At debonding the patient presented well aligned arch-forms: space for lateral incisor eruption was gained and superior crowding was solved. Bilateral cross-bite was also corrected. She was seen again 10 years and 17 years after expansions: she showed no relapse and presented a good functional occlusion that had remained stable, and an aesthetically pleasant smile, however she exhibited gingival recessions. Repeated rapid maxillary expansion, anchored onto deciduous teeth, performed in early mixed dentition represents a safe and successful treatment to correct severe bilateral cross- bites and to create space for maxillary incisor eruption.

  8. Emotion regulation predicts anxiety over a five-year interval: a cross-lagged panel analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wirtz, C.M.; Hofmann, S.G.; Riper, H.; Berking, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Emotion regulation (ER) deficits have been linked to symptoms of anxiety in cross-sectional studies. However, the direction of the relationship between ER and anxiety symptom severity (ASS) is unclear. Methods In order to clarify the relationship between ER skills and ASS symptoms, we

  9. Emotion Knowledge and Autobiographical Memory across the Preschool Years: A Cross-Cultural Longitudinal Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of emotion situations facilitates the interpretation, processing, and organization of significant personal event information and thus may be an important contributor to the development of autobiographical memory. This longitudinal study tested the hypothesis in a cross-cultural context. The participants were native Chinese children,…

  10. Simple Peer-to-Peer SIP Privacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskela, Joakim; Tarkoma, Sasu

    In this paper, we introduce a model for enhancing privacy in peer-to-peer communication systems. The model is based on data obfuscation, preventing intermediate nodes from tracking calls, while still utilizing the shared resources of the peer network. This increases security when moving between untrusted, limited and ad-hoc networks, when the user is forced to rely on peer-to-peer schemes. The model is evaluated using a Host Identity Protocol-based prototype on mobile devices, and is found to provide good privacy, especially when combined with a source address hiding scheme. The contribution of this paper is to present the model and results obtained from its use, including usability considerations.

  11. Joint Contributions of Peer Acceptance and Peer Academic Reputation to Achievement in Academically At-Risk Children: Mediating Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi; Hughes, Jan N.; Liew, Jeffrey; Kwok, Oi-Man

    2010-01-01

    The longitudinal relationships between two dimensions of peer relationships and subsequent academic adjustment were investigated in a sample of 543 relatively low achieving children (M = 6.57 years at Year 1, 1st grade). Latent variable SEM was used to test a four stage model positing indirect effects of peer acceptance and peer academic…

  12. NCHRP peer exchange 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Peer exchanges for state department of transportation (DOT) research programs originated with : the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA). That federal legislation : required the states to conduct periodic peer exchanges to...

  13. How School Norms, Peer Norms, and Discrimination Predict Interethnic Experiences among Ethnic Minority and Majority Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropp, Linda R.; O'Brien, Thomas C.; González Gutierrez, Roberto; Valdenegro, Daniel; Migacheva, Katya; de Tezanos-Pinto, Pablo; Berger, Christian; Cayul, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    This research tests how perceived school and peer norms predict interethnic experiences among ethnic minority and majority youth. With studies in Chile (654 nonindigenous and 244 Mapuche students, M = 11.20 and 11.31 years) and the United States (468 non-Hispanic White and 126 Latino students, M = 11.66 and 11.68 years), cross-sectional results…

  14. Students' Informal Peer Feedback Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headington, Rita

    2018-01-01

    The nature and significance of students' informal peer feedback networks is an under-explored area. This paper offers the findings of a longitudinal investigation of the informal peer feedback networks of a cohort of student teachers [n = 105] across the three years of a UK primary education degree programme. It tracked the dynamic nature of these…

  15. Conformity to Peer Pressure in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haun, Daniel B. M.; Tomasello, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Both adults and adolescents often conform their behavior and opinions to peer groups, even when they themselves know better. The current study investigated this phenomenon in 24 groups of 4 children between 4;2 and 4;9 years of age. Children often made their judgments conform to those of 3 peers, who had made obviously erroneous but unanimous…

  16. Opposites Detract: Middle School Peer Group Antipathies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Brett; Bukowski, William M.; Nurmi, Jari-Eri; Marion, Donna; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Kiuru, Noona

    2010-01-01

    This study examines variability in patterns of peer group antipathy. Same-grade adolescent peer groups were identified from sociometric nominations of preferred affiliates in a community sample of 600 Finnish ninth-grade middle school students (mean age = 15.0 years). Hierarchical linear modeling determined characteristics of youths in actor…

  17. Item Response Theory for Peer Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uto, Masaki; Ueno, Maomi

    2016-01-01

    As an assessment method based on a constructivist approach, peer assessment has become popular in recent years. However, in peer assessment, a problem remains that reliability depends on the rater characteristics. For this reason, some item response models that incorporate rater parameters have been proposed. Those models are expected to improve…

  18. Perceived Benefits of Human Sexuality Peer Facilitators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Scott M.; Hartzell, Rose M.; Sherwood, Catherine M.

    2008-01-01

    Peer education, facilitation, and counseling programs are commonly utilized in primary and secondary prevention programs within colleges and universities. In addition, peer-based human sexuality discussions have been used as an adjunct to traditional human sexuality pedagogic programs over the last 20 years. Whereas ample evidence suggests that…

  19. Postpartum depression peer support: maternal perceptions from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Cindy-Lee

    2010-05-01

    Peer support in the early postpartum period is effective in the prevention of postpartum depression among women identified as high-risk. To describe maternal perceptions of peer support received while participating in a trial. Cross-sectional survey of women participating in a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effect of peer support in the prevention of postpartum depression. Seven health regions across Ontario Canada. 701 women were recruited between November 2004 and September 2006. Women eligible for the study were all mothers with an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score >9 who were within 2 weeks postpartum, at least 18 years of age, able to speak English, had a live birth, and had been discharged home from the hospital. Exclusion criteria included an infant not discharged home with the mother and current use of antidepressant or antipsychotic medication. Two hundred and twenty-one mothers completed the mailed questionnaire. Women were randomly allocated to receive usual postpartum care (control group) or usual postpartum care plus telephone-based peer support (intervention group). Maternal perceptions of peer support were evaluated at 12 weeks postpartum using the validated Peer Support Evaluation Inventory. Interactions provided by the peer volunteer included the provision of emotional (92.7%), informational (72.4%), and appraisal (72.0%) support. Mothers reported high levels of positive relationship qualities such as trust (83.6%) and perceived acceptance (79.1%). Most (80.5%) mothers indicated they were very satisfied with their peer support experience. Maternal satisfaction was associated with the number and duration of peer volunteer contacts. The majority of mothers perceived their peer volunteer experience positively lending further support to telephone-based peer support as a preventative strategy for postpartum depression. The following program modifications were suggested: (a) adapt training to enhance the provision of appraisal

  20. Peer Influence and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Crystal; Simpson, Shelly; Najera, John; Weiner, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that peer influence can be negative, by increasing the likelihood that a youth will engage in high-risk behaviors and make risky decisions. However, peer influence can also be positive and protect a youth from these same high-risk activities. This article examines the extent of peer influence and then describes the Alternative…

  1. The Dedisciplining of Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frodeman, Robert; Briggle, Adam

    2012-01-01

    The demand for greater public accountability is changing the nature of ex ante peer review at public science agencies worldwide. Based on a four year research project, this essay examines these changes through an analysis of the process of grant proposal review at two US public science agencies, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the…

  2. Some Limits in Peer Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, Joan; Martinez, Herminio; Gomariz, Spartacus; Gámiz, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, the educational methodology known as "peer assessment" constitutes one of the pillars of formative assessment at the different levels of the educational system, particularly at the University level. In fact, in recent years, it has been increasingly used to enhance students' meaningful learning, as it is considered to be an…

  3. Bridging the gap in 1(st) year dental material curriculum: A 3 year randomized cross over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gali, Sivaranjani; Shetty, Vibha; Murthy, N S; Marimuthu, P

    2015-01-01

    Case-oriented small group discussions (COSGDs) can help students to correlate and integrate the basic science of dental materials into clinical application. We used COSGDs along with didactic lectures in dental material curriculum and hypothesized that case-oriented group discussions would be more effective than traditional lecture alone in terms of performance of students, student perception on the above two teaching methodologies and the feasibility in classes of 2010, 2011 and 2012. A total of 170 students were taught using both COSGD and didactic lecture in a randomized controlled crossover trial design. Their performance was assessed through multiple-choice questions (MCQs) as part of the formative assessment, and their perception was assessed through Likert scale questionnaire. The mean difference in the scores between case-oriented group discussions with lecture and didactic lecture showed significant difference only in few topics. Around 94-96% of students perceived COSGD with didactic lecture help them understand theory better; 76-92% of students feel more comfortable asking questions in a group discussion; 89-98% of students feel such discussions motivate them and 91-100% of students agree that discussions make the subject interesting in the respective years of 2010, 2011 and 2012. Effectiveness of COSGD in terms of scores through MCQs is comparable to traditional lecture. However, most of the students perceive COSGD help them understand the theory better; co-relate clinically; more motivating and interesting than a traditional lecture. Feasibility in institution needs more time and resources to conduct COSGD within the dental material curriculum.

  4. Team health, an assessment approach to engage first year students in cross-cultural and cross-discipline teams towards more effective team-working

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy Egea

    Full Text Available Specialists who work in a globalised environment, need to work in teams, if they are to be continuously effective. The challenge for IT educators is to design and implement inter-cultural teamwork practices into their curriculum. Investigating this challenge, this case study describes Team Health, an assessment approach designed to skill students to be more effective in team working in cross-cultural and cross-discipline teams. The educational context is teamwork practice within a first year introductory web design course. Framed by Saunders\\'s virtual team lifecycle model (relationship building and team processes and Hofstede\\'s cultural dimensions (communication and working cross-culturally, the assessment approach utilises reflective and iterative strategies to support team working. At three points in the semester, students complete a survey on these four concepts, identify team strengths and weaknesses from the results of the surveys and work towards addressing one team weakness. The final assessment activity requires students to reflect on team working for the semester. Key attributes for effective team working are identified from the three surveys and the final reflective summaries. This paper compares course outcomes such as team cohesion and student grades to the previous course offering and shows that with the introduction of Team Health, the more complex student cohorts under this study achieve equally well. It is concluded that the guided reflective practices underpinning Team Health can prepare students for first year approaches to teamwork, and thereby provide starting points for working in future global teams where members are both culturally diverse and from different discipline areas.

  5. 2.5-year-olds use cross-situational consistency to learn verbs under referential uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Rose M; Fisher, Cynthia

    2012-02-01

    Recent evidence shows that children can use cross-situational statistics to learn new object labels under referential ambiguity (e.g., Smith & Yu, 2008). Such evidence has been interpreted as support for proposals that statistical information about word-referent co-occurrence plays a powerful role in word learning. But object labels represent only a fraction of the vocabulary children acquire, and arguably represent the simplest case of word learning based on observations of world scenes. Here we extended the study of cross-situational word learning to a new segment of the vocabulary, action verbs, to permit a stronger test of the role of statistical information in word learning. In two experiments, on each trial 2.5-year-olds encountered two novel intransitive (e.g., "She's pimming!"; Experiment 1) or transitive verbs (e.g., "She's pimming her toy!"; Experiment 2) while viewing two action events. The consistency with which each verb accompanied each action provided the only source of information about the intended referent of each verb. The 2.5-year-olds used cross-situational consistency in verb learning, but also showed significant limits on their ability to do so as the sentences and scenes became slightly more complex. These findings help to define the role of cross-situational observation in word learning. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Dengue serotype cross-reactive, anti-E protein antibodies confound specific immune memory for one year after infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Xiu eToh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus has four serotypes and is endemic globally in tropical countries. Neither a specific treatment nor an approved vaccine is available, and correlates of protection are not established. The standard neutralization assay cannot differentiate between serotype-specific and serotype cross-reactive antibodies in patients early after infection, leading to an overestimation of the long-term serotype-specific protection of an antibody response. It is known that the cross-reactive response in patients is temporary but few studies have assessed kinetics and potential changes in serum antibody specificity over time. To better define the specificity of polyclonal antibodies during disease and after recovery, longitudinal samples from patients with primary or secondary DENV-2 infection were collected over a period of one year. We found that serotype cross-reactive antibodies peaked three weeks after infection and subsided within one year. Since secondary patients rapidly produced antibodies specific for the virus envelope (E protein, an E-specific ELISA was superior compared to a virus particle-specific ELISA to identify patients with secondary infections. Dengue infection triggered a massive activation and mobilization of both naïve and memory B cells possibly from lymphoid organs into the blood, providing an explanation for the surge of circulating plasmablasts and the increase in cross-reactive E protein-specific antibodies.

  7. Thanking our peer reviewers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Storey Alan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Contributing reviewers As 2013 commences I would like to take a moment to reflect and recognize the peer reviewers that made the previous year possible. Listed below are those people who reviewed for Molecular Cancer last year. All are generous individuals who donated their time to assessing and improving our authors’ submissions. Your combined efforts have been invaluable to the editorial staff in maintaining the continued success of the journal in the Open Access forum. The editors of Molecular Cancer would like to thank all the reviewers who contributed to the journal in Volume 11 (2012 by participating in the review process - taking time out of your busy schedules and even to volunteer - without your critical insights, hard work and support for the journal we wouldn’t be able to do what we do.

  8. Prevalence and Mental Health Treatment of Suicidal Ideation and Behavior Among College Students Aged 18-25 Years and Their Non-College-Attending Peers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Beth; Compton, Wilson M; Eisenberg, Daniel; Milazzo-Sayre, Laura; McKeon, Richard; Hughes, Art

    2016-06-01

    College students have been the focus of many studies on suicidal ideation with or without suicidal behavior. Little attention has been given to their non-college-attending peers on these issues. We examined the 12-month prevalence and mental health treatment of suicidal ideation with or without suicidal behavior among college students aged 18-25 years and their non-college-attending peers in the United States. We assessed data from 135,300 persons aged 18-25 years who participated in the 2008-2013 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. Descriptive analyses and multivariate logistic regression models were applied. Compared with full-time college students, high school students, those not enrolled in a school or college, and part-time college students were more likely to attempt suicide with a plan (model-adjusted prevalence = 0.67% vs 1.09%, 1.06%, and 1.07%, respectively). The mental health treatment rate among full-time college students with suicidal ideation with or without suicidal behavior was similar to the rates among the other 3 counterparts. The effects of race/ethnicity and serious mental illness on receipt of mental health treatment were significantly larger among those who did not perceive unmet treatment need than among those who perceived unmet treatment need (P = .019 and P = .001, respectively). Compared to full-time college students, non-college-attending young adults and part-time college students were at higher risk for attempting suicide with a plan. Suicide prevention and intervention strategies should emphasize increasing access to mental health treatment among both college students with suicidal ideation with or without suicidal behavior and their non-college-attending peers (particularly among minorities and those who seem to be at low risk because they are without serious mental illness and report no need for mental health treatment). © Copyright 2016 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  9. A Cross Sectional Study of Behavior Disorders In 6-15 Years Age Group in Rural Area

    OpenAIRE

    Kirti C Rasote, Alka D Gore, Usha Ranganathan

    2015-01-01

    "Background: Child & adolescent psychiatric disorders and behavioral disorders are not given adequate attention. Such studies are either school based or hospital based. Methods: To study the prevalence and pattern of behavior disorders among children from the community a cross sectional study was conducted in rural area with 600 children of 6-15 years age group by the ‘Purposive Sampling’ method. Percentages & chi square test was used. Results: Response rate was 94%. Out o...

  10. NASA Product Peer Review Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenks, Ken

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes NASA's product peer review process. The contents include: 1) Inspection/Peer Review at NASA; 2) Reasons for product peer reviews; 3) Different types of peer reviews; and 4) NASA requirements for peer reviews. This presentation also includes a demonstration of an actual product peer review.

  11. A critical look at 50 years particle theory from the perspective of the crossing property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroer, Bert; Freie Universitaet, Berlin

    2010-02-01

    The crossing property, which originated more than 5 decades ago in the aftermath of dispersion relations, was the central new concept which opened an S-matrix based line of research in particle theory. Many constructive ideas in particle theory outside perturbative QFT, among them the S-matrix bootstrap program, the dual resonance model and the various stages of string theory have their historical roots in this property. The crossing property is perhaps the most subtle aspect of the particle-field relation. Although it is not difficult to state its content in terms of certain analytic properties relating different matrix elements of the S-matrix or form factors, its relation to the localization- and positive energy spectral principles requires a level of insight into the inner workings of QFT which goes beyond anything which can be found in typical textbooks on QFT. This paper presents a recent account based on new ideas derived from 'modular localization' including a mathematic appendix on this subject. The main content is an in-depth criticism of the dual model and its string theoretic extension. The conceptual flaws of these models are closely related to misunderstandings of the true meaning of crossing. The correct interpretation of string theory is that of a dynamic infinite component wave function or pointlike field i.e. a theory which under irreducible Poincare decomposition into an infinite mass/spin tower but which also contains operators which do not commute with the generators of the Poincare group but rather intertwine between different mass/spin levels. (author)

  12. A critical look at 50 years particle theory from the perspective of the crossing property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroer, Bert [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Freie Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2010-02-15

    The crossing property, which originated more than 5 decades ago in the aftermath of dispersion relations, was the central new concept which opened an S-matrix based line of research in particle theory. Many constructive ideas in particle theory outside perturbative QFT, among them the S-matrix bootstrap program, the dual resonance model and the various stages of string theory have their historical roots in this property. The crossing property is perhaps the most subtle aspect of the particle-field relation. Although it is not difficult to state its content in terms of certain analytic properties relating different matrix elements of the S-matrix or form factors, its relation to the localization- and positive energy spectral principles requires a level of insight into the inner workings of QFT which goes beyond anything which can be found in typical textbooks on QFT. This paper presents a recent account based on new ideas derived from 'modular localization' including a mathematic appendix on this subject. The main content is an in-depth criticism of the dual model and its string theoretic extension. The conceptual flaws of these models are closely related to misunderstandings of the true meaning of crossing. The correct interpretation of string theory is that of a dynamic infinite component wave function or pointlike field i.e. a theory which under irreducible Poincare decomposition into an infinite mass/spin tower but which also contains operators which do not commute with the generators of the Poincare group but rather intertwine between different mass/spin levels. (author)

  13. A Mediated Moderation Model of Conformative Peer Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yoonju; Chung, Ock-Boon

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between conformative peer bullying and issues of peer conformity among adolescents. This relationship is examined through the establishment of a mediated moderation model for conformative peer bullying using structural equation modeling in a sample of 391 second-year middle school students in Seoul, South Korea. We…

  14. Is the sexual behaviour of young people in sub-Saharan Africa influenced by their peers? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearon, Elizabeth; Wiggins, Richard D; Pettifor, Audrey E; Hargreaves, James R

    2015-12-01

    Adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa are highly vulnerable to HIV, other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unintended pregnancies. Evidence for the effectiveness of individual behaviour change interventions in reducing incidence of HIV and other biological outcomes is limited, and the need to address the social conditions in which young people become sexually active is clear. Adolescents' peers are a key aspect of this social environment and could have important influences on sexual behaviour. There has not yet been a systematic review on the topic in sub-Saharan Africa. We searched 4 databases to find studies set in sub-Saharan Africa that included an adjusted analysis of the association between at least one peer exposure and a sexual behaviour outcome among a sample where at least 50% of the study participants were aged between 13 and 20 years. We classified peer exposures using a framework to distinguish different mechanisms by which influence might occur. We found 30 studies and retained 11 that met quality criteria. There were 3 cohort studies, 1 time to event and 7 cross-sectional. The 11 studies investigated 37 different peer exposure-outcome associations. No studies used a biological outcome and all asked about peers in general rather than about specific relationships. Studies were heterogeneous in their use of theoretical frameworks and means of operationalizing peer influence concepts. All studies found evidence for an association between peers and sexual behaviour for at least one peer exposure/outcome/sub-group association. Of all 37 outcome/exposure/sub-group associations tested, there was evidence for 19 (51%). There were no clear patterns by type of peer exposure, outcome or adolescent sub-group. There is a lack conclusive evidence about the role of peers in adolescent sexual behaviour in Sub-Saharan. We argue that longitudinal designs, use of biological outcomes and approaches from social network analysis are priorities for future studies

  15. Correlation of pontic design and partial edentulous areas: A one year cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikzad S.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: By definition, pontic is an artificial replacement of missing tooth (teeth which is essentially used to establish function and esthetics. In order to this fact that, pontic(s is not completely the same as tooth (teeth to be replaced, it may not be concern as a simple type of restoration to achieve the best result, it must be design from the esthetically and hygienically point of view as well as comfort, demand and tissue health of patient. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the pontic designs and their relationship to edentulous partial aras. "nMaterials and Methods: 73 pontics in 57 patients have been included in this cross-sectional study. These patients were under treatment in the department of prosthodontics. A primary cast was achieved from each patient and then the cross-sectional contour of edentulous ridge was depicted. For each patient the type of pontic design was derived from textbook standards and then compared with the design of actual verified Prosthesis at delivery. The shape of tissue surface of each denture was determined by a low viscous impression material. The result of each comparison was recorded in a chart data set. "nResults: The most common pontic design was Modified ridge lap with frequency of 93.2%. The type of ridge was %45.2 normal, %19.2 class I, %8.2 class II and %27.4 class III, respectively. %72.6 of pontics tested have inappropriate design in tissue surface. "nConclusion: It seems that in a high percentage of cases the tissue surface contour of prescribed pontics in department of prosthodontics was incorrect and more attention must be paid to the education of students and technicians.

  16. Adolescent personality factors in self-ratings and peer nominations and their prediction of peer acceptance and peer rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholte, R H; van Aken, M A; van Lieshout, C F

    1997-12-01

    In this study, the robustness of the Big Five personality factors in adolescents' self-ratings and peer nominations was investigated. Data were obtained on 2,001 adolescents attending secondary school (885 girls; 1,116 boys; M age = 14.5 years). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses on the self-ratings confirmed the Big Five personality factors. In contrast, exploratory analysis on the peer nominations revealed five different factors: Aggression-Inattentiveness, Achievement-Withdrawal, Self-Confidence, Sociability, and Emotionality-Nervousness. It is suggested that peers evaluate group members not in terms of their personality but in terms of their group reputation. Peer evaluations contributed substantially to the prediction of peer acceptance and rejection; the Big Five personality factors based on self-ratings did not.

  17. Physical activity and sedentary behavior during the early years in Canada: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical activity and sedentary behavior habits are established during early childhood, yet only recently has objectively measured data been available on children aged 5 years and younger. This study presents data on the physical activity and sedentary behaviors of Canadian children aged 3–5 years. Methods Data were collected as part of the Canadian Health Measures Survey between 2009 and 2011. A nationally-representative sample (n = 459) of children aged 3–5 years wore Actical accelerometers during their waking hours for 7 consecutive days. Data were collected in 60-sec epochs and respondents with ≥4 valid days were retained for analysis. Parents reported their child’s physical activity and screen time habits in a questionnaire. Results Eighty-four percent of 3–4 year old children met the physical activity guideline of 180 minutes of total physical activity every day while 18% met the screen time target of physical activity guideline of 60 minutes of daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) while 81% met the screen time target of physical activity and 66 minutes of MVPA while 5 year old children accumulated an average of 342 min/d of total physical activity and 68 minutes of MVPA. Children were sedentary for approximately half of their waking hours and spent an average of 2 hours per day in front of screens. Only 15% of 3–4 year olds and 5% of 5 year olds are meeting both the physical activity and sedentary behavior guidelines. Conclusions Promoting physical activity while reducing sedentary behavior is important at all stages of life. The findings of the present study indicate that there remains significant room for improvement in these behaviors among young Canadian children. PMID:23642258

  18. Structuring the Peer Assessment Process: A Multilevel Approach for the Impact on Product Improvement and Peer Feedback Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gielen, M.; De Wever, B.

    2015-01-01

    In order to optimize students' peer feedback processes, this study investigates how an instructional intervention in the peer assessment process can have a beneficial effect on students' performance in a wiki environment in first-year higher education. The main aim was to study the effect of integrating a peer feedback template with a varying…

  19. Interpersonal Trust Consistency and the Quality of Peer Relationships during Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotenberg, Ken J.; Boulton, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Five hundred five children (267 female) enrolled in school years 5 and 6 in the UK (M = 9 years and 9 months) completed measures of trust beliefs in peers, best friendships, ascriptions of trustworthiness, and trustworthiness toward peers. Children's social disengagement, peer preference, and peer victimization were assessed by sociometric…

  20. Accuracy and Reliability of Peer Assessment of Athletic Training Psychomotor Laboratory Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Melissa C.; Henning, Jolene M.; Willse, John T.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Context: Peer assessment is defined as students judging the level or quality of a fellow student's understanding. No researchers have yet demonstrated the accuracy or reliability of peer assessment in athletic training education. Objective: To determine the accuracy and reliability of peer assessment of athletic training students' psychomotor skills. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Entry-level master's athletic training education program. Patients or Other Participants: First-year (n  =  5) and second-year (n  =  8) students. Main Outcome Measure(s): Participants evaluated 10 videos of a peer performing 3 psychomotor skills (middle deltoid manual muscle test, Faber test, and Slocum drawer test) on 2 separate occasions using a valid assessment tool. Accuracy of each peer-assessment score was examined through percentage correct scores. We used a generalizability study to determine how reliable athletic training students were in assessing a peer performing the aforementioned skills. Decision studies using generalizability theory demonstrated how the peer-assessment scores were affected by the number of participants and number of occasions. Results: Participants had a high percentage of correct scores: 96.84% for the middle deltoid manual muscle test, 94.83% for the Faber test, and 97.13% for the Slocum drawer test. They were not able to reliably assess a peer performing any of the psychomotor skills on only 1 occasion. However, the ϕ increased (exceeding the 0.70 minimal standard) when 2 participants assessed the skill on 3 occasions (ϕ  =  0.79) for the Faber test, with 1 participant on 2 occasions (ϕ  =  0.76) for the Slocum drawer test, and with 3 participants on 2 occasions for the middle deltoid manual muscle test (ϕ  =  0.72). Conclusions: Although students did not detect all errors, they assessed their peers with an average of 96% accuracy. Having only 1 student assess a peer performing certain psychomotor skills was

  1. Accuracy and reliability of peer assessment of athletic training psychomotor laboratory skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Melissa C; Henning, Jolene M; Willse, John T

    2010-01-01

    Peer assessment is defined as students judging the level or quality of a fellow student's understanding. No researchers have yet demonstrated the accuracy or reliability of peer assessment in athletic training education. To determine the accuracy and reliability of peer assessment of athletic training students' psychomotor skills. Cross-sectional study. Entry-level master's athletic training education program. First-year (n  =  5) and second-year (n  =  8) students. Participants evaluated 10 videos of a peer performing 3 psychomotor skills (middle deltoid manual muscle test, Faber test, and Slocum drawer test) on 2 separate occasions using a valid assessment tool. Accuracy of each peer-assessment score was examined through percentage correct scores. We used a generalizability study to determine how reliable athletic training students were in assessing a peer performing the aforementioned skills. Decision studies using generalizability theory demonstrated how the peer-assessment scores were affected by the number of participants and number of occasions. Participants had a high percentage of correct scores: 96.84% for the middle deltoid manual muscle test, 94.83% for the Faber test, and 97.13% for the Slocum drawer test. They were not able to reliably assess a peer performing any of the psychomotor skills on only 1 occasion. However, the φ increased (exceeding the 0.70 minimal standard) when 2 participants assessed the skill on 3 occasions (φ  =  0.79) for the Faber test, with 1 participant on 2 occasions (φ  =  0.76) for the Slocum drawer test, and with 3 participants on 2 occasions for the middle deltoid manual muscle test (φ  =  0.72). Although students did not detect all errors, they assessed their peers with an average of 96% accuracy. Having only 1 student assess a peer performing certain psychomotor skills was less reliable than having more than 1 student assess those skills on more than 1 occasion. Peer assessment of psychomotor skills

  2. Psychometric properties of the Peer Proficiency Assessment (PEPA): a tool for evaluation of undergraduate peer counselors' motivational interviewing fidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroleo, Nadine R; Mallett, Kimberly A; Turrisi, Rob; Ray, Anne E

    2009-09-01

    Despite the expanding use of undergraduate student peer counseling interventions aimed at reducing college student drinking, few programs evaluate peer counselors' competency to conduct these interventions. The present research describes the development and psychometric assessments of the Peer Proficiency Assessment (PEPA), a new tool for examining Motivational Interviewing adherence in undergraduate student peer delivered interventions. Twenty peer delivered sessions were evaluated by master and undergraduate student coders using a cross-validation design to examine peer based alcohol intervention sessions. Assessments revealed high inter-rater reliability between student and master coders and good correlations between previously established fidelity tools. Findings lend support for the use of the PEPA to examine peer counselor competency. The PEPA, training for use, inter-rater reliability information, construct and predictive validity, and tool usefulness are described.

  3. Mentoring Literacy Professionals: Continuing the Spirit of CRA/ALER after 50 Years. The Thirty-First Yearbook: A Doubled Peer Reviewed Publication of the College Reading Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Susan, Ed.; Sampson, Mary Beth, Ed.; Foote, Martha M., Ed.; Falk-Ross, Francine, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This volume is a milestone year for the Yearbook, the conference, and the College Reading Association (CRA). At this conference, CRA celebrated its 50th year. The title of this thirty-first yearbook mirrors the theme of the 2008 conference--"Mentoring Literacy Professionals for 50 Years." The title "Mentoring Literacy Professionals:…

  4. Early Adolescent Alcohol Use in Context: How Neighborhoods, Parents and Peers Impact Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trucco, Elisa M.; Colder, Craig R.; Wieczorek, William F.; Lengua, Liliana J.; Hawk, Larry W.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental-ecological models are useful for integrating risk factors across multiple contexts and conceptualizing mediational pathways for adolescent alcohol use; yet, these comprehensive models are rarely tested. This study used a developmental-ecological framework to investigate the influence of neighborhood, family, and peer contexts on alcohol use in early adolescence (N = 387). Results from a multi-informant longitudinal cross-lagged mediation path model suggested that high levels of neighborhood disadvantage were associated with high levels of alcohol use two years later via an indirect pathway that included exposure to delinquent peers and adolescent delinquency. Results also indicated that adolescent involvement with delinquent peers and alcohol use led to decrements in parenting, rather than being consequences of poor parenting. Overall, the study supported hypothesized relationships among key microsystems thought to influence adolescent alcohol use, and thus findings underscore the utility of developmental-ecological models of alcohol use. PMID:24621660

  5. Equality in adults' oral health in Norway. Cohort and cross-sectional results over 33 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holst, Dorthe; Schuller, Annemarie A

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess social inequality in dental clinical parameters from 1973 to 2006. METHODS: Samples from two birth-cohorts born between 1929-1938 and 1959-1960, respectively, and 35-44-year-olds were drawn in 1973, 1983, 1994 and in 2006 in the county of Nord-Trøndelag in Norway. Standard

  6. A Cross-Sectional Study of Student Teachers' Behaviour Management Strategies throughout Their Training Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, Stuart; Reupert, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Despite the importance of behaviour management, many student teachers report being inadequately trained in this area. The aim of this study was to identify the strategies, confidence and reported levels of success in regard to various behaviour management strategies, across 509 first, second, third and fourth year student teachers training to be…

  7. Blood profiles in elite cross-country skiers: a 6-year follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morkeberg, J; Saltin, B; Belhage, B

    2009-01-01

    the introduction of an enlarged blood testing program, the mean [Hb] values were lowered to close to normal levels, but over the last 2-3 years there has been a small elevation and an increase in OFF-model scores, which may indicate a change in the manipulations used to elevate the [Hb]....

  8. Food Allergy Emergencies in Children – To what extent are Early Years Services Prepared? A cross-sectional survey

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    MacGiobuin, S

    2017-08-01

    Food allergies are common in preschool children. This study’s aims are to establish prevalence, to clarify management practices, levels of preparedness and the perceived role of General Practitioners amongst Early Years Services providers. This study is an anonymous, quantitative, cross sectional study. An online questionnaire was distributed to 282 Early Years Service providers. Data were analysed using SPSS. Response rate was 35% (n=98). Prevalence of food allergy was 3% (n=119). Allergic reactions to food had occurred on site in 16% (n=15). Written emergency action plans were available in 47% of facilities (n=46). Medications were not kept on site in 63% (n=62) of facilities. General practitioners were felt to have an important role in the management of food allergies by 76% of respondents (n=61). This study identifies significant areas for improvement in the management of food allergic child in Early Years Services

  9. The Role of Parents and Peers in Understanding Female Adolescent Sexuality--Testing Perceived Peer Norms as Mediators between Some Parental Variables and Sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajhvajn Bulat, Linda; Ajdukovic, Marina; Ajdukovic, Dea

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has confirmed peers and parents as significant agents of socialisation with respect to young people's sexuality. The aim of this cross-sectional cohort study was to examine how parental and peer variables predict young women's sexual behaviour and sexuality-related thoughts and emotions, and whether perceived peer influences…

  10. Specificity of peer conflicts in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Danijela

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the survey conducted on the sample of 530 adolescents are presented in this paper. The sample included two age groups (13 and 16 years. The research was realized in 11 town and 26 schools. The method of the retrospection of the conflict contents, with one week retrospection interval, was used to research the perception of the conflict characteristics. The distinctive characteristics and the effects of the peer conflicts in adolescence have been identified by comparing them to the conflicts with friends, romantic partners, siblings and teachers. According to the results peer conflicts have certain specificity. Although less frequent than conflicts with parents and siblings, the peer conflicts in adolescence are widen phenomenon - on average, the adolescents get in conflict with their peers more than 13 times in a week, almost twice in a day. The most frequent causes are teasing and inappropriate jokes, deliberate provoking, gossips, insults and not respecting the differences in opinion. Peers follow the teachers as the least important persons in the conflict. Compared to the conflicts in other types of the social relations, the conflicts with peers are the least uncomfortable. Yielding is the least, competition the most present resolution strategy in peer conflicts. As well as the most conflicts in this age conflicts with peers are short time episode.

  11. Workplace bullying and sickness presenteeism: cross-sectional and prospective associations in a 2-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Paul Maurice; Clausen, Thomas; Hansen, Åse Marie; Hogh, Annie

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate exposure to workplace bullying as a potential risk factor for sickness presenteeism (SP), i.e. working while ill. This study is based on data collected through self-reported questionnaires in a 2-year prospective study on employees in Denmark. At baseline, 3363 employees (45.7 % response rate) answered to a questionnaire on their psychosocial work environment and health status. After 2 years, 1664 of the respondents also completed a follow-up questionnaire (49.5 % of the total baseline respondents). After excluding participants with missing values, the final samples were composed of 2865 and 1331 participants in the cross-sectional and prospective analyses, respectively. Modified poisson regression analyses showed that frequent (i.e. daily or weekly) exposure to workplace bullying was associated with reporting 8 or more days of SP in the preceding year in both the cross-sectional and the prospective analysis, also when controlling for several confounders including health-related variables. However, the prospective relationship became non-significant after adjustment for baseline SP. This study provides indications of a significant relationship between exposure to frequent workplace bullying and SP, although causal connections could not be established. Methodological and theoretical considerations about study findings are provided, which could be of benefit to future studies examining the impact of being a target of workplace bullying on SP.

  12. In Peer Matters, Teachers Matter: Peer Group Influences on Students' Engagement Depend on Teacher Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollet, Justin W.; Kindermann, Thomas A.; Skinner, Ellen A.

    2017-01-01

    This study focused on the joint effects of teachers and peer groups as predictors of change in students' engagement during the first year of middle school, when the importance of peer relationships normatively increases and the quality of teacher-student relationships typically declines. To explore cumulative and contextualized joint effects, the…

  13. Three-Year Outcomes of Cross-Linking PLUS (Combined Cross-Linking with Femtosecond Laser Intracorneal Ring Segments Implantation for Management of Keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Iqbal Hafez Saleem

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze the results of three-year outcomes of combined epithelium-on cross-linking with femtosecond laser ICRS (cross-linking PLUS for keratoconus management. Design. A retrospective multicenter clinical study. Methods. 43 eyes of 38 patients were subjected to preoperative and postoperative UCVA, BCVA, refraction, Pentacam pachymetry, and keratometry examinations at 3-, 6-, 12-, 24-, and 36-month follow-up period. Results. The preoperative and postoperative mean UCVA was 1.30 ± 0.48 (logMAR ± SD and 0.82 ± 0.22 respectively. The preoperative and postoperative mean BCVA was 0.90 ± 0.40 and 0.60 ± 0.30, respectively. The preoperative and postoperative mean K average was 50.63 ± 0.87 (D ± SD and 45.56 ± 0.98, respectively. The preoperative and postoperative mean pachymetry was 471 ± 92.36 (μm ± SD and 423 ± 39.58, respectively. The preoperative and postoperative mean astigmatism was 7.55 ± 1.75 and 3.39 ± 1.26, respectively. One eye showed ICRS edge exposure while 6 eyes showed progression of keratoconus. Conclusion. CXL PLUS was proved to be a successful procedure to halt progression (mainly by CXL and to correct the refractive status of the keratoconic eye (mainly by ICRS. CXL PLUS performed a synergistic action correcting and maintaining the correction of both myopic and astigmatic components of keratoconus.

  14. Peer Attachment, Perceived Parenting Style, Self-concept, and School Adjustments in Adolescents with Chronic Illness

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong-Ah Ahn, PhD, RN; Sunhee Lee, PhD, RN

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify how peer attachment and parenting style differentially affect self-concept and school adjustment in adolescents with and without chronic illness. Methods: A cross-sectional study using multiple group analysis on the Korean panel data was used. A nationwide stratified multistage cluster sampling method was used and the survey was conducted in 2013 on 2,092 first-year middle school students in Korea. We used standardized instruments by the N...

  15. Some limits in peer assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Domingo Penya

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the known as ‘peer assessment’ is one of the pillars of formative assessment in the different levels of the educational system buts, especially, in the University level. Last years, it has been considered in order to enhance students' meaningful learning, considering it as an element of social learning from the lessons learned by other classmates, and the ability to assess their quality, compared with the level of knowledge that each student has about the subject/course evaluated, and using common evaluation criteria. Relating to this, the experience presented in this paper has been developed with two groups of students. It allows to determine how many peer assessments is prudent to ask course students in order to make a serious and reliable activity, and not as a required and mandatory exercise that has to be carried out by students simply to pass the course; in this last case, the activity could become extremely trivial and banal. Statistical analysis of the results indicates that three-peer assessments per student appraised are a good lot. In addition, on the other hand, more than thirty-peer assessments do not provide learning nor serious activities.

  16. Peer mentoring: evaluation of a novel programme in paediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Sarah; Sukhani, Seema; Brightwell, Alex; Stoneham, Sara; Long, Andrew

    2014-02-01

    Mentoring is important for personal and professional development of doctors. Peer mentoring is a core skill in the UK paediatric postgraduate curriculum. However, there is a paucity of peer mentoring programmes aimed at postgraduate doctors in training (postgraduate trainees), and there are no such schemes within paediatrics described in the literature. We developed a regional peer mentoring programme for postgraduate trainees in paediatrics to assess demand and need for peer mentoring and to explore the benefits for both peer mentees and mentors. Junior postgraduate trainees, randomly selected from volunteers, received peer mentoring from more senior trainees for 1 year. Peer mentors were selected by competitive application and undertook tailored training followed by an experiential learning programme. The programme was evaluated using structured questionnaires. 90% (76/84) of first-year postgraduate trainees in paediatrics applied to participate, demonstrating high demand. 18 peer mentor-mentee pairs were matched. Peer mentors and mentees reported high satisfaction rates, acquisition of new and transferable skills and changed behaviours. All peer mentors intended to use the skills in their workplace and, later, as an educational supervisor. Our programme represents a novel approach to meeting the demonstrated demand and the curriculum requirement for peer mentoring, and enabled peer mentors and mentees to develop a valuable and versatile skill set. To our knowledge, it is the first such programme in paediatrics and provides a feasibility model that may be adapted locally to allow education providers to offer this important experience to postgraduate trainees.

  17. The Potential of Supplemental Instruction in Engineering Education: Creating Additional Peer-Guided Learning Opportunities in Difficult Compulsory Courses for First-Year Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malm, Joakim; Bryngfors, Leif; Mörner, Lise-Lotte

    2016-01-01

    Supplemental Instruction (SI) can be an efficient way of improving student success in difficult courses. Here, a study is made on SI attached to difficult first-year engineering courses. The results show that both the percentage of students passing a difficult first-year engineering course, and scores on the course exams are considerably higher…

  18. Online Peer-to-Peer Support for Young People With Mental Health Problems: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Kathina; Farrer, Louise; Gulliver, Amelia; Griffiths, Kathleen M

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence and early adulthood are critical periods for the development of mental disorders. Online peer-to-peer communication is popular among young people and may improve mental health by providing social support. Previous systematic reviews have targeted Internet support groups for adults with mental health problems, including depression. However, there have been no systematic reviews examining the effectiveness of online peer-to-peer support in improving the mental health of adolescents and young adults. The aim of this review was to systematically identify available evidence for the effectiveness of online peer-to peer support for young people with mental health problems. The PubMed, PsycInfo, and Cochrane databases were searched using keywords and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms. Retrieved abstracts (n=3934) were double screened and coded. Studies were included if they (1) investigated an online peer-to-peer interaction, (2) the interaction discussed topics related to mental health, (3) the age range of the sample was between 12 to 25 years, and (4) the study evaluated the effectiveness of the peer-to-peer interaction. Six studies satisfied the inclusion criteria for the current review. The studies targeted a range of mental health problems including depression and anxiety (n=2), general psychological problems (n=1), eating disorders (n=1), and substance use (tobacco) (n=2). The majority of studies investigated Internet support groups (n=4), and the remaining studies focused on virtual reality chat sessions (n=2). In almost all studies (n=5), the peer support intervention was moderated by health professionals, researchers or consumers. Studies employed a range of study designs including randomized controlled trials (n=3), pre-post studies (n=2) and one randomized trial. Overall, two of the randomized controlled trials were associated with a significant positive outcome in comparison to the control group at post-intervention. In the remaining four

  19. Peers and adolescent smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobus, Kimberly

    2003-05-01

    There is a considerable body of empirical research that has identified adolescent peer relationships as a primary factor involved in adolescent cigarette smoking. Despite this large research base, many questions remain unanswered about the mechanisms by which peers affect youths' smoking behavior. Understanding these processes of influence is key to the development of prevention and intervention programs designed to address adolescent smoking as a significant public health concern. In this paper, theoretical frameworks and empirical findings are reviewed critically which inform the current state of knowledge regarding peer influences on teenage smoking. Specifically, social learning theory, primary socialization theory, social identity theory and social network theory are discussed. Empirical findings regarding peer influence and selection, as well as multiple reference points in adolescent friendships, including best friendships, romantic relationships, peer groups and social crowds, are also reviewed. Review of this work reveals the contribution that peers have in adolescents' use of tobacco, in some cases promoting use, and in other cases deterring it. This review also suggests that peer influences on smoking are more subtle than commonly thought and need to be examined more carefully, including consideration of larger social contexts, e.g. the family, neighborhood, and media. Recommendations for future investigations are made, as well as suggestions for specific methodological approaches that offer promise for advancing our knowledge of the contribution of peers on adolescent tobacco use.

  20. Peer Review of Teaching

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Charles E.; Yu, Jenny

    2007-01-01

    This article provides an overview and description of peer review of teaching for faculty members and administrators who would like to implement a peer review program. This may include classroom and clinical settings. A brief overview, procedure, and a teaching competence evaluation rubric are provided

  1. Random Versus Nonrandom Peer Review: A Case for More Meaningful Peer Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itri, Jason N; Donithan, Adam; Patel, Sohil H

    2018-05-10

    Random peer review programs are not optimized to discover cases with diagnostic error and thus have inherent limitations with respect to educational and quality improvement value. Nonrandom peer review offers an alternative approach in which diagnostic error cases are targeted for collection during routine clinical practice. The objective of this study was to compare error cases identified through random and nonrandom peer review approaches at an academic center. During the 1-year study period, the number of discrepancy cases and score of discrepancy were determined from each approach. The nonrandom peer review process collected 190 cases, of which 60 were scored as 2 (minor discrepancy), 94 as 3 (significant discrepancy), and 36 as 4 (major discrepancy). In the random peer review process, 1,690 cases were reviewed, of which 1,646 were scored as 1 (no discrepancy), 44 were scored as 2 (minor discrepancy), and none were scored as 3 or 4. Several teaching lessons and quality improvement measures were developed as a result of analysis of error cases collected through the nonrandom peer review process. Our experience supports the implementation of nonrandom peer review as a replacement to random peer review, with nonrandom peer review serving as a more effective method for collecting diagnostic error cases with educational and quality improvement value. Copyright © 2018 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Clinical reasoning skills in final-year dental students: A qualitative cross-curricula comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafea, E T; Dennick, R

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this research was to explore the perceptions of undergraduate dental students regarding clinical reasoning skills and also discover the influences of different curriculum designs on the acquisition of these skills by students. Eighteen final-year students from three different dental schools with varied curricula and cultures participated in the current research. The research used qualitative methodology. The study took place in 2013-2014. Interviews captured the participants' own understanding of clinical reasoning and its acquisition plus they "talked through" a clinical problem using a "think-aloud" technique. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the transcripts of the recorded interviews. Results obtained were related to curriculum structure. Unfamiliarity with the term clinical reasoning was common in students. Students from different schools used different strategies to reason when discussing clinical vignettes. Clinical reasoning process was dominated by pattern recognition. Students' behaviours seemed to be influenced by cultural factors. This research contributes to a greater understanding of how students learn, understand and apply dental clinical reasoning which will improve educational practices in the future. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Expertise-based peer selection in Peer-to-Peer networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haase, Peter; Siebes, Ronny; Harmelen, van Frank

    2007-01-01

    Peer-to-Peer systems have proven to be an effective way of sharing data. Modern protocols are able to efficiently route a message to a given peer. However, determining the destination peer in the first place is not always trivial. We propose a model in which peers advertise their expertise in

  4. Expertise-based peer selection in Peer-to-Peer networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haase, Peter; Siebes, Ronny; Harmelen, van Frank

    2007-01-01

    Peer-to-Peer systems have proven to be an effective way of sharing data. Modern protocols are able to efficiently route a message to a given peer. However, determining the destination peer in the first place is not always trivial. We propose a a message to a given peer. However, determining the

  5. The Power of Peer Reviewing to Enhance Writing in Horticulture: Greenhouse Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Neil O.; Flash, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    Peer review is not included in undergraduate horticultural curricula. Our research objectives in an 8- year study, which ranged from 2000 to 2007 in two sections (2000-2002 non-peer reviewed and 2003-2007 peer-reviewed) of Greenhouse Management students at the University of Minnesota were to determine whether iterative peer reviews would result in…

  6. Malnutrition among 3 to 5 years old children in Baghdad city, Iraq: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazi, Hasanain Faisal; Mustafa, Jamsiah; Aljunid, Syed; Isa, Zaleha; Abdalqader, Mohammed A

    2013-09-01

    The unstable geopolitical situation in Iraq since 2003 still affects the health of people, especially children. Several factors may indirectly affect a child's nutritional status. The main aim of this study was to identify factors contributing to malnutrition among 3 to 5 years old children in Baghdad city, Iraq. Two hundred twenty children aged 3 to 5 years were chosen randomly from four kindergartens in Baghdad city according to the cross-sectional design. The nutritional status of the children was assessed using a weight-for-age z-score based on the World Health Organization 2007 cutoff points, in which any child with a z-score of malnutrition. There was no association between a family's movement from their house and childhood malnutrition (p=0.322). Living in an unsafe neighbourhood and having a family member killed during the past five years were significantly associated with childhood malnutrition (p=0.016 and 0.018 respectively). Childhood malnutrition is still a public-health concern in Baghdad city, especially after the war of 2003. Malnutrition is significantly associated with living in unsafe neighbourhoods and at least one family member having been killed during the past five years.

  7. Prevalence of urinary incontinence and pelvic floor muscle dysfunction in primiparae two years after cesarean section: cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Angélica Mércia Pascon; Marini, Gabriela; Piculo, Fernanda; Rudge, Cibele Vieira Cunha; Calderon, Iracema Mattos Paranhos; Rudge, Marilza Vieira Cunha

    2013-01-01

    There is uncertainty in the literature regarding the theory that obstetric events and pelvic floor injuries give rise to lower risk of subsequent urinary incontinence among women delivering via cesarean section than among women delivering vaginally. The objective of this study was to assess the two-year postpartum prevalence of urinary incontinence and pelvic floor muscle dysfunction and the factors responsible for them. Cross-sectional study, conducted in a public university. 220 women who had undergone elective cesarean section or vaginal childbirth two years earlier were selected. Their urinary incontinence symptoms were investigated, and their pelvic floor muscle dysfunction was assessed using digital palpation and a perineometer. The two-year urinary incontinence prevalences following vaginal childbirth and cesarean section were 17% and 18.9%, respectively. The only risk factor for pelvic floor muscle dysfunction was weight gain during pregnancy. Body mass index less than 25 kg/m 2 and normal pelvic floor muscle function protected against urinary incontinence. Gestational urinary incontinence increased the risk of two-year postpartum urinary incontinence. Gestational urinary incontinence was a crucial precursor of postpartum urinary incontinence. Weight gain during pregnancy increased the subsequent risk of pelvic floor muscle dysfunction, and elective cesarean section did not prevent urinary incontinence.

  8. Three Year RSA Evaluation of Vitamin E Diffused Highly Cross-linked Polyethylene Liners and Cup Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillesen, Nanna H; Greene, Meridith E; Nebergall, Audrey K; Nielsen, Poul T; Laursen, Mogens B; Troelsen, Anders; Malchau, Henrik

    2015-07-01

    Vitamin E diffusion into highly cross-linked polyethylene (E-XLPE) is a method for enhancing oxidative stability of acetabular liners. The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vivo penetration of E-XLPE using radiostereometric analysis (RSA). Eighty-four hips were recruited into a prospective 10-year RSA. This is the first evaluation of the multicenter cohort after 3-years. All patients received E-XLPE liners (E1, Biomet) and porous-titanium coated cups (Regenerex, Biomet). There was no difference (P=0.450) in median femoral head penetration into the E-XLPE liners at 3-years comparing cobalt-chrome heads (-0.028mm; inter-quartile range (IQR) - 0.065 to 0.047) with ceramic heads (-0.043mm, IQR - 0.143to0.042). The 3-year follow-up indicates minimal E-XLPE liner penetration regardless of head material and minimal early cup movement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevalence of urinary incontinence and pelvic floor muscle dysfunction in primiparae two years after cesarean section: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Mércia Pascon Barbosa

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE There is uncertainty in the literature regarding the theory that obstetric events and pelvic floor injuries give rise to lower risk of subsequent urinary incontinence among women delivering via cesarean section than among women delivering vaginally. The objective of this study was to assess the two-year postpartum prevalence of urinary incontinence and pelvic floor muscle dysfunction and the factors responsible for them. DESIGN AND SETTING Cross-sectional study, conducted in a public university. METHODS 220 women who had undergone elective cesarean section or vaginal childbirth two years earlier were selected. Their urinary incontinence symptoms were investigated, and their pelvic floor muscle dysfunction was assessed using digital palpation and a perineometer. RESULTS The two-year urinary incontinence prevalences following vaginal childbirth and cesarean section were 17% and 18.9%, respectively. The only risk factor for pelvic floor muscle dysfunction was weight gain during pregnancy. Body mass index less than 25 kg/m 2 and normal pelvic floor muscle function protected against urinary incontinence. Gestational urinary incontinence increased the risk of two-year postpartum urinary incontinence. CONCLUSION Gestational urinary incontinence was a crucial precursor of postpartum urinary incontinence. Weight gain during pregnancy increased the subsequent risk of pelvic floor muscle dysfunction, and elective cesarean section did not prevent urinary incontinence.

  10. The development of multitasking in children aged 7-12years: Evidence from cross-sectional and longitudinal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tian-Xiao; Xie, Weizhen; Chen, Chu-Sheng; Altgassen, Mareike; Wang, Ya; Cheung, Eric F C; Chan, Raymond C K

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated the development of multitasking ability across childhood. A sample of 65 typically developing children aged 7, 9, and 11years completed two multitasking tests across three time points within a year. Cross-sectional and longitudinal data consistently indicated continuous linear growth in children's multitasking ability. By the age of 12years, children could effectively perform a simple multitasking scenario comprising six equally important tasks, although their ability to strategically organize assorted tasks with varied values and priorities in a complex multitasking setting had not reached proficiency yet. Cognitive functions underlying a complex multitasking scenario varied in their developmental trajectories. Retrospective memory developed continuously from 7 to 12years of age, suggesting its supporting role in the development of multitasking. Planning skills developed slowly and showed practice effects for older children but not for younger children. The ability to adhere to plans also developed slowly, and children of all age groups benefited from practice. This study offers a preliminary benchmark for future comparison with clinical populations and may help to inform the development of targeted interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Clear Self, Better Relationships: Adolescents’ Self-Concept Clarity and Relationship Quality With Parents and Peers Across 5 Years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becht, Andrik I.; Nelemans, Stefanie A.; Van Dijk, Marloes P. A.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Van Lier, Pol A C; Denissen, Jaap J. A.; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined reciprocal associations between adolescents’ self-concept clarity (SCC) and their relationship quality with parents and best friends in a five-wave longitudinal study from age 13 to 18 years. In all, 497 adolescents (57% boys) reported on their SCC and all informants (i.e.,

  12. The gender gap in peer-reviewed publications by physical therapy faculty members: a productivity puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Regina R; Chevan, Julia

    2011-01-01

    Studies of peer-reviewed article publication by faculty in higher education show men publish more than women. Part of the difference in publishing appears to be attributable directly to gender. Gender differences in publishing productivity have not been explored in physical therapy. The purpose of this study was to explore effects of gender on peer-reviewed publication productivity in physical therapy. This was a cross-sectional study using survey methods. A survey was administered to a random sample of 881 physical therapy faculty members; 459 responses were used for analysis. Men were more likely than women to be married, have children, hold a PhD degree, be tenured or on a tenure track, and hold the position of department chair. There was a significant difference in peer-reviewed publication rates between male and female respondents. Negative binomial regression models revealed that female gender was a negative predictor of peer-reviewed publication, accounting for between 0.51 and 0.58 fewer articles per year for women than for men over the course of a career. Reasons for the gender differences are not clear. Factors such as grant funding, laboratory resources, nature of collaborative relationships, values for different elements of the teaching/research/service triad, and ability to negotiate the academic culture were not captured by our model. The gender gap in peer-reviewed publishing productivity may have implications for individuals and the profession of physical therapy and should be subject to further exploration.

  13. Parents’ Optimism, Positive Parenting, and Child Peer Competence in Mexican-Origin Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Schilo, Laura; Ferrer, Emilio; Taylor, Zoe E.; Robins, Richard W.; Conger, Rand D.; Widaman, Keith F.

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Objective This study examined how parents’ optimism influences positive parenting and child peer competence in Mexican-origin families. Design A sample of 521 families (521 mothers, 438 fathers, and 521 11-year-olds) participated in the cross-sectional study. We used structural equation modeling to assess whether effective parenting would mediate the effect of parents’ optimism on child peer competence and whether mothers’ and fathers’ optimism would moderate the relation between positive parenting and child social competence. Results Mothers’ and fathers’ optimism were associated with effective parenting, which in turn was related to children’s peer competence. Mothers’ and fathers’ optimism also moderated the effect of parenting on child peer competence. High levels of parental optimism buffered children against poor parenting; at low levels of parental optimism, positive parenting was more strongly related to child peer competence. Conclusions Results are consistent with the hypothesis that positive parenting is promoted by parents’ optimism and is a proximal driver of child social competence. Parental optimism moderates effects of parenting on child outcomes. PMID:23526877

  14. Dissociation mediates the relationship between peer victimization and hallucinatory experiences among early adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syudo Yamasaki

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Peer victimization increases the risk of experiencing psychotic symptoms among clinical and general populations, but the mechanism underlying this association remains unclear. Dissociation, which is related to peer victimization and hallucinatory experiences, has been demonstrated as a significant mediator in the relation between childhood victimization and hallucinatory experience among adult patients with psychosis. However, no studies have examined the mediating effect of dissociation in a general early adolescent population. We examined whether dissociation mediates the relationship between peer victimization and hallucinatory experiences among 10-year-old adolescents using a population-based cross-sectional survey of early adolescents and their main parent (Tokyo Early Adolescence Survey; N = 4478. We examined the mediating effect of dissociation, as well as external locus of control and depressive symptoms, on the relationship between peer victimization and hallucinatory experiences using path analysis. The model assuming mediation effects indicated good model fit (comparative fit index = .999; root mean square error of approximation = .015. The mediation effect between peer victimization and hallucination via dissociation (standardized indirect effect = .038, p < .001 was statistically significant, whereas the mediation effects of depressive symptoms (standardized indirect effect = −.0066, p = 0.318 and external locus of control (standardized indirect effect = .0024, p = 0.321 were not significant. These results suggest that dissociation is a mediator in the relation between peer victimization and hallucinatory experiences in early adolescence. For appropriate intervention strategies, assessing dissociation and peer victimization as they affect hallucinatory experiences is necessary.

  15. The relationship between peer conflict resolution knowledge and peer victimization in school-age children across the language continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Wenonah N; Skarakis-Doyle, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Peer victimization, or bullying, has been identified as a significant child health priority and children with language impairment (LI) are among those who are vulnerable. Given the mandate of educators to provide support for all students who are bullied regardless of language status, research is needed that integrates the study of risk factors for peer victimization among children who are developing typically and children who have LI. Accordingly, this preliminary study explored the degree to which one potential risk factor, peer conflict resolution knowledge, was related to peer victimization in children across the language continuum, and considered whether or not individual differences in language ability influenced that relationship. Participants included 17 girls and 15 boys aged 9-12 years with a wide range of language abilities, six meeting criteria for LI. Participants completed a hypothetical peer conflict resolution task and a measure of peer victimization. Correlational analyses revealed very different patterns of relationships for boys and girls. Whereas boys' reports of peer victimization were meaningfully related to how they responded to hypothetical peer conflicts, girls' reports were most strongly associated with language ability. These preliminary findings suggest that it is important to consider gender when conceptualizing how factors such as peer conflict resolution knowledge might influence children's risk of being bullied. Readers will be able to: (1) provide a definition of peer victimization and give examples of different forms of peer victimization; (2) recognize that inadequate peer conflict resolution knowledge may be a risk factor for peer victimization; (3) describe the relationships between peer conflict resolution knowledge, language ability, and peer victimization in this study, and explain how these relationships differed for boys and girls; and (4) identify at least three opportunities for future research that would help to clarify

  16. Prognostic significance of functional somatic symptoms in adolescence: a 15-year community-based follow-up study of adolescents with depression compared with healthy peers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohman Hannes

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a lack of population-based long-term longitudinal research on mental health status and functional physical/somatic symptoms. Little is known about the long-term mental health outcomes associated with somatic symptoms or the temporal relationship between depression and such symptoms. This 15-year study followed up adolescents with depression and matched controls, screened from a population-based sample, who reported different numbers of somatic symptoms. Methods The total population of 16–17-year-olds in Uppsala, Sweden, was screened for depression in 1991–1993. Adolescents who screened positive and an equal number of healthy controls took part in a semi-structured diagnostic interview. In addition, 21 different self-rated somatic symptoms were assessed. Sixty-four percent of those adolescents participated in a follow-up structured interview 15 years later. Results Somatic symptoms in adolescence predicted depression and other adult mental disorders regardless of the presence of adolescent depression. In adolescents with depression, the number of functional somatic symptoms predicted, in a dose response relationship, suicidal behavior, bipolar episodes, and psychotic episodes as well as chronic and recurrent depression. Contrary to expectations, the somatic symptoms of abdominal pain and perspiration without exertion better predicted depression than all DSM-IV depressive symptoms. Abdominal pain persisted as an independent strong predictor of depression and anxiety, even after controlling for other important confounders. Conclusions Somatic symptoms in adolescence can predict severe adult mental health disorders. The number of somatic symptoms concurrent with adolescent depression is, in a stepwise manner, linked to suicidal attempts, bipolar disorders, psychotic disorders, and recurrent and chronic depression. These findings can be useful in developing treatment guidelines for patients with somatic symptoms.

  17. Dieting behaviors, body shape perceptions, and body satisfaction: cross-cultural differences in Argentinean and Swedish 13-year-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmqvist, Kristina; Lunde, Carolina; Frisén, Ann

    2007-06-01

    This exploratory study represents a cross-cultural effort to examine differences in dieting practices and weight loss attempts, perceived body shape, and body satisfaction between young Argentinean and Swedish adolescents. The study group consisted of 358 Argentinean (193 girls, 165 boys) and 874 Swedish (474 girls, 400 boys) 13-year-olds. A main finding was that Argentinean and Swedish adolescents did not differ on body satisfaction, although girls in both countries displayed greater body dissatisfaction than did boys. Dieting and weight loss attempts were more prevalent among the Argentinean adolescents, especially among girls, and did not appear to depend on overweight or perception of body shape. The samples also differed in their perceptions of body shape and the effect those perceptions had on their body satisfaction, with Swedish adolescents suffering more from negative body shape perceptions.

  18. Reasons for smoking among the teenagers of age 14–17 years in Vikarabad town: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Shakeel Anjum

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite widespread knowledge of the health consequences, tobacco use, especially smoking is common globally. Most of the youngsters become smokers annually and one-third of them are believed to die due to tobacco use. Aim: To assess the various reasons for smoking among teenagers of age 14–17 years. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted on 384 teenagers to know their views regarding the reasons for smoking habit. A specially designed pretested questionnaire was used for the survey. Results: Majority of 76.4% of the study subjects agreed that smoking habit gives psychological pleasure, 77.5% agreed that smoking starts because of friends, and 65.7% felt that smoking starts as an inspiration for outlook and personality. Conclusion: Various psychological factors, personal factors, and social factors are attached with smoking habit.

  19. Regeneration of vegetation on wetland crossings for gas pipeline rights-of-way one year after construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shem, L.M.; Zimmerman, R.E.; Zellmer, S.D.; Van Dyke, G.D.; Rastorfer, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    Four wetland crossings of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROWs), located in Florida, Michigan, New Jersey, and New York, were surveyed for generation of vegetation roughly one year after pipeline construction was completed. Conventional trench-and-fill construction techniques were employed for all four sites. Estimated areal coverage of each species by vegetative strata within transect plots was recorded for plots on the ROW and in immediately adjacent wetlands undisturbed by construction activities. Relative success of regeneration was measured by percent exposed soil, species diversity, presence of native and introduced species, and hydric characteristics of the vegetation. Variable site factors included separation and replacement of topsoil, final grading of the soil, application of seed and fertilizer, and human disturbance unrelated to construction. Successful regeneration exhibited greater dependency on the first three factors listed

  20. Measuring the ambiguity tolerance of medical students: a cross-sectional study from the first to sixth academic years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissenstein, Anne; Ligges, Sandra; Brouwer, Britta; Marschall, Bernhard; Friederichs, Hendrik

    2014-01-09

    Tolerance of ambiguity, or the extent to which ambiguous situations are perceived as desirable, is an important component of the attitudes and behaviors of medical students. However, few studies have compared this trait across the years of medical school. General practitioners are considered to have a higher ambiguity tolerance than specialists. We compared ambiguity tolerance between general practitioners and medical students. We designed a cross-sectional study to evaluate the ambiguity tolerance of 622 medical students in the first to sixth academic years. We compared this with the ambiguity tolerance of 30 general practitioners. We used the inventory for measuring ambiguity tolerance (IMA) developed by Reis (1997), which includes three measures of ambiguity tolerance: openness to new experiences, social conflicts, and perception of insoluble problems. We obtained a total of 564 complete data sets (return rate 90.1%) from medical students and 29 questionnaires (return rate 96.7%) from general practitioners. In relation to the reference groups defined by Reis (1997), medical students had poor ambiguity tolerance on all three scales. No differences were found between those in the first and the sixth academic years, although we did observe gender-specific differences in ambiguity tolerance. We found no differences in ambiguity tolerance between general practitioners and medical students. The ambiguity tolerance of the students that we assessed was below average, and appeared to be stable throughout the course of their studies. In contrast to our expectations, the general practitioners did not have a higher level of ambiguity tolerance than the students did.

  1. Emotional intelligence and academic performance in first and final year medical students: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Boon How; Zain, Azhar Md; Hassan, Faezah

    2013-03-27

    Research on emotional intelligence (EI) suggests that it is associated with more pro-social behavior, better academic performance and improved empathy towards patients. In medical education and clinical practice, EI has been related to higher academic achievement and improved doctor-patient relationships. This study examined the effect of EI on academic performance in first- and final-year medical students in Malaysia. This was a cross-sectional study using an objectively-scored measure of EI, the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). Academic performance of medical school students was measured using continuous assessment (CA) and final examination (FE) results. The first- and final-year students were invited to participate during their second semester. Students answered a paper-based demographic questionnaire and completed the online MSCEIT on their own. Relationships between the total MSCEIT score to academic performance were examined using multivariate analyses. A total of 163 (84 year one and 79 year five) medical students participated (response rate of 66.0%). The gender and ethnic distribution were representative of the student population. The total EI score was a predictor of good overall CA (OR 1.01), a negative predictor of poor result in overall CA (OR 0.97), a predictor of the good overall FE result (OR 1.07) and was significantly related to the final-year FE marks (adjusted R(2) = 0.43). Medical students who were more emotionally intelligent performed better in both the continuous assessments and the final professional examination. Therefore, it is possible that emotional skill development may enhance medical students' academic performance.

  2. The prevalence and correlations of medical student burnout in the pre-clinical years: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurkiewicz, Rebecca; Korenstein, Deborah; Fallar, Robert; Ripp, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Burnout is a psychological syndrome of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and impaired personal accomplishment induced by repeated workplace stressors. Current research suggests that physician burnout may have its origins in medical school. The consequences of medical student burnout include both personal and professional distress, loss of empathy, and poor health. We hypothesized that burnout occurs prior to the initiation of the clinical years of medical education. This was a cross-sectional survey administered to third-year medical students at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine (MSSM) in New York, New York (a traditional-style medical school with a marked division between pre-clinical and clinical training occurring at the beginning of the third year). Survey included an instrument used to measure job burnout, a sleep deprivation screen, and questions related to demographic information, current rotation, psychiatric history, time spent working/studying, participation in extracurricular activities, social support network, autonomy and isolation. Of the 86 medical students who participated, 71% met criteria for burnout. Burnt out students were significantly more likely to suffer from sleep deprivation (p = 0.0359). They were also more likely to disagree with the following statements: "I have control over my daily schedule" (p = 0.0286) and "I am confident that I will have the knowledge and skills necessary to become an intern when I graduate" (p = 0.0263). Our findings show that burnout is present at the beginning of the third year of medical school, prior to the initiation of the clinical years of medical training. Medical student burnout is quite common, and early efforts should be made to empower medical students to both build the knowledge and skills necessary to become capable physicians, as well as withstand the emotional, mental, and physical challenges inherent to medical school.

  3. A near-peer teaching program designed, developed and delivered exclusively by recent medical graduates for final year medical students sitting the final objective structured clinical examination (OSCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobowale Oluwaseun

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The General Medical Council states that teaching doctors and students is important for the care of patients. Our aim was to deliver a structured teaching program to final year medical students, evaluate the efficacy of teaching given by junior doctors and review the pertinent literature. Methods We developed a revision package for final year medical students sitting the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE. The package was created and delivered exclusively by recent medical graduates and consisted of lectures and small group seminars covering the core areas of medicine and surgery, with a focus on specific OSCE station examples. Students were asked to complete a feedback questionnaire during and immediately after the program. Results One hundred and eighteen completed feedback questionnaires were analysed. All participants stated that the content covered was relevant to their revision. 73.2% stated that junior doctors delivered teaching that is comparable to that of consultant - led teaching. 97.9% stated the revision course had a positive influence on their learning. Conclusions Our study showed that recent medical graduates are able to create and deliver a structured, formal revision program and provide a unique perspective to exam preparation that was very well received by our student cohort. The role of junior doctors teaching medical students in a formal structured environment is very valuable and should be encouraged.

  4. A peer-to-peer traffic safety campaign program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this project was to implement a peer-to-peer drivers safety program designed for high school students. : This project builds upon an effective peer-to-peer outreach effort in Texas entitled Teens in the Driver Seat (TDS), the : nati...

  5. Child Pornography in Peer-to-Peer Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Chad M. S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The presence of child pornography in peer-to-peer networks is not disputed, but there has been little effort done to quantify and analyze the distribution and nature of that content to-date. By performing an analysis of queries and query hits on the largest peer-to-peer network, we are able to both quantify and describe the nature of…

  6. Peer-to-peer computing (Introduction to Topic 7)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montresor, A.; Epema, D.H.J.; Jelasity, M.; Jorba, J.; Luque, E.; Margalef, T.; Benítez, D.

    2008-01-01

    After a decade of intensive investigation, peer-to-peer computing has established itself as an accepted research field in the general area of distributed systems. peer-to-peer computing can be seen as the democratization of computing-overthrowing the old regime of hierarchies as in client-server

  7. PLATON: Peer-to-Peer load adjusting tree overlay networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lymberopoulos, L.; Pittaras, C.; Grammatikou, M.; Papavassiliou, S.; Maglaris, V.

    2011-01-01

    Peer-to-Peer systems supporting multi attribute and range queries use a number of techniques to partition the multi dimensional data space among participating peers. Load-balancing of data accross peer partitions is necessary in order to avoid the presence of network hotspots which may cause

  8. Promoting Residential Renewable Energy via Peer-to-Peer Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiskanen, Eva; Nissilä, Heli; Tainio, Pasi

    2017-01-01

    Peer-to-peer learning is gaining increasing attention in nonformal community-based environmental education. This article evaluates a novel modification of a concept for peer-to-peer learning about residential energy solutions (Open Homes). We organized collective "Energy Walks" visiting several homes with novel energy solutions and…

  9. Investigating the effect of child maltreatment on early adolescent peer-on-peer sexual aggression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bramsen, Rikke Holm; Lasgaard, Mathias; Koss, Mary P

    2014-01-01

    : Estimates from the mediation model indicated significant indirect effects of child physical abuse on sexual aggression via peer influence and insecure-hostile masculinity. No significant total effect of child sexual abuse and child neglect on sexual aggression was found. CONCLUSIONS: Findings of the present......OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between child maltreatment and severe early adolescent peer-on-peer sexual aggression, using a multiple mediator model. METHODS: The study comprised 330 male Grade 9 students with a mean age of 14.9 years (SD=0.5). RESULTS...... study identify risk factors that are potentially changeable and therefore of value in informing the design of prevention programs aiming at early adolescent peer-on-peer sexual aggression in at-risk youth....

  10. Hierarchical Data Distribution Scheme for Peer-to-Peer Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, Shashi; Dave, M.; Patel, R. B.

    2010-11-01

    In the past few years, peer-to-peer (P2P) networks have become an extremely popular mechanism for large-scale content sharing. P2P systems have focused on specific application domains (e.g. music files, video files) or on providing file system like capabilities. P2P is a powerful paradigm, which provides a large-scale and cost-effective mechanism for data sharing. P2P system may be used for storing data globally. Can we implement a conventional database on P2P system? But successful implementation of conventional databases on the P2P systems is yet to be reported. In this paper we have presented the mathematical model for the replication of the partitions and presented a hierarchical based data distribution scheme for the P2P networks. We have also analyzed the resource utilization and throughput of the P2P system with respect to the availability, when a conventional database is implemented over the P2P system with variable query rate. Simulation results show that database partitions placed on the peers with higher availability factor perform better. Degradation index, throughput, resource utilization are the parameters evaluated with respect to the availability factor.

  11. Research peer exchange, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The WSDOT Research Peer Exchange was held in Olympia, Washington on May 13 and 14, 2014 and addressed Research Program and Project Management as described in the following paragraphs: Program Management There are numerous funding programs, standing c...

  12. EERE Peer Review Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-01-18

    The primary purpose of this guide is to provide managers and staff guidance in establishing formal in-progress peer review that provides intellectually fair expert evaluation of EERE RD3 and supporting business administration programs, both retrospective and prospective.

  13. Short-Term Changes in Anemia and Malaria Parasite Prevalence in Children under 5 Years during One Year of Repeated Cross-Sectional Surveys in Rural Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabaghe, Alinune N.; Chipeta, Michael G.; Terlouw, Dianne J.; McCann, Robert S.; van Vugt, Michèle; Grobusch, Martin P.; Takken, Willem; Phiri, Kamija S.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract. In stable transmission areas, malaria is the leading cause of anemia in children. Anemia in children is proposed as an added sensitive indicator for community changes in malaria prevalence. We report short-term temporal variations of malaria and anemia prevalence in rural Malawian children. Data from five repeated cross-sectional surveys conducted over 1 year in rural communities in Chikwawa District, Malawi, were analyzed. Different households were sampled per survey; all children, 6–59 months, in sampled household were tested for malaria parasitemia and hemoglobin levels using malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDT) and Hemocue 301, respectively. Malaria symptoms, recent treatment (2 weeks) for malaria, anthropometric measurements, and sociodemographic details were recorded. In total, 894 children were included from 1,377 households. The prevalences of mRDT positive and anemia (Hb anemia and parasite prevalence varied differently. Overall, unadjusted and adjusted relative risks of anemia in mRDT-positive children were 1.31 (95% CI: 1.09–1.57) and 1.36 (1.13–1.63), respectively. Changes in anemia prevalence differed with short-term changes in malaria prevalence, although malaria is an important factor in anemia. PMID:28820717

  14. Surveillance of peer to peer payment systems and peer to peer lending platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Faia, Ester

    2014-01-01

    Financial innovation is, as usual, faster than regulation. New forms of speculation and intermediation are rapidly emerging. Largely as a result of the evaporation of trust in financial intermediation, an exponentially increasing role is being played by the so-called peer to peer intermediation. The most prominent example at the moment is Bitcoin. If one expects that shocks in these markets could destabilize also traditional financial markets, then it will be necessary to extend regulatory me...

  15. Willingness to Drink as a Function of Peer Offers and Peer Norms in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Kristina M; Roberts, Megan E; Colby, Suzanne M; Barnett, Nancy P; Abar, Caitlin C; Merrill, Jennifer E

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to explore the effect of subjective peer norms on adolescents’ willingness to drink and whether this association was moderated by sensitivity to peer approval, prior alcohol use, and gender. Method: The sample was 1,023 middle-school students (52% female; 76% White; 12% Hispanic; Mage = 12.22 years) enrolled in a prospective study of drinking initiation and progression. Using web-based surveys, participants reported on their willingness to drink alcohol if offered by (a) a best friend or (b) a classmate, peer norms for two referent groups (close friends and classmates), history of sipping or consuming a full drink of alcohol, and sensitivity to peer approval (extreme peer orientation). Items were re-assessed at two follow-ups (administered 6 months apart). Results: Multilevel models revealed that measures of peer norms were significantly associated with both willingness outcomes, with the greatest prediction by descriptive norms. The association between norms and willingness was magnified for girls, those with limited prior experience with alcohol, and youths with low sensitivity to peer approval. Conclusions: Social norms appear to play a key role in substance use decisions and are relevant when considering more reactive behaviors that reflect willingness to drink under conducive circumstances. Prevention programs might target individuals with higher willingness, particularly girls who perceive others to be drinking and youths who have not yet sipped alcohol but report a higher perceived prevalence of alcohol consumption among both friends and peers. PMID:24766752

  16. Which peer teaching methods do medical students prefer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, Nithish; Srirathan, Danushan; Shah, Rishita; Jakubowska, Agnieszka; Clarke, Andrew; Annan, David; Albasha, Dekan

    2016-01-01

    The beneficial effects of peer teaching in medical education have been well-described in the literature. However, it is unclear whether students prefer to be taught by peers in small or large group settings. This study's aim was to identify differences in medical students' preferences and perceptions of small-group versus large-group peer teaching. Questionnaires were administered to medical students in Year 3 and Year 4 (first 2 years of clinical training) at one institution in the United Kingdom to identify their experiences and perceptions of small-and large-group peer teaching. For this study, small-group peer teaching was defined as a tutorial, or similar, taught by peer tutor to a group of 5 students or less. Large-group peer teaching was defined as a lecture, or similar, taught by peer tutors to a group of more than 20 students. Seventy-three students (81% response rate) completed the questionnaires (54% males; median age of 23). Nearly 55% of respondents reported prior exposure to small-group peer teaching but a larger proportion of respondents (86%) had previously attended large-group peer teaching. Of all valid responses, 49% did not have a preference of peer teaching method while 47% preferred small-group peer teaching. The majority of Year 3 students preferred small-group peer teaching to no preference (62.5% vs 37.5%, Fisher's exact test; P = 0.035) whereas most Year 4 students did not report a particular preference. Likert-scale responses showed that the majority of students held negative perceptions about large-group peer teaching, in comparison with small-group peer teaching, with respect to (1) interactivity, (2) a comfortable environment to ask questions, and (3) feedback received. Most respondents in this study did not report a preference for small-versus large-group settings when taught by peers. More Year 3 respondents were likely to prefer small-group peer teaching as opposed to Year 4 respondents.

  17. Selection and Use of Online Learning Resources by First-Year Medical Students: Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Terry; Elliott, Kristine

    2017-10-02

    Medical students have access to a wide range of learning resources, many of which have been specifically developed for or identified and recommended to them by curriculum developers or teaching staff. There is an expectation that students will access and use these resources to support their self-directed learning. However, medical educators lack detailed and reliable data about which of these resources students use to support their learning and how this use relates to key learning events or activities. The purpose of this study was to comprehensively document first-year medical student selection and use of online learning resources to support their bioscience learning within a case-based curriculum and assess these data in relation to our expectations of student learning resource requirements and use. Study data were drawn from 2 sources: a survey of student learning resource selection and use (2013 cohort; n=326) and access logs from the medical school learning platform (2012 cohort; n=337). The paper-based survey, which was distributed to all first-year students, was designed to assess the frequency and types of online learning resources accessed by students and included items about their perceptions of the usefulness, quality, and reliability of various resource types and sources. Of 237 surveys returned, 118 complete responses were analyzed (36.2% response rate). Usage logs from the learning platform for an entire semester were processed to provide estimates of first-year student resource use on an individual and cohort-wide basis according to method of access, resource type, and learning event. According to the survey data, students accessed learning resources via the learning platform several times per week on average, slightly more often than they did for resources from other online sources. Google and Wikipedia were the most frequently used nonuniversity sites, while scholarly information sites (eg, online journals and scholarly databases) were accessed

  18. The Potential of Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Susan Moore; Fiarman, Sarah E.

    2012-01-01

    Peer review of teachers is controversial for several reasons. Some say peer reviewers encroach on the rightful domain of the principal as instructional leader. Others argue that, because peer evaluators are fellow teachers, they may be biased or unwilling to make hard decisions. Many teachers find the prospect of peer evaluation unsettling because…

  19. The Impact of Media-related Cognitions on Children’s Substance Use Outcomes in the Context of Parental and Peer Substance Use

    OpenAIRE

    Scull, Tracy M.; Kupersmidt, Janis B.; Erausquin, Jennifer Toller

    2013-01-01

    Media-related cognitions are a unique influence on adolescents’ substance use outcomes even after accounting for the powerful influence of parent and peers. This cross-sectional study expands upon prior research by investigating the impact of media-related cognitions on children’s alcohol and tobacco outcomes in the context of parental and peer substance use. Six hundred forty-nine elementary school children (M = 9.4 years of age, SD = 1.1 years; 51% female) completed self-report questionnair...

  20. A Cross-sectional study of common psychiatric morbidity in children aged 5 to 14 years in an Urban Slum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh N Patil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Study of the prevalence of common psychiatric disorders in children aged 5 to 14 years in a health post area of an urban slum. Objectives: (1 To study frequency of specific psychiatric disorders in the study population, (2 To study the relationship between sociodemographic variables and psychiatric morbidity. Settings and Design: The present study was conducted in one of the five health posts of an urban slum, which is a field practice area of the teaching medical institute. It was a cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Sample size was estimated by using 20% as a prevalence of psychiatric morbidity which was obtained from previous studies done in developing countries. Household was used as a sampling unit and systematic random sampling method was used for selecting household. Total 257 children aged 5 to 14 years were included in the study. A pre-designed, semi-structured diagnostic interview schedule based on DSM-IV criteria was used for data collection. Statistical Analysis Used: The tests of significance used were Chi-square and Logistic regression analysis. Results: The prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in this study was 14.8%. Non-organic enuresis, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Conduct disorder, and Mental retardation were identified as the common mental health problems. Conclusions: Factors like nuclear family, parents not living together, large family size, and positive family history of psychiatric disorder were associated with psychiatric morbidity in children.

  1. Analysis of Discussion Board Interaction in an Online Peer Mentoring Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruane, Regina; Lee, Vera J.

    2016-01-01

    This study uses Critical Discourse Analysis and Social Network Analysis to examine an online peer mentoring site created to unite first-year and third-year preservice teachers enrolled in an undergraduate teacher education program. The peer mentoring site was developed to provide both first-year preservice teachers and more experienced peers the…

  2. Crossing Human Boundaries: Apocalypse and Posthumanism in Margaret Atwood’s Oryx and Crake and The Year of the Flood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Mosca

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Margaret Atwood’s Oryx and Crake (2003 and The Year of the Flood (2009 are the first and second novels in an as-yet-unfinished trilogy. The two works share a complex structure in which scenes from different moments in the future follow one another. A post-apocalyptic narrative line is intertwined with one that depicts events from a nearer future, all of them leading up to an environmental catastrophe of huge proportions. The nearest scenario is one of extreme genetic manipulation, in which the boundaries between species are blatantly crossed. Biopolitics strictly controls the environment and those who inhabit it; identities can be bought, and only some of them grant access to the Compounds – the only safe areas left after open spaces have become radioactive. In the meantime, all kinds of technological and genetic enhancements to human capabilities are being employed, some of them resulting in the creation of para-human populations. An environmental catastrophe follows, and both books feature last-man-on-earth narratives. Whether – or, more appropriately, how – the apocalyptic destruction is linked to an attempt to cross the boundary of the human is the issue this essay addresses. The first section deals with more classical interpretations of Atwood’s fiction as a cautionary tale about current environmental policies, whereas a new hypothesis is made in the second section, a post-humanist reading of Atwood's novels. Philosophical support will be provided by Jacques Derrida’s reflections on the fine line between animals and humans and Cary Wolfe’s theory of posthumanism.

  3. [Peer teaching and peer assessment are appropriate tools in medical education in otorhinolaryngology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, M; Linke, J; Zahnert, T; Neudert, M

    2014-06-01

    The use of student tutors (peers) is an accepted method in medical education. In 2011, final year students of the otorhinolaryngology (ORL) department of the University Hospital in Dresden were appointed as peers for the clinical ORL examination. They assisted in the instruction of the clinical ORL examination (peer teaching, PT) and served as examiners (peer assessment, PA) in the final objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). The effect on the quality of education and examination was examined. 248 medical students (5(th) year) were divided in 2 groups. They were trained and finally examined in the standardized clinical ORL examination by peers and/or physicians. Group I (n=118) was exclusively trained and examined by physicians and group II (n=130) by peers and physicians. The results of the OSCE were stratified for the 2 groups and in group II for the subgroups according to the instructors' and examiners' qualification (peer or physician). The students evaluated the internship and the instructors' and examiners' quality with a validated questionnaire. In the OSCE, group I scored in the mean 59.9±4.9 points (max. 65). In group II the mean score was 58.3±4.3 points examined by the peers and 59.5±4.8 points for same performance assessed by the physicians. There were no statistical significant differences in the examination results when stratified for the instructors' and examiners' qualification. The evaluation results were consistently positive and identical when compared to the previous year without use of PT and PA and between the 2 groups and subgroups. When using a standardized clinical examination routine peers can be used for PT and PA to appropriate tools in student's medical education without any decrease in the teaching and examination quality. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Peer effects on self-regulation in adolescence depend on the nature and quality of the peer interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Kevin M; McLaughlin, Katie A; Silk, Jennifer; Monahan, Kathryn C

    2017-11-21

    Adolescence is a critical period for the development of self-regulation, and peer interactions are thought to strongly influence regulation ability. Simple exposure to peers has been found to alter decisions about risky behaviors and increase sensitivity to rewards. The link between peer exposure and self-regulation is likely to vary as a function of the type and quality of peer interaction (e.g., rejection or acceptance). Little is known about how the nature of interactions with peers influences different dimensions of self-regulation. We examined how randomization to acceptance or rejection by online "virtual" peers influenced multiple dimensions of self-regulation in a multisite community sample of 273 adolescents aged 16-17 years. Compared to a neutral condition, exposure to peers produced increases in cold cognitive control, but decreased hot cognitive control. Relative to peer acceptance, peer rejection reduced distress tolerance and increased sensitivity to losses. These findings suggest that different dimensions of adolescent self-regulation are influenced by the nature of the peer context: basic cognitive functions are altered by mere exposure to peers, whereas more complex decision making and emotion regulation processes are influenced primarily by the quality of that exposure.

  5. Changes in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure over a 20-year period: cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferis, Barbara J; Thomson, Andrew G; Lennon, Lucy T; Feyerabend, Colin; Doig, Mira; McMeekin, Laura; Wannamethee, S Goya; Cook, Derek G; Whincup, Peter H

    2009-01-01

    Aims To examine long-term changes in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in British men between 1978 and 2000, using serum cotinine. Design Prospective cohort: British Regional Heart Study. Setting General practices in 24 towns in England, Wales and Scotland. Participants Non-smoking men: 2125 studied at baseline [questionnaire (Q1): 1978–80, aged 40–59 years], 3046 studied 20 years later (Q20: 1998–2000, aged 60–79 years) and 1208 studied at both times. Non-smokers were men reporting no current smoking with cotinine < 15 ng/ml at Q1 and/or Q20. Measurements Serum cotinine to assess ETS exposure. Findings In cross-sectional analysis, geometric mean cotinine level declined from 1.36 ng/ml [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.31, 1.42] at Q1 to 0.19 ng/ml (95% CI: 0.18, 0.19) at Q20. The prevalence of cotinine levels ≤ 0.7 ng/ml [associated with low coronary heart disease (CHD) risk] rose from 27.1% at Q1 to 83.3% at Q20. Manual social class and northern region of residence were associated with higher mean cotinine levels both at Q1 and Q20; older age was associated with lower cotinine level at Q20 only. Among 1208 persistent non-smokers, cotinine fell by 1.47 ng/ml (95% CI: 1.37, 1.57), 86% decline. Absolute falls in cotinine were greater in manual occupational groups, in the Midlands and Scotland compared to southern England, although percentage decline was very similar across groups. Conclusions A marked decline in ETS exposure occurred in Britain between 1978 and 2000, which is likely to have reduced ETS-related disease risks appreciably before the introduction of legislation banning smoking in public places. PMID:19207361

  6. Empathy without borders? Cross-cultural heart and mind-reading in first-year medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehning, Sandra; Gasperi, Sarah; Tesfaye, Markos; Girma, Eshetu; Meyer, Sebastian; Krahl, Wolfgang; Riedel, Michael; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Müller, Norbert; Siebeck, Matthias

    2013-07-01

    This cross-cultural study was designed to examine cultural differences in empathy levels of first-year medical students. A total of 257 students from the academic year 2010/11, 131 at Jimma University, Ethiopia, and 126 at the Ludwig Maximilian University, Munich, Germany, completed the Balanced Emotional Empathy Scale (BEES), the Reading the Mind in the Eyes (RME-R) test, and a questionnaire on sociodemographic and cultural characteristics. Furthermore, we conducted a qualitative analysis of the students' personal views on the definition of empathy and possible influencing factors. Group comparisons and correlation analyses of empathy scores were performed for the entire cohort and for the Jimma and Munich students separately. We used a regression tree analysis to identify factors influencing the BEES. The male students in Jimma (39.1 ± 22.3) scored significantly higher in the BEES than those male students from Munich (27.2 ± 22.6; p = 0.0002). There was no significant difference between the female groups. We found a moderate, positive correlation between the BEES and RME-R test, i.e. between emotional and cognitive empathy, within each university. Nevertheless, the RME-R test, which shows only Caucasian eyes, appears not to be suitable for use in other cultures. The main findings of our study were the influence of culture, religion, specialization choice, and gender on emotional empathy (assessed with the BEES) and cognitive empathy (assessed with the RME-R test) in first-year medical students. Further research is required into the nature of empathy in worldwide medical curricula.

  7. Early adolescent substance use in Mexican origin families: Peer selection, peer influence, and parental monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Thomas J; Conger, Rand D; Robins, Richard W

    2015-12-01

    Because adolescents vary in their susceptibility to peer influence, the current study addresses potential reciprocal effects between associating with deviant peers and use of alcohol, tobacco and other drugs (ATOD), as well as the potential buffering role of parental monitoring on these reciprocal effects. 674 children of Mexican origin reported at fifth and seventh grade (10.4 years old at fifth grade) on the degree to which they associated with deviant peers, intended to use alcohol, tobacco or other drugs (ATOD) in the future, and had used controlled substances during the past year. Trained observers rated parental monitoring from video-recorded family interactions at the first assessment. Youth who intended to use ATODs during fifth grade experienced a relative increase in number of deviant peers by seventh grade, and youth with more deviant peers in fifth grade were more likely to use ATODs by seventh grade. Parental monitoring buffered (i.e., moderated) the reciprocal association between involvement with deviant peers and both intent to use ATODs and actual use of ATODs. Parental monitoring can disrupt the reciprocal associations between deviant peers and ATOD use during the transition from childhood to adolescence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Personalised Peer-Supported Learning: The Peer-to-Peer Learning Environment (P2PLE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corneli, Joseph; Mikroyannidis, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The Peer-to-Peer Learning Environment (P2PLE) is a proposed approach to helping learners co-construct their learning environment using recommendations about people, content, and tools. The work draws on current research on PLEs, and participant observation at the Peer-to-Peer University (P2PU). We are particularly interested in ways of eliciting…

  9. Near-peer education: a novel teaching program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Menezes, Sara; Premnath, Daphne

    2016-05-30

    This study aims to: 1) Evaluate whether a near-peer program improves perceived OSCE performance; 2) Identify factors motivating students to teach; 3) Evaluate role of near-peer teaching in medical education. A near-peer OSCE teaching program was implemented at Monash University's Peninsula Clinical School over the 2013 academic year. Forty 3rd-year and thirty final-year medical students were recruited as near-peer learners and educators, respectively. A post-program questionnaire was completed by learners prior to summative OSCEs (n=31), followed by post-OSCE focus groups (n=10). Near-peer teachers were interviewed at the program's conclusion (n=10). Qualitative data was analysed for emerging themes to assess the perceived value of the program. Learners felt peer-led teaching was more relevant to assessment, at an appropriate level of difficulty and delivered in a less threatening environment than other methods of teaching. They valued consistent practice and felt confident approaching their summative OSCEs. Educators enjoyed the opportunity to develop their teaching skills, citing mutual benefit and gratitude to past peer-educators as strong motivators to teach others. Near-peer education, valued by near-peer learners and teachers alike, was a useful method to improve preparation and perceived performance in summative examinations. In particular, a novel year-long, student-run initiative was regarded as a valuable and feasible adjunct to faculty teaching.

  10. The Relationship of Korean Students' Age and Years of English-as-a-Foreign-Language Exposure with English-Reading Ability: A Cross-Age Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Jill; Stenner, A. Jackson; Sanford-Moore, Eleanor E.; Koons, Heather; Bowen, Kimberly; Kim, Kee Hyung

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present cross-age study with South Korean students was to investigate the relationship of age and years of English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) exposure with English-reading ability. The main research question was, "Do individuals' age and number of years of English exposure interact in relation to English-reading…

  11. Work-Family Conflict and Psychological Well-Being: Stability and Cross-Lagged Relations within One- and Six-Year Follow-Ups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantanen, Johanna; Kinnunen, Ulla; Feldt, Taru; Pulkkinen, Lea

    2008-01-01

    The rank-order stability and cross-lagged relations between work-to-family conflict (WFC), family-to-work conflict (FWC), and psychological well-being were examined in two longitudinal studies with full two-wave panel designs. In Study 1 (n = 365), the time lag was one year, and in Study 2 (n = 153), six years. The Structural Equation Modeling…

  12. Use of peer teaching to enhance student and patient education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priharjo, Robert; Hoy, Georgina

    This article describes an evaluation of a peer-teaching project undertaken by second-year nursing students at a higher education institution in England. The initiative has enhanced the students' understanding of peer education. The importance of the nurse's role in patient education is emphasised. It is hoped that the experience of peer teaching will prepare nursing students for their future roles as nurse educators for patients, students and other staff.

  13. Pressure to drink but not to smoke: disentangling selection and socialization in adolescent peer networks and peer groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuru, Noona; Burk, William J; Laursen, Brett; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2010-12-01

    This paper examined the relative influence of selection and socialization on alcohol and tobacco use in adolescent peer networks and peer groups. The sample included 1419 Finnish secondary education students (690 males and 729 females, mean age 16 years at the outset) from nine schools. Participants identified three school friends and described their alcohol and tobacco use on two occasions one year apart. Actor-based models simultaneously examined changes in peer network ties and changes in individual behaviors for all participants within each school. Multi-level analyses examined changes in individual behaviors for adolescents entering new peer groups and adolescents in stable peer groups, both of which were embedded within the school-based peer networks. Similar results emerged from both analytic methods: Selection and socialization contributed to similarity of alcohol use, but only selection was a factor in tobacco use. Copyright © 2010 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Health Care Utilisation by Bullying Victims: A Cross-Sectional Study of A 9-Year-Old Cohort in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Hayes

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Children frequently refrain from disclosing being bullied. Early identification of bullying by healthcare professionals in children may prevent adverse health consequences. The aim of our study was to determine whether Health Care Utilisation (HCU is higher in 9-year-olds who report being bullied and factors influencing type of HCU. The study consists of cross-sectional surveys of Child Cohort of Irish National Longitudinal Study of Children (Wave 1, 8,568 9-year-olds, and their carers. Being bullied was assessed by a self-reported questionnaire completed by children at home. HCU outcomes consisted of the following: visits to GP, Mental Health Practitioner (MHP, Emergency Department (ED, and nights in hospital by parent interview. Bivariate logistic regression and gender-stratified Poisson models were used to determine association. Victimisation by bullying independently increased visits to GP (OR 1.13, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.03 to 1.25; p = 0.02, MHP (OR 1.31, 95% CI: 1.05 to 1.63; p = 0.02, though not ED visits (OR 0.99, 95% CI: 0.87 to 1.13; p = 0.8 or nights in hospital (OR 1.07 95% CI: 0.97 to 1.18; p = 0.2, adjusting for underlying chronic condition(s and socio-demographic confounders. Victimised girls made higher GP visits (RR 1.14, 95% CI: 1.06 to 1.23; p < 0.001 and spent more nights in hospital (RR 1.10, 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.15; p < 0.001. Victimised boys were more likely to contact MHPs (RR 1.21, 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.44; p = 0.03. 9-year-old bullied subjects were more likely to utilise primary care services than non-bullied 9-year-olds. Different HCU patterns were observed according to gender and gender differences in the presentation of victimisation. Our findings may lead to the development of clinical practice guidelines for early detection and appropriate management of bullied children.

  15. An analysis of cross sectional survey data of stunting among Palestinian children less than five years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Nahida H; Halileh, Samia

    2013-09-01

    The object of this study is to report on determinants of stunting, defined as low height for age, among children in the occupied Palestinian territories. Using 2006-2007 cross sectional survey data collected by the Palestine Central Bureau of Statistics and using multivariate mixed model techniques for logistic regression, the relationships of stunting to characteristics of 9,051 Palestinian children less than 5 years of age living in the Palestinian territories were estimated. These characteristics included demographic and social characteristics of the child, geographic region, type of location (urban, rural, refugee camp) and food insecurity for each governorate. Listed in order of the greater contribution to the explained variation in stunting, children with lower birth weight (P refugee camps have lower rates of stunting than urban areas; however the difference does not reach statistical significance. The relationship between the child's gender and stunting is not statistically significant. Lack of food security is directly linked to stunting. The continuing incidence of food insecurity means that the deleterious effects of under-nutrition will continue to affect the children of Palestine. Removing the avoidable causes of food insecurity in the occupied Palestinian territories will alleviate under-nutrition and its deleterious effects.

  16. Potassium urinary excretion and dietary intake: a cross-sectional analysis in 8-10 year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ana Catarina; Padrão, Patrícia; Moreira, André; Pinto, Mariana; Neto, Mafalda; Santos, Tânia; Madureira, Joana; Fernandes, Eduardo de Oliveira; Graça, Pedro; Breda, João; Moreira, Pedro

    2015-05-17

    Data from studies assessing the intake of potassium, and the concomitant sodium-to-potassium ratio are limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate potassium and sodium-to-potassium ratio intake in 8-10 year-old children. A cross-sectional survey was carried out from January to June 2014 and data from 163 children (81 boys) were included. Potassium intake was estimated by 24-h urine collection and coefficient of creatinine was used to validate completeness of urine collections. Urinary sodium and sodium-to-potassium ratio were also analysed. A 24-h dietary recall was used to provide information on dietary sources of potassium. Height and weight were measured according to international standards. The mean urinary potassium excretion was 1701 ± 594 mg/day in boys, and 1682 ± 541 mg/day in girls (p = 0.835); 8.0% of children met the WHO recommendations for potassium intake. The mean sodium excretion was 2935 ± 1075 mg/day in boys and 2381 ± 1045 mg/day in girls (p <0.001) and urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio was 3.2 ± 1.4 in boys, and 2.5 ± 1.1 in girls (p = 0.002). The mean fruit and vegetable intake was 353.1 ± 232.5 g/day in boys, and 290.8 ± 213.1 g/day in girls (p = 0.101). This study reported a low compliance of potassium intake recommendations in 8-10 year-old children. Health promotion interventions are needed in order to broaden public awareness of potassium inadequacy and to increase potassium intake.

  17. Status of forest onchocerciasis in the Lower Cross River basin, Nigeria: entomologic profile after five years of ivermectin intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opara, Kenneth N; Fagbemi, Olakunle B; Ekwe, Asuquo; Okenu, Daniel M N

    2005-08-01

    In the Lower Cross River basin in Nigeria, no pre-control entomologic profile of Onchocerca volvulus infection in the local Simulium damnosum population was available prior to the initiation of an ivermectin control program in 1995. A longitudinal entomologic study was therefore carried out over a 12-month period (January-December 2001) at the Agbokim waterfalls and Afi River, which are breeding sites of S. damnosum in the river basin. A total of 9,287 adult S. damnosum were caught on human bait; 9,048 (97.43%) were dissected, of which 313 (3.46%) were infected. Annual biting rates (ABRs) of 42,419 and 28,346 bites per persons per year were recorded at the Agbokim Waterfalls and Afi River, respectively. The annual transmission potential (ATP) was 419 infective larvae per person per year at the Agbokim Waterfalls and 427 at the Afi River. Monthly biting rate and monthly transmission potential varied significantly (P < 0.05) at the two sites. Transmission was highly seasonal from April to September, corresponding to the peak biting period of the vector. The high ATP and ABR values are a measure of the mesoendemicity of onchocerciasis in the river basin. There was a significant F(0).05 (1, 10) (P < 0.05) variation in the relative fly abundance from both sites. It was observed that human activities such as farming, fishing, timber cutting, and hunting are done in the early morning and late afternoon, which corresponds to the peak diurnal biting period of the vector. Changes in these practices and attitudes may markedly affect the disease intensity and transmission.

  18. Health Care Utilisation by Bullying Victims: A Cross-Sectional Study of A 9-Year-Old Cohort in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Catherine; Kelly, Dervla; Taut, Cristina; Nixon, Elizabeth; Zgaga, Lina; Williams, James; O'Dowd, Thomas; Reulbach, Udo

    2018-02-25

    Children frequently refrain from disclosing being bullied. Early identification of bullying by healthcare professionals in children may prevent adverse health consequences. The aim of our study was to determine whether Health Care Utilisation (HCU) is higher in 9-year-olds who report being bullied and factors influencing type of HCU. The study consists of cross-sectional surveys of Child Cohort of Irish National Longitudinal Study of Children (Wave 1), 8,568 9-year-olds, and their carers. Being bullied was assessed by a self-reported questionnaire completed by children at home. HCU outcomes consisted of the following: visits to GP, Mental Health Practitioner (MHP), Emergency Department (ED), and nights in hospital by parent interview. Bivariate logistic regression and gender-stratified Poisson models were used to determine association. Victimisation by bullying independently increased visits to GP (OR 1.13, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03 to 1.25; p = 0.02), MHP (OR 1.31, 95% CI: 1.05 to 1.63; p = 0.02), though not ED visits (OR 0.99, 95% CI: 0.87 to 1.13; p = 0.8) or nights in hospital (OR 1.07 95% CI: 0.97 to 1.18; p = 0.2), adjusting for underlying chronic condition(s) and socio-demographic confounders. Victimised girls made higher GP visits (RR 1.14, 95% CI: 1.06 to 1.23; p according to gender and gender differences in the presentation of victimisation. Our findings may lead to the development of clinical practice guidelines for early detection and appropriate management of bullied children.

  19. Dental erosion among 12-year-old schoolchildren: a population-based cross-sectional study in South Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Luana Severo; Brusius, Carolina Doege; Damé-Teixeira, Nailê; Maltz, Marisa; Susin, Cristiano

    2015-12-01

    To assess the epidemiology and risk indicators for dental erosion among 12-year-old schoolchildren in South Brazil. A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in Porto Alegre, Brazil, using a representative sample of 12-year-old schoolchildren (n = 1,528). Dental erosion was recorded according to the Basic Erosive Wear Examination (BEWE) index. Parents answered questions on socio-economic status, brushing frequency and general health. Schoolchildren answered questions on dietary habits. Anthropometric data were collected. Statistical analysis included logistic and Poisson regression models. The prevalence of dental erosion was 15% [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 13.6-16.5], being mainly mild erosion. Boys [odds ratio (OR) = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.17-2.10], private school attendees (OR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.01-2.06) and schoolchildren reporting the daily consumption of soft drinks (OR = 5.04, 95% CI: 1.17-21.71) were more likely to have at least one tooth with dental erosion. Gender [boys, rate ratio (RR) = 1.66, 95% CI: 1.28-2.17], type of school (private, RR = 1.89, 95% CI: 1.53-2.35), the consumption of soft drinks (sometimes: RR = 5.27, 95% CI: 1.46-19.05; daily: RR = 6.82, 95% CI: 1.39-33.50) and the daily consumption of lemon (RR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.11-2.00) were significantly associated with the number of affected surfaces. The present study found a moderate prevalence of dental erosion among young schoolchildren, with mild erosion being the most prevalent condition. Socio demographic variables and dietary habits were associated with dental erosion in this population. © 2015 FDI World Dental Federation.

  20. Differences in sexual behavior, health, and history of child abuse among school students who had and had not engaged in sexual activity by the age of 18 years: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastbom, Åsa A; Sydsjö, Gunilla; Bladh, Marie; Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Göran

    2016-01-01

    Empirical research about late sexual debut and its consequences is limited, and further research is needed. To explore how students who had not had intercourse by the age of 18 years differed in terms of sociodemographic factors, physical and psychological health, sexual behavior, and history of sexual abuse from those who had. This is a cross-sectional survey involving 3,380 Swedish 18-year-olds. Descriptive analyses were used to investigate different types of sexual behavior. Ordinal data concerning alcohol consumption, self-esteem, sexual and physical abuse, parental relationships, sense of coherence, and health were analyzed, and multiple regression was carried out to identify the most important factors associated with no sexual debut. Just under a quarter of the adolescents had not had oral, anal, or vaginal sex by the age of 18 years, and they comprised the index group. They were characterized by being more likely to have caring fathers, parents born outside Europe, lower pornography consumption, lower alcohol and tobacco consumption, less antisocial behavior, and above all lower sexual desire (sometimes, adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.8; never/seldom, aOR 13.3) and fewer experiences of sexual abuse (aOR 25.5). Family structure and culture matters when it comes to the age of sexual debut. Adolescents with no sexual debut at 18 years of age seemed to live a more stable and cautious life than more sexual experienced peers, exemplified by fewer antisocial acts, less smoking and alcohol/drug consumption, less sexual desire, and less experience of sexual abuse.

  1. The Influence of Peers During Adolescence: Does Homophobic Name Calling by Peers Change Gender Identity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Dawn; Lynn Martin, Carol; Cook, Rachel E; Hanish, Laura D

    2018-03-01

    Adolescents actively evaluate their identities during adolescence, and one of the most salient and central identities for youth concerns their gender identity. Experiences with peers may inform gender identity. Unfortunately, many youth experience homophobic name calling, a form of peer victimization, and it is unknown whether youth internalize these peer messages and how these messages might influence gender identity. The goal of the present study was to assess the role of homophobic name calling on changes over the course of an academic year in adolescents' gender identity. Specifically, this study extends the literature using a new conceptualization and measure of gender identity that involves assessing how similar adolescents feel to both their own- and other-gender peers and, by employing longitudinal social network analyses, provides a rigorous analytic assessment of the impact of homophobic name calling on changes in these two dimensions of gender identity. Symbolic interaction perspectives-the "looking glass self"-suggest that peer feedback is incorporated into the self-concept. The current study tests this hypothesis by determining if adolescents respond to homophobic name calling by revising their self-view, specifically, how the self is viewed in relation to both gender groups. Participants were 299 6th grade students (53% female). Participants reported peer relationships, experiences of homophobic name calling, and gender identity (i.e., similarity to own- and other-gender peers). Longitudinal social network analyses revealed that homophobic name calling early in the school year predicted changes in gender identity over time. The results support the "looking glass self" hypothesis: experiencing homophobic name calling predicted identifying significantly less with own-gender peers and marginally more with other-gender peers over the course of an academic year. The effects held after controlling for participant characteristics (e.g., gender), social

  2. Adolescent externalizing behaviour, psychological control, and peer rejection: Transactional links and dopaminergic moderation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Annelies; Van Den Noortgate, Wim; Goossens, Luc; Verschueren, Karine; Colpin, Hilde; Claes, Stephan; Van Heel, Martijn; Van Leeuwen, Karla

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated (1) reciprocal links among parental psychological control, peer rejection, and adolescent externalizing (aggressive and rule-breaking behaviour), and (2) the moderating effect of an adolescent genetic factor (biologically informed polygenic score for dopamine signalling). Three-year longitudinal data from 1,116 adolescents (51% boys; M age = 13.79) and their parents included psychological measures (adolescent-reported psychological control, peer-reported rejection, and parent-reported aggressive and rule-breaking behaviour). Cross-lagged analyses showed bidirectional effects between psychological control and both aggressive and rule-breaking behaviour and a unidirectional effect of peer rejection on both forms of problem behaviour over time. Multigroup structural equation modelling revealed genetic moderation only for rule-breaking behaviour: for adolescents with intermediate levels of dopamine signalling significant environmental effects were present, whereas adolescent effects of rule-breaking behaviour on psychological control were significant for adolescents with both intermediate and high profiles and effects on peer rejection only for adolescents with high dopamine profiles. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Parental psychological control is related to adolescent externalizing problems. Experiencing peer rejection reinforces aggressive and rule-breaking behaviour. Single-gene studies show that dopaminergic genes influence externalizing problems directly or in interaction with the environment. What does this study add? Parental psychological control and adolescent aggressive and rule-breaking behaviour exacerbate one another longitudinally. Longitudinal associations between peer rejection and both subtypes of externalizing behaviour are unidirectional. With a polygenic approach, dopaminergic moderation is present for rule-breaking behaviour only. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  3. Providing interoperability of eHealth communities through peer-to-peer networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Ozgur; Dogac, Asuman; Eichelberg, Marco

    2010-05-01

    Providing an interoperability infrastructure for Electronic Healthcare Records (EHRs) is on the agenda of many national and regional eHealth initiatives. Two important integration profiles have been specified for this purpose, namely, the "Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) Cross-enterprise Document Sharing (XDS)" and the "IHE Cross Community Access (XCA)." IHE XDS describes how to share EHRs in a community of healthcare enterprises and IHE XCA describes how EHRs are shared across communities. However, the current version of the IHE XCA integration profile does not address some of the important challenges of cross-community exchange environments. The first challenge is scalability. If every community that joins the network needs to connect to every other community, i.e., a pure peer-to-peer network, this solution will not scale. Furthermore, each community may use a different coding vocabulary for the same metadata attribute, in which case, the target community cannot interpret the query involving such an attribute. Yet another important challenge is that each community may (and typically will) have a different patient identifier domain. Querying for the patient identifiers in the target community using patient demographic data may create patient privacy concerns. In this paper, we address each of these challenges and show how they can be handled effectively in a superpeer-based peer-to-peer architecture.

  4. Horizontal Curve Virtual Peer Exchange : an RSPCB Peer Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This report summarizes the Horizontal Curve Virtual Peer Exchange sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Office of Safetys Roadway Safety Professional Capacity Building Program on June 17, 2014. This virtual peer exchange was the f...

  5. Perceived peer influence and peer selection on adolescent smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Beth R; Monge, Peter R; Chou, Chih-Ping; Valente, Thomas W

    2007-08-01

    Despite advances in tobacco control, adolescent smoking remains a problem. The smoking status of friends is one of the highest correlates with adolescent smoking. This homophily (commonality of friends based on a given attribute) may be due to either peer pressure, where adolescents adopt the smoking behaviors of their friends, or peer selection, where adolescents choose friends based on their smoking status. This study used structural equation modeling to test a model of peer influence and peer selection on ever smoking by adolescents. The primary analysis of the model did not reach significance, but post hoc analyses did result in a model with good fit. Results indicated that both peer influence and peer selection were occurring, and that peer influence was more salient in the population than was peer selection. Implications of these results for tobacco prevention programs are discussed.

  6. Distributed Data Mining in Peer-to-Peer Networks

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Peer-to-peer (P2P) networks are gaining popularity in many applications such as file sharing, e-commerce, and social networking, many of which deal with rich,...

  7. Characteristics of file sharing and peer to peer networking | Opara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characteristics of file sharing and peer to peer networking. ... distributing or providing access to digitally stored information, such as computer programs, ... including in multicast systems, anonymous communications systems, and web caches.

  8. Efficient Skyline Computation in Structured Peer-to-Peer Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cui, Bin; Chen, Lijiang; Xu, Linhao

    2009-01-01

    An increasing number of large-scale applications exploit peer-to-peer network architecture to provide highly scalable and flexible services. Among these applications, data management in peer-to-peer systems is one of the interesting domains. In this paper, we investigate the multidimensional...... skyline computation problem on a structured peer-to-peer network. In order to achieve low communication cost and quick response time, we utilize the iMinMax(\\theta ) method to transform high-dimensional data to one-dimensional value and distribute the data in a structured peer-to-peer network called BATON....... Thereafter, we propose a progressive algorithm with adaptive filter technique for efficient skyline computation in this environment. We further discuss some optimization techniques for the algorithm, and summarize the key principles of our algorithm into a query routing protocol with detailed analysis...

  9. Analysis of peer-to-peer locking of magnetrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pengvanich, P.; Lau, Y. Y.; Cruz, E.; Gilgenbach, R. M.; Hoff, B.; Luginsland, J. W.

    2008-01-01

    The condition for mutual, or peer-to-peer, locking of two magnetrons is derived. This condition reduces to Adler's classical phase-locking condition in the limit where one magnetron becomes the ''master'' and the other becomes the ''slave.'' The formulation is extended to the peer-to-peer locking of N magnetrons, under the assumption that the electromagnetic coupling among the N magnetrons is modeled by an N-port network.

  10. Peer review statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    All papers published in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series have been peer reviewed through processes administered by the proceedings Editors. Reviews were conducted by expert referees to the professional and scientific standards expected of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing.

  11. Dealing with Peer Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peer Pressure Print en español Cómo lidiar con la presión de grupo "Come on! ALL of us are cutting ... and they learn from you. It's only human nature to listen to and learn from ... another student in your science class taught you an easy way to remember ...

  12. mitigating mitigating free riding in peer-to-peer networks

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    The performance of peer-to-peer systems is based on the quality and quantity of resource contributions from peer systems ... riding [3]. There are several measurement studies ...... J. S. Hua, D. C. Huang, S M Yen, and C. W. Chena, “A dynamic.

  13. Stability analysis of peer-to-peer networks against churn

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Users of the peer-to-peer system join and leave the network randomly, which makes the overlay network dynamic and unstable in nature. In this paper, we propose an analytical framework to assess the robustness of p2p networks in the face of user churn. We model the peer churn through degree-independent as well as ...

  14. Privacy and Cooperation in Peer-to-Peer Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeilemaker, N.S.M.

    2015-01-01

    P2P networks employ the resources available at peers to reduce the load at, or eliminate the need for a server. In order to achieve these goals, protocols are implemented which aim to allow peers to collaborate efficiently. However, these same protocols can make peers an easy target, as their

  15. Mathematical Framework For Analyzing Incentives In Peer-To-Peer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The existence and performance of peer-to-peer systems depend on the contribution of resources .... analysis in P2P based on game strategy. The entire P2P ... a robust P2P systems, every peer must be made to contribute by designing efficient free ..... Currently, all P2P can be classified based on structure as structured and ...

  16. Cross-Cultural Adaptation of Persian Version of Scale of Oral Health Outcomes for 5-Year-Old Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imaneh Asgari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Indicators of oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL in children are widely adopted to evaluate the effects of oral problems. Recently, the scale of oral health outcomes for 5-year-old children (SOHO-5 was developed based on the children’s self-reports. This study aimed to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Persian version of the questionnaire in a sample of Iranian children.Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 160 children from four areas of Isfahan selected via non-random purposive sampling. After forward-backward translation of the questionnaire, content and face validity evaluation, a pilot test was carried out. Children forms were completed by interview, while parents forms were self-administered. Test-retest reliability was evaluated in 30 subjects. Construct validity, internal consistency and descriptive quality of life score were assessed with SPSS 18. The child-parent agreement was measured with correlation test and paired t-test (α=0.05.Results: The mean (±standard deviation quality of life scores in children and parents were 2.3±3 and 1.3±1.9, respectively. The most prevalent impacts were difficulty sleeping and eating. The Cronbach's alpha coefficients were 0.82 and 0.67 for the child and parent versions, respectively. Significant correlation of the scores with the oral health rating, pain history and perceived need for treatment confirmed its construct validity (r: 0.4-0.6, P<0.05. The hypothesis of the agreement was not supported (P>0.05.Conclusions: Based on the findings, the Persian version of SOHO-5 has acceptable reliability and validity for use in the pediatric population of Iran while there were some conflicts by parents.Keywords: Quality of Life; Oral Health; Child; Surveys and Questionnaires

  17. Knowledge and practices of oral health care in final year undergraduate nursing students: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryakant C Deogade

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nursing personnel plays a crucial role in promoting health and preventing information dissemination in the community. Aim: to assess and evaluate the oral health knowledge and practices of final year nursing students of Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh (India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in five nursing colleges of Jabalpur. A total of 172 students participated in the survey, which were given a questionnaire that comprised 26 questions. The questionnaire were evaluated under four parts such as information on dental and oral health, oral hygiene practices, attitude toward dentist and dentistry, and interest to improve knowledge, after which the data were analyzed to compare the statistical significance among the variables. Results: 84.3% of the participants knew how many teeth we have in our mouth. Many of them were not aware of proper brushing method. However, they revealed an adequate knowledge toward the identification of disease and its relation to general health. They also showed knowledge regarding the effect of diet on oral health, but 83.1% of them were confused with the identification of tooth decay. Approximately 51.7% of participants were unsure about the number of visits a person should make to a dentist. Conclusion: Nursing undergraduates have adequate knowledge on the basic oral structure and identifying oral diseases. However, they are little puzzled with the brushing method, number of visits a person should make to a dentist. They were not updated with the specialties in dentistry. Many of them showed interest toward camps and clinical postings to enhance their knowledge toward oral health care.

  18. Factors Associated with Discussion of Disasters by Final Year High School Students: An International Cross-sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codreanu, Tudor A; Celenza, Antonio; Alabdulkarim, Ali A Rahman

    2015-08-01

    Introduction The effect on behavioral change of educational programs developed to reduce the community's disaster informational vulnerability is not known. This study describes the relationship of disaster education, age, sex, and country-specific characteristics with students discussing disasters with friends and family, a measure of proactive behavioral change in disaster preparedness. Three thousand eight hundred twenty-nine final year high school students were enrolled in an international, multi-center prospective, cross-sectional study using a pre-validated written questionnaire. In order to obtain information from different educational systems, from countries with different risk of exposure to disasters, and from countries with varied economic development status, students from Bahrain, Croatia, Cyprus, Egypt, Greece, Italy, Portugal, Romania, and Timor-Leste were surveyed. Logistic regression analyses examined the relationship between the likelihood of discussing disasters with friends and family (dependent variable) and a series of independent variables (age, gender, participation in school lessons about disasters, existence of a national disaster educational program, ability to list pertinent example of disasters, country's economic group, and disaster risk index) captured by the questionnaire or available as published data. There was no statistically significant relationship between age, awareness of one's surroundings, planning for the future, and foreseeing consequences of events with discussions about potential hazards and risks with friends and/or family. The national educational budget did not have a statistically significant influence. Participants who lived in a low disaster risk and high income Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) country were more likely to discuss disasters. While either school lessons or a national disaster education program had a unique, significant contribution to the model, neither had a better

  19. Childcare use and overweight in Finland: cross-sectional and retrospective associations among 3- and 5-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehto, R; Mäki, P; Ray, C; Laatikainen, T; Roos, E

    2016-04-01

    Different types of non-parental childcare have been found to associate with childhood overweight in several, but not all studies. Studies on the matter are mainly North American. The objective of our study was to examine associations between childcare use and overweight in Finland. The cross-sectional and partly retrospective data consists of 1683 3- and 5-year-old children participating in the Child Health Monitoring Development project (LATE-project) conducted in 2007-2009 in Finland. Children were measured at health check-ups and information on child's age when entering childcare, the number of childcare places the child has had, current type of childcare (parental, informal, [group] family childcare, childcare centre) and the current amount of childcare (hours) were gathered. Parents' body mass indices, family educational level, family structure, maternal smoking during pregnancy and child's birth weight were treated as covariates. Beginning childcare before age 1 (adjusted model: odds ratio [OR] 2.53, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.41-4.52) and, for girls only, number of childcare places (adjusted model: OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.11-1.60), were associated with an increased risk of overweight. The current type of childcare or the time currently spent in childcare was not associated with overweight. Beginning childcare before age 1, which is quite rare in Finland, and having attended several childcare places were associated with overweight even when adjusting for family socioeconomic status and other family background variables. The significance of these findings needs to be further studied. © 2015 World Obesity.

  20. Sweet Taste Perception and Dental Caries in 13- to 15-Year-Olds: A Multicenter Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashi, H; Lara-Capi, C; Campus, G; Klingberg, G; Lingström, P

    2017-01-01

    Dietary habits and, in particular, the intake frequency of sucrose are of major importance for the development of dental caries. The perception of sweet taste is believed to have an influence on sucrose intake and therefore affects the predisposition to dental caries. The aim was to study the caries experience and sweet taste perception and to further analyze the possible relationship between the 2 tested variables in 13- to 15-year-old children from 3 different geographical areas. A cross-sectional survey comprising 669 children (220 Italian, 224 Mexican, and 225 Saudi Arabian) was conducted. The children were examined in their school setting. A sweet taste perception level was determined by the sweet taste threshold (TT) and sweet taste preference (TP). The sweet test was performed with sucrose solutions varying in concentration from 1.63 to 821.52 g/L. The International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) and DMFS indices were used to diagnose caries. The highest mean value for TT was found for Italian children followed by Saudi and Mexican. Saudi schoolchildren showed the highest mean values for TP and DMFS, followed by Italian and Mexican. A statistically significant difference for TP, TT, DMFS, and initial caries was found between the 3 countries. A weak yet positive correlation was found between taste perception (TT and TP) versus DMFS and manifest caries in all 3 countries (r = 0.137-0.313). The findings of the present study showed a variation in sweet taste perception between the 3 countries, which may influence the caries outcome of the children in the individual countries. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Peer Attachment, Perceived Parenting Style, Self-concept, and School Adjustments in Adolescents with Chronic Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jeong-Ah; Lee, Sunhee

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify how peer attachment and parenting style differentially affect self-concept and school adjustment in adolescents with and without chronic illness. A cross-sectional study using multiple group analysis on the Korean panel data was used. A nationwide stratified multistage cluster sampling method was used and the survey was conducted in 2013 on 2,092 first-year middle school students in Korea. We used standardized instruments by the National Youth Policy Institute to measure peer attachment, parenting style, self-concept, and school adjustment. Multiple-group structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the difference of relations for peer attachment, parenting style, self-concept, and school adjustment variable between adolescents with chronic illness and those without chronic illness. The model fit of a multiple-group structural equation modeling was good. The difference of the path from negative parenting style to self-concept between the two groups was significant, and a significant between-group difference in the overall path was found. This indicated that self-concept in adolescents with chronic illness was more negatively affected by negative parenting style than in adolescents without chronic illness. Healthcare providers can promote the process of school adjustment in several ways, such as discussing this issue directly with adolescent patients, along with their parents and peers, examining how the organization and content of the treatment can be modified according to the adolescents' school life. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. The stability and predictors of peer group deviance in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Myers, John; Dick, Danielle

    2015-09-01

    Peer group deviance (PGD) is strongly associated with current and future externalizing behaviors. Debate remains about the degree to which this association arises from social selection. The first year of university constitutes a social experiment in which most individuals leave their home environment and recreate for themselves a new peer group. PGD was measured in newly arrived university students and then 6 and 18 months later. Other personality and family traits were also assessed. PGD reported for high school friends at the start of university and university friends 6 months later were substantially correlated (+0.60). This correlation was only slightly diminished if restricted to students whose home was greater than 50 miles from the university. PGD was strongly predicted across three cohorts by male sex (+), extraversion (+), conscientiousness (-), a family history of alcohol use disorders (+) and depression (+), and religiosity (-).These predictors of PGD had a relatively stable impact over 18 months and, aside from sex, differed only modestly in males and females. As individuals change social groups from high school to university, the level of PGD remains relatively stable, suggesting that individuals play a strong role in selecting peer groups with consistent characteristics. PGD is also predicted cross-sectionally and longitudinally by personality, family background and religiosity. Our results suggest that the association between personal and peer deviance is due at least in part to the effects of social selection.

  3. Validation of a culturally modified short form of the McCarthy Scales of Children’s Abilities in 6 to 8 year old Zimbabwean school children: a cross section study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandawasvika Gwendoline Q

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The burden of cognitive impairment among school children from developing communities is under reported due to lack of culturally appropriate screening tools. The objective of this study was to validate a culturally modified short form of the McCarthy Scales of Children Abilities (MSCA in school children aged 6–8 years from varied backgrounds. Methods One hundred and one children aged 6–8 years attending mainstream classes were enrolled cross-sectionally from three schools: one rural and two urban. Two assessments were conducted on each child and the Short form MSCA was compared to an independent assessment by the educational psychologist. Results When comparing the results of the MSCA to local standard at -2SD, -1.5 SD and -1SD the sensitivity rates ranged from 17 to 50% with lower sensitivity at -2SD cut-off point. Specificity rates had less variation ranging from 95% to 100%. The number of children identified with cognitive impairment using -2SD, -1.5SD and -1SD below the mean for MSCA as a cut-off point were 3(3%, 7(7% and 13(13% respectively while the psychologist identified 18 (18%. The overall mean score on MSCA was 103 (SD 15. The rural children tended to score significantly lower marks compared to their peers from urban areas, mean (SD 98(15 and 107(15 respectively, p=0.006. There was no difference in the mean (SD scores between boys and girls, 103(17 and 103(15 respectively, p=0.995. Conclusion The culturally modified short form MSCA showed high specificity but low sensitivity. Prevalence of cognitive impairment among 6 to 8 year children was 3%. This figure is high when compared to developed communities.

  4. A two-year's results of iontophoresis-assisted transepithelial corneal cross-linking for progressive keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Zhen Jia

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To report a two-year's results of iontophoresis-assisted transepithelial corneal cross-linking(I-CXLfor progressive keratoconus. METHODS: Thirty-four eyes in 24 patients with progressive keratoconus(mean age 21.0±5.6 years; range: 14-32 yearswere treated. After 1g/L riboflavin-distilled water solution was administered by iontophoresis-assited(current 1mAtransepithelial method for 5min in total, standard surface UVA irradiation(370nm, 3mW/cm2was performed at a 1-cm distance for 30min. The best corrected visual acuity(BCVAmeasured as LogMAR number, corneal refractive astigmatism, K1, K2, Kmean, Kmax, intraocular pressure, endothelial cell density, the thickness at corneal apex and the thinnest point were measured preoperatively and 2a postoperatively. RESULTS:At 2a after the procedure, BCVA(LogMARimproved from 0.32±0.25 to 0.25±0.19(t=2.849, P=0.015. K1 decreased from 47.12±4.33 to 46.06±4.77(t=2.652, P=0.015. K2 decreased from 51.36±5.59 to 50.40±6.16(t=2.121, P=0.047. Kmean decreased from 49.12±4.76 to 48.10±5.25(t=2.663, P=0.015. Kmax decreased from 57.57±8.30 to 55.91±8.14(t=2.398, P=0.026. The corneal apex thickness decreased from 476.90±38.71μm to 454.43±40.86μm(t=2.853, P=0.010. The thinnest thickness decreased from 464.38±39.92μm to 433.86±50.78μm(t=3.485, P=0.002. Corneal refractive astigmatism, intraocular pressure and endothelial cell density did not show significant changes. CONCLUSION: I-CXL for progressive keratoconus is safe and effective which can prevent deterioration of progressive keratoconus within 2a, but further long-term studies are necessary still.

  5. Mental health in women 20-23 years after IVF treatment: a Swedish cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikström, J; Josefsson, A; Bladh, M; Sydsjö, G

    2015-10-28

    To assess self-perceived mental health in women treated with in vitro fertilisation (IVF) 20-23 years previously, while comparing them to a reference group, and to determine any differences in mental health between those who had given birth, those who had adopted a child, those who had given birth and adopted a child and those who remained childless. A cross-sectional study. A Center of Reproductive Medicine (RMC) at a Swedish University hospital. 520 women who had undergone at least one IVF cycle at the University Hospital in Linköping between 1986 and 1989. 504 of 520 women (97%) were eligible for follow-up. While 34 women declined, 93 per cent (n=470) of the women agreed to participate. The reference group consisted of 150 women of the Swedish population included in a study that was used to validate the Symptom CheckList (SCL)-90. Follow-up was conducted in 2008-2009. The SCL-90 was used to measure the women's self-perceived mental health and a questionnaire specific for this study was used to retain demographic information. The SCL-90 assesses 9 primary dimensions; somatisation, obsessive-compulsive, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation and psychoticism. There is also a global index of distress. Women who had previously undergone IVF treatment were at increased risk of symptoms of depression (p=0.017), obsessive-compulsion (p=0.02) and somatisation (p≤0.001) when compared to a reference group. In addition, the women who have remained childless are at increased risk of symptoms of depression (p=0.009) and phobic anxiety (p=0.017). The majority of the women who have been treated with IVF 20-23 years previously appear to be in good mental health. However, women who remain childless and/or without partner after unsuccessful infertility treatment constitute a vulnerable group even later on in life. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a

  6. Peer Country Comments Paper - Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredgaard, Thomas

    Bidrag til EU-kommissionens peer-review on "Strategies for Employment policy Reform. Implementation Challenges in Decentralised Countries"......Bidrag til EU-kommissionens peer-review on "Strategies for Employment policy Reform. Implementation Challenges in Decentralised Countries"...

  7. Peer Gynti tagasitulek / Hilve Rebane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rebane, Hilve, 1938-2012

    1999-01-01

    Arvustus: Ibsen, Henrik. Peer Gynt / tõlkinud Marie Under. 2. tr. Tallinn : Eesti Raamat, 1998. Ka "Peer Gynti" mõjutusi eesti kirjanduses: August Gailiti, Marie Underi, A. H. Tammsaare ja eriti Karl Ristikivi loomingus

  8. Horizontal Curves Virtual Peer Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    This report provides a summary of a peer-to-peer videoconference sponsored by : the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Office of Safety. The : videoconference, which piloted a virtual event format, is part of a series of : roadway departure-focuse...

  9. Peer Review Improves the Quality of MCQ Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malau-Aduli, Bunmi S.; Zimitat, Craig

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the introduction of peer review processes on the quality of multiple-choice examinations in the first three years of an Australian medical course. The impact of the peer review process and overall quality assurance (QA) processes were evaluated by comparing the examination data generated in earlier…

  10. Rocks, Paper, Scissors: Best Practices in Peer Mentoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Shelly Hudson

    2014-01-01

    In this article, Shelly Hudson Bowden, a kindergarten teacher for 14 years, offers her observations of peer-to-peer mentoring relationships among her kindergarten students that they formed and maintained. These mentoring relationships supported students' learning as they mentored one another in both "social" and "academic"…

  11. Peer Inquiry: Discovering What You Know through Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wix, Linney; John-Steiner, Vera

    2008-01-01

    The article discusses a dialogical peer inquiry process as a practice of co-constructing knowledge in graduate coursework. The process, formerly structured as an exam, was developed by Dr. Vera John-Steiner more than 30 years ago and has been implemented in adapted forms by her students in their teaching. The dialogical peer inquiry process…

  12. Peer Rejection Cues Induce Cardiac Slowing after Transition into Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunther Moor, Bregtje; Bos, Marieke G. N.; Crone, Eveline A.; van der Molen, Maurits W.

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined developmental and gender differences in sensitivity to peer rejection across the transition into adolescence by examining beat-by-beat heart rate responses. Children between the ages of 8 and 14 years were presented with unfamiliar faces of age-matched peers and were asked to predict whether they would be liked by the…

  13. Young Children Create Partner-Specific Referential Pacts with Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köymen, Bahar; Schmerse, Daniel; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In 2 studies, we investigated how peers establish a "referential pact" to call something, for example, a "cushion" versus a "pillow" (both equally felicitous). In Study 1, pairs of 4-and 6-year-old German-speaking peers established a referential pact for an artifact, for example, a "woman's shoe," in a…

  14. Assessment for Learning Tasks and the Peer Assessment Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauf, Lorraine; Dole, Shelley

    2010-01-01

    A program of Assessment for Learning (AfL) was implemented with 107 Year 12 students as part of their preparation for a major external test. Students completed extended mathematics tasks and selected student responses were used for peer assessment purposes. This paper reports on two of the AfL elements, namely task selection and peer assessment as…

  15. Online Peer Review: Encouraging Student Response and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansiquot, Reneta; Rosalia, Christine

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the use of a tailored online peer review program for first-year undergraduate students at an urban college of technology. The program facilitated group peer review in meaningful and technologically elegant ways. Students in a composition class were divided into two groups. One group acted as first reviewers, and the other group…

  16. [Development Of 25-Year Imp 8 Bow Shock Crossing "List, Ingestion Of This List To Cdaweb, & Enhancement"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merka, J.; Szabo, A.; Narock, T. W.; King, J. H.; Paularena, K. I.; Richardson, J. D.

    2003-01-01

    The MIT portion of this project was to use the plasma data from IMP 8 to identify bow shock crossings for construction of a bow shock data base. In collaboration with Goddard, we determined which shock parameters would be included in the catalog and developed a set of flags for characterizing the data. IMP 8 data from 1973-2001 were surveyed for bow shock crossings; the crossings apparent in the plasma data were compared to a list of crossing chosen in the magnetometer data by Goddard. Differences were reconciled to produce a single list. The data were then provided to the NSSDC for archiving. All the work ascribed to MIT in the proposal was completed.

  17. Notes on Adolescent's Peer Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    栗本, かおり; Kaori, KURIMOTO; 岩手県立大学社会福祉学部; FACULTY OF SOCIAL WELFARE IWATE PREFECTURAL UNIVERSITY

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the influence of adolescents' peer relationships on their psychosocial development. Adolescents influence on each other, though some psychosocial merit and demerit emerge in peer influence on adolescents. The merit improves adolescents' identity, self-esteem, satisfaction of life and happiness, provides support under the crisis as well. A case of the demerit can be seen as the negative peer pressure. Adolescents are willing to conform to the norm of peer...

  18. Testing the Effects of Peer Socialization versus Selection on Alcohol and Marijuana Use among Treated Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Sara J.; Curry, John F.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relative influence of peer socialization and selection on alcohol and marijuana use among 106 adolescents who received a brief intervention. Adolescents were recruited between 2003 and 2007 and followed for 12 months as part of a SAMHSA-funded study. Cross-lagged panel models using four assessment points examined the longitudinal relationship between adolescent substance use and peer substance involvement separately for alcohol and marijuana. Consistent with community studies, there was evidence of both peer socialization and peer selection for alcohol use, and only evidence of peer selection for marijuana use. Implications for research and intervention are discussed. PMID:23965039

  19. Peer Victimization and Academic Performance in Primary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy, Lisa K; Canterford, Louise; Kosola, Silja; Degenhardt, Louisa; Allen, Nicholas B; Patton, George C

    Peer victimization is a common antecedent of poor social and emotional adjustment. Its relationship with objectively measured academic performance is unclear. In this study we aimed to quantify the cross-sectional associations between peer victimization and academic performance in a large population sample of children. Eight- to 9-year-old children were recruited from a stratified random sample of primary schools in Australia. Academic performance was measured on a national achievement test (1 year of learning equals 40 points). Physical and verbal victimization were measured according to child self-report. Multilevel mixed-effects linear regression analyses were conducted. For female children, verbal victimization was associated with poorer academic performance on writing (β = 17.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], -28.2 to -6.2) and grammar/punctuation (β = -20.8; 95% CI, -40.1 to -1.6). Physical victimization was associated with poorer performance on numeracy (male children: β = -29.0; 95% CI, -53.8 to -4.1; female children: β = -30.1; 95% CI, -56.6 to -3.5), and writing (female children: β = -21.5; 95% CI, -40.4 to -2.7). Verbal and physical victimization were associated with poorer performance on reading (male children: β = -31.5; 95% CI, -59.9 to -3.1; female children: β = -30.2; 95% CI, -58.6 to -1.8), writing (female children: β = -25.5; 95% CI, -42.8 to -8.2), spelling (female children: β = -32.3; 95% CI, -59.6 to -4.9), and grammar/punctuation (female children: β = -32.2; 95% CI, -62.4 to -2.0). Children who were physically victimized were 6 to 9 months behind their non-victimized peers on measures of academic performance. There are growing reasons for education systems to invest in the prevention of bullying and promotion of positive peer relationships from the earliest years of school. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Friends First? The Peer Network Origins of Adolescent Dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreager, Derek A.; Molloy, Lauren E.; Moody, James; Feinberg, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    The proximity of dating partners in peer friendship networks has important implications for the diffusion of health-risk behaviors and adolescent social development. We derive two competing hypotheses for the friendship-romance association. The first predicts that daters are proximally positioned in friendship networks prior to dating and that opposite-gender friends are likely to transition to dating. The second predicts that dating typically crosses group boundaries and opposite-gender friends are unlikely to later date. We test these hypotheses with longitudinal friendship data for 626 9th grade PROSPER heterosexual dating couples. Results primarily support the second hypothesis: romantic partners are unlikely to be friends in the previous year or share the same cohesive subgroup, and opposite-gender friends are unlikely to transition into dating. PMID:27134511

  1. The mediatization of peer-to-peer health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dindler, Camilla; Ahlmark, Nanna

    2018-01-01

    observations and qualitative interviews from a peer-to-peer programme for men in Copenhagen. The article analyses the tensions that occurred in the media coverage of the programme as well as in the municipal facilitation and management of the peer-to-peer health care programme defined partly...... by a democratization of health expertise and by a broader culture characterized by individualized, risk aware health promotion. We will argue that tensions between media logics and logics of care and of risk created a mediatized conception of health and of the peer programme that highlighted health care...

  2. Re-Viewing Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author revisits her essay, "Students as Readers of Their Classmates' Writing," by providing a review of the literature on peer review over the past three decades and comments on patterns she sees in waves of peer review research and theorizing. She describes her subsequent experience with peer review in her own classes, and…

  3. Peer Influence and Addiction Recurrence

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Markdissi

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we highlight the role of peers in the recurrence of addictive behavior. To do so, we use a simple “forward looking” model with procrastination and peers influence. Our results show that while procrastination can explain the decision to postpone rehabilitation, peers influence is essential to explain the cyclical patterns of addiction-rehabilitation-addiction.

  4. The Myth of Peer Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Michael T.

    2000-01-01

    The construct of peer pressure was examined as part of a qualitative study of the determinants of mental health for 41 high-risk adolescents. While the concept of peer pressure enables adults to explain youths' troubling behaviors, content analysis of the participants' accounts of their lives reveals peer pressure to be a myth. (Author/MKA)

  5. Factors related to dental health in 12-year-old children: a cross-sectional study in pupils Factors related to dental health in 12-year-old children: a cross-sectional study in pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Smyth

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to identify factors related to the prevalence of caries in 12-year-old schoolchildren. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out using a representative sample (n = 1217 of the population of 12-year-old schoolchildren in Galiza (northwest Spain. Independent variables were measured through a questionnaire, and dependent variables were determined through oral examination. Multiple and logistic regression were applied. Results: The decayed, missing and filled permanent teeth/decayed, filled primary teeth (DMFT-dft value in the sample was 1.83 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.67-1.98, the DMFT value was 1.53 (95% CI, 1.37-1.67, and the prevalence of caries was 61% (95% CI, 57.7-64.5. The prevalence of caries was directly related to a low frequency of brushing, greater use of toothpaste, and a higher consumption of sweets. The prevalence of caries was higher in rural than in urban areas. In contrast, the higher the mother's level of education and the greater the subject's knowledge of dental health, the lower the prevalence of caries. Conclusions: The main goals of dental health programmes should be to achieve quality brushing every day in children, to reduce the consumption of sweets, and to increase knowledge of dental health.Objetivo: Identificar los factores asociados a la prevalencia de caries en escolares de 12 años. Métodos: Estudio transversal sobre una muestra (n = 1.217 de escolares de 12 años de Galicia. Las variables independientes se midieron mediante un cuestionario y las dependientes, a través de exploración bucal. En el análisis estadístico se aplicaron regresión logística y regresión lineal múltiple. Resultados: El índice CAO-co en la muestra fue 1,83 (intervalo de confianza [IC] del 95%, 1,67-1,98, el índice CAO 1,53 (IC del 95%, 1,37-1,67, mientras que la prevalencia de caries se situó en el 61% (IC del 95%, 57,7-64,5. La prevalencia de caries estuvo directamente asociada a

  6. Peer Mentoring: Stories of Three Mathematics Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kensington-Miller, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Mentoring is a professional development strategy well documented. Peer mentoring however, is relatively new and was provided as a professional development strategy for a group of secondary school mathematics teachers working in low socio-economic schools. Through the stories of three teachers, the year-long study identifies the features critical…

  7. Peer Group, Educational Distinction and Educational Biographies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Heinz-Hermann; Kohler, Sina-Mareen; Pfaff, Nicolle; Zschach, Maren

    2011-01-01

    The article presents selected results of a reconstructive study on the significance of the peer group for children's educational biography. Based on the analysis of qualitative interviews and group discussions with c. 11-year-old children from different educational milieus in Germany it is first shown how, in general, groups of friends in…

  8. Peer Evaluation of Oral Presentations in Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovac, Mirjana Matea; Sirkovic, Nina

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to explore student engagement in peer evaluation activities related to giving scientific presentations in English (L2) and to investigate student attitudes towards this form of evaluation in the course Communication skills in Croatian (L1). The participants in this study were first-year students of engineering in Split, Croatia.…

  9. Peer learning in the UNSW Medicine program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scicluna, Helen A; O'Sullivan, Anthony J; Boyle, Patrick; Jones, Philip D; McNeil, H Patrick

    2015-10-02

    The UNSW Australia Medicine program explicitly structures peer learning in program wide mixing of students where students from two adjoining cohorts complete the same course together, including all learning activities and assessment. The purpose of this evaluation is to explore the student experience of peer learning and determine benefits and concerns for junior and senior students. All medical students at UNSW Australia in 2012 (n = 1608) were invited to complete the Peer Learning Questionnaire consisting of 26 fixed-response items and 2 open-ended items exploring vertical integration and near-peer teaching. Assessment data from vertically integrated and non-vertically integrated courses were compared for the period 2011-2013. We received valid responses from 20 % of medical students (n = 328). Eighty percent of respondents were positive about their experience of vertical integration. Year 1 students reported that second year students provided guidance and reassurance (87.8 %), whilst year 2 students reported that the senior role helped them to improve their own understanding, communication and confidence (84 %). Vertical integration had little effect on examination performance and failure rates. This evaluation demonstrates that vertical integration of students who are one year apart and completing the same course leads to positive outcomes for the student experience of learning. Students benefit through deeper learning and the development of leadership qualities within teams. These results are relevant not only for medical education, but also for other professional higher education programs.

  10. Peer Group Rejection and Children's Outgroup Prejudice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesdale, Drew; Durkin, Kevin; Maass, Anne; Kiesner, Jeff; Griffiths, Judith; Daly, Josh; McKenzie, David

    2010-01-01

    Two simulation studies examined the effect of peer group rejection on 7 and 9 year old children's outgroup prejudice. In Study 1, children (n = 88) pretended that they were accepted or rejected by their assigned group, prior to competing with a lower status outgroup. Results indicated that rejected versus accepted children showed increased…

  11. Reciprocity in Preschool Peers' Social Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Jih-Perng Peter

    This study sought to describe the norms of reciprocity in social interaction from the viewpoint of immediate behavioral exchanges by examining the social interaction of preschool peers in a free-play situation. Seventeen 4-year-old children, eight girls and nine boys, were observed during free play activity periods after a picture sociometric test…

  12. Pressure to drink but not to smoke: Disentangling selection and socialization in adolescent peer networks and peer groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiuru, N.; Burk, W.J.; Laursen, B.; Salmela-Aro, K.; Nurmi, J.E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examined the relative influence of selection and socialization on alcohol and tobacco use in adolescent peer networks and peer groups. The sample included 1419 Finnish secondary education students (690 males and 729 females, mean age 16 years at the outset) from nine schools. Participants

  13. Pressure to Drink but Not to Smoke: Disentangling Selection and Socialization in Adolescent Peer Networks and Peer Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuru, Noona; Burk, William J.; Laursen, Brett; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2010-01-01

    This paper examined the relative influence of selection and socialization on alcohol and tobacco use in adolescent peer networks and peer groups. The sample included 1419 Finnish secondary education students (690 males and 729 females, mean age 16 years at the outset) from nine schools. Participants identified three school friends and described…

  14. Does This Make Me Look Fat? Peer Crowd and Peer Contributions to Adolescent Girls' Weight Control Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Eleanor Race; La Greca, Annette M.

    2008-01-01

    Based on the Theory of Reasoned Action, this study evaluated a "socialization" model linking girls' peer crowd affiliations (e.g., Jocks, Populars) with their own weight concern, perceived peer weight norms, and weight control behaviors. An alternative "selection" model was also evaluated. Girls (N = 236; M age = 15.95 years) from diverse ethnic…

  15. The Relation between Early Adolescents' Trust Beliefs in Peers and Reactions to Peer Provocation: Attributions of Intention and Retaliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotenberg, Ken J.; Betts, Lucy R.; Moore, Jolene

    2013-01-01

    The authors examined the relation between early adolescents' trust beliefs in peers and both their attributions for, and retaliatory aggression to, peer provocation. One hundred and eight-five early adolescents (102 male) from the United Kingdom (M age = 12 years, 2 months, SD = 3 months) completed the Children's Generalized Trust Beliefs in peer…

  16. Adolescent Peer Victimization, Peer Status, Suicidal Ideation, and Nonsuicidal Self-Injury: Examining Concurrent and Longitudinal Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilbron, Nicole; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined concurrent and longitudinal associations among peer victimization, peer status, and self-injurious thoughts and behaviors (i.e., suicidal ideation and nonsuicidal self-injury [NSSI]) over a 2-year period. A community sample of 493 adolescents (51% girls) in Grades 6-8 participated in the study. Participants completed measures…

  17. Anal sphincter defects and fecal incontinence 15-24 years after first delivery: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán Rojas, R A; Salvesen, K Å; Volløyhaug, I

    2018-05-01

    To establish the prevalence of external (EAS) and internal (IAS) anal sphincter defects present 15-24 years after childbirth according to mode of delivery, and their association with development of fecal incontinence (FI). The study additionally aimed to compare the proportion of women with obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS) reported at delivery with the proportion of women with sphincter defect detected on ultrasound 15-24 years later. This was a cross-sectional study including 563 women who delivered their first child between 1990 and 1997. Women responded to a validated questionnaire (Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory) in 2013-2014, from which the proportion of women with FI was recorded. Information about OASIS was obtained from the National Birth Registry. Study participants underwent four-dimensional transperineal ultrasound examination. Defect of EAS or IAS of ≥ 30° in at least four of six slices on tomographic ultrasound was considered a significant defect and was recorded. Four study groups were defined based on mode of delivery of the first child. Women who had delivered only by Cesarean section (CS) constituted the CS group. Women in the normal vaginal delivery (NVD) group had NVD of their first child and subsequent deliveries could be NVD or CS. The forceps delivery (FD) group included women who had FD, NVD or CS after FD of their first born. The vacuum delivery (VD) group included women who had VD, NVD or CS after VD of their first born. Multiple logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) for comparison of prevalence of an EAS defect following different modes of delivery and to test its association with FI. Fisher's exact test was used to calculate crude odds ratios (ORs) for IAS defects. Defects of EAS and IAS were found after NVD (n = 201) in 10% and 1% of cases, respectively, after FD (n = 144) in 32% and 7% of cases and after VD (n = 120) in 15% and 4% of cases. No defects were found after CS (n

  18. [Improving patient safety through voluntary peer review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, S; Bause, H

    2015-01-01

    The intensive care unit (ICU) is one area of the hospital in which processes and communication are of primary importance. Errors in intensive care units can lead to serious adverse events with significant consequences for patients. Therefore quality and risk-management are important measures when treating critically ill patients. A pragmatic approach to support quality and safety in intensive care is peer review. This approach has gained significant acceptance over the past years. It consists of mutual visits by colleagues who conduct standardised peer reviews. These reviews focus on the systematic evaluation of the quality of an ICU's structure, its processes and outcome. Together with different associations, the State Chambers of Physicians and the German Medical Association have developed peer review as a standardized tool for quality improvement. The common goal of all stakeholders is the continuous and sustainable improvement in intensive care with peer reviews significantly increasing and improving communication between professions and disciplines. Peer reviews secure the sustainability of planned change processes and consequently lead the way to an improved culture of quality and safety.

  19. Low-friction arthroplasty of the hip using alumina ceramic and cross-linked polyethylene. A 17-year follow-up report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroblewski, B M; Siney, P D; Fleming, P A

    2005-09-01

    We report the results of our continued review of 11 total hip arthroplasties using 22.225 mm alumina ceramic femoral heads on a Charnley flanged stem, articulating with chemically cross-linked polyethylene. There was an initial bedding-in of up to 0.41 mm at the articular surface in the first two years. This had not progressed further, at a minimum follow-up of 15 years. Radiographically no femoral or acetabular component showed loosening or osteolysis.

  20. Family socioeconomic status and nutrition habits of 7-8 year old children: cross-sectional Lithuanian COSI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrauskienė, Aušra; Žaltauskė, Vilma; Albavičiūtė, Edita

    2015-04-23

    Nutritional habits are a useful way to characterize whole diets and they are also known to be influenced by a wide range of social and economic factors. The above factors in each country may have different effect on children's eating habits. In Lithuania the data of children nutrition in association with socio-economic status of family is poor. There are few studies done, where links between nutrition habits of children and socio-economic status of family was evaluated. The aim of this paper is to evaluate association among nutrition habits of first-formers and family socio-economic status in Lithuania. Data were obtained participating in the international study, which was performed in all ten districts of Lithuania. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2010, using the protocol and methodology prepared by the experts from the WHO and countries participating in the Initiative. The data were collected by means of COSI standardized questionnaire, which was filled out by parents of selected first-formers'. In this paper a part of questions regarding children nutrition habits and parents' socio-economic status is presented. Statistical analysis was performed by using SPSS 20.0 software for Windows. Correlation among variables was evaluated by χ (2). Links among nutrition habits of first-formers and family socioeconomic status were determined using binary logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). For all tests p eat breakfast every day or 4-6 times a week. Significant differences were found between breakfast consumption and gender - girls eat breakfast less frequently than boys. Odds ratio of children daily breakfast consumption were 1.3 times higher in families where fathers' were older than 30 years comparing with younger fathers. Meanwhile mothers' age had significant influence just on children daily soft drinks with sugar consumption. Results from the national survey of primary school age children of Lithuania reveals

  1. Peer play, emotion understanding, and socio-moral explanation: the role of gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieson, Kay; Banerjee, Robin

    2011-06-01

    Engagement in peer play is an important factor in young children’s adjustment as they make the transition to school. We evaluated individual differences in peer play within a sample of 58 children aged 4–5 years. Among boys, but not among girls, emotion understanding and verbal ability independently served as positive predictors of interactive peer play and negative predictors of disconnected play. Among girls, but not among boys, interactive peer play and socio-moral reasoning about peer conflict situations independently predicted sociometric most-like nominations. The results provide a foundation for further research on divergence in the early peer play of girls and boys.

  2. Peer assisted learning: teaching dental skills and enhancing graduate attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, D A; Binnie, V I; Sherriff, A; Bissell, V

    2015-09-25

    This study describes a pilot project in which peer assisted learning (PAL) is used to teach dental clinical skills. A cluster randomised controlled trial compared opinions of Bachelor of Dental Surgery (BDS) students from peer-led groups versus staff-led groups in a clinical (impression taking) and a pre-clinical (handpiece skills) task. BDS5 (peer tutors) in their final year delivered teaching to BDS1 (tutees) for each task. Quantitative data from tutees and the peer tutors was gathered from questionnaires, along with open written comments. PAL was well received by both tutees and peer tutors. BDS1 tutees rated BDS5 peer tutors highly for delivery of information, and level of feedback. The tutees considered peer tutors more approachable and less intimidating than staff. Peer tutors reported their own knowledge had increased as a result of teaching. In a summative OSCE (objective structured clinical examination) four months following the teaching, no statistical significant difference between the performance of peer-led and staff-led groups was found at stations related to the subject matter in question. It is argued that PAL, as well as being a useful method of delivering subject-specific teaching, is able to contribute to the development of graduate attributes.

  3. MELCOR Peer Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyack, B.E.; Dhir, V.K.; Gieseke, J.A.; Haste, T.J.; Kenton, M.A.; Khatib-Rahbar, M.; Leonard, M.T.; Viskanta, R.

    1992-03-01

    MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code that models the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor nuclear power plants. The newest version of MELCOR is Version 1.8.1, July 1991. MELCOR development has reached the point that the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission sponsored a broad technical review by recognized experts to determine or confirm the technical adequacy of the code for the serious and complex analyses it is expected to perform. For this purpose, an eight-member MELCOR Peer Review Committee was organized. The Committee has completed its review of the MELCOR code: the review process and findings of the MELCOR Peer Review Committee are documented in this report. The Committee has determined that recommendations in five areas are appropriate: (1) MELCOR numerics, (2) models missing from MELCOR Version 1.8.1, (3) existing MELCOR models needing revision, (4) the need for expanded MELCOR assessment, and (5) documentation

  4. Toddlers Help a Peer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepach, Robert; Kante, Nadine; Tomasello, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Toddlers are remarkably prosocial toward adults, yet little is known about their helping behavior toward peers. In the present study with 18- and 30-month-old toddlers (n = 192, 48 dyads per age group), one child needed help reaching an object to continue a task that was engaging for both children. The object was within reach of the second child who helped significantly more often compared to a no-need control condition. The helper also fulfilled the peer's need when the task was engaging only for the child needing help. These findings suggest that toddlers' skills and motivations of helping do not depend on having a competent and helpful recipient, such as an adult, but rather they are much more flexible and general. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  5. On Being a Peer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertel, Lykke Brogaard; Rasmussen, Dorte Malig

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates and discusses the persuasive principles of social actors in relation to other theories of technologies as social agents, particularly within the field of Social Robotics and Persuasive Educational and Entertainment Robotics (PEERs). Based on related research and results from...... a case study on social robots as persuasive social actors in education an extension of the persuasive principles is proposed and related design guidelines for Persuasive Technology as social actors in teaching are presented....

  6. Career preferences of final year medical students at a medical school in Kenya--A cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossajee, Hussein; Obonyo, Nchafatso; Ahmed, Syed Masud

    2016-01-11

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recommended physician to population ratio is 23:10,000. Kenya has a physician to population ratio of 1.8:10,000 and is among 57 countries listed as having a serious shortage of health workers. Approximately 52% of physicians work in urban areas, 6% in rural and 42% in peri-urban locations. This study explored factors influencing the choice of career specialization and location for practice among final year medical students by gender. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out on final year students in 2013 at the University of Nairobi's, School of Medicine in Kenya. Sample size was calculated at 156 students for simple random sampling. Data collected using a pre-tested self-administered questionnaire included socio-demographic characteristics of the population, first and second choices for specialization. Outcome variables collected were factors affecting choice of specialty and location for practice. Bivariate analysis by gender was carried out between the listed factors and outcome variables with calculation of odds ratios and chi-square statistics at an alpha level of significance of 0.05. Factors included in a binomial logistic regression model were analysed to score the independent categorical variables affecting choice of specialty and location of practice. Internal medicine, Surgery, Obstetrics/Gynaecology and Paediatrics accounted for 58.7% of all choices of specialization. Female students were less likely to select Obs/Gyn (OR 0.41, 95% CI =0.17-0.99) and Surgery (OR 0.33, 95% CI = 0.13-0.86) but eight times more likely to select Paediatrics (OR 8.67, 95% CI = 1.91-39.30). Surgery was primarily selected because of the 'perceived prestige of the specialty' (OR 4.3 95% CI = 1.35-14.1). Paediatrics was selected due to 'Ease of raising a family' (OR 4.08 95% CI = 1.08-15.4). Rural origin increased the odds of practicing in a rural area (OR 2.5, 95% CI = 1.04-6.04). Training abroad was more likely

  7. Workplace peer educators and stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, David; Kgatea, Kabelo Duncan

    2008-11-01

    Peer educators form an important component of company responses to HIV and AIDS. Based on interviews with peer educators working in and around a mining company in South Africa's North-West Province, the study examines the relationship between involvement in peer education and stress. The paper discusses how becoming a peer educator can be a response to the often personal stress brought about by the HIV epidemic. In addition, structural difficulties, skills deficiencies and other obstacles to effective communication with their peers can create stress. The stress that active peer education brings to individuals is discussed, particularly in regard to the embeddedness of peer educators within their communities. The need for confidentiality also magnifies stress in the case of individuals who disregard peer educators' advice. Peer educators face many stresses in managing and supporting their own lives, thus their (voluntary) work as peer educators should not be taken out of context. Using this approach, we discuss how the role of peer educator should be conceptualised and how they can be organised and supported in order that their stress be minimised and effective engagement maximised.

  8. 2015 Peer Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-03-01

    In the spring and summer of 2015, the Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO or the Office) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) implemented an external peer review of the projects in its research, development and demonstration (RD&D) portfolio. The Office manages a diverse portfolio of technologies across the spectrum of applied RD&D within the dynamic context of changing budgets and Administration priorities. The Office portfolio is organized according to the biomass-to-bioenergy supply chain—from the feedstock source to the end user (see Figure 1)—with major focus on feedstock supply and biomass conversion. The 2015 Project Peer Review took place March 23-27, 2015, outside of Washington, D.C., in Alexandria, Virginia, and evaluated most of the publicly funded projects in BETO’s portfolio. The subsequent Program Management Review took place on June 25, 2015, in Washington, D.C., and provided an Office- level assessment of strategic planning and programmatic initiatives. The peer review process enables external stakeholders to provide feedback on the responsible use of taxpayer funding and develop recommendations for the most efficient and effective ways to accelerate the development of an advanced bioenergy industry. The planning and execution of these reviews was completed over the course of 10 months, and this report includes the results of both events.

  9. From Parents to Siblings and Peers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Roskam

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the current research was to test the hypotheses arising from the epigenetic view of social development and from the wider perspective offered by the social network model with three interactional systems, that is, child–parent, child–sibling, and child–peer. They were tested in two prospective longitudinal studies using a multi-informant and multi-method strategy. Study 1 was conducted among 83 children and their parents and Study 2 among 190 children. Attachment security with parents was assessed when the children were 4 years of age, relationships with siblings at 5 years of age, and relationships with peers at 6 years of age. Attachment to parent was found to explain a limited part of variations in later social relationships with siblings and peers. The sibling interactional system had a consistent and enduring effect on later peer relationships. With regard to the two theoretical backgrounds under consideration, neither was able to account for equivocal findings displayed in the two studies as well as in previous research. The wonderful story of social development seems to be a very complex process for which new models are needed.

  10. Studying Cross-Cultural Differences in Temperament in the First Year of Life: United States and Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montirosso, Rosario; Cozzi, Patrizia; Putnam, Samuel P.; Gartstein, Maria A.; Borgatti, Renato

    2011-01-01

    An Italian translation of the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised (IBQ-R) was developed and evaluated with 110 infants, demonstrating satisfactory internal consistency, discriminant validity, and construct validity in the form of gender and age differences, as well as factorial integrity. Cross-cultural differences were subsequently evaluated…

  11. Ten years with the CPA (Cubic-Plus-Association) equation of state. Part 2. Cross-associating and multicomponent systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Michelsen, Michael Locht; Folas, Georgios

    2006-01-01

    In this second article of the review on the applications of the CPA (Cubic-Plus-Association) equation of state, the focus is placed on cross-associating systems. Various such mixtures are investigated, including (i) systems with two self-associating compounds ( e. g., water-alcohol systems...

  12. How Does Student Peer Review Influence Perceptions, Engagement and Academic Outcomes? A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Raoul; Baik, Chi; Naylor, Ryan; Pearce, Jon

    2014-01-01

    Involving students in peer review has many pedagogical benefits, but few studies have explicitly investigated relationships between the content of peer reviews, student perceptions and assessment outcomes. We conducted a case study of peer review within a third-year undergraduate subject at a research-intensive Australian university, in which we…

  13. Peer Review in Class: Metrics and Variations in a Senior Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankulov, Krassimir; Couto, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Peer reviews are the generally accepted mode of quality assessment in scholarly communities; however, they are rarely used for evaluation at college levels. Over a period of 5 years, we have performed a peer review simulation at a senior level course in molecular genetics at the University of Guelph and have accumulated 393 student peer reviews.…

  14. Children's social self-concept and internalizing problems: The influence of peers and teachers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spilt, J.L.; van Lier, P.A.C.; Leflot, G.; Onghena, P.; Colpin, H.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to understand how relationships with peers and teachers contribute to the development of internalizing problems via children's social self-concept. The sample included 570 children aged 7 years 5 months (SD = 4.6 months). Peer nominations of peer rejection, child-reported social

  15. Peers Influence Prosocial Behavior in Adolescent Males with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoorn, Jorien; Van Dijk, Eric; Crone, Eveline A.; Stockmann, Lex; Rieffe, Carolien

    2017-01-01

    Peer influence has a profound impact on decision-making in typically developing adolescents. In this study, we examined to what extent adolescent males (age 11-17 years; N = 144) with and without autism (ASD) were influenced by peer feedback on prosocial behavior, and which factors were related to individual differences in peer feedback…

  16. Peer Acceptance and Friendship in Early Childhood: The Conceptual Distinctions between Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beazidou, Eleftheria; Botsoglou, Kafenia

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews previous literature about peer acceptance and friendship, two of the most critical aspects of peer relations that have received most of research attention during the past years. In this review, we will focus on the processes explaining the way children use the ability to socialise with peers; explore the hypothesis that certain…

  17. A Peer-Assisted Learning Program and Its Effect on Student Skill Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, W. David; Volberding, Jennifer; Vardiman, Phillip

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of an intentional Peer-Assisted Learning (PAL) program on peer-tutors and peer-tutees for performance on specific psychomotor skills. Design and Setting: Randomized, pretest-posttest experimental design. Participants: Undergraduate students (N = 69, 42 females and 27 males, all participants were 18 to 22 years old,…

  18. The Effectiveness of Peer Review of Teaching When Performed between Early-Career Academics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Richard J.; Parappilly, Maria B.

    2015-01-01

    The success of peer review of teaching (PRT) in shaping teaching practice during an academic's formative years may depend on the peers' teaching experience and the frequency of evaluation. Two Australian early-career University lecturers with no previous experience of peer review performed a single PRT on one another following a one week academic…

  19. Learning Circles: A Collaborative Technology-Mediated Peer-Teaching Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Kevin; Marshall, Kevin; Tangney, Brendan

    2015-01-01

    This research study explores peer teaching and learning without a domain expert teacher, within the context of an activity where teams of second level students (~16 years old) are required to create a learning experience for their peers. The study looks at how participants would like to be taught and how they would teach their peers if given the…

  20. The Relationship between Subject Matter Knowledge and Teaching Effectiveness of Undergraduate Chemistry Peer Facilitators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boothe, J. R.; Barnard, R. A.; Peterson, L. J.; Coppola, B. P.

    2018-01-01

    Use of peer instruction and facilitation has surged in undergraduate education at large colleges and universities in recent years. Studies on peer instruction have been directed primarily at student learning gains and affective outcomes among the facilitators. For peer instructors, the relationship between their teaching effectiveness and their…

  1. Peer Status Among Incarcerated Female Offenders: Associations With Social Behavior and Adjustment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldweber, A.; Cauffman, E.; Cillessen, A.H.N.

    2014-01-01

    Peers are a powerful socializing force, especially during adolescence. Whether peer status holds the same meaning, correlates, and consequences for female offenders remains unknown. Using a peer nomination technique in a sample of incarcerated females (N=86, age 15-24years), our study is the first

  2. Undergraduate Essay Writing: Online and Face-to-Face Peer Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Mike R.; Goff, Lori; Dej, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    We implemented two different approaches of using peer review to support undergraduate essay assignments for students taking large second-year courses in life sciences and biology: a web-based online peer review (OPR) approach and a more traditional face-to-face peer review (FPR) approach that was conducted in tutorial settings. The essays…

  3. Peer Teaching to Foster Learning in Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Tripti K; Waghmare, Lalitbhushan S; Mishra, Ved Prakash; Rawekar, Alka T; Quazi, Nazli; Jagzape, Arunita T

    2015-08-01

    Peer teaching is an effective tool to promote learning and retention of knowledge. By preparing to teach, students are encouraged to construct their own learning program, so that they can explain effectively to fellow learners. Peer teaching is introduced in present study to foster learning and pedagogical skills amongst first year medical under-graduates in physiology with a Hypothesis that teaching is linked to learning on part of the teacher. Non-randomized, Interventional study, with mixed methods design. Cases experienced peer teaching whereas controls underwent tutorials for four consecutive classes. Quantitative Evaluation was done through pre/post test score analysis for Class average normalized gain and tests of significance, difference in average score in surprise class test after one month and percentage of responses in closed ended items of feedback questionnaire. Qualitative Evaluation was done through categorization of open ended items and coding of reflective statements. The average pre and post test score was statistically significant within cases (p = 0.01) and controls (p = 0.023). The average post test scores was more for cases though not statistically significant. The class average normalized gain (g) for Tutorials was 49% and for peer teaching 53%. Surprise test had average scoring of 36 marks (out of 50) for controls and 41 marks for cases. Analysed section wise, the average score was better for Long answer question (LAQ) in cases. Section wise analysis suggested that through peer teaching, retention was better for descriptive answers as LAQ has better average score in cases. Feedback responses were predominantly positive for efficacy of peer teaching as a learning method. The reflective statements were sorted into reflection in action, reflection on action, claiming evidence, describing experience, and recognizing discrepancies. Teaching can stimulate further learning as it involves interplay of three processes: metacognitive awareness

  4. Designing a Peer-Mentoring Program for Education Doctorate (EdD) Students

    OpenAIRE

    Kendra Lowery; Rachel Geesa; Kat McConnell

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: In preparation for creating a peer-mentoring program for education doctorate (EdD) students, we conducted a literature review to learn about the characteristics of peer-mentoring programs for graduate students and EdD students specifically. Method: Our search criteria included articles about peer mentoring for graduate students only; published in peer-reviewed journals since the year 2000; and about programs that involved more experienced students, students farther along in t...

  5. Peer Status Among Incarcerated Female Offenders: Associations With Social Behavior and Adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Goldweber, Asha; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2013-01-01

    Peers are a powerful socializing force, especially during adolescence. Whether peer status holds the same meaning, correlates, and consequences for female offenders remains unknown. Using a peer nomination technique in a sample of incarcerated females (N = 86, age 15-24 years), our study is the first to examine the association between peer status and psychopathology in a correctional facility. Results indicated that a key indicator of likeability was prosocial behavior; popularity was related...

  6. Near-peer teaching in clinical neuroanatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Samuel; Lewis, Michael; Border, Scott; Powell, Matthew

    2013-08-01

    Near-peer teaching involves students being taught by more senior students and draws on their similar knowledge base and shared experiences. It has been used previously for teaching gross anatomy, but has not yet been reported specifically for neuroanatomy. At the University of Southampton there is no formal neuroanatomy teaching during the clinical years, and so a near-peer teaching programme was developed to support students, learning in between attending their clinical attachments. A series of seven sessions were organised and delivered by two medical students throughout the 2010/11 academic year, and each session was evaluated by using participant feedback forms. Sixty feedback forms were returned by the students, giving an average rating for the overall quality of the sessions of 4.3 out of 5.0. There was an 18 per cent increase in the student's perceived level of knowledge (p peer teaching sessions. The most common feedback received from our students related to the availability of handouts and expressions of gratitude. The results from this teaching development support the use of near-peer teaching in neuroanatomy. In this article we provide some evidence to suggest that students feel more confident with neuroanatomy after attending these sessions, and describe some unique advantages of this teaching programme over sessions led by faculty staff. The wider benefits to both faculty staff and student teachers are also considered. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Is there something like a peer to peer science?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Bauwens

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available How will peer to peer infrastructures, and the underlying intersubjective and ethical relational model that is implied by it, affect scientific practice? Are peer-to-peer forms of cooperation, based on open and free input of voluntary contributors, participatory processes of governance, and universal availability of the output, more productive than centralized alternatives? In this short introduction, Michel Bauwens reviews a number of open and free, participatory and commons oriented practices that are emerging in scientific research and practice, but which ultimately point to a more profound epistemological revolution linked to increased participatory consciousness between the scientist and his human, organic and inorganic research material.

  8. Brugbar peer feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvass, Helle; Heger, Stine

    Studerende kan være medskabere af undervisning i akademisk skrivning, når de modtager og giver feedback til hinandens ufærdige akademiske tekster. Det ser vi i et udviklingsprojekt, hvor vi afprøver kollektive vejledningsformater. Vi har dog erfaret: 1. at studerende mangler træning i at give og ...... modtage feedback 2. at den manglende træning kan stå i vejen for realiseringen af læringspotentialet ved peer feedback....

  9. The value of peer reviews to nuclear plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subalusky, W.T. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    On a global basis, the nuclear utility industry has clearly demonstrated the value of peer reviews for improving nuclear safety and overall plant performance. Peer reviews are conducted by small teams of technical experts who review various aspects of plant operation, recognize strengths and recommend improvements, thereby stimulating a positive response to the recommendations. U.S. nuclear utilities initiated the operator-to-operator peer review process first through the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO). Now, voluntary peer reviews are an important activity of the World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO). Formed just five years ago. WANO has made significant progress in its key activities of the operator-to-operator exchanges, operating experience exchange, monitoring of plant performance indicators and sharing of good practices worldwide. A fifth activity, peer review on a strictly voluntary basis, is pertinent to this paper

  10. An OAI repository centric peer-review model

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    Pre-print repositories have seen a significant increase in use over the past fifteen years across multiple research domains. Researchers are beginning to develop applications capable of using these repositories to assist the scientific community above and beyond the pure dissemination of information. The contributions set forth by this paper emphasize a deconstructed publication model where in which the peer-review certification phase of a pre-print is mediated by an OAI-compliant peer-review service. This peer-review service uses a social-network algorithm for determining potential reviewers for a submitted manuscript and for weighting the influence of each participating reviewer’s evaluations. The paper also provides a set of peer-review specific metadata tags that can accompany a pre-prints existing metadata record. The combinations of these contributions provide a unique repository-centric peer-review model within the framework of the current OAI standards existing today.

  11. Interprofessional Peer Teaching of Pharmacy and Physical Therapy Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowski, Cheryl A; Li, Johnson Ching-hong; Pasay, Darren; Jones, C Allyson

    2015-12-25

    To evaluate an interprofessional peer-teaching activity during which physical therapy students instructed undergraduate pharmacy students on 3 ambulatory devices (canes, crutches, walkers). The pre/post evaluation of 2 pharmacy undergraduate classes included 220 students, 110 per year. After pharmacy students completed a 10-point, knowledge-based pretest, they participated in a hands-on activity with physical therapy students teaching them about sizing, use, and safety of canes, crutches, and walkers. A 10-point posttest was completed immediately afterward. The mean difference of pre/post scores was 3.5 (SD 1.9) for the peer-led teaching, and 3.8 (SD 2.2) for the peer learning group. Students had positive responses regarding the learning exercise and recommended further peer teaching. The peer-learning activity involving physical therapy students teaching pharmacy students was an effective method of improving knowledge and skills regarding basic ambulatory devices.

  12. Alcohol and drug treatment involvement, 12-step attendance and abstinence: 9-year cross-lagged analysis of adults in an integrated health plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witbrodt, Jane; Ye, Yu; Bond, Jason; Chi, Felicia; Weisner, Constance; Mertens, Jennifer

    2014-04-01

    This study explored causal relationships between post-treatment 12-step attendance and abstinence at multiple data waves and examined indirect paths leading from treatment initiation to abstinence 9-years later. Adults (N = 1945) seeking help for alcohol or drug use disorders from integrated healthcare organization outpatient treatment programs were followed at 1-, 5-, 7- and 9-years. Path modeling with cross-lagged partial regression coefficients was used to test causal relationships. Cross-lagged paths indicated greater 12-step attendance during years 1 and 5 and were casually related to past-30-day abstinence at years 5 and 7 respectfully, suggesting 12-step attendance leads to abstinence (but not vice versa) well into the post-treatment period. Some gender differences were found in these relationships. Three significant time-lagged, indirect paths emerged linking treatment duration to year-9 abstinence. Conclusions are discussed in the context of other studies using longitudinal designs. For outpatient clients, results reinforce the value of lengthier treatment duration and 12-step attendance in year 1. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Associations of Age, BMI, and Years of Menstruation with Proximal Femur Strength in Chinese Postmenopausal Women: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huili Kang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to elucidate the associations of age, BMI, and years of menstruation with proximal femur strength in Chinese postmenopausal women, which may improve the prediction of hip fracture risk. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1322 Chinese postmenopausal women recruited from communities. DXA images were used to generate bone mineral density (BMD and geometric parameters, including cross-sectional area (CSA, outer diameter (OD, cortical thickness (CT, section modulus (SM, buckling ratio (BR at the narrow neck (NN, intertrochanter (IT, and femoral shaft (FS. Relationships of age, BMI, and years of menstruation with bone phenotypes were analyzed with the adjustment of height, age at menarche, total daily physical activity, education, smoking status, calcium tablet intake, etc. Age was associated with lower BMD, CSA, CT, SM, and higher BR (p < 0.05, which indicated a weaker bone strength at the proximal femur. BMI and years of menstruation had the positive relationships with proximal femur strength (p < 0.05. Further analyses showed that the ranges of absolute value of change slope per year, per BMI or per year of menstruation were 0.14%–1.34%, 0.20%–2.70%, and 0.16%–0.98%, respectively. These results supported that bone strength deteriorated with aging and enhanced with higher BMI and longer time of years of menstruation in Chinese postmenopausal women.

  14. Family food involvement and frequency of family dinner meals among Australian children aged 10-12years. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations with dietary patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leech, Rebecca M; McNaughton, Sarah A; Crawford, David A; Campbell, Karen J; Pearson, Natalie; Timperio, Anna

    2014-04-01

    Involvement in meal preparation and eating meals with the family are associated with better dietary patterns in adolescents, however little research has included older children or longitudinal study designs. This 3-year longitudinal study examines cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between family food involvement, family dinner meal frequency and dietary patterns during late childhood. Questionnaires were completed by parents of 188 children from Greater Melbourne, Australia at baseline in 2002 (mean age=11.25years) and at follow-up in 2006 (mean age=14.16years). Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to identify dietary patterns. Factor analysis (FA) was used to determine the principal factors from six indicators of family food involvement. Multiple linear regression models were used to predict the dietary patterns of children and adolescents at baseline and at follow-up, 3years later, from baseline indicators of family food involvement and frequency of family dinner meals. PCA revealed two dietary patterns, labeled a healthful pattern and an energy-dense pattern. FA revealed one factor for family food involvement. Cross-sectionally among boys, family food involvement score (β=0.55, 95% CI: 0.02, 1.07) and eating family dinner meals daily (β=1.11, 95% CI: 0.27, 1.96) during late childhood were positively associated with the healthful pattern. Eating family dinner meals daily was inversely associated with the energy-dense pattern, cross-sectionally among boys (β=-0.56, 95% CI: -1.06, -0.06). No significant cross-sectional associations were found among girls and no significant longitudinal associations were found for either gender. Involvement in family food and eating dinner with the family during late childhood may have a positive influence on dietary patterns of boys. No evidence was found to suggest the effects on dietary patterns persist into adolescence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Building capacity in social service agencies to employ peer providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Lauren B; Mandiberg, James M; Akabas, Sheila H

    2010-01-01

    While there is evidence that peer providers are valuable to service delivery teams, the agencies where they work face difficulties in fulfilling the potential of including peers on staff effectively. The purpose of this article is to report findings of a pilot test of a workplace strategy that promoted inclusion of peer providers at social service agencies by building organizational capacity to support people with mental health conditions in peer provider roles. The strategy included training, goal setting and ongoing consultation. Seventy-one peer, non-peer and supervisory staff participated from 6 agencies over a one year period. Goal attainment scaling and data from in-depth interviews about perceptions of differences in the ways in which staff are supported, administered prior to and after the consultation period, were used to assess strategy impact. Most frequently staff set goals to respond to role conflict or a lack of support. Staff that met or exceeded their goals utilized the formal structure of consultation to improve communication among themselves, had leadership that sanctioned changes and felt that their participation was of value to the organization and contributed to their individual development. Strategy participation promoted inclusion by initiating changes to policies and practices that devalued the peer provider role, increased skill sets, and formalized lines of communication for sharing information and understanding related to peer providers. Findings demonstrate that a strategy of training, goal setting and consultation can positively affect perceptions of inclusion, and promote implementation of practices associated with inclusive workplaces.

  16. Transformational mentoring: Leadership behaviors of spinal cord injury peer mentors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Robert B; McBride, Christopher B; Casemore, Sheila; Martin Ginis, Kathleen A

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the leadership behaviors of spinal cord injury (SCI) peer mentors and examine whether behaviors of peer mentors align with the tenets of transformational leadership theory. A total of 12 SCI peer mentors aged 28-75 (M = 49.4) who had between 3 and 56 years (M = 13.9) of mentoring experience were recruited for the study. Utilizing a qualitative methodology (informed by a social constructionist approach), each mentor engaged in a semistructured interview about their experiences as a peer mentor. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and subjected to a directed content analysis. SCI peer mentors reported using mentorship behaviors and engaging with mentees in a manner that closely aligns with the core components of transformational leadership theory: idealized influence, inspirational motivation, individualized consideration, and intellectual stimulation. A new subcomponent of inspirational motivation described as 'active promotion of achievement' was also identified and may be unique to the context of peer mentorship. SCI peer mentors inherently use behaviors associated with transformational leadership theory when interacting with mentees. The results from this study have the potential to inform SCI peer mentor training programs about specific leadership behaviors that mentors could be taught to use and could lead to more effective mentoring practices for people with SCI. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. CONTAIN independent peer review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyack, B.E.; Corradini, M.L.; Khatib-Rahbar, M.; Loyalka, S.K.; Smith, P.N.

    1995-01-01

    The CONTAIN code was developed by Sandia National Laboratories under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to provide integrated analyses of containment phenomena. It is used to predict nuclear reactor containment loads, radiological source terms, and associated physical phenomena for a range of accident conditions encompassing both design-basis and severe accidents. The code's targeted applications include support for containment-related experimental programs, light water and advanced light water reactor plant analysis, and analytical support for resolution of specific technical issues such as direct containment heating. The NRC decided that a broad technical review of the code should be performed by technical experts to determine its overall technical adequacy. For this purpose, a six-member CONTAIN Peer Review Committee was organized and a peer review as conducted. While the review was in progress, the NRC issued a draft ''Revised Severe Accident Code Strategy'' that incorporated revised design objectives and targeted applications for the CONTAIN code. The committee continued its effort to develop findings relative to the original NRC statement of design objectives and targeted applications. However, the revised CONTAIN design objectives and targeted applications. However, the revised CONTAIN design objectives and targeted applications were considered by the Committee in assigning priorities to the Committee's recommendations. The Committee determined some improvements are warranted and provided recommendations in five code-related areas: (1) documentation, (2) user guidance, (3) modeling capability, (4) code assessment, and (5) technical assessment

  18. CONTAIN independent peer review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyack, B.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Corradini, M.L. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Nuclear Engineering Dept.; Denning, R.S. [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Khatib-Rahbar, M. [Energy Research Inc., Rockville, MD (United States); Loyalka, S.K. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Smith, P.N. [AEA Technology, Dorchester (United Kingdom). Winfrith Technology Center

    1995-01-01

    The CONTAIN code was developed by Sandia National Laboratories under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to provide integrated analyses of containment phenomena. It is used to predict nuclear reactor containment loads, radiological source terms, and associated physical phenomena for a range of accident conditions encompassing both design-basis and severe accidents. The code`s targeted applications include support for containment-related experimental programs, light water and advanced light water reactor plant analysis, and analytical support for resolution of specific technical issues such as direct containment heating. The NRC decided that a broad technical review of the code should be performed by technical experts to determine its overall technical adequacy. For this purpose, a six-member CONTAIN Peer Review Committee was organized and a peer review as conducted. While the review was in progress, the NRC issued a draft ``Revised Severe Accident Code Strategy`` that incorporated revised design objectives and targeted applications for the CONTAIN code. The committee continued its effort to develop findings relative to the original NRC statement of design objectives and targeted applications. However, the revised CONTAIN design objectives and targeted applications. However, the revised CONTAIN design objectives and targeted applications were considered by the Committee in assigning priorities to the Committee`s recommendations. The Committee determined some improvements are warranted and provided recommendations in five code-related areas: (1) documentation, (2) user guidance, (3) modeling capability, (4) code assessment, and (5) technical assessment.

  19. Three Year RSA Evaluation of Vitamin E Diffused Highly Cross-linked Polyethylene Liners and Cup Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, Nanna H; Greene, Meridith E; Nebergall, Audrey K

    2015-01-01

    10-year RSA. This is the first evaluation of the multicenter cohort after 3-years. All patients received E-XLPE liners (E1, Biomet) and porous-titanium coated cups (Regenerex, Biomet). There was no difference (P=0.450) in median femoral head penetration into the E-XLPE liners at 3-years comparing...... cobalt-chrome heads (-0.028mm; inter-quartile range (IQR) - 0.065 to 0.047) with ceramic heads (-0.043mm, IQR - 0.143to0.042). The 3-year follow-up indicates minimal E-XLPE liner penetration regardless of head material and minimal early cup movement....

  20. Differences in sexual behavior, health, and history of child abuse among school students who had and had not engaged in sexual activity by the age of 18 years: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kastbom ÅA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Åsa A Kastbom,1,2 Gunilla Sydsjö,3 Marie Bladh,3 Gisela Priebe,4,5 Carl Göran Svedin2 1Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Linköping University Hospital, 2Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Faculty, Linköping University, Linköping, 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, and Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Faculty, Linköping University, Linköping, 4Department of Psychology, Linnæus University, Växjö, 5Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Lund University, Lund, Sweden Background: Empirical research about late sexual debut and its consequences is limited, and further research is needed. Objective: To explore how students who had not had intercourse by the age of 18 years differed in terms of sociodemographic factors, physical and psychological health, sexual behavior, and history of sexual abuse from those who had. Materials and methods: This is a cross-sectional survey involving 3,380 Swedish 18-year-olds. Descriptive analyses were used to investigate different types of sexual behavior. Ordinal data concerning alcohol consumption, self-esteem, sexual and physical abuse, parental relationships, sense of coherence, and health were analyzed, and multiple regression was carried out to identify the most important factors associated with no sexual debut. Results: Just under a quarter of the adolescents had not had oral, anal, or vaginal sex by the age of 18 years, and they comprised the index group. They were characterized by being more likely to have caring fathers, parents born outside Europe, lower pornography consumption, lower alcohol and tobacco consumption, less antisocial behavior, and above all lower sexual desire (sometimes, adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.8; never/seldom, aOR 13.3 and fewer experiences of sexual abuse (aOR 25.5. Family structure and culture matters when it comes to the age of sexual debut. Conclusion: Adolescents

  1. Vulnerability to Peer Influence: A Moderated Mediation Study of Early Adolescent Alcohol Use Initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trucco, Elisa M.; Colder, Craig R.; Wieczorek, William F.

    2011-01-01

    Affiliation with deviant peers is a correlate of adolescent alcohol use; however, the mechanism accounting for this association remains unclear, particularly with respect to initiation of alcohol use in early adolescence. This prospective study examines perceived peer attitudes and use as a mediator between peer delinquency and initiation of alcohol use, and how parenting may moderate vulnerability to this risk pathway. Participants included 371 11–13 year-old adolescents (55.5% female, 83.0% Caucasian). Results suggested that high levels of peer delinquency prospectively predicted perceived peer approval and use of alcohol and that peer approval and use of alcohol prospectively predicted initiation of alcohol use. Thus, reinforcement and modeling alcohol use appear to be important mechanisms by which delinquent peers influence the initiation of drinking. There was no support for parental warmth or control as moderators of peer influence. PMID:21420241

  2. Descriptive peer norms, self-control and dietary behaviour in young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robinson, E.; Otten, R.; Hermans, R.C.J.

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that perceived peer eating norms can influence dietary behaviour. This cross-sectional study examined whether certain personality traits increase the likelihood that personal eating habits are similar to perceived peer eating habits. We assessed frequency of consumption of

  3. SCI peer health coach influence on self-management with peers: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeels, S E; Pernigotti, D; Houlihan, B V; Belliveau, T; Brody, M; Zazula, J; Hasiotis, S; Seetharama, S; Rosenblum, D; Jette, A

    2017-11-01

    A process evaluation of a clinical trial. To describe the roles fulfilled by peer health coaches (PHCs) with spinal cord injury (SCI) during a randomized controlled trial research study called 'My Care My Call', a novel telephone-based, peer-led self-management intervention for adults with chronic SCI 1+ years after injury. Connecticut and Greater Boston Area, MA, USA. Directed content analysis was used to qualitatively examine information from 504 tele-coaching calls, conducted with 42 participants with SCI, by two trained SCI PHCs. Self-management was the focus of each 6-month PHC-peer relationship. PHCs documented how and when they used the communication tools (CTs) and information delivery strategies (IDSs) they developed for the intervention. Interaction data were coded and analyzed to determine PHC roles in relation to CT and IDS utilization and application. PHCs performed three principal roles: Role Model, Supporter, and Advisor. Role Model interactions included CTs and IDSs that allowed PHCs to share personal experiences of managing and living with an SCI, including sharing their opinions and advice when appropriate. As Supporters, PHCs used CTs and IDSs to build credible relationships based on dependability and reassuring encouragement. PHCs fulfilled the unique role of Advisor using CTs and IDSs to teach and strategize with peers about SCI self-management. The SCI PHC performs a powerful, flexible role in promoting SCI self-management among peers. Analysis of PHC roles can inform the design of peer-led interventions and highlights the importance for the provision of peer mentor training.

  4. Peer-to-Peer Networking -RE-SONANCE

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    networking, operating systems and embedded systems. Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networking in recent times has been touted as .... Gnutella (General file sharing) P2P service at the same time. 2. .... The data processing does not occur in 'real time' ...

  5. Peer Education from the Perspective of Peer Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Aysel; Akkus, Dilek; Sener, Dilek Konuk

    2018-01-01

    Peer educators (PEs) have a significant role in providing education on various health issues like smoking, alcohol, and other substance use. This study aimed to determine the experiences and opinions of PEs regarding a peer education program. Using the qualitative research method, data were collected from the study sample, which consisted of 23…

  6. Peer production & peer support at the Free Technology Academy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potters, Hanneke; Berlanga, Adriana; Bijlsma, Lex

    2012-01-01

    Potters, H., Berlanga, A. J., & Lex, B. (2011). Peer Production & Peer Support at the Free Technology Academy. In G. van de Veer, P. B. Sloep, & M. van Eekelen (Eds.), Proceedings Computer Science Education Research Conference (CSERC '11) (pp. 49-58). April, 7-8, 2011, Heerlen, The Netherlands: ACM.

  7. Students' use of Facebook for peer-to-peer learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Christian

    are using Facebook groups to help each other with all kinds of school-related matters, including issues relating directly to academic subjects. Based on the findings from the study, the paper concludes that there is an educational potential of Facebook groups in supporting peer-to-peer learning between...

  8. Key agreement in peer-to-peer wireless networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cagalj, Mario; Capkun, Srdjan; Hubaux, Jean-Pierre

    2006-01-01

    We present a set of simple techniques for key establishment over a radio link in peer-to-peer networks. Our approach is based on the Diffie-Hellman key agreement protocol, which is known to be vulnerable to the “man-in-the-middle” attack if the two users involved in the protocol do not share any ...

  9. Active Minds: Creating Peer-to-Peer Mental Health Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Willliam A.; Abelson, Sara; Malmon, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Utilizing student peers is one vital avenue for improving the prevention, detection, and treatment of mental health disorders on college campuses (The Campus Suicide Prevention Center of Virginia, 2011). This article will briefly review research findings indicating the importance of student peers and then focus on a promising model and growing…

  10. Peer teaching as a means of enhancing communication skills in anaesthesia training: trainee perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shaughnessy, S M

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to introduce peer teaching of communication skills to first-year anaesthesia trainees in Ireland and to evaluate their perception of this teaching modality. Seventy-nine first-year anaesthesia trainees participated in a novel peer-led communication skills programme over a 2-year period (Y1, Y2). A Likert scaling questionnaire was developed to explore trainee perception of the peer teaching programme. Of the 79 respondents (36 in Y1 and 43 in Y2), 99% either agreed or strongly agreed that the peer teachers were successful in their role. Ninety-two percent requested formal peer teaching in other areas of training. The trainees regarded a peer teacher as an appropriate information provider (92%), role model (88%), planner (88%) and facilitator (94%), but less so as an assessor (70%). The most consistently stated strength of peer teaching was the relatability of peer teachers with their lack of experience cited as the main weakness. Eighty percent of participants preferred peer teaching to regular expert teaching. This study highlights the positive attitudes of first-year anaesthesia trainees towards a novel peer teaching programme in communication skills. This author recommends that peer teaching is further developed within postgraduate medical programmes to maximise learning for trainees in the student and teacher roles and to redistribute the teaching burden within clinical departments.

  11. Do Adolescents with T1DM Differ from Their Peers in Health, Eating Habits and Social Support?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husárová, Daniela; Kostičová, Michaela; Kočišová, Denisa; Schusterová, Ingrid; Gecková, Andrea Madarasová

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse differences in health, eating habits and social support in adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in comparison to peers with another long-term illness or without any medical condition. We used self-reported data from the cross-sectional Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study collected in 2014 among Slovak adolescents as well as data from adolescents with T1DM collected in outpatient settings (11 to 15 years old, N=8,910, 50.3% of boys). Logistic regression models and general linear models were used to analyse differences between adolescents with T1DM and their peers with and without long-term illness in self-rated health, life satisfaction, health complaints, regular breakfast, sweets and soft drink consumption, and perceived support from family, teachers and classmates. Adolescents with T1DM reported worse self-rated health and suffer from more health complaints, but they have lower chance of having breakfast irregularly in comparison to their peers with another long-term illness or without any medical condition. Moreover, compared with their peers, adolescents with T1DM perceived stronger support from teachers and classmates, but weaker support from their family. We did not confirm any differences in life satisfaction, sweets and soft drink consumption between adolescents with T1DM and their peers. Adolescents with T1DM reported more regular eating habits, no difference in life satisfaction and more social support outside the family in comparison to their peers. However, their worse self-rated health, more health complaints and weaker support from family should be considered in interventions targeting psychosocial adjustment of adolescents with T1DM. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2017

  12. Peer-to-peer communication, cancer prevention, and the internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancker, Jessica S.; Carpenter, Kristen M.; Greene, Paul; Hoffmann, Randi; Kukafka, Rita; Marlow, Laura A.V.; Prigerson, Holly G.; Quillin, John M.

    2013-01-01

    Online communication among patients and consumers through support groups, discussion boards, and knowledge resources is becoming more common. In this paper, we discuss key methods through which such web-based peer-to-peer communication may affect health promotion and disease prevention behavior (exchanges of information, emotional and instrumental support, and establishment of group norms and models). We also discuss several theoretical models for studying online peer communication, including social theory, health communication models, and health behavior models. Although online peer communication about health and disease is very common, research evaluating effects on health behaviors, mediators, and outcomes is still relatively sparse. We suggest that future research in this field should include formative evaluation and studies of effects on mediators of behavior change, behaviors, and outcomes. It will also be important to examine spontaneously emerging peer communication efforts to see how they can be integrated with theory-based efforts initiated by researchers. PMID:19449267

  13. Peer til peer i arbejdet med udsatte mennesker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlmark, Nanna; Norrhäll, Oskar; Jensen, Pernille Hartvig

    Statens Institut for Folkesundhed, Syddansk Universitet har fået til opdrag at lave en formativ procesevaluering af Københavns Kommunes projekt Mænd i København. Projektet omhandler udvikling og implementering af en peer til peer indsats med henblik på at forbedre sundhed og trivsel blandt udsatte...... mænd i risiko for at udvikle type 2 diabetes. En del af evalueringsopdraget har været at tilvejebringe viden om relevant litteratur om peer-metoder. I denne forbindelse er dette notat udarbejdet til Københavns Kommunes Forebyggelsescenter Nørrebro af evaluerings-teamet, som består af forsker, Nanna...... Ahlmark, adjunkt ved Aalborg Universitet Camilla Dindler, praktikant og specialestuderende Oskar Norrhäll og specialestuderende Pernille Hartvig Jensen. Notatet er en sammenfatning af udvalgt forskningslitteratur og rapporter om peer til peer-relaterede projekter målrettet udsatte grupper i forbindelse...

  14. Peer tutoring in reading: the effects of role and organization on two dimensions of self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David; Topping, Keith; Thurston, Allen

    2010-09-01

    Paired reading (PR) is an application of peer tutoring. It has been extensively researched, and its efficacy across a range of outcomes has been established. Benefits include improvements in key reading skills, and also in affective aspects of learning. Several studies have shown gains in self-esteem, although measurement methods have varied, and the model of self-esteem has rarely been clearly articulated. To investigate the changes in self-esteem of children participating in a randomized trial of PR over a 15-week treatment period. To investigate the relative contribution of self-worth and self-competence to any gains in self-esteem. To investigate whether the pattern of change differs in children who take on different roles in the PR process. The participants comprised a subset of a large-scale randomized trial of peer learning (The Fife Peer Learning Project). Four schools were randomly selected from schools allocated to the same-age PR condition, and four schools from those allocated to the cross-age PR condition. The same-age group consisted of 87 primary 6 children (10-11 years old). The cross-age group consisted of 81 primary 6 children. The controls, from schools randomly selected from a neighbouring authority, consisted of 92 primary 6 children. A pre-post design employing self-report measures of self-esteem. Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale was used, with scores analysed for worth and competence. The treatment period was 15 weeks, with the participants following a prescribed PR process. Significant pre-post gains were noted in self-esteem, driven predominantly by improved beliefs about competence, in both same-age and cross-age conditions, but not for controls. Gains were also seen in self-worth in the cross-age condition. Further analyses of the influence of organizational condition (same-age or cross-age) and role played (tutor vs. tutee) showed significant differences between same-age tutors and cross-age tutors in relation to self-worth. Effect sizes

  15. Prevalence of dental anxiety and fear among five to ten year old children: a behaviour based cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, N; Chhabra, A; Walia, G

    2012-03-01

    Dental anxiety and fear pose a considerable challenge for the practice of clinical dentistry as these are problematic entities in the management of child patients and present a potential barrier to the utilization of oral health care services. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of dental anxiety and fear among the 5-10 years aged Indian child population. A total of 523 children aged 5-10 years and their parents, visiting Krishna Dental College, Ghaziabad, India were finally recruited in this study. Dental Fear/anxiety distribution in the children was studied using the Indian parent's version of the Dental Subscale of the Children's Fear Survey Schedule (CFSS-DS). Total fear scores were calculated separately for boys and girls and at different age levels. The collected data was statistically analyzed using a SPSS statistical program. The estimated prevalence of dental anxiety among 5 to 10 year old children in the study population was 6.3%. The overall median CFSS-DS score was 23 and the overall mean value of CFSS-DS score was 24. The prevalence of dental anxiety in children aged 5 years was 7.9%, 7.1% for 6 years old, 6.6% in 7 years old, 6.5% in 8 years old, 6.3% for 9 year old children and 5.8% in children aged 10 years. No statistically significant gender differences were found in the dental anxiety scores. The most fear provoking situations were the sight of injections, the drilling procedures by the dentist, touch of a stranger and noise of drilling by the dentist. The results of this study indicate the need for preventive health education and intervention programmes in India to prevent and reduce dental anxiety/fear and to promote children's oral health.

  16. PEER Business and Industry Partnership (BIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    products laboratories publications nisee b.i.p. members education FAQs links bip members PEER Business and Industry Partnership (BIP) Current BIP members Joining the BIP Program Site Map Search PEER Business and PEER. For an annual donation, the PEER Business and Industry Partnership (BIP) involves members in PEER

  17. Resurrecting the chimera: Progressions in parenting and peer processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgatch, Marion S; Snyder, James J; Patterson, Gerald R; Pauldine, Michael R; Chaw, Yvonne; Elish, Katie; Harris, Jasmine B; Richardson, Eric B

    2016-08-01

    This report uses 6-year outcomes of the Oregon Divorce Study to examine the processes by which parenting practices affect deviant peer association during two developmental stages: early to middle childhood and late childhood to early adolescence. The participants were 238 newly divorced mothers and their 5- to 8-year-old sons who were randomly assigned to Parent Management Training-Oregon Model (PMTO®) or to a no-treatment control group. Parenting practices, child delinquent behavior, and deviant peer association were repeatedly assessed from baseline to 6 years after baseline using multiple methods and informants. PMTO had a beneficial effect on parenting practices relative to the control group. Two stage models linking changes in parenting generated by PMTO to children's growth in deviant peer association were supported. During the early to middle childhood stage, the relationship of improved parenting practices on deviant peer association was moderated by family socioeconomic status (SES); effective parenting was particularly important in mitigating deviant peer association for lower SES families whose children experience higher densities of deviant peers in schools and neighborhoods. During late childhood and early adolescence, the relationship of improved parenting to youths' growth in deviant peer association was mediated by reductions in the growth of delinquency during childhood; higher levels of early delinquency are likely to promote deviant peer association through processes of selective affiliation and reciprocal deviancy training. The results are discussed in terms of multilevel developmental progressions of diminished parenting, child involvement in deviancy producing processes in peer groups, and increased variety and severity of antisocial behavior, all exacerbated by ecological risks associated with low family SES.

  18. Adherence in patients in the first year after kidney transplantation and its impact on graft loss and mortality: a cross-sectional and prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prihodova, Lucia; Nagyova, Iveta; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Majernikova, Maria; Roland, Robert; Groothoff, Johan W; van Dijk, Jitse P

    2014-12-01

    To explore the predictive value of adherence to their immunosuppressive medication in kidney transplant recipients in the first year after kidney transplantation as a determinant of graft loss and mortality up to 12 years (prospective analysis) and its association with sociodemographic and medical factors and social support (cross-sectional analysis). Poor adherence to their immunosuppressive medication in kidney transplant recipients remains the leading preventable cause of poor patient outcomes. Prospective and cross-sectional study. At baseline, 325 patients 3-12 months posttransplantation were invited to participate. Adherence was assessed using collateral reports - a combination of patients' self-evaluation and an estimate by their nephrologist. The patients provided sociodemographic and medical data and completed the End-Stage Renal Disease Symptom Checklist and Multidimensional scale of perceived social support. At follow-up (average 7·1 years), data on patients and graft survival were obtained. All data were collected from 2002-2013. Multinomial regression analysis and Cox regression were performed. A total of 297 patients (48·1 (12·8) years, 61·6% men) agreed to participate (response rate 91·4%); 67·4% were considered as fully adherent. Poor adherence was associated with higher risk of graft loss and mortality over 12 years. Female sex, higher education, higher perceived side effects of corticosteroids, better perceived cardiac and renal function and higher perceived family social support in the first year posttransplantation were associated with full adherence to immunosuppressive treatment. Patients with poor adherence to the immunosuppressive medication in the first year after kidney transplantation showed increased likelihood of graft loss and death over 12 years compared with the adherent patients. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. A digital peer-to-peer learning platform for clinical skills development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basnak, Jesse; Ortynski, Jennifer; Chow, Meghan; Nzekwu, Emeka

    2017-02-01

    Due to constraints in time and resources, medical curricula may not provide adequate opportunities for pre-clerkship students to practice clinical skills. To address this, medical students at the University of Alberta developed a digital peer-to-peer learning initiative. The initiative assessed if students can learn clinical skills from their peers in co-curricular practice objective structured clinical exams (OSCEs). A total of 144 first-year medical students participated. Students wrote case scenarios that were reviewed by physicians. Students enacted the cases in practice OSCEs, acting as the patient, physician, and evaluator. Verbal and electronic evaluations were completed. A digital platform was used to automate the process. Surveys were disseminated to assess student perceptions of their experience. Seventy-five percent of participants said they needed opportunities to practice patient histories and physical exams in addition to those provided in the medical school curriculum. All participants agreed that the co-curricular practice OSCEs met this need. The majority of participants also agreed that the digital platform was efficient and easy to use. Students found the practice OSCEs and digital platform effective for learning clinical skills. Thus, peer-to-peer learning and computer automation can be useful adjuncts to traditional medical curricula.

  20. APPLICATION OF PEER-TO-PEER ASSESSMENT OF WRITTEN WORKS OF STUDENTS IN STREAM INTERNAL COURSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Д А Королев

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available At reduction of contact time in subject matters the instruments of preservation of active forms of studying for students assuming independent research work are required. One of such forms is peer-to- peer evaluation of works (peer assessment allowing to go beyond a narrow framework of automaticallychecked tests for the level of small research works. In article results of a two-year experiment on use of a piring on a stream course are given in MIEM Higher School of Economics National Research University taking into account specifics of audience rather mass online of courses.The received results and conclusions have formed a basis for modeling of ways of estimation of written works at peer-to-peer check without participation of the teacher. In an experiment schemes of estimation and motivation for management of a ratio of number of authors and reviewers have been fulfilled, and also the general questions of use of the offered system of assessment it is aware.

  1. [Peer harassment in primary school: the role of peers and its relationship with sociometric status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas Molina, Beatriz; Pulido Valero, Rosa; Solbes Canales, Irene

    2011-04-01

    During the last decade, there has been a change in peer harassment research from a focus on the characteristics of the Aggressor-Victim dyad to the recognition of peer harassment as a whole group process, with most of children playing some kind of role. This study uses a shortened adaptation of the Participant-Role Questionnaire approach to identify these roles in 2,050 Spanish children aged 8 to 13 years. These Participant Roles were related to belonging to one of the five sociometric status groups. Factor analysis revealed four different roles, indicating that the adapted scale remains a reliable way of distinguishing the Aggressor, Victim, Defender of the victim, and Outsider roles. Boys played the roles of Aggressor and Victim significantly more frequently. The children's Participant Role was found to be related to their sociometric status. Progress in the measurement of peer harassment as a group process and the success of intervention strategies may depend on finding clearer distinctions among the different peer roles, mobilizing peer pressure, and isolating aggressors from their social support.

  2. Common risk indicators for oral diseases and obesity in 12-year-olds: a South Pacific cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Tubert-Jeannin, Stéphanie; Pichot, Hélène; Rouchon, Bernard; Pereira, Bruno; Hennequin, Martine

    2018-01-01

    Background Despite the increasing need to prevent obesity and oral diseases in adolescents worldwide, few studies have investigated the link existing between these conditions and their common risk factors. This study aims to evaluate the oral health and weight status of New Caledonian Children (aged 6,9,12 years) and to identify, amongst 12-year-olds, risk indicators that may characterize the groups of children affected by oral diseases, obesity or both diseases. Methods This survey evaluated...

  3. Peer Mentoring for Bioinformatics presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Budd, Aidan

    2014-01-01

    A handout used in a HUB (Heidelberg Unseminars in Bioinformatics) meeting focused on career development for bioinformaticians. It describes an activity for use to help introduce the idea of peer mentoring, potnetially acting as an opportunity to create peer-mentoring groups.

  4. Teachers Seek Specialized Peer Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassini, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Within the wide expanse of social networking, educators appear to be gravitating to more protected and exclusive spaces. While teachers often use such popular mainstream social networks as Facebook, they are more likely to seek out and return to less-established networks that offer the privacy, peer-to-peer connections, and resource sharing that…

  5. Peer Matcher : Decentralized Partnership Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bozdog, Nicolae Vladimir; Voulgaris, Spyros; Bal, Henri; van Halteren, Aart

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents Peer Matcher, a fully decentralized algorithm solving the k-clique matching problem. The aim of k-clique matching is to cluster a set of nodes having pair wise weights into k-size groups of maximal total weight. Since solving the problem requires exponential time, Peer Matcher

  6. Cultivating Change through Peer Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez, Jonathan J.; Cano, Jamie; Whittington, M. Susie; Wolf, Kattlyn J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative research study was to describe the impact of peer teaching on both the students and the classroom environment. Students, enrolled in two Introduction to Teaching courses in agricultural and extension education, were asked to engage in peer teaching activities. The researchers utilized discourse analysis, textual…

  7. Young People Smokers' Reactions on Peer Influence Not to Smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harakeh, Zeena; van Nijnatten, Carolus H C J

    2016-11-09

    Peers exert influence not to smoke but little is yet known on how this affects young people's behavior and cognitions. This experimental study investigates the impact of two types of peer influence not to smoke on the verbalized attitudes and responses of daily-smoking young people. Two conditions were conducted: 1) a peer confederate stating three times that s/he had quit smoking and was glad to have done so (covert peer influence); 2) a peer confederate making similar statements, but urging to quit smoking (overt peer influence). The participant performed a music task with the peer in order to disguise the true nature of the experiment. Thirty-one daily-smoking young people (16-24 years) participated; 44 responses in the overt and 34 responses in the covert condition were analyzed in a discourse analysis. The participants in the covert condition were more elaborative about smoking, i.e., taking an active role in a dialogue about the experiences of the peer or the participant in quitting smoking while in the overt condition participants showed more passive resistance, i.e., not showing an intention to follow the advice but avoid causing the peer embarrassment or discomfort. Open resistance, i.e., demonstration of being well-informed and indicating the redundancy of the advice, does not significantly differ in these two conditions but occurs, for both, primarily at the third discouragement. Overt and frequent discouragement seems to be less effective in stimulating young people to take an active role in the dialogue with their peers about smoking.

  8. CONFLICT MANAGEMENT VIA SYSTEMICALLY PLANNED PEER MEDIATION

    OpenAIRE

    Evangelos C. Papakitsos; Konstantinos Karakiozis

    2016-01-01

    Conflicts and confrontations between students are a key-feature of school life. Especially in recent years, both the scientific and the educational community are particularly sensitive to bullying issues in the school context. Peer mediation (or school mediation) is an alternative way to manage conflicts at school. A critical evaluation of this practice is attempted, as well as its contribution to the formation of a positive attitude in school and to the decreasing of school-bullying incident...

  9. 2012 Wind Program Peer Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zayas, Jose [Energy Efficiencey and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Higgins, Mark [Energy Efficiencey and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This report summarizes the proceedings of the 2012 Wind Program Peer Review, the goals of which were to review and evaluate the strategy and goals of the Wind Program; review and evaluate the progress and accomplishments of the program's projects funded in fiscal year (FY) 2010 and FY 2011; and foster interactions among the national laboratories, industry, and academic institutions conducting research and development on behalf of the program.

  10. Quality assurance in radiology: peer review and peer feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, N H

    2015-11-01

    Peer review in radiology means an assessment of the accuracy of a report issued by another radiologist. Inevitably, this involves a judgement opinion from the reviewing radiologist. Peer feedback is the means by which any form of peer review is communicated back to the original author of the report. This article defines terms, discusses the current status, identifies problems, and provides some recommendations as to the way forward, concentrating upon the software requirements for efficient peer review and peer feedback of reported imaging studies. Radiologists undertake routine peer review in their everyday clinical practice, particularly when reporting and preparing for multidisciplinary team meetings. More formal peer review of reported imaging studies has been advocated as a quality assurance measure to promote good clinical practice. It is also a way of assessing the competency of reporting radiologists referred for investigation to bodies such as the General Medical Council (GMC). The literature shows, firstly, that there is a very wide reported range of discrepancy rates in many studies, which have used a variety of non-comparable methodologies; and secondly, that applying scoring systems in formal peer review is often meaningless, unhelpful, and can even be detrimental. There is currently a lack of electronic peer feedback system software on the market to inform radiologists of any review of their work that has occurred or to provide them with clinical outcome information on cases they have previously reported. Learning opportunities are therefore missed. Radiologists should actively engage with the medical informatics industry to design optimal peer review and feedback software with features to meet their needs. Such a system should be easy to use, be fully integrated with the radiological information and picture archiving systems used clinically, and contain a free-text comment box, without a numerical scoring system. It should form a temporary record

  11. Quality assurance in radiology: peer review and peer feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strickland, N.H.

    2015-01-01

    Peer review in radiology means an assessment of the accuracy of a report issued by another radiologist. Inevitably, this involves a judgement opinion from the reviewing radiologist. Peer feedback is the means by which any form of peer review is communicated back to the original author of the report. This article defines terms, discusses the current status, identifies problems, and provides some recommendations as to the way forward, concentrating upon the software requirements for efficient peer review and peer feedback of reported imaging studies. Radiologists undertake routine peer review in their everyday clinical practice, particularly when reporting and preparing for multidisciplinary team meetings. More formal peer review of reported imaging studies has been advocated as a quality assurance measure to promote good clinical practice. It is also a way of assessing the competency of reporting radiologists referred for investigation to bodies such as the General Medical Council (GMC). The literature shows, firstly, that there is a very wide reported range of discrepancy rates in many studies, which have used a variety of non-comparable methodologies; and secondly, that applying scoring systems in formal peer review is often meaningless, unhelpful, and can even be detrimental. There is currently a lack of electronic peer feedback system software on the market to inform radiologists of any review of their work that has occurred or to provide them with clinical outcome information on cases they have previously reported. Learning opportunities are therefore missed. Radiologists should actively engage with the medical informatics industry to design optimal peer review and feedback software with features to meet their needs. Such a system should be easy to use, be fully integrated with the radiological information and picture archiving systems used clinically, and contain a free-text comment box, without a numerical scoring system. It should form a temporary record

  12. Students’ acceptance of peer review in Computer Science course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Kubincová

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Peer review technique used in educational context could be beneficial for students from several points of view. Besides of developing students’ writing skills, critical thinking, practising articulation of own knowledge to the others and giving them feedback, it can encourage collaborative learning and boost the students’ interest in the course. In our web design course we successfully introduced peer review activities more than 2 years ago. In this paper we discuss the students’ acceptance of peer review applied on evaluation of other students’ projects.

  13. How Do Peers Impact Learning? An Experimental Investigation of Peer-To-Peer Teaching and Ability Tracking

    OpenAIRE

    Kimbrough, Erik O.; McGee, Andrew; Shigeoka, Hitoshi

    2017-01-01

    Classroom peers are believed to influence learning by teaching each other, and the efficacy of this teaching likely depends on classroom composition in terms of peers' ability. Unfortunately, little is known about peer-to-peer teaching because it is never observed in field studies. Furthermore, identifying how peer-to-peer teaching is affected by ability tracking – grouping students of similar ability – is complicated by the fact that tracking is typically accompanied by changes in curriculum...

  14. Peer Influence on Managerial Honesty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunner, Markus; Ostermaier, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    peers’ reports are higher than they have expected, the opposite is not true. Third, partial transparency reinforces this asymmetry in peer influence. Unlike full transparency, it allows managers to substitute self-serving assumptions for missing information and to thus justify their own dishonesty more......We investigate peer influence on managerial honesty under varying levels of transparency. In a laboratory experiment, managers report their costs to a superior to request budget. We manipulate whether the managers learn each other’s report and cost (full transparency) or the report but not the cost...... (partial transparency). The results show, first, that managers are susceptible to peer influence, as they join peers in reporting honestly and dishonestly both under full and partial transparency. Second, however, the effect of peer influence is asymmetric. While managers’ dishonesty increases much when...

  15. Peer Learning in Instrumental Practicing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Siw G.; Johansen, Guro G.; Jørgensen, Harald

    2018-01-01

    In higher music education (HME), the notion of “private teaching, private learning” has a long tradition, where the learning part rests on the student's individual practicing between instrumental lessons. However, recent research suggests that collaborative learning among peers is beneficial in several aspects, such as sense of belonging, motivation and self-efficacy. This is consistent with the concept of vicarious learning. In this study, we conducted a survey among bachelor music students in church music, performance or music education programs enrolled in a music academy (N = 96), where parts of the questionnaire addressed peer learning and peer's influence on the students's instrumental practicing, and the degree of satisfaction with their practicing. These issues were seen in relation to gender, musical genre and study program. Overall, the students reported engaging in peer learning related to their instrumental practicing, to various degrees. This involved discussing practicing matters with peers, and practicing together with peers. However, student's reports of their views on peer learning, show that they perceive it more beneficial than the amount of time reported doing it would indicate. No significant gender differences were found, but students within improvised music/jazz engaged the most in peer learning, and church music students the least. Neither the degree of engaging in peer learning nor reported influence from peers correlated significantly with the degree of satisfaction. We discuss whether a general dissatisfaction is caused by being in a competitive learning environment combined with a privatized culture for learning. Finally, we suggest that collaborative forums for instrumental practicing within HME institutions can function as constructive and supportive arenas to enhance students learning and inner motivation. PMID:29599738

  16. Peer Learning in Instrumental Practicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Siw G; Johansen, Guro G; Jørgensen, Harald

    2018-01-01

    In higher music education (HME), the notion of "private teaching, private learning" has a long tradition, where the learning part rests on the student's individual practicing between instrumental lessons. However, recent research suggests that collaborative learning among peers is beneficial in several aspects, such as sense of belonging, motivation and self-efficacy. This is consistent with the concept of vicarious learning. In this study, we conducted a survey among bachelor music students in church music, performance or music education programs enrolled in a music academy ( N = 96), where parts of the questionnaire addressed peer learning and peer's influence on the students's instrumental practicing, and the degree of satisfaction with their practicing. These issues were seen in relation to gender, musical genre and study program. Overall, the students reported engaging in peer learning related to their instrumental practicing, to various degrees. This involved discussing practicing matters with peers, and practicing together with peers. However, student's reports of their views on peer learning, show that they perceive it more beneficial than the amount of time reported doing it would indicate. No significant gender differences were found, but students within improvised music/jazz engaged the most in peer learning, and church music students the least. Neither the degree of engaging in peer learning nor reported influence from peers correlated significantly with the degree of satisfaction. We discuss whether a general dissatisfaction is caused by being in a competitive learning environment combined with a privatized culture for learning. Finally, we suggest that collaborative forums for instrumental practicing within HME institutions can function as constructive and supportive arenas to enhance students learning and inner motivation.

  17. Peer Learning in Instrumental Practicing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siw G. Nielsen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In higher music education (HME, the notion of “private teaching, private learning” has a long tradition, where the learning part rests on the student's individual practicing between instrumental lessons. However, recent research suggests that collaborative learning among peers is beneficial in several aspects, such as sense of belonging, motivation and self-efficacy. This is consistent with the concept of vicarious learning. In this study, we conducted a survey among bachelor music students in church music, performance or music education programs enrolled in a music academy (N = 96, where parts of the questionnaire addressed peer learning and peer's influence on the students's instrumental practicing, and the degree of satisfaction with their practicing. These issues were seen in relation to gender, musical genre and study program. Overall, the students reported engaging in peer learning related to their instrumental practicing, to various degrees. This involved discussing practicing matters with peers, and practicing together with peers. However, student's reports of their views on peer learning, show that they perceive it more beneficial than the amount of time reported doing it would indicate. No significant gender differences were found, but students within improvised music/jazz engaged the most in peer learning, and church music students the least. Neither the degree of engaging in peer learning nor reported influence from peers correlated significantly with the degree of satisfaction. We discuss whether a general dissatisfaction is caused by being in a competitive learning environment combined with a privatized culture for learning. Finally, we suggest that collaborative forums for instrumental practicing within HME institutions can function as constructive and supportive arenas to enhance students learning and inner motivation.

  18. Sensation Seeking and Adolescent Alcohol Use: Exploring the Mediating Role of Unstructured Socializing With Peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sznitman, Sharon; Engel-Yeger, Batya

    2017-05-01

    Researchers have theorized that adolescents high in sensation seeking are particularly sensitive to positive reinforcement and the rewarding outcomes of alcohol use, and thus that the personality vulnerability is a direct causal risk factor for alcohol use. In contrast, the routine activity perspective theorizes that part of the effect of sensation seeking on alcohol use goes through the propensity that sensation seekers have towards unstructured socializing with peers. The study tests a model with indirect and direct paths from sensation seeking and participation in unstructured peer socialization to adolescent alcohol use. Cross-sectional data were collected from 360 students in a state-secular Jewish high school (10th to 12th grade) in the center region of Israel. The sample was equally divided between boys (51.9%) and girls (48.1%), respondents' age ranged from 15 to 17 years (mean = 16.02 ± 0.85). Structural equation modeling was used to test the direct and indirect paths. While sensation seeking had a significant direct path to adolescent alcohol use, part of the association was mediated by unstructured socializing with peers. The mediated paths were similar for boys and girls alike. Sensation seeking is primarily biologically determined and prevention efforts are unlikely to modify this personality vulnerability. The results of this study suggest that a promising prevention avenue is to modify extracurricular participation patterns of vulnerable adolescents. © The Author 2017. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  19. Neurodevelopmental changes across adolescence in viewing and labeling dynamic peer emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica E. Flannery

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is a sensitive period of social-affective development, characterized by biological, neurological, and social changes. The field currently conceptualizes these changes in terms of an imbalance between systems supporting reactivity and regulation, specifically nonlinear changes in reactivity networks and linear changes in regulatory networks. Previous research suggests that the labeling or reappraisal of emotion increases activity in lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC, and decreases activity in amygdala relative to passive viewing of affective stimuli. However, past work in this area has relied heavily on paradigms using static, adult faces, as well as explicit regulation. In the current study, we assessed cross-sectional trends in neural responses to viewing and labeling dynamic peer emotional expressions in adolescent girls 10–23 years old. Our dynamic adolescent stimuli set reliably and robustly recruited key brain regions involved in emotion reactivity (medial orbital frontal cortex/ventral medial prefrontal cortex; MOFC/vMPFC, bilateral amygdala and regulation (bilateral dorsal and ventral LPFC. However, contrary to the age-trends predicted by the dominant models in studies of risk/reward, the LPFC showed a nonlinear age trend across adolescence to labeling dynamic peer faces, whereas the MOFC/vMPFC showed a linear decrease with age to viewing dynamic peer faces. There were no significant age trends observed in the amygdala.

  20. Transactional Relations between Motivational Beliefs and Help Seeking from Teachers and Peers across Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amemiya, Jamie; Wang, Ming-Te

    2017-08-01

    Adolescents often avoid seeking academic help when needed, making it important to understand the motivational processes that support help seeking behavior. Using expectancy-value theory as a framework, this study examined transactional relations between motivational beliefs (i.e., academic self-concept or academic importance) and seeking help from teachers and peers across adolescence (i.e., from approximately age 12 to 17 years). Data were collected from 1479 adolescents (49% female; 61.9% African American, 31.2% European American, 6.9% other race). Analyses were conducted with cross-lagged panel models using three waves of data from seventh, ninth, and eleventh grade. Results indicated that both academic self-concept and academic importance were associated with increases in teacher help seeking in earlier adolescence, but were associated only with increases in peer help seeking in later adolescence. Help-seeking behavior positively influenced motivational beliefs, with teacher help seeking increasing academic self-concept earlier in adolescence and peer help seeking increasing academic importance later in adolescence. These transactional relations differed by adolescents' prior achievement and racial background, but not by adolescents' gender.

  1. Gingival proliferative lesions in children and adolescents in Brazil: A 15-year-period cross-sectional study

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    Fabiana Caroline daSilva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies assessing the prevalence of oral lesions in children and adolescents, particularly in gingiva are scarce in the literature. The aim of the study was to describe the distribution of gingival proliferative lesions based on clinical and histopathological diagnoses in children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: A review of clinical charts of children and adolescents aged between 0 and 18 years old, admitted to the Oral Medicine Outpatient Unit, of Universidade Federal do Paraná, for 15 years (1994–2009 was performed. Results: Six hundred and sixty-nine out of 5,129 patients treated during this period were aged between 0 and 18 years old, and 45 of these had gingival lesions. The largest number of lesions was observed between 11 and 16 years old. The majority of the patients were referred by Curitiba's public health system. Pyogenic granuloma was the most frequent lesion (19 = 42.2%, followed by peripheral giant cell lesion (11 = 24.4%, gingival fibromatosis (10 = 22.2%, and peripheral ossifying fibroma (5 = 11.1%. Conclusion: Gingival proliferative lesions can show similar clinical characteristics. Appropriate clinical and histopathological diagnoses are necessary to guide the healthcare professional to establish the adequate treatment and to estimate the risk of recurrence.

  2. Nine-year comparison of presentation and management of acute coronary syndromes in Ireland: a national cross-sectional survey

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    Shelley Emer

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shorter time to treatment is associated with lower mortality in acute coronary syndromes (ACS. A previous (1994 survey showed substantial delays for acute myocardial infarction (AMI in Ireland. The present study compared current practice with 1994 and surveyed acute coronary syndromes as a more complete contemporary evaluation of critical cardiac care than assessing AMI alone. Methods Following ethics committee approval, all centres (N = 39 admitting acute cardiac patients to intensive/coronary care unit provided information on 1365 episodes. A cross-sectional survey design was employed. Results Since 1994, median hospital arrival to thrombolysis time was reduced by 41% (76 to 45 minutes. Thrombolysis was delivered more often in the emergency department in 2003 (48% vs 2%. Thrombolysis when delivered in the emergency department was achieved faster than thrombolysis delivered in intensive/coronary care (35 mins v 60 mins; z = 5.62, p Conclusions Substantial improvements in time to thrombolysis have occurred since 1994, probably relating to treatment provision in emergency departments. Patient delay pre-hospital is still the principal impediment to effective treatment of ACS. A recent change of definition of AMI may have precluded an exact comparison between 1994 and 2003 data.

  3. Common risk indicators for oral diseases and obesity in 12-year-olds: a South Pacific cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubert-Jeannin, Stéphanie; Pichot, Hélène; Rouchon, Bernard; Pereira, Bruno; Hennequin, Martine

    2018-01-08

    Despite the increasing need to prevent obesity and oral diseases in adolescents worldwide, few studies have investigated the link existing between these conditions and their common risk factors. This study aims to evaluate the oral health and weight status of New Caledonian Children (aged 6,9,12 years) and to identify, amongst 12-year-olds, risk indicators that may characterize the groups of children affected by oral diseases, obesity or both diseases. This survey evaluated in 2011-2012 the oral health and stature-weight status and related risk indicators in a national representative sample of 6, 9 and 12 years-old children in New Caledonia. Dental status, chewing efficiency, height, weight and waist circumference were clinically recorded at school. The body mass index (BMI) and the waist to height ratio (WtHR) were calculated. For BMI the WHO Cut-offs were used. Twelve years-old participants responded to a questionnaire concerning socio-demographic and behavioural variables. For statistical analysis, the Clinical Oral and Global Health Index (COGHI) was developed and used. Twelve years-old children were categorised into four groups; Oral Diseases (ODG), Obesity (OG), Obesity and Oral Diseases (ODOG) and a Healthy Group (HG). A multivariate analysis was conducted using mixed-effects multinomial logistic regression models. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was greatly increasing from 6 years (respectively 10.8% [8.8;13.3] and 7.8% [6.0;9.9]) to 12 years (respectively 22.2% [19.9;24.7] and 20.5% [18.2;22.9]) and one third of the 12-yr-olds had an excess of abdominal adiposity. At age 12, 36.6% of the children were healthy (HG), 27.3% had oral diseases (ODG), 19.7% were obese (OG) and 16.5% had both conditions (ODOG). Geographical location, ethnicity, tooth-brushing frequency and masticatory disability were significant risk factors for the OG, ODOG and ODG groups. Ethnicity and masticatory impairment were common risk indicators for the association of oral

  4. A Cross-sectional Study for Determinations of Prevention Behaviors of Domestic Accidents in Mothers with Children Less than 5- year

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    Farbod Ebadi Fardazar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Accidents are the first cause of death in children under 5- year, especially in low- and middle-income countries. The aim of this study was to identify the determinants of prevention behavior of domestic accidents in mothers of children fewer than 5 years old based on protection motivation theory PMT(. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study, 190 mothers were randomly selected. The data collection tool was researcher made questionnaire about prevention behaviors of home accidents in children less than five years based on the structures of protection motivation theory.then collected data entered in the software SPSS-22 and were analyzed using descriptive and analytical statistical tests. Results: Mean of perceived response efficacy was in good level and mean of other structures of PMT were in moderate level. There was a significant correlations between the scores of perceived vulnerability (r=.39, P

  5. Thirteen-Year Evaluation of Highly Cross-Linked Polyethylene Articulating With Either 28-mm or 36-mm Femoral Heads Using Radiostereometric Analysis and Computerized Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nebergall, Audrey K; Greene, Meridith E; Rubash, Harry E

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The objective of this 13-year prospective evaluation of highly cross-linked ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (HXLPE) was to (1) assess the long-term wear of HXLPE articulating with 2 femoral head sizes using radiostereometric analysis (RSA) and to (2) determine if osteolysis...... is a concern with this material through the use of plain radiographs and computerized tomography (CT). METHODS: All patients received a Longevity HXLPE liner with tantalum beads and either a 28-mm or 36-mm femoral head. Twelve patients (6 in each head size group) agreed to return for 13-year RSA, plain...... scan revealed areas of remodeling of this graft. One patient's 13-year plain radiographs showed evidence of cup loosening and linear radiolucencies in zones 2 and 3. CONCLUSION: There was no evidence of significant wear over time using RSA. The CT scans did not show evidence of osteolysis due to wear...

  6. Social Adjustment of Deaf Early Adolescents at the Start of Secondary School: The Divergent Role of Withdrawn Behavior in Peer Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, Nina; Knoors, Harry; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the peer relationships and social behaviors of deaf adolescents in the first 2 years of secondary school. Peer nominations and ratings of peer status and behavior were collected longitudinally with 74 deaf and 271 hearing adolescents from Grade 7 to Grade 8. The predictions of deaf adolescents' peer status in Grade 8 from Grade…

  7. Peer Mentor Program for the General Chemistry Laboratory Designed to Improve Undergraduate STEM Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damkaci, Fehmi; Braun, Timothy F.; Gublo, Kristin

    2017-01-01

    We describe the design and implementation of an undergraduate peer mentor program that can overlay an existing general chemistry laboratory and is designed to improve STEM student retention. For the first four freshman cohorts going through the program, year-to-year retention improved by a four-year average of 20% for students in peer-mentored…

  8. The disease burden of suicide in Ecuador, a 15 years' geodemographic cross-sectional study (2001-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Prado, Esteban; Simbaña, Katherine; Gómez, Lenin; Henriquez-Trujillo, Aquiles R; Cornejo-Leon, Fernando; Vasconez, Eduardo; Castillo, Diana; Viscor, Ginés

    2017-10-10

    Suicide affects people from different backgrounds, ethnical groups, socio-economic status and geographical locations. In Latin America, suicide reports arescarce, specially in Andean countries. In Ecuador, very few reports have partially described this phenomenon, nonetheless, estimation of the burden of disease (BoD) hasnever been reported in the country. A country-wide comparison was performed using the Ministry of Public Health's national databases of overall mortality, Hospital Discharges Database, and the Population Census of the National Institute of Census and Statistics (INEC). The study variables analyzed were age, geographical distribution to provincial level, sex, means of suicide, educational attainment, marital status and mortality. Linear Regression and relative Risk analysis were used to predict outcome and the likelihood that suicide occur among study variables. In the last 15 years, 13,024 suicides were officially reported. Men were 3 times more likely than women to die by suicide. The overall age-adjusted suicide ratio in Ecuador corresponds to 7.1 per 100,000 per year. The sex-specific rates were 5.3 in women and 13.2 in men. The primary mean of suicide was hanging X70 (51.1%), followed by self-poisoning X68-X69 (35.2%) and firearms X72-X74 (7.6%). Provinces located at higher altitude reported higher rates than those located at sea level (9 per 100,000 vs 4.5 per 100.000). The total economic loss due to suicide was estimated to be $852.6 million during the 15 years' analysis. This is the first geodemographic study exploring the complete burden of suicide in Ecuador and one of the very few in Latin-America. In the last 15 years of available data, Ecuador ranks above the regional average with an adjusted suicide rate of 7.1 per 100,000 inhabitants. An important finding is that Suicide affects rather younger populations, adding more than 10,000 years of premature years of life lost (YYL) between 2001 and 2015, becoming the first and fourth

  9. Predictors of premarital sexual activity among unmarried youth in Vientiane, Lao PDR: the role of parent-youth interactions and peer influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sychareun, Vanphanom; Phengsavanh, Alongkone; Hansana, Visanou; Chaleunvong, Kongmany; Kounnavong, Sengchan; Sawhney, Monika; Durham, Jo

    2013-01-01

    Research indicates that adolescents in low-income countries have an early sexual debut and engage in risky sexual behaviours. Few studies in low-income countries however, have explored the factors that influence young people's sexual behaviours. This study examined individual, family and peer-level factors associated with premarital sexual behaviours in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR). A cross-sectional survey was undertaken with unmarried youth aged 18 to 24 years (N = 1200) in Vientiane Capital City. Logistic regression models, controlling for confounding variables, were employed to test for the contribution of factors influencing premarital sexual activity. Most respondents held positive attitudes towards premarital sex, with males having more liberal attitudes than females (mean score of 2.68 vs. 2.32, p peer influence. For females, predictors were father's level of education, parent-youth sexual communication, peer influence and liberal sexual attitudes. The results highlight the role of parent-youth interaction and peer influence. The results suggest the need for a range of strategies at the individual, peer and family level, as well as a gender-specific focus.

  10. Pregnancy diet and offspring asthma risk over a 10-year period: the Lifeways Cross Generation Cohort Study, Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viljoen, Karien; Segurado, Ricardo; O'Brien, John; Murrin, Celine; Mehegan, John; Kelleher, Cecily C

    2018-02-20

    The association of maternal pregnancy diet with offspring asthma risk have been reported. However, literature on longitudinal patterns of asthma risk relative to intrauterine nutrient exposure is limited. We aimed to establish whether vegetable, oily fish and vitamin D intake during pregnancy are associated with childhood asthma risk over a 10-year period in the Irish Republic. Mother-child pairs (n=897) from the Lifeways prospective birth cohort, with data on nutrient intake during pregnancy and asthma status, respectively, were eligible for inclusion in the analysis. Data on socioeconomic and morbidity indicators over 10 years of follow-up on mothers and the index child were collected through self-administered questionnaires. Asthma status as diagnosed by the general practitioner at any time point over 10 years was related to maternal vegetable, oily fish and vitamin D intake during pregnancy, while adjusting for gestational age, socioeconomic status, smoking at delivery, breast feeding, season of birth and supplement use. Data were modelled with a marginal model on correlated observations over time within individuals. In the fully adjusted model, asthma was inversely associated with higher daily average intake of oily fish (OR 0.23 per serving/day, 95% CI 0.04 to 1.41) and of vegetables (OR 0.96 per serving/day, 95% CI 0.88 to 1.05), but the confidence limits overlapped 1. A higher daily vitamin D intake was associated with reduced odds of asthma (OR 0.93 per μg/day, 95% CI 0.89 to 0.98). This analysis suggests higher daily average intake of vitamin D in pregnancy is associated with asthma risk in offspring over the first 10 years of life. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Zinc status in HIV infected Ugandan children aged 1-5 years: a cross sectional baseline survey

    OpenAIRE

    Ndeezi, Grace; Tumwine, James K.; Bolann, Bjørn J.; Ndugwa, Christopher M.; Tylleskär, Thorkild

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Low concentrations of serum zinc have been reported in HIV infected adults and are associated with disease progression and an increased risk of death. Few studies have been conducted in HIV infected children in Africa. We determined serum zinc levels and factors associated with zinc deficiency in HIV infected Ugandan children. Methods We measured the baseline zinc status of 247 children aged 1-5 years enrolled in a randomised trial for multiple micronutrient supplementatio...

  12. Socioeconomic differences in selected dietary habits among Norwegian 13–14 year-olds: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelene Skårdal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Social inequalities in health are a major and even growing problem in all European countries. Objective: The aim of the present study was to describe 1 differences in dietary habits among Norwegian adolescents by gender and socioeconomic status; 2 differences in self-reported knowledge of dietary guidelines among their parents according to socioeconomic status. Design: In 2012, a cross-sectional study where students filled in a web-based food frequency questionnaire at school was conducted in nine lower secondary schools in Vest-Agder County, Norway. Socioeconomic status (SES and knowledge of dietary guidelines were obtained from the parents using a web-based questionnaire. In total, 517 ninth-grade students (mean age 13.9 out of 742 invited students participated in the study, giving a participation rate of 69.7%. The total number of dyads with information on both parents and students was 308 (41.5%. Results: The findings indicate that there is a tendency for girls to have a healthier diet than boys, with greater intake of fruits and vegetables (girls intake in median 3.5 units per day and boys 2.9 units per day, and lower intake of soft drinks (girls 0.25 l in median versus boys 0.5 l per week. Students from families with higher SES reported a significant higher intake of vegetables and fish, and lower intake of soft drinks and fast food than those from lower SES. Parents with higher SES reported a significantly better knowledge of dietary guidelines compared to those with lower SES. Conclusions: Differences in dietary habits were found between groups of students by gender and SES. Differences were also found in parents’ self-reported knowledge of dietary guidelines. This social patterning should be recognized in public health interventions.

  13. Associations of Age, BMI, and Years of Menstruation with Proximal Femur Strength in Chinese Postmenopausal Women: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Huili; Chen, Yu-Ming; Han, Guiyuan; Huang, Hua; Chen, Wei-Qing; Wang, Xidan; Zhu, Ying-Ying; Xiao, Su-Mei

    2016-01-23

    This study aimed to elucidate the associations of age, BMI, and years of menstruation with proximal femur strength in Chinese postmenopausal women, which may improve the prediction of hip fracture risk. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1322 Chinese postmenopausal women recruited from communities. DXA images were used to generate bone mineral density (BMD) and geometric parameters, including cross-sectional area (CSA), outer diameter (OD), cortical thickness (CT), section modulus (SM), buckling ratio (BR) at the narrow neck (NN), intertrochanter (IT), and femoral shaft (FS). Relationships of age, BMI, and years of menstruation with bone phenotypes were analyzed with the adjustment of height, age at menarche, total daily physical activity, education, smoking status, calcium tablet intake, etc. Age was associated with lower BMD, CSA, CT, SM, and higher BR (p menstruation had the positive relationships with proximal femur strength (p menstruation were 0.14%-1.34%, 0.20%-2.70%, and 0.16%-0.98%, respectively. These results supported that bone strength deteriorated with aging and enhanced with higher BMI and longer time of years of menstruation in Chinese postmenopausal women.

  14. Peer Victimization and Social Alienation: Predicting Deviant Peer Affiliation in Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Karen D.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Agoston, Anna M.; Sugimura, Niwako; Schwartz, David; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Two prospective studies examined a theoretical model wherein exposure to victimization, resulting from early behavioral risk, heightens children's social alienation and subsequent deviant peer affiliation (DPA). Across Study 1 (298 girls, 287 boys; K-7th grade; 5-12 years) and Study 2 (338 girls, 298 boys; 2nd-6th grade; 8-12 years),…

  15. Peer relationships and academic achievement

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    Krnjajić Stevan B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available After their childhood, when children begin to establish more intensive social contacts outside family, first of all, in school setting, their behavior i.e. their social, intellectual, moral and emotional development is more strongly affected by their peers. Consequently, the quality of peer relationships considerably affects the process of adaptation and academic achievement and their motivational and emotional attitude towards school respectively. Empirical findings showed that there is bi-directional influence between peer relationships and academic achievement. In other words, the quality of peer relationships affects academic achievement, and conversely, academic achievement affects the quality of peer relationships. For example, socially accepted children exhibiting prosocial, cooperative and responsible forms of behavior in school most frequently have high academic achievement. On the other hand, children rejected by their peers often have lower academic achievement and are a risk group tending to delinquency, absenteeism and drop out of school. Those behavioral and interpersonal forms of competence are frequently more reliable predictors of academic achievement than intellectual abilities are. Considering the fact that various patterns of peer interaction differently exert influence on students' academic behavior, the paper analyzed effects of (a social competence, (b social acceptance/rejection, (c child's friendships and (d prosocial behavior on academic achievement.

  16. Peer Observation as a Means to Develop Teachers’ Professionalism

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    Tosriadi -

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of reflective practice in promoting teacher professional development has been discussed in many literatures. Research studies showed the benefits of conducting reflective practice to improve teachers’ classroom instruction. Peer observation as one of the reflective practice activities is viewed as an effective strategy in developing teachers’ pedagogy and professional competences. Peer observation refers to the act of teachers collaborate to identify the strength and the weakness of their teachings. By doing so, it is expected there will be improvement in learning outcomes. This study explored EFL teachers’ perceptions on peer observation as means to develop teachers’ professionalism. Two EFL teachers who worked as English teachers were purposively selected as the respondents of the study. The participating teachers got at least 1 year teaching experience to assure their involvement in peer observation. To meet the objectives of the study, the data were gained through classroom observation, and followed by in depth interview. Then, they were analyzed by using interactive model data analysis for qualitative study. The results of the study indicated teachers’ positive perceptions on peer observation as professional development tool. Peer observation brought some benefits for teachers. It helped teachers solve the problems they found in their teachings, instead it also could be used as learning opportunity by observing new teaching method/strategy from other colleagues. Key words: reflective practice; peer observation; classroom instruction; professional development tool

  17. Workplace learning through peer groups in medical school clerkships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Calvin L; Teherani, Arianne; Masters, Dylan E; Vener, Margo; Wamsley, Maria; Poncelet, Ann

    2014-01-01

    When medical students move from the classroom into clinical practice environments, their roles and learning challenges shift dramatically from a formal curricular approach to a workplace learning model. Continuity among peers during clinical clerkships may play an important role in this different mode of learning. We explored students' perceptions about how they achieved workplace learning in the context of intentionally formed or ad hoc peer groups. We invited students in clerkship program models with continuity (CMCs) and in traditional block clerkships (BCs) to complete a survey about peer relationships with open-ended questions based on a workplace learning framework, including themes of workplace-based relationships, the nature of work practices, and selection of tasks and activities. We conducted qualitative content analysis to characterize students' experiences. In both BCs and CMCs, peer groups provided rich resources, including anticipatory guidance about clinical expectations of students, best practices in interacting with patients and supervisors, helpful advice in transitioning between rotations, and information about implicit rules of clerkships. Students also used each other as benchmarks for gauging strengths and deficits in their own knowledge and skills. Students achieve many aspects of workplace learning in clerkships through formal or informal workplace-based peer groups. In these groups, peers provide accessible, real-time, and relevant resources to help each other navigate transitions, clarify roles and tasks, manage interpersonal challenges, and decrease isolation. Medical schools can support effective workplace learning for medical students by incorporating continuity with peers in the main clinical clerkship year.

  18. Condom use peer norms and self-efficacy as mediators between community engagement and condom use among Chinese men who have sex with men

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    Haochu Li

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community engagement strategies are often integrated in public health interventions designed to promote condom use among men who have sex with men (MSM, a key population for HIV prevention. However, the ways in which condom use peer norms and self-efficacy play a role in the association between community engagement and condom use is unclear. This study examines the potential mediating roles of peer norms and self-efficacy in this association. Methods A nationwide cross-sectional online survey was conducted among Chinese MSM in 2015. Recruitment criteria included being born biologically male, being older than 16 years, having had anal sex with a man at least once during their lifetime, and having had condomless anal or vaginal sex in the past three months. Mplus 6.11 was used to conduct confirmatory factor analysis and path modeling analysis to examine the structural relationships between HIV/sexual health community engagement (e.g., joining social media and community events related to HIV and sexual health services, condom use peer norms, condom use self-efficacy, and frequency of condom use. Results The study found that HIV/sexual health community engagement, condom use peer norms, condom use self-efficacy, and frequency of condom use were mutually correlated. A good data model was achieved with fit index: CFI = 0.988, TLI = 0.987, RMSEA = 0.032, 90% CI (0.028, 0.036. HIV/sexual health community engagement was associated with frequency of condom use, which was directly mediated by condom use peer norms and indirectly through self-efficacy. Conclusion The study suggests that condom use peer norms and self-efficacy may be mediators in the pathway between community engagement and condom use, and suggests the importance of peer-based interventions to improve condom use.

  19. Condom use peer norms and self-efficacy as mediators between community engagement and condom use among Chinese men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haochu; Xue, Li; Tucker, Joseph D; Wei, Chongyi; Durvasula, Maya; Hu, Wenqi; Kang, Dianming; Liao, Meizhen; Tang, Weiming; Ma, Wei

    2017-08-07

    Community engagement strategies are often integrated in public health interventions designed to promote condom use among men who have sex with men (MSM), a key population for HIV prevention. However, the ways in which condom use peer norms and self-efficacy play a role in the association between community engagement and condom use is unclear. This study examines the potential mediating roles of peer norms and self-efficacy in this association. A nationwide cross-sectional online survey was conducted among Chinese MSM in 2015. Recruitment criteria included being born biologically male, being older than 16 years, having had anal sex with a man at least once during their lifetime, and having had condomless anal or vaginal sex in the past three months. Mplus 6.11 was used to conduct confirmatory factor analysis and path modeling analysis to examine the structural relationships between HIV/sexual health community engagement (e.g., joining social media and community events related to HIV and sexual health services), condom use peer norms, condom use self-efficacy, and frequency of condom use. The study found that HIV/sexual health community engagement, condom use peer norms, condom use self-efficacy, and frequency of condom use were mutually correlated. A good data model was achieved with fit index: CFI = 0.988, TLI = 0.987, RMSEA = 0.032, 90% CI (0.028, 0.036). HIV/sexual health community engagement was associated with frequency of condom use, which was directly mediated by condom use peer norms and indirectly through self-efficacy. The study suggests that condom use peer norms and self-efficacy may be mediators in the pathway between community engagement and condom use, and suggests the importance of peer-based interventions to improve condom use.

  20. Fruit and vegetable intake of mothers of 11-year-old children in nine European countries: The Pro Children Cross-sectional Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolf, Alexandra; Yngve, Agneta; Elmadfa, Ibrahim

    2005-01-01

    for data collection. The current paper presents dietary intake data obtained by a precoded 24-hour recall and a food frequency questionnaire. RESULTS: The consumption levels of fruit and vegetables (without fruit juice) were in line with World Health Organization recommendations of > or =400 g/day for only......OBJECTIVE: To describe and compare fruit and vegetable intakes of mothers of 11-year-old children across Europe. METHODS: Cross-sectional surveys were carried out in 9 European countries in October/November 2003. Self-administered questionnaires assessing fruit and vegetable consumption were used...