WorldWideScience

Sample records for cross talk blocks

  1. Cross-talk in straw tube chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzec, J. E-mail: janusz.marzec@ire.pw.edu.pl

    2003-05-11

    An analytical model of the signal transmission between neighboring straw tubes with resistive cathodes (cross-talk) is presented. The dependence of the cross-talk level on the cathode resistance, tube length, particle detection point, the distance of the tube from the shielding planes, and termination of the tube ends is analyzed.

  2. Cross-talk in straw tube chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzec, J.

    2003-01-01

    An analytical model of the signal transmission between neighboring straw tubes with resistive cathodes (cross-talk) is presented. The dependence of the cross-talk level on the cathode resistance, tube length, particle detection point, the distance of the tube from the shielding planes, and termination of the tube ends is analyzed

  3. Down-regulation of connective tissue growth factor by inhibition of transforming growth factor beta blocks the tumor-stroma cross-talk and tumor progression in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzocca, Antonio; Fransvea, Emilia; Dituri, Francesco; Lupo, Luigi; Antonaci, Salvatore; Giannelli, Gianluigi

    2010-02-01

    Tumor-stroma interactions in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are of key importance to tumor progression. In this study, we show that HCC invasive cells produce high levels of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and generate tumors with a high stromal component in a xenograft model. A transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) receptor inhibitor, LY2109761, inhibited the synthesis and release of CTGF, as well as reducing the stromal component of the tumors. In addition, the TGF-beta-dependent down-regulation of CTGF diminished tumor growth, intravasation, and metastatic dissemination of HCC cells by inhibiting cancer-associated fibroblast proliferation. By contrast, noninvasive HCC cells were found to produce low levels of CTGF. Upon TGF-beta1 stimulation, noninvasive HCC cells form tumors with a high stromal content and CTGF expression, which is inhibited by treatment with LY2109761. In addition, the acquired intravasation and metastatic spread of noninvasive HCC cells after TGF-beta1 stimulation was blocked by LY2109761. LY2109761 interrupts the cross-talk between cancer cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts, leading to a significant reduction of HCC growth and dissemination. Interestingly, patients with high CTGF expression had poor prognosis, suggesting that treatment aimed at reducing TGF-beta-dependent CTGF expression may offer clinical benefits. Taken together, our preclinical results indicate that LY2109761 targets the cross-talk between HCC and the stroma and provide a rationale for future clinical trials.

  4. Tick Talk: Block Tick Bites and Lyme Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this issue Tick Talk Block Tick Bites and Lyme Disease En español Send us your comments When warm ... mainly in the mid-Atlantic and southern states. Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne illness. It’s ...

  5. Cross-talk in abscisic acid signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedoroff, Nina V.

    2002-01-01

    "Cross-talk" in hormone signaling reflects an organism's ability to integrate different inputs and respond appropriately, a crucial function at the heart of signaling network operation. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone involved in bud and seed dormancy, growth regulation, leaf senescence and abscission, stomatal opening, and a variety of plant stress responses. This review summarizes what is known about ABA signaling in the control of stomatal opening and seed dormancy and provides an overview of emerging knowledge about connections between ABA, ethylene, sugar, and auxin synthesis and signaling.

  6. National CrossTalk. Volume 12, Number 1, Winter 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombley, William, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    "National CrossTalk" is a publication of the National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education. The National Center promotes public policies that enhance opportunities for quality education and training beyond high school. The primary purpose of "National CrossTalk" is to stimulate informed discussion and debate of higher…

  7. National CrossTalk. Volume 17, Number 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombley, William, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    "National CrossTalk" is a publication of the National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education. The National Center promotes public policies that enhance opportunities for quality education and training beyond high school. The primary purpose of "National CrossTalk" is to stimulate informed discussion and debate of higher…

  8. National CrossTalk. Volume 18, Number 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    "National CrossTalk" is a publication of the National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education. The National Center promotes public policies that enhance opportunities for quality education and training beyond high school. The primary purpose of "National CrossTalk" is to stimulate informed discussion and debate of higher…

  9. National CrossTalk. Volume 18, Number 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    "National CrossTalk" is a publication of the National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education. The National Center promotes public policies that enhance opportunities for quality education and training beyond high school. The primary purpose of "National CrossTalk" is to stimulate informed discussion and debate of higher…

  10. National CrossTalk. Volume 19, Number 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    "National CrossTalk" is a publication of the National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education. The National Center promotes public policies that enhance opportunities for quality education and training beyond high school. The primary purpose of "National CrossTalk" is to stimulate informed discussion and debate of higher…

  11. Modelling and Analysis of Biochemical Signalling Pathway Cross-talk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Donaldson

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Signalling pathways are abstractions that help life scientists structure the coordination of cellular activity. Cross-talk between pathways accounts for many of the complex behaviours exhibited by signalling pathways and is often critical in producing the correct signal-response relationship. Formal models of signalling pathways and cross-talk in particular can aid understanding and drive experimentation. We define an approach to modelling based on the concept that a pathway is the (synchronising parallel composition of instances of generic modules (with internal and external labels. Pathways are then composed by (synchronising parallel composition and renaming; different types of cross-talk result from different combinations of synchronisation and renaming. We define a number of generic modules in PRISM and five types of cross-talk: signal flow, substrate availability, receptor function, gene expression and intracellular communication. We show that Continuous Stochastic Logic properties can both detect and distinguish the types of cross-talk. The approach is illustrated with small examples and an analysis of the cross-talk between the TGF-b/BMP, WNT and MAPK pathways.

  12. Cross talk analysis in multicore optical fibers by supermode theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szostkiewicz, Lukasz; Napierala, Marek; Ziolowicz, Anna; Pytel, Anna; Tenderenda, Tadeusz; Nasilowski, Tomasz

    2016-08-15

    We discuss the theoretical aspects of core-to-core power transfer in multicore fibers relying on supermode theory. Based on a dual core fiber model, we investigate the consequences of this approach, such as the influence of initial excitation conditions on cross talk. Supermode interpretation of power coupling proves to be intuitive and thus may lead to new concepts of multicore fiber-based devices. As a conclusion, we propose a definition of a uniform cross talk parameter that describes multicore fiber design.

  13. National CrossTalk. Volume 14, Number 3, Summer 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombley, William, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    The primary purpose of "National CrossTalk" is to stimulate informed discussion and debate of higher education issues. This issue contains the following articles: (1) The M Word: "Marketing" Has Changed from a Dirty Word to a Buzzword in Higher Education (Jon Marcus); (2) A Contrarian View of the Testing Industry: FairTest…

  14. National CrossTalk. Volume 14, Number 2, Spring 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombley, William, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    The primary purpose of "National CrossTalk" is to stimulate informed discussion and debate of higher education issues. This issue contains the following articles: (1) "Effectiveness and Efficiency": The University System of Maryland's Campaign to Control Costs and Increase Student Aid (Kay Mills); (2) Remote Access: Western…

  15. National CrossTalk. Volume 13, Number 1, Winter 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombley, William, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    The primary purpose of "National CrossTalk" is to stimulate informed discussion and debate of higher education issues. This issue contains the following articles: (1) A Legacy to Overcome: The University of Georgia Hopes to Become a More Desirable Destination for Black Students (Don Campbell); (2) Oklahoma's Brain Gain: A Comprehensive…

  16. National CrossTalk. Volume 16, Number 1, Fall 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombley, William, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    The primary purpose of "National CrossTalk" is to stimulate informed discussion and debate of higher education issues. This issue contains the following articles: (1) The Credit Crisis Goes to College: Upheaval in the Student-Loan Business Leaves Students and Parents Scrambling (Susan C. Thomson); (2) The Engaged University: Northern…

  17. National CrossTalk. Volume 13, Number 2, Spring 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombley, William, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    The primary purpose of "National CrossTalk" is to stimulate informed discussion and debate of higher education issues. This issue contains the following articles: (1) CUNY [City University of New York] Sheds Reputation as "Tutor U": The Nation's Largest Urban University Raises Standards, and Grapples with Remediation (Jon…

  18. National CrossTalk. Volume 15, Number 1, Winter 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombley, William, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    The primary purpose of "National CrossTalk" is to stimulate informed discussion and debate of higher education issues. This issue contains the following articles: (1) The Celtic Tiger: Ireland Invests Heavily in Higher Education, and Benefits Mightily (Jon Marcus); (2) Western Classic: Nevada's James Rogers Is a Non-Traditional…

  19. National CrossTalk. Volume 17, Number 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombley, William, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of "National CrossTalk" is to stimulate informed discussion and debate of higher education issues. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Florida's Unnatural Disaster: The State's Economic Bubble Has Burst, Leaving Higher Education in a Double Bind (Jon Marcus); (2) Saudi King's Modern University:…

  20. National CrossTalk. Volume 12, Number 3, Summer 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombley, William, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    The primary purpose of "National CrossTalk" is to stimulate informed discussion and debate of higher education issues. This issue contains the following articles: (1) U.K. Adopts "Top-Up" Tuition Fees: British Universities Prepare to Compete in a More "American" System (Jon Marcus); (2) "Plain Living": Berea…

  1. National CrossTalk. Volume 13, Number 4, Fall 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombley, William, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    The primary purpose of "National CrossTalk" is to stimulate informed discussion and debate of higher education issues. This publication contains the following articles: (1) "Truth in Tuition" (Susan C. Thomson); (2) In Katrina's Wake (Kathy Witkowsky); (3) News from the Center: New Center Associates; (4) Colorado On the Edge…

  2. National CrossTalk. Volume 14, Number 4, Fall 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombley, William, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    The primary purpose of "National CrossTalk" is to stimulate informed discussion and debate of higher education issues. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Keeping Them in College: East Carolina University's Efforts to Improve Retention and Graduation Rates (Don Campbell); (2) The "Seamless System": Florida's Flurry…

  3. National CrossTalk. Volume 14, Number 1, Winter 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombley, William, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    The primary purpose of "National Cross Talk" is to stimulate informed discussion and debate of higher education issues. This publication contains the following articles: (1) The Plagiarism Plague: In the Internet Era, Cheating Has Become an Epidemic on College Campuses (Don Campbell); (2) Dillard's Dire Straits: Historically Black…

  4. National CrossTalk. Volume 13, Number 3, Summer 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombley, William, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    The primary purpose of "National CrossTalk" is to stimulate informed discussion and debate of higher education issues. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Virginia Tries Restructuring: Financial Stress Leads to New Arrangements between State and Campuses (Robert A. Jones); (2) Georgia's Odd Couple: Can Two Foundations Share a…

  5. National CrossTalk. Volume 12, Number 4, Fall 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombley, William, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    The primary purpose of "National CrossTalk" is to stimulate informed discussion and debate of higher education issues. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Code of Conduct: Air Force Academy Adopts Changes in Response to 2003 Sexual Assault Scandal (Kathy Witkowsky); (2) Political Football: Partisan Politics Could Determine…

  6. Simulation of cross-talk noise of high energy X-ray detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Rifeng; Zhang Ping; Zhang Zehong

    2005-01-01

    The signal-noise ratio of detectors and the image quality will be affected by the detector cross-talk noise. The authors use EGSnrc to research the cross-talk noise in the CdWO 4 detector module, and analyze various factors which can bring about the cross-talk noise. The work will facilitate the selection of detector module and offer some parameters for the correction of cross-talk noise with software. (authors)

  7. Specificity, cross-talk and adaptation in Interferon signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilman, Anton

    Innate immune system is the first line of defense of higher organisms against pathogens. It coordinates the behavior of millions of cells of multiple types, achieved through numerous signaling molecules. This talk focuses on the signaling specificity of a major class of signaling molecules - Type I Interferons - which are also used therapeutically in the treatment of a number of diseases, such as Hepatitis C, multiple sclerosis and some cancers. Puzzlingly, different Interferons act through the same cell surface receptor but have different effects on the target cells. They also exhibit a strange pattern of temporal cross-talk resulting in a serious clinical problem - loss of response to Interferon therapy. We combined mathematical modeling with quantitative experiments to develop a quantitative model of specificity and adaptation in the Interferon signaling pathway. The model resolves several outstanding experimental puzzles and directly affects the clinical use of Type I Interferons in treatment of viral hepatitis and other diseases.

  8. Characterization of Thermal Cross-talk in a γ-ray Microcalorimeter Array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jethava, N.; Ullom, J. N.; Bennett, D. A.; Irwin, K. D.; Horansky, R. D.; Beall, J. A.; Hilton, G. C.; Vale, L. R.; Hoover, A.; Bacrania, M. K.; Rabin, M. W.

    2009-01-01

    We present experimental data describing cross-talk within an array of gamma-ray microcalorimeters during gamma-ray irradiation. The microcalorimeters consist of Mo/Cu transition-edge sensors (TESs) with attached Sn absorbers. We observe both thermal and electrical cross-talk with peak cross-talk amplitudes as large as 0.4%. We have developed an analytical model for thermal cross-talk and make a preliminary comparison to data. Cross-talk must be understood and minimized for high resolution spectroscopy at high input count rates.

  9. Proteomics of the bacterial cross-talk by quorum sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cagno, Raffaella; De Angelis, Maria; Calasso, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Words such as language and behavior are frequently used to depict "quorum sensing" (QS) in the literature. Simplifying the concept, language and cross-talk between bacteria, and between bacteria and animal or plants hosts determine the behavior (e.g., beneficial or pathogenic effects). Genomics and transcriptomics were the principal approaches used to study the multiple mechanisms of QS. Nevertheless, sequencing of genomes paved the way for another approach which consists on comparative and functional proteomics. This review aims at describing how the proteomic dictionary translates: (i) the languages (N-acyl-L-homoserine lactones, AHL; autoinducing peptide, AIP; autoinducer-2, AI-2) used by bacteria to communicate; (ii) signals of QS which induce various phenotypes (e.g., virulence, biofilm maturation); (iii) cross-talk between lactic acid bacteria within various food ecosystems (e.g. sourdough and fermented milk); (iv) probiotic messages at intra- and inter-species and interkingdom levels; and (v) words for quorum quenching (QQ). Proteomics is an indispensible discipline to elucidate the mechanisms of regulation of the multitude of language signals which diffuse through different microbial communities. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Cross-talk between cardiac muscle and coronary vasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhof, Nico; Boer, Christa; Lamberts, Regis R; Sipkema, Pieter

    2006-10-01

    The cardiac muscle and the coronary vasculature are in close proximity to each other, and a two-way interaction, called cross-talk, exists. Here we focus on the mechanical aspects of cross-talk including the role of the extracellular matrix. Cardiac muscle affects the coronary vasculature. In diastole, the effect of the cardiac muscle on the coronary vasculature depends on the (changes in) muscle length but appears to be small. In systole, coronary artery inflow is impeded, or even reversed, and venous outflow is augmented. These systolic effects are explained by two mechanisms. The waterfall model and the intramyocardial pump model are based on an intramyocardial pressure, assumed to be proportional to ventricular pressure. They explain the global effects of contraction on coronary flow and the effects of contraction in the layers of the heart wall. The varying elastance model, the muscle shortening and thickening model, and the vascular deformation model are based on direct contact between muscles and vessels. They predict global effects as well as differences on flow in layers and flow heterogeneity due to contraction. The relative contributions of these two mechanisms depend on the wall layer (epi- or endocardial) and type of contraction (isovolumic or shortening). Intramyocardial pressure results from (local) muscle contraction and to what extent the interstitial cavity contracts isovolumically. This explains why small arterioles and venules do not collapse in systole. Coronary vasculature affects the cardiac muscle. In diastole, at physiological ventricular volumes, an increase in coronary perfusion pressure increases ventricular stiffness, but the effect is small. In systole, there are two mechanisms by which coronary perfusion affects cardiac contractility. Increased perfusion pressure increases microvascular volume, thereby opening stretch-activated ion channels, resulting in an increased intracellular Ca2+ transient, which is followed by an increase in Ca

  11. Cross-talk effect in electrostatic based capillary array nozzles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Kyung Hyun; Rahman, Khalid; Khan, Arshad; Kim, Dong Soo

    2011-01-01

    Electrohydrodynamic printing is a promising technique for printed electronics application. Most researchers working in this field are using a single nozzle configuration. However, for large area printing a multi-nozzle setup will be required for time and cost effective process. In this paper the influence of electric field and flow-rate on jetting angle on multi-nozzle array has been investigated experimentally. A three nozzle setup has been used in a linear array by using glass capillary as a nozzle with independent voltage applied on each nozzle and independent ink supply. The experiments are performed by changing the nozzle to nozzle gap and the effect on the jetting angle has been investigated. It has been observed that by increasing the applied voltage the jetting angle also increases at fixed flow-rate. In case of increasing the flow-rate, the jetting angle first increases with increase in flow-rate, but as the flow-rate increases at certain level the jetting angle decreases; moreover, at a high flow-rate the cone-jet length starts increasing. Numerical simulation has been performed to have a better understanding of the electric-field with respect to jetting angles. The influence of one nozzle on another nozzle is also investigated by operating the nozzle independently by using different operating cases. The cross-talk effect is also minimized by reducing the nozzle diameter. At 250 μm nozzle diameter the cross-talk effect was negligible for 5 mm nozzle-to-nozzle gap. This study will help in better understanding of the interaction between different nozzles in multi-nozzle cases and better design of the multi-nozzle system by minimizing the effects of adjacent nozzles for multi-nozzle electrohydrodynamic printing system

  12. Cross-talk studies on FPCB of double-sided silicon micro-strip detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Lei; Li, Zhankui; Li, Haixia; Wang, Pengfei; Wang, Zhusheng; Chen, Cuihong; Liu, Fengqiong; Li, Ronghua; Wang, Xiuhua; Li, Chunyan; Zu, Kailing

    2014-01-01

    Double-sided silicon micro-strip detector's parameters and a test method and the results of cross-talk of FPCB are given in this abstract. In addition, the value of our detector's readout signal has little relation to FPCB's cross-talk.

  13. Application of Monte Carlo cross-validation to identify pathway cross-talk in neonatal sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuxia; Liu, Cui; Wang, Jingna; Li, Xingxia

    2018-03-01

    To explore genetic pathway cross-talk in neonates with sepsis, an integrated approach was used in this paper. To explore the potential relationships between differently expressed genes between normal uninfected neonates and neonates with sepsis and pathways, genetic profiling and biologic signaling pathway were first integrated. For different pathways, the score was obtained based upon the genetic expression by quantitatively analyzing the pathway cross-talk. The paired pathways with high cross-talk were identified by random forest classification. The purpose of the work was to find the best pairs of pathways able to discriminate sepsis samples versus normal samples. The results found 10 pairs of pathways, which were probably able to discriminate neonates with sepsis versus normal uninfected neonates. Among them, the best two paired pathways were identified according to analysis of extensive literature. Impact statement To find the best pairs of pathways able to discriminate sepsis samples versus normal samples, an RF classifier, the DS obtained by DEGs of paired pathways significantly associated, and Monte Carlo cross-validation were applied in this paper. Ten pairs of pathways were probably able to discriminate neonates with sepsis versus normal uninfected neonates. Among them, the best two paired pathways ((7) IL-6 Signaling and Phospholipase C Signaling (PLC); (8) Glucocorticoid Receptor (GR) Signaling and Dendritic Cell Maturation) were identified according to analysis of extensive literature.

  14. Pathway cross-talk network analysis identifies critical pathways in neonatal sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yu-Xiu; Liu, Quan-Hong; Chen, Deng-Hong; Meng, Ying

    2017-06-01

    Despite advances in neonatal care, sepsis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates worldwide. Pathway cross-talk analysis might contribute to the inference of the driving forces in bacterial sepsis and facilitate a better understanding of underlying pathogenesis of neonatal sepsis. This study aimed to explore the critical pathways associated with the progression of neonatal sepsis by the pathway cross-talk analysis. By integrating neonatal transcriptome data with known pathway data and protein-protein interaction data, we systematically uncovered the disease pathway cross-talks and constructed a disease pathway cross-talk network for neonatal sepsis. Then, attract method was employed to explore the dysregulated pathways associated with neonatal sepsis. To determine the critical pathways in neonatal sepsis, rank product (RP) algorithm, centrality analysis and impact factor (IF) were introduced sequentially, which synthetically considered the differential expression of genes and pathways, pathways cross-talks and pathway parameters in the network. The dysregulated pathways with the highest IF values as well as RPpathways in neonatal sepsis. By integrating three kinds of data, only 6919 common genes were included to perform the pathway cross-talk analysis. By statistic analysis, a total of 1249 significant pathway cross-talks were selected to construct the pathway cross-talk network. Moreover, 47 dys-regulated pathways were identified via attract method, 20 pathways were identified under RPpathways with the highest IF were also screened from the pathway cross-talk network. Among them, we selected 8 common pathways, i.e. critical pathways. In this study, we systematically tracked 8 critical pathways involved in neonatal sepsis by integrating attract method and pathway cross-talk network. These pathways might be responsible for the host response in infection, and of great value for advancing diagnosis and therapy of neonatal sepsis. Copyright © 2017

  15. Cross-talk between insulin and Wnt signaling in preadipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palsgaard, Jane; Emanuelli, Brice; Winnay, Jonathon N

    2012-01-01

    and appears to be due to an inducible interaction between LRP5 and the insulin receptor as demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation. These data demonstrate that Wnt and insulin signaling pathways exhibit cross-talk at multiple levels. Wnt induces phosphorylation of Akt, ERK1/2, and GSK3β, and this is dependent...... and LRP6 and with and without knock-out of insulin and IGF-1 receptors. We find that Wnt stimulation leads to phosphorylation of insulin signaling key mediators, including Akt, GSK3β, and ERK1/2, although with a lower fold stimulation and slower time course than observed for insulin. These Wnt effects...... are insulin/IGF-1 receptor-dependent and are lost in insulin/IGF-1 receptor double knock-out cells. Conversely, in LRP5 knockdown preadipocytes, insulin-induced phosphorylation of IRS1, Akt, GSK3β, and ERK1/2 is highly reduced. This effect is specific to insulin, as compared with IGF-1, stimulation...

  16. Dyslipidaemia--hepatic and intestinal cross-talk.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tomkin, Gerald H

    2010-06-01

    Cholesterol metabolism is tightly regulated with the majority of de novo cholesterol synthesis occurring in the liver and intestine. 3 Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, a major enzyme involved in cholesterol synthesis, is raised in both liver and intestine in diabetic animals. Niemann PickC1-like1 protein regulates cholesterol absorption in the intestine and facilitates cholesterol transport through the liver. There is evidence to suggest that the effect of inhibition of Niemann PickC1-like1 lowers cholesterol through its effect not only in the intestine but also in the liver. ATP binding cassette proteins G5\\/G8 regulate cholesterol re-excretion in the intestine and in the liver, cholesterol excretion into the bile. Diabetes is associated with reduced ATP binding cassette protein G5\\/G8 expression in both the liver and intestine in animal models. Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein is central to the formation of the chylomicron in the intestine and VLDL in the liver. Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein mRNA is increased in diabetes in both the intestine and liver. Cross-talk between the intestine and liver is poorly documented in humans due to the difficulty in obtaining liver biopsies but animal studies are fairly consistent in showing relationships that explain in part mechanisms involved in cholesterol homeostasis.

  17. Cross-talk between KLF4 and STAT3 regulates axon regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Song; Zou, Yuhua; Zhang, Chun-Li

    2013-10-01

    Cytokine-induced activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) promotes the regrowth of damaged axons in the adult central nervous system (CNS). Here we show that KLF4 physically interacts with STAT3 upon cytokine-induced phosphorylation of tyrosine 705 (Y705) on STAT3. This interaction suppresses STAT3-dependent gene expression by blocking its DNA-binding activity. The deletion of KLF4 in vivo induces axon regeneration of adult retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) via Janus kinase (JAK)-STAT3 signalling. This regeneration can be greatly enhanced by exogenous cytokine treatment, or removal of an endogenous JAK-STAT3 pathway inhibitor called suppressor of cytokine signalling 3 (SOCS3). These findings reveal an unexpected cross-talk between KLF4 and activated STAT3 in the regulation of axon regeneration that might have therapeutic implications in promoting repair of injured adult CNS.

  18. Implementation of dynamic cross-talk correction (DCTC) for MOX holdup assay measurements among multiple gloveboxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamichi, Hideo; Nakamura, Hironobu; Mukai, Yasunobu; Kurita, Tsutomu; Beddingfield, David H.

    2012-01-01

    Plutonium holdup in gloveboxes (GBs) are measured by (passive neutron based NDA (HBAS) for the material control and accountancy (MC and A) at Plutonium Conversion Development Facility (PCDF). In the case that the GBs are installed close to one another, the cross-talk which means neutron double counting among GBs should be corrected properly. Though we used to use predetermined constants as the cross-talk correction, a new correction methodology for neutron cross-talk among the GBs with inventory changes is required for the improvement of MC and A. In order to address the issue of variable cross-talk contributions to holdup assay values, we applied a dynamic cross-talk correction (DCTC) method, based on the distributed source-term analysis approach, to obtain the actual doubles derived from the cross-talk between multiple GBs. As a result of introduction of DCTC for HBAS measurement, we could reduce source biases from the assay result by estimating the reliable doubles-counting derived from the cross-talk. Therefore, we could improve HBAS measurement uncertainty to a half of conventional system, and we are going to confirm the result. Since the DCTC methodology can be used to determine the cross-correlation among multiple inventories in small areas, it is expected that this methodology can be extended to the knowledge of safeguards by design. (author)

  19. A study on cross-talk nerve stimulation: electrode placement and current leakage lid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Julémont

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cross-talk phenomena should be avoided when stimulating nerves. One option to limit the current spread is to use tripolar electrodes, but at the cost of increasing the number of wires connection. This should be avoided since cables must be thin and compliant. We investigated the impact of the central electrode position and of current spread due to a gap between book and lid on cross-talk, in a set of tripolar or quasi-tripolar configurations.

  20. Cross talk between insulin and bone morphogenetic protein signaling systems in brown adipogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Hongbin; Schulz, Tim J; Espinoza, Daniel O

    2010-01-01

    Both insulin and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling systems are important for adipocyte differentiation. Analysis of gene expression in BMP7-treated fibroblasts revealed a coordinated change in insulin signaling components by BMP7. To further investigate the cross talk between insulin...... BMP7's suppressive effect on pref-1 transcription. Together, these data suggest cross talk between the insulin and BMP signaling systems by which BMP7 can rescue brown adipogenesis in cells with insulin resistance....

  1. Cross-talk and information transfer in mammalian and bacterial signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samanthe M Lyons

    Full Text Available In mammalian and bacterial cells simple phosphorylation circuits play an important role in signaling. Bacteria have hundreds of two-component signaling systems that involve phosphotransfer between a receptor and a response regulator. In mammalian cells a similar pathway is the TGF-beta pathway, where extracellular TGF-beta ligands activate cell surface receptors that phosphorylate Smad proteins, which in turn activate many genes. In TGF-beta signaling the multiplicity of ligands begs the question as to whether cells can distinguish signals coming from different ligands, but transduced through a small set of Smads. Here we use information theory with stochastic simulations of networks to address this question. We find that when signals are transduced through only one Smad, the cell cannot distinguish between different levels of the external ligands. Increasing the number of Smads from one to two significantly improves information transmission as well as the ability to discriminate between ligands. Surprisingly, both total information transmitted and the capacity to discriminate between ligands are quite insensitive to high levels of cross-talk between the two Smads. Robustness against cross-talk requires that the average amplitude of the signals are large. We find that smaller systems, as exemplified by some two-component systems in bacteria, are significantly much less robust against cross-talk. For such system sizes phosphotransfer is also less robust against cross-talk than phosphorylation. This suggests that mammalian signal transduction can tolerate a high amount of cross-talk without degrading information content. This may have played a role in the evolution of new functionalities from small mutations in signaling pathways, allowed for the development of cross-regulation and led to increased overall robustness due to redundancy in signaling pathways. On the other hand the lack of cross-regulation observed in many bacterial two

  2. Nitric oxide metabolism and indole acetic acid biosynthesis cross-talk in Azospirillum brasilense SM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koul, Vatsala; Tripathi, Chandrakant; Adholeya, Alok; Kochar, Mandira

    2015-04-01

    Production of nitric oxide (NO) and the presence of NO metabolism genes, nitrous oxide reductase (nosZ), nitrous oxide reductase regulator (nosR) and nitric oxide reductase (norB) were identified in the plant-associated bacterium (PAB) Azospirillum brasilense SM. NO presence was confirmed in all overexpressing strains, while improvement in the plant growth response of these strains was mediated by increased NO and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) levels in the strains. Electron microscopy showed random distribution to biofilm, with surface colonization of pleiomorphic Azospirilla. Quantitative IAA estimation highlighted a crucial role of nosR and norBC in regulating IAA biosynthesis. The NO quencher and donor reduced/blocked IAA biosynthesis by all strains, indicating their common regulatory role in IAA biosynthesis. Tryptophan (Trp) and l-Arginine (Arg) showed higher expression of NO genes tested, while in the case of ipdC, only Trp and IAA increased expression, while Arg had no significant effect. The highest nosR expression in SMnosR in the presence of IAA and Trp, along with its 2-fold IAA level, confirmed the relationship of nosR overexpression with Trp in increasing IAA. These results indicate a strong correlation between IAA and NO in A. brasilense SM and suggest the existence of cross-talk or shared signaling mechanisms in these two growth regulators. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Cross-talk studies between FCC-hh Experimental Interaction Regions

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2081283; Seryi, Andrei; Appleby, Robert Barrie; Rafique, Haroon; Besana, Maria Ilaria

    2017-01-01

    Debris from 50 TeV proton-proton collisions at the main interaction point in the FCC-hh may contribute to the background in the subsequent detector. This cross-talk is of possible concern for the FCC-hh due to the high luminosity and energy of the collider. DPMJET-III is used as a collision debris generator in order to assess the muon cross-talk contribution. An analytical calculation of muon range in rock is performed. This is followed by a full Monte Carlo simulation using FLUKA, where the accelerator tunnel has been modelled. The muon cross talk between the adjacent interaction points is assessed and its implications for FCC-hh design are discussed.

  4. Zero Cross-Talk Regimes in Dually Modulated Mutually-Coupled Nano-lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, H; Zhang, M J; Wang, Y C; Shore, K A

    2017-01-01

    The modulation properties of dually modulated mutually-coupled nano-lasers have been analyzed using rate equations which include the Purcell cavity-enhanced spontaneous emission factor F and the spontaneous emission coupling factor β . Analysis of the dynamical response of modulated mutually-coupled nano-lasers reveals the existence of regimes of zero cross-talk wherein the response of one nano-laser is not impacted by the dynamics of the other nano-laser. The availability of zero-cross talk regimes is seen to offer opportunities for exploitation in photonic integrated circuits. (paper)

  5. Complex oscillatory behaviour in a delayed protein cross talk model with periodic forcing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolov, Svetoslav

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of periodic forcing on the time delay protein cross talk model behaviour. We assume periodic variation for the plasma membrane permeability. The dynamic behaviour of the system is simulated and bifurcation diagrams are obtained for different parameters. The results show that periodic forcing can very easily give rise to complex dynamics, including a period-doubling cascade, chaos, quasi-periodic oscillating, and periodic windows. Finally, we calculate the maximal Lyapunov exponent in the regions of the parameter space where chaotic motion of delayed protein cross talk model with periodic forcing exists.

  6. Neural Network Compensation for Frequency Cross-Talk in Laser Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wooram; Heo, Gunhaeng; You, Kwanho

    The heterodyne laser interferometer acts as an ultra-precise measurement apparatus in semiconductor manufacture. However the periodical nonlinearity property caused from frequency cross-talk is an obstacle to improve the high measurement accuracy in nanometer scale. In order to minimize the nonlinearity error of the heterodyne interferometer, we propose a frequency cross-talk compensation algorithm using an artificial intelligence method. The feedforward neural network trained by back-propagation compensates the nonlinearity error and regulates to minimize the difference with the reference signal. With some experimental results, the improved accuracy is proved through comparison with the position value from a capacitive displacement sensor.

  7. An analog method of cross-talk compensation for a RGB wavelength division multiplexed optical link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, George; Leveneur, Jérôme; Futter, John; Kennedy, John

    2018-06-01

    Pulse-width modulation (PWM) over optical fiber can be a very advantageous data transmission approach when an electrically isolated data link is required. The use of wavelength division multiplexing allows multiple data streams to be sent through a single fiber independently. The present investigation aims to demonstrate a novel approach to reduce cross-talk in a three-channel RGB optical link without the need for complex optical componentry. An op-amp circuit is developed to reduce the cross-talk so that the resolution of the PWM data is preserved. An iterative Monte-Carlo simulation approach is used to optimize the op-amp circuit. The approach is developed for a set of three PWM Hall effect magnetometers with 12-bit resolution and 128 Hz sampling rate. We show that, in these conditions, the loss of resolution due to cross-talk is prevented. We also show that the cross-talk compensation allows the RGB PWM link to outperform other transmission schemes.

  8. Cross-talk between signaling pathways can generate robust oscillations in calcium and cAMP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Siso-Nadal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To control and manipulate cellular signaling, we need to understand cellular strategies for information transfer, integration, and decision-making. A key feature of signal transduction is the generation of only a few intracellular messengers by many extracellular stimuli. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we model molecular cross-talk between two classic second messengers, cyclic AMP (cAMP and calcium, and show that the dynamical complexity of the response of both messengers increases substantially through their interaction. In our model of a non-excitable cell, both cAMP and calcium concentrations can oscillate. If mutually inhibitory, cross-talk between the two second messengers can increase the range of agonist concentrations for which oscillations occur. If mutually activating, cross-talk decreases the oscillation range, but can generate 'bursting' oscillations of calcium and may enable better filtering of noise. CONCLUSION: We postulate that this increased dynamical complexity allows the cell to encode more information, particularly if both second messengers encode signals. In their native environments, it is unlikely that cells are exposed to one stimulus at a time, and cross-talk may help generate sufficiently complex responses to allow the cell to discriminate between different combinations and concentrations of extracellular agonists.

  9. Rotavirus and Serotonin Cross-Talk in Diarrhoea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordgren, Johan; Karlsson, Thommie; Sharma, Sumit; Magnusson, Karl-Eric; Svensson, Lennart

    2016-01-01

    Rotavirus (RV) has been shown to infect and stimulate secretion of serotonin from human enterochromaffin (EC) cells and to infect EC cells in the small intestine of mice. It remains to identify which intracellularly expressed viral protein(s) is responsible for this novel property and to further establish the clinical role of serotonin in RV infection. First, we found that siRNA specifically silencing NSP4 (siRNANSP4) significantly attenuated secretion of serotonin from Rhesus rotavirus (RRV) infected EC tumor cells compared to siRNAVP4, siRNAVP6 and siRNAVP7. Second, intracellular calcium mobilization and diarrhoeal capacity from virulent and avirulent porcine viruses correlated with the capacity to release serotonin from EC tumor cells. Third, following administration of serotonin, all (10/10) infants, but no (0/8) adult mice, responded with diarrhoea. Finally, blocking of serotonin receptors using Ondansetron significantly attenuated murine RV (strain EDIM) diarrhoea in infant mice (2.9 vs 4.5 days). Ondansetron-treated mice (n = 11) had significantly (p serotonin receptor antagonist significantly (p serotonin from human EC tumor cells and that serotonin participates in RV diarrhoea, which can be attenuated by Ondansetron. PMID:27459372

  10. A cross-talk between TrkB and Ret tyrosine kinases receptors mediates neuroblastoma cells differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Lucia Esposito

    Full Text Available Understanding the interplay between intracellular signals initiated by multiple receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs to give the final cell phenotype is a major pharmacological challenge. Retinoic acid (RA-treatment of neuroblastoma (NB cells implicates activation of Ret and TrkB RTKs as critical step to induce cell differentiation. By studying the signaling interplay between TrkB and Ret as paradigmatic example, here we demonstrate the existence of a cross-talk mechanism between the two unrelated receptors that is needed to induce the cell differentiation. Indeed, we show that TrkB receptor promotes Ret phosphorylation by a mechanism that does not require GDNF. This reveals to be a key mechanism, since blocking either TrkB or Ret by small interfering RNA causes a failure in NB biochemical and morphological differentiation. Our results provide the first evidence that a functional transactivation between distinct tyrosine kinases receptors is required for an important physiological process.

  11. Reactivation of desensitized formyl peptide receptors by platelet activating factor: a novel receptor cross talk mechanism regulating neutrophil superoxide anion production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huamei Forsman

    Full Text Available Neutrophils express different chemoattractant receptors of importance for guiding the cells from the blood stream to sites of inflammation. These receptors communicate with one another, a cross talk manifested as hierarchical, heterologous receptor desensitization. We describe a new receptor cross talk mechanism, by which desensitized formyl peptide receptors (FPRdes can be reactivated. FPR desensitization is induced through binding of specific FPR agonists and is reached after a short period of active signaling. The mechanism that transfers the receptor to a non-signaling desensitized state is not known, and a signaling pathway has so far not been described, that transfers FPRdes back to an active signaling state. The reactivation signal was generated by PAF stimulation of its receptor (PAFR and the cross talk was uni-directional. LatrunculinA, an inhibitor of actin polymerization, induced a similar reactivation of FPRdes as PAF while the phosphatase inhibitor CalyculinA inhibited reactivation, suggesting a role for the actin cytoskeleton in receptor desensitization and reactivation. The activated PAFR could, however, reactivate FPRdes also when the cytoskeleton was disrupted prior to activation. The receptor cross talk model presented prophesies that the contact on the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane that blocks signaling between the G-protein and the FPR is not a point of no return; the receptor cross-talk from the PAFRs to the FPRdes initiates an actin-independent signaling pathway that turns desensitized receptors back to a signaling state. This represents a novel mechanism for amplification of neutrophil production of reactive oxygen species.

  12. Heat Sinking, Cross Talk, and Temperature Stability for Large, Close-Packed Arrays of Microcalorimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imoto, Naoko; Bandler, SImon; Brekosky, Regis; Chervenak, James; Figueroa-Felicano, Enectali; Finkbeiner, Frederick; Kelley, Richard; Kilbourne, Caroline; Porter, Frederick; Sadleir, Jack; hide

    2007-01-01

    We are developing large, close-packed arrays of x-ray transition-edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeters. In such a device, sufficient heat sinking is important to to minimize thermal cross talk between pixels and to stabilize the bath temperature for all pixels. We have measured cross talk on out 8 x 8 arrays and studied the shape and amount of thermal crosstalk as a function of pixel location and efficiency of electrothermal feedback. In this presentation, we will compare measurements made on arrays with and without a backside, heat-sinking copper layer, as well as results of devices on silicon-nitride membranes and on solid substrates, and we will discuss the implications for energy resolution and maximum count rate. We will also discuss the dependence of pulse height upon bath temperature, and the measured and required stability of the bath temperature.

  13. Functional Consequences of Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Receptor Cross-talk and Trafficking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roed, Sarah Noerklit; Nøhr, Anne Cathrine; Wismann, Pernille

    2015-01-01

    The signaling capacity of seven-transmembrane/G-protein-coupled receptors (7TM/GPCRs) can be regulated through ligand-mediated receptor trafficking. Classically, the recycling of internalized receptors is associated with resensitization, whereas receptor degradation terminates signaling. We have......) and glucagon (GCGR) receptors. The interaction and cross-talk between coexpressed receptors is a wide phenomenon of the 7TM/GPCR superfamily. Numerous reports show functional consequences for signaling and trafficking of the involved receptors. On the basis of the high structural similarity and tissue...... coexpression, we here investigated the potential cross-talk between GLP-1R and GIPR or GCGR in both trafficking and signaling pathways. Using a real-time time-resolved FRET-based internalization assay, we show that GLP-1R, GIPR, and GCGR internalize with differential properties. Remarkably, upon coexpression...

  14. Proton cross-talk and losses in the dispersion suppressor regions at the FCC-hh

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2100784; Appleby, Robert Barrie; Krainer, Alexander; Langner, Andy Sven; Abelleira, Jose

    2017-01-01

    Protons that collide at the interaction points of the FCC-hh may contribute to the background in the subsequent detector. Due to the high luminosity of the proton beams this may be of concern. Using DPMJET-III to model 50 TeV proton-proton collisions, tracking studies have been performed with PTC and MERLIN in order to gauge the elastic and inelastic proton cross-talk. High arc losses, particularly in the dispersion suppressor regions, have been revealed. These losses originate mainly from particles with a momentum deviation, either from interaction with a primary collimator in the betatron cleaning insertion, or from the proton-proton collisions. This issue can be mitigated by introducing additional collimators in the dispersion suppressor region. The specific design, lattice integration, and the effect of these collimators on cross-talk is assessed.

  15. Dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton mediates receptor cross talk: An emerging concept in tuning receptor signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, Pieta K.; Batista, Facundo D.

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence implicates the actin cytoskeleton in the control of receptor signaling. This may be of particular importance in the context of immune receptors, such as the B cell receptor, where dysregulated signaling can result in autoimmunity and malignancy. Here, we discuss the role of the actin cytoskeleton in controlling receptor compartmentalization, dynamics, and clustering as a means to regulate receptor signaling through controlling the interactions with protein partners. We propose that the actin cytoskeleton is a point of integration for receptor cross talk through modulation of protein dynamics and clustering. We discuss the implication of this cross talk via the cytoskeleton for both ligand-induced and low-level constitutive (tonic) signaling necessary for immune cell survival. PMID:26833785

  16. Oligonucleotide fishing for STAT6: cross-talk between IL-4 and chemokines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, K W; Nielsen, M; Kaltoft, K

    2001-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) is essential for the biological activities of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and the development of allergic responses in mice. Here we report on a sensitive and specific assay for STAT6 activation in response to IL-4. We took advantage of double-s...... activation, whereas other chemokines and cytokines do not. In conclusion, our data show that oligonucleotide fishing is a supplementary tool for studying cytokine cross-talk at a genomic level....

  17. CrossTalk. The Journal of Defense Software Engineering. Volume 25, Number 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    product names referenced in this issue are trademarks of their companies . CrossTalk Online Services: For questions or concerns about...Integration Usually, the data-subscribing applications in a B2B scenario might require the EAI interface to pass data in an encrypted form. Additional...provider is most successful when they can provide a solid product that requires limited support. The more effective that a company is in driving down

  18. CrossTalk: The Journal of Defense Software Engineering. Volume 21, Number 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    distributed black -and-white copy to its current form and shape. It is my hope that CrossTalk continues to publish insightful articles for another 20...Free: The Art of Making Quality Certain. New York: Mentor, New American Library, 1979. 7. Humphrey, Watts S. Managing the Software Process. Reading, MA...managing editor. The jazz trio worked their magic attracting a broader software audience as they infused topics outside the original embedded software

  19. Shielding proposal to reduce cross-talk from ITER lower port to equatorial port

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez, Rafael, E-mail: rjuarez@ind.uned.es [Departamento de Ingeniería Energética, ETSII-UNED, Calle Juan del Rosal 12, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Pampin, Raul [F4E, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, Josep Pla 2, Barcelona 08019 (Spain); Levesy, Bruno [ITER Organization, 13115 Route de Vinon sur Verdon, St Paul Lez Durance (France); Moro, Fabio [ENEA, Via Enrico Fermi 45, Frascati, Rome (Italy); Suarez, Alejandro [ITER Organization, 13115 Route de Vinon sur Verdon, St Paul Lez Durance (France); Catalan, J.P.; Sanz, Javier [Departamento de Ingeniería Energética, ETSII-UNED, Calle Juan del Rosal 12, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2015-12-15

    Radiation cross-talk from Torus Cryopump LP to EP was found to be a phenomenon driving Shutdown Dose Rates at EP Port Interspace after 12 days of cooling time, as relevant as neutron permeation through EP itself. In this work three different shields are proposed to mitigate the radiation cross-talk: two neutron shields placed inside LP, and a temporary gamma shield placed at EP PI during maintenance activities. Contributions from different reactor regions to Shutdown Dose Rates are computed, for the unshielded design, as long as the different shielded cases. The Rigorous-Two-Steps (R2S) method was used. The neutron shields inside TCP-LP are found to reduce SDR at EP PI 43 μSv/h and 99 μSv/h, while the gamma shield inside EP PI offers a reduction of 157 μSv/h in its heaviest configuration. Among these relevant reductions, the gamma shield inside the EP PI offers the best shielding option, as it reduces gamma cross-talk from TCP-LP and also protects EP PI from Port Duct and EP bellows activation, while it does not interfere with TCP performance.

  20. Investigation of cross talk in single grain luminescence measurements using an EMCCD camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gribenski, Natacha; Preusser, Frank; Greilich, Steffen; Huot, Sebastien; Mittelstraß, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Highly sensitive electron multiplying charges coupled devices (EMCCD) enable the spatial detection of luminescence emissions from samples and have a high potential in single grain luminescence dating. However, the main challenge of this approach is the potential effect of cross talk, i.e. the influence of signal emitted by neighbouring grains, which will bias the information recorded from individual grains. Here, we present the first investigations into this phenomenon when performing single grain luminescence measurements of quartz grains spread over the flat surface of a sample carrier. Dose recovery tests using mixed populations show an important effect of cross talk, even when some distance is kept between grains. This issue is further investigated by focusing just on two grains and complemented by simulated experiments. Creation of an additional rejection criteria based on the brightness properties of the grains is inefficient in selecting grains unaffected by their surroundings. Therefore, the use of physical approaches or image processing algorithms to directly counteract cross talk is essential to allow routine single grain luminescence dating using EMCCD cameras. - Highlights: • We have performed single grain OSL measurements using an EMCCD detector. • Individual equivalent dose cannot be accurately recovered from a mixed dose population. • Grains are influenced by signal emitted by their neighbours during the measurements. • Simulated data confirm the strong effect of this phenomenon. • Increasing the distance between grains or applying brightness criteria are inefficient.

  1. Predicting pathway cross-talks in ankylosing spondylitis through investigating the interactions among pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiang; Liu, Cong-Jian; Wei, Jian-Jie

    2017-11-13

    Given that the pathogenesis of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) remains unclear, the aim of this study was to detect the potentially functional pathway cross-talk in AS to further reveal the pathogenesis of this disease. Using microarray profile of AS and biological pathways as study objects, Monte Carlo cross-validation method was used to identify the significant pathway cross-talks. In the process of Monte Carlo cross-validation, all steps were iterated 50 times. For each run, detection of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between two groups was conducted. The extraction of the potential disrupted pathways enriched by DEGs was then implemented. Subsequently, we established a discriminating score (DS) for each pathway pair according to the distribution of gene expression levels. After that, we utilized random forest (RF) classification model to screen out the top 10 paired pathways with the highest area under the curve (AUCs), which was computed using 10-fold cross-validation approach. After 50 bootstrap, the best pairs of pathways were identified. According to their AUC values, the pair of pathways, antigen presentation pathway and fMLP signaling in neutrophils, achieved the best AUC value of 1.000, which indicated that this pathway cross-talk could distinguish AS patients from normal subjects. Moreover, the paired pathways of SAPK/JNK signaling and mitochondrial dysfunction were involved in 5 bootstraps. Two paired pathways (antigen presentation pathway and fMLP signaling in neutrophil, as well as SAPK/JNK signaling and mitochondrial dysfunction) can accurately distinguish AS and control samples. These paired pathways may be helpful to identify patients with AS for early intervention.

  2. New types of 2×2 wavelength-switching blocks for optical cross-connects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Fenghai; Zheng, Xueyan; Pedersen, Rune Johan Skullerud

    2001-01-01

    Two types of modular 2×2 wavelength-switching blocks are proposed in this letter. A 2×2 fixed wavelength-switching block can cross-connect two fixed channels between two fibers, and a 2×2 tunable wavelength-switching block can cross-connect any two channels between two fibers. These modular blocks...

  3. Cross-talk of a multi-anode PMT and attainment of a σ∼10ps TOF counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enari, Y.; Hayasaka, K.; Hokuue, T.; Inami, K.; Ohshima, T.; Sato, N.; Akatsu, M.; Kawakami, S.; Miyabayashi, Y.; Tokuda, H.; Yanase, H.; Shimoi, H.; Fujimori, T.

    2005-01-01

    We extensively studied a cross-talk phenomenon that seriously deteriorates the high time-resolution of a multi-anode 16-channel linear array photo-multiplier tube (PMT); the dynode structures were modified to eliminate the cross-talk effect and to recover a time resolution of σ=70-80ps for single photons. The use of 16 anode signals of the modified PMT enabled us to attain σ=12ps for a small TOF counter of Cherenkov radiation

  4. Cross-situational statistically based word learning intervention for late-talking toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Mary; Meyers, Christina; Oglivie, Trianna; Nicholas, Katrina; Arizmendi, Genesis

    2014-01-01

    To explore the efficacy of a word learning intervention for late-talking toddlers that is based on principles of cross-situational statistical learning. Four late-talking toddlers were individually provided with 7-10 weeks of bi-weekly word learning intervention that incorporated principles of cross-situational statistical learning. Treatment was input-based meaning that, aside from initial probes, children were not asked to produce any language during the sessions. Pre-intervention data included parent-reported measures of productive vocabulary and language samples. Data collected during intervention included production on probes, spontaneous production during treatment, and parent report of words used spontaneously at home. Data were analyzed for number of target words learned relative to control words, effect sizes, and pre-post treatment vocabulary measures. All children learned more target words than control words and, on average, showed a large treatment effect size. Children made pre-post vocabulary gains, increasing their percentile scores on the MCDI, and demonstrated a rate of word learning that was faster than rates found in the literature. Cross-situational statistically based word learning intervention has the potential to improve vocabulary learning in late-talking toddlers. Limitations on interpretation are also discussed. Readers will describe what cross-situational learning is and how it might apply to treatment. They will identify how including lexical and contextual variability in a word learning intervention for toddlers affected treatment outcomes. They will also recognize evidence of improved rate of vocabulary learning following treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. PCB 126 toxicity is modulated by cross-talk between caveolae and Nrf2 signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petriello, Michael C. [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); University of Kentucky Superfund Research Center, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Han, Sung Gu [University of Kentucky Superfund Research Center, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Department of Food Science and Biotechnology of Animal Resources, College of Animal Bioscience and Technology, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Newsome, Bradley J. [University of Kentucky Superfund Research Center, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Department of Chemistry, College of Arts and Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Hennig, Bernhard [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); University of Kentucky Superfund Research Center, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Department of Animal and Food Sciences, College of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Kentucky, KY 40506 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Environmental toxicants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been implicated in the promotion of multiple inflammatory disorders including cardiovascular disease, but information regarding mechanisms of toxicity and cross-talk between relevant cell signaling pathways is lacking. To examine the hypothesis that cross-talk between membrane domains called caveolae and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) pathways alters PCB-induced inflammation, caveolin-1 was silenced in vascular endothelial cells, resulting in a decreased PCB-induced inflammatory response. Cav-1 silencing (siRNA treatment) also increased levels of Nrf2-ARE transcriptional binding, resulting in higher mRNA levels of the antioxidant genes glutathione s-transferase and NADPH dehydrogenase quinone-1 in both vehicle and PCB-treated systems. Along with this upregulated antioxidant response, Cav-1 siRNA treated cells exhibited decreased mRNA levels of the Nrf2 inhibitory protein Keap1 in both vehicle and PCB-treated samples. Silencing Cav-1 also decreased protein levels of Nrf2 inhibitory proteins Keap1 and Fyn kinase, especially in PCB-treated cells. Further, endothelial cells from wildtype and Cav-1 −/− mice were isolated and treated with PCB to better elucidate the role of functional caveolae in PCB-induced endothelial inflammation. Cav-1 −/− endothelial cells were protected from PCB-induced cellular dysfunction as evidenced by decreased vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) protein induction. Compared to wildtype cells, Cav-1 −/− endothelial cells also allowed for a more effective antioxidant response, as observed by higher levels of the antioxidant genes. These data demonstrate novel cross-talk mechanisms between Cav-1 and Nrf2 and implicate the reduction of Cav-1 as a protective mechanism for PCB-induced cellular dysfunction and inflammation. - Highlights: • Reduction of caveolin-1 protein protects against polychlorinated biphenyl toxicity. • Decreasing

  6. Astroglia-Microglia Cross Talk during Neurodegeneration in the Rat Hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Batlle

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain injury triggers a progressive inflammatory response supported by a dynamic astroglia-microglia interplay. We investigated the progressive chronic features of the astroglia-microglia cross talk in the perspective of neuronal effects in a rat model of hippocampal excitotoxic injury. N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA injection triggered a process characterized within 38 days by atrophy, neuronal loss, and fast astroglia-mediated S100B increase. Microglia reaction varied with the lesion progression. It presented a peak of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α secretion at one day after the lesion, and a transient YM1 secretion within the first three days. Microglial glucocorticoid receptor expression increased up to day 5, before returning progressively to sham values. To further investigate the astroglia role in the microglia reaction, we performed concomitant transient astroglia ablation with L-α-aminoadipate and NMDA-induced lesion. We observed a striking maintenance of neuronal death associated with enhanced microglial reaction and proliferation, increased YM1 concentration, and decreased TNF-α secretion and glucocorticoid receptor expression. S100B reactivity only increased after astroglia recovery. Our results argue for an initial neuroprotective microglial reaction, with a direct astroglial control of the microglial cytotoxic response. We propose the recovery of the astroglia-microglia cross talk as a tissue priority conducted to ensure a proper cellular coordination that retails brain damage.

  7. Cross-talk free selective reconstruction of individual objects from multiplexed optical field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zea, Alejandro Velez; Barrera, John Fredy; Torroba, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we present a data multiplexing method for simultaneous storage in a single package composed by several optical fields of tridimensional (3D) objects, and their individual cross-talk free retrieval. Optical field data are extracted from off axis Fourier holograms, and then sampled by multiplying them with random binary masks. The resulting sampled optical fields can be used to reconstruct the original objects. Sampling causes a loss of quality that can be controlled by the number of white pixels in the binary masks and by applying a padding procedure on the optical field data. This process can be performed using a different binary mask for each optical field, and then added to form a multiplexed package. With the adequate choice of sampling and padding, we can achieve a volume reduction in the multiplexed package over the addition of all individual optical fields. Moreover, the package can be multiplied by a binary mask to select a specific optical field, and after the reconstruction procedure, the corresponding 3D object is recovered without any cross-talk. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposal for data compression with a comparison with discrete cosine transform filtering. Experimental results confirm the validity of our proposal.

  8. Cross-talk between Clinical and Host Response Parameters of Periodontitis in Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, R.; Miller, C.S.; Dawson, D.; Al-Sabbagh, M.; Ebersole, J.L.

    2016-01-01

    Periodontal diseases are a major public health concern leading to tooth loss and also shown to be associated with several chronic systemic diseases. Smoking is a major risk factor for developing numerous systemic diseases, as well as periodontitis. While it is clear that smokers have a significantly enhanced risk for developing periodontitis leading to tooth loss, the population varies with regards to susceptibility to disease associated with smoking. This investigation focuses on identifying differences in four broad sets of variables consisting of: (a) host response molecules, (b) periodontal clinical parameters, (c) antibody measures for periodontal pathogens and oral commensal bacteria challenge, and (d) other variables of interest in a smoking population with (n = 171) and without periodontitis (n = 117). Subsequently, Bayesian network structured learning techniques (BNSL) techniques were used to investigate potential associations and cross-talk between the four broad sets of variables. BNSL revealed two broad communities with markedly different topology between the non-periodontitis and periodontitis smoking population. Confidence of the edges in the resulting network also showed marked variations within and between the periodontitis and non-periodontitis groups. The results presented validated known associations, as well as discovered new ones with minimal precedence that may warrant further investigation and novel hypothesis generation. Cross-talk between the clinical variables and antibody profiles of bacteria were especially pronounced in the case of periodontitis and mediated by the antibody response profile to P. gingivalis. PMID:27431617

  9. Neurovascular cross talk in diabetic retinopathy: Pathophysiological roles and therapeutic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Elizabeth P.; Wang, Zhongxiao; Chen, Jing; Sapieha, Przemyslaw; Smith, Lois E. H.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of blindness in the working-age population in developed countries, and its prevalence will increase as the global incidence of diabetes grows exponentially. DR begins with an early nonproliferative stage in which retinal blood vessels and neurons degenerate as a consequence of chronic hyperglycemia, resulting in vasoregression and persistent retinal ischemia, metabolic disequilibrium, and inflammation. This is conducive to overcompensatory pathological neovascularization associated with advanced proliferative DR. Although DR is considered a microvascular complication, the retinal microvasculature is intimately associated with and governed by neurons and glia; neurodegeneration, neuroinflammation, and dysregulation of neurovascular cross talk are responsible in part for vascular abnormalities in both early nonproliferative DR and advanced proliferative DR. Neuronal activity directly regulates microvascular dilation and blood flow in the process of neurovascular coupling. Retinal neurons also secrete guidance cues in response to injury, ischemia, or metabolic stress that may either promote or suppress vascular outgrowth, either alleviating or exacerbating DR, contingent on the stage of disease and retinal microenvironment. Neurodegeneration, impaired neurovascular coupling, and dysregulation of neuronal guidance cues are key events in the pathogenesis of DR, and correcting these events may prevent or delay development of advanced DR. The review discusses the mechanisms of neurovascular cross talk and its dysregulation in DR, and their potential therapeutic implications. PMID:27473938

  10. Astroglia-Microglia Cross Talk during Neurodegeneration in the Rat Hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batlle, Montserrat; Ferri, Lorenzo; Andrade, Carmen; Ortega, Francisco-Javier; Vidal-Taboada, Jose M.; Pugliese, Marco; Mahy, Nicole; Rodríguez, Manuel J.

    2015-01-01

    Brain injury triggers a progressive inflammatory response supported by a dynamic astroglia-microglia interplay. We investigated the progressive chronic features of the astroglia-microglia cross talk in the perspective of neuronal effects in a rat model of hippocampal excitotoxic injury. N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) injection triggered a process characterized within 38 days by atrophy, neuronal loss, and fast astroglia-mediated S100B increase. Microglia reaction varied with the lesion progression. It presented a peak of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) secretion at one day after the lesion, and a transient YM1 secretion within the first three days. Microglial glucocorticoid receptor expression increased up to day 5, before returning progressively to sham values. To further investigate the astroglia role in the microglia reaction, we performed concomitant transient astroglia ablation with L-α-aminoadipate and NMDA-induced lesion. We observed a striking maintenance of neuronal death associated with enhanced microglial reaction and proliferation, increased YM1 concentration, and decreased TNF-α secretion and glucocorticoid receptor expression. S100B reactivity only increased after astroglia recovery. Our results argue for an initial neuroprotective microglial reaction, with a direct astroglial control of the microglial cytotoxic response. We propose the recovery of the astroglia-microglia cross talk as a tissue priority conducted to ensure a proper cellular coordination that retails brain damage. PMID:25977914

  11. BIGRE: A LOW CROSS-TALK INTEGRAL FIELD UNIT TAILORED FOR EXTRASOLAR PLANETS IMAGING SPECTROSCOPY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antichi, Jacopo; Mouillet, David; Puget, Pascal; Beuzit, Jean-Luc; Dohlen, Kjetil; Gratton, Raffaele G.; Mesa, Dino; Claudi, Riccardo U.; Giro, Enrico; Boccaletti, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Integral field spectroscopy represents a powerful technique for the detection and characterization of extrasolar planets through high-contrast imaging since it allows us to obtain simultaneously a large number of monochromatic images. These can be used to calibrate and then to reduce the impact of speckles, once their chromatic dependence is taken into account. The main concern in designing integral field spectrographs for high-contrast imaging is the impact of the diffraction effects and the noncommon path aberrations together with an efficient use of the detector pixels. We focus our attention on integral field spectrographs based on lenslet arrays, discussing the main features of these designs: the conditions of appropriate spatial and spectral sampling of the resulting spectrograph's slit functions and their related cross-talk terms when the system works at the diffraction limit. We present a new scheme for the integral field unit based on a dual-lenslet device (BIGRE), that solves some of the problems related to the classical Traitement Integral des Galaxies par l'Etude de leurs Rays (TIGER) design when used for such applications. We show that BIGRE provides much lower cross-talk signals than TIGER, allowing a more efficient use of the detector pixels and a considerable saving of the overall cost of a lenslet-based integral field spectrograph.

  12. Multi-planar amorphous silicon photonics with compact interplanar couplers, cross talk mitigation, and low crossing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Chiles

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We propose and experimentally demonstrate a photonic routing architecture that can efficiently utilize the space of multi-plane (3D photonic integration. A wafer with three planes of amorphous silicon waveguides was fabricated and characterized, demonstrating < 3 × 1 0 − 4 dB loss per out-of-plane waveguide crossing, 0.05 ± 0.02 dB per interplane coupler, and microring resonators on three planes with a quality factors up to 8.2 × 1 0 4 . We also explore a phase velocity mapping strategy to mitigate the cross talk between co-propagating waveguides on different planes. These results expand the utility of 3D photonic integration for applications such as optical interconnects, neuromorphic computing and optical phased arrays.

  13. Two-stage cross-talk mitigation in an orbital-angular-momentum-based free-space optical communication system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Zhen; Djordjevic, Ivan B

    2017-08-15

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a two-stage cross-talk mitigation method in an orbital-angular-momentum (OAM)-based free-space optical communication system, which is enabled by combining spatial offset and low-density parity-check (LDPC) coded nonuniform signaling. Different from traditional OAM multiplexing, where the OAM modes are centrally aligned for copropagation, the adjacent OAM modes (OAM states 2 and -6 and OAM states -2 and 6) in our proposed scheme are spatially offset to mitigate the mode cross talk. Different from traditional rectangular modulation formats, which transmit equidistant signal points with uniform probability, the 5-quadrature amplitude modulation (5-QAM) and 9-QAM are introduced to relieve cross-talk-induced performance degradation. The 5-QAM and 9-QAM formats are based on the Huffman coding technique, which can potentially achieve great cross-talk tolerance by combining them with corresponding nonbinary LDPC codes. We demonstrate that cross talk can be reduced by 1.6 dB and 1 dB via spatial offset for OAM states ±2 and ±6, respectively. Compared to quadrature phase shift keying and 8-QAM formats, the LDPC-coded 5-QAM and 9-QAM are able to bring 1.1 dB and 5.4 dB performance improvements in the presence of atmospheric turbulence, respectively.

  14. Ethylene and Hormonal Cross Talk in Vegetative Growth and Development1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Poel, Bram; Smet, Dajo; Van Der Straeten, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Ethylene is a gaseous plant hormone that most likely became a functional hormone during the evolution of charophyte green algae, prior to land colonization. From this ancient origin, ethylene evolved into an important growth regulator that is essential for myriad plant developmental processes. In vegetative growth, ethylene appears to have a dual role, stimulating and inhibiting growth, depending on the species, tissue, and cell type, developmental stage, hormonal status, and environmental conditions. Moreover, ethylene signaling and response are part of an intricate network in cross talk with internal and external cues. Besides being a crucial factor in the growth control of roots and shoots, ethylene can promote flowering, fruit ripening and abscission, as well as leaf and petal senescence and abscission and, hence, plays a role in virtually every phase of plant life. Last but not least, together with jasmonates, salicylate, and abscisic acid, ethylene is important in steering stress responses. PMID:26232489

  15. SOCS2 mediates the cross talk between androgen and growth hormone signaling in prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iglesias Gato, Diego; Chuan, Yin Choy; Wikström, Pernilla

    2014-01-01

    ) as mediator of the cross talk between androgens and GH signals in the prostate and its potential role as tumor suppressor in prostate cancer (PCa). We observed that SOCS2 protein levels assayed by immunohistochemistry are elevated in hormone therapy-naive localized prostatic adenocarcinoma in comparison...... of transcription 5 protein (STAT5) and androgen receptor-dependent transcription. Consequentially, SOCS2 inhibits GH activation of Janus kinase 2, Src and STAT5 as well as both cell invasion and cell proliferation in vitro. In vivo, SOCS2 limits proliferation and production of IGF-1 in the prostate in response......Anabolic signals such as androgens and the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor 1 (GH/IGF-1) axis play an essential role in the normal development of the prostate but also in its malignant transformation. In this study, we investigated the role of suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 (SOCS2...

  16. ANALYSIS OF SEEING-INDUCED POLARIZATION CROSS-TALK AND MODULATION SCHEME PERFORMANCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casini, R.; De Wijn, A. G.; Judge, P. G.

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the generation of polarization cross-talk in Stokes polarimeters by atmospheric seeing, and its effects on the noise statistics of spectropolarimetric measurements for both single-beam and dual-beam instruments. We investigate the time evolution of seeing-induced correlations between different states of one modulation cycle and compare the response to these correlations of two popular polarization modulation schemes in a dual-beam system. Extension of the formalism to encompass an arbitrary number of modulation cycles enables us to compare our results with earlier work. Even though we discuss examples pertinent to solar physics, the general treatment of the subject and its fundamental results might be useful to a wider community.

  17. Inter-domain cross-talk controls the NifA protein activity of Herbaspirillum seropedicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, R A; de Souza, E M; Wassem, R; Yates, M G; Pedrosa, F O; Chubatsu, L S

    2001-11-09

    Herbaspirillum seropedicae is an endophytic diazotroph, which colonizes sugar cane, wheat, rice and maize. The activity of NifA, a transcriptional activator of nif genes in H. seropedicae, is controlled by ammonium ions through a mechanism involving its N-terminal domain. Here we show that this domain interacts specifically in vitro with the N-truncated NifA protein, as revealed by protection against proteolysis, and this interaction caused an inhibitory effect on both the ATPase and DNA-binding activities of the N-truncated NifA protein. We suggest that the N-terminal domain inhibits NifA-dependent transcriptional activation by an inter-domain cross-talk between the catalytic domain of the NifA protein and its regulatory N-terminal domain in response to fixed nitrogen.

  18. Brownian dynamics simulation of the cross-talking effect among modified histones on conformations of nucleosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Zhao-Wen; Li, Wei; Xie, Ping; Dou, Shuo-Xing; Wang, Peng-Ye

    2010-04-01

    Using Brownian dynamics simulation, we studied the effect of histone modifications on conformations of an array of nucleosomes in a segment of chromatin. The simulation demonstrated that the segment of chromatin shows the dynamic behaviour that its conformation can switch between a state with nearly all of the histones being wrapped by DNA and a state with nearly all of the histones being unwrapped by DNA, thus involving the “cross-talking" interactions among the histones. Each state can stay for a sufficiently long time. These conformational states are essential for gene expression or gene silence. The simulation also shows that these conformational states can be inherited by the daughter DNAs during DNA replication, giving a theoretical explanation of the epigenetic phenomenon.

  19. Allosteric cross-talk in chromatin can mediate drug-drug synergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhireksan, Zenita; Palermo, Giulia; Riedel, Tina; Ma, Zhujun; Muhammad, Reyhan; Rothlisberger, Ursula; Dyson, Paul J.; Davey, Curt A.

    2017-03-01

    Exploitation of drug-drug synergism and allostery could yield superior therapies by capitalizing on the immensely diverse, but highly specific, potential associated with the biological macromolecular landscape. Here we describe a drug-drug synergy mediated by allosteric cross-talk in chromatin, whereby the binding of one drug alters the activity of the second. We found two unrelated drugs, RAPTA-T and auranofin, that yield a synergistic activity in killing cancer cells, which coincides with a substantially greater number of chromatin adducts formed by one of the compounds when adducts from the other agent are also present. We show that this occurs through an allosteric mechanism within the nucleosome, whereby defined histone adducts of one drug promote reaction of the other drug at a distant, specific histone site. This opens up possibilities for epigenetic targeting and suggests that allosteric modulation in nucleosomes may have biological relevance and potential for therapeutic interventions.

  20. Atypical cross talk between mentalizing and mirror neuron networks in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Inna; Keown, Christopher L; Lincoln, Alan J; Pineda, Jaime A; Müller, Ralph-Axel

    2014-07-01

    Converging evidence indicates that brain abnormalities in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) involve atypical network connectivity, but it is unclear whether altered connectivity is especially prominent in brain networks that participate in social cognition. To investigate whether adolescents with ASD show altered functional connectivity in 2 brain networks putatively impaired in ASD and involved in social processing, theory of mind (ToM) and mirror neuron system (MNS). Cross-sectional study using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging involving 25 adolescents with ASD between the ages of 11 and 18 years and 25 typically developing adolescents matched for age, handedness, and nonverbal IQ. Statistical parametric maps testing the degree of whole-brain functional connectivity and social functioning measures. Relative to typically developing controls, participants with ASD showed a mixed pattern of both over- and underconnectivity in the ToM network, which was associated with greater social impairment. Increased connectivity in the ASD group was detected primarily between the regions of the MNS and ToM, and was correlated with sociocommunicative measures, suggesting that excessive ToM-MNS cross talk might be associated with social impairment. In a secondary analysis comparing a subset of the 15 participants with ASD with the most severe symptomology and a tightly matched subset of 15 typically developing controls, participants with ASD showed exclusive overconnectivity effects in both ToM and MNS networks, which were also associated with greater social dysfunction. Adolescents with ASD showed atypically increased functional connectivity involving the mentalizing and mirror neuron systems, largely reflecting greater cross talk between the 2. This finding is consistent with emerging evidence of reduced network segregation in ASD and challenges the prevailing theory of general long-distance underconnectivity in ASD. This excess ToM-MNS connectivity may reflect

  1. Cross-talk between Msx/Dlx homeobox genes and vitamin D during tooth mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lézot, F; Descroix, V; Mesbah, M; Hotton, D; Blin, C; Papagerakis, P; Mauro, N; Kato, S; MacDougall, M; Sharpe, P; Berdal, A

    2002-01-01

    Rickets is associated with site-specific disorders of enamel and dentin formation, which may reflect the impact of vitamin D on a morphogenetic pathway. This study is devoted to potential cross-talk between vitamin D and Msx/Dlx transcription factors. We raised the question of a potential link between tooth defects seen in mice with rickets and Msx2 gene misexpression, using mutant mice lacking the nuclear vitamin D receptor as an animal model. Our data showed a modulation of Msx2 expression. In order to search for a functional impact of this Msx2 misexpression secondary to rickets, we focused our attention on osteocalcin as a target gene for both vitamin D and Msx2. Combining Msx2 overexpression and vitamin D addition in vitro, we showed an inhibitory effect on osteocalcin expression in immortalized MO6-G3 odontoblasts. Finally, in the same cells, such combinations appeared to modulate VDR expression outlining the existence of complex cross-regulations between vitamin D and Msx/Dix pathways.

  2. Cannabinoid-hypocretin cross-talk in the central nervous system: what we know so far

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    África eFlores

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Emerging findings suggest the existence of a cross-talk between hypocretinergic and endocannabinoid systems. Although few studies have examined this relationship, the apparent overlap observed in the neuroanatomical distribution of both systems as well as their putative functions strongly point to the existence of such cross-modulation. In agreement, biochemical and functional studies have revealed the existence of heterodimers between CB1 cannabinoid receptor and hypocretin receptor-1, which modulates the cellular localization and downstream signalling of both receptors. Moreover, the activation of hypocretin receptor-1 stimulates the synthesis of 2-arachidonoyl glycerol culminating in the retrograde inhibition of neighbouring cells and suggesting that endocannabinoids could contribute to some hypocretin effects. Pharmacological data indicate that endocannabinoids and hypocretins might have common physiological functions in the regulation of appetite, reward and analgesia. In contrast, these neuromodulatory systems seem to play antagonistic roles in the regulation of sleep/wake cycle and anxiety-like responses. The present review attempts to piece together what is known about this interesting interaction and describe its potential therapeutic implications.

  3. Cannabinoid-hypocretin cross-talk in the central nervous system: what we know so far.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Africa; Maldonado, Rafael; Berrendero, Fernando

    2013-12-20

    Emerging findings suggest the existence of a cross-talk between hypocretinergic and endocannabinoid systems. Although few studies have examined this relationship, the apparent overlap observed in the neuroanatomical distribution of both systems as well as their putative functions strongly point to the existence of such cross-modulation. In agreement, biochemical and functional studies have revealed the existence of heterodimers between CB1 cannabinoid receptor and hypocretin receptor-1, which modulates the cellular localization and downstream signaling of both receptors. Moreover, the activation of hypocretin receptor-1 stimulates the synthesis of 2-arachidonoyl glycerol culminating in the retrograde inhibition of neighboring cells and suggesting that endocannabinoids could contribute to some hypocretin effects. Pharmacological data indicate that endocannabinoids and hypocretins might have common physiological functions in the regulation of appetite, reward and analgesia. In contrast, these neuromodulatory systems seem to play antagonistic roles in the regulation of sleep/wake cycle and anxiety-like responses. The present review attempts to piece together what is known about this interesting interaction and describes its potential therapeutic implications.

  4. Cross Talk Study to the Single Photon Response of a Flat Panel PMT for the RICH Upgrade at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Arnaboldi, C; Calvi, M; Fanchini, E; Gotti, C; Maino, M; Matteuzzi, C; Perego, D L; Pessina, G; Wang, J C

    2009-01-01

    The Ring Imaging CHerenkov, RICH, detector at LHCb is now readout by Hybrid Photon Detectors. In view of its upgrade a possible option is the adoption of the flat panel Photon Multipliers Tubes, PMT. An important issue for the good determination of the rings produced in the sensitive media is a negligible level of cross talk. We have experimentally studied the cross talk from the 64x64 pixels of the H9500 PMT from Hamamatsu. Results have shown that at the single photon signal level, as expected at LHCb, the statistics applied to the small number of electrons generated at the first dynode of the PMT chain leads to a cross talk mechanism that must be interpreted in term of the percentage of the number of induced signals rather than on the amplitude of the induced signals. The threshold to suppress cross talk must be increased to a significant fraction of the single photon signal for the worst case. The number of electrons generated at the first dynode is proportional to the biasing voltage. Measurements have sh...

  5. Cross talk in the Lambert-Beer calculation for near-infrared wavelengths estimated by Monte Carlo simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uludag, K; Kohl, M; Steinbrink, J; Obrig, H; Villringer, A

    2002-01-01

    Using the modified Lambert-Beer law to analyze attenuation changes measured noninvasively during functional activation of the brain might result in an insufficient separation of chromophore changes ("cross talk") due to the wavelength dependence of the partial path length of photons in the activated volume of the head. The partial path length was estimated by performing Monte Carlo simulations on layered head models. When assuming cortical activation (e.g., in the depth of 8-12 mm), we determine negligible cross talk when considering changes in oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin. But additionally taking changes in the redox state of cytochrome-c-oxidase into account, this analysis results in significant artifacts. An analysis developed for changes in mean time of flight--instead of changes in attenuation--reduces the cross talk for the layers of cortical activation. These results were validated for different oxygen saturations, wavelength combinations and scattering coefficients. For the analysis of changes in oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin only, low cross talk was also found when the activated volume was assumed to be a 4-mm-diam sphere.

  6. Pathogenicity Island Cross Talk Mediated by Recombination Directionality Factors Facilitates Excision from the Chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Megan R; Rozovsky, Sharon; Boyd, E Fidelma

    2015-12-14

    Pathogenicity islands (PAIs) are mobile integrated genetic elements (MIGEs) that contain a diverse range of virulence factors and are essential in the evolution of pathogenic bacteria. PAIs are widespread among bacteria and integrate into the host genome, commonly at a tRNA locus, via integrase-mediated site-specific recombination. The excision of PAIs is the first step in the horizontal transfer of these elements and is not well understood. In this study, we examined the role of recombination directionality factors (RDFs) and their relationship with integrases in the excision of two PAIs essential for Vibrio cholerae host colonization: Vibrio pathogenicity island 1 (VPI-1) and VPI-2. VPI-1 does not contain an RDF, which allowed us to answer the question of whether RDFs are an absolute requirement for excision. We found that an RDF was required for efficient excision of VPI-2 but not VPI-1 and that RDFs can induce excision of both islands. Expression data revealed that the RDFs act as transcriptional repressors to both VPI-1- and VPI-2-encoded integrases. We demonstrated that the RDFs Vibrio excision factor A (VefA) and VefB bind at the attachment sites (overlapping the int promoter region) of VPI-1 and VPI-2, thus supporting this mode of integrase repression. In addition, V. cholerae RDFs are promiscuous due to their dual functions of promoting excision of both VPI-1 and VPI-2 and acting as negative transcriptional regulators of the integrases. This is the first demonstration of cross talk between PAIs mediated via RDFs which reveals the complex interactions that occur between separately acquired MIGEs. Deciphering the mechanisms of pathogenicity island excision is necessary for understanding the evolution and spread of these elements to their nonpathogenic counterparts. Such mechanistic insight would assist in predicting the mobility of uncharacterized genetic elements. This study identified extensive RDF-mediated cross talk between two nonhomologous VPIs and

  7. Nitric oxide signaling and the cross talk with prostanoids pathways in vascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Bruno R; Paula, Tiago D; Paulo, Michele; Bendhack, Lusiane M

    2016-12-28

    This review provides an overview of the cellular signaling of nitric oxide (NO) and prostanoids in vascular cells and the possible cross talk between their pathways, mainly in hypertension, since the imbalance of these two systems has been attributed to development of some cardiovascular diseases. It also deals with the modulation of vasodilation induced by NO donors. NO is a well-known second messenger involved in many cellular functions. In the vascular system, the NO produced by endothelial NO-synthase (eNOS) or released by NO donors acts in vascular smooth muscle cells, the binding of NO to Fe2+-heme of soluble guanylyl-cyclase (sGC) activates sGC and the production of cyclic guanosine-3-5-monophosphate (cGMP). The second messenger (cGMP) activates protein kinase G and the signaling cascade, including K+ channels. Activation of K+ channels leads to cell membrane hyperpolarization and Ca2+ channels blockade, which induce vascular relaxation. Moreover, the enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX) is also an important regulator of the vascular function by prostanoids production such as thromboxane A2 (TXA2) and prostacyclin (PGI2), which classically induce contraction and relaxation, respectively. Additionaly, studies indicate that the activity of both enzymes can be modulated by their products and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension. The interaction of NO with cellular molecules, particularly the reaction of NO with ROS, determines the biological mechanisms of action and short half-life of NO. We have been working on the vascular effects of ruthenium-derived complexes that release NO. Our research group has published works on the vasodilating effects of ruthenium-derived NO donors and the mechanisms of vascular cells involved in the relaxation of the vascular smooth muscle in health and hypertensive rats. In our previous studies, we have compared the new NO donors synthesized by our group to SNP. It shows the cellular signaling of NO

  8. HMGB1-dependent triggering of HIV-1 replication and persistence in dendritic cells as a consequence of NK-DC cross-talk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héla Saïdi

    Full Text Available HIV-1 has evolved ways to exploit DCs, thereby facilitating viral dissemination and allowing evasion of antiviral immunity. Recently, the fate of DCs has been found to be extremely dependent on the interaction with autologous NK cells, but the mechanisms by which NK-DC interaction controls viral infections remain unclear. Here, we investigate the impact of NK-DC cross-talk on maturation and functions of HIV-infected immature DCs.Immature DCs were derived from primary monocytes, cultured in the presence of IL-4 and GM-CSF. In some experiments, DCs were infected with R5-HIV-1(BaL or X4-HIV-1(NDK, and viral replication, proviral HIV-DNA and the frequency of infected DCs were measured. Autologous NK cells were sorted and either kept unstimulated in the presence of suboptimal concentration of IL-2, or activated by a combination of PHA and IL-2. The impact of 24 h NK-DC cross-talk on the fate of HIV-1-infected DCs was analyzed. We report that activated NK cells were required for the induction of maturation of DCs, whether uninfected or HIV-1-infected, and this process involved HMGB1. However, the cross-talk between HIV-1-infected DCs and activated NK cells was functionally defective, as demonstrated by the strong impairment of DCs to induce Th1 polarization of naïve CD4 T cells. This was associated with the defective production of IL-12 and IL-18 by infected DCs. Moreover, the crosstalk between activated NK cells and HIV-infected DCs resulted in a dramatic increase in viral replication and proviral DNA expression in DCs. HMGB1, produced both by NK cells and DCs, was found to play a pivotal role in this process, and inhibition of HMGB1 activity by glycyrrhizin, known to bind specifically to HMGB1, or blocking anti-HMGB1 antibodies, abrogated NK-dependent HIV-1 replication in DCs.These observations provide evidence for the crucial role of NK-DC cross-talk in promoting viral dissemination, and challenge the question of the in vivo involvement of HMGB1

  9. Medical education in India: Time to encourage cross-talk between different streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishor Patwardhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, India recognizes five different healthcare systems, collectively known as AYUSH (Ayurveda, Yoga, Unani, Siddha, Homeopathy, along with the conventional biomedicine. These systems have their own institutionalized structure for monitoring medical education and practice. However, because of the ′parallel′ kind of policy model that is followed in India, there is no formal provision for any cross-talk between the professionals belonging to these different streams. This situation has not only given rise to mutual misgivings among these professionals regarding the strengths and weaknesses of each other, but also has led to a poor appreciation of the historical and socio-cultural connections these streams share with the community at large. To tackle these issues and to promote adequate participation of biomedicine experts in AYUSH-related research projects, ′introduction of an AYUSH module in the current curriculum of MBBS (Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery program′ has been proposed in this communication along with a possible roadmap for its implementation. It is also suggested that the experts in biomedicine be engaged for training AYUSH graduates in their respective specialties so that quality AYUSH education may be ensured.

  10. Regulatory cross-talks and cascades in rice hormone biosynthesis pathways contribute to stress signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arindam Deb

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Crosstalk among different hormone signaling pathways play an important role in modulating plant response to both biotic and abiotic stress. Hormone activity is controlled by its bio-availability, which is again influenced by its biosynthesis. Thus independent hormone biosynthesis pathways must be regulated and co-ordinated to mount an integrated response. One of the possibilities is to use cis-regulatory elements to orchestrate expression of hormone biosynthesis genes. Analysis of CREs, associated with differentially expressed hormone biosynthesis related genes in rice leaf under Magnaporthe oryzae attack and drought stress enabled us to obtain insights about cross-talk among hormone biosynthesis pathways at the transcriptional level. We identified some master transcription regulators that co-ordinate different hormone biosynthesis pathways under stress. We found that Abscisic acid and Brassinosteroid regulate Cytokinin conjugation; conversely Brassinosteroid biosynthesis is affected by both Abscisic acid and Cytokinin. Jasmonic acid and Ethylene biosynthesis may be modulated by Abscisic acid through DREB transcription factors. Jasmonic acid or Salicylic acid biosynthesis pathways are co-regulated but they are unlikely to influence each other’s production directly. Thus multiple hormones may modulate hormone biosynthesis pathways through a complex regulatory network, where biosynthesis of one hormone is affected by several other contributing hormones.

  11. Exploring the cross talk between ER stress and inflammation in age-related macular degeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Kheitan

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence demonstrates that inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress is implicated in the development and progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD, a multifactorial neurodegenerative disease. However the cross talk between these cellular mechanisms has not been clearly and fully understood. The present study investigates a possible intersection between ER stress and inflammation in AMD. In this study, we recruited two collections of involved protein markers to retrieve their interaction information from IMEx-curated databases, which are the most well- known protein-protein interaction collections, allowing us to design an intersection network for AMD that is unprecedented. In order to find expression activated subnetworks, we utilized AMD expression profiles in our network. In addition, we studied topological characteristics of the most expressed active subnetworks to identify the hubs. With regard to topological quantifications and expressional activity, we reported a list of the most pivotal hubs which are potentially applicable as probable therapeutic targets. Furthermore, we introduced MAPK signaling pathway as a significantly involved pathway in the association between ER stress and inflammation, leading to promising new directions in discovering AMD formation mechanisms and possible treatments.

  12. Exploring the cross talk between ER stress and inflammation in age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheitan, Samira; Minuchehr, Zarrin; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila

    2017-01-01

    Increasing evidence demonstrates that inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is implicated in the development and progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a multifactorial neurodegenerative disease. However the cross talk between these cellular mechanisms has not been clearly and fully understood. The present study investigates a possible intersection between ER stress and inflammation in AMD. In this study, we recruited two collections of involved protein markers to retrieve their interaction information from IMEx-curated databases, which are the most well- known protein-protein interaction collections, allowing us to design an intersection network for AMD that is unprecedented. In order to find expression activated subnetworks, we utilized AMD expression profiles in our network. In addition, we studied topological characteristics of the most expressed active subnetworks to identify the hubs. With regard to topological quantifications and expressional activity, we reported a list of the most pivotal hubs which are potentially applicable as probable therapeutic targets. Furthermore, we introduced MAPK signaling pathway as a significantly involved pathway in the association between ER stress and inflammation, leading to promising new directions in discovering AMD formation mechanisms and possible treatments.

  13. The cell pole: the site of cross talk between the DNA uptake and genetic recombination machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidane, Dawit; Ayora, Silvia; Sweasy, Joann B; Graumann, Peter L; Alonso, Juan C

    2012-01-01

    Natural transformation is a programmed mechanism characterized by binding of free double-stranded (ds) DNA from the environment to the cell pole in rod-shaped bacteria. In Bacillus subtilis some competence proteins, which process the dsDNA and translocate single-stranded (ss) DNA into the cytosol, recruit a set of recombination proteins mainly to one of the cell poles. A subset of single-stranded binding proteins, working as "guardians", protects ssDNA from degradation and limit the RecA recombinase loading. Then, the "mediators" overcome the inhibitory role of guardians, and recruit RecA onto ssDNA. A RecA·ssDNA filament searches for homology on the chromosome and, in a process that is controlled by "modulators", catalyzes strand invasion with the generation of a displacement loop (D-loop). A D-loop resolvase or "resolver" cleaves this intermediate, limited DNA replication restores missing information and a DNA ligase seals the DNA ends. However, if any step fails, the "rescuers" will repair the broken end to rescue chromosomal transformation. If the ssDNA does not share homology with resident DNA, but it contains information for autonomous replication, guardian and mediator proteins catalyze plasmid establishment after inhibition of RecA. DNA replication and ligation reconstitute the molecule (plasmid transformation). In this review, the interacting network that leads to a cross talk between proteins of the uptake and genetic recombination machinery will be placed into prospective.

  14. Estimation of cross talk between lungs and liver for 241Am using phoswich detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Lokpati; Nadar, Minal Y.; Singh, I.S.; Sawant, P.D.

    2018-01-01

    241 Am is used as a tracer for in-vivo assessment of plutonium (Pu) in the lungs. Internal contamination of 241 Am is estimated by measuring its 59.5 keV photons then activity of Pu is estimated by applying Pu/ 241 Am ratio obtained from radiochemical analysis of fecal/workplace sample. According to ICRP systemic bio-kinetic model, for Type M compounds of 241 Am after 100 days post inhalation intake, 241 Am activity in liver exceeds 241 Am activity present in the lungs and goes on increasing even up to about ten years. In this work, cross talk (CT) between lungs and liver viz. CT (liver to lungs) and CT (lungs to liver) for the actinide monitoring system for 241 Am using realistic thorax Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) phantom were estimated. Also CT has been estimated using voxel phantom by carrying out Monte Carlo simulations in FLUKA code. This study will help in reporting the actual activity present in the individual organ (lungs, liver)

  15. Disruption of astrocyte-neuron cholesterol cross talk affects neuronal function in Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, M; Marullo, M; Di Paolo, E; Cesana, E; Zuccato, C; Biella, G; Cattaneo, E

    2015-04-01

    In the adult brain, neurons require local cholesterol production, which is supplied by astrocytes through apoE-containing lipoproteins. In Huntington's disease (HD), such cholesterol biosynthesis in the brain is severely reduced. Here we show that this defect, occurring in astrocytes, is detrimental for HD neurons. Astrocytes bearing the huntingtin protein containing increasing CAG repeats secreted less apoE-lipoprotein-bound cholesterol in the medium. Conditioned media from HD astrocytes and lipoprotein-depleted conditioned media from wild-type (wt) astrocytes were equally detrimental in a neurite outgrowth assay and did not support synaptic activity in HD neurons, compared with conditions of cholesterol supplementation or conditioned media from wt astrocytes. Molecular perturbation of cholesterol biosynthesis and efflux in astrocytes caused similarly altered astrocyte-neuron cross talk, whereas enhancement of glial SREBP2 and ABCA1 function reversed the aspects of neuronal dysfunction in HD. These findings indicate that astrocyte-mediated cholesterol homeostasis could be a potential therapeutic target to ameliorate neuronal dysfunction in HD.

  16. Natural variation in cross-talk between glucosinolates and onset of flowering in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea Møller Jensen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Naturally variable regulatory networks control different biological processes including reproduction and defense. This variation within regulatory networks enables plants to optimize defense and reproduction in different environments. In this study we investigate the ability of two enzyme-encoding genes in the glucosinolate pathway, AOP2 and AOP3¸ to affect glucosinolate accumulation and flowering time. We have introduced the two highly similar enzymes into two different AOPnull accessions, Col-0 and Cph-0, and found that the genes differ in their ability to affect glucosinolate levels and flowering time across the accessions. This indicated that the different glucosinolates produced by AOP2 and AOP3 serve specific regulatory roles in controlling these phenotypes. While the changes in glucosinolate levels were similar in both accessions, the effect on flowering time was dependent on the genetic background pointing to natural variation in cross-talk between defense chemistry and onset of flowering. This variation likely reflects an adaptation to survival in different environments.

  17. Osteopontin regulates the cross-talk between phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol metabolism in mouse liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuñez-Garcia, Maitane; Gomez-Santos, Beatriz; Buqué, Xabier; García-Rodriguez, Juan L; Romero, Marta R; Marin, Jose J G; Arteta, Beatriz; García-Monzón, Carmelo; Castaño, Luis; Syn, Wing-Kin; Fresnedo, Olatz; Aspichueta, Patricia

    2017-09-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is involved in different liver pathologies in which metabolic dysregulation is a hallmark. Here, we investigated whether OPN could alter liver, and more specifically hepatocyte, lipid metabolism and the mechanism involved. In mice, lack of OPN enhanced cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) levels and promoted loss of phosphatidylcholine (PC) content in liver; in vivo treatment with recombinant (r)OPN caused opposite effects. rOPN directly decreased CYP7A1 levels through activation of focal adhesion kinase-AKT signaling in hepatocytes. PC content was also decreased in OPN-deficient (OPN-KO) hepatocytes in which de novo FA and PC synthesis was lower, whereas cholesterol (CHOL) synthesis was higher, than in WT hepatocytes. In vivo inhibition of cholesterogenesis normalized liver PC content in OPN-KO mice, demonstrating that OPN regulates the cross-talk between liver CHOL and PC metabolism. Matched liver and serum samples showed a positive correlation between serum OPN levels and liver PC and CHOL concentration in nonobese patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver. In conclusion, OPN regulates CYP7A1 levels and the metabolic fate of liver acetyl-CoA as a result of CHOL and PC metabolism interplay. The results suggest that CYP7A1 is a main axis and that serum OPN could disrupt liver PC and CHOL metabolism, contributing to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease progression in nonobese patients.

  18. Genetic-and-epigenetic Interspecies Networks for Cross-talk Mechanisms in Human Macrophages and Dendritic Cells During MTB Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Wei Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb infection. Mtb is one of the oldest human pathogens, and evolves mechanisms implied in human evolution. The lungs are the first organ exposed to aerosol-transmitted Mtb during gaseous exchange. Therefore, the guards of the immune system in the lungs, such as macrophages (Mϕs and dendritic cells (DCs, are the most important defense against Mtb infection. There have been several studies discussing the functions of Mϕs and DCs during Mtb infection, but the genome-wide pathways and networks are still incomplete. Furthermore, the immune response induced by Mϕs and DCs varies. Therefore, we analyzed the cross-talk genome-wide genetic-and-epigenetic interspecies networks (GWGEINs between Mϕs vs. Mtb and DCs vs. Mtb to determine the varying mechanisms of both the host and pathogen as it relates to Mϕs and DCs during early Mtb infection.First, we performed database mining to construct candidate cross-talk GWGEIN between human cells and Mtb. Then we constructed dynamic models to characterize the molecular mechanisms, including intraspecies gene/microRNA (miRNA regulation networks (GRNs, intraspecies protein-protein interaction networks (PPINs, and the interspecies PPIN of the cross-talk GWGEIN. We applied a system identification method and a system order detection scheme to dynamic models to identify the real cross-talk GWGEINs using the microarray data of Mϕs, DCs and Mtb.After identifying the real cross-talk GWGEINs, the principal network projection (PNP method was employed to construct host-pathogen core networks (HPCNs between Mϕs vs. Mtb and DCs vs. Mtb during infection process. Thus, we investigated the underlying cross-talk mechanisms between the host and the pathogen to determine how the pathogen counteracts host defense mechanisms in Mϕs and DCs during Mtb H37Rv early infection. Based on our findings, we propose Rv1675c as a potential drug target because of its important defensive

  19. HIF-1α inhibition blocks the cross talk between multiple myeloma plasma cells and tumor microenvironment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borsi, Enrica, E-mail: enrica.borsi2@unibo.it [Department of Experimental Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine (DIMES), “L. and A. Seràgnoli”, Bologna University School of Medicine, S. Orsola' s University Hospital (Italy); Perrone, Giulia [Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Hematology Department, Via Venezian 1, 20133 Milano (Italy); Terragna, Carolina; Martello, Marina; Zamagni, Elena; Tacchetti, Paola; Pantani, Lucia; Brioli, Annamaria; Dico, Angela Flores; Zannetti, Beatrice Anna; Rocchi, Serena; Cavo, Michele [Department of Experimental Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine (DIMES), “L. and A. Seràgnoli”, Bologna University School of Medicine, S. Orsola' s University Hospital (Italy)

    2014-11-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant disorder of post-germinal center B cells, characterized by the clonal proliferation of malignant plasma cells (PCs) within the bone marrow (BM). The reciprocal and complex interactions that take place between the different compartments of BM and the MM cells result in tumor growth, angiogenesis, bone disease, and drug resistance. Given the importance of the BM microenvironment in MM pathogenesis, we investigated the possible involvement of Hypoxia-Inducible transcription Factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) in the PCs-bone marrow stromal cells interplay. To test this hypothesis, we used EZN-2968, a 3rd generation antisense oligonucleotide against HIF-1α, to inhibit HIF-1α functions. Herein, we provide evidence that the interaction between MM cells and BM stromal cells is drastically reduced upon HIF-1α down-modulation. Notably, we showed that upon exposure to HIF-1α inhibitor, neither the incubation with IL-6 nor the co-culture with BM stromal cells were able to revert the anti-proliferative effect induced by EZN-2968. Moreover, we observed a down-modulation of cytokine-induced signaling cascades and a reduction of MM cells adhesion capability to the extracellular matrix proteins in EZN-2968-treated samples. Taken together, these results strongly support the concept that HIF-1α plays a critical role in the interactions between bone BM cells and PCs in Multiple Myeloma. - Highlights: • HIF-1α inhibition induces a mild apoptotic cell death. • Down-modulation of cytokine-induced signaling cascades upon HIF-1α inhibition. • Reduced interaction between MM cells and BMSCs upon HIF-1α down-modulation. • Reduced PCs adhesion to the extracellular matrix protein induced by EZN-2968. • HIF-1α inhibition may be an attractive therapeutic strategy for Multiple Myeloma.

  20. Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD as a Systemic Disease: Whole Body Autoregulation and Inter-Organ Cross-Talk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmine Zoccali

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The inter-organ cross-talk and the functional integration of organ systems is an exceedingly complex process which until now has been investigated with a reductionist approach. CKD perturbs the inter-organ cross-talk and demands central resetting of autonomic (nervous control of organ systems. Due to limitations inherent to the reductionist approach, we currently identify CKD-related pseudo-syndromes and largely fail at describing the complex systemic inter-relationships set into motion by renal damage and renal dysfunction. A mature technology for a system-analysis approach to physiology and pathophysiology of CKD now exists. System biology will allow in depth understanding of complex diseases like CKD and will set the stage for predictive, preventive and personalized medicine, a long-standing dream of doctors and patients alike.

  1. Spatio-energetic cross talk in photon counting detectors: Detector model and correlated Poisson data generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Katsuyuki; Polster, Christoph; Lee, Okkyun; Stierstorfer, Karl; Kappler, Steffen

    2016-12-01

    An x-ray photon interacts with photon counting detectors (PCDs) and generates an electron charge cloud or multiple clouds. The clouds (thus, the photon energy) may be split between two adjacent PCD pixels when the interaction occurs near pixel boundaries, producing a count at both of the pixels. This is called double-counting with charge sharing. (A photoelectric effect with K-shell fluorescence x-ray emission would result in double-counting as well). As a result, PCD data are spatially and energetically correlated, although the output of individual PCD pixels is Poisson distributed. Major problems include the lack of a detector noise model for the spatio-energetic cross talk and lack of a computationally efficient simulation tool for generating correlated Poisson data. A Monte Carlo (MC) simulation can accurately simulate these phenomena and produce noisy data; however, it is not computationally efficient. In this study, the authors developed a new detector model and implemented it in an efficient software simulator that uses a Poisson random number generator to produce correlated noisy integer counts. The detector model takes the following effects into account: (1) detection efficiency; (2) incomplete charge collection and ballistic effect; (3) interaction with PCDs via photoelectric effect (with or without K-shell fluorescence x-ray emission, which may escape from the PCDs or be reabsorbed); and (4) electronic noise. The correlation was modeled by using these two simplifying assumptions: energy conservation and mutual exclusiveness. The mutual exclusiveness is that no more than two pixels measure energy from one photon. The effect of model parameters has been studied and results were compared with MC simulations. The agreement, with respect to the spectrum, was evaluated using the reduced χ 2 statistics or a weighted sum of squared errors, χ red 2 (≥1), where χ red 2 =1 indicates a perfect fit. The model produced spectra with flat field irradiation that

  2. Cross-talk-free simultaneous fluoroimmunoassay of two biomarkers based on dual-color quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao Zhijuan; Li Huan [School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, 826 Zhangheng Road, Shanghai 201203 (China); Lau Choiwan, E-mail: cyliu@shmu.edu.cn [School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, 826 Zhangheng Road, Shanghai 201203 (China); Zhang Yuhao, E-mail: zhang.yuhao@zs-hospital.sh.cn [Department of Neurology, Zhongshan Hospital, 180 Fenglin Road, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2011-07-18

    Highlights: {yields} A new cross-talk-free duplex fluoroimmunoassay for cancer related biomarkers was developed using multiple QD as detection elements with the LOD of 0.625 ng/mL. {yields} A fast homogeneous immunoreaction as well as a simple heterogeneous separation process was achieved by the coupling of the submicrometer-sized polystyrene microspheres as the carrier and the 96-well filter plate as the reaction and separation container. {yields} This new approach could also be extended to detect other biomarkers relating to other cancers, such as alpha fetoprotein and prostate specific antigen associated with liver cancer and prostrate cancer, etc. - Abstract: In this article, we demonstrate the fabrication and simultaneous fluorescent detection of two biomarkers related to lung cancer. Polystyrene microspheres (PSM) were introduced as biomolecular immobilizing carriers and a 96-well filter plate was used as the separation platform. The whole experiment could be effectively carried out in a homogeneous system, as exemplified by the detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and neuron specific enolase (NSE). First, two capture antibodies for CEA and NSE were immobilized on the PSM surface. Next, they reacted successively with two antigens and two modified detection antibodies. Finally, these two biomarkers could be recognized by streptavidin-conjugated quantum dots (QD) and goat-anti-FITC conjugated QD with a detection limit of 0.625 ng mL{sup -1}, which was lower than the clinical cut-off level. The protocol showed good precision within 6.36% and good recovery in the range of 90.86-105.02%. Compared with several other assay formats reported previously, our new technique is competitive or even better. Furthermore, the immunosensor was successfully illustrated in 20 serum samples. Overall, this new immunoassay offers a promising alternative for the detection of biomarkers related to cancer diseases, taking advantage of simplicity, specificity, sensitivity and

  3. Asymmetrical cross-talk between the endoplasmic reticulum stress and oxidative stress caused by dextrose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooradian, Arshag D; Onstead-Haas, Luisa; Haas, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stresses are implicated in premature cardiovascular disease in people with diabetes. The aim of the present study was to characterize the nature of the interplay between the oxidative and ER stresses to facilitate the development of therapeutic agents that can ameliorate these stresses. Human coronary artery endothelial cells were treated with varying concentrations of dextrose in the presence or absence of three antioxidants (alpha tocopherol, ascorbate and ebselen) and two ER stress modifiers (ERSMs) (4-phenylbutyrate and taurodeoxycholic acid). ER stress was measured using the placental alkaline phosphatase assay and superoxide (SO) generation was measured using the superoxide-reactive probe 2-methyl-6-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3,7-dihydroimidazo[1,2-A]pyrazin-3-one hydrochloride chemiluminescence. The SO generation was increased with increasing concentrations of dextrose. The ER stress was increased with both low (0 and 2.75 mM) and high (13.75 and 27.5 mM) concentrations of dextrose. The antioxidants inhibited the dextrose induced SO production while in high concentrations they aggravated ER stress. The ERSM reduced ER stress and potentiated the efficacy of the three antioxidants. Tunicamycin-induced ER stress was not associated with increased SO generation. Time course experiments with a high concentration of dextrose or by overexpressing glucose transporter one in endothelial cells revealed that dextrose induced SO generation undergoes adaptive down regulation within 2 h while the ER stress is sustained throughout 72 h of observation. The nature of the cross talk between oxidative stress and ER stress induced by dextrose may explain the failure of antioxidant therapy in reducing diabetes complications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Regulatory cross-talk links Vibrio cholerae chromosome II replication and segregation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiharu Yamaichi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available There is little knowledge of factors and mechanisms for coordinating bacterial chromosome replication and segregation. Previous studies have revealed that genes (and their products that surround the origin of replication (oriCII of Vibrio cholerae chromosome II (chrII are critical for controlling the replication and segregation of this chromosome. rctB, which flanks one side of oriCII, encodes a protein that initiates chrII replication; rctA, which flanks the other side of oriCII, inhibits rctB activity. The chrII parAB2 operon, which is essential for chrII partitioning, is located immediately downstream of rctA. Here, we explored how rctA exerts negative control over chrII replication. Our observations suggest that RctB has at least two DNA binding domains--one for binding to oriCII and initiating replication and the other for binding to rctA and thereby inhibiting RctB's ability to initiate replication. Notably, the inhibitory effect of rctA could be alleviated by binding of ParB2 to a centromere-like parS site within rctA. Furthermore, by binding to rctA, ParB2 and RctB inversely regulate expression of the parAB2 genes. Together, our findings suggest that fluctuations in binding of the partitioning protein ParB2 and the chrII initiator RctB to rctA underlie a regulatory network controlling both oriCII firing and the production of the essential chrII partitioning proteins. Thus, by binding both RctB and ParB2, rctA serves as a nexus for regulatory cross-talk coordinating chrII replication and segregation.

  5. Intergenomic evolution and metabolic cross-talk between rumen and thermophilic autotrophic methanogenic archaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharathi, M; Chellapandi, P

    2017-02-01

    Methanobrevibacter ruminantium M1 (MRU) is a rumen methanogenic archaean that can be able to utilize formate and CO 2 /H 2 as growth substrates. Extensive analysis on the evolutionary genomic contexts considered herein to unravel its intergenomic relationship and metabolic adjustment acquired from the genomic content of Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus ΔH. We demonstrated its intergenomic distance, genome function, synteny homologs and gene families, origin of replication, and methanogenesis to reveal the evolutionary relationships between Methanobrevibacter and Methanothermobacter. Comparison of the phylogenetic and metabolic markers was suggested for its archaeal metabolic core lineage that might have evolved from Methanothermobacter. Orthologous genes involved in its hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis might be acquired from intergenomic ancestry of Methanothermobacter via Methanobacterium formicicum. Formate dehydrogenase (fdhAB) coding gene cluster and carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (cooF) coding gene might have evolved from duplication events within Methanobrevibacter-Methanothermobacter lineage, and fdhCD gene cluster acquired from bacterial origins. Genome-wide metabolic survey found the existence of four novel pathways viz. l-tyrosine catabolism, mevalonate pathway II, acyl-carrier protein metabolism II and glutathione redox reactions II in MRU. Finding of these pathways suggested that MRU has shown a metabolic potential to tolerate molecular oxygen, antimicrobial metabolite biosynthesis and atypical lipid composition in cell wall, which was acquainted by metabolic cross-talk with mammalian bacterial origins. We conclude that coevolution of genomic contents between Methanobrevibacter and Methanothermobacter provides a clue to understand the metabolic adaptation of MRU in the rumen at different environmental niches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. EMMPRIN/CD147 deficiency disturbs ameloblast-odontoblast cross-talk and delays enamel mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaddam, Mayssam; Huet, Eric; Vallée, Benoît; Bensidhoum, Morad; Le Denmat, Dominique; Filatova, Anna; Jimenez-Rojo, Lucia; Ribes, Sandy; Lorenz, Georg; Morawietz, Maria; Rochefort, Gael Y; Kiesow, Andreas; Mitsiadis, Thimios A; Poliard, Anne; Petzold, Matthias; Gabison, Eric E; Menashi, Suzanne; Chaussain, Catherine

    2014-09-01

    Tooth development is regulated by a series of reciprocal inductive signaling between the dental epithelium and mesenchyme, which culminates with the formation of dentin and enamel. EMMPRIN/CD147 is an Extracellular Matrix MetalloPRoteinase (MMP) INducer that mediates epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in cancer and other pathological processes and is expressed in developing teeth. Here we used EMMPRIN knockout (KO) mice to determine the functional role of EMMPRIN on dental tissue formation. We report a delay in enamel deposition and formation that is clearly distinguishable in the growing incisor and associated with a significant reduction of MMP-3 and MMP-20 expression in tooth germs of KO mice. Insufficient basement membrane degradation is evidenced by a persistent laminin immunostaining, resulting in a delay of both odontoblast and ameloblast differentiation. Consequently, enamel volume and thickness are decreased in adult mutant teeth but enamel maturation and tooth morphology are normal, as shown by micro-computed tomographic (micro-CT), nanoindentation, and scanning electron microscope analyses. In addition, the dentino-enamel junction appears as a rough calcified layer of approximately 10±5μm thick (mean±SD) in both molars and growing incisors of KO adult mice. These results indicate that EMMPRIN is involved in the epithelial-mesenchymal cross-talk during tooth development by regulating the expression of MMPs. The mild tooth phenotype observed in EMMPRIN KO mice suggests that the direct effect of EMMPRIN may be limited to a short time window, comprised between basement membrane degradation allowing direct cell contact and calcified matrix deposition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cross-talk between neurons and astrocytes in response to bilirubin: adverse secondary impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcão, Ana Sofia; Silva, Rui F M; Vaz, Ana Rita; Gomes, Cátia; Fernandes, Adelaide; Barateiro, Andreia; Tiribelli, Claudio; Brites, Dora

    2014-07-01

    Previous studies using monotypic nerve cell cultures have shown that bilirubin-induced neurological dysfunction (BIND) involves apoptosis and necrosis-like cell death, following neuritic atrophy and astrocyte activation,and that glycoursodeoxycholic acid (GUDCA) has therapeutic efficacy against BIND. Cross-talk between neurons and astrocytes may protect or aggravate neurotoxicity by unconjugated bilirubin (UCB). In a previous work we have shown that bidirectional signaling during astrocyte-neuron recognition attenuates neuronal damage by UCB. Here, we investigated whether the establishment of neuron-astrocyte homeostasis prior to cell exposure to UCB was instead associated with a lower resistance of neurons to UCB toxicity, and if the pro-survival properties of GUDCA were replicated in that experimental model. We have introduced a 24 h adaptation period for neuron-glia communication prior to the 48 h treatment with UCB. In such conditions, UCB induced glial activation, which aggravated neuronal damage, comprising increased apoptosis,cell demise and neuritic atrophy, which were completely prevented in the presence of GUDCA. Neuronal multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 expression and tumor necrosis factor-a secretion, although unchanged by UCB, increased in the presence of astrocytes. The rise in S100B and nitric oxide in the co-cultures medium may have contributed to UCB neurotoxicity. Since the levels of these diffusible molecules did not change by GUDCA we may assume that they are not directly involved in its beneficial effects. Data indicate that astrocytes, in an indirect neuron-astrocyte co-culture model and after homeostatic setting regulation of the system, are critically influencing neurodegeneration by UCB, and support GUDCA for the prevention of BIND.

  8. CCL5–Glutamate Cross-Talk in Astrocyte-Neuron Communication in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pittaluga

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The immune system (IS and the central nervous system (CNS are functionally coupled, and a large number of endogenous molecules (i.e., the chemokines for the IS and the classic neurotransmitters for the CNS are shared in common between the two systems. These interactions are key elements for the elucidation of the pathogenesis of central inflammatory diseases. In recent years, evidence has been provided supporting the role of chemokines as modulators of central neurotransmission. It is the case of the chemokines CCL2 and CXCL12 that control pre- and/or post-synaptically the chemical transmission. This article aims to review the functional cross-talk linking another endogenous pro-inflammatory factor released by glial cells, i.e., the chemokine Regulated upon Activation Normal T-cell Expressed and Secreted (CCL5 and the principal neurotransmitter in CNS (i.e., glutamate in physiological and pathological conditions. In particular, the review discusses preclinical data concerning the role of CCL5 as a modulator of central glutamatergic transmission in healthy and demyelinating disorders. The CCL5-mediated control of glutamate release at chemical synapses could be relevant either to the onset of psychiatric symptoms that often accompany the development of multiple sclerosis (MS, but also it might indirectly give a rationale for the progression of inflammation and demyelination. The impact of disease-modifying therapies for the cure of MS on the endogenous availability of CCL5 in CNS will be also summarized. We apologize in advance for omission in our coverage of the existing literature.

  9. Shutdown dose rates at ITER equatorial ports considering radiation cross-talk from torus cryopump lower port

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juárez, Rafael, E-mail: rjuarez@ind.uned.es [Departamento de Ingeniería Energética, ETSII-UNED, Calle Juan del Rosal 12, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Pampin, Raul [F4E, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, Josep Pla 2, Barcelona 08019 (Spain); Levesy, Bruno [ITER Organization, 13115 Route de Vinon sur Verdon, St Paul Lez Durance (France); Moro, Fabio [ENEA, Via Enrico Fermi 45, Frascati, Rome (Italy); Suarez, Alejandro [ITER Organization, 13115 Route de Vinon sur Verdon, St Paul Lez Durance (France); Sanz, Javier [Departamento de Ingeniería Energética, ETSII-UNED, Calle Juan del Rosal 12, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2015-11-15

    Shutdown dose rates for planned maintenance purposes is an active research field in ITER. In this work the radiation (neutron and gamma) cross-talk between ports in the most conservative case foreseen in ITER is investigated: the presence of a torus cryopump lower port, mostly empty for pumping efficiency reasons. There will be six of those ports: #4, #6, #10, #12, #16 and #18. The equatorial ports placed above them will receive a significant amount of additional radiation affecting the shutdown dose rates during in situ maintenance activities inside the cryostat, and particularly in the port interspace area. In this study a general situation to all the equatorial ports placed above torus cryopump lower ports is considered: a generic diagnostics equatorial port placed above the torus cryopump lower port (LP#4). In terms of shutdown dose rates at equatorial port interspace after 10{sup 6} s of cooling time, 405 μSv/h has been obtained, of which 160 μSv/h (40%) are exclusively due to radiation cross-talk from a torus cryopump lower port. Equatorial port activation due to only “local neutrons” contributes 166 μSv/h at port interspace, showing that radiation cross-talk from such a lower port is a phenomenon comparable in magnitude to the neutron leakage though the equatorial port plug.

  10. Cross-talk between the NR3B and NR4A families of orphan nuclear receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lammi, Johanna; Rajalin, Ann-Marie; Huppunen, Johanna; Aarnisalo, Piia

    2007-01-01

    Estrogen-related receptors (NR3B family) and Nurr1, NGFI-B, and Nor1 (NR4A family) are orphan nuclear receptors lacking identified natural ligands. The mechanisms regulating their transcriptional activities have remained elusive. We have previously observed that the members of NR3B and NR4A families are coexpressed in certain cell types such as osteoblasts and that the ability of Nurr1 to transactivate the osteopontin promoter is repressed by ERRs. We have now studied the cross-talk between NR3B and NR4A receptors. We show that NR3B and NR4A receptors mutually repress each others' transcriptional activity. The repression involves intact DNA-binding domains and dimerization interfaces but does not result from competition for DNA binding or from heterodimerization. The activation functions of NR3B and NR4A receptors are dispensable for the cross-talk. In conclusion, we report that cross-talk between NR3B and NR4A receptors is a mechanism modulating the transcriptional activities of these orphan nuclear receptors

  11. A Signal Coordination Control Based on Traversing Empty between Mid-Block Street Crossing and Intersection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changjiang Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To solve the problem in pedestrian Mid-Block street crossing, the method of signal coordination control between mid-block street crossing and intersection is researched in this paper. The paper proposes to use “distance-flow rate-time” graph as the tool for building coordination control system model which is for different situations of traffic control. Through alternating the linear optimization model, the system outputs the distribution of signal timing and system operational factors (delays in vehicles and mid-block street crossing. Finally, taking one section on the Taiping North Road in Nanjing as an example, the signal coordination control is carried out. And the results which are delays in the vehicles and mid-block street crossing are compared to those in the current distribution of signal timing.

  12. Evaluation of pedestrian mid-block road crossing behaviour using artificial neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Raghuram Kadali

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrians usually cross the road at mid-block locations in India because of the ease and convenience to reach their destination as compared to intersection locations. It is important to evaluate the pedestrian gap acceptance behavior at mid-block locations because of inadequate vehicular gaps under mixed traffic condition, which translates into the pedestrian road crossing behavior. The present study examines the pedestrian gap acceptance behaviour by employing an artificial neural network (ANN model for understanding the decision making process of pedestrians, i.e., acceptance or rejection of vehicular gaps at a mid-block location. From the results it has been found that the pedestrian rolling gap, frequency of attempt, vehicular gap size, pedestrian speed change condition and vehicle speed have major role in pedestrian gap acceptance. These results can lead to a better design of pedestrian crossing facilities where adequate gaps are not available in vehicular flow at mid-block crosswalk locations.

  13. Resveratrol blocks interleukin-18-EMMPRIN cross-regulation and smooth muscle cell migration

    OpenAIRE

    Venkatesan, Balachandar; Valente, Anthony J.; Reddy, Venkatapuram Seenu; Siwik, Deborah A.; Chandrasekar, Bysani

    2009-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) migration is an important mechanism in atherogenesis and postangioplasty arterial remodeling. Previously, we demonstrated that the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-18 is a potent inducer of SMC migration. Since extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) stimulates ECM degradation and facilitates cell migration, we investigated whether IL-18 and EMMPRIN regulate each other's expression, whether their cross talk induces SMC migration, and...

  14. Cra regulates the cross-talk between the two branches of the phosphoenolpyruvate : phosphotransferase system of Pseudomonas putida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavarría, Max; Fuhrer, Tobias; Sauer, Uwe; Pflüger-Grau, Katharina; de Lorenzo, Víctor

    2013-01-01

    The gene that encodes the catabolite repressor/activator, Cra (FruR), of Pseudomonas putida is divergent from the fruBKA operon for the uptake of fructose via the phosphoenolpyruvate : carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS(Fru)). The expression of the fru cluster has been studied in cells growing on substrates that change the intracellular concentrations of fructose-1-P (F1P), the principal metabolic intermediate that counteracts the DNA-binding ability of Cra on an upstream operator. While the levels of the regulator were not affected by any of the growth conditions tested, the transcription of fruB was stimulated by fructose but not by the gluconeogenic substrate, succinate. The analysis of the P(fruB) promoter activity in a strain lacking the Cra protein and the determination of key metabolites revealed that this regulator represses the expression of PTS(Fru) in a fashion that is dependent on the endogenous concentrations of F1P. Because FruB (i.e. the EI-HPr-EIIA(Fru) polyprotein) can deliver a high-energy phosphate to the EIIA(Ntr) (PtsN) enzyme of the PTS(Ntr) branch, the cross-talk between the two phosphotransferase systems was examined under metabolic regimes that allowed for the high or low transcription of the fruBKA operon. While fructose caused cross-talk, succinate prevented it almost completely. Furthermore, PtsN phosphorylation by FruB occurred in a Δcra mutant regardless of growth conditions. These results traced the occurrence of the cross-talk to intracellular pools of Cra effectors, in particular F1P. The Cra/F1P duo seems to not only control the expression of the PTS(Fru) but also checks the activity of the PTS(Ntr) in vivo. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Transcriptome dynamics and molecular cross-talk between bovine oocyte and its companion cumulus cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Looft C

    2011-01-01

    are involved in carbohydrate metabolism (ACO1, 2, molecular transport (GAPDH, GFPT1 and nucleic acid metabolism (CBS, NOS2, those over expressed in CCs + OO are involved in cellular growth and proliferation (FOS, GADD45A, cell cycle (HAS2, VEGFA, cellular development (AMD1, AURKA, DPP4 and gene expression (FOSB, TGFB2. Conclusion In conclusion, this study has generated large scale gene expression data from different oocyte and CCs samples that would provide insights into gene functions and interactions within and across different pathways that are involved in the maturation of bovine oocytes. Moreover, the presence or absence of oocyte and CC factors during bovine oocyte maturation can have a profound effect on transcript abundance of each cell types, thereby showing the prevailing molecular cross-talk between oocytes and their corresponding CCs.

  16. CrossTalk: The Journal of Defense Software Engineering. Volume 21, Number 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    Sigma. The list above only links pairs of development methods that are joined together. From time to time three or even four or five development...Letters to the Editor and BackTalk. We also provide a link to each monthly theme, giving greater detail on the types of articles we’re looking for at...the PTs’ way. They soon bristled with new weapons: auto-cannon, mortars, and rockets. Some PTs abandoned their tor- pedoes entirely for more guns

  17. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying β-Adrenergic Receptor-Mediated Cross-Talk between Sympathetic Neurons and Immune Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne Lorton

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cross-talk between the sympathetic nervous system (SNS and immune system is vital for health and well-being. Infection, tissue injury and inflammation raise firing rates of sympathetic nerves, increasing their release of norepinephrine (NE in lymphoid organs and tissues. NE stimulation of β2-adrenergic receptors (ARs in immune cells activates the cAMP-protein kinase A (PKA intracellular signaling pathway, a pathway that interfaces with other signaling pathways that regulate proliferation, differentiation, maturation and effector functions in immune cells. Immune–SNS cross-talk is required to maintain homeostasis under normal conditions, to develop an immune response of appropriate magnitude after injury or immune challenge, and subsequently restore homeostasis. Typically, β2-AR-induced cAMP is immunosuppressive. However, many studies report actions of β2-AR stimulation in immune cells that are inconsistent with typical cAMP–PKA signal transduction. Research during the last decade in non-immune organs, has unveiled novel alternative signaling mechanisms induced by β2-AR activation, such as a signaling switch from cAMP–PKA to mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways. If alternative signaling occurs in immune cells, it may explain inconsistent findings of sympathetic regulation of immune function. Here, we review β2-AR signaling, assess the available evidence for alternative signaling in immune cells, and provide insight into the circumstances necessary for “signal switching” in immune cells.

  18. The cross-talk problem in SiPMs and their use as light sensors for imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzhan, P.; Dolgoshein, B.; Ilyin, A.; Kaplin, V.; Klemin, S.; Mirzoyan, R.; Popova, E.; Teshima, M.

    2009-01-01

    One of the major drawbacks of a SiPM is due to the so-called cross-talk effect. Often, one single photon in a chain reaction can generate more photons and thus can fire more than one micro-cell of a SiPM. This can be considered as a noise in the signal multiplication process and this degrades the signal/noise ratio. In self-trigger schemes this noise can be so high that it can make operating them difficult at low threshold settings. For the past few years, we have dwelt on this effect aiming to suppress it at the design stage. One can use (a) trenches around the micro-cells for suppressing the direct photon 'communication' channel and (b) the so-called double p-n junction for suppressing photon-induced charge 'communication' in neighbor pixels. The low cross-talk is mandatory, for example, for producing SiPM-based light sensor modules for the Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Technique projects for ground-based gamma-ray astrophysics. We produced and tested a few modules consisting of 4 SiPMs, each with a size of 5 mmx5 mm of custom production type. We report here on the main parameters of these units.

  19. Summary talk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    In this summary talk some implications of points raised during the Daresbury Study Weekend on heavy-ion reactions are examined and discussed in particular those concerning polarized heavy ions, the connection between analyzing powers and dynamics, transfer reactions, total reaction cross section measurements with polarized beams, and the implications of break-up reaction results for theories of nuclear reactions involving loosely bound projectiles. (U.K.)

  20. Early nongenomic events in aldosterone action in renal collecting duct cells: PKCalpha activation, mineralocorticoid receptor phosphorylation, and cross-talk with the genomic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Moëllic, Cathy; Ouvrard-Pascaud, Antoine; Capurro, Claudia; Cluzeaud, Francoise; Fay, Michel; Jaisser, Frederic; Farman, Nicolette; Blot-Chabaud, Marcel

    2004-05-01

    Effects of aldosterone on its target cells have long been considered to be mediated exclusively through the genomic pathway; however, evidence has been provided for rapid effects of the hormone that may involve nongenomic mechanisms. Whether an interaction exists between these two signaling pathways is not yet established. In this study, the authors show that aldosterone triggers both early nongenomic and late genomic increase in sodium transport in the RCCD(2) rat cortical collecting duct cell line. In these cells, the early (up to 2.5 h) aldosterone-induced increase in short-circuit current (Isc) is not blocked by the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonist RU26752, it does not require mRNA or protein synthesis, and it involves the PKCalpha signaling pathway. In addition, this early response is reproduced by aldosterone-BSA, which acts at the cell surface and presumably does not enter the cells (aldo-BSA is unable to trigger the late response). The authors also show that MR is rapidly phosphorylated on serine and threonine residues by aldosterone or aldosterone-BSA. In contrast, the late (4 to 24 h) aldosterone-induced increase in ion transport occurs through activation of the MR and requires mRNA and protein synthesis. Interestingly, nongenomic and genomic aldosterone actions appear to be interdependent. Blocking the PKCalpha pathway results in the inhibition of the late genomic response to aldosterone, as demonstrated by the suppression of aldosterone-induced increase in MR transactivation activity, alpha1 Na(+)/K(+)/ATPase mRNA, and Isc. These data suggest cross-talk between the nongenomic and genomic responses to aldosterone in renal cells and suggest that the aldosterone-MR mediated increase in mRNA/protein synthesis and ion transport depends, at least in part, upon PKCalpha activation. E-mail: marcel.blot-chabaud@pharmacie.univ-mrs.fr

  1. Role of Ethylene and Its Cross Talk with Other Signaling Molecules in Plant Responses to Heavy Metal Stress1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thao, Nguyen Phuong; Khan, M. Iqbal R.; Thu, Nguyen Binh Anh; Hoang, Xuan Lan Thi; Asgher, Mohd; Khan, Nafees A.; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2015-01-01

    Excessive heavy metals (HMs) in agricultural lands cause toxicities to plants, resulting in declines in crop productivity. Recent advances in ethylene biology research have established that ethylene is not only responsible for many important physiological activities in plants but also plays a pivotal role in HM stress tolerance. The manipulation of ethylene in plants to cope with HM stress through various approaches targeting either ethylene biosynthesis or the ethylene signaling pathway has brought promising outcomes. This review covers ethylene production and signal transduction in plant responses to HM stress, cross talk between ethylene and other signaling molecules under adverse HM stress conditions, and approaches to modify ethylene action to improve HM tolerance. From our current understanding about ethylene and its regulatory activities, it is believed that the optimization of endogenous ethylene levels in plants under HM stress would pave the way for developing transgenic crops with improved HM tolerance. PMID:26246451

  2. Analytical expression for position sensitivity of linear response beam position monitor having inter-electrode cross talk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Mukesh, E-mail: mukeshk@rrcat.gov.in [Beam Diagnostics Section, Indus Operations, Beam Dynamics & Diagnostics Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore, 452013 MP (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400 094 (India); Ojha, A.; Garg, A.D.; Puntambekar, T.A. [Beam Diagnostics Section, Indus Operations, Beam Dynamics & Diagnostics Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore, 452013 MP (India); Senecha, V.K. [Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400 094 (India); Ion Source Lab., Proton Linac & Superconducting Cavities Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore, 452013 MP (India)

    2017-02-01

    According to the quasi electrostatic model of linear response capacitive beam position monitor (BPM), the position sensitivity of the device depends only on the aperture of the device and it is independent of processing frequency and load impedance. In practice, however, due to the inter-electrode capacitive coupling (cross talk), the actual position sensitivity of the device decreases with increasing frequency and load impedance. We have taken into account the inter-electrode capacitance to derive and propose a new analytical expression for the position sensitivity as a function of frequency and load impedance. The sensitivity of a linear response shoe-box type BPM has been obtained through simulation using CST Studio Suite to verify and confirm the validity of the new analytical equation. Good agreement between the simulation results and the new analytical expression suggest that this method can be exploited for proper designing of BPM.

  3. IgG4-related disease and its pathogenesis—cross-talk between innate and acquired immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Akio; Nakamura, Takuji; Kawanami, Takafumi; Tanaka, Masao; Dong, Lingli; Kawano, Mitsuhiro

    2014-01-01

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a novel clinical entity proposed in Japan in the 21th century and is attracting strong attention over the world. The characteristic manifestations of IgG4-RD are increased serum IgG4 concentration and tumefaction by IgG4+ plasma cells. Although the clinical manifestations in various organs have been established, the pathogenesis of IgG4-RD is still unknown. Recently, many reports of aberrant acquired immunity such as Th2-diminated immune responses have been published. However, many questions still remain, including questions about the pathogenesis of IgG4-RD and the roles of IgG4. In this review, we discuss the pathogenesis of IgG4-RD by focusing on the cross-talk between innate and acquired immunity. PMID:25024397

  4. Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Therapeutic Targets Revealed by Tumor-Stroma Cross-Talk Analyses in Patient-Derived Xenografts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rémy Nicolle

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Preclinical models based on patient-derived xenografts have remarkable specificity in distinguishing transformed human tumor cells from non-transformed murine stromal cells computationally. We obtained 29 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC xenografts from either resectable or non-resectable patients (surgery and endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspirate, respectively. Extensive multiomic profiling revealed two subtypes with distinct clinical outcomes. These subtypes uncovered specific alterations in DNA methylation and transcription as well as in signaling pathways involved in tumor-stromal cross-talk. The analysis of these pathways indicates therapeutic opportunities for targeting both compartments and their interactions. In particular, we show that inhibiting NPC1L1 with Ezetimibe, a clinically available drug, might be an efficient approach for treating pancreatic cancers. These findings uncover the complex and diverse interplay between PDAC tumors and the stroma and demonstrate the pivotal role of xenografts for drug discovery and relevance to PDAC.

  5. Losing the Warning Signal: Drought Compromises the Cross-Talk of Signaling Molecules in Quercus ilex Exposed to Ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Cotrozzi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the interactions between drought and acute ozone (O3 stress in terms of signaling molecules and cell death would improve the predictions of plant responses to climate change. The aim was to investigate whether drought stress influences the responses of plants to acute episodes of O3 exposure. In this study, the behavior of 84 Mediterranean evergreen Quercus ilex plants was evaluated in terms of cross-talk responses among signaling molecules. Half of the sample was subjected to drought (20% of the effective daily evapotranspiration, for 15 days and was later exposed to an acute O3 exposure (200 nL L-1 for 5 h. First, our results indicate that in well-water conditions, O3 induced a signaling pathway specific to O3-sensitive behavior. Second, different trends and consequently different roles of phytohormones and signaling molecules (ethylene, ET; abscisic acid, ABA; salycilic acid, SA and jasmonic acid, JA were observed in relation to water stress and O3. A spatial and functional correlation between these signaling molecules was observed in modulating O3-induced responses in well-watered plants. In contrast, in drought-stressed plants, these compounds were not involved either in O3-induced signaling mechanisms or in leaf senescence (a response observed in water-stressed plants before the O3-exposure. Third, these differences were ascribable to the fact that in drought conditions, most defense processes induced by O3 were compromised and/or altered. Our results highlight how Q. ilex plants suffering from water deprivation respond differently to an acute O3 episode compared to well-watered plants, and suggest new effect to be considered in plant responses to environmental changes. This poses the serious question as to whether or not multiple high-magnitude O3 events (as predicted can change these cross-talk responses, thus opening it up possible further investigations.

  6. Cross talk between increased intracellular zinc (Zn2+) and accumulation of reactive oxygen species in chemical ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slepchenko, Kira G; Lu, Qiping; Li, Yang V

    2017-10-01

    Both zinc (Zn 2+ ) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to accumulate during hypoxic-ischemic stress and play important roles in pathological processes. To understand the cross talk between the two of them, here we studied Zn 2+ and ROS accumulation by employing fluorescent probes in HeLa cells to further the understanding of the cause and effect relationship of these two important cellular signaling systems during chemical-ischemia, stimulated by oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD). We observed two Zn 2+ rises that were divided into four phases in the course of 30 min of OGD. The first Zn 2+ rise was a transient, which was followed by a latent phase during which Zn 2+ levels recovered; however, levels remained above a basal level in most cells. The final phase was the second Zn 2+ rise, which reached a sustained plateau called Zn 2+ overload. Zn 2+ rises were not observed when Zn 2+ was removed by TPEN (a Zn 2+ chelator) or thapsigargin (depleting Zn 2+ from intracellular stores) treatment, indicating that Zn 2+ was from intracellular storage. Damaging mitochondria with FCCP significantly reduced the second Zn 2+ rise, indicating that the mitochondrial Zn 2+ accumulation contributes to Zn 2+ overload. We also detected two OGD-induced ROS rises. Two Zn 2+ rises preceded two ROS rises. Removal of Zn 2+ reduced or delayed OGD- and FCCP-induced ROS generation, indicating that Zn 2+ contributes to mitochondrial ROS generation. There was a Zn 2+ -induced increase in the functional component of NADPH oxidase, p47 phox , thus suggesting that NADPH oxidase may mediate Zn 2+ -induced ROS accumulation. We suggest a new mechanism of cross talk between Zn 2+ and mitochondrial ROS through positive feedback processes that eventually causes excessive free Zn 2+ and ROS accumulations during the course of ischemic stress. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Cross talk between the calcium-sensing receptor and the vitamin D system in prevention of cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enikö Kallay

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available There is epidemiological evidence for the cancer preventive effect of dietary calcium (Ca2+ and vitamin D. This effect is strongest in colorectal cancer (CRC. The active vitamin D metabolite, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D3, bound to its receptor, the vitamin D receptor (VDR regulates the expression of hundreds of different genes in a cell- and tissue-specific manner. While Ca2+ acts through multiple mechanisms and pathways, some of its effects are mediated by the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR. The joint action of Ca2+ and 1,25D3 is due to the fact that both regulate some of the main processes involved in the development of various cancers, such as proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, migration, and inflammation. Moreover, 1,25D3, bound to VDR can induce translation of the CaSR, while the amount and activity of the CaSR affects 1,25D3 signalling. However, the complexity of the cross-talk between the CaSR and the vitamin D system goes beyond regulating similar pathways and affecting each other’s expression. Our aim was to review some of the mechanisms that drive the cross-talk between the vitamin D system and the CaSR with a special focus on the interaction in colorectal cancer cells. We evaluated the molecular evidence that supports the epidemiological observation that both vitamin D and calcium are needed for protection against malignant transformation of the colon and that their effect is modulated by the presence of a functional CaSR.

  8. CrossTalk. The Journal of Defense Software Engineering. Volume 25, Number 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    both editorial oversight and technical review of the journal. CrossTalk’s mission is to encour- age the engineering development of software to improve...sending e-mail. (Robertson, 2011) Mobile Workers and related products - Telecommuting -- the home office - Pressure to provide tools and access to

  9. Brownian dynamics simulation of the cross-talking effect among modified histones on conformations of nucleosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao-Wen, Duan; Wei, Li; Ping, Xie; Shuo-Xing, Dou; Peng-Ye, Wang

    2010-01-01

    Using Brownian dynamics simulation, we studied the effect of histone modifications on conformations of an array of nucleosomes in a segment of chromatin. The simulation demonstrated that the segment of chromatin shows the dynamic behaviour that its conformation can switch between a state with nearly all of the histones being wrapped by DNA and a state with nearly all of the histones being unwrapped by DNA, thus involving the “cross-talking” interactions among the histones. Each state can stay for a sufficiently long time. These conformational states are essential for gene expression or gene silence. The simulation also shows that these conformational states can be inherited by the daughter DNAs during DNA replication, giving a theoretical explanation of the epigenetic phenomenon. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  10. Hydrogel elasticity and microarchitecture regulate dental-derived mesenchymal stem cell-host immune system cross-talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Sahar; Chen, Chider; Hasani-Sadrabadi, Mohammad Mahdi; Yu, Bo; Zadeh, Homayoun H; Wu, Benjamin M; Moshaverinia, Alireza

    2017-09-15

    The host immune system (T-lymphocytes and their pro-inflammatory cytokines) has been shown to compromise bone regeneration ability of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). We have recently shown that hydrogel, used as an encapsulating biomaterial affects the cross-talk among host immune cells and MSCs. However, the role of hydrogel elasticity and porosity in regulation of cross-talk between dental-derived MSCs and immune cells is unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that the modulus of elasticity and porosity of the scaffold influence T-lymphocyte-dental MSC interplay by regulating the penetration of inflammatory T cells and their cytokines. Moreover, we demonstrated that alginate hydrogels with different elasticity and microporous structure can regulate the viability and determine the fate of the encapsulated MSCs through modulation of NF-kB pathway. Our in vivo data show that alginate hydrogels with smaller pores and higher elasticity could prevent pro-inflammatory cytokine-induced MSC apoptosis by down-regulating the Caspase-3- and 8- associated proapoptotic cascades, leading to higher amounts of ectopic bone regeneration. Additionally, dental-derived MSCs encapsulated in hydrogel with higher elasticity exhibited lower expression levels of NF-kB p65 and Cox-2 in vivo. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that the mechanical characteristics and microarchitecture of the microenvironment encapsulating MSCs, in addition to presence of T-lymphocytes and their pro-inflammatory cytokines, affect the fate of encapsulated dental-derived MSCs. In this study, we demonstrate that alginate hydrogel regulates the viability and the fate of the encapsulated dental-derived MSCs through modulation of NF-kB pathway. Alginate hydrogels with smaller pores and higher elasticity prevent pro-inflammatory cytokine-induced MSC apoptosis by down-regulating the Caspase-3- and 8- associated proapoptotic cascade, leading to higher amounts of ectopic bone regeneration. MSCs encapsulated in

  11. Role of p53–fibrinolytic system cross-talk in the regulation of quartz-induced lung injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhandary, Yashodhar P.; Shetty, Shwetha K.; Marudamuthu, Amarnath S.; Fu, Jian; Pinson, Barbara M.; Levin, Jeffrey; Shetty, Sreerama

    2015-01-01

    Silica is the major component of airborne dust generated by wind, manufacturing and/or demolition. Chronic occupational inhalation of silica dust containing crystalline quartz is by far the predominant form of silicosis in humans. Silicosis is a progressive lung disease that typically arises after a very long latency and is a major occupational concern with no known effective treatment. The mechanism of silicosis is not clearly understood. However, silicosis is associated with increased cell death, expression of redox enzymes and pro-fibrotic cytokines and chemokines. Since alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) death and disruption of alveolar fibrinolysis is often associated with both acute and chronic lung injuries, we explored whether p53-mediated changes in the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) system contributes to silica-induced lung injury. We further sought to determine whether caveolin-1 scaffolding domain peptide (CSP), which inhibits p53 expression, mitigates lung injury associated with exposure to silica. Lung tissues and AECs isolated from wild-type (WT) mice exposed to silica exhibit increased apoptosis, p53 and PAI-1, and suppression of uPA expression. Treatment of WT mice with CSP inhibits PAI-1, restores uPA expression and prevents AEC apoptosis by suppressing p53, which is otherwise induced in mice exposed to silica. The process involves CSP-mediated inhibition of serine-15 phosphorylation of p53 by inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A-C (PP2A-C) interaction with silica-induced caveolin-1 in AECs. These observations suggest that changes in the p53–uPA fibrinolytic system cross-talk contribute to lung injury caused by inhalation of silica dust containing crystalline quartz and is protected by CSP by targeting this pathway. - Highlights: • Chronic exposure to quartz dusts is a major cause of lung injury and silicosis. • The survival of patients with silicosis is bleak due to lack of effective treatments. • This study defines a new role of

  12. CD147 promotes liver fibrosis progression via VEGF-A/VEGFR2 signalling-mediated cross-talk between hepatocytes and sinusoidal endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhaoyong; Qu, Kai; Zhang, Jing; Huang, Qichao; Qu, Ping; Xu, Xinsen; Yuan, Peng; Huang, Xiaojun; Shao, Yongping; Liu, Chang; Zhang, Hongxin; Xing, Jinliang

    2015-10-01

    Although previous evidence indicates close involvement of CD147 in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis, the underlying molecular mechanisms and its therapeutic value remain largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the biological roles of CD147 in liver fibrosis and assessed its therapeutic value as a target molecule in the CCl4-induced liver fibrosis mouse model. We found that CD147 was highly expressed in both hepatocytes and SECs (sinusoidal endothelial cells) in fibrotic liver tissues. Additionally, it was significantly associated with the fibrosis stage. TGF-β1 (transforming growth factor β1) was found to be mainly responsible for the up-regulation of CD147. Bioinformatic and experimental data suggest a functional link between CD147 expression and VEGF-A (vascular endothelial growth factor A)/VEGR-2 (VEGF receptor 2) signalling-mediated angiogenesis in fibrotic liver tissues. Furthermore, we observed that the CD147-induced activation of the PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase)/Akt signalling pathway promotes the production of VEGF-A in hepatocytes and expression of VEGFR-2 in SECs, which was found to enhance the angiogenic capability of SECs. Finally, our data indicate that blocking of CD147 using an mAb (monoclonal antibody) attenuated liver fibrosis progression via inhibition of VEGF-A/VEGFR-2 signalling and subsequent amelioration of microvascular abnormality in the CCl4-induced mouse model. Our findings suggest a novel functional mechanism that CD147 may promote liver fibrosis progression via inducing the VEGF-A/VEGFR-2 signalling pathway-mediated cross-talk between hepatocytes and SECs. New strategies based on the intervention of CD147 can be expected for prevention of liver fibrosis. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  13. Cross Talk Between Brain Innate Immunity and Serotonin Signaling Underlies Depressive-Like Behavior Induced by Alzheimer's Amyloid-β Oligomers in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledo, Jose Henrique; Azevedo, Estefania P; Beckman, Danielle; Ribeiro, Felipe C; Santos, Luis E; Razolli, Daniela S; Kincheski, Grasielle C; Melo, Helen M; Bellio, Maria; Teixeira, Antonio L; Velloso, Licio A; Foguel, Debora; De Felice, Fernanda G; Ferreira, Sergio T

    2016-11-30

    Considerable clinical and epidemiological evidence links Alzheimer's disease (AD) and depression. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this connection are largely unknown. We reported recently that soluble Aβ oligomers (AβOs), toxins that accumulate in AD brains and are thought to instigate synapse damage and memory loss, induce depressive-like behavior in mice. Here, we report that the mechanism underlying this action involves AβO-induced microglial activation, aberrant TNF-α signaling, and decreased brain serotonin levels. Inactivation or ablation of microglia blocked the increase in brain TNF-α and abolished depressive-like behavior induced by AβOs. Significantly, we identified serotonin as a negative regulator of microglial activation. Finally, AβOs failed to induce depressive-like behavior in Toll-like receptor 4-deficient mice and in mice harboring a nonfunctional TLR4 variant in myeloid cells. Results establish that AβOs trigger depressive-like behavior via a double impact on brain serotonin levels and microglial activation, unveiling a cross talk between brain innate immunity and serotonergic signaling as a key player in mood alterations in AD. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder and the main cause of dementia in the world. Brain accumulation of amyloid-β oligomers (AβOs) is a major feature in the pathogenesis of AD. Although clinical and epidemiological data suggest a strong connection between AD and depression, the underlying mechanisms linking these two disorders remain largely unknown. Here, we report that aberrant activation of the brain innate immunity and decreased serotonergic tonus in the brain are key players in AβO-induced depressive-like behavior in mice. Our findings may open up new possibilities for the development of effective therapeutics for AD and depression aimed at modulating microglial function. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/3612106-11$15.00/0.

  14. The cross-talk of HIV-1 Tat and methamphetamine in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana T Valente

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Antiretroviral therapy (ART has dramatically improved the lives of HIV-1 infected individuals. Nonetheless, HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND, which range from undetectable neurocognitive impairments to severe dementia, still affect approximately 50% of the infected population, hampering their quality of life.The persistence of HAND is promoted by several factors, including longer life expectancies, the residual levels of virus in the central nervous system and the continued presence of HIV-1 regulatory proteins such as the transactivator of transcription (Tat in the brain. Tat is a secreted viral protein that crosses the blood brain barrier into the central nervous system, where it has the ability to directly act on neurons and non-neuronal cells alike. These actions result in the release of soluble factors involved in inflammation, oxidative stress and excitotoxicity, ultimately resulting in neuronal damage. The percentage of methamphetamine abusers is high among the HIV-1-positive population compared to the general population. On the other hand, methamphetamine abuse is correlated with increased viral replication, enhanced Tat-mediated neurotoxicity and neurocognitive impairments. Although several strategies have been investigated to reduce HAND and methamphetamine use, no clinically approved treatment is currently available. Here, we review the latest findings of the effects of Tat and methamphetamine in HAND and discuss a few promising potential therapeutic developments.

  15. Complement-coagulation cross-talk: a potential mediator of the physiological activation of complement by low pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany Ibrahim Kenawy

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The complement system is a major constituent of the innate immune system. It not only bridges innate and adaptive arms of the immune system but also links the immune system with the coagulation system. Current understanding of the role of complement has extended far beyond fighting of infections, and now encompasses maintenance of homeostasis, tissue regeneration and pathophysiology of multiple diseases. It has been known for many years that complement activation is strongly pH sensitive, but only relatively recently has the physiological significance of this been appreciated. Most complement assays are carried out at the physiological pH 7.4. However, pH in some extracellular compartments, for example renal tubular fluid in parts of the tubule, and extracellular fluid at inflammation loci, is sufficiently acidic to activate complement. The exact molecular mechanism of this activation is still unclear, but possible cross talk between the contact system and complement may exist at low pH with subsequent complement activation. The current article reviews the published data on the effect of pH on the contact system and complement activity, the nature of the pH sensor molecules, and the clinical implications of these effects. Of particular interest is chronic kidney disease (CKD accompanied by metabolic acidosis, in which therapeutic alkalinisation of urine has been shown significantly to reduce tubular complement activation products, an effect which may have important implications for slowing progression of CKD.

  16. Cross-talk between Rho and Rac GTPases drives deterministic exploration of cellular shape space and morphological heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailem, Heba; Bousgouni, Vicky; Cooper, Sam; Bakal, Chris

    2014-01-22

    One goal of cell biology is to understand how cells adopt different shapes in response to varying environmental and cellular conditions. Achieving a comprehensive understanding of the relationship between cell shape and environment requires a systems-level understanding of the signalling networks that respond to external cues and regulate the cytoskeleton. Classical biochemical and genetic approaches have identified thousands of individual components that contribute to cell shape, but it remains difficult to predict how cell shape is generated by the activity of these components using bottom-up approaches because of the complex nature of their interactions in space and time. Here, we describe the regulation of cellular shape by signalling systems using a top-down approach. We first exploit the shape diversity generated by systematic RNAi screening and comprehensively define the shape space a migratory cell explores. We suggest a simple Boolean model involving the activation of Rac and Rho GTPases in two compartments to explain the basis for all cell shapes in the dataset. Critically, we also generate a probabilistic graphical model to show how cells explore this space in a deterministic, rather than a stochastic, fashion. We validate the predictions made by our model using live-cell imaging. Our work explains how cross-talk between Rho and Rac can generate different cell shapes, and thus morphological heterogeneity, in genetically identical populations.

  17. Novel cross-talk between IGF-IR and DDR1 regulates IGF-IR trafficking, signaling and biological responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Antonella; Morcavallo, Alaide; Vella, Veronica; Voci, Concetta; Spatuzza, Michela; Xu, Shi-Qiong; Iozzo, Renato V.; Vigneri, Riccardo; Morrione, Andrea; Belfiore, Antonino

    2015-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR), plays a key role in regulating mammalian development and growth, and is frequently deregulated in cancer contributing to tumor initiation and progression. Discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1), a collagen receptor tyrosine-kinase, is as well frequently overexpressed in cancer and implicated in cancer progression. Thus, we investigated whether a functional cross-talk between the IGF-IR and DDR1 exists and plays any role in cancer progression. Using human breast cancer cells we found that DDR1 constitutively associated with the IGF-IR. However, this interaction was enhanced by IGF-I stimulation, which promoted rapid DDR1 tyrosine-phosphorylation and co-internalization with the IGF-IR. Significantly, DDR1 was critical for IGF-IR endocytosis and trafficking into early endosomes, IGF-IR protein expression and IGF-I intracellular signaling and biological effects, including cell proliferation, migration and colony formation. These biological responses were inhibited by DDR1 silencing and enhanced by DDR1 overexpression. Experiments in mouse fibroblasts co-transfected with the human IGF-IR and DDR1 gave similar results and indicated that, in the absence of IGF-IR, collagen-dependent phosphorylation of DDR1 is impaired. These results demonstrate a critical role of DDR1 in the regulation of IGF-IR action, and identify DDR1 as a novel important target for breast cancers that overexpress IGF-IR. PMID:25840417

  18. Effects of cross talk on dual energy SPECT imaging between [sup 123]I-BMIPP and [sup 201]Tl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, Masato; Narita, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Juro; Fukutake, Naoshige; Ohyanagi, Mitsumasa; Iwasaki, Tadaaki; Fukuchi, Minoru (Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya (Japan))

    1994-01-01

    The study was undertaken to determine how much cross talk influences the visual assessment of dual energy single photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) images with iodine 123 beta-methyl-p-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (I-123 BMIPP) and thallium-201 in 15 patients with acute myocardial infarction. After single SPECT with I-123 BMIPP was undertaken, simultaneous dual SPECT with I-123 BMIPP and Tl-201 were undertaken in all patients. Three patients also underwent single SPECT with Tl-201. I-123 BMIPP and Tl-201 uptake was graded in four-score for the comparison between single and dual SPECT images. There was good correlation between dual energy SPECT and both single I-123 BMIPP SPECT (pS=0.97) and single Tl-201 SPECT (pS=0.59). Uptake scores were increased on dual energy SPECT, compared with single I-123 SPECT (8 out of 132 segments) and single Tl-201 SPECT (12 out of 36 segments). Overall, there was a comparatively well correlation between single SEPCT with either I-123 BMIPP or Tl-201 and dual energy SPECT images. However, one tracer uptake sometimes increased in the other tracer defect areas. This was noticeable when I-123 BMIPP exerted an effect on Tl-201. (N.K.).

  19. Effects of cross talk on dual energy SPECT imaging between 123I-BMIPP and 201Tl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Masato; Narita, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Juro; Fukutake, Naoshige; Ohyanagi, Mitsumasa; Iwasaki, Tadaaki; Fukuchi, Minoru

    1994-01-01

    The study was undertaken to determine how much cross talk influences the visual assessment of dual energy single photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) images with iodine 123 beta-methyl-p-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (I-123 BMIPP) and thallium-201 in 15 patients with acute myocardial infarction. After single SPECT with I-123 BMIPP was undertaken, simultaneous dual SPECT with I-123 BMIPP and Tl-201 were undertaken in all patients. Three patients also underwent single SPECT with Tl-201. I-123 BMIPP and Tl-201 uptake was graded in four-score for the comparison between single and dual SPECT images. There was good correlation between dual energy SPECT and both single I-123 BMIPP SPECT (pS=0.97) and single Tl-201 SPECT (pS=0.59). Uptake scores were increased on dual energy SPECT, compared with single I-123 SPECT (8 out of 132 segments) and single Tl-201 SPECT (12 out of 36 segments). Overall, there was a comparatively well correlation between single SEPCT with either I-123 BMIPP or Tl-201 and dual energy SPECT images. However, one tracer uptake sometimes increased in the other tracer defect areas. This was noticeable when I-123 BMIPP exerted an effect on Tl-201. (N.K.)

  20. Thioesterase activity and acyl-CoA/fatty acid cross-talk of hepatocyte nuclear factor-4{alpha}.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Rachel; Kalderon, Bella; Byk, Tamara; Berman, Ina; Za'tara, Ghadeer; Mayer, Raphael; Bar-Tana, Jacob

    2005-07-01

    Hepatocyte nuclear factor-4alpha (HNF-4alpha) activity is modulated by natural and xenobiotic fatty acid and fatty acyl-CoA ligands as a function of their chain length, unsaturation, and substitutions. The acyl-CoA site of HNF-4alpha is reported here to consist of the E-F domain, to bind long-chain acyl-CoAs but not the respective free acids, and to catalyze the hydrolysis of bound fatty acyl-CoAs. The free acid pocket, previously reported in the x-ray structure of HNF-4alpha E-domain, entraps fatty acids but excludes acyl-CoAs. The acyl-CoA and free acid sites are distinctive and noncongruent. Free fatty acid products of HNF-4alpha thioesterase may exchange with free acids entrapped in the fatty acid pocket of HNF-4alpha. Cross-talk between the acyl-CoA and free fatty acid binding sites is abrogated by high affinity, nonhydrolyzable acyl-CoA ligands of HNF-4alpha that inhibit its thioesterase activity. Hence, HNF-4alpha transcriptional activity is controlled by its two interrelated acyl ligands and two binding sites interphased in tandem by the thioesterase activity. The acyl-CoA/free-acid and receptor/enzyme duality of HNF-4alpha extends the paradigm of nuclear receptors.

  1. Damaging and protective bystander cross-talk between human lung cancer and normal cells after proton microbeam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, Sejal; Kobayashi, Alisa; Konishi, Teruaki; Oikawa, Masakazu; Pandey, Badri N.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Proton-microbeam irradiated A549 cells send damaging signals to bystander A549 cells. • Irradiated A549–A549 bystander response is through gap junctional communication. • Bystander WI38 cells exert protective signalling in irradiated A549 cells. • Rescue of irradiated A549 cells by WI38 cells is independent of gap junctions. - Abstract: Most of the studies of radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE) have been focused on understanding the radiobiological changes observed in bystander cells in response to the signals from irradiated cells in a normal cell population with implications to radiation risk assessment. However, reports on RIBE with relevance to cancer radiotherapy especially investigating the bidirectional and criss-cross bystander communications between cancer and normal cells are limited. Hence, in present study employing co-culture approach, we have investigated the bystander cross-talk between lung cancer (A549) and normal (WI38) cells after proton-microbeam irradiation using γ-H2AX foci fluorescence as a measure of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). We observed that in A549–A549 co-cultures, irradiated A549 cells exert damaging effects in bystander A549 cells, which were found to be mediated through gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC). However, in A549–WI38 co-cultures, irradiated A549 did not affect bystander WI38 cells. Rather, bystander WI38 cells induced inverse protective signalling (rescue effect) in irradiated A549 cells, which was independent of GJIC. On the other hand, in response to irradiated WI38 cells neither of the bystander cells (A549 or WI38) showed significant increase in γ-H2AX foci. The observed bystander signalling between tumour and normal cells may have potential implications in therapeutic outcome of cancer radiotherapy

  2. Damaging and protective bystander cross-talk between human lung cancer and normal cells after proton microbeam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, Sejal [Radiation Signalling and Cancer Biology Section, Radiation Biology and Health Sciences Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Kobayashi, Alisa; Konishi, Teruaki; Oikawa, Masakazu [Radiation System and Engineering Section, Department of Technical Support and Development, Research, Development and Support Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Pandey, Badri N., E-mail: badrinarain@yahoo.co.in [Radiation Signalling and Cancer Biology Section, Radiation Biology and Health Sciences Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2014-05-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Proton-microbeam irradiated A549 cells send damaging signals to bystander A549 cells. • Irradiated A549–A549 bystander response is through gap junctional communication. • Bystander WI38 cells exert protective signalling in irradiated A549 cells. • Rescue of irradiated A549 cells by WI38 cells is independent of gap junctions. - Abstract: Most of the studies of radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE) have been focused on understanding the radiobiological changes observed in bystander cells in response to the signals from irradiated cells in a normal cell population with implications to radiation risk assessment. However, reports on RIBE with relevance to cancer radiotherapy especially investigating the bidirectional and criss-cross bystander communications between cancer and normal cells are limited. Hence, in present study employing co-culture approach, we have investigated the bystander cross-talk between lung cancer (A549) and normal (WI38) cells after proton-microbeam irradiation using γ-H2AX foci fluorescence as a measure of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). We observed that in A549–A549 co-cultures, irradiated A549 cells exert damaging effects in bystander A549 cells, which were found to be mediated through gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC). However, in A549–WI38 co-cultures, irradiated A549 did not affect bystander WI38 cells. Rather, bystander WI38 cells induced inverse protective signalling (rescue effect) in irradiated A549 cells, which was independent of GJIC. On the other hand, in response to irradiated WI38 cells neither of the bystander cells (A549 or WI38) showed significant increase in γ-H2AX foci. The observed bystander signalling between tumour and normal cells may have potential implications in therapeutic outcome of cancer radiotherapy.

  3. Cross-talk between abscisic acid-dependent and abscisic acid-independent pathways during abiotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roychoudhury, Aryadeep; Paul, Saikat; Basu, Supratim

    2013-07-01

    Salinity, drought and low temperature are the common forms of abiotic stress encountered by land plants. To cope with these adverse environmental factors, plants execute several physiological and metabolic responses. Both osmotic stress (elicited by water deficit or high salt) and cold stress increase the endogenous level of the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA). ABA-dependent stomatal closure to reduce water loss is associated with small signaling molecules like nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species and cytosolic free calcium, and mediated by rapidly altering ion fluxes in guard cells. ABA also triggers the expression of osmotic stress-responsive (OR) genes, which usually contain single/multiple copies of cis-acting sequence called abscisic acid-responsive element (ABRE) in their upstream regions, mostly recognized by the basic leucine zipper-transcription factors (TFs), namely, ABA-responsive element-binding protein/ABA-binding factor. Another conserved sequence called the dehydration-responsive element (DRE)/C-repeat, responding to cold or osmotic stress, but not to ABA, occurs in some OR promoters, to which the DRE-binding protein/C-repeat-binding factor binds. In contrast, there are genes or TFs containing both DRE/CRT and ABRE, which can integrate input stimuli from salinity, drought, cold and ABA signaling pathways, thereby enabling cross-tolerance to multiple stresses. A strong candidate that mediates such cross-talk is calcium, which serves as a common second messenger for abiotic stress conditions and ABA. The present review highlights the involvement of both ABA-dependent and ABA-independent signaling components and their interaction or convergence in activating the stress genes. We restrict our discussion to salinity, drought and cold stress.

  4. The enhanced reproduction of cow parent brahman cross post partum with feed supplement multinutrient block medicated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nursyam Andi Syarifuddin; Anis Wahdi

    2011-01-01

    One of the problems in breeding Brahman Cross cattle reproduction efficiency is low due to the length of postpartum anestrus and the high number of services per conception is partly due to the low nutrient content of rations. This study aims to improve the performance of reproductive cows parent Brahman Cross post partum through feeding strategy supplement Multi nutrient Block plus Medicated (MBPM) which starts with the correct parent condition score so that it can accelerate the process appear oestrus post partum then increasing conception rate to minimize the number of service per conception as well as to improve the growth calf produced. This research uses 16 cows parent Brahman Cross post partum not exceeding 90 days comprising 9 tails were given feed supplements MBPM compared with 7 tail not given feed supplements MBPM as control. Research results show that feeding supplements MBPM can enhanced reproductive cow parent Brahman Cross post partum i.e. : maintain parent condition score in early post partum until the occurrence of pregnant, accelerating day 24,8 appear oestrus post partum, number service per conception = 1 and conception rate can reach 60%, maintaining the levels of urea plasma of blood and blood glucose levels within normal limits either at the time of post partum and oestrus post partum. Feeding supplements MBPM on cows parent Brahman Cross post partum can give added daily gain 0,51 kg on calf is suckling. (author)

  5. p130Cas scaffolds the signalosome to direct adaptor-effector cross talk during Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus trafficking in human microvascular dermal endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Chirosree; Veettil, Mohanan Valiya; Dutta, Sujoy; Chandran, Bala

    2014-12-01

    enzymatic activity, are well known to allow a great diversity of specific and coordinated protein-protein interactions imparting signal amplification to different networks for physiological and pathological signaling. They are involved in integrating signals from growth factors, extracellular matrix molecules, bacterial pathogens, and apoptotic cells. The present study identifies human microvascular dermal endothelial (HMVEC-d) cellular scaffold protein p130Cas (Crk-associated substrate) as a platform to promote Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) trafficking. Early during KSHV de novo infection, p130Cas associates with lipid rafts and scaffolds EphrinA2 (EphA2)-associated critical adaptor members to downstream effector molecules, promoting successful nuclear delivery of the KSHV genome. Hence, simultaneous targeting of the receptor EphA2 and scaffolding action of p130Cas can potentially uncouple the signal cross talk of the KSHV entry-associated upstream signal complex from the immediate downstream trafficking-associated signalosome, consequently routing KSHV toward lysosomal degradation and eventually blocking KSHV infection and associated malignancies. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Mathematical Modeling of Cellular Cross-Talk Between Endothelial and Tumor Cells Highlights Counterintuitive Effects of VEGF-Targeted Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Harsh; Jackson, Trachette

    2018-05-01

    Tumor growth and progression are critically dependent on the establishment of a vascular support system. This is often accomplished via the expression of pro-angiogenic growth factors, including members of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family of ligands. VEGF ligands are overexpressed in a wide variety of solid tumors and therefore have inspired optimism that inhibition of the different axes of the VEGF pathway-alone or in combination-would represent powerful anti-angiogenic therapies for most cancer types. When considering treatments that target VEGF and its receptors, it is difficult to tease out the differential anti-angiogenic and anti-tumor effects of all combinations experimentally because tumor cells and vascular endothelial cells are engaged in a dynamic cross-talk that impacts key aspects of tumorigenesis, independent of angiogenesis. Here we develop a mathematical model that connects intracellular signaling responsible for both endothelial and tumor cell proliferation and death to population-level cancer growth and angiogenesis. We use this model to investigate the effect of bidirectional communication between endothelial cells and tumor cells on treatments targeting VEGF and its receptors both in vitro and in vivo. Our results underscore the fact that in vitro therapeutic outcomes do not always translate to the in vivo situation. For example, our model predicts that certain therapeutic combinations result in antagonism in vivo that is not observed in vitro. Mathematical modeling in this direction can shed light on the mechanisms behind experimental observations that manipulating VEGF and its receptors is successful in some cases but disappointing in others.

  7. A family of diverse Kunitz inhibitors from Echinococcus granulosus potentially involved in host-parasite cross-talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Silvia; Fló, Martín; Margenat, Mariana; Durán, Rosario; González-Sapienza, Gualberto; Graña, Martín; Parkinson, John; Maizels, Rick M; Salinas, Gustavo; Alvarez, Beatriz; Fernández, Cecilia

    2009-09-17

    The cestode Echinococcus granulosus, the agent of hydatidosis/echinococcosis, is remarkably well adapted to its definitive host. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the successful establishment of larval worms (protoscoleces) in the dog duodenum are unknown. With the aim of identifying molecules participating in the E. granulosus-dog cross-talk, we surveyed the transcriptomes of protoscoleces and protoscoleces treated with pepsin at pH 2. This analysis identified a multigene family of secreted monodomain Kunitz proteins associated mostly with pepsin/H(+)-treated worms, suggesting that they play a role at the onset of infection. We present the relevant molecular features of eight members of the E. granulosus Kunitz family (EgKU-1 - EgKU-8). Although diverse, the family includes three pairs of close paralogs (EgKU-1/EgKU-4; EgKU-3/EgKU-8; EgKU-6/EgKU-7), which would be the products of recent gene duplications. In addition, we describe the purification of EgKU-1 and EgKU-8 from larval worms, and provide data indicating that some members of the family (notably, EgKU-3 and EgKU-8) are secreted by protoscoleces. Detailed kinetic studies with native EgKU-1 and EgKU-8 highlighted their functional diversity. Like most monodomain Kunitz proteins, EgKU-8 behaved as a slow, tight-binding inhibitor of serine proteases, with global inhibition constants (K(I) (*)) versus trypsins in the picomolar range. In sharp contrast, EgKU-1 did not inhibit any of the assayed peptidases. Interestingly, molecular modeling revealed structural elements associated with activity in Kunitz cation-channel blockers. We propose that this family of inhibitors has the potential to act at the E. granulosus-dog interface and interfere with host physiological processes at the initial stages of infection.

  8. Inhibition of myostatin in mice improves insulin sensitivity via irisin-mediated cross talk between muscle and adipose tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jiangling; Dong, Yanjun; Dong, Yanlan; Chen, Fang; Mitch, William E; Zhang, Liping

    2016-03-01

    In mice, a high-fat diet (HFD) induces obesity, insulin resistance and myostatin production. We tested whether inhibition of myostatin in mice can reverse these HFD-induced abnormalities. C57BL/6 mice were fed a HFD for 16 weeks including the final 4 weeks some mice were treated with an anti-myostatin peptibody. Body composition, the respiratory exchange ratio plus glucose and insulin tolerance tests were examined. Myostatin knock down in C2C12 cells was performed using small hairpin RNA lentivirus. Adipose tissue-derived stem cells were cultured to measure their responses to conditioned media from C2C12 cells lacking myostatin, or to recombinant myostatin or irisin. Isolated peritoneal macrophages were treated with myostatin or irisin to determine whether myostatin or irisin induce inflammatory mechanisms. In HFD-fed mice, peptibody treatment stimulated muscle growth and improved insulin resistance. The improved glucose and insulin tolerances were confirmed when we found increased muscle expression of p-Akt and the glucose transporter, Glut4. In HFD-fed mice, the peptibody suppressed macrophage infiltration and the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in both the muscle and adipocytes. Inhibition of myostatin caused the conversion of white (WAT) to brown adipose tissue, whereas stimulating fatty acid oxidation and increasing energy expenditure. The related mechanism is a muscle-to-fat cross talk mediated by irisin. Myostatin inhibition increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, coactivator 1α expression and irisin production in the muscle. Irisin then stimulated WAT browning. Irisin also suppresses inflammation and stimulates macrophage polarization from M1 to M2 types. These results uncover a metabolic pathway from an increase in myostatin that suppresses irisin leading to the activation of inflammatory cytokines and insulin resistance. Thus, myostatin is a potential therapeutic target to treat insulin resistance of type II diabetes as well

  9. Cross-talk between oxysterols and glucocorticoids: differential regulation of secreted phopholipase A2 and impact on oligodendrocyte death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia Trousson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oxysterols are oxidized forms of cholesterol. They have been shown to be implicated in cholesterol turnover, inflammation and in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis. Glial cells are targets of oxysterols: they inhibit astrocyte proliferation after brain injury, and we have previously shown that 25-hydroxycholesterol (25OH provokes oligodendrocyte apoptosis and stimulates the expression of sPLA2 type IIA (sPLA2-IIA, which has a protective effect. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: As glucocorticoids are well-known for their anti-inflammatory effects, our aim was to understand their direct effects on oxysterol-induced responses in oligodendrocytes (sPLA2-IIA stimulation and apoptosis. We demonstrate that the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone (Dex abolishes the stimulation of sPLA2-IIA by 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-OH. This inhibition is mediated by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR, which decreases the expression of the oxysterol receptor Pregnane X Receptor (PXR and interferes with oxysterol signaling by recruiting a common limiting coactivator PGC1alpha. Consistent with the finding that sPLA2-IIA can partially protect oligodendrocytes against oxysterol-triggered apoptosis, we demonstrate here that the inhibition of sPLA2-IIA by Dex accelerates the apoptotic phenomenon, leading to a shift towards necrosis. We have shown by atomic force microscopy and electron microscopy that 25-OH and Dex alters oligodendrocyte shape and disorganizes the cytoplasm. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results provide a new understanding of the cross-talk between oxysterol and glucocorticoid signaling pathways and their respective roles in apoptosis and oligodendrocyte functions.

  10. FGF21 maintains glucose homeostasis by mediating the cross talk between liver and brain during prolonged fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qingning; Zhong, Ling; Zhang, Jialiang; Wang, Yu; Bornstein, Stefan R; Triggle, Chris R; Ding, Hong; Lam, Karen S L; Xu, Aimin

    2014-12-01

    Hepatic gluconeogenesis is a main source of blood glucose during prolonged fasting and is orchestrated by endocrine and neural pathways. Here we show that the hepatocyte-secreted hormone fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) induces fasting gluconeogenesis via the brain-liver axis. Prolonged fasting induces activation of the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) in the liver and subsequent hepatic production of FGF21, which enters into the brain to activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis for release of corticosterone, thereby stimulating hepatic gluconeogenesis. Fasted FGF21 knockout (KO) mice exhibit severe hypoglycemia and defective hepatic gluconeogenesis due to impaired activation of the HPA axis and blunted release of corticosterone, a phenotype similar to that observed in PPARα KO mice. By contrast, intracerebroventricular injection of FGF21 reverses fasting hypoglycemia and impairment in hepatic gluconeogenesis by restoring corticosterone production in both FGF21 KO and PPARα KO mice, whereas all these central effects of FGF21 were abrogated by blockage of hypothalamic FGF receptor-1. FGF21 acts directly on the hypothalamic neurons to activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), thereby stimulating the expression of corticotropin-releasing hormone by activation of the transcription factor cAMP response element binding protein. Therefore, FGF21 maintains glucose homeostasis during prolonged fasting by fine tuning the interorgan cross talk between liver and brain. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  11. Dynamic cross-talk analysis among TNF-R, TLR-4 and IL-1R signalings in TNFα-induced inflammatory responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuang Yung-Jen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Development in systems biology research has accelerated in recent years, and the reconstructions for molecular networks can provide a global view to enable in-depth investigation on numerous system properties in biology. However, we still lack a systematic approach to reconstruct the dynamic protein-protein association networks at different time stages from high-throughput data to further analyze the possible cross-talks among different signaling/regulatory pathways. Methods In this study we integrated protein-protein interactions from different databases to construct the rough protein-protein association networks (PPANs during TNFα-induced inflammation. Next, the gene expression profiles of TNFα-induced HUVEC and a stochastic dynamic model were used to rebuild the significant PPANs at different time stages, reflecting the development and progression of endothelium inflammatory responses. A new cross-talk ranking method was used to evaluate the potential core elements in the related signaling pathways of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4 as well as receptors for tumor necrosis factor (TNF-R and interleukin-1 (IL-1R. Results The highly ranked cross-talks which are functionally relevant to the TNFα pathway were identified. A bow-tie structure was extracted from these cross-talk pathways, suggesting the robustness of network structure, the coordination of signal transduction and feedback control for efficient inflammatory responses to different stimuli. Further, several characteristics of signal transduction and feedback control were analyzed. Conclusions A systematic approach based on a stochastic dynamic model is proposed to generate insight into the underlying defense mechanisms of inflammation via the construction of corresponding signaling networks upon specific stimuli. In addition, this systematic approach can be applied to other signaling networks under different conditions in different species. The algorithm and method

  12. Arabidopsis MYC Transcription Factors Are the Target of Hormonal Salicylic Acid/Jasmonic Acid Cross Talk in Response to Pieris brassicae Egg Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiesing, André; Emonet, Aurélia; Gouhier-Darimont, Caroline; Reymond, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants recognize insect eggs and activate the salicylic acid (SA) pathway. As a consequence, expression of defense genes regulated by the jasmonic acid (JA) pathway is suppressed and larval performance is enhanced. Cross talk between defense signaling pathways is common in plant-pathogen interactions, but the molecular mechanism mediating this phenomenon is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that egg-induced SA/JA antagonism works independently of the APETALA2/ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR (AP2/ERF) transcription factor ORA59, which controls the ERF branch of the JA pathway. In addition, treatment with egg extract did not enhance expression or stability of JASMONATE ZIM-domain transcriptional repressors, and SA/JA cross talk did not involve JASMONATE ASSOCIATED MYC2-LIKEs, which are negative regulators of the JA pathway. Investigating the stability of MYC2, MYC3, and MYC4, three basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that additively control jasmonate-related defense responses, we found that egg extract treatment strongly diminished MYC protein levels in an SA-dependent manner. Furthermore, we identified WRKY75 as a novel and essential factor controlling SA/JA cross talk. These data indicate that insect eggs target the MYC branch of the JA pathway and uncover an unexpected modulation of SA/JA antagonism depending on the biological context in which the SA pathway is activated. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Arabidopsis MYC Transcription Factors Are the Target of Hormonal Salicylic Acid/Jasmonic Acid Cross Talk in Response to Pieris brassicae Egg Extract1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiesing, André; Gouhier-Darimont, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants recognize insect eggs and activate the salicylic acid (SA) pathway. As a consequence, expression of defense genes regulated by the jasmonic acid (JA) pathway is suppressed and larval performance is enhanced. Cross talk between defense signaling pathways is common in plant-pathogen interactions, but the molecular mechanism mediating this phenomenon is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that egg-induced SA/JA antagonism works independently of the APETALA2/ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR (AP2/ERF) transcription factor ORA59, which controls the ERF branch of the JA pathway. In addition, treatment with egg extract did not enhance expression or stability of JASMONATE ZIM-domain transcriptional repressors, and SA/JA cross talk did not involve JASMONATE ASSOCIATED MYC2-LIKEs, which are negative regulators of the JA pathway. Investigating the stability of MYC2, MYC3, and MYC4, three basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that additively control jasmonate-related defense responses, we found that egg extract treatment strongly diminished MYC protein levels in an SA-dependent manner. Furthermore, we identified WRKY75 as a novel and essential factor controlling SA/JA cross talk. These data indicate that insect eggs target the MYC branch of the JA pathway and uncover an unexpected modulation of SA/JA antagonism depending on the biological context in which the SA pathway is activated. PMID:26884488

  14. ECLogger: Cross-Project Catch-Block Logging Prediction Using Ensemble of Classifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Lal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Software developers insert log statements in the source code to record program execution information. However, optimizing the number of log statements in the source code is challenging. Machine learning based within-project logging prediction tools, proposed in previous studies, may not be suitable for new or small software projects. For such software projects, we can use cross-project logging prediction. Aim: The aim of the study presented here is to investigate cross-project logging prediction methods and techniques. Method: The proposed method is ECLogger, which is a novel, ensemble-based, cross-project, catch-block logging prediction model. In the research We use 9 base classifiers were used and combined using ensemble techniques. The performance of ECLogger was evaluated on on three open-source Java projects: Tomcat, CloudStack and Hadoop. Results: ECLogger Bagging, ECLogger AverageVote, and ECLogger MajorityVote show a considerable improvement in the average Logged F-measure (LF on 3, 5, and 4 source -> target project pairs, respectively, compared to the baseline classifiers. ECLogger AverageVote performs best and shows improvements of 3.12% (average LF and 6.08% (average ACC – Accuracy. Conclusion: The classifier based on ensemble techniques, such as bagging, average vote, and majority vote outperforms the baseline classifier. Overall, the ECLogger AverageVote model performs best. The results show that the CloudStack project is more generalizable than the other projects.

  15. Scatter and cross-talk correction for one-day acquisition of 123I-BMIPP and 99mtc-tetrofosmin myocardial SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneta, Tomohiro; Kurihara, Hideyuki; Hakamatsuka, Takashi; Ito, Hiroshi; Maruoka, Shin; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Shoki; Yamada, Shogo

    2004-12-01

    123I-15-(p-iodophenyl)-3-(R,S)-methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) and 99mTc-tetrofosmin (TET) are widely used for evaluation of myocardial fatty acid metabolism and perfusion, respectively. ECG-gated TET SPECT is also used for evaluation of myocardial wall motion. These tests are often performed on the same day to minimize both the time required and inconvenience to patients and medical staff. However, as 123I and 99mTc have similar emission energies (159 keV and 140 keV, respectively), it is necessary to consider not only scattered photons, but also primary photons of each radionuclide detected in the wrong window (cross-talk). In this study, we developed and evaluated the effectiveness of a new scatter and cross-talk correction imaging protocol. Fourteen patients with ischemic heart disease or heart failure (8 men and 6 women with a mean age of 69.4 yr, ranging from 45 to 94 yr) were enrolled in this study. In the routine one-day acquisition protocol, BMIPP SPECT was performed in the morning, with TET SPECT performed 4 h later. An additional SPECT was performed just before injection of TET with the energy window for 99mTc. These data correspond to the scatter and cross-talk factor of the next TET SPECT. The correction was performed by subtraction of the scatter and cross-talk factor from TET SPECT. Data are presented as means +/- S.E. Statistical analyses were performed using Wilcoxon's matched-pairs signed-ranks test, and p corrected total count was 26.0 +/- 5.3%. EDV and ESV after correction were significantly greater than those before correction (p = 0.019 and 0.016, respectively). After correction, EF was smaller than that before correction, but the difference was not significant. Perfusion scores (17 segments per heart) were significantly lower after as compared with those before correction (p correction revealed significant differences in EDV, ESV, and perfusion scores. These observations indicate that scatter and cross-talk correction is required for one

  16. Escape of HIV-1-infected dendritic cells from TRAIL-mediated NK cell cytotoxicity during NK-DC cross-talk--a pivotal role of HMGB1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Thérèse Melki

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Early stages of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1 infection are associated with local recruitment and activation of important effectors of innate immunity, i.e. natural killer (NK cells and dendritic cells (DCs. Immature DCs (iDCs capture HIV-1 through specific receptors and can disseminate the infection to lymphoid tissues following their migration, which is associated to a maturation process. This process is dependent on NK cells, whose role is to keep in check the quality and the quantity of DCs undergoing maturation. If DC maturation is inappropriate, NK cells will kill them ("editing process" at sites of tissue inflammation, thus optimizing the adaptive immunity. In the context of a viral infection, NK-dependent killing of infected-DCs is a crucial event required for early elimination of infected target cells. Here, we report that NK-mediated editing of iDCs is impaired if DCs are infected with HIV-1. We first addressed the question of the mechanisms involved in iDC editing, and we show that cognate NK-iDC interaction triggers apoptosis via the TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL-Death Receptor 4 (DR4 pathway and not via the perforin pathway. Nevertheless, once infected with HIV-1, DC(HIV become resistant to NK-induced TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. This resistance occurs despite normal amounts of TRAIL released by NK cells and comparable DR4 expression on DC(HIV. The escape of DC(HIV from NK killing is due to the upregulation of two anti-apoptotic molecules, the cellular-Flice like inhibitory protein (c-FLIP and the cellular inhibitor of apoptosis 2 (c-IAP2, induced by NK-DC(HIV cognate interaction. High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1, an alarmin and a key mediator of NK-DC cross-talk, was found to play a pivotal role in NK-dependent upregulation of c-FLIP and c-IAP2 in DC(HIV. Finally, we demonstrate that restoration of DC(HIV susceptibility to NK-induced TRAIL killing can be obtained either by silencing c-FLIP and c-IAP2 by specific

  17. Dynamic analysis of pedestrian crossing behaviors on traffic flow at unsignalized mid-block crosswalks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; He, Jing; Luo, Zhiyong; Yang, Wunian; Zhang, Xiping

    2015-05-01

    It is important to study the effects of pedestrian crossing behaviors on traffic flow for solving the urban traffic jam problem. Based on the Nagel-Schreckenberg (NaSch) traffic cellular automata (TCA) model, a new one-dimensional TCA model is proposed considering the uncertainty conflict behaviors between pedestrians and vehicles at unsignalized mid-block crosswalks and defining the parallel updating rules of motion states of pedestrians and vehicles. The traffic flow is simulated for different vehicle densities and behavior trigger probabilities. The fundamental diagrams show that no matter what the values of vehicle braking probability, pedestrian acceleration crossing probability, pedestrian backing probability and pedestrian generation probability, the system flow shows the "increasing-saturating-decreasing" trend with the increase of vehicle density; when the vehicle braking probability is lower, it is easy to cause an emergency brake of vehicle and result in great fluctuation of saturated flow; the saturated flow decreases slightly with the increase of the pedestrian acceleration crossing probability; when the pedestrian backing probability lies between 0.4 and 0.6, the saturated flow is unstable, which shows the hesitant behavior of pedestrians when making the decision of backing; the maximum flow is sensitive to the pedestrian generation probability and rapidly decreases with increasing the pedestrian generation probability, the maximum flow is approximately equal to zero when the probability is more than 0.5. The simulations prove that the influence of frequent crossing behavior upon vehicle flow is immense; the vehicle flow decreases and gets into serious congestion state rapidly with the increase of the pedestrian generation probability.

  18. Tumour suppression in skin and other tissues via cross-talk between vitamin D- and p53-signalling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joerg eReichrath

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available P53 and its family members have been implicated in the direct regulation of the vitamin D receptor (VDR. Vitamin D- and p53-signaling pathways have a significant impact on spontaneous or carcinogen-induced malignant transformation of cells, with VDR and p53 representing important tumour suppressors. VDR and the p53/p63/p73 proteins all function typically as receptors or sensors that turn into transcriptional regulators upon stimulus, with the main difference being that the nuclear VDR is activated as a transcription factor after binding its naturally occurring ligand 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D with high affinity while the p53 family of transcription factors, mostly in the nucleoplasm, responds to a large number of alterations in cell homeostasis commonly referred to as stress. An increasing body of evidence now convincingly demonstrates a cross-talk between vitamin D- and p53-signaling that occurs at different levels, has genome-wide implications and that should be of high importance for many malignancies, including non-melanoma skin cancer. One interaction involves the ability of p53 to increase skin pigmentation via POMC derivatives including alpha-MSH and ACTH. Pigmentation protects the skin against UV-induced DNA damage and skin carcinogenesis, yet on the other hand reduces cutaneous synthesis of vitamin D. A second level of interaction may be through the ability of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D to increase the survival of skin cells after UV irradiation. UV irradiation-surviving cells show significant reductions in thymine dimers in the presence of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D that are associated with increased nuclear p53 protein expression, and significantly reduced NO products. A third level of interaction is documented by the ability of vitamin D compounds to regulate the expression of the murine double minute 2 (MDM2 gene in dependence of the presence of wild-type p53. MDM2 has a well established role as a key negative regulator of p53 activity

  19. Fathead minnow steroidogenesis: in silico analyses reveals tradeoffs between nominal target efficacy and robustness to cross-talk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villeneuve Daniel L

    2010-06-01

    elucidation but microarray evidence shows that homeostatic regulation of the steroidogenic network is likely maintained by a mildly sensitive interaction. We hypothesize that effective network elucidation must consider both the sensitivity of the target as well as the target's robustness to biological noise (in this case, to cross-talk when identifying possible points of regulation.

  20. Galectin-3 mediates cross-talk between K-Ras and Let-7c tumor suppressor microRNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Levy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Galectin-3 (Gal-3 and active (GTP-bound K-Ras contribute to the malignant phenotype of many human tumors by increasing the rate of cell proliferation, survival, and migration. These Gal-3-mediated effects result from a selective binding to K-Ras.GTP, causing increased nanoclustering in the cell membrane and leading to robust Ras signaling. Regulation of the interactions between Gal-3 and active K-Ras is not fully understood. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To gain a better understanding of what regulates the critical interactions between these two proteins, we examined the role of Gal-3 in the regulation of K-Ras by using Gal-3-knockout mouse embryonic-fibroblasts (Gal-3-/- MEFs and/or Gal-3/Gal-1 double-knockout MEFs. We found that knockout of Gal-3 induced strong downregulation (∼60% of K-Ras and K-Ras.GTP. The downregulation was somewhat more marked in the double-knockout MEFs, in which we also detected robust inhibition(∼50% of ERK and Akt activation. These additional effects are probably attributable to inhibition of the weak interactions of K-Ras.GTP with Gal-1. Re-expression of Gal-3 reversed the phenotype of the Gal-3-/- MEFs and dramatically reduced the disappearance of K-Ras in the presence of cycloheximide to the levels seen in wild-type MEFs. Furthermore, phosphorylation of Gal-3 by casein kinase-1 (CK-1 induced translocation of Gal-3 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and the plasma membrane, leading to K-Ras stabilization accompanied by downregulation of the tumor suppressor miRNA let-7c, known to negatively control K-Ras transcription. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest a novel cross-talk between Gal-3-mediated downregulation of let 7c microRNA (which in turn negatively regulates K-Ras transcription and elucidates the association among Gal-3 let-7c and K-Ras transcription/translation, cellular compartmentalization and activity.

  1. Experimental observations on the optimal layout of orientation blocks for safe road crossing by the visually impaired

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyuki Inagaki

    2017-07-01

    For this paper, in order to examine in greater detail the desirable position of orientation blocks relative to TWSI, the authors conducted an experiment using totally blind subjects to evaluate conditions on a 10 m walk that simulated an actual crossing. The results, based on observations of the trajectories walked by participants in the experiment and interviews eliciting their subjective evaluations, showed that separating orientation blocks and blister tactile blocks by about 8–12 cm is effective in constraining lateral deviation at a point 5 m from the start of crossing and that an 8 cm separation was desirable in order to maintain an effective reduction of mental stress while crossing.

  2. Functional ET(A)-ET(B) Receptor Cross-talk in Basilar Artery In Situ From ET(B) Receptor Deficient Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, SeongHun; Gariepy, Cheryl E; Yanagisawa, Masashi; Zuccarello, Mario; Rapoport, Robert M

    2016-03-01

    The role of endothelin (ET)(A)-ET(B) receptor cross-talk in limiting the ET(A) receptor antagonist inhibition of ET-1 constriction is revealed by the partial or complete dependency of the ET(A) receptor antagonist inhibition on functional removal of the ET(B) receptor. Although functional removal of the ET(B) receptor is generally accomplished with ET(B) receptor antagonist, a novel approach using rats containing a naturally occurring deletion mutation in the ET(B) receptor [rescued "spotting lethal" (sl) rats; ET(B)(sl/sl)] demonstrated increased ET(A) receptor antagonist inhibition of ET-1 constriction in vena cava. We investigated whether this deletion mutation was also sufficient to remove the ET(B) receptor dependency of the ET(A) receptor antagonist inhibition of ET-1 constriction in the basilar artery. Consistent with previous reports, ET-1 plasma levels were elevated in ET(B)(sl/sl) as compared with ET(B)(+/+) rats. ET(B) receptor antagonist failed to relax the ET-1 constricted basilar artery from ET(B)(+/+) and ET(B)(sl/sl) rats. Relaxation to combined ET(A) and ET(B) receptor antagonist was greater than relaxation to ET(A) receptor antagonist in the basilar artery from ET(B)(+/+) and, unexpectedly, ET(B)(sl/sl) rats. These findings confirm the presence of ET(A)-ET(B) receptor cross-talk in the basilar artery. We speculate that mutant ET(B) receptor expression produced by alternative splicing may be sufficient to allow cross-talk.

  3. Sci-Fri AM: Imaging - 09: Serial estimation of cross-talk for correction in dual-isotope imaging with dynamic tracers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, R G; Lockwood, J; Wei, L; Duan, D; Fernando, P; Bensimon, C; Ruddy, T D

    2012-07-01

    The recent radioisotope shortage has led to interest in non-Tc99m-based tracers. We have developed a novel I-123-labelled myocardial perfusion imaging tracer. We compare the I123-tracer to the clinical standard of Tc99m tetrofosmin in vivo in a rat model using a small-animal SPECT/CT camera. SPECT distinguishes different isotopes based on the different energies of the emitted gamma rays and thus allows simultaneous comparison of two tracer distributions in the same animal. Dual-isotope imaging is complicated by cross-talk between the energy windows of the isotopes. Standard energy-window-based correction methods are difficult to employ because of the proximity in energy of Tc99m (140keV) and I123 (159keV). Imaging the second tracer's energy window prior to its injection provides an estimate of the cross-talk. However, this estimate is only accurate if the tracer distribution is static. We use serial imaging prior to the introduction of the second tracer to estimate the dynamics of the first tracer and interpolate the cross-talk images to provide a more accurate correction. We used rat models of myocardial disease (n=3). I123 tracer was injected and imaged for one hour at 20min intervals. The Tc99m tetrofosmin was then injected and 30min later, a dual-isotope image was obtained. The impact of this approach is assessed by comparing the differences in the Tc99m-tetrofosmin image using this method with correction by simple correction for physical decay. The interpolative approach improves the accuracy of the correction by 2%-5% and thereby enhances the comparison of the two tracers. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  4. Cross-talk between cognate and noncognate RpoE sigma factors and Zn(2+)-binding anti-sigma factors regulates photooxidative stress response in Azospirillum brasilense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Namrata; Gupta, Ankush; Kumar, Santosh; Mishra, Rajeev; Singh, Chhaya; Tripathi, Anil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Azospirillum brasilense harbors two redox-sensitive Zinc-binding anti-sigma (ZAS) factors (ChrR1 and ChrR2), which negatively regulate the activity of their cognate extra-cytoplasmic function (ECF) σ factors (RpoE1 and RpoE2) by occluding their binding to the core enzyme. Both pairs of RpoE-ChrR control responses to photooxidative stress. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the two RpoE-ChrR pairs cross-talk while responding to the stress. In silico analysis showed a high sequence similarity between ChrR1 and ChrR2 proteins, but differences in redox sensitivity. Using in silico and in vitro methods of protein-protein interaction, we have shown that both ChrR1 and ChrR2 proteins physically bind to their noncognate RpoE proteins. Restoration of the phenotypes of chrR1::Tn5 and chrR2::Km mutants related to carotenoid biosynthesis and photooxidative stress tolerance by expressing chrR1 or chrR2 provided in vivo evidence for the cross-talk. In addition, up- or down-regulation of several identical proteins by expressing chrR1 or chrR2 in the chrR1::Tn5 mutant provided another in vivo evidence for the cross-talk. Although multiple redox-sensitive ZAS anti-σ factors occur in some Gram-positive bacteria, no cross-talk is reported among them. We report here, for the first time, that the two ZAS anti-σ factors of A. brasilense also interact with their noncognate σ factors and affect gene expression. The two redox-sensitive ZAS anti-σ factors in A. brasilense may interact with their cognate as well as noncognate ECF σ factors to play an important role in redox homeostasis by facilitating recovery from the oxidative stress.

  5. Talking Mats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    Talking Mats are visualizations in the handy size of a set of cards used to support interviews with people with mental disabilities.......Talking Mats are visualizations in the handy size of a set of cards used to support interviews with people with mental disabilities....

  6. Cancer-related marketing centrality motifs acting as pivot units in the human signaling network and mediating cross-talk between biological pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wan; Chen, Lina; Li, Xia; Jia, Xu; Feng, Chenchen; Zhang, Liangcai; He, Weiming; Lv, Junjie; He, Yuehan; Li, Weiguo; Qu, Xiaoli; Zhou, Yanyan; Shi, Yuchen

    2013-12-01

    Network motifs in central positions are considered to not only have more in-coming and out-going connections but are also localized in an area where more paths reach the networks. These central motifs have been extensively investigated to determine their consistent functions or associations with specific function categories. However, their functional potentials in the maintenance of cross-talk between different functional communities are unclear. In this paper, we constructed an integrated human signaling network from the Pathway Interaction Database. We identified 39 essential cancer-related motifs in central roles, which we called cancer-related marketing centrality motifs, using combined centrality indices on the system level. Our results demonstrated that these cancer-related marketing centrality motifs were pivotal units in the signaling network, and could mediate cross-talk between 61 biological pathways (25 could be mediated by one motif on average), most of which were cancer-related pathways. Further analysis showed that molecules of most marketing centrality motifs were in the same or adjacent subcellular localizations, such as the motif containing PI3K, PDK1 and AKT1 in the plasma membrane, to mediate signal transduction between 32 cancer-related pathways. Finally, we analyzed the pivotal roles of cancer genes in these marketing centrality motifs in the pathogenesis of cancers, and found that non-cancer genes were potential cancer-related genes.

  7. The dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor NVP-BEZ235 and chloroquine synergize to trigger apoptosis via mitochondrial-lysosomal cross-talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Christian; Hugle, Manuela; Cristofanon, Silvia; Tchoghandjian, Aurélie; Fulda, Simone

    2013-06-01

    On the basis of our previous identification of aberrant phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling as a novel poor prognostic factor in neuroblastoma, we evaluated the dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor BEZ235 in the present study. Here, BEZ235 acts in concert with the lysosomotropic agent chloroquine (CQ) to trigger apoptosis in neuroblastoma cells in a synergistic manner, as calculated by combination index (CI trigger LMP, Bax activation, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and caspase-dependent apoptosis. Lysosome-mediated apoptosis occurs in a ROS-dependent manner, as ROS scavengers significantly reduce BEZ235/CQ-induced loss of MMP, LMP and apoptosis. There is a mitochondrial-lysosomal cross-talk, since lysosomal enzyme inhibitors significantly decrease BEZ235- and CQ-induced drop of MMP and apoptosis. In conclusion, BEZ235 and CQ act in concert to trigger LMP and lysosome-mediated apoptosis via a mitochondrial-lysosomal cross-talk. These findings have important implications for the rational development of PI3K/mTOR inhibitor-based combination therapies. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  8. Compartmentalization Technologies via Self-Assembly and Cross-Linking of Amphiphilic Random Block Copolymers in Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Mayuko; Terashima, Takaya; Matsumoto, Kazuma; Takenaka, Mikihito; Sawamoto, Mitsuo

    2017-05-31

    Orthogonal self-assembly and intramolecular cross-linking of amphiphilic random block copolymers in water afforded an approach to tailor-make well-defined compartments and domains in single polymer chains and nanoaggregates. For a double compartment single-chain polymer, an amphiphilic random block copolymer bearing hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and hydrophobic dodecyl, benzyl, and olefin pendants was synthesized by living radical polymerization (LRP) and postfunctionalization; the dodecyl and benzyl units were incorporated into the different block segments, whereas PEG pendants were statistically attached along a chain. The copolymer self-folded via the orthogonal self-assembly of hydrophobic dodecyl and benzyl pendants in water, followed by intramolecular cross-linking, to form a single-chain polymer carrying double yet distinct hydrophobic nanocompartments. A single-chain cross-linked polymer with a chlorine terminal served as a globular macroinitiator for LRP to provide an amphiphilic tadpole macromolecule comprising a hydrophilic nanoparticle and a hydrophobic polymer tail; the tadpole thus self-assembled into multicompartment aggregates in water.

  9. Evaluation of the optical cross talk level in the SiPMs adopted in ASTRI SST-2M Cherenkov Camera using EASIROC front-end electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Impiombato, D; Giarrusso, S; Mineo, T; Agnetta, G; Biondo, B; Catalano, O; Gargano, C; Rosa, G La; Russo, F; Sottile, G; Belluso, M; Billotta, S; Bonanno, G; Garozzo, S; Marano, D; Romeo, G

    2014-01-01

    ASTRI (Astrofisica con Specchi a Tecnologia Replicante Italiana), is a flagship project of the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research whose main goal is the design and construction of an end-to-end prototype of the Small Size of Telescopes of the Cherenkov Telescope Array. The prototype, named ASTRI SST-2M, will adopt a wide field dual mirror optical system in a Schwarzschild-Couder configuration to explore the VHE range of the electromagnetic spectrum. The camera at the focal plane is based on Silicon Photo-Multipliers detectors which is an innovative solution for the detection astronomical Cherenkov light. This contribution reports some preliminary results on the evaluation of the optical cross talk level among the SiPM pixels foreseen for the ASTRI SST-2M camera

  10. Large scale analysis of co-existing post-translational modifications in histone tails reveals global fine structure of cross-talk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwämmle, Veit; Aspalter, Claudia-Maria; Sidoli, Simone

    2014-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) is a powerful analytical method for the identification and quantification of co-existing post-translational modifications in histone proteins. One of the most important challenges in current chromatin biology is to characterize the relationships between co-existing histone...... sample-specific patterns for the co-frequency of histone post-translational modifications. We implemented a new method to identify positive and negative interplay between pairs of methylation and acetylation marks in proteins. Many of the detected features were conserved between different cell types...... sites but negative cross-talk for distant ones, and for discrete methylation states at Lys-9, Lys-27, and Lys-36 of histone H3, suggesting a more differentiated functional role of methylation beyond the general expectation of enhanced activity at higher methylation states....

  11. Study of Ni Metallization in Macroporous Si Using Wet Chemistry for Radio Frequency Cross-Talk Isolation in Mixed Signal Integrated Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi; Xu, Chengkun; Chong, Kyuchul; Tu, King-Ning; Xie, Ya-Hong

    2011-05-25

    A highly conductive moat or Faraday cage of through-the-wafer thickness in Si substrate was proposed to be effective in shielding electromagnetic interference thereby reducing radio frequency (RF) cross-talk in high performance mixed signal integrated circuits. Such a structure was realized by metallization of selected ultra-high-aspect-ratio macroporous regions that were electrochemically etched in p - Si substrates. The metallization process was conducted by means of wet chemistry in an alkaline aqueous solution containing Ni 2+ without reducing agent. It is found that at elevated temperature during immersion, Ni 2+ was rapidly reduced and deposited into macroporous Si and a conformal metallization of the macropore sidewalls was obtained in a way that the entire porous Si framework was converted to Ni. A conductive moat was as a result incorporated into p - Si substrate. The experimentally measured reduction of crosstalk in this structure is 5~18 dB at frequencies up to 35 GHz.

  12. A devil in the detail: parameter cross-talk from the solar cycle and estimation of solar p-mode frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, W. J.; Jiménez-Reyes, S. J.; Eff-Darwich, A.; Elsworth, Y.; New, R.

    2008-04-01

    Frequencies, powers and damping rates of the solar p modes are all observed to vary over the 11-yr solar activity cycle. Here, we show that simultaneous variations in these parameters give rise to a subtle cross-talk effect, which we call the `devil in the detail', that biases p-mode frequencies estimated from analysis of long power frequency spectra. We also show that the resonant peaks observed in the power frequency spectra show small distortions due to the effect. Most of our paper is devoted to a study of the effect for Sun-as-a-star observations of the low-l p modes. We show that for these data the significance of the effect is marginal. We also touch briefly on the likely l dependence of the effect, and discuss the implications of these results for solar structure inversions.

  13. Study of Ni Metallization in Macroporous Si Using Wet Chemistry for Radio Frequency Cross-Talk Isolation in Mixed Signal Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi; Xu, Chengkun; Chong, Kyuchul; Tu, King-Ning; Xie, Ya-Hong

    2011-01-01

    A highly conductive moat or Faraday cage of through-the-wafer thickness in Si substrate was proposed to be effective in shielding electromagnetic interference thereby reducing radio frequency (RF) cross-talk in high performance mixed signal integrated circuits. Such a structure was realized by metallization of selected ultra-high-aspect-ratio macroporous regions that were electrochemically etched in p− Si substrates. The metallization process was conducted by means of wet chemistry in an alkaline aqueous solution containing Ni2+ without reducing agent. It is found that at elevated temperature during immersion, Ni2+ was rapidly reduced and deposited into macroporous Si and a conformal metallization of the macropore sidewalls was obtained in a way that the entire porous Si framework was converted to Ni. A conductive moat was as a result incorporated into p− Si substrate. The experimentally measured reduction of crosstalk in this structure is 5~18 dB at frequencies up to 35 GHz. PMID:28879960

  14. A Cross-Talk Between NFAT and NF-κB Pathways is Crucial for Nickel-Induced COX-2 Expression in Beas-2B Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, T.; Li, X.; Ding, J.; Luo, W.; Li, J.; Huang, C.

    2013-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is a critical enzyme implicated in chronic inflammation-associated cancer development. Our studies have shown that the exposure of Beas-2B cells, a human bronchial epithelial cell line, to lung carcinogenic nickel compounds results in increased COX-2 expression. However, the signaling pathways leading to nickel-induced COX-2 expression are not well understood. In the current study, we found that the exposure of Beas-2B cells to nickel compounds resulted in the activation of both nuclear factor of activated T cell (NFAT) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). The expression of COX-2 induced upon nickel exposure was inhibited by either a NFAT pharmacological inhibitor or the knockdown of NFAT3 by specific siRNA. We further found that the activation of NFAT and NF-κB was dependent on each other. Since our previous studies have shown that NF-κB activation is critical for nickel-induced COX-2 expression in Beas-2B cells exposed to nickel compounds under same experimental condition, we anticipate that there might be a cross-talk between the activation of NFAT and NF-κB for the COX-2 induction due to nickel exposure in Beas-2B cells. Furthermore, we showed that the scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by introduction of mitochondrial catalase inhibited the activation of both NFAT and NF-κB, and the induction of COX-2 due to nickel exposure. Taken together, our results defining the evidence showing a key role of the cross-talk between NFAT and NF-κB pathways in regulating nickel-induced COX-2 expression, further provide insight into the understanding of the molecular mechanisms linking nickel exposure to its lung carcinogenic effects. PMID:21486220

  15. RAGE and TGF-β1 Cross-Talk Regulate Extracellular Matrix Turnover and Cytokine Synthesis in AGEs Exposed Fibroblast Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Iren Serban

    Full Text Available AGEs accumulation in the skin affects extracellular matrix (ECM turnover and triggers diabetes associated skin conditions and accelerated skin aging. The receptor of AGEs (RAGE has an essential contribution to cellular dysfunction driven by chronic inflammatory responses while TGF-β1 is critical in both dermal homeostasis and inflammation. We investigated the contribution of RAGE and TGF-β1 to the modulation of inflammatory response and ECM turnover in AGEs milieu, using a normal fibroblast cell line. RAGE, TGF-β1, collagen I and III gene and protein expression were upregulated after exposure to AGEs-BSA, and MMP-2 was activated. AGEs-RAGE was pivotal in NF-κB dependent collagen I expression and joined with TGF-β1 to stimulate collagen III expression, probably via ERK1/2 signaling. AGEs-RAGE axis induced upregulation of TGF-β1, TNF-α and IL-8 cytokines. TNF-α and IL-8 were subjected to TGF-β1 negative regulation. RAGE's proinflammatory signaling also antagonized AGEs-TGF-β1 induced fibroblast contraction, suggesting the existence of an inhibitory cross-talk mechanism between TGF-β1 and RAGE signaling. RAGE and TGF-β1 stimulated anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-2 and IL-4 expression. GM-CSF and IL-6 expression appeared to be dependent only on TGF-β1 signaling. Our data also indicated that IFN-γ upregulated in AGEs-BSA milieu in a RAGE and TGF-β1 independent mechanism. Our findings raise the possibility that RAGE and TGF-β1 are both involved in fibrosis development in a complex cross-talk mechanism, while also acting on their own individual targets. This study contributes to the understanding of impaired wound healing associated with diabetes complications.

  16. Power Talk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hongpeng; Yang, Yongheng; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a novel communication strategy called Power Talk is introduced to realize the power line communication among the Voltage Source Converters (VSC) of DC MicroGrids (MGs). Each VSC transmits information by changing the control parameters, and receives information by observing the local...

  17. Power Talk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar; Angjelichinoski, Marko

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a novel communication strategy for DC Micro Grids (MGs), termed power talk, in which the devices communicate by modulating the power levels in the DC bus. The information is transmitted by varying the parameters that the MG units use to control the level of the common bus voltage...

  18. CrossTalk. The Journal of Defense Software Engineering. Volume 25, Number 1, Jan/Feb 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    reap its full value. CrossTalk—January/February 2012 25 HIGH MATURITY - THE PAYOFF expanded target audience of producers, buyers, and users of...Grocery lists are longer than macaroni & cheese, diet Pepsi and Ho-Hos. • You have read this list, and realized that several items apply to you. And

  19. Synthesis and Characterization of Cleavable Core-Cross-Linked Micelles Based on Amphiphilic Block Copolypeptoids as Smart Drug Carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ang; Zhang, Donghui

    2016-03-14

    Amphiphilic block copolypeptoids consisting of a hydrophilic poly(N-ethyl glycine) segment and a hydrophobic poly[(N-propargyl glycine)-r-(N-decyl glycine)] random copolymer segment [PNEG-b-P(NPgG-r-NDG), EPgD] have been synthesized by sequential primary amine-initiated ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of the corresponding N-alkyl N-carboxyanhydride monomers. The block copolypeptoids form micelles in water and the micellar core can be cross-linked with a disulfide-containing diazide cross-linker by copper-mediated alkyne-azide cycloaddition (CuAAC) in aqueous solution. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis revealed the formation of spherical micelles with uniform size for both the core-cross-linked micelles (CCLMs) and non-cross-linked micelles (NCLMs) precursors for selective block copolypeptoid polymers. The CCLMs exhibited increased dimensional stability relative to the NCLMs in DMF, a nonselective solvent for the core and corona segments. Micellar dissociation of CCLMs can be induced upon addition of a reducing agent (e.g., dithiothreitol) in dilute aqueous solutions, as verified by a combination of fluorescence spectroscopy, size exclusion chromatography (SEC), and (1)H NMR spectroscopic measurement. Doxorubicin (DOX), an anticancer drug, can be loaded into the hydrophobic core of CCLMs with a maximal 23% drug loading capacity (DLC) and 37% drug loading efficiency (DLE). In vitro DOX release from the CCLMs can be triggered by DTT (10 mM), in contrast to significantly reduced DOX release in the absence of DTT, attesting to the reductively responsive characteristic of the CCLMs. While the CCLMs exhibited minimal cytotoxicity toward HepG2 cancer cells, DOX-loaded CCLMs inhibited the proliferation of the HepG2 cancer cells in a concentration and time dependent manner, suggesting the controlled release of DOX from the DOX-loaded CCLMS in the cellular environment.

  20. The Cross-talk Between TGF-β1 and Dlk1 Mediates Early Chondrogenesis During Embryonic Endochondral Ossification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taipaleenmaki, Hanna; M, Linda; Chen, Li

    2012-01-01

    Dlkl/Pref-1/FA1 (delta like-1/preadipocyte factor-1/Fetal Antigen-1) is a novel surface marker for embryonic chondroprogenitor cells undergoing lineage progression from proliferation to prehypertrophic stages. However, mechanisms mediating control of its expression during chondrogenesis...... during mesenchymal condensation and chondrocyte proliferation, in parallel with expression of Sox9 and Col2a1, and was down-regulated upon the expression of Col10a1 by hypertrophic chondrocytes. Among a number of molecules that affected chondrogenesis, TGF-β1-induced proliferation of chondroprogenitors...... was associated with decreased Dlk1 expression. This effect was abolished by TGF-β signalling inhibitor SB431542, suggesting regulation of Dlk1/FA1 by TGF-β1 signalling in chondrogenesis. TGF-β1-induced Smad phosphorylation and chondrogenesis were significantly increased in Dlk1 (-/-) MEF, while they were blocked...

  1. Prostate Cancer Cell–Stromal Cell Cross-Talk via FGFR1 Mediates Antitumor Activity of Dovitinib in Bone Metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xinhai; Corn, Paul G.; Yang, Jun; Palanisamy, Nallasivam; Starbuck, Michael W.; Efstathiou, Eleni; Li-Ning Tapia, Elsa M.; Zurita, Amado J.; Aparicio, Ana; Ravoori, Murali K.; Vazquez, Elba S.; Robinson, Dan R.; Wu, Yi-Mi; Cao, Xuhong; Iyer, Matthew K.; McKeehan, Wallace; Kundra, Vikas; Wang, Fen; Troncoso, Patricia; Chinnaiyan, Arul M.; Logothetis, Christopher J.; Navone, Nora M.

    2015-01-01

    Bone is the most common site of prostate cancer (PCa) progression to a therapy-resistant, lethal phenotype. We found that blockade of fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) with the receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor dovitinib has clinical activity in a subset of men with castration-resistant PCa and bone metastases. Our integrated analyses suggest that FGF signaling mediates a positive feedback loop between PCa cells and bone cells and that blockade of FGFR1 in osteoblasts partially mediates the antitumor activity of dovitinib by improving bone quality and by blocking PCa cell–bone cell interaction. These findings account for clinical observations such as reductions in lesion size and intensity on bone scans, lymph node size, and tumor-specific symptoms without proportional declines in prostate-specific antigen concentration. Our findings suggest that targeting FGFR has therapeutic activity in advanced PCa and provide direction for the development of therapies with FGFR inhibitors. PMID:25186177

  2. CrossTalk: The Journal of Defense Software Engineering. Volume 27, Number 6, November/December 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    conclusion lest the analysis is biased . 6 CrossTalk—November/December 2014 SOFTWARE ENGINEERING TOOLS AND THE PROCESSES THEY SUPPORT To demonstrate...In some Agile development environments the relative separa- tion between tools and processes is so seamless as to be almost subconscious to process...a well-articulated process description, but if the performer is a tool lover, he will find fault with the defined process, always having a bias for

  3. Measurement of fiducial, differential and production cross sections in the H to gamma gamma decay channel with ATLAS (YSF talk)

    CERN Document Server

    Menary, Stephen Burns; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The production, simplified template (STXS), fiducial and differential cross section measurements are presented in the $H\\rightarrow\\gamma\\gamma$ channel using $36.1~\\text{fb}^{-1}$ of data collected by the ATLAS detector at a centre-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s}=13~\\text{TeV}$. Limits are placed on the strengths of several dimension-6 effective Lagrangian terms using the Strongly Interacting Light Higgs (SILH) basis.

  4. Pedestrian temporal and spatial gap acceptance at mid-block street crossing in developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Digvijay S; Patil, Gopal R

    2015-02-01

    Most of the midblock pedestrian crossings on urban roads in India are uncontrolled; wherein the high degree of discretion in pedestrians' behavior while crossing the traffic stream, has made the situation complex to analyze. Vehicles do not yield to pedestrians, even though the traffic laws give priority to pedestrians over motorized vehicles at unsignalized pedestrian crossings. Therefore, a pedestrian has to decide if an available gap is safe or not for crossing. This paper aims to investigate pedestrian temporal and spatial gap acceptance for midblock street crossings. Field data were collected using video camera at two midblock pedestrian crossings. The data extraction in laboratory resulted in 1107 pedestrian gaps. Available gaps, pedestrians' decision, traffic volume, etc. were extracted from the videos. While crossing a road with multiple lanes, rolling gap acceptance behavior was observed. Using binary logit analysis, six utility models were developed, three each for temporal and spatial gaps. The 50th percentile temporal and spatial gaps ranged from 4.1 to 4.8s and 67 to 79 m respectively, whereas the 85th percentile temporal and spatial gaps ranged from 5 to 5.8s and 82 to 95 m respectively. These gap values were smaller than that reported in the studies in developed countries. The speed of conflicting vehicle was found to be significant in spatial gap but not in temporal gap acceptance. The gap acceptance decision was also found to be affected by the type of conflicting vehicles. The insights from this study can be used for the safety and performance evaluation of uncontrolled midblock street crossings in developing countries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  5. Systems Biology Model of Interactions Between Tissue Growth Factors and DNA Damage Pathways: Low Dose Response and Cross-Talk in TGFbeta and ATM Signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neill, Peter [University of Oxford; Anderson, Jennifer [University of Oxford

    2014-10-02

    The etiology of radiation carcinogenesis has been described in terms of aberrant changes that span several levels of biological organization. Growth factors regulate many important cellular and tissue functions including apoptosis, differentiation and proliferation. A variety of genetic and epigenetic changes of growth factors have been shown to contribute to cancer initiation and progression. It is known that cellular and tissue damage to ionizing radiation is in part initiated by the production of reactive oxygen species, which can activate cytokine signaling, and the DNA damage response pathways, most notably the ATM signaling pathway. Recently the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) pathway has been shown to regulate or directly interact with the ATM pathway in the response to radiation. The relevance of this interaction with the ATM pathway is not known although p53 becomes phosphorylated and DNA damage responses are involved. However, growth factor interactions with DNA damage responses have not been elucidated particularly at low doses and further characterization of their relationship to cancer processes is warranted. Our goal will be to use a systems biology approach to mathematically and experimentally describe the low dose responses and cross-talk between the ATM and TGFβ pathways initiated by low and high LET radiation. We will characterize ATM and TGFβ signaling in epithelial and fibroblast cells using 2D models and ultimately extending to 3D organotypic cell culture models to begin to elucidate possible differences that may occur for different cell types and/or inter-cellular communication. We will investigate the roles of the Smad and Activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) proteins as the potential major contributors to cross- talk between the TGFβ and ATM pathways, and links to cell cycle control and/or the DNA damage response, and potential differences in their responses at low and high doses. We have developed various experimental

  6. Concluding talk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong-Mo, C.

    1984-05-01

    The concluding talk reviews the present state of knowledge of elementary particle physics, based on the research papers presented at the VII Warsaw symposium. Most of the meeting was devoted to testing the standard electroweak theory and QCD, and these topics were discussed in detail. Other research work on hadron-nucleus collisions, solitons, skyrmion, cluster models, diquarks, infra-red divergences, jet calculus and quantised string was considered. Experimental facilities for future exploration studies, at DESY, CERN and the U.S. were mentioned. (U.K.)

  7. c-Met Overexpression Contributes to the Acquired Apoptotic Resistance of Nonadherent Ovarian Cancer Cells through a Cross Talk Mediated by Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase and Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 1/2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggie K.S. Tang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic cancer mainly because of widespread peritoneal dissemination and malignant ascites. Key to this is the capacity of tumor cells to escape suspension-induced apoptosis (anoikis, which also underlies their resistance to chemotherapy. Here, we used a nonadherent cell culture model to investigate the molecular mechanisms of apoptotic resistance of ovarian cancer cells that may mimic the chemoresistance found in solid tumors. We found that ovarian cancer cells acquired a remarkable resistance to anoikis and apoptosis induced by exposure to clinically relevant doses of two front-line chemotherapeutic drugs cisplatin and paclitaxel when grown in three-dimensional than monolayer cultures. Inhibition of the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF receptor c-Met, which is frequently overexpressed in ovarian cancer, by a specific inhibitor or small interfering RNA blocked the acquired anoikis resistance and restored chemosensitivity in three-dimensional not in two-dimensional cultures. These effects were found to be dependent on both phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK 1/2 signaling pathways. Inhibitors of PI3K/Akt abrogated ERK1/2 activation and its associated anoikis resistance in response to HGF, suggesting a signaling relay between these two pathways. Furthermore, we identified a central role of Ras as a mechanism of this cross talk. Interestingly, Ras did not lie upstream of PI3K/Akt, whereas PI3K/Akt signaling to ERK1/2 involved Ras. These findings shed new light on the apoptotic resistance mechanism of nonadherent ovarian cancer ascites cells and may have important clinical implications.

  8. Ectopic cross-talk between thyroid and retinoic acid signaling: A possible etiology for spinal neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huili; Bai, Baoling; Zhang, Qin; Bao, Yihua; Guo, Jin; Chen, Shuyuan; Miao, Chunyue; Liu, Xiaozhen; Zhang, Ting

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies have highlighted the connections between neural tube defects (NTDs) and both thyroid hormones (TH) and vitamin A. However, whether the two hormonal signaling pathways interact in NTDs has remained unclear. We measured the expression levels of TH signaling genes in human fetuses with spinal NTDs associated with maternal hyperthyroidism as well as levels of retinoic acid (RA) signaling genes in mouse fetuses exposed to an overdose of RA using NanoString or real-time PCR on spinal cord tissues. Interactions between the two signaling pathways were detected by ChIP assays. The data revealed attenuated DIO2/DIO3 switching in fetuses with NTDs born to hyperthyroid mothers. The promoters of the RA signaling genes CRABP1 and RARB were ectopically occupied by increased RXRG and RXRB but displayed decreased levels of inhibitory histone modifications, suggesting that elevated TH signaling abnormally stimulates RA signaling genes. Conversely, in the mouse model, the observed decrease in Dio3 expression could be explained by increased levels of inhibitory histone modifications in the Dio3 promoter region, suggesting that overactive RA signaling may ectopically derepress TH signaling. This study thus raises in vivo a possible abnormal cross-promotion between two different hormonal signals through their common RXRs and the subsequent recruitment of histone modifications, prompting further investigation into their involvement in the etiology of spinal NTDs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. hybrid talk in mongrel town – questions of identity in the cross-cultural space of the new Macao poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Kelen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Macao is a place of plural identities; or it will be more nuanced to say that identity in Macao is dynamic, layered, often paradoxical – for instance, at once cosmopolitan and parochial. Identity, for the poet, is gleaned from an historicized knowledge of position. Among the key themes of contemporary Macao poetry, chance and luck loom large, along with their figuration in Macao life through sites such as casinos and temples, through personae such as those of the gambler, the beggar, the prostitute. Macao as dot-on-the-map is likewise conceived as a site for all kinds of portal semiotics, as paradigm for cultural crossing and cultural shift. In the identity of the Macanese we find conditions emblematic of Macao’s situation more generally. Here – however the soul is unified or split – the body is of two places. The poet’s identity is something beyond what is circumscribed in national or local devotions. A poetic sense of place-based identity depends in some degree on the poet’s reflexive awareness of him/herself as a poet and of the work (and play of making poetry. It depends, that is to say, on a consciousness of tradition/s and of breaks from tradition/s. That consciousness points to the infinite task in which every poet engages when s/he sees herself as participating in a tradition or a community; when s/he acknowledges that is, that words are from somewhere and that words have a destination.

  10. Determination of Importance Evaluation for the ESF Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block Cross Drift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S. Goodin

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this DIE is to determine whether the ECRB-Cross-Drift-related activities, as identified in Section 6.0, could potentially impact (1) Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) testing or (2) the waste isolation capabilities of a potential repository at the Yucca Mountain site. Any controls necessary to limit such potential impacts are also identified herein

  11. Determination of Importance Evaluation for the ESF Enhanced Charcterization of the Repository Block Cross Drift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Goodin

    2002-01-09

    The objective of this DIE is to determine whether the ECRB-Cross-Drift-related activities, as identified in Section 6.0, could potentially impact (1) Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) testing or (2) the waste isolation capabilities of a potential repository at the Yucca Mountain site. Any controls necessary to limit such potential impacts are also identified herein.

  12. CDH1 and IL1-beta expression dictates FAK and MAPKK-dependent cross-talk between cancer cells and human mesenchymal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-toub, Mashael; Vishnubalaji, Radhakrishnan; Hamam, Rimi

    2015-01-01

    in signaling pathways related to bone formation, FAK and MAPKK signaling. Co-culturing hMSCs with MCF7 cells increased their growth evidenced by increase in Ki67 and PCNA staining in tumor cells in direct contact with hMSCs niche. On the other hand, co-culturing hMSCs with FaDu, HT-29 or MDA-MB-231 cells led......INTRODUCTION: Tumor microenvironment conferred by stromal (mesenchymal) stem cells (MSCs) plays a key role in tumor development, progression, and response to therapy. Defining the role of MSCs in tumorigenesis is crucial for their safe utilization in regenerative medicine. Herein, we conducted...... comprehensive investigation of the cross-talk between human MSCs (hMSCs) and 12 cancer cell lines derived from breast, prostate, colon, head/neck and skin. METHODS: Human bone marrow-derived MSC line expressing green fluorescence protein (GFP) (hMSC-GFP) were co-cultured with the following cancer cell lines...

  13. Blood borne hormones in a cross-talk between peripheral and brain mechanisms regulating blood pressure, the role of circumventricular organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ufnal, Marcin; Skrzypecki, Janusz

    2014-04-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that blood borne hormones modulate brain mechanisms regulating blood pressure. This appears to be mediated by the circumventricular organs which are located in the walls of the brain ventricular system and lack the blood-brain barrier. Recent evidence shows that neurons of the circumventricular organs express receptors for the majority of cardiovascular hormones. Intracerebroventricular infusions of hormones and their antagonists is one approach to evaluate the influence of blood borne hormones on the neural mechanisms regulating arterial blood pressure. Interestingly, there is no clear correlation between peripheral and central effects of cardiovascular hormones. For example, angiotensin II increases blood pressure acting peripherally and centrally, whereas peripherally acting pressor catecholamines decrease blood pressure when infused intracerebroventricularly. The physiological role of such dual hemodynamic responses has not yet been clarified. In the paper we review studies on hemodynamic effects of catecholamines, neuropeptide Y, angiotensin II, aldosterone, natriuretic peptides, endothelins, histamine and bradykinin in the context of their role in a cross-talk between peripheral and brain mechanisms involved in the regulation of arterial blood pressure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) and its Cross-Talks with Topoisomerases: Challenges and Opportunities for Multi-Target Anticancer Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Monika; Sharma, Gourav; Joshi, Gaurav; Kumar, Raj

    2016-01-01

    The interactions of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) and topoisomerases have been seen in various cancer including brain, breast, ovarian, colorectal, gastric, etc. The studies in adenocarcinoma patients, chromogenic in situ hybridization, western blotting, receptor binding assay and electromobility shift assays, etc. threw light on the biophysical and biochemical features of EGFR and Topoisomerase cross-talks. It has been revealed that both the isomers of topoisomerase (Topo I and Topo II) interact via different mechanisms with EGFR. Topo II and HER2 share the same location i.e. 17q12-21 regions which could be a possible cause of predominant interactions seen between them. Topo I and EGFR interactions are mechanically related to the nucleolar translocation of heparenase by EGF and c-Jun. We compiled literature findings including the mechanistic interventions, signaling pathways, patents, in vitro and in vivo data of tested inhibitors and combinations in clinical trials, which provide convincing confirmations for the interactions of EGFR and topoisomerases. These interactions may be used for deriving a consistent route of mechanism, design and development of standard drug combinations and dual or multi inhibitors.

  15. Pathway Model of the Kinetics of the TGFbeta Antagonist Smad7 and Cross-Talk with the ATM and WNT Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carra, Claudio; Wang, Minli; Huff, Janice L.; Hada, Megumi; ONeill, Peter; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2010-01-01

    Signal transduction controls cellular and tissue responses to radiation. Transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) is an important regulator of cell growth and differentiation and tissue homeostasis, and is often dis-regulated in tumor formation. Mathematical models of signal transduction pathways can be used to elucidate how signal transduction varies with radiation quality, and dose and dose-rate. Furthermore, modeling of tissue specific responses can be considered through mechanistic based modeling. We developed a mathematical model of the negative feedback regulation by Smad7 in TGFbeta-Smad signaling and are exploring possible connections to the WNT/beta -catenin, and ATM/ATF2 signaling pathways. A pathway model of TGFbeta-Smad signaling that includes Smad7 kinetics based on data in the scientific literature is described. Kinetic terms included are TGFbeta/Smad transcriptional regulation of Smad7 through the Smad3-Smad4 complex, Smad7-Smurf1 translocation from nucleus to cytoplasm, and Smad7 negative feedback regulation of the TGFO receptor through direct binding to the TGFO receptor complex. The negative feedback controls operating in this pathway suggests non-linear responses in signal transduction, which are described mathematically. We then explored possibilities for cross-talk mediated by Smad7 between DNA damage responses mediated by ATM, and with the WNT pathway and consider the design of experiments to test model driven hypothesis. Numerical comparisons of the mathematical model to experiments and representative predictions are described.

  16. Molecular mechanisms of BMP-induced bone formation: Cross-talk between BMP and NF-κB signaling pathways in osteoblastogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eijiro Jimi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Osteoblasts are bone-forming cells that differentiate from mesenchymal stem cells. Differentiation processes are coordinately and dynamically controlled in the mesenchymal cells by specific signal transduction pathways. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs, members of the TGF-β superfamily, induce not only bone formation in vivo, but also osteoblast differentiation of mesenchymal cells in vitro. BMP signals are transduced from plasma membrane receptors to the nucleus through both Smad-dependent and -independent pathways, and are regulated by many extracellular and intercellular proteins that interact with BMPs or components of BMP signaling pathways. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the role of BMPs in osteoblast differentiation, it is important to elucidate the BMP signaling transduction pathways that are active during osteoblast differentiation. In this review, we summarize the BMP signaling pathways that are known to function in osteoblast development. We also describe our recent findings regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying the cross-talk between BMP/Smad and NF-κB pathways in osteoblast differentiation.

  17. Study of Ni Metallization in Macroporous Si Using Wet Chemistry for Radio Frequency Cross-Talk Isolation in Mixed Signal Integrated Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King-Ning Tu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A highly conductive moat or Faraday cage of through-the-wafer thickness in Si substrate was proposed to be effective in shielding electromagnetic interference thereby reducing radio frequency (RF cross-talk in high performance mixed signal integrated circuits. Such a structure was realized by metallization of selected ultra-high-aspect-ratio macroporous regions that were electrochemically etched in p− Si substrates. The metallization process was conducted by means of wet chemistry in an alkaline aqueous solution containing Ni2+ without reducing agent. It is found that at elevated temperature during immersion, Ni2+ was rapidly reduced and deposited into macroporous Si and a conformal metallization of the macropore sidewalls was obtained in a way that the entire porous Si framework was converted to Ni. A conductive moat was as a result incorporated into p− Si substrate. The experimentally measured reduction of crosstalk in this structure is 5~18 dB at frequencies up to 35 GHz.

  18. Aspartyl-(asparaginyl β-Hydroxylase, Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α and Notch Cross-Talk in Regulating Neuronal Motility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margot Lawton

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspartyl-(Asparaginyl-β-Hydroxylase (AAH promotes cell motility by hydroxylating Notch. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor, type 1 (IGF-I stimulate AAH through Erk MAP K and phosphoinositol-3-kinase-Akt (PI3K-Akt. However, hypoxia/oxidative stress may also regulate AAH . Hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1α regulates cell migration, signals through Notch, and is regulated by hypoxia/oxidative stress, insulin/IGF signaling and factor inhibiting HIF-1α (FIH hydroxylation. To examine cross-talk between HIF-1α and AAH , we measured AAH , Notch-1, Jagged-1, FIH, HIF-1α, HIF-1β and the hairy and enhancer of split 1 (HE S-1 transcription factor expression and directional motility in primitive neuroectodermal tumor 2 (PNET2 human neuronal cells that were exposed to H2O2 or transfected with short interfering RNA duplexes (siRNA targeting AAH , Notch-1 or HIF-1α. We found that: (1 AAH , HIF-1α and neuronal migration were stimulated by H2O2; (2 si-HIF-1α reduced AAH expression and cell motility; (3 si-AAH inhibited Notch and cell migration, but not HIF-1α and (4 si-Notch-1 increased FIH and inhibited HIF-1α. These findings suggest that AAH and HIF-1α crosstalk within a hydroxylation-regulated signaling pathway that may be transiently driven by oxidative stress and chronically regulated by insulin/IGF signaling.

  19. On the crucial cerebellar wound healing-related pathways and their cross-talks after traumatic brain injury in Danio rerio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chou Wu

    Full Text Available Upon injury, the direct damage and the subsequent secondary injury in the brain often result in chronic neurological disorders. Due to multifactorial nature of secondary injury and subsequent complex cellular responses, much of the underlying mechanisms are unclear. This study used an adult zebrafish cerebellum injury model to investigate the phenotypes and the secondary injury responses for recovery mechanisms of injured brain. Using the time course microarray analysis, a candidate protein-protein interaction (PPI network was refined as cerebellar wound healing PPI network by dynamic modeling and big data mining. Pathway enrichment and ontological analysis were incorporated into the refined network to highlight the main molecular scheme of cerebellar wound healing. Several significant pathways, including chemokine, Phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases, and axon guidance signaling pathway and their cross-talks through PI3K, PAK2, and PLXNA3 were identified to coordinate for neurogenesis and angiogenesis, which are essential for the restoration of the injured brain. Our finding provides an insight into the molecular restoration mechanisms after traumatic brain injury, and open up new opportunity to devise the treatment for traumatic brain injury in human.

  20. Cross-talk interactions of exogenous nitric oxide and sucrose modulates phenylpropanoid metabolism in yellow lupine embryo axes infected with Fusarium oxysporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morkunas, Iwona; Formela, Magda; Floryszak-Wieczorek, Jolanta; Marczak, Łukasz; Narożna, Dorota; Nowak, Witold; Bednarski, Waldemar

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the study was to examine cross-talk of exogenous nitric oxide (NO) and sucrose in the mechanisms of synthesis and accumulation of isoflavonoids in embryo axes of Lupinus luteus L. cv. Juno. It was verified whether the interaction of these molecules can modulate the defense response of axes to infection and development of the pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lupini. Sucrose alone strongly stimulated a high level of genistein glucoside in axes pretreated with exogenous nitric oxide (SNP or GSNO) and non-pretreated axes. As a result of amplification of the signal coming from sucrose and GSNO, high isoflavonoids accumulation was observed (+Sn+GSNO). It needs to be stressed that infection in tissues pretreated with SNP/GSNO and cultured on the medium with sucrose (+Si+SNP/+Si+GSNO) very strongly enhances the accumulation of free isoflavone aglycones. In +Si+SNP axes phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity was high up to 72h. As early as at 12h in +Si+SNP axes an increase was recorded in gene expression level of the specific isoflavonoid synthesis pathway. At 24h in +Si+SNP axes a very high total antioxidant capacity dependent on the pool of fast antioxidants was noted. Post-infection generation of semiquinone radicals was lower in axes with a high level of sucrose than with a deficit. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. In vitro manganese-dependent cross-talk between Streptococcus mutans VicK and GcrR: implications for overlapping stress response pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S Downey

    Full Text Available Streptococcus mutans, a major acidogenic component of the dental plaque biofilm, has a key role in caries etiology. Previously, we demonstrated that the VicRK two-component signal transduction system modulates biofilm formation, oxidative stress and acid tolerance responses in S. mutans. Using in vitro phosphorylation assays, here we demonstrate for the first time, that in addition to activating its cognate response regulator protein, the sensor kinase, VicK can transphosphorylate a non-cognate stress regulatory response regulator, GcrR, in the presence of manganese. Manganese is an important micronutrient that has been previously correlated with caries incidence, and which serves as an effector of SloR-mediated metalloregulation in S. mutans. Our findings supporting regulatory effects of manganese on the VicRK, GcrR and SloR, and the cross-regulatory networks formed by these components are more complex than previously appreciated. Using DNaseI footprinting we observed overlapping DNA binding specificities for VicR and GcrR in native promoters, consistent with these proteins being part of the same transcriptional regulon. Our results also support a role for SloR as a positive regulator of the vicRK two component signaling system, since its transcription was drastically reduced in a SloR-deficient mutant. These findings demonstrate the regulatory complexities observed with the S. mutans manganese-dependent response, which involves cross-talk between non-cognate signal transduction systems (VicRK and GcrR to modulate stress response pathways.

  2. Power Talk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angjelichinoski, Marko; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar

    2016-01-01

    A standard way to realize communication in microgrid control is to use an external communication network, such as modems for wireless or power-line communication, whose implementation may be inefficient in terms of deployment cost, complexity, and system stability. In this chapter we present......, while its reliability and availability draw on the reliability and availability of the microgrid power transmission system....... a communication solution, denoted as power talk, which is solely based on the use of the existing microgrid power equipment (i.e., power electronics and buses). The pivotal idea is to modulate information in the power-related parameters of the microgrid buses by use of the flexibility of power electronic...

  3. Future Talks,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Defeyt

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available La conservation des matériaux modernes et les difficultés qui la caractérisent étaient l’objet du colloque international Future Talks, organisé par Die Neue Sammlung, The International Design Museum, les 22 et 23 octobre 2009 à Munich. Conservateurs-restaurateurs spécialisés, représentants des  institutions muséales les plus prestigieuses d’Europe et d’outre-Atlantique ainsi que chercheurs en sciences appliquées y ont présenté leurs travaux et recherches. En matière de design, d’art moderne e...

  4. Small talk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Przybylski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The poem Small talk conjures up a communicative situation in which the main character, a newcomer from Poland, answers conventional questions related to their country. Bearing in mind the fact that this poem is set during a military dictatorship, superficial interest in his homeland may trigger a feeling of impatience. This is at least the impression formed if we adopt the perspective defined within the romantic tradition, and when taking into account the conventional poetry of martial law in Poland. Nevertheless, Barańczak retains an ironic distance towards such communicative situations and, as a consequence, does not create poetry that meets most readersʼ expectations. His poetic imperative for verbal art to be the expression of mistrust remains valid.

  5. Is disability in leprosy still a burden? A cross-sectional study in a rural block in Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Dinesh Kumar; Muthunarayanan, Logaraj

    2018-01-01

    Leprosy, a disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, is an important cause of preventable disability. The present cross-sectional study was undertaken among leprosy-affected persons in a rural block in Kanchipuram District, Tamil Nadu, India in the year 2013. The sample included treatment completed leprosy affected persons ≥18 y of age. Persons with difficulty in cognition and those who were not willing to participate in the study were excluded. Subjects were also graded for any deformities of the body using World Health Organization (WHO) disability grading. The present study, carried out among 171 people affected with leprosy in a rural block, showed the lifetime prevalence of disability was 88.3% (95% confidence interval 83.4 to 93.1). The mean age of the study participants was 61.58±12.31 y with almost equal distribution of males (49.7%) and females (50.3%). WHO disability grading showed that 147 (86%) of the subjects were grade 2 (visible deformity) while only 4 (2.3%) were grade 1. It was found that education, occupation, income and duration since diagnosis had statistical significance with disability. Disability was observed more in males and the most common type of deformity was hand and foot deformity. Further studies are needed to assess those patients who completed treatment and recommends periodic neurological assessment of those in treatment.

  6. Cross-talk between PKA-Cβ and p65 mediates synergistic induction of PDE4B by roflumilast and NTHi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susuki-Miyata, Seiko; Miyata, Masanori; Lee, Byung-Cheol; Xu, Haidong; Kai, Hirofumi; Yan, Chen; Li, Jian-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Phosphodiesterase 4B (PDE4B) plays a key role in regulating inflammation. Roflumilast, a phosphodiesterase (PDE)4-selective inhibitor, has recently been approved for treating severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with exacerbation. However, there is also clinical evidence suggesting the development of tachyphylaxis or tolerance on repeated dosing of roflumilast and the possible contribution of PDE4B up-regulation, which could be counterproductive for suppressing inflammation. Thus, understanding how PDE4B is up-regulated in the context of the complex pathogenesis and medications of COPD may help improve the efficacy and possibly ameliorate the tolerance of roflumilast. Here we show that roflumilast synergizes with nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), a major bacterial cause of COPD exacerbation, to up-regulate PDE4B2 expression in human airway epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo. Up-regulated PDE4B2 contributes to the induction of certain important chemokines in both enzymatic activity-dependent and activity-independent manners. We also found that protein kinase A catalytic subunit β (PKA-Cβ) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 subunit were required for the synergistic induction of PDE4B2. PKA-Cβ phosphorylates p65 in a cAMP-dependent manner. Moreover, Ser276 of p65 is critical for mediating the PKA-Cβ–induced p65 phosphorylation and the synergistic induction of PDE4B2. Collectively, our data unveil a previously unidentified mechanism underlying synergistic up-regulation of PDE4B2 via a cross-talk between PKA-Cβ and p65 and may help develop new therapeutic strategies to improve the efficacy of PDE4 inhibitor. PMID:25831493

  7. Anti-inflammatory and anti-chemotactic effects of dietary flaxseed oil on CD8(+) T cell/adipocyte-mediated cross-talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Jennifer M; Liddle, Danyelle M; Brown, Morgan J; Zarepoor, Leila; De Boer, Anna A; Ma, David W L; Power, Krista A; Robinson, Lindsay E

    2016-03-01

    CD8(+) T cell/adipocyte paracrine interactions represent a critical step in the development of the obese inflammatory phenotype that is disrupted by long-chain n-3 PUFA. Our objective was to determine the effect of flaxseed-derived n-3 PUFA (α-linolenic acid) on these paracrine interactions. C57BL/6 mice were fed 3.5% flaxseed oil (FX) + 3.5% corn oil diet w/w or an isocaloric 7% corn oil w/w control diet (CON) for 3 wk. 3T3-L1 adipocytes and purified primary splenic CD8(+) T cells were cocultured at an obese cellular ratio (10% CD8(+) T cells) and LPS-stimulated (10 ng/mL mimicking obese circulating endotoxin levels) for 24 h. FX cocultures reduced (i) secreted IL-6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), macrophage chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), macrophage inflammatory protein 1α (MIP-1α), and RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted) levels; (ii) activation of inflammatory transcription factors NFκB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cell) p65 and signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3); and (iii) RAW264.7 macrophage chemotaxis versus CON (p ≤ 0.05). Coculture of pre-inflamed adipocytes (10 ng/mL LPS, 24 h prior to CD8(+) T-cell addition) resulted in reduced secretion of IL-6, IL-1β, MCP-1, MCP-3, MIP-1β, and RANTES in FX cocultures versus CON (p ≤ 0.05). FX exerts an anti-chemotactic and anti-inflammatory effect on CD8(+) T cell/adipocyte paracrine interactions (cross-talk), which has the potential to mitigate macrophage chemotaxis which drives components of the obese phenotype. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Molecular Profiling of the Phytophthora plurivora Secretome: A Step towards Understanding the Cross-Talk between Plant Pathogenic Oomycetes and Their Hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischmann, Frank; Dalio, Ronaldo J. D.; Di Maro, Antimo; Scognamiglio, Monica; Fiorentino, Antonio; Parente, Augusto; Osswald, Wolfgang; Chambery, Angela

    2014-01-01

    The understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying host–pathogen interactions in plant diseases is of crucial importance to gain insights on different virulence strategies of pathogens and unravel their role in plant immunity. Among plant pathogens, Phytophthora species are eliciting a growing interest for their considerable economical and environmental impact. Plant infection by Phytophthora phytopathogens is a complex process coordinated by a plethora of extracellular signals secreted by both host plants and pathogens. The characterization of the repertoire of effectors secreted by oomycetes has become an active area of research for deciphering molecular mechanisms responsible for host plants colonization and infection. Putative secreted proteins by Phytophthora species have been catalogued by applying high-throughput genome-based strategies and bioinformatic approaches. However, a comprehensive analysis of the effective secretome profile of Phytophthora is still lacking. Here, we report the first large-scale profiling of P. plurivora secretome using a shotgun LC-MS/MS strategy. To gain insight on the molecular signals underlying the cross-talk between plant pathogenic oomycetes and their host plants, we also investigate the quantitative changes of secreted protein following interaction of P. plurivora with the root exudate of Fagus sylvatica which is highly susceptible to the root pathogen. We show that besides known effectors, the expression and/or secretion levels of cell-wall-degrading enzymes were altered following the interaction with the host plant root exudate. In addition, a characterization of the F. sylvatica root exudate was performed by NMR and amino acid analysis, allowing the identification of the main released low-molecular weight components, including organic acids and free amino acids. This study provides important insights for deciphering the extracellular network involved in the highly susceptible P. plurivora-F. sylvatica interaction

  9. Signaling cross-talk between peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor/retinoid X receptor and estrogen receptor through estrogen response elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, H; Givel, F; Perroud, M; Wahli, W

    1995-07-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and retinoid X receptors (RXRs) are nuclear hormone receptors that are activated by fatty acids and 9-cis-retinoic acid, respectively. PPARs and RXRs form heterodimers that activate transcription by binding to PPAR response elements (PPREs) in the promoter of target genes. The PPREs described thus far consist of a direct tandem repeat of the AGGTCA core element with one intervening nucleotide. We show here that the vitellogenin A2 estrogen response element (ERE) can also function as a PPRE and is bound by a PPAR/RXR heterodimer. Although this heterodimer can bind to several other ERE-related palindromic response elements containing AGGTCA half-sites, only the ERE is able to confer transactivation of test reporter plasmids, when the ERE is placed either close to or at a distance from the transcription initiation site. Examination of natural ERE-containing promoters, including the pS2, very-low-density apolipoprotein II and vitellogenin A2 genes, revealed considerable differences in the binding of PPAR/RXR heterodimers to these EREs. In their natural promoter context, these EREs did not allow transcriptional activation by PPARs/RXRs. Analysis of this lack of stimulation of the vitellogenin A2 promoter demonstrated that PPARs/RXRs bind to the ERE but cannot transactivate due to a nonpermissive promoter structure. As a consequence, PPARs/RXRs inhibit transactivation by the estrogen receptor through competition for ERE binding. This is the first example of signaling cross-talk between PPAR/RXR and estrogen receptor.

  10. Cross talk between poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 methylation and oxidative stress involved in the toxic effect of anatase titanium dioxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Wenlin; Chen, Yujiao; Gao, Ai

    2015-01-01

    Given the tremendous growth in the application of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TNPs), concerns about the potential health hazards of TNPs to humans have been raised. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1), a highly conserved DNA-binding protein, is involved in many molecular and cellular processes. Limited data demonstrated that certain nanomaterials induced the aberrant hypermethylation of PARP-1. However, the mechanism involved in TNP-induced PARP-1 abnormal methylation has not been studied. A549 cells were incubated with anatase TNPs (22.1 nm) for 24 hours pretreatment with or without methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine and the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger α-lipoic acid to assess the possible role of methylation and ROS in the toxic effect of TNPs. After TNPs characterization, a battery of assays was performed to evaluate the toxic effect of TNPs, PARP-1 methylation status, and oxidative damage. Results showed that TNPs decreased the cell viability in a dose-dependent manner, in accordance with the increase of lactate dehydrogenase activity, which indicated membrane damage of cells. Similar to the high level of PARP-1 methylation, the generation of ROS was significantly increased after exposure to TNPs for 24 hours. Furthermore, α-lipoic acid decreased TNP-induced ROS generation and then attenuated TNP-triggered PARP-1 hypermethylation. Meanwhile, 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine simultaneously decreased the ROS generation induced by TNPs, resulting in the decline of PARP-1 methylation. In summary, TNPs triggered the aberrant hypermethylation of the PARP-1 promoter and there was a cross talk between oxidative stress and PARP-1 methylation in the toxic effect of TNPs. PMID:26366077

  11. Summary talk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drell, S.D.

    1981-01-01

    To sum it all up: 1. QCD has made its mark and is here to stay with its J = 1 gluons. 2. A quantitative determination of the strong coupling constant α/sub s/, and scale parameter, Λ, remains for the future. The reliable processes from the theoretical point of view for determining their values will be R or the study of the 3-gluon decays of heavy onia still to be discovered. 3. Very deep questions such as the scale of grand unification and the hierarchy problem. viz. why is the weak interaction lifetime of the neutron so many orders of magnitude shorter than the proton decay lifetime, or why is the grand unification scale so much larger than the weak vector boson mass, remain beyond our understanding. 4. All theories, as so eloquently described in Professor Okun's beautiful talk, lead us to expect to observe evidence of scalars in the ee annihilation process, whether they arise from dynamical or spontaneous symmetry breaking

  12. Influence of 1,2-PB matrix cross-linking on structure and properties of selectively etched 1,2-PB-b-PDMS block copolymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Fengxiao; Andreasen, Jens Wenzel; Vigild, Martin Etchells

    2007-01-01

    of the cross-linked samples in toluene was converted into a degree of cross-linking following the Flory scheme; a simple relation between the Flory cross-linking degree and the fraction of consumed double bonds during the cross-linking reaction followed. The structure of the block copolymer at different stages...... of preparation was characterized by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). In addition, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) gave direct images of the nanoporous polymer structure. Nanocavities are accessible to methanol, and observations of methanol uptake were combined with structural information from SAXS...

  13. A pepducin derived from the third intracellular loop of FPR2 is a partial agonist for direct activation of this receptor in neutrophils but a full agonist for cross-talk triggered reactivation of FPR2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gabl

    Full Text Available We recently described a novel receptor cross-talk mechanism in neutrophils, unique in that the signals generated by the PAF receptor (PAFR and the ATP receptor (P2Y2R transfer formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1 from a desensitized (non-signaling state back to an actively signaling state (Forsman H et al., PLoS One, 8:e60169, 2013; Önnheim K, et al., Exp Cell Res, 323∶209, 2014. In addition to the G-protein coupled FPR1, neutrophils also express the closely related receptor FPR2. In this study we used an FPR2 specific pepducin, proposed to work as an allosteric modulator at the cytosolic signaling interface, to determine whether the cross-talk pathway is utilized also by FPR2. The pepducin used contains a fatty acid linked to a peptide sequence derived from the third intracellular loop of FPR2, and it activates as well as desensensitizes this receptor. We now show that neutrophils desensitized with the FPR2-specific pepducin display increased cellular responses to stimulation with PAF or ATP. The secondary PAF/ATP induced response was sensitive to FPR2-specific inhibitors, disclosing a receptor cross-talk mechanism underlying FPR2 reactivation. The pepducin induced an activity in naïve cells similar to that of a conventional FPR2 agonist, but with lower potency (partial efficacy, meaning that the pepducin is a partial agonist. The PAF- or ATP-induced reactivation was, however, much more pronounced when neutrophils had been desensitized to the pepducin as compared to cells desensitized to conventional agonists. The pepducin should thus in this respect be classified as a full agonist. In summary, we demonstrate that desensitized FPR2 can be transferred back to an actively signaling state by receptor cross-talk signals generated through PAFR and P2Y2R, and the difference in agonist potency with respect to pepducin-induced direct receptor activation and cross-talk reactivation of FPR2 puts the concept of functional selectivity in focus.

  14. Systems Biology Model of Interactions between Tissue Growth Factors and DNA Damage Pathways: Low Dose Response and Cross-Talk in TGFβ and ATM Signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A

    2016-01-01

    The etiology of radiation carcinogenesis has been described in terms of aberrant changes that span several levels of biological organization. Growth factors regulate many important cellular and tissue functions including apoptosis, differentiation and proliferation. A variety of genetic and epigenetic changes of growth factors have been shown to contribute to cancer initiation and progression. It is known that cellular and tissue damage to ionizing radiation is in part initiated by the production of reactive oxygen species, which can activate cytokine signaling, and the DNA damage response pathways, most notably the ATM signaling pathway. Recently, the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) pathway has been shown to regulate or directly interact with the ATM pathway in the response to radiation. The relevance of this interaction with the ATM pathway is not known although p53 becomes phosphorylated and DNA damage responses are involved. However, growth factor interactions with DNA damage responses have not been elucidated particularly at low doses, and further characterization of their relationship to cancer processes is warranted. Our goal will be to use a systems biology approach to mathematically and experimentally describe the low-dose responses and cross-talk between the ATM and TGFβ pathways initiated by low- and high-LET radiation. We will characterize ATM and TGFβ signaling in epithelial and fibroblast cells using 2D models and ultimately extending to 3D organotypic cell culture models to begin to elucidate possible differences that may occur for different cell types and/or inter-cellular communication. We will investigate the roles of the Smad and Activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) proteins as the potential major contributors to crosstalk between the TGFβ and ATM pathways, and links to cell cycle control and/or the DNA damage response, and potential differences in their responses at low and high doses. We have developed various experimental

  15. Novel pathway of adipogenesis through cross-talk between adipose tissue macrophages, adipose stem cells and adipocytes: evidence of cell plasticity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorio Chazenbalk

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Previous studies highlight a complex relationship between lineage and phenotype for adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs, adipose stem cells (ASCs, and adipocytes, suggesting a high degree of plasticity of these cells. In the present study, using a novel co-culture system, we further characterized the interaction between ATMs, ASCs and adipocytes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Human adipocytes and the stromal vascular fraction containing ATMs and ASCs were isolated from human adipose tissue and co-cultured for 24 hours. FACS was used to characterize ATMs and ASCs before and after co-culture. Preadipocytes generated after co-culture were characterized by immunostaining for DLK (preadipocytes, CD14 and CD68 (ATMs, CD34 (ASCs, and Nile Red staining for lipid drops. qRT-PCR was used to quantify adipogenic markers such as C/EBPα and PPARγ. A novel fluorescent nanobead lineage tracing method was utilized before co-culture where fluorescent nanobeads were internalized by CD68 (+ ATMs. RESULTS: Co-culture of adipocytes with ATMs and ASCs increased the formation of new preadipocytes, thereby increasing lipid accumulation and C/EBPα and PPARγ gene expression. Preadipocytes originating after co-culture were positive for markers of preadipocytes, ATMs and ASCs. Moreover, fluorescent nanobeads were internalized by ATMs before co-culture and the new preadipocytes formed after co-culture also contained fluorescent nanobeads, suggesting that new preadipocytes originated in part from ATMs. The formation of CD34(+/CD68(+/DLK (+ cell spheres supported the interaction of ATMs, ASCs and preadipocytes. CONCLUSIONS: Cross-talk between adipocytes, ATMs and ASCs promotes preadipocyte formation. The regulation of this novel adipogenic pathway involves differentiation of ATMs to preadipocytes. The presence of CD34(+/CD68(+/DLK(+ cells grouped in spheres suggest that paracrine interactions between these cell types plays an important role in the generation and

  16. Carnosol Inhibits Pro-Inflammatory and Catabolic Mediators of Cartilage Breakdown in Human Osteoarthritic Chondrocytes and Mediates Cross-Talk between Subchondral Bone Osteoblasts and Chondrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christelle Sanchez

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of carnosol, a rosemary polyphenol, on pro-inflammatory and catabolic mediators of cartilage breakdown in chondrocytes and via bone-cartilage crosstalk.Osteoarthritic (OA human chondrocytes were cultured in alginate beads for 4 days in presence or absence of carnosol (6 nM to 9 μM. The production of aggrecan, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-3, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1, interleukin (IL-6 and nitric oxide (NO and the expression of type II collagen and ADAMTS-4 and -5 were analyzed. Human osteoblasts from sclerotic (SC or non-sclerotic (NSC subchondral bone were cultured for 3 days in presence or absence of carnosol before co-culture with chondrocytes. Chondrocyte gene expression was analyzed after 4 days of co-culture.In chondrocytes, type II collagen expression was significantly enhanced in the presence of 3 μM carnosol (p = 0.008. MMP-3, IL-6, NO production and ADAMTS-4 expression were down-regulated in a concentration-dependent manner by carnosol (p<0.01. TIMP-1 production was slightly increased at 3 μM (p = 0.02 and ADAMTS-5 expression was decreased from 0.2 to 9 μM carnosol (p<0.05. IL-6 and PGE2 production was reduced in the presence of carnosol in both SC and NSC osteoblasts while alkaline phosphatase activity was not changed. In co-culture experiments preincubation of NSC and SC osteoblasts wih carnosol resulted in similar effects to incubation with anti-IL-6 antibody, namely a significant increase in aggrecan and decrease in MMP-3, ADAMTS-4 and -5 gene expression by chondrocytes.Carnosol showed potent inhibition of pro-inflammatory and catabolic mediators of cartilage breakdown in chondrocytes. Inhibition of matrix degradation and enhancement of formation was observed in chondrocytes cocultured with subchondral osteoblasts preincubated with carnosol indicating a cross-talk between these two cellular compartments, potentially mediated via inhibition of IL-6 in

  17. Systems Biology Model of Interactions between Tissue Growth Factors and DNA Damage Pathways: Low Dose Response and Cross-Talk in TGFβ and ATM Signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cucinotta, Francis A [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The etiology of radiation carcinogenesis has been described in terms of aberrant changes that span several levels of biological organization. Growth factors regulate many important cellular and tissue functions including apoptosis, differentiation and proliferation. A variety of genetic and epigenetic changes of growth factors have been shown to contribute to cancer initiation and progression. It is known that cellular and tissue damage to ionizing radiation is in part initiated by the production of reactive oxygen species, which can activate cytokine signaling, and the DNA damage response pathways, most notably the ATM signaling pathway. Recently, the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) pathway has been shown to regulate or directly interact with the ATM pathway in the response to radiation. The relevance of this interaction with the ATM pathway is not known although p53 becomes phosphorylated and DNA damage responses are involved. However, growth factor interactions with DNA damage responses have not been elucidated particularly at low doses, and further characterization of their relationship to cancer processes is warranted. Our goal will be to use a systems biology approach to mathematically and experimentally describe the low-dose responses and cross-talk between the ATM and TGFβ pathways initiated by low- and high-LET radiation. We will characterize ATM and TGFβ signaling in epithelial and fibroblast cells using 2D models and ultimately extending to 3D organotypic cell culture models to begin to elucidate possible differences that may occur for different cell types and/or inter-cellular communication. We will investigate the roles of the Smad and Activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) proteins as the potential major contributors to crosstalk between the TGFβ and ATM pathways, and links to cell cycle control and/or the DNA damage response, and potential differences in their responses at low and high doses. We have developed various experimental

  18. Talk and Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Thøger; Morsing, Mette; Thyssen, Ole

    of organizational talk and their associated activities, the paper discusses the different ways time shape the relationship between talk and action. Acknowledging that talk gives rise to different expectations over time, we put forward ideal types of organizational strategies for possible talk-action relationships...

  19. Talking Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte

    When Danish businesses move production abroad, ‘culture’ is often seen as a huge challenge to the successful outcome of cross-border collaboration. Therefore, business leaders often seek information and guidelines of how to cope in the vast amount of literature on culture and intercultural...... communication. Much of this literature is based on functionalist approaches providing the dos and don’ts of intercultural encounters. This involves inter alia conceptualising ‘culture’ as a relatively fixed, homogeneous entity of values, attitudes and norms shared by members of a group, often leading readers...... to adopt dichotomised understandings and discourses about other cultures (see e.g. Hofstede 2001; Jandt 1998; Trompenaars & Hampden-Turner 1997). However, experience shows that the world in which intercultural encounters take place is not as simple and easy to categorise as these approaches may suggest...

  20. Development of the loss coefficient correlation for cross flow between graphite fuel blocks in the core of prismatic very high temperature reactor-PMR200

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong-Hun; Cho, Hyoung-Kyu; Park, Goon-Cherl

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Cross flow experimental data are produced with wedge-shaped and parallel gaps. • The results of a CFD analysis and experimental data are in good agreement. • Pressure loss coefficient for the cross gap between fuel blocks in PMR200 is found. • A new correlation of the cross flow loss coefficient for PMR200 is proposed. - Abstract: The core of the very high temperature reactor (VHTR) PMR200 (a prismatic modular reactor rated at 200 MW of thermal power) consists of hexagonal prismatic fuel blocks and reflector blocks made of graphite. If the core bypass flow ratio increases, the coolant channel flow is decreased and can then lower the heat removal efficiency, resulting in a locally increased fuel block temperature. The coolant channels in the fuel blocks are connected to bypass gaps by the cross gap, complicating flow distribution in the VHTR core. Therefore, reliable estimation of the bypass flow is highly important for the design and safety analysis of the VHTR core. Because of the complexity of the core geometry and gap configuration, it is challenging to predict the flow distribution in the VHTR core. To analyze this flow distribution accurately, it is necessary to determine the cross flow phenomena, and the loss coefficient across the cross gap has to be evaluated to determine the flow distribution in the VHTR core when a lumped parameter code or a flow network analysis code that uses the correlation of the loss coefficient is employed. The purpose of this paper is to develop a loss coefficient correlation applicable to the cross gap in the PMR200 core. The cross flow was evaluated experimentally using the difference between the measured inlet and outlet mass flow rates. Next, the applicability of a commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, CFX 15, was confirmed by comparing the experimental data and CFD analysis results. To understand the cross flow phenomena, the loss coefficient was evaluated; in the high Reynolds number region

  1. Development of the loss coefficient correlation for cross flow between graphite fuel blocks in the core of prismatic very high temperature reactor-PMR200

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong-Hun, E-mail: huny12@snu.ac.kr; Cho, Hyoung-Kyu, E-mail: chohk@snu.ac.kr; Park, Goon-Cherl, E-mail: parkgc@snu.ac.kr

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Cross flow experimental data are produced with wedge-shaped and parallel gaps. • The results of a CFD analysis and experimental data are in good agreement. • Pressure loss coefficient for the cross gap between fuel blocks in PMR200 is found. • A new correlation of the cross flow loss coefficient for PMR200 is proposed. - Abstract: The core of the very high temperature reactor (VHTR) PMR200 (a prismatic modular reactor rated at 200 MW of thermal power) consists of hexagonal prismatic fuel blocks and reflector blocks made of graphite. If the core bypass flow ratio increases, the coolant channel flow is decreased and can then lower the heat removal efficiency, resulting in a locally increased fuel block temperature. The coolant channels in the fuel blocks are connected to bypass gaps by the cross gap, complicating flow distribution in the VHTR core. Therefore, reliable estimation of the bypass flow is highly important for the design and safety analysis of the VHTR core. Because of the complexity of the core geometry and gap configuration, it is challenging to predict the flow distribution in the VHTR core. To analyze this flow distribution accurately, it is necessary to determine the cross flow phenomena, and the loss coefficient across the cross gap has to be evaluated to determine the flow distribution in the VHTR core when a lumped parameter code or a flow network analysis code that uses the correlation of the loss coefficient is employed. The purpose of this paper is to develop a loss coefficient correlation applicable to the cross gap in the PMR200 core. The cross flow was evaluated experimentally using the difference between the measured inlet and outlet mass flow rates. Next, the applicability of a commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, CFX 15, was confirmed by comparing the experimental data and CFD analysis results. To understand the cross flow phenomena, the loss coefficient was evaluated; in the high Reynolds number region

  2. Estrogen receptor α and aryl hydrocarbon receptor cross-talk in a transfected hepatoma cell line (HepG2 exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Göttel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The prototype dioxin congener 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD is known to exert anti-estrogenic effects via activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR by interfering with the regulation of oestrogen homeostasis and the estrogen receptor α (ERα signalling pathway. The AhR/ER cross-talk is considered to play a crucial role in TCDD- and E2-dependent mechanisms of carcinogenesis, though the concerted mechanism of action in the liver is not yet elucidated. The present study investigated TCDD's impact on the transcriptional cross-talk between AhR and ERα and its modulation by 17β-estradiol (E2 in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2, which is AhR-responsive but ERα-negative. Transient transfection assays with co-transfection of hERα and supplementation of receptor antagonists showed anti-estrogenic action of TCDD via down-regulation of E2-induced ERα signaling. In contrast, enhancement of AhR signaling dependent on ERα was observed providing evidence for increased cytochrome P450 (CYP induction to promote E2 metabolism. However, relative mRNA levels of major E2-metabolizing CYP1A1 and 1B1 and the main E2-detoxifying catechol-O-methyltransferase were not affected by the co-treatments. This study provides new evidence of a TCDD-activated AhR-mediated molecular AhR/ERα cross-talk mechanism at transcriptional level via indirect inhibition of ERα and enhanced transcriptional activity of AhR in HepG2 cells.

  3. Complement-Opsonized HIV-1 Alters Cross Talk Between Dendritic Cells and Natural Killer (NK Cells to Inhibit NK Killing and to Upregulate PD-1, CXCR3, and CCR4 on T Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rada Ellegård

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs, natural killer (NK cells, and T cells play critical roles during primary HIV-1 exposure at the mucosa, where the viral particles become coated with complement fragments and mucosa-associated antibodies. The microenvironment together with subsequent interactions between these cells and HIV at the mucosal site of infection will determine the quality of immune response that ensues adaptive activation. Here, we investigated how complement and immunoglobulin opsonization influences the responses triggered in DCs and NK cells, how this affects their cross talk, and what T cell phenotypes are induced to expand following the interaction. Our results showed that DCs exposed to complement-opsonized HIV (C-HIV were less mature and had a poor ability to trigger IFN-driven NK cell activation. In addition, when the DCs were exposed to C-HIV, the cytotolytic potentials of both NK cells and CD8 T cells were markedly suppressed. The expression of PD-1 as well as co-expression of negative immune checkpoints TIM-3 and LAG-3 on PD-1 positive cells were increased on both CD4 as well as CD8 T cells upon interaction with and priming by NK–DC cross talk cultures exposed to C-HIV. In addition, stimulation by NK–DC cross talk cultures exposed to C-HIV led to the upregulation of CD38, CXCR3, and CCR4 on T cells. Together, the immune modulation induced during the presence of complement on viral surfaces is likely to favor HIV establishment, dissemination, and viral pathogenesis.

  4. Talking to Your Doctor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... You Talking to Your Doctor Science Education Resources Community Resources Clear Health A–Z Publications List More » ... can play an active role in your health care by talking to your doctor. Clear and honest ...

  5. Talking to Your Doctor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Communications & Public Liaison » Clear Communication Clear Communication Clear Communication Health Literacy Clear & Simple Clear Health from NIH Cultural Respect Language Access Talking to Your Doctor Plain Language Science, Health, and Public Trust Talking to Your Doctor ...

  6. Talking to Your Doctor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for the doctor’s contact information and their preferred method of communication. Remember that nurses and pharmacists are also good sources of information. How to Talk to your Doctor Talking With Your Doctor , NIH ...

  7. Talk and Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Thøger; Morsing, Mette; Thyssen, Ole

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the relationship between organizational talk and action. Focusing in particular on the temporal dimension of this relationship, that is, the potential for talk to become action over time, we put forward ideal types of organizational strategies for possible talk...

  8. Elevating your elevator talk

    Science.gov (United States)

    An important and often overlooked item that every early career researcher needs to do is compose an elevator talk. The elevator talk, named because the talk should not last longer than an average elevator ride (30 to 60 seconds), is an effective method to present your research and yourself in a clea...

  9. Let's Talk... Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oblinger, Diana G.

    2012-01-01

    Talk about analytics seems to be everywhere. Everyone is talking about analytics. Yet even with all the talk, many in higher education have questions about--and objections to--using analytics in colleges and universities. In this article, the author explores the use of analytics in, and all around, higher education. (Contains 1 note.)

  10. Induction of homologous and cross-reactive GII.4-specific blocking antibodies in children after GII.4 New Orleans norovirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazevic, Vesna; Malm, Maria; Vesikari, Timo

    2015-10-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are major causative agents of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in children worldwide and the most common viral cause of AGE in countries where rotavirus incidence has been eliminated by vaccination. Previous infections with the dominant GII.4 NoV genotype confer only partial protection against evolving immune escape variants that emerge every few years. The objective of this work was to investigate GII.4-specific homologous and cross-reactive antibody responses in young children after NoV GII.4-2009 New Orleans (NO) infection. Virus-like particles (VLPs) representing GII.4-1999, GII.4-2009 NO, and GII.4-2012 Sydney genotypes were used in ELISA and histo-blood group antigen blocking assays to examine acute and convalescent sera of five children <2 years of age infected with GII.4-2009 NO. GII.4-2009 NO infection induced IgG seroconversion to all three tested NoV GII.4 variants. Homologous blocking antibodies to GII.4-2009 NO were detected in each convalescent sera. Fourfold increase in cross-blocking antibodies to GII.4-2012 Sydney was observed in 4/5 subjects, but no child developed cross-blocking antibodies to GII.4-1999. In conclusion, antibodies induced in young children after norovirus GII.4 infection are targeted against the causative variant and may cross-protect against strains that are closely related, but not with more distinct and earlier GII.4 genotypes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. A Pepducin Derived from the Third Intracellular Loop of FPR2 Is a Partial Agonist for Direct Activation of This Receptor in Neutrophils But a Full Agonist for Cross-Talk Triggered Reactivation of FPR2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabl, Michael; Winther, Malene; Skovbakke, Sarah Line

    2014-01-01

    We recently described a novel receptor cross-talk mechanism in neutrophils, unique in that the signals generated by the PAF receptor (PAFR) and the ATP receptor (P2Y2R) transfer formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1) from a desensitized (non-signaling) state back to an actively signaling state (Forsman H...... et al., PLoS One, 8:e60169, 2013; Önnheim K, et al., Exp Cell Res, 323:209, 2014). In addition to the G-protein coupled FPR1, neutrophils also express the closely related receptor FPR2. In this study we used an FPR2 specific pepducin, proposed to work as an allosteric modulator at the cytosolic...... signaling interface, to determine whether the cross-talk pathway is utilized also by FPR2. The pepducin used contains a fatty acid linked to a peptide sequence derived from the third intracellular loop of FPR2, and it activates as well as desensensitizes this receptor. We now show that neutrophils...

  12. Mental state talk by Danish preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ane Knüppel

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen 4 to 6-year-old Danish children were video-recorded, while interacting spontaneously with their family in their homes. The mental state talk of the children was identified and analysed with respect to three mental domains: desire, feeling and cognition, and was compared to data from a similar study carried out with Canadian families (Jenkins et al., 2003. Our results suggest some cross-cultural differences in children’s mental state talk. First, Danish children produce a larger variation of mental state talk words than Canadian children do, and second, the distribution of mental state talk across the three domains differed for the two language groups. Semantic variation between Danish and English was identified in the study, which may partly explain the findings. Furthermore we present a usage-based approach to the investigation of children’s development of psychological categories in language as well as cross-linguistically.

  13. Nerve Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Nerve Blocks A nerve block is an injection to ... the limitations of Nerve Block? What is a Nerve Block? A nerve block is an anesthetic and/ ...

  14. Fish-oil-derived n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids reduce NLRP3 inflammasome activity and obesity-related inflammatory cross-talk between adipocytes and CD11b(+) macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boer, Anna A; Monk, Jennifer M; Liddle, Danyelle M; Hutchinson, Amber L; Power, Krista A; Ma, David W L; Robinson, Lindsay E

    2016-08-01

    Adipocyte-macrophage cross-talk propagates immune responses in obese adipose tissue (AT). Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) mitigate inflammation, partly through up-regulation of adiponectin; however, specific mechanisms are unclear. We determined if adipocyte-macrophage cross-talk could be mitigated by dietary LC n-3 PUFA and if this was dependent on adiponectin-mediated signaling. We utilized an in vitro co-culture model mimicking the ratio of adipocytes:macrophages in obese AT, whereby 3T3-L1 adipocytes were co-cultured with splenic CD11b(+) macrophages from C57BL/6 mice fed high-fat control (HF-CON; 34% w/w fat) or fish oil diets (HF-FO; 34% w/w fat containing 7.6% w/w FO), as well as mice fed low-fat control (LF-CON; 10% w/w fat) or FO diets (LF-FO; 10% w/w fat containing 3% w/w FO). Co-culture conditions tested effects of soluble mediator-driven mechanisms (trans-well system), cell contact and low-dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mimicking acute or chronic inflammatory conditions. HF-FO macrophages from acute LPS-stimulated trans-well co-cultures had decreased mRNA expression of Casp1, Il1β and Il18, as well as cellular caspase-1 activity compared to HF-CON macrophages (P≤.05). Moreover, adipocytes from acute LPS-stimulated HF-FO co-cultures had decreased caspase-1 activity and decreased IL-1β/IL-18 levels following chronic LPS pretreatment compared to HF-CON co-cultures (P≤.05). Additionally, in contact co-cultures with adiponectin-neutralizing antibody, the FO-mediated modulation of NFκB activity and decrease in phosphorylated p65 NFκB, expression of NLRP3 inflammasome genes, M1 macrophage marker genes and inflammatory cytokine/chemokine secretion were controlled partly through adiponectin, while cellular caspase-1 activity and IL-1β/1L-18 levels were decreased independently of adiponectin (P≤.05). LC n-3 PUFA may decrease the intensity of adipocyte-macrophage cross-talk to mitigate obesity-associated pathologies. Copyright

  15. ErbB1-4-dependent EGF/neuregulin signals and their cross talk in the central nervous system: pathological implications in schizophrenia and Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriko eIwakura

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Ligands for ErbB1-4 receptor tyrosine kinases, such as epidermal growth factor (EGF and neuregulins, regulate brain development and function. Thus, abnormalities in their signaling are implicated in the etiology or pathology of schizophrenia and Parkinson’s disease. Among the ErbB receptors, ErbB1 and ErbB4 are expressed in dopamine and GABA neurons, while ErbB1, 2, and/or 3 are mainly present in oligodendrocytes, astrocytes and their precursors. Thus, deficits in ErbB signaling might contribute to schizophrenia neuropathology stemming from these cell types. By incorporating the latest cancer molecular biology as well as our recent progress, we discuss signal cross talk between the ErbB1-4 subunits and their neurobiological functions in each cell type. The potential contribution of virus-derived cytokines (virokines that mimic EGF and neuregulin-1 in brain diseases are also discussed.

  16. Bidirectional cross metathesis and ring-closing metathesis/ring opening of a C2-symmetric building block: a strategy for the synthesis of decanolide natural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Schmidt

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the conveniently available ex-chiral pool building block (R,R-hexa-1,5-diene-3,4-diol, the ten-membered ring lactones stagonolide E and curvulide A were synthesized using a bidirectional olefin-metathesis functionalization of the terminal double bonds. Key steps are (i a site-selective cross metathesis, (ii a highly diastereoselective extended tethered RCM to furnish a (Z,E-configured dienyl carboxylic acid and (iii a Ru–lipase-catalyzed dynamic kinetic resolution to establish the desired configuration at C9. Ring closure was accomplished by macrolactonization. Curvulide A was synthesized from stagonolide E through Sharpless epoxidation.

  17. Bidirectional cross metathesis and ring-closing metathesis/ring opening of a C 2-symmetric building block: a strategy for the synthesis of decanolide natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Bernd; Kunz, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Starting from the conveniently available ex-chiral pool building block (R,R)-hexa-1,5-diene-3,4-diol, the ten-membered ring lactones stagonolide E and curvulide A were synthesized using a bidirectional olefin-metathesis functionalization of the terminal double bonds. Key steps are (i) a site-selective cross metathesis, (ii) a highly diastereoselective extended tethered RCM to furnish a (Z,E)-configured dienyl carboxylic acid and (iii) a Ru-lipase-catalyzed dynamic kinetic resolution to establish the desired configuration at C9. Ring closure was accomplished by macrolactonization. Curvulide A was synthesized from stagonolide E through Sharpless epoxidation.

  18. Talking Policy into Being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caswell, Dorte

    2018-01-01

    Active labour market policy is talked into being in meetings between street-level bureaucrats and hard-to-place unemployed. The analytical perspective is informed by conversation analysis and data consists of naturally occurring interactions. The patterns of talk consist of both general and concr...... outcomes in ways that are responsive to the needs and wishes of the individual client...

  19. Talking to Your Doctor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Your Doctor , National Eye Institute (NEI) Español Aging Planning Your Doctor Visit , NIHSeniorHealth.gov Videos: Talking ... A Guide for Older People , National Institute on Aging (NIA) Talking With Your Doctor Presentation Toolkit , National ...

  20. Talking to Your Doctor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... NIH Website NIH Employee Intranet Staff Directory En Español Site Menu Home Health Information Health Info Lines ... Talking With Your Doctor , NIH News in Health Español Talking to Your Doctor , National Eye Institute (NEI) ...

  1. Eliciting Student-Talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudder, Michael E.

    1999-01-01

    The communicative approach to language instruction emphasizes ways to increase student-talk and decrease teacher-talk. It necessitates including the production or performance stage in lesson plans to give students the opportunity to use the new language in simulated real-life situations. (Author/VWL)

  2. Real Talk, Real Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Maria

    2014-01-01

    What happens in classrooms when we create the time and space for authentic talk about texts? Extended, collaborative conversations that allow understanding to unfold over time can be messy and dynamic. As students wrestle with complex texts and ideas, talk can become lively--and predictable problems can arise. In this article, Marie Nichols uses…

  3. Talking to Your Doctor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Discovery Into Health ® Impact of NIH Research Science, Health, and Public Trust You are here Home » Institutes at NIH » ... Access Talking to Your Doctor Plain Language Science, Health, and Public Trust Talking to Your Doctor Part I: Preparing ...

  4. Concluding Talk : QCD 2005

    CERN Document Server

    Altarelli, Guido

    2006-01-01

    This is neither a summary talk (too much for too short a talk) nor a conclusion (a gigantic work is in progress and we are not at the end of a particular phase), rather an overview of the field as reflected at this Conference.

  5. Sleep Talking (Somniloquy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... radius (in miles): 10 25 50 Share: Essentials in Sleep Insomnia Overview & Facts Symptoms & Causes Diagnosis & Self Tests Treatment ... Sleep talking is very common. It is reported in 50% of young children. About 5% of adults are reported to talk in their sleep. It ...

  6. Talking the Talk and Walking the Walk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Steven

    2010-01-01

    In this diverse collection, editors Killoran and Pendleton Jimenez bring together an important collection of chapters that tackle homophobia, transphobia, and heterosexism. From the hallways and classrooms of elementary and secondary schools to the lecture halls of postsecondary institutions, "Unleashing the Unpopular: Talking About Sexual…

  7. Cross-Layer Framework for Multiuser Real Time H.264/AVC Video Encoding and Transmission over Block Fading MIMO Channels Using Outage Probability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavche Pejoski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a framework for cross-layer optimized real time multiuser encoding of video using a single layer H.264/AVC and transmission over MIMO wireless channels. In the proposed cross-layer adaptation, the channel of every user is characterized by the probability density function of its channel mutual information and the performance of the H.264/AVC encoder is modeled by a rate distortion model that takes into account the channel errors. These models are used during the resource allocation of the available slots in a TDMA MIMO communication system with capacity achieving channel codes. This framework allows for adaptation to the statistics of the wireless channel and to the available resources in the system and utilization of the multiuser diversity of the transmitted video sequences. We show the effectiveness of the proposed framework for video transmission over Rayleigh MIMO block fading channels, when channel distribution information is available at the transmitter.

  8. Hydrogel-embedded nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite granules (elastic blocks based on a cross-linked polyvinylpyrrolidone as bone grafting substitute in a rat tibia model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dau M

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Michael Dau,1 Cornelia Ganz,2 Franziska Zaage,2 Bernhard Frerich,1 Thomas Gerber2 1Department of Oral, Maxillofacial and Plastic Surgery, University Medical Center Rostock, Rostock, Germany; 2Institute of Physics, Rostock University, Rostock, Germany Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the in vivo characteristics and levels of integration and degradation of a ready-to-use bone grafting block with elastic properties (elastic block for the use in surgery. Materials and methods: Thirty-six male Wistar rats underwent surgical creation of a well-defined bone defect in the tibia. All created defects – one per animal – were filled with an unsintered nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite embedded either with a non-cross-linked hydrogel carrier (CONT, n=18 or a cross-linked hydrogel carrier (elastic block [EB], n=18 based on polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP and silica sol, respectively. The animals were killed after 12 (n=12, 21 (n=12 and 63 days (n=12. The bone formation and defect healing were quantified by histomorphometric measurements made in paraffin sections. Additionally, immunohistochemical (tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase [TRAP] and alkaline phosphatase [aP], antibody-based examinations (CD68 and energy-dispersive x-ray scattering measurements of silica atom concentration were carried out. Results: A larger remaining bone defect area overall was observed in EB after 12 days and 21 days. After 63 days, similar areas of remaining bone defects were found. The amount of the remaining carrier material in EB overall was higher at all times. In CONT no residual carrier material was found at 12 days and later. CD68 analyses showed significantly lower level of CD68-positive marked cells after 21 days in CONT, and nonsignificant differences at 12 and 63 days, respectively. Additionally, a significantly higher level of aP-positive marked cells was observed in CONT after 12 days. Later on, the levels of aP-positive marked cells were slightly higher

  9. Specific cerebral heat shock proteins and histamine receptor cross-talking mechanisms promote distinct lead-dependent neurotoxic responses in teleosts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giusi, Giuseppina; Alo, Raffaella; Crudo, Michele; Facciolo, Rosa Maria; Canonaco, Marcello

    2008-01-01

    Recent interests are beginning to be directed towards toxic neurobiological dysfunctions caused by lead (Pb) in aquatic vertebrates. In the present work, treatment with a maximum acceptable toxic concentration of this heavy metal was responsible for highly significant (p 2 R) antagonist cimetidine (Cim), as shown by the very robust (p 3 R) thioperamide (Thio), instead, blocked Pb-dependent up-regulatory trends of both chaperones in mostly hypothalamic areas. Moreover, intense neuronal damages of the above brain regions coincided with altered expressions of HSP70 and HSP90 when treated only with Cim. Overall these first results show that distinct H n R are able to exert a net neuroprotective role arising from their interaction with chaperones in fish exposed to Pb-dependent stressful conditions making this a potentially key interaction especially for T. pavo, aquatic species which plays an important ecological role towards the survival of other commercially vital fishes

  10. Summary of experimental talks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrick, M.

    1999-01-01

    This final talk of the meeting briefly discussed a number of experimental topics that the author found particularly interesting in the area of High Energy Physics. It also includes some critical comments about the future direction of their discipline

  11. Talking to Your Doctor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... honest communication between you and your physician can help you both make smart choices about your health. ... recovery. Here are a few tips that can help you talk to your doctor and make the ...

  12. Talking to Your Doctor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Lines Health Services Locator HealthCare.gov NIH Clinical Research Trials and You Talking to Your Doctor Science ... More » Quick Links NIH News in Health NIH Research Matters NIH Record Research & Training Medical Research Initiatives ...

  13. Talking Gender and Sexuality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This edited volume brings together scholars from psychology, linguistics, sociology and communication science to investigate how performative notions of gender and sexuality can be fruitfully explored with the rich set of tools that have been developed by conversation analysis and discursive...... psychology for analysing everyday practical language use, agency and identity in talk. Contributors re-examine the foundations of earlier research on gender in spoken interaction, critically appraise this research to see if and how it 'translates' successfully into the study of sexuality in talk, and promote...... innovative alternatives that integrate the insights of recent feminist and queer theory with qualitative studies of talk and conversation. Detailed empirical analyses of naturally occurring talk are used to uncover how gender and sexual identities, agencies and desires are contingently accomplished...

  14. Talking to Your Doctor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Literacy Clear & Simple Clear Health from NIH Cultural Respect Language Access Talking to Your Doctor Plain ... Health Care Providers About Complementary Health Approaches , National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH) Diabetes Questions ...

  15. Talking to Your Doctor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Trials and You Talking to Your Doctor Science Education Resources Community Resources Clear Health A–Z Publications List More » Search Health Topics Quick Links MedlinePlus Health Info NIH ...

  16. Talking to Your Doctor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Complementary and Integrative Health Talking With Your Health Care Providers About Complementary Health Approaches , National ... Home En Español Site Map Visitor Information Frequently Asked ...

  17. Talking to Your Doctor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Trials and You Talking to Your Doctor Science Education Resources Community Resources Clear Health A–Z Publications List More » Search Health Topics Quick Links MedlinePlus ...

  18. Strategic Talk in Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payr, Sabine; Skowron, Marcin; Dobrosovestnova, Anna; Trapp, Martin; Trappl, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Conversational robots and agents are being designed for educational and/or persuasive tasks, e.g., health or fitness coaching. To pursue such tasks over a long time, they will need a complex model of the strategic goal, a variety of strategies to implement it in interaction, and the capability of strategic talk. Strategic talk is incipient ongoing conversation in which at least one participant has the objective of changing the other participant's attitudes or goals. The paper is based on the observation that strategic talk can stretch over considerable periods of time and a number of conversational segments. Film dialogues are taken as a source to develop a model of the strategic talk of mentor characters. A corpus of film mentor utterances is annotated on the basis of the model, and the data are interpreted to arrive at insights into mentor behavior, especially into the realization and sequencing of strategies.

  19. Thought 2 Talk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent F.

    Thought2Talk is a crash course on argument, reasoning and logical method honoring the Swedish poet and Bishop of Lund, Esaias Tegnér, who once said: The words and thoughts of men are born together: To speak obscurely is to think obscurely. In 100 humorous yet erudite pages, Thought2Talk takes the...... the reader through key concepts like statement, argument, validity, fallacy, modality and demonstration.......Thought2Talk is a crash course on argument, reasoning and logical method honoring the Swedish poet and Bishop of Lund, Esaias Tegnér, who once said: The words and thoughts of men are born together: To speak obscurely is to think obscurely. In 100 humorous yet erudite pages, Thought2Talk takes...

  20. Talking to Your Doctor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Trials and You Talking to Your Doctor Science Education Resources Community Resources Clear Health A–Z Publications ... Research & Training Medical Research Initiatives Science Highlights Science Education Research in NIH Labs & Clinics Training Opportunities Library ...

  1. Talking to Your Doctor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Simple Clear Health from NIH Cultural Respect Language Access Talking to Your Doctor Plain Language Science, Health, ... to take notes for you. Learn how to access your medical records, so you can keep track ...

  2. Talking to Your Doctor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Impact of NIH Research Science, Health, and Public Trust You are here Home » Institutes at NIH » NIH ... Your Doctor Plain Language Science, Health, and Public Trust Talking to Your Doctor Part I: Preparing for ...

  3. Talking to Your Doctor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... You Talking to Your Doctor Science Education Resources Community Resources Clear Health A–Z Publications List More ... & Compliance Grants News/Blog Contracts Loan Repayment More » ...

  4. Talking to Your Doctor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can play an active role in your health care by talking to your doctor. Clear and honest ... Institute on Aging (NIA) Cancer Communication in Cancer Care , National Cancer Institute (NCI) Español Complementary and Integrative ...

  5. Talking to Your Doctor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Quick Links NIH News in Health NIH Research Matters NIH Record Research & Training Medical Research Initiatives Science ... More Resources from NIH You can play an active role in your health care by talking to ...

  6. Talking to Your Doctor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Trials and You Talking to Your Doctor Science Education Resources Community Resources Clear Health A–Z ... Matters NIH Record Research & Training Medical Research Initiatives Science Highlights Science Education Research in NIH Labs & Clinics ...

  7. MPI@LHC Talk.

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00392933; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Draft version of talk for MPI@LHC, regarding the topic of "Monte Carlo Tuning @ ATLAS". The talk introduces the event generator chain, concepts of tuning, issues/problems with over tuning, and then proceeds to explain 3(4) tunes performed at ATLAS. A 4th tune known as A15-MG5aMC@NLO(-TTBAR) is also included, but is awaiting note approval.

  8. Talking Math, Blogging Math

    OpenAIRE

    Mathews, Linda Marie

    2009-01-01

    Talking Math, Blogging Math is a curriculum designed to aid middle school Pre- Algebra students' mathematical problem-solving through the use of academic language instruction, explanatory proofs, and online technology (blogging). Talking Math, Blogging Math was implemented over a period of ten weeks during the 2008 - 2009 school year. The school where the curriculum was implemented is a non-traditional classroom-based charter school. The 7th, 8th and 9th grade students attended class twice a ...

  9. MODEL2TALK : An Intervention to Promote Productive Classroom Talk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, Chiel; van der Wilt, Femke; van Kruistum, Claudia; van Oers, Bert; Michaels, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    This article describes the MODEL2TALK intervention, which aims to promote young children's oral communicative competence through productive classroom talk. Productive classroom talk provides children in early childhood education with many opportunities to talk and think together. Results from a

  10. Optical properties of thin films of zinc oxide quantum dots and polydimethylsiloxane: UV-blocking and the effect of cross-linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eita, Mohamed; El Sayed, Ramy; Muhammed, Mamoun

    2012-12-01

    Thin films of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and ZnO quantum dots (QDs) were built up as multilayers by spin-coating. The films are characterized by a UV-blocking ability that increases with increasing number of bilayers. Photoluminescence (PL) emission spectra of the thin films occur at 522 nm, which is the PL wavelength of the ZnO QDs dispersion, but with a lower intensity and a quantum yield (QY) less than 1% that of the dispersion. Cross-linking has introduced new features to the absorption spectra in that the absorption peak was absent. These changes were attributed to the morphological and structural changes revealed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), respectively. TEM showed that the ZnO particle size in the film increased from 7 (±2.7) nm to 16 (±7.8) upon cross-linking. The FTIR spectra suggest that ZnO QDs are involved in the cross-linking of PDMS and that the surface of the ZnO QDs has been chemically modified. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cross talk among calcium, hydrogen peroxide, and nitric oxide and activation of gene expression involving calmodulins and calcium-dependent protein kinases in Ulva compressa exposed to copper excess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Alberto; Cabrera, M de Los Ángeles; Henríquez, M Josefa; Contreras, Rodrigo A; Morales, Bernardo; Moenne, Alejandra

    2012-03-01

    To analyze the copper-induced cross talk among calcium, nitric oxide (NO), and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and the calcium-dependent activation of gene expression, the marine alga Ulva compressa was treated with the inhibitors of calcium channels, ned-19, ryanodine, and xestospongin C, of chloroplasts and mitochondrial electron transport chains, 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea and antimycin A, of pyruvate dehydrogenase, moniliformin, of calmodulins, N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphtalene sulfonamide, and of calcium-dependent protein kinases, staurosporine, as well as with the scavengers of NO, 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide, and of H(2)O(2), ascorbate, and exposed to a sublethal concentration of copper (10 μm) for 24 h. The level of NO increased at 2 and 12 h. The first peak was inhibited by ned-19 and 3-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea and the second peak by ned-19 and antimycin A, indicating that NO synthesis is dependent on calcium release and occurs in organelles. The level of H(2)O(2) increased at 2, 3, and 12 h and was inhibited by ned-19, ryanodine, xestospongin C, and moniliformin, indicating that H(2)O(2) accumulation is dependent on calcium release and Krebs cycle activity. In addition, pyruvate dehydrogenase, 2-oxoxglutarate dehydrogenase, and isocitrate dehydrogenase activities of the Krebs cycle increased at 2, 3, 12, and/or 14 h, and these increases were inhibited in vitro by EGTA, a calcium chelating agent. Calcium release at 2, 3, and 12 h was inhibited by 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide and ascorbate, indicating activation by NO and H(2)O(2). In addition, the level of antioxidant protein gene transcripts decreased with N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphtalene sulfonamide and staurosporine. Thus, there is a copper-induced cross talk among calcium, H(2)O(2), and NO and a calcium-dependent activation of gene expression involving calmodulins and calcium-dependent protein

  12. Chronic periodontitis among diabetics and nondiabetics aged 35-65 years, in a rural block in Vellore, Tamil Nadu: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nand, Khushboo Yamima; Oommen, Anu Mary; Chacko, Rabin Kurudamannil; Abraham, Vinod Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Chronic periodontitis is a common cause of poor oral health globally. Those at higher risk of this preventable and easily treatable condition need to be identified so that efforts can be taken to decrease disease burden and subsequent consequences. The aims of the study were (1) To compare the prevalence of chronic periodontitis among individuals with and without type 2 diabetes, aged 35-65 years from a rural block in Vellore, Tamil Nadu and (2) to assess risk factors for chronic periodontitis among individuals with diabetes. A cross-sectional study was done in nine villages of Kaniyambadi block, Vellore, between October 2015 and July 2016 among participants aged 35-65 years of a previous cross-sectional survey which had identified individuals with and without type 2 diabetes. Chronic periodontitis was assessed using the Community Periodontal Index and Treatment Needs index. Oral hygiene was assessed clinically using the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index. Diabetes was defined as on medication for type 2 diabetes or detected to have fasting blood glucose ≥126 mg/dl (in a previous survey). Chi-square test and odds ratios (adjusted using logistic regression) were used to study risk factors for periodontitis among those with diabetes. Prevalence of chronic periodontitis was 45.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 40.88%-50.9%) among 98 individuals with diabetes and 35.6% (95% CI: 30.91-40.29%) among 104 individuals without diabetes. Poor oral hygiene (odds ratio: 8.33, 95% CI: 3.33-25.00), low socioeconomic status (odds ratio: 3.19, 95% CI: 1.00-10.12), and smoking (odds ratio: 3.51, 95% CI: 1.17-10.51) were associated with periodontitis among diabetics. Individuals with type 2 diabetes have a higher prevalence of periodontitis. As poor oral hygiene is a strong risk factor for periodontitis, there is a need for targeted education regarding dental hygiene to reduce this preventable condition.

  13. Unravelling the cross-talk between iron starvation and oxidative stress responses highlights the key role of PerR (alr0957) in peroxide signalling in the cyanobacterium Nostoc PCC 7120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yingping, Fan; Lemeille, Sylvain; Talla, Emmanuel; Janicki, Annick; Denis, Yann; Zhang, Cheng-Cai; Latifi, Amel

    2014-10-01

    The cyanobacterial phylum includes oxygenic photosynthetic prokaryotes of a wide variety of morphologies, metabolisms and ecologies. Their adaptation to their various ecological niches is mainly achieved by sophisticated regulatory mechanisms and depends on a fine cross-talk between them. We assessed the global transcriptomic response of the filamentous cyanobacterium Nostoc PCC 7120 to iron starvation and oxidative stress. More than 20% of the differentially expressed genes in response to iron stress were also responsive to oxidative stress. These transcripts include antioxidant proteins-encoding genes that confirms that iron depletion leads to reactive oxygen accumulation. The activity of the Fe-superoxide dismutase was not significantly decreased under iron starvation, indicating that the oxidative stress generated under iron deficiency is not a consequence of (SOD) deficiency. The transcriptional data indicate that the adaptation of Nostoc to iron-depleted conditions displays important differences with what has been shown in unicellular cyanobacteria. While the FurA protein that regulates the response to iron deprivation has been well characterized in Nostoc, the regulators in charge of the oxidative stress response are unknown. Our study indicates that the alr0957 (perR) gene encodes the master regulator of the peroxide stress. PerR is a peroxide-sensor repressor that senses peroxide by metal-catalysed oxidation.

  14. Comparison of an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system and an artificial neural network in the cross-talk correction of simultaneous 99 m Tc / 201Tl SPECT imaging using a GATE Monte-Carlo simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidary, Saeed; Setayeshi, Saeed; Ghannadi-Maragheh, Mohammad

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and the artificial neural network (ANN) to estimate the cross-talk contamination of 99 m Tc / 201 Tl image acquisition in the 201 Tl energy window (77 ± 15% keV). GATE (Geant4 Application in Emission and Tomography) is employed due to its ability to simulate multiple radioactive sources concurrently. Two kinds of phantoms, including two digital and one physical phantom, are used. In the real and the simulation studies, data acquisition is carried out using eight energy windows. The ANN and the ANFIS are prepared in MATLAB, and the GATE results are used as a training data set. Three indications are evaluated and compared. The ANFIS method yields better outcomes for two indications (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient and contrast) and the two phantom results in each category. The maximum image biasing, which is the third indication, is found to be 6% more than that for the ANN.

  15. Scaffold Protein Ahk1, Which Associates with Hkr1, Sho1, Ste11, and Pbs2, Inhibits Cross Talk Signaling from the Hkr1 Osmosensor to the Kss1 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Akiko; Yamamoto, Katsuyoshi; Oyama, Masaaki; Kozuka-Hata, Hiroko

    2016-01-01

    In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, osmostress activates the Hog1 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), which regulates diverse osmoadaptive responses. Hkr1 is a large, highly glycosylated, single-path transmembrane protein that is a putative osmosensor in one of the Hog1 upstream pathways termed the HKR1 subbranch. The extracellular region of Hkr1 contains both a positive and a negative regulatory domain. However, the function of the cytoplasmic domain of Hkr1 (Hkr1-cyto) is unknown. Here, using a mass spectrometric method, we identified a protein, termed Ahk1 (Associated with Hkr1), that binds to Hkr1-cyto. Deletion of the AHK1 gene (in the absence of other Hog1 upstream branches) only partially inhibited osmostress-induced Hog1 activation. In contrast, Hog1 could not be activated by constitutively active mutants of the Hog1 pathway signaling molecules Opy2 or Ste50 in ahk1Δ cells, whereas robust Hog1 activation occurred in AHK1+ cells. In addition to Hkr1-cyto binding, Ahk1 also bound to other signaling molecules in the HKR1 subbranch, including Sho1, Ste11, and Pbs2. Although osmotic stimulation of Hkr1 does not activate the Kss1 MAPK, deletion of AHK1 allowed Hkr1 to activate Kss1 by cross talk. Thus, Ahk1 is a scaffold protein in the HKR1 subbranch and prevents incorrect signal flow from Hkr1 to Kss1. PMID:26787842

  16. Intracellular degradation of microspheres based on cross-linked dextran hydrogels or amphiphilic block copolymers: A comparative Raman microscopy study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Manen, Henk-Jan; van Apeldoorn, Aart A; Verrijk, Ruud; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A; Otto, Cees

    2007-01-01

    Micro- and nanospheres composed of biodegradable polymers show promise as versatile devices for the controlled delivery of biopharmaceuticals. Whereas important properties such as drug release profiles, biocompatibility, and (bio)degradability have been determined for many types of biodegradable particles, information about particle degradation inside phagocytic cells is usually lacking. Here, we report the use of confocal Raman microscopy to obtain chemical information about cross-linked dextran hydrogel microspheres and amphiphilic poly(ethylene glycol)-terephthalate/poly(butylene terephthalate) (PEGT/PBT) microspheres inside RAW 264.7 macrophage phagosomes. Using quantitative Raman microspectroscopy, we show that the dextran concentration inside phagocytosed dextran microspheres decreases with cell incubation time. In contrast to dextran microspheres, we did not observe PEGT/PBT microsphere degradation after 1 week of internalization by macrophages, confirming previous studies showing that dextran microsphere degradation proceeds faster than PEGT/PBT degradation. Raman microscopy further showed the conversion of macrophages to lipid-laden foam cells upon prolonged incubation with both types of microspheres, suggesting that a cellular inflammatory response is induced by these biomaterials in cell culture. Our results exemplify the power of Raman microscopy to characterize microsphere degradation in cells and offer exciting prospects for this technique as a noninvasive, label-free optical tool in biomaterials histology and tissue engineering. PMID:17722552

  17. CSR as Aspirational Talk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Thøger; Morsing, Mette; Thyssen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Most writings on corporate social responsibility (CSR) treat lack of consistency between organizational CSR talk and action as a serious problem that needs to be eliminated. In this article, we argue that differences between words and action are not necessarily a bad thing and that such discrepan......Most writings on corporate social responsibility (CSR) treat lack of consistency between organizational CSR talk and action as a serious problem that needs to be eliminated. In this article, we argue that differences between words and action are not necessarily a bad thing...

  18. Talk Show Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mitzi Ruth

    1992-01-01

    Proposes having students perform skits in which they play the roles of the science concepts they are trying to understand. Provides the dialog for a skit in which hot and cold gas molecules are interviewed on a talk show to study how these properties affect wind, rain, and other weather phenomena. (MDH)

  19. Talking to Your Doctor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Staff Directory En Español Site Menu Home Health Information Health Info Lines Health Services Locator HealthCare.gov NIH Clinical Research Trials and You Talking to Your Doctor Science Education Resources Community Resources Clear Health A–Z ...

  20. Talking to Your Doctor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Info Lines Health Services Locator HealthCare.gov NIH Clinical Research Trials and You Talking to Your Doctor Science ... Labs & Clinics Training Opportunities Library Resources Research Resources Clinical Research Resources Safety, Regulation and Guidance More » Quick Links ...

  1. Ludacris Talks About HIV

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-07-24

    Ludacris, award winning singer and actor, urges everyone to talk about HIV/AIDS and its prevention.  Created: 7/24/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 7/24/2012.

  2. Talking to Your Doctor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Lines Health Services Locator HealthCare.gov NIH Clinical Research Trials and You Talking to Your Doctor Science Education Resources Community Resources Clear Health A–Z Publications List More » Search Health Topics Quick Links MedlinePlus Health Info NIH News in ...

  3. Talking Towers, Making Withs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, J. L.

    The notion of a linguistic "register" is useful in posing questions about how the ways language is used differ from one kind of human activity to another. This paper analyzes a videotaped segment of male grade 4/5 students (n=3) who are talking as they work to build a tower from plastic drinking straws and pins. Discussion of the…

  4. Talk Like a Scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcum-Dietrich, Nanette

    2010-01-01

    In the scientific community, the symposium is one formal structure of conversation. Scientists routinely hold symposiums to gather and talk about a common topic. To model this method of communication in the classroom, the author designed an activity in which students conduct their own science symposiums. This article presents the science symposium…

  5. Talking with Mel Levine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    In his third book, "Ready or Not, Here Life Comes" (Simon & Shuster, 2005), pediatrician and brain researcher Dr. Mel Levine talks about the rising number of "start-up adults"--students who emerge from high school or college to find themselves woefully unprepared for the realities of a career. This article presents an interview with Dr. Levine…

  6. Talking to Your Doctor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources from NIH You can play an active role in your health care by talking to your ... Contact Us Twitter Facebook Instagram YouTube Flickr More Social Media from NIH Footer NIH Home En Español ...

  7. Chronic periodontitis among diabetics and nondiabetics aged 35–65 years, in a rural block in Vellore, Tamil Nadu: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khushboo Yamima Nand

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic periodontitis is a common cause of poor oral health globally. Those at higher risk of this preventable and easily treatable condition need to be identified so that efforts can be taken to decrease disease burden and subsequent consequences. Aims: The aims of the study were (1 To compare the prevalence of chronic periodontitis among individuals with and without type 2 diabetes, aged 35–65 years from a rural block in Vellore, Tamil Nadu and (2 to assess risk factors for chronic periodontitis among individuals with diabetes. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was done in nine villages of Kaniyambadi block, Vellore, between October 2015 and July 2016 among participants aged 35–65 years of a previous cross-sectional survey which had identified individuals with and without type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods: Chronic periodontitis was assessed using the Community Periodontal Index and Treatment Needs index. Oral hygiene was assessed clinically using the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index. Diabetes was defined as on medication for type 2 diabetes or detected to have fasting blood glucose ≥126 mg/dl (in a previous survey. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test and odds ratios (adjusted using logistic regression were used to study risk factors for periodontitis among those with diabetes. Results: Prevalence of chronic periodontitis was 45.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 40.88%–50.9% among 98 individuals with diabetes and 35.6% (95% CI: 30.91–40.29% among 104 individuals without diabetes. Poor oral hygiene (odds ratio: 8.33, 95% CI: 3.33–25.00, low socioeconomic status (odds ratio: 3.19, 95% CI: 1.00–10.12, and smoking (odds ratio: 3.51, 95% CI: 1.17–10.51 were associated with periodontitis among diabetics. Conclusions: Individuals with type 2 diabetes have a higher prevalence of periodontitis. As poor oral hygiene is a strong risk factor for periodontitis, there is a need for targeted education regarding

  8. ENOD40 affects phytohormone cross-talk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruttink, T.

    2003-01-01

    Only a small number ofphytohormonesare sufficient to regulate virtually every aspect of plant growth and development. Hence, adequate communication betweenphytohormonesis important to coordinate cellular processes during development. In this thesis

  9. Trans-kingdom cross-talk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knip, Marijn; Constantin, Maria-Ermioni; Thordal-Christensen, Hans

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on the mobility of small RNA (sRNA) molecules from the perspective of trans-kingdom gene silencing. Mobility of sRNA molecules within organisms is a well-known phenomenon, facilitating gene silencing between cells and tissues. sRNA signals are also transmitted between organism...

  10. Cardio-adipose tissue cross-talk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Søren; Jensen, Jan Skov; Bjerre, Mette

    2014-01-01

    and diastolic blood pressure, lipid profile, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and physical activity) by Cox regression analysis, adiponectin remained an independent predictor of HF: the hazard ratio (HR) per 1 standard deviation (SD) increase in adiponectin was 1.20 [95...... adiponectin and proBNP were strongly associated (P gender, smoking status, body mass ratio, waist-hip ratio, glucose, glycated haemoglobin, systolic...... with increased risk of HF. However, concomitantly elevated proBNP levels appear to explain the positive association between adiponectin and risk of HF....

  11. Epidural block

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000484.htm Epidural block - pregnancy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An epidural block is a numbing medicine given by injection (shot) ...

  12. The chaperone-like activity of α-synuclein attenuates aggregation of its alternatively spliced isoform, 112-synuclein in vitro: plausible cross-talk between isoforms in protein aggregation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Madhuri Manda

    Full Text Available Abnormal oligomerization and aggregation of α-synuclein (α-syn/WT-syn has been shown to be a precipitating factor in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD. Earlier observations on the induced-alternative splicing of α-syn by Parkinsonism mimetics as well as identification of region specific abnormalities in the transcript levels of 112-synuclein (112-syn in diseased subjects underscores the role of 112-syn in the pathophysiology of PD. In the present study, we sought to identify the aggregation potential of 112-syn in the presence or absence of WT-syn to predict its plausible role in protein aggregation events. Results demonstrate that unlike WT-syn, lack of 28 aa in the C-terminus results in the loss of chaperone-like activity with a concomitant gain in vulnerability to heat-induced aggregation and time-dependent fibrillation. The effects were dose and time-dependent and a significant aggregation of 112-syn was evident at as low as 45 °C following 10 min of incubation. The heat-induced aggregates were found to be ill-defined structures and weakly positive towards Thioflavin-T (ThT staining as compared to clearly distinguishable ThT positive extended fibrils resulting upon 24 h of incubation at 37 °C. Further, the chaperone-like activity of WT-syn significantly attenuated heat-induced aggregation of 112-syn in a dose and time-dependent manner. On contrary, WT-syn synergistically enhanced fibrillation of 112-syn. Overall, the present findings highlight a plausible cross-talk between isoforms of α-syn and the relative abundance of these isoforms may dictate the nature and fate of protein aggregates.

  13. Making the Most of Talk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilles, Carol

    2010-01-01

    Research supports what many teachers have long known: talk is a valuable tool for learning. But how can we incorporate talk and still keep students on task, thinking collectively and deeply? Gillis offers a solid theoretical foundation for incorporating talk throughout the curriculum, and then provides practical help for implementing it, with…

  14. Therapy Talk: Analyzing Therapeutic Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Margaret M.

    2004-01-01

    Therapeutic discourse is the talk-in-interaction that represents the social practice between clinician and client. This article invites speech-language pathologists to apply their knowledge of language to analyzing therapy talk and to learn how talking practices shape clinical roles and identities. A range of qualitative research approaches,…

  15. Population Blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martin H.

    1992-01-01

    Describes an educational game called "Population Blocks" that is designed to illustrate the concept of exponential growth of the human population and some potential effects of overpopulation. The game material consists of wooden blocks; 18 blocks are painted green (representing land), 7 are painted blue (representing water); and the remaining…

  16. Aerospace Medicine Talk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Richard S.

    2015-01-01

    The presentation is next Sunday, May 10th. It will be to the Civil Aviation Medical Association, for 2 hours at Disney World in Orlando. It is a high level talk on space medicine, including history, the role of my office, human health risks of space flight, general aspects of space medicine practice, human health risk management (including integrated activities of medical operations and the Human Research Program, and thoughts concerning health risks for long duration exploration class space missions. No proprietary data or material will be used, all is readily available in the public sector. There is also a short (30 min) talk on Monday at the CAMA lunch. There we will describe the Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure syndrome, with possible etiologies and plans for research (already selected studies). Again, nothing proprietary will be discussed.

  17. Identification of Putative Ortholog Gene Blocks Involved in Gestant and Lactating Mammary Gland Development: A Rodent Cross-Species Microarray Transcriptomics Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Coral-Vázquez, Ramón M.; Hernández-Stengele, Gabriel; Sánchez, Raúl; Salazar, Emmanuel; Sanchez-Muñoz, Fausto; Encarnación-Guevara, Sergio; Ramírez-Salcedo, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The mammary gland (MG) undergoes functional and metabolic changes during the transition from pregnancy to lactation, possibly by regulation of conserved genes. The objective was to elucidate orthologous genes, chromosome clusters and putative conserved transcriptional modules during MG development. We analyzed expression of 22,000 transcripts using murine microarrays and RNA samples of MG from virgin, pregnant, and lactating rats by cross-species hybridization. We identified 521 transcripts differentially expressed; upregulated in early (78%) and midpregnancy (89%) and early lactation (64%), but downregulated in mid-lactation (61%). Putative orthologous genes were identified. We mapped the altered genes to orthologous chromosomal locations in human and mouse. Eighteen sets of conserved genes associated with key cellular functions were revealed and conserved transcription factor binding site search entailed possible coregulation among all eight block sets of genes. This study demonstrates that the use of heterologous array hybridization for screening of orthologous gene expression from rat revealed sets of conserved genes arranged in chromosomal order implicated in signaling pathways and functional ontology. Results demonstrate the utilization power of comparative genomics and prove the feasibility of using rodent microarrays to identification of putative coexpressed orthologous genes involved in the control of human mammary gland development. PMID:24288657

  18. Making time to talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    NHS Employers has updated its people performance management toolkit, which now includes links to new guidance and resources. The toolkit encourages managers to 'make time to talk' about performance with staff, provides practical support, increases managers' knowledge about what good performance management is, and aims to increase their confidence in dealing with associated challenges, such as what to do if a team member is underperforming and how to give constructive feedback.

  19. Talk of time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann-Albrecht Meylahn

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Maybe, before we speak of time, or maybe whilst we are speaking of time, or maybe after we have spoken of time, in the various modes of time’s insistence to exist, one should give time to the talk of time. There are various different modes of time’s insistence to exist, such as quantum physics in conversation with relativity theory where time is constructed as a fourth dimension of space. Or there are the modes of time in history, religion, psychology and philosophy, and each of these modes is composed, and composes its own specific object called time, and a particular subject who understands and interprets time in that particular mode. Yet, before, whilst or after these modes of time’s insistence to exist, one should maybe give time to time’s time. Give time for the various times to articulate themselves in the various modes of existence, thereby creating both a whole plurality of differing subjects, as well as plurality of differing objects, all called ‘time’. Once time has been given time to talk its talk, to articulate itself within the various modes, it will be interrupted by the articulations of time in various modes of time still to come. These disruptions of time by time always still to come opens the door for a theological narrative – a narrative on time, but created by the coming of messianic times, interpreted in the mode of hope but also in the mode of a promise from the past.

  20. Bib:talk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunæs, Dorthe; Khawaja, Iram

    På Ballerup Bibliotekerne blev ord som integration og gensidig forståelse omsat til praktisk handling i 2006. Med økonomisk støtte fra Biblioteksstyrelsens udviklingspulje for skole- og folkebiblioteker kørte Ballerup Bibliotekerne i efteråret et dialogprojekt "Unge mødes og dialog opstår. Vores ...... opbygget, har løftet BIB:talk-projektets kvalitet markant. Opbakningen fra resten af personalet på biblioteket har været fantastisk og alle har følt ejerskab til projektet....

  1. What have we learned from reporting safety incidents in the Surgical Block?: Cross-sectional descriptive study of two-years of activity of a multidisciplinary analytical group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caba Barrientos, F; Rodríguez Morillo, A; Galisteo Domínguez, R; Del Nozal Nalda, M; Almeida González, C V; Echevarría Moreno, M

    2018-05-01

    Incident Reporting Systems (IRS) are considered a tool that facilitates learning and safety culture. Using the experience gained with SENSAR, we evaluated the feasibility and the activity of a multidisciplinary group analyzing incidents in the surgical patient notified to a general community system, that of the Observatory for Patient Safety (OPS). Cross-sectional observational study planned for two years. After training in the analysis, a multidisciplinary group was created in terms of specialties and professional categories, which would analyze the incidents in the surgical patient notified to the OPS. Incidents are classified and their circumstances analyzed. Between March 2015 and 2017, 95 incidents were reported (4 by non-professionals). Doctors reported more than nurses, at 54 (56.84%) vs. 37 (38.94%). The anaesthesia unit reported most at 46 (48.42%) (P=.025). The types of incidents mainly related to the care procedure (30.52%); to the preoperative period (42.10%); and to the place, the surgical area (48.42%). Significant differences were detected according to the origin of the notifier (P=.03). No harm, or minor morbidity, constituted 88% of the incidents. Errors were identified in 79%. The analysis of the incidents directed the measures to be taken. The activity undertaken by the multidisciplinary analytical group during the period of study facilitated knowledge of the system among the professionals and enabled the identification of areas for improvement in the Surgical Block at different levels. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Fish-oil-derived n-3 PUFAs reduce inflammatory and chemotactic adipokine-mediated cross-talk between co-cultured murine splenic CD8+ T cells and adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Jennifer M; Liddle, Danyelle M; De Boer, Anna A; Brown, Morgan J; Power, Krista A; Ma, David Wl; Robinson, Lindsay E

    2015-04-01

    0.05). FO exerted an anti-inflammatory and antichemotactic effect on the cross-talk between CD8+ T cells and adipocytes and has implications in mitigating macrophage-centered AT-driven components of the obese phenotype. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Making weapons, talking peace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    York, H.F.

    1987-01-01

    The memoirs of the author traces his life from his first-year graduate studies in physics at the University of Rochester in 1942 to his present position as Director of the University of California's Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation. The part of his life involved in making weapons extends from 1942 to 1961. During this period, he worked with E.O. Lawrence on the Manhattan Project and served as director of Livermore after it became the Atomic Energy Commission's second nuclear weapons laboratory. He also served on many government advisory boards and commissions dealing with nuclear and other weapons. In 1961, the combination of a heart attack and changes in administration in Washington led York too return to the University of California for the talking peace portion of his life. He has since become a public exponent of arms control and disarmament and the futility of seeking increased security through more and better nuclear weapons. York's explanation of his move from making weapons to talking peace leaves the reader with a puzzle

  4. Talking About Theatre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Louise Ejgod; Lindelof, Anja Mølle

    2015-01-01

    Taking as its starting point the Nordic cultural policy debates surrounding audience development, which concentrate either on reaching out to new target groups or on artistic quality, this article suggests that the focus on the audience’s experience of theatre performances has thus far been...... underdeveloped. Through qualitative audience investigations, this article shows how talking about theatre offers a method by which to explore theatre experiences from an audience perspective, and thus provides invaluable knowledge for theatres and cultural politicians in search of larger and broader audiences....... The analysis discusses audience experience with regard to the sensory, the artistic and the symbolic level of two specific Swedish-Danish performances, thereby demonstrating how this approach offers a useful tool for theatrical institutions engaged in audience development....

  5. Talking about the job

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte; Strunck, Jeanne

    2016-01-01

    Talking about the job: The influence of management on leadership discourses Over the past decades, much research has been carried out to detail and analyse the uneven distribution of men and women in management positions (Acker 1990; Billing and Alvesson 2000; Österlind and Haake 2010). In Denmark......, this has been visible in banks and building societies where men would occupy the vast majority of senior positions, and women would be predominant in lower-ranking jobs, making it extremely difficult to climb the career ladder (Ellehave and Søndergaard 2006; Holmgreen 2009; Strunck 2013). One...... of the reasons for this is that gender inequalities continue to exist because they are deeply embedded in social structures and organisational processes, and not least upheld by the male managers whose positions are challenged by women’s entry into management (Schein 2007). In studies, this is referred...

  6. Talk, Mobility and Materialities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIlvenny, Paul

    The intersection of the quotidian practices of social interaction, learning and mobility outside of the classroom – for example, the ways in which talk shapes how children learn to be actively mobile – has been little studied until recently. This paper develops a social interactional approach......-country, both within the context of familial social interaction. Audiovisual data was collected with mobile video cameras from family bike rides in Denmark and family skiing in Finland, in which among other things a parent instructs and guides a child to bike or to ski. Using an EMCA approach, the analysis...... and limitations of a more reflexive, auto-ethnographic approach to collecting data derived from video recordings of activities in which, to different degrees, the researcher is an active subject....

  7. Detection block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezak, A.

    1987-01-01

    A diagram is given of a detection block used for monitoring burnup of nuclear reactor fuel. A shielding block is an important part of the detection block. It stabilizes the fuel assembly in the fixing hole in front of a collimator where a suitable gamma beam is defined for gamma spectrometry determination of fuel burnup. The detector case and a neutron source case are placed on opposite sides of the fixing hole. For neutron measurement for which the water in the tank is used as a moderator, the neutron detector-fuel assembly configuration is selected such that neutrons from spontaneous fission and neutrons induced with the neutron source can both be measured. The patented design of the detection block permits longitudinal travel and rotation of the fuel assembly to any position, and thus more reliable determination of nuclear fuel burnup. (E.S.). 1 fig

  8. Talking about Teaching 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Restivo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Portuguese Society for Engineering Education (SPEE was publically launched in 2010. Its start-up initiatives and consolidation process were complemented with the simultaneous establishment of SPEE international links. In 2010-11 international workshops were run with the support of University of Porto (UPorto and FEUP. Later on, in 2011, SPEE joined the International Society for Engineering Education (IGIP and together both societies organized the SPEE-IGIP Flash Moment within the 1st World Engineering Education Flash Week. SPEE has participated in other initiatives, such as CISTI 2011 (Chaves, Portugal, ICECE 2011 (Guimarães, Portugal, Educa Berlin 2011 (collaborating with the IGIP and SEFI workshop “The Role of Pedagogy in Online Engineering Education”, and has also organized Special Tracks in CLME 2011 (Maputo, Mozambique and in the 41st International Conference of IGIP (Villach, Austria. Here, SPEE organized a Special Track entitled “Talking about Teaching 2012 (TaT’12”. In the Special Track Session TaT’12 within IGIP2012, SPEE intended to contribute to promote the discussion on Engineering Education (EE by providing an opportunity for debating and sharing approaches, developments and experiences, in line with the mission of both SPEE and IGIP. “Talking about Teaching” is the name of a thought-provoking column of Susan Zvacek, from Fort Hays State University, in the SPEE Newsletter and it was planned to give continuity to her reflections and to potentiate them within TaT’12 and in future TaT’xx. The proposed topics were concerned not only with resources in EE and with the constant demand on the use of technology, but also with the effectiveness of knowledge in order to guaranty simultaneously the spirit of engineering leadership in society and the lifelong learning capability. They also included the perspective of EE oriented for STEM teachers and students, as well as the sharing of resources with developing countries

  9. Talking About Antismoking Campaigns: What Do Smokers Talk About, and How Does Talk Influence Campaign Effectiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Emily; Durkin, Sarah J; Wakefield, Melanie A; Kashima, Yoshihisa

    2016-01-01

    Campaign-stimulated conversations have been shown to increase the effectiveness of antismoking campaigns. In order to explore why such effects occur, in the current study we coded the content of naturally occurring conversations. We also examined whether the short-term effects of talking, and of different types of talk, on quitting intentions were mediated through intrapersonal message responses. Using the Natural Exposure(SM) methodology, we exposed 411 smokers to 1 of 6 antismoking advertisements while they were watching television at home. Responses to the advertisement-conversation participation and content, emotional responses, personalized perceived effectiveness, and changes in intentions to quit-were measured within 3 days of exposure. Conversations were coded for appraisal of the advertisement (favorable, neutral, or unfavorable) and the presence of quitting talk and emotion talk. Mediation analyses indicated that the positive effects of talking on intention change were mediated through personalized perceived effectiveness and that the positive effects were driven by conversations that contained a favorable appraisal and/or quitting talk. Conversely, conversations that contained an unfavorable appraisal of the advertisement were negatively associated with campaign effectiveness. These findings highlight the importance of measuring interpersonal communication when evaluating campaigns and the need for further research to identify the message characteristics that predict when smokers talk and when they talk only in desirable ways.

  10. Talk to Your Kids about Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topic En español Talk to Your Kids about Sex Browse Sections The Basics Overview Bodies and Puberty ... healthy expectations for their relationships. Talk about opposite-sex and same-sex relationships. When you talk about ...

  11. 'Educator talk' and patient change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinner, T. C.; Carey, M. E.; Cradock, S.

    2008-01-01

    Aims: To determine whether differences in the amount of time educators talk during a self-management education programme relate to the degree of change in participants' reported beliefs about diabetes. Method: Educators trained to be facilitative and non-didactic in their approach were observed...... talking less and meeting targets for being less didactic, a greater change in reported illness beliefs of participants was seen. However, educators struggled to meet targets for most sessions of the programme. Conclusion: The amount of time educators talk in a self-management programme may provide...... change to their normal educational style....

  12. The motor deficits caused by Parkinson's disease are not able to block adjustments for a safe strategy during obstacle crossing in individuals with moderate disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Alota Ignácio Pereira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to verify whether patients with Parkinson's disease (PD are able to adjust their motor behavior according to restrictions imposed by the task instruction during walking with obstacle crossing. Eighteen elderly people (moderate motor compromise with a diagnosis of PD walked on a pathway and cross an obstacle according to the following conditions: walking at preferred velocity; walking at maximum vertical elevation of the feet to cross the obstacle; walking at maximum step length to cross the obstacle; walking at maximum velocity. The modulations were directly related to the instructions provided to patients with PD before performing each task, which seems to indicate that attentional cues can influence and benefit strategies during obstacle crossing. In conclusion, patients with PD are able to adjust walking during obstacle crossing according to instructions given to them, which increases their safety.

  13. Teen Ambassador Leadership Kit (TALK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna R. Gillespie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Teen Ambassador Leadership Kit, (TALK, is an annual weekend retreat designed for teens interested in promoting and marketing 4-H in their communities. TALK organizers felt teens would benefit from an intensive weekend retreat focused on communication. TALK produces a network of educated and excited 4-H teens that are available to help with 4-H promotion and marketing. Participants arrive on Friday evening for team building activities, on Saturday they participate in one of the workshops offered and on Sunday morning each workshop group has the opportunity to share their completed projects and what they learned. At the conclusion of the retreat, teens are designated "County 4-H Ambassadors" and certificates of completion, professional business cards and polo shirts are presented. The TALK teen participants return home to share what they learned with their local county 4-H staff and help promote and market 4-H in their communities.

  14. Straight Talk for Good Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Talking with your Doctor nihseniorhealth.gov/talkingwithyourdoctor/toc.html Summer 2015 Issue: Volume 10 Number 2 Page 14-15 MedlinePlus | Subscribe | Magazine Information | Contact Us | Viewers & Players Friends of the National Library of Medicine (FNLM)

  15. 2016 T Division Lightning Talks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsey, Marilyn Leann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Adams, Luke Clyde [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Ferre, Gregoire Robing [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Grantcharov, Vesselin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Iaroshenko, Oleksandr [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Krishnapriyan, Aditi [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Kurtakoti, Prajvala Kishore [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Le Thien, Minh Quan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Lim, Jonathan Ng [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Low, Thaddeus Song En [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Lystrom, Levi Aaron [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Ma, Xiaoyu [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Nguyen, Hong T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Pogue, Sabine Silvia [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Orandle, Zoe Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Reisner, Andrew Ray [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Revard, Benjamin Charles [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Roy, Julien [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Sandor, Csanad [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Slavkova, Kalina Polet [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Weichman, Kathleen Joy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Wu, Fei [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Yang, Yang [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division

    2016-11-29

    These are the slides for all of the 2016 T Division lightning talks. There are 350 pages worth of slides from different presentations, all of which cover different topics within the theoretical division at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  16. 2017 T Division Lightning Talks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsey, Marilyn Leann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Abeywardhana, Jayalath AMM [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Adams, Colin Mackenzie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Adams, Luke Clyde [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Carter, Austin Lewis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ducru, Pablo Philippe [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Duignan, Thomas John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gifford, Brendan Joel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hills, Benjamin Hale [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hoffman, Kentaro Jack [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Khair, Adnan Ibne [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kochanski, Kelly Anne Pribble [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ledwith, Patrick John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Leveillee, Joshua Anthony [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lewis, Sina Genevieve [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ma, Xiaoyu [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Merians, Hugh Drake [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Moore, Bryan Alexander [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Nijjar, Parmeet Kaur [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Oles, Vladyslav [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Olszewski, Maciej W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Philipbar, Brad Montgomery [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reisner, Andrew Ray [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Roberts, David Benjamin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rufa, Dominic Antonio [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sifain, Andrew E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Smith, Justin Steven [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Smith, Lauren Taylor Wisbey [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Svolos, Lampros [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Thibault, Joshua Ryan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ushijima-Mwesigwa, Hayato Montezuma [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Weaver, Claire Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Witzen, Wyatt Andrew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zentgraf, Sabine Silvia [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Alred, John Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-06

    All members of the T Division Community, students, staff members, group leaders, division management, and other interested individuals are invited to come and support the following student(s) as they present their Lightning Talks.

  17. Reliability on ISS Talk Outline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiora, Mike

    2015-01-01

    1. Overview of ISS 2. Space Environment and it effects a. Radiation b. Microgravity 3. How we ensure reliability a. Requirements b. Component Selection i. Note: I plan to stay away from talk about Rad Hardened components and talk about why we use older processors because they are less susceptible to SEUs. c. Testing d. Redundancy / Failure Tolerance e. Sparing strategies 4. Operational Examples a. Multiple MDM Failures on 6A due to hard drive failure In general, my plan is to only talk about data that is currently available via normal internet sources to ensure that I stay away from any topics that would be Export Controlled, ITAR, or NDA-controlled. The operational example has been well-reported on in the media and those are the details that I plan to cover. Additionally I am not planning on using any slides or showing any photos during the talk.

  18. Responsibility for Racism in the Everyday Talk of Secondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halse, Christine

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the attributions of responsibility for racism in the everyday talk of secondary school students. It draws on focus groups with a cross section of students from different ethnic backgrounds in three, very different, secondary schools. In these focus groups, students deploy six different, sometimes contradictory, racialised…

  19. Gender Differences in Topical Coherence: Creating Involvement in Best Friends' Talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannen, Deborah

    1990-01-01

    Examines gender differences in topical coherence of same-sex best friends' conversations using John Gumperz's framework for cross-cultural communication. Finds that girls exhibit minimal or no difficulty in finding something to talk about. Finds that boys exhibit more discomfort, with tenth grade boys talking about their own highly personal…

  20. Talking with TV shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Laursen, Ditte

    2014-01-01

    User interaction with radio and television programmes is not a new thing. However, with new cross-media production concepts such as X Factor and Voice, this is changing dramatically. The second-screen logic of these productions encourages viewers, along with TV’s traditional one-way communication...... mode, to communicate on interactive (dialogue-enabling) devices such as laptops, smartphones and tablets. Using the TV show Voice as our example, this article shows how the technological and situational set-up of the production invites viewers to engage in new ways of interaction and communication...

  1. Heart Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as lupus. People who have these diseases make proteins called antibodies that attack and damage the body's tissues or cells. In pregnant women, antibodies can cross the placenta. (The placenta ...

  2. Polymerization by DNA polymerase eta is blocked by cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) 1,3-d(GpTpG) cross-link: implications for cytotoxic effects in nucleotide excision repair-negative tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chijiwa, Shotaro; Masutani, Chikahide; Hanaoka, Fumio; Iwai, Shigenori; Kuraoka, Isao

    2010-03-01

    cis-Diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (cisplatin) forms DNA adducts that interfere with replication and transcription. The most common adducts formed in vivo are 1,2-intrastrand d(GpG) cross-links (Pt-GG) and d(ApG) cross-links (Pt-AG), with minor amounts of 1,3-d(GpNpG) cross-links (Pt-GNG), interstrand cross-links and monoadducts. Although the relative contribution of these different adducts to toxicity is not known, literature implicates that Pt-GG and Pt-AG adducts block replication. Thus, nucleotide excision repair (NER), by which platinum adducts are excised, and translesion DNA synthesis (TLS), which permits adduct bypass, are thought to be associated with cisplatin resistance. Recent studies have reported that the clinical benefit from platinum-based chemotherapy is high if tumor cells express low levels of NER factors. To investigate the role of platinum-DNA adducts in mediating tumor cell survival by TLS, we examined whether 1,3-intrastrand d(GpTpG) platinum cross-links (Pt-GTG), which probably exist in NER-negative tumor cells but not in NER-positive tumor cells, are bypassed by the translesion DNA polymerase eta (pol eta), which is known to bypass Pt-GG. We show that pol eta can incorporate the correct deoxycytidine triphosphate opposite the first 3'-cross-linked G of Pt-GTG but cannot insert any nucleotides opposite the second intact T or the third 5'-cross-linked G of the adducts, thereby suggesting that TLS does not facilitate replication past Pt-GTG adducts. Thus, our findings implicate Pt-GNG adducts as mediating the cytotoxicity of platinum-DNA adducts in NER-negative tumors in vivo.

  3. How to give a good talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alon, Uri

    2009-10-23

    We depend on talks to communicate our work, and we spend much of our time as audience members in talks. However, few scientists are taught the well-established principles of giving good talks. Here, I describe how to prepare, present, and answer questions in a scientific talk. We will see how a talk prepared with a single premise and delivered with good eye contact is clear and enjoyable.

  4. Is talking to yourself thinking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachlin, Howard

    2018-01-01

    The question whether talking to yourself is thinking is considered from two viewpoints: radical behaviorism and teleological behaviorism. For radical behaviorism, following Skinner (1945), mental events such as 'thinking' may be explained in terms of private behavior occurring within the body, ordinarily unobservable by other people; thus, radical behaviorism may identify talking to yourself with thinking. However, to be consistent with its basic principles, radical behaviorism must hold that private behavior, hence thinking, is identical with covert muscular, speech movements (rather than proprioception of those movements). For teleological behaviorism, following Skinner (1938), all mental terms, including 'thinking,' stand for abstract, temporally extended patterns of overt behavior. Thus, for teleological behaviorism, talking to yourself, covert by definition, cannot be thinking. © 2017 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  5. Menstrual pattern and prevalence of dysmenorrhea among school going adolescent girls in a rural block of Haryana: A cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garima Sangwan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The World Health Organization (WHO has defined adolescence as the age group of 10-19 years. Adolescents in India comprise 19.3% of the total Indian population. Adolescence is a transition phase through which a child becomes an adult. It is characterized by rapid growth and development; physiologically, psychologically and socially. This period is marked by the onset of menarche. Menstruation is a natural, normal biological process experienced by all adolescent girls and women in reproductive age. Objectives To study the menstrual pattern and prevalence of dysmenorrhea among school going adolescent girls in a rural block of Haryana. Methods There were 18 government high and senior secondary schools in block Lakhanmajra. Out of these 5 were exclusively girls’ schools, 10 were co-ed schools and 3 were exclusively boys’ schools. All the 5 schools meant exclusively for girls were included in the study. All girls studying in 6th to 12th classes from these schools, after applying the exclusion criteria were included in the study. Results The mean age at menarche was 12.83±1.326 years. The inter-menstrual interval was 21 to 35 days in majority (80.1% of the adolescent girls and the duration of menstruation was more than 7 days in 9.4% of the girls. Majority of the girls (52.1% reported the duration of menstruation to be 2-3 days.

  6. Talk for TOOLS 2012, Stockholm

    CERN Document Server

    Lester, CG; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The intention is to give a talk on some of the recent BSM results of ATLAS, with occasional reference to CMS. Since no LHC experiment has yet found any BSM physics, the focus on the talk is NOT on listing all the (null) searches that have been conducted. Instead it intends/aims to draw the audience's attention to (1) common features of the searches which have already taken place, (2) common "holes" in those searches (i.e. places where BSM physics can still easily be hiding) and (3) some ideas of where things will go next.

  7. Talking about Talk: Reviewing Oracy in English Primary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides a review of oracy in primary education (5-11) in England. It discusses the nature of talk, acknowledging it as integral to the learning and teaching process and traces the history and development of the place of oracy within the curriculum. The article provides a critique of related policy initiatives including various…

  8. Talking about AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the significance of social relationships to two important stages in the process of sexual behavioral change in response to increased HIV/AIDS risk in rural Africa: the perceived risk of becoming HIV-infected through unprotected sexual intercourse and the preferred methods of protection either through sexual fidelity, or through condom use. The empirical analyses are based on cross-sectional data from the 'Kenyan Diffusion and Ideational Change Project' (KDICP which provides information about AIDS-related, ego-centered communication networks of Kenyan men and women. The results show that perceived risks, as well as preferred methods of protection against HIV-infection, depend in general on the prevailing perceptions and favored protective methods within personal communication networks. However, different influential network properties can be found. The risk-perceptions of women are shaped by strong relationships and cohesive network structures. Male's risk perception depends more on the number of risk-perceivers in their communication networks. Heterogeneous relationships of various kinds are influential on women's and men's probability of favoring sexual faithfulness as a method of protection against HIV-infection.

  9. Reviews Book: Voyage to the Heart of the Matter: The ATLAS Experiment at CERN Equipment: SEP Spectroscope Books: Quantum Gods / The Universe Places to visit: The Royal Institution of Great Britain Book: What is this Thing Called Science? Book: Don't be Such a Scientist: Talking Substance in the Age of Style Equipment: La Crosse Anemometer Book: Wonder and Delight Web Watch

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    WE RECOMMEND SEP Spectroscope Flatpacked classroom equipment for pupils aged 10 and over Quantum Gods Book attacks spiritualism and religion with physics The Universe Study of whether physics alone can explain origin of universe La Crosse Anemometer Handheld monitor is packed with useful features Wonder and Delight Essays in science education in honour of Eric Rogers WORTH A LOOK Voyage to the Heart of the Matter: The ATLAS Experiment at CERN Pop-up book explains background to complex physics The Royal Institution of Great Britain RI museum proves interesting but not ideal for teaching What is this Thing Called Science? Theory and history of science in an opinionated study Don't be Such a Scientist: Talking Substance in the Age of Style Explanation of how science is best communicated to the public WEB WATCH Particle physics simulations vary in complexity, usefulness and how well they work

  10. Ticket-to-talk-television

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Marcus Sanchez; Sokoler, Tomas

    2008-01-01

    on a moment-to-moment basis throughout everyday life beyond the TV screens. We take the phenomenon of ticket-to-talk as our point of departure when analyzing observations made during a study of the ways senior citizens go about socializing in everyday face-to-face situations. We then discuss how this analysis...

  11. Jamie Foxx Talks About HIV

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-07-24

    Jamie Foxx, Academy Award winning actor and singer, urges everyone to talk about HIV/AIDS and its prevention.  Created: 7/24/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 7/24/2012.

  12. Return of the talking heads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinecke Hansen, Kenneth; Bro, Peter; Andersson, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    . In order to analyze the latest development entering the third wave, we propose a theoretically based dramaturgical model for the television news item. The analysis concludes that, with the current ‘return’ of the talking heads format, the pre-produced and pre-packaged bulletin program about past events...

  13. How to Talk about Religion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunzman, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Given the prevalence of religion talk in today's world, another form of fluency is needed. Civic multilingualism is the ability to converse across different religious and ethical perspectives in search of understanding, compromise, and common ground. According to the author, this may represent the greatest social challenge of the 21st century.…

  14. Talking to Your Kids about Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well-Being Mental Health Sex and Birth Control Sex and Sexuality Birth Control Family Health Infants and ... Kids and Teens Talking to Your Kids About Sex Talking to Your Kids About Sex Share Print ...

  15. An efficient, block-by-block algorithm for inverting a block tridiagonal, nearly block Toeplitz matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, Matthew G; Hill, Judith C

    2012-01-01

    We present an algorithm for computing any block of the inverse of a block tridiagonal, nearly block Toeplitz matrix (defined as a block tridiagonal matrix with a small number of deviations from the purely block Toeplitz structure). By exploiting both the block tridiagonal and the nearly block Toeplitz structures, this method scales independently of the total number of blocks in the matrix and linearly with the number of deviations. Numerical studies demonstrate this scaling and the advantages of our method over alternatives.

  16. Representative value of cross-fault in the northeastern margin of the Qinghai-Tibet block and case analysis of the 2016 Menyuan Ms6.4 earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruisha Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The equation for determining cross-fault representative value is calculated based on hanging wall and foot wall reference level surfaces. The cross-fault data reliability are analyzed base on the stability of reference datum and observation points, thereby facilitating plotting of the representative value curves after removing interference. The spatial and temporal characteristics of fault deformation abnormalities before the 2016 Menyuan Ms6.4 earthquake, as well as the fault-movement characteristics reflected by representative value, are summarized. The results show that many site trends had changed 1–3 years before the Menyuan Ms6.4 earthquake in the Qilian Fault, reflecting certain background abnormalities. The short-term abnormalities centrally had appeared in the 6 months to 1 year period before the earthquake near and in the neighborhood of the source region, demonstrating a significantly increased number of short-term abnormalities. Many sites near and in the neighborhood of the source region had strengthened inverse activities or had changed from positive to inverse activities in the most recent 2–3 years, which reflect stress-field enhancements or adjustment features.

  17. Analysis of Block OMP using Block RIP

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jun; Li, Gang; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Xiqin

    2011-01-01

    Orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP) is a canonical greedy algorithm for sparse signal reconstruction. When the signal of interest is block sparse, i.e., it has nonzero coefficients occurring in clusters, the block version of OMP algorithm (i.e., Block OMP) outperforms the conventional OMP. In this paper, we demonstrate that a new notion of block restricted isometry property (Block RIP), which is less stringent than standard restricted isometry property (RIP), can be used for a very straightforw...

  18. Scleral Cross-Linking Using Riboflavin UVA Irradiation for the Prevention of Myopia Progression in a Guinea Pig Model: Blocked Axial Extension and Altered Scleral Microstructure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Liu

    Full Text Available To develop methods of collagen cross-linking (CXL in the sclera for the treatment of progressive myopia and to investigate the biomechanical and histological changes that occur in as a result.Twenty 14-day-old guinea pigs were divided into 3 groups: the cross-linking group (CL, n = 8, non cross-linking group (NCL, n = 8, and control group (n = 4. The scleras of the right eyes of the guinea pigs in the CL group were surgically exposed and riboflavin was dropped onto the irradiation zone for 20 seconds prior to ultraviolet-A (UVA irradiation. The same procedure was conducted on the NCL group but without UVA irradiation. No procedure was conducted on the control group. The right eyes of the guinea pigs in the CL and NCL groups were then fitted with -10.00DS optics for six weeks. Retinoscopy and the axial lengths (AXL were measured at baseline, and at the second, fourth and sixth weeks post-treatment in all three groups. All animal subjects were euthanized after the sixth week and then biomechanical and histopathological examinations of the scleras were conducted.The mean AXL of the NCL group was longer than both the control and CL groups at six weeks (P = 0.001. The mean refractive error in the NCL group was statistically significantly more negative than both the control and the CL groups at six weeks (P = 0.001. The scleral collagen fiber arrangements of the CL and control groups were denser and more regularly distributed than the NCL group. Ultimate stress of the sclera was lowest in the NCL group, followed by the CL then the control group (P<0.05. Ultimate strain (% of the sclera was lowest in the CL group followed by the NCL and then the control group (P<0.05.Our study demonstrates that scleral CXL using riboflavin UVA irradiation effectively prevents the progression of myopia by increasing scleral biomechanical strength in a guinea pig model.

  19. Coordinating talk and practical action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oshima, Sae; Streeck, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates how talk and practical action are coordinated during one type of activity involving professional communication: the service-assessment sequence in hair salons. During this activity, a practical inspection of the haircut must be coupled with sequentially produced verbal acts....... Our analysis of four examples reveals that there is no fixed relationship between the organization of talk and practical action. Instead, people manipulate this relationship on a moment-by-moment basis, often coordinating the two into a single, integral package, or relying on one stream of action...... to achieve progress in the other. These findings imply that some multimodal activities that are brought into alignment may have their own, separate and independent procedural logic and sequencing patterns and that these can be brought into play to create or deal with constraints in each other....

  20. Cheap Talk in the Classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Mechtenberg, Lydia

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, I o¤er a theoretical explanation of the robust gender differences in educational achievement distributions of school children. I consider a one shot cheap talk game with two different types of senders (biased teachers and fair teachers), two types of receivers ("normal" and "special" pupils) and uncertainty about the sender type on the side of the receiver. I demonstrate that the group of pupils who, in expectation, get either too much or too little encouragement will have less...

  1. Cheap talk in the classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Mechtenberg, Lydia; Strausz, Roland

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, I offer a theoretical explanation of the robust gender differences in educational achievement distributions of school children. I consider a shot cheap talk game with two different types of senders (biased teachers and fair teachers), two types of receivers (normal and special pupils) and uncertainty about the sender type on the side of the receiver. I demonstrate that the group of pupils who, in expectation, get either too much or too little encouragement will have less top ac...

  2. Strategi Pemasaran dan Penggunaan KakaoTalk

    OpenAIRE

    Nuansyara, Ade Tia

    2015-01-01

    This research entitled Marketing Strategic and useful of KakaoTalk (Corelation Study of KakaoTalk Advertise “Buy 1, Get 1” Version to Useful of KakaoTalk among Students of Social Science and Political Science Faculty at University of North Sumatra). KakaoTalk is the one from many applications which can use to send message to other user with free cost. KakaoTalk use the marketing strategy buy 1, get 1 to every products in promotion program. This strategy using for make people get interesting ...

  3. Cosmonaut Dezhurov Talks With Flight Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Aboard the International Space Station (ISS), Cosmonaut and Expedition Three flight engineer Vladimir N. Dezhurov, representing Rosaviakosmos, talks with flight controllers from the Zvezda Service Module. Russian-built Zvezda is linked to the Functional Cargo Block (FGB), or Zarya, the first component of the ISS. Zarya was launched on a Russian Proton rocket prior to the launch of Unity. The third component of the ISS, Zvezda (Russian word for star), the primary Russian contribution to the ISS, was launched by a three-stage Proton rocket on July 12, 2000. Zvezda serves as the cornerstone for early human habitation of the Station, providing living quarters, a life support system, electrical power distribution, a data processing system, flight control system, and propulsion system. It also provides a communications system that includes remote command capabilities from ground flight controllers. The 42,000-pound module measures 43 feet in length and has a wing span of 98 feet. Similar in layout to the core module of Russia's Mir space station, it contains 3 pressurized compartments and 13 windows that allow ultimate viewing of Earth and space.

  4. What Do Entrepreneurs Talk About When They Talk About Failure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gartner, William B.; Ingram, Amy E.

    : Entrepreneurs discuss failure as part of the social norm of entrepreneurship. Failure is paradoxically related to success. Entrepreneurs tend to characterize failure as positive and discuss positive failure using temporal (e.g., “fail fast”) and scalable (e.g., “leverage it”) language. Finally, entrepreneurs......This research focuses on “the rhetoric of entrepreneurial practice.” We conducted quantitative and qualitative linguistic analysis of ways that entrepreneurs talk about failure based on 89 usable transcriptions of presentations given at Stanford University between 2001 and 2013. Findings highlight...

  5. DeepTalk: A complete conference in a picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts, Gordon

    2010-01-01

    Particle physics conferences lasting a week (like CHEP) can have 100's of talks and posters presented. Current conference web interfaces (like Indico) are well suited to finding a talk by author or by time-slot. However, browsing the complete material in a modern large conference is not user friendly. Browsing involves continually making the expensive transition between HTML viewing and talk-slides (which are either PDF files or some other format). Further the web interfaces aren't designed for undirected browsing. The advent of multi-core computing and advanced video cards means that we have more processor power available for visualization than any time in the past. This poster describes a technique of rendering a complete conference's slides and posters as a single very large picture. Standard plug-in software for a browser allows a user to zoom in on a portion of the conference that looks interesting. As the user zooms further more and more details become visible, allowing the user to make a quick and chep decision on whether to spend more time on a particular talk. The project, DeepConference, has been implemented as a public web site and can render any conference whose agenda is powered by Indico. The rendering technology is powered by the free download, Silverlight. The poster discusses the implementation and use as well as cross platform performance and possible future directions. A demo will be shown.

  6. MHC class I cross-talk with CD2 and CD28 induces specific intracellular signalling and leads to growth retardation and apoptosis via a p56(lck)-dependent mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruhwald, M; Pedersen, Anders Elm; Claesson, M H

    1999-01-01

    Ligation of the major histocompatibility complex class I molecules (MHC-I) on human T lymphoma cells (Jurkat) initiates p56(lck)-dependent intracellular signalling events (phosphotyrosine kinase activity; [Ca(2+)](i)) and leads to augmented growth inhibition and apoptosis. MHC-I ligation in concert...... of apoptosis. In parallel experiments with the p56(lck)-negative Jurkat mutant cell, JCaM1.6, cross-linking neither influenced cell signalling nor cellular growth functions, indicating a cardinal role of the src kinases in signal transduction via MHC-I, CD2 and CD28 molecules. The results presented here...... with ligation of CD2 or CD28 augments, changes or modifies the pattern of activation. Ligation of MHC-I and CD2 alone resulted in growth inhibition, whereas CD28 ligation alone had no effect on cell proliferation. Ligation of MHC-I together with CD2 augmented growth inhibition and enhanced the level...

  7. Talking Peace in the Ogaden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagmann, Tobias

    Since the 1990s, war in the Ogaden region of Ethiopia has claimed thousands of lives. The conflict between the Government of Ethiopia and the insurgent Ogaden National Liberation Front has impoverished the communities of Ethiopia’s Somali Regional State, swollen the refugee population in Kenya......, and added to insecurity in the Somali territories of the Horn of Africa. Talking Peace in the Ogaden is the outcome of extensive research in Ethiopia, East Africa and the global Ogaadeeni diaspora. It analyses the evolution of the conflict, the changing balance of forces, and the current prospects for peace....

  8. Ultrasound guided supraclavicular block.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hanumanthaiah, Deepak

    2013-09-01

    Ultrasound guided regional anaesthesia is becoming increasingly popular. The supraclavicular block has been transformed by ultrasound guidance into a potentially safe superficial block. We reviewed the techniques of performing supraclavicular block with special focus on ultrasound guidance.

  9. Nuclear wastes: lets talk about

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This colloquium is entirely devoted to the problem of nuclear wastes management and to the anxiety of the French public opinion with respect to radioactive wastes in general. Nuclear wastes, generally are perceived as the unique problem of nuclear industry and as a new and unknown problem for which no solutions have been proposed so far. The aim of this colloquium is to demonstrate that such solutions exist and that, probably, they have been more thoroughly examined than in other industrial sectors. The two first talks give the inventory of possible solutions and the policy followed by nuclear operators for the conditioning and packaging of radioactive wastes. The other talks give the point of view of the producers and of the managers of nuclear wastes and the legal aspects of the management and storage of nuclear wastes, in particular the December 30, 1991 law. A particular attention is given to the importance of communication and public information in the successful management of nuclear wastes. (J.S.)

  10. A standard graphite block

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivkovic, M; Zdravkovic, Z; Sotic, O [Department of Reactor Physics and Dynamics, Boris Kidric Institute of nuclear sciences Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1966-04-15

    A graphite block was calibrated for the thermal neutron flux of the Ra-Be source using indium foils as detectors. Experimental values of the thermal neutron flux along the central vertical axis of the system were corrected for the self-shielding effect and depression of flux in the detector. The experimental values obtained were compared with the values calculated on the basis of solving the conservation neutron equation by the continuous slowing-down theory. In this theoretical calculation of the flux the Ra-Be source was divided into three resonance energy regions. The measurement of the thermal neutron diffusion length in the standard graphite block is described. The measurements were performed in the thermal neutron region of the system. The experimental results were interpreted by the diffusion theory for point thermal neutron source in the finite system. The thermal neutron diffusion length was calculated to be L= 50.9 {+-}3.1 cm for the following graphite characteristics: density = 1.7 g/cm{sup 3}; boron content = 0.1 ppm; absorption cross section = 3.7 mb.

  11. A standard graphite block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivkovic, M.; Zdravkovic, Z.; Sotic, O.

    1966-04-01

    A graphite block was calibrated for the thermal neutron flux of the Ra-Be source using indium foils as detectors. Experimental values of the thermal neutron flux along the central vertical axis of the system were corrected for the self-shielding effect and depression of flux in the detector. The experimental values obtained were compared with the values calculated on the basis of solving the conservation neutron equation by the continuous slowing-down theory. In this theoretical calculation of the flux the Ra-Be source was divided into three resonance energy regions. The measurement of the thermal neutron diffusion length in the standard graphite block is described. The measurements were performed in the thermal neutron region of the system. The experimental results were interpreted by the diffusion theory for point thermal neutron source in the finite system. The thermal neutron diffusion length was calculated to be L= 50.9 ±3.1 cm for the following graphite characteristics: density = 1.7 g/cm 3 ; boron content = 0.1 ppm; absorption cross section = 3.7 mb

  12. BizTalk Server 2010 Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Wiggers, Steef-Jan

    2012-01-01

    This book will explain step-by-step in each recipe how to, for example, implement a certain orchestration pattern, test a BizTalk artifact, monitor BizTalk with a third party tool, or secure a message. The recipes in this book are easy to understand and follow as the author discusses real-world scenarios. The range of topics covered in this book will bring out the forward-thinking BizTalk developer in you. The examples are supported by relevant background information for ease of understanding. This book is for professional BizTalk Developers and administrators to take their skills to the next

  13. Corporate Language and Corporate Talk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zølner, Mette

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the case studies of two Danish based multinational companies (MNCs) which provides the an insight into the role of languages in organizational learning. It mentions that the studies focus on the sharing of the understanding and practices among their employees across the geogr......The article presents the case studies of two Danish based multinational companies (MNCs) which provides the an insight into the role of languages in organizational learning. It mentions that the studies focus on the sharing of the understanding and practices among their employees across...... the geographical borders by the medium of common corporate values for knowledge management, collection of data and analysis in these studies inspired by approach of ground theory and presents a usefulness of distinguishing between corporate language and talks to enable the headquarters learning. Also it concludes...... that both of the MNCs are of Danish origin but executives of both companies are proficient in English language....

  14. Talking Video in 'Everyday Life'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIlvenny, Paul

    For better or worse, video technologies have made their way into many domains of social life, for example in the domain of therapeutics. Techniques such as Marte Meo, Video Interaction Guidance (ViG), Video-Enhanced Reflection on Communication, Video Home Training and Video intervention....../prevention (VIP) all promote the use of video as a therapeutic tool. This paper focuses on media therapeutics and the various in situ uses of video technologies in the mass media for therapeutic purposes. Reality TV parenting programmes such as Supernanny, Little Angels, The House of Tiny Tearaways, Honey, We...... observation and instruction (directives) relayed across different spaces; 2) the use of recorded video by participants to visualise, spatialise and localise talk and action that is distant in time and/or space; 3) the translating, stretching and cutting of social experience in and through the situated use...

  15. Homogeneous bilateral block shifts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Douglas class were classified in [3]; they are unilateral block shifts of arbitrary block size (i.e. dim H(n) can be anything). However, no examples of irreducible homogeneous bilateral block shifts of block size larger than 1 were known until now.

  16. How to Give a Good Talk?

    OpenAIRE

    Legout , Arnaud

    2013-01-01

    Why should you give great talks? How to make great slides? How to give a talk? How to make good presentations?; 3rd cycle; Warning: download the powerpoint version to get animations. Animated slides in the PDF version may look cluttered.

  17. Theoretical summary talk of QCD 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, Rahul

    2003-01-01

    This is a summary of the talks on QCD, not including QCD at finite temperature or density (which are discussed elsewhere) presented at the QCD 2002 meeting held at IIT, Kanpur. I have attempted to give only an overview of the talks since the details may be found in the individual contributions. (author)

  18. Library science talks : eleventh season 2005

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The Swiss National Library in Berne, the Association of International Librarians and Information Specialists AILIS and the CERN Scientific Information Service are pleased to announce their 2005 series of Library Science Talks. The series offers library and archive staff the possibility of learning from and communicating with personalities in library services and organizations. The talks cover important and topical issues for librarians.

  19. Talking to Your Kids about Virginity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Pelvic MusclesHuman Papillomavirus (HPV)Talking to Your Kids About Sex Home Family Health Kids and Teens Talking to ... by: familydoctor.org editorial staff Categories: Family Health, Kids and Teens, Sex and SexualityTags: child, teenager January 10, 2017 Copyright © ...

  20. Exploring TED Talks as Linked Data for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taibi, Davide; Chawla, Saniya; Dietze, Stefan; Marenzi, Ivana; Fetahu, Besnik

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present the TED Talks dataset which exposes all metadata and the actual transcripts of available TED talks as structured Linked Data. The TED talks collection is composed of more than 1800 talks, along with 35?000 transcripts in over 30 languages, related to a wide range of topics. In this regard, TED talks metadata available in…

  1. Testing block subdivision algorithms on block designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Natalie; Patterson, Zachary

    2016-01-01

    Integrated land use-transportation models predict future transportation demand taking into account how households and firms arrange themselves partly as a function of the transportation system. Recent integrated models require parcels as inputs and produce household and employment predictions at the parcel scale. Block subdivision algorithms automatically generate parcel patterns within blocks. Evaluating block subdivision algorithms is done by way of generating parcels and comparing them to those in a parcel database. Three block subdivision algorithms are evaluated on how closely they reproduce parcels of different block types found in a parcel database from Montreal, Canada. While the authors who developed each of the algorithms have evaluated them, they have used their own metrics and block types to evaluate their own algorithms. This makes it difficult to compare their strengths and weaknesses. The contribution of this paper is in resolving this difficulty with the aim of finding a better algorithm suited to subdividing each block type. The proposed hypothesis is that given the different approaches that block subdivision algorithms take, it's likely that different algorithms are better adapted to subdividing different block types. To test this, a standardized block type classification is used that consists of mutually exclusive and comprehensive categories. A statistical method is used for finding a better algorithm and the probability it will perform well for a given block type. Results suggest the oriented bounding box algorithm performs better for warped non-uniform sites, as well as gridiron and fragmented uniform sites. It also produces more similar parcel areas and widths. The Generalized Parcel Divider 1 algorithm performs better for gridiron non-uniform sites. The Straight Skeleton algorithm performs better for loop and lollipop networks as well as fragmented non-uniform and warped uniform sites. It also produces more similar parcel shapes and patterns.

  2. "Eugenics talk" and the language of bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, S

    2008-06-01

    In bioethical discussions of preimplantation genetic diagnosis and prenatal screening, accusations of eugenics are commonplace, as are counter-claims that talk of eugenics is misleading and unhelpful. This paper asks whether "eugenics talk", in this context, is legitimate and useful or something to be avoided. It also looks at the extent to which this linguistic question can be answered without first answering relevant substantive moral questions. Its main conclusion is that the best and most non-partisan argument for avoiding eugenics talk is the Autonomy Argument. According to this, eugenics talk per se is not wrong, but there is something wrong with using its emotive power as a means of circumventing people's critical-rational faculties. The Autonomy Argument does not, however, tell against eugenics talk when such language is used to shock people into critical-rational thought. These conclusions do not depend on unique features of eugenics: similar considerations apply to emotive language throughout bioethics.

  3. Poly(ferrocenylsilane)-block-Polylactide Block Copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, M.; van Zanten, Thomas S.; Hempenius, Mark A.; Zhong, Zhiyuan; Feijen, Jan; Vancso, Gyula J.

    2007-01-01

    A PFS/PLA block copolymer was studied to probe the effect of strong surface interactions on pattern formation in PFS block copolymer thin films. Successful synthesis of PFS-b-PLA was demonstrated. Thin films of these polymers show phase separation to form PFS microdomains in a PLA matrix, and

  4. Cross-Cultural Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannen, Deborah

    A two-part presentation on cross-cultural communication consists of a discussion of cultural differences in interpersonal communication and an article from a Greek English-language publication concerning telephone use skills in a foreign country. Cultural differences in communication are divided into eight types and illustrated: (1) when to talk;…

  5. Future talk in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoletti, Isabella; Gomes, Sandra

    2014-04-01

    This article focuses on the relevance that the dimension of the future has for promoting healthy and active aging. Older people generally have difficulties in talking about the future and when they do they generally express very negative perspectives on it. The data analyzed in this paper are part of an on-going interdisciplinary research project: "Aging, poverty and social exclusion: an interdisciplinary study on innovative support services" (https://apseclunl.wordpress.com/). The project aims at documenting good practices in social intervention with older people who are at risk of exclusion. This study describes and critically discusses an activity carried out in Portugal among older women in a poor area in the suburb of Lisbon entitled "self-awareness workshop on the future". Through a detailed discourse analysis within an ethnomethodological framework the study shows age membership categorizations in use and categorization processes, examining the workshop interaction. In particular, the article describes how the psychologist works at deconstructing and problematizing the negative connotations related to age membership categories. Taking into consideration the interactionally constructed nature of aging and the material consequences that different attitudes towards aging can imply is very important in particular in relation to the provision of services to older people. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Osteoprotegerin in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis: cross talk between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ehab

    arthritis (JRA) and to determine its relation to clinical and laboratory markers of disease ... osteoprotegerin were assayed by ELISA in the patient and control groups. Joints were .... Assay procedure: Diluted standards, quality controls and ...

  7. Cross-talk of human gut with bifidobacteria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trebichavský, Ilja; Rada, V.; Šplíchalová, Alla; Šplíchal, Igor

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 2 (2009), s. 77-82 ISSN 0029-6643 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/07/0572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : bifidobacteria * gut * innate immunity Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.443, year: 2009

  8. Cytokinin Cross-talking During Biotic and Abiotic Stress Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Antonio O'Brien

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available As sessile organisms, plants have to be able to adapt to a continuously changing environment. Plants that perceive some of these changes as stress signals activate signaling pathways to modulate their development and to enable them to survive. The complex responses to environmental cues are to a large extent mediated by plant hormones that together orchestrate the final plant response. The phytohormone cytokinin is involved in many plant developmental processes. Recently, it has been established that cytokinin plays an important role in stress responses, but does not act alone. Indeed, the hormonal control of plant development and stress adaptation is the outcome of a complex network of multiple synergistic and antagonistic interactions between various hormones. Here, we review the recent findings on the cytokinin function as part of this hormonal network. We focus on the importance of the crosstalk between cytokinin and other hormones, such as abscisic acid, jasmonate, salicylic acid, ethylene, and auxin in the modulation of plant development and stress adaptation. Finally, the impact of the current research in the biotechnological industry will be discussed.

  9. Mitochondrial and Nuclear Cross Talk in Cell Death: Parthanatos

    OpenAIRE

    Andrabi, Shaida A.; Dawson, Ted M.; Dawson, Valina L.

    2008-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) PARP-1 is an abundant nuclear protein first described to facilitate DNA base excision repair. Recent work has expanded the physiologic functions of PARP-1 and it is clear that the full range of biologic actions of this important protein are not yet fully understood. Regulation of the product of PARP-1, poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR), is a dynamic process with poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) playing a major role in the degradation of the polymer. Under pat...

  10. Molecular cross-talk between sponge host and associated microbes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wang, X.; Brandt, D.; Thakur, N.L.; Wiens, M.; Batel, R.; Schroder, H.C.; Muller, W.E.G.

    cited in modern textbooks, e.g. in Pechenik (2000), in which sponges are assumed to be composed of functionally independent cells. The introduction of molecular cloning of genes, coding for “informative” proteins increased in a rapid, self...). The first report in line with this new strategy was on the cloning of a galectin from the demosponge Geodia cydonium (Pfeifer et al., 1993; Hirabayashi and Kasai, 1993). This protein is known to be crucially important for cell-cell interactions (Müller et...

  11. Adipocyte-Macrophage Cross-Talk in Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engin, Ayse Basak

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is characterized by the chronic low-grade activation of the innate immune system. In this respect, macrophage-elicited metabolic inflammation and adipocyte-macrophage interaction has a primary importance in obesity. Large amounts of macrophages are accumulated by different mechanisms in obese adipose tissue. Hypertrophic adipocyte-derived chemotactic monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1)/C-C chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) pathway also promotes more macrophage accumulation into the obese adipose tissue. However, increased local extracellular lipid concentrations is a final mechanism for adipose tissue macrophage accumulation. A paracrine loop involving free fatty acids and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) between adipocytes and macrophages establishes a vicious cycle that aggravates inflammatory changes in the adipose tissue. Adipocyte-specific caspase-1 and production of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) by macrophages; both adipocyte and macrophage induction by toll like receptor-4 (TLR4) through nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation; free fatty acid-induced and TLR-mediated activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-related pro-inflammatory pathways in CD11c+ immune cells; are effective in macrophage accumulation and in the development of adipose tissue inflammation. Old adipocytes are removed by macrophages through trogocytosis or sending an "eat me" signal. The obesity-induced changes in adipose tissue macrophage numbers are mainly due to increases in the triple-positive CD11b+ F4/80+ CD11c+ adipose tissue macrophage subpopulation. The ratio of M1-to-M2 macrophages is increased in obesity. Furthermore, hypoxia along with higher concentrations of free fatty acids exacerbates macrophage-mediated inflammation in obesity. The metabolic status of adipocytes is a major determinant of macrophage inflammatory output. Macrophage/adipocyte fatty-acid-binding proteins act at the interface of metabolic and inflammatory pathways. Both macrophages and adipocytes are the sites for active lipid metabolism and signaling.

  12. Fusion17 summary talk: windsurfing on a cross section profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ackermann Dieter

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of physics, discussed in the 7th edition of the “Fusion” conference series, included a number of topics, ranging from reaction dynamics to structure studies, from the lightest to the heaviest nuclei, from inelastic reactions to fusion and fission, with applications of astrophysical interest and the newest developments and findings in theory and experiment. With this paper we try to summarize the most relevant issues discussed during the five days of Fusion17.

  13. Cross talk between animal and human influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Makoto; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2013-01-01

    Although outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza in wild and domestic birds have been posing the threat of a new influenza pandemic for the past decade, the first pandemic of the twenty-first century came from swine viruses. This fact emphasizes the complexity of influenza viral ecology and the difficulty of predicting influenza viral dynamics. Complete control of influenza viruses seems impossible. However, we must minimize the impact of animal and human influenza outbreaks by learning lessons from past experiences and recognizing the current status. Here, we review the most recent influenza virology data in the veterinary field, including aspects of zoonotic agents and recent studies that assess the pandemic potential of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses.

  14. Block That Pain!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Block That Pain! Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of ... contrast, most pain relievers used for surgical procedures block activity in all types of neurons. This can ...

  15. Bundle Branch Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... known cause. Causes can include: Left bundle branch block Heart attacks (myocardial infarction) Thickened, stiffened or weakened ... myocarditis) High blood pressure (hypertension) Right bundle branch block A heart abnormality that's present at birth (congenital) — ...

  16. Getting started with BizTalk services

    CERN Document Server

    Fancey, Jon

    2014-01-01

    A practical book that acts as a clear and concise introduction to BizTalk Services. Full of real-world scenarios, each area of BizTalk Services is explained in detail, essentially enabling you to smoothly design your own integration solutions with minimal effort. This book is intended for those who want to understand BizTalk Services, what it can do, and how to build integration solutions using it in their organizations. If you are a developer, architect, or project manager, this book will quickly get you acquainted with this powerful cloud integration technology. It would be helpful to have s

  17. Talking to your child about smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... big influence on whether their kids smoke. Your attitudes and opinions about smoking set an example. Talk ... at soccer practice." Get your child involved in non-smoking activities. Playing sports, taking dance, or being involved ...

  18. Van small talk naar een waardevolle buurtgemeenschap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reitsma, Baukje; Ghorashi, H.; Kovacs, Z.

    2017-01-01

    Light communities ontstaan doordat mensen samen gemeenschappelijke problemen willen oplossen. Sociologen Halleh Ghorashi, Baukje Reitsma en Zsuzsa Kovacs onderzochten de betekenis van de Amsterdamse community Meevaart. De zeer diverse bewoners blijken via small talk betekenisvolle contacten aan te

  19. Generalized Block Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe

    2015-01-01

    Block tearing is considered in several codes as a pure block tension or a pure block shear failure mechanism. However in many situations the load acts eccentrically and involves the transfer of a substantial moment in combination with the shear force and perhaps a normal force. A literature study...... shows that no readily available tests with a well-defined substantial eccentricity have been performed. This paper presents theoretical and experimental work leading towards generalized block failure capacity methods. Simple combination of normal force, shear force and moment stress distributions along...... yield lines around the block leads to simple interaction formulas similar to other interaction formulas in the codes....

  20. TED Talks as an Emergent Genre

    OpenAIRE

    Ludewig, Julia

    2017-01-01

    In her article "TED Talks as an Emergent Genre" Julia Ludewig analyzes TED talks—short, informational, and entertaining presentations that are given during TED conferences in North America and abroad—as a hybrid and emerging genre. Based on a qualitative interpretation of 14 such talks, she offers a list of recurring thematic, argumentative, and rhetorical features, which she aligns with three parent genres—the sales pitch, the memoir, and the academic lecture. Comparing recent versions of TE...

  1. Which Individual Therapist Behaviors Elicit Client Change Talk and Sustain Talk in Motivational Interviewing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apodaca, Timothy R; Jackson, Kristina M; Borsari, Brian; Magill, Molly; Longabaugh, Richard; Mastroleo, Nadine R; Barnett, Nancy P

    2016-02-01

    To identify individual therapist behaviors which elicit client change talk or sustain talk in motivational interviewing sessions. Motivational interviewing sessions from a single-session alcohol intervention delivered to college students were audio-taped, transcribed, and coded using the Motivational Interviewing Skill Code (MISC), a therapy process coding system. Participants included 92 college students and eight therapists who provided their treatment. The MISC was used to code 17 therapist behaviors related to the use of motivational interviewing, and client language reflecting movement toward behavior change (change talk), away from behavior change (sustain talk), or unrelated to the target behavior (follow/neutral). Client change talk was significantly more likely to immediately follow individual therapist behaviors [affirm (p=.013), open question (pmotivational interviewing can either elicit both client change talk and sustain talk or suppress both types of client language. Affirm was the only therapist behavior that both increased change talk and also reduced sustain talk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Blocked Randomization with Randomly Selected Block Sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Efird

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available When planning a randomized clinical trial, careful consideration must be given to how participants are selected for various arms of a study. Selection and accidental bias may occur when participants are not assigned to study groups with equal probability. A simple random allocation scheme is a process by which each participant has equal likelihood of being assigned to treatment versus referent groups. However, by chance an unequal number of individuals may be assigned to each arm of the study and thus decrease the power to detect statistically significant differences between groups. Block randomization is a commonly used technique in clinical trial design to reduce bias and achieve balance in the allocation of participants to treatment arms, especially when the sample size is small. This method increases the probability that each arm will contain an equal number of individuals by sequencing participant assignments by block. Yet still, the allocation process may be predictable, for example, when the investigator is not blind and the block size is fixed. This paper provides an overview of blocked randomization and illustrates how to avoid selection bias by using random block sizes.

  3. 31 CFR 595.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 595.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked...

  4. Wilson loop invariants from WN conformal blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Alekseev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Knot and link polynomials are topological invariants calculated from the expectation value of loop operators in topological field theories. In 3D Chern–Simons theory, these invariants can be found from crossing and braiding matrices of four-point conformal blocks of the boundary 2D CFT. We calculate crossing and braiding matrices for WN conformal blocks with one component in the fundamental representation and another component in a rectangular representation of SU(N, which can be used to obtain HOMFLY knot and link invariants for these cases. We also discuss how our approach can be generalized to invariants in higher-representations of WN algebra.

  5. TED Talks and Leadership Education: Ideas Worth Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffo, Deana M.

    2016-01-01

    TED Talks are short videos of experts talking about a variety of topics. This paper outlines six TED Talks that connect with the leadership literature and topics commonly taught with an explanation of how they enhance teaching about a corresponding leadership topic. The researcher shares how introducing TED talks related to leadership can…

  6. Light extraction block with curved surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levermore, Peter; Krall, Emory; Silvernail, Jeffrey; Rajan, Kamala; Brown, Julia J.

    2016-03-22

    Light extraction blocks, and OLED lighting panels using light extraction blocks, are described, in which the light extraction blocks include various curved shapes that provide improved light extraction properties compared to parallel emissive surface, and a thinner form factor and better light extraction than a hemisphere. Lighting systems described herein may include a light source with an OLED panel. A light extraction block with a three-dimensional light emitting surface may be optically coupled to the light source. The three-dimensional light emitting surface of the block may includes a substantially curved surface, with further characteristics related to the curvature of the surface at given points. A first radius of curvature corresponding to a maximum principal curvature k.sub.1 at a point p on the substantially curved surface may be greater than a maximum height of the light extraction block. A maximum height of the light extraction block may be less than 50% of a maximum width of the light extraction block. Surfaces with cross sections made up of line segments and inflection points may also be fit to approximated curves for calculating the radius of curvature.

  7. Block Cipher Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miolane, Charlotte Vikkelsø

    ensurethat no attack violatesthe securitybounds specifiedbygeneric attack namely exhaustivekey search and table lookup attacks. This thesis contains a general introduction to cryptography with focus on block ciphers and important block cipher designs, in particular the Advanced Encryption Standard(AES...... on small scale variants of AES. In the final part of the thesis we present a new block cipher proposal Present and examine its security against algebraic and differential cryptanalysis in particular....

  8. Exploratory Talk in the Early Years: Analysing Exploratory Talk in Collaborative Group Activities Involving Younger Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Eira Wyn

    2018-01-01

    Collaborative group work has the potential for providing rich opportunities for children to learn through talk with peers; however, in practice, little effective engagement in learning is observed within authentic learning contexts. Exploratory talk is associated with high levels of cognitive challenge within collaborative group work. Detailed…

  9. Supporting Disciplinary Talk from the Start of School: Teaching Students to Think and Talk Like Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Tanya S.; Gotwals, Amelia Wenk

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the authors first review the research literature to show why supporting talk from the start of school is important for students' long-term literacy development. The authors then define and describe disciplinary talk and argue that it is an important entry point into science and disciplinary literacy learning for young students.…

  10. Staying on the Same Wavelength: Talking about Talking in Paediatric Speech and Language Therapy Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrills, Dariel

    2009-01-01

    Participants in speech and language therapy sessions engage in talk about talking to accomplish different social actions: identifying and explaining linguistic concepts; correcting language use; and repairing misunderstanding. Different traditions in interaction research have examined the practices of topic management, correction, and repair in…

  11. Related Drupal Nodes Block

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Vegt, Wim

    2010-01-01

    Related Drupal Nodes Block This module exposes a block that uses Latent Semantic Analysis (Lsa) internally to suggest three nodes that are relevant to the node a user is viewing. This module performs three tasks. 1) It periodically indexes a Drupal site and generates a Lsa Term Document Matrix.

  12. Designers Block 2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickson, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Artiklen indleder med: ved siden aaf Londons etablerede designmesse '100% Design', er der vokset et undergrundsmiljø af designudstillinger op. Det dominerende og mest kendte initiativ er Designers Block, der i år udstillede to steder i byen. Designers Block er et mere uformelt udstillingsforum...

  13. Enhancing cheap talk scripts in choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Olsen, Søren Bøye; Nielsen, Rasmus Christian Fejer

    eliminate some of the hypothetical bias. The present paper tests and addition to Cheap Talk, an Op-out Reminder. The Opt-Out Reminder is an objective short script presented prior to the choice sets, prompting the respondent to choose the opt-out alternative, if he/she finds the proposed policy generated...... alternatives in a choice set too expensive. The results sugggest that adding and Opt-Out Reminder to Cheap Talk can in fact reduce hypothetical bias even further and reduces some of the ineffectiveness of CT in relation to the survey bid range and experienced respondents...

  14. The Democratic Potential of Theatre Talks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Louise Ejgod

    2014-01-01

    approach to a target-oriented approach to audience development in which the content of the performance should be matched with certain audience segments. And fourth, the article points to an outcome of the experience related to the challenging of one own view point and thus expanding ones horizon....... of democratization of culture and the democracy theory by James S. Fishkin. The analysis is based on the empirical material of 31 theatre talks carried through as a part of an audience development project and is focused on four different aspects of the democratic potential of theatre: First, how the theatre talks...

  15. Building blocks of Collagen based biomaterial devices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Building blocks of Collagen based biomaterial devices. Collagen as a protein. Collagen in tissues and organs. Stabilizing and cross linking agents. Immunogenicity. Hosts (drugs). Controlled release mechanisms of hosts. Biodegradability, workability into devices ...

  16. Robust block bootstrap panel predictability tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerlund, J.; Smeekes, S.

    2013-01-01

    Most panel data studies of the predictability of returns presume that the cross-sectional units are independent, an assumption that is not realistic. As a response to this, the current paper develops block bootstrap-based panel predictability tests that are valid under very general conditions. Some

  17. Predictability of blocking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosi, E.; Ruti, P.; Tibaldi, S.; D'Andrea, F.

    1994-01-01

    Tibaldi and Molteni (1990, hereafter referred to as TM) had previously investigated operational blocking predictability by the ECMWF model and the possible relationships between model systematic error and blocking in the winter season of the Northern Hemisphere, using seven years of ECMWF operational archives of analyses and day 1 to 10 forecasts. They showed that fewer blocking episodes than in the real atmosphere were generally simulated by the model, and that this deficiency increased with increasing forecast time. As a consequence of this, a major contribution to the systematic error in the winter season was shown to derive from the inability of the model to properly forecast blocking. In this study, the analysis performed in TM for the first seven winter seasons of the ECMWF operational model is extended to the subsequent five winters, during which model development, reflecting both resolution increases and parametrisation modifications, continued unabated. In addition the objective blocking index developed by TM has been applied to the observed data to study the natural low frequency variability of blocking. The ability to simulate blocking of some climate models has also been tested

  18. Talking and Thinking about Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Carolyn; Bochner, Arthur; Denzin, Norman; Lincoln, Yvonna; Morse, Janice; Pelias, Ronald; Richardson, Laurel

    2008-01-01

    This script comes from an edited transcript of a session titled "Talking and Thinking About Qualitative Research," which was part of the 2006 International Congress of Qualitative Inquiry, held at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign on May 4-6, 2006. This special session featured scholars informally responding to questions about their…

  19. Power Talk in DC Micro Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angjelichinoski, Marko; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar

    2015-01-01

    Power talk is a novel concept for communication among units in a Micro Grid (MG), where information is sent by using power electronics as modems and the common bus of the MG as a communication medium. The technique is implemented by modifying the droop control parameters from the primary control...

  20. Classroom Talk for Rigorous Reading Comprehension Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Mikyung Kim; Crosson, Amy C.; Resnick, Lauren B.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the quality of classroom talk and its relation to academic rigor in reading-comprehension lessons. Additionally, the study aimed to characterize effective questions to support rigorous reading comprehension lessons. The data for this study included 21 reading-comprehension lessons in several elementary and middle schools from…

  1. Talking to Your Doctor (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problems , weight concerns, depression, suicidal thoughts , and even body odor . You should be able to talk to your doctor about everything, but that's easier said than done. Being examined and questioned about your body can also be intimidating, especially when the doctor ...

  2. Get the Facts, Talk about HIV

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-01

    Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDC’s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, urges members of the black community to talk about HIV.  Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/1/2012.

  3. The End of "Chalk and Talk"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Tim

    2012-01-01

    "Chalk and talk" had been the staple pedagogical approach of my Science teaching practice since entering the profession. I felt that there was a great deal of information that I must impart to my students. My tried and tested way to deliver information to my students had always been simply to stand in front of them and tell it to them... So what…

  4. Teacher Burnout: Will Talking about It Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossnickle, Donald R.

    1980-01-01

    Teachers are beginning to collectively voice their complaints about the stresses they face in school. While talking about the problems of low morale and poor school climate won't solve these problems, the public is being alerted that teachers need help, not further criticism. (SJL)

  5. Talking Science: Developing a Discourse of Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackling, Mark; Smith, Pru; Murcia, Karen

    2010-01-01

    A key principle of inquiry-based science education is that the process of inquiry must include opportunities for the exploration of questions and ideas, as well as reasoning with ideas and evidence. Teaching and learning Science therefore involves teachers managing a discourse that supports inquiry and students engaging in talk that facilitates…

  6. Pepita Talks Twice = Pepita habla dos veces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachtman, Ofelia Dumas

    This illustrated bilingual children's book (English and Spanish), relates the story of Pepita, a young Hispanic girl who is fluent in both Spanish and English. Pepita always helps when asked to talk for others in Spanish and English. But one day Pepita decides she doesn't want to help anymore. She wants to hurry and get home from school before her…

  7. Collaborative Repair in EFL Classroom Talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iles, Zara

    1996-01-01

    Drawing data from audiotaped lessons with 10 native-speaker English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) teachers and 12 EFL learners of varied linguistic backgrounds, a study explored some of the ways in which classroom talk by learners is collaboratively built to repair errors, misunderstandings, and non-communication. Focus is on both explicit and…

  8. The Seeing Place: Talking Theatre and Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Deborah; Bowman, Joanna

    2018-01-01

    A Professor of Medical Ethics and a theatre director, also mother and daughter, talk about health, illness, suffering, performance and practice. Using the lenses of ethical and performance theory, they explore what it means to be a patient, a spectator and a practitioner and cover many plays, texts and productions: Samuel Beckett's "Not…

  9. A Talk Show from the Past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Arlene F.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a two-day activity in which elementary students examine voting rights, the right to assemble, and women's suffrage. Explains the game, "Assemble, Reassemble," and a student-produced talk show with five students playing the roles of leaders of the women's suffrage movement. Profiles Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, Susan…

  10. Talking Leaves, Volume 4, No. 4

    OpenAIRE

    Center for Research on Education, Diversity & Excellence

    2000-01-01

    Talking Leaves, Spring 2000, Articles: Classroom and Schoolwide Observation Under the Microscope Observing School Restructuring in Multicultural, Multilingual Contexts From the Other Side of the Classroom Looking for Findings in all the Right Places The Classroom Observation Schedule and the Teacher Roles Observation Schedule The Standards Performance Continuum: Measuring CREDE's Standards for Effective Pedagogy The Kentu...

  11. Families Talking about Ecology at Touch Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopczak, Charles; Kisiel, James F.; Rowe, Shawn

    2015-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that conversations among museum, aquarium, and zoo visitors can be a clear indication of active learning, engagement, and participation in scientific reasoning. This descriptive study sought to determine the extent of talk about ecology-related topics exhibited by family groups visiting marine touch tanks at four Pacific…

  12. New trends in knowledge dissemination: TED Talks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Scotto di Carlo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the key elements of ethos, pathos and logos linguistic strategies as some main features of TED (Technology, Entertainment, Design Talks, popularizing speeches aiming at Knowledge Dissemination. Through a comparison between the TED Talk ‘HIV - How to fight an epidemic of bad laws’, by Shereen El-Feki (2012a, and another speech held by the same author at the  2012 Symposia The Global Commission on HIV and the Law, addressed to specialists, the paper analyses TED Talks as an innovative tool of popularization, which breaches the typical triangularisation ‘scientist-mediator-audience’, bringing scientists directly into contact with their audiences. Drawing upon Aristotle’s three pillars of rhetoric, the paper analyses the strategies used to establish the ethos of the speech, by proposing a topic as morally worth of spreading; pathos, by creating a direct contact with the public; and logos, investigated through an analysis of the elements used to recontextualise scientific discourses into popularized speeches. The analysis suggests that TED Talks are a recodification, not a mere translation of texts; they are a means to disseminate knowledge reducing the asymmetry between audiences and scientists.

  13. Talks with Teachers: Clyde F. Kohn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Anthony R. de

    1984-01-01

    Kohn--a geographer who has taught at all educational levels and is a former president of the National Council for Geographic Education and the American Association of Geographers--talks about his family and schooling, cooperation between professional organizations, his role in the High School Geography Project, and his interest in enology. (RM)

  14. My Friend Is Talking about Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search English Español My Friend Is Talking About Suicide. What Should I Do? KidsHealth / For Teens / My ... sobre suicidio. ¿Qué debo hacer? Warning Signs of Suicide Everyone feels sad, depressed, or angry sometimes — especially ...

  15. Talking Cure Models: A Framework of Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Marx

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Psychotherapy is commonly described as a “talking cure,” a treatment method that operates through linguistic action and interaction. The operative specifics of therapeutic language use, however, are insufficiently understood, mainly due to a multitude of disparate approaches that advance different notions of what “talking” means and what “cure” implies in the respective context. Accordingly, a clarification of the basic theoretical structure of “talking cure models,” i.e., models that describe therapeutic processes with a focus on language use, is a desideratum of language-oriented psychotherapy research. Against this background the present paper suggests a theoretical framework of analysis which distinguishes four basic components of “talking cure models”: (1 a foundational theory (which suggests how linguistic activity can affect and transform human experience, (2 an experiential problem state (which defines the problem or pathology of the patient, (3 a curative linguistic activity (which defines linguistic activities that are supposed to effectuate a curative transformation of the experiential problem state, and (4 a change mechanism (which defines the processes and effects involved in such transformations. The purpose of the framework is to establish a terminological foundation that allows for systematically reconstructing basic properties and operative mechanisms of “talking cure models.” To demonstrate the applicability and utility of the framework, five distinct “talking cure models” which spell out the details of curative “talking” processes in terms of (1 catharsis, (2 symbolization, (3 narrative, (4 metaphor, and (5 neurocognitive inhibition are introduced and discussed in terms of the framework components. In summary, we hope that our framework will prove useful for the objective of clarifying the theoretical underpinnings of language-oriented psychotherapy research and help to establish a more

  16. 31 CFR 594.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GLOBAL TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 594.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and...

  17. RX for Writer's Block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Gail E.; Camp, Donna J.

    1988-01-01

    Describes four prewriting techniques that elementary and middle grade students can use to gather and organize ideas for writing, and by so doing, cure writer's block. Techniques discussed are: (1) brainstorming; (2) clustering; (3) freewriting; and (4) cubing.

  18. Block copolymer battery separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, David; Balsara, Nitash Pervez

    2016-04-26

    The invention herein described is the use of a block copolymer/homopolymer blend for creating nanoporous materials for transport applications. Specifically, this is demonstrated by using the block copolymer poly(styrene-block-ethylene-block-styrene) (SES) and blending it with homopolymer polystyrene (PS). After blending the polymers, a film is cast, and the film is submerged in tetrahydrofuran, which removes the PS. This creates a nanoporous polymer film, whereby the holes are lined with PS. Control of morphology of the system is achieved by manipulating the amount of PS added and the relative size of the PS added. The porous nature of these films was demonstrated by measuring the ionic conductivity in a traditional battery electrolyte, 1M LiPF.sub.6 in EC/DEC (1:1 v/v) using AC impedance spectroscopy and comparing these results to commercially available battery separators.

  19. Block Copolymers: Synthesis and Applications in Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Qin

    ring-opening crosslinking and can act as a negative-tone photoresist. The PGMA-b-PS thin films were also studied for phase separation with ˜25 nm patterns using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Poly(styrene-block-4-vinyl pyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) block copolymer thin films are shown to form perpendicular cylinder phase separated structures, and these may be used to template the formation of ordered titania nanostructures with sub-50 nm diameters on either silicon or indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates. A study of the mechanism of TiO2 formation within the P4VP cylinder phase was developed and tested. It was found that the titania nanostructure morphology is affected by pH and deposition temperatures, and successful deposition required the cross-linking of the P4VP phase in order to obtain individual nanostructures.

  20. Blocking in Category Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Bott, Lewis; Hoffman, Aaron B.; Murphy, Gregory L.

    2007-01-01

    Many theories of category learning assume that learning is driven by a need to minimize classification error. When there is no classification error, therefore, learning of individual features should be negligible. We tested this hypothesis by conducting three category learning experiments adapted from an associative learning blocking paradigm. Contrary to an error-driven account of learning, participants learned a wide range of information when they learned about categories, and blocking effe...

  1. Trash Talking and Good Times on the Softball Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aicinena, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Trash talking can be found in virtually all American sport environments. It is viewed by many as a tool to achieve athletic success. Trash talking can be a harmless form of verbal jousting. However, there comes a point at which trash talking serves as motivation for violence inside of the sport setting and outside of it as well. In this paper, the…

  2. Assessing the Accuracy of Self-Reported Self-Talk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Brinthaupt

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Self-Talk Scale (STS; Brinthaupt, Hein, & Kramer, 2009 is a self-report measure of self-talk frequency that has been shown to possess acceptable reliability and validity. However, no research using the STS has examined the accuracy of respondents’ self-reports. In the present paper, we report a series of studies directly examining the measurement of self-talk frequency and functions using the STS. The studies examine ways to validate self-reported self-talk by (1 comparing STS responses from 6 weeks earlier to recent experiences that might precipitate self-talk, (2 using experience sampling methods to determine whether STS scores are related to recent reports of self-talk over a period of a week, and (3 comparing self-reported STS scores to those provided by a significant other who rated the target on the STS. Results showed that (1 overall self-talk scores, particularly self-critical and self-reinforcing self-talk, were significantly related to reports of context-specific self-talk; (2 high STS scorers reported talking to themselves significantly more often during recent events compared to low STS scorers, and, contrary to expectations, (3 friends reported less agreement than strangers in their self-other self-talk ratings. Implications of the results for the validity of the STS and for measuring self-talk are presented.

  3. Talking with Kids: A Parent's Guide to Sex Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National PTA, Chicago, IL.

    This guide is designed to help parents determine what is being taught to their children about sex education in school, offering tips on how to talk to children about these issues. The first section presents pointers from the "Talking with Kids" campaign: start early; initiate conversations; talk about sex and relationships; create an open…

  4. Language and Social Development in a Multilingual Classroom: A Dinosaur Project Enriched with Block Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Monique

    2009-01-01

    With the implementation of the natural approach, the dinosaur study and facilitated block play gave dual language learners many opportunities to acquire a new language, develop social skills, and improve communication abilities. Once teachers identified the barriers to children playing and talking together, they created a classroom environment…

  5. Talk/Reading/Voice: Re:search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Patterson

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the authors embrace talk as space for emergence and possibilities. They flirt with the part reading plays (or might play in conversations within the academy, recognizing such readings take multiple forms: individual, shared, in response, and in reaction (to name a few. To confront oneself with the not yet known is to witness what is forming or being called forth as its shaping emerges. Using co-constructed reading responses, the authors present examples from King's (2003 The Truth about Stories as illustrations of their work together, where work, like talk, is about pushing the edges of what can be known and, more particularly, about what can(not be said. The authors maintain finding voice through reading, research, and self-study helps shape collaborative work within the academy. This reveal encourages the mapping of unmapped but taken for granted parts of academic life, an already querying of method.

  6. Uniaxial backfill block compaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koskinen, V.

    2012-05-01

    The main parts of the project were: to make a literature survey of the previous uniaxial compaction experiments; do uniaxial compaction tests in laboratory scale; and do industrial scale production tests. Object of the project was to sort out the different factors affecting the quality assurance chain of the backfill block uniaxial production and solve a material sticking to mould problem which appeared during manufacturing the blocks of bentonite and cruched rock mixture. The effect of mineralogical and chemical composition on the long term functionality of the backfill was excluded from the project. However, the used smectite-rich clays have been tested for mineralogical consistency. These tests were done in B and Tech OY according their SOPs. The objective of the Laboratory scale tests was to find right material- and compaction parameters for the industrial scale tests. Direct comparison between the laboratory scale tests and industrial scale tests is not possible because the mould geometry and compaction speed has a big influence for the compaction process. For this reason the selected material parameters were also affected by the previous compaction experiments. The industrial scale tests were done in summer of 2010 in southern Sweden. Blocks were done with uniaxial compaction. A 40 tons of the mixture of bentonite and crushed rock blocks and almost 50 tons of Friedland-clay blocks were compacted. (orig.)

  7. Impression block with orientator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brilin, V I; Ulyanova, O S

    2015-01-01

    Tool review, namely the impression block, applied to check the shape and size of the top of fish as well as to determine the appropriate tool for fishing operation was realized. For multiple application and obtaining of the impress depth of 3 cm and more, the standard volumetric impression blocks with fix rods are used. However, the registered impress of fish is not oriented in space and the rods during fishing are in the extended position. This leads to rods deformation and sinking due to accidental impacts of impression block over the borehole irregularity and finally results in faulty detection of the top end of fishing object in hole. The impression blocks with copy rods and fixed magnetic needle allow estimating the object configuration and fix the position of magnetic needle determining the position of the top end of object in hole. However, the magnetic needle fixation is realized in staged and the rods are in extended position during fishing operations as well as it is in standard design. The most efficient tool is the impression block with copy rods which directs the examined object in the borehole during readings of magnetic needles data from azimuth plate and averaging of readings. This significantly increases the accuracy of fishing toll direction. The rods during fishing are located in the body and extended only when they reach the top of fishing object

  8. Parental goals and talk with toddlers

    OpenAIRE

    Rowe, Meredith Lee; Casillas, Allison

    2010-01-01

    Myriad studies support a relation between parental beliefs and behaviours. This study adds to the literature by focusing on the specific relationship between parental goals and their communication with toddlers. Do parents with different goals talk about different topics with their children? Parents’ goals for their 30-month olds were gathered using semi-structured interviews with 47 primary caregivers, whereas the topics of conversations that took place during interactio...

  9. Talking politics in everyday family lives

    OpenAIRE

    Nolas, Sevasti-Melissa; Varvantakis, Christos; Aruldoss, Vinnarasan

    2017-01-01

    How do children encounter and relate to public life? Drawing on evidence from ethnographic fieldwork conducted between 2014 and 2016 for the ERC-funded Connectors Study on the relationship between childhood and public life, this paper explores how children encounter public life in their everyday family environments. Using the instance of political talk as a practice through which public life is encountered in the home, the data presented fill important gaps in knowledge about the lived experi...

  10. Integral-fuel blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, C.; Simpkin, S.D.

    1975-01-01

    A prismatic moderator block is described which has fuel-containing channels and coolant channels disposed parallel to each other and to edge faces of the block. The coolant channels are arranged in rows on an equilateral triangular lattice pattern and the fuel-containing channels are disposed in a regular lattice pattern with one fuel-containing channel between and equidistant from each of the coolant channels in each group of three mutually adjacent coolant channels. The edge faces of the block are parallel to the rows of coolant channels and the channels nearest to each edge face are disposed in two rows parallel thereto, with one of the rows containing only coolant channels and the other row containing only fuel-containing channels. (Official Gazette)

  11. Right bundle branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bussink, Barbara E; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Jespersen, Lasse

    2013-01-01

    AimsTo determine the prevalence, predictors of newly acquired, and the prognostic value of right bundle branch block (RBBB) and incomplete RBBB (IRBBB) on a resting 12-lead electrocardiogram in men and women from the general population.Methods and resultsWe followed 18 441 participants included...... in the Copenhagen City Heart Study examined in 1976-2003 free from previous myocardial infarction (MI), chronic heart failure, and left bundle branch block through registry linkage until 2009 for all-cause mortality and cardiovascular outcomes. The prevalence of RBBB/IRBBB was higher in men (1.4%/4.7% in men vs. 0.......5%/2.3% in women, P block was associated with significantly...

  12. Living Spaces for Talk with/in the Academy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Patterson

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Exploring to find the question is always already exploring to find the method. What's (really happening when we talk in academic spaces? What talk(s belong in the Academy? Where does the ‘talk’ happen and how is it (invisible? Based on ‘talk’ of reflective practice shared between two colleagues, this article examines issues of ethics, methodology and usefulness as they pertain to the terra (incognito of idea talk with/in the Academy. Through a dialogue about methods and method in which we emphasize permission to dwell, we hope to further inquiry into the role of talk with/in the Academy.

  13. ["Habitual" left branch block alternating with 2 "disguised" bracnch block].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévy, S; Jullien, G; Mathieu, P; Mostefa, S; Gérard, R

    1976-10-01

    Two cases of alternating left bundle branch block and "masquerading block" (with left bundle branch morphology in the stnadard leads and right bundle branch block morphology in the precordial leads) were studied by serial tracings and his bundle electrocardiography. In case 1 "the masquerading" block was associated with a first degree AV block related to a prolongation of HV interval. This case is to our knowledge the first cas of alternating bundle branch block in which his bundle activity was recorded in man. In case 2, the patient had atrial fibrilation and His bundle recordings were performed while differents degrees of left bundle branch block were present: The mechanism of the alternation and the concept of "masquerading" block are discussed. It is suggested that this type of block represents a right bundle branch block associated with severe lesions of the "left system".

  14. E-Block: A Tangible Programming Tool with Graphical Blocks

    OpenAIRE

    Danli Wang; Yang Zhang; Shengyong Chen

    2013-01-01

    This paper designs a tangible programming tool, E-Block, for children aged 5 to 9 to experience the preliminary understanding of programming by building blocks. With embedded artificial intelligence, the tool defines the programming blocks with the sensors as the input and enables children to write programs to complete the tasks in the computer. The symbol on the programming block's surface is used to help children understanding the function of each block. The sequence information is transfer...

  15. Family food talk, child eating behavior, and maternal feeding practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Elizabeth; Viechnicki, Gail B; Retzloff, Lauren B; Davis-Kean, Pamela; Lumeng, Julie C; Miller, Alison L

    2017-10-01

    Families discuss food and eating in many ways that may shape child eating habits. Researchers studying how families talk about food have examined this process during meals. Little work has examined parent-child food-related interactions outside of mealtime. We assessed family food talk at home outside of mealtime and tested whether food talk was associated with obesogenic child eating behaviors, maternal feeding practices, or child weight. Preschool and school-aged mother-child dyads (n = 61) participated in naturalistic voice recording using a LENA (Language ENvironment Analysis) recorder. A coding scheme was developed to reliably characterize different types of food talk from LENA transcripts. Mothers completed the Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ) and Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) to assess child eating behaviors and maternal feeding practices. Child weight and height were measured and body mass index z-score (BMIz) calculated. Bivariate associations among food talk types, as a proportion of total speech, were examined and multivariate regression models used to test associations between food talk and child eating behaviors, maternal feeding practices, and child BMIz. Proportion of child Overall Food Talk and Food Explanations were positively associated with CEBQ Food Responsiveness and Enjoyment of Food (p's < 0.05). Child food Desire/Need and child Prep/Planning talk were positively associated with CEBQ Enjoyment of Food (p < 0.05). Child Food Enjoyment talk and mother Overt Restriction talk were positively associated with CEBQ Emotional Over-Eating (p < 0.05). Mother Monitoring talk was positively associated with CFQ Restriction (p < 0.05). Mother Prep/Planning talk was negatively associated with child BMIz. Food talk outside of mealtimes related to child obesogenic eating behaviors and feeding practices in expected ways; examining food talk outside of meals is a novel way to consider feeding practices and child eating behavior

  16. Linoleum Block Printing Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetelat, Frank J.

    1980-01-01

    The author discusses practical considerations of teaching linoleum block printing in the elementary grades (tool use, materials, motivation) and outlines a sequence of design concepts in this area for the primary, intermediate and junior high grades. A short list of books and audiovisual aids is appended. (SJL)

  17. Spice Blocks Melanoma Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Curcumin, the pungent yellow spice found in both turmeric and curry powders, blocks a key biological pathway needed for development of melanoma and other cancers, according to a study that appears in the journal Cancer. Researchers from The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center demonstrate how curcumin stops laboratory strains of…

  18. Contaminated soil concrete blocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Korte, A.C.J.; Brouwers, Jos; Limbachiya, Mukesh C.; Kew, Hsein Y.

    2009-01-01

    According to Dutch law the contaminated soil needs to be remediated or immobilised. The main focus in this article is the design of concrete blocks, containing contaminated soil, that are suitable for large production, financial feasible and meets all technical and environmental requirements. In

  19. Optical cross-connect circuit using hitless wavelength selective switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebuchi, Yuta; Hisada, Masahiko; Kato, Tomoyuki; Kokubun, Yasuo

    2008-01-21

    We have proposed and demonstrated the basic elements of a full matrix optical switching circuit (cross-connect circuit) using a hitless wavelength selective switch (WSS). The cross-connect circuits are made of a multi-wavelength channel selective switch consisting of cascaded hitless WSSs, and a multi-port switch. These switching elements are realized through the individual Thermo-Optic (TO) tuning of a series-coupled microring resonator, and can switch arbitrary wavelength channels without blocking other wavelength channels during tuning. We demonstrate a four wavelength selective switch using a parallel topology of double series coupled microring resonators and a three wavelength selective switch using a parallel topology of quadruple series coupled microring resonators. Since the spectrum shape of quadruple series coupled microring is much more box-like than the double series, a high extinction ratio of 39.0-46.6 dB and low switching cross talk of 19.3-24.5 dB were achieved.

  20. Inside Out: What We (Do Not) Talk About When We Talk About Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simovska, Venka; Lagermann, Laila Colding; Abduljalil, Heba Salah Y

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we discuss issues that are rarely (if ever) talked about in research: experiences of deep insight and inspiration, of meaning-making, of embodied passion and of excitement related to the practice of engaging in qualitative research and of being a qualitative researcher. These are......In this article, we discuss issues that are rarely (if ever) talked about in research: experiences of deep insight and inspiration, of meaning-making, of embodied passion and of excitement related to the practice of engaging in qualitative research and of being a qualitative researcher...

  1. Energy consensus talks collapse over nuclear issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Germany's energy consensus talks, ongoing since March 1993, were brought to unsuccessful end on October 26. Representatives from the Social Democratic Party (SDP), led by Lower Saxony's prime minister, Gerhard Schroeder, failed to get approval from party leaders on continued development of advanced reactors with enhanced safety - notably the Siemens/Framatome-designed 1500-MWe European pressurized water reactor (EPR) plan, for which the prospective schedule envisages a construction start in 1998. Nor would the SDP leadership accept the continued operation of existing nuclear plans to the end of their design life (some 20 to 25 years)

  2. Ways of Talking With (and about) Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Anne Louise; Caglio, Agnese; Riisberg, Vibeke

    2015-01-01

    and conversations about materials on themes such as perception of material qualities. Secondly, it discusses the potential of talking with materials, that is: using the material world as a resource for conversation. The workshop is based on previous research conducted within the field of fashion and textiles where...... we have identified a need to develop and introduce tools and techniques that can support designers in embracing environmental challenges through dialogue with users and consumers. At the Nordes Conference 2015 we seek to attract researchers from a wide variety of design disciplines encouraging them...

  3. Building Better Online Courses (Invited Talk)

    OpenAIRE

    Norvig, Peter

    2013-01-01

    We now have many choices in designing a course, whether it is in the classroom, online, or a hybrid. This talk will cover some of the mechanics of running an online course, including the factors involved in building a community. And we will discuss whether building a course is like building software: in the early days, software was crafted by individuals, but over time we established processes that enabled large groups to build much larger systems. Today, courses are still crafted by an in...

  4. Are you a developer? Let's talk!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    Many of us have to create software as part of our work, if you do probably you asked yourself some of the following: How other people at CERN develop? What technologies have they used? What worked and what didn't for them? Am I reinventing the wheel? What CERN services can make my life easier? What other services I miss that would be useful to have? How can I integrate my system with XXYY at CERN? Unfortunately there is little communication between us and we need to fix that, let's find initiatives to improve and share experiences between software engineers... let's talk!

  5. Abdominal wall blocks in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børglum, Jens; Gögenür, Ismail; Bendtsen, Thomas F

    2016-01-01

    been introduced with success. Future research should also investigate the effect of specific abdominal wall blocks on neuroendocrine and inflammatory stress response after surgery.  Summary USG abdominal wall blocks in adults are commonplace techniques today. Most abdominal wall blocks are assigned......Purpose of review Abdominal wall blocks in adults have evolved much during the last decade; that is, particularly with the introduction of ultrasound-guided (USG) blocks. This review highlights recent advances of block techniques within this field and proposes directions for future research.......  Recent findings Ultrasound guidance is now considered the golden standard for abdominal wall blocks in adults, even though some landmark-based blocks are still being investigated. The efficiency of USG transversus abdominis plane blocks in relation to many surgical procedures involving the abdominal wall...

  6. SNUPPS power block engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, C A [Bechtel Power Corp., San Francisco, Calif. (USA)

    1975-11-01

    The Standard Power Block is based on a modular concept and consists of the following: turbine building, auxiliary building, fuel building, control building, radwaste building, diesel generators building, and outside storage tanks and transformers. Each power block unit includes a Westinghouse pressurized water reactor and has a thermal power rating of 3425 MW(t). The corresponding General Electric turbine generator net electrical output is 1188 MW(e). This standardization approach results in not only a reduction in the costs of engineering, licensing, procurement, and project planning, but should also result in additional savings by the application of experience gained in the construction of the first unit to the following units and early input of construction data to design.

  7. Protein Assembly and Building Blocks: Beyond the Limits of the LEGO Brick Metaphor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Yaakov

    2017-09-26

    Proteins, like other biomolecules, have a modular and hierarchical structure. Various building blocks are used to construct proteins of high structural complexity and diverse functionality. In multidomain proteins, for example, domains are fused to each other in different combinations to achieve different functions. Although the LEGO brick metaphor is justified as a means of simplifying the complexity of three-dimensional protein structures, several fundamental properties (such as allostery or the induced-fit mechanism) make deviation from it necessary to respect the plasticity, softness, and cross-talk that are essential to protein function. In this work, we illustrate recently reported protein behavior in multidomain proteins that deviates from the LEGO brick analogy. While earlier studies showed that a protein domain is often unaffected by being fused to another domain or becomes more stable following the formation of a new interface between the tethered domains, destabilization due to tethering has been reported for several systems. We illustrate that tethering may sometimes result in a multidomain protein behaving as "less than the sum of its parts". We survey these cases for which structure additivity does not guarantee thermodynamic additivity. Protein destabilization due to fusion to other domains may be linked in some cases to biological function and should be taken into account when designing large assemblies.

  8. Change Around the Block?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Joey

    2017-04-01

    Proponents of a block grant or per-capita cap trumpet them as vehicles for the federal government to give the states a capped amount of funding for Medicaid that legislatures would effectively distribute how they see fit. Questions abound as to what capped Medicaid funding would look like, and what effect it would have on the current Medicaid-eligible population, covered services, and physician payments.

  9. SUPERFICIAL CERVICAL PLEXUS BLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komang Mega Puspadisari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Superficial cervical plexus block is one of the regional anesthesia in  neck were limited to thesuperficial fascia. Anesthesia is used to relieve pain caused either during or after the surgery iscompleted. This technique can be done by landmark or with ultrasound guiding. The midpointof posterior border of the Sternocleidomastoid was identified and the prosedure done on thatplace or on the level of cartilage cricoid.

  10. Working Talk: Developing a Framework for the Teaching of Collaborative Talk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    This study draws on the findings of an ESRC and British Telecom funded study which explored the teaching of collaborative talk. A teaching intervention was designed which adopted the principles of dialogic teaching, but which, drawing on educational linguistics, particularly emphasised the role of metatalk in developing students' awareness of the…

  11. Talk with Your Kids...before Everyone Else Does: Talking with Kids about Tough Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children Now, Oakland, CA.

    Parents are challenged daily with a wide range of disturbing issues that are difficult for children to understand and for adults to explain. This booklet offers practical, concrete tips and techniques for talking easily and openly with 8- to 12-year-olds about sex, HIV/AIDS, violence, drugs, and alcohol. The book is divided into five parts. Part 1…

  12. Money talks? An experimental investigation of cheap talk and burned money

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, T.; Offerman, T.; Sloof, R.

    2015-01-01

    We experimentally study the strategic transmission of information in a setting where both cheap talk and money can be used. Theoretically, many equilibria exist side by side, in which senders use either costless messages, money, or both. We find that senders prefer to communicate through costless

  13. Money talks? An experimental investigation of cheap talk and burned money

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, T.; Offerman, T.; Sloof, R.

    2011-01-01

    We experimentally study the strategic transmission of information in a setting where both cheap talk and money can be used for communication purposes. Theoretically a large number of equilibria exist side by side, in which senders either use costless messages, money, or a combination of the two. We

  14. Money talks? An experimental investigation of cheap talk and burned money

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, T.; Offerman, T.; Sloof, R.

    2012-01-01

    We experimentally study the strategic transmission of information in a setting where both cheap talk and money can be used for communication purposes. Theoretically a large number of equilibria exist side by side, in which senders either use costless messages, money, or a combination of the two. We

  15. Elicitation Techniques: Getting People to Talk about Ideas They Don't Usually Talk About

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Keith C.

    2015-01-01

    Elicitation techniques are a category of research tasks that use visual, verbal, or written stimuli to encourage participants to talk about their ideas. These tasks are particularly useful for exploring topics that may be difficult to discuss in formal interviews, such as those that involve sensitive issues or rely on tacit knowledge. Elicitation…

  16. What People Talk About in Virtual Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Mary Lou

    This chapter examines what people talk about in virtual worlds, employing protocol analysis. Each of two scenario studies was developed to assess the impact of virtual worlds as a collaborative environment for a specific purpose: one for learning and one for designing. The first designed a place in Active Worlds for a course on Web Site Design, having group learning spaces surrounded by individual student galleries. Student text chat was analyzed through a coding scheme with four major categories: control, technology, learning, and place. The second studied expert architects in a Second Life environment called DesignWorld that combined 3D modeling and sketching tools. Video and audio recordings were coded in terms of four categories of communication content (designing, representation of the model, awareness of each other, and software features), and in terms of synthesis comparing alternative designs versus analysis of how well the proposed solution satisfies the given design task. Both studies found that people talk about their avatars, identity, and location in the virtual world. However, the discussion is chiefly about the task and not about the virtual world, implying that virtual worlds provide a viable environment for learning and designing that does not distract people from their task.

  17. E-Block: A Tangible Programming Tool with Graphical Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danli Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper designs a tangible programming tool, E-Block, for children aged 5 to 9 to experience the preliminary understanding of programming by building blocks. With embedded artificial intelligence, the tool defines the programming blocks with the sensors as the input and enables children to write programs to complete the tasks in the computer. The symbol on the programming block's surface is used to help children understanding the function of each block. The sequence information is transferred to computer by microcomputers and then translated into semantic information. The system applies wireless and infrared technologies and provides user with feedbacks on both screen and programming blocks. Preliminary user studies using observation and user interview methods are shown for E-Block's prototype. The test results prove that E-Block is attractive to children and easy to learn and use. The project also highlights potential advantages of using single chip microcomputer (SCM technology to develop tangible programming tools for children.

  18. Block and sub-block boundary strengthening in lath martensite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du, C.; Hoefnagels, J.P.M.; Vaes, R.; Geers, M.G.D.

    2016-01-01

    Well-defined uniaxial micro-tensile tests were performed on lath martensite single block specimens and multi-block specimens with different number of block boundaries parallel to the loading direction. Detailed slip trace analyses consistently revealed that in the {110}<111> slip system with the

  19. Opening Talk for Heavy Quarks and Leptons 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, H

    2004-01-01

    Before preparing this talk I asked our host Angel Lopez what he wanted from an opening talk---his response was that I should set the context for what follows, to get the audience to think about the future of this subfield of physics, and give some of my own opinions on this area of physics. So that is what this talk does. It highlights a biased selection of topics; there is much more in the week of lectures than I can cover in this introductory talk

  20. Habitat Blocks and Wildlife Corridors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Habitat blocks are areas of contiguous forest and other natural habitats that are unfragmented by roads, development, or agriculture. Vermonts habitat blocks are...

  1. Atrioventricular block, ECG tracing (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an abnormal rhythm (arrhythmia) called an atrioventricular (AV) block. P waves show that the top of the ... wave (and heart contraction), there is an atrioventricular block, and a very slow pulse (bradycardia).

  2. Fermion-scalar conformal blocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iliesiu, Luca [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University,Washington Road, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Kos, Filip [Department of Physics, Yale University,217 Prospect Street, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Poland, David [Department of Physics, Yale University,217 Prospect Street, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,1 Einstein Dr, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Pufu, Silviu S. [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University,Washington Road, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Simmons-Duffin, David [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,1 Einstein Dr, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Yacoby, Ran [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University,Washington Road, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2016-04-13

    We compute the conformal blocks associated with scalar-scalar-fermion-fermion 4-point functions in 3D CFTs. Together with the known scalar conformal blocks, our result completes the task of determining the so-called ‘seed blocks’ in three dimensions. Conformal blocks associated with 4-point functions of operators with arbitrary spins can now be determined from these seed blocks by using known differential operators.

  3. Powder wastes confinement block and manufacturing process of this block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagot, L.; Brunel, G.

    1996-01-01

    This invention concerns a powder wastes containment block and a manufacturing process of this block. In this block, the waste powder is encapsulated in a thermo hardening polymer as for example an epoxy resin, the encapsulated resin being spread into cement. This block can contain between 45 and 55% in mass of wastes, between 18 and 36% in mass of polymer and between 14 and 32% in mass of cement. Such a containment block can be used for the radioactive wastes storage. (O.M.). 4 refs

  4. Building Curriculum during Block Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Blocks are not just for play! In this article, Nicole Andrews describes observing the interactions of three young boys enthusiastically engaged in the kindergarten block center of their classroom, using blocks in a building project that displayed their ability to use critical thinking skills, physics exploration, and the development of language…

  5. Isotope heating block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenk, E.

    1976-01-01

    A suggestion is made not to lead the separated nuclear 'waste' from spent nuclear fuel elements directly to end storage, but to make use of the heat produced from the remaining radiation, e.g. for seawater desalination. According to the invention, the activated fission products are to be processed, e.g. by calcination or vitrification, so that one can handle them. They should then be arranged in layers alternately with plate-shaped heat conducting pipes to form a homogeneous block; the heat absorbed by the thermal plates should be further passed on to evaporators or heat exchangers. (UWI) [de

  6. Blocking the Hawking radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autzen, M.; Kouvaris, C.

    2014-01-01

    grows after its formation (and eventually destroys the star) instead of evaporating. The fate of the black hole is dictated by the two opposite mechanics, i.e., accretion of nuclear matter from the center of the star and Hawking radiation that tends to decrease the mass of the black hole. We study how...... the assumptions for the accretion rate can in fact affect the critical mass beyond which a black hole always grows. We also study to what extent degenerate nuclear matter can impede Hawking radiation due to the fact that emitted particles can be Pauli blocked at the core of the star....

  7. Dynamics of Talk in Two Arctic Villages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgounova, Daria

      As early as in the early 1970s the American linguist and anthropologist Dell Hymes (1980: 19) underlined that one of the goals of studying apparently dissimilar linguistic processes was to understand the "origins and foundations of inequality among speakers". Language shift as abandonment...... of a marker of suppressed identity, and the on-going negotiation through language is a possible way of addressing inequality. This dissertation presents an interdisciplinary (sociolinguistic and anthropological) analysis of linguistic behaviour, language choice and code-switching in two linguistically similar...... but politically distinct Arctic communities; it describe, analyze and compare the complex and multifaceted dynamics of talk - language choice and code-switching - in these two communities, focusing on the link between language and identity and on the role of language ideologies in the enactment of this link...

  8. Measuring motivation: change talk and counter-change talk in cognitive behavioral therapy for generalized anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Diana R; Button, Melissa L; Westra, Henny A

    2014-01-01

    How clients talk about change early in treatment has been found to be a potent predictor of their subsequent treatment success. Studies examining such client motivational language (arguments for and against change) have typically been conducted in the context of motivational interviewing for addictions. This study examined the capacity of client motivational language to predict treatment outcomes in the context of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for generalized anxiety. Client early in-session statements against change (counter-change talk) were found to be robust predictors of post-treatment worry scores and differentiated treatment responders from nonresponders. Moreover, client motivational language predicted outcomes beyond initial symptom severity and self-report measures of motivation. These results strongly support the relevance of client motivational language outcomes in CBT and provide a foundation for advancing research on motivation for change in a CBT context.

  9. Measuring Motivation: Change Talk and Counter-Change Talk in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Generalized Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Lombardi, Diana R.; Button, Melissa; Westra, Henny A.

    2013-01-01

    How clients talk about change early in treatment has been found to be a potent predictor of their subsequent treatment success. Studies examining such client motivational language (arguments for and against change) have typically been conducted in the context of motivational interviewing for addictions. The present study examined the capacity of client motivational language to predict treatment outcomes in the context of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for generalized anxiety. Client early...

  10. Are your engineers talking to one another when they should?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Manuel E; Eppinger, Steven D; Rowles, Craig M

    2007-11-01

    Communication may not be on managers' minds at companies that design complex, highly engineered products, but it should be. When mistakes take place, it's often because product-component teams fail to talk. The consequences can be huge: Ford and Bridgestone Firestone lost billions by not coordinating the design of the Explorer with the design of its tires. The major delays and cost overruns involved in the development of Airbus's A380 "superjumbo"--which most likely led to the CEO's exit--were a result of unforeseen design incompatibilities. To help managers mitigate such problems, the authors present a new application of the design structure matrix, a project management tool that maps the flow of information and its impact on product development. Drawing on research into how Pratt & Whitney handled the development of the PW4098 jet engine, they have developed an approach that uncovers (a) areas where communication should be occurring but is not (unattended interfaces, usually bad) and (b) areas where communication is occurring but has not been planned for (unidentified interfaces, usually good). After finding the unattended and unidentified interfaces, the next step is to figure out the causes of the critical ones. If a significant number of unattended interfaces cross organizational boundaries, executives may need to redraw organizational lines. Executives can then manage the remaining critical interfaces by extending the responsibilities of existing integration teams (those responsible for cross-system aspects, such as a jet engine's fuel economy) to include supervising the interaction, by dedicating teams to specific interfaces, or by formally charging teams already involved with the interfaces to oversee them. Finally, it's important to ensure that the teams are working with compatible design equipment; inconsistencies between CAD tools have cost Airbus dearly.

  11. The wild tapered block bootstrap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounyo, Ulrich

    In this paper, a new resampling procedure, called the wild tapered block bootstrap, is introduced as a means of calculating standard errors of estimators and constructing confidence regions for parameters based on dependent heterogeneous data. The method consists in tapering each overlapping block...... of the series first, the applying the standard wild bootstrap for independent and heteroscedastic distrbuted observations to overlapping tapered blocks in an appropriate way. Its perserves the favorable bias and mean squared error properties of the tapered block bootstrap, which is the state-of-the-art block......-order asymptotic validity of the tapered block bootstrap as well as the wild tapered block bootstrap approximation to the actual distribution of the sample mean is also established when data are assumed to satisfy a near epoch dependent condition. The consistency of the bootstrap variance estimator for the sample...

  12. Personalization in Mother-Child Emotion Talk across Three Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucirkova, Natalia; Tompkins, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    An unexplored aspect of contextual variation in emotion talk is the extent to which the emotions mothers and children discuss relate to the child, mother, or another self. To establish the extent to which mothers and children personalize the emotions they discuss, we examined the emotion talk of 40 American mother-child dyads in three…

  13. Microsoft BizTalk ESB Toolkit 2.1

    CERN Document Server

    Benito, Andrés Del Río

    2013-01-01

    A practical guide into the architecture and features that make up the services and components of the ESB Toolkit.This book is for experienced BizTalk developers, administrators, and architects, as well as IT managers and BizTalk business analysts. Knowledge and experience with the Toolkit is not a requirement.

  14. Gender Roles: Listening to Classroom Talk about Literary Characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Barbara G.; Townsend, Jane S.

    1999-01-01

    Examines patterns of talk and the nature of talk in two different classrooms discussing Shakespeare's "Hamlet." Finds that the images of Hamlet and Gertrude were strikingly different: in the college class, the characters were confined to stereotypical gender roles; while in the high-school class, such stereotypes were refuted. (SR)

  15. Exploratory Talk, Argumentation and Reasoning in Mexican Primary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Drummond, Sylvia; Zapata, Margarita Peon

    2004-01-01

    The study analyses the effects of training primary school children in the use of a linguistic tool called "Exploratory Talk" (ET) on their capacity for argumentation. ET allows for reasoned confrontation and negotiation of points of view, making the reasoning visible in the talk. Eighty-eight Mexican children from the 5th and 6th grades…

  16. Improving Teacher Talk through a Task-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Jason; Harris, Justin; Carle, John

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a teacher-talk training course for Japanese primary school teachers, who are preparing to teach "communicative English" for the first time. The article argues that teacher-talk training is important for communicative classes with young students because most of the input and interaction is by default teacher…

  17. Play Chronotopes: Laughter-Talk in Peer Group Conversation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Mei-Ya

    2015-01-01

    Although research has investigated laughter in professional communication settings, fewer studies have explored laughter-talk in second language (L2) classrooms. This study examines L2 university students' use of laughter-talk in peer group conversation to understand the linguistics of affect and its interactional effects. The author draws upon…

  18. Everyday Talk and the Conversational Pattern of the Soap Opera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    From, Unni

    2006-01-01

    The soap opera has been explored from many different angles. This article examines the relationship between one of the general characteristics of the genre, the fact that there is far more talk than action, and the ways people actually talk in the soap. The article uses Bakhtin's concept of speech...

  19. Sex Education: New Resources Help Parents Talk with Kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Virginia

    2002-01-01

    To help parents talk with children about sexual health, the Kaiser Family Foundation and National PTA developed a series of free resources for parents (e.g., the booklet "Talking with Kids: A Parent's Guide to Sex Education") to increase parent involvement and communication around sex education. This paper notes the importance of parents…

  20. Thought and talk. The intrapersonal component of human communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, M J

    1992-09-01

    The intrapersonal component of human communication, self-talk, influences what we say and how we respond to another in interpersonal dialogues. A model of communication that incorporates the notion of self-talk, both that of the speaker and that of the listener, is useful in assisting nurses in making more realistic appraisals of communication interactions and addressing problems in communication failures.

  1. Honing EAP Learners' Public Speaking Skills by Analyzing TED Talks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Despite the importance of public speaking skills for English for Academic Purposes (EAP) students' academic and professional success, few EAP textbooks incorporate authentic, professional speech models. Thus, many EAP instructors have turned to TED talks for dynamic speech models. Yet a single TED talk may be too long for viewing in class and may…

  2. Lexical Coverage of TED Talks: Implications for Vocabulary Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmukhamedov, Ulugbek

    2017-01-01

    Teachers of English are often in search of authentic audio and video materials that promote learners' listening comprehension and vocabulary development. TED Talks, a set of freely available web presentations, could be a useful resource to promote vocabulary instruction. The present replication study examines the lexical coverage of TED Talks by…

  3. Scripting Addiction. The Politics of Therapeutic Talk and American Sobriety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolind, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    Book review Carr, E. Summerson (2011): Scripting Addiction. The Politics of Therapeutic Talk and American Sobriety. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press. ISBN ISBN: 9870691144504 / 9780691144498......Book review Carr, E. Summerson (2011): Scripting Addiction. The Politics of Therapeutic Talk and American Sobriety. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press. ISBN ISBN: 9870691144504 / 9780691144498...

  4. Talking the Talk: The Construction of Activist Capital in Argentinian Popular Social Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Mercedes Palumbo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the socialization and construction of social and political capital in popular movements in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires, Argentina. To analyze this case, we employ a theoretical framework which draws on the concepts of activist social capital and political socialization. These concepts serve to illuminate the native Argentinian concept of “talking the talk”, which is a key skill that contributes to the construction of one’s social capital as an activist. We argue that this know how is particularly important in determining one’s trajectory as an activist. However, understanding how to employ political discourse requires the adoption of a gender lens given that the mastery of “talking the talk” represents a greater challenge for female activists who have to overcome the impossibility of speaking. The reflections developed in this article problematize the everyday politics and practices of popular social movements given that the know-how of “talking the talk” contributes to the crystallization of the gendered social division of labor in social movements.

  5. The Emergence of Inclusive Exploratory Talk in Primary Students' Peer Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajala, Antti; Hilppo, Jaakko; Lipponen, Lasse

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we examine a prominent type of classroom talk, exploratory talk, in primary school peer interactions. Exploratory talk has been shown to be productive in facilitating problem solving and fostering school achievement. However, within the growing body of research concerning exploratory talk, the relation between exploratory talk and…

  6. An Examination of the Nature of Erotic Talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonason, Peter K; Betteridge, Gabrielle L; Kneebone, Ian I

    2016-01-01

    Using a mixed-methods study, we provided the first systematic documentation and exploration of erotic talk. In Study 1 (N = 95), participants provided 569 erotic talk statements in an anonymous online survey, which we classified, using a modified thematic analysis, as being representative of eight themes. In Study 2 (N = 238), we quantified individual differences in these themes, subjected them to factor analysis, and examined the nomological network surrounding them with measures of relationship and sexual satisfaction, sociosexuality, and personality. The eight initial categories represented two higher order factors, which we call individualist talk and mutualistic talk. These factors were orthogonal in factor analysis and distinct in their nomological network. While the majority of people reported using erotic talk, we found few sex differences in its use.

  7. Photovoltaic building blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanberg, Peter Jesper; Jørgensen, Anders Michael

    2014-01-01

    efficiency of about 15% for commercial Silicon solar cells there is still much to gain. DTU Danchip provides research facilities, equipment and expertise for the building blocks that comprises fabricating the efficient solar cell. In order to get more of the sun light into the device we provide thin film......Photovoltaics (PV), better known as solar cells, are now a common day sight on many rooftops in Denmark.The installed capacity of PV systems worldwide is growing exponentially1 and is the third most importantrenewable energy source today. The cost of PV is decreasing fast with ~10%/year but to make...... it directcompetitive with fossil energy sources a further reduction is needed. By increasing the efficiency of the solar cells one gain an advantage through the whole chain of cost. So that per produced Watt of power less material is spent, installation costs are lower, less area is used etc. With an average...

  8. Celiac ganglia block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akinci, Devrim; Akhan, Okan

    2005-01-01

    Pain occurs frequently in patients with advanced cancers. Tumors originating from upper abdominal viscera such as pancreas, stomach, duodenum, proximal small bowel, liver and biliary tract and from compressing enlarged lymph nodes can cause severe abdominal pain, which do not respond satisfactorily to medical treatment or radiotherapy. Percutaneous celiac ganglia block (CGB) can be performed with high success and low complication rates under imaging guidance to obtain pain relief in patients with upper abdominal malignancies. A significant relationship between pain relief and degree of tumoral celiac ganglia invasion according to CT features was described in the literature. Performing the procedure in the early grades of celiac ganglia invasion on CT can increase the effectiveness of the CGB, which is contrary to World Health Organization criteria stating that CGB must be performed in patients with advanced stage cancer. CGB may also be effectively performed in patients with chronic pancreatitis for pain palliation

  9. Atomic Basic Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheler, Fabian; Mitzlaff, Martin; Schröder-Preikschat, Wolfgang

    Die Entscheidung, einen zeit- bzw. ereignisgesteuerten Ansatz für ein Echtzeitsystem zu verwenden, ist schwierig und sehr weitreichend. Weitreichend vor allem deshalb, weil diese beiden Ansätze mit äußerst unterschiedlichen Kontrollflussabstraktionen verknüpft sind, die eine spätere Migration zum anderen Paradigma sehr schwer oder gar unmöglich machen. Wir schlagen daher die Verwendung einer Zwischendarstellung vor, die unabhängig von der jeweils verwendeten Kontrollflussabstraktion ist. Für diesen Zweck verwenden wir auf Basisblöcken basierende Atomic Basic Blocks (ABB) und bauen darauf ein Werkzeug, den Real-Time Systems Compiler (RTSC) auf, der die Migration zwischen zeit- und ereignisgesteuerten Systemen unterstützt.

  10. Some Blocks from Heliopolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    dr.Nageh Omar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available These group of Architectural Fragments have been discovered during Excavations at Souq el – Khamees Site at the end of Mostorod Street in el – Matarya Area by the Supreme Council of Antiquities Mission Season 2003 and none published before . The Site of Excavations is Situated about 500 metres to the west Obelisk of the King Senusert I According to the inscriptions on the block (pl.1.a,fig.1 represents the coronation name of the king Senusret III, the fifth king of the twelfth dynasty within the cartouche .Through This recent discover and his Sphinx statue we Suggest that the king Senusret III built a shrine or Temple at Heliopols which was possibly a part of the great Temple of the universal God of Heliopolis . For block dating to the king Akhenaten and many monuments are discovered in Heliopolis at the same period emphasized that the king Akhenaten built temple for the god Aten in Heliopolis and through Studies about the king Akhenaten, we suggest that the king Akhenaten take his new principles from Heliopolis . The king Ramesses II mentioned from stela which discovered at Manshyt el- Sader, in the second horizontal line that he erected oblesk and some statues at the great Temple in Heliopolis , this recent Discover about Statue of the king Ramesses II emphasized site of excavations perhaps a shrine or open court from temple of the king Ramesses II at the great Temple in Heliopolis For nbt – htpt, we could show that the goddess Hathor take a forward position in Heliopolis and become the Lady of Hetepet in Heliopolis since Eighteenth dynasty at least

  11. Summary talk covering application-oriented sessions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peelle, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    Some progress is mentioned in nuclear data, including: nonfuel actinide cross sections, fusion charged particle reactions, lithium-7 breakup reaction, neutrons per fission, decay heat from fission products, the form of the fission spectrum, and neutron scattering differential cross sections. Trends are then identified, particularly N(E,t) for delayed neutrons, internationally focussed efforts to resolve outstanding problems, dosimetry cross sections and techniques, fusion integral experiments, data adjustment, rigorous analysis of differential data, reconsideration of ''completed'' data areas, and particle emission cross sections for fusion systems. Challenges pertaining to data for applications are listed, including neutron kerma data for neutrons above 10 MeV, helium production from neutrons on boron-10, the resonance and thermal regions of fuel nuclides, and tightening of accuracies

  12. Straight Talk for Good Health | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Straight Talk for Good Health Straight Talk for Good Health Past Issues / Spring 2013 ... with your Doctor nihseniorhealth.gov/talkingwithyourdoctor/toc.html Straight talk with your healthcare provider is important. You ...

  13. Race in Supervision: Let's Talk About It.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schen, Cathy R; Greenlee, Alecia

    2018-01-01

    Addressing race and racial trauma within psychotherapy supervision is increasingly important in psychiatry training. A therapist's ability to discuss race and racial trauma in psychotherapy supervision increases the likelihood that these topics will be explored as they arise in the therapeutic setting. The authors discuss the contextual and sociocultural dynamics that contributed to their own avoidance of race and racial trauma within the supervisory relationship. The authors examine the features that eventually led to a robust discussion of race and culture within the supervisory setting and identify salient themes that occurred during three phases of the conversation about race: pre-dialogue, the conversation, and after the conversation. These themes include building an alliance, supercompetence, avoidance, shared vulnerability, "if I speak on this, I own it," closeness versus distance, and speaking up. This article reviews the key literature in the field of psychiatry and psychology that has shaped how we understand race and racial trauma and concludes with guidelines for supervisors on how to facilitate talking about race in supervision.

  14. Methods work better when couples talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, S

    1996-01-01

    Sexual partners who communicate about reproductive health issues reduce their risk of acquiring a sexually transmitted disease (STD) or of unintended pregnancy, but few couples feel comfortable talking openly about sex. AIDS prevention programs have focused on improving couple communication, but family planning programs have emphasized women-controlled contraception as more reliable than barrier methods. The effectiveness of barrier methods would likely improve, however, if clients are counseled in couple communication. Effective communication about sexual issues requires self-confidence, and strengthening a woman's self-confidence may also improve her ability to negotiate condom use. Small discussion groups held among female factory workers in Thailand in 1993-94 led to an increase from 60% to 90% in the number of women who felt confident in discussing STD risk with a partner and to an increase from 36% to 82% in those who said they would not be embarrassed to give a partner a condom. A Nigerian study also suggested that more education may also improve prospects for couple communication and contraceptive usage. A US study showed that adolescent women who communicated openly with their partners reduced their risks of unintended pregnancy and STDs, and a Kenyan study indicated that communication increases contraceptive usage among married couples. Various projects around the world are attempting to counsel women on communication and condom negotiation, and counselors are beginning the difficult task of teaching women how to convince men to use condoms.

  15. Common blocks for ASQS(12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Milazzo

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available An ASQS(v is a particular Steiner system featuring a set of v vertices and two separate families of blocks, B and G, whose elements have a respective cardinality of 4 and 6. It has the property that any three vertices of X belong either to a B-block or to a G-block. The parameter cb is the number of common blocks in two separate ASQSs, both defined on the same set of vertices X . In this paper it is shown that cb ≤ 29 for any pair of ASQSs(12.

  16. The pan phosphoinositide 3-kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor SAR245409 (voxtalisib/XL765) blocks survival, adhesion and proliferation of primary chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thijssen, R; Ter Burg, J; van Bochove, G G W; de Rooij, M F M; Kuil, A; Jansen, M H; Kuijpers, T W; Baars, J W; Virone-Oddos, A; Spaargaren, M; Egile, C; van Oers, M H J; Eldering, E; Kersten, M J; Kater, A P

    2016-02-01

    The phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are critical components of the B-cell receptor (BCR) pathway and have an important role in the pathobiology of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Inhibitors of PI3Kδ block BCR-mediated cross-talk between CLL cells and the lymph node microenvironment and provide significant clinical benefit to CLL patients. However, the PI3Kδ inhibitors applied thus far have limited direct impact on leukemia cell survival and thus are unlikely to eradicate the disease. The use of inhibitors of multiple isoforms of PI3K might lead to deeper remissions. Here we demonstrate that the pan-PI3K/mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor SAR245409 (voxtalisib/XL765) was more pro-apoptotic to CLL cells--irrespective of their ATM/p53 status--than PI3Kα or PI3Kδ isoform selective inhibitors. Furthermore, SAR245409 blocked CLL survival, adhesion and proliferation. Moreover, SAR245409 was a more potent inhibitor of T-cell-mediated production of cytokines, which support CLL survival. Taken together, our in vitro data provide a rationale for the evaluation of a pan-PI3K inhibitor in CLL patients.

  17. Adductor Canal Block versus Femoral Nerve Block and Quadriceps Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Pia Therese; Nielsen, Zbigniew Jerzy Koscielniak; Henningsen, Lene Marianne

    2013-01-01

    : The authors hypothesized that the adductor canal block (ACB), a predominant sensory blockade, reduces quadriceps strength compared with placebo (primary endpoint, area under the curve, 0.5-6 h), but less than the femoral nerve block (FNB; secondary endpoint). Other secondary endpoints were...

  18. The block transfer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradish, G.J. III; Reid, A.E.

    1986-01-01

    The central instrumentation control and data acquisition (CICADA) computer system is comprised of a functionally distributed hierarchical network of thirteen (13) 32-bit mini-computers that are the heart of the control, monitoring, data collection and data analysis for the tokamak fusion test reactor (TFTR). The CICADA system was designed with the goal of providing complete control, monitoring, and data acquisition for TFTR, which includes the acquisition and storage of 20M points of data within a five-minute shot cycle. It was realized early in the system design that in order to meet this goal an ancillary system would have to be provided to supplement the subsystem CAMAC systems that, due to the relatively slow throughput of the serial highways and the overhead of relaying data to the central facilities within a star network, would not provide the necessary throughput. The authors discuss how the block transfer system provided a means of moving data directly from the CAMAC crate to the application running on the central facility computers

  19. Multiuser Communication Through Power Talk in DC MicroGrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angjelichinoski, Marko; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar

    2016-01-01

    Power talk is a novel ultra narrow-band powerline communication (UNB-PLC) technique for communication among control units in MicroGrids (MGs). Unlike the existing UNB-PLC solutions, power talk does not require installation of additional dedicated communication hardware and, instead, uses only...... transmits at a time, and full duplex, where all units transmit and receive simultaneously. We apply the concepts of signaling space, where the power talk symbol constellations are constructed, and detection space, where the demodulation of the symbols is performed. The proposed communication technique...

  20. Talking about friends, drugs, and change: meanings of friendship in substance abusers' change talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarpavaara, Harri

    2014-05-01

    This article explores the meanings of substance-abusing clients attach to friendships during motivational treatment sessions in Probation Service. Sessions (98) were videotaped in 12 probation service offices in Finland in 2007 to 2009. By using semiotic framework, this qualitative study examines client's change talk utterance about friendships as a symbolic sign. The findings indicate that the friendships play an important role in the substance-abusing clients' motivation to change and in their treatment outcome. The study suggests that the personal meanings of clients' utterances in motivational treatment sessions could be seen as potential predictors of their future behavior.