International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carlson, A.D.
1984-01-01
The accuracy of neutron cross-section measurement is limited by the uncertainty in the standard cross-section and the errors associated with using it. Any improvement in the standard immediately improves all cross-section measurements which have been made relative to that standard. Light element, capture and fission standards are discussed. (U.K.)
Validation of evaluated neutron standard cross sections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Badikov, S.; Golashvili, T.
2008-01-01
Some steps of the validation and verification of the new version of the evaluated neutron standard cross sections were carried out. In particular: -) the evaluated covariance data was checked for physical consistency, -) energy-dependent evaluated cross-sections were tested in most important neutron benchmark field - 252 Cf spontaneous fission neutron field, -) a procedure of folding differential standard neutron data in group representation for preparation of specialized libraries of the neutron standards was verified. The results of the validation and verification of the neutron standards can be summarized as follows: a) the covariance data of the evaluated neutron standards is physically consistent since all the covariance matrices of the evaluated cross sections are positive definite, b) the 252 Cf spectrum averaged standard cross-sections are in agreement with the evaluated integral data (except for 197 Au(n,γ) reaction), c) a procedure of folding differential standard neutron data in group representation was tested, as a result a specialized library of neutron standards in the ABBN 28-group structure was prepared for use in reactor applications. (authors)
Neutron standard cross sections in reactor physics - Need and status
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carlson, A.D.
1990-01-01
The design and improvement of nuclear reactors require detailed neutronics calculations. These calculations depend on comprehensive libraries of evaluated nuclear cross sections. Most of the cross sections that form the data base for these evaluations have been measured relative to neutron cross-section standards. The use of these standards can often simplify the measurement process by eliminating the need for a direct measurement of the neutron fluence. The standards are not known perfectly, however; thus the accuracy of a cross-section measurement is limited by the uncertainty in the standard cross section relative to which it is measured. Improvements in a standard cause all cross sections measured relative to that standard to be improved. This is the reason for the emphasis on improving the neutron cross-section standards. The continual process of measurement and evaluation has led to improvements in the accuracy and range of applicability of the standards. Though these improvements have been substantial, this process must continue in order to obtain the high-quality standards needed by the user community
Evaluation methods for neutron cross section standards
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bhat, M.R.
1980-01-01
Methods used to evaluate the neutron cross section standards are reviewed and their relative merits, assessed. These include phase-shift analysis, R-matrix fit, and a number of other methods by Poenitz, Bhat, Kon'shin and the Bayesian or generalized least-squares procedures. The problems involved in adopting these methods for future cross section standards evaluations are considered, and the prospects for their use, discussed. 115 references, 5 figures, 3 tables
Neutron capture cross section standards for BNL-325
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holden, N.E.
1980-01-01
The most common cross section standards for capture reactions in the thermal neutron energy region are gold, cobalt, and manganese. In preparation for the fourth edition of BNL-325, data on the thermal cross section and resonance integral were evaluated for these three standards. For gold, only measurements below the Bragg scattering cutoff were used and extrapolated to a neutron velocity of 2200 meters/second. A non 1/v correction due to the 4.9 eV resonance was made. The resonance integral is based on Jirlow's integral measurement and Tellier's parameters. The resonance integrals for cobalt and manganese are based solely on integral measurements because the capture widths of the first major resonance either vary by 20% in various measurements (cobalt), or have never been measured (manganese). Recommended thermal cross sections and resonance integrals are respectively gold: 98.65/plus or minus/0.9 barns, 1550/plus or minus/28 barns; cobalt: 37.18/plus or minus/0.06 barns, 74.2/plus or minus/2.0 barns and manganese: 13.3/plus or minus/0.2 barns, and 14.0/plus or minus/0.3 barns. 72 refs
Neutron cross section standards for the energy region above 20 MeV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1991-01-01
These proceedings of a specialists' meeting on Neutron cross section standards for the energy region above 20 MeV are divided into 6 sessions bearing on: - session 1: status of the date base for (n-p) scattering (2 conferences) - session 2: status of nucleon-nucleon phase shift calculations (1 conference) - session 3: recent and planned experimental work on n-p cross section measurements and facilities (7 conferences) - session 4: Instruments for utilizing the H (n.n) standard for neutron fluence measurement (4 conferences) - session 5: proposal for other neutron cross-section standards (4 conferences) - session 6: monitor reactions for radiation dosimetry (3 conferences)
Neutron cross section standards and instrumentation: Annual report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1987-01-01
This annual report from the National Bureau of Standards contains a summary of the results of the Neutron Cross Section Standards and Instrumentation Program. The technical measurements for the past year are given along with the proposed program and budget needs for the next three years. The neutron standards measurements have concentrated on the most important 235 U(n,f) cross section in the thermal to 20 MeV energy range along with the development of neutron detectors required for these measurements. The NBS measurements have made a significant contribution to the improvement in the understanding of this reaction. Measurements were performed with numerous neutron detectors at overlapping energies and at different neutron sources in order to reduce the systematic errors to achieve the required accuracy in this important neutron standard. Significant progress was also made in the development of a detector to utilize the 3 He(n,p) reaction as a standard in the eV to MeV energy region. Improvements in data acquisition systems as well as additional studies of advanced neutron sources were accomplished. Contacts with private industry were maintained and coordination of the neutron standards evaluation was continued. The report also includes biographical listings of the research staff along with copies of a few of our recent publications. 13 figs., 1 tab
Neutron cross section standards and instrumentation. Annual report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wasson, O.A.
1993-07-01
The objective of this interagency program is to provide accurate neutron interaction measurements for the US Department of Energy nuclear programs which include waste disposal, fusion, safeguards, defense, fission, and personnel protection. These measurements are also useful to other energy programs which indirectly use the unique properties of the neutron for diagnostic and analytical purposes. The work includes the measurement of reference cross sections and related neutron data employing unique facilities and capabilities at NIST and other laboratories as required; leadership and participation in international intercomparisons and collaborations; the preservation of standard reference deposits and the development of improved neutron detectors and measurement methods. A related and essential element of the program is critical evaluation of neutron interaction data including international coordinations. Data testing of critical data for important applications is included. The program is jointly supported by the Department of Energy and the National Institute of Standards and Technology. This report from the National Institute of Standards and Technology contains a summary of the accomplishments of the Neutron Cross Section Standards and Instrumentation Project during the third year of this three-year interagency agreement. The proposed program and required budget for the following three years are also presented. The program continues the shifts in priority instituted in order to broaden the program base.
Neutron cross section standards and instrumentation. Annual report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wasson, O.A.
1993-01-01
The objective of this interagency program is to provide accurate neutron interaction measurements for the US Department of Energy nuclear programs which include waste disposal, fusion, safeguards, defense, fission, and personnel protection. These measurements are also useful to other energy programs which indirectly use the unique properties of the neutron for diagnostic and analytical purposes. The work includes the measurement of reference cross sections and related neutron data employing unique facilities and capabilities at NIST and other laboratories as required; leadership and participation in international intercomparisons and collaborations; the preservation of standard reference deposits and the development of improved neutron detectors and measurement methods. A related and essential element of the program is critical evaluation of neutron interaction data including international coordinations. Data testing of critical data for important applications is included. The program is jointly supported by the Department of Energy and the National Institute of Standards and Technology. This report from the National Institute of Standards and Technology contains a summary of the accomplishments of the Neutron Cross Section Standards and Instrumentation Project during the third year of this three-year interagency agreement. The proposed program and required budget for the following three years are also presented. The program continues the shifts in priority instituted in order to broaden the program base
Neutron capture cross section standards for BNL 325, Fourth Edition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holden, N.E.
1981-01-01
This report evaluates the experimental data and recommends values for the thermal neutron cross sections and resonance integrals for the neutron capture reactions: 55 Mn(n,γ), 59 Co(n,γ) and 197 Au(n,γ). The failure of lithium and boron as standards due to the natural variation of the absorption cross sections of these elements is discussed. The Westcott convention, which describes the neutron spectrum as a thermal Maxwellian distribution with an epithermal component, is also discussed
Status of standard cross section library and future plan
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zukeran, Atsushi
2001-01-01
JSSTDL-300 multi-group cross section library with 300 neutron energy groups coupled with 104 group γ-ray cross sections was developed for general users in nuclear reactor physics and/or design, whose source data is the evaluated nuclear data library JENDL-3.2. For the purpose of a standard or common use, several famous cross section libraries worldwide used, i.e., ABBN-25, GAM-123, VITAMIN-C/J(E+C), MGCL-137, BERMUDA-12 and FNS-125 for neutron, and LANL-12, -24-, -48, and CSEWG-94 for γ-ray, are consulted about setting the common energy group structure. Furthermore, in order to expand the applicability, the top energy is set on 20 MeV and the lowest energy is 10 -5 eV. In the thermal neutron energy region, the JSSTDL-300 has about 20 energy groups. Besides, many utility codes for group collapsing and for data format transformation are provided for general users. (author)
Role of ''standard'' fine-group cross section libraries in shielding analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weisbin, C.R.; Roussin, R.W.; Oblow, E.M.; Cullen, D.E.; White, J.E.; Wright, R.Q.
1977-01-01
The Divisions of Magnetic Fusion Energy (DMFE) and Reactor Development and Demonstration (DRDD) of the United States Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) have jointly sponsored the development of a 171 neutron, 36 gamma ray group pseudo composition independent cross section library based upon ENDF/B-IV. This library (named VITAMIN-C and packaged by RSIC as DLC-41) is intended to be generally applicable to fusion blanket and LMFBR core and shield analysis. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate this library as a possible candidate for specific designation as a ''standard'' in light of American Nuclear Society standards for fine-group cross section data sets. The rationale and qualification procedure for such a standard are discussed. Finally, current limitations and anticipated extensions to this processed data file are described
Neutron cross section standards evaluations for ENDF/B-VI
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carlson, A.D.; Poenitz, W.P.; Hale, G.M.; Peelle, R.W.
1985-01-01
The neutron cross section standards are now being evaluated as the initial phase in the development of the new ENDF/B-VI file. These standards evaluations are following a somewhat different process compared with that used for earlier versions of ENDF. The primary effort is concentrated on a simultaneous evaluation using a generalized least squares program, R-matrix evaluations, and a procedure for combining the results of these evaluations. The ENDF/B-VI standards evaluation procedure is outlined, and preliminary simultaneous evaluation and R-matrix results are presented. 16 refs., 7 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carlson, A.D.; Muir, D.W.; Pronyaev, V.G.
2001-06-01
This report summarizes the results of the Consultants' Meeting on Improvement of the Standard Cross Sections for Light Elements. The approaches and computer programs used for evaluation of neutron standard cross sections and their uncertainties were presented by the participants. Special attention was paid to the reasons for strong uncertainty reduction observed in the model fits. The meeting participants discussed the plan of the INDC recommended Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'Improvement of the Standard Cross Sections for Light Elements'. This CRP will address the problem of uncertainty reduction along with other methodological improvements needed in order to produce a new, and internationally accepted, evaluation of neutron standard cross sections for light elements. (author)
Neutron capture cross section of /sup 197/Au: A standard for stellar nucleosynthesis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ratynski, W.; Kaeppeler, F.
1988-01-01
We have measured the neutron capture cross section of gold using the 7 Li(p,n) 7 Be reaction for neutron production. This reaction not only provides the integrated neutron flux via the 7 Be activity of the target, but also allows for the simulation of a Maxwellian neutron energy spectrum at kT = 25 keV. As this spectrum is emitted in a forward cone of 120 0 opening angle, the cross section can be measured in good geometry and independent of any other standard. Systematic uncertainties were studied experimentally in a series of activations. The final stellar cross section at kT = 25 keV was found to be 648 +- 10 mb, and extrapolation to the common s-process temperature kT = 30 keV yields 582 +- 9 mb. This result is used for renormalization of a number of cross sections which had been measured relative to gold
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pronyaev, V.; Carlson, A.D.; Capote Noy, R.; Wallner, A.
2011-03-01
The meeting participants have considered the progress in the measurement and evaluation of neutron cross sections and spectra which can be used as standard or reference data. This includes extension of the 197 Au(n,γ) standard to the energy range below 200 keV, 235 U(n th ,f) prompt fission neutron spectrum and neutron induced gamma-production cross sections. The work on this data development project for next two years has been agreed. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Capote Noy, Roberto; Nichols, Alan L.; Pronyaev, Vladimir G.
2003-01-01
An integral part of the activities of the IAEA Nuclear Data Section involves the development of nuclear data for a wide range of user applications. When considering low-energy nuclear reactions induced by neutrons, photons and charged particles, a detailed knowledge is required of the production cross sections over a wide energy range, spectra of emitted particles and their angular distributions. Two highly relevant IAEA data development projects are considered in this paper. Neutron reaction cross-section standards represent the basic quantities needed in nuclear reaction cross-section measurements and evaluations. These standards and the covariance matrices of their uncertainties were previously evaluated and released in 1987. However, the derived uncertainties were subsequently considered to be unrealistic low due to the effect of the low uncertainties obtained in fitting the light element standards to the R-matrix model; as a result, evaluators were forced to scale up the uncertainties to 'expected values'. An IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP) entitled 'Improvement of the Standard Cross Sections for Light Elements' was initiated in 2002 to improve the evaluation methodology for the covariance matrix of uncertainty in the R-matrix model fits, and to produce R-matrix evaluations of the important light element standards. The scope of this CRP has been substantially extended to include the preparation of a full set of evaluated standard reactions and covariance matrices of their uncertainties. While almost all requests for nuclear data were originally addressed through measurement programmes, our theoretical understanding of nuclear phenomena has reached a reasonable degree of reliability and nuclear modeling has become standard practice in nuclear data evaluations (with measurements remaining crucial for data testing and benchmarking). Since nuclear model codes require a considerable amount of numerical input, the IAEA has instigated extensive efforts to
Gold standard capture cross section from 100 keV to 15 MeV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ryves, T.B.
1982-01-01
The capture cross section of gold is now generally accepted as the principal reference standard, and therefore in this review only gold is considered. Recent measurements of the gold capture cross section in the unresolved region are discussed and compared with the ENDF/B-V evaluation. It is concluded that in the energy interval 100 to 2000 keV the present uncertainty in the evaluation is +-8%, in the interval 2 to 3.5 MeV the uncertainty is +-4%, in ther interval 3.5 to 14 MeV more measurements are needed before a realistic error can be assigned, and from 14 to 15 MeV the uncertainty is +-10%. Several recommendations for future work have been made
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carlson, A.D.; Hale, G.M.; Pronyaev, V.G.
2003-01-01
Results obtained during the first six months of the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Improvement of the Standard Cross Sections for Light Elements were presented. Attention focused on studies of the reduction in uncertainty for the model and non-model least squares fits, intercomparison and testing of different computer codes based on the nuclear model, non-model general least square and Bayesian approaches to the evaluation of standard reaction cross sections and covariance matrix of their uncertainties. The reasons leading to the underestimation of uncertainties and bias in the evaluated values were discussed and solutions to these problems were outlined. A coordinated working plan was prepared which will result in the preparation of new reaction cross section standards for light and heavy elements by 2004. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carlson, A.D.; Hale, G.M.; Pronyaev, V.G.
2004-11-01
Results were discussed that have been obtained during two and a half years of work under the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Improvement of the Standard Cross Sections. Major attention was focused on reducing the ambiguity between different R-matrix fits; seeking consensus between participants about what approach should be used to minimize the effect of Peelle's Pertinent Puzzle; procedures for combining the results of the R-matrix model with non-model fits; and determining the reactions and energies where smoothing should be used. The proposed timetable includes the release of the standard cross section tables by 18 November 2004 and preparing a draft report with a detailed description of the evaluation procedure by 30 April 2005. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zeman, Martin
2014-01-01
Measurements of di-boson production cross-sections are an important part of the physics programme at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. These physics analyses provide the opportunity to probe the electroweak sector of the Standard Model at the TeV scale and could also indicate the existence of new particles or probe beyond the Standard Model physics. The excellent performance of the LHC through years 2011 and 2012 allowed for very competitive measurements. This thesis provides a comprehensive overview of the experimental considerations and methods used in the measurement of the W + W - production cross-section in proton-proton collisions at √s = 7 TeV and 8 TeV. The treatise covers the material in great detail, starting with the introduction of the theoretical framework of the Standard Model and follows with an extensive discussion of the methods implemented in recording and reconstructing physics events in an experiment of this magnitude. The associated online and offline software tools are included in the discussion. The relevant experiments are covered, including a very detailed section about the ATLAS detector. The final chapter of this thesis contains a detailed description of the analysis of the W-pair production in the leptonic decay channels using the datasets recorded by the ATLAS experiment during 2011 and 2012 (Run I). The analyses use 4.60 fb -1 recorded at √s = 7 TeV and 20.28 fb -1 recorded at 8 TeV. The experimentally measured cross section for the production of W bosons at the ATLAS experiment is consistently enhanced compared to the predictions of the Standard Model at centre-of-mass energies of 7 TeV and 8 TeV. The thesis concludes with the presentation of differential cross-section measurement results. (author) [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carlson, A.D.; Hale, G.M.; Pronyaev, V.G.
2004-03-01
Results are presented following one and a half years of work under the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Improvement of the Standard Cross Sections for Light Elements. They include the use of the refined resonating group model for the theoretical prediction of the R-matrix poles and preliminary R-matrix model fits of the full experimental database for the 6 Li+n system obtained with different codes. Significant attention was paid to the exclusion of the bias in the evaluated data caused by the possible presence of Peelle's Pertinent Puzzle effect in the experimental data. Updates were also presented of the experimental database for light and heavy element standards including fission cross sections up to 200 MeV. First results and observed trends for all standard reactions are given, including the preliminary results of combining the model (for light elements) and non-model fits. The timetable for further work was agreed, which should lead to new reaction cross section standards for light and heavy elements by the end 2004. (author)
MXS cross-section preprocessor user's manual
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parker, F.; Ishikawa, M.; Luck, L.
1987-03-01
The MXS preprocessor has been designed to reduce the execution time of programs using isotopic cross-section data and to both reduce the execution time and improve the accuracy of shielding-factor interpolation in the SIMMER-II accident analysis program. MXS is a dual-purpose preprocessing code to: (1) mix isotopes into materials and (2) fit analytic functions to the shelf-shielding data. The program uses the isotope microscopic neutron cross-section data from the CCCC standard interface file ISOTXS and the isotope Bondarenko self-shielding data from the CCCC standard interface file BRKOXS to generate cross-section and self-shielding data for materials. The materials may be a mixture of several isotopes. The self-shielding data for the materials may be the actual shielding factors or a set of coefficients for functions representing the background dependence of the shielding factors. A set of additional data is given to describe the functions necessary to interpolate the shielding factors over temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khakoo, M. A.; Wrkich, J.; Larsen, M.; Kleiban, G.; Kanik, I.; Trajmar, S.; Brunger, M.J.; Teubner, P.J.O.; Crowe, A.; Fontes, C.J.; Clark, R.E.H.; Zeman, V.; Bartschat, K.; Madison, D.H.; Srivastava, R.; Stauffer, A.D.
2002-01-01
Electron-impact differential cross-section measurements for the excitation of the 2p 5 3s configuration of Ne are reported. The Ne cross sections are obtained using experimental differential cross sections for the electron-impact excitation of the n=2 levels of atomic hydrogen [Khakoo et al., Phys. Rev. A 61, 012701-1 (1999)], and existing experimental helium differential cross-section measurements, as calibration standards. These calibration measurements were made using the method of gas mixtures (Ne and H followed by Ne and He), in which the gas beam profiles of the mixed gases are found to be the same within our experimental errors. We also present results from calculations of these differential cross sections using the R-matrix and unitarized first-order many-body theory, the distorted-wave Born approximation, and relativistic distorted-wave methods. Comparison with available experimental differential cross sections and differential cross-section ratios is also presented
Light stops emerging in WW cross section measurements?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rolbiecki, Krzysztof
2013-03-01
Recent ATLAS and CMS measurements show a slight excess in the WW cross section measurement. While still consistent with the Standard Model within 1-2σ, the excess could be also a first hint of physics beyond the Standard Model. We argue that this effect could be attributed to the production of scalar top quarks within supersymmetric models. The stops of m t 1 ∝200 GeV has the right cross section and under some assumptions can significantly contribute to the final state of two leptons and missing energy. We scan this region of parameter space to find particle masses preferred by the WW cross section measurements. Taking one sample benchmark point we show that it can be consistent with low energy observables and Higgs sector measurements and propose a method to distinguish supersymmetric signal from the Standard Model contribution.
Light stops emerging in WW cross section measurements?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rolbiecki, Krzysztof [IFT-UAM/CSIC, Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Fisica Teorica; Sakurai, Kazuki [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2013-03-15
Recent ATLAS and CMS measurements show a slight excess in the WW cross section measurement. While still consistent with the Standard Model within 1-2{sigma}, the excess could be also a first hint of physics beyond the Standard Model. We argue that this effect could be attributed to the production of scalar top quarks within supersymmetric models. The stops of m{sub t{sub 1}}{proportional_to}200 GeV has the right cross section and under some assumptions can significantly contribute to the final state of two leptons and missing energy. We scan this region of parameter space to find particle masses preferred by the WW cross section measurements. Taking one sample benchmark point we show that it can be consistent with low energy observables and Higgs sector measurements and propose a method to distinguish supersymmetric signal from the Standard Model contribution.
Fission cross section measurements of actinides at LANSCE
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tovesson, Fredrik [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Laptev, Alexander B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hill, Tony S [INL
2010-01-01
Fission cross sections of a range of actinides have been measured at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) in support of nuclear energy applications. By combining measurement at two LANSCE facilities, Lujan Center and the Weapons Neutron Research center (WNR), differential cross sections can be measured from sub-thermal energies up to 200 MeV. Incident neutron energies are determined using the time-of-flight method, and parallel-plate ionization chambers are used to measure fission cross sections relative to the {sup 235}U standard. Recent measurements include the {sup 233,238}U, {sup 239,242}Pu and {sup 243}Am neutron-induced fission cross sections. In this paper preliminary results for cross section data of {sup 243}Am and {sup 233}U will be presented.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. K. Papoulias
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In this work, we explore ν-nucleus processes from a nuclear theory point of view and obtain results with high confidence level based on accurate nuclear structure cross sections calculations. Besides cross sections, the present study includes simulated signals expected to be recorded by nuclear detectors and differential event rates as well as total number of events predicted to be measured. Our original cross sections calculations are focused on measurable rates for the standard model process, but we also perform calculations for various channels of the nonstandard neutrino-nucleus reactions and come out with promising results within the current upper limits of the corresponding exotic parameters. We concentrate on the possibility of detecting (i supernova neutrinos by using massive detectors like those of the GERDA and SuperCDMS dark matter experiments and (ii laboratory neutrinos produced near the spallation neutron source facilities (at Oak Ridge National Lab by the COHERENT experiment. Our nuclear calculations take advantage of the relevant experimental sensitivity and employ the severe bounds extracted for the exotic parameters entering the Lagrangians of various particle physics models and specifically those resulting from the charged lepton flavour violating μ-→e- experiments (Mu2e and COMET experiments.
Positive Scattering Cross Sections using Constrained Least Squares
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dahl, J.A.; Ganapol, B.D.; Morel, J.E.
1999-01-01
A method which creates a positive Legendre expansion from truncated Legendre cross section libraries is presented. The cross section moments of order two and greater are modified by a constrained least squares algorithm, subject to the constraints that the zeroth and first moments remain constant, and that the standard discrete ordinate scattering matrix is positive. A method using the maximum entropy representation of the cross section which reduces the error of these modified moments is also presented. These methods are implemented in PARTISN, and numerical results from a transport calculation using highly anisotropic scattering cross sections with the exponential discontinuous spatial scheme is presented
Fission neutron spectrum averaged cross sections for threshold reactions on arsenic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dorval, E.L.; Arribere, M.A.; Kestelman, A.J.; Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Cuyo Nacional Univ., Bariloche; Ribeiro Guevara, S.; Cohen, I.M.; Ohaco, R.A.; Segovia, M.S.; Yunes, A.N.; Arrondo, M.; Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires
2006-01-01
We have measured the cross sections, averaged over a 235 U fission neutron spectrum, for the two high threshold reactions: 75 As(n,p) 75 mGe and 75 As(n,2n) 74 As. The measured averaged cross sections are 0.292±0.022 mb, referred to the 3.95±0.20 mb standard for the 27 Al(n,p) 27 Mg averaged cross section, and 0.371±0.032 mb referred to the 111±3 mb standard for the 58 Ni(n,p) 58m+g Co averaged cross section, respectively. The measured averaged cross sections were also evaluated semi-empirically by numerically integrating experimental differential cross section data extracted for both reactions from the current literature. The calculations were performed for four different representations of the thermal-neutron-induced 235 U fission neutron spectrum. The calculated cross sections, though depending on analytical representation of the flux, agree with the measured values within the estimated uncertainties. (author)
Updated ozone absorption cross section will reduce air quality compliance
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. D. Sofen
2015-12-01
et al. (2015 as 1.8 % smaller than the accepted value (Hearn, 1961 used for the preceding 50 years. Thus, ozone measurements that applied the older cross section systematically underestimate the amount of ozone in air. We correct the reported historical surface data from North America and Europe and find that this modest change in cross section has a significant impact on the number of locations that are out of compliance with air quality regulations if the air quality standards remain the same. We find 18, 23, and 20 % increases in the number of sites that are out of compliance with current US, Canadian, and European ozone air quality health standards for the year 2012. Should the new cross-section value be applied, it would impact attainment of air quality standards and compliance with relevant clean air acts, unless the air quality target values themselves were also changed proportionately. We draw attention to how a small change in gas metrology has a global impact on attainment and compliance with legal air quality standards. We suggest that further laboratory work to evaluate the new cross section is needed and suggest three possible technical and policy responses should the new cross section be adopted.
LHCb cross-section measurements with heavy flavour jets
Michielin, Emanuele
2017-01-01
Cross-section measurements of jets originating from the hadronization of beauty ($b$) and charm ($c$) quarks at LHCb give the unique opportunity to probe Parton Distribution Functions (PDFs) at low and large momentum fraction and to test the Standard Model in the forward region. In this poster the production of $t\\bar{t}$ pairs in the forward region, the measurement of the $W+b\\bar{b}$ and $W+c\\bar{c}$ cross-section and the measurement of the $Z\\rightarrow b\\bar{b}$ cross-section are presented.
Damage energy and displacement cross sections: survey and sensitivity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doran, D.G.; Parkin, D.M.; Robinson, M.T.
1976-10-01
Calculations of damage energy and displacement cross sections using the recommendations of a 1972 IAEA Specialists' Meeting are reviewed. The sensitivity of the results to assumptions about electronic energy losses in cascade development and to different choices respecting the nuclear cross sections is indicated. For many metals, relative uncertainties and sensitivities in these areas are sufficiently small that adoption of standard displacement cross sections for neutron irradiations can be recommended
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Resnik, W.M. II; Bosler, G.E.
1977-09-01
Many current reactor physics codes accept cross-section libraries in an isotope-ordered form, convert them with internal preprocessing routines to a group-ordered form, and then perform calculations using these group-ordered data. Occasionally, because of storage and time limitations, the preprocessing routines in these codes cannot convert very large multigroup isotope-ordered libraries. For this reason, the I2G code, i.e., ISOTXS to GRUPXS, was written to convert externally isotope-ordered cross section libraries in the standard file format called ISOTXS to group-ordered libraries in the standard format called GRUPXS. This code uses standardized multilevel data management routines which establish a strategy for the efficient conversion of large libraries. The I2G code is exportable contingent on access to, and an intimate familiarization with, the multilevel routines. These routines are machine dependent, and therefore must be provided by the importing facility. 6 figures, 3 tables
Heinemeyer, S; Passarino, G; Tanaka, R; Andersen, J R; Artoisenet, P; Bagnaschi, E A; Banfi, A; Becher, T; Bernlochner, F U; Bolognesi, S; Bolzoni, P; Boughezal, R; Buarque, D; Campbell, J; Caola, F; Carena, M; Cascioli, F; Chanon, N; Cheng, T; Choi, S Y; David, A; de Aquino, P; Degrassi, G; Del Re, D; Denner, A; van Deurzen, H; Diglio, S; Di Micco, B; Di Nardo, R; Dittmaier, S; Dührssen, M; Ellis, R K; Ferrera, G; Fidanza, N; Flechl, M; de Florian, D; Forte, S; Frederix, R; Frixione, S; Gangal, S; Gao, Y; Garzelli, M V; Gillberg, D; Govoni, P; Grazzini, M; Greiner, N; Griffiths, J; Gritsan, A V; Grojean, C; Hall, D C; Hays, C; Harlander, R; Hernandez-Pinto, R; Höche, S; Huston, J; Jubb, T; Kadastik, M; Kallweit, S; Kardos, A; Kashif, L; Kauer, N; Kim, H; Klees, R; Krämer, M; Krauss, F; Laureys, A; Laurila, S; Lehti, S; Li, Q; Liebler, S; Liu, X; Logan, E; Luisoni, G; Malberti, M; Maltoni, F; Mawatari, K; Maierhoefer, F; Mantler, H; Martin, S; Mastrolia, P; Mattelaer, O; Mazzitelli, J; Mellado, B; Melnikov, K; Meridiani, P; Miller, D J; Mirabella, E; Moch, S O; Monni, P; Moretti, N; Mück, A; Mühlleitner, M; Musella, P; Nason, P; Neu, C; Neubert, M; Oleari, C; Olsen, J; Ossola, G; Peraro, T; Peters, K; Petriello, F; Piacquadio, G; Potter, C T; Pozzorini, S; Prokofiev, K; Puljak, I; Rauch, M; Rebuzzi, D; Reina, L; Rietkerk, R; Rizzi, A; Rotstein-Habarnau, Y; Salam, G P; Sborlini, G; Schissler, F; Schönherr, M; Schulze, M; Schumacher, M; Siegert, F; Slavich, P; Smillie, J M; Stål, O; von Soden-Fraunhofen, J F; Spira, M; Stewart, I W; Tackmann, F J; Taylor, P T E; Tommasini, D; Thompson, J; Thorne, R S; Torrielli, P; Tramontano, F; Tran, N V; Trócsányi, Z; Ubiali, M; Vazquez Acosta, M; Vickey, T; Vicini, A; Waalewijn, W J; Wackeroth, D; Wagner, C; Walsh, J R; Wang, J; Weiglein, G; Whitbeck, A; Williams, C; Yu, J; Zanderighi, G; Zanetti, M; Zaro, M; Zerwas, P M; Zhang, C; Zirke, T J E; Zuberi, S
2013-01-01
This Report summarizes the results of the activities in 2012 and the first half of 2013 of the LHC Higgs Cross Section Working Group. The main goal of the working group was to present the state of the art of Higgs Physics at the LHC, integrating all new results that have appeared in the last few years. This report follows the first working group report Handbook of LHC Higgs Cross Sections: 1. Inclusive Observables (CERN-2011-002) and the second working group report Handbook of LHC Higgs Cross Sections: 2. Differential Distributions (CERN-2012-002). After the discovery of a Higgs boson at the LHC in mid-2012 this report focuses on refined prediction of Standard Model (SM) Higgs phenomenology around the experimentally observed value of 125-126 GeV, refined predictions for heavy SM-like Higgs bosons as well as predictions in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model and first steps to go beyond these models. The other main focus is on the extraction of the characteristics and properties of the newly discovered p...
SENSIT: a cross-section and design sensitivity and uncertainty analysis code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gerstl, S.A.W.
1980-01-01
SENSIT computes the sensitivity and uncertainty of a calculated integral response (such as a dose rate) due to input cross sections and their uncertainties. Sensitivity profiles are computed for neutron and gamma-ray reaction cross sections of standard multigroup cross section sets and for secondary energy distributions (SEDs) of multigroup scattering matrices. In the design sensitivity mode, SENSIT computes changes in an integral response due to design changes and gives the appropriate sensitivity coefficients. Cross section uncertainty analyses are performed for three types of input data uncertainties: cross-section covariance matrices for pairs of multigroup reaction cross sections, spectral shape uncertainty parameters for secondary energy distributions (integral SED uncertainties), and covariance matrices for energy-dependent response functions. For all three types of data uncertainties SENSIT computes the resulting variance and estimated standard deviation in an integral response of interest, on the basis of generalized perturbation theory. SENSIT attempts to be more comprehensive than earlier sensitivity analysis codes, such as SWANLAKE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Biyajima, M.; Shirane, K.; Terazawa, O.
1987-01-01
We calculate cross sections for production of the standard Higgs boson in e + e - collisions and compare our results with those of several authors. It is found that there are appreciable differences among them which can be attributed to the coupling constants used, α(0) ( = (1/137) and G/sub F/. We also observe that cross sections depend on the magnitudes of the total width of the Z particle. The use of a reasonable set of parameters in calculations is emphasized
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1967-05-15
The International Nuclear Data Committee (INDC), in September of 1965, recommended to the International Atomic Energy Agency that a panel be convened to examine the nuclear standards needed for neutron cross section measurements. The accuracy requirements for cross sections of structural and fuel materials needed for the design of nuclear reactors and for precision neutron dosimetry have fostered an interest in the selection and investigation of standard cross sections and in the neutron flux measuring techniques. A Panel met in Brussels during the second week of May 1967 to review the problems and progress associated with these standards activities, and to make specific recommendations concerning these matters to the IAEA. This Panel consisted of 23 scientists representing 11 countries, European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM), the IAEA, and Bureau International des Poids and Mesures (BIPM). The field of neutron cross section standards is not one in which rapid progress can be expected. Very rarely is there a breakthrough to initiate a spectacular advance; on the contrary it is necessary to depend upon persistent application of effort to effect gradual improvements in accuracies or the clearing up of aggravating discrepancies. Despite this, however, the progress of recent years has been very encouraging. There are no doubt many reasons for this, but three are worthy of mention here. First the Symposium on Neutron Flux Standards in the 1-100 keV Region held at Oxford, United Kingdom, 1963, suggested and strongly supported by the European American Nuclear Data Committee (EANDC), certainly stimulated much activity in the field. Second, the EANDC itself has kept a watchful eye on the subsequent activity and has made sure that the interest has been sustained. Third, the recognized Standards laboratories in several countries have become more aware of the problems and are rapidly becoming major contributors to the field. The Panel of which the present report is the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1967-05-01
The International Nuclear Data Committee (INDC), in September of 1965, recommended to the International Atomic Energy Agency that a panel be convened to examine the nuclear standards needed for neutron cross section measurements. The accuracy requirements for cross sections of structural and fuel materials needed for the design of nuclear reactors and for precision neutron dosimetry have fostered an interest in the selection and investigation of standard cross sections and in the neutron flux measuring techniques. A Panel met in Brussels during the second week of May 1967 to review the problems and progress associated with these standards activities, and to make specific recommendations concerning these matters to the IAEA. This Panel consisted of 23 scientists representing 11 countries, European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM), the IAEA, and Bureau International des Poids and Mesures (BIPM). The field of neutron cross section standards is not one in which rapid progress can be expected. Very rarely is there a breakthrough to initiate a spectacular advance; on the contrary it is necessary to depend upon persistent application of effort to effect gradual improvements in accuracies or the clearing up of aggravating discrepancies. Despite this, however, the progress of recent years has been very encouraging. There are no doubt many reasons for this, but three are worthy of mention here. First the Symposium on Neutron Flux Standards in the 1-100 keV Region held at Oxford, United Kingdom, 1963, suggested and strongly supported by the European American Nuclear Data Committee (EANDC), certainly stimulated much activity in the field. Second, the EANDC itself has kept a watchful eye on the subsequent activity and has made sure that the interest has been sustained. Third, the recognized Standards laboratories in several countries have become more aware of the problems and are rapidly becoming major contributors to the field. The Panel of which the present report is the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lucotte, A.
1996-01-01
This work is devoted to the precision tests of the electro-week sector of the standard model via the determination of the Z-lineshape parameters M Z , Γ Z , σ had 0 and R had extracted from the fermionic cross-sections measured on 89 to 94 data in Aleph. The first section reminds the formalism and the observables used to describe the Z-resonance physics. In a second step, the LEP collider is presented with the procedures used to determine the beam energy, this parameter being the main source of uncertainty in M Z and Γ Z determination. In the following part, the Aleph experimental context is described, together with the measurement of the luminosity from Bhabha counting. Then the hadronic cross section measurements are presented, emphasizing on the improvement performed on the systematic bias evaluation to the hadrons selection. This leads to a precision at the per mille level in cross-sections. Leptonic cross-sections measured in Aleph are also reported. The Z-resonance parameters are then derived. A great agreement is observed with the prediction of the standard model of the EW interactions. The interpretation of such measurements within this model leads to the determination of the number of light neutrinos species and to the constraints on the top quark mass, compatible with direct measurements from Fermilab. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1997-01-01
The data base relevant to an evaluation of the 10 B(n,α) standard cross sections have been improved through interlaboratory collaboration. Changes in the evaluated 10 B(n,α) cross sections resulted form the measurements made since the ENDF/B-VI evaluation have been estimated. 12 refs, 4 figs
Damage energy and displacement cross sections: survey and sensitivity. [Neutrons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Doran, D.G.; Parkin, D.M.; Robinson, M.T.
1976-10-01
Calculations of damage energy and displacement cross sections using the recommendations of a 1972 IAEA Specialists' Meeting are reviewed. The sensitivity of the results to assumptions about electronic energy losses in cascade development and to different choices respecting the nuclear cross sections is indicated. For many metals, relative uncertainties and sensitivities in these areas are sufficiently small that adoption of standard displacement cross sections for neutron irradiations can be recommended.
Meneghini, Robert; Jones, Jeffrey A.
2010-01-01
We investigate the spatial variability of the normalized radar cross section of the surface (NRCS or Sigma(sup 0)) derived from measurements of the TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR) for the period from 1998 to 2009. The purpose of the study is to understand the way in which the sample standard deviation of the Sigma(sup 0) data changes as a function of spatial resolution, incidence angle, and surface type (land/ocean). The results have implications regarding the accuracy by which the path integrated attenuation from precipitation can be inferred by the use of surface scattering properties.
Research on the display of nuclear cross-section library
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang Shien; Wang Kan; Yu Ganglin
2008-01-01
Minutely parsed the dot cross-section format (ACE format) data of the ENDF/ B-6.8 database, which is the foundation of the program that achieved the reading and related handling of ACE format data. This program achieved the plotting, zooming and comparing display functions of nuclear cross section-energy of ENDF/B-6.8 database. It also provides the standard picture formatting file output and/or standard text formatting file output of interesting nuclear data. It accomplished some appropriate validations of this program via the comparing between program results and reference data. (authors)
Parameterized representation of macroscopic cross section for PWR reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fiel, João Cláudio Batista; Carvalho da Silva, Fernando; Senra Martinez, Aquilino; Leal, Luiz C.
2015-01-01
Highlights: • This work describes a parameterized representation of the homogenized macroscopic cross section for PWR reactor. • Parameterization enables a quick determination of problem-dependent cross-sections to be used in few group calculations. • This work allows generating group cross-section data to perform PWR core calculations without computer code calculations. - Abstract: The purpose of this work is to describe, by means of Chebyshev polynomials, a parameterized representation of the homogenized macroscopic cross section for PWR fuel element as a function of soluble boron concentration, moderator temperature, fuel temperature, moderator density and 235 92 U enrichment. The cross-section data analyzed are fission, scattering, total, transport, absorption and capture. The parameterization enables a quick and easy determination of problem-dependent cross-sections to be used in few group calculations. The methodology presented in this paper will allow generation of group cross-section data from stored polynomials to perform PWR core calculations without the need to generate them based on computer code calculations using standard steps. The results obtained by the proposed methodology when compared with results from the SCALE code calculations show very good agreement
Polynomial parameterized representation of macroscopic cross section for PWR reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fiel, Joao Claudio B.
2015-01-01
The purpose of this work is to describe, by means of Tchebychev polynomial, a parameterized representation of the homogenized macroscopic cross section for PWR fuel element as a function of soluble boron concentration, moderator temperature, fuel temperature, moderator density and 235 U 92 enrichment. Analyzed cross sections are: fission, scattering, total, transport, absorption and capture. This parameterization enables a quick and easy determination of the problem-dependent cross-sections to be used in few groups calculations. The methodology presented here will enable to provide cross-sections values to perform PWR core calculations without the need to generate them based on computer code calculations using standard steps. The results obtained by parameterized cross-sections functions, when compared with the cross-section generated by SCALE code calculations, or when compared with K inf , generated by MCNPX code calculations, show a difference of less than 0.7 percent. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bhat, M.R.; Ozer, O.
1982-01-01
1 - Description of problem or function: RESEND generates infinitely- dilute, un-broadened, point cross sections in the ENDF format by combining ENDF File 3 background cross sections with points calculated from ENDF File 2 resonance parameter data. ADLER calculates total, capture, and fission cross sections from the corresponding Adler-Adler parameters in the ENDF/B File 2 Version II data and also Doppler-broadens cross sections. 2 - Method of solution: RESEND calculations are done in two steps by two separate sections of the program. The first section does the resonance calculation and stores the results on a scratch file. The second section combines the data from the scratch file with background cross sections and prints the results. ADLER uses the Adler-Adler formalism. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: RESEND expects its input to be a standard mode BCD ENDF file (Version II/III). Since the output is also a standard mode BCD ENDF file, the program is limited by the six significant figure accuracy inherent in the ENDF formats. (If the cross section has been calculated at two points so close in energy that only their least significant figures differ, that interval is assumed to have converged, even if other convergence criteria may not be satisfied.) In the unresolved range the cross sections have been averaged over a Porter-Thomas distribution. In some regions the calculated resonance cross sections may be negative. In such cases the standard convergence criterion would cause an unnecessarily large number of points to be produced in the region where the cross section becomes zero. For this reason an additional input convergence criterion (AVERR) may be used. If the absolute value of the cross section at both ends of an interval is determined to be less than AVERR then the interval is assumed to have converged. There are no limitations on the total number of points generated. The present ENDF (Version II/III) formats restrict the total number of
Measurements of Integral Cross Section Ratios in Two Dosimetry Benchmark Neutron Fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fabry, A.; Czock, K.H.
1974-12-01
In the frame of a current interlaboratory effort devoted to the standardization of fuels and materials neutron dosimetry, the 103 Rh(n,n') 103m Rh and 58 Ni(n,p) 58 Co integral cross sections have been accurately measured relatively to the 115 In(n,n') 115m In cross section in the 235 U thermal dission neutron spectrum and in the MOLΣΣ Intermediate-Energy Standard Neutron field. In this last neutron field, the data are related also to the 235 U(n,f) cross section. The measurements are extensively documented and the results briefly compared to literature. Most noticeably, decisive support is provided for the selection of a specific 103 Rh(n,n') 103m Rh differential-energy cross section among the existing, conflicting data. (author)
Measurements of integral cross section ratios in two dosimetry benchmark neutron fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fabry, A.; Czock, K.H.
1974-12-01
In the frame of a current interlaboratory effort devoted to the standardization of fuels and materials neutron dosimetry, the 103 Rh(n,n') 103m Rh and 58 Ni(n,p) 58 Co integral cross sections have been accurately measured relatively to the 115 In(n,n') 115m In cross section in the 235 U thermal fission neutron spectrum and in the MOL-ΣΣ intermediate-energy standard neutron field. In this last neutron field, the data are related also to the 235 U(n,f) cross section. The measurements are extensively documented and the results briefly compared to literature. Most noticeably, decisive support is provided for the selection of a specific 103 Rh(n,n') 103m Rh differential-energy cross section among the existing, conflicting data. (author)
Actinide neutron-induced fission cross section measurements at LANSCE
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tovesson, Fredrik K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Laptev, Alexander B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hill, Tony S [INL
2010-01-01
Fission cross sections of a range of actinides have been measured at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) in support of nuclear energy applications in a wide energy range from sub-thermal energies up to 200 MeV. A parallel-plate ionization chamber are used to measure fission cross sections ratios relative to the {sup 235}U standard while incident neutron energies are determined using the time-of-flight method. Recent measurements include the {sup 233,238}U, {sup 239-242}Pu and {sup 243}Am neutron-induced fission cross sections. Obtained data are presented in comparison with ex isting evaluations and previous data.
Cross-section library and processing techniques within the SCALE system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Westfall, R.M.
1986-01-01
A summary of each of the SCALE system features involved in problem-dependent cross section processing is presented. These features include criticality libraries, shielding libraries, the Standard Composition Library, the SCALE functional modules: BONAMI-S, NITAWL-S, XSDRNPM-S, ICE-S, and the Material Information Processor. The automated procedure for cross-section processing is described with examples. 15 refs
Measurement of the Standard Model $ZZ$ Cross-Section in the $ZZ \\to \\ell\\ell\\ell\\ell$ Channel
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rodriguez, Tatiana Isabel [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)
2011-01-01
In this thesis we study one of the last corners of the Standard Model to be thoroughly investigated in a hadron collider, the production of two simultaneous Z bosons. We analyze 6.1 fb^{-1} of data produced at Fermilab at a center-of-mass energy √s = 1.96 TeV and recorded by the CDF experiment. The predicted cross-section is 1.4 pb and we measured 2.18^{+0.64 }_{-0.63} pb (stat) 0:30 (syst) using 14 observed events. This is the largest set of candidate events in this channel yet found and with our estimated signal in the sample of 9.54 events provides the smallest percentage uncertainty on the ZZ cross-section to date. We also use this large set of events to yield kinematic plots and measure ZZ properties that will be of use in probing for new physics in the future.
Handbook of LHC Higgs Cross Sections: 2. Differential Distributions
Dittmaier, S; Passarino, G; Tanaka, R; Alekhin, S; Alwall, J; Bagnaschi, E A; Banfi, A; Blumlein, J; Bolognesi, S; Chanon, N; Cheng, T; Cieri, L; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Cutajar, M; Dawson, S; Davies, G; De Filippis, N; Degrassi, G; Denner, A; D'Enterria, D; Diglio, S; Di Micco, B; Di Nardo, R; Ellis, R K; Farilla, A; Farrington, S; Felcini, M; Ferrera, G; Flechl, M; de Florian, D; Forte, S; Ganjour, S; Garzelli, M V; Gascon-Shotkin, S; Glazov, S; Goria, S; Grazzini, M; Guillet, J -Ph; Hackstein, C; Hamilton, K; Harlander, R; Hauru, M; Heinemeyer, S; Hoche, S; Huston, J; Jackson, C; Jimenez-Delgado, P; Jorgensen, M D; Kado, M; Kallweit, S; Kardos, A; Kauer, N; Kim, H; Kovac, M; Kramer, M; Krauss, F; Kuo, C -M; Lehti, S; Li, Q; Lorenzo, N; Maltoni, F; Mellado, B; Moch, S O; Muck, A; Muhlleitner, M; Nadolsky, P; Nason, P; Neu, C; Nikitenko, A; Oleari, C; Olsen, J; Palmer, S; Paganis, S; Papadopoulos, C G; Petersen, T C; Petriello, F; Petrucci, F; Piacquadio, G; Pilon, E; Potter, C T; Price, J; Puljak, I; Quayle, W; Radescu, V; Rebuzzi, D; Reina, L; Rojo, J; Rosco, D; Salam, G P; Sapronov, A; Schaarschmidt, J; Schonherr, M; Schumacher, M; Siegert, F; Slavich, P; Spira, M; Stewart, I W; Stirling, W J; Stockli, F; Sturm, C; Tackmann, F J; Thorne, R S; Tommasini, D; Torrielli, P; Tramontano, F; Trocsanyi, Z; Ubiali, M; Uccirati, S; Acosta, M Vazquez; Vickey, T; Vicini, A; Waalewijn, W J; Wackeroth, D; Warsinsky, M; Weber, M; Wiesemann, M; Weiglein, G; Yu, J; Zanderighi, G
2012-01-01
This Report summarises the results of the second year's activities of the LHC Higgs Cross Section Working Group. The main goal of the working group was to present the state of the art of Higgs Physics at the LHC, integrating all new results that have appeared in the last few years. The first working group report Handbook of LHC Higgs Cross Sections: 1. Inclusive Observables (CERN-2011-002) focuses on predictions (central values and errors) for total Higgs production cross sections and Higgs branching ratios in the Standard Model and its minimal supersymmetric extension, covering also related issues such as Monte Carlo generators, parton distribution functions, and pseudo-observables. This second Report represents the next natural step towards realistic predictions upon providing results on cross sections with benchmark cuts, differential distributions, details of specific decay channels, and further recent developments.
Prediction of fission mass-yield distributions based on cross section calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hambsch, F.-J.; G.Vladuca; Tudora, Anabella; Oberstedt, S.; Ruskov, I.
2005-01-01
For the first time, fission mass-yield distributions have been predicted based on an extended statistical model for fission cross section calculations. In this model, the concept of the multi-modality of the fission process has been incorporated. The three most dominant fission modes, the two asymmetric standard I (S1) and standard II (S2) modes and the symmetric superlong (SL) mode are taken into account. De-convoluted fission cross sections for S1, S2 and SL modes for 235,238 U(n, f) and 237 Np(n, f), based on experimental branching ratios, were calculated for the first time in the incident neutron energy range from 0.01 to 5.5 MeV providing good agreement with the experimental fission cross section data. The branching ratios obtained from the modal fission cross section calculations have been used to deduce the corresponding fission yield distributions, including mean values also for incident neutron energies hitherto not accessible to experiment
Models for Pooled Time-Series Cross-Section Data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lawrence E Raffalovich
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Several models are available for the analysis of pooled time-series cross-section (TSCS data, defined as “repeated observations on fixed units” (Beck and Katz 1995. In this paper, we run the following models: (1 a completely pooled model, (2 fixed effects models, and (3 multi-level/hierarchical linear models. To illustrate these models, we use a Generalized Least Squares (GLS estimator with cross-section weights and panel-corrected standard errors (with EViews 8 on the cross-national homicide trends data of forty countries from 1950 to 2005, which we source from published research (Messner et al. 2011. We describe and discuss the similarities and differences between the models, and what information each can contribute to help answer substantive research questions. We conclude with a discussion of how the models we present may help to mitigate validity threats inherent in pooled time-series cross-section data analysis.
Measurements of integral cross section ratios in two dosimetry benchmark neutron fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fabry, A [CEN-SCK, Mol (Belgium); Czock, K H [International Atomic Energy Agency, Laboratory Seibersdorf, Vienna (Austria)
1974-12-01
In the frame of a current interlaboratory effort devoted to the standardization of fuels and materials neutron dosimetry, the {sup 103}Rh(n,n'){sup 103m}Rh and {sup 58}Ni(n,p){sup 58}Co integral cross sections have been accurately measured relatively to the {sup 115}In(n,n'){sup 115m} In cross section in the {sup 235}U thermal fission neutron spectrum and in the MOL-{sigma}{sigma} intermediate-energy standard neutron field. In this last neutron field, the data are related also to the {sup 235}U(n,f) cross section. The measurements are extensively documented and the results briefly compared to literature. Most noticeably, decisive support is provided for the selection of a specific {sup 103}Rh(n,n'){sup 103m}Rh differential-energy cross section among the existing, conflicting data. (author)
Measurements of Integral Cross Section Ratios in Two Dosimetry Benchmark Neutron Fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fabry, A. [CEN-SCK, Mol (Belgium); Czock, K. H. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)
1974-12-15
In the frame of a current interlaboratory effort devoted to the standardization of fuels and materials neutron dosimetry, the {sup 103}Rh(n,n'){sup 103m}Rh and {sup 58}Ni(n,p){sup 58}Co integral cross sections have been accurately measured relatively to the {sup 115}In(n,n'){sup 115m}In cross section in the {sup 235}U thermal dission neutron spectrum and in the MOL{Sigma}{Sigma} Intermediate-Energy Standard Neutron field. In this last neutron field, the data are related also to the {sup 235}U(n,f) cross section. The measurements are extensively documented and the results briefly compared to literature. Most noticeably, decisive support is provided for the selection of a specific {sup 103}Rh(n,n'){sup 103m}Rh differential-energy cross section among the existing, conflicting data. (author)
Reference Cross Sections for Charged-particle Monitor Reactions
Hermanne, A.; Ignatyuk, A. V.; Capote, R.; Carlson, B. V.; Engle, J. W.; Kellett, M. A.; Kibédi, T.; Kim, G.; Kondev, F. G.; Hussain, M.; Lebeda, O.; Luca, A.; Nagai, Y.; Naik, H.; Nichols, A. L.; Nortier, F. M.; Suryanarayana, S. V.; Takács, S.; Tárkányi, F. T.; Verpelli, M.
2018-02-01
Evaluated cross sections of beam-monitor reactions are expected to become the de-facto standard for cross-section measurements that are performed over a very broad energy range in accelerators in order to produce particular radionuclides for industrial and medical applications. The requirements for such data need to be addressed in a timely manner, and therefore an IAEA coordinated research project was launched in December 2012 to establish or improve the nuclear data required to characterise charged-particle monitor reactions. An international team was assembled to recommend more accurate cross-section data over a wide range of targets and projectiles, undertaken in conjunction with a limited number of measurements and more extensive evaluations of the decay data of specific radionuclides. Least-square evaluations of monitor-reaction cross sections including uncertainty quantification have been undertaken for charged-particle beams of protons, deuterons, 3He- and 4He-particles. Recommended beam monitor reaction data with their uncertainties are available at the IAEA-NDS medical portal http://www-nds.iaea.org/medical/monitor_reactions.html.
Coherent production on nuclei and measurements of total cross sections for unstable particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Czyz, W.; Zielinski, M.
1980-01-01
The Koelbig-Margolis Formula is fitted to some explicity nonperturbative models of diffractive production. It is shown that, in spite of the fact that the standard procedure of fitting the integrated cross sections may give acceptable fits, thus obtained ''cross sections of unstable particles'', grossly disagree with the ''true'' cross sections known exactly from the models. (author)
Handbook of LHC Higgs Cross Sections: 4. Deciphering the Nature of the Higgs Sector
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
de Florian, D. [National Univ. of San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); et al.
2016-10-25
This Report summarizes the results of the activities of the LHC Higgs Cross Section Working Group in the period 2014-2016. The main goal of the working group was to present the state-of-the-art of Higgs physics at the LHC, integrating all new results that have appeared in the last few years. The first part compiles the most up-to-date predictions of Higgs boson production cross sections and decay branching ratios, parton distribution functions, and off-shell Higgs boson production and interference effects. The second part discusses the recent progress in Higgs effective field theory predictions, followed by the third part on pseudo-observables, simplified template cross section and fiducial cross section measurements, which give the baseline framework for Higgs boson property measurements. The fourth part deals with the beyond the Standard Model predictions of various benchmark scenarios of Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model, extended scalar sector, Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model and exotic Higgs boson decays. This report follows three previous working-group reports: Handbook of LHC Higgs Cross Sections: 1. Inclusive Observables (CERN-2011-002), Handbook of LHC Higgs Cross Sections: 2. Differential Distributions (CERN-2012-002), and Handbook of LHC Higgs Cross Sections: 3. Higgs properties (CERN-2013-004). The current report serves as the baseline reference for Higgs physics in LHC Run 2 and beyond.
Validity of Hansen-Roach cross sections in low-enriched uranium systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Busch, R.D.; O'Dell, R.D.
1991-01-01
Within the nuclear criticality safety community, the Hansen-Roach 16 group cross section set has been the ''standard'' for use in k eff calculations over the past 30 years. Yet even with its widespread acceptance, there are still questions about its validity and adequacy, about the proper procedure for calculating the potential scattering cross section, σ p , for uranium and plutonium, and about the concept of resonance self shielding and its impact on cross sections. This paper attempts to address these questions. It provides a brief background on the Hansen-Roach cross sections. Next is presented a review of resonances in cross sections, self shielding of these resonances, and the use of σ p to characterize resonance self shielding. Three prescriptions for calculating σ p are given. Finally, results of several calculations of k eff on low-enriched uranium systems are provided to confirm the validity of the Hansen-Roach cross sections when applied to such systems
Validity of Hansen-Roach cross sections in low-enriched uranium systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Busch, R.D.; O'Dell, R.D.
1991-01-01
Within the nuclear criticality safety community, the Hansen-Roach 16 group cross section set has been the standard for use in k eff calculations over the past 30 years. Yet even with its widespread acceptance, there are still questions about its validity and adequacy, about the proper procedure for calculating the potential scattering cross section, σ p , for uranium and plutonium, and about the concept of resonance self shielding and its impact on cross sections. This paper attempts to address these questions. It provides a brief background on the Hansen-Roach cross sections. Next is presented a review of resonances in cross sections, self shielding of these resonances, and the use of σ p to characterize resonance self shielding. Three prescriptions for calculating σ p are given. Finally, results of several calculations of k eff on low-enriched uranium systems are provided to confirm the validity of the Hansen-Roach cross sections when applied to such systems. (Author)
From ZZ to ZH: How Low Can These Cross Sections Go or Everybody, Let's Cross Section Limbo
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strauss, Emanuel Alexandre
2009-01-01
We report on two searches performed at the D0 detector at the Fermi National Laboratory. The first is a search for Z di-boson production with a theoretical cross section of 1.4 pb. The search was performed on 2.6 fb -1 of data and contributed to the first observation of ZZ production at a hadron collider. The second is a search for a low mass Standard Model Higgs in 4.2 fb -1 of data. The Higgs boson is produced in association with a Z boson where the Higgs decays hadronically and the Z decays to two leptons. The ZZ search was performed in both the di-electron and di-muon channels. For the ZH search, we will focus on the muonic decays where we expanded the traditional coverage by considering events in which one of the two muons fails the selection requirement, and is instead reconstructed as an isolated track. We consider Higgs masses between 100 and 150 GeV, with theoretical cross sections ranging from 0.17 to 0.042 pb, and set upper limits on the ZH production cross-section at 95% confidence level
Cross sections for atmospheric corrections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meyer, J.P.; Casse, M.; Westergaard, N.
1975-01-01
A set of cross sections for spallation of relativistic nuclei is proposed based on (i) the best available proton cross sections, (ii) an extrapolation to heavier nuclei of the dependence on the number of nucleons lost of the 'target factor' observed for C 12 and O 16 by Lindstrom et al. (1975), in analogy with Rudstam's formalism, and (iii) on a normalization of all cross sections to the total cross sections for production of fragments with Asub(f) >= 6. The obtained cross sections for peripheral interactions are not inconsistent with simple geometrical considerations. (orig.) [de
Surrogate measurement of the 238Pu(n,f) cross section
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ressler, J. J.; Burke, J. T.; Escher, J. E.; Bernstein, L. A.; Bleuel, D. L.; Casperson, R. J.; Gostic, J.; Henderson, R.; Scielzo, N. D.; Thompson, I. J.; Wiedeking, M.; Angell, C. T.; Goldblum, B. L.; Munson, J.; Basunia, M. S.; Phair, L. W.; Beausang, C. W.; Hughes, R. O.; Hatarik, R.; Ross, T. J.
2011-01-01
The neutron-induced fission cross section of 238 Pu was determined using the surrogate ratio method. The (n,f) cross section over an equivalent neutron energy range 5-20 MeV was deduced from inelastic α-induced fission reactions on 239 Pu, with 235 U(α,α ' f) and 236 U(α,α ' f) used as references. These reference reactions reflect 234 U(n,f) and 235 U(n,f) yields, respectively. The deduced 238 Pu(n,f) cross section agrees well with standard data libraries up to ∼10 MeV, although larger values are seen at higher energies. The difference at higher energies is less than 20%.
Poster - 18: New features in EGSnrc for photon cross sections
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ali, Elsayed; Mainegra-Hing, Ernesto; Rogers, David W.O. [The Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre, National Research Council Canada, Carleton University (Canada)
2016-08-15
Purpose: To implement two new features in the EGSnrc Monte Carlo system. The first is an option to account for photonuclear attenuation, which can contribute a few percent to the total cross section at the higher end of the energy range of interest to medical physics. The second is an option to use exact NIST XCOM photon cross sections. Methods: For the first feature, the photonuclear total cross sections are generated from the IAEA evaluated data. In the current, first-order implementation, after a photonuclear event, there is no energy deposition or secondary particle generation. The implementation is validated against deterministic calculations and experimental measurements of transmission signals. For the second feature, before this work, if the user explicitly requested XCOM photon cross sections, EGSnrc still used its own internal incoherent scattering cross sections. These differ by up to 2% from XCOM data between 30 keV and 40 MeV. After this work, exact XCOM incoherent scattering cross sections are an available option. Minor interpolation artifacts in pair and triplet XCOM cross sections are also addressed. The default for photon cross section in EGSnrc is XCOM except for the new incoherent scattering cross sections, which have to be explicitly requested. The photonuclear, incoherent, pair and triplet data from this work are available for elements and compounds for photon energies from 1 keV to 100 GeV. Results: Both features are implemented and validated in EGSnrc.Conclusions: The two features are part of the standard EGSnrc distribution as of version 4.2.3.2.
The H(n,n) cross section in the 20 MeV to 350 MeV range
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1997-01-01
The differential H(n,n) cross section has been used as a standard relative to which other neutron emission cross sections, e.g., elastic or inelastic scattering, have been measured in several Mev region and these measured values are compared with the VL40 solution of R. Arndt, and R.L. Workman, Nuclear Data Standards for Nuclear Measurements, H. Conde (ed.). NEANDC-311, INDC (SEC)-101, 1992, p. 17. For hydrogen, the differential elastic scattering cross section can be directly related to the total cross section, since no other channels of importance are open below the pion production threshold at about 280 MeV (the capture and Bremsstrahlung cross section are very small). 16 refs, 3 figs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lucotte, A. [Grenoble-1 Univ., 74 - Annecy (France). Lab. de Physique des Particules Elementaires; Universite Claude Bernard, 69 - Lyon (France)
1996-05-14
This work is devoted to the precision tests of the electro-week sector of the standard model via the determination of the Z-lineshape parameters M{sub Z}, {gamma}{sub Z}, {sigma}{sub had}{sup 0} and R{sub had} extracted from the fermionic cross-sections measured on 89 to 94 data in Aleph. The first section reminds the formalism and the observables used to describe the Z-resonance physics. In a second step, the LEP collider is presented with the procedures used to determine the beam energy, this parameter being the main source of uncertainty in M{sub Z} and {gamma}{sub Z} determination. In the following part, the Aleph experimental context is described, together with the measurement of the luminosity from Bhabha counting. Then the hadronic cross section measurements are presented, emphasizing on the improvement performed on the systematic bias evaluation to the hadrons selection. This leads to a precision at the per mille level in cross-sections. Leptonic cross-sections measured in Aleph are also reported. The Z-resonance parameters are then derived. A great agreement is observed with the prediction of the standard model of the EW interactions. The interpretation of such measurements within this model leads to the determination of the number of light neutrinos species and to the constraints on the top quark mass, compatible with direct measurements from Fermilab. (author)
Multitrajectory eikonal cross sections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turner, R.E.
1983-01-01
With the use of reference and distorted transition operators, a time-correlation-function representation of the inelastic differential cross section has recently been used to obtain distorted eikonal cross sections. These cross sections involve straight-line and reference classical translational trajectories that are unaffected by any internal-state changes which have occurred during the collision. This distorted eikonal theory is now extended to include effects of internal-state changes on the translational motion. In particular, a different classical trajectory is associated with each pair of internal states. Expressions for these inelastic cross sections are obtained in terms of time-ordered cosine and sine memory functions using the Zwanzig-Feshbach projection-operator method. Explicit formulas are obtained in the time-disordered perturbation approximation
Cross-Index to DOE-prescribed industrial safety codes and standards
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1980-01-01
This Cross-Index volume is the 1980 compilation of detailed information from more than two hundred and ninety Department of Energy (DOE) prescribed or Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OSHA) referenced industrial safety codes and standards. The compilation of this material was conceived and initiated in 1973, and is revised yearly to provide information from current codes. Condensed data from individual code portions are listed according to reference code, section, paragraph, and page. Each code is given a two-digit reference code number or letter in the Contents section. This reference code provides ready identification of any code listed in the Cross-Index. The computerized information listings are on the left-hand portion of Cross-Index page; in order to the right of the listing are the reference code letters or numbers, the section, paragraph, and page of the referenced code containing expanded information on the individual listing. Simplified How to Use directions are listed. A glossary of letter initials/abbreviations for the organizations or documents, whose codes or standards are contained in this Cross-Index, is included
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — FEMA Cross Sections are required for any Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map database where cross sections are shown on the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). Normally...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peelle, R.W.; de Sassure, G.
1977-01-01
Refined knowledge of the thermal neutron cross sections of the fissile nuclides and of the (n,α) reaction standards, together with the reasonably well known energy dependence of the latter, have permitted resonance-region and low-keV fissile nuclide cross sections to be based on these standards together with count-rate ratios observed as a function of energy using a pulsed ''white'' source. As one evaluates cross sections for energies above 20 keV, optimum results require combination of cross section shape measurements with all available absolute measurements. The assumptions of the ''thermal normalization method'' are reviewed, and an opinion is given of the status of some of the standards required for its use. The complications which may limit the accuracy of results using the method are listed and examples are given. For the 235 U(n,f) cross section, the option is discussed of defining resonance-region fission integrals as standards. The area of the approximately 9 eV resonances in this nuclide may be known to one percent accuracy, but at present the fission integral from 0.1 to 1.0 keV is known to no better than about two percent. This uncertainty is based on the scatter among independent results, and has not been reduced by the most recent measurements. This uncertainty now limits the accuracy attainable for the 235 U(n,f) cross section below about 50 keV. Suggestions are given to indicate how future detailed work might overcome past sources of error
Handbook of LHC Higgs Cross Sections: 3. Higgs Properties
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Heinemeyer, S; et al.
2013-01-01
This Report summarizes the results of the activities in 2012 and the first half of 2013 of the LHC Higgs Cross Section Working Group. The main goal of the working group was to present the state of the art of Higgs Physics at the LHC, integrating all new results that have appeared in the last few years. This report follows the first working group report Handbook of LHC Higgs Cross Sections: 1. Inclusive Observables (CERN-2011-002) and the second working group report Handbook of LHC Higgs Cross Sections: 2. Differential Distributions (CERN-2012-002). After the discovery of a Higgs boson at the LHC in mid-2012 this report focuses on refined prediction of Standard Model (SM) Higgs phenomenology around the experimentally observed value of 125-126 GeV, refined predictions for heavy SM-like Higgs bosons as well as predictions in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model and first steps to go beyond these models. The other main focus is on the extraction of the characteristics and properties of the newly discovered particle such as couplings to SM particles, spin and CP-quantum numbers etc.
Crangle, Robert D.
2007-01-01
Introduction The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) uses geophysical wireline well logs for a variety of purposes, including stratigraphic correlation (Hettinger, 2001, Ryder, 2002), petroleum reservoir analyses (Nelson and Bird, 2005), aquifer studies (Balch, 1988), and synthetic seismic profiles (Kulander and Ryder, 2005). Commonly, well logs are easier to visualize, manipulate, and interpret when available in a digital format. In recent geologic cross sections E-E' and D-D', constructed through the central Appalachian basin (Ryder, Swezey, and others, in press; Ryder, Crangle, and others, in press), gamma ray well log traces and lithologic logs were used to correlate key stratigraphic intervals (Fig. 1). The stratigraphy and structure of the cross sections are illustrated through the use of graphical software applications (e.g., Adobe Illustrator). The gamma ray traces were digitized in Neuralog (proprietary software) from paper well logs and converted to a Log ASCII Standard (LAS) format. Once converted, the LAS files were transformed to images through an LAS-reader application (e.g., GeoGraphix Prizm) and then overlain in positions adjacent to well locations, used for stratigraphic control, on each cross section. This report summarizes the procedures used to convert paper logs to a digital LAS format using a third-party software application, Neuralog. Included in this report are LAS files for sixteen wells used in geologic cross section E-E' (Table 1) and thirteen wells used in geologic cross section D-D' (Table 2).
Cross section recondensation method via generalized energy condensation theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Douglass, Steven; Rahnema, Farzad
2011-01-01
Highlights: → A new method is presented which corrects for core environment error from specular boundaries at the lattice cell level. → Solution obtained with generalized energy condensation provides improved approximation to the core level fine-group flux. → Iterative recondensation of the cross sections and unfolding of the flux provides on-the-fly updating of the core cross sections. → Precomputation of energy integrals and fine-group cross sections allows for easy implementation and efficient solution. → Method has been implemented in 1D and shown to correct the environment error, particularly in strongly heterogeneous cores. - Abstract: The standard multigroup method used in whole-core reactor analysis relies on energy condensed (coarse-group) cross sections generated from single lattice cell calculations, typically with specular reflective boundary conditions. Because these boundary conditions are an approximation and not representative of the core environment for that lattice, an error is introduced in the core solution (both eigenvalue and flux). As current and next generation reactors trend toward increasing assembly and core heterogeneity, this error becomes more significant. The method presented here corrects for this error by generating updated coarse-group cross sections on-the-fly within whole-core reactor calculations without resorting to additional cell calculations. In this paper, the fine-group core flux is unfolded by making use of the recently published Generalized Condensation Theory and the cross sections are recondensed at the whole-core level. By iteratively performing this recondensation, an improved core solution is found in which the core-environment has been fully taken into account. This recondensation method is both easy to implement and computationally very efficient because it requires precomputation and storage of only the energy integrals and fine-group cross sections. In this work, the theoretical basis and development
Measurement of the Cross Section of W-boson pair production at LEP
Achard, P.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alcaraz, J.; Alemanni, G.; Allaby, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alviggi, M.G.; Anderhub, H.; Andreev, Valery P.; Anselmo, F.; Arefev, A.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Bagnaia, P.; Bajo, A.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Baldew, S.V.; Banerjee, S.; Banerjee, Sw.; Barczyk, A.; Barillere, R.; Bartalini, P.; Basile, M.; Batalova, N.; Battiston, R.; Bay, A.; Becattini, F.; Becker, U.; Behner, F.; Bellucci, L.; Berbeco, R.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Betev, B.L.; Biasini, M.; Biglietti, M.; Biland, A.; Blaising, J.J.; Blyth, S.C.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bohm, A.; Boldizsar, L.; Borgia, B.; Bottai, S.; Bourilkov, D.; Bourquin, M.; Braccini, S.; Branson, J.G.; Brochu, F.; Burger, J.D.; Burger, W.J.; Button, A.; Cai, X.D.; Capell, M.; Cara Romeo, G.; Carlino, G.; Cartacci, A.; Casaus, J.; Cavallari, F.; Cavallo, N.; Cecchi, C.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo, M.; Chang, Y.H.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, A.; Chen, G.; Chen, G.M.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, H.S.; Chiefari, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Clare, I.; Clare, R.; Coignet, G.; Colino, N.; Costantini, S.; de la Cruz, B.; Cucciarelli, S.; van Dalen, J.A.; de Asmundis, R.; Deglon, P.; Debreczeni, J.; Degre, A.; Dehmelt, K.; Deiters, K.; della Volpe, D.; Delmeire, E.; Denes, P.; DeNotaristefani, F.; De Salvo, A.; Diemoz, M.; Dierckxsens, M.; van Dierendonck, D.; Dionisi, C.; Dittmar, M.; Doria, A.; Dova, M.T.; Duchesneau, D.; Duda, M.; Echenard, B.; Eline, A.; El Hage, A.; El Mamouni, H.; Engler, A.; Eppling, F.J.; Extermann, P.; Falagan, M.A.; Falciano, S.; Favara, A.; Fay, J.; Fedin, O.; Felcini, M.; Ferguson, T.; Fesefeldt, H.; Fiandrini, E.; Field, J.H.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, P.H.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, I.; Forconi, G.; Freudenreich, K.; Furetta, C.; Galaktionov, Iouri; Ganguli, S.N.; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gataullin, M.; Gentile, S.; Giagu, S.; Gong, Z.F.; Grenier, Gerald Jean; Grimm, O.; Gruenewald, M.W.; Guida, M.; Gupta, V.K.; Gurtu, A.; Gutay, L.J.; Haas, D.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hebbeker, T.; Herve, Alain; Hirschfelder, J.; Hofer, H.; Hohlmann, M.; Holzner, G.; Hou, S.R.; Hu, Y.; Jin, B.N.; Jones, Lawrence W.; de Jong, P.; Josa-Mutuberria, I.; Kaur, M.; Kienzle-Focacci, M.N.; Kim, J.K.; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, W.; Klimentov, A.; Konig, A.C.; Kopal, M.; Koutsenko, V.; Kraber, M.; Kraemer, R.W.; Kruger, A.; Kunin, A.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Laktineh, I.; Landi, G.; Lebeau, M.; Lebedev, A.; Lebrun, P.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Le Coultre, P.; Le Goff, J.M.; Leiste, R.; Levtchenko, M.; Levtchenko, P.; Li, C.; Likhoded, S.; Lin, C.H.; Lin, W.T.; Linde, F.L.; Lista, L.; Liu, Z.A.; Lohmann, W.; Longo, E.; Lu, Y.S.; Luci, C.; Luminari, L.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, W.G.; Malgeri, L.; Malinin, A.; Mana, C.; Mans, J.; Martin, J.P.; Marzano, F.; Mazumdar, K.; McNeil, R.R.; Mele, S.; Merola, L.; Meschini, M.; Metzger, W.J.; Mihul, A.; Milcent, H.; Mirabelli, G.; Mnich, J.; Mohanty, G.B.; Moulik, T.; Muanza, G.S.; Muijs, A.J.M.; Musicar, B.; Musy, M.; Nagy, S.; Nandakumar, R.; Natale, S.; Napolitano, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Newman, H.; Nisati, A.; Novak, T.; Kluge, Hannelies; Ofierzynski, R.; Organtini, G.; Pal, I.; Palomares, C.; Paolucci, P.; Paramatti, R.; Passaleva, G.; Patricelli, S.; Paul, Thomas Cantzon; Pauluzzi, M.; Paus, C.; Pauss, F.; Pedace, M.; Pensotti, S.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Petersen, B.; Piccolo, D.; Pierella, F.; Pioppi, M.; Piroue, P.A.; Pistolesi, E.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Pothier, J.; Prokofev, D.; Quartieri, J.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Rahaman, Mohammad Azizur; Raics, P.; Raja, N.; Ramelli, R.; Rancoita, P.G.; Ranieri, R.; Raspereza, A.; Razis, P.; Ren, D.; Rescigno, M.; Reucroft, S.; Riemann, S.; Riles, Keith; Roe, B.P.; Romero, L.; Rosca, A.; Rosemann, C.; Rosenbleck, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Roth, Stefan; Rubio, J.A.; Ruggiero, G.; Rykaczewski, H.; Sakharov, A.; Saremi, S.; Sarkar, S.; Salicio, J.; Sanchez, E.; Schafer, C.; Schegelsky, V.; Schopper, H.; Schotanus, D.J.; Sciacca, C.; Servoli, L.; Shevchenko, S.; Shivarov, N.; Shoutko, V.; Shumilov, E.; Shvorob, A.; Son, D.; Souga, C.; Spillantini, P.; Steuer, M.; Stickland, D.P.; Stoyanov, B.; Straessner, A.; Sudhakar, K.; Sultanov, G.; Sun, L.Z.; Sushkov, S.; Suter, H.; Swain, J.D.; Szillasi, Z.; Tang, X.W.; Tarjan, P.; Tauscher, L.; Taylor, L.; Tellili, B.; Teyssier, D.; Timmermans, Charles; Ting, Samuel C.C.; Ting, S.M.; Tonwar, S.C.; Toth, J.; Tully, C.; Tung, K.L.; Ulbricht, J.; Valente, E.; Van de Walle, R.T.; Vasquez, R.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vetlitsky, I.; Vicinanza, D.; Viertel, G.; Villa, S.; Vivargent, M.; Vlachos, S.; Vodopianov, I.; Vogel, H.; Vogt, H.; Vorobev, I.; Vorobyov, A.A.; Wadhwa, M.; Wang, Q.; Wang, X.L.; Wang, Z.M.; Weber, A.; Weber, M.; Wilkens, H.; Wynhoff, S.; Xia, L.; Xu, Z.Z.; Yamamoto, J.; Yang, B.Z.; Yang, C.G.; Yang, H.J.; Yang, M.; Yeh, S.C.; Zalite, An.; Zalite, Yu.; Zhang, Z.P.; Zhao, J.; Zhu, G.Y.; Zhu, R.Y.; Zhuang, H.L.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, B.; Zoller, M.
2004-01-01
The cross section of W-boson pair-production is measured with the L3 detector at LEP. In a data sample corresponding to a total luminosity of 629.4/pb, collected at centre-of-mass energies ranging from 189 to 209 GeV, 9834 four-fermion events with W bosons decaying into hadrons or leptons are selected. The total cross section is measured with a precision of 1.4 % and agrees with the Standard Model expectation. Assuming charged-lepton universality, the branching fraction for hadronic W-boson decays is measured to be: Br(W-->hadrons) = 67.50 +- 0.42 (stat.) +- 0.30(syst.) %, in agreement with the Standard Model. Differential cross sections as a function of the W- production angle are also measured for the semi-leptonic channels qqev and qqmv.
Comparison of integral cross section values of several cross section libraries in the SAND-II format
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zijp, W.L.; Nolthenius, H.J.
1976-09-01
A comparison of some integral cross-section values for several cross-section libraries in the SAND-II format is presented. The integral cross-section values are calculated with the aid of the spectrum functions for a Watt fission spectrum, a 1/E spectrum and a Maxwellian spectrum. The libraries which are considered here are CCC-112B, ENDF/B-IV, DETAN74, LAPENAS and CESNEF. These 5 cross-section libraries used have all the SAND-II format. Discrepancies between cross-sections in the different libraries are indicated but not discussed
Relativistic photon-Maxwellian electron cross sections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wienke, B.R.; Lathrop, B.L.; Devaney, J.J.
1986-01-01
Temperature corrected cross sections, complementing the Klein-Nishina set, are developed for astrophysical, plasma, and transport applications. The set is obtained from a nonlinear least squares fit to the exact photon-Maxwellian electron cross sections, using the static formula as the asymptotic basis. Two parameters are sufficient (two decimal places) to fit the exact cross sections over a range of 0-100 keV in electron temperature, and 0-1 MeV in incident photon energy. The fit is made to the total cross sections, yet the parameters predict both total and differential scattering cross sections well. Corresponding differential energy cross sections are less accurate. An extended fit to (just) the total cross sections, over the temperature and energy range 0-5 MeV, is also described. (author)
From ZZ to ZH : How Low Can These Cross Sections Go or Everybody, Let's Cross Section Limbo!
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Strauss, Emanuel Alexandre [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)
2009-08-01
We report on two searches performed at the D0 detector at the Fermi National Laboratory. The first is a search for Z di-boson production with a theoretical cross section of 1.4 pb. The search was performed on 2.6 fb^{-1} of data and contributed to the first observation of ZZ production at a hadron collider. The second is a search for a low mass Standard Model Higgs in 4.2 fb^{-1} of data. The Higgs boson is produced in association with a Z boson where the Higgs decays hadronically and the Z decays to two leptons. The ZZ search was performed in both the di-electron and di-muon channels. For the ZH search, we will focus on the muonic decays where we expanded the traditional coverage by considering events in which one of the two muons fails the selection requirement, and is instead reconstructed as an isolated track. We consider Higgs masses between 100 and 150 GeV, with theoretical cross sections ranging from 0.17 to 0.042 pb, and set upper limits on the ZH production cross-section at 95% confidence level.
A benchmarking procedure for PIGE related differential cross-sections
Axiotis, M.; Lagoyannis, A.; Fazinić, S.; Harissopulos, S.; Kokkoris, M.; Preketes-Sigalas, K.; Provatas, G.
2018-05-01
The application of standard-less PIGE requires the a priori knowledge of the differential cross section of the reaction used for the quantification of each detected light element. Towards this end, a lot of datasets have been published the last few years from several laboratories around the world. The discrepancies often found between different measured cross sections can be resolved by applying a rigorous benchmarking procedure through the measurement of thick target yields. Such a procedure is proposed in the present paper and is applied in the case of the 19F(p,p‧ γ)19F reaction.
New SCALE-4 features related to cross-section processing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petrie, L.M.; Landers, N.F.; Greene, N.M.; Parks, C.V.
1991-01-01
The SCALE code system has a standardized scheme for processing problem-dependent cross section from problem-independent waste libraries. Some improvements and new capabilities in the processing scheme have been incorporated into the new Version 4 release of the SCALE system. The new features include the capability to consider annular cylindrical and spherical unit cells, and improved Dancoff factor formulation, and changes to the NITAWL-II module to perform resonance self-shielding with reference to infinite dilute values. A review of these major changes in the cross-section processing scheme for SCALE-4 is presented in this paper
Evaluation of the 235U fission cross-section from 100 eV to 20 MeV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bhat, M.R.
1976-01-01
The evaluation of the 235 U fission cross section from 100 eV to 20 MeV for ENDF/B-V is described. The evaluated average cross sections from 100 eV to 200 keV are given, and it is proposed to include structure in the cross section in this energy region. Above 200 keV, the cross section is given as a smooth curve, and is recommended as a standard. Preliminary error estimates in the cross section are also given
Integral nucleus-nucleus cross sections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barashenkov, V.S.; Kumawat, H.
2003-01-01
Expressions approximating the experimental integral cross sections for elastic and inelastic interactions of light and heavy nuclei at the energies up to several GeV/nucleon are presented. The calculated cross sections are inside the corridor of experimental errors or very close to it. Described in detail FORTRAN code and a numerical example of the cross section approximation are also presented
Photon-splitting cross sections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johannessen, A.M.; Mork, K.J.; Overbo, I.
1980-01-01
The differential cross section for photon splitting (scattering of one photon into two photons) in a Coulomb field, obtained earlier by Shima, has been integrated numerically to yield various differential cross sections. Energy spectra differential with respect to the energy of one of the outgoing photons are presented for several values of the primary photon energy. Selected examples of recoil momentum distributions and some interesting doubly or multiply differential cross sections are also given. Values for the total cross section are obtained essentially for all energies. The screening effect caused by atomic electrons is also taken into account, and is found to be important for high energies, as in e + e - pair production. Comparisons with various approximate results obtained by previous authors mostly show fair agreement. We also discuss the possibilities for experimental detection and find the most promising candidate to be a measurement of both photons, and their energies, at a moderately high energy
Top quark production at the LHC (single top and tt-bar cross sections)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lange, J.
2014-01-01
With the large number of top quarks produced at the LHC, top quark physics enters an era of precision and properties measurements. This article reviews the recent advances in top quark cross section measurements performed by ATLAS and CMS using data recorded in 2011 with integrated luminosities up to 5 fb -1 . They include precision inclusive cross sections, the establishment of challenging channels, first differential cross section measurements and single top production. An overall good agreement with Standard Model predictions is observed
Hydrogen scattering cross section, 1H(n,n)1H
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stewart, L.
1979-07-01
The status of the hydrogen scattering cross section is reviewed with particular emphasis on standards applications. The ENDF/B-V evaluation is described in detail and compared with experimental data. 58 references
Thermal neutron cross section measurements for technetium-99
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yates, M.A.; Schroeder, N.C.; Fowler, M.M.
1993-01-01
Technetium, because of its long half-like (213,000 years) and ability to migrate in the environment, is a primary contributor to the long-term radioactivity related risk associated with geologic nuclear waste disposal. One proposal for converting technetium to an environmentally benign element investigating transmutation with an accelerator-based system, (i.e., Accelerator Transmutation of Waste, ATW). Planning for efficient processing of technetium through the transmuter will require knowledge of the thermal neutron cross section for the 99 Tc (n,γ) 100 Tc reaction. The authors have recently remeasured this cross section. Weighed aliquots (19-205 μg) of a NIST traceable 99 Tc standard were irradiated for 30-150 sec using the pneumatic open-quotes rabbitclose quotes system of LANL's Omega West Reactor. The two gamma rays from the 15.7-sec half-life product were measured immediately after irradiation on a high-resolution Ge detector. Thermal fluxes were measured using gold foils and Cd wrapped gold foils. The observation cross section is 19 ± 1 b. This agrees well with the 1977 value but has half the uncertainty
Comparison of integral cross section values of several cross section libraries in the SAND-II format
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zijp, W.L.; Nolthenius, H.J.
1978-01-01
A comparison of some integral cross section values for several cross section libraries in the SAND-II format is presented. The integral cross section values are calculated with aid of the spectrum functions for a Watt fission spectrum, a 1/E spectrum and a Maxwellian spectrum. The libraries which are considered here are CCC-112B, ENDF/B-IV, DETAN74, LAPENAS and CESNEF. These 5 cross section libraries used have all the SAND-II format. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Del Duca, V.
1992-11-01
Minijet production in jet inclusive cross sections at hadron colliders, with large rapidity intervals between the tagged jets, is evaluated by using the BFKL pomeron. We describe the jet inclusive cross section for an arbitrary number of tagged jets, and show that it behaves like a system of coupled pomerons
Obtaining incremental multigroup cross sections for CANDU super cells with reactivity devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balaceanu, V.; Constantin, M.
2001-01-01
In the last 20 years a multigroup methodology WIMS - PIJXYZ (WP) was developed and validated at INR Pitesti for obtaining incremental cross sections for reactivity devices in CANDU reactors. This is an alternate methodology to the CANDU classic methodology (experimentally adjusted) based on the POWDERPUFS and MULTICELL computer codes. The 2D supercell calculation performed with the WIMS code, that is a NEA Data Bank transport code, and which produces multigroup cross sections (on 18 energy groups) for CANDU supercell material (standard and perturbed, with and without reactivity devices). To obtain an as correct as possible 3D modelling for the CANDU supercells containing reactivity devices, the WIMS cross sections are used as input data for the PIJXYZ code, thus obtaining homogenized cross sections for CANDU supercells. PIJXYZ is an integral transport code based on the formalism of the first collision probabilities. It is analogue to the SHETAN code and it was created for neutron analyzes at cell level for CANDU type reactors were the reactivity devices are perpendicular to the fuel channels. The coordinate system used in PIJXYZ is a mixed one, namely a rectangular-cylindrical system. The geometric model used in PIJXYZ is presented. The fuel beam is represented by a horizontal cylinder and the reactivity device by a vertical one both cylinders being immersed in the moderator. Two supercell types were considered: a perturbed supercell (containing a reactivity device) and the standard supercell were the place of reactivity device is occupied by the moderator. The incremental cross sections for reactivity device are obtained as differences between the homogenized over supercell cross sections (with reactivity device) and homogenized over standards supercell (without device) cross sections. The PIJXYZ computation may be done on an energy cutting with 2 up to 18 groups. The validation of VIMS - PIJXYZ was done on the basis of several benchmark and by comparison with
Electron collision cross sections of mercury
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suzuki, Susumu; Kuzuma, Kiyotaka; Itoh, Haruo
2006-01-01
In this paper, we propose a new collision cross section set for mercury which revises the original set summarized by Hayashi in 1989. Hanne reported three excitation collision cross sections (6 3 P 0 , 6 3 P 1 , 6 3 P 2 ) determined from an electron beam experiment in 1988. As a matter for regret, no attentive consideration was given to combining these three excitation cross sections with the cross section set of Hayashi. Therefore we propose a new set where these three excitation cross sections are included. In this study, other two excitation cross sections (6 1 P 1 , 6 3 D 3 ) except for the three excitation collision cross sections (6 3 P 0 , 6 3 P 1 , 6 3 P 2 ) are taken from the original set of Hayashi. The momentum transfer cross section and the ionization collision cross section are also taken from Hayashi. A Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) technique is applied for evaluating our new cross section set. The present results of the electron drift velocity and the ionization coefficient are compared to experimental values. Agreement is secured in relation to the electron drift velocity for 1.5 Td 2 ) is the reduced electric field, E (V/cm) is the electric field, N (1/cm 3 ) is the number density of mercury atoms at 0degC, 1 Torr, E/N is also equal to 2.828 x 10 -17 E/p 0 from the relation of the ideal gas equation, p 0 (Torr) is gas pressure at 0degC, 1 Torr=1.33322 x 10 -2 N/cm -2 and 10 -17 V/cm 2 is called 1 Td. Thus it is ensured that our new cross section set is reasonable enough to be used up to 100 eV when considering with the electron drift velocity and the ionization coefficient. (author)
Background-cross-section-dependent subgroup parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamamoto, Toshihisa
2003-01-01
A new set of subgroup parameters was derived that can reproduce the self-shielded cross section against a wide range of background cross sections. The subgroup parameters are expressed with a rational equation which numerator and denominator are expressed as the expansion series of background cross section, so that the background cross section dependence is exactly taken into account in the parameters. The advantage of the new subgroup parameters is that they can reproduce the self-shielded effect not only by group basis but also by subgroup basis. Then an adaptive method is also proposed which uses fitting procedure to evaluate the background-cross-section-dependence of the parameters. One of the simple fitting formula was able to reproduce the self-shielded subgroup cross section by less than 1% error from the precise evaluation. (author)
Cross-section methodology in SIMMER
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soran, P.D.
1975-11-01
The cross-section methodology incorporated in the SIMMER code is described. Data base for all cross sections is the ENDF/B system with various progressing computer codes to group collapse and modify the group constants which are used in SIMMER. Either infinitely dilute cross sections or the Bondarenko formalism can be used in SIMMER. Presently only a microscopic treatment is considered, but preliminary macroscopic algorithms have been investigated
Cross-section methodology in SIMMER
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soran, P.D.
1976-05-01
The cross-section methodology incorporated in the SIMMER code is described. Data base for all cross sections is the ENDF/B system with various progressing computer codes to group collapse and modify the group constants which are used in SIMMER. Either infinitely dilute cross sections or the Bondarenko formalism can be used in SIMMER. Presently only a microscopic treatment is considered, but preliminary macroscopic algorithms have been investigated
On analytical fits for electron impact ionisation cross sections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Godunov, A.L.; Ivanov, P.B.
1999-01-01
The problem of providing accurate recommended analytical fits for electron impact ionisation cross sections is discussed, and a number of approaches are considered on the sample case of neon and its ions. The previously known fits are being reassessed using complete experimental and theoretical data, with the preference for experiment, to avoid systematic shifts introduced by the present calculation methods. The feasibility of the standard BELI formula is investigated in detail, and a number of other analytical expressions is suggested, approximating single-ionization cross sections in the whole range of energies. The factors influencing the accuracy of the fits and the physical meaning of the parameters obtained are discussed. (orig.)
Handbook of LHC Higgs Cross Sections: 1. Inclusive Observables
Dittmaier, S; Passarino, G; Tanaka, R; Baglio, J; Bolzoni, P; Boughezal, R; Brein, O; Collins-Tooth, C; Dawson, S; Dean, S; Denner, A; Farrington, S; Felcini, M; Flechl, M; de Florian, D; Forte, S; Grazzini, M; Hackstein, C; Hahn, T; Harlander, R; Hartonen, T; Heinemeyer, S; Huston, J; Kalinowski, A; Krämer, M; Krauss, F; Lee, J S; Lehti, S; Maltoni, F; Mazumdar, K; Moch, S -O; Mück, A; Mühlleitner, M; Nason, P; Neu, C; Oleari, C; Olsen, J; Palmer, S; Petriello, F; Piacquadio, G; Pilaftsis, A; Potter, C T; Puljak, I; Qian, J; Rebuzzi, D; Reina, L; Rzehak, H; Schumacher, M; Slavich, P; Spira, M; Stöckli, F; Thorne, R S; Acosta, M Vazquez; Vickey, T; Vicini, A; Wackeroth, D; Warsinsky, M; Weber, M; Weiglein, G; Weydert, C; Yu, J; Zaro, M; Zirke, T
2011-01-01
This Report summarizes the results of the first 10 months' activities of the LHC Higgs Cross Sections Working Group. The main goal of the working group was to present the status-of-art on Higgs Physics at the LHC integrating all new results that have appeared in the last few years. The Report is more than a mere collection of the proceedings of the general meetings. The subgroups have been working in different directions. An attempt has been made to present the first Report from these subgroups in a complete and homogeneous form. The subgroups' contributions correspondingly comprise the main parts of the Report. A significant amount of work has been performed in providing higher-order corrections to the Higgs-boson cross sections and pinning down the theoretical uncertainty of the Standard Model predictions. This Report comprises explicit numerical results on total cross sections, leaving the issues of event selection cuts and differential distributions to future publications. The subjects for further study a...
Electron-impact cross sections of Ne
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsurubuchi, S.; Arakawa, K.; Kinokuni, S.; Motohashi, K.
2000-01-01
Electron-impact absolute emission cross sections were measured for the 3p→3s transitions of Ne. Excitation functions of the 3s→2p first resonance lines were measured in the energy range from the threshold to 1000 eV by a polarization-free optical method and relative cross sections were normalized to the absolute values, (41.0±5.4)x10 -19 cm 2 for the 73.6 nm line and (7.1±1.0)x10 -19 cm 2 for the 74.4 nm line, which were determined at 500 eV. The integrated level-excitation cross sections of Suzuki et al for the 1s 2 and 1s 4 levels were combined with the corresponding 3p→3s cascade cross sections obtained in this paper to give absolute emission cross sections for the resonance lines. The level-excitation cross sections of the 1s 2 and 1s 4 states in Paschen notation were determined from the threshold to 1000 eV by subtracting 3p→3s cascade cross sections from the corresponding 3s→2p emission cross sections of the resonance lines. A large cascade contribution is found in the emission cross section of the resonance lines. It is 28.5% for the 73.6 nm line and 49.6% for the 74.4 nm line at 40 eV, and 17.0 and 61.8%, respectively, at 300 eV. (author)
Neutron cross sections: Book of curves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McLane, V.; Dunford, C.L.; Rose, P.F.
1988-01-01
Neuton Cross Sections: Book of Curves represents the fourth edition of what was previously known as BNL-325, Neutron Cross Sections, Volume 2, CURVES. Data is presented only for (i.e., intergrated) reaction cross sections (and related fission parameters) as a function of incident-neutron energy for the energy range 0.01 eV to 200 MeV. For the first time, isometric state production cross sections have been included. 11 refs., 4 figs
Evaluated cross section libraries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maqurno, B.A.
1976-01-01
The dosimetry tape (ENDF/B-IV tape 412) was issued in a general CSEWG distribution, August 1974. The pointwise cross section data file was tested with specified reference spectra. A group averaged cross section data file (620 groups based on tape 412) was tested with the above spectra and the results are presented in this report
First measurement of charged current cross sections at HERA with longitudinally polarised positrons
H1 Collaboration; Aktas, A.; Andreev, V.; Anthonis, T.; Antunovic, B.; Aplin, S.; Asmone, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Babaev, A.; Backovic, S.; Bähr, J.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baudrand, S.; Baumgartner, S.; Becker, J.; Beckingham, M.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, Ch.; Berger, N.; Bizot, J. C.; Boenig, M.-O.; Boudry, V.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Büsser, F. W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A. J.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Contreras, J. G.; Coughlan, J. A.; Cox, B. E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J. B.; Dau, W. D.; Daum, K.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; Del Degan, M.; de Roeck, A.; Desch, K.; de Wolf, E. A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, W.; Essenov, S.; Falkewicz, A.; Faulkner, P. J. W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Finke, L.; Fleischer, M.; Fleischmann, P.; Flucke, G.; Fomenko, A.; Foresti, I.; Franke, G.; Frisson, T.; Gabathuler, E.; Garutti, E.; Gayler, J.; Gerlich, C.; Ghazaryan, S.; Ginzburgskaya, S.; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Goettlich, M.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Goyon, C.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Gregori, M.; Grell, B. R.; Grindhammer, G.; Gwilliam, C.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Hansson, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Henschel, H.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K. H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Hreus, T.; Hussain, S.; Ibbotson, M.; Ismail, M.; Jacquet, M.; Janauschek, L.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jönsson, L.; Johnson, D. P.; Jung, A. W.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Knutsson, A.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Krüger, K.; Kückens, J.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Laštovička, T.; Laštovička-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindfeld, L.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Lobodzinska, E.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Lueders, H.; Lüke, D.; Lux, T.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Mangano, S.; Marage, P.; Marshall, R.; Martisikova, M.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S. J.; Meer, D.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A. B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Milstead, D.; Mladenov, D.; Mohamed, A.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J. V.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, K.; Murín, P.; Nankov, K.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P. R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nowak, G.; Nozicka, M.; Oganezov, R.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J. E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Papadopoulou, T.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Peng, H.; Perez, E.; Perez-Astudillo, D.; Perieanu, A.; Petrukhin, A.; Pitzl, D.; Plačakytė, R.; Portheault, B.; Povh, B.; Prideaux, P.; Rahmat, A. J.; Raicevic, N.; Reimer, P.; Reisert, B.; Rimmer, A.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salvaire, F.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sauvan, E.; Schätzel, S.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, C.; Schoeffel, L.; Schöning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sedlák, K.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R. N.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L. N.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Strauch, I.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P. D.; Tomasz, F.; Traynor, D.; Truöl, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Urban, K.; Urban, M.; Usik, A.; Utkin, D.; Valkárová, A.; Vallée, C.; van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Veelken, C.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Wacker, K.; Wagner, J.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Wessels, M.; Wessling, B.; Wigmore, C.; Wissing, Ch.; Wolf, R.; Wünsch, E.; Xella, S.; Yan, W.; Yeganov, V.; Žáček, J.; Zálešák, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokin, A.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zimmermann, J.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.
2006-03-01
Data taken with positrons of different longitudinal polarisation states in collision with unpolarised protons at HERA are used to measure the total cross sections of the charged current process, ep→ν¯X, for negative four-momentum transfer squared Q>400 GeV and inelasticity y<0.9. Together with the corresponding cross section obtained from the previously published unpolarised data, the polarisation dependence of the charged current cross section is measured for the first time at high Q and found to be in agreement with the Standard Model prediction.
Nuclear Forensics and Radiochemistry: Cross Sections
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rundberg, Robert S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2017-11-08
The neutron activation of components in a nuclear device can provide useful signatures of weapon design or sophistication. This lecture will cover some of the basics of neutron reaction cross sections. Nuclear reactor cross sections will also be presented to illustrate the complexity of convolving neutron energy spectra with nuclear excitation functions to calculate useful effective reactor cross sections. Deficiencies in the nuclear database will be discussed along with tools available at Los Alamos to provide new neutron cross section data.
Energy-differential cross section measurement for the 51V(n,α)48Sc reaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kanno, I.; Meadows, J.W.; Smith, D.L.
1984-07-01
The activation method was used to measure cross sections for the 51 V(n,α) 48 Sc reaction in the threshold region, from 5.515 MeV up to 9.567 MeV. Twenty approximately-monoenergetic cross section values were obtained in this experiment. These data points span the energy region at roughly equal intervals. The experimental resolutions were in the range 0.153 to 0.233 MeV (FWHM). The present differential data cover approx. 50% of the total integral response of this reaction for the standard 235 U thermal-neutron-induced-fission neutron spectrum, and approx. 44% of the corresponding response for the standard 252 Cf spontaneous-fission neutron spectrum. Over the range 7.6 to 9.5 MeV the present experimental cross sections are noticeably larger (e.g., by approx. 50% at approx. 8.6 MeV) than the corresponding values from the ENDF/B-V evaluation. From approx. 6.7 to 7.5 MeV, the present values are somewhat below those of ENDF/B-V. At still lower energies the agreement is reasonably good considering the uncertainties introduced by energy scale definition very near the effective threshold where the cross section varies rapidly with neutron energy. Calculated integral cross sections based in part on the present work agree reasonably well within errors with reported integral results, provided that the reported data are renormalized to conform with recently-accepted values for appropriate standard reactions. 70 references
Differential Top Cross-section Measurements
Fenton, Michael James; The ATLAS collaboration
2017-01-01
The top quark is the heaviest known fundamental particle. The measurement of the differential top-quark pair production cross-section provides a stringent test of advanced perturbative QCD calculations. The ATLAS collaboration has performed detailed measurements of those differential cross sections at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. This talk focuses on differential cross-section measurements in the lepton+jets final state, including using boosted top quarks to probe our understanding of top quark production in the TeV regime.
Update to the R33 cross section file format
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vickridge, I.C.
2003-01-01
In September 1991, in response to the workshop on cross sections for Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) held in Namur (July 1991, Nuclear Instruments and Methods B66(1992)), a simple ascii format was proposed to facilitate transfer and collation of nuclear reaction cross section data for Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) and especially for Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA). Although intended only as a discussion document, the ascii format - referred to as the R33 (Report 33) format - has become a de facto standard. In the decade since this first proposal there have been spectacular advances in computing power and in software usability, however the cross-platform compatibility of the ascii character set has ensured that the need for an ascii format remains. Nuclear reaction cross section data for Nuclear Reaction analysis has been collected and archived on internet web sites over the last decade. This data has largely been entered in the R33 format, although there is a series of elastic cross sections that are expressed as the ratio to the corresponding Rutherford cross sections that have been entered in a format referred to as RTR (ratio to Rutherford). During this time the R33 format has been modified and added to - firstly to take into account angular distributions, which were not catered for in the first proposal, and more recently to cater for elastic cross sections expressed as the ratio-to- Rutherford, which it is useful to have for some elastic scattering programs. It is thus timely to formally update the R33 format. There also exists the large nuclear cross section data collections of the Nuclear Data Network - of which the core centres are the OECD NEA Nuclear Data Bank, the IAEA Nuclear Data Section, the Brookhaven National Laboratory National Nuclear Data Centre and CJD IPPE Obninsk, Russia. The R33 format is now proposed to become a legal computational format for the NDN. It is thus also necessary to provide an updated formal definition of the R33 format in order to provide
Measurement of the single-top-quark production cross section at CDF.
Aaltonen, T; Adelman, J; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; Alvarez González, B; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Apresyan, A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Azzurri, P; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Beauchemin, P-H; Bedeschi, F; Bednar, P; Beecher, D; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bolla, G; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Bridgeman, A; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Calancha, C; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Choudalakis, G; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Copic, K; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Cox, D J; Crescioli, F; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cully, J C; Dagenhart, D; Datta, M; Davies, T; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lorenzo, G; Dell'orso, M; Deluca, C; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; Derwent, P F; di Giovanni, G P; Dionisi, C; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Donati, S; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Efron, J; Elagin, A; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Ferrazza, C; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garberson, F; Garcia, J E; Garfinkel, A F; Genser, K; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D; Gessler, A; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Gimmell, J L; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Grundler, U; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, K; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Han, B-Y; Han, J Y; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hartz, M; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heijboer, A; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Henderson, C; Herndon, M; Heuser, J; Hewamanage, S; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S-C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Huston, J; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; James, E; Jayatilaka, B; Jeon, E J; Jha, M K; Jindariani, S; Johnson, W; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Jung, J E; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Kar, D; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kephart, R; Keung, J; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Koay, S A; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krop, D; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kubo, T; Kuhr, T; Kulkarni, N P; Kurata, M; Kusakabe, Y; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; Lecompte, T; Lee, E; Lee, H S; Lee, S W; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C S; Linacre, J; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Liss, T M; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, C; Liu, T; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Lovas, L; Lu, R-S; Lucchesi, D; Lueck, J; Luci, C; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; Mack, P; Macqueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Maki, T; Maksimovic, P; Malde, S; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marino, C; Marino, C P; Martin, A; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Martínez-Ballarín, R; Maruyama, T; Mastrandrea, P; Masubuchi, T; Mattson, M E; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miller, R; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Mitra, A; Mitselmakher, G; Miyake, H; Moggi, N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M J; Morlok, J; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Mumford, R; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Nagano, A; Naganoma, J; Nakamura, K; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Necula, V; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nodulman, L; Norman, M; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oakes, L; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Orava, R; Osterberg, K; Pagan Griso, S; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Papaikonomou, A; Paramonov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Peiffer, T; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Pianori, E; Pinera, L; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Poukhov, O; Pounder, N; Prakoshyn, F; Pronko, A; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Pueschel, E; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, A; Ramakrishnan, V; Ranjan, N; Redondo, I; Reisert, B; Rekovic, V; Renton, P; Renz, M; Rescigno, M; Richter, S; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rodriguez, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rossin, R; Roy, P; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Saarikko, H; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Saltó, O; Santi, L; Sarkar, S; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schall, I; Scheidle, T; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M A; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scott, A L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sfyrla, A; Shalhout, S Z; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Sherman, D; Shimojima, M; Shiraishi, S; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Sidoti, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakyan, A; Slaughter, A J; Slaunwhite, J; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Spalding, J; Spreitzer, T; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Stuart, D; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Suslov, I; Suzuki, T; Taffard, A; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, R; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Thom, J; Thompson, A S; Thompson, G A; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Tiwari, V; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Totaro, P; Tourneur, S; Tu, Y; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Vallecorsa, S; van Remortel, N; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Veszpremi, V; Vidal, M; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vine, T; Vogel, M; Volobouev, I; Volpi, G; Würthwein, F; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner-Kuhr, J; Wagner, W; Wakisaka, T; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waters, D; Weinberger, M; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Williams, G; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wynne, S M; Xie, S; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zaw, I; Zhang, X; Zheng, Y; Zucchelli, S
2008-12-19
We report a measurement of the single-top-quark production cross section in 2.2 fb;{-1} of pp collision data collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab at sqrt[s]=1.96 TeV. Candidate events are classified as signal-like by three parallel analyses which use likelihood, matrix element, and neural network discriminants. These results are combined in order to improve the sensitivity. We observe a signal consistent with the standard model prediction, but inconsistent with the background-only model by 3.7 standard deviations with a median expected sensitivity of 4.9 standard deviations. We measure a cross section of 2.2(-0.6)(+0.7)(stat+syst) pb, extract the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix-element value |V(tb)|=0.88(-0.12)(+0.13)(stat+syst)+/-0.07(theory), and set the limit |V(tb)|>0.66 at the 95% C.L.
Activation cross section data file, (1)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamamuro, Nobuhiro; Iijima, Shungo.
1989-09-01
To evaluate the radioisotope productions due to the neutron irradiation in fission of fusion reactors, the data for the activation cross sections ought to be provided. It is planning to file more than 2000 activation cross sections at final. In the current year, the neutron cross sections for 14 elements from Ni to W have been calculated and evaluated in the energy range 10 -5 to 20 MeV. The calculations with a simplified-input nuclear cross section calculation system SINCROS were described, and another method of evaluation which is consistent with the JENDL-3 were also mentioned. The results of cross section calculation are in good agreement with experimental data and they were stored in the file 8, 9 and 10 of ENDF/B format. (author)
Utilization of cross-section covariance data in FBR core nuclear design and cross-section adjustment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishikawa, Makoto
1994-01-01
In the core design of large fast breeder reactors (FBRs), it is essentially important to improve the prediction accuracy of nuclear characteristics from the viewpoint of both reducing cost and insuring reliability of the plant. The cross-section errors, that is, covariance data are one of the most dominant sources for the prediction uncertainty of the core parameters, therefore, quantitative evaluation of covariance data is indispensable for FBR core design. The first objective of the present paper is to introduce how the cross-section covariance data are utilized in the FBR core nuclear design works. The second is to delineate the cross-section adjustment study and its application to an FBR design, because this improved design method markedly enhances the needs and importance of the cross-section covariance data. (author)
Is the quasielastic pion cross section really bigger than the pion-nucleus reaction cross section
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silbar, R.R.
1979-01-01
It is shown that soft pion charge exchanges may increase the inclusive (π + ,π 0 ') cross section, relative to the total quasielastic (π + ,π + ') cross section, by as much as a factor of two. 4 references
JENDL gas-production cross section file
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakagawa, Tsuneo; Narita, Tsutomu
1992-05-01
The JENDL gas-production cross section file was compiled by taking cross-section data from JENDL-3 and by using the ENDF-5 format. The data were given to 23 nuclei or elements in light nuclei and structural materials. Graphs of the cross sections and brief description on their evaluation methods are given in this report. (author)
ZZ DLC-11 RITTS, 121-Group Coupled Cross-Section for ANISN, DOT, MORSE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1970-01-01
A - Nature of physical problem solved: Format: ANISN, DTF-4, DOT and MORSE. Number of groups: 100 neutron energy groups (14.92 MeV to thermal) 21 gamma-ray energy groups (14.0 to 0.01 MeV) Nuclides: H, C, O, N, Na, Mg, P, S, Cl, K, and Ca, (microscopic cross sections) and 9 organic materials including 11-element standard man, 4-element standard man, skin, bone, tissue, brain, lung, red marrow, and muscle (macroscopic cross sections). Origin: ENDF/B for H, C, N, O, Na, and Mg; O5R library for Ca, S, and K; GAM-2 library for Cl; Evaluation by J.J. Ritts for P. Weighting spectrum: 1/E for the top 99 groups and Maxwellian for the thermal group values. DLC-11 data is suitable for neutron, gamma-ray, or coupled neutron and gamma-ray transport calculations. It is intended for use in multigroup discrete ordinates or Monte Carlo transport codes which treat anisotropic scattering by Legendre expansion up to order P3. DLC-11 is a collection of multigroup cross section data which were compiled by J. J. Ritts for use in depth-dose calculations in anthropomorphic phantoms. For convenience the data are grouped as follows - 1. A coupled 121-group (100 neutron, 21 gamma-ray) set of data for the 11 elements H, C, O, N. Na, Mg, P, S, Cl, K, and Ca. This set includes P3 coupled 121-group microscopic cross sections plus 121-group kerma factors for the 11 elements. 2. A 100-group set of neutron cross sections for the 11 elements. 3. A coupled 121-group set of macroscopic cross sections for 9 organic materials including 11-element standard man, 4-element standard man, skin, bone, tissue, brain, lung, red marrow, and muscle. B - Method of solution: The basic data sources were ENDF/B for H, C, N, O, Na, and Mg, the O5R library for Ca, S, and K, the GAM-2 library for Cl and an evaluation by Ritts for P. A 1/E spectrum was assumed for averaging the top 99 groups and a Maxwellian for averaging the thermal group values. The gamma-ray cross sections were computed from DLC-3/HPIC using MUG. The
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gerstl, S.A.W.
1980-01-01
SENSIT computes the sensitivity and uncertainty of a calculated integral response (such as a dose rate) due to input cross sections and their uncertainties. Sensitivity profiles are computed for neutron and gamma-ray reaction cross sections of standard multigroup cross section sets and for secondary energy distributions (SEDs) of multigroup scattering matrices. In the design sensitivity mode, SENSIT computes changes in an integral response due to design changes and gives the appropriate sensitivity coefficients. Cross section uncertainty analyses are performed for three types of input data uncertainties: cross-section covariance matrices for pairs of multigroup reaction cross sections, spectral shape uncertainty parameters for secondary energy distributions (integral SED uncertainties), and covariance matrices for energy-dependent response functions. For all three types of data uncertainties SENSIT computes the resulting variance and estimated standard deviation in an integral response of interest, on the basis of generalized perturbation theory. SENSIT attempts to be more comprehensive than earlier sensitivity analysis codes, such as SWANLAKE.
Fully hadronic ttbar cross section measurement with ATLAS detector
Bertella, Claudia
2011-01-01
The top quark pair production cross section in the fully hadronic final state is characterized by a six jet topology, two of which could be identified as originating from a b-quark using ATLAS b-tagging algorithms. Compared to other decay channels, this final state presents an advantageous larger branching ratio; on the other hand it suffers from a very large QCD multi-jet background, generally difficult to estimate from Monte Carlo simulation and therefore evaluated using data-driven techniques. The analysis is performed using 36pb-1 of pp collisions produced at the LHC with a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. The observed upper limit is set at 261 pb at 95% confidence level, where the expected Standard Model cross-section for the ttbar process is 165+11-16 pb. In the future, when the LHC luminosity increases, it is essential, to efficiently trigger on these fully hadronic ttbar events, to use dedicated triggers. An overview of the analysis for ttbar production cross section measurement in the fully hadronic f...
Doppler broadening of cross sections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buckler, P.A.C.; Pull, I.C.
1962-12-01
Expressions for temperature dependent cross-sections in terms of resonance parameters are obtained, involving generalisations of the conventional Doppler functions, ψ and φ. Descriptions of Fortran sub-routines, which calculate broadened cross-sections in accordance with the derived formulae, are included. (author)
Cross-index to DOE-prescribed occupational safety codes and standards
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1981-01-01
This Cross-Index volume is the 1981 compilation of detailed information from more than three hundred and fifty DOE prescribed or OSHA referenced industrial safety codes and standards and is revised yearly to provide information from current codes. Condensed data from individual code portions are listed according to reference code, section, paragraph and page. Each code is given a two-digit reference code number or letter in the Contents section (pages C to L) of this volume. This reference code provides ready identification of any code listed in the Cross-Index. The computerized information listings are on the left-hand portion of Cross-Index page; in order to the right of the listing are the reference code letters or numbers, the section, paragraph and page of the referenced code containing expanded information on the individual listing
HATHOR. HAdronic Top and Heavy quarks crOss section calculatoR
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aliev, M.; Lacker, H.; Langenfeld, U.; Uwer, P.; Wiedermann, M. [Berlin Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Moch, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)
2010-07-15
We present a program to calculate the total cross section for top-quark pair production in hadronic collisions. The program takes into account recent theoretical developments such as approximate next-to-next-to-leading order perturbative QCD corrections and it allows for studies of the theoretical uncertainty by separate variations of the factorization and renormalization scales. In addition it offers the possibility to obtain the cross section as a function of the running top-quark mass. The program can also be applied to a hypothetical fourth quark family provided the QCD couplings are standard. (orig.)
HATHOR. HAdronic Top and Heavy quarks crOss section calculatoR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aliev, M.; Lacker, H.; Langenfeld, U.; Uwer, P.; Wiedermann, M.
2010-07-01
We present a program to calculate the total cross section for top-quark pair production in hadronic collisions. The program takes into account recent theoretical developments such as approximate next-to-next-to-leading order perturbative QCD corrections and it allows for studies of the theoretical uncertainty by separate variations of the factorization and renormalization scales. In addition it offers the possibility to obtain the cross section as a function of the running top-quark mass. The program can also be applied to a hypothetical fourth quark family provided the QCD couplings are standard. (orig.)
Thermal conduction by dark matter with velocity and momentum-dependent cross-sections
Vincent, Aaron C.; Scott, Pat
2013-01-01
We use the formalism of Gould and Raffelt to compute the dimensionless thermal conduction coefficients for scattering of dark matter particles with standard model nucleons via cross-sections that depend on the relative velocity or momentum exchanged between particles. Motivated by models invoked to reconcile various recent results in direct detection, we explicitly compute the conduction coefficients $\\alpha$ and $\\kappa$ for cross-sections that go as $v_{\\rm rel}^2$, $v_{\\rm rel}^4$, $v_{\\rm...
Measurement of the Single Top Quark Production Cross Section at CDF
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aaltonen, T.; /Helsinki Inst. of Phys.; Adelman, J.; /Chicago U., EFI; Akimoto, T.; /Tsukuba U.; Albrow, Michael G.; /Fermilab; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; /CSIC, Catalunya; Amerio, S.; /INFN, Padua; Amidei, Dante E.; /Michigan U.; Anastassov, A.; /Northwestern U.; Annovi, Alberto; /Frascati; Antos, J.; /Comenius U.; Apollinari, G.; /Fermilab /Purdue U.
2008-09-01
We report a measurement of the single top quark production cross section in 2.2 fb{sup -1} of p{bar p} collision data collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. Candidate events are classified as signal-like by three parallel analyses which use likelihood, matrix element, and neural network discriminants. These results are combined in order to improve the sensitivity. We observe a signal consistent with the standard model prediction, but inconsistent with the background only model by 3.7 standard deviations with a median expected sensitivity of 4.9 standard deviations. We measure a cross section of 2.2{sub -0.6}{sup +0.7}(stat+sys) pb, extract the CKM matrix element value |V{sub tb}| = 0.88{sub -0.12}{sup +0.13}(stat + sys) {+-} 0.07(theory), and set the limit |V{sub tb}| > 0.66 at the 95% C.L.
Cross-sectional anatomy for computed tomography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Farkas, M.L.
1988-01-01
This self-study guide recognizes that evaluation and interpretation of CT-images demands a firm understanding of both cross-sectional anatomy and the principles of computed tomography. The objectives of this book are: to discuss the basic principles of CT, to stress the importance of cross-sectional anatomy to CT through study of selected cardinal transverse sections of head, neck, and trunk, to explain orientation and interpretation of CT-images with the aid of corresponding cross-sectional preparations
Density-dependent expressions for photoionization cross-sections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun Weiguo; Ma Xiaoguang; Cheng Yansong
2004-01-01
Alternative expressions for photoionization cross-sections and dielectric influence functions are suggested to study the photoionization cross-sections of atoms in solid system. The basic picture is that the photoionization cross-section of atoms in a real system can be described as the coupling between quantum quantity (QQ) and classical quantity (CQ) parts. The QQ part represents the photoionization cross-sections of an isolated particle, while the CQ part may represent most of the important influence of the macroscopic effects (e.g., the interactions of all surrounding polarized particles, and the dielectric property, etc.) on the photoionization cross-sections. The applications to the barium system show that the number-density-dependent new photoionization formula not only obtains the same cross-sections as those from the first order approximation for ideal gas, but also can generate the cross-sections for solid barium by transforming those of ideal gas of the same species using the dielectric influence function
Density-dependent expressions for photoionization cross-sections
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sun Weiguo; Ma Xiaoguang; Cheng Yansong
2004-06-07
Alternative expressions for photoionization cross-sections and dielectric influence functions are suggested to study the photoionization cross-sections of atoms in solid system. The basic picture is that the photoionization cross-section of atoms in a real system can be described as the coupling between quantum quantity (QQ) and classical quantity (CQ) parts. The QQ part represents the photoionization cross-sections of an isolated particle, while the CQ part may represent most of the important influence of the macroscopic effects (e.g., the interactions of all surrounding polarized particles, and the dielectric property, etc.) on the photoionization cross-sections. The applications to the barium system show that the number-density-dependent new photoionization formula not only obtains the same cross-sections as those from the first order approximation for ideal gas, but also can generate the cross-sections for solid barium by transforming those of ideal gas of the same species using the dielectric influence function.
Cross-index to DOE-prescribed occupational safety codes and standards
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1982-01-01
A compilation of detailed information from more than three hundred and fifty DOE-prescribed or OSHA-referenced industrial safety codes and standards is presented. Condensed data from individual code portions are listed according to reference code, section, paragraph and page. A glossary of letter initials/abbreviations for the organizations or documents whose codes or standards are contained in this Cross-Index, is listed
Market skewness risk and the cross section of stock returns
Chang, B.; Christoffersen, P.; Jacobs, K.
2013-01-01
The cross section of stock returns has substantial exposure to risk captured by higher moments of market returns. We estimate these moments from daily Standard & Poor's 500 index option data. The resulting time series of factors are genuinely conditional and forward-looking. Stocks with high
Measurements of neutron capture cross sections of wolfram and thulium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xia Yijun; Wang Chunhao; Yang Jingfu; Yang Zhihua; Luo Xiaobing
1992-01-01
The neutron capture cross sections of wolfram and thulium were measured in the energy range from 10 to 100 KeV using gold as the standard. Kinematically collimated neutrons were produced via the 7 Li(p, n) 7 Be reaction with a 2.5 MV pulsed Van de Graaff accelerator at Sichuan University. The capture events were detected by a pair of Moxon-Rae detectors. Time-of-flight technique was used to improve the signal-background ratio. The present results are compared with data by other authors. The capture cross section were calculated from 10 to 100 KeV for two nuclides by the Hauser-Feshbach statistical theory with width fluctuation correction. The nonstatistical effects such as potential capture and radiative capture in elastic and inelastic channels of a compound nucleus were included in the calculations. The calculated results show that the nonstatistical contribution to the capture cross sections is negligible compared with that of the statistical effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Green, L.
1976-11-01
The shape of the thorium absorption cross section near thermal energies was investigated. This shape is dominated by one or more negative energy resonances whose parameters are not directly known, but must be inferred from higher energy data. Since the integral quantity most conveniently describing the thermal cross section shape is the Westcottg-factor, effort was directed toward establishing this quantity to high precision. Three nearly independent g-factor estimates were obtained from measurements on a variety of foils in three different neutron spectra provided by polyethylene-moderated neutrons from a 252 Cf source and from irradiations in the National Bureau of Standards ''Standard Thermal Neutron Density.'' The weighted average of the three measurements was 0.993 +- 0.004. This is in good agreement with two recent evaluations and supports the adequacy of the current cross section descriptions
Total neutron cross section of lead
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kanda, K.; Aizawa, O.
1976-01-01
The total thermal-neutron cross section of natural lead under various physical conditions was measured by the transmission method. It became clear that the total cross section at room temperature previously reported is lower than the present data. The total cross section at 400, 500, and 600 0 C, above the melting point of lead, 327 0 C, was also measured, and the changes in the cross section as a function of temperature were examined, especially near and below the melting point. The data obtained for the randomly oriented polycrystalline state at room temperature were in reasonable agreement with the theoretical values calculated by the THRUSH and UNCLE-TOM codes
Calculation of the Reaction Cross Section for Several Actinides
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Oberstedt, Stephan; Vladuca, Gheorghita; Tudora, Anabella; Filipescu, Dan
2005-01-01
New, self-consistent, neutron-induced reaction cross-section calculations for 235,238U, 237Np, and 231,232,233Pa have been performed. The statistical model code STATIS was extended to take into account the multi-modality of the fission process. The three most dominant fission modes, the two asymmetric standard I (S1) and standard II (S2) modes, and the symmetric superlong (SL) mode have been taken into account. De-convoluted fission cross sections for these modes in 235,238U(n,f) and 237Np(n,f) based on experimental branching ratios, were calculated for the first time up to the second chance fission threshold. For 235U(n,f) and 233Pa(n,f), the calculations being made up to 50 MeV and 20 MeV incident neutron energy, respectively, higher fission chances have been considered. This implied the need for additional calculations for the neighbouring isotopes.As a side product also mass yield distributions could be calculated at energies hitherto not accessible by experiment. Experimental validation of the predictions is being envisaged
2010-01-01
... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cross-reference to employees ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations. 1300.1 Section 1300.1 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES STANDARDS OF CONDUCT § 1300.1 Cross-reference...
The Total Cross Section at the LHC: Models and Experimental Consequences
Cudell, J R
2010-01-01
I review the predictions of the total cross section for many models, and point out that some of them lead to the conclusion that the standard experimental analysis may lead to systematic errors much larger than expected.
Top quark production cross-section measurements
Chen, Ye; The ATLAS collaboration
2017-01-01
Measurements of the inclusive and differential cross-sections for top-quark pair and single top production cross sections in proton-proton collisions with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider are presented at center-of-mass energies of 8 TeV and 13 TeV. The inclusive measurements reach high precision and are compared to the best available theoretical calculations. These measurements, including results using boosted tops, probe our understanding of top-pair production in the TeV regime. The results are compared to Monte Carlo generators implementing LO and NLO matrix elements matched with parton showers and NLO QCD calculations. For the t-channel single top measurement, the single top-quark and anti-top-quark total production cross-sections, their ratio, as well as differential cross sections are also presented. A measurement of the production cross-section of a single top quark in association with a W boson, the second largest single-top production mode, is also presented. Finally, measurements of ...
Mechanized evaluation of neutron cross-sections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horsley, A.; Parker, J.B.
1967-01-01
The evaluation work to provide accurate and consistent neutron cross-section data for multigroup neutronics calculations is not fully exploiting the available theoretical and experimental results; this has been so particularly since the introduction of on-line data handling techniques enabled experimenters to turn out vast quantities of numbers. This situation can be radically improved only by mechanizing the evaluation processes. Systems such as the SC1SRS tape will not only largely overcome the task of collecting data but will provide speedy access to it; by using computers and graph-plotting machines to tabulate and display this data, the labour of evaluation can be very greatly reduced. With some types of cross-section there is hope that by using modern curve-fitting techniques the actual evaluation and statistical accounting of the data can be performed automatically. Some areas where automatic evaluation would seem likely to succeed are specified and a discussion of the mathematical difficulties incurred, such as the elimination of anomalous data, is given. Particularly promising is the use of splines in the mechanized evaluation of data. Splines are the mathematical analogues of the draughtsman's spline used in drawing smooth curves. Their principal properties are the excellent approximations they give to the derivatives of a function; in contrast to conventional polynomial fitting, this feature ensures good interpolation and, when required, stable extrapolation. Various methods of using splines in data graduation and the problem of marrying these methods to standard statistical procedures are examined. The results of work done at AWRE with cubic splines on the mechanized evaluation of neutron scattering total cross-section and angular distribution data are presented. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jacquier, Sandra [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint-Etienne, 158 Cours Fauriel, 42023 F-St. Etienne (France); Gruy, Frederic [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint-Etienne, 158 Cours Fauriel, 42023 F-St. Etienne (France)], E-mail: fgruy@emse.fr
2008-11-15
We previously [Jacquier S, Gruy F. Approximation of the light scattering cross-section for aggregated spherical non-absorbent particles. JQSRT 2008;109:789-810] reformulated the anomalous diffraction (AD) approximation to calculate the light scattering cross section of aggregates by introducing their chord length distribution (CLD). It was applied to several ordered aggregates. This new method is entitled ADr, with the r for rapid because this one is at least 100 times faster than the standard AD method. In this article, we are searching for an approximated expression for CLD suitable all at once for ordered and disordered aggregates. The corresponding scattering cross-section values are compared to the ones coming from the standard AD approximation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jacquier, Sandra; Gruy, Frederic
2008-01-01
We previously [Jacquier S, Gruy F. Approximation of the light scattering cross-section for aggregated spherical non-absorbent particles. JQSRT 2008;109:789-810] reformulated the anomalous diffraction (AD) approximation to calculate the light scattering cross section of aggregates by introducing their chord length distribution (CLD). It was applied to several ordered aggregates. This new method is entitled ADr, with the r for rapid because this one is at least 100 times faster than the standard AD method. In this article, we are searching for an approximated expression for CLD suitable all at once for ordered and disordered aggregates. The corresponding scattering cross-section values are compared to the ones coming from the standard AD approximation
Hadronic total cross sections: which pomeron do they prefer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kobylinsky, N.A.; Kosenko, A.I.; Martynov, E.S.; Timokhin, V.V.
1985-01-01
All data on nucleon-nucleon and meson-nucleon total cross sections are analyzed in a scheme with varying pomeron shape and standard form of secondary reggeons. Two solutions are found which result in essentially different asymptotic behaviour, but describe equally well the data at energies attained. Two theoretical possibilities for the pomeron are discussed: the dipole and the froissaron
Fission cross-section calculations and the multi-modal fission model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hambsch, F.J.
2004-01-01
New, self consistent, neutron-induced reaction cross section calculations for 235,238 U, 237 Np have been performed. The statistical model code STATIS was improved to take into account the multimodality of the fission process. The three most dominant fission modes, the two asymmetric standards I (S1) and standard II (S2) modes and the symmetric superlong (SL) mode have been taken into account. De-convoluted fission cross sections for those modes for 235,238 U(n,f) and 237 Np(n,f) based on experimental branching ratios, were calculated for the first time up to the second chance fission threshold. For 235 U(n,f), the calculations being made up to 28 MeV incident neutron energy, higher fission chances have been considered. This implied the need for additional calculations for the neighbouring isotopes. As a side product also mass yield distributions could be calculated at energies hitherto not accessible by experiment. Experimental validation of the predictions is being envisaged
Differences between LASL- and ANL-processed cross sections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kidman, R.B.; MacFarlane, R.E.; Becker, M.
1978-03-01
As part of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) cross-section processing development, LASL cross sections and results from MINX/1DX system are compared to the Argonne National Laboratory cross sections and results from the ETOE-2/MC 2 -2 system for a simple reactor problem. Exact perturbation theory is used to establish the eigenvalue effect of every isotope group cross-section difference. Cross sections, cross-section differences, and their eigenvalue effects are clearly and conveniently displayed and compared on a group-by-group basis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sanami, Toshiya; Baba, Mamoru; Saito, Keiichiro; Ibara, Yasutaka; Hirakawa, Naohiro [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering
1997-03-01
We are developing a method of (n,{alpha}) cross section measurement using gaseous samples in a gridded ionization chamber (GIC). This method enables cross section measurements in large solid angle without the distortion by the energy loss in a sample, but requires a method to estimate the detection efficiency. We solve this problem by using GIC signals and a tight neutron collimation. The validity of this method was confirmed through the {sup 12}C(n,{alpha}{sub 0}){sup 9}Be measurement. We applied this method to the {sup 16}O(n,{alpha}){sup 13}C cross section around 14.1 MeV. (author)
Performance of Traffic Noise Barriers with Varying Cross-Section
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sanja Grubeša
2011-05-01
Full Text Available The efficiency of noise barriers largely depends on their geometry. In this paper, the performance of noise barriers was simulated using the numerical Boundary Element Method (BEM. Traffic noise was particularly considered with its standardized noise spectrum adapted to human hearing. The cross-section of the barriers was varied with the goal of finding the optimum shape in comparison to classical rectangular barriers. The barrier performance was calculated at different receiver points for a fixed barrier height and source position. The magnitude of the insertion loss parameter was used to evaluate the performance change, both in one-third octave bands and as the broadband mean insertion loss value. The proposed barriers of varying cross-section were also compared with a typical T-shape barrier of the same height.
Photoionization cross section of atomic and molecular oxygen
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pareek, P.N.
1983-01-01
Photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen and dissociative photoionization cross sections of molecular oxygen were measured from their respective thresholds to 120 angstrom by use of a photoionization mass spectrometer in conjunction with a spark light source. The photoionization cross sections O 2 + parent ion and O + fragment ion from neutral O 2 were obtained by a technique that eliminated the serious problem of identifying the true abundances of O + ions. These ions are generally formed with considerable kinetic energy and, because most mass spectrometers discriminate against energetic ions, true O + abundances are difficult to obtain. In the present work the relative cross sections for producing O + ions are obtained and normalized against the total cross sections in a spectral region where dissociative ionization is not possible. The fragmentation cross sections for O + were then obtained by subtraction of O 2 + cross sections from the known total photoionization cross sections. The results are compared with the previously published measurements. The absolute photoionization cross section of atomic oxygen sigma 8 /sub +/ was measured at 304 A. The actual number density of oxygen atoms within the ionization region was obtained by measuring the fraction of 0 2 molecules dissociated. This sigma/sub +/ at 304 angstrom was used to convert the relative photoinization cross sections, measured as a function of wavelength using a calibrated photodiode, to absolute cross sections. The results are compared with previous measurements and calculated cross sections. angstrom Rydberg series converging to the OII 4 P state was observed
Measurements of neutron capture cross sections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakajima, Yutaka
1984-01-01
A review of measurement techniques for the neutron capture cross sections is presented. Sell transmission method, activation method, and prompt gamma-ray detection method are described using examples of capture cross section measurements. The capture cross section of 238 U measured by three different prompt gamma-ray detection methods (large liquid scintillator, Moxon-Rae detector, and pulse height weighting method) are compared and their discrepancies are resolved. A method how to derive the covariance is described. (author)
XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database
SRD 8 XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database (Web, free access) A web database is provided which can be used to calculate photon cross sections for scattering, photoelectric absorption and pair production, as well as total attenuation coefficients, for any element, compound or mixture (Z <= 100) at energies from 1 keV to 100 GeV.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soran, P.D.; Seamon, R.E.
1980-05-01
Graphs of all neutron cross sections and photon production cross sections on the Recommended Monte Carlo Cross Section (RMCCS) library have been plotted along with local neutron heating numbers. Values for anti ν, the average number of neutrons per fission, are also given
Cross-section measurements of neutron-deuteron breakup at 13.0 MeV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Setze, H.R.; Howell, C.R.; Tornow, W.; Braun, R.T.; Gonzalez Trotter, D.E.; Hussein, A.H.; Pedroni, R.S.; Roper, C.D.; Salinas, F.; Slaus, I.; Vlahovic, B.; Walter, R.L.; Mertens, G.; Lambert, J.M.; Witala, H.; Gloeckle, W.
2005-01-01
Cross-section measurements of seven exit-channel configurations in the neutron-deuteron breakup at 13.0 MeV are reported and compared to rigorous calculations. Our data are consistent with those of previous measurements in four of six configurations. The present data for five configurations are in good agreement with theoretical predictions. The cross-section data for the space-star and another out-of-plane configuration are larger than the theoretical predictions by more than three standard deviations. The previously observed 20% discrepancy between theory and data for the space-star configuration is confirmed in the present work. The inclusion of the Tucson-Melbourne 2π-exchange three-nucleon force changes the predicted cross section by only 2% and in the wrong direction needed to bring theory into agreement with data
Differential cross-section measurements at the University of Kentucky - Adventures in analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vanhoy, J.R.; Garza, E.A.; Steves, J.L.; Hicks, S.F.; Henderson, S.L.; Sidwell, L.C.; Champine, B.R.; Crider, B.P.; Liu, S.H.; Peters, E.E.; Prados-Estevez, F.M.; McEllistrem, M.T.; Ross, T.J.; Yates, S.W.
2014-01-01
Elastic and inelastic neutron scattering cross-sections are determined at the University of Kentucky Accelerator Laboratory (UKAL) 1 using time-of-flight techniques at incident energies in the fast neutron region. Measurements have been completed for scattering from 23 Na and for the 23 Na(n,n'γ) reaction; similar measurements are in progress for 54 Fe. Commencing in the summer of 2014, measurements will address 56 Fe. An overview of the facilities and instrumentation at UKAL is given, and our measurement and analysis procedures are outlined. Of particular concern are portions of the analysis which limit the accuracy and precision of the measurements. We briefly examine detector efficiencies derived from the 3 H(p,n) cross-sections, attenuation and multiple scattering corrections, and neutron and γ-ray cross-sections standardizations. (authors)
Scattering cross section for various potential systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Myagmarjav Odsuren
2017-08-01
Full Text Available We discuss the problems of scattering in this framework, and show that the applied method is very useful in the investigation of the effect of the resonance in the observed scattering cross sections. In this study, not only the scattering cross sections but also the decomposition of the scattering cross sections was computed for the α–α system. To obtain the decomposition of scattering cross sections into resonance and residual continuum terms, the complex scaled orthogonality condition model and the extended completeness relation are used. Applying the present method to the α–α and α–n systems, we obtained good reproduction of the observed phase shifts and cross sections. The decomposition into resonance and continuum terms makes clear that resonance contributions are dominant but continuum terms and their interference are not negligible. To understand the behavior of observed phase shifts and the shape of the cross sections, both resonance and continuum terms are calculated.
Scattering cross section for various potential systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Odsuren, Myagmarjav; Khuukhenkhuu, Gonchigdorj; Davaa, Suren [Nuclear Research Center, School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, National University of Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia); Kato, Kiyoshi [Nuclear Reaction Data Centre, Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)
2017-08-15
We discuss the problems of scattering in this framework, and show that the applied method is very useful in the investigation of the effect of the resonance in the observed scattering cross sections. In this study, not only the scattering cross sections but also the decomposition of the scattering cross sections was computed for the α–α system. To obtain the decomposition of scattering cross sections into resonance and residual continuum terms, the complex scaled orthogonality condition model and the extended completeness relation are used. Applying the present method to the α–α and α–n systems, we obtained good reproduction of the observed phase shifts and cross sections. The decomposition into resonance and continuum terms makes clear that resonance contributions are dominant but continuum terms and their interference are not negligible. To understand the behavior of observed phase shifts and the shape of the cross sections, both resonance and continuum terms are calculated.
NNLO jet cross sections by subtraction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Somogyi, G.; Bolzoni, P.; Trocsanyi, Z.
2010-06-01
We report on the computation of a class of integrals that appear when integrating the so-called iterated singly-unresolved approximate cross section of an earlier NNLO subtraction scheme over the factorised phase space of unresolved partons. The integrated approximate cross section itself can be written as the product of an insertion operator (in colour space) times the Born cross section. We give selected results for the insertion operator for processes with two and three hard partons in the final state. (orig.)
NNLO jet cross sections by subtraction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Somogyi, G.; Bolzoni, P. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Trocsanyi, Z. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)
2010-06-15
We report on the computation of a class of integrals that appear when integrating the so-called iterated singly-unresolved approximate cross section of an earlier NNLO subtraction scheme over the factorised phase space of unresolved partons. The integrated approximate cross section itself can be written as the product of an insertion operator (in colour space) times the Born cross section. We give selected results for the insertion operator for processes with two and three hard partons in the final state. (orig.)
NNLO jet cross sections by subtraction
Somogyi, Gabor; Trocsanyi, Zoltan
2010-01-01
We report on the computation of a class of integrals that appear when integrating the so-called iterated singly-unresolved approximate cross section of the NNLO subtraction scheme of [1-4], over the factorised phase space of unresolved partons. The integrated approximate cross section itself can be written as the product of an insertion operator (in colour space) times the Born cross section. We give selected results for the insertion operator for processes with two and three hard partons in the final state.
Capture cross sections on unstable nuclei
Tonchev, A. P.; Escher, J. E.; Scielzo, N.; Bedrossian, P.; Ilieva, R. S.; Humby, P.; Cooper, N.; Goddard, P. M.; Werner, V.; Tornow, W.; Rusev, G.; Kelley, J. H.; Pietralla, N.; Scheck, M.; Savran, D.; Löher, B.; Yates, S. W.; Crider, B. P.; Peters, E. E.; Tsoneva, N.; Goriely, S.
2017-09-01
Accurate neutron-capture cross sections on unstable nuclei near the line of beta stability are crucial for understanding the s-process nucleosynthesis. However, neutron-capture cross sections for short-lived radionuclides are difficult to measure due to the fact that the measurements require both highly radioactive samples and intense neutron sources. Essential ingredients for describing the γ decays following neutron capture are the γ-ray strength function and level densities. We will compare different indirect approaches for obtaining the most relevant observables that can constrain Hauser-Feshbach statistical-model calculations of capture cross sections. Specifically, we will consider photon scattering using monoenergetic and 100% linearly polarized photon beams. Challenges that exist on the path to obtaining neutron-capture cross sections for reactions on isotopes near and far from stability will be discussed.
Status of neutron dosimetry cross sections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Griffin, P.J.; Kelly, J.G.
1992-01-01
Several new cross section libraries, such as ENDF/B-VI(release 2), IRDF-90,JEF-2.2, and JENDL-3 Dosimetry, have recently been made available to the dosimetry community. the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Radiation Metrology Laboratory (RML) has worked with these libraries since pre-release versions were available. this paper summarizes the results of the intercomparison and testing of dosimetry cross sections. As a result of this analysis, a compendium of the best dosimetry cross sections was assembled from the available libraries for use within the SNL RML. this library, referred to as the SNLRML Library, contains 66 general dosimetry sensors and 3 special dosimeters unique to the RML sensor inventory. The SNLRML cross sections have been put into a format compatible with commonly used spectrum determination codes
Capture cross sections on unstable nuclei
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tonchev A.P.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Accurate neutron-capture cross sections on unstable nuclei near the line of beta stability are crucial for understanding the s-process nucleosynthesis. However, neutron-capture cross sections for short-lived radionuclides are difficult to measure due to the fact that the measurements require both highly radioactive samples and intense neutron sources. Essential ingredients for describing the γ decays following neutron capture are the γ-ray strength function and level densities. We will compare different indirect approaches for obtaining the most relevant observables that can constrain Hauser-Feshbach statistical-model calculations of capture cross sections. Specifically, we will consider photon scattering using monoenergetic and 100% linearly polarized photon beams. Challenges that exist on the path to obtaining neutron-capture cross sections for reactions on isotopes near and far from stability will be discussed.
Total and (n, 2n) neutron cross section measurements on 241Am
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sage, C.
2009-01-01
Neutron induced reaction cross sections on 241 Am have been measured at the IRMM in Geel, Belgium, in the frame of a collaboration between the EC Joint Research Centres IRMM and ITU and French laboratories from CNRS and CEA. Raw material coming from the Atalante facility of CEA Marcoule has been transformed into suitable AmO 2 samples embedded in Al 2 O 3 and Y 2 O 3 matrices. The irradiations for the 241 Am(n, 2n) 240 Am reaction cross section measurement were carried out at the 7 MV Van de Graaff accelerator using the activation technique with quasi mono-energetic neutrons from 8 to 21 MeV produced via the D(d, n) 3 He and the T(d, n) 4 He reactions. The cross section was determined relative to the 27 Al(n, α) 24 Na standard cross section and was investigated for the first time above 15 MeV. The induced activity was measured off-line by standard γ-ray spectrometry using a high purity Ge detector. A special effort was made for the estimation of the uncertainties and the correlations between our experimental points. A different sample of the same isotope 241 Am has been measured in transmission and capture experiments in the resolved resonance region at the neutron ToF facility GELINA. The transmission measurement was performed in two campaigns, with an upgrade of the whole data acquisition system in between, followed by an investigation of its new performances. A preliminary analysis of the resonance parameters tends to confirm the recent evaluation to a higher value for the cross section at the bottom of the first resonances. A new design of C 6 D 6 detectors for capture measurements has been studied, but the data reduction and analysis of the measurement are not part of this work. (author) [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seamon, R.E.; Soran, P.D.
1980-06-01
Graphs of all neutron cross sections and photon production cross sections on the Alternate Monte Carlo Cross Section (AMCCS) library have been plotted along with local neutron heating numbers. The values of ν-bar, the average number of neutrons per fission, are also plotted for appropriate isotopes
Measurements of the $B$ meson production cross-sections at LHCb
LIU, Bo; ROBBE, Patrick; HE, Jibo
Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), one of the most fundamental components of the Standard Model theory of Particle Physics, is dedicated to describe the strong interactions among quarks and gluons. For the $B$ meson production cross-sections in hadron-hadron collisions, perturbative QCD (pQCD) calculations are available at next-to-leading order (NLO) and with the fixed-order plus next-to-leading logarithms (FONLL) approximations. Measuring $B$ meson production cross-sections at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is of great importance to test the pQCD calculations. The LHCb detector is a single-arm forward spectrometer. It collects the physical information of the products in proton-proton collisions at the LHC. The differential and total production cross-sections of $B$ mesons (including $B^+$, $B^0$ and $B_s^0$) in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=7\\,{\\rm TeV}$ are studied using 35${\\rm pb}^{-1}$ of data in 2010 and 370${\\rm pb}^{-1}$ of data in 2011 collected by the LHCb detector, and reported in this dissert...
Section for Standard and Patents - Standardization and Patents
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wojtowicz, S.; Trechcinski, R.; Rybka, M.; Ryszkowska, A.; Wardaszko, J.
1997-01-01
Full text: The most important tasks of the Section in 1996 were: preparation of national standards and program of future work on standards for nuclear instrumentation and electronic equipment in nuclear engineering; organization of activities and participation in the meetings of the Commissions for Standardization No 173 Microprocessor Systems, No 266 Nuclear Instrumentation; giving opinions and expertises on national and international standards for equipment in nuclear engineering; cooperation with the Commission for Standardization No 246 Radiological Protection; control of inventiveness activity; The quality of the technical products is being improved by: a) selection of the proper types of interface systems, technical coordination and quality control; b) creation of standards at a high technical level; The Section works mainly for the Polish Committee for Standardization, the National Atomic Energy Agency, Association of Polish Electrical Engineers and Research Institutes in Poland. The activity of the Section is useful for all national institutions where backplane busses and nuclear electronic equipment is produced or used. The Section participates in the following international organizations: IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) TC 45 (Nuclear Instrumentation); ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTCl SC26 (Microprocessor systems); ESONE (European Studies on Norms for Electronics); The section takes part in popularization of nuclear technology and instrumentation in the following ways: distribution of standards and technical documentation to national institutions dealing with nuclear apparatus; collecting and distributing technical information from international organizations (e.g. ESONE); organization of technical and scientific, national and international conferences (New Generation Nuclear Power Plants - September 96, QNX in Real World - January 96); participation in the technical conference organized by the Polish Committee for
Average cross sections calculated in various neutron fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shibata, Keiichi
2002-01-01
Average cross sections have been calculated for the reactions contained in the dosimetry files, JENDL/D-99, IRDF-90V2, and RRDF-98 in order to select the best data for the new library IRDF-2002. The neutron spectra used in the calculations are as follows: 1) 252 Cf spontaneous fission spectrum (NBS evaluation), 2) 235 U thermal fission spectrum (NBS evaluation), 3) Intermediate-energy Standard Neutron Field (ISNF), 4) Coupled Fast Reactivity Measurement Facility (CFRMF), 5) Coupled thermal/fast uranium and boron carbide spherical assembly (ΣΣ), 6) Fast neutron source reactor (YAYOI), 7) Experimental fast reactor (JOYO), 8) Japan Material Testing Reactor (JMTR), 9) d-Li neutron spectrum with a 2-MeV deuteron beam. The items 3)-7) represent fast neutron spectra, while JMTR is a light water reactor. The Q-value for the d-Li reaction mentioned above is 15.02 MeV. Therefore, neutrons with energies up to 17 MeV can be produced in the d-Li reaction. The calculated average cross sections were compared with the measurements. Figures 1-9 show the ratios of the calculations to the experimental data which are given. It is found from these figures that the 58 Fe(n, γ) cross section in JENDL/D-99 reproduces the measurements in the thermal and fast reactor spectra better than that in IRDF-90V2. (author)
Neutron-capture Cross Sections from Indirect Measurements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Escher, J E; Burke, J T; Dietrich, F S; Ressler, J J; Scielzo, N D; Thompson, I J
2011-10-18
Cross sections for compound-nuclear reactions play an important role in models of astrophysical environments and simulations of the nuclear fuel cycle. Providing reliable cross section data remains a formidable task, and direct measurements have to be complemented by theoretical predictions and indirect methods. The surrogate nuclear reactions method provides an indirect approach for determining cross sections for reactions on unstable isotopes, which are difficult or impossible to measure otherwise. Current implementations of the method provide useful cross sections for (n,f) reactions, but need to be improved upon for applications to capture reactions.
Continuous Extraction of Subway Tunnel Cross Sections Based on Terrestrial Point Clouds
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhizhong Kang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available An efficient method for the continuous extraction of subway tunnel cross sections using terrestrial point clouds is proposed. First, the continuous central axis of the tunnel is extracted using a 2D projection of the point cloud and curve fitting using the RANSAC (RANdom SAmple Consensus algorithm, and the axis is optimized using a global extraction strategy based on segment-wise fitting. The cross-sectional planes, which are orthogonal to the central axis, are then determined for every interval. The cross-sectional points are extracted by intersecting straight lines that rotate orthogonally around the central axis within the cross-sectional plane with the tunnel point cloud. An interpolation algorithm based on quadric parametric surface fitting, using the BaySAC (Bayesian SAmpling Consensus algorithm, is proposed to compute the cross-sectional point when it cannot be acquired directly from the tunnel points along the extraction direction of interest. Because the standard shape of the tunnel cross section is a circle, circle fitting is implemented using RANSAC to reduce the noise. The proposed approach is tested on terrestrial point clouds that cover a 150-m-long segment of a Shanghai subway tunnel, which were acquired using a LMS VZ-400 laser scanner. The results indicate that the proposed quadric parametric surface fitting using the optimized BaySAC achieves a higher overall fitting accuracy (0.9 mm than the accuracy (1.6 mm obtained by the plain RANSAC. The results also show that the proposed cross section extraction algorithm can achieve high accuracy (millimeter level, which was assessed by comparing the fitted radii with the designed radius of the cross section and comparing corresponding chord lengths in different cross sections and high efficiency (less than 3 s/section on average.
Atlas of photoneutron cross sections obtained with monoenergetic photons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dietrich, S.S.; Berman, B.L.
1988-01-01
Photoneutron cross-section and integrated cross-section data obtained with monoenergetic photons are presented in a uniform format. All of the measured partial photoneutron cross sections, the total photoneutron cross section, and the photoneutron yield cross section are plotted as functions of the incident photon energy, as are the integrated photoneutron cross sections and their first and second moments. The values of the integrated cross sections and the moments of the integrated total cross section up to the highest photon energy for which they were measured are tabulated, as are the parameters of Lorentz curves fitted to the total photoneutron cross-section data for medium and heavy nuclei (A>50). This compilation is current as of June 1987. copyright 1988 Academic Press, Inc
Malik, M; Hassali, M A A; Shafie, A A; Hussain, A
2014-05-01
Despite the availability of standard treatment guidelines for malaria in Pakistan adherence to protocols by prescribers is poor. This descriptive, cross-sectional study aimed to explore the perceptions and knowledge of prescribers in Islamabad and Rawalpindi cities towards adherence to standard treatment guidelines for malaria. A questionnaire was distributed to a random sample of 360 prescribers; 64.7% were satisfied with the available antimalarial drugs and 41.3% agreed that antimalarial drugs should only be prescribed after diagnostic testing. Only half the prescribers had the guidelines available in their health facility. Almost all the prescribers (97.7%) agreed that there was a need for more educational programmes about the guidelines. Most prescribers were unaware of the correct standard treatment regimen for Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax malaria. There were no differences in knowledge between males and females, but prescribers having more experience, practising as general practitioners and working in private health-care facilities possessed significantly better knowledge than their counterparts.
Cross-Sectional Analysis of Longitudinal Mediation Processes.
O'Laughlin, Kristine D; Martin, Monica J; Ferrer, Emilio
2018-01-01
Statistical mediation analysis can help to identify and explain the mechanisms behind psychological processes. Examining a set of variables for mediation effects is a ubiquitous process in the social sciences literature; however, despite evidence suggesting that cross-sectional data can misrepresent the mediation of longitudinal processes, cross-sectional analyses continue to be used in this manner. Alternative longitudinal mediation models, including those rooted in a structural equation modeling framework (cross-lagged panel, latent growth curve, and latent difference score models) are currently available and may provide a better representation of mediation processes for longitudinal data. The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, we provide a comparison of cross-sectional and longitudinal mediation models; second, we advocate using models to evaluate mediation effects that capture the temporal sequence of the process under study. Two separate empirical examples are presented to illustrate differences in the conclusions drawn from cross-sectional and longitudinal mediation analyses. Findings from these examples yielded substantial differences in interpretations between the cross-sectional and longitudinal mediation models considered here. Based on these observations, researchers should use caution when attempting to use cross-sectional data in place of longitudinal data for mediation analyses.
Parametric equations for calculation of macroscopic cross sections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Botelho, Mario Hugo; Carvalho, Fernando
2015-01-01
Neutronic calculations of the core of a nuclear reactor is one thing necessary and important for the design and management of a nuclear reactor in order to prevent accidents and control the reactor efficiently as possible. To perform these calculations a library of nuclear data, including cross sections is required. Currently, to obtain a cross section computer codes are used, which require a large amount of processing time and computer memory. This paper proposes the calculation of macroscopic cross section through the development of parametric equations. The paper illustrates the proposal for the case of macroscopic cross sections of absorption (Σa), which was chosen due to its greater complexity among other cross sections. Parametric equations created enable, quick and dynamic way, the determination of absorption cross sections, enabling the use of them in calculations of reactors. The results show efficient when compared with the absorption cross sections obtained by the ALPHA 8.8.1 code. The differences between the cross sections are less than 2% for group 2 and less than 0.60% for group 1. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Merle, Elsa
1999-01-01
The present work is based on the selection of e - e + → f f-bar events taken with the ALEPH detector from 1995 to 1998, for an integrated luminosity of 500 pb - . We first present the selection of dimuon, di-tau and di-electron events that we have been developed for this study. The hadronic selection used in ALEPH is also detailed in a devoted part. In each case, the estimation of systematic uncertainties is described. They are of the same order of magnitude as the statistical errors, ranging between 0.6% (di-electron) and 3.5% (dimuon). From these selections we derive the di-fermionic cross-sections as well as the asymmetries computed for the di-lepton channels. Measurements are found to be in reasonable agreement with the Standard Model expectations. Cross-sections and asymmetries are sensitive to the presence of possible new physics. In this document we use the context of the 4-fermion contact interactions to set limits on the energy scale of new physics. Such limits are found to range between 7 and 15 GeV depending on the modelling used. We also put lower limits on the mass of leptoquarks, 590 GeV/c 2 for vector leptoquarks and 71 GeV/c 2 for scalar leptoquarks. Eventually we also present the limits derived in the context of R-parity violated supersymmetry, putting constraint on the s-neutrino mass. Our study excludes such particles below a few hundred GeV/c 2 mass for high values of their Yukawa coupling assumptions. (author)
Topological cross sections in hadron-nucleus collisions and multiple scattering theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zoller, V.R.
1987-01-01
The multiple scattering theory supplemented with cutting rules of Abramovsky, V.A., Gribov, V.N., Kancheli, O.V. is applied to calculation of the hadron-nucleus interaction cross sections. In contrast to standard Glauber approach neither smalness of the interaction radius compared to the nuclear radii nor Gaussian form of the hN-interaction profile function are assumed. The theory of the supercritical pomeron are used. However all the results are more general and do not depend on the parametrization of the pomeron pole amplitude. The region of validity of the widely used approximate formulae for topological and total hA-interaction cross sections are discussed
Mass and Cross Section Measurements of light-flavored Squarks at CLIC
WEUSTE, L.
2011-01-01
We present a study of the prospects for the measurement of TeV-scale light-flavored right-squark masses and and the production cross sections at a 3 TeV e+e- collider based on CLIC technology. The analysis, performed in the framework of the CLIC Conceptual Design Report, is based on full Geant4 simulations of the CLIC ILD detector concept, including standard model physics background and machine related hadronic background from two-photon processes. The events were reconstructed using particle flow event reconstruction, and the mass and cross sections were obtained from a template fit built from generator-level simulations with smearing to parametrize the detector response. For an integrated luminosity of 2 ab^-1, a statistical precision of 5.9 GeV, corresponding to 0.52%, was obtained for unseparated first and second generation right squarks. For the combined cross section, a precision of 0.07 fb, corresponding to 5%, was obtained.
Analysis of Sodium-23 Data Cross-Sections for Coolant on Generation IV Reactor - SFR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suwoto; Zuhair
2009-01-01
The integral tests of sodium-23 neutron cross-sections for coolant contained in JENDL-3.3, ENDF/B-VII.0, BROND-2.2 and JEFF-3.1 files have been performed. Cross-sections analysis of sodium-23 such as total cross-sections, elastic scattering, in-elastic scattering and radiative capture cross-sections for several temperature i.e. 300K, 800K and 1500K. The sodium-23 total cross-sections analysis based on MAEKER, R.E. experimental result through Broomstick experiment calculation. Differences between among other evaluated nuclear data file for elastic scattering, in-elastic scattering and radiative capture cross-sections were done analyzed and compared to ENDF/B-VII.0 as standard reference. Analysis of total cross-sections sodium-23 through broomstick calculation show JENDL-3.3 file give the best result on C/E statistical average value is 1.1043 compared to another nuclear data files. Differences sodium-23 total cross-sections on JEFF-3.1 file for all temperature work specially for energy 40keV and 1MeV-2MeV is about 0.2%. Meanwhile, relative small differences on in-elastic total scattering cross-sections are shown for all temperatures are about ±0.1% in JENDL-3.3. On the other hand, BROND-2.2 file give ±6% higher on sodium-23 in-elastic total scattering cross sections for energy range 450keV-550keV. Clearly significant differences on sodium-23 radiative capture cross sections for BROND-2.2 file especially in energy 109.659keV is somewhat higher than 446%, otherwise JENDL-3.3 and JEFF-3.1 give 16% higher than ENDF/B-VII.0 file. Overall result show that JENDL-3.3, ENDFB-VII.0, BROND-2.2 and JEFF-3.1 have little bit differences in total, elastic scattering, in-elastic scattering total cross sections, except BROND-2.2 file due to radiative capture cross-sections with larger discrepancies. (author)
Low Energy Neutrino Cross Sections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zeller, G.P.
2004-01-01
Present atmospheric and accelerator based neutrino oscillation experiments operate at low neutrino energies (Ev ∼ 1 GeV) to access the relevant regions of oscillation parameter space. As such, they require precise knowledge of the cross sections for neutrino-nucleon interactions in the sub-to-few GeV range. At these energies, neutrinos predominantly interact via quasi-elastic (QE) or single pion production processes, which historically have not been as well studied as the deep inelastic scattering reactions that dominate at higher energies.Data on low energy neutrino cross sections come mainly from bubble chamber, spark chamber, and emulsion experiments that collected their data decades ago. Despite relatively poor statistics and large neutrino flux uncertainties, these measurements provide an important and necessary constraint on Monte Carlo models in present use. The following sections discuss the current status of QE, resonant single pion, coherent pion, and single kaon production cross section measurements at low energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hasegawa, Akira
1991-01-01
A common group cross-section library has been developed in JAERI. This system is called 'JSSTDL-295n-104γ (neutron:295 gamma:104) group constants library system', which is composed of a common 295n-104γ group cross-section library based on JENDL-3 nuclear data file and its utility codes. This system is applicable to fast and fusion reactors. In this paper, firstly outline of group cross-section processing adopted in Prof. GROUCH-G/B system is described in detail which is a common step for all group cross-section library generation. Next available group cross-section libraries developed in Japan based on JENDL-3 are briefly reviewed. Lastly newly developed JSSTDL library system is presented with some special attention to the JENDL-3 data. (author)
Status of neutron cross sections for reactor dosimetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vlasov, M.F.; Fabry, A.; McElroy, W.N.
1977-03-01
The status of current international efforts to develop standardized sets of evaluated energy-dependent (differential) neutron cross sections for reactor dosimetry is reviewed. The status and availability of differential data are considered, some recent results of the data testing of the ENDF/B-IV dosimetry file using 252 Cf and 235 U benchmark reference neutron fields are presented, and a brief review is given of the current efforts to characterize and identify dosimetry benchmark radiation fields
Neutron-capture cross sections from indirect measurements
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Scielzo N.D.
2012-02-01
Full Text Available Cross sections for compound-nuclear reactions reactions play an important role in models of astrophysical environments and simulations of the nuclear fuel cycle. Providing reliable cross section data remains a formidable task, and direct measurements have to be complemented by theoretical predictions and indirect methods. The surrogate nuclear reactions method provides an indirect approach for determining cross sections for reactions on unstable isotopes, which are difficult or impossible to measure otherwise. Current implementations of the method provide useful cross sections for (n,f reactions, but need to be improved upon for applications to capture reactions.
Curves and tables of neutron cross sections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakagawa, Tsuneo; Asami, Tetsuo; Yoshida, Tadashi
1990-07-01
Neutron cross-section curves from the Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library version 3, JENDL-3, are presented in both graphical and tabular form for users in a wide range of application areas in the nuclear energy field. The contents cover cross sections for all the main reactions induced by neutrons with an energy below 20 MeV including; total, elastic scattering, capture, and fission, (n,n'), (n,2n), (n,3n), (n,α), (n,p) reactions. The 2200 m/s cross-section values, resonance integrals, and Maxwellian- and fission-spectrum averaged cross sections are also tabulated. (author)
Ibrahim, Shewkar E; Sayed, Tarek; Ismail, Karim
2012-11-01
Several earlier studies have noted the shortcomings with existing geometric design guides which provide deterministic standards. In these standards the safety margin of the design output is generally unknown and there is little knowledge of the safety implications of deviating from the standards. To mitigate these shortcomings, probabilistic geometric design has been advocated where reliability analysis can be used to account for the uncertainty in the design parameters and to provide a mechanism for risk measurement to evaluate the safety impact of deviations from design standards. This paper applies reliability analysis for optimizing the safety of highway cross-sections. The paper presents an original methodology to select a suitable combination of cross-section elements with restricted sight distance to result in reduced collisions and consistent risk levels. The purpose of this optimization method is to provide designers with a proactive approach to the design of cross-section elements in order to (i) minimize the risk associated with restricted sight distance, (ii) balance the risk across the two carriageways of the highway, and (iii) reduce the expected collision frequency. A case study involving nine cross-sections that are parts of two major highway developments in British Columbia, Canada, was presented. The results showed that an additional reduction in collisions can be realized by incorporating the reliability component, P(nc) (denoting the probability of non-compliance), in the optimization process. The proposed approach results in reduced and consistent risk levels for both travel directions in addition to further collision reductions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fast Neutron Radiative Capture Cross Sections for some Important Standards from 30 keV to 1.5 MeV
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hellstroem, J
1971-12-15
Neutron capture radiative cross sections for Ta, Ag, In and Au have been measured between 30 keV and 1.5 MeV using time-of-flight technique. The detector used was a large liquid scintillator. Cross sections are given in relative and absolute units
Fast Neutron Radiative Capture Cross Sections for some Important Standards from 30 keV to 1.5 MeV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hellstroem, J.
1971-12-01
Neutron capture radiative cross sections for Ta, Ag, In and Au have been measured between 30 keV and 1.5 MeV using time-of-flight technique. The detector used was a large liquid scintillator. Cross sections are given in relative and absolute units
Neutron Cross Sections for Aluminium
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Forsberg, Leif
1963-08-15
Total, elastic, inelastic, (n, 2n), (n, {alpha}), (n, p), and (n, {gamma}) cross sections for aluminium have been compiled from thermal to 100 MeV based upon literature search and theoretical interpolations and estimates. Differential elastic cross sections in the centre of mass system are represented by the Legendre coefficients. This method was chosen in order to obtain the best description of the energy dependence of the anisotropy.
High ET jet cross sections at CDF
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Flaugher, B.
1996-08-01
The inclusive jet cross section for p anti p collisions at √s = 1.8 TeV as measured by the CDF collaboration will be presented. Preliminary CDF measurements of the Σ E T cross section at √s = 1.8 TeV and the central inclusive jet cross section at √s = 0.630 TeV will also be shown
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Trkov, A.; Molnar, G.L.; Revay, Zs.; Mughabghab, S.F.; Firestone,R.B.; Pronyaev, V.G.; Nichols, A.L.; Moxon, M.C.
2005-03-03
The precise value of the thermal capture cross section of238U is uncertain, and evaluated cross sections from various sourcesdiffer by more than their assigned uncertainties. A number of theoriginal publications have been reviewed to assess the discrepant data,corrections were made for more recent standard cross sections andotherconstants, and one new measurement was analyzed. Due to the strongcorrelations in activation measurements, the gamma-ray emissionprobabilities from the beta decay of 239Np were also analyzed. As aresult of the analysis, a value of 2.683 +- 0.012 barns was derived forthe thermal capture cross section of 238U. A new evaluation of thegamma-ray emission probabilities from 239Np decay was alsoundertaken.
Recommended evaluation procedure for photonuclear cross section
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Young-Ouk; Chang, Jonghwa; Fukahori, Tokio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment
1998-03-01
In order to generate photonuclear cross section library for the necessary applications, data evaluation is combined with theoretical evaluation, since photonuclear cross sections measured cannot provide all necessary data. This report recommends a procedure consisting of four steps: (1) analysis of experimental data, (2) data evaluation, (3) theoretical evaluation and, if necessary, (4) modification of results. In the stage of analysis, data obtained by different measurements are reprocessed through the analysis of their discrepancies to a representative data set. In the data evaluation, photonuclear absorption cross sections are evaluated via giant dipole resonance and quasi-deutron mechanism. With photoabsorption cross sections from the data evaluation, theoretical evaluation is applied to determine various decay channel cross sections and emission spectra using equilibrium and preequilibrium mechanism. After this, the calculated results are compared with measured data, and in some cases the results are modified to better describe measurements. (author)
Recommended activation detector cross sections (RNDL-82)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bondars, Kh.Ya.; Lapenas, A.A.
1984-01-01
The results of the comparison between measured and calculated average cross sections in 5 benchmark experiments are presented. Calculations have been based on the data from 10 libraries of evaluated cross sections. The recommended library (RNDL-82) of the activation detector cross sections has been created on the basis of the comparison. RNDL-82, including 26 reactions, and the basic characteristics of the detectors are presented. (author)
Activation cross section and isomeric cross section ratios for the (n ,2 n ) reaction on 153Eu
Luo, Junhua; Jiang, Li; Li, Suyuan
2017-10-01
The 153Eu(n ,2 n ) m1,m2,g152Eu cross section was measured by means of the activation technique at three neutron energies in the range 13-15 MeV. The quasimonoenergetic neutron beam was formed via the 3H(d ,n ) 4He reaction, in the Pd-300 Neutron Generator at the Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics (CAEP). The activities induced in the reaction products were measured using high-resolution γ-ray spectroscopy. The cross section of the population of the second high-spin (8-) isomeric state was measured along with the reaction cross section populating both the ground (3-) and the first isomeric state (0-). Cross sections were also evaluated theoretically using the numerical code TALYS-1.8, with different level density options at neutron energies varying from the reaction threshold to 20 MeV. Results are discussed and compared with the corresponding literature.
Thermal neutron capture cross section of chromium, vanadium, titanium and nickel isotopes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Venturini, L.; Pecequilo, B.R.S.
1990-04-01
The thermal neutron cross section of chromium, vanadium, titanium and nickel can be determined by measuring the pair spectrum of prompt gamma-rays emitted targets of these elements are irradiated by a thermal neutron beam. Such measurements were carried out by irradiating the natural element mixed with a nitrogen standard (melamine) in the tangential beam hole of the IEA-R1 research reactor. The pair spectrometer efficiency calibration curve in the 1.5 to 11 MeV energy range was performed with a melamine plus ammonium chloride mixed target. The cross section was calculated for the most prominent gamma transitions of each isotope, using nitrogen as standard and averaged over the obtained values. The resulting mean cross sections are as follows: (13.4 ± 0.7)b for 50 Cr, (0.79 ± 0,02)b for 52 Cr, (18.1 ± 0,7)b for 53 Cr, (4.9 ± 0.2)b for 51 V, (8.4 ± 0.1)b for 48 Ti, (4.41 ± 0.08)b 58 Ni, (2.54 ± 0.07)b for 60 Ni, (15.2 ± 0.5)b for 62 Ni and (1.6 ± 0.1) for 64 Ni. (author) [pt
Activation cross section and isomeric cross-section ratio for the (n,2n) reaction on {sup 132,134}Ba
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Luo, Junhua [Hexi Univ., Zhangye (China). School of Physics and Electromechanical Engineering; Hexi Univ., Zhangye (China). Inst. of New Energy; Wu, Chunlei; Jiang, Li [Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang (China). Inst. of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry; Li, Suyuan [Hexi Univ., Zhangye (China). Inst. of New Energy
2017-07-01
Cross sections of the {sup 132}Ba(n,2n){sup 131m,g}Ba and {sup 134}Ba(n,2n){sup 133m,g}Ba reactions and their isomeric cross section ratios σ{sub m}/σ{sub g} have been measured by means of the activation technique at three neutron energies in the range 13-15 MeV. BaCO{sub 3} samples and Nb monitor foils were activated together to determine the reaction cross section and the incident neutron flux. The quasimonoenergetic neutrons beam were produced via the {sup 3}H(d,n){sup 4}He reaction at the Pd-300 Neutron Generator of the Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics (CAEP). The activities induced in the reaction products were measured using high-resolution γ ray spectroscopy. The pure cross section of the ground-state was derived from the absolute cross section of the metastable state and the residual nuclear decay analysis. Cross sections were also evaluated theoretically using the numerical nuclear model code, TALYS-1.8 with different level density options at neutron energies varying from the reaction threshold to 20 MeV. Results are discussed and compared with the corresponding literature.
Approach of optimum cross-section choice for cable lines in market prices conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guseva, S.; Petrichenko, L.
2012-01-01
In this paper an approach for choosing the optimum cross section for cable lines in conditions of incomplete and uncertain information is considered. The existing method economic current's density has the disadvantages connected with the assumptions and the lack of reliable information. In the work the modification of the economic intervals' method is offered under market conditions of prices. The method is based on search of minimum total annual costs for lines' construction. As example, 20, 110, 330 kV cable lines with copper vein are selected. Economic nomograms with different standard cross-sections are calculated and constructed for practical using of method. The choice of cross-sections by economic considerations is actual and for modern market conditions of economy. The graphics using MathCAD software are offered. (Authors)
Dielectronic recombination cross sections for H-like ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pindzola, M.S.; Badnell, N.R.; Griffin, D.C.
1990-01-01
Dielectronic recombination cross sections for several H-like atomic ions are calculated in an isolated-resonance, distorted-wave approximation. Fine-structure and configuration-interaction effects are examined in detail for the O 7+ cross section. Hartree-Fock, intermediate-coupled, multiconfiguration dielectronic recombination cross sections for O 7+ are then compared with the recent experimental measurements obtained with the Test Storage Ring in Heidelberg. The cross-section spectra line up well in energy and the shape of the main resonance structures are comparable. The experimental integrated cross sections differ by up to 20% from theory, but this may be due in part to uncertainties in the electron distribution function
Comparative analysis among several cross section sets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caldeira, A.D.
1983-01-01
Critical parameters were calculated using the one dimensional multigroup transport theory for several cross section sets. Calculations have been performed for water mixtures of uranium metal, plutonium metal and uranium-thorium oxide, and for metallics systems, to determine the critical dimensions of geometries (sphere and cylinder). For this aim, the following cross section sets were employed: 1) multigroup cross section sets obtained from the GAMTEC-II code; 2) the HANSEN-ROACH cross section sets; 3) cross section sets from the ENDF/B-IV, processed by the NJOY code. Finally, we have also calculated the corresponding critical radius using the one dimensional multigroup transport DTF-IV code. The numerical results agree within a few percent with the critical values obtained in the literature (where the greatest discrepancy occured in the critical dimensions of water mixtures calculated with the values generated by the NJOY code), a very good results in comparison with similar works. (Author) [pt
MOX Cross-Section Libraries for ORIGEN-ARP
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gauld, I.C.
2003-01-01
The use of mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel in commercial nuclear power reactors operated in Europe has expanded rapidly over the past decade. The predicted characteristics of MOX fuel such as the nuclide inventories, thermal power from decay heat, and radiation sources are required for design and safety evaluations, and can provide valuable information for non-destructive safeguards verification activities. This report describes the development of computational methods and cross-section libraries suitable for the analysis of irradiated MOX fuel with the widely-used and recognized ORIGEN-ARP isotope generation and depletion code of the SCALE (Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation) code system. The MOX libraries are designed to be used with the Automatic Rapid Processing (ARP) module of SCALE that interpolates appropriate values of the cross sections from a database of parameterized cross-section libraries to create a problem-dependent library for the burnup analysis. The methods in ORIGEN-ARP, originally designed for uranium-based fuels only, have been significantly upgraded to handle the larger number of interpolation parameters associated with MOX fuels. The new methods have been incorporated in a new version of the ARP code that can generate libraries for low-enriched uranium (LEU) and MOX fuel types. The MOX data libraries and interpolation algorithms in ORIGEN-ARP have been verified using a database of declared isotopic concentrations for 1042 European MOX fuel assemblies. The methods and data are validated using a numerical MOX fuel benchmark established by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Working Group on burnup credit and nuclide assay measurements for irradiated MOX fuel performed as part of the Belgonucleaire ARIANE International Program
2010-01-01
... ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations. 105.101 Section 105.101 Business Credit... RESPONSIBILITIES Standards of Conduct § 105.101 Cross-reference to employee ethical conduct standards and financial... to the Standards of Ethical Conduct for Employees of the Executive Branch at 5 CFR part 2635 and the...
Fission cross section measurements at intermediate energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laptev, Alexander
2005-01-01
The activity in intermediate energy particle induced fission cross-section measurements of Pu, U isotopes, minor actinides and sub-actinides in PNPI of Russia is reviewed. The neutron-induced fission cross-section measurements are under way in the wide energy range of incident neutrons from 0.5 MeV to 200 MeV at the GNEIS facility. In number of experiments at the GNEIS facility, the neutron-induced fission cross sections were obtained for many nuclei. In another group of experiments the proton-induced fission cross-section have been measured for proton energies ranging from 200 to 1000 MeV at 100 MeV intervals using the proton beam of PNPI synchrocyclotron. (author)
Partial cross sections near the higher resonances
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Falk-Vairant, P.; Valladas, G.
1961-07-01
As a continuation of the report given at the 10. Rochester Conference, recent measurements of charge-exchange cross section and π 0 production in π - -p interactions are presented here. Section 1 gives a summary of the known results for the elastic, inelastic, and charge-exchange cross sections. Section 2 presents the behavior of the cross sections in the T=1/2 state, in order to discuss the resonances at 600 and 890 MeV. Section 3 discusses the charge-exchange scattering and the interference term between the T=1/2 and T=3/2 states. Section 4 presents some comments on inelastic processes. This report is reprinted from 'Reviews of Modern Physics', Vol. 33, No. 3, 362-367, July, 1961
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kulesza Joel A.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper describes a comparison of contemporary and historical light water reactor shielding and pressure vessel dosimetry cross-section libraries for a boiling water reactor calculational benchmark problem. The calculational benchmark problem was developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory by the request of the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The benchmark problem was originally evaluated by Brookhaven National Laboratory using the Oak Ridge National Laboratory discrete ordinates code DORT and the BUGLE-93 cross-section library. In this paper, the Westinghouse RAPTOR-M3G three-dimensional discrete ordinates code was used. A variety of cross-section libraries were used with RAPTOR-M3G including the BUGLE93, BUGLE-96, and BUGLE-B7 cross-section libraries developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and ALPAN-VII.0 developed at Westinghouse. In comparing the calculated fast reaction rates using the four aforementioned cross-section libraries in the pressure vessel capsule, for six dosimetry reaction rates, a maximum relative difference of 8% was observed. As such, it is concluded that the results calculated by RAPTOR-M3G are consistent with the benchmark and further that the different vintage BUGLE cross-section libraries investigated are largely self-consistent.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eva Hermoso Prieto
2016-04-01
Full Text Available The use of large cross-section timber for structural purposes has increased in Spain, and knowledge of its properties is strategically necessary. The Spanish visual strength-grading standard UNE 56544 (2011 efficiency applied to large cross-section structural timber was analyzed using a sample of 363 specimens of radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don. from the Basque Country and Catalonia, Spain. Different sizes were tested (80 × 120 × 2400 mm3, 150 × 250 × 5600 mm3, 150 × 250 × 4300 mm3, and 200 × 250 × 5000 mm3. Bending strength, modulus of elasticity, and density were obtained, and characteristic values were determined in order to assign strength class according to European standard EN 338 (2010. Knots and twists were the most relevant singularities for visual strength grading. It was concluded that large cross-section Spanish radiata pine timber was suitable for structures, and it was assigned to the C20 strength class.
Neutron-capture-activation cross sections of 9496Zr and 98100Mo at thermal and 30 keV energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wyrick, J.M.; Poenitz, W.P.
1982-01-01
Neutron-capture cross sections of 94 96 Zr and 98 100 Mo were measured relative to the standard-capture cross section of gold at thermal and 30 keV neutron energies using the activation technique. The reported values are based upon available decay-scheme information
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S.
2008-12-01
Measurements of the cross sections for charged current deep inelastic scattering in e - p collisions with longitudinally polarised electron beams are presented. The measurements are based on a data sample with an integrated luminosity of 175 pb -1 collected with the ZEUS detector at HERA at a centre-of-mass energy of 318 GeV. The total cross section is given for positively and negatively polarised electron beams. The differential cross-sections dσ/dQ 2 , dσ/dx and dσ/dy are presented for Q 2 >200 GeV 2 . The double-differential cross-section d 2 σ/dxdQ 2 is presented in the kinematic range 280 2 and 0.015< x<0.65. The measured cross sections are compared with the predictions of the Standard Model. (orig.)
Surface oxidation on thin films affects ionization cross section induced by proton beam
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bertol, Ana Paula Lamberti; Vasconcellos, M.A.Z.; Hinrichs, Ruth; Limandri, Silvina; Trincavelli, Jorge
2012-01-01
Full text: In microanalysis techniques such as Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), the transformation from intensity to concentration is made by standard less software that needs exact values of fundamental parameters such as the ionization cross section, transition probabilities of the different electronic levels, and fluorescent yield. The three parameters together measure the photon generating probability of an electronic transition and can be determined experimentally under the name of production cross section. These measurements are performed on thin films, with thickness around 10 nm, but most studies do not take into account any spontaneous surface oxidation. In this work, in the attempt to obtain cross section values of Al, Si and Ti, in metallic and oxide films, the influence of surface oxidation on the metallic films was established. Simulations considering the oxidation with the software SIMNRA on the Rutherford backscattering (RBS) spectra obtained from the films provided mass thickness values used to calculate the cross section data that were compared with theoretical values (PWBA and ECPSSR), and with experimental values and empirical adjustments from other studies. The inclusion of the natural oxidation affects the values of cross section, and may be one of the causes of discrepancies between the experimental values published in literature. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Candelore, N.R.; Kerrick, W.E.; Johnson, E.G.; Gast, R.C.; Dei, D.E.; Fields, D.L.
1982-09-01
The PACER Monte Carlo program for the CDC-7600 performs fixed source or eigenvalue calculations of spatially dependent neutron spectra in rod-lattice geometries. The neutron flux solution is used to produce few group, flux-weighted cross sections spatially averaged over edit regions. In general, PACER provides environmentally dependent flux-weighted few group microscopic cross sections which can be made time (depletion) dependent. These cross sections can be written in a standard POX output file format. To minimize computer storage requirements, PACER allows separate spectrum and edit options. PACER also calculates an explicit (n, 2n) cross section. The PACER geometry allows multiple rod arrays with axial detail. This report provides details of the neutron kinematics and the input required
Classical scattering cross section in sputtering transport theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Zhulin
2002-01-01
For Lindhard scaling interaction potential scattering commonly used in sputtering theory, the authors analyzed the great difference between Sigmund's single power and the double power cross sections calculated. The double power cross sections can give a much better approximation to the Born-Mayer scattering in the low energy region (m∼0.1). In particular, to solve the transport equations by K r -C potential interaction given by Urbassek few years ago, only the double power cross sections (m∼0.1) can yield better approximate results for the number of recoils. Therefore, the Sigmund's single power cross section might be replaced by the double power cross sections in low energy collision cascade theory
2010-07-01
...' ethical conduct standards, financial disclosure regulations and other conduct rules. 400.1 Section 400.1... CONDUCT § 400.1 Cross-references to employees' ethical conduct standards, financial disclosure regulations... executive branch-wide standards of ethical conduct and financial disclosure regulations at 5 CFR parts 2634...
2010-04-01
... ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations. 0.1 Section 0.1 Housing and Urban... Cross-reference to employees ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations. Employees...-wide standards of ethical conduct at 5 CFR part 2635, the Department's regulation at 5 CFR part 7501...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Diakaki M.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The 238U fission cross section is an international standard beyond 2 MeV where the fission plateau starts. However, due to its importance in fission reactors, this cross-section should be very accurately known also in the threshold region below 2 MeV. The 238U fission cross section has been measured relative to the 235U fission cross section at CERN – n_TOF with different detection systems. These datasets have been collected and suitably combined to increase the counting statistics in the threshold region from about 300 keV up to 3 MeV. The results are compared with other experimental data, evaluated libraries, and the IAEA standards.
Cross section data for ionization of important cyanides
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaur, Jaspreet; Antony, Bobby
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Multi centre spherical complex optical potential formalism used to find the CS. • Effective method (CSP-ic) to derive ionization contribution from inelastic CS. • Result shows excellent accord with previous results and consistent behaviour. • Maiden attempt to find CS for many cyanide molecules. • Strong correlation observed between peak of ionization with target properties. - Abstract: This article presents cross section calculations for interactions of important cyanides with electrons possessing energies beginning from ionization threshold of the target molecule to 5 keV. These data are pursued to meet the ever increasing demand for cross sections by the relevant atomic and molecular community for modelling astrophysical, atmospheric and technological domains. The calculations have been executed using an amalgam of multi centre spherical complex optical potential (MSCOP) formalism and complex scattering potential-ionization contribution (CSP-ic) method. Cross sections are compared with experimental and theoretical data wherever available. Strong correlations are observed for the cross sections which affirms consistent and reliable cross sections. Isomeric effect has been interpreted using variation of cross section with structure and target properties. Our cross sections will be tabulated in atomic collision database for use in modelling various statistical and dynamical quantities.
Cross section data for ionization of important cyanides
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kaur, Jaspreet; Antony, Bobby, E-mail: bka.ism@gmail.com
2015-11-15
Highlights: • Multi centre spherical complex optical potential formalism used to find the CS. • Effective method (CSP-ic) to derive ionization contribution from inelastic CS. • Result shows excellent accord with previous results and consistent behaviour. • Maiden attempt to find CS for many cyanide molecules. • Strong correlation observed between peak of ionization with target properties. - Abstract: This article presents cross section calculations for interactions of important cyanides with electrons possessing energies beginning from ionization threshold of the target molecule to 5 keV. These data are pursued to meet the ever increasing demand for cross sections by the relevant atomic and molecular community for modelling astrophysical, atmospheric and technological domains. The calculations have been executed using an amalgam of multi centre spherical complex optical potential (MSCOP) formalism and complex scattering potential-ionization contribution (CSP-ic) method. Cross sections are compared with experimental and theoretical data wherever available. Strong correlations are observed for the cross sections which affirms consistent and reliable cross sections. Isomeric effect has been interpreted using variation of cross section with structure and target properties. Our cross sections will be tabulated in atomic collision database for use in modelling various statistical and dynamical quantities.
Accurate Cross Sections for Microanalysis
Rez, Peter
2002-01-01
To calculate the intensity of x-ray emission in electron beam microanalysis requires a knowledge of the energy distribution of the electrons in the solid, the energy variation of the ionization cross section of the relevant subshell, the fraction of ionizations events producing x rays of interest and the absorption coefficient of the x rays on the path to the detector. The theoretical predictions and experimental data available for ionization cross sections are limited mainly to K shells of a...
Diffraction and Total Cross-Section at the Tevatron and the LHC
Deile, M; Aurola, A; Avati, V; Berardi, V; Bottigli, U; Bozzo, M; Brucken, E; Buzzo, A; Calicchio, M; Capurro, F; Catanesi, M G; Ciocci, M A; Cuneo, S; Da Vià, C; Dimovasili, E; Eggert, K; Eraluoto, M; Ferro, F; Giachero, A; Guillaud, J P; Hasi, J; Haug, F; Heino, J; Hilden, T; Jarron, P; Kalliopuska, J; Kaspar, J; Kempa, J; Kenney, C; Kok, A; Kundrát, V; Kurvinen, K; Lami, S; Lamsa, J; Latino, G; Lauhakangas, R; Lippmaa, J; Lokajícek, M; Lo Vetere, M; Macina, D; Macri, M; Meucci, M; Minutoli, S; Morelli, A; Musico, P; Negri, M; Niewiadomski, H; Noschis, E; Ojala, J; Oljemark, F; Orava, R; Oriunno, M; Österberg, K; Paoletti, R; Parker, S; Perrot, Anne Laure; Radermacher, E; Radicioni, E; Robutti, E; Ropelewski, Leszek; Ruggiero, G; Saarikko, H; Sanguinetti, G; Santroni, A; Saramad, S; Sauli, Fabio; Scribano, A; Sette, G; Smotlacha, J; Snoeys, W; Taylor, C; Toppinen, A; Turini, N; Van Remortel, N; Verardo, L; Verdier, A; Watts, S; Whitmore, J
2006-01-01
At the Tevatron, the total p_bar-p cross-section has been measured by CDF at 546 GeV and 1.8 TeV, and by E710/E811 at 1.8 TeV. The two results at 1.8 TeV disagree by 2.6 standard deviations, introducing big uncertainties into extrapolations to higher energies. At the LHC, the TOTEM collaboration is preparing to resolve the ambiguity by measuring the total p-p cross-section with a precision of about 1 %. Like at the Tevatron experiments, the luminosity-independent method based on the Optical Theorem will be used. The Tevatron experiments have also performed a vast range of studies about soft and hard diffractive events, partly with antiproton tagging by Roman Pots, partly with rapidity gap tagging. At the LHC, the combined CMS/TOTEM experiments will carry out their diffractive programme with an unprecedented rapidity coverage and Roman Pot spectrometers on both sides of the interaction point. The physics menu comprises detailed studies of soft diffractive differential cross-sections, diffractive structure func...
Absolute measurements of neutron cross sections. Progress report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1984-11-01
In the photoneutron laboratory, we have completed a major refurbishing of experimental facilities and begun work on measurements of the capture cross section in thorium and U-238. In the 14 MeV neutron experimental bay, work continues on the measurement of 14 MeV neutron induced reactions of interest as standards or because of their technological importance. First results have been obtained over the past year, and we are extending these measurements along the lines outlined in our proposal of a year ago
Grotenhuis, H.F. te; Eisinga, R.N.; Scheepers, P.L.H.
2004-01-01
In cross-sectional survey research, it is quite common to estimate the(standardized) effect of independent variable(s) on a dependent variable. However, if repeated cross-sectional data are available, much is to be gained if the consequences of these effects on longitudinal social change are
Measurement of 24.3 keV activation cross sections with the iron filter technique
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rimawi, K.; Chrien, R.E.
1975-01-01
By using high-resolution detection techniques, intensities of specific activation lines from 197 Au(n,gamma), 238 U(n,gamma), 127 I(n,gamma), and 115 In(n,gamma) [54 min + 2.2 sec] were recorded, by using the BNL HFBR iron-filtered neutron beam. From a com- parison with the reaction 10 B(n,αgamma), cross sections at 24.3 keV were determined. (24.3 keV neutron activation cross sections, relative 10 B standard). (4 figures) (U.S.)
Measurements of neutron-induced fission cross sections of Pb and Bi at intermediate energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ryzhov, Igor; Tutin, Gennady; Eismont, Vilen; Mitryukhin, Andrey; Oplavin, Valery; Soloviev, Sergey; Conde, Henri; Olsson, Nils; Renberg, Per-Ulf
2002-01-01
Neutron-induced fission cross sections of nat Pb and 209 Bi have been measured relative to the 238 U(n.f) cross section at energies 96 MeV for lead and 133 MeV for bismuth. The measurements were performed at the quasi-mono-energetic neutron beam facility of The Svedberg Laboratory in Uppsala using Frisch-gridded ionization chamber. The results obtained are compared with other experimental data. The present state of the Bi standard recommended by IAEA is discussed. (author)
Criticality benchmark comparisons leading to cross-section upgrades
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alesso, H.P.; Annese, C.E.; Heinrichs, D.P.; Lloyd, W.R.; Lent, E.M.
1993-01-01
For several years criticality benchmark calculations with COG. COG is a point-wise Monte Carlo code developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). It solves the Boltzmann equation for the transport of neutrons and photons. The principle consideration in developing COG was that the resulting calculation would be as accurate as the point-wise cross-sectional data, since no physics computational approximations were used. The objective of this paper is to report on COG results for criticality benchmark experiments in concert with MCNP comparisons which are resulting in corrections an upgrades to the point-wise ENDL cross-section data libraries. Benchmarking discrepancies reported here indicated difficulties in the Evaluated Nuclear Data Livermore (ENDL) cross-sections for U-238 at thermal neutron energy levels. This led to a re-evaluation and selection of the appropriate cross-section values from several cross-section sets available (ENDL, ENDF/B-V). Further cross-section upgrades anticipated
Cross section homogenization analysis for a simplified Candu reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pounders, Justin; Rahnema, Farzad; Mosher, Scott; Serghiuta, Dumitru; Turinsky, Paul; Sarsour, Hisham
2008-01-01
The effect of using zero current (infinite medium) boundary conditions to generate bundle homogenized cross sections for a stylized half-core Candu reactor problem is examined. Homogenized cross section from infinite medium lattice calculations are compared with cross sections homogenized using the exact flux from the reference core environment. The impact of these cross section differences is quantified by generating nodal diffusion theory solutions with both sets of cross sections. It is shown that the infinite medium spatial approximation is not negligible, and that ignoring the impact of the heterogeneous core environment on cross section homogenization leads to increased errors, particularly near control elements and the core periphery. (authors)
Methodology series module 3: Cross-sectional studies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maninder Singh Setia
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Cross-sectional study design is a type of observational study design. In a cross-sectional study, the investigator measures the outcome and the exposures in the study participants at the same time. Unlike in case–control studies (participants selected based on the outcome status or cohort studies (participants selected based on the exposure status, the participants in a cross-sectional study are just selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria set for the study. Once the participants have been selected for the study, the investigator follows the study to assess the exposure and the outcomes. Cross-sectional designs are used for population-based surveys and to assess the prevalence of diseases in clinic-based samples. These studies can usually be conducted relatively faster and are inexpensive. They may be conducted either before planning a cohort study or a baseline in a cohort study. These types of designs will give us information about the prevalence of outcomes or exposures; this information will be useful for designing the cohort study. However, since this is a 1-time measurement of exposure and outcome, it is difficult to derive causal relationships from cross-sectional analysis. We can estimate the prevalence of disease in cross-sectional studies. Furthermore, we will also be able to estimate the odds ratios to study the association between exposure and the outcomes in this design.
Methodology Series Module 3: Cross-sectional Studies.
Setia, Maninder Singh
2016-01-01
Cross-sectional study design is a type of observational study design. In a cross-sectional study, the investigator measures the outcome and the exposures in the study participants at the same time. Unlike in case-control studies (participants selected based on the outcome status) or cohort studies (participants selected based on the exposure status), the participants in a cross-sectional study are just selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria set for the study. Once the participants have been selected for the study, the investigator follows the study to assess the exposure and the outcomes. Cross-sectional designs are used for population-based surveys and to assess the prevalence of diseases in clinic-based samples. These studies can usually be conducted relatively faster and are inexpensive. They may be conducted either before planning a cohort study or a baseline in a cohort study. These types of designs will give us information about the prevalence of outcomes or exposures; this information will be useful for designing the cohort study. However, since this is a 1-time measurement of exposure and outcome, it is difficult to derive causal relationships from cross-sectional analysis. We can estimate the prevalence of disease in cross-sectional studies. Furthermore, we will also be able to estimate the odds ratios to study the association between exposure and the outcomes in this design.
Compilation of cross-sections. Pt. 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Flaminio, V.; Moorhead, W.G.; Morrison, D.R.O.; Rivoire, N.
1983-01-01
A compilation of integral cross-sections for hadronic reactions is presented. This is an updated version of CERN/HERA 79-1, 79-2, 79-3. It contains all data published up to the beginning of 1982, but some more recent data have also been included. Plots of the cross-sections versus incident laboratory momentum are also given. (orig.)
Compilation of cross-sections. Pt. 4
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alekhin, S.I.; Ezhela, V.V.; Lugovsky, S.B.; Tolstenkov, A.N.; Yushchenko, O.P.; Baldini, A.; Cobal, M.; Flaminio, V.; Capiluppi, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Mandrioli, G.; Rossi, A.M.; Serra, P.; Moorhead, W.G.; Morrison, D.R.O.; Rivoire, N.
1987-01-01
This is the fourth volume in our series of data compilations on integrated cross-sections for weak, electromagnetic, and strong interaction processes. This volume covers data on reactions induced by photons, neutrinos, hyperons, and K L 0 . It contains all data published up to June 1986. Plots of the cross-sections versus incident laboratory momentum are also given. (orig.)
Microscopic description of production cross sections including deexcitation effects
Sekizawa, Kazuyuki
2017-07-01
results. However, there remain discrepancies between the measurements and the calculated cross sections, indicating a limit of the theoretical framework that works with a single mean-field potential. Possible causes of the discrepancies are discussed. Conclusions: To perfectly reproduce experimental cross sections for multinucleon transfer processes, one should go beyond the standard self-consistent mean-field description. Nevertheless, the proposed method will provide valuable information to optimize production mechanisms of new neutron-rich nuclei through its microscopic, nonempirical predictions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nogueira, J.C.; Dallavalli, M.J.
1992-01-01
Absolute elastic differential cross sections have been measured for incident electron energies between 75 and 1000 eV and in the angular range between 10 0 to 120 0 . The relative flow technique was used and nitrogen was the secondary gas standard. Integral cross sections have also been determined from extrapolation of the differential cross sections. The data are compared with previous experimental data, showing good agreement. (author)
Evaluation of fusion-evaporation cross-section calculations
Blank, B.; Canchel, G.; Seis, F.; Delahaye, P.
2018-02-01
Calculated fusion-evaporation cross sections from five different codes are compared to experimental data. The present comparison extents over a large range of nuclei and isotopic chains to investigate the evolution of experimental and calculated cross sections. All models more or less overestimate the experimental cross sections. We found reasonable agreement by using the geometrical average of the five model calculations and dividing the average by a factor of 11.2. More refined analyses are made for example for the 100Sn region.
NDS multigroup cross section libraries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
DayDay, N.
1981-12-01
A summary description and documentation of the multigroup cross section libraries which exist at the IAEA Nuclear Data Section are given in this report. The libraries listed are available either on tape or in printed form. (author)
Differential Top and Diboson Cross-Section Measurements with the ATLAS detector
Mochizuki, Kazuya; The ATLAS collaboration
2017-01-01
Measurements of the differential production cross-sections of the production of pairs of electroweak gauge bosons as well as top-quark pairs at the LHC provide stringent tests of advanced perturbative QCD calculations. In addition, these processes constitute a dominant background for many searches for signs of beyond Standard Model physics processes and are directly sensitive to anomalous couplings. The ATLAS collaboration has performed detailed measurements of those differential cross sections in various final states at centre-of-mass energies of 8 and 13 TeV. In this talk, the most recent results are presented and compared to predictions at NLO (and NNLO) in pQCD, highlighting observed differences and providing an overview of required improvements on the underlying physics modeling.
Neutron-induced fission cross sections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weigmann, H.
1991-01-01
In the history of fission research, neutron-induced fission has always played the most important role. The practical importance of neutron-induced fission rests upon the fact that additional neutrons are produced in the fission process, and thus a chain reaction becomes possible. The practical applications of neutron-induced fission will not be discussed in this chapter, but only the physical properties of one of its characteristics, namely (n,f) cross sections. The most important early summaries on the subject are the monograph edited by Michaudon which also deals with the practical applications, the earlier review article on fission by Michaudon, and the review by Bjornholm and Lynn, in which neutron-induced fission receives major attention. This chapter will attempt to go an intermediate way between the very detailed theoretical treatment in the latter review and the cited monograph which emphasizes the applied aspects and the techniques of fission cross-section measurements. The more recent investigations in the field will be included. Section II will survey the properties of cross sections for neutron-induced fission and also address some special aspects of the experimental methods applied in their measurement. Section Ill will deal with the formal theory of neutron-induced nuclear reactions for the resolved resonance region and the region of statistical nuclear reactions. In Section IV, the fission width, or fission transmission coefficient, will be discussed in detail. Section V will deal with the broader structures due to incompletely damped vibrational resonances, and in particular will address the special case of thorium and neighboring isotopes. Finally, Section VI will briefly discuss parity violation effects in neutron-induced fission. 74 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs
2010-04-01
... employee ethical conduct standards and other applicable regulations. 1300.101 Section 1300.101 Conservation... TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY § 1300.101 Cross references to employee ethical conduct standards and other...-wide standards of ethical conduct at 5 CFR part 2635 and to the TVA regulations at 5 CFR part 7901...
Measurement of keV-neutron capture cross sections and capture gamma-ray spectra of Er isotopes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harun-Ar-Rashid, A.K.M.; Igashira, Masayuki; Ohsaki, Toshiro
2000-01-01
Neutron capture cross sections and capture γ-ray spectra of 166,167, 168 Er were measured in the energy region of 10 to 550 keV. The measurements were performed with a pulsed 7 Li(p,n) 7 Be neutron source and a large anti-Compton NaI(Tl) γ-ray spectrometer. A pulse-height weighting technique and the standard capture cross sections of gold were used to derive the capture cross sections. The errors of the derived cross sections were about 5%. The present results were compared with other measurements and evaluations. The observed capture γ-ray pulse-height spectra were unfolded to obtain the corresponding γ-ray spectra. An anomalous shoulder was observed around 3 MeV in each of the capture γ-ray spectra. (author)
Cross-Sectional Dispersion of Firm Valuations and Expected Stock Returns
Jiang, Danling
2008-01-01
This paper develops two competing hypotheses for the relation between the cross-sectional standard deviation of logarithmic firm fundamental-to-price ratios (``dispersion'') and expected aggregate returns. In models with fully rational beliefs, greater dispersion indicates greater risk and higher expected aggregate returns. In models with investor overconfidence, greater dispersion indicates greater mispricing and lower expected aggregate returns. Consistent with the behavioral models, the re...
ENDF/B-5 fission product cross section evaluations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schenter, R.E.; England, T.R.
1979-12-01
Cross section evaluations were made for the 196 fission product nuclides on the ENDF/B-5 data files. Most of the evaluations involve updating the capture cross sections of the important absorbers for fast and thermal reactor systems. This included updating thermal values, resonance integrals, resonance parameter sets, and fast capture cross sections. For the fast capture results generalized least-squares calculations were made with the computer code FERRET. Input for these cross section adjustments included nuclear models calculations and both integral and differential experimental data results. The differential cross sections and their uncertainties were obtained from the CSIRS library. Integral measurement results came from CFRMF and STEK Assemblies 500, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000. Comparisons of these evaluations with recent capture measurements are shown. 15 figures, 10 tables
Nuclear fission and neutron-induced fission cross-sections
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
James, G.D.; Lynn, J.E.; Michaudon, A.; Rowlands, J.; de Saussure, G.
1981-01-01
A general presentation of current knowledge of the fission process is given with emphasis on the low energy fission of actinide nuclei and neutron induced fission. The need for and the required accuracy of fission cross section data in nuclear energy programs are discussed. A summary is given of the steps involved in fission cross section measurement and the range of available techniques. Methods of fission detection are described with emphasis on energy dependent changed and detector efficiency. Examples of cross section measurements are given and data reduction is discussed. The calculation of fission cross sections is discussed and relevant nuclear theory including the formation and decay of compound nuclei and energy level density is introduced. A description of a practical computation of fission cross sections is given.
Model cross section calculations using LAHET
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prael, R.E.
1992-01-01
The current status of LAHET is discussed. The effect of a multistage preequilibrium exciton model following the INC is examined for neutron emission benchmark calculations, as is the use of a Fermi breakup model for light nuclei rather than an evaporation model. Comparisons are made also for recent fission cross section experiments, and a discussion of helium production cross sections is presented
Interference analysis of fission cross section
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toshkov, S.A.; Yaneva, N.B.
1976-01-01
The formula for the reaction cross-section based on the R-matrix formalism considering the interference between the two neighbouring resonances, referred to the same value of total momentum was used for the analysis of the cross-section of resonance neutron induced fission of 230Pu. The experimental resolution and thermal motion of the target nuclei were accounted for numerical integration
Total cross sections for electron scattering by He
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Heer, F.J.; Jansen, R.H.J.
1977-01-01
A set of total cross sections for scattering of electrons by He has been evaluated over the energy range of zero to 3000 eV by means of the analysis of experiments and theories on total cross sections for elastic scattering, ionisation and excitation, and on differential cross sections for elastic and inelastic scattering. Between 0 and 19.8 eV, where no inelastic processes occur, the total cross sections for scattering are equal to those for elastic scattering. Above 19.8 eV total cross sections for scattering of electrons have been evaluated by adding those for ionisation, excitation and elastic scattering. The total cross sections thus obtained are probably accurate to about 5% over a large part of the energy range. They appear to be in very good agreement with the recent experimental results of Blaauw et al. (J. Phys. B.; 10:L299 (1977)). The present results have already proved useful for application in the dispersion relation for forward scattering in electron-helium collisions. (author)
Secondary standard neutron detector for measuring total reaction cross sections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sekharan, K.K.; Laumer, H.; Gabbard, F.
1975-01-01
A neutron detector has been constructed and calibrated for the accurate measurement of total neutron-production cross sections. The detector consists of a polyethylene sphere of 24'' diameter in which 8- 10 BF 3 counters have been installed radially. The relative efficiency of this detector has been determined for average neutron energies, from 30 keV to 1.5 MeV by counting neutrons from 7 Li(p,n) 7 Be. By adjusting the radial positions of the BF 3 counters in the polyethylene sphere the efficiency for neutron detection was made nearly constant for this energy range. Measurement of absolute efficiency for the same neutron energy range has been done by counting the neutrons from 51 V(p,n) 51 Cr and 57 Fe(p,n) 57 Co reactions and determining the absolute number of residual nuclei produced during the measurement of neutron yield. Details of absolute efficiency measurements and the use of the detector for measurement of total neutron yields from neutron producing reactions such as 23 Na(p,n) 23 Mg are given
EJ2-MCNPlib. Contents of the JEF-2.2 based neutron cross-section library for MCNP4A
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hogenbirk, A.; Oppe, J.
1995-05-01
In this report a description is given of the EJ2-MCNPlib library. The EJ2-MCNPlib library is to be used for reactivity/critically calculations and general neutron/photon transport calculations with the Monte Carlo code MCNP4A. The library is based on the European JEF-2.2 nuclear data evaluation and contains data for all (i.e. 313) nuclides available on this evaluation.The cross-section data were generated using the NJOY cross-section processing code system, version 91.118. For easy reference cross-section plots are given in this report for the total, elastic and absorption cross sections for all nuclides on the EJ2-MCNPlib library. Furthermore, for verification purposes a graphical intercomparison is given of the results of standard benchmark calculations performed with JEF-2.2 cross-section data and with ENDF/B-V cross-section data (whenever available). 6 refs
Cross Sections for Inner-Shell Ionization by Electron Impact
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Llovet, Xavier, E-mail: xavier@ccit.ub.edu [Centres Científics i Tecnològics, Universitat de Barcelona, Lluís Solé i Sabarís 1-3, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Powell, Cedric J. [Materials Measurement Science Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8370 (United States); Salvat, Francesc [Facultat de Física (ECM and ICC), Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Jablonski, Aleksander [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warsaw (Poland)
2014-03-15
An analysis is presented of measured and calculated cross sections for inner-shell ionization by electron impact. We describe the essentials of classical and semiclassical models and of quantum approximations for computing ionization cross sections. The emphasis is on the recent formulation of the distorted-wave Born approximation by Bote and Salvat [Phys. Rev. A 77, 042701 (2008)] that has been used to generate an extensive database of cross sections for the ionization of the K shell and the L and M subshells of all elements from hydrogen to einsteinium (Z = 1 to Z = 99) by electrons and positrons with kinetic energies up to 1 GeV. We describe a systematic method for evaluating cross sections for emission of x rays and Auger electrons based on atomic transition probabilities from the Evaluated Atomic Data Library of Perkins et al. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, UCRL-ID-50400, 1991]. We made an extensive comparison of measured K-shell, L-subshell, and M-subshell ionization cross sections and of Lα x-ray production cross sections with the corresponding calculated cross sections. We identified elements for which there were at least three (for K shells) or two (for L and M subshells) mutually consistent sets of cross-section measurements and for which the cross sections varied with energy as expected by theory. The overall average root-mean-square deviation between the measured and calculated cross sections was 10.9% and the overall average deviation was −2.5%. This degree of agreement between measured and calculated ionization and x-ray production cross sections was considered to be very satisfactory given the difficulties of these measurements.
Floodplain Cross Section Lines
Department of Homeland Security — This table is required for any Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map database where cross sections are shown on the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). Normally any FIRM...
A Pebble Bed Reactor cross section methodology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hudson, Nathanael H.; Ougouag, Abderrafi M.; Rahnema, Farzad; Gougar, Hans
2009-01-01
A method is presented for the evaluation of microscopic cross sections for the Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) neutron diffusion computational models during convergence to an equilibrium (asymptotic) fuel cycle. This method considers the isotopics within a core spectral zone and the leakages from such a zone as they arise during reactor operation. The randomness of the spatial distribution of fuel grains within the fuel pebbles and that of the fuel and moderator pebbles within the core, the double heterogeneity of the fuel, and the indeterminate burnup of the spectral zones all pose a unique challenge for the computation of the local microscopic cross sections. As prior knowledge of the equilibrium composition and leakage is not available, it is necessary to repeatedly re-compute the group constants with updated zone information. A method is presented to account for local spectral zone composition and leakage effects without resorting to frequent spectrum code calls. Fine group data are pre-computed for a range of isotopic states. Microscopic cross sections and zone nuclide number densities are used to construct fine group macroscopic cross sections, which, together with fission spectra, flux modulation factors, and zone buckling, are used in the solution of the slowing down balance to generate a new or updated spectrum. The microscopic cross-sections are then re-collapsed with the new spectrum for the local spectral zone. This technique is named the Spectral History Correction (SHC) method. It is found that this method accurately recalculates local broad group microscopic cross sections. Significant improvement in the core eigenvalue, flux, and power peaking factor is observed when the local cross sections are corrected for the effects of the spectral zone composition and leakage in two-dimensional PBR test problems.
Transport cross section for small-angle scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
D'yakonov, M.I.; Khaetskii, A.V.
1991-01-01
Classical mechanics is valid for describing potential scattering under the conditions (1) λ much-lt α and (2) U much-gt ℎυ/α, where λ is the de Broglie wavelength, α is the characteristic size of the scatterer, U is the characteristic value of the potential energy, and υ is the velocity of the scattered particle. The second of these conditions means that the typical value of the classical scattering angle is far larger than the diffraction angle λ/α. In this paper the authors show that this second condition need not hold in a derivation of the transport cross section. In other words, provided that the condition λ much-lt α holds, it is always possible to calculate the transport cross section from the expressions of classical mechanics, even in the region U approx-lt ℎυ/α, where the scattering is diffractive,and the differential cross section is greatly different from the classical cross section. The transport cross section is found from the classical expression even in the anticlassical case U much-lt ℎυ/α, where the Born approximation can be used
ZZ CANDULIB-AECL, Burnup-Dependent ORIGEN-S Cross-Section Libraries for Candu Reactor Fuels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2002-01-01
1 - Historical background and information: - 28-element fuel cross-section library: Format: Designed for use with the ORIGEN-S isotope generation and depletion code. Materials: Co, Ge, As, Se, Br, Kr, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Te, I, Xe, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Lu, Ta, W, Re, Au, Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, Am, Cm. Origin: ENDSF, ENDF/B-IV, -V and -VI Weighting spectrum: determined using WIMS-AECL transport code. - 37-element fuel cross-section library: Format: Designed for use with the ORIGEN-S isotope generation and depletion code. Materials: Co, Ge, As, Se, Br, Kr, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Te, I, Xe, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Lu, Ta, W, Re, Au, Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, Am, Cm. Origin: ENDSF, ENDF/B-IV, -V and -VI Weighting spectrum: determined using WIMS-AECL transport code. In 1995, updated ORIGEN-S cross-section libraries were created as part of a program to upgrade and standardize the computer codes and nuclear data employed for used fuel characterization. This effort was funded through collaboration between Atomic Energy of Canada Limited and the Canadian Nuclear Power Utilities, under the Candu Owners Group (COG). The updated cross sections were generated using the WIMS-AECL lattice code and ENDF/B-V and -VI based data to provide cross section consistency with reactor physics codes. 2 - Application of the data: The libraries in this data collection are designed for characterising used fuel from Candu pressurized heavy water reactors. Two libraries are provided: one for the standard 28-element fuel bundle design, the other for the 37-element fuel bundle design. The libraries were generated for typical reactor operating conditions. The libraries are designed for use with the ORIGEN-S isotope generation and depletion code. 3 - Source and scope of data: The Candu libraries are updated with cross sections from a variety of different sources. Capture
Evidence for WZ Production and a Measurement of the WZ Production Cross Section
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Degenhardt, James D. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)
2007-05-01
This dissertation describes a test of the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics by measuring the probability, or cross section, of simultaneously producing a W boson and a Z boson from proton-antiproton collisions. The SM predicts the cross section of WZ production to be 3.68 ± 0.25 pb. The SM and physics of WZ production are described in Chapter 2 of this dissertation. The 1.96 TeV center-of-mass energy proton-antiproton collisions are provided by the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) Tevatron Collider. The W and Z particles are detected using the D0 detector, which is described in Chapter 3. The data were collected by the detector during 2002-2006 corresponding to 1 fb^{-1} of p{bar p} collisions. This data set is described in Chapter 6. The measurement uses the trilepton (evee, μvee, evμμ, and μvμμ) decay channels, in which a W decays to a charged lepton plus a neutrino and a Z decays to a pair of charged leptons. The W and Z particle selection criteria, detection efficiency, and background determination are described in Chapter 7. We observe 13 candidate events in 1 fb^{-1} of p$\\bar{p}$ collisions. In this data set we expect to see 4.5 ± 0.6 background events, and we expect to see 9.2 ± 1.0 signal events. The probability of 4.5 ± 0.6 background events to fluctuate to 13 or more events is 1.2 x 10^{-3} which is a 3.0 σ deviation from the background estimate. A log likelihood method is used to determine the most likely cross section as determined by the measured signal efficiencies, the expected backgrounds, and the observed data. Presented in Chapter 8 is a measurement of the cross section for p$\\bar{p}$ → WZ + X at √s = 1.96 TeV. The WZ diboson production cross section is measured to be σ_{WZ} = 2.7$+1.7\\atop{-1.3}$ pb. This is in agreement with the predicted Standard Model cross section.
Nonelastic-scattering cross sections of elemental nickel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, A.B.; Guenther, P.T.; Whalen, J.F.
1980-06-01
Neutron total cross sections of elemental nickel were measured from 1.3 to 4.5 MeV, at intervals of approx. 50 keV, with resolutions of 30 to 50 keV and to accuracies of 1 to 2.5%. Neutron differential-elastic-scattering cross sections were measured from 1.45 to 3.8 MeV, at intervals and with resolutions comparable to those of the total cross sections, and to accuracies of 3 to 5%. The nonelastic-scattering cross section is derived from the measured values to accuracies of greater than or equal to 6%. The experimental results are compared with previously reported values as represented by ENDF/B-V, and areas of consistency and discrepancy, noted. The measured results are shown to be in good agreement with the predictions of a model previously reported by the authors. 4 figures, 1 table
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Chang Ho; Cho, Byung Oh; Song, Jae Seong; Lee, Chung Chan
1996-12-01
A three-dimensional reactor core simulation code, MASTER, has been developed as a part of the ADONIS project in KAERI. CASMO-3 prepares various two-group cross sections for the constituents of a reactor core such as fuel assembly, radial and axial reflectors, control rod and detector for MASTER. This report includes the standard design procedure for generation of two-group cross sections and heterogeneous formfunction by CASMO-3/FORM for MASTER. (author). 16 refs., 16 tabs., 12 figs.
Fragmentation cross sections outside the limiting-fragmentation regime
Sümmerer, K
2003-01-01
The empirical parametrization of fragmentation cross sections, EPAX, has been successfully applied to estimate fragment production cross sections in reactions of heavy ions at high incident energies. It is checked whether a similar parametrization can be found for proton-induced spallation around 1 GeV, the range of interest for ISOL-type RIB facilities. The validity of EPAX for medium-energy heavy-ion induced reactions is also checked. Only a few datasets are available, but in general EPAX predicts the cross sections rather well, except for fragments close to the projectile, where the experimental cross sections are found to be larger.
Measurements of fission cross-sections. Chapter 4
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
James, G.D.
1981-01-01
The steps involved in the measurement of fission cross sections are summarized and the range of techniques available are considered. Methods of fission detection are described with particular emphasis on the neutron energy dependent properties of the fission process and the details of fragment energy loss which can lead to energy-dependent changes in detector efficiency. Selected examples of fission cross-section measurements are presented and methods of data reduction, storage, analysis and evaluation, are examined. Finally requested accuracies for fission cross section data are compared to estimated available accuracies. (U.K.)
Vibrational enhancement of total breakup cross sections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haftel, M.I.; Lim, T.K.
1984-01-01
This paper considers the role of multi-two-body bound states, namely vibrational excitations, on total three-body breakup cross-sections. Total cross-sections are usually easy to measure, and they play a fundamental role in chemical kinetics. (orig.)
Target dependence of K+-nucleus total cross sections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jiang, M.F.; Ernst, D.J.; Chen, C.M.
1995-01-01
We investigate the total cross section and its target dependence for K + -nucleus scattering using a relativistic momentum-space optical potential model which incorporates relativistically normalized wave functions, invariant two-body amplitudes, covariant kinematics, and an exact full-Fermi averaging integral. The definition of the total cross section in the presence of a Coulomb interaction is reviewed and the total cross section is calculated in a way that is consistent with what is extracted from experiment. In addition, the total cross sections for a nucleus and for the deuteron are calculated utilizing the same theory. This minimizes the dependence of the ratio of these cross sections on the details of the theory. The model dependence of the first-order optical potential calculations is investigated. The theoretical results are found to be systematically below all existing data
Tables of RCN-2 fission-product cross section evaluation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gruppelaar, H.
1979-05-01
This report (continuation of ECN-13 and ECN-33) describes the third part of the RCN-2 evaluation of neutron cross sections for fission product nuclides in KEDAK format. It contains evaluated data for nine nuclides, i.e. 142 Nd, 143 Nd, 144 Nd, 145 Nd, 146 Nd, 147 Nd, 148 Nd, 150 Nd and 147 Pm. Most emphasis has been given to the evaluation of the radiative capture cross section, in order to provide a data base for adjustment calculations using results of integral measurements. Short evaluation reports are given for this cross section. The evaluated capture cross sections are compared with recent experimental differential and integral data. Graphs are given of the capture cross sections at neutron energies above 1 keV, in which also adjusted point cross sections, based upon integral STEK and CFRMF data have been plotted. Moreover, the results are compared with those of the well-known ENDF/B-IV evaluation for fission product nucleides. Finally, evaluation summaries are given, which include tables of other important neutron cross sections, such as the total, elastic scattering and inelastic scattering cross sections
Microscopic cross sections: An utopia?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hilaire, S. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, DIF 91 (France); Koning, A.J. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, PO Box 25, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Goriely, S. [Institut d' Astronomie et d' Astrophysique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Campus de la Plaine, CP 226, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)
2010-07-01
The increasing need for cross sections far from the valley of stability poses a challenge for nuclear reaction models. So far, predictions of cross sections have relied on more or less phenomenological approaches, depending on parameters adjusted to available experimental data or deduced from systematical relations. While such predictions are expected to be reliable for nuclei not too far from the experimentally known regions, it is clearly preferable to use more fundamental approaches, based on sound physical bases, when dealing with very exotic nuclei. Thanks to the high computer power available today, all major ingredients required to model a nuclear reaction can now be (and have been) microscopically (or semi-microscopically) determined starting from the information provided by a nucleon-nucleon effective interaction. We have implemented all these microscopic ingredients in the TALYS nuclear reaction code, and we are now almost able to perform fully microscopic cross section calculations. The quality of these ingredients and the impact of using them instead of the usually adopted phenomenological parameters will be discussed. (authors)
Microscopic cross sections: An utopia?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hilaire, S.; Koning, A.J.; Goriely, S.
2010-01-01
The increasing need for cross sections far from the valley of stability poses a challenge for nuclear reaction models. So far, predictions of cross sections have relied on more or less phenomenological approaches, depending on parameters adjusted to available experimental data or deduced from systematical relations.While such predictions are expected to be reliable for nuclei not too far from the experimentally known regions, it is clearly preferable to use more fundamental approaches, based on sound physical bases, when dealing with very exotic nuclei. Thanks to the high computer power available today, all major ingredients required to model a nuclear reaction can now be (and have been) microscopically (or semi-microscopically) determined starting from the information provided by a nucleon-nucleon effective interaction. We have implemented all these microscopic ingredients in the TALYS nuclear reaction code, and we are now almost able to perform fully microscopic cross section calculations. The quality of these ingredients and the impact of using them instead of the usually adopted phenomenological parameters will be discussed. (authors)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (US)] (and others)
2008-12-15
Measurements of the cross sections for charged current deep inelastic scattering in e{sup -}p collisions with longitudinally polarised electron beams are presented. The measurements are based on a data sample with an integrated luminosity of 175 pb{sup -1} collected with the ZEUS detector at HERA at a centre-of-mass energy of 318 GeV. The total cross section is given for positively and negatively polarised electron beams. The differential cross-sections d{sigma}/dQ{sup 2}, d{sigma}/dx and d{sigma}/dy are presented for Q{sup 2}>200 GeV{sup 2}. The double-differential cross-section d{sup 2}{sigma}/dxdQ{sup 2} is presented in the kinematic range 280
A Physics-Based Engineering Approach to Predict the Cross Section for Advanced SRAMs
Li, Lei; Zhou, Wanting; Liu, Huihua
2012-12-01
This paper presents a physics-based engineering approach to estimate the heavy ion induced upset cross section for 6T SRAM cells from layout and technology parameters. The new approach calculates the effects of radiation with junction photocurrent, which is derived based on device physics. The new and simple approach handles the problem by using simple SPICE simulations. At first, the approach uses a standard SPICE program on a typical PC to predict the SPICE-simulated curve of the collected charge vs. its affected distance from the drain-body junction with the derived junction photocurrent. And then, the SPICE-simulated curve is used to calculate the heavy ion induced upset cross section with a simple model, which considers that the SEU cross section of a SRAM cell is more related to a “radius of influence” around a heavy ion strike than to the physical size of a diffusion node in the layout for advanced SRAMs in nano-scale process technologies. The calculated upset cross section based on this method is in good agreement with the test results for 6T SRAM cells processed using 90 nm process technology.
Inelastic neutron scattering cross-section measurements on 7Li and 63,65Cu
Nyman, Markus; Belloni, Francesca; Ichinkhorloo, Dagvadorj; Pirovano, Elisa; Plompen, Arjan; Rouki, Chariklia
2017-09-01
The γ-ray production cross section for the 477.6-keV transition in 7Li following inelastic neutron scattering has been measured from the reaction threshold up to 18 MeV. This cross section is interesting as a possible standard for other inelastic scattering measurements. The experiment was conducted at the Geel Electron LINear Accelerator (GELINA) pulsed white neutron source with the Gamma Array for Inelastic Neutron Scattering (GAINS) spectrometer. Previous measurements of this cross section are reviewed and compared with our results. Recently, this cross section has also been calculated using the continuum discretized coupled-channels (CDCC) method. Experiments for studying neutrinoless double-β decay (2β0ν) or other very rare processes require greatly reducing the background radiation level (both intrinsic and external). Copper is a common shielding and structural material, used extensively in experiments such as COBRA, CUORE, EXO, GERDA, and MAJORANA. Understanding the background contribution arising from neutron interactions in Cu is important when searching for very weak experimental signals. Neutron inelastic scattering on natCu was investigated with GAINS. The results are compared with previous experimental data and evaluated nuclear data libraries.
Inelastic neutron scattering cross-section measurements on 7Li and 63,65Cu
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nyman Markus
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The γ-ray production cross section for the 477.6-keV transition in 7Li following inelastic neutron scattering has been measured from the reaction threshold up to 18 MeV. This cross section is interesting as a possible standard for other inelastic scattering measurements. The experiment was conducted at the Geel Electron LINear Accelerator (GELINA pulsed white neutron source with the Gamma Array for Inelastic Neutron Scattering (GAINS spectrometer. Previous measurements of this cross section are reviewed and compared with our results. Recently, this cross section has also been calculated using the continuum discretized coupled-channels (CDCC method. Experiments for studying neutrinoless double-β decay (2β0ν or other very rare processes require greatly reducing the background radiation level (both intrinsic and external. Copper is a common shielding and structural material, used extensively in experiments such as COBRA, CUORE, EXO, GERDA, and MAJORANA. Understanding the background contribution arising from neutron interactions in Cu is important when searching for very weak experimental signals. Neutron inelastic scattering on natCu was investigated with GAINS. The results are compared with previous experimental data and evaluated nuclear data libraries.
Multilevel parametrization of fissile nuclei resonance cross sections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lukyanov, A.A.; Kolesov, V.V.; Janeva, N.
1987-01-01
Because the resonance interference has an important influence on the resonance structure of neutron cross sections energy dependence at lowest energies, multilevel scheme of the cross section parametrization which take into account the resonance interference is used for the description with the same provisions in the regions of the interferential maximum and minimum of the resonance cross sections of the fissile nuclei
Total and ionization cross sections of electron scattering by fluorocarbons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Antony, B K; Joshipura, K N; Mason, N J
2005-01-01
Electron impact total cross sections (50-2000 eV) and total ionization cross sections (threshold to 2000 eV) are calculated for typical plasma etching molecules CF 4 , C 2 F 4 , C 2 F 6 , C 3 F 8 and CF 3 I and the CF x (x 1-3) radicals. The total elastic and inelastic cross sections are determined in the spherical complex potential formalism. The sum of the two gives the total cross section and the total inelastic cross section is used to calculate the total ionization cross sections. The present total and ionization cross sections are found to be consistent with other theories and experimental measurements, where they exist. Our total cross section results for CF x (x = 1-3) radicals presented here are first estimates on these species
Calculation of atom displacement cross section for structure material
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Ping; Xu Yiping
2015-01-01
The neutron radiation damage in material is an important consideration of the reactor design. The radiation damage of materials mainly comes from atom displacements of crystal structure materials. The reaction cross sections of charged particles, cross sections of displacements per atom (DPA) and KERMA are the basis of radiation damage calculation. In order to study the differences of DPA cross sections with different codes and different evaluated nuclear data libraries, the DPA cross sections for structure materials were calculated with UNF and NJOY codes, and the comparisons of results were given. The DPA cross sections from different evaluated nuclear data libraries were compared. And the comparison of DPA cross sections between NJOY and Monte Carlo codes was also done. The results show that the differences among these evaluated nuclear data libraries exist. (authors)
2010-04-01
... employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations. 3c.1 Section 3c.1 Conservation of... STANDARDS OF CONDUCT § 3c.1 Cross-reference to employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure... branch-wide financial disclosure regulations at 5 CFR part 2634, the Standards of Ethical Conduct for...
Measurements of inelastic, elastic and total pp cross-sections at the LHC with ATLAS
Trottier-McDonald, Michel; The ATLAS collaboration
2015-01-01
First, a recent measurement of the inelastic cross section using the ATLAS detector with 63 $\\mu b^{−1}$ of proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV is presented. The measurement is performed using scintillators mounted in front of the forward calorimeters. A cross section of $65.2\\pm0.8$ (exp.) $\\pm5.9$ (lum.) mb is measured in the fiducial region $M_X>13$ GeV, where $M_X$ is the larger of the dissociation masses of the two proton systems in diffractive events. The experimental uncertainty is indicated by (exp.) and the luminosity uncertainty by (lum.). The full inelastic cross section is determined to be $73.1\\pm0.9$ (exp.) $\\pm6.6$ (lum.) $\\pm3.8$ (extr.) mb, where (extr.) indicates model-dependent uncertainties on the extrapolation from the fiducial region. The measured value is about one standard deviation below most current theoretical predictions. Second, a measurement of the total $pp$ cross section at the LHC at $\\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV is presented. In a special run with high-$\\beta^*$ beam optics, a...
2010-04-01
... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Cross-references to employee ethical conduct... STATES SECTION EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT § 1100.1 Cross-references to employee ethical... executive branch standards of ethical conduct contained in 5 CFR part 2635, the executive branch financial...
Preparation of next generation set of group cross sections. 3
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaneko, Kunio
2002-03-01
This fiscal year, based on the examination result about the evaluation energy range of heavy element unresolved resonance cross sections, the upper energy limit of the energy range, where ultra-fine group cross sections are produced, was raised to 50 keV, and an improvement of the group cross section processing system was promoted. At the same time, reflecting the result of studies carried out till now, a function producing delayed neutron data was added to the general-purpose group cross section processing system , thus the preparation of general purpose group cross section processing system has been completed. On the other hand, the energy structure, data constitution and data contents of next generation group cross section set were determined, and the specification of a 151 groups next generation group cross section set was defined. Based on the above specification, a concrete library format of the next generation cross section set has been determined. After having carried out the above-described work, using the general-purpose group cross section processing system , which was complete in this study, with use of the JENDL-3. 2 evaluated nuclear data, the 151 groups next generation group cross section of 92 nuclides and the ultra fine group resonance cross section library for 29 nuclides have been prepared. Utilizing the 151 groups next generation group cross section set and the ultra-fine group resonance cross-section library, a bench mark test calculation of fast reactors has been performed by using an advanced lattice calculation code. It was confirmed, by comparing the calculation result with a calculation result of continuous energy Monte Carlo code, that the 151 groups next generation cross section set has sufficient accuracy. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
MacFarlane, R.E.; Weisbin, C.R.; Paik, N.C.
1978-01-01
The Shielding Factor Method (SFM) is an economical designer-oriented method for producing the coarse-group space and energy self-shielded cross sections needed for reactor-core analysis. Extensive experience with the ETOX/1DX and ENDRUN/TDOWN systems has made the SFM the method of choice for most US fast-reactor design activities. The MINX/SPHINX system was designed to expand upon the capabilities of the older SFM codes and to incorporate the new standard interfaces for fast-reactor cross sections specified by the Committee for Computer Code Coordination (CCCC). MINX is the cross-section processor. It generates multigroup cross sections, shielding factors, and group-to-group transfer matriccs from ENDF/B-IV and writes them out as CCCC ISOTXS and BRKOXS files. It features detailed pointwise resonance reconstruction, accurate Doppler broadening, and an efficient treatment of anisotropic scattering. SPHINX is the space-and-energy shielding code. It uses specific mixture and geometry information together with equivalence principles to construct shielded macroscopic multigroup cross sections in as many as 240 groups. It then makes a flux calculation by diffusion or transport methods and collapses to an appropriate set of cell-averaged coarse-group effective cross sections. The integration of MINX and SPHINX with the CCCC interface system provides an efficient, accurate, and convenient system for producing effective cross sections for use in fast-reactor problems. The system has also proved useful in shielding and CTR applications. 3 figures, 4 tables
Stellar Neutron Capture Cross Sections of the Lu and Hf Isotopes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wisshak, K.; Voss, F.; Kaeppeler, F.; Kazakov, L.; Krticka, M.
2005-01-01
The neutron capture cross sections of 175,176Lu and 176,177,178,179,180Hf have been measured in the energy range from 3 to 225 keV at the Karlsruhe 3.7 MV Van de Graaff accelerator relative to the gold standard. Neutrons were produced by the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction and capture events were detected by the Karlsruhe 4πBaF2 detector. The cross section ratios could be determined with uncertainties between 0.9 and 1.8% about a factor of five more accurate than previous data. A strong population of isomeric states was found in neutron capture of the Hf isotopes, which are only partially explained by CASINO/GEANT simulations based on the known level schemes.Maxwellian averaged neutron capture cross sections were calculated for thermal energies between kT = 8 keV and 100 keV. Severe differences up to40% were found to the data of a recent evaluation based on existing experimental results. The new data allow for a much more reliable analysis of the important branching in the s-process synthesis path at 176Lu which can be interpreted as an s-process thermometer
Heisenberg rise of total cross sections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ezhela, V.V.; Yushchenko, O.P.
1988-01-01
It is shown that on the basis of the original idea of Heisenberg on the quasiclassical picture of extended particle interactions one can construct a satisfactory description of the total cross sections, elastic cross sections, elastic diffractive slopes and mean charged multiplicities in the cm energy range from 5 to 900 GeV, and produce reasonable extrapolations up to several tens of TeV. 14 refs.; 7 figs.; 2 tabs
An analysis of MCNP cross-sections and tally methods for low-energy photon emitters.
Demarco, John J; Wallace, Robert E; Boedeker, Kirsten
2002-04-21
Monte Carlo calculations are frequently used to analyse a variety of radiological science applications using low-energy (10-1000 keV) photon sources. This study seeks to create a low-energy benchmark for the MCNP Monte Carlo code by simulating the absolute dose rate in water and the air-kerma rate for monoenergetic point sources with energies between 10 keV and 1 MeV. The analysis compares four cross-section datasets as well as the tally method for collision kerma versus absorbed dose. The total photon attenuation coefficient cross-section for low atomic number elements has changed significantly as cross-section data have changed between 1967 and 1989. Differences of up to 10% are observed in the photoelectric cross-section for water at 30 keV between the standard MCNP cross-section dataset (DLC-200) and the most recent XCOM/NIST tabulation. At 30 keV, the absolute dose rate in water at 1.0 cm from the source increases by 7.8% after replacing the DLC-200 photoelectric cross-sections for water with those from the XCOM/NIST tabulation. The differences in the absolute dose rate are analysed when calculated with either the MCNP absorbed dose tally or the collision kerma tally. Significant differences between the collision kerma tally and the absorbed dose tally can occur when using the DLC-200 attenuation coefficients in conjunction with a modern tabulation of mass energy-absorption coefficients.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pashchenko, A.B.; Wienke, H.
1998-01-01
This document presents the description of a physical tape containing the basic evaluated nuclear data library of neutron-nucleus interaction cross sections, photon production cross sections and photon-atom interaction cross sections for fusion applications. It is part of the evaluated nuclear data library for fusion applications FENDL-2. The data are available cost-free from the Nuclear Data Section upon request. The data can also be retrieved by the user via online access through international computer networks. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schenter, R.E.; Oliver, B.M.; Farrar, H. IV.
1986-06-01
Spectrum integrated cross sections for 6 Li and 10 B from five benchmark fast reactor neutron fields are compared with calculated values obtained using the ENDF/B-V Cross Section Files. The benchmark fields include the Coupled Fast Reactivity Measurements Facility (CFRMF) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, the 10% Enriched U-235 Critical Assembly (BIG-10) at Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Sigma-Sigma and Fission Cavity fields of the BR-1 reactor at CEN/SCK, and the Intermediate Energy Standard Neutron Field (ISNF) at the National Bureau of Standards. Results from least square analyses using the FERRET computer code to obtain adjusted cross section values and their uncertainties are presented. Input to these calculations include the above five benchmark data sets. These analyses indicate a need for revision in the ENDF/B-V files for the 10 B and 6 Li cross sections for energies above 50 keV
Modelisation of the fission cross section
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morariu, Claudia
2013-03-01
The neutron cross sections of four nuclear systems (n+ 235 U, n+ 233 U, n+ 241 Am and n+ 237 Np) are studied in the present document. The target nuclei of the first case, like 235 U and 239 Pu, have a large fission cross section after the absorption of thermal neutrons. These nuclei are called 'fissile' nuclei. The other type of nuclei, like 237 Np and 241 Am, fission mostly with fast neutrons, which exceed the fission threshold energy. These types of nuclei are called 'fertile'. The compound nuclei of the fertile nuclei have a binding energy higher than the fission barrier, while for the fissile nuclei the binding energy is lower than the fission barrier. In this work, the neutron induced cross sections for both types of nuclei are evaluated in the fast energy range. The total, reaction and shape-elastic cross sections are calculated by the coupled channel method of the optical model code ECIS, while the compound nucleus mechanism are treated by the statistical models implemented in the codes STATIS, GNASH and TALYS. The STATIS code includes a refined model of the fission process. Results from the theoretical calculations are compared with data retrieved from the experimental data base EXFOR. (author) [fr
Cross sections for hadron and lepton production processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bhattacharya, R.
1976-01-01
Charged heavy lepton production in proton-proton collisions is studied. Motivated by recent experimental results from the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center a parton model analysis is given of the reaction p + p → L + + L - + x → μ +- + e/ -+ / + neutrinos + x. Results are presented for the total cross section and the differential cross sections with respect to the invariant mass squared of the final charged leptons and the transverse momenta of each one of them. The two-photon mechanism for pair production in colliding beam exeriments is considered. Through the use of mapped invariant integration variables, a reliable exact numerical calculation of the cross section for the production of muon and pion pairs by the two-photon mechanism is provided. Results are given for the exact total cross sections and also the differential cross sections with respect to the invariant mass squared of the pair. These are compared to the results obtained from the equivalent photon approximation method
Neutralino-nucleon cross sections for detection of low-mass dark matter particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Titkova, I.V.; Bednyakov, V.A.
2004-01-01
The weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) is one of the main candidates for the relic dark matter. In the effective low-energy minimal supersymmetric standard model (effMSSM), the neutralino-nucleon spin and scalar cross sections in the low-mass regime were calculated. The calculated cross sections are compared with almost all currently available experimental exclusion curves for spin-dependent WIMP-proton and WIMP-neutron cross sections. It is demonstrated that in general about two-orders-of-magnitude improvement of the current DM experimental sensitivities is needed to reach the effMSSM SUSY predictions. To avoid misleading discrepancies between data and SUSY calculations, it is preferable to use a mixed spin-scalar coupling approach. It is noticed that the DAMA evidence favours the light Higgs coupling approach. It is noticed that the DAMA evidence favours the light Higgs sector in the effMSSM, a high event rate in a 73 Ge detector and relatively high upgoing muon fluxes from relic neutralino annihilations on the Earth and the Sun
Hue, B. M.; Isataev, T.; Erdemchimeg, B.; Artukh, A. G.; Aznabaev, D.; Davaa, S.; Klygin, S. A.; Kononenko, G. A.; Khuukhenkhuu, G.; Kuterbekov, K.; Lukyanov, S. M.; Mikhailova, T. I.; Maslov, V. A.; Mendibaev, K.; Sereda, Yu M.; Penionzhkevich, Yu E.; Vorontsov, A. N.
2017-12-01
Preliminary results of measurements of the total reaction cross sections σR and neutron removal cross section σ-xn for weakly bound 6He, 8Li, 9Be and 10Be nuclei at energy range (20-35) A MeV with 28Si target is presented. The secondary beams of light nuclei were produced by bombardment of the 22Ne (35 A MeV) primary beam on Be target and separated by COMBAS fragment-separator. In dispersive focal plane a horizontal slit defined the momentum acceptance as 1% and a wedge degrader of 200 μm Al was installed. The Bρ of the second section of the fragment-separator was adjusted for measurements in energy range (20-35) A MeV. Two-neutron removal cross sections for 6He and 10Be and one -neutron removal cross sections 8Li and 9Be were measured.
Microscopic cross-section measurements by thermal neutron activation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Avila L, J.
1987-08-01
Microscopic cross sections measured by thermal neutron activation using RP-0 reactor at the Peruvian Nuclear Energy Institute. The method consists in measuring microscopic cross section ratios through activated samples, requiring being corrected in thermal and epithermal energetic range by Westcott formalism. Furthermore, the comptage ratios measured for each photopeak to its decay fraction should be normalized from interrelation between both processes above, activation microscopic cross sections are obtained
Distorted eikonal cross sections: A time-dependent view
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turner, R.E.
1982-01-01
For Hamiltonians with two potentials, differential cross sections are written as time-correlation functions of reference and distorted transition operators. Distorted eikonal differential cross sections are defined in terms of straight-line and reference classical trajectories. Both elastic and inelastic results are obtained. Expressions for the inelastic cross sections are presented in terms of time-ordered cosine and sine memory functions through the use of the Zwanzig-Feshbach projection-operator method
Discussion of electron cross sections for transport calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berger, M.J.
1983-01-01
This paper deals with selected aspects of the cross sections needed as input for transport calculations and for the modeling of radiation effects in biological materials. Attention is centered mainly on the cross sections for inelastic interactions between electrons and water molecules and the use of these cross sections for the calculation of energy degradation spectra and of ionization and excitation yields. 40 references, 3 figures, 1 table
Tachyonic ionization cross sections of hydrogenic systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tomaschitz, Roman [Department of Physics, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagami-yama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan)
2005-03-11
Transition rates for induced and spontaneous tachyon radiation in hydrogenic systems as well as the transversal and longitudinal ionization cross sections are derived. We investigate the interaction of the superluminal radiation field with matter in atomic bound-bound and bound-free transitions. Estimates are given for Ly-{alpha} transitions effected by superluminal quanta in hydrogen-like ions. The tachyonic photoelectric effect is scrutinized, in the Born approximation and at the ionization threshold. The angular maxima occur at different scattering angles in the transversal and longitudinal cross sections, which can be used to sift out longitudinal tachyonic quanta in a photon flux. We calculate the tachyonic ionization and recombination cross sections for Rydberg states and study their asymptotic scaling with respect to the principal quantum number. At the ionization threshold of highly excited states of order n {approx} 10{sup 4}, the longitudinal cross section starts to compete with photoionization, in recombination even at lower levels.
Symmetric charge transfer cross section of uranium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shibata, Takemasa; Ogura, Koichi
1995-03-01
Symmetric charge transfer cross section of uranium was calculated under consideration of reaction paths. In the charge transfer reaction a d 3/2 electron in the U atom transfers into the d-electron site of U + ( 4 I 9/2 ) ion. The J value of the U atom produced after the reaction is 6, 5, 4 or 3, at impact energy below several tens eV, only resonant charge transfer in which the product atom is ground state (J=6) takes place. Therefore, the cross section is very small (4-5 x 10 -15 cm 2 ) compared with that considered so far. In the energy range of 100-1000eV the cross section increases with the impact energy because near resonant charge transfer in which an s-electron in the U atom transfers into the d-electron site of U + ion. Charge transfer cross section between U + in the first excited state (289 cm -1 ) and U in the ground state was also obtained. (author)
NNLO jet cross sections by subtraction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Somogyi, G.; Bolzoni, P. [DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Trocsanyi, Z. [CERN PH-TH, on leave from University of Debrecen and Institute of Nuclear Research of HAS, H-4001 P.O.Box 51 (Hungary)
2010-08-15
We report on the computation of a class of integrals that appear when integrating the so-called iterated singly-unresolved approximate cross section of the NNLO subtraction scheme of Refs. [G. Somogyi, Z. Trocsanyi, and V. Del Duca, JHEP 06, 024 (2005), (arXiv:hep-ph/0502226); G. Somogyi and Z. Trocsanyi, (2006), (arXiv:hep-ph/0609041); G. Somogyi, Z. Trocsanyi, and V. Del Duca, JHEP 01, 070 (2007), (arXiv:hep-ph/0609042); G. Somogyi and Z. Trocsanyi, JHEP 01, 052 (2007), (arXiv:hep-ph/0609043)] over the factorised phase space of unresolved partons. The integrated approximate cross section itself can be written as the product of an insertion operator (in colour space) times the Born cross section. We give selected results for the insertion operator for processes with two and three hard partons in the final state.
NNLO jet cross sections by subtraction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Somogyi, G.; Bolzoni, P.; Trocsanyi, Z.
2010-01-01
We report on the computation of a class of integrals that appear when integrating the so-called iterated singly-unresolved approximate cross section of the NNLO subtraction scheme of Refs. [G. Somogyi, Z. Trocsanyi, and V. Del Duca, JHEP 06, 024 (2005), (arXiv:hep-ph/0502226); G. Somogyi and Z. Trocsanyi, (2006), (arXiv:hep-ph/0609041); G. Somogyi, Z. Trocsanyi, and V. Del Duca, JHEP 01, 070 (2007), (arXiv:hep-ph/0609042); G. Somogyi and Z. Trocsanyi, JHEP 01, 052 (2007), (arXiv:hep-ph/0609043)] over the factorised phase space of unresolved partons. The integrated approximate cross section itself can be written as the product of an insertion operator (in colour space) times the Born cross section. We give selected results for the insertion operator for processes with two and three hard partons in the final state.
Dorsiflexor muscle-group thickness in children with cerebral palsy: Relation to cross-sectional area
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bandholm, Thomas; Magnusson, Peter; Jensen, Bente Rona
2009-01-01
If the thickness and cross-sectional area of the dorsiflexor muscle group are related in children with cerebral palsy, measurements of muscle thickness may be used to monitor changes in muscle size due to training or immobilisation in these patients. We assessed the validity and reliability.......001), and the reliability of the muscle-thickness measurements was high in the healthy subjects (ICC_{2.1} = 0.94, standard error of measurement = 0.04 cm). The dorsiflexor muscle-thickness was 22% less in the affected compared to the non-affected leg in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (P ..., the dorsiflexor cross-sectional area was 32% less in the affected compared to the non-affected leg (P = 0.002). Measurements of dorsiflexor muscle-thickness can be reliably obtained, and they reflect dorsiflexor cross-sectional area in children with cerebral palsy....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pashchenko, A.B.; Wienke, H.; Ganesan, S.; McLaughlin, P.K.
1996-01-01
This document presents the description of a physical tape containing the basic evaluated nuclear data library of neutron nuclear interaction cross-sections and photon production cross-sections and photon-atom interaction cross-sections for fusion applications. It is part of FENDL, the evaluated nuclear data library for fusion applications. The nuclear data are available cost-free for distribution to interested scientists upon request. The data can also be retrieved by the user via online access through international computer networks. (author). 11 refs, 1 tab
Average cross sections for the 252Cf neutron spectrum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dezso, Z.; Csikai, J.
1977-01-01
A number of average cross sections have been measured for 252 Cf neutrons in (n, γ), (n,p), (n,2n), (n,α) reactions by the activation method and for fission by fission chamber. Cross sections have been determined for 19 elements and 45 reactions. The (n,γ) cross section values lie in the interval from 0.3 to 200 mb. The data as a function of target neutron number increases up to about N=60 with minimum near to dosed shells. The values lie between 0.3 mb and 113 mb. These cross sections decrease significantly with increasing the threshold energy. The values are below 20 mb. The data do not exceed 10 mb. Average (n,p) cross sections as a function of the threshold energy and average fission cross sections as a function of Zsup(4/3)/A are shown. The results obtained are summarized in tables
Cross section library DOSCROS77 (in the SAND-II format)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zijp, W.L.; Nolthenius, H.J.; Borg, N.J.C.M. van der.
1977-08-01
The dosimetry cross section library DOSCROS77 is documented with tables, plots and cross section values averaged over a few reference spectra. This library is based on the ENDF/B-IV dosimetry file, supplemented with some other evaluations. The total number of reaction cross section sets incorporated in this library is 49 (+3 cover cross sections sets). The cross section data are available in a format which is suitable for the program SAND-II
First measurement of the Rayleigh cross section
Naus, H.; Ubachs, W.
2000-01-01
Rayleigh cross section for N2, Ar and SF6 was performed using the technique of cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS). The experiment was based on the assumption that scattering cross section is equal to the extinction in the absence of absorption. The theory explains the molecular origin of
Precision measurement of the e+e- → π+π-(γ) cross-section with ISR method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, L.L.
2009-05-01
Vacuum polarization integral involves the vector spectral functions which can be experimentally determined. As the dominant uncertainty source to the integral, the precision measurement of the cross section of e + e - → π + π - (γ) as a function of energy from 2π threshold to 3 GeV is performed by taking the ratio of e + e - → π + π - (γ) cross section to e + e - → μ + μ - (γ) cross section which are both measured with BABAR data using ISR method in one analysis. Besides that taking the ratio of the cross sections of the two processes can cancel several systematic uncertainties, the acceptance differences between data and Monte Carlo results are measured using the same data, and the corresponding corrections are applied on the efficiencies predicted by Monte Carlo method which can control the uncertainties. The achieved final uncertainty of the born cross section of e + e - → π + π - (γ) in ρ mass region (0.6 ∼ 0.9 GeV) is 0.54%. As a consequence of the new vacuum polarization calculation using the new precision result of the e + e - π + π - (γ) cross section, the impact on the standard model prediction of muon anomalous magnetic moment g - 2 is presented, which is also compared with other data based predictions and direct measurement. (author)
JSD1000: multi-group cross section sets for shielding materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamano, Naoki
1984-03-01
A multi-group cross section library for shielding safety analysis has been produced by using ENDF/B-IV. The library consists of ultra-fine group cross sections, fine-group cross sections, secondary gamma-ray production cross sections and effective macroscopic cross sections for typical shielding materials. Temperature dependent data at 300, 560 and 900 K have been also provided. Angular distributions of the group to group transfer cross section are defined by a new method of ''Direct Angular Representation'' (DAR) instead of the method of finite Legendre expansion. The library designated JSD1000 are stored in a direct access data base named DATA-POOL and data manipulations are available by using the DATA-POOL access package. The 3824 neutron group data of the ultra-fine group cross sections and the 100 neutron, 20 photon group cross sections are applicable to shielding safety analyses of nuclear facilities. This report provides detailed specifications and the access method for the JSD1000 library. (author)
A Comparison of Cross-Sector Cyber Security Standards
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Robert P. Evans
2005-09-01
This report presents a review and comparison (commonality and differences) of three cross-sector cyber security standards and an internationally recognized information technology standard. The comparison identifies the security areas covered by each standard and reveals where the standards differ in emphasis. By identifying differences in the standards, the user can evaluate which standard best meets their needs. For this report, only cross-sector standards were reviewed.
A measurement of the Z cross-section at LHCb
Keaveney, James Michael
2011-01-01
The LHCb experiment, one of the four main experiments at the Large Hadron Collider, recorded 37.66 pb$^{-1}$ of 7 TeV proton collision data in 2010. In this thesis, the total cross section and the differential cross section as a function of boson rapidity of the Z $\\to \\mu^+ \\mu^-$ process are measured using 16.5 pb$^{-1}$ of this data. The precise testing of the Standard Model and reduction of uncertainty on Parton Distribution Functions constitute the primary motivations of these measurements. A scheme to select Z $\\to \\mu^+ \\mu^-$ decays has been developed and was justified using simulation. The application of this scheme to the data yielded 830 candidates for the signal process. The events were used to estimate tracking, muon identification and trigger efficiencies with an overall efficiency of 0.71 $\\pm$ 0.04. Three main background sources have been identified: the semi-leptonic decays of beauty and charm quarks, the Z $\\to \\tau^+ \\tau^-$ process where both tau leptons decay to muons and the mis-identifi...
The determination of thermal neutron cross section of 81Br
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kovacs, Luciana; Zamboni, Cibele B.; Dalaqua Junior, Leonardo
2009-01-01
In this investigation several standard materials were used to determine the thermal neutron cross section of 81 Br. This nuclear parameter is an important data to perform several quantitative investigations, mainly in medical area. In other to confirm and to reduce the uncertainty, a new measurement was preformed using thermal neutron at IEA-R1 nuclear reactor of IPEN/CNEN-SP. The result obtained is compatible with the tabulated value and present small uncertainly. (author)
The total collision cross section in the glory region
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Biesen, J.J.H. van den.
1982-01-01
Chapter 1 presents a calculation of approximate total cross sections in the glory region from noble gas potentials. The relations between the main features of the total cross section and the properties of the potential to which these are sensitive are extensively investigated in chapter II. A beam apparatus has been developed, which allows for accurate measurements on the total cross section. All effects due to the finite angular and velocity resolution of the apparatus can be eliminated from the data to yield actual total cross sections as a function of the relative velocity. This facilitates a comparison to total cross sections predicted by potentials available in the literature. A brief description of the apparatus and of the data reduction is given in chapter III. The total cross section data obtained for various noble gas combinations are presented and analysed in chapter IV, where also a large number of potentials proposed in the literature is tested. In chapter V the quenching of the glories in the case of a non-spherical interaction is analysed. Subsequently, total cross section data for some atom-molecule systems are discussed. (Auth.)
Hardon cross sections at ultra high energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yodh, G.B.
1987-01-01
A review of results on total hadronic cross sections at ultra high energies obtained from a study of longitudinal development of cosmic ray air showers is given. The experimental observations show that proton-air inelastic cross section increases from 275 mb to over 500 mb as the collision energy in the center of mass increases from 20 GeV to 20 TeV. The proton-air inelastic cross section, obtained from cosmic ray data at √s = 30 TeV, is compared with calculations using various different models for the energy variation of the parameters of the elementary proton-proton interaction. Three conclusions are derived
Total cross section results for deuterium electrodisintegration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Skopik, D.M.; Murphy, J.J. II; Shin, Y.M.
1976-01-01
Theoretical total cross sections for deuterium electrodisintegration are presented as a function of incident electron energy. The cross section has been calculated using virtual photon theory with Partovi's photodisintegration calculation for E/subx/ > 10 MeV and effective range theory for E/subx/ 2 H(e, n) reaction in Tokamak reactors
ORACLE: an adjusted cross-section and covariance library for fast-reactor analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yeivin, Y.; Marable, J.H.; Weisbin, C.R.; Wagschal, J.J.
1980-01-01
Benchmark integral-experiment values from six fast critical-reactor assemblies and two standard neutron fields are combined with corresponding calculations using group cross sections based on ENDF/B-V in a least-squares data adjustment using evaluated covariances from ENDF/B-V and supporting covariance evaluations. Purpose is to produce an adjusted cross-section and covariance library which is based on well-documented data and methods and which is suitable for fast-reactor design. By use of such a library, data- and methods-related biases of calculated performance parameters should be reduced and uncertainties of the calculated values minimized. Consistency of the extensive data base is analyzed using the chi-square test. This adjusted library ORACLE will be available shortly
Electron-impact ionization cross section of rubidium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Y.; Migdalek, J.; Siegel, W.; Bieron, J.
1998-01-01
A theoretical model for electron-impact ionization cross section has been applied to Rb and the theoretical cross section (from the threshold to 1 keV in incident energy) is in good agreement with the recent experimental data obtained using Rb atoms trapped in a magneto-optical trap. The theoretical model, called the binary-encounter endash dipole (BED) model, combines a modified Mott cross section with the high-energy behavior of Born cross sections. To obtain the continuum dipole oscillator strength df/dE of the 5s electron required in the BED model, we used Dirac-Fock continuum wave functions with a core polarization potential that reproduced the known position of the Cooper minimum in the photoionization cross section. For inner-shell ionization, we used a simpler version of df/dE, which retained the hydrogenic shape. The contributions of the 4p→4d, 5s, and 5p autoionizing excitations were estimated using the plane-wave Born approximation. As a by-product, we also present the dipole oscillator strengths for the 5s→np 1/2 and 5s→np 3/2 transitions for high principal quantum numbers n near the ionization threshold obtained from the Dirac-Fock wave functions with the same core polarization potential as that used for the continuum wave functions. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
John, T.M.; de Leege, P.F.A.; Hoogenboom, J.E.
1996-01-01
The continuous energy representation of cross sections for neutronics calculations avoids the requirement of resonance self shielding and the assumptions about the neutron spectrum used for weighing cross sections, required in the preparation of a multigroup cross sections library. The cross sections library prepared for a particular temperature of the nuclide is valid irrespective of the environment of the nuclide and can be used in calculations for many types of reactors. It is comparatively easier to incorporate them in Monte Carlo simulation of neutron transport. The Monte Carlo code MCNP is capable of using a continuous energy representation of nuclear cross sections in simulation of neutron or photon transport. The ACER module of NJOY is able to generate the continuous energy cross section of any nuclide in a format that can be used by MCNP, from any evaluated data file in ENDF/B format. Continuous energy cross sections prepared from the evaluated data file JEF2.2 was used to analyse some standard critical benchmarks and also the critical configuration of the HOR, a 2 MW research reactor at Delft, the Netherlands. Results show that continuous energy cross sections prepared from JEF2.2 evaluated file predicts the multiplication factor of critical systems very close to unity. (author). 6 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig
Measurement cross sections for radioisotopes production
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garrido, E.
2011-01-01
New radioactive isotopes for nuclear medicine can be produced using particle accelerators. This is one goal of Arronax, a high energy - 70 MeV - high intensity - 2*350 μA - cyclotron set up in Nantes. A priority list was established containing β - - 47 Sc, 67 Cu - β + - 44 Sc, 64 Cu, 82 Sr/ 82 Rb, 68 Ge/ 68 Ga - and α emitters - 211 At. Among these radioisotopes, the Scandium 47 and the Copper 67 have a strong interest in targeted therapy. The optimization of their productions required a good knowledge of their cross-sections but also of all the contaminants created during irradiation. We launched on Arronax a program to measure these production cross-sections using the Stacked-Foils' technique. It consists in irradiating several groups of foils - target, monitor and degrader foils - and in measuring the produced isotopes by γ-spectrometry. The monitor - nat Cu or nat Ni - is used to correct beam loss whereas degrader foils are used to lower beam energy. We chose to study the nat Ti(p,X) 47 Sc and 68 Zn(p,2p) 67 Cu reactions. Targets are respectively natural Titanium foil - bought from Goodfellow - and enriched Zinc 68 deposited on Silver. In the latter case, Zn targets were prepared in-house - electroplating of 68 Zn - and a chemical separation between Copper and Gallium isotopes has to be made before γ counting. Cross-section values for more than 40 different reactions cross-sections have been obtained from 18 MeV to 68 MeV. A comparison with the Talys code is systematically done. Several parameters of theoretical models have been studied and we found that is not possible to reproduce faithfully all the cross-sections with a given set of parameters. (author)
Cross sections, benchmarks, etc.: What is data testing all about
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wagschal, J.; Yeivin, Y.
1985-01-01
In order to determine the consistency of two distinct measurements of a physical quantity, the discrepancy d between the two should be compared with its own standard deviation, σ = √(σ/sub 1//sup 2/+σ/sub 2//sup 2/). To properly test a given cross-section library by a set of benchmark (integral) measurements, the quantity corresponding to (d/σ)/sup 2/ is the quadratic d/sup dagger/C/sup -1/d. Here d is the vector of which the components are the discrepancies between the calculated values of the integral parameters and their corresponding measured values, and C is the uncertainty matrix of these discrepancies. This quadratic form is the only true measure of the joint consistency of the library and benchmarks. On the other hand, the very matrix C is essentially all one needs to adjust the library by the benchmarks. Therefore, any argument against adjustment simultaneously disqualifies all serious attempts to test cross-section libraries against integral benchmarks
Actinide Capture and Fission Cross Section Measurements Within the Mini-Inca Project
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Letourneau, A.
2006-01-01
Full text of publication follows: The Mini-INCA project is devoted to precise description of the transmutation chain of Actinides within high thermal neutron fluxes. It uses the High Flux Reactor of ILL (Laue Langevin Institute) as an intense thermal neutron source to measure capture and fission cross sections. Two irradiation channels are dedicated for those measurements offering a diversity of fluxes ranging from pure thermal neutrons to 15% epithermal neutrons with intensities as high as 1*10 15 n/cm 2 /s. Standard nuclear techniques for measurements, such as α and γ-spectroscopy of irradiated samples, have been extended in order to stand all constraints due to the irradiation in high fluxes. In particular new types of fission micro-chambers have been developed to follow online the evolution of one actinide and to measure its fission cross section in reference to 235 U(n,F) standard reaction. This type of neutron detector will be used within the MEGAPIE target to on-line characterise the neutron flux and to study the potentiality of such target in terms of incineration. (author)
Neutron cross section libraries for analysis of fusion neutronics experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kosako, Kazuaki; Oyama, Yukio; Maekawa, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Tomoo
1988-03-01
We have prepared two computer code systems producing neutron cross section libraries to analyse fusion neutronics experiments. First system produces the neutron cross section library in ANISN format, i.e., the multi-group constants in group independent format. This library can be obtained by using the multi-group constant processing code system MACS-N and the ANISN format cross section compiling code CROKAS. Second system is for the continuous energy cross section library for the MCNP code. This library can be obtained by the nuclear data processing system NJOY which generates pointwise energy cross sections and the cross section compiling code MACROS for the MCNP library. In this report, we describe the production procedures for both types of the cross section libraries, and show six libraries with different conditions in ANISN format and a library for the MCNP code. (author)
Temperature-dependent absorption cross sections for hydrogen peroxide vapor
Nicovich, J. M.; Wine, P. H.
1988-01-01
Relative absorption cross sections for hydrogen peroxide vapor were measured over the temperature ranges 285-381 K for lambda = 230 nm-295 nm and 300-381 K for lambda = 193 nm-350 nm. The well established 298 K cross sections at 202.6 and 228.8 nm were used as an absolute calibration. A significant temperature dependence was observed at the important tropospheric photolysis wavelengths lambda over 300 nm. Measured cross sections were extrapolated to lower temperatures, using a simple model which attributes the observed temperature dependence to enhanced absorption by molecules possessing one quantum of O-O stretch vibrational excitation. Upper tropospheric photodissociation rates calculated using the extrapolated cross sections are about 25 percent lower than those calculated using currently recommended 298 K cross sections.
A Measurement of the Charged-Current Interaction Cross Section of the Tau Neutrino
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maher, Emily O' Connor [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)
2007-02-01
The Fermilab experiment E872 (DONUT) was designed to make the first observation of the tau neutrino charged-current interaction. Using a hybrid emulsion-spectrometer detector, the tau lepton was identified by its single-prong or trident decay. Six interactions were observed, of which five were in the deep inelastic scattering region. These five interaction were used to measure the charged-current cross section of the tau neutrino. To minimize uncertainties, the tau neutrino cross section was measured relative to the electron neutrino cross section. The result σ_{ντN}^{const}/σ_{νeN}^{const} = 0.77 ± 0.39 is consistent with 1.0, which is predicted by lepton universality. The tau neutrino cross section was also measured for 115 GeV neutrinos, which was the average energy of the interacted tau neutrinos. The result σ_{ντN}^{exp} = 45 ± 21 x 10^{-38} cm^{2} is consistent with the standard model prediction calculated in this thesis, σ_{ντN}^{SM} = 48 ± 5 x 10^{-38} cm^{2}.
Heer, Sebastian; The ATLAS collaboration
2018-01-01
In the Standard Model the coupling of the top quark to a vector boson is predicted via the weak interaction. New physics beyond the Standard Model can modify the $t\\bar{t}V$ cross-section. As an example several of the operators introduced by effective field theory are sensitive to the $t\\bar{t}Z$ and $t\\bar{t}W$ production cross-sections. Multiple analysis channels with 2, 3 or 4 lepton final-states have been considered in the latest $t\\bar{t}V$ cross section measurement by the ATLAS experiment. The dominant backgrounds in the analysis are mis-reconstructed leptons and the diboson process, depending on the analysis channel. A two-dimensional fit of the $t\\bar{t}W$ and $t\\bar{t}Z$ cross-section is performed to interpret possible deviations from the Standard Model.
Calculation of the intermediate energy activation cross section
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Furihata, Shiori; Yoshizawa, Nobuaki [Mitsubishi Research Inst., Inc., Tokyo (Japan)
1997-03-01
We discussed the activation cross section in order to predict accurately the activation of soil around an accelerator with high energy and strong intensity beam. For the assessment of the accuracy of activation cross sections estimated by a numerical model, we compared the calculated cross section with various experimental data, for Si(p,x){sup 22}Na, Al(p,x){sup 22}Na, Fe(p,x){sup 22}Na, Si(p,x){sup 7}Be, O(p,x){sup 3}H, Al(p,x){sup 3}H and Si(p,x){sup 3}H reactions. We used three computational codes, i.e., quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) plus statistical decay model (SDM), HETC-3STEP and the semiempirical method developed by Silberberg et.al. It is observed that the codes are accurate above 1GeV, except for {sup 7}Be production. We also discussed the difference between the activation cross sections of proton- and neutron-induced reaction. For the incident energy at 40MeV, it is found that {sup 3}H production cross sections of neutron-induced reaction are ten times as large as those of proton-induced reaction. It is also observed that the choice of the activation cross sections seriously affects to the estimate of saturated radioactivity, if the maximum energy of neutron flux is below 100MeV. (author)
View-CXS neutron and photon cross-sections viewer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Subbaiah, K.V.; Sunil Sunny, C.
2004-01-01
A graphical user-friendly interface is developed in Visual Basic (VB)-6 to view the variation of neutron and photon interaction cross-sections of different isotopes as a function of energy. VB subroutines developed read the binary data files of cross-sections created in MCNP-ACE (Briesmeister, J.F., 1993. MCNP - a general purpose Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport code. Version 4A. LANL, USA), ANISN-DLC (Engle W.W. Jr., 1967, A User's Manual for ANISN, K-1693; ORNL, 1974. 100 group neutron cross section data based on ENDF/B-III. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, USA) and KENO-AMPX (Petrie, L.M., Landers, N.F., 1984 KENO-Va- An Improved Monte Carlo Criticality Program with Super Grouping. RSICC-CCC-548, USA) formats using LAHEY-77 Fortran Compiler. The information on isotopes present in each library will be displayed with the help of database files prepared using Micro-Soft ACESS. The cross-section data can be viewed in different presentation styles namely, line graphs, bar graphs, histograms etc., with different color and symbol options. The cross-section plots generated can be saved as Bit-Map file to embed in any other text files. This software enables inter comparison of cross-sections from different type of libraries for isotopes as well as mixtures. Provision is made to view the cross-sections for nuclear reactions such as (n,γ), (n,f), (n,α), etc. The software can be obtained from Radiation Safety Information and Computational Centre (RSICC), ORNL, USA with the code package identification number PSR-514. The software package needs a hard disk space of about 80 MB when installed and works in WINDOWS-95/98/2000 operating systems
Optical Model and Cross Section Uncertainties
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Herman,M.W.; Pigni, M.T.; Dietrich, F.S.; Oblozinsky, P.
2009-10-05
Distinct minima and maxima in the neutron total cross section uncertainties were observed in model calculations using spherical optical potential. We found this oscillating structure to be a general feature of quantum mechanical wave scattering. Specifically, we analyzed neutron interaction with 56Fe from 1 keV up to 65 MeV, and investigated physical origin of the minima.We discuss their potential importance for practical applications as well as the implications for the uncertainties in total and absorption cross sections.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barashenkov, V.S.
1990-01-01
The tables of inelastic and total cross sections of π ± mesons interactions with nuclei 4 He- 238 U are presented. The tables are obtained by theoretical analysis of known experimental data for energies higher some tens of MeV. 1 ref.; 1 tab
Proton-air and proton-proton cross sections
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ulrich Ralf
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Different attempts to measure hadronic cross sections with cosmic ray data are reviewed. The major results are compared to each other and the differences in the corresponding analyses are discussed. Besides some important differences, it is crucial to see that all analyses are based on the same fundamental relation of longitudinal air shower development to the observed fluctuation of experimental observables. Furthermore, the relation of the measured proton-air to the more fundamental proton-proton cross section is discussed. The current global picture combines hadronic proton-proton cross section data from accelerator and cosmic ray measurements and indicates a good consistency with predictions of models up to the highest energies.
Fission-neutron displacement cross sections in metals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takamura, Saburo; Aruga, Takeo; Nakata, Kiyotomo
1985-01-01
The sensitivity damage rates for 22 metals were measured after fission-spectrum neutron irradiation at low temperature and the experimental damage rates were compared with the theoretical calculation. The relation between the theoretical displacement cross section and the atomic weight of metals can be written by two curves; one is for fcc and hcp metals, and another is for bcc metals. On the other hand, the experimental displacement cross section versus atomic weight is shown approximately by a curve for both fcc and bcc metals, and the cross section for hcp metals deviates from the curve. The defect production efficiency is 0.3-0.4 for fcc metals and 0.6-0.8 for bcc metals. (orig.)
Compact fitting formulas for electron-impact cross sections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Y.K.
1992-01-01
Compact fitting formulas, which contain four fitting constants, are presented for electron-impact excitation and ionization cross sections of atoms and ions. These formulas can fit experimental and theoretical cross sections remarkably well, when resonant structures are smoothed out, from threshold to high incident electron energies (<10 keV), beyond which relativistic formulas are more appropriate. Examples of fitted cross sections for some atoms and ions are presented. The basic form of the formula is valid for both atoms and molecules
Single-level resonance parameters fit nuclear cross-sections
Drawbaugh, D. W.; Gibson, G.; Miller, M.; Page, S. L.
1970-01-01
Least squares analyses of experimental differential cross-section data for the U-235 nucleus have yielded single level Breit-Wigner resonance parameters that fit, simultaneously, three nuclear cross sections of capture, fission, and total.
Calculation of the fine spectrum and integration of the resonance cross sections in the cells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paratte, J.M.
1986-10-01
The code BOXER is used for the neutronics calculations of two-dimensional LWR arrays. During the calculation of the group constants of the cells (pin, clad and moderator), the program SLOFIN, a BOXER module, allows taking into account the self-shielding of the resonances. The resonance range is devided into two parts: - above 907 eV the cross sections are condensed into groups by the library code ETOBOX. In SLOFIN, these values are interpolated over the equivalent cross section and the temperature. The interpolation formula chosen gives an accuracy better than 1% for values of the equivalent cross section larger than 5 barns. - between 4 and 907 eV, the cross sections are given in pointwise form as a function of the lethargy. At first a list of pointwise macroscopic cross section is established. Then the fine spectrum in the cell is calculated in 2 or 3 zones by means of the collision probability theory. In the central zone one resonant pseudo-nuclide is considered for the calculation of the scattering source, while the light nuclides are explicitly treated but under the assumption of energy independent cross sections. The fine spectrum is then used as a weihting function for the condensation of the pointwise cross sections of the resonant nuclides into energy groups. The procedure was checked on the basis of the TRX-1 to -4 and BAPL-UO 2 -1 to -3 experiments which are used as benchmarks for the tests of the ENDF/B libraries. The comparisons with other calculation results show that the deviations observed are typical for the basic cross sections. The method proposed shows a good accuracy in the application range foreseen for BOXER. It is also fast enough to be used as a standard method in a cell code. (author)
Total cross section of highly excited strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lizzi, F.; Senda, I.
1990-01-01
The unpolarized total cross section for the joining of two highly excited strings is calculated. The calculation is performed by taking the average overall states in the given excitation levels of the initial strings. We find that the total cross section grows with the energy and momentum of the initial states. (author). 8 refs, 1 fig
Neutron capture cross sections of Kr
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fiebiger Stefan
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Neutron capture and β− -decay are competing branches of the s-process nucleosynthesis path at 85Kr [1], which makes it an important branching point. The knowledge of its neutron capture cross section is therefore essential to constrain stellar models of nucleosynthesis. Despite its importance for different fields, no direct measurement of the cross section of 85Kr in the keV-regime has been performed. The currently reported uncertainties are still in the order of 50% [2, 3]. Neutron capture cross section measurements on a 4% enriched 85Kr gas enclosed in a stainless steel cylinder were performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE. 85Kr is radioactive isotope with a half life of 10.8 years. As this was a low-enrichment sample, the main contaminants, the stable krypton isotopes 83Kr and 86Kr, were also investigated. The material was highly enriched and contained in pressurized stainless steel spheres.
NNLO jet cross sections by subtraction
Somogyi, G.; Bolzoni, P.; Trócsányi, Z.
2010-08-01
We report on the computation of a class of integrals that appear when integrating the so-called iterated singly-unresolved approximate cross section of the NNLO subtraction scheme of Refs. [G. Somogyi, Z. Trócsányi, and V. Del Duca, JHEP 06, 024 (2005), arXiv:hep-ph/0502226; G. Somogyi and Z. Trócsányi, (2006), arXiv:hep-ph/0609041; G. Somogyi, Z. Trócsányi, and V. Del Duca, JHEP 01, 070 (2007), arXiv:hep-ph/0609042; G. Somogyi and Z. Trócsányi, JHEP 01, 052 (2007), arXiv:hep-ph/0609043] over the factorised phase space of unresolved partons. The integrated approximate cross section itself can be written as the product of an insertion operator (in colour space) times the Born cross section. We give selected results for the insertion operator for processes with two and three hard partons in the final state.
Mid-IR Absorption Cross-Section Measurements of Hydrocarbons
Alrefae, Majed Abdullah
2013-01-01
-known at combustion-relevant conditions. Absorption cross-section is an important spectroscopic quantity and has direct relation to the species concentration. In this work, the absorption cross-sections of basic hydrocarbons are measured using Fourier Transform
A new measurement of the cross section of the inverse muon decay reaction vμ+e-→μ-+ve
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Geiregat, D.; Wilquet, G.; Binder, U.; Burkard, H.; Dore, U.; Flegel, W.; Grote, H.; Mouthuy, T.; Oeveras, H.; Panman, J.; Santacesaria, R.; Vilain, P.; Winter, K.; Zacek, G.; Zacek, V.; Beyer, R.; Buesser, F.W.; Foos, C.; Gerland, L.; Layda, T.; Niebergall, F.; Raedel, G.; Staehelin, P.; Voss, T.; Gorbunov, P.; Grigoriev, E.; Khovansky, V.; Maslennikov, A.; Rozanov, A.; Capone, A.; De Pedis, D.; Di Capua, E.; Frenkel-Rambaldi, A.; Loverre, P.F.; Piredda, G.; Zanello, D.
1990-01-01
We have measured the cross section for inverse muon decay in the CERN neutrino wide band beam. From 4808 events observed in the CHARM II detector we derived for the Born term of the asymptotic cross section slope the result (18.16±1.36)x10 -42 cm 2 GeV -1 . This cross section is in good agreement with the standard model prediction and allows to constrain the scalar coupling of the electron and muon to their neutrinos to vertical strokeg LL S vertical stroke 2 <0.405 at 90% CL. (orig.)
Investigation of the 93Nb neutron cross-sections in resonance energy range
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grigoriev, Yu.V.; Kitaev, V.Ya.; Zhuravlev, B.V.; Sinitsa, V.V.; Borzakov, S.B.; Faikov-Stanchik, H.; Ilchev, G.; Mezentseva, Zh.V.; Panteleev, Ts.Ts.; Kim, G.N.
2002-01-01
The results of gamma-ray multiplicity spectra and transmission measurements for 93 Nb in energy range 21.5 eV-100 keV are presented. Gamma spectra from 1 to 7 multiplicity were measured on the 501 m and 121 m flight paths of the IBR-30 using a 16-section scintillation detector with a NaI(Tl) crystals of a total volume of 36 l and a 16-section liquid scintillation detector of a total volume of 80 l for metallic samples of 50, 80 mm in diameter and 1, 1.5 mm thickness with 100% 93 Nb. Besides, the total and scattering cross-section of 93 Nb were measured by means batteries of B-10 and He-3 counters on the 124 m, 504 m and 1006 m flight paths of the IBR-30. Spectra of multiplicity distribution were obtained for resolved resonances in the energy region E=30-6000 eV and for energy groups in the energy region E=21.5 eV- 100 keV. They were used for determination of the average multiplicity, resonance parameters and capture cross-section in energy groups and for low-laying resonances of 93 Nb. Standard capture cross-sections of 238 U and experimental gamma-ray multiplicity spectra were also used for determination of capture cross section 93 Nb in energy groups. Similar values were calculated using the ENDF/B-6 and JENDL-3 evaluated data libraries with the help of the GRUKON computer program. Within the limits of experimental errors there is observed an agreement between the experiment and calculation, but in some groups the experimental values differ from the calculated ones. (author)
Neutron induced fission cross sections for 232Th, 235,238U, 237Np, and 239Pu
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lisowski, P.W.; Ullmann, J.L.; Balestrini, S.J.; Hill, N.W.; Carlson, A.D.; Wasson, O.A.
1989-01-01
Neutron-induced fission cross section ratios for samples of 232 Th, 235,238 U, 237 Np and 239 Pu have been measured from 1 to 400 MeV. The fission reaction rate was determined for all samples simultaneously using a fast parallel plate ionization chamber at a 20-m flight path. A well characterized annular proton recoil telescope was used to measure the neutron fluence from 3 to 30 MeV. Those data provided the shape of the 235 U(n,f) cross section relative to the hydrogen scattering cross section. That shape was then normalized to the very accurately known value for 235 U(n,f) at 14.178 MeV. From 30 to 400 MeV cross section values were determined using the neutron fluence measured with a plastic scintillator. Cross section values of 232 Th, 235,238 U, 237 Np and 239 Pu were computed from the ratio data using the authors' values for 235 U(n,f). In addition to providing new results at high neutron energies, these data highlight several areas of deficiency in the evaluated nuclear data files and provide new information for the 235 U(n,f) standard
Neutron cross section measurements for the Fast Breeder Program
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Block, R.C.
1979-06-01
This research was concerned with the measurement of neutron cross sections of importance to the Fast Breeder Reactor. The capture and total cross sections of fission products ( 101 102 104 Ru, 143 145 Nd, 149 Sm, 95 97 Mo, Cs, Pr, Pd, 107 Pd, 99 Tc) and tag gases (Kr, 78 80 Kr) were measured up to 100 keV. Filtered neutron beams were used to measure the capture cross section of 238 U (with an Fe filter) and the total cross section of Na (with a Na filter). A radioactive neutron capture detector was developed. A list of publications is included
Study on keV-neutron capture cross sections and capture γ-ray spectra of 117,119Sn
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nishiyama, J.; Igashira, M.; Ohsaki, T.; Kim, G.N.; Chung, W.C.; Ro, T.I.
2006-01-01
The capture cross sections and capture γ-ray spectra of 117,119 Sn were measured in an incident neutron energy region from 10 to 100 keV and at 570 keV, using a 1.5-ns pulsed neutron source by the 7 Li(p,n) 7 Be reaction and a large anti-Compton NaI(Tl) γ-ray spectrometer. A pulse-height weighting technique was applied to observed capture γ-ray pulse-height spectra to derive capture yields. The capture cross sections of 117,119 Sn were obtained with the error of about 5% by using the standard capture cross sections of 197 Au. The present cross sections were compared with previous experimental data and the evaluated values in JENDL-3.3 and ENDF/B-VI. The capture γ-ray spectra of 117,119 Sn were derived by unfolding the observed capture γ-ray pulse-height spectra. The calculations of capture cross sections and capture γ-ray spectra of 117,119 Sn were performed with the EMPIRE-II code. The calculated results were compared with the present experimental ones. (author)
Developing Scientific Reasoning Through Drawing Cross-Sections
Hannula, K. A.
2012-12-01
Cross-sections and 3D models of subsurface geology are typically based on incomplete information (whether surface geologic mapping, well logs, or geophysical data). Creating and evaluating those models requires spatial and quantitative thinking skills (including penetrative thinking, understanding of horizontality, mental rotation and animation, and scaling). However, evaluating the reasonableness of a cross-section or 3D structural model also requires consideration of multiple possible geometries and geologic histories. Teaching students to create good models requires application of the scientific methods of the geosciences (such as evaluation of multiple hypotheses and combining evidence from multiple techniques). Teaching these critical thinking skills, especially combined with teaching spatial thinking skills, is challenging. My Structural Geology and Advanced Structural Geology courses have taken two different approaches to developing both the abilities to visualize and to test multiple models. In the final project in Structural Geology (a 3rd year course with a pre-requisite sophomore mapping course), students create a viable cross-section across part of the Wyoming thrust belt by hand, based on a published 1:62,500 geologic map. The cross-section must meet a number of geometric criteria (such as the template constraint), but is not required to balance. Each student tries many potential geometries while trying to find a viable solution. In most cases, the students don't visualize the implications of the geometries that they try, but have to draw them and then erase their work if it does not meet the criteria for validity. The Advanced Structural Geology course used Midland Valley's Move suite to test the cross-sections that they made in Structural Geology, mostly using the flexural slip unfolding algorithm and testing whether the resulting line lengths balanced. In both exercises, students seemed more confident in the quality of their cross-sections when the
Applications of the BEam Cross section Analysis Software (BECAS)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Blasques, José Pedro Albergaria Amaral; Bitsche, Robert; Fedorov, Vladimir
2013-01-01
A newly developed framework is presented for structural design and analysis of long slender beam-like structures, e.g., wind turbine blades. The framework is based on the BEam Cross section Analysis Software – BECAS – a finite element based cross section analysis tool. BECAS is used for the gener......A newly developed framework is presented for structural design and analysis of long slender beam-like structures, e.g., wind turbine blades. The framework is based on the BEam Cross section Analysis Software – BECAS – a finite element based cross section analysis tool. BECAS is used...... for the generation of beam finite element models which correctly account for effects stemming from material anisotropy and inhomogeneity in cross sections of arbitrary geometry. These type of modelling approach allows for an accurate yet computationally inexpensive representation of a general class of three...
Absolute photoionization cross-section of the methyl radical.
Taatjes, Craig A; Osborn, David L; Selby, Talitha M; Meloni, Giovanni; Fan, Haiyan; Pratt, Stephen T
2008-10-02
The absolute photoionization cross-section of the methyl radical has been measured using two completely independent methods. The CH3 photoionization cross-section was determined relative to that of acetone and methyl vinyl ketone at photon energies of 10.2 and 11.0 eV by using a pulsed laser-photolysis/time-resolved synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry method. The time-resolved depletion of the acetone or methyl vinyl ketone precursor and the production of methyl radicals following 193 nm photolysis are monitored simultaneously by using time-resolved synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry. Comparison of the initial methyl signal with the decrease in precursor signal, in combination with previously measured absolute photoionization cross-sections of the precursors, yields the absolute photoionization cross-section of the methyl radical; sigma(CH3)(10.2 eV) = (5.7 +/- 0.9) x 10(-18) cm(2) and sigma(CH3)(11.0 eV) = (6.0 +/- 2.0) x 10(-18) cm(2). The photoionization cross-section for vinyl radical determined by photolysis of methyl vinyl ketone is in good agreement with previous measurements. The methyl radical photoionization cross-section was also independently measured relative to that of the iodine atom by comparison of ionization signals from CH3 and I fragments following 266 nm photolysis of methyl iodide in a molecular-beam ion-imaging apparatus. These measurements gave a cross-section of (5.4 +/- 2.0) x 10(-18) cm(2) at 10.460 eV, (5.5 +/- 2.0) x 10(-18) cm(2) at 10.466 eV, and (4.9 +/- 2.0) x 10(-18) cm(2) at 10.471 eV. The measurements allow relative photoionization efficiency spectra of methyl radical to be placed on an absolute scale and will facilitate quantitative measurements of methyl concentrations by photoionization mass spectrometry.
Cross-section crushing behaviour of hat-sections (Part II: Analytical modelling)
Hofmeyer, H.
2005-01-01
Hat-sections are often used to experimentally investigate building sheeting subject to a concentrated load and bending. In car doors, hat-sections are used for side-impact protection. Their crushing behaviour can partly be explained by only observing their cross-sectional behaviour [1]. This
Asymptotic behaviour of pion-pion total cross-sections
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Greynat, David [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli “Federico II”,Via Cintia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Rafael, Eduardo de [Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS,CPT, UMR 7332, 13288 Marseille (France); Université de Toulon, CNRS,CPT, UMR 7332, 83957 La Garde (France); Vulvert, Grégory [Departament de Física Teórica, IFIC,CSIC - Universitat de València, Apt. Correus 22085, E-46071 València (Spain)
2014-03-24
We derive a sum rule which shows that the Froissart-Martin bound for the asymptotic behaviour of the ππ total cross sections at high energies, if modulated by the Lukaszuk-Martin coefficient of the leading log{sup 2} s behaviour, cannot be an optimal bound in QCD. We next compute the total cross sections for π{sup +}π{sup −}, π{sup ±}π{sup 0} and π{sup 0}π{sup 0} scattering within the framework of the constituent chiral quark model (CχQM) in the limit of a large number of colours N{sub c} and discuss their asymptotic behaviours. The same ππ cross sections are also discussed within the general framework of Large-N{sub c} QCD and we show that it is possible to make an Ansatz for the isospin I=1 and I=0 spectrum which satisfy the Froissart-Martin bound with coefficients which, contrary to the Lukaszuk-Martin coefficient, are not singular in the chiral limit and have the correct Large-N{sub c} counting. We finally propose a simple phenomenological model which matches the low energy behaviours of the σ{sub π{sup ±}π{sup 0total}}(s) cross section predicted by the CχQM with the high energy behaviour predicted by the Large-N{sub c} Ansatz. The magnitude of these cross sections at very high energies is of the order of those observed for the pp and pp-bar scattering total cross sections.
Asymptotic behaviour of pion-pion total cross-sections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Greynat, David; Rafael, Eduardo de; Vulvert, Grégory
2014-01-01
We derive a sum rule which shows that the Froissart-Martin bound for the asymptotic behaviour of the ππ total cross sections at high energies, if modulated by the Lukaszuk-Martin coefficient of the leading log 2 s behaviour, cannot be an optimal bound in QCD. We next compute the total cross sections for π + π − , π ± π 0 and π 0 π 0 scattering within the framework of the constituent chiral quark model (CχQM) in the limit of a large number of colours N c and discuss their asymptotic behaviours. The same ππ cross sections are also discussed within the general framework of Large-N c QCD and we show that it is possible to make an Ansatz for the isospin I=1 and I=0 spectrum which satisfy the Froissart-Martin bound with coefficients which, contrary to the Lukaszuk-Martin coefficient, are not singular in the chiral limit and have the correct Large-N c counting. We finally propose a simple phenomenological model which matches the low energy behaviours of the σ π ± π 0 total (s) cross section predicted by the CχQM with the high energy behaviour predicted by the Large-N c Ansatz. The magnitude of these cross sections at very high energies is of the order of those observed for the pp and pp-bar scattering total cross sections
Neutron total scattering cross sections of elemental antimony
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Smith, A.B.; Guenther, P.T.; Whalen, J.F.
1982-11-01
Neutron total cross sections are measured from 0.8 to 4.5 MeV with broad resolutions. Differential-neutron-elastic-scattering cross sections are measured from 1.5 to 4.0 MeV at intervals of 50 to 200 keV and at scattering angles distributed between 20 and 160 degrees. Lumped-level neutron-inelastic-scattering cross sections are measured over the same angular and energy range. The exPerimental results are discussed in terms of an optical-statistical model and are compared with respective values given in ENDF/B-V.
Neutron total scattering cross sections of elemental antimony
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, A.B.; Guenther, P.T.; Whalen, J.F.
1982-11-01
Neutron total cross sections are measured from 0.8 to 4.5 MeV with broad resolutions. Differential-neutron-elastic-scattering cross sections are measured from 1.5 to 4.0 MeV at intervals of 50 to 200 keV and at scattering angles distributed between 20 and 160 degrees. Lumped-level neutron-inelastic-scattering cross sections are measured over the same angular and energy range. The exPerimental results are discussed in terms of an optical-statistical model and are compared with respective values given in ENDF/B-V
A cross-section sensitivity and uncertainty analysis on fusion reactor blankets with SAD/SED effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Furuta, Kazuo; Oka, Yoshiaki; Kondo, Shunsuke
1986-01-01
A cross-section sensitivity and uncertainty analysis on four types of fusion reactor blankets has been performed, based on cross-section covariance matrices. The design parameters investigated in the analysis include the tritium breeding ratio, the neutron heating and the fast neutron leakage flux from the inboard shield. Uncertainities in Secondary Angular Distribution (SAD) and Secondary Energy Distribution (SED) of scattered neutrons have been considered for lithium. The collective standard deviation, due to uncertainties in the evaluated cross-section data presently available, is 2-4% in the tritium breeding ratio, 2-3% in the neutron heating, and 10-20% in the fast neutron leakage flux. Contributions from SAD/SED uncertainties are significant for some parameters, such as those investigated in the present study. SAD/SED uncertainties should be considered in the sensitivity and uncertainty analysis on nuclear design of fusion reactors. (orig.)
Total cross sections for heavy flavour production at HERA
Frixione, Stefano; Nason, P; Ridolfi, G; Frixione, S; Mangano, M L; Nason, P; Ridolfi, G
1995-01-01
We compute total cross sections for charm and bottom photoproduction at HERA energies, and discuss the relevant theoretical uncertainties. In particular we discuss the problems arising from the small-x region, the uncertainties in the gluon parton density, and the uncertainties in the hadronic component of the cross section. Total electroproduction cross sections, calculated in the Weizs\\"acker-Williams approximation, are also given.
Heavy flavour hadro-production cross-sections
Wöhri, H K
2003-01-01
Hadro-production data on charm and beauty absolute cross-sections, collected by experiments at CERN, DESY and Fermilab, are reviewed. The measurements, corrected for the 'time evolution' of the branching ratios, are compared to calculations done with Pythia, as a function of the collision energy, using the latest parametrizations of the parton densities. We then estimate some charm and beauty production cross-sections relevant for future measurements, including nuclear effectes in the PDFs. We finish by briefly addressing the relevance, in heavy-ion collisions, of beauty production as feed-down for J/psi production.
Evaluated activation cross-sections and intercomparison of the ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
mental data cross-section with the theoretical codes, to study the quality of the theoretical ... the cross-section, angular distribution, double differential data, gamma ..... TALYS. TENDL. Figure 6. Excitation function of the 87Sr(p, 2n)86Y reaction.
Cross-sectional imaging of adult crystal and inflammatory arthropathies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soldatos, Theodoros; Pezeshk, Parham; Ezzati, Fatemeh; Karp, David R.; Taurog, Joel D.; Chhabra, Avneesh
2016-01-01
This article highlights the key aspects and current perspectives of the role of cross-sectional imaging in adult crystal and inflammatory arthropathies in adults, briefly discussing CT, and particularly focusing on MRI and US imaging as it supplements the conventional radiography. The role of conventional and advanced MR imaging techniques and imaging findings in this domain is discussed and illustrated with case examples. All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. This article contains images and data, which were collected from patients as a part of a retrospective IRB from the institutional teaching files and informed consent was waived. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arribere, M.A.; Kestelman, A.J.; Korochinsky, S.; Blostein, J.J.
2003-01-01
For three high threshold reactions, we have measured the cross sections averaged over a 235 U fission neutron spectrum. The measured reactions, and corresponding averaged cross sections found, are: 127 I(n,2n) 126 I, (1.36±0.12) mb; 90 Zr(n,2n) 89m Zr, (13.86±0.83) μb; and 58 Ni(n,d+np+pn) 57 Co, (274±15) μb; all referred to the well known standard of (111±3) mb for the 58 Ni(n,p) 58m+g Co averaged cross section. The measured cross sections are of interest in nuclear engineering for the characterization of the fast neutron component in the energy distribution of reactor neutrons. (author)
Positron induced scattering cross sections for hydrocarbons relevant to plasma
Singh, Suvam; Antony, Bobby
2018-05-01
This article explores positron scattering cross sections by simple hydrocarbons such as ethane, ethene, ethyne, propane, and propyne. Chemical erosion processes occurring on the surface due to plasma-wall interactions are an abundant source of hydrocarbon molecules which contaminate the hydrogenic plasma. These hydrocarbons play an important role in the edge plasma region of Tokamak and ITER. In addition to this, they are also one of the major components in the planetary atmospheres and astrophysical mediums. The present work focuses on calculation of different positron impact interactions with simple hydrocarbons in terms of the total cross section (Qtot), elastic cross section (Qel), direct ionization cross section (Qion), positronium formation cross section (Qps), and total ionization cross section (Qtion). Knowing that the positron-plasma study is one of the trending fields, the calculated data have diverse plasma and astrophysical modeling applications. A comprehensive study of Qtot has been provided where the inelastic cross sections have been reported for the first time. Comparisons are made with those available from the literature, and a good agreement is obtained with the measurements.
Evaluation of kerma in carbon and the carbon cross sections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Axton, E.J.
1992-02-01
A preliminary simultaneous least squares fit to measurements of kerma in carbon, and carbon cross sections taken from the ENDF/B-V file was carried out. In the calculation the shapes of the total cross section and the various partial cross sections were rigid but their absolute values were allowed to float in the fit within the constraints of the ENDF/B-V uncertainties. The construction of the ENDF/B-V file imposed improbable shapes, particularly in the case of the (12)C(n,n'3(alpha)) reaction, which were incompatible with direct measurements of kerma and of the reaction cross sections. Consequently a new evaluation of the cross section data became necessary. Since the available time was limited the new evaluation concentrated particularly on those aspects of the ENDF/B-V carbon file which would have most impact on kerma calculations. Following the new evaluation of cross sections new tables of kerma factors were produced. Finally, the simultaneous least squares fit to measurements of kerma and the new cross section file was repeated
single-top quark production cross section using the ATLAS detector
Feng, Cunfeng; The ATLAS collaboration
2014-01-01
Measurements of single top-quark production cross section in proton proton collisions at 7 and 8 TeV are presented. In the leading order process, a W boson is exchanged in the t-channel. For this process, for the first time a fiducial cross section measured within the detector acceptance is presented and the modelling uncertainty when extrapolating to the total inclusive cross section is assessed with a large number of different Monte Carlo generators. The result is in good agreement with the most up-to-date theory predictions. Furthermore, the single top-quark and anti-top total production cross sections, their ratio, as well as a measurement of the inclusive production cross section is presented. Differential cross sections are measured as a function of the transverse momentum and the absolute value of the rapidity of top and anti-top quarks. In addition, a measurement of the production cross section of a single top quark in association with a W boson is presented. The s-channel production is explored and l...
Effects of cross-section on mechanical properties of Au nanowire
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vazinishayan, Ali; Yang, Shuming, E-mail: shuming.yang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Duongthipthewa, Anchalee; Wang, Yiming [State Key Laboratory for manufacturing system engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, 710049 (China)
2016-02-15
The aim of this paper is study of the effects of multiple cross-section of Au nanowire on mechanical properties. Different cross-section models of Au nanowires including circular, hexagonal, pentagonal and rectangular were simulated by finite element modeling using ABAQUS. In this study, the bending technique was applied so that both ends of the model were clamped with mid-span under loading condition. The cross-sections had the length of 400 nm and the diameter of 40 nm, except the circular cross-section while the rest of the cross-sections had an equivalent diameter. Von Misses stresses distribution were used to define the stress distribution in the cross-section under loading condition, and elastic deformation was analyzed by the beam theory. The results disclosed that the circular and the rectangular models had highest and lowest strengths against plastic deformation, respectively.
Invisible anti-cloak with elliptic cross section using phase complement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang Yu-Qi; Zhang Min; Yue Jian-Xiang
2011-01-01
Based on the theory of phase complement, an anti-cloak with circular cross section can be made invisible to an object outside its domain. As the cloak with elliptic cross section is more effective to make objects invisible than that with circular cross section, a scaled coordinate system is proposed to design equivalent materials of invisible anti-cloak with elliptic cross section using phase complement. The cloaks with conventional dielectric and double negative parameters are both simulated with the geometrical transformations. The results show that the cloak with elliptic cross section through phase complement can effectively hide the outside objects. (classical areas of phenomenology)
Methods for calculating anisotropic transfer cross sections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cai, Shaohui; Zhang, Yixin.
1985-01-01
The Legendre moments of the group transfer cross section, which are widely used in the numerical solution of the transport calculation can be efficiently and accurately constructed from low-order (K = 1--2) successive partial range moments. This is convenient for the generation of group constants. In addition, a technique to obtain group-angle correlation transfer cross section without Legendre expansion is presented. (author)
Photoionization cross sections: present status and future needs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Manson, S.T.
1988-01-01
The existing experimental data situation for photoionization cross section of ground-state atoms, excited states and positive ions is reviewed. The ability of theory to predict these cross sections is also discussed. The likely progress for the near future is presented [pt
Neutrino-nucleus cross sections for oscillation experiments
Katori, Teppei; Martini, Marco
2018-01-01
Neutrino oscillations physics is entering an era of high precision. In this context, accelerator-based neutrino experiments need a reduction in systematic errors to the level of a few percent. Today, one of the most important sources of systematic errors are neutrino-nucleus cross sections which, in the energy region of hundreds of MeV to a few GeV, are known to a precision not exceeding 20%. In this article we review the present experimental and theoretical knowledge of neutrino-nucleus interaction physics. After introducing neutrino-oscillation physics and accelerator-based neutrino experiments, we give an overview of general aspects of neutrino-nucleus cross sections, from both the theoretical and experimental point of view. Then, we focus on these cross sections in different reaction channels. We start with the quasi-elastic and quasi-elastic-like cross section, placing a special emphasis on the multinucleon emission channel, which has attracted a lot of attention in the last few years. We review the main aspects of the different microscopic models for this channel by discussing analogies and the differences among them. The discussion is always driven by a comparison with the experimental data. We then consider the one-pion production channel where agreement between data and theory remains highly unsatisfactory. We describe how to interpret pion data, and then analyze, in particular, the puzzle related to the difficulty of theoretical models and Monte Carlo to simultaneously describe MiniBooNE and MINERvA experimental results. Inclusive cross sections are also discussed, as well as the comparison between the {ν }μ and {ν }e cross sections, relevant for the charge-conjugation-parity violation experiments. The impact of nuclear effects on the reconstruction of neutrino energy and on the determination of the neutrino-oscillation parameters is also reviewed. Finally, we look to the future by discussing projects and efforts in relation to future detectors, beams
Inclined Bodies of Various Cross Sections at Supersonic Speeds
Jorgensen, Leland H.
1958-01-01
To aid in assessing effects of cross-sectional shape on body aerodynamics, the forces and moments have been measured for bodies with circular, elliptic, square, and triangular cross sections at Mach numbers 1.98 and 3.88. Results for bodies with noncircular cross sections have been compared with results for bodies of revolution having the same axial distribution of cross-sectional area (and, thus, the same equivalent fineness ratio). Comparisons have been made for bodies of fineness ratios 6 and 10 at angles of attack from 0 deg to about 20 deg and for Reynolds numbers, based on body length, of 4.0 x 10(exp 6) and 6.7 x 10(exp 6). The results of this investigation show that distinct aerodynamic advantages can be obtained by using bodies with noncircular cross sections. At certain angles of bank, bodies with elliptic, square, and triangular cross sections develop considerably greater lift and lift-drag ratios than equivalent bodies of revolution. For bodies with elliptic cross sections, lift and pitching-moment coefficients can be correlated with corresponding coefficients for equivalent circular bodies. It has been found that the ratios of lift and pitching-moment coefficients for an elliptic body to those for an equivalent circular body are practically constant with change in both angle of attack and Mach number. These lift and moment ratios are given very accurately by slender-body theory. As a result of this agreement, the method of NACA Rep. 1048 for computing forces and moments for bodies of revolution has been simply extended to bodies with elliptic cross sections. For the cases considered (elliptic bodies of fineness ratios 6 and 10 having cross-sectional axis ratios of 1.5 and 2), agreement of theory with experiment is very good. As a supplement to the force and moment results, visual studies of the flow over bodies have been made by use of the vapor-screen, sublimation, and white-lead techniques. Photographs from these studies are included in the report.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2004-06-01
The Nordic Grid Master Plan 2002 shed light on the energy and power balance for the Nordel area but with special focus on 2005. There was a lot to suggest that the tradi-tional transport patterns with frequent southbound transports would change and be more frequently replaced by northbound transports. Against this background, a number of cross-sections were identified within the Nordel area where expansion is expected to have considerable significance for the Nordic elec-tricity market. The present report 'Priority Cross-sections' concludes the work which was started with the grid master plan. The priority cross-sections are subjected to a technical and socio-economic analysis. The analysis aims to understand the transports in the Nordel system and to support Nor-del when prioritizing forthcoming initiatives. The market price is the driving force for the initiatives which will be carried out on the supply and demand side. The commissioning and decommissioning of commercial pro-duction capacity is determined by the market players, and the task of the transmission system operators (TSOs) is to ensure a robust infrastructure for the smooth operation of the electricity market. (au)
Measurement of actinide neutron cross sections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Firestone, Richard B.; Nitsche, Heino; Leung, Ka-Ngo; Perry, DaleL.; English, Gerald
2003-01-01
The maintenance of strong scientific expertise is critical to the U.S. nuclear attribution community. It is particularly important to train students in actinide chemistry and physics. Neutron cross-section data are vital components to strategies for detecting explosives and fissile materials, and these measurements require expertise in chemical separations, actinide target preparation, nuclear spectroscopy, and analytical chemistry. At the University of California, Berkeley and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory we have trained students in actinide chemistry for many years. LBNL is a leader in nuclear data and has published the Table of Isotopes for over 60 years. Recently, LBNL led an international collaboration to measure thermal neutron capture radiative cross sections and prepared the Evaluated Gamma-ray Activation File (EGAF) in collaboration with the IAEA. This file of 35, 000 prompt and delayed gamma ray cross-sections for all elements from Z=1-92 is essential for the neutron interrogation of nuclear materials. LBNL has also developed new, high flux neutron generators and recently opened a 1010 n/s D+D neutron generator experimental facility
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schenter, R.E.; Oliver, B.M.; Farrar, H. IV
1987-01-01
Spectrum integrated cross sections for /sup 6/Li and /sup 10/B from five benchmark fast reactor neutron fields are compared with calculated values obtained using the ENDF/B-V Cross Section Files. The benchmark fields include the Coupled Fast Reactivity Measurements Facility (CFRMF) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, the 10% Enriched U-235 Critical Assembly (BIG-10) at Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Sigma Sigma and Fission Cavity fields of the BR-1 reactor at CEN/SCK, and the Intermediate-Energy Standard Neutron Field (ISNF) at the National Bureau of Standards. Results from least square analyses using the FERRET computer code to obtain adjusted cross section values and their uncertainties are presented. Input to these calculations include the above five benchmark data sets. These analyses indicate a need for revision in the ENDF/B-V files for the /sup 10/B cross section for energies above 50 keV
238U subthreshold neutron induced fission cross section
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Difilippo, F.C.; Perez, R.B.; De Saussure, G.; Olsen, D.K.; Ingle, R.W.
1976-01-01
High resolution measurements of the 238 U neutron induced fission cross section are reported for neutron energies between 600 eV and 2 MeV. The average subthreshold fission cross section between 10 and 100 keV was found to be 44 +- 6 μb
Fission cross sections in the intermediate energy region
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lisowski, P.W.; Gavron, A.; Parker, W.E.; Ullmann, J.L.; Balestrini, S.J.; Carlson, A.D.; Wasson, O.A.; Hill, N.W.
1991-01-01
Until recently there has been very little cross section data for neutron-induced fission in the intermediate energy region, primarily because no suitable neutron source has existed. At Los Alamos, the WNR target-4 facility provides a high-intensity source of neutrons nearly ideal for fission measurements extending from a fraction of a MeV to several hundred MeV. This paper summarizes the status of fission cross section data in the intermediate energy range (En > 30 MeV) and presents our fission cross section data for 235 U and 238 U compared to intranuclear cascade and statistical model predictions
Fission cross sections in the intermediate energy region
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lisowski, P.W.; Gavron, A.; Parker, W.E.; Ullmann, J.L.; Balestrini, S.J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Carlson, A.D.; Wasson, O.A. (National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (USA)); Hill, N.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))
1991-01-01
Until recently there has been very little cross section data for neutron-induced fission in the intermediate energy region, primarily because no suitable neutron source has existed. At Los Alamos, the WNR target-4 facility provides a high-intensity source of neutrons nearly ideal for fission measurements extending from a fraction of a MeV to several hundred MeV. This paper summarizes the status of fission cross section data in the intermediate energy range (En > 30 MeV) and presents our fission cross section data for {sup 235}U and {sup 238}U compared to intranuclear cascade and statistical model predictions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Takács, S., E-mail: stakacs@atomki.hu [Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Atomki, 4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Takács, M.P.; Ditrói, F. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Atomki, 4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Aikawa, M. [Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Haba, H.; Komori, Y. [Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)
2016-09-15
The cross sections of alpha particles induced nuclear reactions on natural germanium were investigated by using the standard stacked foil target technique, the activation method and high resolution gamma spectrometry. Targets with thickness of about 1 μm were prepared from natural Ge by vacuum evaporation onto 25 μm thick polyimide (Kapton) backing foils. Stacks were composed of Kapton-Ge-Ge-Kapton sandwich target foils and additional titanium monitor foils with nominal thickness of 11 μm to monitor the beam parameters using the {sup nat}Ti(α,x){sup 51}Cr reaction. The irradiations were done with E{sub α} = 20.7 and E{sub α} = 51.25 MeV, I{sub α} = 50 nA alpha particle beams for about 1 h. Direct or cumulative activation cross sections were determined for production of the {sup 72,73,75}Se, {sup 71,72,74,76,78}As, and {sup 69}Ge radionuclides. The obtained experimental cross sections were compared to the results of theoretical calculations taken from the TENDL data library based on the TALYS computer code. A comparison was made with available experimental data measured earlier. Thick target yields were deduced from the experimental cross sections and compared with the data published before.
MINERvA - neutrino nucleus cross section experiment
CERN. Geneva
2014-01-01
Recent results from MINERvA, a neutrino cross section experiment at Fermilab, are presented. MINERVA has the goal of providing precision results which will have important impact on oscillation experiments. Initial data runs for muon neutrino and antineutrino beams of ~3.5 GeV have produced a large number of new results. This seminar will introduce the experiment and describe results for quasielastic, pion production, and inclusive cross sections.
Evaluation of cross sections for neutron-induced reactions in sodium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Larson, D.C.
1980-09-01
An evaluation of the neutron-induced cross sections of 23 Na has been done for the energy range from 10 -5 eV to 20 MeV. All significant cross sections are given, including differential cross sections for production of gamma rays. The recommended values are based on experimental data where available, and use results of a consistent model code analysis of available data to predict cross sections where there are no experimental data. This report describes the evaluation that was submitted to the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) for consideration as a part of the Evaluated Nuclear Data File, Version V, and subsequently issued as MAT 1311. 126 references, 130 figures, 14 tables
Differential bremsstrahlung and pair production cross sections at high energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olsen, Haakon A.
2003-01-01
Detailed differential cross sections for high energy bremsstrahlung and pair production are derived with specific attention to the differences between the two processes, which are considerable. For the integrated cross sections, which are the only cross sections specifically known until now, the final state integration theorem guarantees that the exact cross section formulas can be exchanged between bremsstrahlung and pair production by the same substitution rules as for the Born-approximation Bethe-Heitler cross sections, for any amount of atomic screening. In fact the theorem states that the Coulomb corrections to the integrated bremsstrahlung and pair production cross sections are identical for any amount of screening. The analysis of the basic differential cross sections leads to fundamental physical differences between bremsstrahlung and pair production. Coulomb corrections occur for pair production in the strong electric field of the atom for 'large' momentum transfer of the order of mc. For bremsstrahlung, on the other hand, the Coulomb corrections take place at a 'large' distance from the atom of the order of ((ℎ/2π)/mc)ε, with a 'small' momentum transfer mc/ε, where ε is the initial electron energy in units of mc 2 . And the Coulomb corrections can be large, of the order of larger than (Z/137) 2 , which is considerably larger than the integrated cross section corrections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vuong Huu Tan; Nguyen Canh Hai; Pham Ngoc Son; Tran Tuan Anh
2004-12-01
The neutron capture cross sections of the 109 Ag(n, γ) 110 mAg, 186 W(n, γ) 187 W and 158 Gd(n, γ) 159 Gd have been measured at 55 and 144 keV by the activation method with filtered neutron beams of the Dalat nuclear research reactor. The cross sections were determined relative to the standard capture cross sections of 197 Au using highly purity metallic foils of Ag, W, Gd and Au. The high efficient HPGe detector was used for the gamma rays measurement from the samples, and absolute efficiency calibration was performed by using a set of standard radioisotope sources and a multi-nuclides standard solution. The present results were compared with the previous measurements listed in EXFOR-CINDA, and the evaluated data of ENDF/B-VI. (author)
Positron total scattering cross-sections for alkali atoms
Sinha, Nidhi; Singh, Suvam; Antony, Bobby
2018-01-01
Positron-impact total scattering cross-sections for Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs and Fr atoms are calculated in the energy range from 5-5000 eV employing modified spherical complex optical potential formalism. The main aim of this work is to apply this formalism to the less studied positron-target collision systems. The results are compared with previous theoretical and experimental data, wherever available. In general, the present data show overall agreement and consistency with other results. Furthermore, we have done a comparative study of the results to investigate the effect of atomic size on the cross-sections as we descend through the group in the periodic table. We have also plotted a correlation graph of the present total cross-sections with polarizability and number of target electrons. The two correlation plots confirm the credibility and consistency of the present results. Besides, this is the first theoretical attempt to report positron-impact total cross-sections of alkali atoms over such a wide energy range.
Measurement of the W-pair cross section in $e^+ e^-$ collisions at 172 GeV
Barate, R; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Nief, J Y; Pietrzyk, B; Casado, M P; Chmeissani, M; Comas, P; Crespo, J M; Delfino, M C; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Garrido, L; Juste, A; Martínez, M; Merino, G; Miquel, R; Mir, L M; Padilla, C; Park, I C; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Riu, I; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Gelao, G; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Tricomi, A; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Abbaneo, D; Alemany, R; Bazarko, A O; Becker, U; Bright-Thomas, P G; Cattaneo, M; Cerutti, F; Dissertori, G; Drevermann, H; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Hansen, J B; Harvey, J; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Moneta, L; Pacheco, A; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rizzo, G; Rolandi, Luigi; Rousseau, D; Schlatter, W D; Schmitt, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Wachsmuth, H W; Wagner, A; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Ferdi, C; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rosnet, P; Rossignol, J M; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Rensch, B; Wäänänen, A; Daskalakis, G; Kyriakis, A; Markou, C; Simopoulou, Errietta; Vayaki, Anna; Blondel, A; Brient, J C; Machefert, F P; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Valassi, Andrea; Videau, H L; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Zachariadou, K; Cavanaugh, R J; Corden, M; Georgiopoulos, C H; Hühn, T; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Casper, David William; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Passalacqua, L; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Curtis, L; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Teixeira-Dias, P; Thompson, A S; Thomson, E; Thomson, F; Turnbull, R M; Ward, J; Buchmüller, O L; Dhamotharan, S; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hansper, G; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Sommer, J; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Dornan, Peter J; Girone, M; Goodsir, S M; Martin, E B; Morawitz, P; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; Sedgbeer, J K; Spagnolo, P; Stacey, A M; Williams, M D; Ghete, V M; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Betteridge, A P; Bowdery, C K; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Jones, R W L; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Hoffmann, C; Jakobs, K; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Renk, B; Rohne, E; Sander, H G; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Carr, J; Coyle, P; Diaconu, C A; Ealet, A; Fouchez, D; Konstantinidis, N P; Leroy, O; Motsch, F; Payre, P; Talby, M; Sadouki, A; Thulasidas, M; Tilquin, A; Trabelsi, K; Aleppo, M; Antonelli, M; Ragusa, F; Berlich, R; Blum, Walter; Büscher, V; Dietl, H; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Stenzel, H; Wiedenmann, W; Wolf, G; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Chen, S; Cordier, A; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Höcker, A; Jacholkowska, A; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Nikolic, I A; Schune, M H; Serin, L; Simion, S; Tournefier, E; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Zerwas, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Giassi, A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Palla, Fabrizio; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Sguazzoni, G; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Vannini, C; Venturi, A; Verdini, P G; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Chambers, J T; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Medcalf, T; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Wright, A E; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Fabbro, B; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Rosowsky, A; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Black, S N; Dann, J H; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Brew, C A J; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Kelly, M S; Lehto, M H; Newton, W M; Reeve, J; Thompson, L F; Affholderbach, K; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Foss, J; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Musolino, G; Pütz, J; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Williams, R W; Armstrong, S R; Charles, E; Elmer, P; Ferguson, D P S; González, S; Greening, T C; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; Jin, S; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Nielsen, J; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Scott, I J; Walsh, J; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zobernig, G
1997-01-01
The e+e- --> W+W- cross section is measured in a data sample collected by ALEPH at a mean centre--of--mass energy of 172.09 GEV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 10.65 pb-1. Cross sections are given for the three topologies, fully leptonic, semi-leptonic and hadronic of a W-pair decay. Under the assumption that no other decay modes are present, the W-pair cross section is measured to be 11.7 +- 1.2 (stat.) +- 0.3 (syst.) pb. The existence of the triple gauge boson vertex of the Standard Model is clearly preferred by the data. The decay branching ratio of the W boson into hadrons is measured to be B(W --> hadrons) = 67.7 +- 3.1 (stat.) +- 0.7 (syst.)%, allowing a determination of the CKM matrix element |Vcs|= 0.98 +- 0.14 (stat.) +- 0.03 (syst.).
Measurement of the W-pair cross section in e+e- collisions at 172 GeV
ALEPH Collaboration; Barate, R.; Buskulic, D.; Decamp, D.; Ghez, P.; Goy, C.; Lees, J.-P.; Lucotte, A.; Minard, M.-N.; Nief, J.-Y.; Pietrzyk, B.; Casado, M. P.; Chmeissani, M.; Comas, P.; Crespo, J. M.; Delfino, M.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Garrido, Ll.; Juste, A.; Martinez, M.; Merino, G.; Miquel, R.; Mir, Ll. M.; Padilla, C.; Park, I. C.; Pascual, A.; Perlas, J. A.; Riu, I.; Sanchez, F.; Teubert, F.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Gelao, G.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Marinelli, N.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Tricomi, A.; Zito, G.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Ouyang, Q.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, R.; Xue, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Abbaneo, D.; Alemany, R.; Bazarko, A. O.; Becker, U.; Bright-Thomas, P.; Cattaneo, M.; Cerutti, F.; Dissertori, G.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R. W.; Frank, M.; Hagelberg, R.; Hansen, J. B.; Harvey, J.; Janot, P.; Jost, B.; Kneringer, E.; Knobloch, J.; Lehraus, I.; Mato, P.; Minten, A.; Moneta, L.; Pacheco, A.; Pusztaszeri, J.-F.; Ranjard, F.; Rizzo, G.; Rolandi, L.; Rousseau, D.; Schlatter, D.; Schmitt, M.; Schneider, O.; Tejessy, W.; Tomalin, I. R.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wagner, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Barrès, A.; Boyer, C.; Falvard, A.; Ferdi, C.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Monteil, S.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Proriol, J.; Rosnet, P.; Rossignol, J.-M.; Fearnley, T.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Nilsson, B. S.; Rensch, B.; Wäänänen, A.; Daskalakis, G.; Kyriakis, A.; Markou, C.; Simopoulou, E.; Vayaki, A.; Blondel, A.; Brient, J. C.; Machefert, F.; Rougé, A.; Rumpf, M.; Valassi, A.; Videau, H.; Focardi, E.; Parrini, G.; Zachariadou, K.; Cavanaugh, R.; Corden, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Huehn, T.; Jaffe, D. E.; Antonelli, A.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Casper, D.; Chiarella, V.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Passalacqua, L.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Curtis, L.; Dorris, S. J.; Halley, A. W.; Knowles, I. G.; Lynch, J. G.; O'Shea, V.; Raine, C.; Scarr, J. M.; Smith, K.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, F.; Turnbull, R. M.; Ward, J.; Buchmüller, O.; Dhamotharan, S.; Geweniger, C.; Graefe, G.; Hanke, P.; Hansper, G.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Putzer, A.; Sommer, J.; Tittel, K.; Werner, S.; Wunsch, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Dornan, P. J.; Girone, M.; Goodsir, S.; Martin, E. B.; Morawitz, P.; Moutoussi, A.; Nash, J.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Spagnolo, P.; Stacey, A. M.; Williams, M. D.; Ghete, V. M.; Girtler, P.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Betteridge, A. P.; Bowdery, C. K.; Colrain, P.; Crawford, G.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Jones, R. W. L.; Sloan, T.; Whelan, E. P.; Williams, M. I.; Hoffmann, C.; Jakobs, K.; Kleinknecht, K.; Quast, G.; Renk, B.; Rohne, E.; Sander, H.-G.; van Gemmeren, P.; Zeitnitz, C.; Aubert, J. J.; Benchouk, C.; Bonissent, A.; Bujosa, G.; Carr, J.; Coyle, P.; Diaconu, C.; Ealet, A.; Fouchez, D.; Konstantinidis, N.; Leroy, O.; Motsch, F.; Payre, P.; Talby, M.; Sadouki, A.; Thulasidas, M.; Tilquin, A.; Trabelsi, K.; Aleppo, M.; Antonelli, M.; Ragusa, F.; Berlich, R.; Blum, W.; Büscher, V.; Dietl, H.; Ganis, G.; Gotzhein, C.; Kroha, H.; Lütjens, G.; Lutz, G.; Männer, W.; Moser, H.-G.; Richter, R.; Rosado-Schlosser, A.; Schael, S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; Denis, R. St.; Stenzel, H.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wolf, G.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Chen, S.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Höcker, A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jacquet, M.; Kim, D. W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrançois, J.; Lutz, A.-M.; Nikolic, I.; Schune, M.-H.; Serin, L.; Simion, S.; Tournefier, E.; Veillet, J.-J.; Videau, I.; Zerwas, D.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bozzi, C.; Calderini, G.; Ciulli, V.; dell'Orso, R.; Fantechi, R.; Ferrante, I.; Giassi, A.; Gregorio, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lusiani, A.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Sanguinetti, G.; Sciabà, A.; Sguazzoni, G.; Steinberger, J.; Tenchini, R.; Vannini, C.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Blair, G. A.; Bryant, L. M.; Chambers, J. T.; Gao, Y.; Green, M. G.; Medcalf, T.; Perrodo, P.; Strong, J. A.; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J. H.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Haywood, S.; Maley, P.; Norton, P. R.; Thompson, J. C.; Wright, A. E.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Fabbro, B.; Kozanecki, W.; Lançon, E.; Lemaire, M. C.; Locci, E.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.-F.; Rosowsky, A.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schwindling, J.; Trabelsi, A.; Vallage, B.; Black, S. N.; Dann, J. H.; Kim, H. Y.; Litke, A. M.; McNeil, M. A.; Taylor, G.; Booth, C. N.; Boswell, R.; Brew, C. A. J.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Kelly, M. S.; Lehto, M.; Newton, W. M.; Reeve, J.; Thompson, L. F.; Affholderbach, K.; Böhrer, A.; Brandt, S.; Cowan, G.; Foss, J.; Grupen, C.; Lutters, G.; Saraiva, P.; Smolik, L.; Stephan, F.; Apollonio, M.; Bosisio, L.; della Marina, R.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Musolino, G.; Putz, J.; Rothberg, J.; Wasserbaech, S.; Williams, R. W.; Armstrong, S. R.; Charles, E.; Elmer, P.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; González, S.; Greening, T. C.; Hayes, O. J.; Hu, H.; Jin, S.; McNamara, P. A., III; Nachtman, J. M.; Nielsen, J.; Orejudos, W.; Pan, Y. B.; Saadi, Y.; Scott, I. J.; Walsh, J.; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, X.; Yamartino, J. M.; Zobernig, G.
1997-12-01
The e+e--->W+W- cross section is measured in a data sample collected by ALEPH at a mean centre-of-mass energy of 172.09 GeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 10.65 pb-1. Cross sections are given for the three topologies, fully leptonic, semi-leptonic and hadronic of a W-pair decay. Under the assumption that no other decay modes are present, the W-pair cross section is measured to be 11.7+/-1.2(stat.)+/-0.3(syst.) pb. The existence of the triple gauge boson vertex of the Standard Model is clearly preferred by the data. The decay branching ratio of the W boson into hadrons is measured to be B(W-->hadrons)=67.7+/-3.1(stat.)+/-0.7(syst.) %, allowing a determination of the CKM matrix element Vcs=0.98+/-0.14(stat.)+/-0.03(syst.).
New evaluated neutron cross section libraries for the GEANT4 code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mendoza, E.; Cano-Ott, D.; Guerrero, C.; Capote, R.
2012-04-01
The so-called High Precision neutron physics model implemented in the GEANT4 simulation package allows simulating the transport of neutrons with energies up to 20 MeV. It relies on the G4NDL cross section libraries, prepared by the GEANT4 collaboration from evaluated cross section files and distributed freely together with the code. Even though the performance of the G4NDL library has been improved over the time, users running complex simulations which involve the transport of neutrons do need more flexibility, in particular when assessing the uncertainties in the simulation results due to the neutron (and hence the nuclear) data library used. For this reason, a software tool has been developed for transforming any evaluated neutron cross section library in the ENDF-6 format into the G4NDL format. Furthermore, eight different releases of ENDF-B, JEFF, JENDL, CENDL and BROND national libraries have been translated into the G4NDL format and are distributed by the IAEA nuclear data service at www-nds.iaea.org/geant4. In this way, GEANT4 users have access to the complete list of standard evaluated neutron data libraries when performing Monte Carlo simulations with GEANT4. Consistency checks and a first validation of the libraries have been made following the methods described in this report. (author)
2010-07-01
... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Cross-references to employee ethical conduct standards, financial disclosure regulations and other ethics regulations. 0.735-1 Section 0.735-1 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor ETHICS AND CONDUCT OF DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EMPLOYEES Standards of Conduct for Current...
Up to date cross sections library for Thermos and Record codes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hernandez Lopez, H.
1993-01-01
Reactor cell analysis is the first step in determining reactor core behavior and is required in the reload licensing process. For best results, reactor cell analysis should be carried out with libraries of up to date, accurate cross sections produced with well described methods from standard evaluated nuclear data. At first step in this work were determined the library structure for RECORD and THERMOS and were prepared the cross sections libraries using the NJOY nuclear data processing system and the ENDF-B/IV evaluated nuclear data. These libraries were used by the codes and some samples were perform, the result show some differences against the results obtained using the previous libraries. By other hand the libraries contain various adjustments to correct for deficiencies in nuclear data or analytical methods. These adjustments doesn't have any documentation, although some of them were identified in this work. (Author). 25 refs, 78 figs, 55 tabs
Filtered thermal neutron captured cross sections measurements and decay heat calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pham Ngoc Son; Vuong Huu Tan
2015-01-01
Recently, a pure thermal neutron beam has been developed for neutron capture measurements based on the horizontal channel No.2 of the research reactor at the Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat. The original reactor neutron spectrum is transmitted through an optimal composition of Bi and Si single crystals for delivering a thermal neutron beam with Cadmium ratio (R ed ) of 420 and neutron flux (Φ th ) of 1.6*10 6 n/cm 2 .s. This thermal neutron beam has been applied for measurements of capture cross sections for nuclide of 51 V, by the activation method relative to the standard reaction 197 Au(n,γ) 198 Au. In addition to the activities of neutron capture cross sections measurements, the study on nuclear decay heat calculations has been also considered to be developed at the Institute. Some results on calculation procedure and decay heat values calculated with update nuclear database for 235 U are introduced in this report. (author)
Evaluation of the Neutron Data Standards
Carlson, A. D.; Pronyaev, V. G.; Capote, R.; Hale, G. M.; Chen, Z.-P.; Duran, I.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Kunieda, S.; Mannhart, W.; Marcinkevicius, B.; Nelson, R. O.; Neudecker, D.; Noguere, G.; Paris, M.; Simakov, S. P.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Smith, D. L.; Tao, X.; Trkov, A.; Wallner, A.; Wang, W.
2018-02-01
With the need for improving existing nuclear data evaluations, (e.g., ENDF/B-VIII.0 and JEFF-3.3 releases) the first step was to evaluate the standards for use in such a library. This new standards evaluation made use of improved experimental data and some developments in the methodology of analysis and evaluation. In addition to the work on the traditional standards, this work produced the extension of some energy ranges and includes new reactions that are called reference cross sections. Since the effort extends beyond the traditional standards, it is called the neutron data standards evaluation. This international effort has produced new evaluations of the following cross section standards: the H(n,n), 6Li(n,t), 10B(n,α), 10B(n,α1 γ), natC(n,n), Au(n,γ), 235U(n,f) and 238U(n,f). Also in the evaluation process the 238U(n,γ) and 239Pu(n,f) cross sections that are not standards were evaluated. Evaluations were also obtained for data that are not traditional standards: the Maxwellian spectrum averaged cross section for the Au(n,γ) cross section at 30 keV; reference cross sections for prompt γ-ray production in fast neutron-induced reactions; reference cross sections for very high energy fission cross sections; the 252Cf spontaneous fission neutron spectrum and the 235U prompt fission neutron spectrum induced by thermal incident neutrons; and the thermal neutron constants. The data and covariance matrices of the uncertainties were obtained directly from the evaluation procedure.
pp production cross sections and the constraint method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anjos, J.C.; Santoro, A.F.S.; Souza, M.H.G.
1983-01-01
A method of constructing production cross sections that satisfy the constraints represented by the first few moments is shown to give an excellent account of the data when applied to the high energy pp production cross section ν sub(n) (s) plotted as functions of n. (Author) [pt
Total Cross Sections at High Energies An update
Fazal-e-Aleem, M; Alam, Saeed; Qadee-Afzal, M
2002-01-01
Current and Future measurements for the total cross sections at E-811, PP2PP, CSM, FELIX and TOTEM have been analyzed using various models. In the light of this study an attempt has been made to focus on the behavior of total cross section at very high energies.
Investigation of the 232Th neutron cross-sections in resonance energy range
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grigoriev, Yu.V.; Kitaev, V.Ya.; Sinitsa, V.V.; Zhuravlev, B.V.; Borzakov, S.B.; Faikov-Stanchik, H.; Ilchev, G.L.; Panteleev, Ts.Ts.; Kim, G.N.
2001-01-01
The alternative path in the development of atomic energy is the uranium-thorium cycle. In connection with this, the measurements of the 232 Th neutron capture and total cross-sections and its resonance self-shielding coefficients in resonance energy range are necessary because of their low accuracy. In this work, the results of the investigations of the thorium-232 neutron cross-sections are presented. The measurements have been carried out on the gamma-ray multisection liquid detector and neutron detector as a battery of boron counters on the 120 m flight path of the pulsed fast reactor IBR-30. As the filter samples were used the metallic disks of various thickness and diameter of 45 mm. Two plates from metallic thorium with thickness of 0.2 mm and with the square of 4.5x4.5 cm 2 were used as the radiator samples. The group neutron total and capture cross-sections within the accuracy of 2-7% in the energy range of (10 eV-10 keV) were obtained from the transmissions and the sum spectra of g-rays from the fourth multiplicity to the seventh one. The neutron capture group cross-sections of 238 U were used as the standard for obtaining of thorium ones. Analogous values were calculated on the GRUCON code with the ENDF/B-6, JENDL-3 evaluated data libraries. Within the limits of experimental errors an agreement between the experiment and calculation is observed, but in some groups the experimental values are larger than the calculated ones. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Lee, Young Ouk; Cho, Young Sik
2008-07-15
This report contains the measurements and evaluation of production cross sections of some medically and technologically important radionuclides over the energy range 1-40 MeV by using a conventional stacked-foil activation technique combined with high purity germanium (HPGe) -ray spectrometry. The irradiations were done by using the external beam line of the MC-50 cyclotron at the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS). The standard cross sections for monitor reactions were taken from IAEA web site. Integral yields for the investigated radionuclides were deduced using the measured cross-sections. Reported data were compared with the available literature data, theoretical calculations by the codes TALYS and ALICE-IPPE, and a good overall agreement among them was found.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Lee, Young Ouk; Cho, Young Sik
2008-07-01
This report contains the measurements and evaluation of production cross sections of some medically and technologically important radionuclides over the energy range 1-40 MeV by using a conventional stacked-foil activation technique combined with high purity germanium (HPGe) -ray spectrometry. The irradiations were done by using the external beam line of the MC-50 cyclotron at the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS). The standard cross sections for monitor reactions were taken from IAEA web site. Integral yields for the investigated radionuclides were deduced using the measured cross-sections. Reported data were compared with the available literature data, theoretical calculations by the codes TALYS and ALICE-IPPE, and a good overall agreement among them was found
Pion-nucleus cross sections approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barashenkov, V.S.; Polanski, A.; Sosnin, A.N.
1990-01-01
Analytical approximation of pion-nucleus elastic and inelastic interaction cross-section is suggested, with could be applied in the energy range exceeding several dozens of MeV for nuclei heavier than beryllium. 3 refs.; 4 tabs
Electron collision cross section sets of TMS and TEOS vapours
Kawaguchi, S.; Takahashi, K.; Satoh, K.; Itoh, H.
2017-05-01
Reliable and detailed sets of electron collision cross sections for tetramethylsilane [TMS, Si(CH3)4] and tetraethoxysilane [TEOS, Si(OC2H5)4] vapours are proposed. The cross section sets of TMS and TEOS vapours include 16 and 20 kinds of partial ionization cross sections, respectively. Electron transport coefficients, such as electron drift velocity, ionization coefficient, and longitudinal diffusion coefficient, in those vapours are calculated by Monte Carlo simulations using the proposed cross section sets, and the validity of the sets is confirmed by comparing the calculated values of those transport coefficients with measured data. Furthermore, the calculated values of the ionization coefficient in TEOS/O2 mixtures are compared with measured data to confirm the validity of the proposed cross section set.
LINEAR2007, Linear-Linear Interpolation of ENDF Format Cross-Sections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2007-01-01
1 - Description of program or function: LINEAR converts evaluated cross sections in the ENDF/B format into a tabular form that is subject to linear-linear interpolation in energy and cross section. The code also thins tables of cross sections already in that form. Codes used subsequently need thus to consider only linear-linear data. IAEA1311/15: This version include the updates up to January 30, 2007. Changes in ENDF/B-VII Format and procedures, as well as the evaluations themselves, make it impossible for versions of the ENDF/B pre-processing codes earlier than PREPRO 2007 (2007 Version) to accurately process current ENDF/B-VII evaluations. The present code can handle all existing ENDF/B-VI evaluations through release 8, which will be the last release of ENDF/B-VI. Modifications from previous versions: - Linear VERS. 2007-1 (JAN. 2007): checked against all ENDF/B-VII; increased page size from 60,000 to 600,000 points 2 - Method of solution: Each section of data is considered separately. Each section of File 3, 23, and 27 data consists of a table of cross section versus energy with any of five interpolation laws. LINEAR will replace each section with a new table of energy versus cross section data in which the interpolation law is always linear in energy and cross section. The histogram (constant cross section between two energies) interpolation law is converted to linear-linear by substituting two points for each initial point. The linear-linear is not altered. For the log-linear, linear-log and log- log laws, the cross section data are converted to linear by an interval halving algorithm. Each interval is divided in half until the value at the middle of the interval can be approximated by linear-linear interpolation to within a given accuracy. The LINEAR program uses a multipoint fractional error thinning algorithm to minimize the size of each cross section table
A method for measuring light ion reaction cross-sections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carlson, R.F.; Ingemarsson, A.; Lantz, M.; Arendse, G.J.; Auce, A.; Cox, A.J.; Foertsch, S.V.; Jacobs, N.M.; Johansson, R.; Nyberg, J.; Peavy, J.; Renberg, P.-U.; Sundberg, O.; Stander, J.A.; Steyn, G.F.; Tibell, G.; Zorro, R.
2005-01-01
An experimental procedure for measuring reaction cross-sections of light ions in the energy range 20-50 MeV/nucleon, using a modified attenuation technique, is described. The detection method incorporates a forward detector that simultaneously measures the reaction cross-sections for five different sizes of the solid angle in steps from 99.1% to 99.8% of the total solid angle. The final reaction cross-section values are obtained by extrapolation to the full solid angle
A method for measuring light ion reaction cross sections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carlson, R.F.; Ingemarsson, A.; Lantz, M.
2005-03-01
An experimental procedure for measuring reaction cross sections of light ions in the energy range 20-50 MeV/nucleon, using a modified attenuation technique, is described. The detection method incorporates a forward detector that simultaneously measures the reaction cross sections for five different sizes of the solid angles in steps from 99.1 to 99.8% of the total solid angle. The final reaction cross section values are obtained by extrapolation to the full solid angle
Calculated Cross Sections for the Electron Impact Ionization of Molecular Ions
Deutsch, H.; Becker, K.; Defrance, P.; Onthong, U.; Parajuli, R.; Probst, M.; Matt-Leubner, S.; Maerk, T.
2002-10-01
We report the results of the application of the semi- classical Deutsch-Märk (DM) formalism to the calculation of the absolute electron-impact ionization cross section of the molecular ions H2+, N2+, O2+, CD+, CO+, CO2+, H3O+, and CH4+ for which experimental data have been reported . Where available, we also compare our calculated cross sections with calculated cross sections using the BEB method of Kim and co-workers. The level of agreement between the experimentally determined and calculated cross section is satisfactory in some cases. In all cases, the calculated cross sections exceed the measured cross sections which is not surprising in view of the experimental complications in measuring ionization cross sections of molecular ions due to the presence of competing channels such as ionization dissociative ionization, and dissociative excitation. Work supported in part by FWF, OEAW, and NASA.
Activities of Radiation Standard Section
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kannan, A.; Rao, P.S.; Sachadev, R.N.; Shaha, V.V.; Sharma, D.; Srivastava, P.K.
1992-01-01
A brief account of the various facilities and services provided by the Radiation Standards Section (RSS) of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay is given. RSS maintains the primary and secondary standards of various parameters of radiation measurements. It ensures accurate radiological measurements as per international requirements, through periodic international intercomparisons of national standards. It also provides calibration services to various users of radiation sources and instruments. The activities of RSS are described under the headings: (1) Radiological Metrology Standards, (2) Radionuclide Standards, Neutron Metrology, (4) Instruments Calibration, (5) Non-ionizing Radiations, and (6) Instrumentation. (author). figs., tabs
Meeting cross-section requirements for nuclear-energy design
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Weisbin, C.R.; de Saussure, G.; Santoro, R.T. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Gilai, T. (Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheba (Israel))
1982-01-01
Current requirements in cross-section data that are essential to nuclear-energy programmes are summarized and explained and some insight into how these data might be obtained is provided. The six sections of the paper describe: design parameters and target accuracies; data collection, evaluation and analysis; determination of high-accuracy differential nuclear data for technological applications; status of selected evaluated nuclear data; analysis of benchmark testing; identification of important cross sections and inferred needs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Holmqvist, B; Wiedling, T
1969-06-15
Neutron elastic scattering cross section measurements have been going on for a long period at the Studsvik Van de Graaff laboratory. The cross sections of a range of elements have been investigated in the energy interval 1.5 to 8 MeV. The experimental data have been compared with cross sections calculated with the optical model when using a local nuclear potential.
Systematics of fission cross sections at the intermediate energy region
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fukahori, Tokio; Chiba, Satoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment
1997-03-01
The systematics was obtained with fitting experimental data for proton induced fission cross sections of Ag, {sup 181}Ta, {sup 197}Au, {sup 206,207,208}Pb, {sup 209}Bi, {sup 232}Th, {sup 233,235,238}U, {sup 237}Np and {sup 239}Pu above 20 MeV. The low energy cross section of actinoid nuclei is omitted from systematics study, since the cross section has a complicated shape and strongly depends on characteristic of nucleus. The fission cross sections calculated by the systematics are in good agreement with experimental data. (author)
Total cross-section measurements progress in nuclear physics
Giacomelli, G; Mulvey, J H
2013-01-01
Total Cross-Section Measurements discusses the cross-sectional dimensions of elementary hadron collisions. The main coverage of the book is the resonance and high energy area of the given collision. A section of the book explains in detail the characteristic of a resonance region. Another section is focused on the location of the high energy region of collision. Parts of the book define the meaning of resonance in nuclear physics. Also explained are the measurement of resonance and the identification of the area where the resonance originates. Different experimental methods to measure the tota
Learning of Cross-Sectional Anatomy Using Clay Models
Oh, Chang-Seok; Kim, Ji-Young; Choe, Yeon Hyeon
2009-01-01
We incorporated clay modeling into gross anatomy and neuro-anatomy courses to help students understand cross-sectional anatomy. By making clay models, cutting them and comparing cut surfaces to CT and MR images, students learned how cross-sectional two-dimensional images were created from three-dimensional structure of human organs. Most students…
Q.C.D. estimates of hadronic cross sections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Navelet, H.; Peschanski, R.
1983-03-01
Estimates for hadron-hadron cross-sections are made using the leading log approximation of Q.C.D. The rise of the total inelastic pp cross-sections at high energy is reproduced, thanks to the competition between the small parton-parton interaction and the large multiplicity of gluons predicted by Q.C.D
Power corrections to the universal heavy WIMP-nucleon cross section
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Chien-Yi; Hill, Richard J.; Solon, Mikhail P.; Wijangco, Alexander M.
2018-06-01
WIMP-nucleon scattering is analyzed at order $1/M$ in Heavy WIMP Effective Theory. The $1/M$ power corrections, where $M\\gg m_W$ is the WIMP mass, distinguish between different underlying UV models with the same universal limit and their impact on direct detection rates can be enhanced relative to naive expectations due to generic amplitude-level cancellations at leading order. The necessary one- and two-loop matching calculations onto the low-energy effective theory for WIMP interactions with Standard Model quarks and gluons are performed for the case of an electroweak SU(2) triplet WIMP, considering both the cases of elementary fermions and composite scalars. The low-velocity WIMP-nucleon scattering cross section is evaluated and compared with current experimental limits and projected future sensitivities. Our results provide the most robust prediction for electroweak triplet Majorana fermion dark matter direct detection rates; for this case, a cancellation between two sources of power corrections yields a small total $1/M$ correction, and a total cross section close to the universal limit for $M \\gtrsim {\\rm few} \\times 100\\,{\\rm GeV}$. For the SU(2) composite scalar, the $1/M$ corrections introduce dependence on underlying strong dynamics. Using a leading chiral logarithm evaluation, the total $1/M$ correction has a larger magnitude and uncertainty than in the fermionic case, with a sign that further suppresses the total cross section. These examples provide definite targets for future direct detection experiments and motivate large scale detectors capable of probing to the neutrino floor in the TeV mass regime.
Power corrections to the universal heavy WIMP-nucleon cross section
Chen, Chien-Yi; Hill, Richard J.; Solon, Mikhail P.; Wijangco, Alexander M.
2018-06-01
WIMP-nucleon scattering is analyzed at order 1 / M in Heavy WIMP Effective Theory. The 1 / M power corrections, where M ≫mW is the WIMP mass, distinguish between different underlying UV models with the same universal limit and their impact on direct detection rates can be enhanced relative to naive expectations due to generic amplitude-level cancellations at leading order. The necessary one- and two-loop matching calculations onto the low-energy effective theory for WIMP interactions with Standard Model quarks and gluons are performed for the case of an electroweak SU(2) triplet WIMP, considering both the cases of elementary fermions and composite scalars. The low-velocity WIMP-nucleon scattering cross section is evaluated and compared with current experimental limits and projected future sensitivities. Our results provide the most robust prediction for electroweak triplet Majorana fermion dark matter direct detection rates; for this case, a cancellation between two sources of power corrections yields a small total 1 / M correction, and a total cross section close to the universal limit for M ≳ few × 100GeV. For the SU(2) composite scalar, the 1 / M corrections introduce dependence on underlying strong dynamics. Using a leading chiral logarithm evaluation, the total 1 / M correction has a larger magnitude and uncertainty than in the fermionic case, with a sign that further suppresses the total cross section. These examples provide definite targets for future direct detection experiments and motivate large scale detectors capable of probing to the neutrino floor in the TeV mass regime.
Measurements of Electron Proton Elastic Cross Sections for 0.4
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Christy, M.E.; Abdellah Ahmidouch; Christopher Armstrong; John Arrington; Arshak Asaturyan; Steven Avery; Baker, O.; Douglas Beck; Henk Blok; Bochna, C.W.; Werner Boeglin; Peter Bosted; Maurice Bouwhuis; Herbert Breuer; Brown, D.S.; Antje Bruell; Roger Carlini; Nicholas Chant; Anthony Cochran; Leon Cole; Samuel Danagoulian; Donal Day; James Dunne; Dipangkar Dutta; Rolf Ent; Howard Fenker; Fox, B.; Liping Gan; Haiyan Gao; Kenneth Garrow; David Gaskell; Ashot Gasparian; Don Geesaman; Paul Gueye; Mark Harvey; Roy Holt; Xiaodong Jiang; Cynthia Keppel; Edward Kinney; Yongguang Liang; Wolfgang Lorenzon; Allison Lung; Pete Markowitz; Martin, J.W.; Kevin Mcilhany; David Mckee; David Meekins; Miller, M.A.; Richard Milner; Joseph Mitchell; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; Robert Mueller; Alan Nathan; Gabriel Niculescu; Maria-ioana Niculescu; Thomas O'neill; Vassilios Papavassiliou; Stephen Pate; Rodney Piercey; David Potterveld; Ronald Ransome; Joerg Reinhold; Rollinde, E.; Philip Roos; Adam Sarty; Reyad Sawafta; Elaine Schulte; Edwin Segbefia; Smith, C.; Samuel Stepanyan; Steffen Strauch; Vardan Tadevosyan; Liguang Tang; Raphael Tieulent; Alicia Uzzle; William Vulcan; Stephen Wood; Feng Xiong; Lulin Yuan; Markus Zeier; Benedikt Zihlmann; Vitaliy Ziskin
2004-01-01
We report on precision measurements of the elastic cross section for electron-proton scattering performed in Hall C at Jefferson Lab. The measurements were made at 28 distinct kinematic settings covering a range in momentum transfer of 0.4 < Q2 < 5.5 (GeV/c)2. These measurements represent a significant contribution to the world's cross section data set in the Q2 range, where a large discrepancy currently exists between the ratio of electric to magnetic proton form factors extracted from previous cross section measurements and that recently measured via polarization transfer in Hall A at Jefferson Lab. This data set shows good agreement with previous cross section measurements, indicating that if a heretofore unknown systematic error does exist in the cross section measurements, then it is intrinsic to all such measurements
Electron capture cross sections by O+ from atomic He
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Joseph, Dwayne C; Saha, Bidhan C
2009-01-01
The adiabatic representation is used in both the quantal and semi classical molecular orbital close coupling methods (MOCC) to evaluate charge exchange cross sections. Our results show good agreement with experimental cross sections
Electron capture cross sections by O+ from atomic He
Joseph, Dwayne C.; Saha, Bidhan C.
2009-11-01
The adiabatic representation is used in both the quantal and semi classical molecular orbital close coupling methods (MOCC) to evaluate charge exchange cross sections. Our results show good agreement with experimental cross sections
Photoproton cross section for /sup 19/F
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tsubota, H [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Coll. of General Education; Kawamura, N; Oikawa, S; Uegaki, J I
1975-02-01
Proton energy spectra have been measured at 90/sup 0/ for the /sup 19/F(e,e'p)/sup 18/O reaction in the giant resonance region. The (..gamma..,p/sub 0/) and (..gamma..,p/sub 1/) differential cross sections are extracted from the proton energy spectra by using virtual-photon spectra. The integrated differential cross section of the (..gamma..,p/sub 0/) and (..gamma..,p/sub 1/) reactions are 1.80+-0.27 and 0.50+-0.45 MeV-mb/sr, respectively. The results are discussed with the shell model theory by comparing with the (..gamma..,p/sub 0/) cross section of the neighboring 4n-nucleus /sup 20/Ne. A significant increase of the proton yield leaving the non-ground states is found at 25 MeV of the incident electron energy. This is discussed in terms of the core excitation effect.
Electron-collision cross sections for iodine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zatsarinny, O.; Bartschat, K.; Garcia, G.; Blanco, F.; Hargreaves, L.R.; Jones, D.B.; Murrie, R.; Brunton, J.R.; Brunger, M.J.; Hoshino, M.; Buckman, S.J.
2011-01-01
We present results from a joint experimental and theoretical study of elastic electron scattering from atomic iodine. The experimental results were obtained by subtracting known cross sections from the measured data obtained with a pyrolyzed mixed beam containing a variety of atomic and molecular species. The calculations were performed using both a fully relativistic Dirac B-spline R-matrix (close-coupling) method and an optical model potential approach. Given the difficulty of the problem, the agreement between the two sets of theoretical predictions and the experimental data for the angle-differential and the angle-integrated elastic cross sections at 40 eV and 50 eV is satisfactory.
Precise measurements of neutron capture cross sections for FP
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakamura, Shoji; Harada, Hideo; Katoh, Toshio
2000-01-01
The thermal neutron capture cross sections (σ 0 ) and the resonance integrals (I 0 ) of some fission products (FP), such as 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 99 Tc, 129 I and 135 Cs, were measured by the activation and γ-ray spectroscopic methods. Moreover, the cross section measurements were done for other FP elements, such as 127 I, 133 Cs and 134 Cs. This paper provides the summary of the FP cross section measurements, which have been performed by authors. (author)
Habit, Production, and the Cross-Section of Stock Returns
Chen, Andrew Y.
2014-01-01
Solutions to the equity premium puzzle should inform us about the cross-section of stock returns. An external habit model with heterogeneous firms reproduces numerous stylized facts about both the equity premium and the value premium. The equity premium is large, time-varying, and linked with consumption volatility. The cross-section of expected returns is log-linear in B/M, and the slope matches the data. The explanation for the value premium lies in the interaction between the cross-section...
Drell-Yan cross section in the jet calculus scheme
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tanaka, Hidekazu; Kobayashi, Hirokazu
2009-01-01
We calculate factorized cross sections for lepton pair production mediated by a virtual photon in hadron-hadron collisions using the jet calculus scheme, in which a kinematical constraint due to parton radiation is taken into account. This method guarantees a proper phase space boundary for subtraction terms. Some properties of the calculated cross sections are examined. We also discuss matching between the hard scattering cross sections and parton showers at the next-to-leading logarithmic (NLL) order of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). (author)
Testing of cross section libraries for TRIGA criticality benchmark
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Snoj, L.; Trkov, A.; Ravnik, M.
2007-01-01
Influence of various up-to-date cross section libraries on the multiplication factor of TRIGA benchmark as well as the influence of fuel composition on the multiplication factor of the system composed of various types of TRIGA fuel elements was investigated. It was observed that keff calculated by using the ENDF/B VII cross section library is systematically higher than using the ENDF/B-VI cross section library. The main contributions (∼ 2 20 pcm) are from 235 U and Zr. (author)
Cross-section sensitivity analyses for a Tokamak Experimental Power Reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Simmons, E.L.; Gerstl, S.A.W.; Dudziak, D.J.
1977-09-01
The objectives of this report were (1) to determine the sensitivity of neutronic responses in the preliminary design of the Tokamak Experimental Power Reactor by Argonne National Laboratory, and (2) to develop the use of a neutron-gamma coupled cross-section set in the calculation of cross-section sensitivity analysis. Response functions such as neutron plus gamma kerma, Mylar dose, copper transmutation, copper dpa, and activation of the toroidal field coil dewar were investigated. Calculations revealed that the responses were most sensitive to the high-energy group cross sections of iron in the innermost regions containing stainless steel. For example, both the neutron heating of the toroidal field coil and the activation of the toroidal field coil dewar show an integral sensitivity of about -5 with respect to the iron total cross sections. Major contributors are the scattering cross sections of iron, with -2.7 and -4.4 for neutron heating and activation, respectively. The effects of changes in gamma cross sections were generally an order of 10 lower
Evaluation of covariance for 238U cross sections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kawano, Toshihiko; Nakamura, Masahiro; Matsuda, Nobuyuki; Kanda, Yukinori
1995-01-01
Covariances of 238 U are generated using analytic functions for representation of the cross sections. The covariances of the (n,2n) and (n,3n) reactions are derived with a spline function, while the covariances of the total and the inelastic scattering cross section are estimated with a linearized nuclear model calculation. (author)
Implementation of the rapid cross section adjustment approach at General Electric
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cowan, C.L.; Kujawski, E.; Protsik, R.
1978-01-01
The General Electric rapid cross section adjustment approach was developed to use the shielding factor method for formulating multigroup cross sections. In this approach, space- and composition-dependent cross sections for a particular reactor or shield design are prepared from a generalized cross section library by the use of resonance self-shielding factors, and by the adjustment of elastic scattering cross sections for the local neutron flux spectra. The principal tool in the cross section adjustment package is the data processing code TDOWN. This code was specified to give the user a high degree of flexibility in the analysis of advanced reactor designs. Of particular interest in the analysis of critical experiments is the ability to carry out cell heterogeneity self-shielding calculations using a multiregion equivalence relationship, and the homogenization of the cross sections over the specified cell with the flux weighting obtained from transport theory calculations. Extensive testing of the rapid cross section adjustment approach, including comparisons with Monte Carlo methods, indicated that this approach can be utilized with a high degree of confidence in the design analysis of complex fast reactor systems. 2 figures, 1 table
Measurement of double differential t anti t production cross sections with the CMS detector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Korol, Ievgen
2016-05-01
The high energy scale of the pp collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN makes this facility to a real factory for the production of t anti t pairs. This enables to study the top-quark properties and its production and decay mechanisms in unprecedent detail. The dileptonic decay channel of the top-quark pair, in which both W bosons, produced from the top-quark decay, decay into a lepton and neutrino, is studied in this analysis. The limitation to one electron and one muon in final state used in this work allows to strongly suppress the possible background processes and leads to a higher signal purity. About 40k events with a top-quark pair have been selected using the √(s)=8 TeV data recorded with the CMS detector in the year 2012. Exploiting this large sample, double differential top-quark pair production cross sections are measured for the first time. The cross sections are studied as functions of various observables which describe the top and top-pair kinematics. To obtain the full kinematics of the t anti t final state, which contains two undetected neutrinos, a kinematic reconstruction procedure was developed and exploited in this work. The new procedure makes use of all available constraints and is based on a repeated reconstruction of each event with detector observables smeared according to their resolutions in order to obtain for each event solutions for the kinematic constraint equations. In order to obtain double differential cross sections, the distributions of reconstructed observables are then corrected for detector effects by using a double differential unfolding procedure, which is based on a χ 2 minimization. The double differential cross sections presented in this work allow to test the Standard Model in detail and investigate previously seen disagreements between measured and predicted single differential cross sections. The results of this work are compared to Standard Model predictions (up to next-to-leading order of the hard
X-ray attenuation cross sections for energies 100 eV to 100 keV and elements Z = 1 to Z = 92
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saloman, E.B.; Hubbell, J.H.; Scofield, J.H.
1988-01-01
This work presents for the energy range 0.1--100 keV the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) database of experimental x-ray attenuation coefficients (total absorption cross sections) and cross sections calculated using a relativistic Hartree--Slater model for the photoelectric cross section for all elements of atomic number Z = 1--92. The information is displayed in both tabular and graphical form. Also shown on the graphs are cross sections obtained using the semiempirical set of recommended values of B. L. Henke and co-workers (Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables 27, 1 (1982)). A bibliography of the NBS database for this energy range is included. copyright 1988 Academic Press, Inc
Evaluation of the 93Nb (n,n')93mNb reaction cross section from the threshold up to 20 MeV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Badikov, S.A.; Zolotarev, K.I.; Pashchenko, A.B.
1992-01-01
The data base comprising the results of the 93 Nb(n,n') 93m Nb reactions cross section measurements up to 1991 has been compiled. The experimental data have been renormalized to new values of standard cross-sections from the ENDF/B-6 and the IRDF-90 libraries. The evaluation of excitation function for the 93 Nb(n,n') 93m Nb reaction was carried out on the basis of procedure taking the correlation of experimental data into account. The files of evaluated cross-sections and covariance were prepared in the ENDF/B-6 format. The cross-section evaluations from present work and the IRDF-90 library are compared. 37 refs.; 3 figs.; 6 tabs
Total and partial recombination cross sections for F6+
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mitnik, D.M.; Pindzola, M.S.; Badnell, N.R.
1999-01-01
Total and partial recombination cross sections for F 6+ are calculated using close-coupling and distorted-wave theory. For total cross sections, close-coupling and distorted-wave results, which include interference between the radiative and dielectronic pathways, are found to be in good agreement with distorted-wave results based on a sum of independent processes. Total cross sections near zero energy are dominated by contributions from low-energy dielectronic recombination resonances. For partial cross sections, the close-coupling and distorted-wave theories predict strong interference for recombination into the final recombined ground state 1s 2 2s 21 S 0 of F 5+ , but only weak interference for recombination into the levels of the 1s 2 2s2p configuration. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society
Absolute cross-section measurements of inner-shell ionization
Schneider, Hans; Tobehn, Ingo; Ebel, Frank; Hippler, Rainer
1994-12-01
Cross section ratios for K- and L-shell ionization of thin silver and gold targets by positron and electron impact have been determined at projectile energies of 30 70 keV. The experimental results are confirmed by calculations in plane wave Born approximation (PWBA) which include an electron exchange term and account for the deceleration or acceleration of the incident projectile in the nuclear field of the target atom. We report first absolute cross sections for K- and L-shell ionization of silver and gold targets by lepton impact in the threshold region. We have measured the corresponding cross sections for electron (e-) impact with an electron gun and the same experimental set-up.
From cutting-edge pointwise cross-section to groupwise reaction rate: A primer
Sublet Jean-Christophe; Fleming Michael; Gilbert Mark R.
2017-01-01
The nuclear research and development community has a history of using both integral and differential experiments to support accurate lattice-reactor, nuclear reactor criticality and shielding simulations, as well as verification and validation efforts of cross sections and emitted particle spectra. An important aspect to this type of analysis is the proper consideration of the contribution of the neutron spectrum in its entirety, with correct propagation of uncertainties and standard deviatio...
Automated Cross-Sectional Measurement Method of Intracranial Dural Venous Sinuses.
Lublinsky, S; Friedman, A; Kesler, A; Zur, D; Anconina, R; Shelef, I
2016-03-01
MRV is an important blood vessel imaging and diagnostic tool for the evaluation of stenosis, occlusions, or aneurysms. However, an accurate image-processing tool for vessel comparison is unavailable. The purpose of this study was to develop and test an automated technique for vessel cross-sectional analysis. An algorithm for vessel cross-sectional analysis was developed that included 7 main steps: 1) image registration, 2) masking, 3) segmentation, 4) skeletonization, 5) cross-sectional planes, 6) clustering, and 7) cross-sectional analysis. Phantom models were used to validate the technique. The method was also tested on a control subject and a patient with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (4 large sinuses tested: right and left transverse sinuses, superior sagittal sinus, and straight sinus). The cross-sectional area and shape measurements were evaluated before and after lumbar puncture in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension. The vessel-analysis algorithm had a high degree of stability with <3% of cross-sections manually corrected. All investigated principal cranial blood sinuses had a significant cross-sectional area increase after lumbar puncture (P ≤ .05). The average triangularity of the transverse sinuses was increased, and the mean circularity of the sinuses was decreased by 6% ± 12% after lumbar puncture. Comparison of phantom and real data showed that all computed errors were <1 voxel unit, which confirmed that the method provided a very accurate solution. In this article, we present a novel automated imaging method for cross-sectional vessels analysis. The method can provide an efficient quantitative detection of abnormalities in the dural sinuses. © 2016 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.
Resonance parameters for measured keV neutron capture cross sections
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Musgrove, A.R. de L
1969-05-01
All available neutron capture cross sections in the keV region ({approx} to 100 keV) have been fitted with resonance parameters. Capture cross sections for nuclides with reasonably well known average s-wave parameters, but no measured cross section, have been calculated and tabulated using p-and d- wave strength functions interpolated between fitted values. Several of these nuclides are of interest in the theory of slow nucleosynthesis of heavy elements in stars, and the product of cosmic abundance (due to the s-process) and capture cross section at 30 keV has been plotted versus mass number. (author)
Measurement of the ratio σ{tt}/σ{Z/γ{*}→ll} and precise extraction of the tt cross section.
Aaltonen, T; Adelman, J; Alvarez González, B; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Apresyan, A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Asaadi, J; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Barria, P; Bartos, P; Bauer, G; Beauchemin, P-H; Bedeschi, F; Beecher, D; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Bridgeman, A; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Calancha, C; Camarda, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carls, B; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Chwalek, T; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Corbo, M; Cordelli, M; Cox, C A; Cox, D J; Crescioli, F; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cully, J C; Dagenhart, D; Datta, M; Davies, T; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lorenzo, G; Dell'orso, M; Deluca, C; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; d'Errico, M; Di Canto, A; di Giovanni, G P; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Donati, S; Dong, P; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Ebina, K; Elagin, A; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Ershaidat, N; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Ferrazza, C; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Frank, M J; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garberson, F; Garcia, J E; Garfinkel, A F; Garosi, P; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D; Gessler, A; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Gimmell, J L; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Group, R C; Grundler, U; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Han, B-Y; Han, J Y; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harr, R F; Hartz, M; Hatakeyama, K; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heinrich, J; Herndon, M; Heuser, J; Hewamanage, S; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S-C; Hughes, R E; Hurwitz, M; Husemann, U; Hussein, M; Huston, J; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeon, E J; Jha, M K; Jindariani, S; Johnson, W; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Jung, J E; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Kar, D; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kephart, R; Ketchum, W; Keung, J; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, H W; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krop, D; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kuhr, T; Kulkarni, N P; Kurata, M; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; Lecompte, T; Lee, E; Lee, H S; Lee, J S; Lee, S W; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C-J; Linacre, J; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, C; Liu, T; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Lovas, L; Lucchesi, D; Lueck, J; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Macqueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Maksimovic, P; Malde, S; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marino, C; Marino, C P; Martin, A; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Martínez-Ballarín, R; Mastrandrea, P; Mathis, M; Mattson, M E; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Menzione, A; Mesropian, C; Miao, T; Mietlicki, D; Miladinovic, N; Miller, R; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Mitra, A; Mitselmakher, G; Miyake, H; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Mondragon, M N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M J; Morlock, J; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Naganoma, J; Nakamura, K; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Nett, J; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Neubauer, S; Nielsen, J; Nodulman, L; Norman, M; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oakes, L; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Orava, R; Osterberg, K; Pagan Griso, S; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Papaikonomou, A; Paramanov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Peiffer, T; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Pianori, E; Pinera, L; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Potamianos, K; Poukhov, O; Prokoshin, F; Pronko, A; Ptohos, F; Pueschel, E; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, A; Ramakrishnan, V; Ranjan, N; Redondo, I; Renton, P; Renz, M; Rescigno, M; Richter, S; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rodriguez, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rossin, R; Roy, P; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Rutherford, B; Saarikko, H; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Santi, L; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M A; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sforza, F; Sfyrla, A; Shalhout, S Z; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Shimojima, M; Shiraishi, S; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Simonenko, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakyan, A; Slaughter, A J; Slaunwhite, J; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Strycker, G L; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Suslov, I; Taffard, A; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, R; Tang, J; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Thom, J; Thome, J; Thompson, G A; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Ttito-Guzmán, P; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Totaro, P; Tourneur, S; Trovato, M; Tsai, S-Y; Tu, Y; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Uozumi, S; van Remortel, N; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Vidal, M; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vogel, M; Volobouev, I; Volpi, G; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner, W; Wagner-Kuhr, J; Wakisaka, T; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waters, D; Weinberger, M; Weinelt, J; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Wilbur, S; Williams, G; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Wolfe, H; Wright, T; Wu, X; Würthwein, F; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yi, K; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanetti, A; Zeng, Y; Zhang, X; Zheng, Y; Zucchelli, S
2010-07-02
We report a measurement of the ratio of the tt to Z/γ{*} production cross sections in sqrt[s]=1.96 TeV pp collisions using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of up to 4.6 fb{-1}, collected by the CDF II detector. The tt cross section ratio is measured using two complementary methods, a b-jet tagging measurement and a topological approach. By multiplying the ratios by the well-known theoretical Z/γ{*}→ll cross section predicted by the standard model, the extracted tt cross sections are effectively insensitive to the uncertainty on luminosity. A best linear unbiased estimate is used to combine both measurements with the result σ{tt}=7.70±0.52 pb, for a top-quark mass of 172.5 GeV/c{2}.
Measurement of 76Se and 78Se (γ, n) cross sections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kitatani, Fumito; Harada, Hideo; Goko, Shinji; Utsunomiya, Hiroaki; Akimune, Hidetoshi; Toyokawa, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Kawakatsu
2011-01-01
The (γ, n) cross sections of Se isotopes ( 76 Se, 78 Se) were measured to supply fundamental data for estimating the inverse reaction cross section, i.e., the 79 Se(n, γ) 80 Se cross section. The enriched samples and a reference 197 Au sample were irradiated with laser-Compton scattering (LCS) γ-rays. The excitation function of each (γ, n) cross section was determined for the energy range from each near neutron separation energy to the threshold energy of (γ, 2n) reaction. The energy point corresponding to each cross section was deduced using the accurately determined energy distribution of LCS γ-rays. Systematic (γ, n) cross sections for Se isotopes including 80 Se were compared with those calculated by using a statistical model calculation code TALYS. (author)
Measurement of neutral current e±p cross sections at high Bjorken x with the ZEUS detector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abramowicz, H.; Abt, I.; Adamczyk, L.
2013-12-01
The neutral current e ± p cross section has been measured up to values of Bjorken x≅1 with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 187 pb -1 of e - p and 142 pb -1 of e + p collisions at √(s)=318 GeV. Differential cross sections in x and Q 2 , the exchanged boson virtuality, are presented for Q 2 ≥725 GeV 2 . An improved reconstruction method and greatly increased amount of data allows a finer binning in the high-x region of the neutral current cross section and leads to a measurement with much improved precision compared to a similar earlier analysis. The measurements are compared to Standard Model expectations based on a variety of recent parton distribution functions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Xuewen; Fang Zhenyun; Shi Chengye
2012-01-01
By using the electroweak standard model (SM), we analyzed the framework of electron mixed chain propagator which composed of serious of different physical loops participating in electroweak interaction and completed the relevant analytical calculation. Then, we obtained the analytical result of electron mixed chain propagator. By applying our result to Compton scattering, the differential cross section of Compton scattering dσ SM (chain) /dcosθ is counted accurately. This result is compared with the lowest order differential cross section dσ (tree) /dcosθ and the electronic chain propagator Compton scattering differential cross section dσ QED (chain) /dcosθ in quantum electrodynamics (QED). It can be seen that dσ SM (chain ) /dcosθ can show the radiation correction more subtly than dσ QED (chain) /dcosθ. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vincent, R.; Juaristi, J.I.; Nagy, I.
2005-01-01
Standard classical and quantum-mechanical methods are used to characterize the momentum-transfer cross section needed in energy-loss calculations and simulations for heavy, swift charges moving in an electron gas. By applying a well-known, finite-range screened Coulombic potential energy to model the two-body collision, the quantitative applicability range of the classical cross section is investigated as a function of charge (Z), screening length (R), and scattering relative velocity (v). The a posteriori condition (Z/R)/v 2 <1, as an upper bound for heavy charges, is deduced for this applicability range from the comparative study performed
Cross-sections of spallation residues produced in 1A GeV 208Pb on proton reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wlazlo, W.; Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Cracow; Enqvist, T.; Armbruster, P.
2000-02-01
Spallation residues produced in 1 GeV per nucleon 208 Pb on proton reactions have been studied using the fragment separator facility at GSI. Isotopic production cross-sections of elements from 61 Pm to 82 Pb have been measured down to 0.1 mb with a high accuracy. The recoil kinetic energies of the produced fragments were also determined. The obtained cross-sections agree with most of the few existing gamma-spectroscopy data. Data are compared with different intranuclear-cascade and evaporation-fission models. Drastic deviations were found for a standard code used in technical applications. (orig.)
Can cross sections be accurately known for priori?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pigni, M.T.; Dietrich, F.S.; Herman, M.; Oblozinsky, P.
2008-01-01
Distinct maxima and minima in the neutron total cross section uncertainties were observed in our large scale covariance calculations using a spherical optical potential. In this contribution we investigate the physical origin of this oscillating structure. Specifically, we analyze the case of neutron reactions on 56 Fe, for which total cross section uncertainties are characterized by the presence of five distinct minima at 0.1, 1.1, 5, 25, and 70 MeV. To investigate their origin, we calculated total cross sections by perturbing the real volume depth V v by its expected uncertainty ±ΔV v . Inspecting the effect of this perturbation on the partial wave cross sections we found that the first minimum (at 0.1 MeV) is exclusively due to the contribution of the s-wave. On the other hand, the same analysis at 1.1 MeV showed that the minimum is the result of the interplay between s-, p-, and d-waves; namely the change in the s-wave happens to be counterbalanced by changes in the p- and d-waves. Similar considerations can be extended for the third minimum, although it can be also explained in terms of the Ramsauer effect as well as the other ones (at 25 and 70 MeV). We discuss the potential importance of these minima for practical applications as well as the implications of this work for the uncertainties in total and absorption cross sections
Homogenized group cross sections by Monte Carlo
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Van Der Marck, S. C.; Kuijper, J. C.; Oppe, J.
2006-01-01
Homogenized group cross sections play a large role in making reactor calculations efficient. Because of this significance, many codes exist that can calculate these cross sections based on certain assumptions. However, the application to the High Flux Reactor (HFR) in Petten, the Netherlands, the limitations of such codes imply that the core calculations would become less accurate when using homogenized group cross sections (HGCS). Therefore we developed a method to calculate HGCS based on a Monte Carlo program, for which we chose MCNP. The implementation involves an addition to MCNP, and a set of small executables to perform suitable averaging after the MCNP run(s) have completed. Here we briefly describe the details of the method, and we report on two tests we performed to show the accuracy of the method and its implementation. By now, this method is routinely used in preparation of the cycle to cycle core calculations for HFR. (authors)
Double-differential heavy-ion production cross sections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miller, T. M.; Townsend, L. W.
2004-01-01
Current computational tools used for space or accelerator shielding studies transport energetic heavy ions either using a one-dimensional straight-ahead approximation or by dissociating the nuclei into protons and neutrons and then performing neutron and proton transport using Monte Carlo techniques. Although the heavy secondary particles generally travel close to the beam direction, a proper treatment of the light ions produced in these reactions requires that double-differential cross sections should be utilised. Unfortunately, no fundamental nuclear model capable of serving as an event generator to provide these cross sections for all ions and energies of interest exists currently. Herein, we present a model for producing double-differential heavy-ion production cross sections that uses heavy-ion fragmentation yields produced by the NUCFRG2 fragmentation code coupled with a model of energy degradation in nucleus-nucleus collisions and systematics of momentum distributions to provide energy and angular dependences of the heavy-ion production. (authors)
Prospects for Precision Neutrino Cross Section Measurements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Harris, Deborah A. [Fermilab
2016-01-28
The need for precision cross section measurements is more urgent now than ever before, given the central role neutrino oscillation measurements play in the field of particle physics. The definition of precision is something worth considering, however. In order to build the best model for an oscillation experiment, cross section measurements should span a broad range of energies, neutrino interaction channels, and target nuclei. Precision might better be defined not in the final uncertainty associated with any one measurement but rather with the breadth of measurements that are available to constrain models. Current experience shows that models are better constrained by 10 measurements across different processes and energies with 10% uncertainties than by one measurement of one process on one nucleus with a 1% uncertainty. This article describes the current status of and future prospects for the field of precision cross section measurements considering the metric of how many processes, energies, and nuclei have been studied.
Measurements of neutron cross sections of radioactive waste nuclides
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Katoh, Toshio [Gifu College of Medical Technology, Seki, Gifu (Japan); Harada, Hideo; Nakamura, Shoji; Tanase, Masakazu; Hatsukawa, Yuichi
1998-01-01
Accurate nuclear reaction cross sections of radioactive fission products and transuranic elements are required for research on nuclear transmutation methods in nuclear waste management. Important fission products in the nuclear waste management are {sup 137}Cs, {sup 135}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc and {sup 129}I because of their large fission yields and long half-lives. The present authors have measured the neutron capture cross sections and resonance integrals of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 99}Tc. The purpose of this study is to measure the neutron capture cross sections and resonance integrals of nuclides, {sup 129}I and {sup 135}Cs accurately. Preliminary experiments were performed by using Rikkyo University Reactor and JRR-3 reactor at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). Then, it was decided to measure the cross section and resonance integral of {sup 135}Cs by using the JRR-3 Reactor because this measurement required a high flux reactor. On the other hand, those of {sup 129}I were measured at the Rikkyo Reactor because the product nuclides, {sup 130}I and {sup 130m}I, have short half-lives and this reactor is suitable for the study of short lived nuclide. In this report, the measurements of the cross section and resonance integral of {sup 135}Cs are described. To obtain reliable values of the cross section and resonance integral of {sup 135}Cs(n, {gamma}){sup 136}Cs reaction, a quadrupole mass spectrometer was used for the mass analysis of nuclide in the sample. A progress report on the cross section of {sup 134}Cs, a neighbour of {sup 135}Cs, is included in this report. A report on {sup 129}I will be presented in the Report on the Joint-Use of Rikkyo University Reactor. (author)
Neutron cross sections for fusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haight, R.C.
1979-10-01
First generation fusion reactors will most likely be based on the 3 H(d,n) 4 He reaction, which produces 14-MeV neutrons. In these reactors, both the number of neutrons and the average neutron energy will be significantly higher than for fission reactors of the same power. Accurate neutron cross section data are therefore of great importance. They are needed in present conceptual designs to calculate neutron transport, energy deposition, nuclear transmutation including tritium breeding and activation, and radiation damage. They are also needed for the interpretation of radiation damage experiments, some of which use neutrons up to 40 MeV. In addition, certain diagnostic measurements of plasma experiments require nuclear cross sections. The quality of currently available data for these applications will be reviewed and current experimental programs will be outlined. The utility of nuclear models to provide these data also will be discussed. 65 references
Development of automatic cross section compilation system for MCNP
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maekawa, Fujio; Sakurai, Kiyoshi
1999-01-01
A development of a code system to automatically convert cross-sections for MCNP is in progress. The NJOY code is, in general, used to convert the data compiled in the ENDF format (Evaluated Nuclear Data Files by BNL) into the cross-section libraries required by various reactor physics codes. While the cross-section library: FSXLIB-J3R2 was already converted from the JENDL-3.2 version of Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library for a continuous energy Monte Carlo code MCNP, the library keeps only the cross-sections at room temperature (300 K). According to the users requirements which want to have cross-sections at higher temperature, say 600 K or 900 K, a code system named 'autonj' is under development to provide a set of cross-section library of arbitrary temperature for the MCNP code. This system can accept any of data formats adopted JENDL that may not be treated by NJOY code. The input preparation that is repeatedly required at every nuclide on NJOY execution is greatly reduced by permitting the conversion process of as many nuclides as the user wants in one execution. A few MCNP runs were achieved for verification purpose by using two libraries FSXLIB-J3R2 and the output of autonj'. The almost identical MCNP results within the statistical errors show the 'autonj' output library is correct. In FY 1998, the system will be completed, and in FY 1999, the user's manual will be published. (K. Tsuchihashi)
EDDIX--a database of ionisation double differential cross sections.
MacGibbon, J H; Emerson, S; Liamsuwan, T; Nikjoo, H
2011-02-01
The use of Monte Carlo track structure is a choice method in biophysical modelling and calculations. To precisely model 3D and 4D tracks, the cross section for the ionisation by an incoming ion, double differential in the outgoing electron energy and angle, is required. However, the double differential cross section cannot be theoretically modelled over the full range of parameters. To address this issue, a database of all available experimental data has been constructed. Currently, the database of Experimental Double Differential Ionisation Cross sections (EDDIX) contains over 1200 digitalised experimentally measured datasets from the 1960s to present date, covering all available ion species (hydrogen to uranium) and all available target species. Double differential cross sections are also presented with the aid of an eight parameter functions fitted to the cross sections. The parameters include projectile species and charge, target nuclear charge and atomic mass, projectile atomic mass and energy, electron energy and deflection angle. It is planned to freely distribute EDDIX and make it available to the radiation research community for use in the analytical and numerical modelling of track structure.
Infrared cross-sections and integrated band intensities of propylene: Temperature-dependent studies
Es-sebbar, Et-touhami
2014-01-01
Propylene, a by-product of biomass burning, thermal cracking of hydrocarbons and incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, is a ubiquitous molecule found in the environment and atmosphere. Accurate infrared (IR) cross-sections and integrated band intensities of propylene are essential for quantitative measurements and atmospheric modeling. We measured absolute IR cross-sections of propylene using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy over the wavenumber range of 400-6500cm-1 and at gas temperatures between 296 and 460K. We recorded these spectra at spectral resolutions ranging from 0.08 to 0.5cm-1 and measured the integrated band intensities for a number of vibrational bands in certain spectral regions. We then compared the integrated band intensities measured at room temperature with values derived from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) databases. Our results agreed well with the results reported in the two databases with a maximum deviation of about 4%. The peak cross-sections for the primary bands decreased by about 20-54% when the temperature increased from 296 to 460K. Moreover, we determined the integrated band intensities as a function of temperature for certain features in various spectral regions; we found no significant temperature dependence over the range of temperatures considered here. We also studied the effect of temperature on absorption cross-section using a Difference Frequency Generation (DFG) laser system. We compared the DFG results with those obtained from the FTIR study at certain wavenumbers over the 2850-2975cm-1 range and found a reasonable agreement with less than 10% discrepancy. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fabry, A.; McElroy, W.N.; Kellogg, L.S.; Lippincott, E.P.; Grundl, J.A.; Gilliam, D.M.; Hansen, G.E.
1976-01-01
This paper is intended to review and critically discuss microscopic integral cross section measurement and calculation data for fundamental reactor dosimetry benchmark neutron fields. Specifically the review covers the following fundamental benchmarks: the spontaneous californium-252 fission neutron spectrum standard field; the thermal-neutron induced uranium-235 fission neutron spectrum standard field; the (secondary) intermediate-energy standard neutron field at the center of the Mol-ΣΣ, NISUS, and ITN-ΣΣ facilities; the reference neutron field at the center of the Coupled Fast Reactor Measurement Facility; the reference neutron field at the center of the 10% enriched uranium metal, cylindrical, fast critical; the (primary) Intermediate-Energy Standard Neutron Field
Highlights of top quark cross-section measurements at ATLAS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Berta Peter
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The highlights of the measurements of top quark production in proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider with the ATLAS detector are presented. The inclusive measurements of the top-pair production cross section have reached high precision and are compared to the best available theoretical calculations. The differential cross section measurements, including results using boosted top quarks, probe our understanding of top-pair production in the TeV regime. The results are compared to Monte Carlo generators implementing LO and NLO matrix elements matched with parton showers. Measurements of the single top quark production cross section are presented in the t-channel and s-channel, and with associated production with a W boson. For the t-channel production, results on the ratio between top quark and antitop quark production cross sections and differential measurements are also included.
High-energy behaviour of e--H scattering cross section
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saha, B.C.; Chaudhuri, J.; Ghosh, A.S.
1976-01-01
An integral form of the close coupling equation has been employed to investigate the high energy behaviour of the elastic and 2s excitation cross sections of hydrogen atom by electron impact retaining the 1s and 2s states. The results, with and without exchange, for both the total and the differential cross sections are presented. The effects of exchange as well as of couplings to the 1s-2s states on the elastic cross section have been studied. The FBA results for the elastic cross section differ from the present results appreciably in the energy range 100 to 200 eV where FBA is considered to be valid. On the other hand, the present 1s-2s excitation results are very close to the corresponding FBA results in the said energy region. (auth.)
Collision processes of Li3+ with atomic hydrogen: cross section database
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Murakami, I.; Janev, R.K.; Kato, T.; Yan, J.; Sato, H.; Kimura, M.
2004-08-01
Using the available experimental and theoretical data, as well as established cross section scaling relationships, a cross section database for excitation, ionization and charge exchange in collisions of Li 3+ ion with ground state and excited hydrogen atoms has been generated. The critically assessed cross sections are represented by analytic fit functions that have correct asymptotic behavior both at low and high collision energies. The derived cross sections are also presented in graphical form. (author)
Fe L-shell Excitation Cross Section Measurements on EBIT-I
Chen, Hui; Beiersdorfer, P.; Brown, G.; Boyce, K.; Kelley, R.; Kilbourne, C.; Porter, F.; Gu, M. F.; Kahn, S.
2006-09-01
We report the measurement of electron impact excitation cross sections for the strong iron L-shell 3-2 lines of Fe XVII to Fe XXIV at the LLNL EBIT-I electron beam ion trap using a crystal spectrometer and NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center's 6x6 pixel array microcalorimeter. The cross sections were determined by direct normalization to the well-established cross sections for radiative electron capture. Our results include the excitation cross section for over 50 lines at multiple electron energies. Although we have found that for 3C line in Fe XVII the measured cross sections differ significantly from theory, in most cases the measurements and theory agree within 20%. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by LLNL under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48 and supported by NASA APRA grants to LLNL, GSFC, and Stanford University.
Neutron-induced capture cross sections via the surrogate reaction method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boutoux, G.; Jurado, B.; Aiche, M.; Barreau, G.; Capellan, N.; Companis, I.; Czajkowski, S.; Dassie, D.; Haas, B.; Mathieu, L.; Meot, V.; Bail, A.; Bauge, E.; Daugas, J. M.; Faul, T.; Gaudefroy, L.; Morel, P.; Pillet, N.; Roig, O.; Romain, P.; Taieb, J.; Theroine, C.; Burke, J.T.; Companis, I.; Derkx, X.; Gunsing, F.; Matea, I.; Tassan-Got, L.; Porquet, M.G.; Serot, O.
2011-01-01
The surrogate reaction method is an indirect way of determining cross sections for nuclear reactions that proceed through a compound nucleus. This technique enables neutron-induced cross sections to be extracted for nuclear reactions on short-lived unstable nuclei that otherwise can not be measured. This technique has been successfully applied to determine the neutron-induced fission cross sections of several short-lived nuclei. In this work, we investigate whether this powerful technique can also be used to determine of neutron-induced capture cross sections. For this purpose we use the surrogate reaction 174 Yb( 3 He, pγ) 176 Lu to infer the well known 175 Lu(n, γ) cross section and compare the results with the directly measured neutron-induced data. This surrogate experiment has been performed in March 2010. The experimental technique used and the first preliminary results will be presented. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stewart, Trevor P.
2012-07-01
The cross sections for neutral current (NC) deep inelastic scattering (DIS) in e + p collisions with a longitudinally polarised positron beam are measured at high momentum transfer squared (Q 2 >185 GeV 2 ) at the ZEUS detector at HERA. The HERA accelerator provides e ± p collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 318 GeV, which allows the weak contribution to the NC process to be studied at high Q 2 . The measurements are based on a data sample with an integrated luminosity of 135.5 pb -1 collected with the ZEUS detector in 2006 and 2007. The single differential NC cross sections dσ/dQ 2 , dσ/dx and dσ/dy and the reduced cross section σ are measured. The structure function xF 3 is determined by combining the e + p NC reduced cross sections with the previously measured e - p measurements. The interference structure function xF 3 γZ is extracted at Q 2 =1500 GeV 2 . The cross-section asymmetry between the positive and negative polarisation of the positron beam is measured and the parity violation effects of the electroweak interaction are observed. The predictions of the Standard Model of particle physics agree well with the measurements. (orig.)
Terahertz radar cross section measurements
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Heiselberg, Henning; Jepsen, Peter Uhd
2010-01-01
We perform angle- and frequency-resolved radar cross section (RCS) measurements on objects at terahertz frequencies. Our RCS measurements are performed on a scale model aircraft of size 5-10 cm in polar and azimuthal configurations, and correspond closely to RCS measurements with conventional radar...
Second order effects in adjustment processes of cross sections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silva, F.C. da; D'Angelo, A.; Gandini, A.; Rado, V.
1982-01-01
An iterative processe, that take in account the non linear effects of some integral quantities in relation to cross sections, is used to execute an adjustment of cross sections of some elements that constitute the fast reactors shielding. (E.G.) [pt
Elastic neutron-proton differential cross section at 647 MeV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Evans, M.L.
1979-04-01
The differential cross section for n-p elastic scattering in the angular range 51 0 was measured with high statistical accuracy using the 647 MeV monoenergetic neutron beam of the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility. A proton recoil magnetic spectrometer was used for momentum analysis of the charge exchange protons from the reaction n+p→p+n. Absolute normalization of the cross section was established to within 7% using existing cross section data for the reaction p+p→π + +d. The results differ significantly from previous Dubna and PPA cross sections but agree well with recent Saclay data except at extreme backward angles. 41 references
Adjustement of multigroup cross sections using fast reactor integral data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Renke, C.A.C.
1982-01-01
A methodology for the adjustment of multigroup cross section is presented, structured with aiming to compatibility the limitated number of measured values of integral parameters known and disponible, and the great number of cross sections to be adjusted the group of cross section used is that obtained from the Carnaval II calculation system, understanding as formular the sets of calculation methods and data bases. The adjustment is realized, using the INCOAJ computer code, developed in function of one statistical formulation, structural from the bayer considerations, taking in account the measurement processes of cross section and integral parameters defined on statistical bases. (E.G.) [pt
Defining SNAP by cross-sectional and longitudinal definitions of neurodegeneration
Wisse, L.E.M.; Das, S.R.; Davatzikos, C.; Dickerson, B.C.; Xie, S.X.; Yushkevich, P.A.; Wolk, D.A.
2018-01-01
Introduction: Suspected non-Alzheimer's pathophysiology (SNAP) is a biomarker driven designation that represents a heterogeneous group in terms of etiology and prognosis. SNAP has only been identified by cross-sectional neurodegeneration measures, whereas longitudinal measures might better reflect “active” neurodegeneration and might be more tightly linked to prognosis. We compare neurodegeneration defined by cross-sectional ‘hippocampal volume’ only (SNAP/L−) versus both cross-sectional and ...
Neutrino-carbon cross section in QRPA models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Samana, Arturo R.; Krmpotic, Francisco; Bertulani, Carlos A.; Paar, Nils
2009-01-01
Full text follows. The ν/ν-bar - 12 C cross sections are calculated in the projected quasiparticle random phase approximation (PQRPA) [1,2] and the relativistic quasiparticle random phase approximation (RQRPA) [3,4]. We compare these cross section as a function of the incident neutrino energy and the number of shells used in the nuclear structure calculation. Additional comparison with other RPA models are performed. A guide to find an upper limit of the incident neutrino energy as a function of the number of shell is implemented. Important consequences on the extrapolation of the cross section to higher neutrino energies is discussed. The formalism obtained in Ref. [1] for the neutrino interaction is extended for antineutrino scattering. This formalism includes the effect of the violation of the Conserved Vector Current by the Coulomb field. It is furthermore simplified by classifying the nuclear matrix elements in natural and unnatural parities. The distribution of cross sections averaged with the Michel spectrum as well as with other estimated fluxes for future experiments are compared for ν e and ν-bar e . Some astrophysical implications are addressed. References [1] F. Krmpotic, A. Mariano and A. Samana, Phys.Lett. B541, 298 (2002). [2] F. Krmpotic, A. Mariano and A. Samana, Phys. Rev. C 71, 044319 (2005). [3] N. Paar, T. Niksic, D. Vretenar, and P. Ring, Phys. Rev. C 69, 054303 (2004). [4] N. Paar, D. Vretenar, T. Marketin and P. Ring, Phys. Rev. C 77, 024608 (2008)
Radar cross sections for mesospheric echoes at Jicamarca
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. A. Lehmacher
2009-07-01
Full Text Available Radar cross sections (RCS of mesospheric layers at 50 MHz observed at Jicamarca, Peru, range from 10−18 to 10−16 m−1, three orders of magnitudes smaller than cross sections reported for polar mesospheric winter echoes during solar proton events and six orders of magnitude smaller than polar mesospheric summer echoes. Large RCS are found in thick layers around 70 km that also show wide radar spectra, which is interpreted as turbulent broadening. For typical atmospheric and ionospheric conditions, volume scattering RCS for stationary, homogeneous, isotropic turbulence at 3 m are also in the range 10−18 to 10−16 m−1, in reasonable agreement with measurements. Moreover, theory predicts maximum cross sections around 70 km, also in agreement with observations. Theoretical values are still a matter of order-of-magnitude estimation, since the Bragg scale of 3 m is near or inside the viscous subrange, where the form of the turbulence spectrum is not well known. In addition, steep electron density gradients can increase cross-sections significantly. For thin layers with large RCS and narrow spectra, isotropic turbulence theory fails and scattering or reflection from anisotropic irregularities may gain relevance.
Partial wave analysis for folded differential cross sections
Machacek, J. R.; McEachran, R. P.
2018-03-01
The value of modified effective range theory (MERT) and the connection between differential cross sections and phase shifts in low-energy electron scattering has long been recognized. Recent experimental techniques involving magnetically confined beams have introduced the concept of folded differential cross sections (FDCS) where the forward (θ ≤ π/2) and backward scattered (θ ≥ π/2) projectiles are unresolved, that is the value measured at the angle θ is the sum of the signal for particles scattered into the angles θ and π - θ. We have developed an alternative approach to MERT in order to analyse low-energy folded differential cross sections for positrons and electrons. This results in a simplified expression for the FDCS when it is expressed in terms of partial waves and thereby enables one to extract the first few phase shifts from a fit to an experimental FDCS at low energies. Thus, this method predicts forward and backward angle scattering (0 to π) using only experimental FDCS data and can be used to determine the total elastic cross section solely from experimental results at low-energy, which are limited in angular range.
Nuclear Data Processing for Generation of Stainless Steel Cross-Sections Data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suwoto; Zuhair
2007-01-01
Stainless steel has been used as important material in nuclear reactor and also in non nuclear industries. Nuclear data processing for generation of composite mixture cross-sections from several nuclides have been made. Provided evaluated nuclear data file (ENDF) such as ENDF/B- VI.8, JEFF-3.1 and JENDL-3.3 files were employed. Raw nuclear data cross-sections on file ENDF should be prepared and processed before it used in calculation. Sequence of nuclear data processing for generation of mixture cross-sections data from several nuclides is started from LINEAR, RECENT, SIGMA1 and MIXER codes taken from PREPR02000 utility code. Nuclear data processing is started from linearization of nuclear cross-sections data by using LINEAR code and counting background contribution of resonance parameter (MF2) with RECENT code (0 K) at energy ranges from 10 -5 to 10 7 eV. Afterward, the neutron cross-sections data should be processed and broadened to desire temperature (300 K) by using SIGMA1 code. Consistency of each cross-sections which used in nuclear data processing is checked and verified using FIXUP code. The next step is to define the composite mixture density (gr/cm 3 ) of stainless steel SUS-310 and weight fraction of each nuclide composition prior used it in MIXER code. All of the stainless steel SUS-310 cross sections are condensed to 650 energy groups structure (TART-energy structure) by using GROUPIE code to evaluate, analysis and review it more easily. The total, elastic scattering, non-elastic scattering and capture cross- sections of stainless steel SUS-310 have been made of ENDF/B-VI.8, JEFF-3.1 and JENDL-3.3 files. The stainless steel cross-sections made of ENDF/B- VI.8 file was taken as reference during validation process. The validation result of total cross-sections for stainless steel SUS-310 is clearly observed that the differences of total cross-sections error in nuclear data processing is relatively low than 0.01%. (author)
Meneghini, Robert; Kim, Hyokyung
2016-01-01
For an airborne or spaceborne radar, the precipitation-induced path attenuation can be estimated from the measurements of the normalized surface cross section, sigma 0, in the presence and absence of precipitation. In one implementation, the mean rain-free estimate and its variability are found from a lookup table (LUT) derived from previously measured data. For the dual-frequency precipitation radar aboard the global precipitation measurement satellite, the nominal table consists of the statistics of the rain-free 0 over a 0.5 deg x 0.5 deg latitude-longitude grid using a three-month set of input data. However, a problem with the LUT is an insufficient number of samples in many cells. An alternative table is constructed by a stepwise procedure that begins with the statistics over a 0.25 deg x 0.25 deg grid. If the number of samples at a cell is too few, the area is expanded, cell by cell, choosing at each step that cell that minimizes the variance of the data. The question arises, however, as to whether the selected region corresponds to the smallest variance. To address this question, a second type of variable-averaging grid is constructed using all possible spatial configurations and computing the variance of the data within each region. Comparisons of the standard deviations for the fixed and variable-averaged grids are given as a function of incidence angle and surface type using a three-month set of data. The advantage of variable spatial averaging is that the average standard deviation can be reduced relative to the fixed grid while satisfying the minimum sample requirement.
A survey of cross-section sensitivity analysis as applied to radiation shielding
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goldstein, H.
1977-01-01
Cross section sensitivity studies revolve around finding the change in the value of an integral quantity, e.g. transmitted dose, for a given change in one of the cross sections. A review is given of the principal methodologies for obtaining the sensitivity profiles-principally direct calculations with altered cross sections, and linear perturbation theory. Some of the varied applications of cross section sensitivity analysis are described, including the practice, of questionable value, of adjusting input cross section data sets so as to provide agreement with integral experiments. Finally, a plea is made for using cross section sensitivity analysis as a powerful tool for analysing the transport mechanisms of particles in radiation shields and for constructing models of how cross section phenomena affect the transport. Cross section sensitivities in the shielding area have proved to be highly problem-dependent. Without the understanding afforded by such models, it is impossible to extrapolate the conclusions of cross section sensitivity analysis beyond the narrow limits of the specific situations examined in detail. Some of the elements that might be of use in developing the qualitative models are presented. (orig.) [de
Theoretical Studies on Photoionization Cross Sections of Solid Gold
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma Xiaoguang; Sun Weiguo; Cheng Yansong
2005-01-01
Accurate expression for photoabsorption (photoionization) cross sections of high density system proposed recently is used to study the photoionization of solid gold. The results show that the present theoretical photoionization cross sections have good agreement both in structure and in magnitude with the experimental results of gold crystal. The studies also indicate that both the real part ε' and the imaginary part ε'' of the complex dielectric constant ε, and the dielectric influence function of a nonideal system have rich structures in low energy side with a range about 50 eV, and suggest that the influence of particle interactions of surrounding particles with the photoionized particle on the photoionization cross sections can be easily investigated using the dielectric influence function. The electron overlap effects are suggested to be implemented in the future studies to improve the accuracy of theoretical photoionization cross sections of a solid system.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ribeiro Guevara, S.; Arribere, M.; Kestelman, A.J.
2002-01-01
The reaction cross sections averaged over a 235 U fission neutron spectrum have been measured for the 54 Fe(n, 2n) 53g Fe and 54 Fe(n, 2n) 53m Fe threshold reactions. The values found are, respectively: (1.14 ± 0.13) μb, and (0.52 ± 0.16) μb. The measured cross sections are referred to the (111± 3) mb standard cross section of the 58 Ni(n, p) 58m+g Co reaction. The (81.7 ± 2.2) mb standard cross section value for the 54 Fe(n, p) 54 Mn reaction, was also used as a monitor to check the results obtained with the Ni standard, leading to an excellent agreement. (author)
Review of multigroup nuclear cross-section processing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Trubey, D.K.; Hendrickson, H.R. (comps.)
1978-10-01
These proceedings consist of 18 papers given at a seminar--workshop on ''Multigroup Nuclear Cross-Section Processing'' held at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, March 14--16, 1978. The papers describe various computer code systems and computing algorithms for producing multigroup neutron and gamma-ray cross sections from evaluated data, and experience with several reference data libraries. Separate abstracts were prepared for 13 of the papers. The remaining five have already been cited in ERA, and may be located by referring to the entry CONF-780334-- in the Report Number Index. (RWR)
Cross sections for charm production by neutrinos
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ushida, N [Aichi Univ. of Education, Kariya (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Kondo, T [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (USA); Fujioka, G; Fukushima, J; Takahashi, Y; Tatsumi, S; Yokoyama, C [Kobe Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Homma, Y; Tsuzuki, Y [Kobe Univ. (Japan). Coll. of Liberal Arts; Bahk, S
1983-02-03
The production of charmed particles has been measured using a hybrid emulsion spectrometer in the Fermilab wide-band neutrino beam. The relative cross section for charged current charmed particle production is sigma(v -> ..mu../sup -/c)/sigma(v -> ..mu../sup -/) = 6.5 +- 1.9/1.8%, and the energy dependence of the cross section is presented. One event with charm pair production was observed. A limit of sigma(v -> ..mu..canti c)/sigma(v -> ..mu..c) < 6% (90% CL) is found for the ratio of charged current pair and single charm production.
A study of the ability of the D0 detector to measure the single jet inclusive cross section
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Astur, R.V.
1992-01-01
The D0 experiment began accumulating data at the Fermilab Tevatron in May of 1992. Protons are collided with antiprotons at √s = 1.8 TeV and an expected peak luminosity of 5 x 10 30 cm -2 sec -1 . The D0 detector is an all-purpose detector that will have exceptional jet reconstruction capabilities derived from superior calorimetry and nearly 4π angular coverage. One of the many physics measurements that will be made at D0 is the inclusive jet cross section. Comparison of this cross section with theoretical predictions allows us to test the accuracy of the standard model of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). This comparison is usually in the form of a measurement of the differential cross section with respect to the transverse energy of the jet. The extended angular coverage of the D0 detector allows measurements of the differential cross section as a function of jet rapidity as well. Recently completed calculations of the next-to-leading-order contribution to the inclusive cross section result in predictions with reduced theoretical errors. In addition, recent fits to data from deep inelastic scattering and single photon experiments further restrict the quark and gluon structure functions of the proton which are necessary in the theoretical predictions of the cross section. It may be that an experimental measurement of the inclusive cross section would favor some of these fits over others. We have studied extensive computer simulations of both the Tevatron and the D0 detector in order to determine D0's ability to reconstruct the inclusive cross section. We present a discussion of this analysis as presently understood
New techniques for multi-level cross section calculation and fitting
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Froehner, F.H.
1980-09-01
A number of recent developments in multi-level cross section work are described. A new iteration scheme for the conversion of Reich-Moore resonance parameters to Kapur-Peierls parameters allows application of Turing's method for Gaussian broadening of meromorphic functions directly to multi-level cross section expressions, without recourse to the Voigt profiles psi and chi. This makes calculation of Doppler-broadened Reich-Moore and MLBW cross sections practically as fast as SLBW and Adler-Adler cross section calculations involving the Voigt profiles. A convenient distant-level treatment utilizing average resonance parameters is presented. Apart from effectively dealing with edge effects in resonance fitting work it also leads to a simple prescription for the determination of bound levels which reproduce the thermal cross sections correctly. A brief discussion of improved resonance shape fitting techniques is included, with empahsis on the importance of correlated errors and proper use of prior information by application of Bayes' theorem. (orig.) [de
New techniques for multi-level cross section calculation and fitting
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Froehner, F.H.
1981-01-01
A number of recent developments in multi-level cross section work are described. A new iteration scheme for the conversion of Reich-Moore resonance parameters to Kapur-Peierls parameters allows application of Turing's method for Gaussian broadening of meromorphic functions directly to multi-level cross section expressions, without recourse to the Voigt profiles psi and chi. This makes calculation of Doppler-broadened Reich-Moore and MLBW cross sections practically as fast as SLBW and Adler-Adler cross section calculations involving the Voigt profiles. A convenient distant-level treatment utilizing average resonance parameters is presented. Apart from effectively dealing with edge effects in resonance fitting work it also leads to a simple prescription for the determination of bound levels which reproduce the thermal cross sections correctly. A brief discussion of improved resonance shape fitting techniques is included, with emphasis on the importance of correlated errors and proper use of prior information by application of Bayes' theorem
Filtered thermal neutron captured cross-sections measurements and decay heat calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Son, Pham Ngoc; Tan, Vuong Huu
2014-01-01
Recently, a pure thermal neutron beam has been developed for neutron capture measurements based on the horizontal channel No.2 of the research reactor at the Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat. The original reactor neutron spectrum is transmitted through an optimal composition of Bi and Si single crystals for delivering a thermal neutron beam with Cadmium ratio (R cd ) of 420 and neutron flux (Φ th ) of 1.6x10 6 n/cm 2 .s. This thermal neutron beam has been applied for measurements of capture cross-sections for nuclide of 51 V, 55 Mn, 180 Hf and 186 W by the activation method relative to the standard reaction 197 Au(n,g) 198 Au. In addition to the activities of neutron capture cross-sections measurements, the study on nuclear decay heat calculations has been also considered to be developed at the Institute. Some results on calculation procedure and decay heat values calculated with update nuclear database for 235 U, 238 U, 239 Pu and 232 Th are introduced in this report. (author)
Quantifying uncertainties in the high-energy neutrino cross-section
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2012-11-10
Nov 10, 2012 ... Corresponding author. E-mail: s.sarkar@physics.ox.ac.uk .... i.e. cross-sections in the present case, modern PDF sets provide not only the best-fit PDF, but also .... However, any power-law rise in the cross-section will eventu-.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lemmel, H D [ed.
1994-12-01
The present report contains 20 papers presented at the IAEA meeting on the Development of an International Nuclear Decay Data and Cross-Section Database, Vienna, 24-28 October 1994, covering the following topics: Wall-charts of nuclides, PC systems presenting nuclear data, nuclear decay-data and uncertainties, nuclear spectroscopy, thermal neutron cross-sections and resonance-integrals, reactor-neutron activation analysis, nuclear data standards. (author). Refs, figs and tabs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lemmel, H.D.
1994-12-01
The present report contains 20 papers presented at the IAEA meeting on the Development of an International Nuclear Decay Data and Cross-Section Database, Vienna, 24-28 October 1994, covering the following topics: Wall-charts of nuclides, PC systems presenting nuclear data, nuclear decay-data and uncertainties, nuclear spectroscopy, thermal neutron cross-sections and resonance-integrals, reactor-neutron activation analysis, nuclear data standards. (author). Refs, figs and tabs
Measurement of neutral current e{sup {+-}}p cross sections at high Bjorken x with the ZEUS detector
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abramowicz, H. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). School of Physics; Max-Planck-Institute for Physics, Munich (Germany); Abt, I. [Max-Planck-Institute for Physics, Munich (Germany); Adamczyk, L. [AGH-Univ. of Science and Technology, Krakow (Poland). Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science; Collaboration: ZEUS Collaboration; and others
2013-12-15
The neutral current e{sup {+-}}p cross section has been measured up to values of Bjorken x{approx_equal}1 with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 187 pb{sup -1} of e{sup -}p and 142 pb{sup -1} of e{sup +}p collisions at {radical}(s)=318 GeV. Differential cross sections in x and Q{sup 2}, the exchanged boson virtuality, are presented for Q{sup 2}{>=}725 GeV{sup 2}. An improved reconstruction method and greatly increased amount of data allows a finer binning in the high-x region of the neutral current cross section and leads to a measurement with much improved precision compared to a similar earlier analysis. The measurements are compared to Standard Model expectations based on a variety of recent parton distribution functions.
Use of nuclear reaction models in cross section calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grimes, S.M.
1975-03-01
The design of fusion reactors will require information about a large number of neutron cross sections in the MeV region. Because of the obvious experimental difficulties, it is probable that not all of the cross sections of interest will be measured. Current direct and pre-equilibrium models can be used to calculate non-statistical contributions to neutron cross sections from information available from charged particle reaction studies; these are added to the calculated statistical contribution. Estimates of the reliability of such calculations can be derived from comparisons with the available data. (3 tables, 12 figures) (U.S.)
ATLAS-ALFA measurements on the total cross section and diffraction
Mortensen, Simon Stark; The ATLAS collaboration
2015-01-01
The measurement of the total pp cross section at the LHC at $\\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV with the ALFA subdetector of ATLAS is presented in this talk. In a special run with $\\beta^*=90$ m beam optics corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 80 $\\text{mb}^{-1}$ the differential elastic cross section is measured in the range from $-t=0.0025\\text{ GeV}^2$ to $-t=0.38\\text{ GeV}^2$. The total cross section $\\sigma(pp\\rightarrow X)$ is extracted using the Optical Theorem by extrapolation of the differential elastic cross section to $t=0\\text{ GeV}^2$. Prospects for diffractive measurements using ALFA to detect the intact proton(s) is also discussed.
Direct measurement of the Rayleigh scattering cross section in various gases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sneep, Maarten; Ubachs, Wim
2005-01-01
Using the laser-based technique of cavity ring-down spectroscopy extinction measurements have been performed in various gases straightforwardly resulting in cross sections for Rayleigh scattering. For Ar and N 2 measurements are performed in the range 470-490nm, while for CO 2 cross sections are determined in the wider range 470-570nm. In addition to these gases also for N 2 O, CH 4 , CO, and SF 6 the scattering cross section is determined at 532nm, a wavelength of importance for lidar applications and combustion laser diagnostics. In O 2 the cross section at 532nm is found to depend on pressure due to collision-induced light absorption. The obtained cross sections validate the cross sections for Rayleigh scattering as derived from refractive indices and depolarization ratios through Rayleigh's theory at the few %-level, although somewhat larger discrepancies are found for CO, N 2 O and CH 4
Assessment of Fission Product Cross-Section Data for Burnup Credit Applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leal, Luiz C; Derrien, Herve; Dunn, Michael E; Mueller, Don
2007-01-01
Past efforts by the Department of Energy (DOE), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and others have provided sufficient technical information to enable the NRC to issue regulatory guidance for implementation of pressurized-water reactor (PWR) burnup credit; however, consideration of only the reactivity change due to the major actinides is recommended in the guidance. Moreover, DOE, NRC, and EPRI have noted the need for additional scientific and technical data to justify expanding PWR burnup credit to include fission product (FP) nuclides and enable burnup credit implementation for boiling-water reactor (BWR) spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The criticality safety assessment needed for burnup credit applications will utilize computational analyses of packages containing SNF with FP nuclides. Over the years, significant efforts have been devoted to the nuclear data evaluation of major isotopes pertinent to reactor applications (i.e., uranium, plutonium, etc.); however, efforts to evaluate FP cross-section data in the resonance region have been less thorough relative to actinide data. In particular, resonance region cross-section measurements with corresponding R-matrix resonance analyses have not been performed for FP nuclides. Therefore, the objective of this work is to assess the status and performance of existing FP cross-section and cross-section uncertainty data in the resonance region for use in burnup credit analyses. Recommendations for new cross-section measurements and/or evaluations are made based on the data assessment. The assessment focuses on seven primary FP isotopes (103Rh, 133Cs, 143Nd, 149Sm, 151Sm, 152Sm, and 155Gd) that impact reactivity analyses of transportation packages and two FP isotopes (153Eu and 155Eu) that impact prediction of 155Gd concentrations. Much of the assessment work was completed in 2005, and the assessment focused on the latest FP cross-section evaluations available in the
MPI version of NJOY and its application to multigroup cross-section generation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alpan, A.; Haghighat, A.
1999-07-01
Multigroup cross-section libraries are needed in performing neutronics calculations. These libraries are referred to as broad-group libraries. The number of energy groups and group structure are highly dependent on the application and/or user's objectives. For example, for shielding calculations, broad-group libraries such as SAILOR and BUGLE with 47-neutron and 20-gamma energy groups are used. The common procedure to obtain a broad-group library is a three-step process: (1) processing pointwise ENDF (PENDF) format cross sections; (2) generating fine-group cross sections; and (3) collapsing fine-group cross sections to broad-group. The NJOY code is used to prepare fine-group cross sections by processing pointwise ENDF data. The code has several modules, each one performing a specific task. For instance, the module RECONR performs linearization and reconstruction of the cross sections, and the module GROUPR generates multigroup self-shielded cross sections. After fine-group, i.e., groupwise ENDF (GENDF), cross sections are produced, cross sections are self-shielded, and a one-dimensional transport calculation is performed to obtain flux spectra at specific regions in the model. These fluxes are then used as weighting functions to collapse the fine-group cross sections to obtain a broad-group cross-section library. The third step described is commonly performed by the AMPX code system. SMILER converts NJOY GENDF filed to AMPX master libraries, AJAX collects the master libraries. BONAMI performs self-shielding calculations, NITAWL converts the AMPX master library to a working library, XSDRNPM performs one-dimensional transport calculations, and MALOCS collapses fine-group cross sections to broad-group. Finally, ALPO is used to generate ANISN format libraries. In this three-step procedure, generally NJOY requires the largest amount of CPU time. This time varies depending on the user's specified parameters for each module, such as reconstruction tolerances
MPI version of NJOY and its application to multigroup cross-section generation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alpan, A.; Haghighat, A.
1999-01-01
Multigroup cross-section libraries are needed in performing neutronics calculations. These libraries are referred to as broad-group libraries. The number of energy groups and group structure are highly dependent on the application and/or user's objectives. For example, for shielding calculations, broad-group libraries such as SAILOR and BUGLE with 47-neutron and 20-gamma energy groups are used. The common procedure to obtain a broad-group library is a three-step process: (1) processing pointwise ENDF (PENDF) format cross sections; (2) generating fine-group cross sections; and (3) collapsing fine-group cross sections to broad-group. The NJOY code is used to prepare fine-group cross sections by processing pointwise ENDF data. The code has several modules, each one performing a specific task. For instance, the module RECONR performs linearization and reconstruction of the cross sections, and the module GROUPR generates multigroup self-shielded cross sections. After fine-group, i.e., groupwise ENDF (GENDF), cross sections are produced, cross sections are self-shielded, and a one-dimensional transport calculation is performed to obtain flux spectra at specific regions in the model. These fluxes are then used as weighting functions to collapse the fine-group cross sections to obtain a broad-group cross-section library. The third step described is commonly performed by the AMPX code system. SMILER converts NJOY GENDF filed to AMPX master libraries, AJAX collects the master libraries. BONAMI performs self-shielding calculations, NITAWL converts the AMPX master library to a working library, XSDRNPM performs one-dimensional transport calculations, and MALOCS collapses fine-group cross sections to broad-group. Finally, ALPO is used to generate ANISN format libraries. In this three-step procedure, generally NJOY requires the largest amount of CPU time. This time varies depending on the user's specified parameters for each module, such as reconstruction tolerances, temperatures
GROUPIE2007, Bondarenko Self-Shielded Cross sections from ENDF/B
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2007-01-01
1 - Description of problem or function - GROUPIE reads evaluated data in ENDF/B Format and uses these to calculate unshielded group averaged Cross sections, Bondarenko self-shielded Cross sections, and multiband parameters. The program allows the user to specify arbitrary energy groups and an arbitrary energy-dependent neutron spectrum (weighting function). IAEA0849/15: This version include the updates up to January 30, 2007. Changes in ENDF/B-VII Format and procedures, as well as the evaluations themselves, make it impossible for versions of the ENDF/B pre-processing codes earlier than PREPRO 2007 (2007 Version) to accurately process current ENDF/B-VII evaluations. The present code can handle all existing ENDF/B-VI evaluations through release 8, which will be the last release of ENDF/B-VI. 2 - Modifications from previous versions: Groupie VERS. 2007-1 (Jan. 2007): checked against all ENDF/B-VII; increased page size from 120,000 to 600,000 points. 3 - Method of solution: All integrals are performed analytically; in no case is iteration or any approximate form of integration used. GROUPIE reads either the 0 deg. Kelvin Cross sections or the Doppler broadened Cross sections to calculate the self-shielded Cross sections and multiband parameters for 25 values of the 'background' Cross sections (representing the combined effects of all other isotopes and of leakage). 4 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: GROUPIE requires that the energy-dependent neutron spectrum and all Cross sections be given in tabular form, with linear interpolation between tabulated values. There is no limit to the size of the table used to describe the spectrum, so the spectrum may be described in as much detail as required. - If only unshielded averages are calculated, the program can handle up to 3000 groups. If self-shielded averages and/or multiband parameters are calculated, the program can handle up to 175 groups. These limits can easily be extended. - The program only uses the
Aad, Georges; Abbott, Brad; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acerbi, Emilio; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amorim, Antonio; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Anduaga, Xabier; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aoun, Sahar; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Asfandiyarov, Ruslan; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Aubert, Bernard; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; 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Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xin; Chen, Yujiao; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Cheung, Sing-Leung; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiefari, Giovanni; Chikovani, Leila; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Choudalakis, Georgios; Chouridou, Sofia; Christidi, Illectra-Athanasia; Christov, Asen; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciocca, Claudia; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirilli, Manuela; Cirkovic, Predrag; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Benoit; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Cogneras, Eric; Colas, Jacques; 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Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dameri, Mauro; Damiani, Daniel; Danielsson, Hans Olof; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Dassoulas, James; Davey, Will; Davidek, Tomas; Davidson, Nadia; Davidson, Ruth; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davignon, Olivier; Davison, Adam; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; de Graat, Julien; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De La Taille, Christophe; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; de Mora, Lee; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; De Zorzi, Guido; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dechenaux, Benjamin; Dedovich, Dmitri; Degenhardt, James; Del Papa, Carlo; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delemontex, Thomas; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demirkoz, Bilge; Deng, Jianrong; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Devetak, Erik; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; DeWilde, Burton; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Dhullipudi, Ramasudhakar; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Luise, Silvestro; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dindar Yagci, Kamile; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dinut, Florin; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Do Valle Wemans, André; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobbs, Matt; Dobinson, Robert; Dobos, Daniel; 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Engelmann, Roderich; Engl, Albert; Epp, Brigitte; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Espinal Curull, Xavier; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienne, Francois; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evangelakou, Despoina; Evans, Hal; Fabbri, Laura; Fabre, Caroline; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farley, Jason; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Fatholahzadeh, Baharak; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Fazio, Salvatore; Febbraro, Renato; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Fellmann, Denis; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Fenyuk, Alexander; Ferencei, Jozef; Fernando, Waruna; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrara, Valentina; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Gordon; Fisher, Matthew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleckner, Johanna; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Fonseca Martin, Teresa; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Frank, Tal; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; Fratina, Sasa; French, Sky; Friedrich, Conrad; Friedrich, Felix; Froeschl, Robert; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gadfort, Thomas; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Gan, KK; Gao, Yongsheng; Gaponenko, Andrei; Garberson, Ford; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garitaonandia, Hegoi; Garonne, Vincent; Garvey, John; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerlach, Peter; Gershon, Avi; Geweniger, Christoph; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giakoumopoulou, Victoria; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Adam; Gibson, Stephen; Gillberg, Dag; Gillman, Tony; Gingrich, Douglas; Ginzburg, Jonatan; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giovannini, Paola; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giunta, Michele; Giusti, Paolo; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glazov, Alexandre; Glitza, Karl-Walter; Glonti, George; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goebel, Martin; Göpfert, Thomas; Goeringer, Christian; Gössling, Claus; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; Gonzalez, Saul; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goodson, Jeremiah Jet; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorfine, Grant; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Gosdzik, Bjoern; Goshaw, Alfred; Gosselink, Martijn; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gough Eschrich, Ivo; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Gozpinar, Serdar; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Grau, Nathan; Gray, Heather; Gray, Julia Ann; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenshaw, Timothy; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grigalashvili, Nugzar; Grillo, Alexander; Grinstein, Sebastian; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grybel, Kai; Guest, Daniel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Guler, Hulya; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Bin; Guo, Jun; Gutierrez, Phillip; Guttman, Nir; Gutzwiller, Olivier; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haas, Stefan; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Hadley, David; Haefner, Petra; Hahn, Ferdinand; Haider, Stefan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Hall, David; Haller, Johannes; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Handel, Carsten; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, John Renner; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hansson, Per; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hare, Gabriel; Harenberg, Torsten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Hartert, Jochen; Hartjes, Fred; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hawkins, Donovan; Hayakawa, Takashi; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; He, Mao; Head, Simon; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heinemann, Beate; Heisterkamp, Simon; Helary, Louis; Heller, Claudio; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, Robert; Henke, Michael; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Hensel, Carsten; Henß, Tobias; Medina Hernandez, Carlos; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirsch, Florian; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holder, Martin; Holmgren, Sven-Olof; Holy, Tomas; Holzbauer, Jenny; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Horn, Claus; Horner, Stephan; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huettmann, Antje; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hurwitz, Martina; Husemann, Ulrich; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibbotson, Michael; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Ince, Tayfun; Inigo-Golfin, Joaquin; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansen, Hendrik; Jantsch, Andreas; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Jeanty, Laura; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jež, Pavel; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Jha, Manoj Kumar; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Shan; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Joffe, David; Johansen, Marianne; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johnert, Sebastian; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Joram, Christian; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Jovin, Tatjana; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jungst, Ralph Markus; Juranek, Vojtech; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kabana, Sonja; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kadlecik, Peter; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalinin, Sergey; Kalinovskaya, Lidia; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kaplon, Jan; Kar, Deepak; Karagounis, Michael; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Mayuko; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katsoufis, Elias; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kayl, Manuel; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Kekelidze, George; Keller, John; Kenyon, Mike; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerschen, Nicolas; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchenko, Dmitri; Khodinov, Alexander; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kitamura, Takumi; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klemetti, Miika; Klier, Amit; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Klous, Sander; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluge, Thomas; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knecht, Neil; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Ko, Byeong Rok; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Koenig, Sebastian; Köpke, Lutz; Koetsveld, Folkert; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohn, Fabian; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolachev, Guennady; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolesnikov, Vladimir; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Kollefrath, Michael; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kono, Takanori; Kononov, Anatoly; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Koperny, Stefan; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Sergey; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kreiss, Sven; Krejci, Frantisek; Kretzschmar, Jan; Krieger, Nina; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kubota, Takashi; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kuhn, Dietmar; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kummer, Christian; Kuna, Marine; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurata, Masakazu; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwee, Regina; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Labarga, Luis; Labbe, Julien; Lablak, Said; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laisne, Emmanuel; Lamanna, Massimo; Lambourne, Luke; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lancon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lane, Jenna; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Larner, Aimee; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavorini, Vincenzo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Maner, Christophe; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Michel; Legendre, Marie; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Lendermann, Victor; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatiana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Lepold, Florian; Leroy, Claude; Lessard, Jean-Raphael; Lester, Christopher; Lester, Christopher Michael; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Shu; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lichtnecker, Markus; Lie, Ki; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Chuanlei; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Losty, Michael; Lou, Xinchou; Lounis, Abdenour; Loureiro, Karina; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Ludwig, Andreas; Ludwig, Dörthe; Ludwig, Inga; Ludwig, Jens; Luehring, Frederick; Luijckx, Guy; Lukas, Wolfgang; Lumb, Debra; Luminari, Lamberto; Lund, Esben; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lundberg, Björn; Lundberg, Johan; Lundberg, Olof; Lundquist, Johan; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lynn, David; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Mackeprang, Rasmus; Madaras, Ronald; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Maenner, Reinhard; Maeno, Tadashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Magnoni, Luca; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahmoud, Sara; Mahout, Gilles; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Malecki, Piotr; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mameghani, Raphael; Mamuzic, Judita; Manabe, Atsushi; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Mangeard, Pierre-Simon; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany Andreina; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mapelli, Alessandro; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Zach; Martens, Kalen; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massaro, Graziano; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Matricon, Pierre; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mattravers, Carly; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Mayne, Anna; Mazini, Rachid; Mazur, Michael; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mazzanti, Marcello; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Mechtel, Markus; Medinnis, Mike; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Meguro, Tatsuma; Mehdiyev, Rashid; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Meng, Zhaoxia; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Merritt, Hayes; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer, Joerg; Meyer, Thomas Christian; Meyer, W Thomas; Miao, Jiayuan; Michal, Sebastien; Micu, Liliana; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Miller, Robert; Mills, Bill; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Moeller, Victoria; Mönig, Klaus; Möser, Nicolas; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Moles-Valls, Regina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Moorhead, Gareth; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morange, Nicolas; Morel, Julien; Morello, Gianfranco; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Müller, Thomas; Mueller, Timo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Munwes, Yonathan; Murray, Bill; Mussche, Ido; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagel, Martin; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Nanava, Gizo; Napier, Austin; Narayan, Rohin; Nash, Michael; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neusiedl, Andrea; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen Thi Hong, Van; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Niedercorn, Francois; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Henrik; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Norton, Peter; Novakova, Jana; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Nugent, Ian Michael; Nuncio-Quiroz, Adriana-Elizabeth; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'Neale, Steve; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakes, Louise Beth; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Odier, Jerome; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olchevski, Alexander; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira, Miguel Alfonso; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olivito, Dominick; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Orlov, Iliya; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Osuna, Carlos; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Ottersbach, John; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Owen, Simon; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Pahl, Christoph; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Paleari, Chiara; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Pani, Priscilla; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Papadelis, Aras; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Park, Woochun; Parker, Andy; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pashapour, Shabnaz; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pecsy, Martin; Pedraza Morales, Maria Isabel; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penson, Alexander; Penwell, John; Perantoni, Marcelo; Perez, Kerstin; Perez Cavalcanti, Tiago; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Perrodo, Pascal; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Jorgen; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petschull, Dennis; Petteni, Michele; Pezoa, Raquel; Phan, Anna; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piec, Sebastian Marcin; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Pinto, Belmiro; Pizio, Caterina; Plamondon, Mathieu; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Plotnikova, Elena; Poblaguev, Andrei; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, Martin; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polini, Alessandro; Poll, James; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pomeroy, Daniel; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; 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Staude, Arnold; Stavina, Pavel; Steele, Genevieve; Steinbach, Peter; Steinberg, Peter; Stekl, Ivan; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoerig, Kathrin; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stonjek, Stefan; Strachota, Pavel; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strang, Michael; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Strong, John; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strube, Jan; Stugu, Bjarne; Stumer, Iuliu; Stupak, John; Sturm, Philipp; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Soh, Dart-yin; Su, Dong; Subramania, Halasya Siva; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suhr, Chad; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Suzuki, Yuta; Svatos, Michal; Swedish, Stephen; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Sánchez, Javier; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tamsett, Matthew; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanasijczuk, Andres Jorge; Tani, Kazutoshi; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tardif, Dominique; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tassi, Enrico; Tatarkhanov, Mous; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Christopher; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teinturier, Marthe; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thoma, Sascha; Thomas, Juergen; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thong, Wai Meng; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tibbetts, Mark James; Tic, Tomáš; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tonoyan, Arshak; Topfel, Cyril; Topilin, Nikolai; Torchiani, Ingo; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alesandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Triplett, Nathan; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiakiris, Menelaos; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; 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Vannucci, Francois; Vari, Riccardo; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vassilakopoulos, Vassilios; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Vegni, Guido; Veillet, Jean-Jacques; Veloso, Filipe; Veness, Raymond; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinek, Elisabeth; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virchaux, Marc; Virzi, Joseph; Vitells, Ofer; Viti, Michele; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Adrian; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; Volpini, Giovanni; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Loeben, Joerg; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorwerk, Volker; Vos, Marcel; 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Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Long; Zhao, Tianchi; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, Yue; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhuravlov, Vadym; Zieminska, Daria; Zimin, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zitoun, Robert; Živković, Lidija; Zmouchko, Viatcheslav; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz
2013-01-15
Measurements are presented of differential cross-sections for top quark pair production in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV relative to the total inclusive top quark pair production cross-section. A data sample of 2.05/fb recorded by the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider is used. Relative differential cross-sections are derived as a function of the invariant mass, the transverse momentum and the rapidity of the top quark pair system. Events are selected in the lepton (electron or muon) + jets channel. The background-subtracted differential distributions are corrected for detector effects, normalized to the total inclusive top quark pair production cross-section and compared to theoretical predictions. The measurement uncertainties range typically between 10% and 20% and are generally dominated by systematic effects. No significant deviations from the Standard Model expectations are observed.
Bodies with noncircular cross sections and bank-to-turn missiles
Jackson, C. M., Jr.; Sawyer, W. C.
1992-01-01
A development status evaluation is presented for the aerodynamics of missile configurations with noncircular cross-sections and bank-to-turn maneuvering systems, giving attention to cases with elliptical and square cross-sections, as well as bodies with variable cross-sections. The assessment of bank-to-turn missile performance notes inherent stability/control problems. A summary and index are provided for aerodynamic data on monoplanar configurations, including those which incorporate airbreathing propulsion systems.
Quality Quantification of Evaluated Cross Section Covariances
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Varet, S.; Dossantos-Uzarralde, P.; Vayatis, N.
2015-01-01
Presently, several methods are used to estimate the covariance matrix of evaluated nuclear cross sections. Because the resulting covariance matrices can be different according to the method used and according to the assumptions of the method, we propose a general and objective approach to quantify the quality of the covariance estimation for evaluated cross sections. The first step consists in defining an objective criterion. The second step is computation of the criterion. In this paper the Kullback-Leibler distance is proposed for the quality quantification of a covariance matrix estimation and its inverse. It is based on the distance to the true covariance matrix. A method based on the bootstrap is presented for the estimation of this criterion, which can be applied with most methods for covariance matrix estimation and without the knowledge of the true covariance matrix. The full approach is illustrated on the 85 Rb nucleus evaluations and the results are then used for a discussion on scoring and Monte Carlo approaches for covariance matrix estimation of the cross section evaluations
Some problem areas in capture cross-section measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moxon, M.C.; Gayther, D.B.; Sowerby, M.G.
1975-01-01
This paper outlines some of the problems that have been encountered and are envisaged in the measurement and evaluation of capture cross-sections. Particular emphasis is placed on the cross-sections of the structural materials (Fe, Ni, Cr) used in fast reactors. The topics considered are the influence of scattered neutrons in capture detectors, the determination of background, sample thickness corrections, and the theoretical representation of resonance parameters. (author)
Scattering cross-section of an inhomogeneous plasma cylinder
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jiaming Shi; Lijian Qiu; Ling, Y.
1995-01-01
Scattering of em waves by the plasma cylinder is of significance in radar target detection, plasma diagnosis, etc. This paper discusses the general method to calculate the scattering cross-section of em waves from a plasma cylinder which is radially inhomogeneous and infinitely long. Numerical results are also provided for several plasma density profiles. The effect of the electron density distribution on the scattering cross-section is investigated
Low energy total cross section of 36Ar
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mughabghab, S.F.; Magurno, B.A.
1975-01-01
To compare the predictions of the valence model with measured partial radiative widths of 36 Ar an accurate knowledge of the bound-level parameters is required. This is achieved by carrying out a Breit-Wigner parameter fit to the total cross section of 36 Ar measured by Chrien et al and renormalized to the recommended values of the thermal capture and scattering cross sections. (1 figure, 1 table) (U.S.)
An Ada environment for relativistic cross section calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nilsson, E.
1990-01-01
We have developed an Ada environment adapted to relativistic cross section calculations. Objects such as four-vectors, γ- matrices and propagators are defined as well as operations between these objects. In this environment matrix elements can be expressed in a compact and readable way as Ada code. Unpolarized cross sections are calculated numerically by explicitly summing and averaging over spins and polarizations. A short presentation of the technique is given
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Merle, Elsa [Laboratoire d' Annecy-le-vieux de physique des particules, Grenoble-1 Univ., 74 Annecy (France)
1999-04-22
The present work is based on the selection of e{sup -}e{sup +} {yields} f f-bar events taken with the ALEPH detector from 1995 to 1998, for an integrated luminosity of 500 pb{sup -}. We first present the selection of dimuon, di-tau and di-electron events that we have been developed for this study. The hadronic selection used in ALEPH is also detailed in a devoted part. In each case, the estimation of systematic uncertainties is described. They are of the same order of magnitude as the statistical errors, ranging between 0.6% (di-electron) and 3.5% (dimuon). From these selections we derive the di-fermionic cross-sections as well as the asymmetries computed for the di-lepton channels. Measurements are found to be in reasonable agreement with the Standard Model expectations. Cross-sections and asymmetries are sensitive to the presence of possible new physics. In this document we use the context of the 4-fermion contact interactions to set limits on the energy scale of new physics. Such limits are found to range between 7 and 15 GeV depending on the modelling used. We also put lower limits on the mass of leptoquarks, 590 GeV/c{sup 2} for vector leptoquarks and 71 GeV/c{sup 2} for scalar leptoquarks. Eventually we also present the limits derived in the context of R-parity violated supersymmetry, putting constraint on the s-neutrino mass. Our study excludes such particles below a few hundred GeV/c{sup 2} mass for high values of their Yukawa coupling assumptions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tretiakoff, O.; Vidal, R.; Carre, J.C.; Robin, M.
1964-01-01
The authors describe the technique used to measure the effective absorption and neutron-yield cross-sections of a fissionable sample. These two values are determined by analysing the signals due to the variation in reactivity (over-all signal) and the local perturbation in the flux (local signal) produced by the oscillating sample. These signals are standardized by means of a set of samples containing quantities of fissionable material ( 235 U) and an absorber, boron, which are well known. The measurements are made for different neutron spectra characterized by lattice parameters which constitute the central zone within which the sample moves. This technique is used to study the effective cross-sections of uranium-plutonium alloys for different heavy-water and graphite lattices in the MINERVE and MARIUS critical assemblies. The same experiments are carried out on fuel samples of different irradiations in order to determine the evolution of effective cross-sections as a function of the spectrum and the irradiations. (authors) [fr
Measurement of multinucleon transfer cross-sections
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Keywords. Ni(C, ), Fe(C, ), =C, C, B, B, Be, Be, Be, Be, Li, Li; = 60 MeV; measured reaction cross-section; elastic scattering angular distribution; deduced transfer probabilities and enhancement factors.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fabry, A.; McElroy, W.N.; Kellogg, L.S.; Lippincott, E.P.; Grundl, J.A.; Gilliam, D.M.; Hansen, G.E.
1976-10-01
The paper is intended to review and critically discuss microscopic integral cross section measurement and calculation data for fundamental reactor dosimetry benchmark neutron fields. Specifically the review covers the following fundamental benchmarks: (1) the spontaneous californium-252 fission neutron spectrum standard field; (2) the thermal-neutron induced uranium-235 fission neutron spectrum standard field; (3) the (secondary) intermediate-energy standard neutron field at the center of the Mol-ΣΣ, NISUS, and ITN--ΣΣ facilities; (4) the reference neutron field at the center of the Coupled Fast Reactor Measurement Facility (CFRMF); (5) the reference neutron field at the center of the 10 percent enriched uranium metal, cylindrical, fast critical; and (6) the (primary) Intermediate-Energy Standard Neutron Field
Cross-sections and leptonic forward-backward asymmetries from the Z0 running of LEP
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abreu, P.; Adam, W.; Adye, T.
2000-01-01
During 1993 and 1995 LEP was run at 3 energies near the Z 0 peak in order to give improved measurements of the mass and width of the resonance. During 1994, LEP operated only at the Z 0 peak. In total DELPHI accumulated data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of approximately 116 pb -1 . Analyses of the hadronic cross-sections and of the cross-sections and forward-backward asymmetries in the leptonic channels used the most precise evaluations of the LEP energies. In the dimuon channel, events with a photon radiated from the initial state have been used to probe the cross-sections and asymmetries down to PETRA energies. Model independent fits to all DELPHI lineshape and asymmetry data from 1990 to 1995 have been carried out giving values of the resonance parameters: M Z =91.1863±0.0028 GeV Γ Z =2.4876±0.0041 GeV σ 0 =41.578±0.069 n R l =20.730±0.060 A FB 0 =0.0187±0.0019. These values are significantly more precise than those previously published. The results are interpreted in terms of the standard model. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dietrich, F.S.; Anderson, J.D.; Bauer, R.W.; Grimes, S.M.; Finlay, R.W.; Abfalterer, W.P.; Bateman, F.B.; Haight, R.C.; Morgan, G.L.; Bauge, E.; Delaroche, J.-P.; Romain, P.
2003-01-01
Cross section differences among the isotopes 182,184,186 W have been measured as a part of a study of total cross sections in the 5-560 MeV energy range. These difference measurements show oscillations up to 150 mb between 5 and 100 MeV. Calculations with spherical and deformed phenomenological optical potentials employing standard radial and isospin dependences show much smaller oscillations than the experimental data. In a simple Ramsauer model, this discrepancy can be traced to a cancellation between radial and isospin effects. Understanding this problem requires a more detailed model that incorporates a realistic description of the neutron and proton density distributions. This has been done with the results of Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov calculations using the Gogny force, together with a microscopic folding model employing a modification of the Jeukenne, Lejeune, and Mahaux potential as an effective interaction. This treatment yields a satisfactory interpretation of the observed total cross section differences up to 200 MeV. The calculations have been extended above that energy with a folding model based on an empirical effective interaction
Sensitivity of LWR fuel cycle costs to uncertainties in detailed thermal cross sections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ryskamp, J.M.; Becker, M.; Harris, D.R.
1979-01-01
Cross sections averaged over the thermal energy (< 1 or 2 eV) group have been shown to have an important economic role for light-water reactors. Cost implications of thermal cross section uncertainties at the few-group level were reported earlier. When it has been determined that costs are sensitive to a specific thermal-group cross section, it becomes desirable to determine how specific energy-dependent cross sections influence fuel cycle costs. Multigroup cross-section sensitivity coefficients vary with fuel exposure. By changing the shape of a cross section displayed on a view-tube through an interactive graphics system, one can compute the change in few-group cross section using the exposure dependent sensitivity coefficients. With the changed exposure dependent few-group cross section, a new fuel cycle cost is computed by a sequence of batch depletion, core analysis, and fuel batch cost code modules. Fuel cycle costs are generally most sensitive to cross section uncertainties near the peak of the hardened Maxwellian flux
Electron-impact-excitation cross sections of hydrogenlike ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fisher, V.I.; Ralchenko, Y.V.; Bernshtam, V.A.; Goldgirsh, A.; Maron, Y.; Vainshtein, L.A.; Bray, I.; Golten, H.
1997-01-01
Convergent close-coupling (CCC) and Coulomb-Born with exchange and normalization (CBE) methods are used to study electron-impact excitation of hydrogenlike ions. The nl→n ' l ' cross sections demonstrate (i) good agreement between the CCC and CBE results, (ii) a scaling over ion nuclear charge z, (iii) a domination of the dipole (l ' =l±1) contributions in total n→n ' cross sections, and (iv) significant effect of electron exchange in the energy range x n,n ' ). For ions with z>5 the n→n ' cross sections obtained in the CCC and CBE approximations agree with each other to better than 10% for any x. An accuracy of the cross sections scaling over z 4 depends on z: for z=6 endash 18 the scaling is accurate to better than 10% (quantitative analysis is done for n ' 4 scaling more significantly (at x about unity). The n→n ' cross sections are presented by a formula which fits our CCC and CBE results with an accuracy to better than 10% (for transitions with n ' 5). The new Gaunt factor G(x) suggested for the widely used Van Regemorter formula [Astrophys. J. 136, 906 (1962)] makes this formula accurate to better than 50% in the x>3 range and to better than 20% in the x>100 range. It is shown that the semiempirical formula by Vainshtein, Sobelman, and Yukov provides an accuracy to better than 50% for any incident electron energy. For x<2 this formula is accurate to better than 30%. These accuracy assessments are based on a comparison with our CCC and CBE results. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
CASTHY, Statistical Model for Neutron Cross-Sections and Gamma-Ray Spectra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Igarasi, Sin-iti; Fukahori, Tokio
1998-01-01
Description of program or function: CASTHY calculates neutron cross sections of total, shape elastic scattering and compound nucleus formation with the optical model, and compound elastic, inelastic and capture cross sections by the statistical model. The other cross sections, such as (n,2n), (n,p), (n,f) reactions are treated as cross sections of competing processes, and their sum is given through input data. Capture gamma-ray spectra can also be calculated. The branching ratio for primary transition can be treated in a particular way, if required
Absolute photoionization cross-section of the propargyl radical
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Savee, John D.; Welz, Oliver; Taatjes, Craig A.; Osborn, David L. [Sandia National Laboratories, Combustion Research Facility, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Soorkia, Satchin [Institut des Sciences Moleculaires d' Orsay, Universite Paris-Sud 11, Orsay (France); Selby, Talitha M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin, Washington County Campus, West Bend, Wisconsin 53095 (United States)
2012-04-07
Using synchrotron-generated vacuum-ultraviolet radiation and multiplexed time-resolved photoionization mass spectrometry we have measured the absolute photoionization cross-section for the propargyl (C{sub 3}H{sub 3}) radical, {sigma}{sub propargyl}{sup ion}(E), relative to the known absolute cross-section of the methyl (CH{sub 3}) radical. We generated a stoichiometric 1:1 ratio of C{sub 3}H{sub 3} : CH{sub 3} from 193 nm photolysis of two different C{sub 4}H{sub 6} isomers (1-butyne and 1,3-butadiene). Photolysis of 1-butyne yielded values of {sigma}{sub propargyl}{sup ion}(10.213 eV)=(26.1{+-}4.2) Mb and {sigma}{sub propargyl}{sup ion}(10.413 eV)=(23.4{+-}3.2) Mb, whereas photolysis of 1,3-butadiene yielded values of {sigma}{sub propargyl}{sup ion}(10.213 eV)=(23.6{+-}3.6) Mb and {sigma}{sub propargyl}{sup ion}(10.413 eV)=(25.1{+-}3.5) Mb. These measurements place our relative photoionization cross-section spectrum for propargyl on an absolute scale between 8.6 and 10.5 eV. The cross-section derived from our results is approximately a factor of three larger than previous determinations.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Engsted, Tom; Møller, Stig Vinther
By using a beginning-of-period timing convention for consumption, and by including the Great Depression years in the analysis, we show that on annual data from 1926 to 2009 a standard contemporaneous consumption risk model goes a long way in explaining the size and value premiums in cross......-sectional data that include both the Fama-French portfolios and industry portfolios. A long run consumption risk variant of the model also produces a high cross-sectional …t. In addition, the equity premium puzzle is signi…cantly reduced in the models. We argue that in evaluating consumption based models...
Self-scattering cross-section of molecules in a beam
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lou, Y.S.
1974-01-01
Molecular collision cross-section has always been measured by the beam scattering method, or by the measurements of thermal conductivity and/or viscosity coefficient, etc. The cross-section thus obtained has been found to be different, qualitatively, from that of the self-scattering of the molecules moving within a molecular beam. By perturbing the zeroth order solution of the Boltzmann equation with a B-G-K kinetic model for the gas upstream to the orifice, and performing particle scattering calculation for molecules within the beam downstream to the orifice, such self-scattering collision cross-section can be determined from the experimental data of velocity distribution functions of molecules in the beam
Inclusive cross sections in AA collisions at high energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Braun, M.A.
1988-01-01
Inclusive cross sections in AA collisions at high energies are considered in the Glauber multiple scattering theory taking into account many-nucleon collisions. Correspondence is found between the AA amplitude and the effective action of the two-dimensional quantum field theory with exponential interaction. The tree and one-loop contributions are calculated in this formalism. The rules are derived, which relate the absorption part of the AA-collision amplitudes associated with various inclusive cross sections to the absorption parts of NN amplitudes. These rules generalize the well-known Agranowsky-Gribov-Kanchelli rules for hh and hA collisions. Formulas are written for single and double inclusive cross sections in AA collisions
Cross-Sectional Transport Imaging in a Multijunction Solar Cell
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Haegel, Nancy M.; Ke, Chi-Wen; Taha, Hesham; Guthrey, Harvey; Fetzer, C. M.; King, Richard
2015-06-14
Combining highly localized electron-beam excitation at a point with the spatial resolution capability of optical near-field imaging, we have imaged carrier transport in a cross-sectioned multijunction (GaInP/GaInAs/Ge) solar cell. We image energy transport associated with carrier diffusion throughout the full width of the middle (GaInAs) cell and luminescent coupling from point excitation in the top cell GaInP to the middle cell. Supporting cathodoluminescence and near-field photoluminescence measurements demonstrate excitation-dependent Fermi level splitting effects that influence cross-sectioned spectroscopy results as well as transport limitations on the spatial resolution of cross-sectional measurements.
Total cross section for relativistic positronium interaction with atom
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pak, A.S.; Tarasov, A.V.
1985-01-01
Total cross sections of interaction of positronium relativistic atoms with atoms are calculated. Calculations are conducted within the framework of potential theory in Born approximaton. Contributions in total cross section of coherent (σsub(coh)) and incoherent (σsub(inc)) parts are analyzed. It is shown that for light elements σsub(inc) value is comparable with σsub(coh), and for heavy ones the ratio σsub(inc)/σsub(coh) sufficiently exceeds Zsup(-1) (Z-charge of the atomic nucleus. Numerical calculation results are presented. A conclusion is made on importance of the coherent part account during the calculation of total cross sections
Cross sections for electron-impact excitation of argon by fourier transform spectroscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chilton, J.E.; Boffard, J.B.; Chun C.L.
1996-01-01
The authors report absolute measurements of electron-impact excitation cross sections out of the ground level to the ten levels in the 3p 5 4p configuration of argon. The apparent excitation cross sections are determined by measuring the optical cross sections for the emission lines in the 3p 5 4p → 3p 5 4s manifold. For cascade corrections the authors measured the optical cross sections for the various 3p 5 5s → 3p 5 4p and 3p 5 4p infrared lines using a Fourier transform weak emission spectrometer to obtain the direct excitation cross sections from the optical data. Although the optical cross sections vary with pressure in the regime of 0.1 to 6 mTorr, the direct cross sections remain invariant. These pressure effects are understood within the framework of a radiation-reabsorption model. The excitation functions for the different transitions are also found to show considerable variation in shape
Resonances in photoionization. Cross section for vibrationally excited H2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mezei, J.Zs.; Jungen, Ch.
2011-01-01
Complete text of publication follows. Diatomic molecular Hydrogen is the most abundant molecule in interstellar molecular clouds. The modeling of these environments relies on accurate cross sections for the various relevant processes. Among them, the photoionization plays a major role in the kinetics and in the energy exchanges involving H 2 . The recent discovery of vibrationally excited molecular hydrogen in extragalactic environments revealed the need for accurate evaluation of the corresponding photoionization cross sections. In the present work we report theoretical photoionization cross sections for excitation from excited vibrational levels of the ground state, dealing with the Q(N = 1) (ΔN = 0, where N is the total angular momentum of the molecule) transitions which account for roughly one third of the total photoabsorption cross section. We will focus on the v' = 1 excited level of the ground electronic state. Our calculations are based on Multichannel Quantum Defect Theory (MQDT), which allows us to take into account of the full manifold of Rydberg states and their interactions with the electronic continuum. We have carried out two types of MQDT calculations. First, we omitted all open channels and calculated energy levels, wave functions and spontaneous emission Einstein coefficients, making use of the theoretical method presented in [2]. In a second set of calculations we included the open ionization channels in the computations getting the continuum phase shifts, channel mixing coefficients and channel dipole moments and finally the photoabsorption/ photoionization cross section. The cross section is dominated by the presence of resonance structures corresponding to excitation of various vibrational levels of bound electronic states which lie above the ionization threshold. In order to assess the importance of the resonances we have calculated for each vibrational interval (the energy interval between two consecutive ionization thresholds) the
Modelling interaction cross sections for intermediate and low energy ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toburen, L.H.; Shinpaugh, J.L.; Justiniano, E.L.B.
2002-01-01
When charged particles slow in tissue they undergo electron capture and loss processes than can have profound effects on subsequent interaction cross sections. Although a large amount of data exists for the interaction of bare charged particles with atoms and molecules, few experiments have been reported for these 'dressed' particles. Projectile electrons contribute to an impact-parameter-dependent screening of the projectile charge that precludes straightforward scaling of energy loss cross sections from those of bare charged particles. The objective of this work is to develop an analytical model for the energy-loss-dependent effects of screening on differential ionisation cross sections that can be used in track structure calculations for high LET ions. As a first step a model of differential ionisation cross sections for bare ions has been combined with a simple screening model to explore cross sections for intermediate and low energy dressed ions in collisions with atomic and molecular gas targets. The model is described briefly and preliminary results compared to measured electron energy spectra. (author)
Energy-averaged neutron cross sections of fast-reactor structural materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, A.; McKnight, R.; Smith, D.
1978-02-01
The status of energy-averaged cross sections of fast-reactor structural materials is outlined with emphasis on U.S. data programs in the neutron-energy range 1-10 MeV. Areas of outstanding accomplishment and significant uncertainty are noted with recommendations for future efforts. Attention is primarily given to the main constituents of stainless steel (e.g., Fe, Ni, and Cr) and, secondarily, to alternate structural materials (e.g., V, Ti, Nb, Mo, Zr). Generally, the mass regions of interest are A approximately 50 to 60 and A approximately 90 to 100. Neutron total and elastic-scattering cross sections are discussed with the implication on the non-elastic-cross sections. Cross sections governing discrete-inelastic-neutron-energy transfers are examined in detail. Cross sections for the reactions (n;p), (n;n',p), (n;α), (n;n',α) and (n;2n') are reviewed in the context of fast-reactor performance and/or diagnostics. The primary orientation of the discussion is experimental with some additional attention to the applications of theory, the problems of evaluation and the data sensitivity of representative fast-reactor systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bauce, Matteo [Padua U.
2009-01-01
This thesis describes the measurement of Z 0 Z 0 production cross section in pp collisions at the CDF (Compact Detector at Fermilab) experiment at Tevatron. The determination of this quantity is important to test Standard Model predictions of Electro-Weak couplings. Moreover the Z$^{0}$Z^{0}$ reconstruction is an important step for the Higgs boson searches in the high mass region. The cross section measurement has been done in the four massive lepton decay channel that has a small branching ratio but it is characterized by a very low background contribution. The search for Z$^{0$Z$^{0}$ $\\rightarrow$ $llll$ ($l=e,\\mu$) has been performed using 4.8 fb$^{-1}$ of data collected by CDF using lepton triggers. The number of expected signal events is 4.68 $\\pm$ 0.78 while the background contributes with 0.041 $\\pm$ 0.033 events. We observe 5 events, that corresponds to a significance of 5.70 $\\sigma$. This is the first observation of a Z$^{0}$Z$^{0}$ signal at CDF. With these events we measure a cross section of 1.56$^{+0.80}_{-0.63}$ (stat.) $\\pm$ 0.25(syst.) pb, in agreement with the Standard Model value 1.4 $\\pm$ 0.1 pb at Next to Leading Order.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wollstadt, Simon
2015-01-01
The Standard Model of particle physics is a very successful theory which describes nearly all known processes of particle physics very precisely. Nevertheless, there are several observations which cannot be explained within the existing theory. In this thesis, two analyses with high energy electrons and positrons using data of the ATLAS detector are presented. One, probing the Standard Model of particle physics and another searching for phenomena beyond the Standard Model. The production of an electron-positron pair via the Drell-Yan process leads to a very clean signature in the detector with low background contributions. This allows for a very precise measurement of the cross-section and can be used as a precision test of perturbative quantum chromodynamics (pQCD) where this process has been calculated at next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO). The invariant mass spectrum mee is sensitive to parton distribution functions (PFDs), in particular to the poorly known distribution of antiquarks at large momentum fraction (Bjoerken x). The measurement of the high-mass Drell-Yan cross-section in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of √(s)=7 TeV is performed on a dataset collected with the ATLAS detector, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.7 fb -1 . The differential cross-section of pp→Z 0 /γ * +X→e + e - +X is measured as a function of the invariant mass in the range 116 GeV
Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Bel, Lennaert; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bertolin, Alessandro; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Birnkraut, Alex; Bizzeti, Andrea; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borgia, Alessandra; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casanova Mohr, Raimon; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Counts, Ian; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Di Ruscio, Francesco; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dujany, Giulio; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fol, Philip; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garofoli, Justin; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gastaldi, Ugo; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Geraci, Angelo; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, V.V.; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Hampson, Thomas; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Humair, Thibaud; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Karodia, Sarah; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Kenzie, Matthew; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Korolev, Mikhail; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; La Thi, Viet Nga; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lambert, Robert W; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Lohn, Stefan; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lowdon, Peter; Lucchesi, Donatella; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Machefert, Frederic; Machikhiliyan, Irina V; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Manning, Peter Michael; Mapelli, Alessandro; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Märki, Raphael; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mauri, Andrea; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; McSkelly, Ben; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Merk, Marcel; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Mitzel, Dominik Stefan; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Janine; Müller, Katharina; Müller, Vanessa; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Osorio Rodrigues, Bruno; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Otto, Adam; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Aranzazu; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parkes, Christopher; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Pescatore, Luca; Petridis, Konstantinos; Petrolini, Alessandro; Petruzzo, Marco; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Poikela, Tuomas; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; 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de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Weiden, Andreas; Whitehead, Mark; Wiedner, Dirk; Wilkinson, Guy; Wilkinson, Michael; Williams, Mark Richard James; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang
2015-08-10
where the uncertainties are due to the sample size, systematic effects, the beam energy and the luminosity. This result is in good agreement with theoretical predictions at next-to-next-to-leading order in perturbative quantum chromodynamics. The cross-section is also measured differentially as a function of kinematic variables of the $Z$ boson. Ratios of the production cross-sections of electroweak bosons are presented using updated LHCb measurements of $W$ boson production. A precise test of the Standard Model is provided by the measurement of the ratio
Aad, Georges; Abbott, Brad; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allison, Lee John; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; 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Chapman, John Wehrley; Charlton, Dave; Chavda, Vikash; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xin; Chen, Yujiao; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Cheung, Sing-Leung; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiefari, Giovanni; Chikovani, Leila; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Choudalakis, Georgios; Chouridou, Sofia; Christidi, Ilektra-Athanasia; Christov, Asen; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirilli, Manuela; Cirkovic, Predrag; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; 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Curtis, Chris; Cuthbert, Cameron; Cwetanski, Peter; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; D'Orazio, Alessia; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dameri, Mauro; Damiani, Daniel; Danielsson, Hans Olof; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Dassoulas, James; Davey, Will; Davidek, Tomas; Davidson, Nadia; Davidson, Ruth; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davignon, Olivier; Davison, Adam; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; de Graat, Julien; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De La Taille, Christophe; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; de Mora, Lee; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; De Zorzi, Guido; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dechenaux, Benjamin; Dedovich, Dmitri; Degenhardt, James; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delemontex, Thomas; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demirkoz, Bilge; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Devetak, Erik; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; DeWilde, Burton; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Dhullipudi, Ramasudhakar; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Luise, Silvestro; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dindar Yagci, Kamile; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dinut, Florin; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Do Valle Wemans, André; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobbs, Matt; Dobos, Daniel; Dobson, Ellie; Dodd, Jeremy; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Doi, Yoshikuni; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Dohmae, Takeshi; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dos Anjos, Andre; Dotti, Andrea; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doxiadis, Alexander; Doyle, Tony; Dressnandt, Nandor; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jörg; Dube, Sourabh; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Dührssen, Michael; Duerdoth, Ian; Duflot, Laurent; Dufour, Marc-Andre; Duguid, Liam; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Duxfield, Robert; Dwuznik, Michal; Düren, Michael; Ebenstein, William; Ebke, Johannes; Eckweiler, Sebastian; Edson, William; Edwards, Clive; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Eisenhandler, Eric; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Katherine; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Engelmann, Roderich; Engl, Albert; Epp, Brigitte; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Espinal Curull, Xavier; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienne, Francois; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evangelakou, Despoina; Evans, Hal; Fabbri, Laura; Fabre, Caroline; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farley, Jason; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Fatholahzadeh, Baharak; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Fenyuk, Alexander; Ferencei, Jozef; Fernando, Waruna; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrara, Valentina; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Gordon; Fisher, Matthew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleckner, Johanna; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Florez Bustos, Andres Carlos; Flowerdew, Michael; Fonseca Martin, Teresa; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Fournier, Daniel; Fowler, Andrew; Fox, Harald; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Frank, Tal; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; Fratina, Sasa; French, Sky; Friedrich, Conrad; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gadfort, Thomas; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Gan, KK; Gao, Yongsheng; Gaponenko, Andrei; Garberson, Ford; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gerlach, Peter; Gershon, Avi; Geweniger, Christoph; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Adam; Gibson, Stephen; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillberg, Dag; Gillman, Tony; Gingrich, Douglas; Ginzburg, Jonatan; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giovannini, Paola; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giunta, Michele; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glazov, Alexandre; Glitza, Karl-Walter; Glonti, George; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goebel, Martin; Göpfert, Thomas; Goeringer, Christian; Gössling, Claus; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goodson, Jeremiah Jet; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorfine, Grant; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gosselink, Martijn; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gough Eschrich, Ivo; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Gozpinar, Serdar; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Gray, Julia Ann; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenshaw, Timothy; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grigalashvili, Nugzar; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grybel, Kai; Guest, Daniel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guido, Elisa; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Bin; Guo, Jun; Gutierrez, Phillip; Guttman, Nir; Gutzwiller, Olivier; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haas, Stefan; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Hadley, David; Haefner, Petra; Hahn, Ferdinand; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Hall, David; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Handel, Carsten; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, John Renner; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hansson, Per; Hara, Kazuhiko; Harenberg, Torsten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Hartert, Jochen; Hartjes, Fred; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayakawa, Takashi; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heinemann, Beate; Heisterkamp, Simon; Helary, Louis; Heller, Claudio; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, Robert; Henke, Michael; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Hensel, Carsten; Medina Hernandez, Carlos; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirsch, Florian; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holder, Martin; Holmgren, Sven-Olof; Holy, Tomas; Holzbauer, Jenny; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Horner, Stephan; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huettmann, Antje; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hurwitz, Martina; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibbotson, Michael; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Ince, Tayfun; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansen, Hendrik; Janssen, Jens; Jantsch, Andreas; Janus, Michel; Jared, Richard; Jarlskog, Göran; Jeanty, Laura; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Jež, Pavel; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Jha, Manoj Kumar; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Shan; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Joffe, David; Johansen, Marianne; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johnert, Sebastian; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Joram, Christian; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Jovin, Tatjana; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jungst, Ralph Markus; Juranek, Vojtech; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kabana, Sonja; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kadlecik, Peter; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalinin, Sergey; Kalinovskaya, Lidia; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karagounis, Michael; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Mayuko; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kayl, Manuel; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Keener, Paul; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Kekelidze, George; Keller, John; Kenyon, Mike; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerschen, Nicolas; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchenko, Dmitri; Khodinov, Alexander; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kitamura, Takumi; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klemetti, Miika; Klier, Amit; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Klous, Sander; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluge, Thomas; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Ko, Byeong Rok; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Koenig, Sebastian; Köpke, Lutz; Koetsveld, Folkert; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohn, Fabian; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolachev, Guennady; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolesnikov, Vladimir; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kono, Takanori; Kononov, Anatoly; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Sergey; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Krejci, Frantisek; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Nina; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruse, Mark; Kubota, Takashi; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kuhn, Dietmar; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kummer, Christian; Kuna, Marine; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurata, Masakazu; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwee, Regina; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Labarga, Luis; Lablak, Said; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laisne, Emmanuel; Lambourne, Luke; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lancon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Larner, Aimee; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavorini, Vincenzo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Michel; Legendre, Marie; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Lendermann, Victor; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatiana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Lepold, Florian; Leroy, Claude; Lessard, Jean-Raphael; Lester, Christopher; Lester, Christopher Michael; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Shu; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lichtnecker, Markus; Lie, Ki; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Chuanlei; Liu, Dong; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Losty, Michael; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Loureiro, Karina; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Ludwig, Dörthe; Ludwig, Inga; Ludwig, Jens; Luehring, Frederick; Luijckx, Guy; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lund, Esben; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lundberg, Björn; Lundberg, Johan; Lundberg, Olof; Lundquist, Johan; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lynn, David; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Mackeprang, Rasmus; Madaras, Ronald; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Maenner, Reinhard; Maeno, Tadashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Magnoni, Luca; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Mahmoud, Sara; Mahout, Gilles; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Malecki, Piotr; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Manabe, Atsushi; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany Andreina; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mapelli, Alessandro; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martinez, Homero; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massaro, Graziano; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mattravers, Carly; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mayne, Anna; Mazini, Rachid; Mazur, Michael; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mazzanti, Marcello; Mc Donald, Jeffrey; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Mechtel, Markus; Medinnis, Mike; Meehan, Samuel; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Meguro, Tatsuma; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Meng, Zhaoxia; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Merritt, Hayes; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer, Joerg; Michal, Sebastien; Micu, Liliana; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Miller, Robert; Mills, Bill; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Mitrevski, Jovan; 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