WorldWideScience

Sample records for cross language information

  1. Cross-language information retrieval using PARAFAC2.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bader, Brett William; Chew, Peter; Abdelali, Ahmed (New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM); Kolda, Tamara Gibson

    2007-05-01

    A standard approach to cross-language information retrieval (CLIR) uses Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) in conjunction with a multilingual parallel aligned corpus. This approach has been shown to be successful in identifying similar documents across languages - or more precisely, retrieving the most similar document in one language to a query in another language. However, the approach has severe drawbacks when applied to a related task, that of clustering documents 'language-independently', so that documents about similar topics end up closest to one another in the semantic space regardless of their language. The problem is that documents are generally more similar to other documents in the same language than they are to documents in a different language, but on the same topic. As a result, when using multilingual LSA, documents will in practice cluster by language, not by topic. We propose a novel application of PARAFAC2 (which is a variant of PARAFAC, a multi-way generalization of the singular value decomposition [SVD]) to overcome this problem. Instead of forming a single multilingual term-by-document matrix which, under LSA, is subjected to SVD, we form an irregular three-way array, each slice of which is a separate term-by-document matrix for a single language in the parallel corpus. The goal is to compute an SVD for each language such that V (the matrix of right singular vectors) is the same across all languages. Effectively, PARAFAC2 imposes the constraint, not present in standard LSA, that the 'concepts' in all documents in the parallel corpus are the same regardless of language. Intuitively, this constraint makes sense, since the whole purpose of using a parallel corpus is that exactly the same concepts are expressed in the translations. We tested this approach by comparing the performance of PARAFAC2 with standard LSA in solving a particular CLIR problem. From our results, we conclude that PARAFAC2 offers a very promising alternative to

  2. On-Demand Associative Cross-Language Information Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraldo, André Pinto; Moreira, Viviane P.; Gonçalves, Marcos A.

    This paper proposes the use of algorithms for mining association rules as an approach for Cross-Language Information Retrieval. These algorithms have been widely used to analyse market basket data. The idea is to map the problem of finding associations between sales items to the problem of finding term translations over a parallel corpus. The proposal was validated by means of experiments using queries in two distinct languages: Portuguese and Finnish to retrieve documents in English. The results show that the performance of our proposed approach is comparable to the performance of the monolingual baseline and to query translation via machine translation, even though these systems employ more complex Natural Language Processing techniques. The combination between machine translation and our approach yielded the best results, even outperforming the monolingual baseline.

  3. Compounds in dictionary-based Cross-language information retrieval_revised

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Compound words form an important part of natural language. From the cross-lingual information retrieval (CLIR point of view it is important that many natural languages are highly productive with compounds, and translation resources cannot include entries for all compounds. Also, compounds are often content bearing words in a sentence. In Swedish, German and Finnish roughly one tenth of the words in a text prepared for information retrieval purposes are compounds. Important research questions concerning compound handling in dictionary-based cross-language information retrieval are 1 compound splitting into components, 2 normalisation of components, 3 translation of components and 4 query structuring for compounds and their components in the target language. The impact of compound processing on the performance of the cross-language information retrieval process is evaluated in this study and the results indicate that the effect is clearly positive.

  4. A Domain Specific Lexicon Acquisition Tool for Cross-Language Information Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd; de Jong, Franciska M.G.; Kraaij, Wessel

    1997-01-01

    With the recent enormous increase of information dissemination via the web as incentive there is a growing interest in supporting tools for cross-language retrieval. In this paper we describe a disclosure and retrieval approach that fulfils the needs of both information providers and users by

  5. Designing and Implementing a Cross-Language Information Retrieval System Using Linguistic Corpora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Nezarat

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Information retrieval (IR is a crucial area of natural language processing (NLP and can be defined as finding documents whose content is relevant to the query need of a user. Cross-language information retrieval (CLIR refers to a kind of information retrieval in which the language of the query and that of searched document are different. In fact, it is a retrieval process where the user presents queries in one language to retrieve documents in another language. This paper tried to construct a bilingual lexicon of parallel chunks of English and Persian from two very large monolingual corpora an English-Persian parallel corpus which could be directly applied to cross-language information retrieval tasks. For this purpose, a statistical measure known as Association Score (AS was used to compute the association value between every two corresponding chunks in the corpus using a couple of complicated algorithms. Once the CLIR system was developed using this bilingual lexicon, an experiment was performed on a set of one hundred English and Persian phrases and collocations to see to what extend this system was effective in assisting the users find the most relevant and suitable equivalents of their queries in either language.

  6. FORMATION OF STUDENTS’ FOREIGN LANGUAGE COMPETENCE IN THE INFORMATIONAL FIELD OF CROSS CULTURAL INTERACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Vyacheslavovich Tomin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of foreign languages is becoming an integral feature of competitive persona-lity, ability to engage in cross-cultural communication and productive cross-cultural inte-raction, characterized by an adequate degree of tolerance and multi-ethnic competence, the ability for cross-cultural adaptation, critical thinking and creativity. However, the concept of foreign language competence has so far no clear, unambiguous definitions, thereby indicating the complexity and diversity of the phenomenon, which is an integrative, practice-oriented outcome of the wish and ability for intercultural communication. There have been mentioned a variety of requirements, conditions, principles, objectives, means and forms of foreign language competence forming, among which special attention is paid to non-traditional forms of practical training and information field in a cross-cultural interaction. There have been explained the feasibility of their application, which allows solving a complex of series of educational and teaching tasks more efficiently. There have been clarified the term «information field» in cross-cultural interaction, which is a cross-section of internally inherent in every individual «sections» of knowledge, skills, and experience, arising in certain given educational frameworks and forming a communication channel. The resultative indicators of the formation of foreign language competence and ways to improve its effectiveness are presented.

  7. Experiments with Cross-Language Information Retrieval on a Health Portal for Psychology and Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrenucci, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have been performed within cross-language information retrieval (CLIR) in the field of psychology and psychotherapy. The aim of this paper is to to analyze and assess the quality of available query translation methods for CLIR on a health portal for psychology. A test base of 100 user queries, 50 Multi Word Units (WUs) and 50 Single WUs, was used. Swedish was the source language and English the target language. Query translation methods based on machine translation (MT) and dictionary look-up were utilized in order to submit query translations to two search engines: Google Site Search and Quick Ask. Standard IR evaluation measures and a qualitative analysis were utilized to assess the results. The lexicon extracted with word alignment of the portal's parallel corpus provided better statistical results among dictionary look-ups. Google Translate provided more linguistically correct translations overall and also delivered better retrieval results in MT.

  8. Cross-language psycholinguistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, A.

    1985-01-01

    Cross-linguistic research can be of valaue to psycholinguistics by allowing tests of hypotheses the testing of which would be severely confounded in a single language, and by providing simple and readily available control conditions. For a long time the resources of this kind of research were

  9. Available Methods in Farsi-English Cross Language Information Retrieval Using Machine-readable, Bilingual Glossary

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    Hamid Alizadeh

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the impact scope of Natural Language Processing (NLP on translating search statements was determined by testing out research hypotheses. The NLP techniques employed for search statement processing included text parsing, linguistic forms identification, stopword removal, morphological analysis, and tokenization. Examination of the hypotheses indicated that using the method of translating the first equivalent term selected versus the method of selecting all equivalent terms, would contribute to increased efficiency of the review that while morphological analysis of the terms not translated by the glossary, would increase the retrieval precision cutoff, there would be no significant difference established by the lack of such analysis thereof that sentence translation as opposed to term by term translation, would increase the efficiency of Farsi-English proofreading. Other findings are also represented.

  10. Biomedical information retrieval across languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daumke, Philipp; Markü, Kornél; Poprat, Michael; Schulz, Stefan; Klar, Rüdiger

    2007-06-01

    This work presents a new dictionary-based approach to biomedical cross-language information retrieval (CLIR) that addresses many of the general and domain-specific challenges in current CLIR research. Our method is based on a multilingual lexicon that was generated partly manually and partly automatically, and currently covers six European languages. It contains morphologically meaningful word fragments, termed subwords. Using subwords instead of entire words significantly reduces the number of lexical entries necessary to sufficiently cover a specific language and domain. Mediation between queries and documents is based on these subwords as well as on lists of word-n-grams that are generated from large monolingual corpora and constitute possible translation units. The translations are then sent to a standard Internet search engine. This process makes our approach an effective tool for searching the biomedical content of the World Wide Web in different languages. We evaluate this approach using the OHSUMED corpus, a large medical document collection, within a cross-language retrieval setting.

  11. Health Information in Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/languages/languages.html Health Information in Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Use these ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated on 4 June 2018

  12. English language YouTube videos as a source of lead poisoning-related information: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Corey H; Jackson, Ashley M; Yin, Jingjing; Hammond, Rodney N; Adhikari, Atin; Fung, Isaac Chun-Hai

    2017-07-01

    Exposure to lead is detrimental to children's development. YouTube is a form of social media through which people may learn about lead poisoning. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to analyze the variation in lead poisoning-related YouTube contents between different video sources. The 100 most viewed lead poisoning-related videos were manually coded, among which, 50 were consumer-generated, 19 were created by health care professionals, and 31 were news. The 100 videos had a total of more than 8.9 million views, with news videos accounting for 63% of those views. The odds of mentioning what lead poisoning is, how to remove lead, and specifically mentioning the danger in ages 1-5 because of rapid growth among videos created by health care professionals were 7.28 times (Odds ratio, OR = 7.28, 95% CI, 2.09, 25.37, p = 0.002); 6.83 times (OR = 6.83, 95% CI, 2.05, 22.75, p = 0.002) and 9.14 times (OR = 9.14, CI, 2.05, 40.70, p = 0.004) that of consumer-generated videos, respectively. In this study, professional videos had more accurate information regarding lead but their videos were less likely to be viewed compared to consumer-generated videos and news videos. If professional videos about lead poisoning can attract more viewers, more people would be better informed and could possibly influence policy agendas, thereby helping communities being affected by lead exposure.

  13. Cross-Modality Information Transfer: A Hypothesis about the Relationship among Prehistoric Cave Paintings, Symbolic Thinking, and the Emergence of Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagawa, Shigeru; Lesure, Cora; Nóbrega, Vitor A

    2018-01-01

    Early modern humans developed mental capabilities that were immeasurably greater than those of non-human primates. We see this in the rapid innovation in tool making, the development of complex language, and the creation of sophisticated art forms, none of which we find in our closest relatives. While we can readily observe the results of this high-order cognitive capacity, it is difficult to see how it could have developed. We take up the topic of cave art and archeoacoustics, particularly the discovery that cave art is often closely connected to the acoustic properties of the cave chambers in which it is found. Apparently, early modern humans were able to detect the way sound reverberated in these chambers, and they painted artwork on surfaces that were acoustic "hot spots," i.e., suitable for generating echoes. We argue that cave art is a form of cross-modality information transfer, in which acoustic signals are transformed into symbolic visual representations. This form of information transfer across modalities is an instance of how the symbolic mind of early modern humans was taking shape into concrete, externalized language. We also suggest that the earliest rock art found in Africa may constitute one of the first fossilized proxies for the expression of full-fledged human linguistic behavior.

  14. Cross-Modality Information Transfer: A Hypothesis about the Relationship among Prehistoric Cave Paintings, Symbolic Thinking, and the Emergence of Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru Miyagawa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Early modern humans developed mental capabilities that were immeasurably greater than those of non-human primates. We see this in the rapid innovation in tool making, the development of complex language, and the creation of sophisticated art forms, none of which we find in our closest relatives. While we can readily observe the results of this high-order cognitive capacity, it is difficult to see how it could have developed. We take up the topic of cave art and archeoacoustics, particularly the discovery that cave art is often closely connected to the acoustic properties of the cave chambers in which it is found. Apparently, early modern humans were able to detect the way sound reverberated in these chambers, and they painted artwork on surfaces that were acoustic “hot spots,” i.e., suitable for generating echoes. We argue that cave art is a form of cross-modality information transfer, in which acoustic signals are transformed into symbolic visual representations. This form of information transfer across modalities is an instance of how the symbolic mind of early modern humans was taking shape into concrete, externalized language. We also suggest that the earliest rock art found in Africa may constitute one of the first fossilized proxies for the expression of full-fledged human linguistic behavior.

  15. Cross-Language Mediation in Foreign Language Teaching and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathopoulou, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This book contributes to the growing field of foreign language teaching and testing by shedding light on mediation between languages. Stathopoulou offers an empirically-grounded definition of mediation as a form of translanguaging and offers tools and methods for further research in multilingual testing. The book explores what cross-language…

  16. Parsimonious Language Models for Information Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd; Robertson, Stephen; Zaragoza, Hugo

    We systematically investigate a new approach to estimating the parameters of language models for information retrieval, called parsimonious language models. Parsimonious language models explicitly address the relation between levels of language models that are typically used for smoothing. As such,

  17. Cross-language and second language speech perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohn, Ocke-Schwen

    2017-01-01

    in cross-language and second language speech perception research: The mapping issue (the perceptual relationship of sounds of the native and the nonnative language in the mind of the native listener and the L2 learner), the perceptual and learning difficulty/ease issue (how this relationship may or may...... not cause perceptual and learning difficulty), and the plasticity issue (whether and how experience with the nonnative language affects the perceptual organization of speech sounds in the mind of L2 learners). One important general conclusion from this research is that perceptual learning is possible at all...

  18. Information and Language for Effective Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitoy, Sammy P.

    2012-01-01

    Information and Language for Effective Communication (ILEC) is a language teaching approach emphasizing learners' extensive exposure in different language communicative sources. In ILEC, the language learners will first receive instructions of ILEC principles and application. Afterwards, they will receive autonomous, direct, purposeful, and…

  19. 跨語言資訊檢索:理論、技術與應用 | Cross-Language Information Retrieval: Theories and Technologies

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    陳信希 Hsin-His Chen

    2002-04-01

    of the major characteristics in network era. The trend toward information globalization has brought new challenges for in-formation management. On the one hand, it is often necessary to share the valuable resources on the web with users of different languages. On the other hand, it is also necessary for a user to utilize knowledge presented in a foreign language. This paper introduces related theories and technologies of cross language information retrieval, which is kernel in multilingual information management. The basic concepts are presented in sequence on the basis of the classification of query translation, document translation, and no translation. Besides, some advanced concepts like translation ambiguity and target polysemy, as well as proper name transliteration are discussed. Performance evaluation is indispensable for improvement. This paper also shows three world-wide IR evaluation, including TREC, CLEF and NTCIR.

  20. Hausa Language in Information and Communication Technology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Basically the main medium of expressing information and communication is through language. Human beings are generally endowed with the most effective means of information and communication i.e. language. The popular assumption is that Language is simply communication with words especially the human use of ...

  1. English-Chinese Cross-Language IR Using Bilingual Dictionaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    specialized dictionaries together contain about two million entries [6]. 4 Monolingual Experiment The Chinese documents and the Chinese translations of... monolingual performance. The main performance-limiting factor is the limited coverage of the dictionary used in query translation. Some of the key con...English-Chinese Cross-Language IR using Bilingual Dictionaries Aitao Chen , Hailing Jiang , and Fredric Gey School of Information Management

  2. A language for information commerce processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aberer, Karl; Wombacher, Andreas

    Automatizing information commerce requires languages to represent the typical information commerce processes. Existing languages and standards cover either only very specific types of business models or are too general to capture in a concise way the specific properties of information commerce

  3. Media, Information Technology, and Language Planning: What Can Endangered Language Communities Learn from Created Language Communities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreyer, Christine

    2011-01-01

    The languages of Klingon and Na'vi, both created for media, are also languages that have garnered much media attention throughout the course of their existence. Speakers of these languages also utilize social media and information technologies, specifically websites, in order to learn the languages and then put them into practice. While teaching a…

  4. 75 FR 13751 - Office of English Language Acquisition; Overview Information; Language Enhancement, and Academic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Office of English Language Acquisition; Overview Information; Language... Acquisition, Language Enhancement, and Academic Achievement for Limited English Proficient Students (OELA) may... Secretary and Director, Office of English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement, and Academic...

  5. Cross-language activation in children's speech production: Evidence from second language learners, bilinguals, and trilinguals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poarch, G.J.; Hell, J.G. van

    2012-01-01

    In five experiments, we examined cross-language activation during speech production in various groups of bilinguals and trilinguals who differed in nonnative language proficiency, language learning background, and age. In Experiments 1, 2, 3, and 5, German 5- to 8-year-old second language learners

  6. Cross-Language Activation in Children's Speech Production: Evidence from Second Language Learners, Bilinguals, and Trilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poarch, Gregory J.; van Hell, Janet G.

    2012-01-01

    In five experiments, we examined cross-language activation during speech production in various groups of bilinguals and trilinguals who differed in nonnative language proficiency, language learning background, and age. In Experiments 1, 2, 3, and 5, German 5- to 8-year-old second language learners of English, German-English bilinguals,…

  7. Language as information system: transfer and saving of the information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Mikhaylovna Nekipelova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to research of the language system as an information system. The language is not the information itself. It contains information minimum and has information restrictions. Under the information should be understood texts and speech, created by using a language. Modern forms of existence of living natural language are distributed databases with multiple accesses, because bearers of language constantly and concurrently use it. Language and speech always exchange information, creating a unified information environment, where a human is. At any stage of information exchange the change of self-descriptiveness takes place one way or the other. When a human try to reflect world around him, some part of reflected information is lost due to conversion into language and saving into it in formalized form. These processes of storing information are related to the fact that in the production and perception of the statements optimization mechanisms of human thinking are made. When we perceive information its preservation can happen without information loss and with the loss of information.

  8. Information Retrieval and the Philosophy of Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, David C.

    2003-01-01

    Provides an overview of some of the main ideas in the philosophy of language that have relevance to the issues of information retrieval, focusing on the description of the intellectual content. Highlights include retrieval problems; recall and precision; words and meanings; context; externalism and the philosophy of language; and scaffolding and…

  9. Cross-Language Support Mechanisms Significantly Aid Software Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfeiffer, Rolf-Helge; Wasowski, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary software systems combine many artifacts specified in various modeling and programming languages, domainspecific and general purpose as well. Since multi-language systems are so widespread, working on them calls for tools with cross-language support mechanisms such as (1) visualizatio...

  10. Cross-lingual parser selection for low-resource languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agic, Zeljko

    2017-01-01

    In multilingual dependency parsing, transferring delexicalized models provides unmatched language coverage and competitive scores, with minimal requirements. Still, selecting the single best parser for any target language poses a challenge. Here, we propose a lean method for parser selection. It ....... It offers top performance, and it does so without disadvantaging the truly low-resource languages. We consistently select appropriate source parsers for our target languages in a realistic cross-lingual parsing experiment....

  11. Translanguaging in Self-Access Language Advising: Informing Language Policy

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    Naoki Fujimoto-Adamson

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates language advising in a self-access center (SAC with the purpose of informing language policy. This center is located in a new Japanese university and has shifted from an initially teacher-imposed ‘English-only’ language policy into one which encourages “translanguaging” (Blackledge & Creese, 2010, p. 105 between the students’ and center advisors’ (termed as mentors in this center L1 (Japanese and their L2 (English. Data from audio-recordings of interaction with advisors and students and between students themselves, interviews with mentors, and student questionnaires all reveal how translanguaging occurs in practice and how it helps to create a learning space in which the “local, pragmatic coping tactics” (Lin, 2005, p. 46 of code-switching offer a more viable approach for learning than under its initial monolingual policy. Mentor interviews and student questionnaires indicate generally positive attitudes towards translanguaging; however, some students still favor an ‘English-only’ policy. Conclusions reveal that a looser language policy in the center is emerging in which mentors now guide students towards their own individualized language policies. It is argued in this paper that this “code choice” (Levine, 2011 in language use is therefore aligned more closely to the principles of student-direction in self-access use.

  12. Facebook for informal language learning: Perspectives from tertiary language students

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    Antonie Alm

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the use of Facebook for out-of-class, informal language learning. 190 New Zealand university language students (Chinese, German, French, Japanese and Spanish completed an anonymous online questionnaire on (1 their perceptions of Facebook as a multilingual environment, (2 their online writing practices and (3 their views on the educational value of their experiences. Findings indicate that language students are using a range of Facebook features to expose themselves to the languages they study (L2 and to communicate in their L2 with native speaker Facebook friends. The use of the social networking site varied according to proficiency-levels of the participants (beginner, intermediate and advanced levels, strength of social ties with native speaker Facebook friends and personal attitudes towards the site. Learning experiences on Facebook were not perceived as useful for the formal language learning context which suggests the need for bridging strategies between informal and formal learning environments.

  13. Cross-Lingual Lexical Triggers in Statistical Language Modeling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kim, Woosung; Khudanpur, Sanjeev

    2003-01-01

    .... We achieve this through an extension of the method of lexical triggers to the cross-language problem, and by developing a likelihoodbased adaptation scheme for combining a trigger model with an N-gram model...

  14. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IN MODERN LANGUAGE EDUCATION

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    N. Y. Gutareva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article develops the sources of occurrence and the purposes of application of information technologies in teaching of foreign languages from the point of view of linguistics, methods of teaching foreign languages and psychology. The main features of them have been determined in works of native and foreign scientists from the point of view of the basic didactic principles and new standards of selection for working with computer programs are pointed out. In work the author focuses the main attention to modern technologies that in language education in teaching are especially important and demanded as answer the purpose and problems of teaching in foreign languages are equitable to interests of students but they should be safe.Purpose:  to determine advantages of using interactive means in teaching foreign languages.Methodology: studying and analysis of psychological, pedagogical and methodological literature on the theme of investigation.Results: the analysis of the purpose and kinds of interactive means has shown importance of its application in practice.Practical implications:  it is possible for us to use the results of this work in courses of theory of methodology of teaching foreign languages.

  15. Language-based multimedia information retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Franciska M.G.; Gauvain, J.L.; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Netter, K.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes various methods and approaches for language-based multimedia information retrieval, which have been developed in the projects POP-EYE and OLIVE and which will be developed further in the MUMIS project. All of these project aim at supporting automated indexing of video material

  16. Language, cultural brokerage and informed consent - will ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Language, cultural brokerage and informed consent - will technological terms impede telemedicine use? C Jack, Y Hlombe, M Mars. Abstract. Background. Telemedicine provides a solution to treatment of economically and geographically compromised patients and enhances the level of care. However, a problem has ...

  17. Timing of translation in cross-language qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Hudson P O; Black, Amanda M; Sandelowski, Margarete

    2015-01-01

    Although there is increased understanding of language barriers in cross-language studies, the point at which language transformation processes are applied in research is inconsistently reported, or treated as a minor issue. Differences in translation timeframes raise methodological issues related to the material to be translated, as well as for the process of data analysis and interpretation. In this article we address methodological issues related to the timing of translation from Portuguese to English in two international cross-language collaborative research studies involving researchers from Brazil, Canada, and the United States. One study entailed late-phase translation of a research report, whereas the other study involved early phase translation of interview data. The timing of translation in interaction with the object of translation should be considered, in addition to the language, cultural, subject matter, and methodological competencies of research team members. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. [Information technology in learning sign language].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Cesar; Pulido, Jose L; Arias, Jorge E

    2015-01-01

    To develop a technological tool that improves the initial learning of sign language in hearing impaired children. The development of this research was conducted in three phases: the lifting of requirements, design and development of the proposed device, and validation and evaluation device. Through the use of information technology and with the advice of special education professionals, we were able to develop an electronic device that facilitates the learning of sign language in deaf children. This is formed mainly by a graphic touch screen, a voice synthesizer, and a voice recognition system. Validation was performed with the deaf children in the Filadelfia School of the city of Bogotá. A learning methodology was established that improves learning times through a small, portable, lightweight, and educational technological prototype. Tests showed the effectiveness of this prototype, achieving a 32 % reduction in the initial learning time for sign language in deaf children.

  19. Language as an information system: redundancy and optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Mikhaylovna Nekipelova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to research of the language system as an information system. The distinguishing feature of any natural living language system is redundant of elements of its structure. Redundancy, broken terms of universality peculiar to artificial information systems, makes language mobile in time and in space. It should be marked out informational redundancy of two types: language redundancy, when information overlay of language units within the system occurs and speech redundancy when condense of information into syntagmatic level occurs. Language redundancy is potential and speech redundancy is actual. In general, it should be noted that the language redundancy is necessary for language: complicating the relationships between language units, language redundancy creates in language situation of choice, leading to a disorder of language system, increasing of entropy and, as a result, the appearing of the information that can be accepted or cannot be by language system. Language redundancy is one of the reasons for growth of information in language. In addition, the information redundancy in language is one of the factors of language system development.

  20. The language factor in the media and information disseminating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information and knowledge that could be useful in achieving the MDGs do not reach the minority language speakers through the media and information dissemination organisations, because minority languages are excluded. Documentary analysis of language policy documents which enshrine language broadcasting and ...

  1. Cross-Language Associations in the Development of Preschoolers' Receptive and Expressive Vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Michelle F; Bohlmann, Natalie L; Palacios, Natalia A

    The increasing population of dual language learners (DLLs) entering preschool classrooms highlights a continued need for research on the development of dual language acquisition, and specifically vocabulary skills, in this age group. This study describes young DLL children's ( N = 177) vocabulary development in both English and Spanish simultaneously, and how vocabulary skills in each language relate to one another, during a contextual shift that places greater emphasis on the acquisition of academic English language skills. Findings demonstrated that DLL preschoolers made gains in vocabulary in both languages with more change evidenced in receptive, in comparison to expressive, vocabulary as well as in English in comparison to Spanish. When examining whether children's vocabulary scores in one language at the beginning of preschool interact with their vocabulary scores in the other language to predict vocabulary growth, no significant associations were found for receptive vocabulary. In contrast, the interaction between initial English and Spanish expressive vocabulary scores was negatively related to growth in English expressive vocabulary. This cross-language association suggests that children who have low expressive vocabulary skills in both languages tend to grow faster in their English expressive vocabulary. The study extends previous work on dual language development by examining growth in expressive and receptive vocabulary in both English and Spanish. It also provides suggestions for future work to inform a more comprehensive understanding of DLL children's development in both languages.

  2. Cross-Language Associations in the Development of Preschoolers’ Receptive and Expressive Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Michelle F.; Bohlmann, Natalie L.; Palacios, Natalia A.

    2016-01-01

    The increasing population of dual language learners (DLLs) entering preschool classrooms highlights a continued need for research on the development of dual language acquisition, and specifically vocabulary skills, in this age group. This study describes young DLL children's (N = 177) vocabulary development in both English and Spanish simultaneously, and how vocabulary skills in each language relate to one another, during a contextual shift that places greater emphasis on the acquisition of academic English language skills. Findings demonstrated that DLL preschoolers made gains in vocabulary in both languages with more change evidenced in receptive, in comparison to expressive, vocabulary as well as in English in comparison to Spanish. When examining whether children's vocabulary scores in one language at the beginning of preschool interact with their vocabulary scores in the other language to predict vocabulary growth, no significant associations were found for receptive vocabulary. In contrast, the interaction between initial English and Spanish expressive vocabulary scores was negatively related to growth in English expressive vocabulary. This cross-language association suggests that children who have low expressive vocabulary skills in both languages tend to grow faster in their English expressive vocabulary. The study extends previous work on dual language development by examining growth in expressive and receptive vocabulary in both English and Spanish. It also provides suggestions for future work to inform a more comprehensive understanding of DLL children's development in both languages. PMID:26807002

  3. Language Planning and Planned Languages: How Can Planned Languages Inform Language Planning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humphrey Tonkin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The field of language planning (LP has largely ignored planned languages. Of classic descriptions of LP processes, only Tauli (preceded by Wüster suggests that planned languages (what Wüster calls Plansprache might bear on LP theory and practice. If LP aims "to modify the linguistic behaviour of some community for some reason," as Kaplan and Baldauf put it, creating a language de novo is little different. Language policy and planning are increasingly seen as more local and less official, and occasionally more international and cosmopolitan. Zamenhof's work on Esperanto provides extensive material, little studied, documenting the formation of the language and linking it particularly to issues of supranational LP. Defining LP decision-making, Kaplan & Baldauf begin with context and target population. Zamenhof's Esperanto came shortly before Ben-Yehuda's revived Hebrew. His target community was (mostly the world's educated elite; Ben-Yehuda's was worldwide Jewry. Both planners were driven not by linguistic interest but by sociopolitical ideology rooted in reaction to anti-Semitism and imbued with the idea of progress. Their territories had no boundaries, but were not imaginary. Function mattered as much as form (Haugen's terms, status as much as corpus. For Zamenhof, status planning involved emphasis on Esperanto's ownership by its community - a collective planning process embracing all speakers (cf. Hebrew. Corpus planning included a standardized European semantics, lexical selectivity based not simply on standardization but on representation, and the development of written, and literary, style. Esperanto was successful as linguistic system and community language, less as generally accepted lingua franca. Its terminology development and language cultivation offers a model for language revival, but Zamenhof's somewhat limited analysis of language economy left him unprepared to deal with language as power.

  4. Cross-Modal Recruitment of Auditory and Orofacial Areas During Sign Language in a Deaf Subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Juan; Velasquez, Carlos; Vázquez-Bourgon, Javier; de Lucas, Enrique Marco; Gomez, Elsa

    2017-09-01

    Modern sign languages used by deaf people are fully expressive, natural human languages that are perceived visually and produced manually. The literature contains little data concerning human brain organization in conditions of deficient sensory information such as deafness. A deaf-mute patient underwent surgery of a left temporoinsular low-grade glioma. The patient underwent awake surgery with intraoperative electrical stimulation mapping, allowing direct study of the cortical and subcortical organization of sign language. We found a similar distribution of language sites to what has been reported in mapping studies of patients with oral language, including 1) speech perception areas inducing anomias and alexias close to the auditory cortex (at the posterior portion of the superior temporal gyrus and supramarginal gyrus); 2) speech production areas inducing speech arrest (anarthria) at the ventral premotor cortex, close to the lip motor area and away from the hand motor area; and 3) subcortical stimulation-induced semantic paraphasias at the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus at the temporal isthmus. The intraoperative setup for sign language mapping with intraoperative electrical stimulation in deaf-mute patients is similar to the setup described in patients with oral language. To elucidate the type of language errors, a sign language interpreter in close interaction with the neuropsychologist is necessary. Sign language is perceived visually and produced manually; however, this case revealed a cross-modal recruitment of auditory and orofacial motor areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Language Models With Meta-information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shi, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Language modeling plays a critical role in natural language processing and understanding. Starting from a general structure, language models are able to learn natural language patterns from rich input data. However, the state-of-the-art language models only take advantage of words themselves, which

  6. Cross-Lingual Dependency Parsing with Late Decoding for Truly Low-Resource Languages

    OpenAIRE

    Schlichtkrull, Michael Sejr; Søgaard, Anders

    2017-01-01

    In cross-lingual dependency annotation projection, information is often lost during transfer because of early decoding. We present an end-to-end graph-based neural network dependency parser that can be trained to reproduce matrices of edge scores, which can be directly projected across word alignments. We show that our approach to cross-lingual dependency parsing is not only simpler, but also achieves an absolute improvement of 2.25% averaged across 10 languages compared to the previous state...

  7. Information and Signs: The Language of Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Semetsky

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Since time immemorial, philosophers and scientists were searching for a “machine code” of the so-called Mentalese language capable of processing information at the pre-verbal, pre-expressive level. In this paper I suggest that human languages are only secondary to the system of primitive extra-linguistic signs which are hardwired in humans and serve as tools for understanding selves and others; and creating meanings for the multiplicity of experiences. The combinatorial semantics of the Mentalese may find its unorthodox expression in the semiotic system of Tarot images, the latter serving as the ”keys” to the encoded proto-mental information. The paper uses some works in systems theory by Erich Jantsch and Erwin Laszlo and relates Tarot images to the archetypes of the field of collective unconscious posited by Carl Jung. Our subconscious beliefs, hopes, fears and desires, of which we may be unaware at the subjective level, do have an objective compositional structure that may be laid down in front of our eyes in the format of pictorial semiotics representing the universe of affects, thoughts, and actions. Constructing imaginative narratives based on the expressive “language” of Tarot images enables us to anticipate possible consequences and consider a range of future options. The thesis advanced in this paper is also supported by the concept of informational universe of contemporary cosmology.

  8. Information structure in Russian Sign Language and Sign Language of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kimmelman, V.

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation explores Information Structure in two sign languages: Sign Language of the Netherlands and Russian Sign Language. Based on corpus data and elicitation tasks we show how topic and focus are expressed in these languages. In particular, we show that topics can be marked syntactically

  9. Lexical activation in bilinguals’ speech production is dynamic: How language ambiguous words can affect cross-language activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, D.; Ormel, E.A.; Besselaar, R. van; Hell, J.G. van

    2011-01-01

    Is the bilingual language production system a dynamic system that can operate in different language activation states? Three experiments investigated to what extent cross-language phonological co-activation effects in language production are sensitive to the composition of the stimulus list. L1

  10. PIML: the Pathogen Information Markup Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yongqun; Vines, Richard R; Wattam, Alice R; Abramochkin, Georgiy V; Dickerman, Allan W; Eckart, J Dana; Sobral, Bruno W S

    2005-01-01

    A vast amount of information about human, animal and plant pathogens has been acquired, stored and displayed in varied formats through different resources, both electronically and otherwise. However, there is no community standard format for organizing this information or agreement on machine-readable format(s) for data exchange, thereby hampering interoperation efforts across information systems harboring such infectious disease data. The Pathogen Information Markup Language (PIML) is a free, open, XML-based format for representing pathogen information. XSLT-based visual presentations of valid PIML documents were developed and can be accessed through the PathInfo website or as part of the interoperable web services federation known as ToolBus/PathPort. Currently, detailed PIML documents are available for 21 pathogens deemed of high priority with regard to public health and national biological defense. A dynamic query system allows simple queries as well as comparisons among these pathogens. Continuing efforts are being taken to include other groups' supporting PIML and to develop more PIML documents. All the PIML-related information is accessible from http://www.vbi.vt.edu/pathport/pathinfo/

  11. Natural language processing and advanced information management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoard, James E.

    1989-01-01

    Integrating diverse information sources and application software in a principled and general manner will require a very capable advanced information management (AIM) system. In particular, such a system will need a comprehensive addressing scheme to locate the material in its docuverse. It will also need a natural language processing (NLP) system of great sophistication. It seems that the NLP system must serve three functions. First, it provides an natural language interface (NLI) for the users. Second, it serves as the core component that understands and makes use of the real-world interpretations (RWIs) contained in the docuverse. Third, it enables the reasoning specialists (RSs) to arrive at conclusions that can be transformed into procedures that will satisfy the users' requests. The best candidate for an intelligent agent that can satisfactorily make use of RSs and transform documents (TDs) appears to be an object oriented data base (OODB). OODBs have, apparently, an inherent capacity to use the large numbers of RSs and TDs that will be required by an AIM system and an inherent capacity to use them in an effective way.

  12. 29 CFR 500.78 - Information in foreign language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Information in foreign language. 500.78 Section 500.78... § 500.78 Information in foreign language. Each farm labor contractor, agricultural employer and... English or, as necessary and reasonable, in Spanish or another language common to migrant or seasonal...

  13. Language Universalization for Improved Information Management: The Necessity for Esperanto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R. Kent

    1978-01-01

    Discusses problems for information management in dealing with multilingual documentation. The planned language, Esperanto, is suggested as a universal working language because of its neutrality, rational structure, clarity, and expressive power. (Author/CWM)

  14. Being Bilingual: Issues for Cross-Language Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogusia Temple

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The current political debates in England highlight the role of language in citizenship, social exclusion, and discrimination. Similar debates can also be found around the world. Correspondingly, research addressing different language communities is burgeoning. Service providers and academics are increasingly employing bilingual community researchers or interpreters to carry out research. However, there is very little written about the effect of working with bilingual researchers. What it means to be bilingual is often essentialised and rarely problematised. Bilingual researchers are seen as unproblematically acting as bridges between communities just because they are bilingual. Their ties to communities, their use of language, and their perspectives on the research are rarely investigated. Language is tied in an unproblematic way to meaning, values, and beliefs. In this article, I use examples from my own research to question what it means to be bilingual and to do cross-language research. I argue that there is no straightforward way in which meanings can be read off from researchers’ ties to language and that being bilingual is not the same for everyone.

  15. AWARENESS AND MOTIVATION IN CROSS-CULTURAL LANGUAGE TEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena SAVU

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The focus in language education in the twenty-first century does no longer fall on grammar, memorization and learning from rote, but rather on using language alongside with cultural knowledge as a means to communicate and connect to other people all over the world. Our learners are going to become part of today’s intercultural communication network and they will need to use both their language and cultural skills for real life communication. Therefore, teachers themselves should be ready to assume the responsibility of teaching their learners how to become culturally competent. To do this properly and successfully, practitioners need to build and develop their own awareness of and motivation for an intercultural approach. The current paper will present and analyze some recent research findings on higher education practitioners’ motivation to adopt a cross-cultural approach in their classrooms.

  16. Developing Culturally Competent Health Knowledge: Issues of Data Analysis of Cross-Cultural, Cross-Language Qualitative Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Hsin-Chun Tsai

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing awareness and interest in the development of culturally competent health knowledge. Drawing on experience using a qualitative approach to elicit information from Mandarin- or Cantonese-speaking participants for a colorectal cancer prevention study, the authors describe lessons learned through the analysis process. These lessons include benefits and drawbacks of the use of coders from the studied culture group, challenges posed by using translated data for analysis, and suitable analytic approaches and research methods for cross-cultural, cross-language qualitative research. The authors also discuss the implications of these lessons for the development of culturally competent health knowledge.

  17. Informal Language Learning Setting: Technology or Social Interaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrani, Taher; Sim, Tam Shu

    2012-01-01

    Based on the informal language learning theory, language learning can occur outside the classroom setting unconsciously and incidentally through interaction with the native speakers or exposure to authentic language input through technology. However, an EFL context lacks the social interaction which naturally occurs in an ESL context. To explore…

  18. The basics of CrossRef extensible markup language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael Lammey

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available CrossRef is an association of scholarly publishers that develops shared infrastructure to support more effective scholarly communications. Launched in 2000, CrossRef’s citation-linking network today covers over 68 million journal articles and other content items (books chapters, data, theses, and technical reports from thousands of scholarly and professional publishers around the globe. CrossRef has over 4,000 member publishers who join as members in order to avail of a number of CrossRef services, reference linking via the Digital Object Identifier (DOI being the core service. To deposit CrossRef DOIs, publishers and editors need to become familiar with the basics of extensible markup language (XML. This article will give an introduction to CrossRef XML and what publishers need to do in order to start to deposit DOIs with CrossRef and thus ensure their publications are discoverable and can be linked to consistently in an online environment.

  19. Qualitative and Quantitative Measures of Second Language Writing: Potential Outcomes of Informal Target Language Learning Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, N. Anthony; Solovieva, Raissa V.; Eggett, Dennis L.

    2011-01-01

    This research describes a method applied at a U.S. university in a third-year Russian language course designed to facilitate Advanced and Superior second language writing proficiency through the forum of argumentation and debate. Participants had extensive informal language experience living in a Russian-speaking country but comparatively little…

  20. Statistical Language Models and Information Retrieval: Natural Language Processing Really Meets Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd; de Jong, Franciska M.G.

    2001-01-01

    Traditionally, natural language processing techniques for information retrieval have always been studied outside the framework of formal models of information retrieval. In this article, we introduce a new formal model of information retrieval based on the application of statistical language models.

  1. The influence of cross-language similarity on within- and between-language Stroop effects in trilinguals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuven, W.J.B. van; Conklin, K.; Coderre, E.L.; Guo, T.; Dijkstra, A.F.J.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated effects of cross-language similarity on within- and between-language Stroop interference and facilitation in three groups of trilinguals. Trilinguals were either proficient in three languages that use the same-script (alphabetic in German–English–Dutch trilinguals), two

  2. Cross-border flow of health information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Iorio, Concetta Tania; Carinci, Fabrizio; Brillante, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    The EUBIROD project aims to perform a cross-border flow of diabetes information across 19 European countries using the BIRO information system, which embeds privacy principles and data protection mechanisms in its architecture (privacy by design). A specific task of EUBIROD was to investigate...

  3. Classification of health webpages as expert and non expert with a reduced set of cross-language features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabar, Natalia; Krivine, Sonia; Jaulent, Marie-Christine

    2007-10-11

    Making the distinction between expert and non expert health documents can help users to select the information which is more suitable for them, according to whether they are familiar or not with medical terminology. This issue is particularly important for the information retrieval area. In our work we address this purpose through stylistic corpus analysis and the application of machine learning algorithms. Our hypothesis is that this distinction can be performed on the basis of a small number of features and that such features can be language and domain independent. The used features were acquired in source corpus (Russian language, diabetes topic) and then tested on target (French language, pneumology topic) and source corpora. These cross-language features show 90% precision and 93% recall with non expert documents in source language; and 85% precision and 74% recall with expert documents in target language.

  4. Multidisciplinary Approach in Teaching Foreign Languages to Information Security Professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Nikiforova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The program of teaching foreign languages to information security professionals is aimed at unifying linguistic, extra linguistic and professional information distributed in the contents of the course.

  5. Balancing Effort and Information Transmission During Language Acquisition: Evidence From Word Order and Case Marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedzechkina, Maryia; Newport, Elissa L; Jaeger, T Florian

    2017-03-01

    Across languages of the world, some grammatical patterns have been argued to be more common than expected by chance. These are sometimes referred to as (statistical) language universals. One such universal is the correlation between constituent order freedom and the presence of a case system in a language. Here, we explore whether this correlation can be explained by a bias to balance production effort and informativity of cues to grammatical function. Two groups of learners were presented with miniature artificial languages containing optional case marking and either flexible or fixed constituent order. Learners of the flexible order language used case marking significantly more often. This result parallels the typological correlation between constituent order flexibility and the presence of case marking in a language and provides a possible explanation for the historical development of Old English to Modern English, from flexible constituent order with case marking to relatively fixed order without case marking. In addition, learners of the flexible order language conditioned case marking on constituent order, using more case marking with the cross-linguistically less frequent order, again mirroring typological data. These results suggest that some cross-linguistic generalizations originate in functionally motivated biases operating during language learning. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  6. Cross-linguistic influence in multilingual language acquisition: The role of L1 and non-native languages in English and Catalan oral production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireia Ortega

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Most research in third language acquisition has focused on the effects that factors such as language distance, second language (L2 status, proficiency or recency have on the choice of the source language (L1 in cross-linguistic influence (CLI. This paper presents a study of these factors, and of the influence that the L1 (Spanish has on L2 (English and L3 (Catalan oral production. Lexical and syntactic transfer are analysed in the production of Catalan and English of two multilingual speakers with similar knowledge of non-native languages. They were interviewed twice in an informal environment. The results show that the L1 is the main source of transfer, both in L2 and L3 production, but its influence decreases as proficiency in the target language increases. Language distance also plays an important role in CLI, especially if proficiency in the source language is high and if there has been recent exposure to it. The findings also suggest that while syntactic transfer is exclusively L1-based, lexical transfer can occur from a non-native language.

  7. Partiality and Underspecification in Information, Languages, and Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    areas and applications are emerging by demanding intelligent technology enhanced by the processing of human language. These new applications often perform tasks which handle information, and they have a capacity to reason, using both formal and human language. Many sub-areas of Artificial Intelligence...

  8. CIRQuL: Complex Information Retrieval Query Language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihajlovic, V.; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Apers, Peter M.G.

    In this paper we will present a new framework for the retrieval of XML documents. We will describe the extension for existing query languages (XPath and XQuery) geared toward ranked information retrieval and full-text search in XML documents. Furthermore we will present language models for ranked

  9. Request language of the JINR information retrieval system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnaudov, D.D.; Kozhenkova, Z.I.

    1975-01-01

    A classification of operating languages of information retreival systems (IRS) is given. A justification is made for the selection of the descriptor no-grammar language for coding documents and queries in the JINR IRS. A Boolean form query minimization algorithm is applied

  10. Gender and language in online job advertisements - a cross-cultural study

    OpenAIRE

    Hodel, Lea; Formanowicz, Magdalena Maria; Sczesny, Sabine; Valdrova, Jana; von Stockhausen, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this project is to investigate the use of gender-fair language from a cross-linguistic perspective. Specifically, we are interested in whether the use of gender-fair language correlates with socio-economic rankings of gender equality and with structural features of a language. We decided to analyze online job advertisements, as they reflect common language use and can easily be compared across languages. Moreover, formulations in job advertisements have been shown to impact personn...

  11. Language and Cross-Culture Understanding—Through Cross-Culture Study of the Word'Dragon'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周玲

    2016-01-01

    This essay contributes to the analysis of the significance of cross-culture understanding in connection with language. It is important and necessary to promote cross-cultural understanding in order to communicate with people from various cultural backgrounds with the development of globalization. This essay also gives the example of the word'dragon'to illustrate that the cross-culture understanding of language will make us communicate with each other more effectively.

  12. So You Were a Language Major: Corporate Interviewing and Training in Foreign Languages and Cross-Cultural Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabrook, Roberta; Valdes, Berardo

    A study of the attitudes and practices in multinational corporations concerning second language and intercultural skills as criteria for employment of international managers consisted of three elements: (1) a survey of corporations; (2) followup interviews with respondents and with commercial language schools and cross-cultural training…

  13. Minority Languages Learned Informally: The Social Construction of Language Skills through the Discourse of Ontario Employers. NALL Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Michelle; Corson, David

    Many immigrants, refugees, and aboriginal Canadians learn their own languages in the normal, informal way. These minority languages learned informally are not valued as a skill that yields returns in the labor market in the same way the official languages or formally learned languages do. What counts as a skill in a society, in a given point in…

  14. The Language of Information Literacy: Do Students Understand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaub, Gayle; Cadena, Cara; Bravender, Patricia; Kierkus, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    To effectively access and use the resources of the academic library and to become information-literate, students must understand the language of information literacy. This study analyzes undergraduate students' understanding of fourteen commonly used information-literacy terms. It was found that some of the terms least understood by students are…

  15. Foreign Language Research in Cross-Cultural Perspective. Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bot, Kees, Ed.; And Others

    Papers from a conference on empirical research on foreign language instruction in Europe and the United States include: "Foreign Language Instruction and Second Language Acquisition Research in the United States" (Charles A. Fergurson, Thom Huebner); "Empirical Foreign Language Research in Europe" (Theo van Els, Kees de Bot,…

  16. Healthcare system information at language schools for newly arrived immigrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tynell, Lena Lyngholt; Wimmelmann, Camilla Lawaetz; Jervelund, Signe Smith

    2017-01-01

    a language school in Copenhagen in 2012 received either a course or written information on the Danish healthcare system and subsequently evaluated this quantitatively. Results: The evaluation revealed a positive appraisal of the course/information provided. Conclusion: In times of austerity, incorporating......Objective: In most European countries, immigrants do not systematically learn about the host countries’ healthcare system when arriving. This study investigated how newly arrived immigrants perceived the information they received about the Danish healthcare system. Method: Immigrants attending...... healthcare information into an already existing language programme may be pertinent for providing immigrants with knowledge on the healthcare system....

  17. Acquisition of compound words in Chinese-English bilingual children: Decomposition and cross-language activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, C.; Wang, M.; Perfetti, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated compound processing and cross-language activation in a group of Chinese–English bilingual children, and they were divided into four groups based on the language proficiency levels in their two languages. A lexical decision task was designed using compound words in both

  18. The Notion of 'Being Informative' & the Praxiological-Information Perspective on Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Florio

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available After a concise introduction on the analysis of truth and meaning in philosophy of language two notions of information are grasped by the analysis of Situation Semantics and Situation Theory. The first is that of correlation, the second that of constraint; the latter is reducible to the former. More than that, the phenomenon of ";alethic nature of information"; is highlighted and the notion of ";being informative"; is pointed out. The difference between a meaning-oriented and an informational-oriented perspective of language is marked. Messages are recognized as being the atomic constituents of the informational perspective of language; the architecture of language is shown; and a praxiological-information perspective on the study of language is outlined.

  19. Information Transfer Capacity of Articulators in American Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaia, Evie; Borneman, Joshua D; Wilbur, Ronnie B

    2018-03-01

    The ability to convey information is a fundamental property of communicative signals. For sign languages, which are overtly produced with multiple, completely visible articulators, the question arises as to how the various channels co-ordinate and interact with each other. We analyze motion capture data of American Sign Language (ASL) narratives, and show that the capacity of information throughput, mathematically defined, is highest on the dominant hand (DH). We further demonstrate that information transfer capacity is also significant for the non-dominant hand (NDH), and the head channel too, as compared to control channels (ankles). We discuss both redundancy and independence in articulator motion in sign language, and argue that the NDH and the head articulators contribute to the overall information transfer capacity, indicating that they are neither completely redundant to, nor completely independent of, the DH.

  20. Cross-Lingual Morphological Tagging for Low-Resource Languages

    OpenAIRE

    Buys, Jan; Botha, Jan A.

    2016-01-01

    Morphologically rich languages often lack the annotated linguistic resources required to develop accurate natural language processing tools. We propose models suitable for training morphological taggers with rich tagsets for low-resource languages without using direct supervision. Our approach extends existing approaches of projecting part-of-speech tags across languages, using bitext to infer constraints on the possible tags for a given word type or token. We propose a tagging model using Ws...

  1. Informed Consent in Research on Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Margaret; Pettitt, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    The practice of securing informed consent from research participants has a relatively low profile in second language (L2) acquisition research, despite its prominence in the biomedical and social sciences. This review article analyses the role that informed consent now typically plays in L2 research; discusses an example of an L2 study where…

  2. Who Studies Which Language and Why? : A Cross-Language Survey of First-Year College-Level Language Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn M. Howard

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on surveys of first-year language learners studying 19 different languages at two large East Coast Universities. The survey included questions about why students decided to study these languages, including career plans, study abroad, interest in liter-ature and culture, desire to communicate with speakers of the lan-guage, desire to speak with family members, building on previous language skills, and love of languages in general. Results were broken down by language and by language types, such as whether the lan-guages were commonly taught in the United States, how the lan-guages are politicized in the current historical context, and how the languages intersect with historical and geographic trends in immigra-tion and immigration policy. This article examines in particular the presence of heritage language learners in these language classrooms, the varying reasons that students choose to study these languages, and students’ prior attainment and exposure to the language. The pa-per discusses the political, historical, and social contexts of language study in the United States and the associated implications for effec-tive language recruitment and effective language program design.

  3. Film Cross-culture Research under the Perspective of Language and Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗淞译

    2015-01-01

    Language as an important tool of cultural transmission, it can achieve the cross-culture development of film. With the strength of globalization, film cross-culture communication are increasing, and how to enhance the communication of film through language and culture and let more people enjoy the thought expressed in film is one of the most important content for cross-culture development of mant films. Different cultural backgrounds will produce large diversities in watching a same film, so it is helpful for the cross-culture development of film when making good use of culture and language, on the contrary, it will become a hindrance. This article do research on cross-culture development of film under the perspective of language and culture to find out the existing problems in present cross-culture development of film and put forward effective resolution strategy in order to promote certain reference for the internationalization of China’s film industry.

  4. Hausa Language in Information and Communication Technology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Manager (The). Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 8, No 1 (2008) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load ...

  5. Learning to rank for information retrieval and natural language processing

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hang

    2014-01-01

    Learning to rank refers to machine learning techniques for training a model in a ranking task. Learning to rank is useful for many applications in information retrieval, natural language processing, and data mining. Intensive studies have been conducted on its problems recently, and significant progress has been made. This lecture gives an introduction to the area including the fundamental problems, major approaches, theories, applications, and future work.The author begins by showing that various ranking problems in information retrieval and natural language processing can be formalized as tw

  6. Prosody and informativity: A cross-linguistic investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Iris Chuoying

    This dissertation aims to extend our knowledge of prosody -- in particular, what kinds of information may be conveyed through prosody, which prosodic dimensions may be used to convey them, and how individual speakers differ from one another in how they use prosody. Four production studies were conducted to examine how various factors interact with one another in shaping the prosody of an utterance and how prosody fulfills its multi-functional role. Experiments 1 explores the interaction between two types of informativity, namely information structure and information-theoretic properties. The results show that the prosodic consequences of new-information focus are modulated by the focused word's frequency, whereas the prosodic consequences of corrective focus are modulated by the focused word's probability in the context. Furthermore, f0 ranges appear to be more informative than f0 shapes in reflecting informativity across speakers. Specifically, speakers seem to have individual 'preferences' regarding f0 shapes, the f0 ranges they use for an utterance, and the magnitude of differences in f0 ranges by which they mark information-structural distinctions. In contrast, there is more cross-speaker validity in the actual directions of differences in f0 ranges between information-structural types. Experiments 2 and 3 further show that the interaction found between corrective focus and contextual probability depends on the interlocutor's knowledge state. When the interlocutor has no access to the crucial information concerning utterances' contextual probability, speakers prosodically emphasize contextually improbable corrections, but not contextually probable corrections. Furthermore, speakers prosodically emphasize the corrections in response to contextually probable misstatements, but not the corrections in response to contextually improbable misstatements. In contrast, completely opposite patterns are found when words' contextual probability is shared knowledge between

  7. Motivation within the Information Processing Model of Foreign Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolopoulou-Sergi, Eleni

    2004-01-01

    The present article highlights the importance of the motivational construct for the foreign language learning (FLL) process. More specifically, in the present article it is argued that motivation is likely to play a significant role at all three stages of the FLL process as they are discussed within the information processing model of FLL, namely,…

  8. Cross-Linguistic Differences in the Neural Representation of Human Language: Evidence from Users of Signed Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corina, David P.; Lawyer, Laurel A.; Cates, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Studies of deaf individuals who are users of signed languages have provided profound insight into the neural representation of human language. Case studies of deaf signers who have incurred left- and right-hemisphere damage have shown that left-hemisphere resources are a necessary component of sign language processing. These data suggest that, despite frank differences in the input and output modality of language, core left perisylvian regions universally serve linguistic function. Neuroimaging studies of deaf signers have generally provided support for this claim. However, more fine-tuned studies of linguistic processing in deaf signers are beginning to show evidence of important differences in the representation of signed and spoken languages. In this paper, we provide a critical review of this literature and present compelling evidence for language-specific cortical representations in deaf signers. These data lend support to the claim that the neural representation of language may show substantive cross-linguistic differences. We discuss the theoretical implications of these findings with respect to an emerging understanding of the neurobiology of language. PMID:23293624

  9. Physical Activity Informational Websites: Accuracy, Language Ease, and Fear Appeal

    OpenAIRE

    Paige, Samantha Rose

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Health information is one of the most common searches on the Internet. Literature supports that, in general, health information readily available to Internet consumers is not accurate, lacks plain language for ease of understanding, and does not incorporate behavior-change theoretical frameworks. The purpose of this study was to evaluate each of these components. Method. Three keywords, "physical activity," "exercise," and "fitness," were entered into four popular search engines...

  10. Integrating Programming Language and Operating System Information Security Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-31

    suggestions for reducing the burden, to the Department of Defense, Executive Service Directorate (0704-0188). Respondents should be aware that...improve the precision of security enforcement, and to provide greater assurance of information security. This grant focuses on two key projects: language...based control of authority; and formal guarantees for the correctness of audit information. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17

  11. Representing Information in Patient Reports Using Natural Language Processing and the Extensible Markup Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Carol; Hripcsak, George; Shagina, Lyuda; Liu, Hongfang

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To design a document model that provides reliable and efficient access to clinical information in patient reports for a broad range of clinical applications, and to implement an automated method using natural language processing that maps textual reports to a form consistent with the model. Methods: A document model that encodes structured clinical information in patient reports while retaining the original contents was designed using the extensible markup language (XML), and a document type definition (DTD) was created. An existing natural language processor (NLP) was modified to generate output consistent with the model. Two hundred reports were processed using the modified NLP system, and the XML output that was generated was validated using an XML validating parser. Results: The modified NLP system successfully processed all 200 reports. The output of one report was invalid, and 199 reports were valid XML forms consistent with the DTD. Conclusions: Natural language processing can be used to automatically create an enriched document that contains a structured component whose elements are linked to portions of the original textual report. This integrated document model provides a representation where documents containing specific information can be accurately and efficiently retrieved by querying the structured components. If manual review of the documents is desired, the salient information in the original reports can also be identified and highlighted. Using an XML model of tagging provides an additional benefit in that software tools that manipulate XML documents are readily available. PMID:9925230

  12. Knowledge Graphs as Context Models: Improving the Detection of Cross-Language Plagiarism with Paraphrasing

    OpenAIRE

    Franco-Salvador, Marc; Gupta, Parth; Rosso, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Cross-language plagiarism detection attempts to identify and extract automatically plagiarism among documents in different languages. Plagiarized fragments can be translated verbatim copies or may alter their structure to hide the copying, which is known as paraphrasing and is more difficult to detect. In order to improve the paraphrasing detection, we use a knowledge graph-based approach to obtain and compare context models of document fragments in different languages. Experimental results i...

  13. Natural language retrieval in nuclear safety information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komata, Masaoki; Oosawa, Yasuo; Ujita, Hiroshi

    1983-01-01

    A natural language retrieval program NATLANG is developed to assist in the retrieval of information from event-and-cause descriptions in Licensee Event Reports (LER). The characteristics of NATLANG are (1) the use of base forms of words to retrieve related forms altered by the addition of prefixes or suffixes or changes in inflection, (2) direct access and short time retrieval with an alphabet pointer, (3) effective determination of the items and entries for a Hitachi event classification in a two step retrieval scheme, and (4) Japanese character output with the PL-1 language. NATLANG output reduces the effort needed to re-classify licensee events in the Hitachi event classification. (author)

  14. Language Learning Strategies of Turkish and Arabic Students: A Cross-Cultural Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köksal, Dinçay; Ulum, Ömer Gökhan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the language learning strategy use of Turkish and Arabic students enrolled in middle schools and having different cultural and linguistic backgrounds. Using a strategy inventory for language learning, the study examines the cross-cultural differences in strategy use of the mentioned students while learning English as a…

  15. Learner Autonomy in Language Education : A Cross-Cultural Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Kojima, Hideo

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, the importance of developing learner autonomy in language education hasbeen one of its more prominent themes in Japan as well as in the West. In spite of agreementconcerning its importance, there remains a good deal of uncertainty about its meaning inteaching and learning English as a foreign language (EFL). This paper aims to consider theconcept of learner autonomy amongst different cultures. Autonomy has a social as well as anindividual dimension. The promotion of learner a...

  16. Translation of interviews from a source language to a target language: examining issues in cross-cultural health care research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amer, Rasmieh; Ramjan, Lucie; Glew, Paul; Darwish, Maram; Salamonson, Yenna

    2015-05-01

    To illuminate translation practice in cross-language interview in health care research and its impact on the construction of the data. Globalisation and changing patterns of migration have created changes to the world's demography; this has presented challenges for overarching social domains, specifically, in the health sector. Providing ethno-cultural health services is a timely and central facet in an ever-increasingly diverse world. Nursing and other health sectors employ cross-language research to provide knowledge and understanding of the needs of minority groups, which underpins cultural-sensitive care services. However, when cultural and linguistic differences exist, they pose unique complexities for cross-cultural health care research; particularly in qualitative research where narrative data are central for communication as most participants prefer to tell their story in their native language. Consequently, translation is often unavoidable in order to make a respondent's narrative vivid and comprehensible, yet, there is no consensus about how researchers should address this vital issue. An integrative literature review. PubMed and CINAHL databases were searched for relevant studies published before January 2014, and hand searched reference lists of studies were selected. This review of cross-language health care studies highlighted three major themes, which identify factors often reported to affect the translation and production of data in cross-language research: (1) translation style; (2) translators; and (3) trustworthiness of the data. A plan detailing the translation process and analysis of health care data must be determined from the study outset to ensure credibility is maintained. A transparent and systematic approach in reporting the translation process not only enhances the integrity of the findings but also provides overall rigour and auditability. It is important that minority groups have a voice in health care research which, if accurately

  17. Concept-based query language approach to enterprise information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, Timo; Junkkari, Marko; Järvelin, Kalervo

    2014-01-01

    In enterprise information systems (EISs) it is necessary to model, integrate and compute very diverse data. In advanced EISs the stored data often are based both on structured (e.g. relational) and semi-structured (e.g. XML) data models. In addition, the ad hoc information needs of end-users may require the manipulation of data-oriented (structural), behavioural and deductive aspects of data. Contemporary languages capable of treating this kind of diversity suit only persons with good programming skills. In this paper we present a concept-oriented query language approach to manipulate this diversity so that the programming skill requirements are considerably reduced. In our query language, the features which need technical knowledge are hidden in application-specific concepts and structures. Therefore, users need not be aware of the underlying technology. Application-specific concepts and structures are represented by the modelling primitives of the extended RDOOM (relational deductive object-oriented modelling) which contains primitives for all crucial real world relationships (is-a relationship, part-of relationship, association), XML documents and views. Our query language also supports intensional and extensional-intensional queries, in addition to conventional extensional queries. In its query formulation, the end-user combines available application-specific concepts and structures through shared variables.

  18. Using principles of learning to inform language therapy design for children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Mary; Meyers, Christina; Ancharski, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Language treatment for children with specific language impairment (SLI) often takes months to achieve moderate results. Interventions often do not incorporate the principles that are known to affect learning in unimpaired learners. To outline some key findings about learning in typical populations and to suggest a model of how they might be applied to language treatment design as a catalyst for further research and discussion. Three main principles of implicit learning are reviewed: variability, complexity and sleep-dependent consolidation. After explaining these principles, evidence is provided as to how they influence learning tasks in unimpaired learners. Information is reviewed on principles of learning as they apply to impaired populations, current treatment designs are also reviewed that conform to the principles, and ways in which principles of learning might be incorporated into language treatment design are demonstrated. This paper provides an outline for how theoretical knowledge might be applied to clinical practice in an effort to promote discussion. Although the authors look forward to more specific details on how the principles of learning relate to impaired populations, there is ample evidence to suggest that these principles should be considered during treatment design. © 2012 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  19. POS-Tagging for informal language (study in Indonesian tweets)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryawati, Endang; Munandar, Devi; Riswantini, Dianadewi; Fatchuttamam Abka, Achmad; Arisal, Andria

    2018-03-01

    This paper evaluates Part-of-Speech Tagging for the formal Indonesian language can be used for the tagging process of Indonesian tweets. In this study, we add five additional tags which reflect to social media attributes to the existing original tagset. Automatic POS tagging process is done by stratified training process with 1000, 1600, and 1800 of annotated tweets. It shows that the process can achieve up to 66.36% accuracy. The experiment with original tagset gives slightly better accuracy (67.39%) than the experiment with five additional tags, but will lose important informations which given by the five additional tagset.POS-Tagging for Informal Language (Study in Indonesian Tweets).

  20. Informed Consent in the Field of Language and Sexuality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Kristine Køhler

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand how sexual and romantic relations are established and negotiated in discourse, the field of language and sexuality is dependent upon empirical data from naturally occurring spontaneous interaction. However, detailed discussions of research methods are lacking in the field...... argue that institutionalized informed consent procedures may undercut participant agency and expose symbolic violence towards their carefully built interactional framework. The analysis demonstrates participants’ ability to negotiate ethical issues and to turn such issues into a contribution...

  1. Cross-Linguistic Transfer among Iranian Learners of English as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebi, Seyed Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Cross-linguistic transfer studies began from linguistic aspects of language learning and moved to non-linguistic aspects. The intriguing question is whether students are aware of the nature of these cross-linguistic interactions in their minds. For this purpose, a semi-structured interview was conducted with four Iranian university students. It…

  2. Language Personality in the Conditions of Cross-Cultural Communication: Case-Study Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidovitch, Nitza; Khyhniak, Kateryna

    2018-01-01

    The article is devoted to the problem of identification of a language personality's traits under conditions of cross-cultural communication. It is shown that effective cross-cultural communication is revised under globalization and increasingly intensive social interactions. The results of the authors' research prove that it is possible to develop…

  3. Cross-Linguistic Influence in Third Language Perception: L2 and L3 Perception of Japanese Contrasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Hiromi

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the possible influence of language learners' second language (L2) on their perception of phonological contrasts in their third language (L3). Previous studies on Third Language Acquisition (TLA) suggest various factors as possible sources of cross-linguistic influence in the acquisition of an L3. This dissertation…

  4. Cross-language differences in cue use for speech segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tyler, M.D.; Cutler, A.

    2009-01-01

    Two artificial-language learning experiments directly compared English, French, and Dutch listeners' use of suprasegmental cues for continuous-speech segmentation. In both experiments, listeners heard unbroken sequences of consonant-vowel syllables, composed of recurring three- and four-syllable

  5. Guidelines for conducting rigorous health care psychosocial cross-cultural/language qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriaza, Pablo; Nedjat-Haiem, Frances; Lee, Hee Yun; Martin, Shadi S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to synthesize and chronicle the authors' experiences as four bilingual and bicultural researchers, each experienced in conducting cross-cultural/cross-language qualitative research. Through narrative descriptions of experiences with Latinos, Iranians, and Hmong refugees, the authors discuss their rewards, challenges, and methods of enhancing rigor, trustworthiness, and transparency when conducting cross-cultural/cross-language research. The authors discuss and explore how to effectively manage cross-cultural qualitative data, how to effectively use interpreters and translators, how to identify best methods of transcribing data, and the role of creating strong community relationships. The authors provide guidelines for health care professionals to consider when engaging in cross-cultural qualitative research.

  6. Exchange students crossing language boundaries in clinical nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhre, K

    2011-12-01

    This article examines challenges and learning outcomes for nursing students from a Central European university of applied sciences who completed 3 months of clinical practice in Norway. The clinical practice was supervised in English by Norwegian nurses and nursing teachers. English is not the primary language in any of the countries. Increases in global migration have contributed to the need for an international dimension in nursing education. Personal mobility is a crucial part of the European Union's goal of becoming a knowledge society. Clinically based experiences pose challenges that are additional to and often more complex than traditional course-based experiences. Students who come from a non-English-speaking country for clinical practice in Norway face challenges regarding language. Accepting incoming students is a way of achieving higher quality and more relevant education in nursing. The study shows that clinical practice in a foreign country gives added value compared with clinical practice at home. Greater self-confidence and understanding of core concepts in nursing is described by the participants. Language differences are not regarded as a problem but as a way of developing personal and professional competence. The ability to compare healthcare systems in the two counties is important in developing competencies in nursing. © 2011 The Author. International Nursing Review © 2011 International Council of Nurses.

  7. Advanced applications of natural language processing for performing information extraction

    CERN Document Server

    Rodrigues, Mário

    2015-01-01

    This book explains how can be created information extraction (IE) applications that are able to tap the vast amount of relevant information available in natural language sources: Internet pages, official documents such as laws and regulations, books and newspapers, and social web. Readers are introduced to the problem of IE and its current challenges and limitations, supported with examples. The book discusses the need to fill the gap between documents, data, and people, and provides a broad overview of the technology supporting IE. The authors present a generic architecture for developing systems that are able to learn how to extract relevant information from natural language documents, and illustrate how to implement working systems using state-of-the-art and freely available software tools. The book also discusses concrete applications illustrating IE uses.   ·         Provides an overview of state-of-the-art technology in information extraction (IE), discussing achievements and limitations for t...

  8. Yahoo! Answers as a Space for Informal Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana Dettori

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Online social spaces, where users can exchange information, opinions and resources, have achieved wide popularity and are gaining attention in many research fields, including education. Their actual potential support to learning, however, still requires investigation, especially because portals can widely differ as concerns purpose and internal structure. This paper aims to contribute in this respect, by concentrating on question answering, a kind of social space not yet widely discussed in education. We analyzed a small corpus of posts from the Languages section of Yahoo! Answers Italy, checking if the questions reveal some inclination to learning or just the desire to obtain a service and if the answers provided by the community members can be considered as reliable sources of knowledge. Our analysis highlights the presence of a variety of question/answer types, from mere information exchange or help for task completion, up to language-related questions prompting valuable short lessons. The quality of answers may widely vary as concerns pertinence, correctness and richness of supporting elements. We found a high number of purely task-oriented questions and answers, but also a higher number of learning-oriented questions and correct, informative answers. This suggests that this kind of social space actually has valuable potential for informal learning.

  9. Simulating the Effects of Cross-Generational Cultural Transmission on Language Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Tao; Shuai, Lan

    Language evolves in a socio-cultural environment. Apart from biological evolution and individual learning, cultural transmission also casts important influence on many aspects of language evolution. In this paper, based on the lexicon-syntax coevolution model, we extend the acquisition framework in our previous work to examine the roles of three forms of cultural transmission spanning the offspring, parent, and grandparent generations in language change. These transmissions are: those between the parent and offspring generations (PO), those within the offspring generation (OO), and those between the grandparent and offspring generations (GO). The simulation results of the considered model and relevant analyses illustrate not only the necessity of PO and OO transmissions for language change, thus echoing our previous findings, but also the importance of GO transmission, a form of cross-generational cultural transmission, on preserving the mutual understandability of the communal language across generations of individuals.

  10. The Language of Fashion as a Carrier of Personal Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Kosowska-Ślusarczyk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It’s fair to say that all human life is based on communication; passive and active, verbal and nonverbal. No matter which media type you consider, the importance of the so-called first impression cannot be overstated. Currently, as the world becomes more open and accessible, the individual character of the way we create our look takes a different form, but still remains an important messenger. In my thesis, I would like to present the outfit as a carrier of vital information about people. In parallel, I will analyze the clothing itself, researching both historic and contemporary sources. Finally, I attempt to decipher the language of fashion.

  11. 跨語言資訊檢索中查詢問題特性於檢索效益之影響 Influences of Query Characteristics to Retrieval Performance in Cross-Language Information Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuang-Hua Chen

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available 本研究分別由查詢主題(Topic的文本特性、語言特性,及欄位特性等三個面向,檢視第六屆NTCIR資訊檢索評估會議之跨語言檢索評估項目的資料,試 圖找出查詢主題特性對檢索效益之影響。研究結果發現查詢主題的文本特性僅有「主題類別」對檢索效益具影響力,涵蓋地域、時間空間明確性,條件敘述明確性及 數量等對檢索效益沒有顯著差異;語言特性方面,以韓文表現最佳,表示在CLIR機制中,選用不同語言的問題集與文件集對於檢索效益的確會造成影響;欄位特 性方面,本研究發現不論選用標題(Title、簡短資訊需求(Description、詳細資訊需求(Narrative、相關概念 (Concepts為索引來源,不會造成明顯檢索效益的差異,但部分欄位的檢索效益確實比較好;在研究團隊與欄位特性及語言特性的交互作用的檢定,本研 究發現研究團隊與檢索欄位在檢索效益上有交互作用,也就是說研究團隊的不同與檢索欄位的不同對檢索效益會造成影響,而在語言組合的選擇上則無明顯的交互作 用。This study investigated the influences of structured query on retrieval performance from textual, linguistic, and fielded characteristics. The search runs of NCTIR-6 CLIR Task have been used as the targeted data for this study. The results concluded that only subject out of other textual characteristics demonstrated significant effects on retrieval performance; linguistic characteristics showed great impacts on retrieval performance; fielded information did not show significant effects on retrieval performance but some fielded information performed better than others. This study also made clear that there existed interactions between fielded information in queries and participating teams (consequently the retrieval techniques used by these teams but no significant interactions between linguistic

  12. Reexamining the language account of cross-national differences in base-10 number representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyeva, Marina; Laski, Elida V; Ermakova, Anna; Lai, Weng-Feng; Jeong, Yoonkyung; Hachigian, Amy

    2015-01-01

    East Asian students consistently outperform students from other nations in mathematics. One explanation for this advantage is a language account; East Asian languages, unlike most Western languages, provide cues about the base-10 structure of multi-digit numbers, facilitating the development of base-10 number representations. To test this view, the current study examined how kindergartners represented two-digit numbers using single unit-blocks and ten-blocks. The participants (N=272) were from four language groups (Korean, Mandarin, English, and Russian) that vary in the extent of "transparency" of the base-10 structure. In contrast to previous findings with older children, kindergartners showed no cross-language variability in the frequency of producing base-10 representations. Furthermore, they showed a pattern of within-language variability that was not consistent with the language account and was likely attributable to experiential factors. These findings suggest that language might not play as critical a role in the development of base-10 representations as suggested in earlier research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Modelling the ICE standard with a formal language for information commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Wombacher, A.; Aberer, K.

    2001-01-01

    Automatizing information commerce requires languages to represent the typical information commerce processes. Existing languages and standards cover either only very specific types of business models or are too general to capture in a concise way the specific properties of information commerce processes. We introduce a language that is specifically designed for information commerce. It can be directly used for the implementation of the processes and communication required in information comme...

  14. 77 FR 30045 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: English Language Evaluation Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... in the ETA Program, E-Teacher Scholarship program, and the English Language Specialist Program... effectiveness of these programs in meeting their goals. Title of Information Collection: English Language... of Information Collection: English Language Evaluation: E-Teacher Scholarship Program Survey. OMB...

  15. Three treatments for bilingual children with primary language impairment: Examining cross-linguistic and cross-domain effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Kerry Danahy; Kohnert, Kathryn; Pham, Giang; Disher, Jill Rentmeester; Payesteh, Bita

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study examines the absolute and relative effects of three different treatment programs for school-aged bilingual children with primary or specific language impairment (PLI). It serves to expand the evidence base on which service providers can base treatment decisions. It also explores hypothesized relations between languages and cognition in bilinguals with PLI. Method Fifty-nine school-aged Spanish-English bilingual children with PLI were assigned to receive nonlinguistic cognitive processing, English, bilingual (Spanish-English), or deferred treatment. Participants in each of the three active treatments received treatment administered by nationally certified speech-language pathologists. Pre- and post-treatment assessments measured change in nonlinguistic cognitive processing, English, and Spanish skills, and analyses examined change within and across both treatment groups and skill domains. Results All active treatment groups made significant pre- to post-treatment improvement on multiple outcome measures. There were fewer significant changes in Spanish than in English across groups. Between group comparisons indicate that the active treatment groups generally outperformed the deferred treatment control, reaching statistical significance for two tasks. Conclusions Results provide insight into cross-language transfer in bilingual children and advance understanding of the general PLI profile with respect to relationships between basic cognitive processing and higher level language skills. PMID:23900032

  16. The Potential of Dual-Language Cross-Cultural Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruecker, Todd

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the potential of dual-language cross-cultural peer review and how it improves on traditional monolingual and monocultural peer review. Drawing on scholarship related to international exchange programmes, peer review, and two-way immersion programmes in the United States as well as data collected while facilitating the…

  17. Methods and models for quantative assessment of speech intelligibility in cross-language communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaarden, S.J. van; Steeneken, H.J.M.; Houtgast, T.

    2001-01-01

    To deal with the effects of nonnative speech communication on speech intelligibility, one must know the magnitude of these effects. To measure this magnitude, suitable test methods must be available. Many of the methods used in cross-language speech communication research are not very suitable for

  18. Cross-Sensory Correspondences and Symbolism in Spoken and Written Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Lexical sound symbolism in language appears to exploit the feature associations embedded in cross-sensory correspondences. For example, words incorporating relatively high acoustic frequencies (i.e., front/close rather than back/open vowels) are deemed more appropriate as names for concepts associated with brightness, lightness in weight,…

  19. Cross-language activation in same-script and different-script trilinguals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poarch, G.J.; Hell, J.G. van

    2014-01-01

    In a picture naming study, we examined cross-language activation during speech production in three groups of trilinguals: L3-immersed German-English-Dutch, non-L3-immersed Dutch-English-German, and L3-immersed Russian-English-German trilinguals. All trilinguals named pictures with cognate and

  20. Twenty-One at TREC-7: ad-hoc and cross-language track

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd; Kraaij, Wessel; Voorhees, E.M; Harman, D.K.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the official runs of the Twenty-One group for TREC-7. The Twenty-One group participated in the ad-hoc and the cross-language track and made the following accomplishments: We developed a new weighting algorithm, which outperforms the popular Cornell version of BM25 on the ad-hoc

  1. Deriving a Bilingual Lexicon for Cross-Language Information Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we describe a systematic approach to derive a bilingual lexicon automatically from parallel corpora. Following this approach, a lexicon was derived from the English and Dutch version of the Agenda 21 corpus. With the lexicon and a part of the corpus that was not used to derive the

  2. A cross-language study of perception of lexical stress in English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Vickie Y; Andruski, Jean E

    2010-08-01

    This study investigates the question of whether language background affects the perception of lexical stress in English. Thirty native English speakers and 30 native Chinese learners of English participated in a stressed-syllable identification task and a discrimination task involving three types of stimuli (real words/pseudowords/hums). The results show that both language groups were able to identify and discriminate stress patterns. Lexical and segmental information affected the English and Chinese speakers in varying degrees. English and Chinese speakers showed different response patterns to trochaic vs. iambic stress across the three types of stimuli. An acoustic analysis revealed that two language groups used different acoustic cues to process lexical stress. The findings suggest that the different degrees of lexical and segmental effects can be explained by language background, which in turn supports the hypothesis that language background affects the perception of lexical stress in English.

  3. Cross-Language Modulation of Visual Attention Span: An Arabic-French-Spanish Comparison in Skilled Adult Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awadh, Faris H R; Phénix, Thierry; Antzaka, Alexia; Lallier, Marie; Carreiras, Manuel; Valdois, Sylviane

    2016-01-01

    In delineating the amount of orthographic information that can be processed in parallel during a single fixation, the visual attention (VA) span acts as a key component of the reading system. Previous studies focused on the contribution of VA span to normal and pathological reading in monolingual and bilingual children from different European languages, without direct cross-language comparison. In the current paper, we explored modulations of VA span abilities in three languages -French, Spanish, and Arabic- that differ in transparency, reading direction and writing systems. The participants were skilled adult readers who were native speakers of French, Spanish or Arabic. They were administered tasks of global and partial letter report, single letter identification and text reading. Their VA span abilities were assessed using tasks that require the processing of briefly presented five consonant strings (e.g., R S H F T). All five consonants had to be reported in global report but a single cued letter in partial report. Results showed that VA span was reduced in Arabic readers as compared to French or Spanish readers who otherwise show a similar high performance in the two report tasks. The analysis of VA span response patterns in global report showed a left-right asymmetry in all three languages. A leftward letter advantage was found in French and Spanish but a rightward advantage in Arabic. The response patterns were symmetric in partial report, regardless of the language. Last, a significant relationship was found between VA span abilities and reading speed but only for French. The overall findings suggest that the size of VA span, the shape of VA span response patterns and the VA Span-reading relationship are modulated by language-specific features.

  4. Cross-language modulation of visual attention span: An Arabic-French-Spanish comparison in adult skilled readers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faris Haroon Rasheed Awadh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In delineating the amount of orthographic information that can be processed in parallel during a single fixation, the visual attention (VA span acts as a key component of the reading system. Previous studies focused on the contribution of VA span to normal and pathological reading in monolingual and bilingual children from different European languages, without direct cross-language comparison. In the current paper, we explored modulations of VA span abilities in three languages --French, Spanish and Arabic-- that differ in transparency, reading direction and writing systems. The participants were adult skilled readers who were native speakers of French, Spanish or Arabic. They were administered tasks of global and partial letter report, single letter identification and text reading. Their VA span abilities were assessed using tasks that require the processing of briefly presented 5 consonant strings (e.g., R S H F T. All five consonants had to be reported in global report but a single cued letter in partial report. Results showed that the VA span was reduced in Arabic readers as compared to French or Spanish readers who otherwise show a similar high performance in the two report tasks. The analysis of VA span response patterns in global report showed a left-right asymmetry in all three languages. A leftward letter advantage was found in French and Spanish but a rightward advantage in Arabic. The response patterns were symmetric in partial report, regardless of the language. Last, a significant relationship was found between visual attention span abilities and reading speed but only for French. The overall findings suggest that the size of VA span, the shape of VA span response patterns and the VA Span-reading relationship are modulated by language-specific features.

  5. Cross-Language Plagiarism Detection System Using Latent Semantic Analysis and Learning Vector Quantization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anak Agung Putri Ratna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Computerized cross-language plagiarism detection has recently become essential. With the scarcity of scientific publications in Bahasa Indonesia, many Indonesian authors frequently consult publications in English in order to boost the quantity of scientific publications in Bahasa Indonesia (which is currently rising. Due to the syntax disparity between Bahasa Indonesia and English, most of the existing methods for automated cross-language plagiarism detection do not provide satisfactory results. This paper analyses the probability of developing Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA for a computerized cross-language plagiarism detector for two languages with different syntax. To improve performance, various alterations in LSA are suggested. By using a linear vector quantization (LVQ classifier in the LSA and taking into account the Frobenius norm, output has reached up to 65.98% in accuracy. The results of the experiments showed that the best accuracy achieved is 87% with a document size of 6 words, and the document definition size must be kept below 10 words in order to maintain high accuracy. Additionally, based on experimental results, this paper suggests utilizing the frequency occurrence method as opposed to the binary method for the term–document matrix construction.

  6. Language Maintenance in a Multilingual Family: Informal Heritage Language Lessons in Parent-Child Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Kheirkhah, Mina; Cekaite, Asta

    2015-01-01

    The present study explores language socialization patterns in a Persian-Kurdish family in Sweden and examines how "one-parent, one-language" family language policies are instantiated and negotiated in parent-child interactions. The data consist of video-recordings and ethnographic observations of family interactions, as well as interviews. Detailed interactional analysis is employed to investigate parental language maintenance efforts and the childs agentive orientation in relation to the rec...

  7. Language Maintenance in a Multilingual Family: Informal Heritage Language Lessons in Parent-Child Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirkhah, Mina; Cekaite, Asta

    2015-01-01

    The present study explores language socialization patterns in a Persian-Kurdish family in Sweden and examines how "one-parent, one-language" family language policies are instantiated and negotiated in parent-child interactions. The data consist of video-recordings and ethnographic observations of family interactions, as well as…

  8. 76 FR 54283 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collections: Language Learning Survey Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ...: Language Learning Survey Questions ACTION: Notice of request for public comment and submission to OMB of... the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. Title of Information Collection: Language Learning Programs: Pre... critical language learning instruction. Estimated Number of Respondents: 1,400 annually Estimated Number of...

  9. 77 FR 65927 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Office of Language Services Contractor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... of Language Services Contractor Application Form ACTION: Notice of request for public comment... Collection: Office of Language Services Contractor Application Form. OMB Control Number: 1405-0191. Type of... become contractors for the U.S. Department of State, Office of Language Services, the information...

  10. Methodological challenges of cross-language qualitative research with South Asian communities living in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manbinder S. Sidhu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We investigate (1 the influence of ethnic, gender, and age concordance with interviewers and (2 how expression of qualitative data varies between interviews delivered in English and community languages (Punjabi/Urdu with monolingual and bilingual participants across three generations of the Indian Sikh and Pakistani Muslim communities living in the UK. Methods: We analyzed and interpreted semi-structured interview transcripts that were designed to collect data about lifestyles, disease management, community practices/beliefs, and social networks. First, qualitative content analysis was applied to transcripts. Second, a framework was applied as a guide to identify cross-language illustrations where responses varied in length, expression and depth. Results: Participant responses differed by language and topic. First-generation migrants when discussing religion, culture, or family practice were far likelier to use group or community narratives and give a longer response, indicating familiarity with or importance of such issues. Ethnic and gender concordance generated greater rapport between researchers and participants centered on community values and practices. Further, open-ended questions that were less direct were better suited for first-generation migrants. Conclusion: Community-based researchers need more time to complete interviews in second languages, need to acknowledge that narratives can be contextualized in both personal and community views, and reframe questions that may lead to greater expression. Furthermore, we detail a number of recommendations with regard to validating the translation of interviews from community languages to English as well as measures for testing language proficiency.

  11. Cross-Informant Evaluations of Preschoolers' Adjustment in Different Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israelashvili, Moshe

    2017-01-01

    An accurate and agreed upon evaluation of preschoolers' behavior is crucial for young children's positive development. This study explores possible cultural differences in cross-informants' evaluations. The premise is that informants who are from different cultures tend to give different evaluations of preschoolers' adjustment and/or that the…

  12. Modelling the ICE standard with a formal language for information commerce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wombacher, Andreas; Aberer, K.

    Automatizing information commerce requires languages to represent the typical information commerce processes. Existing languages and standards cover either only very specific types of business models or are too general to capture in a concise way the specific properties of information commerce

  13. INTEGRATION OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES IN TEACHING RUSSIAN AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE FOR SPECIAL PURPOSES

    OpenAIRE

    Sergey S. Chromov; Nadezda A. Gulayeva; Irina S. Zelenetskaya

    2015-01-01

    The paper is untended to draw attention to information communication technologiesin teaching Russian as a foreign language for special purposes at level B 2. In thisregard the educational process of teaching Russian as a foreign language is examinedfor promoting quality improvement in the process of ELT.Technology-enhances language learning(TELL) is described through computer-assisted language learning(CALL)-presentations, webinars, videolectures. The authors share their experience obtained d...

  14. Crossed aphasia following cerebral infarction in a right-handed patient with atypical cerebral language dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiaoping; Guo, Yang; Dun, Saihong; Sun, Hongzan

    2018-05-18

    Crossed aphasia (CA), usually referred to as an acquired language disturbance, is caused by a lesion in the cerebral hemisphere ipsilateral to the dominant hand, and the exact mechanism is not clear. The development of handedness is influenced by education and training and the impact of habitualization, while language is more susceptible to the impact of speech habits, and it is not absolutely accurate to judge cerebral language dominance by the degree of hand preference. We describe a case of CA after right hemispheric stroke in a right-handed patient with atypical language dominance and attempt to analyze the mechanism of CA based on functional imaging methods, including arterial spin labeling (ASL) and positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET-MRI). Brain MRI at 24 h after admission showed a large cerebral infarction in the right cerebral hemisphere, including the posteroinferior part of Broca's area in the right frontal lobe, the right temporal lobe, and the right occipital lobe. The patient exhibited a non-fluent aphasia on a standard language test (the Aphasia Battery of Chinese [ABC]) performed on the 7th day after onset. Thus, atypical language dominance was suspected. One week after admission, ASL imaging showed high perfusion in the infarct core zone and low perfusion in the left cerebellar hemisphere. Two months later, PET/MRI demonstrated low metabolism in the posterior frontal lobe, temporal lobe, temporal occipital junction area, and the right basal ganglia. The findings suggest that the patient has right-sided cerebral language dominance, or that both hemispheres have linguistic functions. Not all patients show linguistic capabilities on the side opposite hand preference. The language dominance should be predicted by a combination of clinical manifestations and functional imaging techniques.

  15. Cross- and trans-language morphology The lexicography of Indonesian names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dick van der Meij

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Different form many other name-giving possibilities in the world, in Indonesia parents are free to give their children any name they like. These names, many of which are auspicious in view of the child’s future, are often constructed by means of productive morphological procedures. Seven suffixes are followed through history and culture and their possibilities in making new names are explored. The suffixes concern the female –ingsih, –ingrum, –ingtyas, –ingdyah, –astuti, –wati, and the male –wan. Various ins and outs concerning these suffixes are explored and their attachments to various words from various word classes from Indonesian, Javanese and other language revealed. Cross-language name construction leads to trans-language creations that play a possible role in the constitution of Indonesian nation building. The procedures moreover seem to indicate trends away from the inclination to give children Muslim names.

  16. Data Leakage Prevention for Secure Cross-Domain Information Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Nordbotten, Nils Agne; Engelstad, Paal E.; Kongsgård, Kyrre Wahl; Haakseth, Raymond; Mancini, Federico

    2017-01-01

    Cross-domain information exchange is an increasingly important capability for conducting efficient and secure operations, both within coalitions and within single nations. A data guard is a common cross-domain sharing solution that inspects the security labels of exported data objects and validates that they are such that they can be released according to policy. While we see that guard solutions can be implemented with high assurance, we find that obtaining an equivalent level of assurance i...

  17. Cross-linguistic and cross-cultural effects on verbal working memory and vocabulary: testing language-minority children with an immigrant background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu, Pascale M J Engel; Baldassi, Martine; Puglisi, Marina L; Befi-Lopes, Debora M

    2013-04-01

    In this study, the authors explored the impact of test language and cultural status on vocabulary and working memory performance in multilingual language-minority children. Twenty 7-year-old Portuguese-speaking immigrant children living in Luxembourg completed several assessments of first (L1)- and second-language (L2) vocabulary (comprehension and production), executive-loaded working memory (counting recall and backward digit recall), and verbal short-term memory (digit recall and nonword repetition). Cross-linguistic task performance was compared within individuals. The language-minority children were also compared with multilingual language-majority children from Luxembourg and Portuguese-speaking monolinguals from Brazil without an immigrant background matched on age, sex, socioeconomic status, and nonverbal reasoning. Results showed that (a) verbal working memory measures involving numerical memoranda were relatively independent of test language and cultural status; (b) language status had an impact on the repetition of high- but not on low-wordlike L2 nonwords; (c) large cross-linguistic and cross-cultural effects emerged for productive vocabulary; (d) cross-cultural effects were less pronounced for vocabulary comprehension with no differences between groups if only L1 words relevant to the home context were considered. The study indicates that linguistic and cognitive assessments for language-minority children require careful choice among measures to ensure valid results. Implications for testing culturally and linguistically diverse children are discussed.

  18. A Cross-linguistic Perspective on Questions in German and French Adult Second Language Acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Matthias Bonnesen; Solveig Chilla

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have been conducted to try and understand and explain the morphological and syntactic aspects of adult second language acquisition (SLA). Two prominent hypotheses that have been put forward concerning late L2 speakers' knowledge of inflectional morphology and of related functional categories and their feature values are the Impaired Representation Hypothesis (IRH) and the Missing Surface Inflection Hypothesis (MSIH).The cross-linguistic comparison of the acquisition of questio...

  19. Cross Correlation versus Normalized Mutual Information on Image Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Bin; Tilton, James C.; Lin, Guoqing

    2016-01-01

    This is the first study to quantitatively assess and compare cross correlation and normalized mutual information methods used to register images in subpixel scale. The study shows that the normalized mutual information method is less sensitive to unaligned edges due to the spectral response differences than is cross correlation. This characteristic makes the normalized image resolution a better candidate for band to band registration. Improved band-to-band registration in the data from satellite-borne instruments will result in improved retrievals of key science measurements such as cloud properties, vegetation, snow and fire.

  20. Tablets for Informal Language Learning: Student Usage and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Bin

    2013-01-01

    Mobile-assisted language learning (MALL), a relatively new area of CALL inquiry, is gaining more and more attention from language educators with the development of new mobile devices. Tablet computers--featuring high mobility, convenient network connectivity, and smart application extendibility--are part of a wave of the latest mobile inventions;…

  1. Searching for Bridges between Formal and Informal Language Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brebera, Pavel; Hlouskova, Jitka

    2012-01-01

    Life in the contemporary society and ongoing globalisation processes result in growing demands on educators, including language teachers in higher education. The frequently accentuated so-called postmethod approach to foreign language teaching gives teachers a lot of freedom and flexibility but also creates a large space for various types of…

  2. Language preferences on websites and in Google searches for human health and food information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Punam Mony; Wight, Carly A; Sercinoglu, Olcan; Wilson, David C; Boytsov, Artem; Raizada, Manish N

    2007-06-28

    While it is known that the majority of pages on the World Wide Web are in English, little is known about the preferred language of users searching for health information online. (1) To help global and domestic publishers, for example health and food agencies, to determine the need for translation of online information from English into local languages. (2) To help these agencies determine which language(s) they should select when publishing information online in target nations and for target subpopulations within nations. To estimate the percentage of Web publishers that translate their health and food websites, we measured the frequency at which domain names retrieved by Google overlap for language translations of the same health-related search term. To quantify language choice of searchers from different countries, Google provided estimates of the rate at which its search engine was queried in six languages relative to English for the terms "avian flu," "tuberculosis," "schizophrenia," and "maize" (corn) from January 2004 to April 2006. The estimate was based on a 20% sample of all Google queries from 227 nations. We estimate that 80%-90% of health- and food-related institutions do not translate their websites into multiple languages, even when the information concerns pandemic disease such as avian influenza. Although Internet users are often well-educated, there was a strong preference for searching for health and food information in the local language, rather than English. For "avian flu," we found that only 1% of searches in non-English-speaking nations were in English, whereas for "tuberculosis" or "schizophrenia," about 4%-40% of searches in non-English countries employed English. A subset of searches for health information presumably originating from immigrants occurred in their native tongue, not the language of the adopted country. However, Spanish-language online searches for "avian flu," "schizophrenia," and "maize/corn" in the United States occurred

  3. Information Technology and Language Development. Occasional Paper InTER/10/89.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rymaszewski, Rachel, Ed.

    This report of a seminar on information technology (IT) and language development begins by presenting background on language skills and information technology in order to define the scope of the topic. The report then pulls together and elaborates on the output of the seminar. The first section discusses media-centered issues, including the design…

  4. Can formal language planning link to grassroots cultural initiatives? An informal investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wright, Laurence

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Formal language planning is inevitably a top-down, highly technical process. Success for such planning would seem to depend on engaging productively with existing or readily developed social motivation within the society. This article reports on an informal investigation into how ordinary language practitioners and cultural workers in South Africa view the possibilities of contributing to the country's emerging language dispensation, what they regard as their most useful possible contributions, and what they expect from the language planners and 'government' in support of South Africa's Language Policy and Plan.

  5. The Phonological-Distributional Coherence Hypothesis: Cross-Linguistic Evidence in Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Padraic; Christiansen, Morten H.; Chater, Nick

    2007-01-01

    Several phonological and prosodic properties of words have been shown to relate to differences between grammatical categories. Distributional information about grammatical categories is also a rich source in the child's language environment. In this paper we hypothesise that such cues operate in tandem for developing the child's knowledge about…

  6. Learning to Read Setswana and English: Cross-Language Transference of Letter Knowledge, Phonological Awareness and Word Reading Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekgoko, Olemme; Winskel, Heather

    2008-01-01

    The current study investigates how beginner readers learn to read Setswana and English, and whether there is cross-language transference of skills between these two languages. Letter knowledge, phoneme awareness and reading of words and pseudowords in both Setswana and English were assessed in 36 Grade 2 children. A complex pattern emerged.…

  7. Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Initial Validation of the Stroke-Specific Quality of Life Scale into the Yoruba Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinpelu, Aderonke O.; Odetunde, Marufat O.; Odole, Adesola C.

    2012-01-01

    Stroke-Specific Quality of Life 2.0 (SS-QoL 2.0) scale is used widely and has been cross-culturally adapted to many languages. This study aimed at the cross-cultural adaptation of SS-QoL 2.0 to Yoruba, the indigenous language of south-western Nigeria, and to carry out an initial investigation on its validity. English SS-QoL 2.0 was first adapted…

  8. Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: – The purpose of this paper is to analyse the consequences of globalisation in the area of corporate communication, and investigate how language may be managed as a strategic resource. Design/methodology/approach: – A review of previous studies on the effects of globalisation on corporate...... communication and the implications of language management initiatives in international business. Findings: – Efficient language management can turn language into a strategic resource. Language needs analyses, i.e. linguistic auditing/language check-ups, can be used to determine the language situation...... of a company. Language policies and/or strategies can be used to regulate a company’s internal modes of communication. Language management tools can be deployed to address existing and expected language needs. Continuous feedback from the front line ensures strategic learning and reduces the risk of suboptimal...

  9. Sign language for the information society: an ICT roadmap for South African Sign Language

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olivrin, G

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available of work made in SASL. There is currently no collection of the cultural and linguistic heritage of SASL. Public signage and localisation: Provision for SASL-specifi c sign names of places, people, companies and brands, as well as the localisation... upgrading the aging data and voice infrastructures for visual grade technologies, new usages of technologies will emerge in public signage and communications, in advertising and for visual languages such as SASL. Research and development in Sign Language...

  10. INFORMAL SECTOR CITY TOURISM: CROSS-BORDER SHOPPERS IN JOHANNESBURG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian M. ROGERSON

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Informality is a distinguishing trait of economic life across much of the global South. In terms of the tourism sector several researchers examine the informal sector of leisure tourism. In this article the aim is to focus upon business tourism and more specifically the segment of informal sector business tourism. The growth of informal sector business tourism is particularly important in sub-Saharan Africa. An analysis is undertaken of recent research on South Africa’s major city of Johanesburg where the importance of informal sector business tourism is demonstrated. The results show Johannesburg is the focus for transnational entrepreneurship in the form of the growth of cross-border shopping. The organisation of this manifestation of informal business tourism, the nature of its participants and business challenges form the focus of discussion. It is argued that despite many benefits that flow to the city of Johannesburg from informal sector of business tourism the local state has yet to fully acknowledge the multiple positive impacts of these international visitors upon the urban economy and plan to accommodate the needs of cross-border shoppers.

  11. Native Language as a Core Value which creates the Cross-Cultural Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JERZY NIKITOROWICZ

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Th e thesis which is undertaken in this article applies to a native language (the language of the family and home as the leading (primary value of creating a crosscultural identity. To justify this argument, the author refers to his own research and literature in this area. Th ere are many references to the theory of cultural relativism by Sapir-Whorf and the theory of core values by Jerzy Smolicz. Th e author demonstrates, notices, and highlights that the personal and group identity, analysed in terms of evolutionary (processual, based on the values which are recognised and respected in the family, are shaping and developing cross-cultural identity. Th e more we recognize, respect and accept your native (family and home identity, the more we are likely to make an eff ort to get to know the Other and his culture.

  12. Plain Language to Communicate Physical Activity Information: A Website Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paige, Samantha R; Black, David R; Mattson, Marifran; Coster, Daniel C; Stellefson, Michael

    2018-04-01

    Plain language techniques are health literacy universal precautions intended to enhance health care system navigation and health outcomes. Physical activity (PA) is a popular topic on the Internet, yet it is unknown if information is communicated in plain language. This study examined how plain language techniques are included in PA websites, and if the use of plain language techniques varies according to search procedures (keyword, search engine) and website host source (government, commercial, educational/organizational). Three keywords ("physical activity," "fitness," and "exercise") were independently entered into three search engines (Google, Bing, and Yahoo) to locate a nonprobability sample of websites ( N = 61). Fourteen plain language techniques were coded within each website to examine content formatting, clarity and conciseness, and multimedia use. Approximately half ( M = 6.59; SD = 1.68) of the plain language techniques were included in each website. Keyword physical activity resulted in websites with fewer clear and concise plain language techniques ( p websites with more clear and concise techniques ( p language techniques did not vary by search engine or the website host source. Accessing PA information that is easy to understand and behaviorally oriented may remain a challenge for users. Transdisciplinary collaborations are needed to optimize plain language techniques while communicating online PA information.

  13. Spoken Language Understanding Systems for Extracting Semantic Information from Speech

    CERN Document Server

    Tur, Gokhan

    2011-01-01

    Spoken language understanding (SLU) is an emerging field in between speech and language processing, investigating human/ machine and human/ human communication by leveraging technologies from signal processing, pattern recognition, machine learning and artificial intelligence. SLU systems are designed to extract the meaning from speech utterances and its applications are vast, from voice search in mobile devices to meeting summarization, attracting interest from both commercial and academic sectors. Both human/machine and human/human communications can benefit from the application of SLU, usin

  14. Cross-Linguistic Analysis of Vietnamese and English with Implications for Vietnamese Language Acquisition and Maintenance in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giang Tang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Two overall goals of this paper are a to provide a linguistic basis for promoting first language maintenance of Vietnamese in a larger United States context and b to stimulate future research in language acquisition of Vietnamese-English speakers. This paper is divided into three sections. Section 1 discusses previous studies on first language (L1 maintenance among Vietnamese Americans. Section 2 presents a cross-linguistic comparison of Vietnamese and English across speech-sound, word, and grammatical language levels. A cross-linguistic analysis may help educators better understand speaking patterns of Vietnamese American students. Based on this cross-linguistic comparison, Section 3 presents potential bi-directional interactions between Vietnamese and English within an individual speaker. These predictions are intended to provide a framework for future empirical studies related to bilingual development.

  15. Citation-based plagiarism detection detecting disguised and cross-language plagiarism using citation pattern analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Gipp, Bela

    2014-01-01

    Plagiarism is a problem with far-reaching consequences for the sciences. However, even today's best software-based systems can only reliably identify copy & paste plagiarism. Disguised plagiarism forms, including paraphrased text, cross-language plagiarism, as well as structural and idea plagiarism often remain undetected. This weakness of current systems results in a large percentage of scientific plagiarism going undetected. Bela Gipp provides an overview of the state-of-the art in plagiarism detection and an analysis of why these approaches fail to detect disguised plagiarism forms. The aut

  16. First language influence on non-native speakers' business writing: A cross-cultural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimoldina Aliya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Communication and socialization skills are a necessity in contemporary business community. If business professionals are not able to express their ideas clearly, concisely, and appropriately, it will be challenging for them to close international business deals and agreements. In this context, bilateral trade and economic relations between Kazakhstan and other countries have been growing steadily over the past years. This paper focuses on the first language influences that may lead to communication breakdown and cross-cultural pragmatic failure as seen in the corpora of 200 business letters written in English by Kazakhstani business professionals to their international partners.

  17. Using a Corpus-Informed Pedagogical Intervention to Develop Language Awareness toward Appropriate Lexicogrammatical Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Julieta; Yuldashev, Aziz

    2015-01-01

    The corpus-informed pedagogical intervention described in this article was developed for an advanced English as a Second Language (ESL) course designed for prospective International Teaching Assistants (ITAs) and implemented over the course of two class periods. Its primary goal was to offer students opportunities to gain language awareness of…

  18. 78 FR 13394 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Office of Language Services Contractor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... of Language Services Contractor Application Form ACTION: Notice of request for public comment and...: Title of Information Collection: Office of Language Services Contractor Application Form. OMB Control... States. If candidates successfully become contractors for the U.S. Department of State, Office of...

  19. Availability of Pre-Admission Information to Prospective Graduate Students in Speech-Language Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekieli Koay, Mary Ellen; Lass, Norman J.; Parrill, Madaline; Naeser, Danielle; Babin, Kelly; Bayer, Olivia; Cook, Megan; Elmore, Madeline; Frye, Rachel; Kerwood, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    An extensive Internet search was conducted to obtain pre-admission information and acceptance statistics from 260 graduate programmes in speech-language pathology accredited by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) in the United States. ASHA is the national professional, scientific and credentialing association for members and…

  20. 77 FR 6168 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: English Language Evaluation Surveys, OMB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    ...: English Language Evaluation Surveys, OMB Control Number 1405-xxxx. ACTION: Notice of request for public... with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. Title of Information Collection: English Language Evaluation: Fulbright English Teaching Assistantship (ETA) Program Survey. OMB Control Number: None. Type of Request...

  1. Effects of a Cross-Linguistic Storybook Intervention on the Second Language Development of Two Preschool English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huennekens, Mary Ellen; Xu, Yaoying

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a shared reading experience between parent and child in the child's home language on the emergent literacy and language acquisition in English of preschool-age English Language Learners. Parents of Spanish-speaking four-year-old Head Start students read storybooks in Spanish with their…

  2. Cultural Diversity and Information and Communication Impacts on Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Cheng; Lin, Chien-Hung; Chu, Ying-Chien

    2011-01-01

    Cultural diversity doesn't just entail differences in dress and language. It also encompasses different ways of thinking, managing, and communicating. The relationship between communication and culture is a very complex and intimate one. Cultures are created through communication; that is, communication is the means of human interaction through…

  3. Investigating the Information Needs of University Students in Foundational Foreign Language Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenna Westwood

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This investigation seeks to address two issues: first, to discover if there is evidence that university students in foundational language courses need information resources to support their language learning and second, if such evidence exists, what the specific information resource needs might be and how important those resources are to students’ language learning. After engaging in a year of foreign language study, the author used the evidence gathered to develop and conduct a survey of the user needs of language students at the Self Access Centre (CAADI of the University of Guanajuato, Mexico. Results of the survey supported the personal learning experiences of the author. Over 80% of students surveyed reported using the information resources in the CAADI at least once a week with general grammar books, course text books and films being reported as the most important resources. This investigation provides a starting point for research in to the collection development practices of academic libraries supporting the learning of foreign languages. By examining the information needs of one population, evidence has been provided that these students do indeed need information resources to support their language learning. The study suggests specific resource types that could be important for these users.

  4. Bengali-English Relevant Cross Lingual Information Access Using Finite Automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Avishek; Bhattacharyya, Swapan; Hazra, Simanta; Mondal, Shatabdi

    2010-10-01

    CLIR techniques searches unrestricted texts and typically extract term and relationships from bilingual electronic dictionaries or bilingual text collections and use them to translate query and/or document representations into a compatible set of representations with a common feature set. In this paper, we focus on dictionary-based approach by using a bilingual data dictionary with a combination to statistics-based methods to avoid the problem of ambiguity also the development of human computer interface aspects of NLP (Natural Language processing) is the approach of this paper. The intelligent web search with regional language like Bengali is depending upon two major aspect that is CLIA (Cross language information access) and NLP. In our previous work with IIT, KGP we already developed content based CLIA where content based searching in trained on Bengali Corpora with the help of Bengali data dictionary. Here we want to introduce intelligent search because to recognize the sense of meaning of a sentence and it has a better real life approach towards human computer interactions.

  5. Family Impact Scale (FIS): Cross-cultural Adaptation and Psychometric Properties for the Peruvian Spanish Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abanto, Jenny; Albites, Ursula; Bönecker, Marcelo; Paiva, Saul M; Castillo, Jorge L; Aguilar-Gálvez, Denisse

    2015-12-01

    The lack of a Family Impact Scale (FIS) in Spanish language limits its use as an indicator in Spanish-speaking countries and precludes comparisons with data from other cultural and ethnic groups. The purpose of this study was therefore to adapt the FIS cross-culturally to the Peruvian Spanish language and assess its reliability and validity. In order to translate and adapt the FIS cross-culturally, it was answered by 60 parents in two pilot tests, after which it was tested on 200 parents of children aged 11 to 14 years who were clinically examined for dental caries experience and malocclusions. Internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach's alpha coefficient while repeat administration of the FIS on the same 200 parents enabled the test-retest reliability to be assessed via intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Construct and discriminant validity were based on associations of the FIS with global ratings of oral health and clinical groups, respectively. Mean (standard deviation) FIS total score was 5.20 (5.86). Internal consistency was confirmed by Cronbach's alpha 0.84. Test-retest reliability revealed excellent reproducibility (ICC = 0.96). Construct validity was good, demonstrating statistically significant associations between total FIS score and global ratings of oral health (p=0.007) and overall wellbeing (p=0.002), as well as for the subscale scores (pfamily caused by children's oral conditions. Sociedad Argentina de Investigación Odontológica.

  6. Early processing of orthographic language membership information in bilingual visual word recognition: Evidence from ERPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoversten, Liv J; Brothers, Trevor; Swaab, Tamara Y; Traxler, Matthew J

    2017-08-01

    For successful language comprehension, bilinguals often must exert top-down control to access and select lexical representations within a single language. These control processes may critically depend on identification of the language to which a word belongs, but it is currently unclear when different sources of such language membership information become available during word recognition. In the present study, we used event-related potentials to investigate the time course of influence of orthographic language membership cues. Using an oddball detection paradigm, we observed early neural effects of orthographic bias (Spanish vs. English orthography) that preceded effects of lexicality (word vs. pseudoword). This early orthographic pop-out effect was observed for both words and pseudowords, suggesting that this cue is available prior to full lexical access. We discuss the role of orthographic bias for models of bilingual word recognition and its potential role in the suppression of nontarget lexical information. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Using natural language processing techniques to inform research on nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastassja A. Lewinski

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Literature in the field of nanotechnology is exponentially increasing with more and more engineered nanomaterials being created, characterized, and tested for performance and safety. With the deluge of published data, there is a need for natural language processing approaches to semi-automate the cataloguing of engineered nanomaterials and their associated physico-chemical properties, performance, exposure scenarios, and biological effects. In this paper, we review the different informatics methods that have been applied to patent mining, nanomaterial/device characterization, nanomedicine, and environmental risk assessment. Nine natural language processing (NLP-based tools were identified: NanoPort, NanoMapper, TechPerceptor, a Text Mining Framework, a Nanodevice Analyzer, a Clinical Trial Document Classifier, Nanotoxicity Searcher, NanoSifter, and NEIMiner. We conclude with recommendations for sharing NLP-related tools through online repositories to broaden participation in nanoinformatics.

  8. A Study of the Programming Languages Used in Information Systems and in Computer Science Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Jack; Russell, Barbara; Pollacia, Lissa F.; Tastle, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper researches the computer languages taught in the first, second and third programming courses in Computer Information Systems (CIS), Management Information Systems (MIS or IS) curricula as well as in Computer Science (CS) and Information Technology (IT) curricula. Instructors teaching the first course in programming within a four year…

  9. Language Analysis : Phrasal Verbs and Phonological Information in ESL Textbooks

    OpenAIRE

    北山, 長貴; Nagaki, Kitayama

    1996-01-01

    Grammatical terms which are used in both linguistics and applied linguistics are usually fixed. Especially the ones used in grammar textbooks for English as a Second Language (E5L) are fixed. However, there is a term which varies from text to text in ESL grammar. It is the term "phrasal verb". This is what I am interested in; why so many different terminologies are used in each textbook. In this paper I would like to clarify the definition of phrasal verbs by mentioning several studies of phr...

  10. Combining Formal and Informal Learning: The Use of an Application to Enhance Information Gathering and Sharing Competence in a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yukiko; Rachmawan, Irene Erlyn Wina; Brückner, Stefan; Waragai, Ikumi; Kiyoki, Yasushi

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to enhance foreign language learners' language competence by integrating formal and informal learning environments and considers how they can improve their grammatical and lexical skills through the gathering (comprehension) and sharing (writing) of information in the foreign language. Experiments with German learners at a Japanese…

  11. Infants' Selectively Pay Attention to the Information They Receive from a Native Speaker of Their Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marno, Hanna; Guellai, Bahia; Vidal, Yamil; Franzoi, Julia; Nespor, Marina; Mehler, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    From the first moments of their life, infants show a preference for their native language, as well as toward speakers with whom they share the same language. This preference appears to have broad consequences in various domains later on, supporting group affiliations and collaborative actions in children. Here, we propose that infants' preference for native speakers of their language also serves a further purpose, specifically allowing them to efficiently acquire culture specific knowledge via social learning. By selectively attending to informants who are native speakers of their language and who probably also share the same cultural background with the infant, young learners can maximize the possibility to acquire cultural knowledge. To test whether infants would preferably attend the information they receive from a speaker of their native language, we familiarized 12-month-old infants with a native and a foreign speaker, and then presented them with movies where each of the speakers silently gazed toward unfamiliar objects. At test, infants' looking behavior to the two objects alone was measured. Results revealed that infants preferred to look longer at the object presented by the native speaker. Strikingly, the effect was replicated also with 5-month-old infants, indicating an early development of such preference. These findings provide evidence that young infants pay more attention to the information presented by a person with whom they share the same language. This selectivity can serve as a basis for efficient social learning by influencing how infants' allocate attention between potential sources of information in their environment.

  12. Race, ethnicity, language, social class, and health communication inequalities: a nationally-representative cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasisomayajula Viswanath

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available While mass media communications can be an important source of health information, there are substantial social disparities in health knowledge that may be related to media use. The purpose of this study is to investigate how the use of cancer-related health communications is patterned by race, ethnicity, language, and social class.In a nationally-representative cross-sectional telephone survey, 5,187 U.S. adults provided information about demographic characteristics, cancer information seeking, and attention to and trust in health information from television, radio, newspaper, magazines, and the Internet. Cancer information seeking was lowest among Spanish-speaking Hispanics (odds ratio: 0.42; 95% confidence interval: 0.28-0.63 compared to non-Hispanic whites. Spanish-speaking Hispanics were more likely than non-Hispanic whites to pay attention to (odds ratio: 3.10; 95% confidence interval: 2.07-4.66 and trust (odds ratio: 2.61; 95% confidence interval: 1.53-4.47 health messages from the radio. Non-Hispanic blacks were more likely than non-Hispanic whites to pay attention to (odds ratio: 2.39; 95% confidence interval: 1.88-3.04 and trust (odds ratio: 2.16; 95% confidence interval: 1.61-2.90 health messages on television. Those who were college graduates tended to pay more attention to health information from newspapers (odds ratio: 1.98; 95% confidence interval: 1.42-2.75, magazines (odds ratio: 1.86; 95% confidence interval: 1.32-2.60, and the Internet (odds ratio: 4.74; 95% confidence interval: 2.70-8.31 and had less trust in cancer-related health information from television (odds ratio: 0.44; 95% confidence interval: 0.32-0.62 and radio (odds ratio: 0.54; 95% confidence interval: 0.34-0.86 compared to those who were not high school graduates.Health media use is patterned by race, ethnicity, language and social class. Providing greater access to and enhancing the quality of health media by taking into account factors associated with social

  13. Information dissemination in nuclear energy: ideology, speech and language

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Marcos Goncalves

    1992-01-01

    The social impact of Goiania nuclear accident is analysed from a semiotic investigation upon papers issued on popular magazines, newspapers and scientific periodicals. Also the communication of Science Information is discussed through three basic models: diffusionist, bibliometric and cultural perspectives. Divulgation and diffusion process of scientific information are reviewed on the bases of theory of representation and theory of sign. The relationship between energy and society is discussed though a compared analysis upon the information sources available to public and scientific community. (author)

  14. Remember dax? Relations between children's cross-situational word learning, memory, and language abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlach, Haley A; DeBrock, Catherine A

    2017-04-01

    Learning new words is a difficult task. Children are able to resolve the ambiguity of the task and map words to referents by tracking co-occurrence probabilities across multiple moments in time, a behavior termed cross-situational word learning (CSWL). Although we observe developments in CSWL abilities across childhood, the cognitive processes that drive individual and developmental change have yet to be identified. This research tested a developmental systems account by examining whether multiple cognitive systems co-contribute to children's CSWL. The results of two experiments revealed that multiple cognitive domains, such as memory and language abilities, are likely to drive the development of CSWL above and beyond children's age. The results also revealed that memory abilities are likely to be particularly important above and beyond other cognitive abilities. These findings have implications for theories and computational models of CSWL, which typically do not account for individual children's cognitive capacities or changes in cognitive capacities across time.

  15. ADAPTING HYBRID MACHINE TRANSLATION TECHNIQUES FOR CROSS-LANGUAGE TEXT RETRIEVAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. ISWARYA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research work aims in developing Tamil to English Cross - language text retrieval system using hybrid machine translation approach. The hybrid machine translation system is a combination of rule based and statistical based approaches. In an existing word by word translation system there are lot of issues and some of them are ambiguity, Out-of-Vocabulary words, word inflections, and improper sentence structure. To handle these issues, proposed architecture is designed in such a way that, it contains Improved Part-of-Speech tagger, machine learning based morphological analyser, collocation based word sense disambiguation procedure, semantic dictionary, and tense markers with gerund ending rules, and two pass transliteration algorithm. From the experimental results it is clear that the proposed Tamil Query based translation system achieves significantly better translation quality over existing system, and reaches 95.88% of monolingual performance.

  16. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of als Functional Rating Scale-Revised in Portuguese language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Keyte; Pereira, Cecília; Pavan, Karina; Valério, Berenice Cataldo Oliveira

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study is the cross-cultural, as well as to validate in Portuguese language the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale - Revised (ALSFRS-R). We performed a prospective study of individuals with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) clinically defined. The scale, after obtaining the final version in Portuguese, was administered in 22 individuals and three weeks after re-applied. There were no significant differences between the application and reapplication of the scale (p=0.069). The linear regression and internal consistency measured by Pearson correlation and alpha Conbrach were significant with r=0.975 e alpha=0.934. The reliability test-retest demonstrated by intraclass correlation coefficient was strong with ICC=0.975. Therefore, this version proved to be applicable, reliable and easy to be conducted in clinical practice and research.

  17. Trans-Dance: Disciplinary Cross-Dressing and Integral Education in a Language and Sexuality Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C. Bronson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article showcases an integral approach to education through the lens of a transdisciplinary graduate-level class on Sexuality and Language. The graduate-level class was co-taught by two CIIS faculty whose backgrounds span the fields of social and cultural anthropology, psychology, sociology, social policy, linguistics, education and drama-centered expressive arts therapy. The class brought together students from six separate academic programs and drew from a wide array of performative and arts-based modes of inquiry to create a deep context through which to unpack the complex relationship(s between language and sexuality. These practices were interwoven with theoretical exposition and discussion in a hermeneutic spiral leading up to students’ planned research projects. This “disciplinary cross-dressing,” where diverse students and faculty engaged each others’ points of view rigorously in a common inquiry, created powerful teachable moments and served as the foundation for a transgressive mode of scholarship and advocacy.

  18. Cross-language categorization of French and German vowels by naïve American listeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strange, Winifred; Levy, Erika S.; Law, Franzo F.

    2009-01-01

    American English (AE) speakers’ perceptual assimilation of 14 North German (NG) and 9 Parisian French (PF) vowels was examined in two studies using citation-form disyllables (study 1) and sentences with vowels surrounded by labial and alveolar consonants in multisyllabic nonsense words (study 2). Listeners categorized multiple tokens of each NG and PF vowel as most similar to selected AE vowels and rated their category “goodness” on a nine-point Likert scale. Front, rounded vowels were assimilated primarily to back AE vowels, despite their acoustic similarity to front AE vowels. In study 1, they were considered poorer exemplars of AE vowels than were NG and PF back, rounded vowels; in study 2, front and back, rounded vowels were perceived as similar to each other. Assimilation of some front, unrounded and back, rounded NG and PF vowels varied with language, speaking style, and consonantal context. Differences in perceived similarity often could not be predicted from context-specific cross-language spectral similarities. Results suggest that listeners can access context-specific, phonetic details when listening to citation-form materials, but assimilate non-native vowels on the basis of context-independent phonological equivalence categories when processing continuous speech. Results are interpreted within the Automatic Selective Perception model of speech perception. PMID:19739759

  19. Cross-language categorization of French and German vowels by naive American listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strange, Winifred; Levy, Erika S; Law, Franzo F

    2009-09-01

    American English (AE) speakers' perceptual assimilation of 14 North German (NG) and 9 Parisian French (PF) vowels was examined in two studies using citation-form disyllables (study 1) and sentences with vowels surrounded by labial and alveolar consonants in multisyllabic nonsense words (study 2). Listeners categorized multiple tokens of each NG and PF vowel as most similar to selected AE vowels and rated their category "goodness" on a nine-point Likert scale. Front, rounded vowels were assimilated primarily to back AE vowels, despite their acoustic similarity to front AE vowels. In study 1, they were considered poorer exemplars of AE vowels than were NG and PF back, rounded vowels; in study 2, front and back, rounded vowels were perceived as similar to each other. Assimilation of some front, unrounded and back, rounded NG and PF vowels varied with language, speaking style, and consonantal context. Differences in perceived similarity often could not be predicted from context-specific cross-language spectral similarities. Results suggest that listeners can access context-specific, phonetic details when listening to citation-form materials, but assimilate non-native vowels on the basis of context-independent phonological equivalence categories when processing continuous speech. Results are interpreted within the Automatic Selective Perception model of speech perception.

  20. Integrating information and communication technologies in the process of foreign language teaching and learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Serostanova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is an attempt to cover some of the issues of using information and commu-nication technologies (ICT in foreign languages teaching and learning (FLT/FLL on the basis of intercultural approach. The facilities of Internet along with computer programs, audio and video devices, interactive whiteboards and telecommunications are considered. Special attention is given to the peculiarities of telecommunication projects; the example of telecommunication project realization is represented. The advantages and disadvantages of distance language learning are considered. Besides, some difÞ culties that students and teachers come across during ICT-supported language education are also discussed.

  1. SPECIFIC USE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IN A BLENDED MODEL OF TEACHING FOREIGN LANGUAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia A. Kameneva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article determines the role and analyzes specificity of the use of information technology in a mixed model of learning foreign languages in higher educational institutions. The authors also describe such forms of e-learning as a webinar, seminar videos, video conferencing, case-technology. The ways of overcoming difficulties in learning foreign languages, which the students can face when using distance learning technologies, are indicated. The positive experience of using E-learning System «Virtual Campus» in the teaching foreign languages at the Moscow State University of Economics, Statistics and Informatics is mentioned.

  2. Physical aggression and language ability from 17 to 72 months: cross-lagged effects in a population sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa-Christine Girard

    Full Text Available Does poor language ability in early childhood increase the likelihood of physical aggression or is language ability delayed by frequent physical aggression? This study examined the longitudinal associations between physical aggression and language ability from toddlerhood to early childhood in a population sample while controlling for parenting behaviours, non-verbal intellectual functioning, and children's sex.Children enrolled in the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (QLSCD (N = 2, 057 were assessed longitudinally from 17 to 72 months via parent reports and standardized assessments.The cross-lagged models revealed modest reciprocal associations between physical aggression and language performance from 17 to 41 months but not thereafter.Significant associations between physical aggression and poor language ability are minimal and limited to the period when physical aggression and language performance are both substantially increasing. During that period parenting behaviours may play an important role in supporting language ability while reducing the frequency of physical aggression. Further studies are needed that utilize multiple assessments of physical aggression, assess multiple domains of language abilities, and that examine the potential mediating role of parenting behaviours between 12 and 48 months.

  3. Toxicological information on chemicals published in the Russian language: Contribution to REACH and 3Rs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihtmäe, Mariliis; Dubourguier, Henri-Charles; Kahru, Anne

    2009-07-28

    This review is reporting on the current situation of publicly available toxicological and ecotoxicological information on chemicals published in Russian language in various libraries, databases as well as in the Internet. This information can be beneficial for the new EU chemical policy REACH and for the development of intelligent testing strategies (involving also QSAR and QAAR) that enable a significant increase in the use of non-testing information for regulatory decision making, thus minimizing the need for animal testing according to the 3R's strategy. Currently, the access to this information is limited due to the language barrier and low level of digitalization of respective journals and books. Fortunately, on-line translation services are overcoming language barriers already now.

  4. Is it culture or is it language? Examination of language effects in cross-cultural research on categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Li-Jun; Zhang, Zhiyong; Nisbett, Richard E

    2004-07-01

    Differences in reasoning styles between Chinese and European Americans held even when controlling for the language of testing. Bilingual Chinese organized objects in a more relational and less categorical way than European Americans, whether tested in English or in Chinese. Thus, culture affects categorization independent of the testing language. Nevertheless, language affected some Chinese bilinguals' categorization. The responses of Chinese from the Mainland and Taiwan were more relational when tested in Chinese than when tested in English. Responses of Chinese from Hong Kong and Singapore were equally relational when tested in Chinese and in English. Age and context of learning English are discussed to explain the differential language effects among different Chinese groups. Theoretical and methodological implications are discussed. Copyright 2004 American Psychological Association

  5. THE CONSTRUCTION OF INDONESIAN-ENGLISH CROSS LANGUAGE PLAGIARISM DETECTION SYSTEM USING FINGERPRINTING TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakiy Firdaus Alfikri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Cross language plagiarism detection is an important task since it can protect person intellectual property right. Since English is the most popular international language, we proposed an Indonesian-English cross language plagiarism detection to handle such problem in Indonesian-English domain where the suspected plagiarism document is written in Indonesian and the source document is written in English. To minimize translation error, we build the system by translating the Indonesian document into English and then compare the translated document with the English document collection. The detection system consists of preprocess component, heuristic retrieval component, and detailed analysis component. The main technique used in retrieval process is fingerprinting which can extract lexical features from text which is suitable to be used to detect plagiarism done using literal translation method. In this paper, we also propose additional methods to be implemented in heuristic retrieval component to increase the performance of the system: phrase chunking, stop word removal, stemming, and synonym selection. We evaluated system’s performance and the effects of additional methods to system’s performance, provided several data test sets which represents a plagiarism type. From the experiments, we concluded that the system works on 83.33% of test cases. We also concluded that mainly all additional methods except the phrase chunking have good effects in enhancing the system accuracy. Deteksi plagiarisme lintas bahasa merupakan hal yang penting untuk melindungi hak kekayaan intelektual. Bahasa Inggris adalah bahasa internasional yang paling populer, karenanya peneliti mengusulkan deteksi plagiarisme lintas bahasa Indonesia-Inggris untuk menangani masalah tersebut di mana domain dokumen yang diduga plagiat ditulis dalam bahasa Indonesia dan dokumen sumber ditulis dalam bahasa Inggris. Untuk meminimalkan kesalahan terjemahan, peneliti membangun

  6. Readability Statistics of Patient Information Leaflets in a Speech and Language Therapy Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothier, Louise; Day, Rachael; Harris, Catherine; Pothier, David D.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Information leaflets are commonly used in Speech and Language Therapy Departments. Despite widespread use, they can be of variable quality. Aims: To revise current departmental leaflets using the National Health Service (NHS) Toolkit for Producing Patient Information and to test the effect that this has on the readability scores of the…

  7. Early Intervention for Children with Hearing Loss: Information Parents Receive about Supporting Children's Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Kalli B.; Vallotton, Claire D.

    2016-01-01

    Family-centered early intervention for children with hearing loss is intended to strengthen families' interactions with their children to support children's language development, and should include providing parents with information they can use as part of their everyday routines. However, little is known about the information received by families…

  8. A Cross-linguistic Perspective on Questions in German and French Adult Second Language Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Bonnesen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have been conducted to try and understand and explain the morphological and syntactic aspects of adult second language acquisition (SLA. Two prominent hypotheses that have been put forward concerning late L2 speakers' knowledge of inflectional morphology and of related functional categories and their feature values are the Impaired Representation Hypothesis (IRH and the Missing Surface Inflection Hypothesis (MSIH.The cross-linguistic comparison of the acquisition of questions in German and French provided in this study offers a new perspective to differences and similarities between first language acquisition (FLA and adult SLA. Comparing a Germanic and a Romance L2, differing not only in their overall linguistic properties (such as i. e. OV/VO, V2, clitics, but explicitly in the formation and regularities of questions, we present striking similarities in adult SLA, and irrespective of the first and the second languages and of instructed versus non-instructed learning. The investigation of the adult SLA of morphological and structural aspects of questions in French and German strengthens the assumption that the acquisition of morphology and syntax is connected in French and German FLA but is disentangled in adult SLA. Our data reveal variability of question syntax, and with the syntactic position of the verb in particular. Instead of discovering the correct position of the verb at a certain stage of acquisition which can be accounted for by parameter setting in FLA, the adult learners gradually approach the target word order but still exhibit a great deal of variation after several years of exposure to the L2.The findings provided here contradict the predictions of the MSIH (Prévost/White 2000; Ionin/Wexler 2002; among others, for not only morphological features, but syntactic finiteness of finiteness are problematic in adult SLA, and that the Impairment Representation Hypothesis (IRH (Beck 1998; Eubank 1993/1994; among others

  9. Information Security Controls against Cross-Site Request Forgery Attacks on Software Applications of Automated Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabanov, A. V.; Markov, A. S.; Tsirlov, V. L.

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents statistical results and their consolidation, which were received in the study into security of various web-application against cross-site request forgery attacks. Some of the results were received in the study carried out within the framework of certification for compliance with information security requirements. The paper provides the results of consolidating information about the attack and protection measures, which are currently used by the developers of web-applications. It specifies results of the study, which demonstrate various distribution types: distribution of identified vulnerabilities as per the developer type (Russian and foreign), distribution of the security measures used in web-applications, distribution of the identified vulnerabilities as per the programming languages, data on the number of security measures that are used in the studied web-applications. The results of the study show that in most cases the developers of web-applications do not pay due attention to protection against cross-site request forgery attacks. The authors give recommendations to the developers that are planning to undergo a certification process for their software applications.

  10. FORMATION OF CROSS-CULTURAL COMPETENCE OF FOREIGN STUDENTS IN THE PROCESS OF LEARNING UKRAINIAN AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Галина Дідук-Ступ'як

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of formation of cross-cultural competence of foreign students in the process of learning Ukrainian as a foreign language. Theoretical and pragmatic ways of intercultural communication methods for speakers of a foreign language in four types of speech activity have been substantiated. There have been determined linguistic and didactic principles of learning the Ukrainian language as a foreign language using authorial technology of interaction of different approaches that promotes the development of effective cross-cultural competence of foreign students. The main components of the innovative technology of work with foreign language audience have been characterized; a system of tasks and exercises aimed at mastering linguistic, socio-cultural and pragmatic competences has been set. There have been determined linguistic and methodical problems of comparative methodology, which authoring technology LTIRP with the usage of authentic texts is based on. Traditional and new forms, methods and techniques of teaching foreign students in the process of formation of cross-cultural competence have been considered.

  11. The Theory of Adaptive Dispersion and Acoustic-phonetic Properties of Cross-language Lexical-tone Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jennifer Alexandra

    Lexical-tone languages use fundamental frequency (F0/pitch) to convey word meaning. About 41.8% of the world's languages use lexical tone (Maddieson, 2008), yet those systems are under-studied. I aim to increase our understanding of speech-sound inventory organization by extending to tone-systems a model of vowel-system organization, the Theory of Adaptive Dispersion (TAD) (Liljencrants and Lindblom, 1972). This is a cross-language investigation of whether and how the size of a tonal inventory affects (A) acoustic tone-space size and (B) dispersion of tone categories within the tone-space. I compared five languages with very different tone inventories: Cantonese (3 contour, 3 level tones); Mandarin (3 contour, 1 level tone); Thai (2 contour, 3 level tones); Yoruba (3 level tones only); and Igbo (2 level tones only). Six native speakers (3 female) of each language produced 18 CV syllables in isolation, with each of his/her language's tones, six times. I measured tonal F0 across the vowel at onset, midpoint, and offglide. Tone-space size was the F0 difference in semitones (ST) between each language's highest and lowest tones. Tone dispersion was the F0 distance (ST) between two tones shared by multiple languages. Following the TAD, I predicted that languages with larger tone inventories would have larger tone-spaces. Against expectations, tone-space size was fixed across level-tone languages at midpoint and offglide, and across contour-tone languages (except Thai) at offglide. However, within each language type (level-tone vs. contour-tone), languages with smaller tone inventories had larger tone spaces at onset. Tone-dispersion results were also unexpected. The Cantonese mid-level tone was further dispersed from a tonal baseline than the Yoruba mid-level tone; Cantonese mid-level tone dispersion was therefore greater than theoretically necessary. The Cantonese high-level tone was also further dispersed from baseline than the Mandarin high-level tone -- at midpoint

  12. Language friction and partner selection in cross-border R&D alliance formation

    OpenAIRE

    Amol M Joshi; Nandini Lahiri

    2015-01-01

    How does language friction affect alliance formation? Language friction is a form of cultural friction arising from structural differences in the respective languages used by potential partners to reason and solve problems together. A little language friction may prompt partners to rethink solutions, thereby enhancing collaboration, but excessive friction may impede collaboration. We develop a Language Friction Index (LFI) to quantify relative differences in linguistic structure for any langu...

  13. Tailored information for cancer patients on the Internet: effects of visual cues and language complexity on information recall and satisfaction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weert, J.C.M. van; Noort, G. van; Bol, N.; Dijk, L. van; Tates, K.; Jansen, J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to investigate the effects of visual cues and language complexity on satisfaction and information recall using a personalised website for lung cancer patients. In addition, age effects were investigated. Methods: An experiment using a 2 (complex vs. non-complex

  14. Tailored information for cancer patients on the Internet: effects of visual cues and language complexity on information recall and satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Weert, J.C.M.; van Noort, G.; Bol, N.; van Dijk, L.; Tates, K.; Jansen, J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study was designed to investigate the effects of visual cues and language complexity on satisfaction and information recall using a personalised website for lung cancer patients. In addition, age effects were investigated. Methods An experiment using a 2 (complex vs. non-complex

  15. Cross-Language Translation Priming Asymmetry with Chinese-English Bilinguals: A Test of the Sense Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Baoguo; Zhou, Huixia; Gao, Yiwen; Dunlap, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to test the Sense Model of cross-linguistic masked translation priming asymmetry, proposed by Finkbeiner et al. ("J Mem Lang" 51:1-22, 2004), by manipulating the number of senses that bilingual participants associated with words from both languages. Three lexical decision experiments were conducted with…

  16. Space, Scale and Languages: Identity Construction of Cross-Boundary Students in a Multilingual University in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Mingyue Michelle; Tong, Ho Kin

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on the notions of scale and space, this paper investigates identity construction among a group of mainland Chinese cross-boundary students by analysing their language choices and linguistic practices in a multilingual university in Hong Kong. The research illustrates how movement across spaces by these students produces varying index…

  17. Selecting the Best Mobile Information Service with Natural Language User Input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Qiangze; Qi, Hongwei; Fukushima, Toshikazu

    Information services accessed via mobile phones provide information directly relevant to subscribers’ daily lives and are an area of dynamic market growth worldwide. Although many information services are currently offered by mobile operators, many of the existing solutions require a unique gateway for each service, and it is inconvenient for users to have to remember a large number of such gateways. Furthermore, the Short Message Service (SMS) is very popular in China and Chinese users would prefer to access these services in natural language via SMS. This chapter describes a Natural Language Based Service Selection System (NL3S) for use with a large number of mobile information services. The system can accept user queries in natural language and navigate it to the required service. Since it is difficult for existing methods to achieve high accuracy and high coverage and anticipate which other services a user might want to query, the NL3S is developed based on a Multi-service Ontology (MO) and Multi-service Query Language (MQL). The MO and MQL provide semantic and linguistic knowledge, respectively, to facilitate service selection for a user query and to provide adaptive service recommendations. Experiments show that the NL3S can achieve 75-95% accuracies and 85-95% satisfactions for processing various styles of natural language queries. A trial involving navigation of 30 different mobile services shows that the NL3S can provide a viable commercial solution for mobile operators.

  18. Cross-cultural adaptation of research instruments: language, setting, time and statistical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjersing, Linn; Caplehorn, John R M; Clausen, Thomas

    2010-02-10

    Research questionnaires are not always translated appropriately before they are used in new temporal, cultural or linguistic settings. The results based on such instruments may therefore not accurately reflect what they are supposed to measure. This paper aims to illustrate the process and required steps involved in the cross-cultural adaptation of a research instrument using the adaptation process of an attitudinal instrument as an example. A questionnaire was needed for the implementation of a study in Norway 2007. There was no appropriate instruments available in Norwegian, thus an Australian-English instrument was cross-culturally adapted. The adaptation process included investigation of conceptual and item equivalence. Two forward and two back-translations were synthesized and compared by an expert committee. Thereafter the instrument was pretested and adjusted accordingly. The final questionnaire was administered to opioid maintenance treatment staff (n=140) and harm reduction staff (n=180). The overall response rate was 84%. The original instrument failed confirmatory analysis. Instead a new two-factor scale was identified and found valid in the new setting. The failure of the original scale highlights the importance of adapting instruments to current research settings. It also emphasizes the importance of ensuring that concepts within an instrument are equal between the original and target language, time and context. If the described stages in the cross-cultural adaptation process had been omitted, the findings would have been misleading, even if presented with apparent precision. Thus, it is important to consider possible barriers when making a direct comparison between different nations, cultures and times.

  19. Knowledge machines language and information in a technological society

    CERN Document Server

    Murray, Denise E

    2014-01-01

    Provides a wide-ranging survey of the sociolinguistic issues raised by the impact of information technology. The author demonstrates how and in which ways the new technologies both affect human communication and are in turn affected by the way people communicate using the technologies.

  20. Information Retrieval for Education: Making Search Engines Language Aware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Niels; Meurers, Detmar

    2010-01-01

    Search engines have been a major factor in making the web the successful and widely used information source it is today. Generally speaking, they make it possible to retrieve web pages on a topic specified by the keywords entered by the user. Yet web searching currently does not take into account which of the search results are comprehensible for…

  1. Language, cultural brokerage and informed consent – will ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-14

    May 14, 2014 ... focus of recent debate around ethical issues relating to the standard of care and ... Forty-one key words relevant to computer terminology and concepts required to gain informed consent for a .... patients did not understand the meaning of the word 'consent' and .... [24] Lindegger and Richter[25] looked at.

  2. Changes in research on language barriers in health care since 2003: A cross-sectional review study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwei, Rebecca J; Del Pozo, Sam; Agger-Gupta, Niels; Alvarado-Little, Wilma; Bagchi, Ann; Chen, Alice Hm; Diamond, Lisa; Gany, Francesca; Wong, Doreena; Jacobs, Elizabeth A

    2016-02-01

    Understanding how to mitigate language barriers is becoming increasingly important for health care providers around the world. Language barriers adversely affect patients in their access to health services; comprehension and adherence; quality of care; and patient and provider satisfaction. In 2003, the United States (US) government made a major change in national policy guidance that significantly affected limited English proficient patients' ability to access language services. The objectives of this paper are to describe the state of the language barriers literature inside and outside the US since 2003 and to compare the research that was conducted before and after a national policy change occurred in the US. We hypothesize that language barrier research would increase inside and outside the US but that the increase in research would be larger inside the US in response to this national policy change. We reviewed the research literature on language barriers in health care and conducted a cross sectional analysis by tabulating frequencies for geographic location, language group, methodology, research focus and specialty and compared the literature before and after 2003. Our sample included 136 studies prior to 2003 and 426 studies from 2003 to 2010. In the 2003-2010 time period there was a new interest in studying the providers' perspective instead of or in addition to the patients' perspective. The methods remained similar between periods with greater than 60% of studies being descriptive and 12% being interventions. There was an increase in research on language barriers inside and outside the US and we believe this was larger due to the change in the national policy. We suggest that researchers worldwide should move away from simply documenting the existence of language barriers and should begin to focus their research on documenting how language concordant care influences patient outcomes, providing evidence for interventions that mitigate language barriers

  3. Information and Communication Technologies in Learning English as a Foreign Language (EFL): Attitudes of EFL Learners in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Hong T. P.

    2017-01-01

    Given breakthroughs in information and communication technologies (ICTs), language learners are increasingly presented with opportunities to advance their proficiency in a target language (herein English as a foreign language or EFL). The attitudes of learners toward the use of ICTs (ICT attitudes) can be predictive of their adoption of ICTs for…

  4. Cinderella's Coach or Just Another Pumpkin? Information Communication Technologies and the Continuing Marginalisation of Languages in Australian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Lindy; Coutas, Penelope

    2014-01-01

    The rhetoric around global connectedness and advances in information communication technologies (ICTs) suggests that: Professional life for the marginalised and isolated language teacher should be easier; the experience of language learners in Australian schools should be more meaningful and bring them closer to the languages and communities that…

  5. Consonant acquisition in the Malay language: a cross-sectional study of preschool aged Malay children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoon, Hooi San; Abdullah, Anna Christina; Lee, Lay Wah; Murugaiah, Puvaneswary

    2014-05-01

    To date, there has been little research done on phonological acquisition in the Malay language of typically developing Malay-speaking children. This study serves to fill this gap by providing a systematic description of Malay consonant acquisition in a large cohort of preschool-aged children between 4- and 6-years-old. In the study, 326 Malay-dominant speaking children were assessed using a picture naming task that elicited 53 single words containing all the primary consonants in Malay. Two main analyses were conducted to study their consonant acquisition: (1) age of customary and mastery production of consonants; and (2) consonant accuracy. Results revealed that Malay children acquired all the syllable-initial and syllable-final consonants before 4;06-years-old, with the exception of syllable-final /s/, /h/ and /l/ which were acquired after 5;06-years-old. The development of Malay consonants increased gradually from 4- to 6 years old, with female children performing better than male children. The accuracy of consonants based on manner of articulation showed that glides, affricates, nasals, and stops were higher than fricatives and liquids. In general, syllable-initial consonants were more accurate than syllable-final consonants while consonants in monosyllabic and disyllabic words were more accurate than polysyllabic words. These findings will provide significant information for speech-language pathologists for assessing Malay-speaking children and designing treatment objectives that reflect the course of phonological development in Malay.

  6. Bilingual Word Recognition in Deaf and Hearing Signers: Effects of Proficiency and Language Dominance on Cross-Language Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morford, Jill P.; Kroll, Judith F.; Piñar, Pilar; Wilkinson, Erin

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence demonstrates that American Sign Language (ASL) signs are active during print word recognition in deaf bilinguals who are highly proficient in both ASL and English. In the present study, we investigate whether signs are active during print word recognition in two groups of unbalanced bilinguals: deaf ASL-dominant and hearing…

  7. LanguageNet: A Novel Framework for Processing Unstructured Text Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qureshi, Pir Abdul Rasool; Memon, Nasrullah; Wiil, Uffe Kock

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present LanguageNet—a novel framework for processing unstructured text information from human generated content. The state of the art information processing frameworks have some shortcomings: modeled in generalized form, trained on fixed (limited) data sets, and leaving...... the specialization necessary for information consolidation to the end users. The proposed framework is the first major attempt to address these shortcomings. LanguageNet provides extended support of graphical methods contributing added value to the capabilities of information processing. We discuss the benefits...... of the framework and compare it with the available state of the art. We also describe how the framework improves the information gathering process and contribute towards building systems with better performance in the domain of Open Source Intelligence....

  8. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation, and reproducibility of the Brazilian portuguese-language version of the Wisconsin Smoking Withdrawal Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira Junior, Boanerges Lopes de; Jardim, José Roberto; Nascimento, Oliver Augusto; Souza, George Márcio da Costa e; Baker, Timothy B; Santoro, Ilka Lopes

    2012-01-01

    To cross-culturally adapt the Wisconsin Smoking Withdrawal Scale (WSWS) for use in Brazil and evaluate the reproducibility of the new (Brazilian Portuguese-language) version. The original English version of the WSWS was translated into Brazilian Portuguese. For cross-cultural adaptation, the Brazilian Portuguese-language version of the WSWS was administered to eight volunteers, all of whom were smokers. After adjustments had been made, the WSWS version was back-translated into English. The Brazilian Portuguese-language version was thereby found to be accurate. The final Brazilian Portuguese-language version of the WSWS was applied to 75 smokers at three distinct times. For the assessment of interobserver reproducibility, it was applied twice within a 30-min interval by two different interviewers. For the assessment of intraobserver reproducibility, it was applied again 15 days later by one of the interviewers. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used in order to test the concordance of the answers. The significance level was set at p Portuguese-language version of the WSWS is reproducible, fast, and simple. It can therefore be used as a tool for assessing the severity of the symptoms of nicotine withdrawal syndrome.

  9. A cross-talk between brain-damage patients and infants on action and language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papeo, Liuba; Hochmann, Jean-Remy

    2012-06-01

    Sensorimotor representations in the brain encode the sensory and motor aspects of one's own bodily activity. It is highly debated whether sensorimotor representations are the core basis for the representation of action-related knowledge and, in particular, action words, such as verbs. In this review, we will address this question by bringing to bear insights from the study of brain-damaged patients exhibiting language disorders and from the study of the mechanisms for language acquisition in infants. Cognitive neuropsychology studies have assessed how damage to representations supporting action production impacts patients' ability to process action-related words. While correlations between verbal and nonverbal (motor) impairments are very common in patients, damage to the representations for action production can leave the ability to understand action-words unaffected; likewise, actions can still be produced successfully in cases of impaired action-word understanding. Studies with infants have evaluated the relevance of sensorimotor information when infants learn to map a novel word onto an action that they are performing or perceiving. These results demonstrate that sensorimotor information is insufficient to fully account for the complexity of verb learning: in this process, infants seem to privilege abstract constructs such as goal, intentionality and causality, as well as syntactic constraints, over the perceptual and motor dimensions of an action. Altogether, the empirical data suggest that, while not crucial for verb learning and understanding, sensorimotor processes can contribute to solving the problem of symbol grounding and/or serve as a primary mechanism in social cognition, to learn about others' goals and intentions. By assessing the relevance of sensorimotor representations in the way action-related words are acquired and represented, we aim to provide a useful set of criteria for testing specific predictions made by different theories of concepts

  10. Spanish translation and cross-language validation of a sleep habits questionnaire for use in clinical and research settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Carol M; Choi, Myunghan; McClain, Darya Bonds; Celaya, Alma; Quan, Stuart F

    2012-04-15

    To translate, back-translate and cross-language validate (English/Spanish) the Sleep Heart Health Study Sleep Habits Questionnaire for use with Spanish-speakers in clinical and research settings. Following rigorous translation and back-translation, this cross-sectional cross-language validation study recruited bilingual participants from academic, clinic, and community-based settings (N = 50; 52% women; mean age 38.8 ± 12 years; 90% of Mexican heritage). Participants completed English and Spanish versions of the Sleep Habits Questionnaire, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and the Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans II one week apart in randomized order. Psychometric properties were assessed, including internal consistency, convergent validity, scale equivalence, language version intercorrelations, and exploratory factor analysis using PASW (Version18) software. Grade level readability of the sleep measure was evaluated. All sleep categories (duration, snoring, apnea, insomnia symptoms, other sleep symptoms, sleep disruptors, restless legs syndrome) showed Cronbach α, Spearman-Brown coefficients and intercorrelations ≥ 0.700, suggesting robust internal consistency, correlation, and agreement between language versions. The Epworth correlated significantly with snoring, apnea, sleep symptoms, restless legs, and sleep disruptors) on both versions, supporting convergent validity. Items loaded on 4 factors accounted for 68% and 67% of the variance on the English and Spanish versions, respectively. The Spanish-language Sleep Habits Questionnaire demonstrates conceptual and content equivalency. It has appropriate measurement properties and should be useful for assessing sleep health in community-based clinics and intervention studies among Spanish-speaking Mexican Americans. Both language versions showed readability at the fifth grade level. Further testing is needed with larger samples.

  11. Language Education Policies and Inequality in Africa: Cross-National Empirical Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Gary

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between inequality and education through the lens of colonial language education policies in African primary and secondary school curricula. The languages of former colonizers almost always occupy important places in society, yet they are not widely spoken as first languages, meaning that most people depend…

  12. Imitation interacts with one's second-language phonology but it does not operate cross-linguistically

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Podlipský, V.J.; Šimáčková, Š.; Chládková, K.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored effects of simultaneous use of late bilinguals’ languages on their second-language (L2) pronunciation. We tested (1) if bilinguals effectively inhibit the first language (L1) when simultaneously processing L1 and L2, (2) if bilinguals, like natives, imitate subphonemic variation,

  13. Cross-cultural adaptation process of the "Conversation Analysis Profile for People with Aphasia" to the Portuguese language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Ferreira

    Full Text Available The Conversation Analysis Profile for People with Aphasia (CAPPA provides specific information about strengths and weaknesses of the communication between people with aphasia and their family caregiver within a conversational context.OBJECTIVE:The aim of this paper was to present the results of the first stages of cross-cultural adaptation of the CAPPA for the European Portuguese language.METHODS:This methodology study describes the translation and back-translation processes, following the recommended steps to that end. In addition, following the consent of one of the original authors, the process of content validation of the CAPPA commenced. The instrument was submitted for assessment before a panel of experts in the area, who constituted the population of this study.RESULTSAfter the translation and back-translation processes, a panel of experts was convened to adapt the Delphi technique. Some questions were excluded on the basis of ambiguity, relevance and potential repetition. Suggestions made by the expert panel were included in a revised version of the tool. 159 items obtained a 100% consensus in relevance, and 157 items were considered suitable by the expert panel, validating the content of the instrument.CONCLUSIONThe final version will now be applied to the target population in order to carry out the psychometric validation.

  14. SNOT-22: psychometric properties and cross-cultural adaptation into the Portuguese language spoken in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminha, Guilherme Pilla; Melo Junior, José Tavares de; Hopkins, Claire; Pizzichini, Emilio; Pizzichini, Marcia Margaret Menezes

    2012-12-01

    Rhinosinusitis is a highly prevalent disease and a major cause of high medical costs. It has been proven to have an impact on the quality of life through generic health-related quality of life assessments. However, generic instruments may not be able to factor in the effects of interventions and treatments. SNOT-22 is a major disease-specific instrument to assess quality of life for patients with rhinosinusitis. Nevertheless, there is still no validated SNOT-22 version in our country. Cross-cultural adaptation of the SNOT-22 into Brazilian Portuguese and assessment of its psychometric properties. The Brazilian version of the SNOT-22 was developed according to international guidelines and was broken down into nine stages: 1) Preparation 2) Translation 3) Reconciliation 4) Back-translation 5) Comparison 6) Evaluation by the author of the SNOT-22 7) Revision by committee of experts 8) Cognitive debriefing 9) Final version. Second phase: prospective study consisting of a verification of the psychometric properties, by analyzing internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Cultural adaptation showed adequate understanding, acceptability and psychometric properties. We followed the recommended steps for the cultural adaptation of the SNOT-22 into Portuguese language, producing a tool for the assessment of patients with sinonasal disorders of clinical importance and for scientific studies.

  15. Relating the new language models of information retrieval to the traditional retrieval models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd; de Vries, A.P.

    During the last two years, exciting new approaches to information retrieval were introduced by a number of different research groups that use statistical language models for retrieval. This paper relates the retrieval algorithms suggested by these approaches to widely accepted retrieval algorithms

  16. Language analysis for dialogue management in a theatre information and booking system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andernach, T.; Andernach, J.A.; ter Doest, H.W.L.; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; van der Hoeven, Gerrit; Schaake, Jan; Schaake, J.; van der Burgt, S.; Nijholt, Antinus

    SCHISMA is a joint research project of KPN (Royal PTT Nederland) and the University of Twente. The project aims at providing a natural language dialogue system which interfaces a database containing information about theatre performances in a certain city or region. The interface should make it

  17. Language Learning Strategies and English Proficiency: Interpretations from Information-Processing Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Zhenhui

    2016-01-01

    The research reported here investigated the relationship between students' use of language learning strategies and their English proficiency, and then interpreted the data from two models in information-processing theory. Results showed that the students' English proficiency significantly affected their use of learning strategies, with high-level…

  18. Personal Learning Environments in Higher Education Language Courses: An Informal and Learner-Centred Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakkonen, Ilona

    2011-01-01

    The chapter discusses the potential of personal learning environments (PLE) based on Web 2.0 applications for language courses in higher education (HE). This novel approach to the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in education involves learners in the design of learning environments, tools and processes. The chapter begins…

  19. Enhancing Beginners' Second Language Learning through an Informal Online Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakowa, Jessica

    2018-01-01

    Web 2.0 tools are used increasingly to support second language learning, but there have been limited studies involving beginner learners, multiple technologies, and informal settings. This current study addresses this gap and investigates the factors affecting students' interest in a nongraded online learning environment and what kinds of tools,…

  20. Teaching evidence-based speech and language therapy: Influences from formal and informal curriculum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spek, B.

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on influences from formal and informal curriculum on the effectiveness of teaching evidence-based speech and language therapy. A study showed that while EBP knowledge and skills increase during the years of study, motivational beliefs such as EBP task value and

  1. The M-Learning Experience of Language Learners in Informal Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendurur, Emine; Efendioglu, Esra; Çaliskan, Neslihan Yondemir; Boldbaatar, Nomin; Kandin, Emine; Namazli, Sevinç

    2017-01-01

    This study is designed to understand the informal language learners' experiences of m-learning applications. The aim is two-folded: (i) to extract the reasons why m-learning applications are preferred and (ii) to explore the user experience of Duolingo m-learning application. We interviewed 18 voluntary Duolingo users. The findings suggest that…

  2. Attitudes toward health care providers, collecting information about patients' race, ethnicity, and language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, David W; Hasnain-Wynia, Romana; Kandula, Namratha R; Thompson, Jason A; Brown, E Richard

    2007-11-01

    Experts recommend that health care providers (HCPs) collect patients' race/ethnicity and language, but we know little about public attitudes towards this. To determine attitudes towards HCPs collecting race/ethnicity and language data. A telephone survey was held with 563 Californians, including 105 whites, 97 blacks, 199 Hispanics (162 Spanish-speaking), 129 Asians (73 Chinese-speaking), and 33 multiracial individuals. Attitudes towards HCPs asking patients their race/ethnicity and preferred language, concerns about providing their own information, reactions to statements explaining the rationale for data collection, and attitudes towards possible policies. Most (87.8%) somewhat or strongly agreed that HCPs should collect race/ethnicity information and use this to monitor disparities, and 73.6% supported state legislation requiring this. Support for collection of patients' preferred language was even higher. However, 17.2% were uncomfortable (score 1-4 on 10-point scale) reporting their own race/ethnicity, and 46.3% of participants were somewhat or very worried that providing information could be used to discriminate against them. In addition, 35.9% of Hispanics were uncomfortable reporting their English proficiency. All statements explaining the rationale for data collection modestly increased participants' comfort level; the statement that this would be used for staff training increased comfort the most. Although most surveyed believe that HCPs should collect information about race/ethnicity and language, many feel uncomfortable giving this information and worry it could be misused. Statements explaining the rationale for collecting data may assuage concerns, but community engagement and legislation to prevent misuse may be needed to gain more widespread trust and comfort.

  3. Using stochastic language models (SLM) to map lexical, syntactic, and phonological information processing in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopopolo, Alessandro; Frank, Stefan L; van den Bosch, Antal; Willems, Roel M

    2017-01-01

    Language comprehension involves the simultaneous processing of information at the phonological, syntactic, and lexical level. We track these three distinct streams of information in the brain by using stochastic measures derived from computational language models to detect neural correlates of phoneme, part-of-speech, and word processing in an fMRI experiment. Probabilistic language models have proven to be useful tools for studying how language is processed as a sequence of symbols unfolding in time. Conditional probabilities between sequences of words are at the basis of probabilistic measures such as surprisal and perplexity which have been successfully used as predictors of several behavioural and neural correlates of sentence processing. Here we computed perplexity from sequences of words and their parts of speech, and their phonemic transcriptions. Brain activity time-locked to each word is regressed on the three model-derived measures. We observe that the brain keeps track of the statistical structure of lexical, syntactic and phonological information in distinct areas.

  4. Cross-checking different sources of mobility information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Lenormand

    Full Text Available The pervasive use of new mobile devices has allowed a better characterization in space and time of human concentrations and mobility in general. Besides its theoretical interest, describing mobility is of great importance for a number of practical applications ranging from the forecast of disease spreading to the design of new spaces in urban environments. While classical data sources, such as surveys or census, have a limited level of geographical resolution (e.g., districts, municipalities, counties are typically used or are restricted to generic workdays or weekends, the data coming from mobile devices can be precisely located both in time and space. Most previous works have used a single data source to study human mobility patterns. Here we perform instead a cross-check analysis by comparing results obtained with data collected from three different sources: Twitter, census, and cell phones. The analysis is focused on the urban areas of Barcelona and Madrid, for which data of the three types is available. We assess the correlation between the datasets on different aspects: the spatial distribution of people concentration, the temporal evolution of people density, and the mobility patterns of individuals. Our results show that the three data sources are providing comparable information. Even though the representativeness of Twitter geolocated data is lower than that of mobile phone and census data, the correlations between the population density profiles and mobility patterns detected by the three datasets are close to one in a grid with cells of 2×2 and 1×1 square kilometers. This level of correlation supports the feasibility of interchanging the three data sources at the spatio-temporal scales considered.

  5. An XML-Based Manipulation and Query Language for Rule-Based Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Essam; Höpfner, Hagen

    Rules are utilized to assist in the monitoring process that is required in activities, such as disease management and customer relationship management. These rules are specified according to the application best practices. Most of research efforts emphasize on the specification and execution of these rules. Few research efforts focus on managing these rules as one object that has a management life-cycle. This paper presents our manipulation and query language that is developed to facilitate the maintenance of this object during its life-cycle and to query the information contained in this object. This language is based on an XML-based model. Furthermore, we evaluate the model and language using a prototype system applied to a clinical case study.

  6. Preferences for (In)Formal Language: Correlations with Attitudes toward Linguistic Variation, Multilingualism, Tolerance of Ambiguity, and Residence Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Compernolle, Rémi A.

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on data collected via a web-based survey, the study investigates the relationship between preferences for (in)formal language and attitudes toward linguistic variation among a large group of monolingual and multilingual adults (n = 379). Also explored are the links between preferences for (in)formal language and several secondary…

  7. An Investigation into Chinese College English Teachers' Beliefs of Students' Web-Based Informal Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jiahong

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid development of information and technology, language learners have more ways to acquire the target language. Recently, WILL has gained popularity, for informal web-based learning of English has been depicted as a process driven by the purpose of communication. Thus, teachers have many challenges when teaching learners who have…

  8. Information in the Language Sciences: Proceedings of the Conference Held at Warrenton, Virginia, March 4-6, 1966.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Robert R., Ed.; And Others

    This collection of 22 papers from the Conference on Information in the Language Sciences held in Warrenton, Va., in 1966, sponsored by the Center for Applied Linguistics, stresses three themes: general trends, information needs of the languages sciences, and system design. Discussions attempt to formulate modern rational approaches to the complex…

  9. Melasma in Latina patients: cross-cultural adaptation and validation of a quality-of-life questionnaire in Spanish language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Arturo R; Balkrishnan, Rajesh; Ellzey, Allison R; Pandya, Amit G

    2006-07-01

    Melasma has been shown to have a significant emotional and psychologic effect on affected patients. Although this pigmentary disorder is thought to be more prevalent among Latinos, the effect of melasma on quality of life (QOL) in this population is unknown. The goals of this study were to translate and culturally adapt the previously validated Melasma QOL (MELASQOL) scale into Spanish language, to confirm the new scale's reliability and validity, and to administer the scale to characterize melasma's effect on the health-related QOL of Spanish language-speaking Latino patients. Cross-cultural adaptation of the original questionnaire was performed using previously established guidelines. After pretesting the questionnaire in a group of 30 patients, it was tested in a group of 112 patients recruited from a community outpatient clinic. A Spanish-language health-related QOL assessment battery was also administered for validation purposes. The degree of melasma was determined on clinical examination by the investigator using the Melasma Area and Severity Index. Cross-cultural adaptation of the questionnaire was successful in producing a working and understandable Spanish-language version of the MELASQOL. The Spanish-language MELASQOL scale was internally reliable and demonstrated construct and content validity. The Spanish-language MELASQOL scores of patients with little to no formal education were significantly higher than those with at least a seventh-grade education. Scores were proportional to the length of time a patient had lived with melasma and were higher in patients who had previously sought treatment. Spanish-language MELASQOL score and Melasma Area and Severity Index were shown to be moderately correlated, but no differences were seen according to patient age, marital status, employment, or coexisting medical or psychiatric conditions. Limitations are a lack of data regarding socioeconomic status and limitation to Mexican and Central American female patients

  10. Language identification of information blocks based on lexico-grammatic markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey N. Kalegin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is a continuation of the author's series of publications on the subjects of language identification of texts. In the article is being considered the creation of a technological basis for language identification systems of unstructured information blocks based on lexico-grammatical markers, in which are used the forms of verbs, verbal formations or functionally analogous constructions, are described method and algorithm for its software implementation. These developments will significantly reduce the resource intensity and improve the quality of such systems, which will give a significant economic effect and the possibility of creating fundamentally new technologies for determining the linguistic affiliation of information in a multilingual environment. Consequently, the study is of interest for computer linguists and developers of automatic word processing systems, such as: global monitoring systems, multilingual knowledge bases, automatic translation systems, information retrieval systems, document summarizing systems, literature catalogers, etc.

  11. What Comes First, What Comes Next: Information Packaging in Written and Spoken Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav Smolka

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores similarities and differences in the strategies of structuring information at sentence level in spoken and written language, respectively. In particular, it is concerned with the position of the rheme in the sentence in the two different modalities of language, and with the application and correlation of the end-focus and the end-weight principles. The assumption is that while there is a general tendency in both written and spoken language to place the focus in or close to the final position, owing to the limitations imposed by short-term memory capacity (and possibly by other factors, for the sake of easy processibility, it may occasionally be more felicitous in spoken language to place the rhematic element in the initial position or at least close to the beginning of the sentence. The paper aims to identify differences in the function of selected grammatical structures in written and spoken language, respectively, and to point out circumstances under which initial focus is a convenient alternative to the usual end-focus principle.

  12. ALLTALK™- A Windows Phone Messenger With Cross Language Communication For Customer Care Services

    OpenAIRE

    Akhil Abraham; Royston Pinto

    2014-01-01

    In day to day life, messengers or chatting applications provide facility for instant messaging over the internet. Exchange of messages takes place in universally used languages like English, French, etc. where both the users know how to communicate in a common language. Thus chatting on mobile phones is a luxury when both the parties involved know a common language. When any company wants to provide customer care services to its customer they use mediums like talking to the cu...

  13. Cross-language Babel structs—making scientific interfaces more efficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prantl, Adrian; Epperly, Thomas G W; Ebner, Dietmar

    2013-01-01

    Babel is an open-source language interoperability framework tailored to the needs of high-performance scientific computing. As an integral element of the Common Component Architecture, it is employed in a wide range of scientific applications where it is used to connect components written in different programming languages. In this paper we describe how we extended Babel to support interoperable tuple data types (structs). Structs are a common idiom in (mono-lingual) scientific application programming interfaces (APIs); they are an efficient way to pass tuples of nonuniform data between functions, and are supported natively by most programming languages. Using our extended version of Babel, developers of scientific codes can now pass structs as arguments between functions implemented in any of the supported languages. In C, C++, Fortran 2003/2008 and Chapel, structs can be passed without the overhead of data marshaling or copying, providing language interoperability at minimal cost. Other supported languages are Fortran 77, Fortran 90/95, Java and Python. We will show how we designed a struct implementation that is interoperable with all of the supported languages and present benchmark data to compare the performance of all language bindings, highlighting the differences between languages that offer native struct support and an object-oriented interface with getter/setter methods. A case study shows how structs can help simplify the interfaces of scientific codes significantly. (paper)

  14. A Meta-Analysis of Cross Sectional Studies Investigating Language in Maltreated Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Jarrad A. G.; Powell, Martine; Timms, Lydia; Snow, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In this review article, meta-analysis was used to summarize research investigating language skills in maltreated children. Method: A systematic search of published studies was undertaken. Studies were included in the meta-analysis if they investigated language skills in groups comprising maltreated and nonmaltreated children. Studies were…

  15. The History of the English Language Course: A Cross-Disciplinary Approach to the Humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressman, Michael R.

    2007-01-01

    The study of the history of the English language can help students become aware of major issues in several academic fields, including history, literature, political science, anthropology, communication, economics, the Arts, and, of course, languages and linguistics. Even though instructors may not have an especially broad background in the…

  16. Children's Faithfulness in Imitating Language Use Varies Cross-culturally, Contingent on Prior Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Jörn; Mayor, Julien; Bannard, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Despite its recognized importance for cultural transmission, little is known about the role imitation plays in language learning. Three experiments examine how rates of imitation vary as a function of qualitative differences in the way language is used in a small indigenous community in Oaxaca, Mexico and three Western comparison groups. Data from…

  17. Cross-language similarity and difference in quantity categorization of Finnish and Japanese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoshida, Kenji; J de Jong, Kenneth; Kruschke, John K

    2015-01-01

    quantity categorization was conducted with 22 Finnish and 20 Japanese listeners, using natural speech stimuli with systematically manipulated closure durations. Stimuli were created from Finnish and Japanese productions of both long and short plosives. In the naturally produced stimuli, the duration...... to be language specific, and such durational differences may interfere with categorization in an unfamiliar language....

  18. How a Visual Language of Abstract Shapes Facilitates Cultural and International Border Crossings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Arthur Thomas, III

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a visual language comprised of abstract shapes that has been shown to be effective in communicating prior knowledge between and within members of a small team or group. The visual language includes a set of geometric shapes and rules that guide the construction of the abstract diagrams that are the external representation of…

  19. Cross-domain correlation in pitch perception, the influence of native language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, A.; Liu, L.; Kager, R.W.J.

    2016-01-01

    The current study explores how language experience may shape the correlation between lexical tone and musical pitch perception. A two domains (music and lexical tone) by two languages (tone, Mandarin Chinese and non-tone, Dutch) design is adopted. Participants were tested on their discrimination of

  20. The Development of L2 Fluency during Study Abroad: A Cross-Language Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Silvio, Francesca; Diao, Wenhao; Donovan, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Examining speech samples from 75 American university students learning 1 of 3 languages (Mandarin, Russian, and Spanish), this article reports on a study of second language (L2) learners' oral fluency development and its relationship with their gains in holistic proficiency ratings during a semester abroad. In study abroad research, there is a…

  1. THE USE OF EDUCATIONAL INFORMATION DESIGN TECHNOLOGY IN THE COURSE OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE DISTANCE LEARNING AT NON-PHILOLOGICAL FACULTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Ye. Kravets

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article substantiates the view that the intensification of information flows as one of the main factors entering the world in the era of the global information society actualizes the problem of the organization of educational information space in the classroom for foreign language in higher educational institutions. The authors have proposed the educational information design technology in foreign languages distance learning at non-philological faculties. The article analyzes the experimental results verification of the technological effectiveness used in the learning content design in a foreign language for professional purposes; it has been proved the basic criterion of effective informational product – information-oriented competence of professional foreign language knowledge.

  2. FACTORS INFLUENCING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ADPOTION: A CROSS-SECTIONAL ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Stroade, Jeri L.; Schurle, Bryan W.

    2003-01-01

    This project will explore information technology adoption issues. The unique characteristics of information technology will be discussed. Advantages and disadvantages to adoption will also be identified. Finally, a statistical model of Internet adoption will be developed to estimate the impacts of certain variables on the underlying process of information technology adoption.

  3. How to "Save Your Skin" When Processing L2 Idioms: An Eye Movement Analysis of Idiom Transparency and Cross-Language Similarity among Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieslicka, Anna B.; Heredia, Roberto R.

    2017-01-01

    The current study looks at whether bilinguals varying in language dominance show a processing advantage for idiomatic over non-idiomatic phrases and to what extent this effect is modulated by idiom transparency (i.e., the degree to which the idiom's figurative meaning can be inferred from its literal analysis) and cross-language similarity (i.e.,…

  4. The usefulness and scientific accuracy of private sector Arabic language patient drug information leaflets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukkari, Sana R; Al Humaidan, Abdullah S; Sasich, Larry D

    2012-07-01

    Inadequate access to useful scientifically accurate patient information is a major cause of the inappropriate use of drugs resulting in serious personal injury and related costs to the health care system. The definition of useful scientifically accurate patient information for prescription drugs was accepted by the US Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services in 1996 as that derived from or consistent with the US FDA approved professional product label for a drug. Previous quality content studies found that English language patient drug information leaflets distributed by US pharmacies failed to meet minimum criteria defining useful and scientifically accurate information. Evaluation forms containing the explicit elements that define useful scientifically accurate information for three drugs with known serious adverse drug reactions were created based on the current US FDA approved professional product labels. The Arabic language patient drug information leaflets for celecoxib, paroxetine, and lamotrigine were obtained locally and evaluated using a methodology similar to that used in previous quality content patient drug information studies in the US. The Arabic leaflets failed to meet the definition of useful scientifically accurate information. The celecoxib leaflet contained 30% of the required information and the paroxetine and lamotrigine leaflets contained 24% and 20%, respectively. There are several limitations to this study. The Arabic leaflets from only one commercial North American vendor were evaluated and the evaluation included a limited number of drugs. A larger study is necessary to be able to generalize these results. The study results are consistent with those of previous quality content studies of commercially available English patient drug information leaflets. The results have important implications for patients as access to a reliable source of drug information may prevent harm or limit the suffering from serious adverse drug

  5. Cross-language activation of morphological relatives in cognates: The role of orthographic overlap and task-related processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberley eMulder

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We considered the role of orthography and task-related processing mechanisms in the activation of morphologically related complex words during bilingual word processing. So far, it has only been shown that such morphologically related words (i.e., morphological family members are activated through the semantic and morphological overlap they share with the target word. In this study, we investigated family size effects in Dutch-English identical cognates (e.g., tent in both languages, non-identical cognates (e.g., pil and pill, in English and Dutch, respectively, and non-cognates (e.g., chicken in English. Because of their cross-linguistic overlap in orthography, reading a cognate can result in activation of family members both languages. Cognates are therefore well-suited for studying mechanisms underlying bilingual activation of morphologically complex words. We investigated family size effects in an English lexical decision task and a Dutch-English language decision task, both performed by Dutch-English bilinguals. English lexical decision showed a facilitatory effect of English and Dutch family size on the processing of English-Dutch cognates relative to English non-cognates. These family size effects were not dependent on cognate type. In contrast, for language decision, in which a bilingual context is created, Dutch and English family size effects were inhibitory. Here, the combined family size of both languages turned out to better predict reaction time than the separate family size in Dutch or English. Moreover, the combined family size interacted with cognate type: The response to identical cognates was slowed by morphological family members in both languages. We conclude that (1 family size effects are sensitive to the task performed on the lexical items, and (2 depend on both semantic and formal aspects of bilingual word processing. We discuss various mechanisms that can explain the observed family size effects in a spreading

  6. Cross-language activation of morphological relatives in cognates: the role of orthographic overlap and task-related processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Kimberley; Dijkstra, Ton; Baayen, R. Harald

    2015-01-01

    We considered the role of orthography and task-related processing mechanisms in the activation of morphologically related complex words during bilingual word processing. So far, it has only been shown that such morphologically related words (i.e., morphological family members) are activated through the semantic and morphological overlap they share with the target word. In this study, we investigated family size effects in Dutch-English identical cognates (e.g., tent in both languages), non-identical cognates (e.g., pil and pill, in English and Dutch, respectively), and non-cognates (e.g., chicken in English). Because of their cross-linguistic overlap in orthography, reading a cognate can result in activation of family members both languages. Cognates are therefore well-suited for studying mechanisms underlying bilingual activation of morphologically complex words. We investigated family size effects in an English lexical decision task and a Dutch-English language decision task, both performed by Dutch-English bilinguals. English lexical decision showed a facilitatory effect of English and Dutch family size on the processing of English-Dutch cognates relative to English non-cognates. These family size effects were not dependent on cognate type. In contrast, for language decision, in which a bilingual context is created, Dutch and English family size effects were inhibitory. Here, the combined family size of both languages turned out to better predict reaction time than the separate family size in Dutch or English. Moreover, the combined family size interacted with cognate type: the response to identical cognates was slowed by morphological family members in both languages. We conclude that (1) family size effects are sensitive to the task performed on the lexical items, and (2) depend on both semantic and formal aspects of bilingual word processing. We discuss various mechanisms that can explain the observed family size effects in a spreading activation framework

  7. Crossing borders: High school science teachers learning to teach the specialized language of science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Jennifer Drake

    The highly specialized language of science is both challenging and alienating to adolescent readers. This study investigated how secondary science teachers learn to teach the specialized language of science in their classrooms. Three research questions guided this study: (a) what do science teachers know about teaching reading in science? (b) what understanding about the unique language demands of science reading do they construct through professional development? and (c) how do they integrate what they have learned about these specialized features of science language into their teaching practices? This study investigated the experience of seven secondary science teachers as they participated in a professional development program designed to teach them about the specialized language of science. Data sources included participant interviews, audio-taped professional development sessions, field notes from classroom observations, and a prior knowledge survey. Results from this study suggest that science teachers (a) were excited to learn about disciplinary reading practices, (b) developed an emergent awareness of the specialized features of science language and the various genres of science writing, and (c) recognized that the challenges of science reading goes beyond vocabulary. These teachers' efforts to understand and address the language of science in their teaching practices were undermined by their lack of basic knowledge of grammar, availability of time and resources, their prior knowledge and experiences, existing curriculum, and school structure. This study contributes to our understanding of how secondary science teachers learn about disciplinary literacy and apply that knowledge in their classroom instruction. It has important implications for literacy educators and science educators who are interested in using language and literacy practices in the service of science teaching and learning. (Full text of this dissertation may be available via the University

  8. Cross-cultural and factorial validity of PTSD check list-military version (PCL-M) in Sinhalese language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semage, Saveen N; Sivayogan, Sivagurunadan; Forbes, David; O'Donnell, Meaghan; Monaragala, Roshan M M; Lockwood, Emma; Dunt, David

    2013-01-01

    There are currently no validated instruments to assess the burden of combat-related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in Sinhalese-the main spoken language in Sri Lanka. The purpose of this research was to establish the cross-cultural and structural validity of the PTSD Check List-Military Version (PCL-M) translated into Sinhalese. Expert committee consensus generation as well as translation-back translation approaches were used to establish the semantic, conceptual, and content equivalence of the Sinhalese and English versions of the PCL-M. Four translations of each item were made. In the absence of any "gold standard" psychometric instrument in Sinhalese to establish the criterion validity for the PCL-M (SIN), the study utilized more informal checks for assessment of validity and Sri Lankan cutoffs for caseness for PTSD to establish the psychometric strength of the translated instrument along with standard reliability analysis. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed on PCL-M scoring of a random sample of 1,586 soldiers to examine construct validity. Thirteen of the 17 items were selected by popular vote, and the remaining 4 through discussion and consensus. Reliability measured by Cronbach's-α was 0.944 for the total scale and 0.812, 0.869, and 0.895 for the three DSM-IV sub-scales (re-experiencing, avoidance/numbing, and hyperarousal), respectively. The desired cutoff point for the translated instrument was determined to be 44. The five-factor model by Elhai et al. and the four-factor model by King et al. fitted best, demonstrating good fit to all three fit indices, while the four-factor model and the DSM-IV three-factor model by Simms et al. only had acceptable levels of fit for root mean squared error of approximation. χ(2) difference test comparing the two better-fitting models suggests that the five-factor model by Elhai et al. has the better fit. The PCL-M (SIN) version is suitable for use in the study of PTSD in the Sri Lankan military forces, as

  9. Use of information-retrieval languages in automated retrieval of experimental data from long-term storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khovanskiy, Y. D.; Kremneva, N. I.

    1975-01-01

    Problems and methods are discussed of automating information retrieval operations in a data bank used for long term storage and retrieval of data from scientific experiments. Existing information retrieval languages are analyzed along with those being developed. The results of studies discussing the application of the descriptive 'Kristall' language used in the 'ASIOR' automated information retrieval system are presented. The development and use of a specialized language of the classification-descriptive type, using universal decimal classification indices as the main descriptors, is described.

  10. Formative Information Using Student Growth Percentiles for the Quantification of English Language Learners' Progress in Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taherbhai, Husein; Seo, Daeryong; O'Malley, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    English language learners (ELLs) are the fastest growing subgroup in American schools. These students, by a provision in the reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, are to be supported in their quest for language proficiency through the creation of systems that more effectively measure ELLs' progress across years. In…

  11. Integrating Information and Communication Technology in English Language Teaching: A Case Study of Selected Junior Secondary Schools in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafuraga, Mbizo; Moremi, Mbiganyi

    2017-01-01

    The paper discusses how Information and Communication Technology (ICT) could be integrated in the teaching of English Language in Botswana Junior Secondary Schools. It does so by exploring opportunities and challenges faced by teachers of English Language and the students they teach. Fifty five (55) teachers in eleven (11) Junior Secondary Schools…

  12. Natural language processing systems for capturing and standardizing unstructured clinical information: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreimeyer, Kory; Foster, Matthew; Pandey, Abhishek; Arya, Nina; Halford, Gwendolyn; Jones, Sandra F; Forshee, Richard; Walderhaug, Mark; Botsis, Taxiarchis

    2017-09-01

    We followed a systematic approach based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses to identify existing clinical natural language processing (NLP) systems that generate structured information from unstructured free text. Seven literature databases were searched with a query combining the concepts of natural language processing and structured data capture. Two reviewers screened all records for relevance during two screening phases, and information about clinical NLP systems was collected from the final set of papers. A total of 7149 records (after removing duplicates) were retrieved and screened, and 86 were determined to fit the review criteria. These papers contained information about 71 different clinical NLP systems, which were then analyzed. The NLP systems address a wide variety of important clinical and research tasks. Certain tasks are well addressed by the existing systems, while others remain as open challenges that only a small number of systems attempt, such as extraction of temporal information or normalization of concepts to standard terminologies. This review has identified many NLP systems capable of processing clinical free text and generating structured output, and the information collected and evaluated here will be important for prioritizing development of new approaches for clinical NLP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Subcategory learning in normal and language learning-disabled adults: how much information do they need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jessica; Harris, Laurel; Plante, Elena; Gerken, Louann

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to determine if nonreferential morphophonological information was sufficient to facilitate the learning of gender subcategories (i.e., masculine vs. feminine) in individuals with normal language (NL) and those with a history of language-based learning disabilities (HLD). Thirty-two adults listened for 18 min to a familiarization set of Russian words that included either 1 (single-marked) or 2 (double-marked) morphophonological markers indicating gender. Participants were then tested on their knowledge of both trained and untrained members of each gender subcategory. Testing indicated that morphophonological information is sufficient for lexical subcategory learning in both NL and HLD groups, although the HLD group had lower overall accuracy. The HLD group benefited from double-marking relative to single-marking for subcategory learning. The results demonstrated that learning through implicit mechanisms occurred after a relatively brief exposure to the language stimuli. In addition, the weaker overall learning by the HLD group was facilitated when multiple cues to linguistic subcategory were available in the input group members received.

  14. Cross document ontology based information for multimedia retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reidsma, Dennis; Kuper, Jan; Declerck, T.; Saggion, H.; Cunningham, H.; Ganter, B.; de Moor, A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the MUMIS project, which applies ontology based Information Extraction to improve the results of Information Retrieval in multimedia archives. It makes use of a domain specific ontology, multilingual lexicons and reasoning algorithms to automatically create a semantic annotation

  15. Determining the cross-channel effects of informational web sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teerling, Marije Leonie

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the effects of an informational Web site on offline behavior, specifically with regard to customer buying behavior in a “traditional” store. This chapter serves to introduce the literature on informational Web sites (§1.2) and the multichannel environment (§1.3). It

  16. MIToS.jl: mutual information tools for protein sequence analysis in the Julia language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zea, Diego J.; Anfossi, Diego; Nielsen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Motivation: MIToS is an environment for mutual information analysis and a framework for protein multiple sequence alignments (MSAs) and protein structures (PDB) management in Julia language. It integrates sequence and structural information through SIFTS, making Pfam MSAs analysis straightforward....... MIToS streamlines the implementation of any measure calculated from residue contingency tables and its optimization and testing in terms of protein contact prediction. As an example, we implemented and tested a BLOSUM62-based pseudo-count strategy in mutual information analysis. Availability...... and Implementation: The software is totally implemented in Julia and supported for Linux, OS X and Windows. It’s freely available on GitHub under MIT license: http://mitos.leloir.org.ar. Contacts:diegozea@gmail.com or cmb@leloir.org.ar Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics...

  17. Transparent ICD and DRG coding using information technology: linking and associating information sources with the eXtensible Markup Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelzer, Simon; Schweiger, Ralf K; Dudeck, Joachim

    2003-01-01

    With the introduction of ICD-10 as the standard for diagnostics, it becomes necessary to develop an electronic representation of its complete content, inherent semantics, and coding rules. The authors' design relates to the current efforts by the CEN/TC 251 to establish a European standard for hierarchical classification systems in health care. The authors have developed an electronic representation of ICD-10 with the eXtensible Markup Language (XML) that facilitates integration into current information systems and coding software, taking different languages and versions into account. In this context, XML provides a complete processing framework of related technologies and standard tools that helps develop interoperable applications. XML provides semantic markup. It allows domain-specific definition of tags and hierarchical document structure. The idea of linking and thus combining information from different sources is a valuable feature of XML. In addition, XML topic maps are used to describe relationships between different sources, or "semantically associated" parts of these sources. The issue of achieving a standardized medical vocabulary becomes more and more important with the stepwise implementation of diagnostically related groups, for example. The aim of the authors' work is to provide a transparent and open infrastructure that can be used to support clinical coding and to develop further software applications. The authors are assuming that a comprehensive representation of the content, structure, inherent semantics, and layout of medical classification systems can be achieved through a document-oriented approach.

  18. RProtoBuf: Efficient Cross-Language Data Serialization in R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Eddelbuettel

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern data collection and analysis pipelines often involve a sophisticated mix of applications written in general purpose and specialized programming languages. Many formats commonly used to import and export data between different programs or systems, such as CSV or JSON, are verbose, inefficient, not type-safe, or tied to a specific programming language. Protocol Buffers are a popular method of serializing structured data between applications - while remaining independent of programming languages or operating systems. They offer a unique combination of features, performance, and maturity that seems particularly well suited for data-driven applications and numerical computing. The RProtoBuf package provides a complete interface to Protocol Buffers from the R environment for statistical computing. This paper outlines the general class of data serialization requirements for statistical computing, describes the implementation of the RProtoBuf package, and illustrates its use with example applications in large-scale data collection pipelines and web services.

  19. What Predicts Online Health Information-Seeking Behavior Among Egyptian Adults? A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghweeba, Mayada; Lindenmeyer, Antje; Shishi, Sobhi; Abbas, Mostafa; Waheed, Amani; Amer, Shaymaa

    2017-06-22

    Over the last decade, the Internet has become an important source of health-related information for a wide range of users worldwide. Yet, little is known about the personal characteristics of Egyptian Internet users who search for online health information (OHI). The aim of the study was to identify the personal characteristics of Egyptian OHI seekers and to determine any associations between their personal characteristics and their health information-seeking behavior.  This cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted from June to October 2015. A Web-based questionnaire was sent to Egyptian users aged 18 years and older (N=1400) of a popular Arabic-language health information website. The questionnaire included (1) demographic characteristics; (2) self-reported general health status; and (3) OHI-seeking behavior that included frequency of use, different topics sought, and self-reported impact of obtained OHI on health behaviors. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis. A total of 490 participants completed the electronic questionnaire with a response rate equivalent to 35.0% (490/1400). Regarding personal characteristics, 57.1% (280/490) of participants were females, 63.4% (311/490) had a university level qualification, and 37.1% (182/490) had a chronic health problem. The most commonly sought OHI by the participants was nutrition-related. Results of the multiple regression analysis showed that 31.0% of the variance in frequency of seeking OHI among Egyptian adults can be predicted by personal characteristics. Participants who sought OHI more frequently were likely to be female, of younger age, had higher education levels, and good self-reported general health. Our results provide insights into personal characteristics and OHI-seeking behaviors of Egyptian OHI users. This will contribute to better recognize their needs, highlight ways to increase the availability of appropriate OHI, and may lead to the

  20. Application of Information Technologies in Teaching Foreign VGTU Students Lithuanian as a Foreign Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Žukienė

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Lithuanian universities are currently undergoing a novel period of social changes, globalization and rapid technological development. A substantial body of relevant international programmes are being implemented. One of them is Erasmus – an international higher education programme aiming to strengthen cooperation at the European level and promote the mobility of students and lecturers, as well as to enhance the interaction between enterprises and higher education institutions. Vilnius Gediminas Technical University attempts to provide foreign Erasmus students with the best scientific, linguistic, cultural and educational experiences. For this purpose, the use information technologies in learning processes proved to be very helpful by opening a unique possibility to learn new languages and to communicate despite cultural differences. Computer aided language teaching tools are modern, effective and flexible alternatives to traditional learning in auditoriums and serve as auxiliary means to increase the effectiveness of studies. The article presents an e-learning programme “First Steps of HERMES” for learning languages. The management of the programme is discussed, the possibilities provided by online learning are assessed and the results of the pilot offering of the programme to VGTU are summarized.

  1. Neural networks involved in learning lexical-semantic and syntactic information in a second language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Jutta L; Rueschemeyer, Shirley-Ann; Ono, Kentaro; Sugiura, Motoaki; Sadato, Norihiro; Nakamura, Akinori

    2014-01-01

    The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural correlates of language acquisition in a realistic learning environment. Japanese native speakers were trained in a miniature version of German prior to fMRI scanning. During scanning they listened to (1) familiar sentences, (2) sentences including a novel sentence structure, and (3) sentences containing a novel word while visual context provided referential information. Learning-related decreases of brain activation over time were found in a mainly left-hemispheric network comprising classical frontal and temporal language areas as well as parietal and subcortical regions and were largely overlapping for novel words and the novel sentence structure in initial stages of learning. Differences occurred at later stages of learning during which content-specific activation patterns in prefrontal, parietal and temporal cortices emerged. The results are taken as evidence for a domain-general network supporting the initial stages of language learning which dynamically adapts as learners become proficient.

  2. The application of the unified modeling language in object-oriented analysis of healthcare information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Vinod

    2002-10-01

    This paper concerns itself with the beneficial effects of the Unified Modeling Language (UML), a nonproprietary object modeling standard, in specifying, visualizing, constructing, documenting, and communicating the model of a healthcare information system from the user's perspective. The author outlines the process of object-oriented analysis (OOA) using the UML and illustrates this with healthcare examples to demonstrate the practicality of application of the UML by healthcare personnel to real-world information system problems. The UML will accelerate advanced uses of object-orientation such as reuse technology, resulting in significantly higher software productivity. The UML is also applicable in the context of a component paradigm that promises to enhance the capabilities of healthcare information systems and simplify their management and maintenance.

  3. [Information quality and health risks in Spanish-language retail websites for Chinese herbal medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejedor-García, Noelia; García-Pastor, Coral; Benito-Martínez, Selma; de Lucio-Cazaña, Francisco Javier

    The growing use of purchase online via Internet retailers favours the access to potentially toxic natural products. It also contributes to the quick dissemination of the claims made by the retailers on efficacy and safety, these claims being not always based upon reliable information. Here, we have conducted an online search to find Spanish-language retail websites for Chinese herbal medicine and we have analysed them for the quality of product information and the potential health risks. i) Online search in Google España to find Spanish-language retail websites for Chinese herbal medicine in which we analysed both the claims regarding possible health benefits and adequate safe use indications ii) Identification of potentially toxic herbs in the websites iii) Quantification of Chinese herbal medicines withdrawn by the Agencia Española de Medicamentos y Productos Sanitarios (AEMPS). 1) Only one third of the 30 Spanish-language retail websites found which sell Chinese herbal medicine observe the law, given that the other websites include illegal Western disease claims as marketing tools, 2) Five websites provide some safety information, 3) Two websites offer potentially toxic herbs and 4) Chinese herbal medicine adulterated with sibutramine, silfenafil or their analogues make a considerable percentage of the total products withdrawn by the AEMPS. Online health seekers should be warned about misinformation on retail websites for Chinese herbal medicine and directed to a Spanish government Web site for guidance in safely navigating the Internet for buying Chinese herbal medicine. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Microfinance Performance and Informal Institutions : A Cross-country Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, Cornelis; Postelnicu, Luminita

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between the extent to which informal institutions are developed at the country-level and the financial and social performance of MFIs, using data from institutions active in 100 countries. Based on the theoretical literature discussing the economic role of

  5. The Development of Basic Reading Skills in Children: A Cross-Language Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geva, Esther; Wang, Min

    2001-01-01

    Reviews recent research evidence for universal and orthography- or language-specific processes in the development of basic reading skills in school-age children. The review focuses on three different aspects of reading--phonological processing, rapid naming, and morphosyntactic complexity--targeted in recent research on development of word…

  6. Promoting Language Learners' Cross-Cultural Awareness through Comparative Analyses of Asian Folktales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwin, Soe Marlar

    2016-01-01

    With the global spread, the English language has become a lingua franca and a component of basic education in many Asian countries, making Asia one of the regions in the world with the largest number of English speakers. However, due to the rich cultural diversities of Asian societies, using English as a lingua franca in Asia implies that speakers…

  7. Readability of Spanish language online information for the initial treatment of burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votta, Kaitlyn; Metivier, Meghan; Romo, Stephanie; Garrigan, Hannah; Drexler, Alana; Nodoushani, Ariana; Sheridan, Robert

    2018-06-01

    This study's aim is to identify the most popular online resources for burn treatment information available in the Spanish language, and to evaluate the readability of this information. The phrase "tratamiento de quemaduras" (burn treatment) was entered into search engines Google and Bing on 9/15/2014 and 9/13/2017. The top 12 Spanish web results on each site were identified and analyzed using Readability Studio Professional Edition v2012.1. The software generated a "mean grade reading level" for each article, or the grade of students that could be expected to understand the article's language. 21 distinct articles were identified at T1 and 17 at T2, with seven overlapping between T1 and T2. The average grade reading level of all the websites ranged from 7.8 to 13.8 at T1 (approximately 8th grade to sophomore year of college) and 7.8 to 12.2 at T2. No websites were within 1 standard deviation of the American Medical Association recommended 6th grade reading level. With readability showing little improvement during the past three years, providers should be aware of the complexity of online literature, and the potential complications this presents to patients. Additionally, burn centers should prioritize generating more accessible information for the Spanish speaking public. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  8. Language cultural brokerage and informed consent will technological terms impede telemedicine use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caron Jack

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Telemedicine provides a solution to treatment of economically and geographically compromised patients and enhances the level of care. However, a problem has arisen in safeguarding patients’ rights to informed consent.Objective. To determine the impact of language, translation and interpretation barriers on gaining legally valid informed consent in telemedicine.Design. Forty-one key words relevant to computer terminology and concepts required to gain informed consent for a telemedicine encounter were selected and sent for translation into isiZulu, the local indigenous language of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. A questionnaire with the list of words was developed with three domains covering information communication technology (ICT use, ICT terms and ethics terms. This was administered to patients at four outpatient departments in rural KwaZulu-Natal hospitals.Results. Of the 54 participants, 50 (92.6% did not know or understand the term ‘telemedicine’, 49 (90.7% the term ‘video conference’ and 49 (90.7% the term ‘electronic records’. Words such as ‘consent’ and ‘autonomy’ were understood by less than a third of the participants. Only 19 individuals (35.2% understood the word ‘consent’, and only 4 (7.4% understood both the words ‘consent’ and ‘telemedicine’.Conclusions. The results of this study show that obtaining informed consent for a telemedicine consultation is problematic. Alternative ways of gaining informed consent need to be investigated.

  9. THE INFORMATION AND CONTENT SPECIFICITY OF THE TEACHING THE DISCIPLINE "MODERN UKRAINIAN LANGUAGE OF MEDIA" AT THE JOURNALISM FACULTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monakhova T.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the content planning of the discipline "The Modern Ukrainian Language of Mass Media". Its importance and inscription in the general educational process at the specialty "The Journalism" in accordance with the curriculum of the specialty are substantiated, the key directions and problems that need attention of future journalists are outlined. "The Modern Ukrainian Language of Mass Media" is a course that integrates linguistic and cognitive, communicative, semiotic, and other approaches to considering the functioning of the state language in the media. Such an approach involves consideration of a number of linguistic problems, in particular spelling (the spelling debate in Ukraine, peculiarities of the transliteration of foreign language names, the types of journalistic texts compositions, longevity, tricksters, etc., cognitive problems, for example, the language game in the media, the gender aspects of the language of the media, the problem of hate-speech etc., as well as communicative approaches, in particular, the theory of communicative acts, the working with different types of information, fact cheking, the linguistic specifics of social networks, etc. The offered academic discipline is simultaneously propaedeutic for further journalistic disciplines, as well as the summary for the "language block of journalistic courses" – the disciplines "The Practical Ukrainian Language", "The Stylistics and Culture of the Ukrainian Language", etc.

  10. Quality and readability of English-language internet information for aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azios, Jamie H; Bellon-Harn, Monica; Dockens, Ashley L; Manchaiah, Vinaya

    2017-08-14

    Little is known about the quality and readability of treatment information in specific neurogenic disorders, such as aphasia. The purpose of this study was to assess quality and readability of English-language Internet information available for aphasia treatment. Forty-three aphasia treatment websites were aggregated using five different country-specific search engines. Websites were then analysed using quality and readability assessments. Statistical calculations were employed to examine website ratings, differences between website origin and quality and readability scores, and correlations between readability instruments. Websites exhibited low quality with few websites obtaining Health On the Net (HON) certification or clear, thorough information as measured by the DISCERN. Regardless of website origin, readability scores were also poor. Approximate educational levels required to comprehend information on aphasia treatment websites ranged from 13 to 16 years of education. Significant differences were found between website origin and readability measures with higher levels of education required to understand information on websites of non-profit organisations. Current aphasia treatment websites were found to exhibit low levels of quality and readability, creating potential accessibility problems for people with aphasia and significant others. Websites including treatment information for aphasia must be improved in order to increase greater information accessibility.

  11. Cross-cultural adaptation and initial validation of the Stroke-Specific Quality of Life Scale into the Yoruba language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinpelu, Aderonke O; Odetunde, Marufat O; Odole, Adesola C

    2012-12-01

    Stroke-Specific Quality of Life 2.0 (SS-QoL 2.0) scale is used widely and has been cross-culturally adapted to many languages. This study aimed at the cross-cultural adaptation of SS-QoL 2.0 to Yoruba, the indigenous language of south-western Nigeria, and to carry out an initial investigation on its validity. English SS-QoL 2.0 was first adapted to Yoruba language by including Yoruba culture-specific examples in items SC4, UE2 and UE6. The adapted English version (AEV) was independently translated into Yoruba by two language experts who later agreed on a consensus translation, which was then back translated, subjected to an expert committee review and pretested; a cognitive debriefing interview was also carried out to generate the Yoruba translated version (YTV). Thirty-five stroke survivors completed the AEV and Yoruba version (YV) in English and Yoruba. The order of administration was randomized. Data were analysed using Spearman's rank order correlation and Wilcoxon's signed-rank test at a P value less than 0.05. The mean age of the participants (23 men, 12 women) was 58.5±11.3 years. The domain scores of the participants on AEV and YV did not differ significantly, except in the work/productivity domain. In both versions, the mean domain score of the participants was the highest in the language domain [22.6±3.8 (AEV) and 22.7±3.4 (YV)] and the lowest in the work domain [9.0±3.7 (AEV) and 8.0±3.3 (YTV)]. Domain scores on both versions correlated significantly (P<0.05). Participants' ratings of their current state and prestroke state correlated significantly (P<0.01) in all the general areas, except energy and mood. The YTV of SS-QoL 2.0 fulfilled the initial criteria for validity.

  12. Cross-cultural perspectives on research participation and informed consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, Paula C; Gucciardi, Enza; Ahmad, Farah; Stewart, Donna E

    2006-01-01

    This study examined Portuguese Canadian and Caribbean Canadian immigrants' perceptions of health research and informed consent procedures. Six focus groups (three in each cultural group) involving 42 participants and two individual interviews were conducted. The focus groups began with a general question about health research. This was followed by three short role-plays between the moderator and the assistant. The role-plays involved a fictional health research study in which a patient is approached for recruitment, is read a consent form, and is asked to sign. The role-plays stopped at key moments at which time focus group participants were asked questions about their understanding and their perceptions. Focus group transcripts were coded in QSR NUDIST software using open coding and then compared across cultural groups. Six overriding themes emerged: two were common in both the Portuguese and Caribbean transcripts, one emphasized the importance of trust and mistrust, and the other highlighted the need and desire for more information about health research. However, these themes were expressed somewhat differently in the two groups. In addition, there were four overriding themes that were specific to only one cultural group. In the Portuguese groups, there was an overwhelming positive regard for the research process and an emphasis on verbal as opposed to written information. The Caribbean participants qualified their participation in research studies and repeatedly raised images of invasive research.

  13. Revisiting Cross-Channel Information Transfer for Chromatic Aberration Correction

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Tiancheng; Peng, Yifan; Heidrich, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Image aberrations can cause severe degradation in image quality for consumer-level cameras, especially under the current tendency to reduce the complexity of lens designs in order to shrink the overall size of modules. In simplified optical designs, chromatic aberration can be one of the most significant causes for degraded image quality, and it can be quite difficult to remove in post-processing, since it results in strong blurs in at least some of the color channels. In this work, we revisit the pixel-wise similarity between different color channels of the image and accordingly propose a novel algorithm for correcting chromatic aberration based on this cross-channel correlation. In contrast to recent weak prior-based models, ours uses strong pixel-wise fitting and transfer, which lead to significant quality improvements for large chromatic aberrations. Experimental results on both synthetic and real world images captured by different optical systems demonstrate that the chromatic aberration can be significantly reduced using our approach.

  14. Revisiting Cross-Channel Information Transfer for Chromatic Aberration Correction

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Tiancheng

    2017-12-25

    Image aberrations can cause severe degradation in image quality for consumer-level cameras, especially under the current tendency to reduce the complexity of lens designs in order to shrink the overall size of modules. In simplified optical designs, chromatic aberration can be one of the most significant causes for degraded image quality, and it can be quite difficult to remove in post-processing, since it results in strong blurs in at least some of the color channels. In this work, we revisit the pixel-wise similarity between different color channels of the image and accordingly propose a novel algorithm for correcting chromatic aberration based on this cross-channel correlation. In contrast to recent weak prior-based models, ours uses strong pixel-wise fitting and transfer, which lead to significant quality improvements for large chromatic aberrations. Experimental results on both synthetic and real world images captured by different optical systems demonstrate that the chromatic aberration can be significantly reduced using our approach.

  15. Information Visualization Techniques for Effective Cross-Discipline Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Ward

    2013-04-01

    Collaboration between research groups in different fields is a common occurrence, but it can often be frustrating due to the absence of a common vocabulary. This lack of a shared context can make expressing important concepts and discussing results difficult. This problem may be further exacerbated when communicating to an audience of laypeople. Without a clear frame of reference, simple concepts are often rendered difficult-to-understand at best, and unintelligible at worst. An easy way to alleviate this confusion is with the use of clear, well-designed visualizations to illustrate an idea, process or conclusion. There exist a number of well-described machine-learning and statistical techniques which can be used to illuminate the information present within complex high-dimensional datasets. Once the information has been separated from the data, clear communication becomes a matter of selecting an appropriate visualization. Ideally, the visualization is information-rich but data-scarce. Anything from a simple bar chart, to a line chart with confidence intervals, to an animated set of 3D point-clouds can be used to render a complex idea as an easily understood image. Several case studies will be presented in this work. In the first study, we will examine how a complex statistical analysis was applied to a high-dimensional dataset, and how the results were succinctly communicated to an audience of microbiologists and chemical engineers. Next, we will examine a technique used to illustrate the concept of the singular value decomposition, as used in the field of computer vision, to a lay audience of undergraduate students from mixed majors. We will then examine a case where a simple animated line plot was used to communicate an approach to signal decomposition, and will finish with a discussion of the tools available to create these visualizations.

  16. Developing Culturally Competent Health Knowledge: Issues of Data Analysis of Cross-Cultural, Cross-Language Qualitative Research

    OpenAIRE

    Jenny Hsin-Chun Tsai; John H. Choe; Jeanette Mu Chen Lim; Elizabeth Acorda; Nadine L. Chan; Vicky Taylor; Shin-Ping Tu

    2004-01-01

    There is a growing awareness and interest in the development of culturally competent health knowledge. Drawing on experience using a qualitative approach to elicit information from Mandarin- or Cantonese-speaking participants for a colorectal cancer prevention study, the authors describe lessons learned through the analysis process. These lessons include benefits and drawbacks of the use of coders from the studied culture group, challenges posed by using translated data for analysis, and suit...

  17. Lexical diversity and omission errors as predictors of language ability in the narratives of sequential Spanish-English bilinguals: a cross-language comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Peggy F; Walden, Patrick R

    2013-08-01

    This study explored the utility of language sample analysis for evaluating language ability in school-age Spanish-English sequential bilingual children. Specifically, the relative potential of lexical diversity and word/morpheme omission as predictors of typical or atypical language status was evaluated. Narrative samples were obtained from 48 bilingual children in both of their languages using the suggested narrative retell protocol and coding conventions as per Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts (SALT; Miller & Iglesias, 2008) software. An additional lexical diversity measure, VocD, was also calculated. A series of logistical hierarchical regressions explored the utility of the number of different words, VocD statistic, and word and morpheme omissions in each language for predicting language status. Omission errors turned out to be the best predictors of bilingual language impairment at all ages, and this held true across languages. Although lexical diversity measures did not predict typical or atypical language status, the measures were significantly related to oral language proficiency in English and Spanish. The results underscore the significance of omission errors in bilingual language impairment while simultaneously revealing the limitations of lexical diversity measures as indicators of impairment. The relationship between lexical diversity and oral language proficiency highlights the importance of considering relative language proficiency in bilingual assessment.

  18. Specialized languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousten, Birthe; Laursen, Anne Lise

    2016-01-01

    Across different fields of research, one feature is often overlooked: the use of language for specialized purposes (LSP) as a cross-discipline. Mastering cross-disciplinarity is the precondition for communicating detailed results within any field. Researchers in specialized languages work cross...... science fields communicate their findings. With this article, we want to create awareness of the work in this special area of language studies and of the inherent cross-disciplinarity that makes LSP special compared to common-core language. An acknowledgement of the importance of this field both in terms...... of more empirical studies and in terms of a greater application of the results would give language specialists in trade and industry a solid and updated basis for communication and language use....

  19. Using language models to identify relevant new information in inpatient clinical notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Pakhomov, Serguei V; Lee, Janet T; Melton, Genevieve B

    2014-01-01

    Redundant information in clinical notes within electronic health record (EHR) systems is ubiquitous and may negatively impact the use of these notes by clinicians, and, potentially, the efficiency of patient care delivery. Automated methods to identify redundant versus relevant new information may provide a valuable tool for clinicians to better synthesize patient information and navigate to clinically important details. In this study, we investigated the use of language models for identification of new information in inpatient notes, and evaluated our methods using expert-derived reference standards. The best method achieved precision of 0.743, recall of 0.832 and F1-measure of 0.784. The average proportion of redundant information was similar between inpatient and outpatient progress notes (76.6% (SD=17.3%) and 76.7% (SD=14.0%), respectively). Advanced practice providers tended to have higher rates of redundancy in their notes compared to physicians. Future investigation includes the addition of semantic components and visualization of new information.

  20. Computerized tools in psychology: cross cultural and genetically informative studies of memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismatullina V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we presented the computerized tools for psychological studies of memory. The importance of implementing computerized automated tools for psychological studies is discussed. It has been shown that this tools can be used both for cross-cultural and genetically informative studies. The validity of these tools for cross-cultural and genetically informative studies of memory can be seen as the first step to use automated computerized tools for big data collection in psychology.

  1. The Measurement of Relevance Amount of Documents That By Using of Google cross-language retrieval About Agriculture Subject Area are Retrieved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Jamshidi Ghahfarokhi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the relevance amount of documents has been investigated by using google cross-language retrieval tools about a agriculture subject area in cross-language retrieval form, are retrieved. For this purpose, by using Persian journals articles that have had English abstracts, Persian phrases and subject terms with their English equivalent were extracted. In three class us, thirty number of phrases and subject terms of agriculture area were extracted: First class, subject phrases that only in agriculture are used; Secondary, agriculture subject terms that in other fields are used too; Third class, agriculture subject terms that out of this field are considered as public term. Then by these phrases and terms, documents were searched, and relevance amount of search results are investigated. Results of study showed that google cross-language retrieval tools for two classes of phrases and terms, in cross-language retrieval of relevance document about agriculture subject area, aren`t succeed: one class, agriculture subject terms that in other fields are used too. other class, agriculture subject terms that out of agriculture field are considered as public term. Google cross-language retrieval tools about subject phrase and terms that only in agriculture field are used, are performance rather desirable than other two class of phrase and terms

  2. Task-Based EFL Language Teaching with Procedural Information Design in a Technical Writing Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Debopriyo

    2017-01-01

    Task-based language learning (TBLL) has heavily influenced syllabus design, classroom teaching, and learner assessment in a foreign or second language teaching context. In this English as foreign language (EFL) learning environment, the paper discussed an innovative language learning pedagogy based on design education and technical writing. In…

  3. The Attitudes of Iranian EFL Learners toward Cross-Cultural Factors in Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    farzaneh javdani

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The cultural background in language teaching has, for a number of reasons, recently moved to the foreground. Broadly speaking, there has been a shift in emphasis in course design from a pre-occupation with form to an interest in content. This article describes the results of a survey designed to elicit the views of students on what language teaching should be about. 400 students learning English in Kish-Language Institute, Kashan branch were chosen as participants of the study based on their proficiency level (Starter, Elementary, Intermediate and Advanced in order to answer the questionnaire. Each question was designed in the form of a five point Likert Scale. The results were analysed using Binomial and MANOVA Tests. The obtained Results in this study indicate that except for Elementary level, other levels favoured bilingual/bicultural teacher. In relation to varieties of English, American English was liked most by Intermediate and Advanced students. All students had an overall positive attitude towards the native speaker pronunciation and finally the most favoured course contents were revealed to be science and social facts, students’ past experiences, English/American Literature along with culture of other countries.

  4. Geospatial Information Categories Mapping in a Cross-lingual Environment: A Case Study of “Surface Water” Categories in Chinese and American Topographic Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Kuai

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The need for integrating geospatial information (GI data from various heterogeneous sources has seen increased importance for geographic information system (GIS interoperability. Using domain ontologies to clarify and integrate the semantics of data is considered as a crucial step for successful semantic integration in the GI domain. Nevertheless, mechanisms are still needed to facilitate semantic mapping between GI ontologies described in different natural languages. This research establishes a formal ontology model for cross-lingual geospatial information ontology mapping. By first extracting semantic primitives from a free-text definition of categories in two GI classification standards with different natural languages, an ontology-driven approach is used, and a formal ontology model is established to formally represent these semantic primitives into semantic statements, in which the spatial-related properties and relations are considered as crucial statements for the representation and identification of the semantics of the GI categories. Then, an algorithm is proposed to compare these semantic statements in a cross-lingual environment. We further design a similarity calculation algorithm based on the proposed formal ontology model to distance the semantic similarities and identify the mapping relationships between categories. In particular, we work with two GI classification standards for Chinese and American topographic maps. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and reliability of the proposed model for cross-lingual geospatial information ontology mapping.

  5. PADLET AND OTHER INFORMATION COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY TOOLS IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Borisovna Lysunets

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the necessity of the computerization of the education sphere. Information Communication Technology (ICT tools and services of Google, blended learning techniques help to enhance autonomous education and answer the training needs of future specia-lists. The paper describes the Padlet (Google application and provides with its practical usage in language classroom. The authors come to the following conclusions: improving Internet and computer technology competence through mastering various Internet tools and applications can be traced. Besides, the introduction of IT into traditional classroom intensifies the process of cognitive development and mental activities, forming the high level of students’ motivation and interest. For students the usage of IT proves the positive dynamics of their accomplishments in the field of selecting, organizing and dealing with information provided in various forms. It enhances students’ opportunities in creating, designing and performing their works and achievements.

  6. Avoiding the Target Language with the Help of Google: Managing Language Choices in Gathering Information for EFL Project Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musk, Nigel

    2014-01-01

    The integration of translation tools into the Google search engine has led to a huge increase in the visibility and accessibility of such tools, with potentially far-reaching implications for the English language classroom. Although these translation tools are the focus of this study, using them is in fact only one way in which English language…

  7. Quality and Readability of English-Language Internet Information for Voice Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueppen, Abigail J; Bellon-Harn, Monica L; Radhakrishnan, Nandhakumar; Manchaiah, Vinaya

    2017-12-15

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the readability and quality of English-language Internet information related to vocal hygiene, vocal health, and prevention of voice disorders. This study extends recent work because it evaluates readability, content quality, and website origin across broader search criteria than previous studies evaluating online voice material. Eighty-five websites were aggregated using five different country-specific search engines. Websites were then analyzed using quality and readability assessments. The entire web page was evaluated; however, no information or links beyond the first page was reviewed. Statistical calculations were employed to examine website ratings, differences between website origin and quality and readability scores, and correlations between readability instruments. Websites exhibited acceptable quality as measured by the DISCERN. However, only one website obtained the Health On the Net certification. Significant differences in quality were found among website origin, with government websites receiving higher quality ratings. Approximate educational levels required to comprehend information on the websites ranged from 8 to 9 years of education. Significant differences were found between website origin and readability measures with higher levels of education required to understand information on websites of nonprofit organizations. Current vocal hygiene, vocal health, and prevention of voice disorders websites were found to exhibit acceptable levels of quality and readability. However, highly rated Internet information related to voice care should be made more accessible to voice clients through Health On the Net certification. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Optimal cross-sectional sampling for river modelling with bridges: An information theory-based method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridolfi, E.; Napolitano, F., E-mail: francesco.napolitano@uniroma1.it [Sapienza Università di Roma, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Edile e Ambientale (Italy); Alfonso, L. [Hydroinformatics Chair Group, UNESCO-IHE, Delft (Netherlands); Di Baldassarre, G. [Department of Earth Sciences, Program for Air, Water and Landscape Sciences, Uppsala University (Sweden)

    2016-06-08

    The description of river topography has a crucial role in accurate one-dimensional (1D) hydraulic modelling. Specifically, cross-sectional data define the riverbed elevation, the flood-prone area, and thus, the hydraulic behavior of the river. Here, the problem of the optimal cross-sectional spacing is solved through an information theory-based concept. The optimal subset of locations is the one with the maximum information content and the minimum amount of redundancy. The original contribution is the introduction of a methodology to sample river cross sections in the presence of bridges. The approach is tested on the Grosseto River (IT) and is compared to existing guidelines. The results show that the information theory-based approach can support traditional methods to estimate rivers’ cross-sectional spacing.

  9. Optimal cross-sectional sampling for river modelling with bridges: An information theory-based method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridolfi, E.; Napolitano, F.; Alfonso, L.; Di Baldassarre, G.

    2016-01-01

    The description of river topography has a crucial role in accurate one-dimensional (1D) hydraulic modelling. Specifically, cross-sectional data define the riverbed elevation, the flood-prone area, and thus, the hydraulic behavior of the river. Here, the problem of the optimal cross-sectional spacing is solved through an information theory-based concept. The optimal subset of locations is the one with the maximum information content and the minimum amount of redundancy. The original contribution is the introduction of a methodology to sample river cross sections in the presence of bridges. The approach is tested on the Grosseto River (IT) and is compared to existing guidelines. The results show that the information theory-based approach can support traditional methods to estimate rivers’ cross-sectional spacing.

  10. Correlation between Similarity Measures for Inter-Language Linked Wikipedia Articles

    OpenAIRE

    Paramita, M.; Clough, P.; Aker, A.; Gaizauskas, R.

    2012-01-01

    Wikipedia articles in different languages have been mined to support various tasks, such as Cross-Language Information Retrieval (CLIR) and Statistical Machine Translation (SMT). Articles on the same topic in different languages are often connected by inter-language links, which can be used to identify similar or comparable content. In this work, we investigate the correlation between similarity measures utilising language-independent and language-dependent features and respective human judgm...

  11. Concurrent Relations between Face Scanning and Language: A Cross-Syndrome Infant Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean D'Souza

    Full Text Available Typically developing (TD infants enhance their learning of spoken language by observing speakers' mouth movements. Given the fact that word learning is seriously delayed in most children with neurodevelopmental disorders, we hypothesized that this delay partly results from differences in visual face scanning, e.g., focusing attention away from the mouth. To test this hypothesis, we used an eye tracker to measure visual attention in 95 infants and toddlers with Down syndrome (DS, fragile X syndrome (FXS, and Williams syndrome (WS, and compared their data to 25 chronological- and mental-age matched 16-month-old TD controls. We presented participants with two talking faces (one on each side of the screen and a sound (/ga/. One face (the congruent face mouthed the syllable that the participants could hear (i.e., /ga/, while the other face (the incongruent face mouthed a different syllable (/ba/ from the one they could hear. As expected, we found that TD children with a relatively large vocabulary made more fixations to the mouth region of the incongruent face than elsewhere. However, toddlers with FXS or WS who had a relatively large receptive vocabulary made more fixations to the eyes (rather than the mouth of the incongruent face. In DS, by contrast, fixations to the speaker's overall face (rather than to her eyes or mouth predicted vocabulary size. These findings suggest that, at some point in development, different processes or strategies relating to visual attention are involved in language acquisition in DS, FXS, and WS. This knowledge may help further explain why language is delayed in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. It also raises the possibility that syndrome-specific interventions should include an early focus on efficient face-scanning behaviour.

  12. A cross-language study of compensation in response to real-time formant perturbation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitsuya, Takashi; MacDonald, Ewen; Purcell, David W.

    2011-01-01

    error operates at a purely acoustic level. This hypothesis was tested by comparing the response of three language groups to real-time formant perturbations, (1) native English speakers producing an English vowel /e/, (2) native Japanese speakers producing a Japanese vowel (=e...Past studies have shown that when formants are perturbed in real time, speakers spontaneously compensate for the perturbation by changing their formant frequencies in the opposite direction to the perturbation. Further, the pattern of these results suggests that the processing of auditory feedback...... for formant perturbation operates at a purely acoustic level was rejected. Rather, some level of phonological processing influences the feedback processing behavior....

  13. THE TRAINING OF FUTURE PRIMARY-SCHOOL TEACHERS FOR APPLICATION OF INFORMATION COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES AT THE LANGUAGE LESSONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Khizhnyak

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of training of the future primary-school teachers for application of information communication technologies (ICT in their professional activity is proven in the article. The author considers the essence of the teacher’s language didactic competence, reveals constituent components of the latter, and proves the urgency of the problem of introducing the future primary school teachers to the basics of electronic language didactics as a branch of education studies.

  14. THE TRAINING OF FUTURE PRIMARY-SCHOOL TEACHERS FOR APPLICATION OF INFORMATION COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES AT THE LANGUAGE LESSONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Khizhnyak

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of training of the future primary-school teachers for application of information communication technologies (ICT in their professional activity is proven in the article. The author considers the essence of the teacher’s language didactic competence, reveals constituent components of the latter, and proves the urgency of the problem of introducing the future primary school teachers to the basics of electronic language didactics as a branch of education studies.

  15. The Features of Using the Information Technologies to Solve the Problems of Teaching the Foreign Language for the Postgraduate Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Alexeevna Laskovets

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The strategy of forming a competitive linguistic space dictates a necessity to use modern IT and means of distance learning while teaching foreign languages to postgraduates of non-linguistics higher learning institutions. The problems of designing, implementation and support of the information security systems in the technologies of distant foreign language teaching become essential in a multidiscipline approach of teaching postgraduates.

  16. Translation, Cross-cultural Adaptation and Psychometric Validation of the Korean-Language Cardiac Rehabilitation Barriers Scale (CRBS-K).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Sora; Park, Hee-Won; Lee, Yookyung; Grace, Sherry L; Kim, Won-Seok

    2017-10-01

    To perform a translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Cardiac Rehabilitation Barriers Scale (CRBS) for use in Korea, followed by psychometric validation. The CRBS was developed to assess patients' perception of the degree to which patient, provider and health system-level barriers affect their cardiac rehabilitation (CR) participation. The CRBS consists of 21 items (barriers to adherence) rated on a 5-point Likert scale. The first phase was to translate and cross-culturally adapt the CRBS to the Korean language. After back-translation, both versions were reviewed by a committee. The face validity was assessed in a sample of Korean patients (n=53) with history of acute myocardial infarction that did not participate in CR through semi-structured interviews. The second phase was to assess the construct and criterion validity of the Korean translation as well as internal reliability, through administration of the translated version in 104 patients, principle component analysis with varimax rotation and cross-referencing against CR use, respectively. The length, readability, and clarity of the questionnaire were rated well, demonstrating face validity. Analysis revealed a six-factor solution, demonstrating construct validity. Cronbach's alpha was greater than 0.65. Barriers rated highest included not knowing about CR and not being contacted by a program. The mean CRBS score was significantly higher among non-attendees (2.71±0.26) than CR attendees (2.51±0.18) (pKorea.

  17. Attention problems and language development in preterm low-birth-weight children: Cross-lagged relations from 18 to 36 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohrer-Baumgartner Nina

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has highlighted a series of persistent deficits in cognitive ability in preterm low-birth-weight children. Language and attention problems are among these deficits, although the nature of the relation between attention and language in early development is not well known. This study represents a preliminary attempt to shed light on the relations between attention problems and language development in preterm low-birth-weight children. Methods The aim of this study was to analyse reciprocal influences between language and attention problems from 18 to 36 months. We used maternal reports on attention problems and language ability referring to a sample of 1288 premature low-birth-weight infants, collected as part of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa. A sample of children born full-term was used as the control group (N = 37010. Cross-lagged panel analyses were carried out to study reciprocal influences between attention problems and language. Results Language ability at 18 months did not significantly predict attention problems at 36 months, adjusting for attention problems at 18 months. Attention problems at 18 months significantly predicted changes in language ability from 18 to 36 months, pointing to a precursor role of attention in relation to language in children born preterm. Gender, age corrected for prematurity, and mother's education emerged as important covariates. Conclusions Preliminary evidence was found for a precursor role of early attention problems in relation to language in prematurity. This finding can contribute to a better understanding of the developmental pathways of attention and language and lead to better management of unfavourable outcomes associated with co-morbid attention and language difficulties.

  18. Attention problems and language development in preterm low-birth-weight children: cross-lagged relations from 18 to 36 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Luisa A; Zachrisson, Henrik D; Schjolberg, Synnve; Aase, Heidi; Rohrer-Baumgartner, Nina; Magnus, Per

    2011-06-29

    Research has highlighted a series of persistent deficits in cognitive ability in preterm low-birth-weight children. Language and attention problems are among these deficits, although the nature of the relation between attention and language in early development is not well known. This study represents a preliminary attempt to shed light on the relations between attention problems and language development in preterm low-birth-weight children. The aim of this study was to analyse reciprocal influences between language and attention problems from 18 to 36 months. We used maternal reports on attention problems and language ability referring to a sample of 1288 premature low-birth-weight infants, collected as part of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). A sample of children born full-term was used as the control group (N = 37010). Cross-lagged panel analyses were carried out to study reciprocal influences between attention problems and language. Language ability at 18 months did not significantly predict attention problems at 36 months, adjusting for attention problems at 18 months. Attention problems at 18 months significantly predicted changes in language ability from 18 to 36 months, pointing to a precursor role of attention in relation to language in children born preterm. Gender, age corrected for prematurity, and mother's education emerged as important covariates. Preliminary evidence was found for a precursor role of early attention problems in relation to language in prematurity. This finding can contribute to a better understanding of the developmental pathways of attention and language and lead to better management of unfavourable outcomes associated with co-morbid attention and language difficulties.

  19. Construction and Evaluation of an Integrated Formal/Informal Learning Environment for Foreign Language Learning across Real and Virtual Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waragai, Ikumi; Ohta, Tatsuya; Kurabayashi, Shuichi; Kiyoki, Yasushi; Sato, Yukiko; Brückner, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the prototype of a foreign language learning space, based on the construction of an integrated formal/informal learning environment. Before the background of the continued innovation of information technology that places conventional learning styles and educational methods into new contexts based on new value-standards,…

  20. Cross-cultural adaptation of Preschool Language Assessment Instrument: Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindau, Tâmara Andrade; Rossi, Natalia Freitas; Giacheti, Célia Maria

    2014-01-01

    In Brazil, formal tools for the evaluation of spoken language are scarce. Therefore, this study aimed to translate and adapt to Brazilian Portuguese the Preschool Language Assessment Instrument: Second Edition (PLAI-2). The process of translation and adaptation of this instrument was conducted in two stages - Stage 1: (1a) translation of the original version to Brazilian Portuguese, (1b) comparison of the translated versions and synthesis into a single Portuguese version, (1c) back-translation, (1d) revision of the translated version; and Step 2: (2a) application of the Portuguese version in a pilot project with 30 subjects, and (2b) statistical comparison of three age groups. In the Brazilian version, all items of the original version were kept. However, it was necessary to modify the application order of one item, and the change of one picture was suggested in another. The results obtained after application indicated that the Brazilian version of the PLAI-2 allows us to distinguish the performance of participants belonging to different age groups, and that the raw score tends to increase with age. Semantic and syntactic adjustments were required and made to ensure that PLAI-2 would be used with the same methodological rigor of the original instrument. The adaptation process observed the theoretical, semantic, and cultural equivalences.

  1. A cross-language study of decontextualized vocabulary comprehension in toddlerhood and kindergarten readiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Margaret; Smolak, Erin; Liu, Yushuang; Poulin-Dubois, Diane; Zesiger, Pascal

    2018-04-05

    Recent studies demonstrate that emerging literacy depends on earlier language achievement. Importantly, most extant work focuses on parent-reported production prior to 30 months of age. Of interest is whether and how directly assessed vocabulary comprehension in the 2nd year of life supports vocabulary and kindergarten readiness in the 4th year. We first contrasted orthogonal indices of parent-reported production and directly assessed vocabulary comprehension and found that comprehension was a stronger predictor of child outcomes. We then assessed prediction from vocabulary comprehension controlling for maternal education, preschool attendance, and child sex. In 3 studies early, decontextualized vocabulary comprehension emerged as a significant predictor of 4th year language and kindergarten readiness accounting for unique variance above demographic control variables. Further we found that the effect of early vocabulary on 4th year kindergarten readiness was not mediated by 4th year vocabulary. This pattern of results emerged in English monolingual children (N = 48) and replicated in French monolingual (N = 58) and French-English bilingual children (N = 34). Our findings suggest that early, decontextualized vocabulary may provide a platform for the establishment of a conceptual system that supports both later vocabulary and kindergarten readiness, including the acquisition of a wide range of concepts including print and number. Differences between parent-reported and directly assessed vocabulary and the mechanisms by which decontextualized vocabulary may contribute to conceptual development are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. On the relation between dependency distance, crossing dependencies, and parsing. Comment on "Dependency distance: a new perspective on syntactic patterns in natural languages" by Haitao Liu et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Rodríguez, Carlos

    2017-07-01

    Liu et al. [1] provide a comprehensive account of research on dependency distance in human languages. While the article is a very rich and useful report on this complex subject, here I will expand on a few specific issues where research in computational linguistics (specifically natural language processing) can inform DDM research, and vice versa. These aspects have not been explored much in [1] or elsewhere, probably due to the little overlap between both research communities, but they may provide interesting insights for improving our understanding of the evolution of human languages, the mechanisms by which the brain processes and understands language, and the construction of effective computer systems to achieve this goal.

  3. The role of verbal and pictorial information in multimodal incidental acquisition of foreign language vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisson, Marie-Josée; van Heuven, Walter J B; Conklin, Kathy; Tunney, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    This study used eye tracking to investigate the allocation of attention to multimodal stimuli during an incidental learning situation, as well as its impact on subsequent explicit learning. Participants were exposed to foreign language (FL) auditory words on their own, in conjunction with written native language (NL) translations, or with both written NL translations and pictures. Incidental acquisition of FL words was assessed the following day through an explicit learning task where participants learned to recognize translation equivalents, as well as one week later through recall and translation recognition tests. Results showed higher accuracy scores in the explicit learning task for FL words presented with meaning during incidental learning, whether written meaning or both written meaning and picture, than for FL words presented auditorily only. However, participants recalled significantly more FL words after a week delay if they had been presented with a picture during incidental learning. In addition, the time spent looking at the pictures during incidental learning significantly predicted recognition and recall scores one week later. Overall, results demonstrated the impact of exposure to multimodal stimuli on subsequent explicit learning, as well as the important role that pictorial information can play in incidental vocabulary acquisition.

  4. Dotting the I and Crossing (out) the T in IT Governance: New Challenges for Information Governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgman, H.; Heier, H.; Bahli, B.; Boekamp, T.; Bui, T.X.; Sprague, R.H.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the factors influencing information governance, and particularly the role of new challenges such as cloud-based services, boundary-crossing use of data and new system development practices. Governing information within - as well as outside - the organization,

  5. Cross-talk and information transfer in mammalian and bacterial signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samanthe M Lyons

    Full Text Available In mammalian and bacterial cells simple phosphorylation circuits play an important role in signaling. Bacteria have hundreds of two-component signaling systems that involve phosphotransfer between a receptor and a response regulator. In mammalian cells a similar pathway is the TGF-beta pathway, where extracellular TGF-beta ligands activate cell surface receptors that phosphorylate Smad proteins, which in turn activate many genes. In TGF-beta signaling the multiplicity of ligands begs the question as to whether cells can distinguish signals coming from different ligands, but transduced through a small set of Smads. Here we use information theory with stochastic simulations of networks to address this question. We find that when signals are transduced through only one Smad, the cell cannot distinguish between different levels of the external ligands. Increasing the number of Smads from one to two significantly improves information transmission as well as the ability to discriminate between ligands. Surprisingly, both total information transmitted and the capacity to discriminate between ligands are quite insensitive to high levels of cross-talk between the two Smads. Robustness against cross-talk requires that the average amplitude of the signals are large. We find that smaller systems, as exemplified by some two-component systems in bacteria, are significantly much less robust against cross-talk. For such system sizes phosphotransfer is also less robust against cross-talk than phosphorylation. This suggests that mammalian signal transduction can tolerate a high amount of cross-talk without degrading information content. This may have played a role in the evolution of new functionalities from small mutations in signaling pathways, allowed for the development of cross-regulation and led to increased overall robustness due to redundancy in signaling pathways. On the other hand the lack of cross-regulation observed in many bacterial two

  6. [Cross-cultural adaptation of the Myocardial Infarction Dimensional Assessment Scale (MIDAS) to the Brazilian Portuguese language].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorin, Bruno Henrique; Oliveira, Elizabete Regina Araújo de; Moreira, Rita Simone Lopes; Luna Filho, Bráulio

    2018-03-01

    From the evaluation of the factors that affect quality of life (QOL) it is possible to plan interventions that lead to the improved well-being of patients. The scope of this study was to conduct the cross-cultural adaptation of the Myocardial Infarction Dimensional Assessment Scale (MIDAS) questionnaire to the Portuguese language, seeking the necessary semantic, idiomatic, conceptual and cultural equivalence. The theoretical framework of Guillemin, Bombardier and Beaton was used, fulfilling the following steps: translation, back translation, evaluation of the authors, peer review and pre-testing. After all the tests, the semantic, idiomatic, conceptual and cultural equivalence was achieved. The scale proved to be easy to use and was clinically important. MIDAS was validated in terms of its semantic, idiomatic, conceptual and cultural equivalences. Subsequently, the measurement equivalence will be evaluated to verify the psychometric properties.

  7. Does Gender-Fair Language Pay Off? The Social Perception of Professions from a Cross-Linguistic Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Lisa K; Merkel, Elisa F; Maass, Anne; Sczesny, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    In many languages, masculine forms (e.g., German Lehrer, "teachers, masc.") have traditionally been used to refer to both women and men, although feminine forms are available, too. Feminine-masculine word pairs (e.g., German Lehrerinnen und Lehrer, "teachers, fem. and teachers, masc.") are recommended as gender-fair alternatives. A large body of empirical research documents that the use of gender-fair forms instead of masculine forms has a substantial impact on mental representations. Masculine forms activate more male representations even when used in a generic sense, whereas word pairs (e.g., German Lehrerinnen und Lehrer, "teachers, fem. and teachers, masc.") lead to a higher cognitive inclusion of women (i.e., visibility of women). Some recent studies, however, have also shown that in a professional context word pairs may be associated with lesser status. The present research is the first to investigate both effects within a single paradigm. A cross-linguistic (Italian and German) study with 391 participants shows that word pairs help to avoid a male bias in the gender-typing of professions and increase women's visibility; at the same time, they decrease the estimated salaries of typically feminine professions (but do not affect perceived social status or competence). This potential payoff has implications for language policies aiming at gender-fairness.

  8. Does gender-fair language pay off? The social perception of professions from a cross-linguistic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Kristina Horvath

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In many languages, masculine forms (e.g., German Lehrer, ‘teachers, masc.’ have traditionally been used to refer to both women and men, although feminine forms are available, too. Feminine-masculine word pairs (e.g., German Lehrerinnen und Lehrer, ‘teachers, fem. and teachers, masc.’ are recommended as gender-fair alternatives. A large body of empirical research documents that the use of gender-fair forms instead of masculine forms has a substantial impact on mental representations. Masculine forms activate more male representations even when used in a generic sense, whereas word pairs (e.g., German Lehrerinnen und Lehrer, ‘teachers, fem. and teachers, masc.’ lead to a higher cognitive inclusion of women (i.e., visibility of women. Some recent studies, however, have also shown that in a professional context word pairs may be associated with lesser status. The present research is the first to investigate both effects within a single paradigm. A cross-linguistic (Italian and German study with 391 participants shows that word pairs help to avoid a male bias in the gender-typing of professions and increase women’s visibility; at the same time, they decrease the estimated salaries of typically feminine professions (but do not affect perceived social status or competence. This potential payoff has implications for language policies aiming at gender-fairness.

  9. The development of a natural language interface to a geographical information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Sue Walker; Davis, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    This paper will discuss a two and a half year long project undertaken to develop an English-language interface for the geographical information system GRASS. The work was carried out for NASA by a small business, Netrologic, based in San Diego, California, under Phase 1 and 2 Small Business Innovative Research contracts. We consider here the potential value of this system whose current functionality addresses numerical, categorical and boolean raster layers and includes the display of point sets defined by constraints on one or more layers, answers yes/no and numerical questions, and creates statistical reports. It also handles complex queries and lexical ambiguities, and allows temporarily switching to UNIX or GRASS.

  10. Cross-cultural differences in information disclosure evaluated through the EORTC questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arraras, Juan Ignacio; Greimel, Eva; Chie, Wei-Chu; Sezer, Orhan; Bergenmar, Mia; Costantini, Anna; Young, Teresa; Vlasic, Karin Kuljanic; Velikova, Galina

    2013-02-01

    Informational needs among cancer patients are similar, but the degree of information disclosure in different cultural areas varies. In this paper, we present the results of a cross-cultural study on information received. The EORTC information questionnaire, EORTC QLQ-INFO25, was administered during the treatment process. This questionnaire evaluates the information that patients report they have received. Cross-cultural differences in information have been evaluated using statistical tests such as Kruskall-Wallis and multivariate models with covariates to account for differences in clinical and demographic characteristics across areas. Four hundred and fifty-one patients from three cultural areas, North-Middle Europe, South Europe, and Taiwan, were included in the study. Significant differences among the three cultural areas appeared in eight QLQ-INFO25 dimensions: information about the disease; medical tests; places of care; written information; information on CD/tape/video; satisfaction; wish for more information; and information helpfulness. North-Middle Europe patients received more written information (mean = 67.2 (North) and 33.8 (South)) and South Europe patients received more information on different places of care (mean = 24.7 (North) and 35.0 (South)). Patients from North-Middle Europe and South Europe received more information than patients from Taiwan about the disease (mean = 57.9, 60.6, and 47.1, respectively) and medical tests (70.9, 70.4, and 54.5), showed more satisfaction (64.8, 70.2, and 35.0), and considered the information more helpful (71.9, 73.9, and 50.4). These results were confirmed when adjusting for age, education, and disease stage. There are cross-cultural differences in information received. Some of these differences are based on the characteristics of each culture. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. How to Save You Skin When Processing L2 Idioms: An Eye Movement Analysis of Idiom Transparency and Cross-language Similarity among Bilinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Cieślicka

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The current study looks at whether bilinguals varying in language dominance show a processing advantage for idiomatic over non-idiomatic phrases and to what extent this effect is modulated by idiom transparency (i.e., the degree to which the idiom’s figurative meaning can be inferred from its literal analysis and cross-language similarity (i.e., the extent to which an idiom has an identical translation equivalent in another language. An eye tracking experiment was conducted in which Spanish-English bilinguals were presented with literally plausible (i.e., idioms that can be interpreted both figuratively and literally transparent (e.g., break the ice, where the figurative meaning can be deduced from analyzing the idiom literally and opaque idioms (e.g., hit the sack, where the meaning cannot be inferred from idiom constituents. Idioms varied along the dimension of cross-language similarity, with half the idioms having word for word translation equivalents in English and Spanish and another half being different, that is, having no similar counterpart in another language. Each idiom was used either in its literal (e.g., get cold feet: become coldor figurative meaning (e.g., get cold feet: become afraid. In control phrases the last word of the idiom was replaced by a carefully matched control (e.g., get cold hands. Reading measures (fixation count, first pass/gaze reading time and total reading time revealed that cross-language similarity interacts in an important way with idiom transparency, such that opaque idioms were more difficult to process than transparent ones, and different transparent idioms took faster to process than similar transparent idioms. Results are discussed with regard to the holistic vs. compositional views of idiom storage and the role of activated L1 (first language knowledge in the course of L2 (second language figurative processing.

  12. Use of Information and Communication Technologies in Sign Language Test Development: Results of an International Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Sign language test development is a relatively new field within sign linguistics, motivated by the practical need for assessment instruments to evaluate language development in different groups of learners (L1, L2). Due to the lack of research on the structure and acquisition of many sign languages, developing an assessment instrument poses…

  13. Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Validation of the Spanish-Language Version of the SARC-F to Assess Sarcopenia in Mexican Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra-Rodríguez, Lorena; Szlejf, Claudia; García-González, Ana Isabel; Malmstrom, Theodore K; Cruz-Arenas, Esteban; Rosas-Carrasco, Oscar

    2016-12-01

    To cross-culturally adapt and validate the Spanish-language version of the SARC-F in Mexican community-dwelling older adults. Cross-sectional analysis of a prospective cohort. The FraDySMex study, a 2-round evaluation of community-dwelling adults from 2 municipalities in Mexico City. Participants were 487 men and women older than 60 years, living in the designated area in Mexico City. Information from questionnaires regarding demographic characteristics, comorbidities, mental status, nutritional status, dependence in activities of daily living, frailty, and quality of life. Objective measurements of muscle mass, strength and function were as follows: skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) was taken using dual-energy x-ray, grip strength using a hand dynamometer, 6-meter gait speed using a GAIT Rite instrumented walkway, peak torque and power for knee extension using a isokinetic dynamometer, lower extremity functioning measured by the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), and balance using evaluation on a foam surface, with closed eyes, in the Modified Clinical Test of Sensory Integration. The SARC-F scale translated to Spanish and the consensus panels' criteria from European, international, and Asian sarcopenia working groups were applied to evaluate sarcopenia. The Spanish language version of the SARC-F scale showed reliability (Cronbach alfa = 0.641. All items in the scale correlated to the scale's total score, rho = 0.43 to 0.76), temporal consistency evaluated by test-retest (CCI = 0.80), criterion validity when compared to the consensus panels' criteria (high specificity and negative predictive values). The scale was also correlated to other measures related to sarcopenia (such as age, quality of life, self-rated health status, cognition, dependence in activities of daily living, nutritional status, depression, gait speed, grip strength, peak torque and power for knee extension, SPPB, balance, SMI, and frailty). The SARC-F scale was successfully adapted to

  14. Readability of written medicine information materials in Arabic language: expert and consumer evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Aqeel, Sinaa; Abanmy, Norah; Aldayel, Abeer; Al-Khalifa, Hend; Al-Yahya, Maha; Diab, Mona

    2018-02-27

    Written Medicine Information (WMI) is one of the sources that patients use to obtain information concerning medicine. This paper aims to assess the readability of two types of WMIs in Arabic language based on vocabulary use and sentence structure using a panel of experts and consumers. This is a descriptive study. Two different types of materials, including the online text from King Abdullah Bin Abdulaziz Arabic Health Encyclopaedia (KAAHE) and medication leaflets submitted by the manufacturers to the Saudi Food and Drug Authority (SFDA) were evaluated. We selected a group of sentences from each WMI. The readability was assessed by experts (n = 5) and consumers (n = 5). The sentence readability of each measured using a specific criteria and rated as 1 = easy, 2 = intermediate, or 3 = difficult. A total of 4476 sentences (SFDA 2231; KAHEE 2245) extracted from websites or patient information leaflets on 50 medications and evaluated. The majority of the vocabulary and sentence structure was considered easy by both expert (SFDA: 68%; KAAHE: 76%) and consumer (SFDA: 76%; KAAHE: 84%) groups. The sentences with difficult or intermediate vocabulary and sentence structure are derived primarily from the precautions and side effects sections. The SFDA and KAAHE WMIs are easy to read and understand as judged by our study sample. However; there is room for improvement, especially in sections related to the side effects and precautions.

  15. Verbal aptitude and the use of grammar information in Serbian language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalović Dejan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The research presented in this paper was an attempt to find differences in the use of grammatical information carried by the function words in Serbian. The aim was to determine the level of word processing at which grammatical information shows its differential effects in groups of subjects who themselves differ in verbal ability. For this purpose, the psycholinguistic tasks applied were grammatically primed reading aloud and grammatically primed grammatical classification with an appropriate control of extra-linguistic factors that may have affected aforementioned tasks. Verbal aptitude was assessed in a psychometric manner, and the subjects were divided into "high verbal" and "low verbal" groups. Taking into account statistical control of extra-linguistic factors, the results indicate that groups of high verbal and low verbal subjects cannot be differentiated based on reading aloud performance. The high verbal subjects, however, were more efficient in grammatical classification than low verbal subjects. The results also indicated that the presence of grammatical information embedded in function words-primes had a stronger effect on word processing in low verbal group. Such pattern of results testify to the advantage of high verbal subjects in lexical and post lexical processing, while no differences were established in the word recognition processes. The implications of these findings were considered in terms of test construction for the assessment of verbal ability in Serbian language. .

  16. The Short International Physical Activity Questionnaire: cross-cultural adaptation, validation and reliability of the Hausa language version in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyeyemi, Adewale L; Oyeyemi, Adetoyeje Y; Adegoke, Babatunde O; Oyetoke, Fatima O; Aliyu, Habeeb N; Aliyu, Salamatu U; Rufai, Adamu A

    2011-11-22

    Accurate assessment of physical activity is important in determining the risk for chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, cancer and obesity. The absence of culturally relevant measures in indigenous languages could pose challenges to epidemiological studies on physical activity in developing countries. The purpose of this study was to translate and cross-culturally adapt the Short International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-SF) to the Hausa language, and to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Hausa version of IPAQ-SF in Nigeria. The English IPAQ-SF was translated into the Hausa language, synthesized, back translated, and subsequently subjected to expert committee review and pre-testing. The final product (Hausa IPAQ-SF) was tested in a cross-sectional study for concurrent (correlation with the English version) and construct validity, and test-retest reliability in a sample of 102 apparently healthy adults. The Hausa IPAQ-SF has good concurrent validity with Spearman correlation coefficients (ρ) ranging from 0.78 for vigorous activity (Min Week-1) to 0.92 for total physical activity (Metabolic Equivalent of Task [MET]-Min Week-1), but poor construct validity, with cardiorespiratory fitness (ρ = 0.21, p = 0.01) and body mass index (ρ = 0.22, p = 0.04) significantly correlated with only moderate activity and sitting time (Min Week-1), respectively. Reliability was good for vigorous (ICC = 0.73, 95% C.I = 0.55-0.84) and total physical activity (ICC = 0.61, 95% C.I = 0.47-0.72), but fair for moderate activity (ICC = 0.33, 95% C.I = 0.12-0.51), and few meaningful differences were found in the gender and socioeconomic status specific analyses. The Hausa IPAQ-SF has acceptable concurrent validity and test-retest reliability for vigorous-intensity activity, walking, sitting and total physical activity, but demonstrated only fair construct validity for moderate and sitting activities. The Hausa IPAQ-SF can be used for

  17. Use of prosody and information structure in high functioning adults with Autism in relation to language ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marie R DePape

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal prosody is a striking feature of the speech of those with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD, but previous reports suggest large variability among those with ASD. Here we show that part of this heterogeneity can be explained by level of language functioning. We recorded semi-spontaneous but controlled conversations in adults with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder and measured features related to pitch and duration to determine (1 general use of prosodic features, (2 prosodic use in relation to marking information structure, specifically, the emphasis of new information in a sentence (focus as opposed to information already given in the conversational context (topic, and (3 the relation between prosodic use and level of language function. We found that, compared to typical adults, those with ASD with high language functioning generally used a larger pitch range than controls but did not mark information structure, whereas those with moderate language functioning generally used a smaller pitch range than controls but marked information structure appropriately to a large extent. Both impaired general prosodic use and impaired marking of information structure would be expected to seriously impact social communication and thereby lead to increased difficulty in personal domains, such as making and keeping friendships, and in professional domains, such as competing for employment opportunities.

  18. Enhancing Information Usefulness by Line Managers’ Involvement in Cross-Unit Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Rodgers, Waymond

    2011-01-01

    Organization and management scholars have long advocated that efficient use of information is critical for firms to compete successfully in the modern marketplace. This study examines whether the use of managerial cross-unit involvement in an organization enhances managers’ propensity to use useful...... information provided by a functionally related unit in the organization. Senior line managers in a major global bank participated in our study in which they provided information related to their information processing and assessments of the usefulness of corporate audit information. We analyse the effect...

  19. Noun and verb knowledge in monolingual preschool children across 17 languages: Data from Cross-linguistic Lexical Tasks (LITMUS-CLT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haman, Ewa; Łuniewska, Magdalena; Hansen, Pernille; Simonsen, Hanne Gram; Chiat, Shula; Bjekić, Jovana; Blažienė, Agnė; Chyl, Katarzyna; Dabašinskienė, Ineta; Engel de Abreu, Pascale; Gagarina, Natalia; Gavarró, Anna; Håkansson, Gisela; Harel, Efrat; Holm, Elisabeth; Kapalková, Svetlana; Kunnari, Sari; Levorato, Chiara; Lindgren, Josefin; Mieszkowska, Karolina; Montes Salarich, Laia; Potgieter, Anneke; Ribu, Ingeborg; Ringblom, Natalia; Rinker, Tanja; Roch, Maja; Slančová, Daniela; Southwood, Frenette; Tedeschi, Roberta; Tuncer, Aylin Müge; Ünal-Logacev, Özlem; Vuksanović, Jasmina; Armon-Lotem, Sharon

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates the cross-linguistic comparability of the newly developed lexical assessment tool Cross-linguistic Lexical Tasks (LITMUS-CLT). LITMUS-CLT is a part the Language Impairment Testing in Multilingual Settings (LITMUS) battery (Armon-Lotem, de Jong & Meir, 2015). Here we analyse results on receptive and expressive word knowledge tasks for nouns and verbs across 17 languages from eight different language families: Baltic (Lithuanian), Bantu (isiXhosa), Finnic (Finnish), Germanic (Afrikaans, British English, South African English, German, Luxembourgish, Norwegian, Swedish), Romance (Catalan, Italian), Semitic (Hebrew), Slavic (Polish, Serbian, Slovak) and Turkic (Turkish). The participants were 639 monolingual children aged 3;0-6;11 living in 15 different countries. Differences in vocabulary size were small between 16 of the languages; but isiXhosa-speaking children knew significantly fewer words than speakers of the other languages. There was a robust effect of word class: accuracy was higher for nouns than verbs. Furthermore, comprehension was more advanced than production. Results are discussed in the context of cross-linguistic comparisons of lexical development in monolingual and bilingual populations.

  20. Cross-Linguistic and Cross-Cultural Effects on Verbal Working Memory and Vocabulary: Testing Language-Minority Children with an Immigrant Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel de Abreu, Pascale M. J.; Baldassi, Martine; Puglisi, Marina L.; Befi-Lopes, Debora M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors explored the impact of test language and cultural status on vocabulary and working memory performance in multilingual language-minority children. Method: Twenty 7-year-old Portuguese-speaking immigrant children living in Luxembourg completed several assessments of first (L1)- and second-language (L2) vocabulary…

  1. The Languages of Neurons: An Analysis of Coding Mechanisms by Which Neurons Communicate, Learn and Store Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris H. Baslow

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper evidence is provided that individual neurons possess language, and that the basic unit for communication consists of two neurons and their entire field of interacting dendritic and synaptic connections. While information processing in the brain is highly complex, each neuron uses a simple mechanism for transmitting information. This is in the form of temporal electrophysiological action potentials or spikes (S operating on a millisecond timescale that, along with pauses (P between spikes constitute a two letter “alphabet” that generates meaningful frequency-encoded signals or neuronal S/P “words” in a primary language. However, when a word from an afferent neuron enters the dendritic-synaptic-dendritic field between two neurons, it is translated into a new frequency-encoded word with the same meaning, but in a different spike-pause language, that is delivered to and understood by the efferent neuron. It is suggested that this unidirectional inter-neuronal language-based word translation step is of utmost importance to brain function in that it allows for variations in meaning to occur. Thus, structural or biochemical changes in dendrites or synapses can produce novel words in the second language that have changed meanings, allowing for a specific signaling experience, either external or internal, to modify the meaning of an original word (learning, and store the learned information of that experience (memory in the form of an altered dendritic-synaptic-dendritic field.

  2. The impact of visual layout factors on performance in Web pages: a cross-language study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parush, Avi; Shwarts, Yonit; Shtub, Avy; Chandra, M Jeya

    2005-01-01

    Visual layout has a strong impact on performance and is a critical factor in the design of graphical user interfaces (GUIs) and Web pages. Many design guidelines employed in Web page design were inherited from human performance literature and GUI design studies and practices. However, few studies have investigated the more specific patterns of performance with Web pages that may reflect some differences between Web page and GUI design. We investigated interactions among four visual layout factors in Web page design (quantity of links, alignment, grouping indications, and density) in two experiments: one with pages in Hebrew, entailing right-to-left reading, and the other with English pages, entailing left-to-right reading. Some performance patterns (measured by search times and eye movements) were similar between languages. Performance was particularly poor in pages with many links and variable densities, but it improved with the presence of uniform density. Alignment was not shown to be a performance-enhancing factor. The findings are discussed in terms of the similarities and differences in the impact of layout factors between GUIs and Web pages. Actual or potential applications of this research include specific guidelines for Web page design.

  3. Cross-Cultural Validation of the Definition of Multimorbidity in the Bulgarian Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assenova, Radost S; Le Reste, Jean Yves; Foreva, Gergana H; Mileva, Daniela S; Czachowski, Slawomir; Sowinska, Agnieszka; Nabbe, Patrice; Argyriadou, Stella; Lazic, Djurdjica; Hasaganic, Melida; Lingner, Heidrun; Lygidakis, Harris; Muñoz, Miguel-Angel; Claveria, Ana; Doerr, Chista; Van Marwijk, Harm; Van Royen, Paul; Lietard, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Multimorbidity is a health issue with growing importance. During the last few decades the populations of most countries in the world have been ageing rapidly. Bulgaria is affected by the issue because of the high prevalence of ageing population in the country with multiple chronic conditions. The AIM of the present study was to validate the translated definition of multimorbidity from English into the Bulgarian language. The present study is part of an international project involving 8 national groups. We performed a forward and backward translation of the original English definition of multimorbidity using a Delphi consensus procedure. The physicians involved accepted the definition with a high percentage of agreement in the first round. The backward translation was accepted by the scientific committee using the Nominal group technique. Some of the GPs provided comments on the linguistic expressions which arose in order to improve understanding in Bulgarian. The remarks were not relevant to the content. The conclusion of the discussion, using a meta-ethnographic approach, was that the differences were acceptable and no further changes were required. A native version of the published English multimorbidity definition has been finalized. This definition is a prerequisite for better management of multimorbidity by clinicians, researchers and policy makers.

  4. Spanish-Language Consumer Health Information Technology Interventions: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaet, Alexis V; Morshedi, Bijan; Wells, Kristen J; Barnes, Laura E; Valdez, Rupa

    2016-08-10

    As consumer health information technology (IT) becomes more thoroughly integrated into patient care, it is critical that these tools are appropriate for the diverse patient populations whom they are intended to serve. Cultural differences associated with ethnicity are one aspect of diversity that may play a role in user-technology interactions. Our aim was to evaluate the current scope of consumer health IT interventions targeted to the US Spanish-speaking Latino population and to characterize these interventions in terms of technological attributes, health domains, cultural tailoring, and evaluation metrics. A narrative synthesis was conducted of existing Spanish-language consumer health IT interventions indexed within health and computer science databases. Database searches were limited to English-language articles published between January 1990 and September 2015. Studies were included if they detailed an assessment of a patient-centered electronic technology intervention targeting health within the US Spanish-speaking Latino population. Included studies were required to have a majority Latino population sample. The following were extracted from articles: first author's last name, publication year, population characteristics, journal domain, health domain, technology platform and functionality, available languages of intervention, US region, cultural tailoring, intervention delivery location, study design, and evaluation metrics. We included 42 studies in the review. Most of the studies were published between 2009 and 2015 and had a majority percentage of female study participants. The mean age of participants ranged from 15 to 68. Interventions most commonly focused on urban population centers and within the western region of the United States. Of articles specifying a technology domain, computer was found to be most common; however, a fairly even distribution across all technologies was noted. Cancer, diabetes, and child, infant, or maternal health were the

  5. The Relationship of Korean Students' Age and Years of English-as-a-Foreign-Language Exposure with English-Reading Ability: A Cross-Age Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Jill; Stenner, A. Jackson; Sanford-Moore, Eleanor E.; Koons, Heather; Bowen, Kimberly; Kim, Kee Hyung

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present cross-age study with South Korean students was to investigate the relationship of age and years of English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) exposure with English-reading ability. The main research question was, "Do individuals' age and number of years of English exposure interact in relation to English-reading…

  6. Understanding Legitimate Teacher Authority in a Cross-Cultural Teaching Context: Pre-Service Chinese Language Teachers Undertaking Teaching Practicum in International Schools in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chun; Gu, Mingyue; Hu, Jingjing

    2015-01-01

    Legitimate teacher authority is fundamental to effective teaching, but is often a thorny issue that teachers need to grapple with when teaching in cross-cultural teaching contexts. By interviewing 18 pre-service Chinese language teachers on their understanding of legitimate teacher authority throughout teaching practicum at international schools…

  7. Exploiting multiple sources of information in learning an artificial language: human data and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perruchet, Pierre; Tillmann, Barbara

    2010-03-01

    This study investigates the joint influences of three factors on the discovery of new word-like units in a continuous artificial speech stream: the statistical structure of the ongoing input, the initial word-likeness of parts of the speech flow, and the contextual information provided by the earlier emergence of other word-like units. Results of an experiment conducted with adult participants show that these sources of information have strong and interactive influences on word discovery. The authors then examine the ability of different models of word segmentation to account for these results. PARSER (Perruchet & Vinter, 1998) is compared to the view that word segmentation relies on the exploitation of transitional probabilities between successive syllables, and with the models based on the Minimum Description Length principle, such as INCDROP. The authors submit arguments suggesting that PARSER has the advantage of accounting for the whole pattern of data without ad-hoc modifications, while relying exclusively on general-purpose learning principles. This study strengthens the growing notion that nonspecific cognitive processes, mainly based on associative learning and memory principles, are able to account for a larger part of early language acquisition than previously assumed. Copyright © 2009 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  8. A core avenue for transcultural research on dementia: on the cross-linguistic generalization of language-related effects in Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Noelia; Ibáñez, Agustín; Muñoz, Edinson; García, Adolfo M

    2018-06-01

    Language is a key source of cross-cultural variability, which may have both subtle and major effects on neurocognition. However, this issue has been largely overlooked in two flourishing lines of research assessing the relationship between language-related neural systems and dementia. This paper assesses the limitations of the evidence on (i) the neuroprotective effects of bilingualism in Alzheimer's disease and (ii) specific language deficits as markers of Parkinson's disease. First, we outline the rationale behind each line of research. Second, we review available evidence and discuss the potential impact of cross-linguistic factors. Third, we outline ideas to foster progress in both fields and, with it, in cross-cultural neuroscience at large. On the one hand, studies on bilingualism suggest that sustained use of more than one language may protect against Alzheimer's disease symptoms. On the other hand, insights from the embodied cognition framework point to syntactic and action-verb deficits as early (and even preclinical) markers of Parkinson's disease. However, both fields share a key limitation that lies at the heart of cultural neuroscience: the issue of cross-linguistic generalizability. Relevant evidence for both research trends comes from only a handful of (mostly Indo-European) languages, which are far from capturing the full scope of structural and typological diversity of the linguistic landscape worldwide. This raises questions on the external validity of reported findings. Greater collaboration between linguistic typology and cognitive neuroscience seems crucial as a first step to assess the impact of transcultural differences on language-related effects across neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Language Specific Listening of Japanese Geminate Consonants: Cross-linguistic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makiko eSadakata

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Various aspects of linguistic experience influence the way we segment, represent, and process speech signals. The Japanese phonetic and orthographic systems represent geminate consonants (double consonants, e.g. /ss/, /kk/ in a unique way compared to other languages: one abstract representation is used to characterize the first part of geminate consonants despite the acoustic difference between two distinct realizations of geminate consonants (silence in the case of e.g. stop consonants and elongation in the case of fricative consonants. The current study tests this discrepancy between abstract representations and acoustic realizations influences how native speakers of Japanese perceive geminate consonants. The experiments used pseudo words containing either the geminate consonant /ss/ or a manipulated version in which the first part was replaced by silence /_s/. The sound /_s/ is acoustically similar to /ss/, yet does not occur in everyday speech. Japanese listeners demonstrated a bias to group these two types into the same category while Italian and Dutch listeners distinguished them. The results thus confirmed that distinguishing fricative geminate consonants with silence from those with sustained frication is not crucial for Japanese native listening. Based on this observation, we propose that native speakers of Japanese tend to segment geminated consonants into two parts and that the first portion of fricative geminates is perceptually similar to a silent duration. This representation is compatible with both Japanese orthography and phonology. Unlike previous studies that were inconclusive in how native speakers segment geminate consonants, our study demonstrated relatively strong effect of Japanese specific listening. Thus the current experimental methods may open up new lines of investigation into the relationship between development of phonological representation, orthography and speech perception.

  10. A Cross-Cultural Investigation of Gender-Bound Language Use in Turkish and English Plays: Implications for Foreign Language Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genc, Zubeyde Sinem; Armagan, Kiymet Selin

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate gender-bound language use in Turkish and English languages and to identify the differences and similarities across cultures and genders in the plays with family and social themes. Four English and five Turkish plays were chosen randomly for comparison. The number of words in the plays were taken into…

  11. Morphological Family Size Effects in Young First and Second Language Learners: Evidence of Cross-Language Semantic Activation in Visual Word Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zeeuw, Marlies; Verhoeven, Ludo; Schreuder, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This study examined to what extent young second language (L2) learners showed morphological family size effects in L2 word recognition and whether the effects were grade-level related. Turkish-Dutch bilingual children (L2) and Dutch (first language, L1) children from second, fourth, and sixth grade performed a Dutch lexical decision task on words…

  12. Supporting Youth Boundary Crossing – Intertextuality as a Component of Design for Information and Visual Literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Radcliff Clark

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article charts attempts to derive a theoretically guided approach to engaging children in boundary crossing toward literacies and practices associated with the Age of Information. Using Fifth Dimension (5D afterschool programs as laboratories for informal learning design, interventions were designed to explore the extent to which youth cultures and literacies can be used as intertextual gateways to more educative practices associated with visual and information literacy. Intertextuality is introduced as a concept to consider the relevance of using semantic relationships between popular and educative texts to inform learning design for afterschool programming.

  13. Mutual Information in Frequency and Its Application to Measure Cross-Frequency Coupling in Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malladi, Rakesh; Johnson, Don H.; Kalamangalam, Giridhar P.; Tandon, Nitin; Aazhang, Behnaam

    2018-06-01

    We define a metric, mutual information in frequency (MI-in-frequency), to detect and quantify the statistical dependence between different frequency components in the data, referred to as cross-frequency coupling and apply it to electrophysiological recordings from the brain to infer cross-frequency coupling. The current metrics used to quantify the cross-frequency coupling in neuroscience cannot detect if two frequency components in non-Gaussian brain recordings are statistically independent or not. Our MI-in-frequency metric, based on Shannon's mutual information between the Cramer's representation of stochastic processes, overcomes this shortcoming and can detect statistical dependence in frequency between non-Gaussian signals. We then describe two data-driven estimators of MI-in-frequency: one based on kernel density estimation and the other based on the nearest neighbor algorithm and validate their performance on simulated data. We then use MI-in-frequency to estimate mutual information between two data streams that are dependent across time, without making any parametric model assumptions. Finally, we use the MI-in- frequency metric to investigate the cross-frequency coupling in seizure onset zone from electrocorticographic recordings during seizures. The inferred cross-frequency coupling characteristics are essential to optimize the spatial and spectral parameters of electrical stimulation based treatments of epilepsy.

  14. An Analysis of Language Code Used by the Cross- Married Couples, Banjarese- Javanese Ethnics: A Case Study in South Kalimantan Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Supiani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to describe the use of language code applied by the participants and to find out the factors influencing the choice of language codes. This research is qualitative research that describe the use of language code in the cross married couples. The data are taken from the discourses about language code phenomena dealing with the cross- married couples, Banjarese- Javanese ethnics in Tanah Laut regency South Kalimantan, Indonesia. The conversations occur in the family and social life such as between a husband and a wife, a father and his son/daughter, a mother and her son/daughter, a husband and his friends, a wife and her neighbor, and so on. There are 23 data observed and recoded by the researcher based on a certain criteria. Tanah Laut regency is chosen as a purposive sample where this regency has many different ethnics so that they do cross cultural marriage for example between Banjarese- Javanese ethnics. Findings reveal that mostly the cross married couple used code mixing and code switching in their conversation of daily activities. Code mixing is uttered by Javanese father or mother to their children. Mixed codes are used namely Banjarese+Javanese+Indonesian. Meanwhile, code switching occurs when there is another factor or a new participant who join in the discourse. The codes change from Banjarese to Indonesian codes or Javanese to Indonesian codes due to new participant who involve himself/herself in the dialogue. The influential factors are situational factors, the environment (neighborhood, relative status, and ethnicity. Keywords: Language codes, Cross- married couples, Banjarese and Javanese ethics, Dialects

  15. The development of a corpus-informed list of formulaic sequences for language pedagogy

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Discussion around the importance and prevalence of multiword expressions in the lexicon and the teaching of vocabulary has existed for a number of years in applied linguistics (e. g. lrujo, 1986; Pawley and Syder, 1983; Sinclair, 1987; Wray, 2002). While there seems to be a general agreement among scholars that formulaic language should feature in language learning and, perhaps to a lesser extent, language testing, there appears to be rather less agreement when it comes to how to select and/o...

  16. Healthcare System Information at Language Schools for Newly Arrived Immigrants: A Pertinent Setting in Times of Austerity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynell, Lena Lyngholt; Wimmelmann, Camilla Lawaetz; Jervelund, Signe Smith

    2017-01-01

    Objective: In most European countries, immigrants do not systematically learn about the host countries' healthcare system when arriving. This study investigated how newly arrived immigrants perceived the information they received about the Danish healthcare system. Methods: Immigrants attending a language school in Copenhagen in 2012 received…

  17. Animacy or case marker order?: priority information for online sentence comprehension in a head-final language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Satoru; Takahashi, Kei; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that case marker information and animacy information are incrementally used to comprehend sentences in head-final languages. However, it is still unclear how these two kinds of information are processed when they are in competition in a sentence's surface expression. The current study used sentences conveying the potentiality of some event (henceforth, potential sentences) in the Japanese language with theoretically canonical word order (dative-nominative/animate-inanimate order) and with scrambled word order (nominative-dative/inanimate-animate order). In Japanese, nominative-first case order and animate-inanimate animacy order are preferred to their reversed patterns in simplex sentences. Hence, in these potential sentences, case information and animacy information are in competition. The experiment consisted of a self-paced reading task testing two conditions (that is, canonical and scrambled potential sentences). Forty-five native speakers of Japanese participated. In our results, the canonical potential sentences showed a scrambling cost at the second argument position (the nominative argument). This result indicates that the theoretically scrambled case marker order (nominative-dative) is processed as a mentally canonical case marker order, suggesting that case information is used preferentially over animacy information when the two are in competition. The implications of our findings are discussed with regard to incremental simplex sentence comprehension models for head-final languages.

  18. Parent-Adolescent Cross-Informant Agreement in Clinically Referred Samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rescorla, Leslie A; Ewing, Grace; Ivanova, Masha Y

    2017-01-01

    To conduct international comparisons of parent-adolescent cross-informant agreement in clinical samples, we analyzed ratings on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Youth Self-Report (YSR) for 6,762 clinically referred adolescents ages 11-18 from 7 societies (M = 14.5 years, SD = 2.0 years; 51...

  19. Translation Resources, Merging Strategies and Relevance Feedback for Cross-language Information Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Carol; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Kraaij, Wessel; Pohlmann, Renée; Westerveld, T.H.W.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the official runs of the Twenty-One group for the first CLEF workshop. The Twenty-One group participated in the monolingual, bilingual and multilingual tasks. The following new techniques are introduced in this paper. In the bilingual task we experimented with different methods

  20. Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Validation of the Back Beliefs Questionnaire to the Arabic Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamrani, Samia; Alsobayel, Hana; Alnahdi, Ali H; Moloney, Niamh; Mackey, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Translation, cross-cultural adaptation, and psychometric testing. To translate the Back Beliefs Questionnaire (BBQ) into Arabic and investigate its psychometric properties in an Arabic-speaking sample of individuals with low back pain (LBP). Back pain beliefs are associated with pain chronicity and disability in people with LBP. The BBQ is a recognized and frequently used tool for measuring these beliefs. To date the BBQ has not been translated into Arabic. The English version of the BBQ was translated and culturally adapted into Arabic (BBQ-Ar) according to published guidelines. The BBQ-Ar was then tested in a sample of 115 Arabic-speaking individuals with LBP. Reliability was evaluated through internal consistency (Cronbach α) and test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient), the latter in a subgroup of 25. Construct validity was assessed using exploratory factor analysis and by examining the correlation between the BBQ-Ar, the Oswestry Disability Index and a Numerical Pain Rating Scale. Internal consistency of the BBQ-Ar was good (Cronbach α = 0.77). Test-retest reliability was good (intraclass correlation coefficient [2,1] = 0.88). Exploratory factor analysis revealed a three-factor structure, explaining 46% of total variance, with the first factor alone explaining 24%. Eight of the nine scoring items were loaded on the first factor thus forming a unidimensional scale. A significant negative correlation was found between Oswestry Disability Index and BBQ-Ar scores (r = -0.307; P < 0.01), whereas no significant correlation was found between BBQ-Ar and Pain Rating Scale scores. No floor or celling effects were observed. The BBQ-Ar is a valid and reliable tool that can be used to assess back pain beliefs in Arabic-speaking individuals. N/A.

  1. A Debate over the Teaching of a Legacy Programming Language in an Information Technology (IT) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Azad; Smith, David

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a debate between two faculty members regarding the teaching of the legacy programming course (COBOL) in a Computer Science (CS) program. Among the two faculty members, one calls for the continuation of teaching this language and the other calls for replacing it with another modern language. Although CS programs are notorious…

  2. Electrophysiology of Perception and Processing of Phonological Information as Indices of Toddlers' Language Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Vanessa; Preston, Jonathan; Grela, Bernard; Roy, Dooti; Harold, Olivia; Turcios, Jacqueline; Andrada, Kiyomi; Landi, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The toddler years are a critical period for language development and growth. We investigated how event-related potentials (ERPs) to repeated and novel nonwords are associated with clinical assessments of language in young children. In addition, nonword repetition (NWR) was used to measure phonological working memory to determine the…

  3. Finding One's Path into Another Language: On the Expression of Boundary Crossing by English Learners of French

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Henriette; Hickmann, Maya

    2015-01-01

    Languages vary considerably in how they represent motion. One major source of variation (Talmy, 2000) depends on whether linguistic systems lexicalize path in the verb (verb-framed languages) or in satellites (satellite-framed languages). This typological difference involves more than different verb types in that it also affects elements outside…

  4. Children's attention to task-relevant information accounts for relations between language and spatial cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Hilary E; Simmering, Vanessa R

    2018-08-01

    Children's spatial language reliably predicts their spatial skills, but the nature of this relation is a source of debate. This investigation examined whether the mechanisms accounting for such relations are specific to language use or reflect a domain-general mechanism of selective attention. Experiment 1 examined whether 4-year-olds' spatial skills were predicted by their selective attention or their adaptive language use. Children completed (a) an attention task assessing attention to task-relevant color, size, and location cues; (b) a description task assessing adaptive language use to describe scenes varying in color, size, and location; and (c) three spatial tasks. There was correspondence between the cue types that children attended to and produced across description and attention tasks. Adaptive language use was predicted by both children's attention and task-related language production, suggesting that selective attention underlies skills in using language adaptively. After controlling for age, gender, receptive vocabulary, and adaptive language use, spatial skills were predicted by children's selective attention. The attention score predicted variance in spatial performance previously accounted for by adaptive language use. Experiment 2 followed up on the attention task (Experiment 2a) and description task (Experiment 2b) from Experiment 1 to assess whether performance in the tasks related to selective attention or task-specific demands. Performance in Experiments 2a and 2b paralleled that in Experiment 1, suggesting that the effects in Experiment 1 reflected children's selective attention skills. These findings show that selective attention is a central factor supporting spatial skill development that could account for many effects previously attributed to children's language use. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Injury-Psychological Readiness to Return to Sport scale to Persian language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghdi, Soofia; Nakhostin Ansari, Noureddin; Farhadi, Yasaman; Ebadi, Safoora; Entezary, Ebrahim; Glazer, Douglas

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop and provide validation statistics for the Persian Injury-Psychological Readiness to Return to Sport scale (I-PRRS) following a cross-sectional and prospective cohort study design. The I-PRRS was forward/back-translated and culturally adapted into Persian language. The Persian I-PRRS was administered to 100 injured athletes (93 male; age 26.0 ± 5.6 years; time since injury 4.84 ± 6.4 months) and 50 healthy athletes (36 male; mean age 25.7 ± 6.0 years). The Persian I-PRRS was re-administered to 50 injured athletes at 1 week to examine test-retest reliability. There were no floor or ceiling effects confirming the content validity of Persian I-PRRS. The internal consistency reliability was good. Excellent test-retest reliability and agreement were demonstrated. The statistically significant difference in Persian I-PRRS total scores between the injured athletes and healthy athletes provides an evidence of discriminative validity. The Persian I-PRRS total scores were positively correlated with the Farsi Mood Scale (FARMS) total scores, showing construct validity. The principal component analysis indicated a two-factor solution consisting of "Confidence to play" and "Confidence in the injured body part and skill level". The Persian I-PRRS showed excellent reliability and validity and can be used to assess injured athletes' psychological readiness to return to sport among Persian-speaking populations.

  6. Utilizing Cross-Layer Information to Improve Performance in JPEG2000 Decoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Persson

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We focus on wireless multimedia communication and investigate how cross-layer information can be used to improve performance at the application layer, using JPEG2000 as an example. The cross-layer information is in the form of soft information from the physical layer. The soft information, which is supplied by a soft decision demodulator, yields reliability measures for the received bits and is fed into two soft input iterative JPEG2000 image decoders. When errors are detected with the error detecting mechanisms in JPEG2000, the decoders utilize the soft information to point out likely transmission errors. Hence, the decoders can correct errors and increase the image quality without making time-consuming retransmissions. We believe that the proposed decoding method utilizing soft information is suitable for a general IP-based network and that it keeps the principles of a layered structure of the protocol stack intact. Further, experimental results with images transmitted over a simulated wireless channel show that a simple decoding algorithm that utilizes soft information can give high gains in image quality compared to the standard hard-decision decoding.

  7. Revise and Re-evaluate Cross Cultural Understanding Curriculum at Akademi Bahasa Asing Balikpapan (Foriegn Language Academy of Balikpapan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachmi Sari Baso

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The study is about the project to revise and re-evaluate the unit of Cross Cultural Understanding curriculum which is taught in the Akademi Bahasa Asing Ballikpapan. The unit is for fifth semester students. The project aimed to provide students' perspectives of cross cultural differences in the workplace with the materials and knowledge that suitable for workplace demands. The information was gained by distributing questionnaires to 2 teachers and 2 employers of multinational companies in Balikpapan. The investigations for teachers were focused on the content, learning activities and materials of the current curriculum. The investigations for the employers were focused on their perspectives on the cross cultural understanding taught in the higher education. The project used Nicholls' cycle model that will be a useful tool to regularly evaluate curriculum based on the situational analysis. As the result, there were some of materials of American business cultural encounter should be revised to meet the companies demands and additional table manners in cultural perspectives should be included in the curriculum. Therefore, the new curriculum will be applied by these materials as the demands of the workplace.

  8. The value of information in explicit cross-border capacity auction regimes in electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, Jan; Viehmann, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    We study two electricity markets connected by a fixed amount of cross-border capacity. The total amount of capacity is known to all electricity traders and allocated via an auction. The capacity allocated to each bidder in the auction remains private information. We assume that traders are faced with a demand function reflecting the relationship between electricity transmitted between the markets and the spot price difference. Therefore, traders act like Bayesian–Cournot oligopolists in exercising their transmission rights when presented with incomplete information about the competitors’ capacities. Our analysis breaks down the welfare effect into three different components: Cournot behavior, capacity constraints, and incomplete information. We find that social welfare increases with the level of information with which traders are endowed. - Highlights: • We regard the utilization of explicitly auctioned cross-border capacities in electricity markets as a Bayesian Cournot game. • We analyze social welfare and find three forces diminishing it, (1) firms play a cournot game, (2) the presence of capacity constraints, (3) incomplete information. • We derive information regimes from “real world” examples and analyze their effect on social welfare

  9. The role of verbal and pictorial information in multimodal incidental acquisition of foreign language vocabulary

    OpenAIRE

    Bisson, Marie-Josée; Van Heuven, Walter J.B.; Conklin, Kathy; Tunney, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    This study used eye tracking to investigate the allocation of attention to multimodal stimuli during an incidental learning situation, as well as its impact on subsequent explicit learning. Participants were exposed to foreign language (FL) auditory words on their own, in conjunction with written native language (NL) translations, or with both written NL translations and pictures. Incidental acquisition of FL words was assessed the following day through an explicit learning task where partici...

  10. A cross-linguistic study of real-word and non-word repetition as predictors of grammatical competence in children with typical language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dispaldro, Marco; Deevy, Patricia; Altoé, Gianmarco; Benelli, Beatrice; Leonard, Laurence B

    2011-01-01

    Although relationships among non-word repetition, real-word repetition and grammatical ability have been documented, it is important to study whether the specific nature of these relationships is tied to the characteristics of a given language. The aim of this study is to explore the potential cross-linguistic differences (Italian and English) in the relationship among non-word repetition, real-word repetition, and grammatical ability in three-and four-year-old children with typical language development. To reach this goal, two repetition tasks (one real-word list and one non-word list for each language) were used. In Italian the grammatical categories were the third person plural inflection and the direct-object clitic pronouns, while in English they were the third person singular present tense inflection and the past tense in regular and irregular forms. A cross-linguistic comparison showed that in both Italian and English, non-word repetition was a significant predictor of grammatical ability. However, performance on real-word repetition explained children's grammatical ability in Italian but not in English. Abilities underlying non-word repetition performance (e.g., the processing and/or storage of phonological material) play an important role in the development of children's grammatical abilities in both languages. Lexical ability (indexed by real-word repetition) showed a close relationship to grammatical ability in Italian but not in English. Implications of the findings are discussed in terms of cross-linguistic differences, genetic research, clinical intervention and methodological issues. © 2011 Royal College of Speech & Language Therapists.

  11. Discussing empirical research on the language and culture relationship to inform English as an additional/foreign language pedagogy and teacher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Gil

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In spite of the existence of a substantial body of theoretical literature that deals with the intersection of language and culture in the field of English as a foreign/additional (EA/FL language teaching and learning, there are very few empirical studies that investigate this issue with real teachers and learners. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to review some of those empirical studies with a view to informing additional/foreign language pedagogy and teacher education.  For that, the paper, first, summarizes some of the main theoretical issues by discussing the different ways in which the relationship of language and culture has been subjacent to EA/FL pedagogies. Then, the paper shows that there are three different types of language-and-culture-related empirical studies: on coursebooks, on teacher cognition, and on classroom interaction and teacher cognition. A review of these types of studies is made by discussing their main findings. Finally, the paper brings about some implications for the field from the findings of the empirical studies and proposes some topics for further research. Key-words: Culture and language relation. English as an additional/foreign language. Empirical studies.   Resumo Apesar da existência de uma vasta literatura teórica que lida com a interseção entre língua e cultura na área de ensino e aprendizagem do inglês como língua adicional/estrangeira (LA/E, existem poucos estudos empíricos que investigam essa questão com professores e alunos reais. Portanto, o objetivo deste trabalho é revisar alguns desses estudos empíricos com o intuito de contribuir com a pedagogia e a formação de professores de inglês como LA/E. Para isso este trabalho, em primeiro lugar, resume algumas das principais questões teóricas, discutindo as diferentes maneiras em que a relação entre língua e cultura tem subjazido às pedagogias do Inglês como LA/E.  Em seguida, o trabalho mostra que há três tipos

  12. Multi-language translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the OARSI/OMERACT measure of intermittent and constant osteoarthritis pain (ICOAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillefert, J F; Kloppenburg, M; Fernandes, L; Punzi, L; Günther, K-P; Martin Mola, E; Lohmander, L S; Pavelka, K; Lopez-Olivo, M A; Dougados, M; Hawker, G A

    2009-10-01

    To conduct a multi-language translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Intermittent and Constant OsteoArthritis Pain (ICOAP) questionnaire for hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA). The questionnaires were translated and cross-culturally adapted in parallel, using a common protocol, into the following languages: Czech, Dutch, French (France), German, Italian, Norwegian, Spanish (Castillan), North and Central American Spanish, Swedish. The process was conducted following five steps: (1)--independent translation into the target language by two or three persons; (2)--consensus meeting to obtain a single preliminary translated version; (3)--backward translation by an independent bilingual native English speaker, blinded to the English original version; (4)--final version produced by a multidisciplinary consensus committee; (5)--pre-testing of the final version with 10-20 target-language-native hip and knee OA patients. The process could be followed and completed in all countries. Only slight differences were identified in the structure of the sentences between the original and the translated versions. A large majority of the patients felt that the questionnaire was easy to understand and complete. Only a few minor criticisms were expressed. Moreover, a majority of patients found the concepts of constant pain and pain that comes and goes to be of a great pertinence and were very happy with the distinction. The ICOAP questionnaire is now available for multi-center international studies.

  13. Quality of online information on type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weymann, Nina; Härter, Martin; Dirmaier, Jörg

    2015-12-01

    Evidence-based health information is a prerequisite for patients with type 2 diabetes to engage in self-management and to make informed medical decisions. The Internet is an important source of health information. In the present study, we systematically assessed formal quality, quality of decision support and usability of German and English language websites on type 2 diabetes. The search term 'type 2 diabetes' was entered in the two most popular search engines. Descriptive data on website quality are presented. Additionally, associations between website quality and affiliation (commercial vs. non-commercial), presence of the HON code quality seal and website traffic were explored. Forty-six websites were included. Most websites provided basic information necessary for decision-making, while only one website also provided decision support. Websites with a HON code had significantly better formal quality than websites without HON code. We found a highly significant correlation between usability and website traffic and a significant correlation between formal quality and website traffic. Most websites do not provide sufficient information to support patients in medical decision-making. Our finding that usability and website traffic are tightly associated is consistent with previous research indicating that design is the most important cue for users assessing website credibility. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Cancer Information Seeking Among Adult New Zealanders: a National Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Rosalina; McNoe, Bronwen; Iosua, Ella; Reeder, Anthony; Egan, Richard; Marsh, Louise; Robertson, Lindsay; Maclennan, Brett; Dawson, Anna; Quigg, Robin; Petersen, Anne-Cathrine

    2018-06-01

    Organisations seeking to establish themselves as leading cancer information sources for the public need to understand patterns and motivators for information seeking. This study describes cancer information seeking among New Zealanders through a national cross-sectional survey conducted in 2014/15 with a population-based sample of adults (18 years and over). Participants were asked if they had sought information about cancer during the past 12 months, the type of information they sought, what prompted them to look for information and ways of getting information they found helpful. Telephone interviews were completed by 1064 participants (588 females, 476 males, 64% response rate). Of these, 33.8% of females and 23.3% of males (total, 29.2%) had searched for information about cancer over the past year. A search was most frequently prompted by a cancer diagnosis of a family member or friend (43.3%), a desire to educate themselves (17.5%), experience of potential symptoms or a positive screening test (9.4%), family history of cancer (8.9%) or the respondent's own cancer diagnosis (7.7%). Across the cancer control spectrum, the information sought was most commonly about treatment and survival (20.2%), symptoms/early detection (17.2%) or risk factors (14.2%), although many were general or non-specific queries (50.0%). The internet was most commonly identified as a helpful source of information (71.7%), followed by health professionals (35.8%), and reading material (e.g. books, pamphlets) (14.7%).This study provides a snapshot of cancer information seeking in New Zealand, providing valuable knowledge to help shape resource delivery to better meet the diverse needs of information seekers and address potential unmet needs, where information seeking is less prevalent.

  15. An activity theory analysis of boundary objects in cross-border information systems development for disaster management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bharosa, N.; Lee, J.; Janssen, M.; Rao, H.R.

    2012-01-01

    One of the main challenges in cross-border disaster management is the development and use of information systems that cater the needs of heterogeneous relief agencies, policies, activities and cultures. Drawing upon activity theory, this paper examines cross-border information systems development

  16. Approach--avoidance motivation and information processing: a cross-cultural analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamura, Takeshi; Meijer, Zita; Heine, Steven J; Kamaya, Kengo; Hori, Izumi

    2009-04-01

    Much recent research suggests that North Americans more frequently experience approach motivations and East Asians more frequently experience avoidance motivations. The current research explores some cognitive implications of this cultural difference. North Americans should be more attentive to approach-oriented information, whereas East Asians should be more attentive to avoidance-oriented information. Three studies confirmed this hypothesis. When asked to recall information framed in either approach or avoidance terms, a predicted interaction between culture and information frame was observed (Study 1 and 2). Moreover, analyses of consumer book reviews found that among reviews that were rated as helpful, approach-focused content was more prevalent in American reviews compared to Japanese reviews, in which avoidance-focused content was more prevalent (Study 3). Findings from the current research add to the growing literature of cross-cultural research on approach-avoidance motivations.

  17. Building Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Glossary Contact Information Information For… Media Policy Makers Building Languages Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Communicating ... any speech and only very loud sounds. Close × “Building Blocks” “Building Blocks” refers to the different skills ...

  18. Cross-cultural differences in beliefs and practices that affect the language spoken to children: mothers with Indian and Western heritage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Noreen; Johnston, Judith

    2007-01-01

    Speech-language pathologists often advise families about interaction patterns that will facilitate language learning. This advice is typically based on research with North American families of European heritage and may not be culturally suited for non-Western families. The goal of the project was to identify differences in the beliefs and practices of Indian and Euro-Canadian mothers that would affect patterns of talk to children. A total of 47 Indian mothers and 51 Euro-Canadian mothers of preschool age children completed a written survey concerning child-rearing practices and beliefs, especially those about talk to children. Discriminant analyses indicated clear cross-cultural differences and produced functions that could predict group membership with a 96% accuracy rate. Items contributing most to these functions concerned the importance of family, perceptions of language learning, children's use of language in family and society, and interactions surrounding text. Speech-language pathologists who wish to adapt their services for families of Indian heritage should remember the centrality of the family, the likelihood that there will be less emphasis on early independence and achievement, and the preference for direct instruction.

  19. Quality assessment of structure and language elements of written responses given by seven Scandinavian drug information centres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reppe, Linda Amundstuen; Spigset, Olav; Kampmann, Jens Peter

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to identify structure and language elements affecting the quality of responses from Scandinavian drug information centres (DICs). METHODS: Six different fictitious drug-related queries were sent to each of seven Scandinavian DICs. The centres were blinded for wh...... on drug-related queries with respect to language and text structure. Giving specific advice and precise conclusions and avoiding too compressed language and non-standard abbreviations may aid to reach this goal....... of responses was generally judged as satisfactory to good. Presenting specific advice and conclusions were considered to improve the quality of the responses. However, small nuances in language formulations could affect the individual judgments of the experts, e.g. on whether or not advice was given. Some...... and explaining pharmacological terms to ensure that enquirers understand the response as intended. In addition, more use of active voice and less compressed text structure would be desirable. CONCLUSIONS: This evaluation of responses to DIC queries may give some indications on how to improve written responses...

  20. Cross-Linguistic Transfer Effects after Phonologically Based Cognate Therapy in a Case of Multilingual Specific Language Impairment (SLI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambanaros, Maria; Michaelides, Michalis; Grohmann, Kleanthes K.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Clinicians globally recognize as exceptionally challenging the development of effective intervention practices for bi- or multilingual children with specific language impairment (SLI). Therapy in both or all of an impaired child's languages is rarely possible. An alternative is to develop treatment protocols that facilitate the…

  1. A Systematic Review of Cross-Linguistic and Multilingual Speech and Language Outcomes for Children with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Kathryn; McLeod, Sharynne

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to systematically review the factors affecting the language, speech intelligibility, speech production, and lexical tone development of children with hearing loss who use spoken languages other than English. Relevant studies of children with hearing loss published between 2000 and 2011 were reviewed with reference to…

  2. English Phonological Awareness in Bilinguals: A Cross-Linguistic Study of Tamil, Malay and Chinese English-Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, L. Quentin; Chuang, Hui-Kai; Quiroz, Blanca

    2012-01-01

    To test the lexical restructuring hypothesis among bilingual English-language learners, English phonological awareness (PA), English vocabulary and ethnic language vocabulary (Mandarin Chinese, Malay or Tamil) were assessed among 284 kindergarteners (168 Chinese, 71 Malays and 45 Tamils) in Singapore. A multi-level regression analysis showed that…

  3. [Health Information Behavior of the South Tyrolean Population: An Epidemiological Cross-Sectional Study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vögele, Anna; Becker, Ulrich; Gögele, Anna; Schneider, Antonius; Engl, Adolf

    2018-06-04

    Investigation of the health information behavior, self-rated health, confidence in health issues and specific attitudes to health among the South Tyrolean population. Our study is an epidemiological cross-sectional study; data were collected via telephone interviews, using a questionnaire developed for this purpose that covered various aspects of information and health-related behavior. For the elaboration of the typology of the most distinctive stereotypes in terms of health information and health-related behavior, a hierarchical cluster analysis was performed. We assessed 504 correct telephone interviews. The majority of the respondents considered themselves health-conscious and preferred heterogeneous information media. The most used information media for health issues were mass media, i. e. newspapers or magazines and television or radio. The internet was used less as a source of information. Younger individuals assessed themselves to be healthier than older people, and older women aged 65 years or more were the most health-impaired group. Respondents had greatest confidence in their general practitioner, their own feeling or experience. Thus, in terms of health information and health behavior, the following four classes of people could be distinguished, namely "internet information elite", "robust fatalists", "stricken" and "health-conscious mainstreamers". Our results show that the South Tyrolean population has a high level of health consciousness and gathers health information from various media. The characterization of different patient typologies of information processing in combination with health-related behavior indicates that information about health and illness should be appropriately addressed to the respective stereotype. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Can Cross-Listing Mitigate the Impact of an Information Security Breach Announcement on a Firm's Values?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Dong, Feng; Chen, Hong; Xu, Li

    2016-08-01

    The increase in globalization in the markets has driven firms to adopt online technologies and to cross-list their stocks. Recent studies have consistently found that the announcements of information security breaches (ISBs) are negatively associated with the market values of the announcing firms during the days surrounding the breach announcements. Given the improvement in firms’ information environments and the better protection for investors generated by cross-listing, does cross-listing help firms to reduce the negative impacts caused by their announcements of ISBs? This paper conducts an event study of 120 publicly traded firms (among which 25 cross-list and 95 do not), in order to explore the answer. The results indicate that the impact of ISB announcements on a firm's stock prices shows no difference between cross-listing firms and non-cross-listing firms. Cross-listing does not mitigate the impact of ISBs announcement on a firm's market value.

  5. Snails in bottles and language cuckoos: an evaluation of patient information resources for South Asians with osteomalacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, A; Johnson, M R D; Guo, F; Adebajo, A

    2009-03-01

    To assess the acceptability for use of information on osteomalacia for South Asian patients. Ten focus groups of South Asian persons speaking Bengali, Gujarati, Hindi, Punjabi and Urdu (one male and one female group for each language) were used to evaluate the written (leaflets) and spoken information (CD) on osteomalacia for South Asian patients produced by the Arthritis Research Campaign (ARC). Focus group discussion was facilitated by community-based workers using the Social Action Research Method. A subsidiary evaluation of the information was conducted by a questionnaire-based survey sent to British Society of Rheumatology/British Health Professionals in Rheumatology (BSR/BHPR) members and others who had requested such materials from ARC in the past. Evaluation by focus groups revealed that there were potential difficulties relating to the understanding of the information leaflets and CDs and problematic issues regarding the quality of translation and pronunciation. Evaluation by BSR/BHPR members and others who had requested such material was that although the information was culturally appropriate, there were some weak areas such as mispronunciation, the quality of translation and specific customs. Healthcare information resources for minority ethnic groups has traditionally been developed depending upon the needs of the community, the language spoken and cultural norms. Such information is regarded as 'culturally sensitive'. However, an additional dimension is required. Information should be evaluated by the community and also specific users in order to determine its acceptability. This test of 'cultural competence' can ensure that such information has real practical value. An iterative evaluation process with feedback and refinement of information resources for minority ethnic groups is essential.

  6. Cross-Language Measurement Equivalence of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale in Systemic Sclerosis: A Comparison of Canadian and Dutch Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwakkenbos, Linda; Arthurs, Erin; van den Hoogen, Frank H. J.; Hudson, Marie; van Lankveld, Wim G. J. M.; Baron, Murray; van den Ende, Cornelia H. M.; Thombs, Brett D.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Increasingly, medical research involves patients who complete outcomes in different languages. This occurs in countries with more than one common language, such as Canada (French/English) or the United States (Spanish/English), as well as in international multi-centre collaborations, which are utilized frequently in rare diseases such as systemic sclerosis (SSc). In order to pool or compare outcomes, instruments should be measurement equivalent (invariant) across cultural or linguistic groups. This study provides an example of how to assess cross-language measurement equivalence by comparing the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale between English-speaking Canadian and Dutch SSc patients. Methods The CES-D was completed by 922 English-speaking Canadian and 213 Dutch SSc patients. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to assess the factor structure in both samples. The Multiple-Indicator Multiple-Cause (MIMIC) model was utilized to assess the amount of differential item functioning (DIF). Results A two-factor model (positive and negative affect) showed excellent fit in both samples. Statistically significant, but small-magnitude, DIF was found for 3 of 20 items on the CES-D. The English-speaking Canadian sample endorsed more feeling-related symptoms, whereas the Dutch sample endorsed more somatic/retarded activity symptoms. The overall estimate in depression scores between English and Dutch was not influenced substantively by DIF. Conclusions CES-D scores from English-speaking Canadian and Dutch SSc patients can be compared and pooled without concern that measurement differences may substantively influence results. The importance of assessing cross-language measurement equivalence in rheumatology studies prior to pooling outcomes obtained in different languages should be emphasized. PMID:23326538

  7. Towards multilingual access to textual databases in natural language

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radwan, Khaled

    1994-01-01

    The Cross-Lingual Information Retrieval system (CLIR) or Multilingual Information Retrieval (MIR) has become the key issue in electronic documents management systems in a multinational environment. We propose here a multilingual information retrieval system consisting of a morpho-syntactic analyser, a transfer system from source language to target language and an information retrieval system. A thorough investigation into the system architecture and the transfer mechanisms is proposed in that report, using two different performance evaluation methods. (author) [fr

  8. Family Literacy and the New Canadian: Formal, Non-Formal and Informal Learning: The Case of Literacy, Essential Skills and Language Learning in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Sarah Elaine

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines literacy and language learning across the lifespan within the context of immigrants in the Canadian context. It explores the process of improving literacy skills and acquiring second or third language skills through the systems of formal, non-formal and informal learning, as defined by the OECD [Organisation for Economic…

  9. The Significance of Language Study in Library and Information Science: A Comparison of Two Programs in the United States and Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Charlotte; Faires, Debbie; Hirsh, Sandra; Carranza, Nítida

    2017-01-01

    This comparative case study evaluated the role of foreign language study within the Library and Information Science (LIS) curriculum of two programs in the United States and Honduras. The purpose of this research was to understand the significance and usefulness of language courses from the perspective of the students enrolled. Students who had…

  10. A cross-linguistic study of real-word and non-word repetition as predictors of grammatical competence in children with typical language development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dispaldro, Marco; Deevy, Patricia; Altoe, Gianmarco; Benelli, Beatrice; Leonard Purdue, Laurence B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Although relationships among non-word repetition, real-word repetition and grammatical ability have been documented, it is important to study whether the specific nature of these relationships is tied to the characteristics of a given language. Aims The aim of this study is to explore the potential cross-linguistic differences (Italian and English) in the relationship among non-word repetition, real-word repetition, and grammatical ability in three- and four-year-old children with typical language development. Methods & Procedures To reach this goal, two repetition tasks (one real-word list and one non-word list for each language) were used. In Italian the grammatical categories were the third person plural inflection and the direct-object clitic pronouns, while in English they were the third person singular present tense inflection and the past tense in regular and irregular forms. Outcomes & Results A cross-linguistic comparison showed that in both Italian and English, non-word repetition was a significant predictor of grammatical ability. However, performance on real-word repetition explained children’s grammatical ability in Italian but not in English. Conclusions & Implications Abilities underlying non-word repetition performance (e.g., the processing and/or storage of phonological material) play an important role in the development of children’s grammatical abilities in both languages. Lexical ability (indexed by real-word repetition) showed a close relationship to grammatical ability in Italian but not in English. Implications of the findings are discussed in terms of cross-linguistic differences, genetic research, clinical intervention and methodological issues. PMID:21899673

  11. Cross Check of the Tax Base in Serbia – Informative Tax Return Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raonić Ivan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The tax system of the Republic of Serbia is characterized by a very low level of income taxation. It is a particularly acute problem in cross-checking the tax base. The legislature tried to solve this problem by the introduction of the informative tax return (IPP. The problem is even greater because the situations encountered have not been analysed in science and tax theory, and very often have not been covered by applicable laws. A specific challenge for the tax authorities represent taxpayers whose incomes are primarily realized abroad (usually persons from the world of entertainment. This paper describes the basic forms of tax offences characteristic of income tax evasion and discusses how to solve them, with a particular focus on the implementation of cross-checking the tax base.

  12. A cross-language study of the speech sounds in Yorùbá and Malay: Implications for Second Language Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boluwaji Oshodi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Acquiring a language begins with the knowledge of its sounds system which falls under the branch of linguistics known as phonetics. The knowledge of the sound system becomes very important to prospective learners particularly L2 learners whose L1 exhibits different sounds and features from the target L2 because this knowledge is vital in order to internalise the correct pronunciation of words. This study examined and contrasted the sound systems of Yorùbá a Niger-Congo language spoken in Nigeria to that of Malay (Peninsular variety, an Austronesian language spoken in Malaysia with emphasis on the areas of differences. The data for this study were collected from ten participants; five native female Malay speakers who are married to Yorùbá native speakers but live in Malaysia and five Yorùbá native speakers who reside in Nigeria. The findings revealed that speakers from both sides have difficulties with sounds and features in the L2 which are not attested in their L1 and they tended to substitute them for similar ones in their L1 through transfer. This confirms the fact that asymmetry between the sound systems of L1 and L2 is a major source of error in L2 acquisition.

  13. Language and Nutrition (Mis)Information: Food Labels, FDA Policies and Meaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Christy Marie

    2013-01-01

    In this dissertation, I address the ways in which food manufacturers can exploit the often vague and ambiguous nature of FDA policies concerning language and images used on food labels. Employing qualitative analysis methods (Strauss, 1987; Denzin and Lincoln, 2003; Mackey and Gass, 2005) that drew upon critical discourse analysis (Fairclough,…

  14. Twenty-One at TREC-8: using Language Technology for Information Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaij, Wessel; Pohlmann, Renée; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Voorhees, E.M; Harman, D.K.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the official runs of the Twenty-One group for TREC-8. The Twenty-One group participated in the Ad-hoc, CLIR, Adaptive Filtering and SDR tracks. The main focus of our experiments is the development and evaluation of retrieval methods that are motivated by natural language

  15. Information Processing and Proactive Interference in Children with and without Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, Klara; Campanelli, Luca; Eichorn, Naomi; Scheuer, Jessica; Yoon, Jungmee

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Increasing evidence suggests that children with specific language impairment (SLI) have a deficit in inhibition control, but research isolating specific abilities is scarce. The goal of this study was to examine whether children with SLI differ from their peers in resistance to proactive interference under different conditions. Method: An…

  16. Language and identity: A case of Igbo language, Nigeria | Igbokwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Language is the most important information and communication characteristics of all the human beings. Language is power ... among the Igbo. The Igbo have embraced foreign languages in place of their mother tongue (Igbo language). This

  17. Developing media and information literacy education to improve foreign language learning : working with Internet resources at advanced levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Górecka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to discuss the relevance of media and information education in language learning at advanced levels. The present paper is based on the empirical data obtained during the action-research conducted with the Romance philology students attending the course of French as a foreign language. The main object of the research is to establish to what degree an oral argumentation task, preceded by the task of planning the discussion on Wiki is considered to be a learning situation by students themselves. The research focuses on a selected aspect of the learning process, namely, on the use of media resources while negotiating the discussion outline and specifically, while negotiating its topic, objectives and its cognitive value. The principal conclusions indicate 1 that the task scenario should be based on the critical and dialogical approach to media and 2 that this kind of instruction can reinforce the argumentative dimension of the discussion.

  18. An analysis of online health information on schizophrenia or related conditions: a cross-sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Around 20% of those who seek health information online, search specifically for mental health. However, little is known about the nature of the online health information offered by two European countries, Finland and Greece, which are characterized by markedly differing levels of Internet access and online health information seeking. This study aims to assess, describe and compare websites, written in two European, non-English languages (Finnish and Greek) that appear first after performing an online search concerning schizophrenia or related conditions. Methods The first 20 results from four search terms (searched in Finnish and Greek) in the Web search engine ‘Google’ were screened. A total of 160 websites were retrieved (80 Finnish, 80 Greek) and evaluated using a preformulated coding system which consisted of websites’ indicators, such as: types, characteristics, accountability, interactivity, aesthetics and content. Differences between websites were evaluated with Chi-Square or Fisher’s Exact tests for categorical data and independent t-tests for parametric data. Results Twenty-four Finnish and thirty-four Greek websites (36% in total) were included. Almost two-thirds (62%, n=36) were owned by an organization, compared to 17% (n=10) by an individual. In both countries, aesthetics had the highest score (possible range 0–4, mean = 2.6, SD = .62), while interactivity the lowest (range 0–5, mean = 1.79, SD = .87). There were no statistically significant differences among the accountability, interactivity and aesthetics scores of the Finnish and Greek websites. Conclusions All assessed indicators suggest there is a need to improve Finnish and Greek online information about schizophrenia or related conditions. The poor website interactivity is of particular concern given the challenges faced by the target group. The findings can be used to guide the development and dissemination of online mental health information aimed at Finnish and Greek

  19. The Semantic Environment: Heuristics for a Cross-Context Human-Information Interaction Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resmini, Andrea; Rosati, Luca

    This chapter introduces a multidisciplinary holistic approach for the general design of successful bridge experiences as a cross-context human-information interaction model. Nowadays it is common to interact through a number of different domains in order to communicate successfully, complete a task, or elicit a desired response: Users visit a reseller’s web site to find a specific item, book it, then drive to the closest store to complete their purchase. As such, one of the crucial challenges user experience design will face in the near future is how to structure and provide bridge experiences seamlessly spanning multiple communication channels or media formats for a specific purpose.

  20. Does more exposure to the language of instruction lead to higher academic achievement? A cross-national examination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agirdag, O.; Vanlaar, G.

    2018-01-01

    Aims and objectives: As some Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) studies claimed that native speaking (NS) students outperform language minority (LMi) students, far-reaching inferences have been drawn by policymakers. However, previous PISA assessments were not appropriate because

  1. Phraseology and Frequency of Occurrence on the Web: Native Speakers' Perceptions of Google-Informed Second Language Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geluso, Joe

    2013-01-01

    Usage-based theories of language learning suggest that native speakers of a language are acutely aware of formulaic language due in large part to frequency effects. Corpora and data-driven learning can offer useful insights into frequent patterns of naturally occurring language to second/foreign language learners who, unlike native speakers, are…

  2. Towards the understanding of the requirements of a communication language to support process interoperation in cross-disciplinary supply chains

    OpenAIRE

    DAS , BISHNU PADA; Young , R I M; Case , K; Rahimifard , S; Anumba , C; Bouchlaghem , N; Cutting Decelle , Anne-Francoise

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Many manufacturing organisations while doing business either directly or indirectly with other industrial sectors often encounter interoperability problems amongst software systems. This increases the business cost and reduces the efficiency. Research communities are exploring ways to reduce this cost. Incompatibility amongst the syntaxes and the semantics of the languages of application systems is the most common cause to this problem. The Process Specification Language (...

  3. The quality of informed consent in Croatia-a cross-sectional study and instrument development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vučemilo, Luka; Milošević, Milan; Dodig, Doris; Grabušić, Bruno; Đapić, Biljana; Borovečki, Ana

    2016-03-01

    To examine the informed consent process implementation and quality in Croatia using a specially developed instrument. A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted in 300 patients (response rate 73%) from six hospitals in Croatia, along with psychometric evaluation of the questionnaire. Signing the informed consent form was a formality for 64% of patients, 54% of patients did not give their written consent, and in 39% of cases physicians made treatment decisions by themselves. The overall informed consent process score was 4.06±0.60 (of 5.00). Physician-patient relationship score was 4.61±0.57, Verbal information 3.99±0.98, Decision making 3.94±0.75, and Written information 3.60±1.42. The overall Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.890. Significant correlations were found in relation to Physician-patient relationship and education levels (OR=0.43, 95% CI=0.18-0.99, p=0.048), and Verbal information and duration of health problems (OR=1.83, 95% CI=1.02-3.25, p=0.041). The developed questionnaire is reliable and valid. The informed consent process quality in Croatia was reasonably high, although insufficient and inadequate written materials represent a weak spot that require enhancement. The study contributes to the development of suitable measuring instrument for assessment of the informed consent process quality in clinical practice. The questionnaire could be of use in the hospital accreditation process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. LANGUAGE EXPERIENCE SHAPES PROCESSING OF PITCH RELEVANT INFORMATION IN THE HUMAN BRAINSTEM AND AUDITORY CORTEX: ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL EVIDENCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Ananthanarayan; Gandour, Jackson T

    2014-12-01

    Pitch is a robust perceptual attribute that plays an important role in speech, language, and music. As such, it provides an analytic window to evaluate how neural activity relevant to pitch undergo transformation from early sensory to later cognitive stages of processing in a well coordinated hierarchical network that is subject to experience-dependent plasticity. We review recent evidence of language experience-dependent effects in pitch processing based on comparisons of native vs. nonnative speakers of a tonal language from electrophysiological recordings in the auditory brainstem and auditory cortex. We present evidence that shows enhanced representation of linguistically-relevant pitch dimensions or features at both the brainstem and cortical levels with a stimulus-dependent preferential activation of the right hemisphere in native speakers of a tone language. We argue that neural representation of pitch-relevant information in the brainstem and early sensory level processing in the auditory cortex is shaped by the perceptual salience of domain-specific features. While both stages of processing are shaped by language experience, neural representations are transformed and fundamentally different at each biological level of abstraction. The representation of pitch relevant information in the brainstem is more fine-grained spectrotemporally as it reflects sustained neural phase-locking to pitch relevant periodicities contained in the stimulus. In contrast, the cortical pitch relevant neural activity reflects primarily a series of transient temporal neural events synchronized to certain temporal attributes of the pitch contour. We argue that experience-dependent enhancement of pitch representation for Chinese listeners most likely reflects an interaction between higher-level cognitive processes and early sensory-level processing to improve representations of behaviorally-relevant features that contribute optimally to perception. It is our view that long

  5. ISO 18629 PSL : A Standardized Language for Specifying and Exchanging Process Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pouchard, Line Catherine [ORNL; Cutting-Decelle, A. F. [University of Loughborough, UK; Michel, Jean-Jacques [IDPICONSEIL; Gruninger, Michael [University of Toronto

    2006-01-01

    As enterprise integration increases, developers face increasingly complex problems related to interoperability. When enterprises collaborate, a common frame of reference or at least a common terminology is necessary for human-to-human, human-to-machine, and machine-to-machine communication. Ontology engineering offers a direction towards solving the inter-operability problems brought about by semantic obstacles related to the definitions of business terms and software classes. Ontology engineering is a set of tasks related to the development of ontologies for a particular domain. This paper is aimed at presenting the approach of ISO 18629, i.e., the Process Specification Language (PSL), to this problem. In the first part, the architecture of the standard is described, with the main features of the language. Then, the problems of the interoperability with PSL and the conformance to the standard are presented. The paper ends with an example showing the use of the standard for interoperability.

  6. Capacity of cognitive radio under imperfect secondary and cross link channel state information

    KAUST Repository

    Sboui, Lokman

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, we study the ergodic capacity of secondary user channel in a spectrum sharing scenario in which the secondary transmitter is instantaneously aware of estimated versions of the cross link (between the secondary transmitter and the primary receiver) and the secondary link Channel State Information (CSI). The secondary link optimal power profile along with the ergodic capacity are derived for a class of fading channels, under an average power constraint and an instantaneous interference outage constraint. We also show that our framework is rather general as it encompasses several previously studied spectrum sharing settings as special cases. In order to gain some insights on the capacity behavior, numerical results are shown for independent Rayleigh fading channels where it is found for instance, that at low SNR regime, only the secondary channel estimation matters and that the cross link CSI has no effect on the ergodic capacity; whereas at high SNR regime, the capacity is rather driven by the cross link CSI. © 2011 IEEE.

  7. Request for information about radiological risks in the health area. A cross-cultural study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prades, A. [Ciemat, Madrid (Spain); Martinez-Arias, R. [Universidad Complutense, Madrid (Spain); Arranz, L. [Hospital Ramon y Cajal, Madrid (Spain); Macias, M.T. [CSIC, Madrid (Spain)

    2000-05-01

    This paper will present some of the key findings of a comparative Latin-American study on radiological risk perception in the health area. The project used a survey method to examine the social demands for information about radiological risks with regard to diagnostic and therapeutic applications. The following topics will be analysed: 1) The role of information as a means for feeling safe; 2) who should inform the public on radiological risks; and 3) what type of information the public would like to receive. A questionnaire was distributed to outpatient samples from ten countries: Argentine, Brazil, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, Peru, Uruguay, and Spain, thanks to the collaboration of the different National Radioprotection Societies of the above mentionned countries, and of other concerned professionals (in case they didn't had any association at the time). Correspondence analysis and other techniques of optimal scaling will be used. The paper will discuss the main cross-cultural differences with regard to social demand for information about radiological risks. Our findings may have relevant implications for radiological risks communication programs. (author)

  8. Request for information about radiological risks in the health area. A cross-cultural study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prades, A.; Martinez-Arias, R.; Arranz, L.; Macias, M.T.

    2000-01-01

    This paper will present some of the key findings of a comparative Latin-American study on radiological risk perception in the health area. The project used a survey method to examine the social demands for information about radiological risks with regard to diagnostic and therapeutic applications. The following topics will be analysed: 1) The role of information as a means for feeling safe; 2) who should inform the public on radiological risks; and 3) what type of information the public would like to receive. A questionnaire was distributed to outpatient samples from ten countries: Argentine, Brazil, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, Peru, Uruguay, and Spain, thanks to the collaboration of the different National Radioprotection Societies of the above mentionned countries, and of other concerned professionals (in case they didn't had any association at the time). Correspondence analysis and other techniques of optimal scaling will be used. The paper will discuss the main cross-cultural differences with regard to social demand for information about radiological risks. Our findings may have relevant implications for radiological risks communication programs. (author)

  9. APPLICATION OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES IN COMPUTER AIDED LANGUAGE LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. B. Tampel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the various ways of application for automatic speech recognition, Text-to-Speech technology, pronunciation and communication skills training, vocabulary check of the taught person, audition skills training in computer aided language learning (CALL-system. In spite of some constraints such technologies application is effective both for education problems simplification and for comfort growth of the system application.

  10. Assessment of Study Abroad Outcomes in Chinese as a Second Language: Gains in Cross-Cultural Adaptability, Language Contact and Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Naoko; Xiao, Feng; Li, Shuai

    2016-01-01

    Participants were 109 American college students studying Chinese in a study-abroad programme in Beijing. Following Kelley and Meyer, intercultural competence was defined as cross-cultural adaptability involving four dimensions (emotional resilience, flexibility/openness, perceptual acuity and personal autonomy) and was measured with a survey. A…

  11. Development of the next generation code system as an engineering modeling language (6). Development of a cross section adjustment and nuclear design accuracy evaluation solver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Kenji; Numata, Kazuyuki

    2008-01-01

    A new cross section adjustment and nuclear design accuracy evaluation solver was developed as a set of modules for MARBLE (multi-purpose advanced reactor physics analysis system based on language of engineering). In order to enhance the system extendibility and flexibility, the object-oriented design and analysis technique was adopted to the development. In the new system, it is easy to add a new design accuracy evaluation method because a new numerical calculation module is independent from other modules. Further, several new functions such as searching and editing calculation data are provided in the new solver. These functions can be easily customised by users because they are designed to work cooperatively with Python scripting language, which is used as a user interface of the MARBLE system. In order to validate the new solver, a test calculation was performed for a realistic calculation case of creating a new unified cross section library. In the test calculation, results calculated by the new solver agreed well with those by the conventional code system. In addition, it is possible to reuse existing input data files prepared for the conventional code system because the new solver utilities support the conventional formats. Because the new solver implements all main functions of the conventional code system, MARBLE can be used as a new calculation code system for cross section adjustment and nuclear design accuracy evaluation

  12. Information systems for mental health in six low and middle income countries: cross country situation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhaya, Nawaraj; Jordans, Mark J D; Abdulmalik, Jibril; Ahuja, Shalini; Alem, Atalay; Hanlon, Charlotte; Kigozi, Fred; Kizza, Dorothy; Lund, Crick; Semrau, Maya; Shidhaye, Rahul; Thornicroft, Graham; Komproe, Ivan H; Gureje, Oye

    2016-01-01

    Research on information systems for mental health in low and middle income countries (LMICs) is scarce. As a result, there is a lack of reliable information on mental health service needs, treatment coverage and the quality of services provided. With the aim of informing the development and implementation of a mental health information sub-system that includes reliable and measurable indicators on mental health within the Health Management Information Systems (HMIS), a cross-country situation analysis of HMIS was conducted in six LMICs (Ethiopia, India, Nepal, Nigeria, South Africa and Uganda), participating in the 'Emerging mental health systems in low and middle income countries' (Emerald) research programme. A situation analysis tool was developed to obtain and chart information from documents in the public domain. In circumstances when information was inadequate, key government officials were contacted to verify the data collected. In this paper we compare the baseline policy context, human resources situation as well as the processes and mechanisms of collecting, verifying, reporting and disseminating mental health related HMIS data. The findings suggest that countries face substantial policy, human resource and health governance challenges for mental health HMIS, many of which are common across sites. In particular, the specific policies and plans for the governance and implementation of mental health data collection, reporting and dissemination are absent. Across sites there is inadequate infrastructure, few HMIS experts, and inadequate technical support and supervision to junior staff, particularly in the area of mental health. Nonetheless there are also strengths in existing HMIS where a few mental health morbidity, mortality, and system level indicators are collected and reported. Our study indicates the need for greater technical and resources input to strengthen routine HMIS and develop standardized HMIS indicators for mental health, focusing in

  13. Evaluation of heading performance with vibrotactile guidance: the benefits of information-movement coupling compared with spatial language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faugloire, Elise; Lejeune, Laure

    2014-12-01

    This study quantified the effectiveness of tactile guidance in indicating a direction to turn to and measured its benefits compared to spatial language. The device (CAYLAR), which was composed of 8 vibrators, specified the requested direction by a vibration at the corresponding location around the waist. Twelve participants were tested in normal light and in total darkness with 3 guidance conditions: spatial language, a long tactile rhythm (1 s on/4 s off vibrations) providing a single stimulation before movement, and a short rhythm (200 ms on/200 ms off vibrations) allowing information-movement coupling during body rotation. We measured response time, heading error, and asked participants to rate task easiness, intuitiveness and perceived accuracy for each guidance mode. Accuracy was higher and participants' ratings were more positive with the short tactile mode than with the 2 other modes. Compared to spatial language, tactile guidance, regardless of the vibration rhythm, also allowed faster responses and did not impair accuracy in the absence of vision. These findings quantitatively demonstrate that tactile guidance is particularly effective when it is reciprocally related to movement. We discuss implications of the benefits of perception-action coupling for the design of tactile navigation devices. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. [Cross-cultural validated adaptation of dysfunctional voiding symptom score (DVSS) to Japanese language and cognitive linguistics in questionnaire for pediatric patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Masaaki; Usui, Tomoko; Johnin, Kazuyoshi; Yoshimura, Koji; Farhat, Walid; Kanematsu, Akihiro; Ogawa, Osamu

    2014-07-01

    Validated questionnaire for evaluation of pediatric lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) is of a great need. We performed cross-cultural validated adaptation of Dysfunctional Voiding Symptom Score (DVSS) to Japanese language, and assessed whether children understand and respond to questionnaire correctly, using cognitive linguistic approach. We translated DVSS into two Japanese versions according to a standard validation methodology: translation, synthesis, back-translation, expert review, and pre-testing. One version was written in adult language for parents, and the other was written in child language for children. Pre-testing was done with 5 to 15-year-old patients visiting us, having normal intelligence. A specialist in cognitive linguistics observed the response by children and parents to DVSS as an interviewer. When a child could not understand a question without adding or paraphrasing the question by the parents, it was defined as 'misidentification'. We performed pretesting with 2 trial versions of DVSS before having the final version. The pre-testing for the first trial version was done for 32 patients (male to female ratio was 19 : 13). The pre-testing for the second trial version was done for 11 patients (male to female ratio was 8 : 3). In DVSS in child language, misidentification was consistently observed for representation of time or frequency. We completed the formal validated translation by amending the problems raised in the pre-testing. The cross-cultural validated adaptation of DVSS to child and adult Japanese was completed. Since temporal perception is not fully developed in children, caution should be taken for using the terms related with time or frequency in the questionnaires for children.

  15. Assessment of the contents related to screening on Portuguese language websites providing information on breast and prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ferreira

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the quality of the contents related to screening in a sample of websites providing information on breast and prostate cancer in the Portuguese language. The first 200 results of each cancer-specific Google search were considered. The accuracy of the screening contents was defined in accordance with the state of the art, and its readability was assessed. Most websites mentioned mammography as a method for breast cancer screening (80%, although only 28% referred to it as the only recommended method. Almost all websites mentioned PSA evaluation as a possible screening test, but correct information regarding its effectiveness was given in less than 10%. For both breast and prostate cancer screening contents, the potential for overdiagnosis and false positive results was seldom addressed, and the median readability index was approximately 70. There is ample margin for improving the quality of websites providing information on breast and prostate cancer in Portuguese.

  16. Perceptions of Health-Related Information on Facebook: Cross-Sectional Study Among Vietnamese Youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Melvyn Wb; Tran, Bach Xuan; Le, Huong Thi; Nguyen, Hinh Duc; Nguyen, Cuong Tat; Tran, Tho Dinh; Latkin, Carl A; Ho, Roger Cm

    2017-09-07

    While health information websites may have previously been the core source of information about health-related conditions on the Internet, social networking sites are increasingly replacing those websites as a source of health-related information. The increasingly popularity of social networking sites among the general population has consequential impact on health policies as well as health-related interventions. To date, there remains a paucity of research conducted in developing countries like Vietnam looking at the influence of social networking sites. Our goal is to establish the baseline use of Facebook among Vietnamese youths and establish their perception of the reliability and usefulness of health-related information that they previously encountered while using the social networking site. An online cross-sectional study was conducted from August 2015 to October 2015. Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) technique was used in the recruitment of participants. Sociodemographic, health status, behaviors, Facebook use and belief of information on Facebook, and interpersonal influence of social network sites were collected via an online structured questionnaire. Among 1080 participants, 72.87% (787/1080) reported being interested in health information on Facebook, and 50.74% (548/1080) and 17.50% (189/1080) perceived the information to be reliable and useful, respectively. A total of 10.93% (118/1080) of the participants also reported that they would follow the health advice they obtained from Facebook. Of significance, 7.13% (77/1080) of the participants also reported peer influences on their behavior. Factors that mediate Vietnamese perceptions of the information online include gender, level of perceived stress, age, educational level, and interpersonal influences from Facebook. Our study is perhaps one of the first conducted in Vietnam that looks at the relationship between health information on Facebook and factors that might influence young Vietnamese

  17. Developmental Steps in Metaphorical Language Abilities: The Influence of Age, Gender, Cognitive Flexibility, Information Processing Speed, and Analogical Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willinger, Ulrike; Deckert, Matthias; Schmöger, Michaela; Schaunig-Busch, Ines; Formann, Anton K; Auff, Eduard

    2017-12-01

    Metaphor is a specific type of figurative language that is used in various important fields such as in the work with children in clinical or teaching contexts. The aim of the study was to investigate the developmental course, developmental steps, and possible cognitive predictors regarding metaphor processing in childhood and early adolescence. One hundred sixty-four typically developing children (7-year-olds, 9-year-olds) and early adolescents (11-year-olds) were tested for metaphor identification, comprehension, comprehension quality, and preference by the Metaphoric Triads Task as well as for analogical reasoning, information processing speed, cognitive flexibility under time pressure, and cognitive flexibility without time pressure. Metaphor identification and comprehension consecutively increased with age. Eleven-year-olds showed significantly higher metaphor comprehension quality and preference scores than seven- and nine-year-olds, whilst these younger age groups did not differ. Age, cognitive flexibility under time pressure, information processing speed, analogical reasoning, and cognitive flexibility without time pressure significantly predicted metaphor comprehension. Metaphorical language ability shows an ongoing development and seemingly changes qualitatively at the beginning of early adolescence. These results can possibly be explained by a greater synaptic reorganization in early adolescents. Furthermore, cognitive flexibility under time pressure and information processing speed possibly facilitate the ability to adapt metaphor processing strategies in a flexible, quick, and appropriate way.

  18. Maximising health literacy and client recall of clinical information: An exploratory study of clients and speech-language pathologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friderike Schmidt von Wûhlisch

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Limited research has been carried out in the field of speech-language pathology with regard to ways of maximising health literacy and client recall. However, speech-language pathologists (SLPs frequently provide vast amounts of information that clients need to understand, apply and review in order to manage their (or their child’s health. This exploratory study aimed to contribute information about ways in which SLPs can overcome low health literacy and poor client recall so that treatment effectiveness is improved. A case-study design was used with specific focus on four clients receiving treatment for dysphagia, voice disorders (including laryngectomies and cleft lip and/or palate management in Cape Town. Strategies which may be able to maximise health literacy and client recall of clinical information were trialled and evaluated by clients and their SLPs, using semi-structured interviews. The researchers proposed a combination of high-tech strategies which assisted in all the cases. No single solution or universal tool was found that would be appropriate for all. There is a need to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of the combined strategies across a wider population, at different stages of rehabilitation and in diverse contexts. Implications and suggestions for future related research are presented.

  19. Cross-layer combining of information-guided transmission withnetwork coding relaying for multiuser cognitive radio systems

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuli; Aï ssa, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    For a cognitive radio relaying network, we propose a cross-layer design by combining information-guided transmission at the physical layer and network coding at the network layer. With this design, a common relay is exploited to help

  20. INTEGRATION ASPECTS OF THE LANGUAGE OF THE MAP IN THE VISUALIZATION OF INFORMATION IN THE INTERNET ERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Suvorov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of new principles of the language maps associated with the use of the Internet, computers and mobile devices. It is shown that the mapping in the modern society with the use of the Internet is based on ready-made visual images of reality, realization of creative opportunities of people by manipulating these images, posting on the Internet of personal information, implementation of project, mapping and other works on the remote services using Web connection. Describes the developed by the author hermeneutic principles of mapping.

  1. The Internet Use for Health Information Seeking among Ghanaian University Students: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedict Osei Asibey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate university students’ use of the Internet for health purpose in the Ghanaian context. The study employed a quantitative cross-sectional design. A total of 650 out of 740 students selected from 3 different universities participated, giving a response rate of 87.7% (650/740. Data were obtained using questionnaires and frequency and percentages were used to analyze data. The results show that university students are active users of the Internet as 78.3% (509/650 used Internet daily and 67.7% (440/650 use Internet for health purposes, for reasons including availability and ease of accessing information, privacy, confidentiality, and affordability. Use of Internet was constrained by unreliable and slow connection, high cost of Internet, and unreliable power supply. Also, 72.4% (315/435 used the online health information obtained as a basis for lifestyle change and only 39.5% (170/430 consulted health professionals after obtaining online information. The study concludes that students use Internet to seek online health support. The use of Internet to communicate with young people in relation to their health must therefore be explored. There is the need to be aware of online safety issues for young adults, including the need to provide information on privacy options.

  2. Information and Communication Technology Use Among Low-Income Pregnant and Postpartum Women by Race and Ethnicity: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilukuri, Nymisha; West, Meredith; Henderson, Janice Lynn; Lawson, Shari; Ehsanipoor, Robert; Costigan, Kathleen; Polk, Sarah; Bennett, Wendy

    2015-07-03

    Pregnancy and the postpartum period provide windows of opportunity to impact perinatal and lifelong preventive health behavior for women and their families, but these opportunities are often missed. Understanding racial/ethnic differences in information and communication technology (ICT) use could inform technology-based interventions in diverse populations. The objective of the study was to evaluate differences in the use of ICT between racial and ethnic groups as well as by English language proficiency. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 246 women who were aged 18 years or older and pregnant or within 1 year of delivery. They were recruited from 4 hospital-based outpatient clinics and completed a self-administered survey. We used multivariate regression analysis to evaluate the association between race/ethnicity and ICT (mobile phone/short message service [SMS] text message, Internet, and social network) usage by race/ethnicity and perceived English language proficiency after adjusting for age, income, marital status, and insurance status. In all, 28% (69/246) of participants were Latina, 40% (98/246) were African American, 23% (56/246) were white, and 9% (23/246) from other racial/ethnic groups. Of the Latinas, 84% (58/69) reported limited English language proficiency and 59% (41/69) were uninsured. More than 90% of all participants reported mobile phone use, but more than 25% (65/246) had changed phone numbers 2 or more times in the past year. Compared to white women, African American women were less likely to SMS text message (OR 0.07, 95% CI 0.01-0.63) and Latinas were less likely to use the Internet to find others with similar concerns (OR 0.23, 95% CI 0.08-0.73). Women with limited English language proficiency were less likely to use the Internet overall (OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.09-0.99) or use email (OR 0.22, 95% CI 0.08-0.63) compared to women with adequate English language proficiency. Mobile phones are widely available for the delivery of health

  3. Crossed Wernicke's Aphasia: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehy, Laurie M.; Haines, Mary E.

    2004-01-01

    Crossed aphasia is a phenomenon in which an individual sustains a lesion in the right hemisphere (typically non-language dominant), but who exhibits an aphasic syndrome. The authors present a case study of an individual with crossed aphasia (CA) in an attempt to provide anecdotal information for four questions posed by Pita, Karavelis, and…

  4. Professional Feedback Loop: How Can Practising Teachers’ Reflection Inform English Language Teacher Education?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Evelyn Flognfeldt

    2016-04-01

    . The teacher reports were in connection with a year’s further-education course in English, which included a pedagogical development project at their own school. This study provides insights into what aspects of the subject the practising teachers defined as their main instructional challenges in the classroom and what their main learning outcomes were. The data for this article are critical reflections articulated by the teachers at the end of their projects. Based on qualitative content analysis, I identified salient language-pedagogical features and commonalities in the teachers’ conceptualisations of their role and priorities with respect to student learning. This kind of language teacher research can have important implications for the way English is taught in initial teacher education. Relevant teacher cognitions can be channelled back to student teachers to mediate their professional preparation in the teacher education programme and their future work as English teachers. The central language-pedagogical issues identified in their research can be used as analytical and reflective tools for student teachers in their preparation for the complex practicalities of the classroom. Exploring the research that practising teachers have conducted into challenges they identified can help students connect theory with practice as well as contribute to lowering the affective filter of novice teachers. This article ends with a discussion of possible forms that this professional feedback loop can take.Keywords: english language teacher education, professional development, teacher research and development, teacher learning, language pedagogy

  5. Information and communication technology use in asthmatic patients: a cross-sectional study in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, Juan; Cherrez, Annia; Ramón, Germán Darío; Lopez Jove, Orlando; Baptist, Alan; Matos, Edgar; Morfín Maciel, Blanca; Calero, Erick; Sanchez-Borges, Mario; Cherrez, Sofia; Simancas-Racines, Daniel; Cherrez Ojeda, Ivan

    2017-07-01

    Rapid diffusion, low cost and broad availability of information and communication technologies (ICTs) make them an attractive platform for managing care, communication and interventions in asthma. There is little information in Latin America about usage frequency of ICTs in asthmatic patients. The analysis undertaken consisted of an observational, cross-sectional study that aimed to identify the frequency and type of ICTs most often used by asthmatics. The Spanish version of the Michigan questionnaire was employed in five Latin American countries. Age and educational level was categorised. Logistic regression was performed among these groups concerning the frequency of ICT usage and the level of interest shown in seeking and receiving information about asthma. In total, 673 asthma patients were surveyed. The mean age was 43.44 years. Over two-thirds of the participants were female (68.4%). The most used ICT was the short message service (SMS) (69.9%). SMS and E-mail are useful tools for communicating ( i.e. receiving and seeking information) with all asthma patients, irrespective of their age. WhatsApp (61.5%) and Facebook (32.0%) were rated as being the most interesting channels of communication for receiving information. Regression analysis showed that younger asthmatics and asthmatics with higher educational levels were most likely to use almost all forms of ICTs. ICTs are generally an attractive platform for managing care, communication and interventions to improve asthma care. SMS and E-mail were found to be the preferred ICT forms among users. However, social media forms such as WhatsApp and Facebook may also be appropriate for certain types of patient.

  6. Information and communication technology use in asthmatic patients: a cross-sectional study in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherrez, Annia; Ramón, Germán Darío; Lopez Jove, Orlando; Baptist, Alan; Matos, Edgar; Morfín Maciel, Blanca; Calero, Erick; Sanchez-Borges, Mario; Cherrez, Sofia; Simancas-Racines, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Rapid diffusion, low cost and broad availability of information and communication technologies (ICTs) make them an attractive platform for managing care, communication and interventions in asthma. There is little information in Latin America about usage frequency of ICTs in asthmatic patients. The analysis undertaken consisted of an observational, cross-sectional study that aimed to identify the frequency and type of ICTs most often used by asthmatics. The Spanish version of the Michigan questionnaire was employed in five Latin American countries. Age and educational level was categorised. Logistic regression was performed among these groups concerning the frequency of ICT usage and the level of interest shown in seeking and receiving information about asthma. In total, 673 asthma patients were surveyed. The mean age was 43.44 years. Over two-thirds of the participants were female (68.4%). The most used ICT was the short message service (SMS) (69.9%). SMS and E-mail are useful tools for communicating (i.e. receiving and seeking information) with all asthma patients, irrespective of their age. WhatsApp (61.5%) and Facebook (32.0%) were rated as being the most interesting channels of communication for receiving information. Regression analysis showed that younger asthmatics and asthmatics with higher educational levels were most likely to use almost all forms of ICTs. ICTs are generally an attractive platform for managing care, communication and interventions to improve asthma care. SMS and E-mail were found to be the preferred ICT forms among users. However, social media forms such as WhatsApp and Facebook may also be appropriate for certain types of patient. PMID:28717641

  7. Guiding Biliteracy Development: Appropriating Cross-Linguistic and Conceptual Knowledge to Sustain Second-Language Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto Huerta, Mary Esther

    2012-01-01

    To examine the second-language reading development of 45 fourth-grade Latino bilinguals, a sequential mixed methods study was conducted in two phases (Creswell, 2009). The quantitative data collected in the first phase generated an index of the group's reading performance based on two grade-level assessments, a state-mandated standardized reading…

  8. Crossing the Bridge: Foreign Language Students' Reciprocal Images in (Inter)Cultural Mediation between Portugal and Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basílio, Daniel; Araújo e Sá, Maria Helena; Simões, Ana Raquel

    2016-01-01

    This study intends to highlight the role that Foreign Language Education (FLE), particularly in the Higher Education context, can play so as to contribute to the rapprochement of two distant and still mutually unknown countries such as Portugal and Turkey. In this sense, it ultimately aims at supporting the training of intercultural speakers,…

  9. A Cross-Language Study of Acoustic Predictors of Speech Intelligibility in Individuals with Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yunjung; Choi, Yaelin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The present study aimed to compare acoustic models of speech intelligibility in individuals with the same disease (Parkinson's disease [PD]) and presumably similar underlying neuropathologies but with different native languages (American English [AE] and Korean). Method: A total of 48 speakers from the 4 speaker groups (AE speakers with…

  10. Informing Language Teaching through Language Learning Informando la enseñanza de lenguas a través del aprendizaje de lenguas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley A Spencer

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Teacher development texts generally work from the assumption that teachers have a number of colleagues and mentors available to share ideas with and seek guidance from. While this might be so in the ESL context, EFL teachers working outside of their culture can be very isolated. This reflective article looks at some of the problem scenarios faced by one EFL teacher in pursuit of professional development and the dilemma over assumed contemporary teaching practices until finding a solution close at hand: using one’s own concurrent language learning experiences to inform others of one’s beliefs about teaching and learning. In the process, the relationship between teacher and learners changed dramatically. The practice of attending more consciously to one’s own language learning experiences may help other teachers in making certain decisions in their practice.Los textos de desarrollo docente generalmente parten del supuesto que los profesores tienen a su disposición varios colegas y mentores para compartir ideas y buscar consejo. Mientras esto podría ocurrir en el contexto de inglés como segunda lengua (ESL, los profesores de inglés como lengua extranjera (EFL que trabajan fuera de su cultura, pueden estar muy aislados. Este artículo de reflexión da una mirada a algunos de los escenarios de este problema, observados por un profesor de EFL, en la búsqueda del desarrollo profesional y el dilema sobre supuestas prácticas contemporáneas de enseñanza, hasta hallar una solución más a la mano: el uso de sus experiencias personales de aprendizaje para explicar sus creencias sobre la enseñanza y aprendizaje. En el proceso, la relación profesor-estudiantes cambió dramáticamente. El prestar atención más conscientemente a nuestras experiencias personales de aprendizaje de la lengua puede ayudar a otros profesores a sustentar ciertas decisiones durante su práctica.

  11. INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES AS A MEAN OF IMPROVING OF TRADITIONAL METHODOLOGY OF UKRAINIAN LANGUAGE TEACHING (FOR PROFESSIONAL PURPOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana V. Shyyka

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article it is explained the elements of practical experience and defined the main directions of introduction of information and communication technologies in the studying university course “Ukrainian language (for professional purposes” for non-philological specialization. It is analyzed the use of modern audiovisual resources and related software during lectures, practical classes, students’ independent work, individual problem tasks and research, writing essays, extracurricular communications. It is argued that modern information and communication technologies combined with traditional methods of teaching and learning can significantly optimize the educational process and improve its quality, promote cognitive activity of students and formation of communicative competence as a part of training future professionals.

  12. Performance of Cross-Layer Design with Antenna Selection and Imperfect Feedback Information in MIMO Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Dang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available By combining adaptive modulation and automatic repeat request, a cross-layer design (CLD scheme for MIMO system with antenna selection (AS and imperfect feedback is presented, and the corresponding performance is studied. Subject to a target packet loss rate and fixed power constraint, the variable switching thresholds of fading gain are derived. According to these results, and using mathematical manipulation, the average spectrum efficiency (SE and packet error rate (PER of the system are further derived. As a result, closed-form expressions of the average SE and PER are obtained, respectively. These expressions include the expressions under perfect channel state information as special cases and provide good performance evaluation for the system. Numerical results show that the proposed CLD scheme with antenna selection has higher SE than the existing CLD scheme with space-time block coding, and the CLD scheme with variable switching thresholds outperforms that with conventional-fixed switching thresholds.

  13. Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Micheli Functional Scale to Persian Language for Evaluation of Low Back Pain in the Young Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghdi, Soofia; Nakhostin Ansari, Noureddin; Ashrafi, Hanieh; Entezary, Ebrahim; Nakhostin Ansari, Amin; Olyaei, Gholamreza

    2015-12-01

    A clinical outcome tool is needed for the assessment of young athletes with low back pain. To translate and culturally adapt the Micheli functional scale (MFS), a self-report questionnaire developed to evaluate young athletes with low back pain (LBP) into Persian language and examine the reliability and validity of the Persian MFS (PMFS). A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the psychometric properties of the PMFS. The PMFS was cross-culturally adapted into Persian language adopting forward/backward translation, expert panel review, and pre-testing. The PMFS was administered to young athletes with and without LBP. Main outcome measures were Persian MFS, Persian functional rating Index (PFRI), and visual analogue scale (VAS). A sample of 100 young athletes with LBP with a mean age of 16.5 ± 2.5 years participated. Fifty young athletes without LBP completed the PMFS. There was no missing responses and floor or ceiling effects. There was a significant difference for the total PMFS scores between young athletes with and without LBP. A significant correlation was found between the total PMFS score and the VAS (r = 0.92) or the PFRI (r = 0.82; P Persian MFS is valid and reliable for use in Persian-speaking young athletes with LBP.

  14. Towards a Conceptual Design of a Cross-Domain Integrative Information System for the Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaslavsky, I.; Richard, S. M.; Valentine, D. W.; Malik, T.; Gupta, A.

    2013-12-01

    As geoscientists increasingly focus on studying processes that span multiple research domains, there is an increased need for cross-domain interoperability solutions that can scale to the entire geosciences, bridging information and knowledge systems, models, software tools, as well as connecting researchers and organization. Creating a community-driven cyberinfrastructure (CI) to address the grand challenges of integrative Earth science research and education is the focus of EarthCube, a new research initiative of the U.S. National Science Foundation. We are approaching EarthCube design as a complex socio-technical system of systems, in which communication between various domain subsystems, people and organizations enables more comprehensive, data-intensive research designs and knowledge sharing. In particular, we focus on integrating 'traditional' layered CI components - including information sources, catalogs, vocabularies, services, analysis and modeling tools - with CI components supporting scholarly communication, self-organization and social networking (e.g. research profiles, Q&A systems, annotations), in a manner that follows and enhances existing patterns of data, information and knowledge exchange within and across geoscience domains. We describe an initial architecture design focused on enabling the CI to (a) provide an environment for scientifically sound information and software discovery and reuse; (b) evolve by factoring in the impact of maturing movements like linked data, 'big data', and social collaborations, as well as experience from work on large information systems in other domains; (c) handle the ever increasing volume, complexity and diversity of geoscience information; (d) incorporate new information and analytical requirements, tools, and techniques, and emerging types of earth observations and models; (e) accommodate different ideas and approaches to research and data stewardship; (f) be responsive to the existing and anticipated needs

  15. Quality of web based information on treatment of depression: cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, K M; Christensen, H

    2000-12-16

    To evaluate quality of web based information on treatment of depression, to identify potential indicators of content quality, and to establish if accountability criteria are indicators of quality. Cross sectional survey. 21 frequently accessed websites about depression. (i) Site characteristics; (ii) quality of content-concordance with evidence based depression guidelines (guideline score), appropriateness of other relevant site information (issues score), and subjective rating of site quality (global score); and (iii) accountability-conformity with core accountability standards (Silberg score) and quality of evidence cited in support of conclusions (level of evidence score). Although the sites contained useful information, their overall quality was poor: the mean guideline, issues, and global scores were only 4.7 (range 0-13) out of 43, 9.8 (6-14) out of 17, and 3 (0.5-7. 5) out of 10 respectively. Sites typically did not cite scientific evidence in support of their conclusions. The guideline score correlated with the two other quality of content measures, but none of the content measures correlated with the Silberg accountability score. Content quality was superior for sites owned by organisations and sites with an editorial board. There is a need for better evidence based information about depression on the web, and a need to reconsider the role of accountability criteria as indicators of site quality and to develop simple valid indicators of quality. Ownership by an organisation and the involvement of a professional editorial board may be useful indicators. The study methodology may be useful for exploring these issues in other health related subjects.

  16. Carbon emission analysis and evaluation of industrial departments in China: An improved environmental DEA cross model based on information entropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yongming; Long, Chang; Geng, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Keyu

    2018-01-01

    Environmental protection and carbon emission reduction play a crucial role in the sustainable development procedure. However, the environmental efficiency analysis and evaluation based on the traditional data envelopment analysis (DEA) cross model is subjective and inaccurate, because all elements in a column or a row of the cross evaluation matrix (CEM) in the traditional DEA cross model are given the same weight. Therefore, this paper proposes an improved environmental DEA cross model based on the information entropy to analyze and evaluate the carbon emission of industrial departments in China. The information entropy is applied to build the entropy distance based on the turbulence of the whole system, and calculate the weights in the CEM of the environmental DEA cross model in a dynamic way. The theoretical results show that the new weight constructed based on the information entropy is unique and optimal globally by using the Monte Carlo simulation. Finally, compared with the traditional environmental DEA and DEA cross model, the improved environmental DEA cross model has a better efficiency discrimination ability based on the data of industrial departments in China. Moreover, the proposed model can obtain the potential of carbon emission reduction of industrial departments to improve the energy efficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Investigating Chinese Migrants’ Information-Seeking Patterns in Canada: Media Selection and Language Preference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuping Mao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Taking a quantitative approach, this research surveyed Chinese migrants in Canada regarding channels they rely on to seek various information. This research also investigates how Chinese migrants’ preferences of channels correlate with their intercultural sensitivity level. Chinese migrants prefer Chinese newspapers and websites for government/policy information and life information rather than English newspapers and websites. However, they use English newspapers and websites more frequently for job and career development information. Overall, English television and radio are more frequently used by Chinese migrants than Chinese television and radio broadcasts. The intercultural sensitivity levels of Chinese migrants have a positive correlation with their frequencies of using English information resources, including government websites, English newspapers, English non-government websites, government officers, personal non-Chinese social networks, and English television and radio. Findings of this research suggest that Chinese ethnic media play an important role in Chinese migrants’ information-seeking behaviours and patterns in Canada. On one hand, government and other organizations can reach the Chinese migrant community through information diffusion in Chinese ethnic media. On the other hand, Chinese migrants should make an active effort to improve their English proficiency and intercultural communication sensitivity to better integrate themselves into the Canadian society. A more balanced approach of seeking information from English and Chinese media sources could be more beneficial for Chinese migrants.

  18. THE USE OF INFORMATION COMMUNICATION AND TECHNOLOGY (ICT) IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNING: A CASE STUDY AT ONE PUBLIC UNIVERSITY IN JAMBI

    OpenAIRE

    Haryanto, Eddy; Oktalia, Dwi

    2015-01-01

    This research is aimed to describe students’ perception toward the use of Information Communication and Technology (ICT) in language learning. The objective of the study is to know students’ perception toward the use of ICT in language learning and to know the problem that they encountered during the use of ICT. The design of this research was survey method. The subject of this research was sixth semester students’ of English department Jambi University. A questionnaire was main instrument to...

  19. Measuring nuclear reaction cross sections to extract information on neutrinoless double beta decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallaro, M.; Cappuzzello, F.; Agodi, C.; Acosta, L.; Auerbach, N.; Bellone, J.; Bijker, R.; Bonanno, D.; Bongiovanni, D.; Borello-Lewin, T.; Boztosun, I.; Branchina, V.; Bussa, M. P.; Calabrese, S.; Calabretta, L.; Calanna, A.; Calvo, D.; Carbone, D.; Chávez Lomelí, E. R.; Coban, A.; Colonna, M.; D'Agostino, G.; De Geronimo, G.; Delaunay, F.; Deshmukh, N.; de Faria, P. N.; Ferraresi, C.; Ferreira, J. L.; Finocchiaro, P.; Fisichella, M.; Foti, A.; Gallo, G.; Garcia, U.; Giraudo, G.; Greco, V.; Hacisalihoglu, A.; Kotila, J.; Iazzi, F.; Introzzi, R.; Lanzalone, G.; Lavagno, A.; La Via, F.; Lay, J. A.; Lenske, H.; Linares, R.; Litrico, G.; Longhitano, F.; Lo Presti, D.; Lubian, J.; Medina, N.; Mendes, D. R.; Muoio, A.; Oliveira, J. R. B.; Pakou, A.; Pandola, L.; Petrascu, H.; Pinna, F.; Reito, S.; Rifuggiato, D.; Rodrigues, M. R. D.; Russo, A. D.; Russo, G.; Santagati, G.; Santopinto, E.; Sgouros, O.; Solakci, S. O.; Souliotis, G.; Soukeras, V.; Spatafora, A.; Torresi, D.; Tudisco, S.; Vsevolodovna, R. I. M.; Wheadon, R. J.; Yildirin, A.; Zagatto, V. A. B.

    2018-02-01

    Neutrinoless double beta decay (0vββ) is considered the best potential resource to access the absolute neutrino mass scale. Moreover, if observed, it will signal that neutrinos are their own anti-particles (Majorana particles). Presently, this physics case is one of the most important research “beyond Standard Model” and might guide the way towards a Grand Unified Theory of fundamental interactions. Since the 0vββ decay process involves nuclei, its analysis necessarily implies nuclear structure issues. In the NURE project, supported by a Starting Grant of the European Research Council (ERC), nuclear reactions of double charge-exchange (DCE) are used as a tool to extract information on the 0vββ Nuclear Matrix Elements. In DCE reactions and ββ decay indeed the initial and final nuclear states are the same and the transition operators have similar structure. Thus the measurement of the DCE absolute cross-sections can give crucial information on ββ matrix elements. In a wider view, the NUMEN international collaboration plans a major upgrade of the INFN-LNS facilities in the next years in order to increase the experimental production of nuclei of at least two orders of magnitude, thus making feasible a systematic study of all the cases of interest as candidates for 0vββ.

  20. Sensitivity to Morphosyntactic Information in 3-Year-Old Children With Typical Language Development: A Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deevy, Patricia; Leonard, Laurence B; Marchman, Virginia A

    2017-03-01

    This study tested the feasibility of a method designed to assess children's sensitivity to tense/agreement information in fronted auxiliaries during online comprehension of questions (e.g., Are the nice little dogs running?). We expected that a group of children who were proficient in auxiliary use would show this sensitivity, indicating an awareness of the relation between the subject-verb sequence (e.g., dogs running) and preceding information (e.g., are). Failure to grasp this relation is proposed to play a role in the protracted inconsistency in auxiliary use in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Fifteen 3-year-old typically developing children who demonstrated proficiency in auxiliary use viewed pairs of pictures showing a single agent and multiple agents while hearing questions with or without an agreeing fronted auxiliary. Proportion looking to the target was measured. Children showed anticipatory looking on the basis of the number information contained in the auxiliary (is or are). The children tested in this study represent a group that frequently serves as a comparison for older children with SLI. Because the method successfully demonstrated their sensitivity to tense/agreement information in questions, future research that involves direct comparisons of these 2 groups is warranted.

  1. Hospital Nurses' and Physicians' Use of Information Sources during their Production of Discharge Summaries: A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hellesø, Ragnhild; Sogstad, Maren Kristine Raknes

    2014-01-01

    Hospital nurses' and physicians' production and exchange of accurate information between levels of care are crucial for ensuring safe and seamless care for patients in transition. We report on a study in which we explored hospital providers' use of information sources when they prepared discharge information for colleges in the community health-care sector. In this cross-sectional study, 510 nurses and 236 physicians responded through a questionnaire. Our findings show that nurses and physici...

  2. Ecuadorian Cancer Patients' Preference for Information and Communication Technologies: Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherrez Ojeda, Ivan; Vanegas, Emanuel; Torres, Michell; Calderón, Juan Carlos; Calero, Erick; Cherrez, Annia; Felix, Miguel; Mata, Valeria; Cherrez, Sofia; Simancas, Daniel

    2018-02-20

    The instantaneous spread of information, low costs, and broad availability of information and communication technologies (ICTs) make them an attractive platform for managing care, patient communication, and medical interventions in cancer treatment. There is little information available in Latin America about the level of usage of ICTs for and by cancer patients. Our study attempts to fill this gap. The aim of this study was to assess the level of ICT use and patterns of preferences among cancer patients. We conducted an anonymous cross-sectional survey study in 500 Ecuadorian cancer patients. This questionnaire consisted of 22 items about demographic and clinical data, together with the preferences of people who use ICTs. Chi-square, crude, and adjusted logistic regressions were performed. Of the total, 43.2% (216/500) of participants reported that they had access to the Internet, and 25.4% (127/500) reported that they neither owned a cell phone nor did they have access to the Internet. The Internet constituted the highest usage rate as a source of information about malignant diseases (74.3%, 162/218) regardless of age (PWhatsApp (66.5%, 145/218) and short message service (SMS) text messaging (61.0%, 133/218) were widely reported as interesting communication channels. Similarly, WhatsApp (72.0%, 157/218) followed by SMS (63.8%, 139/218) were reported as the preferred ICTs through which patients would like to ask physicians about diseases. Adjusted regression analysis showed that patients aged between 40 and 64 years were more likely to be interested in receiving information through SMS (odds ratio, OR 5.09, 95% CI 1.92-13.32), as well as for asking questions to physicians through this same media (OR 9.78, CI 3.45-27.67) than the oldest group. WhatsApp, SMS, and email are effective and widely used ICTs that can promote communication between cancer patients and physicians. According to age range, new ICTs such as Facebook are still emerging. Future studies should

  3. Ecuadorian Cancer Patients’ Preference for Information and Communication Technologies: Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Background The instantaneous spread of information, low costs, and broad availability of information and communication technologies (ICTs) make them an attractive platform for managing care, patient communication, and medical interventions in cancer treatment. There is little information available in Latin America about the level of usage of ICTs for and by cancer patients. Our study attempts to fill this gap. Objective The aim of this study was to assess the level of ICT use and patterns of preferences among cancer patients. Methods We conducted an anonymous cross-sectional survey study in 500 Ecuadorian cancer patients. This questionnaire consisted of 22 items about demographic and clinical data, together with the preferences of people who use ICTs. Chi-square, crude, and adjusted logistic regressions were performed. Results Of the total, 43.2% (216/500) of participants reported that they had access to the Internet, and 25.4% (127/500) reported that they neither owned a cell phone nor did they have access to the Internet. The Internet constituted the highest usage rate as a source of information about malignant diseases (74.3%, 162/218) regardless of age (PWhatsApp (66.5%, 145/218) and short message service (SMS) text messaging (61.0%, 133/218) were widely reported as interesting communication channels. Similarly, WhatsApp (72.0%, 157/218) followed by SMS (63.8%, 139/218) were reported as the preferred ICTs through which patients would like to ask physicians about diseases. Adjusted regression analysis showed that patients aged between 40 and 64 years were more likely to be interested in receiving information through SMS (odds ratio, OR 5.09, 95% CI 1.92-13.32), as well as for asking questions to physicians through this same media (OR 9.78, CI 3.45-27.67) than the oldest group. Conclusions WhatsApp, SMS, and email are effective and widely used ICTs that can promote communication between cancer patients and physicians. According to age range, new ICTs such as

  4. The use of categorization information in language models for question retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Xin; Cong, Gao; Cui, Bin

    2009-01-01

    Community Question Answering (CQA) has emerged as a popular type of service meeting a wide range of information needs. Such services enable users to ask and answer questions and to access existing question-answer pairs. CQA archives contain very large volumes of valuable user-generated content...... and have become important information resources on the Web. To make the body of knowledge accumulated in CQA archives accessible, effective and efficient question search is required. Question search in a CQA archive aims to retrieve historical questions that are relevant to new questions posed by users...

  5. 75 FR 10225 - Office of Postsecondary Education; Overview Information; Language Resource Centers Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... this program in 34 CFR parts 655 and 669. II. Award Information Type of Award: Discretionary grants... in charts, tables, figures, and graphs. Use a font that is either 12 point or larger, or no smaller than 10 pitch (characters per inch). Use one of the following fonts: Times New Roman, Courier, Courier...

  6. Imperatives of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) for Second Language Learners and Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinwamide, Timothy Kolade

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of information and communication technology (ICT) to education creates new learning paradigms. We are dwelling in a world which technology has reduced to a global village and the breakthrough in technology is underpinning pedagogical submissions. It may become imperative therefore to have a rethinking on how to ameliorate the…

  7. Human Resource Information System implementation readiness in the Ethiopian health sector: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilu, Eyilachew; Gebreslassie, Measho; Kebede, Mihiretu

    2017-12-20

    Health workforce information systems in low-income countries tend to be defective with poor relationship to information sources. Human Resource Information System (HRIS) is currently in a pilot implementation phase in the Federal Ministry of Health and Regional Health Bureaus of Ethiopia. Before scaling up the implementation, it is important to understand the implementation readiness of hospitals and health departments. The aims of this study were to assess the readiness for HRIS implementation, identify associated factors, and explore the implementation challenges in public hospitals and health departments of the Amhara National Regional State, Ethiopia. An institution-based cross-sectional study supplemented with a qualitative study was conducted from the 15th of February to the 30th of March 2016 in 19 public hospitals and health departments of the Amhara National Regional State, Ethiopia. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data. The questionnaire includes items on socio-demographic characteristics and questions measuring technical, personal, and organizational factors adapted from the 32-item questionnaire of the Management Science for Health (MSH) HRIS readiness assessment tool. The data were entered and analyzed with statistical software. Descriptive statistics and bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed. Odds ratios with 95% confidence interval were computed to identify the factors statistically associated with readiness of HRIS implementation. In-depth interviews and observation checklists were used to collect qualitative data. Thematic content analysis was used to analyze the qualitative data. A total of 246 human resource (HR) employees and 16 key informants have been included in the study. The HR employee's level of readiness for HRIS implementation in this study was 35.8%. Employee's Internet access (AOR = 2.59, 95%CI = 1.19, 5.62), availability of separate HR section (AOR = 8.08, 95%CI

  8. A cross-level investigation of informal field-based learning and performance improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson, Mikhail A; Tannenbaum, Scott I; Mathieu, John E; Maynard, M Travis

    2018-01-01

    Organizations often operate in complex and dynamic environments which place a premium on employees' ongoing learning and acquisition of new competencies. Additionally, the majority of learning in organizations does not take place in formal training settings, but we know relatively little about how informal field-based learning (IFBL) behaviors relate to changes in job performance. In this study, we first clarified the construct of IFBL as a subset of informal learning. Second, on the basis of this clarified construct definition, we developed a measure of IFBL behaviors and demonstrated its psychometric properties using (a) a sample of subject matter experts who made item content validity judgments and (b) both an Amazon Mechanical Turk sample (N = 400) and a sample of 1,707 healthcare employees. Third, we advanced a grounded theory of IFBL in healthcare, and related it to individuals' regulatory foci and contextual moderators of IFBL behaviors-job performance relationships using a cross-level design and lagged nonmethod bound measures. Specifically, using a sample of 407 healthcare workers from 49 hospital units, our results suggested that promotion-focused individuals, especially in well-staffed units, readily engage in IFBL behaviors. Additionally, we found that the IFBL-changes in job performance relationship was strengthened to the extent that individuals worked in units with relatively nonpunitive climates. Interestingly, staffing levels had a weakening moderating effect on the positive IFBL-performance improvements relationship. Detailed follow-up analyses revealed that the peculiar effect was attributable to differential relationships from IFBL subdimensions. Implications for future theory building, research, and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Multilingual Information Discovery and AccesS (MIDAS): A Joint ACM DL'99/ ACM SIGIR'99 Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oard, Douglas; Peters, Carol; Ruiz, Miguel; Frederking, Robert; Klavans, Judith; Sheridan, Paraic

    1999-01-01

    Discusses a multidisciplinary workshop that addressed issues concerning internationally distributed information networks. Highlights include multilingual information access in media other than character-coded text; cross-language information retrieval and multilingual metadata; and evaluation of multilingual systems. (LRW)

  10. Novel and highly informative Capsicum SSR markers and their cross-species transferability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buso, G S C; Reis, A M M; Amaral, Z P S; Ferreira, M E

    2016-09-23

    This study was undertaken primarily to develop new simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for Capsicum. As part of this project aimed at broadening the use of molecular tools in Capsicum breeding, two genomic libraries enriched for AG/TC repeat sequences were constructed for Capsicum annuum. A total of 475 DNA clones were sequenced from both libraries and 144 SSR markers were tested on cultivated and wild species of Capsicum. Forty-five SSR markers were randomly selected to genotype a panel of 48 accessions of the Capsicum germplasm bank. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 11, with an average of 6 alleles. The polymorphism information content was on average 0.60, ranging from 0.20 to 0.83. The cross-species transferability to seven cultivated and wild Capsicum species was tested with a set of 91 SSR markers. We found that a high proportion of the loci produced amplicons in all species tested. C. frutescens had the highest number of transferable markers, whereas the wild species had the lowest. Our results indicate that the new markers can be readily used in genetic analyses of Capsicum.

  11. MEG connectivity analysis in patients with Alzheimer's disease using cross mutual information and spectral coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Joan Francesc; Poza, Jesús; Mañanas, Miguel Angel; Romero, Sergio; Fernández, Alberto; Hornero, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an irreversible brain disorder which represents the most common form of dementia in western countries. An early and accurate diagnosis of AD would enable to develop new strategies for managing the disease; however, nowadays there is no single test that can accurately predict the development of AD. In this sense, only a few studies have focused on the magnetoencephalographic (MEG) AD connectivity patterns. This study compares brain connectivity in terms of linear and nonlinear couplings by means of spectral coherence and cross mutual information function (CMIF), respectively. The variables defined from these functions provide statistically significant differences (p CMIF. The results suggest that AD is characterized by both decreases and increases of functional couplings in different frequency bands as well as by an increase in regularity, that is, more evident statistical deterministic relationships in AD patients' MEG connectivity. The significant differences obtained indicate that AD could disturb brain interactions causing abnormal brain connectivity and operation. Furthermore, the combination of coherence and CMIF features to perform a diagnostic test based on logistic regression improved the tests based on individual variables for its robustness.

  12. Cross-cultural adaptation and measurement properties of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire-Dutch Language Version

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carin Schröder; Francois Maissan; Edwin de Raaij; Jan Pool; Dr. H.M. Wittink

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Ever since Engel's Biopsychosocial Model (1977) emotions, thoughts, beliefs and behaviors are accepted as important factors of health. The Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (Brief IPQ) assesses these beliefs. Aim of this study was to cross-culturally adapt the Brief IPQ into the

  13. FORMATION OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE IN THE INFORMATION TRAINING ENVIRONMENT OF HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTION AND THE PRINCIPLES OF SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIVISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla B. Nisilevich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work timeliness of use of information and computer technologies is emphasized when forming communicative competence in a foreign language in higher education institution. Besides, as a methodological basis of the information training environment the principles of social constructivism are analyzed. The training Moodle shell program entirely meets requirements of educational process and the virtual educational environment as well, and it is also the most sensible modern system of distance learning as a whole and to foreign languages in particular.

  14. State-Dependent Cross-Brain Information Flow in Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilek, Edda; Stößel, Gabriela; Schäfer, Axel; Clement, Laura; Ruf, Matthias; Robnik, Lydia; Neukel, Corinne; Tost, Heike; Kirsch, Peter; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    Although borderline personality disorder (BPD)-one of the most common, burdensome, and costly psychiatric conditions-is characterized by repeated interpersonal conflict and instable relationships, the neurobiological mechanism of social interactive deficits remains poorly understood. To apply recent advancements in the investigation of 2-person human social interaction to investigate interaction difficulties among people with BPD. Cross-brain information flow in BPD was examined from May 25, 2012, to December 4, 2015, in pairs of participants studied in 2 linked functional magnetic resonance imaging scanners in a university setting. Participants performed a joint attention task. Each pair included a healthy control individual (HC) and either a patient currently fulfilling DSM-IV criteria for BPD (cBPD) (n = 23), a patient in remission for 2 years or more (rBPD) (n = 17), or a second HC (n = 20). Groups were matched for age and educational level. A measure of cross-brain neural coupling was computed following previously published work to indicate synchronized flow between right temporoparietal junction networks (previously shown to host neural coupling abilities in health). This measure is derived from an independent component analysis contrasting the time courses of components between pairs of truly interacting participants compared with bootstrapped control pairs. In the sample including 23 women with cBPD (mean [SD] age, 26.8 [5.7] years), 17 women with rBPD (mean [SD] age, 28.5 [4.3] years), and 80 HCs (mean [SD] age, 24.0 [3.4] years]) investigated as dyads, neural coupling was found to be associated with disorder state (η2 = 0.17; P = .007): while HC-HC pairs showed synchronized neural responses, cBPD-HC pairs exhibited significantly lower neural coupling just above permutation-based data levels (η2 = 0.16; P = .009). No difference was found between neural coupling in rBPD-HC and HC-HC pairs. The neural coupling in patients was

  15. Refined repetitive sequence searches utilizing a fast hash function and cross species information retrievals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reneker Jeff

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Searching for small tandem/disperse repetitive DNA sequences streamlines many biomedical research processes. For instance, whole genomic array analysis in yeast has revealed 22 PHO-regulated genes. The promoter regions of all but one of them contain at least one of the two core Pho4p binding sites, CACGTG and CACGTT. In humans, microsatellites play a role in a number of rare neurodegenerative diseases such as spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1. SCA1 is a hereditary neurodegenerative disease caused by an expanded CAG repeat in the coding sequence of the gene. In bacterial pathogens, microsatellites are proposed to regulate expression of some virulence factors. For example, bacteria commonly generate intra-strain diversity through phase variation which is strongly associated with virulence determinants. A recent analysis of the complete sequences of the Helicobacter pylori strains 26695 and J99 has identified 46 putative phase-variable genes among the two genomes through their association with homopolymeric tracts and dinucleotide repeats. Life scientists are increasingly interested in studying the function of small sequences of DNA. However, current search algorithms often generate thousands of matches – most of which are irrelevant to the researcher. Results We present our hash function as well as our search algorithm to locate small sequences of DNA within multiple genomes. Our system applies information retrieval algorithms to discover knowledge of cross-species conservation of repeat sequences. We discuss our incorporation of the Gene Ontology (GO database into these algorithms. We conduct an exhaustive time analysis of our system for various repetitive sequence lengths. For instance, a search for eight bases of sequence within 3.224 GBases on 49 different chromosomes takes 1.147 seconds on average. To illustrate the relevance of the search results, we conduct a search with and without added annotation terms for the

  16. Problem-based scenarios with laptops: an effective combination for cross-curricular learning in mathematics, science and language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Freiman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Many educational systems consider using one-to-one access to the laptop as a way to improve teaching and learning. A two-year action research project on the use of laptop computers by New Brunswick (Canada grade 7 and 8 Francophone students aimed to better understand the impact of laptops on learning. Two problem-based learning (PBL interdisciplinary scenarios (math, science, language arts were implemented in eight experimental classes to measure and document students’ actual learning process, particularly in terms of their ability to scientifically investigate authentic problems, to reason mathematically, and to communicate. On-site observations, video-recording, journals, samples of students’ work, and interviews were used to collect qualitative data. Based on our findings, we argue that laptops in and of themselves may not automatically lead to better results on standardized tests, but rather create opportunities to enrich learning with more open-ended, constructive, collaborative, reflective, and cognitively complex learning tasks.

  17. Mapping emotions through time: how affective trajectories inform the language of emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, Tabitha; Cunningham, William A

    2012-04-01

    The words used to describe emotions can provide insight into the basic processes that contribute to emotional experience. We propose that emotions arise partly from interacting evaluations of one's current affective state, previous affective state, predictions for how these may change in the future, and the experienced outcomes following these predictions. These states can be represented and inferred from neural systems that encode shifts in outcomes and make predictions. In two studies, we demonstrate that emotion labels are reliably differentiated from one another using only simple cues about these affective trajectories through time. For example, when a worse-than-expected outcome follows the prediction that something good will happen, that situation is labeled as causing anger, whereas when a worse-than-expected outcome follows the prediction that something bad will happen, that situation is labeled as causing sadness. Emotion categories are more differentiated when participants are required to think categorically than when participants have the option to consider multiple emotions and degrees of emotions. This work indicates that information about affective movement through time and changes in affective trajectory may be a fundamental aspect of emotion categories. Future studies of emotion must account for the dynamic way that we absorb and process information. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Analysis of respiratory and muscle activity by means of cross information function between ventilatory and myographic signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, J F; Mañanas, M A; Hoyer, D; Topor, Z L; Bruce, E N

    2004-01-01

    Analysis of respiratory muscle activity is a promising technique for the study of pulmonary diseases such as obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Evaluation of interactions between muscles is very useful in order to determine the muscular pattern during an exercise. These interactions have already been assessed by means of different linear techniques like cross-spectrum, magnitude squared coherence or cross-correlation. The aim of this work is to evaluate interactions between respiratory and myographic signals through nonlinear analysis by means of cross mutual information function (CMIF), and finding out what information can be extracted from it. Some parameters are defined and calculated from CMIF between ventilatory and myographic signals of three respiratory muscles. Finally, differences in certain parameters were obtained between OSAS patients and healthy subjects indicating different respiratory muscle couplings.

  19. The language of uncertainty in genetic risk communication: framing and verbal versus numerical information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welkenhuysen, M; Evers-Kiebooms, G; d'Ydewalle, G

    2001-05-01

    Within a group of 300 medical students, two characteristics of risk communication in the context of a decision regarding prenatal diagnosis for cystic fibrosis are manipulated: verbal versus numerical probabilities and the negative versus positive framing of the problem (having a child with versus without cystic fibrosis). Independently of the manipulations, most students were in favor of prenatal diagnosis. The effect of framing was only significant in the conditions with verbal information: negative framing produced a stronger choice in favor of prenatal diagnosis than positive framing. The framing effect in the verbal conditions and its absence in the numerical conditions are explained by the dominance of the problem-occurrence orientation in health matters as well as a recoding process which is more likely to occur in the numerical (the probability "1-P" switches to its counterpart "P") than in the verbal conditions. The implications for the practice of genetic counseling are discussed.

  20. Lessons from a comparative (cross-country) study using conjoint analysis: Why not use all the information?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blunch, Niels Johan

    Re-examination of data from two comparative (cross-country) studies using conjoint analysis shows that significant improvement can be achieved by using two often neglected kinds of a priori information: Knowledge of the expected order of preferences for the various levels of one or more attributes...

  1. 360° Operative Videos: A Randomised Cross-Over Study Evaluating Attentiveness and Information Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Cuan M; Kavanagh, Dara O; Wright Ballester, Gemma; Wright Ballester, Athena; Dicker, Patrick; Traynor, Oscar; Hill, Arnold; Tierney, Sean

    2017-11-06

    Although two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional videos have traditionally provided foundations for reviewing operative procedures, the recent 360º format may provide new dimensions to surgical education. This study sought to describe the production of a high quality 360º video for an index-operation (augmented with educational material), while evaluating for variances in attentiveness, information retention, and appraisal compared to 2D. A 6-camera synchronised array (GoPro Omni, [California, United States]) was suspended inverted and recorded an elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy in 2016. A single-blinded randomised cross-over study was performed to evaluate this video in 360º vs 2D formats. Group A experienced the 360º video using Samsung (Suwon, South-Korea) GearVR virtual-reality headsets, followed by the 2D experience on a 75-inch television. Group B were reversed. Each video was probed at designated time points for engagement levels and task-unrelated images or thoughts. Alternating question banks were administered following each video experience. Feedback was obtained via a short survey at study completion. The New Academic and Education Building (NAEB) in Dublin, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, July 2017. Preclinical undergraduate students from a medical university in Ireland. Forty students participated with a mean age of 23.2 ± 4.5 years and equal sex involvement. The 360º video demonstrated significantly higher engagement (p video as their learning platform of choice. Mean appraisal levels for the 360º platform were positive with mean responses of >8/10 for the platform for learning, immersion, and entertainment. This study describes the successful development and evaluation of a 360º operative video. This new video format demonstrated significant engagement and attentiveness benefits compared to traditional 2D formats. This requires further evaluation in the field of technology enhanced learning. Copyright © 2017 Association of

  2. Natural language query system design for interactive information storage and retrieval systems. Presentation visuals. M.S. Thesis Final Report, 1 Jul. 1985 - 31 Dec. 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Liu, I-Hsiung

    1985-01-01

    This Working Paper Series entry represents a collection of presentation visuals associated with the companion report entitled Natural Language Query System Design for Interactive Information Storage and Retrieval Systems, USL/DBMS NASA/RECON Working Paper Series report number DBMS.NASA/RECON-17.

  3. The Role of the Electronic Portfolio in Enhancing Information and Communication Technology and English Language Skills: The Voices of Six Malaysian Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thang, Siew Ming; Lee, Yit Sim; Zulkifli, Nurul Farhana

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of the construction and development of electronic portfolios (e-portfolios) on a small user population at a public university in Malaysia. The study was based on a three-month Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and language learning course offered to the undergraduates of the university. One of the…

  4. Portal of the elderly: development and evaluation of the website with information about the aging process and the main speech, language and hearing disorders that affect the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favoretto, Natalia Caroline; Carleto, Natalia Gutierrez; Arakawa, Aline Megumi; Alcalde, Murilo Priori; Bastos, José Roberto Magalhães; Caldana, Magali de Lourdes

    2017-10-23

    This research aimed to develop and evaluate a website with information on Speech-language therapy area with focus on the aging process. A website containing information with simple language, clear purpose and concise content was designed based on scientific evidence. The Flesch Index was used to check the material readability, with 50% of the content corresponding to "easy" and 50% of the content corresponding to "difficult". The website development followed the steps: analysis and planning, modeling, implementation and evaluation. Evaluators invited to participate were part of the following categories: elderly people, caregivers and speech-language therapists. The sample consisted of 10 elderly, 8 caregivers and 10 speech-language therapists. Most individuals (89.28%) were females, who often accessed the Internet (78.57%) and had different educational levels. Statistical analyses were performed using the Kruskal-Wallis test and Spearman correlation coefficient. The website's content was classified as "adequate" and the website's technical quality as "excellent". There was no statistically significant difference between the categories and subscales or the overall score. The website can be considered an accessible material, and a source of consultation and complementation of information about the theme, as well as an important tool for effecting the information transmission process.

  5. WWW mesothelioma information: Surfing on unreliable waters. A cross-sectional study into the content and quality of online informational resources for mesothelioma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloukey Tbalvandany, S Sadaf; Maat, A Alexander P W M; Cornelissen, R Robin; Nuyttens, J Joost J M E; Takkenberg, J Johanna J M

    2018-06-01

    Malignant Mesothelioma (MM) is a rare asbestos related disease mostly diagnosed in low-skilled patients. The decision-making process for MM treatment is complicated, making an adequate provision of information necessary. The objective of this study is to assess the content and quality of online informational resources available for Dutch MM patients. The first 100 hits of a Google search were studied using the JAMA benchmarks, the Modified Information Score (MIS) and the International Patient Decision Aid Standard Scoring (IPDAS). A total of 37 sources were included. Six of the 37 resources were published by hospitals. On average, the informational resources scored 37 points on the MIS (scale 0-100). The resources from a (bio)medical sources scored the best on this scale. However, on the domain of use of language, these resources scored the worst. The current level of medical content and quality of online informational resources for patient with MM is below average and cannot be used as decision-aids for patients. The criteria used in this article could be used for future improvements of online informational resources for patients, both online, offline and through health education in the care path. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Caregiver Reaction Assessment for use in Brazil with informal caregivers of the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Rochelly do Nascimento Mota

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to carry out the cross-cultural adaptation of the Caregiver Reaction Assessment CRA for use in Brazil with informal caregivers of dependent elderly METHOD A methodological study, of five steps: initial translation, synthesis of translations, retro-translation, evaluation by a judge committee and a pre-test, with 30 informal caregivers of older persons in Fortaleza, Brazil. Content validity was assessed by five experts in gerontology and geriatrics. The cross-cultural adaptation was rigorously conducted, allowing for inferring credibility. RESULTS The Brazilian version of the CRA had a simple and fast application (ten minutes, easily understood by the target audience. It is semantically, idiomatically, experimentally and conceptually equivalent to the original version, with valid content to assess the burden of informal caregivers for the elderly (Content Validity Index = 0.883. CONCLUSION It is necessary that other psychometric properties of validity and reliability are tested before using in care practice and research.

  7. Cross-modal discrepancies in coarticulation and the integration of speech information: the McGurk effect with mismatched vowels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, K P; Gerdeman, A

    1995-12-01

    Two experiments examined the impact of a discrepancy in vowel quality between the auditory and visual modalities on the perception of a syllable-initial consonant. One experiment examined the effect of such a discrepancy on the McGurk effect by cross-dubbing auditory /bi/ tokens onto visual /ga/ articulations (and vice versa). A discrepancy in vowel category significantly reduced the magnitude of the McGurk effect and changed the pattern of responses. A 2nd experiment investigated the effect of such a discrepancy on the speeded classification of the initial consonant. Mean reaction times to classify the tokens increased when the vowel information was discrepant between the 2 modalities but not when the vowel information was consistent. These experiments indicate that the perceptual system is sensitive to cross-modal discrepancies in the coarticulatory information between a consonant and its following vowel during phonetic perception.

  8. Cross-Language Transfer of Word Reading Accuracy and Word Reading Fluency in Spanish-English and Chinese-English Bilinguals: Script-Universal and Script-Specific Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquarella, Adrian; Chen, Xi; Gottardo, Alexandra; Geva, Esther

    2015-01-01

    This study examined cross-language transfer of word reading accuracy and word reading fluency in Spanish-English and Chinese-English bilinguals. Participants included 51 Spanish-English and 64 Chinese-English bilinguals. Both groups of children completed parallel measures of phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming, word reading accuracy,…

  9. The energy-level crossing behavior and quantum Fisher information in a quantum well with spin-orbit coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z. H.; Zheng, Q.; Wang, Xiaoguang; Li, Yong

    2016-03-01

    We study the energy-level crossing behavior in a two-dimensional quantum well with the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit couplings (SOCs). By mapping the SOC Hamiltonian onto an anisotropic Rabi model, we obtain the approximate ground state and its quantum Fisher information (QFI) via performing a unitary transformation. We find that the energy-level crossing can occur in the quantum well system within the available parameters rather than in cavity and circuit quantum eletrodynamics systems. Furthermore, the influence of two kinds of SOCs on the QFI is investigated and an intuitive explanation from the viewpoint of the stationary perturbation theory is given.

  10. A cross-linguistic evaluation of script-specific effects on fMRI lateralization in late second language readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maki Sophia Koyama

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral and neuroimaging studies have provided evidence that reading is strongly left lateralized, and this pattern of functional lateralization can be indicative of reading competence. However, it remains unclear whether functional lateralization differs between the first (L1 and second (L2 languages in bilingual L2 readers. This question is particularly important when the particular script, or orthography, learned by the L2 readers is markedly different from their L1 script. In this study, we quantified functional lateralization in brain regions involved in visual word recognition for participants’ L1 and L2 scripts, with a particular focus on the effects of L1-L2 script differences in the visual complexity and orthographic depth of the script. Two different groups of late L2 learners participated in an fMRI experiment: L1 readers of Japanese who learnt to read alphabetic English and L1 readers of English who learnt to read both Japanese syllabic Kana and logographic Kanji. The results showed weaker leftward lateralization in the posterior lateral occipital complex (pLOC for logographic Kanji compared with syllabic and alphabetic scripts in both L1 and L2 readers of Kanji. When both L1 and L2 scripts were non-logographic, where symbols are mapped onto sounds, functional lateralization did not significantly differ between L1 and L2 scripts in any region, in any group. Our findings indicate that weaker leftward lateralization for logographic reading reflects greater requirement of the right hemisphere for processing visually complex logographic Kanji symbols, irrespective of whether Kanji is the readers’ L1 or L2, rather than characterizing the efforts of L2 readers to accommodate to the L2 script Finally, brain-behavior analysis revealed that functional lateralization for L2 reading predicted L2 reading competency.

  11. The Use of Brain Electrophysiology Techniques To Study Language: A Basic Guide for the Beginning Consumer of Electrophysiology Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molfese, Dennis L.; Molfese, Victoria J.; Kelly, Spencer

    2001-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to the use of event-related potential (ERP) approaches to study language processes. First, a brief history of the emergence of this technology is presented, followed by definitions, a theoretical overview, and a practical guide to conducting ERP studies. Examples of language studies that use this technique are…

  12. Evidence from Neurolinguistic Methodologies: Can It Actually Inform Linguistic/Language Acquisition Theories and Translate to Evidence-Based Applications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Leah; González Alonso, Jorge; Pliatsikas, Christos; Rothman, Jason

    2018-01-01

    This special issue is a testament to the recent burgeoning interest by theoretical linguists, language acquisitionists and teaching practitioners in the neuroscience of language. It offers a highly valuable, state-of-the-art overview of the neurophysiological methods that are currently being applied to questions in the field of second language…

  13. FROM THE TOTALITARIAN LANGUAGE TO THE INFORMATIVE DISCOURSE. A ROMANIAN MEDIA DISCOURSE ANALYSIS DURING THE ’90S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUMINIŢA ROŞCA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at emphasizing the institutional transformations that occurred in the public environment following the events in December 1989 in Romania, focusing on the dismantling of mechanisms that marked the transition from the national communist propaganda discourse to the informative discourse, which laid the foundation of the public sphere in post-totalitarian Romania. The hypothesis is that Romanian media was slow in abandoning the communist press model, which explains the manichaeist discourse of nowadays media, the involvement of politics in media business and, last but not least, the extremely poor market – the poorest in Eastern Europe, as showed by the latest studies. The analysis has two components: the context analysis (historical, political, and ideological and the media discourse analysis, in line with the view of certain authors (C. Sparks with respect to the transitions in Eastern Europe and the role the media played in these processes. The discourse procedures of the totalitarian language were emphasized by investigating a corpus formed of the main publications of the printed press before and after 1989.

  14. From the Totalitarian Language to the Informative Discourse. A Romanian Media Discourse Analysis During the '90s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUMINIŢA ROŞCA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at emphasizing the institutional transformations that occurred in the public environment following the events in December 1989 in Romania, focusing on the dismantling of mechanisms that marked the transition from the national-communist propaganda discourse to the informative discourse, which laid the foundation of the public sphere in post-totalitarian Romania. The hypothesis we start from is that Romanian media was slow in abandoning the communist press model, which explains the manichaeist discourse of nowadays media, the involvement of politics in media business and, last but not least, the extremely poor market - the poorest in Eastern Europe, as showed by the latest studies. The analysis has two components: the context analysis (historical, political, ideological and the media discourse analysis (cf. P. Charaudeau, R. Fowler, John Hartley, in line with the view of certain authors (C. Sparks with respect to the transitions in Eastern Europe and the role media played in these processes. Also, we permanently referred to the theories of the public sphere explained by J. Habermas. The discourse procedures of the totalitarian language were emphasized by investigating a corpus formed of the main publications of the printed press before and after 1989.

  15. Les Stratégies de traduction de requêtes en recherche d'information ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Query translation techniques for cross- language information retrieval. We present in this paper two approaches for cross- language retrieval using query translation. The first approach uses a bilingual dictionary to translate each term of the query. The second approach is based on the use of associations that are ...

  16. Language Contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelde, Peter Hans

    1995-01-01

    Examines the phenomenon of language contact and recent trends in linguistic contact research, which focuses on language use, language users, and language spheres. Also discusses the role of linguistic and cultural conflicts in language contact situations. (13 references) (MDM)

  17. Information systems for mental health in six low and middle income countries : Cross country situation analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Upadhaya, Nawaraj; Jordans, Mark J D; Abdulmalik, Jibril; Ahuja, Shalini; Alem, Atalay; Hanlon, Charlotte; Kigozi, Fred; Kizza, Dorothy; Lund, Crick; Semrau, Maya; Shidhaye, Rahul; Thornicroft, Graham; Komproe, Ivan H.; Gureje, Oye

    2016-01-01

    Background: Research on information systems for mental health in low and middle income countries (LMICs) is scarce. As a result, there is a lack of reliable information on mental health service needs, treatment coverage and the quality of services provided. Methods: With the aim of informing the

  18. GRAMMAR RULE BASED INFORMATION RETRIEVAL MODEL FOR BIG DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Nadana Ravishankar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Though Information Retrieval (IR in big data has been an active field of research for past few years; the popularity of the native languages presents a unique challenge in big data information retrieval systems. There is a need to retrieve information which is present in English and display it in the native language for users. This aim of cross language information retrieval is complicated by unique features of the native languages such as: morphology, compound word formations, word spelling variations, ambiguity, word synonym, other language influence and etc. To overcome some of these issues, the native language is modeled using a grammar rule based approach in this work. The advantage of this approach is that the native language is modeled and its unique features are encoded using a set of inference rules. This rule base coupled with the customized ontological system shows considerable potential and is found to show better precision and recall.

  19. The problematic use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in adolescents by the cross sectional JOITIC study

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz Miralles, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    Background: The emerging field of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) has brought about new interaction styles. Its excessive use may lead to addictive behaviours. The objective is to determine the prevalence of the problematic use of ICT such as Internet, mobile phones and video games, among adolescents enrolled in mandatory Secondary Education (ESO in Spanish) and to examine associated factors. Methods: Cross sectional, multi-centric descriptive study. Population: 5538 students ...

  20. Natural language understanding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, S

    1982-04-01

    Language understanding is essential for intelligent information processing. Processing of language itself involves configuration element analysis, syntactic analysis (parsing), and semantic analysis. They are not carried out in isolation. These are described for the Japanese language and their usage in understanding-systems is examined. 30 references.

  1. Concepts for a standard based cross-organisational information security management system in the context of a nationwide EHR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mense, Alexander; Hoheiser-Pförtner, Franz; Schmid, Martin; Wahl, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Working with health related data necessitates appropriate levels of security and privacy. Information security, meaning ensuring confidentiality, integrity, and availability, is more organizational, than technical in nature. It includes many organizational and management measures, is based on well-defined security roles, processes, and documents, and needs permanent adaption of security policies, continuously monitoring, and measures assessment. This big challenge for any organization leads to implementation of an information security management system (ISMS). In the context of establishing a regional or national electronic health record for integrated care (ICEHR), the situation is worse. Changing the medical information exchange from on-demand peer-to-peer connections to health information networks requires all organizations participating in the EHR system to have consistent security levels and to follow the same security guidelines and rules. Also, the implementation must be monitored and audited, establishing cross-organizational information security management systems (ISMS) based on international standards. This paper evaluates requirements and defines basic concepts for an ISO 27000 series-based cross-organizational ISMS in the healthcare domain and especially for the implementation of the nationwide electronic health record in Austria (ELGA).

  2. Automated identification of wound information in clinical notes of patients with heart diseases: Developing and validating a natural language processing application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topaz, Maxim; Lai, Kenneth; Dowding, Dawn; Lei, Victor J; Zisberg, Anna; Bowles, Kathryn H; Zhou, Li

    2016-12-01

    Electronic health records are being increasingly used by nurses with up to 80% of the health data recorded as free text. However, only a few studies have developed nursing-relevant tools that help busy clinicians to identify information they need at the point of care. This study developed and validated one of the first automated natural language processing applications to extract wound information (wound type, pressure ulcer stage, wound size, anatomic location, and wound treatment) from free text clinical notes. First, two human annotators manually reviewed a purposeful training sample (n=360) and random test sample (n=1100) of clinical notes (including 50% discharge summaries and 50% outpatient notes), identified wound cases, and created a gold standard dataset. We then trained and tested our natural language processing system (known as MTERMS) to process the wound information. Finally, we assessed our automated approach by comparing system-generated findings against the gold standard. We also compared the prevalence of wound cases identified from free-text data with coded diagnoses in the structured data. The testing dataset included 101 notes (9.2%) with wound information. The overall system performance was good (F-measure is a compiled measure of system's accuracy=92.7%), with best results for wound treatment (F-measure=95.7%) and poorest results for wound size (F-measure=81.9%). Only 46.5% of wound notes had a structured code for a wound diagnosis. The natural language processing system achieved good performance on a subset of randomly selected discharge summaries and outpatient notes. In more than half of the wound notes, there were no coded wound diagnoses, which highlight the significance of using natural language processing to enrich clinical decision making. Our future steps will include expansion of the application's information coverage to other relevant wound factors and validation of the model with external data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All

  3. Common data model for natural language processing based on two existing standard information models: CDA+GrAF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meystre, Stéphane M; Lee, Sanghoon; Jung, Chai Young; Chevrier, Raphaël D

    2012-08-01

    An increasing need for collaboration and resources sharing in the Natural Language Processing (NLP) research and development community motivates efforts to create and share a common data model and a common terminology for all information annotated and extracted from clinical text. We have combined two existing standards: the HL7 Clinical Document Architecture (CDA), and the ISO Graph Annotation Format (GrAF; in development), to develop such a data model entitled "CDA+GrAF". We experimented with several methods to combine these existing standards, and eventually selected a method wrapping separate CDA and GrAF parts in a common standoff annotation (i.e., separate from the annotated text) XML document. Two use cases, clinical document sections, and the 2010 i2b2/VA NLP Challenge (i.e., problems, tests, and treatments, with their assertions and relations), were used to create examples of such standoff annotation documents, and were successfully validated with the XML schemata provided with both standards. We developed a tool to automatically translate annotation documents from the 2010 i2b2/VA NLP Challenge format to GrAF, and automatically generated 50 annotation documents using this tool, all successfully validated. Finally, we adapted the XSL stylesheet provided with HL7 CDA to allow viewing annotation XML documents in a web browser, and plan to adapt existing tools for translating annotation documents between CDA+GrAF and the UIMA and GATE frameworks. This common data model may ease directly comparing NLP tools and applications, combining their output, transforming and "translating" annotations between different NLP applications, and eventually "plug-and-play" of different modules in NLP applications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Radiation Therapy - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... W XYZ List of All Topics All Radiation Therapy - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, ... Information Translations Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) Expand Section Radiation Therapy - Tiếng Việt (Vietnamese) ... Health Information Translations Characters not displaying correctly on this page? See language display issues . Return to the MedlinePlus Health Information ...

  5. Patient information in radiation oncology: a cross-sectional pilot study using the EORTC QLQ-INFO26 module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, Johannes; Paelecke-Habermann, Yvonne; Jahn, Patrick; Landenberger, Margarete; Leplow, Bernd; Vordermark, Dirk

    2009-01-01

    The availability of alternative sources of information, e. g. the internet, may influence the quantity and quality of information cancer patients receive regarding their disease and treatment. The purpose of the present study was to assess perception of information in cancer patients during radiotherapy as well as media preferences and specifically the utilization of the internet. In a cross-sectional, single-centre study 94 patients currently undergoing radiotherapy were asked to complete two questionnaires. The EORTC QLQ-INFO26 module was used to assess the quality and quantity of information received by patients in the areas disease, medical tests, treatment, other services, different places of care and how to help themselves, as well as qualitative aspects as helpfulness of and satisfaction with this information. The importance of different media, in particular the internet, was investigated by a nine-item questionnaire. The response rate was n = 72 patients (77%). Patients felt best informed concerning medical tests (mean ± SD score 79 ± 22, scale 0-100) followed by disease (68 ± 21). Treatment (52 ± 24) and different places of care and other services (30 ± 36 and 30 ± 30, respectively) ranked last. 37% of patients were very satisfied and 37% moderately satisfied with the amount of information received, 61% wished more information. Among eight media, brochures, television and internet were ranked as most important. 41% used the internet themselves or via friends or family, mostly for research of classic and alternative treatment options. Unavailability and the necessity of computer skills were most mentioned obstacles. In a single-center pilot study, radiotherapy patients indicated having received most information about medical tests and their disease. Patients very satisfied with their information had received the largest amount of information. Brochures, television and internet were the most important media. Individual patient needs should be

  6. Perceived Quality of Informed Refusal Process: A Cross-Sectional Study from Iranian Patients' Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzandipour, Mehrdad; Sheikhtaheri, Abbas; Sadeqi Jabali, Monireh

    2015-12-01

    Patients have the right to refuse their treatment; however, this refusal should be informed. We evaluated the quality of the informed refusal process in Iranian hospitals from patients' viewpoints. To this end, we developed a questionnaire that covered four key aspects of the informed refusal process including; information disclosure, voluntariness, comprehension, and provider-patient relationship. A total of 284 patients who refused their treatment from 12 teaching hospitals in the Isfahan Province, Iran, were recruited and surveyed to produce a convenience sample. Patients' perceptions about the informed refusal process were scored and the mean scores of the four components were calculated. The findings showed that the practice of information disclosure (9.6 ± 6.4 out of 22 points) was perceived to be moderate, however, comprehension (2.3 ± 1.4 out of 4 points), voluntariness (8.7 ± 1.5 out of 12 points) and provider-patient relationship (10.2 ± 5.2 out of 16 points) were perceived to be relatively good. We found that patients, who refused their care before any treatment had commenced, reported a lower quality of information disclosure and voluntariness. Patients informed by nurses and those who had not had a previous related admission, reported lower scores for comprehension and relationship. In conclusion, the process of obtaining informed refusal was relatively satisfactory except for levels of information disclosure. To improve current practices, Iranian patients need to be better informed about; different treatment options, consequences of treatment refusal, costs of not continuing treatment and follow-ups after refusal. Developing more informative refusal forms is needed. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Decision table languages and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Metzner, John R

    1977-01-01

    ACM Monograph Series: Decision Table Languages and Systems focuses on linguistic examination of decision tables and survey of the features of existing decision table languages and systems. The book first offers information on semiotics, programming language features, and generalization. Discussions focus on semantic broadening, outer language enrichments, generalization of syntax, limitations, implementation improvements, syntactic and semantic features, decision table syntax, semantics of decision table languages, and decision table programming languages. The text then elaborates on design im

  8. Three-dimensional cross point readout detector design for including depth information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Jae; Baek, Cheol-Ha

    2018-04-01

    We designed a depth-encoding positron emission tomography (PET) detector using a cross point readout method with wavelength-shifting (WLS) fibers. To evaluate the characteristics of the novel detector module and the PET system, we used the DETECT2000 to perform optical photon transport in the crystal array. The GATE was also used. The detector module is made up of four layers of scintillator arrays, the five layers of WLS fiber arrays, and two sensor arrays. The WLS fiber arrays in each layer cross each other to transport light to each sensor array. The two sensor arrays are coupled to the forward and left sides of the WLS fiber array, respectively. The identification of three-dimensional pixels was determined using a digital positioning algorithm. All pixels were well decoded, with the system resolution ranging from 2.11 mm to 2.29 mm at full width at half maximum (FWHM).

  9. Using research evidence to inform staff learning needs in cross-cultural communication in aged care homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillham, David; De Bellis, Anita; Xiao, Lily; Willis, Eileen; Harrington, Ann; Morey, Wendy; Jeffers, Lesley

    2018-04-01

    Developed countries worldwide are facing an unprecedented demand for aged care services, with recent migrants of diverse linguistic and cultural backgrounds increasingly recruited as care workers while at the same time there is growing cultural diversity among aged care residents. This situation is compounded by rapidly changing technology and varied educational levels of care workers from diverse backgrounds. The objectives were threefold: to identify staff learning needs to enable them to provide high-quality cross-cultural care; to improve team cohesion; and identify preferred learning approaches. An interpretive qualitative study utilising focus group and interview data informed the development of an education resource. Fifty six care workers from four residential aged care facilities participated in either focus groups or interviews conducted in private meeting rooms within the care facilities. Participants included personal care attendants, registered and clinical nurses, managers, hospitality staff and allied health professionals. Focus group and interview data were categorised and thematically analysed. Data relevant to cross-cultural care, team cohesion and preferred learning approaches informed education resource development, including case studies. Major themes identified the need to promote cultural awareness and understanding, and strategies for cross-cultural care and communication. Themes related to team cohesion demonstrated that staff were already sympathetic and sensitive to cross-cultural issues, and that culturally and linguistically diverse staff add value to the workforce and are supported by the organisation. Staff required clear, uncomplicated education resources to equip them with skills to address problematic cultural situations. Preferred learning approaches varied and highlighted the need for varied educational materials and approaches, as well as time efficient, opportunistic education strategies for the busy workplace. An education

  10. Myanmar Language Search Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Pann Yu Mon; Yoshiki Mikami

    2011-01-01

    With the enormous growth of the World Wide Web, search engines play a critical role in retrieving information from the borderless Web. Although many search engines are available for the major languages, but they are not much proficient for the less computerized languages including Myanmar. The main reason is that those search engines are not considering the specific features of those languages. A search engine which capable of searching the Web documents written in those languages is highly n...

  11. Sources of Information During the 2014 West Virginia Water Crisis: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoia, Elena; Lin, Leesa; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2017-04-01

    On January 9, 2014, a faulty storage tank leaked 10,000 gallons of an industrial coal-processing liquid into the Elk River in West Virginia, contaminating the drinking water of 9 counties collectively known as the Kanawha Valley. In the context of this event, we explored the relationship between social determinants and (1) the timeliness with which residents learned about the crisis, (2) the source of information, (3) opinions on the source of information, (4) information-seeking behaviors, and (5) knowledge acquired. Between February 7 and 26, 2014, we conducted a survey of 690 adult residents of West Virginia. Descriptive statistics and multivariable statistical models were performed. Information about water contamination spread quickly, with 88% of respondents from the affected counties hearing about the incident on the same day it occurred. Most people received the information from local television news (73%); social media users had 120% increased odds of knowing about the recommended behaviors. People who had a favorable opinion of the source of information demonstrated better knowledge of recommended behaviors. The use of local television news during a crisis is important for timely dissemination of information. Information exposure across segments of the population differed on the basis of the population's background characteristics. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:196-206).

  12. Internet use for health information among haematology outpatients: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Michaël R; Cremers, Saskia; Verhoef, Gregor; Dierickx, Daan

    2012-03-01

    Patients are increasingly seeking health information on the Internet, but to the best of our knowledge, this has not been previously studied in haematology. We aimed to characterise online health information use and associated variables among adult outpatients in our tertiary-care centre in Flanders, Belgium. During a 6-week period, we distributed 477 anonymous self-administered questionnaires and received 451 (response rate 94.5%), of which 444 (93.1% of total) contained information on Internet use for health information, the primary outcome. Two hundred and thirty-two respondents (52.3%) had ever sought any health information online, and 187 (33.1%) conducted searches pertaining to their haematological disease in the past year. The latter was independently associated with younger age and a higher level of education in multivariate analysis. Internet users ranked the Internet higher and other resources lower as health information resources. Among Internet users, 196 (89.5%) would be interested in a list of reliable websites about their disease. Patients reported positive and negative aspects of online health information-seeking; it increased anxiety in some while it stimulated coping in others. We conclude that haematological patients commonly use the Internet for health information and report both positive and negative aspects of using this medium.

  13. Assessment of Adult Psychopathology: Meta-Analyses and Implications of Cross-Informant Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achenbach, Thomas M.; Krukowsi, Rebecca A.; Dumenci, Levent; Ivanova, Masha Y.

    2005-01-01

    Assessment of adult psychopathology relies heavily on self-reports. To determine how well self-reports agree with reports by "informants" who know the person being assessed, the authors examined 51,000 articles published over 10 years in 52 peer-reviewed journals for correlations between self-reports and "informants" reports. Qualifying…

  14. Cross-Informant Agreement on Child and Adolescent Withdrawn Behavior: A Latent Class Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, David H.; Althoff, Robert R.; Walkup, John T.; Hudziak, James J.

    2013-01-01

    Withdrawn behavior (WB) relates to many developmental outcomes, including pervasive developmental disorders, anxiety, depression, psychosis, personality disorders and suicide. No study has compared the latent profiles of different informants' reports on WB. This study uses multi-informant latent class analyses (LCA) of the child behavior checklist…

  15. Within- and cross-modal distance information disambiguate visual size-change perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter W Battaglia

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Perception is fundamentally underconstrained because different combinations of object properties can generate the same sensory information. To disambiguate sensory information into estimates of scene properties, our brains incorporate prior knowledge and additional "auxiliary" (i.e., not directly relevant to desired scene property sensory information to constrain perceptual interpretations. For example, knowing the distance to an object helps in perceiving its size. The literature contains few demonstrations of the use of prior knowledge and auxiliary information in combined visual and haptic disambiguation and almost no examination of haptic disambiguation of vision beyond "bistable" stimuli. Previous studies have reported humans integrate multiple unambiguous sensations to perceive single, continuous object properties, like size or position. Here we test whether humans use visual and haptic information, individually and jointly, to disambiguate size from distance. We presented participants with a ball moving in depth with a changing diameter. Because no unambiguous distance information is available under monocular viewing, participants rely on prior assumptions about the ball's distance to disambiguate their -size percept. Presenting auxiliary binocular and/or haptic distance information augments participants' prior distance assumptions and improves their size judgment accuracy-though binocular cues were trusted more than haptic. Our results suggest both visual and haptic distance information disambiguate size perception, and we interpret these results in the context of probabilistic perceptual reasoning.

  16. Crossing heterogeneous information sources for better analysis of health and social care data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szirbik, NB; Pelletier, C; Chaussalet, TJ; Bos, L; Marsh, A

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we describe a methodology that emerged during an implementation of a health-and-social-care-oriented data repository, which consists in grouping information from heterogeneous and distributed information sources. We developed this methodology by first constructing a concrete data

  17. Nativity and language preference as drivers of health information seeking: examining differences and trends from a U.S. population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Philip M; Langellier, Brent A; Sentell, Tetine; Manganello, Jennifer

    2017-12-01

    To examine differences in health information seeking between U.S.-born and foreign-born populations in the U.S. Data from 2008 to 2014 from the Health Information National Trends Survey were used in this study (n = 15,249). Bivariate analyses, logistic regression, and predicted probabilities were used to examine health information seeking and sources of health information. Findings demonstrate that 59.3% of the Hispanic foreign-born population reported looking for health information, fewer than other racial/ethnic groups in the sample. Compared with non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black (OR = 0.62) and Hispanic foreign-born individuals (OR = 0.31) were the least likely to use the internet as a first source for health information. Adjustment for language preference explains much of the disparity in health information seeking between the Hispanic foreign-born population and Whites; controlling for nativity, respondents who prefer Spanish have 0.25 the odds of using the internet as a first source of health information compared to those who prefer English. Foreign-born nativity and language preference are significant determinants of health information seeking. Further research is needed to better understand how information seeking patterns can influence health care use, and ultimately health outcomes. To best serve diverse racial and ethnic minority populations, health care systems, health care providers, and public health professionals must provide culturally competent health information resources to strengthen access and use by vulnerable populations, and to ensure that all populations are able to benefit from evolving health information sources in the digital age.

  18. The informal networks in food procurement by older people - A cross European comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turrini, Aida; D'Addezio, Laura; Maccati, Fabrizia

    2010-01-01

    .e., alone vs. with others) in FSW was revealed. Informal social networks may play an important role in public health and welfare policies, particularly given the increase in this demographic group. Assistance with grocery shopping and the availability of trained personnel could widen informal networks......, and effective informal networks may be an important supportive service for older adults. The comparison across countries highlighted relationships between food procurement capabilities and social networks. These findings may be used to develop resources to better meet the nutritional needs of older adults.......Healthy dietary profiles contribute to successful aging, and dietary intake is dependent upon food procurement capabilities. Both formal and informal social networks can contribute to grocery shopping capabilities and methods of food procurement. This investigation explores the role of informal...

  19. Speech-language assessment in a linguistically diverse setting: Preliminary exploration of the possible impact of informal ‘solutions’ within the South African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Barratt

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Speech-language therapists (SLTs working in the context of cultural and linguistic diversity face considerable challenges in providing equitable services to all clients. This is complicated by the fact that the majority of SLTs in South Africa are English or Afrikaans speakers, while the majority of the population have a home language other than English/Afrikaans. Consequently, SLTs are often forced to call on untrained personnel to act as interpreters or translators, and to utilise informally translated materials in the assessment and management of clients with communication impairments. However, variations in translation have the potential to considerably alter intervention plans. This study explored whether the linguistic complexity conveyed in translation of the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB test changed when translated from English to isiZulu by five different first-language IsiZulu speakers. A qualitative comparative research design was adopted and results were analysed using comparative data analysis. Results revealed notable differences in the translations, with most differences relating to vocabulary and semantics. This finding holds clinical implications for the use of informal translators as well as for the utilisation of translated material in the provision of speech-language therapy services in multilingual contexts. This study highlights the need for cautious use of translators and/or translated materials that are not appropriately and systematically adapted for local usage. Further recommendations include a call for intensified efforts in the transformation of the profession within the country, specifically by attracting greater numbers of students who are fluent in African languages.

  20. DYNAMIC PARAMETER ESTIMATION BASED ON MINIMUM CROSS-ENTROPY METHOD FOR COMBINING INFORMATION SOURCES

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sečkárová, Vladimíra

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 5 (2015), s. 181-188 ISSN 0204-9805. [XVI-th International Summer Conference on Probability and Statistics (ISCPS-2014). Pomorie, 21.6.-29.6.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-13502S Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) SVV 260225/2015 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : minimum cross- entropy principle * Kullback-Leibler divergence * dynamic diffusion estimation Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2015/AS/seckarova-0445817.pdf

  1. Enlisting User Community Perspectives to Inform Development of a Semantic Web Application for Discovery of Cross-Institutional Research Information and Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, E. M.; Mayernik, M. S.; Boler, F. M.; Corson-Rikert, J.; Daniels, M. D.; Gross, M. B.; Khan, H.; Maull, K. E.; Rowan, L. R.; Stott, D.; Williams, S.; Krafft, D. B.

    2015-12-01

    Researchers seek information and data through a variety of avenues: published literature, search engines, repositories, colleagues, etc. In order to build a web application that leverages linked open data to enable multiple paths for information discovery, the EarthCollab project has surveyed two geoscience user communities to consider how researchers find and share scholarly output. EarthCollab, a cross-institutional, EarthCube funded project partnering UCAR, Cornell University, and UNAVCO, is employing the open-source semantic web software, VIVO, as the underlying technology to connect the people and resources of virtual research communities. This study will present an analysis of survey responses from members of the two case study communities: (1) the Bering Sea Project, an interdisciplinary field program whose data archive is hosted by NCAR's Earth Observing Laboratory (EOL), and (2) UNAVCO, a geodetic facility and consortium that supports diverse research projects informed by geodesy. The survey results illustrate the types of research products that respondents indicate should be discoverable within a digital platform and the current methods used to find publications, data, personnel, tools, and instrumentation. The responses showed that scientists rely heavily on general purpose search engines, such as Google, to find information, but that data center websites and the published literature were also critical sources for finding collaborators, data, and research tools.The survey participants also identify additional features of interest for an information platform such as search engine indexing, connection to institutional web pages, generation of bibliographies and CVs, and outward linking to social media. Through the survey, the user communities prioritized the type of information that is most important to display and describe their work within a research profile. The analysis of this survey will inform our further development of a platform that will

  2. Cross-layer combining of information-guided transmission withnetwork coding relaying for multiuser cognitive radio systems

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuli

    2013-02-01

    For a cognitive radio relaying network, we propose a cross-layer design by combining information-guided transmission at the physical layer and network coding at the network layer. With this design, a common relay is exploited to help the communications between multiple secondary source-destination pairs, which allows for a more efficient use of the radio resources, and moreover, generates less interference to primary licensees in the network. Considering the spectrum-sharing constraints on the relay and secondary sources, the achievable data rate of the proposed cross-layer design is derived and evaluated. Numerical results on average capacity and uniform capacity in the network under study substantiate the efficiency of our proposed design. © 2013 IEEE.

  3. Distinctive marketing and information technology capabilities and strategic types : A cross-national investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, Michael; Nason, Robert W.; Di Benedetto, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    The authors examine the relationship between strategic type and development of distinctive marketing, market-linking, technology, and information technology (IT) capabilities to implement innovation strategy. They hypothesize that prospectors must build technical and IT capabilities, whereas

  4. America's Languages: The Future of Language Advocacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, William P.; Brecht, Richard D.

    2018-01-01

    In honor of the 50th Anniversary of "Foreign Language Annals," and recognizing the seminal role this journal has in informing the language education profession about policies and programs, we sketch a future for advocacy for language education in the United States. Drawing on the Languages for All initiative and the work of the…

  5. Time-varying and time-invariant dimensions of depression in children and adolescents: Implications for cross-informant agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, David A; Martin, Joan M; Jacquez, Farrah M; Tram, Jane M; Zelkowitz, Rachel; Nick, Elizabeth A; Rights, Jason D

    2017-07-01

    The longitudinal structure of depression in children and adolescents was examined by applying a Trait-State-Occasion structural equation model to 4 waves of self, teacher, peer, and parent reports in 2 age groups (9 to 13 and 13 to 16 years old). Analyses revealed that the depression latent variable consisted of 2 longitudinal factors: a time-invariant dimension that was completely stable over time and a time-varying dimension that was not perfectly stable over time. Different sources of information were differentially sensitive to these 2 dimensions. Among adolescents, self- and parent reports better reflected the time-invariant aspects. For children and adolescents, peer and teacher reports better reflected the time-varying aspects. Relatively high cross-informant agreement emerged for the time-invariant dimension in both children and adolescents. Cross-informant agreement for the time-varying dimension was high for adolescents but very low for children. Implications emerge for theoretical models of depression and for its measurement, especially when attempting to predict changes in depression in the context of longitudinal studies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Improvement of Modeling HTGR Neutron Physics by Uncertainty Analysis with the Use of Cross-Section Covariance Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyarinov, V. F.; Grol, A. V.; Fomichenko, P. A.; Ternovykh, M. Yu

    2017-01-01

    This work is aimed at improvement of HTGR neutron physics design calculations by application of uncertainty analysis with the use of cross-section covariance information. Methodology and codes for preparation of multigroup libraries of covariance information for individual isotopes from the basic 44-group library of SCALE-6 code system were developed. A 69-group library of covariance information in a special format for main isotopes and elements typical for high temperature gas cooled reactors (HTGR) was generated. This library can be used for estimation of uncertainties, associated with nuclear data, in analysis of HTGR neutron physics with design codes. As an example, calculations of one-group cross-section uncertainties for fission and capture reactions for main isotopes of the MHTGR-350 benchmark, as well as uncertainties of the multiplication factor (k∞) for the MHTGR-350 fuel compact cell model and fuel block model were performed. These uncertainties were estimated by the developed technology with the use of WIMS-D code and modules of SCALE-6 code system, namely, by TSUNAMI, KENO-VI and SAMS. Eight most important reactions on isotopes for MHTGR-350 benchmark were identified, namely: 10B(capt), 238U(n,γ), ν5, 235U(n,γ), 238U(el), natC(el), 235U(fiss)-235U(n,γ), 235U(fiss).

  7. Use of The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF as a conceptual framework and common language for disability statistics and health information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostanjsek Nenad

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A common framework for describing functional status information is needed in order to make this information comparable and of value. The World Health Organization’s International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF, which has been approved by all its member states, provides this common language and framework. The article provides an overview of ICF taxonomy, introduces the conceptual model which underpins ICF and elaborates on how ICF is used at population and clinical level. Furthermore, the article presents key features of the ICF tooling environment and outlines current and future developments of the classification.

  8. Language Revitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Leanne

    2003-01-01

    Surveys developments in language revitalization and language death. Focusing on indigenous languages, discusses the role and nature of appropriate linguistic documentation, possibilities for bilingual education, and methods of promoting oral fluency and intergenerational transmission in affected languages. (Author/VWL)

  9. Language Management Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    This paper offers a review of existing literature on the topic of language management tools – the means by which language is managed – in multilingual organisations. By drawing on a combination of sociolinguistics and international business and management studies, a new taxonomy of language...... management tools is proposed, differentiating between three categories of tools. Firstly, corporate policies are the deliberate control of issues pertaining to language and communication developed at the managerial level of a firm. Secondly, corporate measures are the planned activities the firm’s leadership...... may deploy in order to address the language needs of the organisation. Finally, front-line practices refer to the use of informal, emergent language management tools available to staff members. The language management tools taxonomy provides a framework for operationalising the management of language...

  10. The Tao of Whole Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zola, Meguido

    1989-01-01

    Uses the philosophy of Taoism as a metaphor in describing the whole language approach to language arts instruction. The discussion covers the key principles that inform the whole language approach, the resulting holistic nature of language programs, and the role of the teacher in this approach. (16 references) (CLB)

  11. De-entrainment phenomena on vertical tubes in droplet cross flow. Informal report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dallman, J.C.; Kirchner, W.L.

    1980-04-01

    In this study, flow conditions in the upper plenum of a PWR during the reflood stage of a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) are simulated using water sprays and a draft-induced wind tunnel. The de-entrainment efficiencies of isolated structures are presented for a variety of air-water droplet cross flow conditions. Since droplet splashing and/or bouncing from the draining liquid film is not accounted for in classical inertial impaction theory, there is substantial disagreement between measurement and the theory. The de-entrainment efficiencies of isolated tubes are extrapolated to those of tubes in a multiple tube array, and a predictive relation is presented for the overall de-entrainment eficiency of multiple tube arrays

  12. From Slang to Acceptability: Style-Shifting Variation in English Language Usage by Students of CRUTECH, Calabar, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercy Ugot

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on informal language usage by students of Cross River University of Technology, Calabar, Nigeria. This includes the use of slang words from primarily the substrate and superstrate language of the mother tongue (MT and Nigerian Pidgin (NP respectively. Participant observation was used for this work including lectures and other forums. Focus is on the speech discourse of students. The NP in particular is a contact language which has grown in stature due to factors of relevance as a common language in a pluralistic society like the Cross River State in particular, and Nigeria in general. Its use has also expanded due to urbanization. The MT has been observed to be influential through direct translation of certain expressions. Findings have shown that the informal use of language by the students has inadvertently affected their competence in standard and formal language use.

  13. Processing lexical semantic and syntactic information in first and second language: fMRI evidence from German and Russian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüschemeyer, Shirley-Ann; Fiebach, Christian J; Kempe, Vera; Friederici, Angela D

    2005-06-01

    We introduce two experiments that explored syntactic and semantic processing of spoken sentences by native and non-native speakers. In the first experiment, the neural substrates corresponding to detection of syntactic and semantic violations were determined in native speakers of two typologically different languages using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The results show that the underlying neural response of participants to stimuli across different native languages is quite similar. In the second experiment, we investigated how non-native speakers of a language process the same stimuli presented in the first experiment. First, the results show a more similar pattern of increased activation between native and non-native speakers in response to semantic violations than to syntactic violations. Second, the non-native speakers were observed to employ specific portions of the frontotemporal language network differently from those employed by native speakers. These regions included the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), superior temporal gyrus (STG), and subcortical structures of the basal ganglia.

  14. Addressing the Issue of Cultural and Linguistic Diversity and Assessment: Informal Evaluation Measures for English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, Cathleen G.

    2008-01-01

    Existing research indicates that there is a disproportionate number of students with cultural and linguistic differences, English Language Learners (ELL), who are misidentified as learning disabled when their problems are due to cultural and/or linguistic differences. As a consequence, these students do not receive appropriate services. With the…

  15. The hidden and informal curriculum across the continuum of training: A cross-sectional qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doja, Asif; Bould, M Dylan; Clarkin, Chantalle; Eady, Kaylee; Sutherland, Stephanie; Writer, Hilary

    2016-04-01

    The hidden and informal curricula refer to learning in response to unarticulated processes and constraints, falling outside the formal medical curriculum. The hidden curriculum has been identified as requiring attention across all levels of learning. We sought to assess the knowledge and perceptions of the hidden and informal curricula across the continuum of learning at a single institution. Focus groups were held with undergraduate and postgraduate learners and faculty to explore knowledge and perceptions relating to the hidden and informal curricula. Thematic analysis was conducted both inductively by research team members and deductively using questions structured by the existing literature. Participants highlighted several themes related to the presence of the hidden and informal curricula in medical training and practice, including: the privileging of some specialties over others; the reinforcement of hierarchies within medicine; and a culture of tolerance towards unprofessional behaviors. Participants acknowledged the importance of role modeling in the development of professional identities and discussed the deterioration in idealism that occurs. Common issues pertaining to the hidden curriculum exist across all levels of learners, including faculty. Increased awareness of these issues could allow for the further development of methods to address learning within the hidden curriculum.

  16. Information Risk Management: Qualitative or Quantitative? Cross industry lessons from medical and financial fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upasna Saluja

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Enterprises across the world are taking a hard look at their risk management practices. A number of qualitative and quantitative models and approaches are employed by risk practitioners to keep risk under check. As a norm most organizations end up choosing the more flexible, easier to deploy and customize qualitative models of risk assessment. In practice one sees that such models often call upon the practitioners to make qualitative judgments on a relative rating scale which brings in considerable room for errors, biases and subjectivity. On the other hand under the quantitative risk analysis approach, estimation of risk is connected with application of numerical measures of some kind. Medical risk management models lend themselves as ideal candidates for deriving lessons for Information Security Risk Management. We can use this considerably developed understanding of risk management from the medical field especially Survival Analysis towards handling risks that information infrastructures face. Similarly, financial risk management discipline prides itself on perhaps the most quantifiable of models in risk management. Market Risk and Credit Risk Information Security Risk Management can make risk measurement more objective and quantitative by referring to the approach of Credit Risk. During the recent financial crisis many investors and financial institutions lost money or went bankrupt respectively, because they did not apply the basic principles of risk management. Learning from the financial crisis provides some valuable lessons for information risk management.

  17. Making sense of mobile- and web-based wellness information technology: cross-generational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutz, Daniel; Shankar, Kalpana; Connelly, Kay

    2013-05-14

    A recent trend in personal health and wellness management is the development of computerized applications or information and communication technologies (ICTs) that support behavioral change, aid the management of chronic conditions, or help an individual manage their wellness and engage in a healthier lifestyle. To understand how individuals across 3 generations (young, middle-aged, and older) think about the design and use of collaborative health and wellness management technologies and what roles these could take in their lives. Face-to-face semistructured interviews, paper prototype systems, and video skits were used to assess how individuals from 3 age cohorts (young: 18-25 years; middle-aged: 35-50 years; and older: ≥65 years) conceptualize the role that health and wellness computing could take in their lives. A total of 21 participants in the 3 age cohorts took part (young: n=7; middle-aged: n=7; and older: n=7). Young adults expected to be able to actively manage the presentation of their health-related information. Middle-aged adults had more nuanced expectations that reflect their engagement with work and other life activities. Older adults questioned the sharing of health information with a larger audience, although they saw the value in 1-way sharing between family members or providing aggregated information. Our findings inform our suggestions for improving the design of future collaborative health and wellness applications that target specific age groups. We recommend that collaborative ICT health applications targeting young adults should integrate with existing social networking sites, whereas those targeting middle-aged and older adults should support small social networks that rely on intimate personal relationships. Systems that target middle-aged adults should support episodic needs, such as time-sensitive, perhaps intermittent, goal setting. They should also have a low barrier to entry, allowing individuals who do not normally engage with the

  18. Neural signatures of second language learning and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolotti, James; Bradley, Kailyn; Hernandez, Arturo E; Marian, Viorica

    2017-04-01

    Experience with multiple languages has unique effects on cortical structure and information processing. Differences in gray matter density and patterns of cortical activation are observed in lifelong bilinguals compared to monolinguals as a result of their experience managing interference across languages. Monolinguals who acquire a second language later in life begin to encounter the same type of linguistic interference as bilinguals, but with a different pre-existing language architecture. The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to explore the beginning stages of second language acquisition and cross-linguistic interference in monolingual adults. We found that after English monolinguals learned novel Spanish vocabulary, English and Spanish auditory words led to distinct patterns of cortical activation, with greater recruitment of posterior parietal regions in response to English words and of left hippocampus in response to Spanish words. In addition, cross-linguistic interference from English influenced processing of newly-learned Spanish words, decreasing hippocampus activity. Results suggest that monolinguals may rely on different memory systems to process a newly-learned second language, and that the second language system is sensitive to native language interference. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cross-sectional survey of patients' need for information and support with medicines after discharge from hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackridge, Adam J; Rodgers, Ruth; Lee, Dan; Morecroft, Charles W; Krska, Janet

    2017-11-20

    Most patients experience changes to prescribed medicines during a hospital stay. Ensuring they understand such changes is important for preventing adverse events post-discharge and optimising patient understanding. However, little work has explored the information that patients receive about medicines or their perceived needs for information and support after discharge. To determine information that hospital inpatients who experience medicine changes receive about their medicines during admission and their needs and preferences for, and use of, post-discharge support. Cross-sectional survey with adult medical inpatients experiencing medicine changes in six English hospitals, with telephone follow-up 2-3 weeks post-discharge. A total of 444 inpatients completed surveys, and 99 of these were followed up post-discharge. Of the 444, 44 (10%) were unaware of changes to medicines and 65 (16%) did not recall discussing them with a health professional, but 305 (77%) reported understanding the changes. Type of information provided and patients' perceived need for post-discharge support differed between hospitals. Information about changes was most frequently provided by consultant medical staff (157; 39%) with pharmacists providing information least often (71; 17%). One third of patients surveyed considered community pharmacists as potential sources of information about medicines and associated support post-discharge. Post-discharge, just 5% had spoken to a pharmacist, although 35% reported medicine-related problems. In north-west England, patient inclusion in treatment decisions could be improved, but provision of information prior to discharge is reasonable. There is scope to develop hospital and community pharmacists' role in medicine optimisation to maximise safety and effectiveness of care. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  20. A lack of information engagement among colorectal cancer screening non-attenders: cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay C. Kobayashi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The NHS Cancer Screening Programmes in England now operate a policy of ‘informed choice’ about participation in cancer screening. Engagement with written information about screening is important to facilitate informed choice, although the degree to which the screening-eligible public engages with the available information is unknown. We examined the association between reading of the standard informational booklet (‘Bowel Cancer Screening: The Facts' and participation in the nationally organised NHS Bowel Cancer Screening Programme in England. Methods Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 1307 adults who were age-eligible for nationally organised colorectal cancer (CRC; also called bowel cancer in a population-based survey in England in 2014. Respondents were shown an image of ‘The Facts’ booklet and were asked how much of it they had read when they received their screening invitation (‘none’, ‘a little’, ‘some’, ‘most’, ‘almost all’, or ‘all’. Logistic regression was used to estimate the associations between screening uptake status (‘never’ vs. ‘ever’ and self-reported reading of ‘The Facts’ booklet (dichotomised to ‘none vs. ‘any’, adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, educational attainment, and occupation-based social grade. Results Overall, 69 % of the sample (908/1307 had participated in CRC screening at least once (‘ever’ screeners. One-fifth of the sample reported that they had read ‘none’ of ‘The Facts’ booklet (22 %; 287/1307, while half reported having read ‘all’ of it (52 %; 680/1307. Reading of the booklet was strongly differential according to screening uptake status: nearly two-thirds of ‘never’ screeners had read none of ‘The Facts’ booklet (63 %; 251/399, compared to less than one in twenty ‘ever’ screeners (4 %; 36/908; adjusted OR = 39.0; 95 % CI: 26.2-58.1 for reading ‘none’ in ‘never’ vs.