WorldWideScience

Sample records for cross deck panel

  1. Experimental studies on multicellular GFRP bridge deck panels ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M P MUTHURAJ

    2017-11-20

    Nov 20, 2017 ... design of a new bridge deck panel made of GFRP. .... cient manufacturing processes with minimal wastage. But re-use of the remaining FRP elements during manufacture ... Energy consumption for production of different.

  2. Structural improvement of strengthened deck panels with externally bonded plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, Jongsung; Oh, Hongseob

    2005-01-01

    Concrete bridge decks require eventual replacement and rehabilitation due to decreasing load-carrying capacity. This paper compares different strengthening design procedures that improve the usability and structural performance of bridge decks. The failure characteristics of bridge decks strengthened with various materials such as carbon fiber sheet, glass fiber sheet, steel plate, and grid CFRP and GFRP are analyzed, and the theoretical load-carrying capacities are evaluated using traditional beam and yield line theory, and punching shear analysis. The strengthening materials increase the punching shear strength of the deck and change the failure mode of the strengthened panel

  3. Experimental Test for Benchmark 1--Deck Lid Inner Panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Siguang; Lanker, Terry; Zhang, Jimmy; Wang Chuantao

    2005-01-01

    The Benchmark 1 deck lid inner is designed for both aluminum and steel based on a General Motor Corporation's current vehicle product. The die is constructed with a soft tool material. The die successfully produced aluminum and steel panels without splits and wrinkles. Detailed surface strains and thickness measurement were made at selected sections to include a wide range of deformation patterns from uniaxial tension mode to bi-axial tension mode. The springback measurements were done by using CMM machine along the part's hem edge which is critical to correct dimensional accuracy. It is expected that the data obtained will provide a useful source for forming and springback study on future automotive panels

  4. Recommendations for Longitudinal Post-Tensioning in Full-Depth Precast Concrete Bridge Deck Panels

    OpenAIRE

    Bowers, Susan Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Full-depth precast concrete panels offer an efficient alternative to traditional cast-in-place concrete for replacement or new construction of bridge decks. Research has shown that longitudinal post-tensioning helps keep the precast bridge deck in compression and avoid problems such as leaking, cracking, spalling, and subsequent rusting on the beams at the transverse panel joints. Current design recommendations suggest levels of initial compression for precast concrete decks in a very limit...

  5. Health monitoring of precast bridge deck panels reinforced with glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    The present research project investigates monitoring concrete precast panels for bridge decks that are reinforced with Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) bars. Due to the lack of long term research on concrete members reinforced with GFRP bars, lo...

  6. Numisheet2005 Benchmark Analysis on Forming of an Automotive Deck Lid Inner Panel: Benchmark 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buranathiti, Thaweepat; Cao Jian

    2005-01-01

    Numerical simulations in sheet metal forming processes have been a very challenging topic in industry. There are many computer codes and modeling techniques existing today. However, there are many unknowns affecting the prediction accuracy. Systematic benchmark tests are needed to accelerate the future implementations and to provide as a reference. This report presents an international cooperative benchmark effort for an automotive deck lid inner panel. Predictions from simulations are analyzed and discussed against the corresponding experimental results. The correlations between accuracy of each parameter of interest are discussed in this report

  7. Ash-Based Building Panels Production and Demonstration of Aerock Decking Building Product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alan E. Bland; Jesse Newcomer

    2007-01-01

    trials showed green product sagging, as a result of the die design. After the third die was acquired and fitted to the extruder, satisfactory decking and structural panels were produced. Cured decking was shipped to the US but experienced significant breakage and damage during transport. Subsequent evaluations concluded that an alternative die design was needed that would produce a more robust product resistant to damage. In summary, AeRock Decking can be a commercially-viable non-wood alternative decking product. This project has provided WRI and AeRock the knowledge and understanding to make AeRock Decking a commercial success. However, a commercial demonstration that produces quality product and the subsequent evaluation of its performance is needed before commercial acceptance of the AeRock product

  8. Structural Loading of Cross Deck Connections for Trimaran Vessels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rhoads, Jason

    2004-01-01

    ...: longitudinal bending, transverse bending, torsional bending, spreading and squeezing of hulls, inner and outer hull slam pressures, wet deck slam pressures, loading from ship's motions, and whipping of slender hulls...

  9. Field performance of timber bridges. 4, Graves Crossing stress-laminated deck bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. P. Wacker; M. A. Ritter

    The Graves Crossing bridge was constructed October 1991 in Antrim County, Michigan, as part of the demonstration timber bridge program sponsored by the USDA Forest Service. The bridge is a two-span continuous, stress-laminated deck superstructure and it is 36-ft long and 26-ft wide. The bridge is one of the first stress-laminated deck bridges to be built of sawn lumber...

  10. Abrasion-resistant concrete mix designs for precast bridge deck panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    The report documents laboratory investigations undertaken to develop high performance concrete (HPC) for precast and pre-stressed bridge deck components that would reduce the life-cycle cost of bridges by improving the studded tire wear (abrasion) re...

  11. Laser welded steel sandwich panel bridge deck development : finite element analysis and stake weld strength tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    This report summarizes the analysis of laser welded steel sandwich panels for use in bridge structures and : static testing of laser stake welded lap shear coupons. Steel sandwich panels consist of two face sheets : connected by a relatively low-dens...

  12. Calculation of deflection for cross laminated timber floor panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozarić Ljiljana M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper analytically calculated values of effective flexural stiffness and deflections of five-layer CLT panels height 14 cm due to the payload defined in Eurocode 1 for floors in residential buildings are compared. Effective flexural stiffness was calculated using Gamma method, K-method and Kreuzinger's analogy. Three floor panels with identical height but with different combinations of lamination thicknesses in cross-layers were analyzed. The panels are 4.5 meters long and 1 meter wide. Lamination thicknesses in cross-sections of panels are 33,4 cm+21,9 cm, then 33 cm+22,5 cm and 52,8 cm.

  13. Semiempirical Methodology for Estimating the Service Life of Concrete Deck Panels Strengthened with Fiber-Reinforced Polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eon-Kyoung Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Deterioration of concrete bridge decks affects their durability, safety, and function. It is therefore necessary to conduct structural rehabilitation of damaged concrete decks by strengthening them with fiber-reinforced polymer. Of the recent studies on the strengthened structures, most have focused on static behavior; only a few studies have investigated fatigue behavior. Accurate analysis of fatigue in concrete deck performance requires a more realistic simulated moving load. This study developed a theoretical live-load model to reflect the effect of moving vehicle loads, based on a statistical approach to the measurement of real traffic loads over various time periods in Korea. It assessed the fatigue life and strengthening effect of bridge decks strengthened with either carbon fiber sheets or grid carbon fiber polymer plastic using probabilistic and reliability analyses. It used extrapolations and simulations to derive maximum load effects for time periods ranging from 1 day to 75 years. Limited fatigue tests were conducted and probabilistic and reliability analyses were carried out on the strengthened concrete bridge deck specimens to predict the extended fatigue life. Analysis results indicated that strengthened concrete decks provide sufficient resistance against increasing truck loads during the service life of a bridge.

  14. ABC deck panel testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Accelerated Bridge Construction techniques have resulted in innovative options that : save time and money during the construction of bridges. One such group of techniques : that has generated considerable interest is the usage of individual precast c...

  15. Ecological Panel Inference from Repeated Cross Sections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelzer, Ben; Eisinga, Rob; Franses, Philip Hans

    2004-01-01

    This chapter presents a Markov chain model for the estimation of individual-level binary transitions from a time series of independent repeated cross-sectional (RCS) samples. Although RCS samples lack direct information on individual turnover, it is demonstrated here that it is possible with these

  16. Cross-sectional dependence in panel data analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarafidis, V.; Wansbeek, T.J.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the existing literature on panel data models with error cross-sectional dependence (CSD). We distinguish between weak and strong CSD and link these concepts to the spatial and factor structure approaches. We consider estimation under strong and weak exogeneity of

  17. Fiber reinforced polymer bridge decks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The overarching goal of this study was to perform a comprehensive evaluation of various issues related to the strength and serviceability : of the FRP deck panels that are available in the industry. Specific objectives were to establish critical limi...

  18. Static and fatigue investigation of second generation steel free bridge decks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klowak, C.; Memon, Amjad H.; Mufti, Aftab A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper outlines the static and fatigue behavior of two different cast-in-place second generation steel-free bridge decks, which are: hybrid carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP); and glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) and steel strap design. Although cast monolithically, the first deck slab was divided into three segments with different reinforcement configurations. All three segments were tested under a 222kN cyclic loading to investigate fatigue behavior. The second bridge deck comprised an internal panel and two cantilevers and was equipped with a civionics system. The internal panel static test that this paper deals with is useful in the development of fatigue theory derived from fatigue testing of the first bridge deck. Test results form the cyclic loading of the first bridge deck indicated that the cross-sectional area of the reinforcement used in the test bridge deck can be reduced by 40% based on the reinforcement provided in the deck under service loads. The hybrid system also reduced the development of longitudinal crack widths to approximately 0.4 mm under service conditions, compared to the cracks that occurred approximately halfway between adjacent bridge girders that were determined to be roughly 1 mm in several first generation steel-free bridge decks constructed in Canada. Civionics, also discussed in the paper, is a new term coined from Civil-Electronics, which is the application of electronics to civil structures. The Civionics Specifications (2004) developed by ISIS Canada researchers are a helpful design tool for engineers and contractors to develop civionics and structural health monitoring systems for civil infrastructure that will last the lifetime of a structure. The use of civionics for the second test bridge deck ensured the survival of 100% of the 63 internal sensors throughout the rigors of the construction and casting of the deck. (author)

  19. Applying Cross-Decking and Activity-Based Costing to Military Distribution Centers: A Proposed Framework

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elliott, Jonathan

    1997-01-01

    .... Cross-docking is a commercially proven approach to material distribution through a distribution center that can help reduce inventories, speed material flows, and cut related logistics activity costs...

  20. Testing for Unit Roots in Small Panels with Short-run and Long-run Cross-sectional Dependencies

    OpenAIRE

    Yoosoon Chang; Wonho Song

    2009-01-01

    An IV approach, using as instruments non-linear transformations of the lagged levels, is explored to test for unit roots in panels with general dependency and heterogeneity across cross-sectional units. We allow not only for the cross-sectional dependencies of innovations, but also for the presence of co-integration across cross-sectional levels. Unbalanced panels and panels with differing individual short-run dynamics and cross-sectionally related dynamics are also permitted. We also more ca...

  1. Skateboard deck materials selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haoyu; Coote, Tasha; Aiolos; Charlie

    2018-03-01

    The goal of this project was to identify the ideal material for a skateboard deck under 200 in price, minimizing the weight. The material must have a fracture toughness of 5 MPa/m2, have a minimum lifetime of 10, 000 cycles and must not experience brittle fracture. Both single material and hybrid solutions were explored. When further selecting to minimize weight, woods were found to be the best material. Titanium alloy-wood composites were explored to determine the optimal percentage composition of each material.A sandwich panel hybrid of 50% titanium alloy and 50% wood (Ti-Wood) was found to be the optimum material, performing better than the currently used plywood.

  2. Unit root tests for cross-sectionally dependent panels : The influence of observed factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becheri, I.G.; Drost, F.C.; van den Akker, R.

    This paper considers a heterogeneous panel unit root model with cross-sectional dependence generated by a factor structure—the factor common to all units being an observed covariate. The model is shown to be Locally Asymptotically Mixed Normal (LAMN), with the random part of the limiting Fisher

  3. Mathematical Creativity and Mathematical Aptitude: A Cross-Lagged Panel Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Tarun Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Cross-lagged panel correlation (CLPC) analysis has been used to identify causal relationships between mathematical creativity and mathematical aptitude. For this study, 480 8th standard students were selected through a random cluster technique from 9 intermediate and high schools of Varanasi, India. Mathematical creativity and mathematical…

  4. Estimation of Fractionally Integrated Panels with Fixed Effects and Cross-Section Dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ergemen, Yunus Emre; Velasco, Carlos

    We consider large N, T panel data models with fixed effects, common factors allowing cross-section dependence, and persistent data and shocks, which are assumed fractionally integrated. In a basic setup, the main interest is on the fractional parameter of the idiosyncratic component, which...

  5. Testing Cross-Sectional Correlation in Large Panel Data Models with Serial Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badi H. Baltagi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the problem of testing cross-sectional correlation in large panel data models with serially-correlated errors. It finds that existing tests for cross-sectional correlation encounter size distortions with serial correlation in the errors. To control the size, this paper proposes a modification of Pesaran’s Cross-sectional Dependence (CD test to account for serial correlation of an unknown form in the error term. We derive the limiting distribution of this test as N , T → ∞ . The test is distribution free and allows for unknown forms of serial correlation in the errors. Monte Carlo simulations show that the test has good size and power for large panels when serial correlation in the errors is present.

  6. Optimizing rib width to height and rib spacing to deck plate thickness ratios in orthotropic decks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Fettahoglu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Orthotropic decks are composed of deck plate, ribs, and cross-beams and are frequently used in industry to span long distances, due to their light structures and load carrying capacities. Trapezoidal ribs are broadly preferred as longitudinal stiffeners in design of orthotropic decks. They supply the required stiffness to the orthotropic deck in traffic direction. Trapezoidal ribs are chosen in industrial applications because of their high torsional and buckling rigidity, less material and welding needs. Rib width, height, spacing, thickness of deck plate are important parameters for designing of orthotropic decks. In the scope of this study, rib width to height and rib spacing to deck plate thickness ratios are assessed by means of the stresses developed under different ratios of these parameters. For this purpose a FE-model of orthotropic bridge is generated, which encompasses the entire bridge geometry and conforms to recommendations given in Eurocode 3 Part 2. Afterwards necessary FE-analyses are performed to reveal the stresses developed under different rib width to height and rib spacing to deck plate thickness ratios. Based on the results obtained in this study, recommendations regarding these ratios are provided for orthotropic steel decks occupying trapezoidal ribs.

  7. Efficient market hypothesis in emerging markets: Panel data evidence with multiple breaks and cross sectional dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Abd Halim Ahmad; Siti Nurazira Mohd Daud; W.N.W. Azman-Saini

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to re-examine whether mean reversion property hold for 15 emerging stock markets for the period 1985 to 2006. Utilizing a panel stationarity test that is able to account for multiple structural breaks and cross sectional dependence, we find that the emerging stock markets follow a random walk process. However, further analysis on individual series show that the majority of stock prices in emerging markets are governed by a mean reverting process. This result, whic...

  8. STS-37 Commander Nagel in commanders seat on OV-104's flight deck

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    STS-37 Commander Steven R. Nagel, wearing launch and entry suit (LES), sits at commanders station on the forward flight deck of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104. Surrounding Nagel are the seat headrest, control panels, checklists, forward flight deck windows, and three drinking water containers with straws attached to forward panel F2.

  9. Noise from Aft Deck Exhaust Nozzles: Differences in Experimental Embodiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Two embodiments of a rectangular nozzle on an aft deck are compared. In one embodiment the lower lip of the nozzle was extended with the sidewalls becoming triangles. In a second embodiment a rectangular nozzle was fitted with a surface that fit flush to the lower lip and extended outward from the sides of the nozzle, approximating a semi-infinite plane. For the purpose of scale-model testing, making the aft deck an integral part of the nozzle is possible for relatively short deck lengths, but a separate plate model is more flexible, accounts for the expanse of deck to the sides of the nozzle, and allows the nozzle to stand off from the deck. Both embodiments were tested and acoustic far-field results were compared. In both embodiments the extended deck introduces a new noise source, but the amplitude of the new source was dependent upon the span (cross-stream dimension) of the aft deck. The noise increased with deck length (streamwise dimension), and in the case of the beveled nozzle it increased with increasing aspect ratio. In previous studies of slot jets in wings it was noted that the increased noise from the extended aft deck appears as a dipole at the aft deck trailing edge, an acoustic source type with different dependence on velocity than jet mixing noise. The extraneous noise produced by the aft deck in the present studies also shows this behavior both in directivity and in velocity scaling.

  10. Fire Resistance of Large-Scale Cross-Laminated Timber Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henek, Vladan; Venkrbec, Václav; Novotný, Miloslav

    2017-12-01

    Wooden structures are increasingly being used in the construction of residential buildings. A common and often published reason to avoid wooden structures is their insufficient fire resistance, which reduces bearing capacity. For this reason, composite sandwich structures began to be designed to eliminate this drawback, as well as others. Recently, however, the trend is for a return to the original, wood-only variant and a search is underway for new technical means of improving the properties of such structures. Many timber structure technologies are known, but structures made from cross-laminated timber (CLT) panels have been used very often in recent years. CLT panels, also known as X-LAM, are currently gaining popularity in Europe. In the case of CLT panels composed of several layers of boards, they can be said to offer a certain advantage in that after the surface layer of a board has burnt and the subsurface layer has dried, oxygen is not drawn to the unburned wood for further combustion and thus the burning process ceases. CLT panels do not need to be specially modified or coated with fire resistant materials, although they are usually lined with gypsum-fibre fire resistant boards due to guidelines set out in the relevant standards. This paper presents a new method for the assessment of load-bearing perimeter walls fabricated from CLT panels without the use of an inner fire-retardant lining to ensure fire resistance at the level required by European standards (i.e. those harmonized for the Czech construction industry). The calculations were verified through laboratory tests which show that better parameters can be achieved during the classification of structures from the fire resistance point of view. The aim of the article is to utilize the results of assessment and testing by an accredited laboratory in order to demonstrate the possibilities of using CLT panels for the construction of multistorey as well as multi-purpose buildings in the Czech Republic.

  11. A single-level random-effects cross-lagged panel model for longitudinal mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Carroll, Ian A; Chen, Po-Yi

    2017-12-06

    Cross-lagged panel models (CLPMs) are widely used to test mediation with longitudinal panel data. One major limitation of the CLPMs is that the model effects are assumed to be fixed across individuals. This assumption is likely to be violated (i.e., the model effects are random across individuals) in practice. When this happens, the CLPMs can potentially yield biased parameter estimates and misleading statistical inferences. This article proposes a model named a random-effects cross-lagged panel model (RE-CLPM) to account for random effects in CLPMs. Simulation studies show that the RE-CLPM outperforms the CLPM in recovering the mean indirect and direct effects in a longitudinal mediation analysis when random effects exist in the population. The performance of the RE-CLPM is robust to a certain degree, even when the random effects are not normally distributed. In addition, the RE-CLPM does not produce harmful results when the model effects are in fact fixed in the population. Implications of the simulation studies and potential directions for future research are discussed.

  12. Cross-current leaching of indium from end-of-life LCD panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchetti, Laura; Amato, Alessia; Fonti, Viviana; Ubaldini, Stefano; De Michelis, Ida; Kopacek, Bernd; Vegliò, Francesco; Beolchini, Francesca

    2015-08-01

    Indium is a critical element mainly produced as a by-product of zinc mining, and it is largely used in the production process of liquid crystal display (LCD) panels. End-of-life LCDs represent a possible source of indium in the field of urban mining. In the present paper, we apply, for the first time, cross-current leaching to mobilize indium from end-of-life LCD panels. We carried out a series of treatments to leach indium. The best leaching conditions for indium were 2M sulfuric acid at 80°C for 10min, which allowed us to completely mobilize indium. Taking into account the low content of indium in end-of-life LCDs, of about 100ppm, a single step of leaching is not cost-effective. We tested 6 steps of cross-current leaching: in the first step indium leaching was complete, whereas in the second step it was in the range of 85-90%, and with 6 steps it was about 50-55%. Indium concentration in the leachate was about 35mg/L after the first step of leaching, almost 2-fold at the second step and about 3-fold at the fifth step. Then, we hypothesized to scale up the process of cross-current leaching up to 10 steps, followed by cementation with zinc to recover indium. In this simulation, the process of indium recovery was advantageous from an economic and environmental point of view. Indeed, cross-current leaching allowed to concentrate indium, save reagents, and reduce the emission of CO2 (with 10 steps we assessed that the emission of about 90kg CO2-Eq. could be avoided) thanks to the recovery of indium. This new strategy represents a useful approach for secondary production of indium from waste LCD panels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cross-current leaching of indium from end-of-life LCD panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocchetti, Laura; Amato, Alessia; Fonti, Viviana [Department of Life and Environmental Sciences, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy); Ubaldini, Stefano [Institute of Environmental Geology and Geoengineering IGAG, National Research Council, Via Salaria km 29300, 00015 Montelibretti, Rome (Italy); De Michelis, Ida [Department of Industrial Engineering, Information and Economy, University of L’Aquila, Via Giovanni Gronchi 18, 67100, Zona industriale di Pile, L’Aquila (Italy); Kopacek, Bernd [ISL Kopacek KG, Beckmanngasse 51, 1140 Wien (Austria); Vegliò, Francesco [Department of Industrial Engineering, Information and Economy, University of L’Aquila, Via Giovanni Gronchi 18, 67100, Zona industriale di Pile, L’Aquila (Italy); Beolchini, Francesca, E-mail: f.beolchini@univpm.it [Department of Life and Environmental Sciences, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy)

    2015-08-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • End-of-life LCD panels represent a source of indium. • Several experimental conditions for indium leaching have been assessed. • Indium is completely extracted with 2 M sulfuric acid at 80 °C for 10 min. • Cross-current leaching improves indium extraction and operating costs are lowered. • Benefits to the environment come from reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions and reagents use. - Abstract: Indium is a critical element mainly produced as a by-product of zinc mining, and it is largely used in the production process of liquid crystal display (LCD) panels. End-of-life LCDs represent a possible source of indium in the field of urban mining. In the present paper, we apply, for the first time, cross-current leaching to mobilize indium from end-of-life LCD panels. We carried out a series of treatments to leach indium. The best leaching conditions for indium were 2 M sulfuric acid at 80 °C for 10 min, which allowed us to completely mobilize indium. Taking into account the low content of indium in end-of-life LCDs, of about 100 ppm, a single step of leaching is not cost-effective. We tested 6 steps of cross-current leaching: in the first step indium leaching was complete, whereas in the second step it was in the range of 85–90%, and with 6 steps it was about 50–55%. Indium concentration in the leachate was about 35 mg/L after the first step of leaching, almost 2-fold at the second step and about 3-fold at the fifth step. Then, we hypothesized to scale up the process of cross-current leaching up to 10 steps, followed by cementation with zinc to recover indium. In this simulation, the process of indium recovery was advantageous from an economic and environmental point of view. Indeed, cross-current leaching allowed to concentrate indium, save reagents, and reduce the emission of CO{sub 2} (with 10 steps we assessed that the emission of about 90 kg CO{sub 2}-Eq. could be avoided) thanks to the recovery of indium

  14. Panel Data with Cross-Sectional Dependence Characterized by a Multi-Level Factor Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez-Caballero, Carlos Vladimir

    A panel data model with a multi-level cross-sectional dependence is proposed. The factor structure is driven by top-level common factors as well as non-pervasive factors. I propose a simple method to filter out the full factor structure that overcomes limitations in standard procedures which may...... mix up both levels of unobservable factors and may hamper the identification of the model. The model covers both stationary and non-stationary cases and takes into account other relevant features that make the model well suited to the analysis of many types of time series frequently addressed...

  15. Unobserved Heterogeneity in the Binary Logit Model with Cross-Sectional Data and Short Panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anders; Jæger, Mads Meier; Pedersen, Morten

    This paper proposes a new approach to dealing with unobserved heterogeneity in applied research using the binary logit model with cross-sectional data and short panels. Unobserved heterogeneity is particularly important in non-linear regression models such as the binary logit model because, unlike...... in linear regression models, estimates of the effects of observed independent variables are biased even when omitted independent variables are uncorrelated with the observed independent variables. We propose an extension of the binary logit model based on a finite mixture approach in which we conceptualize...

  16. Full-Scale Evaluation of DuraDeck (registered trademark) and MegaDeck (trademark) Matting Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    plates studded with threaded bolts were placed ERDC/GSL TR-13-27 10 underneath two pre-drilled corners of the panel. The plates were positioned so...metal plates studded with threaded ERDC/GSL TR-13-27 4 Figure 1. DuraDeck® mat panel, top surface. Figure 2. DuraDeck® mat panel, bottom surface...ERDC/GSL TR-13-27 5 bolts , as shown in Figure 3, underneath the mat corners and then installing special connector nuts from the top surface

  17. Design of Experimental Suspended Footbridge with Deck Made of UHPC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blank Marek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the static and dynamic design of experimental footbridge for pedestrians and cyclists in the municipality Lužec nad Vltavou in Czech Republic, Europe. This work aims to familiarize the reader with calculations carried out and the results obtained, describing the static and dynamic properties of proposed footbridge. The construction of footbridge is designed as a suspended structure with prestressed bridge deck consisting of prefabricated UHPC panels and reversed “V” shaped steel pylon with height of approximately 40 meters. The deck is anchored using 24 steel hangers in one row in a steel pylon - 17 ropes in the main span and 7 cables on the other side. Range of the main span is 99.18 meters and the secondary span is 31.9 m. Deck width is 4.5 meters with 3.0 meters passing space. The bridge is designed for the possibility of passage of vehicles weighting up to 3.5 tons. Deck panels are made of UHPC with reinforcement. At the edge of the bridge on the side of the shorter span the bridge deck is firmly connected with abutment and on the other deck it is stored using a pair of sliding bearings. The utilization of the excellent properties of UHPC allows to design a very thin and lightweight construction of the deck, which could not be achieved with the use of normal concrete.

  18. Limit Theory for Panel Data Models with Cross Sectional Dependence and Sequential Exogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuersteiner, Guido M; Prucha, Ingmar R

    2013-06-01

    The paper derives a general Central Limit Theorem (CLT) and asymptotic distributions for sample moments related to panel data models with large n . The results allow for the data to be cross sectionally dependent, while at the same time allowing the regressors to be only sequentially rather than strictly exogenous. The setup is sufficiently general to accommodate situations where cross sectional dependence stems from spatial interactions and/or from the presence of common factors. The latter leads to the need for random norming. The limit theorem for sample moments is derived by showing that the moment conditions can be recast such that a martingale difference array central limit theorem can be applied. We prove such a central limit theorem by first extending results for stable convergence in Hall and Hedye (1980) to non-nested martingale arrays relevant for our applications. We illustrate our result by establishing a generalized estimation theory for GMM estimators of a fixed effect panel model without imposing i.i.d. or strict exogeneity conditions. We also discuss a class of Maximum Likelihood (ML) estimators that can be analyzed using our CLT.

  19. The Nexus between Military Spending and Economic Growth in Newly Industrialized Countries: Panel Evidence from CrossSectional Dependency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Akif DESTEK

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the long term relationship between military spending and economic growth in newly industrialized countries is analyzed with panel data methods for the years of 1988-2013. The study, where panel unit root, panel co-integration, panel co-integration estimator and panel causality tests that allow cross-sectional dependence are used, shows that the feedback hypothesis is valid in newly industrialized countries. And when these countries are analyzed separately, it is seen that the growth hypothesis is valid for India, Malaysia, Mexico and South Africa; the neutrality hypothesis is valid for China, Indonesia, Philippines, Thailand and Turkey and the growth detriment hypothesis is valid for Brazil.

  20. Linear Cracking in Bridge Decks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    Concrete cracking in bridge decks remains an important issue relative to deck durability. Cracks can allow increased penetration of chlorides, which can result in premature corrosion of the reinforcing steel and subsequent spalling of the concrete de...

  1. Testing the Causal Links between School Climate, School Violence, and School Academic Performance: A Cross-Lagged Panel Autoregressive Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbenishty, Rami; Astor, Ron Avi; Roziner, Ilan; Wrabel, Stephani L.

    2016-01-01

    The present study explores the causal link between school climate, school violence, and a school's general academic performance over time using a school-level, cross-lagged panel autoregressive modeling design. We hypothesized that reductions in school violence and climate improvement would lead to schools' overall improved academic performance.…

  2. Alcohol affordability and alcohol demand: cross-country trends and panel data estimates, 1975 to 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jon P

    2014-04-01

    Relatively little is known about cross-country differences in alcohol affordability or factors that determine differences in affordability over time. This information is potentially important for alcohol policy, especially policies that focus on higher taxes or prices to reduce total alcohol consumption. This study estimates cross-country alcohol consumption relationships using economic models incorporating income and prices and alternative models based on alcohol affordability. The data and analysis are restricted to higher income countries. Data for alcohol consumption per capita (ages 15+) are analyzed for 2 samples: first, 17 countries in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development for the period 1975 to 2000; second, 22 countries in the European Union for the period from 2000 to 2008. Panel data models are utilized, with country and time fixed-effects to control for confounding influences. In economic demand models, covariates are real per capita income and real alcohol price indices. In affordability models, income is divided by prices to yield an index of alcohol affordability. Analysis of data trends reveals that much of the increase in affordability is due to rising real incomes, and not falling real prices. Economic models of demand perform slightly better statistically, but differences are not substantial as income and affordability are highly correlated. For both samples, exogenous rates of growth of alcohol consumption are negative. Price and income elasticities, on average, are within the range of prior estimates. Affordability elasticities are between 0.21 and 0.25. Although alcohol affordability is a valid concept statistically, its use in policy discussions tends to hide underlying causes of changes in affordability. A better approach is a comparison and analysis of trends and cross-country differences in real incomes and real alcohol prices together with the affordability index. Country-level analysis of income and price

  3. Expert panel on additional cross subsidisation. Considering arguments and providing expert opinion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faber, J.; Nelissen, D.; Lowe, S.; Mason, A.

    2007-10-01

    In the period end 2005 till September 2006 MVA London in cooperation with SEO Amsterdam was commissioned by the Dutch Ministry of Transport to perform an analysis of the economic and competition effects of the different proposals from the European Commission to include aviation in the European Emission Trading System (ETS). Roughly at the same time CE Delft was commissioned to study the overall impacts of this inclusion for the European Commission. Both studies considered the possibility that inclusion of aviation in the ETS could lead to the distortion of competition between airlines through cross-subsidisation. The studies concluded differently on additional possibilities for cross-subsidisation. As a result, both parties have different views on the possible distortion of the competitive market on routes where EU-based carriers compete directly with carriers based outside the EU. CE Delft concluded that 'none of the policy options considered in this study will significantly damage the competitive position of EU airlines relative to non-EU airlines'. In contrast, MVA and SEO (2006) concluded that 'effective cross-subsidisation by non-EU carriers in the Departing EU scope of the ETS appears to be more probable than cross-subsidisation by EU network carriers in the Intra-EU scope of the ETS'. In July 2007, the Dutch Ministry of Transport, DGTL commissioned CE Delft, MVA and SEO to study the causes for their different opinions and to see whether a further investigation could shed more light on the likelihood of additional cross-subsidisation. Formally, the aim of the work currently carried out is: (1) To determine whether it is possible to assess the impacts on the competitive market between EU based carriers and non-EU based carriers based on sound economic reasoning and analysis of empirical data; and, if so, (2) to determine whether the inclusion of aviation in ETS as proposed by the European Commission will offer non-EU airlines the opportunity to increase their

  4. Panel Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brænder, Morten; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh

    2014-01-01

    Based on our 2013-article, ”Does Deployment to War Affect Soldiers' Public Service Motivation – A Panel Study of Soldiers Before and After their Service in Afghanistan”, we present Panel Analysis as a methodological discipline. Panels consist of multiple units of analysis, observed at two or more...... in research settings where it is not possible to distribute units of analysis randomly or where the independent variables cannot be manipulated. The greatest disadvantage in regard to using panel studies is that data may be difficult to obtain. This is most clearly vivid in regard to the use of panel surveys...... points in time. In comparison with traditional cross-sectional studies, the advantage of using panel studies is that the time dimension enables us to study effects. Whereas experimental designs may have a clear advantage in regard to causal inference, the strength of panel studies is difficult to match...

  5. Nuclear energy consumption and economic growth in OECD countries: Cross-sectionally dependent heterogeneous panel causality analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazlioglu, Saban; Lebe, Fuat; Kayhan, Selim

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the direction causality between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth in OECD countries. The empirical model that includes capital and labor force as the control variables is estimated for the panel of fourteen OECD countries during the period 1980-2007. Apart from the previous studies in the nuclear energy consumption and economic growth relationship, this study utilizes the novel panel causality approach, which allows both cross-sectional dependency and heterogeneity across countries. The findings show that there is no causality between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth in eleven out of fourteen cases, supporting the neutrality hypothesis. As a sensitivity analysis, we also conduct Toda-Yamamoto time series causality method and find out that the results from the panel causality analysis are slightly different than those from the time-series causality analysis. Thereby, we can conclude that the choice of statistical tools in analyzing the nature of causality between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth may play a key role for policy implications. - Highlights: → Causality between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth is examined for OECD countries. → Panel causality method, which allows cross-sectional dependency and heterogeneity, is utilized. → The neutrality hypothesis is supported.

  6. A decking for erecting an insulating connector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuprikov, A Ye; Lagutin, V I; Sklyarov, A A; Sukhanov, G V

    1983-01-01

    The decking includes a parachute like dome, made of a material impenetrable to air, an air penetrable hood, attachment elements and a branch pipe for supplying the filler. To improve the sealing of the insulating connector upon contact with the walls and the roof of the drift being isolated and to reduce the labor intensity of operations, it is equipped with a housing made in the form of a cylinder from a material impenetrable to water, an advancible vertical upright and a spring loaded panel. The housing is installed between the parachute like dome and the air penetrable hood. The extendible vertical upright is installed on the side of the air penetrable hood and by means of a movable rack mechanism is kinematically linked with the spring loaded panel, installed with the capability of interacting with the air penetrable hood. The spring loaded plate is made in the form of perforated plates which have a telescopic disengagement in the horizontal plane.

  7. Optimization of wood plastic composite decks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravivarman, S.; Venkatesh, G. S.; Karmarkar, A.; Shivkumar N., D.; Abhilash R., M.

    2018-04-01

    Wood Plastic Composite (WPC) is a new class of natural fibre based composite material that contains plastic matrix reinforced with wood fibres or wood flour. In the present work, Wood Plastic Composite was prepared with 70-wt% of wood flour reinforced in polypropylene matrix. Mechanical characterization of the composite was done by carrying out laboratory tests such as tensile test and flexural test as per the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards. Computer Aided Design (CAD) model of the laboratory test specimen (tensile test) was created and explicit finite element analysis was carried out on the finite element model in non-linear Explicit FE code LS - DYNA. The piecewise linear plasticity (MAT 24) material model was identified as a suitable model in LS-DYNA material library, describing the material behavior of the developed composite. The composite structures for decking application in construction industry were then optimized for cross sectional area and distance between two successive supports (span length) by carrying out various numerical experiments in LS-DYNA. The optimized WPC deck (Elliptical channel-2 E10) has 45% reduced weight than the baseline model (solid cross-section) considered in this study with the load carrying capacity meeting acceptance criterion (allowable deflection & stress) for outdoor decking application.

  8. Exodermic bridge deck performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    In 1998, the Wisconsin DOT completed a two"leaf bascule bridge in Green Bay with an exodermic deck system. The exodermic deck consisted of 4.5"in thick cast"in"place reinforced concrete supported by a 5.19"in tall unfilled steel grid. The concrete an...

  9. Generalized Dynamic Panel Data Models with Random Effects for Cross-Section and Time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesters, G.; Koopman, S.J.

    2014-01-01

    An exact maximum likelihood method is developed for the estimation of parameters in a nonlinear non-Gaussian dynamic panel data model with unobserved random individual-specific and time-varying effects. We propose an estimation procedure based on the importance sampling technique. In particular, a

  10. The impact of power market reforms on electricity price-cost margins and cross-subsidy levels: A cross country panel data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdogdu, Erkan

    2011-01-01

    One of the main expectations from power market reform has been a reduction in both price-cost margins and cross-subsidy levels between industrial and residential consumers. This paper focuses on this issue by looking at the impact of the electricity industry reforms on residential and industrial electricity price-cost margins and their effect on cross-subsidy levels between consumer groups. Using panel data for 63 developed and developing countries covering the period 1982-2009, empirical models are developed and analyzed. The research findings suggest that there is no uniform pattern for the impact of reform process as a whole on price-cost margins and cross-subsidy levels. Each individual reform step has different impact on price-cost margins and cross-subsidy levels for each consumer and country group. Our findings imply that reform steps have different impacts in different countries, which supports the idea reform prescription for a specific country cannot easily and successfully be transferred to another one. So, transferring the formal and economic structure of a successful power market in a developed country to developing countries is not a sufficient condition for good economic performance of the electricity industries in developing countries. Furthermore, the study suggests that power consumption, income level and country-specific features constitute other important determinants of electricity price-cost margins and cross-subsidy levels. - Research highlights: → The paper focuses on the impact of power market reforms on price-cost margins and cross-subsidy levels. → Using panel data for 63 countries for the period 1982-2009, empirical models are developed and analyzed. → We found that each individual reform step has different impact for each consumer and country group. → We conclude that reform prescription for a specific country cannot easily be transferred to another one.

  11. Does political and economic freedom matter for inbound tourism? A cross-national panel data estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Saha, Shrabani; Su, Jen-Je; Campbell, Neil

    2017-01-01

    The paper examines the impact of political and economic freedom on inbound tourism for over 110 countries during 1995-2012. Panel country fixed-effects techniques are utilized to examine the relationship after controlling for other factors that contribute to inbound tourism. The results show that civil liberties and economic freedom (among several other freedom measures) are positively and significantly associated with inbound tourism. Examination of the moderation effect revea...

  12. Laboratory Testing of Precast Bridge Beck Panel Transverse Connections for Use in Accelerated Bridge Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Porter, Scott D.

    2009-01-01

    Precast concrete bridge deck panels have been used for decades to accelerate bridge construction. Cracking of the transverse connection between panels is a common problem that can damage deck overlays and cause connection leaking leading to corrosion of lower bridge elements. To better understand the behavior of bridge deck transverse female-to-female connections, shear and moment lab testing were performed at Utah State University for the Utah Department of Transportation. Two existing UDOT ...

  13. Longer Lasting Bridge Deck Overlays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this report is to determine the most effective method for bridge deck overlay construction and repair by assessing current practices; examining new products and technologies; and reviewing NCHRP (National Cooperative Highway Research...

  14. Cross Talk Study to the Single Photon Response of a Flat Panel PMT for the RICH Upgrade at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Arnaboldi, C; Calvi, M; Fanchini, E; Gotti, C; Maino, M; Matteuzzi, C; Perego, D L; Pessina, G; Wang, J C

    2009-01-01

    The Ring Imaging CHerenkov, RICH, detector at LHCb is now readout by Hybrid Photon Detectors. In view of its upgrade a possible option is the adoption of the flat panel Photon Multipliers Tubes, PMT. An important issue for the good determination of the rings produced in the sensitive media is a negligible level of cross talk. We have experimentally studied the cross talk from the 64x64 pixels of the H9500 PMT from Hamamatsu. Results have shown that at the single photon signal level, as expected at LHCb, the statistics applied to the small number of electrons generated at the first dynode of the PMT chain leads to a cross talk mechanism that must be interpreted in term of the percentage of the number of induced signals rather than on the amplitude of the induced signals. The threshold to suppress cross talk must be increased to a significant fraction of the single photon signal for the worst case. The number of electrons generated at the first dynode is proportional to the biasing voltage. Measurements have sh...

  15. Attic Retrofits Using Nail-Base Insulated Panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallay, David [Home Innovation Research Labs; Kochkin, Vladimir [Home Innovation Research Labs

    2018-03-26

    This project developed and demonstrated a roof/attic energy retrofit solution using nail-base insulated panels for existing homes where traditional attic insulation approaches are not effective or feasible. Nail-base insulated panels (retrofit panels) consist of rigid foam insulation laminated to one face of a wood structural panel. The prefabricated panels are installed above the existing roof deck during a reroofing effort.

  16. GARFEM input deck description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zdunek, A.; Soederberg, M. (Aeronautical Research Inst. of Sweden, Bromma (Sweden))

    1989-01-01

    The input card deck for the finite element program GARFEM version 3.2 is described in this manual. The program includes, but is not limited to, capabilities to handle the following problems: * Linear bar and beam element structures, * Geometrically non-linear problems (bar and beam), both static and transient dynamic analysis, * Transient response dynamics from a catalog of time varying external forcing function types or input function tables, * Eigenvalue solution (modes and frequencies), * Multi point constraints (MPC) for the modelling of mechanisms and e.g. rigid links. The MPC definition is used only in the geometrically linearized sense, * Beams with disjunct shear axis and neutral axis, * Beams with rigid offset. An interface exist that connects GARFEM with the program GAROS. GAROS is a program for aeroelastic analysis of rotating structures. Since this interface was developed GARFEM now serves as a preprocessor program in place of NASTRAN which was formerly used. Documentation of the methods applied in GARFEM exists but is so far limited to the capacities in existence before the GAROS interface was developed.

  17. Emotion regulation predicts anxiety over a five-year interval: a cross-lagged panel analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wirtz, C.M.; Hofmann, S.G.; Riper, H.; Berking, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Emotion regulation (ER) deficits have been linked to symptoms of anxiety in cross-sectional studies. However, the direction of the relationship between ER and anxiety symptom severity (ASS) is unclear. Methods In order to clarify the relationship between ER skills and ASS symptoms, we

  18. International migration patterns of physicians to the United States: a cross-national panel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, Peter S

    2007-12-01

    To analyze the dynamics of physician international migration patterns and identify the countries deviating most from expected migration rates. A negative binomial log-linear model of physician migration to the United States from every other country was constructed using a panel of country-level data for years 1994-2000. The model was used to identify factors associated with physician migration and to identify countries with higher or lower rates of physician migration than expected. Physician migration varied with a country's GDP per capita in an inverse-U pattern, with highest migration rates from middle-income countries. The absence of medical schools, immigrant networks in the United States, medical instruction in English, proximity to the United States, and the lack of political and civil liberties were also associated with higher migration rates. Countries with higher-than-predicted migration rates included Iceland, Albania, Armenia, Dominica, Lebanon, Syria, the United Arab Emirates, and Bulgaria. Countries with lower-than-predicted migration rates included Mexico, Japan, Brazil, Zimbabwe, Mauritania, Portugal, Senegal, and France. This analysis shows that many of the most powerful factors associated with physician migration are difficult or impossible for countries to change through public policy. GDP per capita and proximity to the U.S. are two of the most powerful predictors of physician migration. Networks of immigrants in the U.S. and fewer political and civil liberties also put countries at higher risk for physician emigration. Several other factors that were associated with physician migration might be more easily amenable to policy intervention. These factors include the absence of a medical school and medical instruction in English. Policies addressing these factors would involve making several difficult tradeoffs, however. Other examples of policies that are effective in minimizing physician migration might be found by examining countries with lower

  19. Fiber reinforced polymer bridge decks : [technical summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    A number of researchers have addressed the use of Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) deck as a replacement solution for deteriorated bridge decks made of traditional materials. The use of new, advanced materials such as FRP is advantageous when the bridg...

  20. Duality and the Deck effect

    CERN Document Server

    Törnqvist, N A

    1972-01-01

    As shown by Deck, the double-peripheral model for three-particle final states gives a substantial low-mass enhancement over phase space in two-body subchannels. With the advent of duality it was conjectured that the Deck effect and a true resonance are just different manifestations of the same phenomena. Thus the presence of a Deck enhancement could be interpreted as evidence for the existence of the A/sub 1/ resonance. The conjecture has been subject to criticism of two different kinds. These two points are clarified by constructing a counter example to the conjecture of Chew and Pignotti, using the five-point amplitude (B/sub 5/) of the generalized Veneziano model. (8 refs).

  1. The Paradoxical Relationship between Renewable Energy and Economic Growth: A Cross-National Panel Study, 1990-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan P Thombs

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This cross-national study employs a time-series cross-sectional Prais-Winsten regression model with panel-corrected standard errors to examine the relationship between renewable energy consumption and economic growth, and its impact on total carbon dioxide emissions and carbon dioxide emissions per unit of GDP. Findings indicate that renewable energy consumption has its largest negative effect on total carbon emissions and carbon emissions per unit of GDP in low-income countries. Contrary to conventional wisdom, renewable energy has little influence on total carbon dioxide emissions or carbon dioxide emissions per unit of GDP at high levels of GDP per capita. The findings of this study indicate the presence of a “renewable energy paradox,” where economic growth becomes increasingly coupled with carbon emissions at high levels of renewable energy, and the negative effect of economic growth on carbon emissions per unit of GDP lessens as renewable energy increases. These findings suggest that public policy should be directed at deploying renewable energy in developing countries, while focusing on non-or-de-growth strategies accompanied with renewable energy in developed nations.

  2. 46 CFR 108.486 - Helicopter decks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Helicopter decks. 108.486 Section 108.486 Shipping COAST... Fire Extinguishing Systems Fire Protection for Helicopter Facilities § 108.486 Helicopter decks. At least two of the accesses to the helicopter landing deck must each have a fire hydrant on the unit's...

  3. STUDY OF BRIDGE DECK A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    MISS. KSHITIJA S. BALWAN , MR. V. G. KHURD , MR. S. S. CHOUGULE

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to understand the meaning of bridge deck. To know the different forms of decks used in bridge design. To understand different methods used for analysis of deck and study of box girder and its evolution

  4. Steel plate reinforcement of orthotropic bridge decks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teixeira de Freitas, S.

    2012-01-01

    The PhD research is focused on the reinforcement of fatigue cracked orthotropic steel bridge decks (OBD) by adding a second steel plate to the existing deck. The main idea is to stiffen the existing deck plate, which will reduce the stresses at the fatigue sensitive details and extend the fatigue

  5. 75 FR 4584 - Wire Decking From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ... Decking From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Scheduling of the final... subsidized and less-than-fair-value imports from China of wire decking, provided for in subheadings 9403.90... China of wire decking, and that such [[Page 4585

  6. Reciprocal Effects between Intrinsic Reading Motivation and Reading Competence? A Cross-Lagged Panel Model for Academic Track and Nonacademic Track Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffner, Ellen; Philipp, Maik; Schiefele, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated positive relations between intrinsic reading motivation and reading competence. However, the causal direction of these relations and the moderating role of relevant background variables (e.g., students' achievement level) are not well understood. In the present study, a cross-lagged panel model was applied to…

  7. Responses to positive affect, life satisfaction and self-esteem: A cross-lagged panel analysis during middle adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Baya, Diego; Mendoza, Ramon; Gaspar, Tania; Gomes, Paulo

    2018-05-11

    During middle adolescence, elevated stress and a greater presence of psychological disorders have been documented. The research has paid little attention to the regulation of positive affective states. Fredrickson's broaden-and-build theory suggests that cultivating positive emotions helps to build resources that boost well-being. The current research aimed to examine the longitudinal associations between responses to positive affect (emotion-focused positive rumination, self-focused positive rumination, and dampening) and psychological adjustment (self-esteem and life satisfaction) during middle adolescence. A longitudinal study with two waves separated by one year was conducted, assessing 977 adolescents (M = 13.81, SD = 0.79; 51.5% boys) with self-report measures. A cross-lagged panel analysis was performed by including within the same model the relationships between all of the variables in the two assessment points. The results indicated cross-lagged positive relationships of self-focused positive rumination with both self-esteem and life satisfaction, while dampening showed a negative cross-lagged relationship with self-esteem. Moreover, higher self-esteem predicted more emotion-focused positive rumination, and more dampening predicted lower life satisfaction. Thus, the use of adaptive responses to positive affect and a better psychological adjustment were found to be prospectively interrelated at the one-year follow-up during middle adolescence. The discussion argues for the need to implement programmes to promote more adaptive responses to positive affect to enhance psychological adjustment in the adolescent transition to adulthood. © 2018 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Critique of the Reggeized deck model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, E.L.

    1975-01-01

    A detailed analysis is presented of the Reggeized pion exchange Deck model for processes of the type ap → A*N → (a*π)N, where a = π, K, or nucleon and a* = rho, K*, N or Δ. Predictions of the model for both production and decay properties of the low mass system A* → (a*π) are derived and contrasted with data. Diffractive as well as charge exchange reactions are treated. The role of pion exchange in generating (a*π) enhancements near threshold and their properties is examined from several points of view. Characteristic exchange effects and quantum number properties (e.g., cross-overs) of the pion exchange Deck graph are shown to be verified in the data, but this graph alone is inadequate. The failures all point to the need for a second graph, having a* exchange properties. The contribution of a* exchange is roughly equal to that of the π exchange graph. (U.S.)

  9. Live load distribution on longitudinal glued-laminated timber deck bridges : final report : conclusions and recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad Fanous; Jeremy May; Terry Wipf; Michael Ritter

    2010-01-01

    Over the past few years the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Forest Products Laboratory (FPL), and the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) have supported several research programs. This paper is a result of a study sponsored by FPL, with the objective of determining how truckloads are distributed to the deck panels of a longitudinal glued-laminated...

  10. Investigation of Aerodynamic Interference between Twin Deck Bridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitek, M. A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division. Transportation Research and Analysis Computing Center (TRACC); Bojanowski, C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division. Transportation Research and Analysis Computing Center (TRACC); Lottes, S. A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division. Transportation Research and Analysis Computing Center (TRACC)

    2016-05-01

    Construction of a twin bridge can be a cost effective and minimally disruptive way to increase capacity when an existing bridge is not near the end of its service life. With ever growing vehicular traffic, when demand approaches the capacity of many existing roads and bridges. Remodeling a structure with an insufficient number of lanes can be a good solution in case of smaller and less busy bridges. Closing down or reducing traffic on crossings of greater importance for the construction period, however, can result in major delays and revenue loss for commerce and transportation as well as increasing the traffic load on alternate route bridges. Multiple-deck bridges may be the answer to this issue. A parallel deck can be built next to the existing one, without reducing the flow. Additionally, a new bridge can be designed as a twin or multi-deck structure. Several such structures have been built throughout the United States, among them: - The New NY Bridge Project - the Tappan Zee Hudson River Crossing, - SR-182 Columbia River Bridge, - The Thaddeus Kosciusko Bridge (I-87), - The Allegheny River Bridge, Pennsylvania, which carries I76, - Fred Hartman Bridge, TX, see Figure 1.2. With a growing number of double deck bridges, additional, more detailed, studies on the interaction of such bridge pairs in windy conditions appears appropriate. Aerodynamic interference effects should be examined to assure the aerodynamic stability of both bridges. There are many studies on aerodynamic response of single deck bridges, but the literature on double-deck structures is not extensive. The experimental results from wind tunnels are still limited in number, as a parametric study is required, they can be very time consuming. Literature review shows that some investigation of the effects of gap-width and angle of wind incidence has been done. Most of the CFD computational studies that have been done were limited to 2D simulations. Therefore, it is desirable to investigate twin decks

  11. Influence of Pavement on Fatigue Performance of Urban Steel Box Girder Deck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zhongyue

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on spatial finite element analysis method, the Influence of pavement on fatigue performance of orthotropic steel deck was analyzed in terms of pavement system, asphalt pavement stiffness. The result shows that compared with asphalt pavement system, RPC pavement system can not only obviously improve the stress condition of steel bridge deck, but also significantly extend the fatigue life of steel bridge panel; Increasing the stiffness of pavement layer can obviously reduce the stress amplitude of fatigue details, especially for direct contact with the pavement.

  12. An investigation on the determinants of carbon emissions for OECD countries: empirical evidence from panel models robust to heterogeneity and cross-sectional dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Eyup; Seker, Fahri

    2016-07-01

    This empirical study analyzes the impacts of real income, energy consumption, financial development and trade openness on CO2 emissions for the OECD countries in the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) model by using panel econometric approaches that consider issues of heterogeneity and cross-sectional dependence. Results from the Pesaran CD test, the Pesaran-Yamagata's homogeneity test, the CADF and the CIPS unit root tests, the LM bootstrap cointegration test, the DSUR estimator, and the Emirmahmutoglu-Kose Granger causality test indicate that (i) the panel time-series data are heterogeneous and cross-sectionally dependent; (ii) CO2 emissions, real income, the quadratic income, energy consumption, financial development and openness are integrated of order one; (iii) the analyzed data are cointegrated; (iv) the EKC hypothesis is validated for the OECD countries; (v) increases in openness and financial development mitigate the level of emissions whereas energy consumption contributes to carbon emissions; (vi) a variety of Granger causal relationship is detected among the analyzed variables; and (vii) empirical results and policy recommendations are accurate and efficient since panel econometric models used in this study account for heterogeneity and cross-sectional dependence in their estimation procedures.

  13. Field implementation of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) deck panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Jeffery S. Volz, S.E., P.E., Ph.D., Kamal H. Khayat, PhD, P.Eng. http://orcid.org/0000-0003-1431-0715, Soo Duck Hwang, Ph.D. http://orcid.org/0000-0003-2178-1531, Hesham Tuwair, Ph.D., Jonathan T. Drury, Amy S. Crone : Although still in their infancy...

  14. STS-27 crew poses for inflight portrait on forward flight deck with football

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    With WILSON NFL football freefloating in front of them, STS-27 astronauts pose on Atlantis', Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104's, forward flight deck for inflight crew portrait. Crewmembers, wearing blue mission t-shirts, are (left to right) Commander Robert L. Gibson, Mission Specialist (MS) Richard M. Mullane, MS Jerry L. Ross, MS William M. Shepherd, and Pilot Guy S. Gardner. Forward flight deck overhead control panels are visible above crewmembers, commanders and pilots seats in front of them, and forward windows behind them. An auto-set 35mm camera mounted on the aft flight deck was used to take this photo. The football was later presented to the National Football League (NFL) at halftime of the Super Bowl in Miami.

  15. Considerations on FEM modeling in analyzing buckling and plastic collapse of a detection control; Boto panel no zakutsu sosei hokai kaiseki ni okeru FEM model ka ni kansuru kosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, T; Fujikubo, M; Yanagihara, D; Irisawa, M [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-10-01

    Buckling and plastic collapse of upper decks and bottom outer plates of a hull results directly in longitudinal bending collapse of the hull. Therefore, discussions were given on analysis for pressure destruction strength of a detection control panel which assumes an upper deck and a bottom outer plate. Pressure destruction behavior of the panting panel is a complex phenomenon accompanying non-linearity and geometrical non-linearity of the materials. Its whole phenomenon may be analyzed by using the finite element method (FEM) as a principle, but the analysis is not efficient. Therefore, considerations were given in relation to modeling when using the FEM. The considerations were given on a panel attached with flat steel panting members with respect to the modeling scope which considers the buckling mode according to the aspect ratio of the panel partitioned by the deflection control members. If the local buckling mode of the panel is an even number wave mode in the longitudinal direction, a triple span model is required. A modeling scope for a case of being subjected to water pressure and in-plane compression was considered on a panel attached with angle-type steel members having non-symmetric cross section. In this case, a triple bay model is more preferable to reproduce the behavior under water pressure loading. 1 ref., 6 figs.

  16. Instrumental intelligent test of food sensory quality as mimic of human panel test combining multiple cross-perception sensors and data fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Qin; Zhao, Jiewen; Chen, Quansheng

    2014-09-02

    Instrumental test of food quality using perception sensors instead of human panel test is attracting massive attention recently. A novel cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion imitating multiple mammal perception was proposed for the instrumental test in this work. First, three mimic sensors of electronic eye, electronic nose and electronic tongue were used in sequence for data acquisition of rice wine samples. Then all data from the three different sensors were preprocessed and merged. Next, three cross-perception variables i.e., color, aroma and taste, were constructed using principal components analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regression (MLR) which were used as the input of models. MLR, back-propagation artificial neural network (BPANN) and support vector machine (SVM) were comparatively used for modeling, and the instrumental test was achieved for the comprehensive quality of samples. Results showed the proposed cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion presented obvious superiority to the traditional data fusion methodologies, also achieved a high correlation coefficient (>90%) with the human panel test results. This work demonstrated that the instrumental test based on the cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion can actually mimic the human test behavior, therefore is of great significance to ensure the quality of products and decrease the loss of the manufacturers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Hydrodynamic forces on inundated bridge decks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    The hydrodynamic forces experienced by an inundated bridge deck have great importance in the design of bridges. Specifically, the drag force, lift force, and the moment acting on the bridge deck under various levels of inundation and a range of flow ...

  18. Effects of Adhesive Connection on Composite Action between FRP Bridge Deck and Steel Girder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The FRP-steel girder composite bridge system is increasingly used in new constructions of bridges as well as rehabilitation of old bridges. However, the understanding of composite action between FRP decks and steel girders is limited and needs to be systematically investigated. In this paper, depending on the experimental investigations of FRP to steel girder system, the Finite Element (FE models on experiments were developed and analyzed. Comparison between experiments and FE results indicated that the FE models were much stiffer for in-plane shear stiffness of the FRP deck panel. To modify the FE models, rotational spring elements were added between webs and flanges of FRP decks, to simulate the semirigid connections. Numerical analyses were also conducted on four-point bending experiments of FRP-steel composite girders. Good agreement between experimental results and FE analysis was achieved by comparing the load-deflection curves at midspan and contribution of composite action from FRP decks. With the validated FE models, the parametric studies were conducted on adhesively bonded connection between FRP decks and steel girders, which indicated that the loading transfer capacity of adhesive connection was not simply dependent on the shear modulus or thickness of adhesive layer but dominated by the in-plane shear stiffness K.

  19. Report of the Panel on Nuclear Standards Needed for Neutron Cross Section Measurements. Brussels, Belgium, 8-12 May 1967. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1967-05-15

    The International Nuclear Data Committee (INDC), in September of 1965, recommended to the International Atomic Energy Agency that a panel be convened to examine the nuclear standards needed for neutron cross section measurements. The accuracy requirements for cross sections of structural and fuel materials needed for the design of nuclear reactors and for precision neutron dosimetry have fostered an interest in the selection and investigation of standard cross sections and in the neutron flux measuring techniques. A Panel met in Brussels during the second week of May 1967 to review the problems and progress associated with these standards activities, and to make specific recommendations concerning these matters to the IAEA. This Panel consisted of 23 scientists representing 11 countries, European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM), the IAEA, and Bureau International des Poids and Mesures (BIPM). The field of neutron cross section standards is not one in which rapid progress can be expected. Very rarely is there a breakthrough to initiate a spectacular advance; on the contrary it is necessary to depend upon persistent application of effort to effect gradual improvements in accuracies or the clearing up of aggravating discrepancies. Despite this, however, the progress of recent years has been very encouraging. There are no doubt many reasons for this, but three are worthy of mention here. First the Symposium on Neutron Flux Standards in the 1-100 keV Region held at Oxford, United Kingdom, 1963, suggested and strongly supported by the European American Nuclear Data Committee (EANDC), certainly stimulated much activity in the field. Second, the EANDC itself has kept a watchful eye on the subsequent activity and has made sure that the interest has been sustained. Third, the recognized Standards laboratories in several countries have become more aware of the problems and are rapidly becoming major contributors to the field. The Panel of which the present report is the

  20. Report of the Panel on Nuclear Standards Needed for Neutron Cross Section Measurements. Brussels, Belgium, 8-12 May 1967. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-05-01

    The International Nuclear Data Committee (INDC), in September of 1965, recommended to the International Atomic Energy Agency that a panel be convened to examine the nuclear standards needed for neutron cross section measurements. The accuracy requirements for cross sections of structural and fuel materials needed for the design of nuclear reactors and for precision neutron dosimetry have fostered an interest in the selection and investigation of standard cross sections and in the neutron flux measuring techniques. A Panel met in Brussels during the second week of May 1967 to review the problems and progress associated with these standards activities, and to make specific recommendations concerning these matters to the IAEA. This Panel consisted of 23 scientists representing 11 countries, European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM), the IAEA, and Bureau International des Poids and Mesures (BIPM). The field of neutron cross section standards is not one in which rapid progress can be expected. Very rarely is there a breakthrough to initiate a spectacular advance; on the contrary it is necessary to depend upon persistent application of effort to effect gradual improvements in accuracies or the clearing up of aggravating discrepancies. Despite this, however, the progress of recent years has been very encouraging. There are no doubt many reasons for this, but three are worthy of mention here. First the Symposium on Neutron Flux Standards in the 1-100 keV Region held at Oxford, United Kingdom, 1963, suggested and strongly supported by the European American Nuclear Data Committee (EANDC), certainly stimulated much activity in the field. Second, the EANDC itself has kept a watchful eye on the subsequent activity and has made sure that the interest has been sustained. Third, the recognized Standards laboratories in several countries have become more aware of the problems and are rapidly becoming major contributors to the field. The Panel of which the present report is the

  1. Structural Performance Evaluation of Tsing MA Bridge Deck Using Long-Term Monitoring Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Y. Q.; Xia, H. W.; Ko, J. M.

    The Tsing Ma Bridge in Hong Kong is suspension bridge with a main span of 1377 m carrying both highway and railway traffic. After completing its construction in 1997, the bridge was instrumented by the Hong Kong SAR Government Highways Department with a long-term structural health monitoring system comprising about 300 sensors permanently installed on the bridge. As part of this monitoring system, a total of 110 strain gauges have been installed to measure strain at the deck cross-sections and bearings. In this study, a method for real-time structural performance evaluation of the stiffening deck system making use of long-term strain measurement data is proposed and verified using the strain monitoring data from a typical deck cross-section of the Tsing Ma Bridge.

  2. Instrumental intelligent test of food sensory quality as mimic of human panel test combining multiple cross-perception sensors and data fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Qin; Zhao, Jiewen; Chen, Quansheng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • To develop a novel instrumental intelligent test methodology for food sensory analysis. • A novel data fusion was used in instrumental intelligent test methodology. • Linear and nonlinear tools were comparatively used for modeling. • The instrumental test methodology can be imitative of human test behavior. - Abstract: Instrumental test of food quality using perception sensors instead of human panel test is attracting massive attention recently. A novel cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion imitating multiple mammal perception was proposed for the instrumental test in this work. First, three mimic sensors of electronic eye, electronic nose and electronic tongue were used in sequence for data acquisition of rice wine samples. Then all data from the three different sensors were preprocessed and merged. Next, three cross-perception variables i.e., color, aroma and taste, were constructed using principal components analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regression (MLR) which were used as the input of models. MLR, back-propagation artificial neural network (BPANN) and support vector machine (SVM) were comparatively used for modeling, and the instrumental test was achieved for the comprehensive quality of samples. Results showed the proposed cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion presented obvious superiority to the traditional data fusion methodologies, also achieved a high correlation coefficient (>90%) with the human panel test results. This work demonstrated that the instrumental test based on the cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion can actually mimic the human test behavior, therefore is of great significance to ensure the quality of products and decrease the loss of the manufacturers

  3. Instrumental intelligent test of food sensory quality as mimic of human panel test combining multiple cross-perception sensors and data fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouyang, Qin; Zhao, Jiewen; Chen, Quansheng, E-mail: qschen@ujs.edu.cn

    2014-09-02

    Highlights: • To develop a novel instrumental intelligent test methodology for food sensory analysis. • A novel data fusion was used in instrumental intelligent test methodology. • Linear and nonlinear tools were comparatively used for modeling. • The instrumental test methodology can be imitative of human test behavior. - Abstract: Instrumental test of food quality using perception sensors instead of human panel test is attracting massive attention recently. A novel cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion imitating multiple mammal perception was proposed for the instrumental test in this work. First, three mimic sensors of electronic eye, electronic nose and electronic tongue were used in sequence for data acquisition of rice wine samples. Then all data from the three different sensors were preprocessed and merged. Next, three cross-perception variables i.e., color, aroma and taste, were constructed using principal components analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regression (MLR) which were used as the input of models. MLR, back-propagation artificial neural network (BPANN) and support vector machine (SVM) were comparatively used for modeling, and the instrumental test was achieved for the comprehensive quality of samples. Results showed the proposed cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion presented obvious superiority to the traditional data fusion methodologies, also achieved a high correlation coefficient (>90%) with the human panel test results. This work demonstrated that the instrumental test based on the cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion can actually mimic the human test behavior, therefore is of great significance to ensure the quality of products and decrease the loss of the manufacturers.

  4. Characterization of highly informative cross-species microsatellite panels for the Australian dugong (Dugong dugon) and Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) including five novel primers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Margaret Kellogg; Broderick, Damien; Ovenden, Jennifer R; Tucker, Kimberly Pause; Bonde, Robert K; McGuire, Peter M; Lanyon, Janet M

    2010-03-01

    The Australian dugong (Dugong dugon) and Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) are threatened species of aquatic mammals in the order Sirenia. Sirenian conservation and management actions would benefit from a more complete understanding of genetic diversity and population structure. Generally, species-specific microsatellite markers are employed in conservation genetic studies; however, robust markers can be difficult and costly to isolate. To increase the number of available markers, dugong and manatee microsatellite primers were evaluated for cross-species amplification. Furthermore, one manatee and four dugong novel primers are reported. After polymerase chain reaction optimization, 23 (92%) manatee primers successfully amplified dugong DNA, of which 11 (48%) were polymorphic. Of the 32 dugong primers tested, 27 (84%) yielded product in the manatee, of which 17 (63%) were polymorphic. Dugong and manatee primers were compared and the most informative markers were selected to create robust and informative marker-panels for each species. These cross-species microsatellite marker-panels can be employed to assess other sirenian populations and can provide beneficial information for the protection and management of these unique mammals. Published 2009. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. Flight Deck I-Glasses, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Flight Deck i-Glasses is a color, stereoscopic 3-D display mounted on consumer style eye glass frames that will enhance operator performance and multi-modal...

  6. Deck41 Surficial Seafloor Sediment Description Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Deck41 is a digital summary of surficial sediment composition for 36,401 seafloor samples worldwide. Data include collecting source, ship, cruise, sample id,...

  7. Venture Capital and Leveraged Buyout: What Is the Difference in Eastern Europe? – A Cross-Country Panel Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Precup

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to compare the determinants of leveraged buyout activity, respectively venture capital activity in Eastern European countries. Additionally, this paper presents the main highlights in terms of evolution of leveraged buyout investments and venture capital investments during the recent crisis in the European emerging countries. The panel data analysis used in this paper will include determinants consecrated in previous studies such as GDP growth, market capitalization or R&D expenditures, as well as new variables such as productivity and corruption index. In order to estimate a panel data model with fixed and random effects, we collected data on leveraged buyout activity, respectively venture capital activity in Eastern European countries over the period 2000-2013. This paper will follow the methodology developed by Gompers and Lerner (1998, Jeng and Wells (2000, Romain and de La Potteria (2004, Félix (2007 and Bernoth and Colavecchio (2014. The present research paper shows that the LBO and the venture capital are differently affected by macroeconomic conditions. Based on our empirical results, we have pointed several strategic directions that are meant to support the development of the leveraged buyout and venture capital markets in Eastern Europe. 

  8. Is deck B a disadvantageous deck in the Iowa Gambling Task?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu Yao-Chu

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Iowa gambling task is a popular test for examining monetary decision behavior under uncertainty. According to Dunn et al. review article, the difficult-to-explain phenomenon of "prominent deck B" was revealed, namely that normal decision makers prefer bad final-outcome deck B to good final-outcome decks C or D. This phenomenon was demonstrated especially clearly by Wilder et al. and Toplak et al. The "prominent deck B" phenomenon is inconsistent with the basic assumption in the IGT; however, most IGT-related studies utilized the "summation" of bad decks A and B when presenting their data, thereby avoiding the problems associated with deck B. Methods To verify the "prominent deck B" phenomenon, this study launched a two-stage simple version IGT, namely, an AACC and BBDD version, which possesses a balanced gain-loss structure between advantageous and disadvantageous decks and facilitates monitoring of participant preferences after the first 100 trials. Results The experimental results suggested that the "prominent deck B" phenomenon exists in the IGT. Moreover, participants cannot suppress their preference for deck B under the uncertain condition, even during the second stage of the game. Although this result is incongruent with the basic assumption in IGT, an increasing number of studies are finding similar results. The results of the AACC and BBDD versions can be congruent with the decision literatures in terms of gain-loss frequency. Conclusion Based on the experimental findings, participants can apply the "gain-stay, loss-shift" strategy to overcome situations involving uncertainty. This investigation found that the largest loss in the IGT did not inspire decision makers to avoid choosing bad deck B.

  9. Characterization of highly informative cross-species microsatellite panels for the Australian dugong (Dugong dugon) and Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) including five novel primers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Margaret Kellogg; Broderick, Damien; Ovenden, Jennifer R.; Tucker, Kimberly Pause; Bonde, Robert K.; McGuire, Peter M.; Lanyon, Janet M.

    2010-01-01

    The Australian dugong (Dugong dugon) and Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) are threatened species of aquatic mammals in the order Sirenia. Sirenian conservation and management actions would benefit from a more complete understanding of genetic diversity and population structure. Generally, species-specific microsatellite markers are employed in conservation genetic studies; however, robust markers can be difficult and costly to isolate. To increase the number of available markers, dugong and manatee microsatellite primers were evaluated for cross-species amplification. Furthermore, one manatee and four dugong novel primers are reported. After polymerase chain reaction optimization, 23 (92%) manatee primers successfully amplified dugong DNA, of which 11 (48%) were polymorphic. Of the 32 dugong primers tested, 27 (84%) yielded product in the manatee, of which 17 (63%) were polymorphic. Dugong and manatee primers were compared and the most informative markers were selected to create robust and informative marker-panels for each species. These crossspecies microsatellite marker-panels can be employed to assess other sirenian populations and can provide beneficial information for the protection and management of these unique mammals.

  10. A Cross-Lag Panel Analysis of Low Self-Esteem as a Predictor of Adolescent Internalizing Symptoms in a Prospective Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In-Albon, Tina; Meyer, Andrea H; Metzke, Christa Winkler; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph

    2017-06-01

    Self-esteem, generally regarded as an important indicator of adolescents' mental health, was assessed by a self-report questionnaire in a school sample of 593 subjects who had been assessed at 3 time points over 7 years between 11 and 25 years of age within the Zurich Psychology and Psychopathology Study (ZAPPS). Cross-lagged panel analyses of the longitudinal data from ZAPPS indicated that self-esteem was predictive of internalizing problems and had an impact on internalizing symptoms when the analyses were adjusted for coping behavior, efficiency of social networks, and impact of stressful life events. Self-esteem was also stable (r = .37-.60) within the observed age range, after controlling for prior levels of the predicted variables. The findings support the impact of self-esteem on mental health and indicate the importance of addressing self-esteem in prevention and intervention programs.

  11. Cooperation without culture? The null effect of generalized trust on intentional homicide: a cross-national panel analysis, 1995-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Blaine

    2013-01-01

    Sociologists, political scientists, and economists all suggest that culture plays a pivotal role in the development of large-scale cooperation. In this study, I used generalized trust as a measure of culture to explore if and how culture impacts intentional homicide, my operationalization of cooperation. I compiled multiple cross-national data sets and used pooled time-series linear regression, single-equation instrumental-variables linear regression, and fixed- and random-effects estimation techniques on an unbalanced panel of 118 countries and 232 observations spread over a 15-year time period. Results suggest that culture and large-scale cooperation form a tenuous relationship, while economic factors such as development, inequality, and geopolitics appear to drive large-scale cooperation.

  12. Cross-cultural comparisons among the sensory characteristics of fermented soybean using Korean and Japanese descriptive analysis panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, L; Chung, S-J

    2007-11-01

    One of the most important initial steps in exporting a food product to another country from the R&D perspective is to describe and translate the sensory characteristics of a food product appropriately into the language of the target country. The objectives of this study were to describe and compare the sensory characteristics of Korean and Japanese style fermented soybean products, and to cross-culturally compare the lexicons of the identical product generated by the Korean and Japanese panelists. Four types of Korean and 4 types of Japanese style fermented soybean consisting of whole bean type and paste type were analyzed. Ten Korean and 9 Japanese panelists were recruited in Korea. Two separate descriptive analyses were conducted, with the panelists differing in their country of origin. Each group was trained, developed lexicon, and conducted descriptive analysis independently. Analysis of variance and various multivariate analyses were applied to delineate the sensory characteristics of the samples and to compare the cross-cultural differences in the usage of lexicon. The Korean and Japanese panelists generated 48 and 36 sensory attributes, respectively. Cross-cultural consensus was shown for evaluating the whole bean type fermented soybean and white miso, which were relatively distinctive samples. However, for the less distinctive samples, the panelists tend to rate higher in negative attributes for the fermented soybeans that originated from the other country. The Japanese panelists grouped the samples by their country of origin and soy sauce flavor was the main attribute for cross-cultural differentiation. However, the Korean panelists did not make a cross-cultural distinction among the samples.

  13. Wave impact on a deck or baffle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Md Noar, Nor Aida Zuraimi; Greenhow, Martin

    2015-02-01

    Some coastal or ocean structures have deck-like baffles or horizontal platforms that can be exposed to wave action in heavy seas. A similar situation may occur in partially-filled tanks with horizontal baffles that become engulfed by sloshing waves. This can result in dangerous wave impact loads (slamming) causing a rapid rise of pressures which may lead to local damaging by crack initiation and/or propagation. We consider the wave impact against the whole of underside of horizontal deck (or baffle) projecting from a seawall (or vertical tank wall), previously studied by Wood and Peregrine (1996) using a different method based on conformal mappings. The approach used is to simplify the highly time-dependent and very nonlinear problem by considering the time integral of the pressure over the duration of the impact pressure-impulse, P (x, y). Our method expresses this in terms of eigenfunctions that satisfy the boundary conditions apart from that on the impact region and the matching of the two regions (under the platform and under the free surface); this results in a matrix equation to be solved numerically. As in Wood and Peregrine, we found that the pressure impulse on the deck increases when the length of deck increases, there is a strong pressure gradient beneath the deck near the seaward edge and the maximum pressure impulse occurs at the landward end of the impact zone.

  14. The Role of Access to Finance in Explaining Cross-National Variation in Entrepreneurial Activity: A Panel Data Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Gabriel Anton

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to investigate to what extent access to finance explains differences in entrepreneurial activity across European Union (EU member countries. We use a dataset containing information across countries and time to investigate the determinants of entrepreneurial activity in twenty-five EU members over the period between 2007 and 2013. Our sample comprises both periods of difficult access to finance and periods of excessive liquidities. Employing a panel data model with fixed effects, we found a positive relationship between access to finance and entrepreneurial activities. Furthermore, we showed that this positive relationship is more important for the individuals who believe they have the required skills and knowledge to start a business. The results proved to be robust when we employed different measures of entrepreneurial activity and several proxies for access to finance. Our findings provide empirical evidence for the need of policy initiatives at national and EU level to facilitate the creation of sustainable new ventures.

  15. Effort-reward imbalance and work ability: cross-sectional and longitudinal findings from the Second German Sociomedical Panel of Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethge Matthias

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although data from longitudinal studies are sparse, effort-reward imbalance (ERI seems to affect work ability. However, the potential pathway from restricted work ability to ERI must also be considered. Therefore, the aim of our study was to analyse cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between ERI and work ability and vice versa. Methods Data come from the Second German Sociomedical Panel of Employees. Logistic regression models were estimated to determine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations. The sample used to predict new cases of poor or moderate work ability was restricted to cases with good or excellent work ability at baseline. The sample used to predict new cases of ERI was restricted to persons without ERI at baseline. Results The cross-sectional analysis included 1501 full-time employed persons. The longitudinal analyses considered 600 participants with good or excellent baseline work ability and 666 participants without baseline ERI, respectively. After adjustment for socio-demographic variables, health-related behaviour and factors of the work environment, ERI was cross-sectionally associated with poor or moderate work ability (OR = 1.980; 95% CI: 1.428 to 2.747. Longitudinally, persons with ERI had 2.1 times higher odds of poor or moderate work ability after one year (OR = 2.093; 95% CI: 1.047 to 4.183. Conversely, persons with poor or moderate work ability had 2.6 times higher odds of an ERI after one year (OR = 2.573; 95% CI: 1.314 to 5.041. Conclusions Interventions that enable workers to cope with ERI or address indicators of ERI directly could promote the maintenance of work ability. Integration management programmes for persons with poor work ability should also consider their psychosocial demands.

  16. Effort-reward imbalance and work ability: cross-sectional and longitudinal findings from the Second German Sociomedical Panel of Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethge, Matthias; Radoschewski, Friedrich Michael; Gutenbrunner, Christoph

    2012-10-15

    Although data from longitudinal studies are sparse, effort-reward imbalance (ERI) seems to affect work ability. However, the potential pathway from restricted work ability to ERI must also be considered. Therefore, the aim of our study was to analyse cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between ERI and work ability and vice versa. Data come from the Second German Sociomedical Panel of Employees. Logistic regression models were estimated to determine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations. The sample used to predict new cases of poor or moderate work ability was restricted to cases with good or excellent work ability at baseline. The sample used to predict new cases of ERI was restricted to persons without ERI at baseline. The cross-sectional analysis included 1501 full-time employed persons. The longitudinal analyses considered 600 participants with good or excellent baseline work ability and 666 participants without baseline ERI, respectively. After adjustment for socio-demographic variables, health-related behaviour and factors of the work environment, ERI was cross-sectionally associated with poor or moderate work ability (OR = 1.980; 95% CI: 1.428 to 2.747). Longitudinally, persons with ERI had 2.1 times higher odds of poor or moderate work ability after one year (OR = 2.093; 95% CI: 1.047 to 4.183). Conversely, persons with poor or moderate work ability had 2.6 times higher odds of an ERI after one year (OR = 2.573; 95% CI: 1.314 to 5.041). Interventions that enable workers to cope with ERI or address indicators of ERI directly could promote the maintenance of work ability. Integration management programmes for persons with poor work ability should also consider their psychosocial demands.

  17. Experimental Analysis of Stiffness of the Riveted Steel Railway Bridge Deck Members’ Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gocál Jozef

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the real behaviour of the riveted steel railway bridge deck members’ connections with respect to their bending stiffness. Attention is paid to the stringer-to-cross beam connection as well as the cross beam-to-main girder connection. The stiffness of the two connections is investigated on the basis of evaluation of the experimentally determined stress response of the observed structural members to the actual traffic load on an existing railway bridge.

  18. Gust loading on streamlined bridge decks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larose, Guy; Mann, Jakob

    1998-01-01

    The current analytical description of the buffeting action of wind on long-span bridges is based on the strip assumption. However, recent experiments on closed-box girder bridge decks have shown that this assumption is not valid and is the source of an important part of the error margin...... of the analytical prediction methods. In this paper, an analytical model that departs from the strip assumption is used to describe the gust loading on a thin airfoil. A parallel is drawn between the analytical model and direct measurements of gust loading on motionless closed-box girder bridge decks. Empirical...

  19. 46 CFR 108.487 - Helicopter deck fueling operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Helicopter deck fueling operations. 108.487 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fire Protection for Helicopter Facilities § 108.487 Helicopter deck fueling operations. (a) Each helicopter landing deck on which fueling operations are...

  20. 46 CFR 132.320 - Helicopter-landing decks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Helicopter-landing decks. 132.320 Section 132.320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS FIRE-PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 132.320 Helicopter-landing decks. Each vessel with a helicopter-landing deck must...

  1. 46 CFR 12.15-13 - Deck engine mechanic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Deck engine mechanic. 12.15-13 Section 12.15-13 Shipping... ENDORSEMENTS Qualified Member of the Engine Department § 12.15-13 Deck engine mechanic. (a) An applicant for an endorsement as deck engine mechanic shall be a person holding an MMC or MMD endorsed as junior engineer. The...

  2. 46 CFR 174.215 - Drainage of weather deck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drainage of weather deck. 174.215 Section 174.215 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES... weather deck. The weather deck must have open rails to allow rapid clearing of water, or must have freeing...

  3. 46 CFR 173.062 - Drainage of weather deck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drainage of weather deck. 173.062 Section 173.062 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE School Ships § 173.062 Drainage of weather deck. The weather deck of each sailing...

  4. Cone calorimeter tests of wood-based decking materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. White; Mark A. Dietenberger; Nicole M. Stark

    2007-01-01

    New technologies in building materials have resulted in the use of a wide variety of materials in decks. As part of our effort to address fire concerns in the wildland-urban interface, the Forest Products Laboratory has been examining the fire performance of decking products. In addition to preservative-treated wood, decking products include wood-plastic composites and...

  5. Renovation techniques for fatigue cracked orthotropic steel bridge decks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, F.B.P.

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation presents the research into renovation techniques for orthotropic steel bridge decks. These techniques are needed to solve fatigue problems in the decks of these bridges, as several fatigue cracks have been detected in the deck structure of these bridges the last decade. A

  6. Life-cycle assessment of redwood decking in the United States with a comparison to three other decking materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Bergman; H. Sup-Han; E. Oneil; I. Eastin

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the study was to conduct a life-cycle inventory (LCI) of California redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) decking that would quantify the critical environmental impacts of decking from cradle to grave. Using that LCI data, a life-cycle assessment (LCA) was produced for redwood decking. The results were used to compare the environmental footprint...

  7. Are fear-avoidance beliefs in low back pain patients a risk factor for low physical activity or vice versa? A cross-lagged panel analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Corinna; Lehr, Dirk; Chenot, Jean-François; Keller, Stefan; Luckmann, Judith; Basler, Heinz-Dieter; Baum, Erika; Donner-Banzhoff, Norbert; Pfingsten, Michael; Hildebrandt, Jan; Kochen, Michael M.; Becker, Annette

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The assumption that low back pain (LBP) patients suffer from “disuse” as a consequence of high fear-avoidance beliefs is currently under debate. A secondary analysis served to investigate whether fear-avoidance beliefs are associated cross-sectionally and longitudinally with the physical activity level (PAL) in LBP patients. Methods: A total of 787 individuals (57% acute and 43% chronic LBP) were followed up over a period of one year with measurements of fear-avoidance beliefs and physical activity level. Fear-avoidance beliefs concerning physical activity were measured by the physical-activity subscale of the FABQ (Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire), the physical activity level was assessed in weighted metabolic equivalents (MET) hours/week with a German self-report questionnaire. Data were investigated by structural equation modelling in a cross-lagged panel design for the whole sample and separately for acute and chronic LBP. Results: The acute and chronic sub sample increased their total physical activity level significantly after one year. The structural equation modelling results did not support the disuse-aspect inherent in the fear-avoidance belief model. Cross-lagged path coefficients were low (.04 and .05 respectively) and, therefore, did not allow to predict final physical activity by initial fear-avoidance beliefs or vice versa. Discussion: Consequently, due to missing links between fear-avoidance beliefs and physical activity in a longitudinal design, the assumptions of the fear-avoidance belief model have to be questioned. These findings are in line with other investigations published recently. Most probably, “fear-avoidance belief” represents a cognitive scheme that does not limit activity per se, but only is directed to the avoidance of specific movements. PMID:19742047

  8. Deck Yourself with Flu Protection Song

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-12-22

    This song (sung to the tune of Deck the Halls) describes actions you can take to protect yourself and others from the flu. Sing along!  Created: 12/22/2009 by National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases (NCPDCID), Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ).   Date Released: 12/22/2009.

  9. Analysis of Biaxially Stressed Bridge Deck Plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe; Bondum, Tommi Højer

    2012-01-01

    The ultimate state analysis of bridge deck plates at the intersection zone between main girders and transverse beams is complicated by biaxial membrane stresses, which may be in compression or tension in either direction depending on the bridge configuration and the specific location. This paper...

  10. Dynamic panel data models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bun, M.J.G.; Sarafidis, V.

    2013-01-01

    This Chapter reviews the recent literature on dynamic panel data models with a short time span and a large cross-section. Throughout the discussion we considerlinear models with additional endogenous covariates. First we give a broad overview of available inference methods placing emphasis on GMM.

  11. The cross-border opportunity on how to enhance Canada-US energy trade : Panel 1 : the prospects for increased trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeCroy, J.; Power, R.; Pumphrey, D.; Flack, G.; McFadden, D.

    2006-01-01

    The electricity trade between Canada and the United States was discussed with reference to the integrated electricity networks and strong interdependence between the 2 countries on the uninterrupted flow of electricity. As Canada supplies electricity to more than 30 U.S. states, there is good reason to foster cooperation in energy efficiency, natural gas supplies, technology advancements and critical infrastructure protection. The first panel discussion on cross-border opportunities identified prospects for increased trade between Canada and the United States. It was noted that despite the proximity of the 2 countries, the regulatory environment and infrastructure are not well integrated. In addition to being difficult to achieve, a coherent energy policy would likely be driven by the United States rather than Canada. Although both countries rank high in energy production and consumption, United States ranks eleventh in oil reserves and sixth in natural gas, compared to Canada ranking second in oil reserves. Energy trade is essential to the economies of both countries and the infrastructure binds the 2 economies together. The partnership in developing the Electric Reliability Organization has resulted in regulatory transparency. Special working groups have been formed to help Mexico deal with natural gas challenges and investment needs. All 3 countries are looking at liquefied natural gas. The United States is also working with Canada in developing an infrastructure for the oil sands. The progress in developing the Mackenzie Delta gas fields was also discussed along with the division of opinion regarding nuclear power generation. It was noted that an increase in electricity demand will drive both new generation and transmission. It was also noted that effective reliability standards are essential to cross-border trade in a market-based trade approach. 5 figs

  12. Is Job Control a Double-Edged Sword? A Cross-Lagged Panel Study on the Interplay of Quantitative Workload, Emotional Dissonance, and Job Control on Emotional Exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konze, Anne-Kathrin; Rivkin, Wladislaw; Schmidt, Klaus-Helmut

    2017-12-20

    Previous meta-analytic findings have provided ambiguous evidence on job control as a buffering moderator of the adverse impact of job demands on psychological well-being. To disentangle these mixed findings, we examine the moderating effect of job control on the adverse effects of quantitative workload and emotional dissonance as distinct work-related demands on emotional exhaustion over time. Drawing on the job demands-control model, the limited strength model of self-control, and the matching principle we propose that job control can facilitate coping with work-related demands but at the same time may also require employees' self-control. Consequently, we argue that job control buffers the adverse effects of quantitative workload while it reinforces the adverse effects of emotional dissonance, which also necessitates self-control. We examine the proposed relations among employees from an energy supplying company ( N = 139) in a cross-lagged panel study with a six-month time lag. Our results demonstrate a mix of causal and reciprocal effects of job characteristics on emotional exhaustion over time. Furthermore, as suggested, our data provides evidence for contrasting moderating effects of job control. That is, job control buffers the adverse effects of quantitative workload while it reinforces the adverse effects of emotional dissonance on emotional exhaustion.

  13. Bidirectional relations between parenting practices and child externalizing behavior: a cross-lagged panel analysis in the context of a psychosocial treatment and 3-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Anne; Lindhiem, Oliver; Kolko, David J; Trentacosta, Christopher J

    2013-02-01

    In the current study, we examined longitudinal changes in, and bidirectional effects between, parenting practices and child behavior problems in the context of a psychosocial treatment and 3-year follow-up period. The sample comprised 139 parent-child dyads (child ages 6-11) who participated in a modular treatment protocol for early-onset ODD or CD. Parenting practices and child behavior problems were assessed at six time-points using multiple measures and multiple reporters. The data were analyzed using cross-lagged panel analyses. Results indicated robust temporal stabilities of parenting practices and child behavior problems, in the context of treatment-related improvements, but bidirectional effects between parenting practices and child behavior were less frequently detected. Our findings suggest that bidirectional effects are relatively smaller than the temporal stability of each construct for school-age children with ODD/CD and their parents, following a multi-modal clinical intervention that is directed at both parents and children. Implications for treatment and intervention are discussed.

  14. Is Job Control a Double-Edged Sword? A Cross-Lagged Panel Study on the Interplay of Quantitative Workload, Emotional Dissonance, and Job Control on Emotional Exhaustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Kathrin Konze

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous meta-analytic findings have provided ambiguous evidence on job control as a buffering moderator of the adverse impact of job demands on psychological well-being. To disentangle these mixed findings, we examine the moderating effect of job control on the adverse effects of quantitative workload and emotional dissonance as distinct work-related demands on emotional exhaustion over time. Drawing on the job demands-control model, the limited strength model of self-control, and the matching principle we propose that job control can facilitate coping with work-related demands but at the same time may also require employees’ self-control. Consequently, we argue that job control buffers the adverse effects of quantitative workload while it reinforces the adverse effects of emotional dissonance, which also necessitates self-control. We examine the proposed relations among employees from an energy supplying company (N = 139 in a cross-lagged panel study with a six-month time lag. Our results demonstrate a mix of causal and reciprocal effects of job characteristics on emotional exhaustion over time. Furthermore, as suggested, our data provides evidence for contrasting moderating effects of job control. That is, job control buffers the adverse effects of quantitative workload while it reinforces the adverse effects of emotional dissonance on emotional exhaustion.

  15. Fatigue analysis and life prediction of composite highway bridge decks under traffic loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando N. Leitão

    Full Text Available Steel and composite (steel-concrete highway bridges are currently subjected to dynamic actions of variable magnitude due to convoy of vehicles crossing on the deck pavement. These dynamic actions can generate the nucleation of fractures or even their propagation on the bridge deck structure. Proper consideration of all of the aspects mentioned pointed our team to develop an analysis methodology with emphasis to evaluate the stresses through a dynamic analysis of highway bridge decks including the action of vehicles. The design codes recommend the application of the curves S-N associated to the Miner's damage rule to evaluate the fatigue and service life of steel and composite (steel-concrete bridges. In this work, the developed computational model adopted the usual mesh refinement techniques present in finite element method simulations implemented in the ANSYS program. The investigated highway bridge is constituted by four longitudinal composite girders and a concrete deck, spanning 40.0m by 13.5m. The analysis methodology and procedures presented in the design codes were applied to evaluate the fatigue of the bridge determining the service life of the structure. The main conclusions of this investigation focused on alerting structural engineers to the possible distortions, associated to the steel and composite bridge's service life when subjected to vehicle's dynamic actions.

  16. Panel Session

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Olav Wedege

    2004-01-01

    In this panel session, four researchers will discuss the role of a theoretical foundation, in particular AT, in the design of information technology based artefacts. The general discussion will take of from a specific examination of the ActAD approach.......In this panel session, four researchers will discuss the role of a theoretical foundation, in particular AT, in the design of information technology based artefacts. The general discussion will take of from a specific examination of the ActAD approach....

  17. Analysis of Panel Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Cheng

    2003-02-01

    Panel data models have become increasingly popular among applied researchers due to their heightened capacity for capturing the complexity of human behavior, as compared to cross-sectional or time series data models. This second edition represents a substantial revision of the highly successful first edition (1986). Recent advances in panel data research are presented in an accessible manner and are carefully integrated with the older material. The thorough discussion of theory and the judicious use of empirical examples make this book useful to graduate students and advanced researchers in economics, business, sociology and political science.

  18. Organic Functional Group Playing Card Deck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Michael J.

    2003-04-01

    The recognition and identification of organic functional groups, while essential for chemistry and biology majors, is also very useful for non-science majors in the study of molecules in art and life. In order to make this task more palatable for the non-science major (art and communications students), the images of a traditional playing deck of cards (heart, spade, diamond, and club) have been replaced with four representations of common organic functional groups. The hierarchy rules for naming two groups in a molecule is loosely incorporated to represent the sequence (King, Queen, Jack, ?, Ace) of the deck. Students practice recognizing and identifying organic groups by playing simple card games of "Old Maid" and "Go Fish". To play games like "Poker" or "Gin", a student must not only recognize the functional groups, but also master a naming hierarchy for the organic groups.

  19. Improvement of fatigue properties of orthotropic decks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frýba, Ladislav; Urushadze, Shota

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 4 (2011), s. 1166-1169 ISSN 0141-0296 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/08/1340; GA MŠk(CZ) 7E08098 Grant - others:BRIFAG -Bridge Fatigue Guidance(XE) RFSR_CT-2008-00033 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : orthotropic deck * fatigue * prolonged life Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering Impact factor: 1.351, year: 2011

  20. 46 CFR 28.565 - Water on deck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water on deck. 28.565 Section 28.565 Shipping COAST... VESSELS Stability § 28.565 Water on deck. (a) Each vessel with bulwarks must comply with the requirements... energy, “b” in Figure 28.565, must not be less than the water on deck heeling energy, “a” in Figure 28...

  1. Experience with citizens panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selwyn, J.

    2002-01-01

    In May 1999, 200 delegates attended a four-day UK Consensus Conference on radioactive waste management, which was organised by the UK Centre for Economic and Environmental Development (UK CEED) and supported by the government, industry and environmental groups. The event brought together a Citizens' Panel of fifteen people, randomly selected to represent a cross section of the British public, together with the major players in the debate. The four-day conference saw the panel cross-examine expert witnesses from organisations such as NIREX, British Nuclear Fuels Limited, the Ministry of Defence, Greenpeace and Friends of the Earth. The findings of their investigations were put together in a report containing detailed recommendations for government and industry and presented to the Minister on the final day. (author)

  2. Lipid Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A routine cardiac risk assessment typically includes a fasting lipid panel. Beyond that, research continues into the usefulness of other non-traditional markers of cardiac risk, such as Lp-PLA 2 . A health practitioner may choose to evaluate one or more ...

  3. Fatigue Assessment of Full-Scale Retrofitted Orthotropic Bridge Decks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teixeira De Freitas, S.; Kolstein, M.H.; Bijlaard, F.S.K.

    2017-01-01

    Full-scale fatigue tests were performed on two retrofitted orthotropic bridge decks (OBDs). The retrofitting systems consist of adding a second steel plate on the top of the existing deck. The aim is to reduce the stresses at the fatigue-sensitive details and therefore extend the fatigue life of

  4. Rapid replacement of bridge deck expansion joints study - phase I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Bridge deck expansion joints are used to allow for movement of the bridge deck due to thermal expansion, dynamics loading, and : other factors. More recently, expansion joints have also been utilized to prevent the passage of winter de-icing chemical...

  5. 46 CFR 45.143 - Hull openings above freeboard deck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull openings above freeboard deck. 45.143 Section 45.143 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Conditions of Assignment § 45.143 Hull openings above freeboard deck. Closures for openings above...

  6. Panel discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The panel discussion at the 10th Allianz Forum on 'Technology and Insurance' dealt with the following topics: New technologies: energy conversion (coal, petroleum, natural gas, nuclear energy, solar energy); infrastructure (transport, data processing); basic products (metallic materials, chemical products, pharmaceutical products); integrated products (microprocessors, production line machines) as well as new risks: political; general economic (financing, market structure); insurance-related, dangers to persons and property; reduction of risks. (orig.) [de

  7. Prefabricated floor panels composed of fiber reinforced concrete and a steel substructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lárusson, Lárus H.; Fischer, Gregor; Jönsson, Jeppe

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on a study on prefabricated composite and modular floor deck panels composed of relatively thin fiber reinforced concrete slabs connected to steel substructures. The study focuses on the design, manufacturing, structural improvements and behavior of the floor systems during...

  8. Panel surveys

    OpenAIRE

    MADRE, JL; ZUMKELLER, D; CHLOND, B; ARMOOGUM, J

    2004-01-01

    l'analyse du comportement humain constitue un enjeu important dans le domaine des transports, lequel se transforme radicalement sous la pression des évolutions économique, écologique et démographique. les premières grandes études ont commence il y a plus d'une dizaine d'années : parc auto sofres en france, puget sound panel a seattle. cet article fait le bilan de ces expériences et met en évidence les principaux problèmes méthodologiques rencontres tout en proposant de nouvelles directions d'...

  9. Experiments and theory on deck and girder crushing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup; Ocakli, Hasan

    1999-01-01

    -deflection curves and modes of deformation for decks, stringer decks and deep thin-walled beams subjected to central or excentric point loads between transverse frames. Based on theory and experiments, various modelling aspects of the local/global failure of the beams are discussed. The agreement between......This paper is concerned with theoretical and experimental analysis of deep plastic collapse of a deck or deep girder subjected to an in-plane, concentrated load. A theory is derived which is valid until initition of fracture in the structure. The presented experimental results show load...

  10. Statutory Rewards to Environmental Self-Auditing: Do They Reduce Pollution and Save Regulatory Costs? Evidence from a Cross-State Panel

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrero, Santiago; Innes, Robert

    2008-01-01

    State-level statutes provide firms that engage in environmental self-audits, and that self-report their environmental violations, with a variety of different regulatory rewards, including "immunity" from penalties and "privilege" for information contained in self-audits. This paper studies a panel of State-level industries from 1989-2003, in order to determine the effects of the different statutes on toxic pollution and government inspections. We find that, by encouraging self-auditing, privi...

  11. A feasibility study of bridge deck deicing using geothermal energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we investigated the feasibility of a ground-coupled system that utilizes heat energy harvested from the ground for : deicing of bridge decks. Heat exchange is performed using circulation loops integrated into the deep foundations suppo...

  12. Precision monitoring of bridge deck curvature change during replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    This project was focused on development and deployment of a system for monitoring vertical : displacement in bridge decks and bridge spans. The system uses high precision wireless inclinometer : sensors to monitor inclinations at various points of a ...

  13. Bridge deck concrete volume change : final contract report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    Concrete structures such as bridge decks, with large surface area relative to volume, shrink and crack, thus reducing service life performance and increasing operation costs. The project evaluated the early, first 24 hours, and long-term, 180 days, s...

  14. Evaluation of bridge deck with shrinkage-compensating concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Concrete bridge decks are susceptible to premature cracking and to corrosion of reinforcing steel. Low-permeability : concrete does not always ensure durability if the concrete has excessive cracks that facilitate the intrusion of aggressive solution...

  15. Multidisciplinary health monitoring of a steel bridge deck structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pahlavan, P.L.; Pijpers, R.J.M.; Paulissen, J.H.; Hakkesteegt, H.C.; Jansen, T.H.

    2013-01-01

    Fatigue cracks in orthotropic bridge decks are an important cause for the necessary renovation of existing bridges. Parallel utilization of various technologies based on different physical sensing principles can potentially maximize the efficiency of structural health monitoring (SHM) systems for

  16. Smart FRP Composite Sandwich Bridge Decks in Cold Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    In this study, new and integrated Smart honeycomb Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (S-FRP) : sandwich materials for various transportation construction applications, with particular emphasis : on highway bridge decks in cold regions, were developed and teste...

  17. Shrinkage and durability study of bridge deck concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    The Mississippi Department of Transportation is incorporating changes to material : specifications and construction procedures for bridge decks in an effort to reduce shrinkage : cracking. These changes are currently being implemented into a limited ...

  18. An intersection test for panel unit roots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanck, C.

    2013-01-01

    This article proposes a new panel unit root test based on Simes' ( 1986) classical intersection test. The test is robust to general patterns of cross-sectional dependence and yet is straightforward to implement, only requiring p-values of time series unit root tests of the series in the panel, and

  19. Robust block bootstrap panel predictability tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerlund, J.; Smeekes, S.

    2013-01-01

    Most panel data studies of the predictability of returns presume that the cross-sectional units are independent, an assumption that is not realistic. As a response to this, the current paper develops block bootstrap-based panel predictability tests that are valid under very general conditions. Some

  20. Panel Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, James

    1997-03-01

    Panelists: Arthur Bienenstock, Stanford University Cherry Ann Murray, Lucent Technologies Venkatesh Narayanamurti, University of California-Santa Barbara Paul Peercy, SEMI-SEMATECH Robert Richardson, Cornell University James Roberto, Oak Ridge National Laboratory The Board on Physics and Astronomy is undertaking a series of reassessments of all branches of physics as the foundation of a new physics survey. As part of this project, a Committee on Condensed Matter and Materials Physics has been established under the leadership of Venkatesh Narayanamurti of the University of California-Santa Barbara. The committee has been working since June on a study that will include an illustrative recounting of major recent achievements; identification of new opportunities and challenges facing the field; and articulation-for leaders in government, industry, universities, and the public at large-of the important roles played by the field in modern society. An especially urgent issue is how to maintain the intellectual vitality of condensed matter and materials physics, and its contributions to the well-being of the United States, in an era of limited resources. The forum will feature a panel of materials researchers who are members of the Committee on Condensed Matter and Materials Physics. They will give a brief report on the status of the study and engage in a dialogue with the audience about issues facing the condensed matter and materials physics community. Broad community input is vital to the success of the study. Please come and make your voice heard!

  1. Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Educators Search English Español Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel KidsHealth / For Parents / Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) ... kidneys ) is working. What Is a Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel? A liver function panel is a blood ...

  2. Comprehensive metabolic panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolic panel - comprehensive; Chem-20; SMA20; Sequential multi-channel analysis with computer-20; SMAC20; Metabolic panel 20 ... Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP) - blood. In: ... Tests and Diagnostic Procedures . 6th ed. St Louis, MO: ...

  3. WORM: A general-purpose input deck specification language

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, T.

    1999-01-01

    Using computer codes to perform criticality safety calculations has become common practice in the industry. The vast majority of these codes use simple text-based input decks to represent the geometry, materials, and other parameters that describe the problem. However, the data specified in input files are usually processed results themselves. For example, input decks tend to require the geometry specification in linear dimensions and materials in atom or weight fractions, while the parameter of interest might be mass or concentration. The calculations needed to convert from the item of interest to the required parameter in the input deck are usually performed separately and then incorporated into the input deck. This process of calculating, editing, and renaming files to perform a simple parameter study is tedious at best. In addition, most computer codes require dimensions to be specified in centimeters, while drawings or other materials used to create the input decks might be in other units. This also requires additional calculation or conversion prior to composition of the input deck. These additional calculations, while extremely simple, introduce a source for error in both the calculations and transcriptions. To overcome these difficulties, WORM (Write One, Run Many) was created. It is an easy-to-use programming language to describe input decks and can be used with any computer code that uses standard text files for input. WORM is available, via the Internet, at worm.lanl.gov. A user's guide, tutorials, example models, and other WORM-related materials are also available at this Web site. Questions regarding WORM should be directed to wormatlanl.gov

  4. Quantifying reinforced concrete bridge deck deterioration using ground penetrating radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Nicole Marie

    Bridge decks are deteriorating at an alarming rate due to corrosion of the reinforcing steel, requiring billions of dollars to repair and replace them. Furthermore, the techniques used to assess the decks don't provide enough quantitative information. In recent years, ground penetrating radar (GPR) has been used to quantify deterioration by comparing the rebar reflection amplitudes to technologies serving as ground truth, because there is not an available amplitude threshold to distinguish healthy from corroded areas using only GPR. The goal of this research is to understand the relationship between GPR and deck deterioration, and develop a model to determine deterioration quantities with GPR alone. The beginning of this research determines that not only is the relationship between GPR and rebar corrosion stronger than the relationship between GPR and delaminations, but that the two are exceptionally correlated (90.2% and 86.6%). Next, multiple bridge decks were assessed with GPR and half-cell potential (HCP). Statistical parameters like the mean and skewness were computed for the GPR amplitudes of each deck, and coupled with actual corrosion quantities based on the HCP measurements to form a future bridge deck model that can be used to assess any deck with GPR alone. Finally, in order to understand exactly which component of rebar corrosion (rust, cracking or chloride) attenuates the GPR data, computational modeling was carried out to isolate each variable. The results indicate that chloride is the major contributor to the rebar reflection attenuation, and that computational modeling can be used to accurately simulate GPR attenuation due to chloride.

  5. Having a usual source of care and its associated factors in Korean adults: a cross-sectional study of the 2012 Korea Health Panel Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ah Reum; Kim, Kyoungwoo; Lee, Jae-Ho; Sung, Nak-Jin; Lee, Sang-Il; Hyun, Min Kyung

    2016-11-29

    Usual source of care (USC) is one of the hallmarks of primary care. We aimed to examine the status of having a USC and its patient-related sociodemographic factors among Korean adults. Data were obtained from the 2012 Korea Health Panel survey. Panel participants were selected for the study who were aged 18 years or older and who replied to questionnaire items on having a USC (n = 11,935). Of the participants, 21.5% had a usual place and 13.9% had a usual physician. Reasons for not having a USC were seldom being ill (66.1%), the preference to visit multiple medical institutions (27.9%), and others. The private community clinic was the most common type of usual place (57.0%). In patient-reported attributes of care provided by a usual physician, the percentages of positive responses for comprehensiveness and coordination were 67.2% and 34.5%, respectively. By institution type, primary care clinics showed the lowest percentage (32.8%) of positive responses for coordination. Adjusted odds ratios of having a usual physician were 3.77 (95% confidence interval, CI: 3.75-3.79) for those aged 65 years or older (vs. aged 18-34 years), 1.31 (CI: 1.30-1.31) for females (vs. males), 0.72 (CI: 0.72-0.73) for unmarried people (vs. married), 1.16 (CI: 1.16-1.16) for college graduates or higher (vs. elementary school graduate or less), 0.64 for the fifth quintile (vs. the first quintile) by household income, 1.53 (CI: 1.52-1.54) for Medical Aid (vs. employee health insurance) for type of health insurance, and 4.09 (CI: 4.08-4.10) for presence (vs. absence) of a chronic diseases. The proportion of Korean adults who have a USC is extremely low, the most influential factor of having a USC is having a chronic disease or not, and Korean patients experience much poorer health care coordination than do patients in other industrialized countries. The findings of this study will give insight to researchers and policy makers regarding the potential facilitators of and barriers to

  6. The cross-border opportunity on how to enhance Canada-US energy trade : Panel 3 : toward seamless trade in power and emission reductions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeCroy, J.; Rudgers, N.; McCuaig, P.

    2006-01-01

    This third panel discussion on seamless trade in power and emissions reductions addressed the impact of energy issues on agriculture. In particular, it focused on biomass as an energy source to address the need to reduce carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere. Although ethanol, biodiesel and other biomass are not going to completely replace petroleum in the near future, renewables such as biomass, wind, solar and geothermal energy sources will be part of the energy mix. It was noted that biomass can be produced in abundance in North America. In addition to being renewable and carbon neutral, biomass can be used in existing transportation/stationary fuels infrastructure. It was suggested that growing energy crops such as corn, soybeans, switchgrass and short-rotation woody crops represent the best potential to bring under-utilized agricultural lands back into productive use. The power industry's interest in biomass was also discussed. The Department of Energy has estimated that using syngas from biomass for fuel cells can be cost competitive with natural gas at current prices. The discussion also addressed the role of biomass in the 13-state Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) which was launched to limit and reduce carbon dioxide emissions from the Mid-Atlantic and New England states. 7 figs

  7. Hybrid FRP-concrete bridge deck system final report I : development and system performance validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    In this study, the concept of the hybrid FRP-concrete structural systems was applied to both bridge : superstructure and deck systems. Results from the both experimental and computational analysis for : both the hybrid bridge superstructure and deck ...

  8. Rapid replacement of Tangier Island bridges including lightweight and durable fiber-reinforced polymer deck systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composite cellular deck systems were used as new bridge decks on two replacement bridges on Tangier Island, Virginia. The most important characteristics of this application were reduced self-weight and increased durabil...

  9. Dynamic assessment of bridge deck performance considering realistic bridge-traffic interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Concrete bridge decks are directly exposed to daily traffic loads and may experience some surface cracking caused by excessive stress or fatigue accumulation, which requires repair or replacement. Among typical bridges in North America, bridge decks ...

  10. Dynamic assessment of bridge deck performance considering realistic bridge-traffic interaction : research brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    This study is to develop simulation methodology to conduct the dynamic assessment of bridge deck performance subjected to traffic. Concrete bridge decks are exposed to daily traffic loads and may experience some surface cracking caused by excessive s...

  11. Aircraft Carrier Flight and Hangar Deck Fire Protection: History and Current Status

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Darwin, Robert L; Bowman, Howard L; Hunstad, Mary; Leach, William B; Williams, Frederick W

    2005-01-01

    .... Next, a review of firefighting systems, including the firefighting agents currently in use, as well as the current tactics for fighting fires on the flight deck and the hangar deck, is provided...

  12. "The Battery" designed with Super-Light (concrete) Decks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castberg, Niels Andreas; Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    This paper describes how Super-Light structures can be used as a structural principle for the buildings in the project ‘The Battery’ designed by Bjarke Ingels Group. The overall structural concept is described and the advantages of using super-light slabs for the project are explored. Especially...... the cantilevered internal corridors are investigated. Super-Light Structures is a newly patented structural concrete concept. Slabs based on the concept are the first structural element developed under the patent. The slabs called SL-decks have multiple advantages compared to traditional hollow core slabs....... The paper aims to describe the concept of how the deck can be used in these innovative buildings and how the special advantages of the SL-decks are applied....

  13. Issues in bridge deck damage evaluation using aerial photos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, M.; Chen, S. E.; Boyle, C.; Martin, E.; Hauser, E.

    2012-04-01

    Small format aerial photography (SFAP) with low flying technique is proposed for damage evaluation of bridge decks. High resolution images obtained using under-belly photography can be used to quantify the various bridge deck problems. The conventional truck-mount or vehicle-mount deck imaging technologies require a large number of image samples. Hence the physical scanning is time consuming and it is also challenging consider the size and location of a bridge. Aerial imaging overcomes these issues, but they face different kinds of challenges that are posed by obstacles such as shadow from trees, power lines and vehicles, signs and luminaries structures. The image resolution uncertainty, which is a function of the pilot skills and flying conditions, may also add additional challenges to aerial imaging technique. Hence different image processing tools have to be integrated into a single package to achieve the desired task. This paper summarizes the challenges faced and the preliminary results are presented and discussed.

  14. Six-month longitudinal associations between cognitive functioning and distress among the community-based elderly in Hong Kong: A cross-lagged panel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Chantel Joanne; Cheng, Lewis; Yu, Junhong; Yiend, Jenny; Lee, Tatia M C

    2018-07-01

    Although previous studies have extensively documented the cross-sectional relationship between cognitive impairment and psychological distress, findings relating to their longitudinal associations remains mixed. The present study examines the longitudinal associations and mutual influence between cognitive functioning and psychological distress across six months among community-dwelling elderly in Hong Kong. A total of 162 older adults (40 males; M age  = 69.8 years, SD = 6.4) were administered objective and subjective measures of cognitive functioning, as well as self-reported ratings of distress, at two time points six months apart. Using structural equation modeling, we tested the cross-lagged relationships between cognitive functioning and distress. Our cross-lagged model indicated that cognitive functioning at baseline significantly predicted subsequent psychological distress. However, distress was not significantly associated with subsequent cognitive functioning. Additionally, the objective and subjective measures of cognitive functioning were not significantly correlated. These findings suggested that distress may occur as a consequence of poorer cognitive functioning in elderly, but not vice versa. The lack of correlation between objective and subjective cognitive measures suggested that the participants may not have adequate insight into their cognitive abilities. The implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Polyurethane foam infill for fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) bridge deck panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Although still in their infancy, fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) bridges have shown great promise in eliminating corrosion : concerns and meeting (or exceeding) FHWAs goal of 100-year life spans for bridges. While FRP bridges are cost-effective in ...

  16. Stochastic analysis and robust optimization for a deck lid inner panel stamping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Bo; Wang, Wurong; Li, Shuhui; Lin, Zhongqin; Xia, Z. Cedric

    2010-01-01

    FE-simulation and optimization are widely used in the stamping process to improve design quality and shorten development cycle. However, the current simulation and optimization may lead to non-robust results due to not considering the variation of material and process parameters. In this study, a novel stochastic analysis and robust optimization approach is proposed to improve the stamping robustness, where the uncertainties are involved to reflect manufacturing reality. A meta-model based stochastic analysis method is developed, where FE-simulation, uniform design and response surface methodology (RSM) are used to construct meta-model, based on which Monte-Carlo simulation is performed to predict the influence of input parameters variation on the final product quality. By applying the stochastic analysis, uniform design and RSM, the mean and the standard deviation (SD) of product quality are calculated as functions of the controllable process parameters. The robust optimization model composed of mean and SD is constructed and solved, the result of which is compared with the deterministic one to show its advantages. It is demonstrated that the product quality variations are reduced significantly, and quality targets (reject rate) are achieved under the robust optimal solution. The developed approach offers rapid and reliable results for engineers to deal with potential stamping problems during the early phase of product and tooling design, saving more time and resources.

  17. PARAMETRIC STUDY OF SKEW ANGLE ON BOX GIRDER BRIDGE DECK

    OpenAIRE

    Shrikant D. Bobade *, Dr. Valsson Varghese

    2016-01-01

    Box girder bridge deck, is the most common type of bridges in world and India, it consists of several Slab or girders. The span in the direction of the roadway and connected across their tops and bottoms by a thin continuous structural stab, the longitudinal box girders can be made of steel or concrete. The Simple supported single span concrete bridge deck is presented in present study. Skewed bridges are suitable in highway design when the geometry of straight bridges is not possible. The sk...

  18. Does population have a larger impact on carbon dioxide emissions than income? Evidence from a cross-regional panel analysis in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Yang; Liu, Yansui

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We reassessed the impact of demographic and GDP changes on CO 2 emissions in China. • Income rather than population growth was a major contributor to growing emissions. • Urbanisation increases energy use and CO 2 emissions, except in western China. • Shrinking household size did not reduce energy use and emissions. • The impact of human activities on the environment varies across regions. - Abstract: As global warming intensifies, the accumulation of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and other greenhouse gases have attracted great global attention. However, questions regarding whether, how and to what extent demographic factors and processes affect carbon emissions have not yet been fully explained – particularly in China. This study used an improved STIRPAT model to reassess the impact of demographic and income changes on China’s energy-related CO 2 emissions at the national and regional levels using balanced provincial panel data from the 1990–2012 period. Whereas most previous studies of emission–population/income elasticity in China have yielded wide-ranging estimates, this study showed that income rather than demographic change has been the dominant driving force behind China’s growing CO 2 emissions. Urbanisation has increased energy consumption and emissions, except in western China. Changes in the age structure have had a statistically insignificant effect on energy use, but resulted in increased national emissions – particularly in eastern China. Shrinking household size did not reduce energy use and emissions, indicating that improved residential energy efficiency might reduce emissions. Changing the traditional mode of economic growth, reasonable controlling the pace of urbanisation, improving energy efficiency and upgrading industrial structures may yet be necessary to mitigate the environmental impact of human activities in China.

  19. 46 CFR 109.575 - Accumulation of liquids on helicopter decks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accumulation of liquids on helicopter decks. 109.575... DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.575 Accumulation of liquids on helicopter decks. The master or person in charge shall ensure that no liquids are allowed to accumulate on the helicopter decks. ...

  20. Cross-section and panel estimates of peer effects in early adolescent cannabis use: With a little help from my 'friends once removed'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, John; McVicar, Duncan; Higgins, Kathryn

    2016-08-01

    Peer effects in adolescent cannabis are difficult to estimate, due in part to the lack of appropriate data on behaviour and social ties. This paper exploits survey data that have many desirable properties and have not previously been used for this purpose. The data set, collected from teenagers in three annual waves from 2002 to 2004 contains longitudinal information about friendship networks within schools (N = 5020). We exploit these data on network structure to estimate peer effects on adolescents from their nominated friends within school using two alternative approaches to identification. First, we present a cross-sectional instrumental variable (IV) estimate of peer effects that exploits network structure at the second degree, i.e. using information on friends of friends who are not themselves ego's friends to instrument for the cannabis use of friends. Second, we present an individual fixed effects estimate of peer effects using the full longitudinal structure of the data. Both innovations allow a greater degree of control for correlated effects than is commonly the case in the substance-use peer effects literature, improving our chances of obtaining estimates of peer effects than can be plausibly interpreted as causal. Both estimates suggest positive peer effects of non-trivial magnitude, although the IV estimate is imprecise. Furthermore, when we specify identical models with behaviour and characteristics of randomly selected school peers in place of friends', we find effectively zero effect from these 'placebo' peers, lending credence to our main estimates. We conclude that cross-sectional data can be used to estimate plausible positive peer effects on cannabis use where network structure information is available and appropriately exploited. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. On the typography of flight-deck documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degani, Asaf

    1992-01-01

    Many types of paper documentation are employed on the flight-deck. They range from a simple checklist card to a bulky Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM). Some of these documentations have typographical and graphical deficiencies; yet, many cockpit tasks such as conducting checklists, way-point entry, limitations and performance calculations, and many more, require the use of these documents. Moreover, during emergency and abnormal situations, the flight crews' effectiveness in combating the situation is highly dependent on such documentation; accessing and reading procedures has a significant impact on flight safety. Although flight-deck documentation are an important (and sometimes critical) form of display in the modern cockpit, there is a dearth of information on how to effectively design these displays. The object of this report is to provide a summary of the available literature regarding the design and typographical aspects of printed matter. The report attempts 'to bridge' the gap between basic research about typography, and the kind of information needed by designers of flight-deck documentation. The report focuses on typographical factors such as type-faces, character height, use of lower- and upper-case characters, line length, and spacing. Some graphical aspects such as layout, color coding, fonts, and character contrast are also discussed. In addition, several aspects of cockpit reading conditions such as glare, angular alignment, and paper quality are addressed. Finally, a list of recommendations for the graphical design of flight-deck documentation is provided.

  2. A FORM ANALYSIS OF JAPANESE PEDESTRIAN DECKS AND EUROPEAN PLAZAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDO Naomi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study compares Japanese pedestrian decks and European plazas as public pedestrian spaces. The characteristics of both types of spaces will be clarified through a schematic analysis. The connections of these spaces with their surroundings will also be analyzed. Further, the spatial image of these spaces are discussed. Pedestrian spaces in Romania will be discussed as well.

  3. Compressive Membrane Action in Prestressed Concrete Deck Slabs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amir, S.

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important questions that structural engineers all over the world are dealing with is the safety of the existing structures. In the Netherlands, there are a large number of transversely prestressed bridge decks that have been built in the last century and now need to be investigated

  4. The effect of floating deck structures on underwater radiated noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosschaart, C.; Jansen, H.W.; Jong, C.A.F. de; Basten, T.

    2017-01-01

    A concept for underwater machinery noise mitigation of future civil and military ships is the application of a common deck structure, supporting multiple machines, which is installed on resilient mounts on the ship's foundation structure. TNO is addressing the availability and testing of tools to be

  5. Development of MIDAS/SMR Input Deck for SMART

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, S. W.; Oh, H. K.; Lee, J. M.; Lee, J. H.; Yoo, K. J.; Kwun, S. K.; Hur, H.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop MIDAS/SMR code basic input deck for the severe accidents by simulating the steady state for the SMART plant. SMART plant is an integrated reactor developed by KAERI. For the assessment of reactor safety and severe accident management strategy, it is necessary to simulate severe accidents using the MIDAS/SMR code which is being developed by KAERI. The input deck of the MIDAS/SMR code for the SMART plant is prepared to simulate severe accident sequences for the users who are not familiar with the code. A steady state is obtained and the results are compared with design values. The input deck will be improved through the simulation of the DBAs and severe accidents. The base input deck of the MIDAS/SMR code can be used to simulate severe accident scenarios after improvement. Source terms and hydrogen generation can be analyzed through the simulation of the severe accident. The information gained from analyses of severe accidents is expected to be helpful to develop the severe accident management strategy

  6. a finite element model for the analysis of bridge decks

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    A FINITE ELEMENT MODEL FOR THE ANALYSIS OF BRIDGE DECKS. NIGERIAN JOURNAL OF TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 27 NO.1, MARCH 2008. 59. (a) Beam-plate system. (b) T-beam structural model. Fig. 1 Beam-plate structure idealisations. The matrix displacement method of analysis is used. The continuum structure is.

  7. Life-Cycle Inventory Analysis of Manufacturing Redwood Decking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman; Han-Sup Han; Elaine Oneil; Ivan L. Eastin

    2012-01-01

    Green building has become increasingly important. Therefore, consumers and builders often take into account the environmental attributes of a building material. This study determined the environmental attributes associated with manufacturing 38-mm × 138-mm (nominal 2 × 6) redwood decking in northern California using the life-cycle inventory method. Primary data...

  8. Fatigue Properties of Orthotropic Decks on Railway Bridges

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frýba, Ladislav; Gajdoš, Lubomír

    1999-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 7 (1999), s. 639-652 ISSN 0141-0296 Grant - others:XX(CZ) ERRI D 191 Keywords : railway bridges * orthotropic decks * fatigue Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering Impact factor: 0.364, year: 1999

  9. Punching shear strength of transversely prestressed concrete decks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amir, S.; Van der Veen, C.; Walraven, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    In the Netherlands, there is a need to determine the capacity of bridge decks as a large number of them were built back in the 60’s and 70’s. Since then, not only a lot of additional safety requirements have been incorporated into the modern codes but the traffic flow has also increased drastically.

  10. Hepatitis virus panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003558.htm Hepatitis virus panel To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The hepatitis virus panel is a series of blood tests used ...

  11. Antinuclear antibody panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003535.htm Antinuclear antibody panel To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The antinuclear antibody panel is a blood test that looks at ...

  12. Paneling architectural freeform surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Eigensatz, Michael; Kilian, Martin; Schiftner, Alexander; Mitra, Niloy J.; Pottmann, Helmut; Pauly, Mark

    2010-01-01

    with a selected technology at reasonable cost, while meeting the design intent and achieving the desired aesthetic quality of panel layout and surface smoothness. The production of curved panels is mostly based on molds. Since the cost of mold fabrication

  13. Causes of Early Age Cracking on Concrete Bridge Deck Expansion Joint Repair Sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared R. Wright

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cracking of newly placed binary Portland cement-slag concrete adjacent to bridge deck expansion dam replacements has been observed on several newly rehabilitated sections of bridge decks. This paper investigates the causes of cracking by assessing the concrete mixtures specified for bridge deck rehabilitation projects, as well as reviewing the structural design of decks and the construction and curing methods implemented by the contractors. The work consists of (1 a comprehensive literature review of the causes of cracking on bridge decks, (2 a review of previous bridge deck rehabilitation projects that experienced early-age cracking along with construction observations of active deck rehabilitation projects, and (3 an experimental evaluation of the two most commonly used bridge deck concrete mixtures. Based on the literature review, the causes of concrete bridge deck cracking can be classified into three categories: concrete material properties, construction practices, and structural design factors. The most likely causes of the observed early-age cracking were found to be inadequate curing and failure to properly eliminate the risk of plastic shrinkage cracking. These results underscore the significance of proper moist curing methods for concrete bridge decks, including repair sections. This document also provides a blueprint for future researchers to investigate early-age cracking of concrete structures.

  14. Hybrid FRP-concrete bridge deck system final report II : long term performance of hybrid FRP-concrete bridge deck system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    This report describes the investigation of the long term structural performance of a : hybrid FRP-concrete (HFRPC) bridge deck on steel girders. The study aimed at : assessing three long term aspects pertaining to the HFRPC bridge deck: (1) creep : c...

  15. Paneling architectural freeform surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Eigensatz, Michael

    2010-07-26

    The emergence of large-scale freeform shapes in architecture poses big challenges to the fabrication of such structures. A key problem is the approximation of the design surface by a union of patches, socalled panels, that can be manufactured with a selected technology at reasonable cost, while meeting the design intent and achieving the desired aesthetic quality of panel layout and surface smoothness. The production of curved panels is mostly based on molds. Since the cost of mold fabrication often dominates the panel cost, there is strong incentive to use the same mold for multiple panels. We cast the major practical requirements for architectural surface paneling, including mold reuse, into a global optimization framework that interleaves discrete and continuous optimization steps to minimize production cost while meeting user-specified quality constraints. The search space for optimization is mainly generated through controlled deviation from the design surface and tolerances on positional and normal continuity between neighboring panels. A novel 6-dimensional metric space allows us to quickly compute approximate inter-panel distances, which dramatically improves the performance of the optimization and enables the handling of complex arrangements with thousands of panels. The practical relevance of our system is demonstrated by paneling solutions for real, cutting-edge architectural freeform design projects. © 2010 ACM.

  16. Paneling architectural freeform surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Eigensatz, Michael

    2010-07-25

    The emergence of large-scale freeform shapes in architecture poses big challenges to the fabrication of such structures. A key problem is the approximation of the design surface by a union of patches, so-called panels, that can be manufactured with a selected technology at reasonable cost, while meeting the design intent and achieving the desired aesthetic quality of panel layout and surface smoothness. The production of curved panels is mostly based on molds. Since the cost of mold fabrication often dominates the panel cost, there is strong incentive to use the same mold for multiple panels. We cast the major practical requirements for architectural surface paneling, including mold reuse, into a global optimization framework that interleaves discrete and continuous optimization steps to minimize production cost while meeting user-specified quality constraints. The search space for optimization is mainly generated through controlled deviation from the design surface and tolerances on positional and normal continuity between neighboring panels. A novel 6-dimensional metric space allows us to quickly compute approximate inter-panel distances, which dramatically improves the performance of the optimization and enables the handling of complex arrangements with thousands of panels. The practical relevance of our system is demonstrated by paneling solutions for real, cutting-edge architectural freeform design projects.

  17. Robotics and Automation for Flight Deck Aircraft Servicing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chesser, J.B.; Draper, J.V.; Pin, F.G.

    1999-03-01

    One of the missions of the Future Aircraft Carriers Program is to investigate methods that would improve aircraft turnaround servicing activities on carrier decks. The major objectives and criteria for evaluating alternative aircraft servicing methods are to reduce workload requirements, turnaround times (TAT), and life-cycle costs (LCC). Technologies in the field of Robotics and Automation (R and A) have the potential to significantly contribute to these objectives. The objective of this study was to investigate aircraft servicing functions on carrier decks which would offer the potentially most significant payoff if improved by various R and A technologies. Improvement in this case means reducing workload, time and LCC. This objective was accomplished using a ''bottom-up'' formalized approach as described in the following.

  18. Acoustically Tailored Composite Rotorcraft Fuselage Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambric, Stephen; Shepherd, Micah; Koudela, Kevin; Wess, Denis; Snider, Royce; May, Carl; Kendrick, Phil; Lee, Edward; Cai, Liang-Wu

    2015-01-01

    A rotorcraft roof sandwich panel has been redesigned to optimize sound power transmission loss (TL) and minimize structure-borne sound for frequencies between 1 and 4 kHz where gear meshing noise from the transmission has the most impact on speech intelligibility. The roof section, framed by a grid of ribs, was originally constructed of a single honeycomb core/composite face sheet panel. The original panel has coincidence frequencies near 700 Hz, leading to poor TL across the frequency range of 1 to 4 kHz. To quiet the panel, the cross section was split into two thinner sandwich subpanels separated by an air gap. The air gap was sized to target the fundamental mass-spring-mass resonance of the double panel system to less than 500 Hz. The panels were designed to withstand structural loading from normal rotorcraft operation, as well as 'man-on-the-roof' static loads experienced during maintenance operations. Thin layers of VHB 9469 viscoelastomer from 3M were also included in the face sheet ply layups, increasing panel damping loss factors from about 0.01 to 0.05. Measurements in the NASA SALT facility show the optimized panel provides 6-11 dB of acoustic transmission loss improvement, and 6-15 dB of structure-borne sound reduction at critical rotorcraft transmission tonal frequencies. Analytic panel TL theory simulates the measured performance quite well. Detailed finite element/boundary element modeling of the baseline panel simulates TL slightly more accurately, and also simulates structure-borne sound well.

  19. Service Life and Maintenance Modelling of Reinforced Concrete Bridge Decks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    Recent research in the area of assessment and maintenance of reinforced concrete bridge decks is presented in this paper. Three definitions of service lifetime are introduced and the difficult problem of assessing the service life is discussed. A stochastic modelling of corrosion and corrosion...... cracking is introduced and the site dependency of corrosion is stressed. Finally, a recently developed optimal repair strategy for bridges is briefly explained....

  20. Delamination Detection of Reinforced Concrete Decks Using Modal Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shutao Xing

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study addressed delamination detection of concrete slabs by analyzing global dynamic responses of structures. Both numerical and experimental studies are presented. In the numerical examples, delaminations with different sizes and locations were introduced into a concrete slab; the effects of presence, sizes, and locations of delaminations on the modal frequencies and mode shapes of the concrete slab under various support conditions were studied. In the experimental study, four concrete deck specimens with different delamination sizes were constructed, and experimental tests were conducted. Traditional peak-picking, frequency domain decomposition, and stochastic subspace identification methods were applied to the modal identification from dynamic response measurements. The modal parameters identified by these three methods correlated well. The changes in modal frequencies, damping ratios, and mode shapes that were extracted from the dynamic measurements were investigated and correlated to the actual delaminations and can indicate presence and severity of delamination. Finite element (FE models of reinforced concrete decks with different delamination sizes and locations were established. The modal parameters computed from the FE models were compared to those obtained from the laboratory specimens, and the FE models were validated. The delamination detection approach was proved to be effective for concrete decks on beams.

  1. REINFORCED COMPOSITE PANEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    A composite panel having front and back faces, the panel comprising facing reinforcement, backing reinforcement and matrix material binding to the facing and backing reinforcements, the facing and backing reinforcements each independently comprising one or more reinforcing sheets, the facing rein...... by matrix material, the facing and backing reinforcements being interconnected to resist out-of-plane relative movement. The reinforced composite panel is useful as a barrier element for shielding structures, equipment and personnel from blast and/or ballistic impact damage....

  2. Influence of ceiling systems on room temperature and energy efficiency in steel sheet deckings; Einfluss von Deckensystemen auf Raumtemperatur und Energieeffizienz im Stahlgeschossbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doering, Bernd

    2008-07-01

    Over the past years the use of flooring systems to affect the indoor climate of buildings is of increasing interest, including both thermo-active and also passive systems. The amendment of the German Energy saving ordinance (Energieeinsparverordnung 2007) requires, that in future projects, the energy demand for cooling and ventilation has to be considered for the calculation of the energy demand of non-residential buildings. Due to this circumstance, solutions for energy efficient cooling will come more into the focus. Up to now, the use of flooring systems in steel structures have not been investigated regarding this aspect. In this thesis, six different flooring systems were investigated: two passive acting solutions, using the effects of enlarging the surface and integrating phase change materials (PCM), one system comprising ducts that pass cold air through the floor during the night and three thermo-active deck systems (i.e. profiled steel sheet decking, a hollow-core slab, and a laser-welded steel sandwich panel). Generally, the thermal behaviour of such elements is described only using one-dimensional multilayer structure (for standardized calculations or for thermal building simulation), this concept is not adequate for profiled and homogeneous components. Therefore three-dimensional Finite Elemente investigations were performed to consider the specific properties. Based on these results a simplified method using equivalent parameters was developed, which allows the implementation of the considered flooring systems in standardized calculations (ISO 13786). For selected systems, validation by in-service measurements was performed. By using Thermal Building Simulation tools, a parametric study was carried out to specify the range and limits of application in respect of climate and internal heat gains. The results can be summarized as follows: - Profiled steel sheet decking show a higher effective thermal capacity than conventional flat slabs. - PCM increases

  3. Solar reflection panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diver, Jr., Richard B.; Grossman, James W [Albuquerque, NM; Reshetnik, Michael [Boulder, CO

    2006-07-18

    A solar collector comprising a glass mirror, and a composite panel, wherein the back of the mirror is affixed to a front surface of the composite panel. The composite panel comprises a front sheet affixed to a surface of a core material, preferably a core material comprising a honeycomb structure, and a back sheet affixed to an opposite surface of the core material. The invention may further comprise a sealing strip, preferably comprising EPDM, positioned between the glass mirror and the front surface of the composite panel. The invention also is of methods of making such solar collectors.

  4. Full Scale Investigation of the Dynamic Heat Storage of Concrete Decks with PCM and Enhanced Heat Transfer Surface Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the full-scale experimental investigation of the dynamic heat storage potential of the prefabricated hollow core deck elements with and without phase change material (PCM) and with and without increased bottom surface area of the decks. In the presented investigation five types...... of hollow core decks with different surfaces on the bottom are investigated: reference deck made of standard concrete and flat surface, deck with special mortar grooved tiles, deck with flat mortar tiles, deck with grooved mortar and phase change material tiles, deck with flat mortar and phase change...... material tiles. The experimental investigation presented in the paper is performed in the specially designed modified hot box apparatus that allows maintaining periodic steady-state tests with the full-scale concrete deck elements. The presented research investigates if the extended surface area and PCM...

  5. Numerical Analysis of Heat Storage and Heat Conductivity in the Concrete Hollow Core Deck Element

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2011-01-01

    extent these simplified models estimate the heat storage potential of precast hollow-core concrete decks correctly. This study investigates various approaches on how to model the heat transfer within the air void in the deck. Furthermore, it is analysed how different heat transfer models influence...... the overall heat transfer and heat storage in the hollow-core decks. The presented results allow comparison between detailed results from 2D-COMSOL simulations and simple 1D calculations from the whole building simulation tool such as BSim program and moreover, it is possible to validate the calculation...... method in BSim for the concrete deck element with air voids. Finally, this paper presents a comparison of the calculated heat conductivity of the hollow-core concrete deck and the measured heat conductivity for the same deck by using hot box apparatus....

  6. Panel data analysis of cardiotocograph (CTG) data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horio, Hiroyuki; Kikuchi, Hitomi; Ikeda, Tomoaki

    2013-01-01

    Panel data analysis is a statistical method, widely used in econometrics, which deals with two-dimensional panel data collected over time and over individuals. Cardiotocograph (CTG) which monitors fetal heart rate (FHR) using Doppler ultrasound and uterine contraction by strain gage is commonly used in intrapartum treatment of pregnant women. Although the relationship between FHR waveform pattern and the outcome such as umbilical blood gas data at delivery has long been analyzed, there exists no accumulated FHR patterns from large number of cases. As time-series economic fluctuations in econometrics such as consumption trend has been studied using panel data which consists of time-series and cross-sectional data, we tried to apply this method to CTG data. The panel data composed of a symbolized segment of FHR pattern can be easily handled, and a perinatologist can get the whole FHR pattern view from the microscopic level of time-series FHR data.

  7. Aerodynamic and aeroelastic characteristics of typical bridge decks equipped with wind barriers at the windward bridge-deck edge

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buljac, Andrija; Kozmar, H.; Pospíšil, Stanislav; Macháček, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 137, April (2017), s. 310-322 ISSN 0141-0296 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-01035S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1219 Keywords : bridge decks * roadway wind barrier * aerodynamic forces and moments * galloping * flutter * wind-tunnel experiments Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering OBOR OECD: Construction engineering , Municipal and structural engineering Impact factor: 2.258, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ article /pii/S014102961730278X

  8. Stressed skin panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2001-07-01

    Advantages and disadvantages of stressed skin panels, also known as structural insulated panels (SIPs), are discussed as material and labour-saving alternatives to traditional stick framing. Stressed skin panels are manufactured 'sandwich' assemblies with a rigid insulating polystyrene foam core, whose interior and exterior surfaces are bonded into panels. The skins distribute and carry the structural loading while the bonded foam core provides insulation and keeps the two skins aligned. Since there are fewer framing members, there is little thermal bridging and the R-value remains high. SIPs are usually manufactured in four feet by eight feet panels, although some manufacturers can produce panels up to eight feet by forty feet. SIPs are resource efficient as they use less wood than conventional framing (about 25 per cent less); can structurally cover large spans, requiring less supplementary framing. Use of SIPs eliminate the need for headers over small openings; provide the ability to nail anywhere; create less scrap and waste; lessen vulnerability to unfavourable weather and other job-site hazards, can reduce delays, and often can produce significant savings in material and labour costs. Limitations include the more complex approaches to plumbing and electrical systems, although this can be minimized by designers by incorporating much of the plumbing and electrical work on interior (non-panel) walls. Most stressed skin panels require one-half inch interior gypsum drywall. If become wet, stressed skin panels take a long time to dry out and may harbour mold growth. Larger stressed-skin panels used in floors and roofs, may require cranes or other machinery for handling because of their weight. Although not without some environmental impact, overall, stressed skin panels are judged to be a resource-efficient building technology with significant energy-efficiency benefits and distinct advantages over stick framing. 3 photos.

  9. Investigation of Flow Behavior around Corotating Blades in a Double-Spindle Lawn Mower Deck

    OpenAIRE

    Chon W.; Amano R. S.

    2005-01-01

    When the airflow patterns inside a lawn mower deck are understood, the deck can be redesigned to be efficient and have an increased cutting ability. To learn more, a combination of computational and experimental studies was performed to investigate the effects of blade and housing designs on a flow pattern inside a 1.1m wide corotating double-spindle lawn mower deck with side discharge. For the experimental portion of the study, air velocities inside the deck were measured using a laser Do...

  10. Vertical impedance measurements on concrete bridge decks for assessing susceptibility of reinforcing steel to corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, Paul D.; Guthrie, W. Spencer; Mazzeo, Brian A.

    2012-08-01

    Corrosion is a pressing problem for aging concrete infrastructure, especially bridge decks. Because of its sensitivity to factors that affect corrosion of reinforcing steel in concrete, resistivity is an important structural health indicator for reinforced concrete structures. In this research, an instrument was developed to measure vertical impedance on concrete bridge decks. Measurements of vertical impedance on slabs prepared in the laboratory, on slabs removed from decommissioned bridge decks, and on an in-service bridge deck in the field demonstrate the utility of the new apparatus.

  11. Preparation of Input Deck to analyze the Nuclear Power Plant for the Use of Regulatory Verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Doo Hyuk; Kim, Hyung Seok; Suh, Jae Seung; Ahn, Seung Hoon

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are to make out the input deck that analyzes a nuclear power plant for the use of regulatory verification and to produce its calculation note. We have been maintained the input deck of T/H safety codes used in existing domestic reactors to ensure independent and accurate regulatory verification for the thermal-hydraulic safety analysis in domestic NPPs. This paper is mainly divided into two steps: first step is to compare existing input deck to the calculation note in order to verify the consistency. Next step is to model 3-dimensional reactor pressure vessel using MULTID component instead of the 1D existing input deck

  12. Prevalence and determinants of metabolic syndrome: a cross-sectional survey of general medical outpatient clinics using National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III criteria in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omech, Bernard; Tshikuka, Jose-Gaby; Mwita, Julius C; Tsima, Billy; Nkomazana, Oathokwa; Amone-P'Olak, Kennedy

    2016-01-01

    Low- and middle-income countries, including Botswana, are facing rising prevalence of obesity and obesity-related cardiometabolic complications. Very little information is known about clustering of cardiovascular risk factors in the outpatient setting during routine visits. We aimed to assess the prevalence and identify the determinants of metabolic syndrome among the general outpatients' attendances in Botswana. A cross-sectional study was conducted from August to October 2014 involving outpatients aged ≥20 years without diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. A precoded questionnaire was used to collect data on participants' sociodemographics, risk factors, and anthropometric indices. Fasting blood samples were drawn and analyzed for glucose and lipid profile. Metabolic syndrome was assessed using National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. In total, 291 participants were analyzed, of whom 216 (74.2%) were females. The mean age of the total population was 50.1 (±11) years. The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 27.1% (n=79), with no significant difference between the sexes (female =29.6%, males =20%, P=0.11). A triad of central obesity, low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and elevated blood pressure constituted the largest proportion (38 [13.1%]) of cases of metabolic syndrome, followed by a combination of low high-density lipoprotein, elevated triglycerides, central obesity, and elevated blood pressure, with 17 (5.8%) cases. Independent determinants of metabolic syndrome were antihypertensive use and increased waist circumference. Metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent in the general medical outpatients clinics. Proactive approaches are needed to screen and manage cases targeting its most important predictors.

  13. Solar panel foundation device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawley, W.W.

    1983-03-29

    A transportable solar panel foundation device which has a bottom member, at least one upstanding side member, and an essentially open top. The side members are angled to permit nesting of a plurality of the foundation devices, and reinforcement pads are carried by the foundation device to support legs for one or more solar panels.

  14. Panel 5: Microbiology and Immunology Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Timothy F.; Chonmaitree, Tasnee; Barenkamp, Stephen; Kyd, Jennelle; Nokso-Koivisto, Johanna; Patel, Janak A.; Heikkinen, Terho; Yamanaka, Noboru; Ogra, Pearay; Swords, W. Edward; Sih, Tania; Pettigrew, Melinda M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective is to perform a comprehensive review of the literature from January 2007 through June 2011 on the virology, bacteriology, and immunology related to otitis media. Data Sources PubMed database of the National Library of Medicine. Review Methods Three subpanels with co-chairs comprising experts in the virology, bacteriology, and immunology of otitis media were formed. Each of the panels reviewed the literature in their respective fields and wrote draft reviews. The reviews were shared with all panel members, and a second draft was created. The entire panel met at the 10th International Symposium on Recent Advances in Otitis Media in June 2011 and discussed the review and refined the content further. A final draft was created, circulated, and approved by the panel. Conclusion Excellent progress has been made in the past 4 years in advancing an understanding of the microbiology and immunology of otitis media. Advances include laboratory-based basic studies, cell-based assays, work in animal models, and clinical studies. Implications for Practice The advances of the past 4 years formed the basis of a series of short-term and long-term research goals in an effort to guide the field. Accomplishing these goals will provide opportunities for the development of novel interventions, including new ways to better treat and prevent otitis media. PMID:23536533

  15. RECIPANEL: RECYCLED PAPER PANELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HERNÁN CAÑOLA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se estudia la fabricación y el comportamiento mecánico de paneles a base de papel reciclado. El objetivo principal del proyecto es producir un prototipo de panel que emplee elementos provenientes de residuos sólidos (papel periódico y de un material conglomerante (cemento Portland blanco. El panel debe ser económico, debe tener buenas propiedades mecánicas y debe tener dimensiones comerciales para su uso en muros tabiques y en cielos falsos en la industria de la construcción. El Recipanel es un panel no estructural a base de papel reciclado. El Recipanel cumple las normas colombianas en lo relativo a los paneles de uso no estructural y presenta además unas excelentes características mecánicas.

  16. Puncture panel optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, R.E.; Longenbaugh, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories developed the TRansUranic PACkage Transporter (TRUPACT) to transport defense contact-handled transuranic wastes. The package has been designed to meet the normal and hypothetical accident conditions in 10CFR71 which includes the demonstrated ability to survive a 1-meter drop onto a mild steel pin. The puncture protection is provided by puncture resistant panels. In conjunction with the development of TRUPACT, a series of experiments has been conducted to reduce the weight of the puncture resistant panels. The initial scoping tests resulted in a preliminary design incorporating 30 layers of Kevlar. This design has been shown to meet the regulatory puncture test. To reduce the weight of this panel, subscale tests were conducted on panels utilizing Kevlar yarns with varying mass per unit length (denier) as well as different resins. This paper reviews the testing undertaken in the original panel development and discusses the results obtained from the recent subscale and full-scale optimization tests

  17. Solar panel cleaning robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalladhimmu, Pavan Kumar Reddy; Priyadarshini, S.

    2018-04-01

    As the demand of electricity is increasing, there is need to using the renewable sources to produce the energy at present of power shortage, the use of solar energy could be beneficial to great extent and easy to get the maximum efficiency. There is an urgent in improving the efficiency of solar power generation. Current solar panels setups take a major power loss when unwanted obstructions cover the surface of the panels. To make solar energy more efficiency of solar array systems must be maximized efficiency evaluation of PV panels, that has been discussed with particular attention to the presence of dust on the efficiency of the PV panels have been highlighted. This paper gives the how the solar panel cleaning system works and designing of the cleaning system.

  18. Compressive Strength of Longitudinally Stiffened GRP Panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böhme, J.; Noury, P.; Riber, Hans Jørgen

    1996-01-01

    A structural analysis of a cross stiffened orthotropic GRP panel subjected to uniaxial compressive loads is carried out. Analytical solutions to the buckling of such structures are proposed and validated by a finite element analysis. Both analytical and finite element approaches confirm an identi...

  19. Continuous time modeling of panel data by means of SEM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oud, J.H.L.; Delsing, M.J.M.H.; Montfort, C.A.G.M.; Oud, J.H.L.; Satorra, A.

    2010-01-01

    After a brief history of continuous time modeling and its implementation in panel analysis by means of structural equation modeling (SEM), the problems of discrete time modeling are discussed in detail. This is done by means of the popular cross-lagged panel design. Next, the exact discrete model

  20. Make Your Own Solar Panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, David

    1992-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students make a simulated solar panel to learn about the principles behind energy production using solar panels. Provides information about how solar panels function to produce energy. (MCO)

  1. Flight Deck Weather Avoidance Decision Support: Implementation and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shu-Chieh; Luna, Rocio; Johnson, Walter W.

    2013-01-01

    Weather related disruptions account for seventy percent of the delays in the National Airspace System (NAS). A key component in the weather plan of the Next Generation of Air Transportation System (NextGen) is to assimilate observed weather information and probabilistic forecasts into the decision process of flight crews and air traffic controllers. In this research we explore supporting flight crew weather decision making through the development of a flight deck predicted weather display system that utilizes weather predictions generated by ground-based radar. This system integrates and presents this weather information, together with in-flight trajectory modification tools, within a cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI) prototype. that the CDTI features 2D and perspective 3D visualization models of weather. The weather forecast products that we implemented were the Corridor Integrated Weather System (CIWS) and the Convective Weather Avoidance Model (CWAM), both developed by MIT Lincoln Lab. We evaluated the use of CIWS and CWAM for flight deck weather avoidance in two part-task experiments. Experiment 1 compared pilots' en route weather avoidance performance in four weather information conditions that differed in the type and amount of predicted forecast (CIWS current weather only, CIWS current and historical weather, CIWS current and forecast weather, CIWS current and forecast weather and CWAM predictions). Experiment 2 compared the use of perspective 3D and 21/2D presentations of weather for flight deck weather avoidance. Results showed that pilots could take advantage of longer range predicted weather forecasts in performing en route weather avoidance but more research will be needed to determine what combinations of information are optimal and how best to present them.

  2. Super-long bridges with floating towers: the role of multi-box decks and Hardware-In-the-Loop technology for wind tunnel tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zasso, A.; Argentini, T.; Bayati, I.; Belloli, M.; Rocchi, D.

    2017-12-01

    The super long fjord crossings in E39 Norwegian project pose new challenges to long span bridge design and construction technology. Proposed solutions should consider the adoption of bridge deck with super long spans or floating solutions for at least one of the towers, due to the relevant fjord depth. At the same time, the exposed fjord environment, possibly facing the open ocean, calls for higher aerodynamic stability performances. In relation to this scenario, the present paper addresses two topics: 1) the aerodynamic advantages of multi-box deck sections in terms of aeroelastic stability, and 2) an experimental setup in a wind tunnel able to simulate the aeroelastic bridge response including the wave forcing on the floating.

  3. Images from Galileo of the Venus cloud deck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belton, M.J.S.; Gierasch, P.J.; Smith, M.D.; Helfenstein, P.; Schinder, P.J.; Pollack, James B.; Rages, K.A.; Ingersoll, A.P.; Klaasen, K.P.; Veverka, J.; Anger, C.D.; Carr, M.H.; Chapman, C.R.; Davies, M.E.; Fanale, F.P.; Greeley, R.; Greenberg, R.; Head, J. W.; Morrison, D.; Neukum, G.; Pilcher, C.B.

    1991-01-01

    Images of Venus taken at 418 (violet) and 986 [near-infrared (NIR)] nanometers show that the morphology and motions of large-scale features change with depth in the cloud deck. Poleward meridional velocities, seen in both spectral regions, are much reduced in the NIR. In the south polar region the markings in the two wavelength bands are strongly anticorrelated. The images follow the changing state of the upper cloud layer downwind of the subsolar point, and the zonal flow field shows a longitudinal periodicity that may be coupled to the formation of large-scale planetary waves. No optical lightning was detected.

  4. Super-light concrete decks for building floor slabs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Castberg, Niels Andreas; Christensen, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    to flexibility, sound insulation and fire resistance compared with present-day prefabricated structures. Full-scale tests and theoretical investigations show that the deck structure performs as intended. Also, that it is possible to assess by calculation the loadbearing capacity in bending and shear, and assess...... the pull-out strength of prestressing wires, the fire resistance and the acoustic insulation. Based on the results of the investigations, recommendations are given for further development of the structure before fully automated mass production is established....

  5. Advanced flight deck/crew station simulator functional requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, R. L.; Tate, J. L.; Moss, M. J.

    1980-01-01

    This report documents a study of flight deck/crew system research facility requirements for investigating issues involved with developing systems, and procedures for interfacing transport aircraft with air traffic control systems planned for 1985 to 2000. Crew system needs of NASA, the U.S. Air Force, and industry were investigated and reported. A matrix of these is included, as are recommended functional requirements and design criteria for simulation facilities in which to conduct this research. Methods of exploiting the commonality and similarity in facilities are identified, and plans for exploiting this in order to reduce implementation costs and allow efficient transfer of experiments from one facility to another are presented.

  6. Development and layout of a protocol for the field performance of concrete deck and crack sealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    The main objective of this project was to develop and layout a protocol for the long-term monitoring and assessment of the performance of concrete deck and crack sealants in the field. To accomplish this goal, a total of six bridge decks were chosen ...

  7. 46 CFR 45.135 - Hull openings at or below freeboard deck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull openings at or below freeboard deck. 45.135 Section 45.135 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Conditions of Assignment § 45.135 Hull openings at or below freeboard deck. Closures for hull...

  8. 46 CFR 108.133 - Hull superstructure, structural bulkheads, decks, and deckhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull superstructure, structural bulkheads, decks, and deckhouses. 108.133 Section 108.133 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A... Protection § 108.133 Hull superstructure, structural bulkheads, decks, and deckhouses. Each hull...

  9. Super-Light Prefabricated Deck Element Integrated in Traditional Concrete Prefabricated Element Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jacob Ellehauge; Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    Super-light structures in form of deck elements have been used for the first time in a building to construct indoor pedestrian bridges. Examples of connections to external structures and other super-light deck elements are given along with other details. Other examples on the great versatility...

  10. decké osobnosti a vedení ve vědě

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wiedermann, Jiří

    č. 3 (2005), s. 14-17 ISSN 1210-9525 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : vědecké osobnosti * talent * grantový systém * vědecká excelence Subject RIV: AM - Education http://abicko.avcr.cz/archiv/2005/3/obsah/vedecke-osobnosti-a-vedeni-ve-vede.html

  11. 29 CFR 1915.73 - Guarding of deck openings and edges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guarding of deck openings and edges. 1915.73 Section 1915.73 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION..., Ladders and Other Working Surfaces § 1915.73 Guarding of deck openings and edges. (a) The provisions of...

  12. Blue Ribbon Panel Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    An NCI Cancer Currents blog by the NCI acting director thanking the cancer community for contributing to the Cancer Moonshot Blue Ribbon Panel report, which was presented to the National Cancer Advisory Board on September 7.

  13. Panel acoustic contribution analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sean F; Natarajan, Logesh Kumar

    2013-02-01

    Formulations are derived to analyze the relative panel acoustic contributions of a vibrating structure. The essence of this analysis is to correlate the acoustic power flow from each panel to the radiated acoustic pressure at any field point. The acoustic power is obtained by integrating the normal component of the surface acoustic intensity, which is the product of the surface acoustic pressure and normal surface velocity reconstructed by using the Helmholtz equation least squares based nearfield acoustical holography, over each panel. The significance of this methodology is that it enables one to analyze and rank relative acoustic contributions of individual panels of a complex vibrating structure to acoustic radiation anywhere in the field based on a single set of the acoustic pressures measured in the near field. Moreover, this approach is valid for both interior and exterior regions. Examples of using this method to analyze and rank the relative acoustic contributions of a scaled vehicle cabin are demonstrated.

  14. Autoimmune liver disease panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liver disease test panel - autoimmune ... Autoimmune disorders are a possible cause of liver disease. The most common of these diseases are autoimmune hepatitis and primary biliary cholangitis (formerly called primary biliary cirrhosis). This group of tests ...

  15. Hexagon solar power panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, I. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A solar energy panel support is described upon which silicon cells are arrayed. The cells are wafer thin and of two geometrical types, both of the same area and electrical rating, namely hexagon cells and hourglass cells. The hourglass cells are composites of half hexagons. A near perfect nesting relationship of the cells achieves a high density packing whereby optimum energy production per panel area is achieved.

  16. Propulsion Systems Panel deliberations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianca, Carmelo J.; Miner, Robert; Johnston, Lawrence M.; Bruce, R.; Dennies, Daniel P.; Dickenson, W.; Dreshfield, Robert; Karakulko, Walt; Mcgaw, Mike; Munafo, Paul M.

    1993-01-01

    The Propulsion Systems Panel was established because of the specialized nature of many of the materials and structures technology issues related to propulsion systems. This panel was co-chaired by Carmelo Bianca, MSFC, and Bob Miner, LeRC. Because of the diverse range of missions anticipated for the Space Transportation program, three distinct propulsion system types were identified in the workshop planning process: liquid propulsion systems, solid propulsion systems and nuclear electric/nuclear thermal propulsion systems.

  17. Honeycomb metal panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Product constituted by a honeycomb metal panel that can be employed to advantage for manufacturing lagging by sandwiching it between two plane sheets, utilized in particular in the nuclear industry where lagging has to have a very long life strength. The honeycomb metal panel is made of an expanded metal extrusion previously cut so as to form, after additional drawing, a honeycomb structure with square or rectangular cells with a plane surface [fr

  18. Investigation of Flow Behavior around Corotating Blades in a Double-Spindle Lawn Mower Deck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chon W.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available When the airflow patterns inside a lawn mower deck are understood, the deck can be redesigned to be efficient and have an increased cutting ability. To learn more, a combination of computational and experimental studies was performed to investigate the effects of blade and housing designs on a flow pattern inside a 1.1m wide corotating double-spindle lawn mower deck with side discharge. For the experimental portion of the study, air velocities inside the deck were measured using a laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV system. A high-speed video camera was used to observe the flow pattern. Furthermore, noise levels were measured using a sound level meter. For the computational fluid dynamics (CFD work, several arbitrary radial sections of a two-dimensional blade were selected to study flow computations. A three-dimensional, full deck model was also developed for realistic flow analysis. The computational results were then compared with the experimental results.

  19. Analysis of an Orthotropic Deck Stiffened with a Cement-Based Overlay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, Rasmus; Olesen, John Forbes; Stang, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    decks. A solution might be to enhance the stiffness of the traditional orthotropic bridge deck by using a cement-based overlay. In this paper, an orthotropic steel bridge deck stiffened with a cement-based overlay is analyzed. The analysis is based on nonlinear fracture mechanics, and utilizes......Over the past years, with increasing traffic volumes and higher wheel loads, fatigue damage in steel parts of typical orthotropic steel bridge decks has been experienced on heavily trafficked routes. A demand exists to find a durable system to increase the fatigue safety of orthotropic steel bridge...... the finite-element method. The stiffness of the steel deck reinforced with an overlay depends highly on the composite action. The composite action is closely related to cracking of the overlay and interfacial cracking between the overlay and underlying steel plate (debonding). As an example, a real size...

  20. Dynamic Heat Storage and Cooling Capacity of a Concrete Deck with PCM and Thermally Activated Building System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a heat storage and cooling concept that utilizes a phase change material (PCM) and a thermally activated building system (TABS) implemented in a hollow core concrete deck. Numerical calculations of the dynamic heat storage capacity of the hollow core concrete deck element...... in the article highlight the potential of using TABS and PCM in a prefabricated concrete deck element....

  1. Heat Storage Performance of the Prefabricated Hollow Core Concrete Deck Element with Integrated Microencapsulated Phase Change Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the numerically calculated dynamic heat storage capacity of the prefabricated hollow core concrete deck element with and without microencapsulated phase change material (PCM). The reference deck is the ordinary deck made of standard concrete material and that is broadly used...

  2. Evaluation of bridge decks using non-destructive evaluation (NDE) at near highway speeds for effective asset management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Remote sensing technologies allow for the condition evaluation of bridge decks at near highway speed. : Data collection at near highway speed for assessment of the top of the concrete deck and proof of : concept testing for the underside of the deck ...

  3. Scattering Effects of Solar Panels on Space Station Antenna Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panneton, Robert J.; Ngo, John C.; Hwu, Shian U.; Johnson, Larry A.; Elmore, James D.; Lu, Ba P.; Kelley, James S.

    1994-01-01

    Characterizing the scattering properties of the solar array panels is important in predicting Space Station antenna performance. A series of far-field, near-field, and radar cross section (RCS) scattering measurements were performed at S-Band and Ku-Band microwave frequencies on Space Station solar array panels. Based on investigation of the measured scattering patterns, the solar array panels exhibit similar scattering properties to that of the same size aluminum or copper panel mockup. As a first order approximation, and for worse case interference simulation, the solar array panels may be modeled using perfect reflecting plates. Numerical results obtained using the Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD) modeling technique are presented for Space Station antenna pattern degradation due to solar panel interference. The computational and experimental techniques presented in this paper are applicable for antennas mounted on other platforms such as ship, aircraft, satellite, and space or land vehicle.

  4. Reflecting variable opening insulating panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nungesser, W.T.

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of a reflecting variable opening insulating panel assembly, comprising a static panel assembly of reflecting insulation sheets forming a cavity along one side of the panel and a movable panel opening out by sliding from the cavity of the static panel, and a locking device for holding the movable panel in a position extending from the cavity of the static panel. This can apply to a nuclear reactor of which the base might require maintenance and periodical checking and for which it is desirable to have available certain processes for the partial dismantling of the insulation [fr

  5. Rational Design of Composite Panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Hans Jørgen

    1996-01-01

    A non-linear structural model for composite panels is presented. The non-linear terms in the lateral displacements are modelled as an additional set of lateral loads acting on the panel. Hence the solution is reduced to that of an equivalent panel with small displacements In order to treat sandwich...... Norske Veritas', DNV, building rules concerning high-speed light craft, in which the panel scantlings are often restricted by a maximum lateral deflection connected with the panel span....

  6. Unmanned Ground Vehicle for Autonomous Non-Destructive Testing of FRP Bridge Decks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinkhachorn, P.; Mercer, A. Scott; Halabe, Udaya B.; GangaRao, Hota V. S.

    2007-03-01

    Current non-destructive techniques for defect analysis of FRP bridge decks have a narrow scope. These techniques are very good at detecting certain types of defects but are not robust enough to detect all defects by themselves. For example, infrared thermography (IRT) can detect air filled defects and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is good at detecting water filled ones. These technologies can be combined to create a more robust defect detection scheme. To accomplish this, an Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) has been designed that incorporates both IR and GPR analysis to create a comprehensive defect map of a bridge deck. The UGV autonomously surveys the deck surface and acquires data. The UGV has two 1.5 GHz ground coupled GPR antennas that are mounted on the front of the UGV to collect GPR data. It also incorporates an active heating source and a radiometric IR camera to capture IR images of the deck, even in less than ideal weather scenarios such as cold cloudy days. The UGV is designed so that it can collect data in an assembly line fashion. It moves in 1 foot increments. When moving, it collects GPR data from the two antennas. When it stops it heats a section of the deck. The next time it stops to heat a section, the IR camera is analyzing the preheated deck section while preparing for the next section. Because the data is being continually collected using this method, the UGV can survey the entire deck in an efficient and timely manner.

  7. Development of precast bridge deck overhang system : technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The implementation of full-depth, precast overhang panel systems has the potential to improve constructability, : productivity, and make bridges more economical. Initial testing and analyses reported in the 0-6100-2 report resulted in : a design that...

  8. Panels of microporous insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McWilliams, J.A.; Morgan, D.E.; Jackson, J.D.J.

    1990-08-07

    Microporous thermal insulation materials have a lattice structure in which the average interstitial dimension is less than the mean free path of the molecules of air or other gas in which the material is arranged. This results in a heat flow which is less than that attributable to the molecular heat diffusion of the gas. According to this invention, a method is provided for manufacturing panels of microporous thermal insulation, in particular such panels in which the insulation material is bonded to a substrate. The method comprises the steps of applying a film of polyvinyl acetate emulsion to a non-porous substrate, and compacting powdery microporous thermal insulation material against the film so as to cause the consolidated insulation material to bond to the substrate and form a panel. The polyvinyl acetate may be applied by brushing or spraying, and is preferably allowed to dry prior to compacting the insulation material. 1 fig.

  9. Advanced solar panel designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, E. L.; Linder, E.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes solar cell panel designs that utilize new hgih efficiency solar cells along with lightweight rigid panel technology. The resulting designs push the W/kg and W/sq m parameters to new high levels. These new designs are well suited to meet the demand for higher performance small satellites. This paper reports on progress made on two SBIR Phase 1 contracts. One panel design involved the use of large area (5.5 cm x 6.5 cm) GaAs/Ge solar cells of 19% efficiency combined with a lightweight rigid graphite fiber epoxy isogrid substrate configuration. A coupon (38 cm x 38 cm) was fabricated and tested which demonstrated an array specific power level of 60 W/kg with a potential of reaching 80 W/kg. The second panel design involved the use of newly developed high efficiency (22%) dual junction GaInP2/GaAs/Ge solar cells combined with an advanced lightweight rigid substrate using aluminum honeycomb core with high strength graphite fiber mesh facesheets. A coupon (38 cm x 38 cm) was fabricated and tested which demonstrated an array specific power of 105 W/kg and 230 W/sq m. This paper will address the construction details of the panels and an a analysis of the component weights. A strawman array design suitable for a typical small-sat mission is described for each of the two panel design technologies being studied. Benefits in respect to weight reduction, area reduction, and system cost reduction are analyzed and compared to conventional arrays.

  10. Panel 3 - characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erck, R.A.; Erdemir, A.; Janghsing Hsieh; Lee, R.H.; Xian Zheng Pan; Deming Shu [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Feldman, A. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Glass, J.T. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh (United States); Kleimer, R. [Coors Ceramics Co., Golden, CO (United States); Lawton, E.A. [JPL/Caltech, Pasadena, CA (United States); McHargue, C.J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The task of this panel was to identify and prioritize needs in the area of characterization of diamond and diamond-like-carbon (DLC) films for use in the transportation industry. Until recent advances in production of inexpensive films of diamonds and DLC, it was not feasible that these materials could be mass produced. The Characterization Panel is restricting itself to identifying needs in areas that would be most useful to manufacturers and users in producing and utilizing diamond and DLC coatings in industry. These characterization needs include in-situ monitoring during growth, relation of structure to performance, and standards and definitions.

  11. Profiled Deck Composite Slab Strength Verification: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mohammed

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to present an overview on alternate profiled deck composite slab (PDCS strength verification devoid of the expensive and complex laboratory procedures in establishing its longitudinal shear capacity. Despite the several deterministic research findings leading to the development of proposals and modifications on the complex shear characteristics of PDCS that defines its strength behaviour, the laboratory performance testing stands to be the only accurate means for the PDCS strength assessment. The issue is critical and warrants much further thoughts from different perspective other than the deterministic approach that are rather expensive and time consuming. Hence, the development of a rational-based numerical test load function from longitudinal shear capacity consideration is a necessity in augmenting the previous futile attempts for strength determination of PDCS devoid of the costlier and expensive laboratory procedure.

  12. Eye Tracking Metrics for Workload Estimation in Flight Deck Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Kyle; Schnell, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Flight decks of the future are being enhanced through improved avionics that adapt to both aircraft and operator state. Eye tracking allows for non-invasive analysis of pilot eye movements, from which a set of metrics can be derived to effectively and reliably characterize workload. This research identifies eye tracking metrics that correlate to aircraft automation conditions, and identifies the correlation of pilot workload to the same automation conditions. Saccade length was used as an indirect index of pilot workload: Pilots in the fully automated condition were observed to have on average, larger saccadic movements in contrast to the guidance and manual flight conditions. The data set itself also provides a general model of human eye movement behavior and so ostensibly visual attention distribution in the cockpit for approach to land tasks with various levels of automation, by means of the same metrics used for workload algorithm development.

  13. Advanced Solar Panel Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, E. L.; Linder, E. B.

    1995-01-01

    Solar panel designs that utilize new high-efficiency solar cells and lightweight rigid panel technologies are described. The resulting designs increase the specific power (W/kg) achievable in the near-term and are well suited to meet the demands of higher performance small satellites (smallsats). Advanced solar panel designs have been developed and demonstrated on two NASA SBIR contracts at Applied Solar. The first used 19% efficient, large area (5.5 cm x 6.5 cm) GaAs/Ge solar cells with a lightweight rigid graphite epoxy isogrid substrate configuration. A 1,445 sq cm coupon was fabricated and tested to demonstrate 60 W/kg with a high potential of achieving 80 W/kg. The second panel design used new 22% efficiency, dual-junction GaInP2/GaAs/Ge solar cells combined with a lightweight aluminum core/graphite fiber mesh facesheet substrate. A 1,445 sq cm coupon was fabricated and tested to demonstrate 105 W/kg with the potential of achieving 115 W/kg.

  14. INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATION: Panelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    At the meeting of the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA), in Geneva in July, Chairman A.N. Skrinsky of Novosibirsk reviewed ICFA progress, particularly the activities of the specialist Panels which pursue specific Committee objectives in guiding worldwide collaboration in high energy physics

  15. INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATION: Panelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1991-10-15

    At the meeting of the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA), in Geneva in July, Chairman A.N. Skrinsky of Novosibirsk reviewed ICFA progress, particularly the activities of the specialist Panels which pursue specific Committee objectives in guiding worldwide collaboration in high energy physics.

  16. Law Panel in action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odulana, J

    In September 1976 the Africa Regional Council (ARC) of IPPF created a Law Panel to 1) advise the ARC on the emphasis of laws and parenthood programs in the region, 2) investigate legal obstacles to family planning and ways of removing them, 3) institute a monitoring service on laws and court decisions affecting planned parenthood, and 4) prepare a list of lawyers and legal reformers by country. The panel has 1) recommended adoption of an IPPF Central Medical Committee and Central Law Panel statement on sterilization, adolescent fertility control, and the use of medical and auxiliary personnel in family planning services with guidelines for Africa; 2) appointed National Legal Correspondents to carry on the monitoring service mentioned above in 18 countries; and 3) discussed solutions to problems in delivering family planning services with family planning associations in Tanzania, Zambia, Mauritius, Madagascar, and Kenya. Laws governing family planning education and services, marriage, divorce, and maternity benefits in these countries are summarized. In 1978 the panel will hold 2 workshops on law and the status of women.

  17. Paneling architectural freeform surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Eigensatz, Michael; Kilian, Martin; Schiftner, Alexander; Mitra, Niloy J.; Pottmann, Helmut; Pauly, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The emergence of large-scale freeform shapes in architecture poses big challenges to the fabrication of such structures. A key problem is the approximation of the design surface by a union of patches, socalled panels, that can be manufactured with a

  18. Photovoltaic-Panel Laminator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, R.

    1985-01-01

    Two-piece unit heats and presses protective layers to form laminate. Rubber diaphragm between upper and lower vacuum chambers alternates between neutral position and one that presses against solar-cell array, supplying distributed force necessary to press layers of laminate together. Encapsulation helps to protect cells from environment and to ensure long panel life while allowing efficient generation of electricity from Sunlight.

  19. DataComm in Flight Deck Surface Trajectory-Based Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakowski, Deborah L.; Foyle, David C.; Hooey, Becky L.; Meyer, Glenn R.; Wolter, Cynthia A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot-in-the-loop aircraft taxi simulation was to evaluate a NextGen concept for surface trajectory-based operations (STBO) in which air traffic control (ATC) issued taxi clearances with a required time of arrival (RTA) by Data Communications (DataComm). Flight deck avionics, driven by an error-nulling algorithm, displayed the speed needed to meet the RTA. To ensure robustness of the algorithm, the ability of 10 two-pilot crews to meet the RTA was tested in nine experimental trials representing a range of realistic conditions including a taxi route change, an RTA change, a departure clearance change, and a crossing traffic hold scenario. In some trials, these DataComm taxi clearances or clearance modifications were accompanied by 'preview' information, in which the airport map display showed a preview of the proposed route changes, including the necessary speed to meet the RTA. Overall, the results of this study show that with the aid of the RTA speed algorithm, pilots were able to meet their RTAs with very little time error in all of the robustness-testing scenarios. Results indicated that when taxi clearance changes were issued by DataComm only, pilots required longer notification distances than with voice communication. However, when the DataComm was accompanied by graphical preview, the notification distance required by pilots was equivalent to that for voice.

  20. DataComm in Flight Deck Surface Trajectory-Based Operations. Chapter 20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakowski, Deborah L.; Foyle, David C.; Hooey, Becky L.; Meyer, Glenn R.; Wolter, Cynthia A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot-in-the-loop aircraft taxi simulation was to evaluate a NextGen concept for surface trajectory-based operations (STBO) in which air traffic control (ATC) issued taxi clearances with a required time of arrival (RTA) by Data Communications (DataComm). Flight deck avionics, driven by an error-nulling algorithm, displayed the speed needed to meet the RTA. To ensure robustness of the algorithm, the ability of 10 two-pilot crews to meet the RTA was tested in nine experimental trials representing a range of realistic conditions including a taxi route change, an RTA change, a departure clearance change, and a crossing traffic hold scenario. In some trials, these DataComm taxi clearances or clearance modifications were accompanied by preview information, in which the airport map display showed a preview of the proposed route changes, including the necessary speed to meet the RTA. Overall, the results of this study show that with the aid of the RTA speed algorithm, pilots were able to meet their RTAs with very little time error in all of the robustness-testing scenarios. Results indicated that when taxi clearance changes were issued by DataComm only, pilots required longer notification distances than with voice communication. However, when the DataComm was accompanied by graphical preview, the notification distance required by pilots was equivalent to that for voice.

  1. Composite panel development at JPL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcelroy, Paul; Helms, Rich

    1988-01-01

    Parametric computer studies can be use in a cost effective manner to determine optimized composite mirror panel designs. An InterDisciplinary computer Model (IDM) was created to aid in the development of high precision reflector panels for LDR. The materials properties, thermal responses, structural geometries, and radio/optical precision are synergistically analyzed for specific panel designs. Promising panels designs are fabricated and tested so that comparison with panel test results can be used to verify performance prediction models and accommodate design refinement. The iterative approach of computer design and model refinement with performance testing and materials optimization has shown good results for LDR panels.

  2. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This report covers the activities of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) for calendar year 1998-a year of sharp contrasts and significant successes at NASA. The year opened with the announcement of large workforce cutbacks. The slip in the schedule for launching the International Space Station (ISS) created a five-month hiatus in Space Shuttle launches. This slack period ended with the successful and highly publicized launch of the STS-95 mission. As the year closed, ISS assembly began with the successful orbiting and joining of the Functional Cargo Block (FGB), Zarya, from Russia and the Unity Node from the United States. Throughout the year, the Panel maintained its scrutiny of NASA's safety processes. Of particular interest were the potential effects on safety of workforce reductions and the continued transition of functions to the Space Flight Operations Contractor. Attention was also given to the risk management plans of the Aero-Space Technology programs, including the X-33, X-34, and X-38. Overall, the Panel concluded that safety is well served for the present. The picture is not as clear for the future. Cutbacks have limited the depth of talent available. In many cases, technical specialties are 'one deep.' The extended hiring freeze has resulted in an older workforce that will inevitably suffer significant departures from retirements in the near future. The resulting 'brain drain' could represent a future safety risk unless appropriate succession planning is started expeditiously. This and other topics are covered in the section addressing workforce. The major NASA programs are also limited in their ability to plan property for the future. This is of particular concern for the Space Shuttle and ISS because these programs are scheduled to operate well into the next century. In the case of the Space Shuttle, beneficial and mandatory safety and operational upgrades are being delayed because of a lack of sufficient present funding. Likewise, the ISS has

  3. Inclusion of Population-specific Reference Panel from India to the 1000 Genomes Phase 3 Panel Improves Imputation Accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Meraj; Sinha, Anubhav; Ghosh, Sreya; Kumar, Vikrant; Davila, Sonia; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Chandak, Giriraj R

    2017-07-27

    Imputation is a computational method based on the principle of haplotype sharing allowing enrichment of genome-wide association study datasets. It depends on the haplotype structure of the population and density of the genotype data. The 1000 Genomes Project led to the generation of imputation reference panels which have been used globally. However, recent studies have shown that population-specific panels provide better enrichment of genome-wide variants. We compared the imputation accuracy using 1000 Genomes phase 3 reference panel and a panel generated from genome-wide data on 407 individuals from Western India (WIP). The concordance of imputed variants was cross-checked with next-generation re-sequencing data on a subset of genomic regions. Further, using the genome-wide data from 1880 individuals, we demonstrate that WIP works better than the 1000 Genomes phase 3 panel and when merged with it, significantly improves the imputation accuracy throughout the minor allele frequency range. We also show that imputation using only South Asian component of the 1000 Genomes phase 3 panel works as good as the merged panel, making it computationally less intensive job. Thus, our study stresses that imputation accuracy using 1000 Genomes phase 3 panel can be further improved by including population-specific reference panels from South Asia.

  4. Panel and planar experimental shear behavior of wood panels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Panel shear strength along the thickness and planar shear along the length of wood panels laminated softwood oriented OSB 10 mm thick, conditioned at different moisture contents (anhydrous medium, ambient temperature and humid medium) was measured on standardized test specimens, cut in half lengthwise panel ...

  5. CRASH TEST AND EVALUATION OF RESTRAINED SAFETY-SHAPE CONCRETE BARRIERS ON CONCRETE BRIDGE DECK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    This research designed and tested a new portable concrete barrier that meets the performance of MASH TL-4 and can be used in temporary and permanent applications on bridge decks. Additionally, this new barrier system will minimize deflection, allowin...

  6. Structural design guidelines for concrete bridge decks reinforced with corrosion-resistant reinforcing bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This research program develops and validates structural design guidelines and details for concrete bridge decks with : corrosion-resistant reinforcing (CRR) bars. A two-phase experimental program was conducted where a control test set consistent : wi...

  7. Fluid-structure interaction analysis of a deck structure during a HCDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulak, R.F.

    1979-01-01

    Presented is an assessment of the structural integrity of the deck structure of a pool-type LMFBR during a Hypothetical Core Disruptive Accident (HCDA). During this accident the sodium above the core is propelled upward until it impacts against the deck structure. This hydrodynamic loading could produce (1) significant structural damage and (2) sodium leak paths. A finite-element model is used to study the deck dynamics during slug impact. By using the symmetry of the system, a sector model which accounts for the salient features of the system is developed. The main radial I-beam, component support I-beam and bottom annular plate are modeled using triangular plate elements. The concrete fill is modeled using hexahedral continuum elements. Using the above finite-element model the dynamics of the deck during a HCDA are investigated

  8. Performance of Rail Fastening Systems on an Open-Deck Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    Transportation Technology Center, Inc. (TTCI) monitored the performance of rail fasteners on an open-deck bridge and its approaches, located at Norfolk Southern Corporations (NS's) eastern mega site. The project was co-sponsored by the Federal Rai...

  9. Impact of overweight vehicles (with heavy axle loads) on bridge deck deterioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Bridge deck slabs develop compressive stresses from global flexural deformation and locally from high-level : wheel loads when it is subjected to overweight trucks. This study quantified the impact of overweight vehicles : with heavy axle loads on br...

  10. A Highly Accurate and Efficient Analytical Approach to Bridge Deck Free Vibration Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.J. Gorman

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The superposition method is employed to obtain an accurate analytical type solution for the free vibration frequencies and mode shapes of multi-span bridge decks. Free edge conditions are imposed on the long edges running in the direction of the deck. Inter-span support is of the simple (knife-edge type. The analysis is valid regardless of the number of spans or their individual lengths. Exact agreement is found when computed results are compared with known eigenvalues for bridge decks with all spans of equal length. Mode shapes and eigenvalues are presented for typical bridge decks of three and four span lengths. In each case torsional and non-torsional modes are studied.

  11. 3D laser scanning for quality control and assurance in bridge deck construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The inspection of installations of rebar and other embedded components in bridge deck construction is a tedious : task for eld inspectors, requiring considerable eld time for measurement and verication against code requirement. The verica...

  12. 75 FR 32902 - Wire Decking from the People's Republic of China: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ... Riqian Equipment Co., Ltd 437.11% Deyoma Wire Decking Factory 437.11% Global Storage Equipment... Dingxing Furniture Company 437.11% Tianjin Machinery Imp & Exp Corp 437.11% Tianjin Mandarin Import...

  13. Influence of fly ash, slag cement and specimen curing on shrinkage of bridge deck concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Cracks occur in bridge decks due to restrained shrinkage of concrete materials. Concrete materials shrink as : cementitious materials hydrate and as water that is not chemically bonded to cementitious materials : migrates from the high humid environm...

  14. Flight Deck of the Future: Virtual Windows and e-textile iGear

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Flight Deck of the Future (F.F) will integrate interdisciplinary talent to design innovative, integrated human interfaces for the next generation of human...

  15. Latex-modified fiber-reinforced concrete bridge deck overlay : construction/interim report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    Latex-modified concrete (LMC) is Portland cement concrete (PCC) with an admixture of latex. LMC is considered to be nearly impermeable to chlorides and is extensively used to construct bridge deck overlays. Unfortunately, some of these overlays have ...

  16. ASSESSING CHILDREN'S EXPOSURES TO THE WOOD PRESERVATIVE CCA (CHROMATED COPPER ARSENATE) ON TREATED PLAYSETS AND DECKS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concerns have been raised regarding the safety of young children contacting arsenic and chromium residues while playing on and around Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) treated wood playground structures and decks. Although CCA registrants voluntarily canceled treated wood for re...

  17. Performance evaluation of concrete bridge decks reinforced with MMFX and SSC rebars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This report investigates the performance of bridge decks reinforced with stainless steel clad (SSC) and micro-composite multistructural formable steel (MMFX) rebars. The two-span Galloway Road Bridge on route CR5218 over North Elkhorn Creek in Scott ...

  18. Using artificial neural networks in the design of orthotropic bridge decks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Shamel Fahmy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available For orthotropic bridge decks a lot of progress has been made in the development of codes to aid in the design process, in addition to software tools for numerical analysis and design. However, professional software tools will not aid the designer in choosing a preliminary economic layout at the conceptual design stage. Designers would go through iterative, lengthy and expensive procedures to reach the best configuration. The present research provides a methodology to investigate the contingency of using artificial neural networks for conceptual design of orthotropic steel-deck bridge. A neural network model was trained with different combinations of dimensions, and eight types of safety checks were performed on all of them. The resulting network can predict whether the deck is safe or not. It is found that this approach for the selection of orthotropic deck dimensions is a better and cost-effective option compared with international codes or expert opinion.

  19. Fire modeling for Building 221-T - T Plant Canyon Deck and Railroad Tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oar, D.L.

    1994-01-01

    This report was prepared by Hughes Associates, Inc. to document the results of fire models for building 221-T Canyon Deck and Railroad Tunnel. Backup data is contained in document No. WHC-SD-CP-ANAL-010, Rev. 0

  20. Human factors considerations in the design and evaluation of flight deck displays and controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this effort is to have a single source document for human factors regulatory and guidance material for flight deck displays and controls, in the interest of improving aviation safety. This document identifies guidance on human factor...

  1. FEMA DFIRM Panel Scheme Polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This layer contains information about the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) panel areas. The spatial entities representing FIRM panels are polygons. The polygon for...

  2. Report of Industry Panel Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallimore, Simon; Gier, Jochen; Heitland, Greg; Povinelli, Louis; Sharma, Om; VandeWall, Allen

    2006-01-01

    A final report is presented from the industry panel group. The contents include: 1) General comments; 2) Positive progress since Minnowbrook IV; 3) Industry panel outcome; 4) Prioritized turbine projects; 5) Prioritized compressor projects; and 6) Miscellaneous.

  3. Concept design and alternate arrangements of orbiter mid-deck habitability features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, R. A.; Ciciora, J. A.; Porter, K. L.; Stevenson, G. E.

    1976-01-01

    The evaluations and recommendations for habitability features in the space shuttle orbiter mid-deck are summarized. The orbiter mission plans, the mid-deck dimensions and baseline arrangements along with crew compliments and typical activities were defined. Female and male anthropometric data based on zero-g operations were also defined. Evaluations of baseline and alternate feasible concepts provided several recommendations which are discussed.

  4. Field performance of timber bridges. 8, Lynches Woods Park stress-laminated deck bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. P. Wacker; M. A. Ritter; D. Conger

    The Lynches Woods Park bridge was constructed during the summer of 1990 in Newberry, South Carolina. It is a single-span, single-lane, stress-laminated deck superstructure that measures approximately 30 ft long, 16 ft wide, and 14 in. deep. The bridge is unique in that is one of the first known stress-laminated deck bridges to be constructed of Southern Pine lumber...

  5. Demonstration and Validation of a Composite Grid Reinforcement System for Bridge Decks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    presence of chlorides from road salts that can pene- trate into the concrete deck and cause corrosion of standard steel reinforcement. Installation of the... Corrosion of Metal and Alloys – Corrosivity of Atmospheres – Classification, Determination and Estimation.” Geneva, Switzerland: International Standards...one year), an atmospheric corrosion test rack, (equipped with sensors to monitor corrosion and chlorides were in- serted in the bridge deck), and

  6. Analysis, prediction, and case studies of early-age cracking in bridge decks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElSafty, Adel; Graeff, Matthew K.; El-Gharib, Georges; Abdel-Mohti, Ahmed; Mike Jackson, N.

    2016-06-01

    Early-age cracking can adversely affect strength, serviceability, and durability of concrete bridge decks. Early age is defined as the period after final setting, during which concrete properties change rapidly. Many factors can cause early-age bridge deck cracking including temperature change, hydration, plastic shrinkage, autogenous shrinkage, and drying shrinkage. The cracking may also increase the effect of freeze and thaw cycles and may lead to corrosion of reinforcement. This research paper presents an analysis of causes and factors affecting early-age cracking. It also provides a tool developed to predict the likelihood and initiation of early-age cracking of concrete bridge decks. Understanding the concrete properties is essential so that the developed tool can accurately model the mechanisms contributing to the cracking of concrete bridge decks. The user interface of the implemented computer Excel program enables the user to input the properties of the concrete being monitored. The research study and the developed spreadsheet were used to comprehensively investigate the issue of concrete deck cracking. The spreadsheet is designed to be a user-friendly calculation tool for concrete mixture proportioning, temperature prediction, thermal analysis, and tensile cracking prediction. The study also provides review and makes recommendations on the deck cracking based mainly on the Florida Department of Transportation specifications and Structures Design Guidelines, and Bridge Design Manuals of other states. The results were also compared with that of other commercially available software programs that predict early-age cracking in concrete slabs, concrete pavement, and reinforced concrete bridge decks. The outcome of this study can identify a set of recommendations to limit the deck cracking problem and maintain a longer service life of bridges.

  7. Mounting clips for panel installation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavieres, Andres; Al-Haddad, Tristan; Goodman, Joseph

    2017-07-11

    A photovoltaic panel mounting clip comprising a base, central indexing tabs, flanges, lateral indexing tabs, and vertical indexing tabs. The mounting clip removably attaches one or more panels to a beam or the like structure, both mechanically and electrically. It provides secure locking of the panels in all directions, while providing guidance in all directions for accurate installation of the panels to the beam or the like structure.

  8. Disadvantageous Deck Selection in the Iowa Gambling Task: The Effect of Cognitive Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa J. Hawthorne

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that cognitive load affects overall Iowa Gambling Task (IGT performance, but it is unknown whether such load impacts the selection of the individual decks that correspond to gains or losses. Here, participants performed the IGT either in a full attention condition or while engaged in a number monitoring task to divide attention. Results showed that the full attention group was more aware of the magnitude of gains or losses for each draw (i.e., payoff awareness than was the divided attention group. However, the divided attention group was more sensitive to the frequency of the losses (i.e., frequency awareness, as evidenced by their increased preference for Deck B, which is the large but infrequent loss deck. An analysis across blocks showed that the number monitoring group was consistently more aware of loss frequency, whereas the full attention group shifted between awareness of loss frequency and awareness of payoff amount. Furthermore, the full attention group was better able to weigh loss frequency and payoff amount when making deck selections. These findings support the notion that diminished cognitive resources may result in greater selection of Deck B, otherwise known as the prominent Deck B phenomenon.

  9. Ultra-high performance fiber-reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) for infrastructure rehabilitation Volume II : behavior of ultra-high strength concrete bridge deck panels compared to conventional stay-in-place deck panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The remarkable features of ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) have been reported. Its application in bridge construction has been an active research area in recent years, attributed to its higher compressive strength, higher ductility and reduced...

  10. Theoretical and Experimental Studies of Wave Impact underneath Decks of Offshore Platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baarholm, Rolf Jarle

    2001-07-01

    The main objective of this thesis has been to study the phenomenon of water impact underneath the decks of offshore platforms due to propagating waves. The emphasis has been on the impact loads. Two theoretical methods based on two-dimensional potential theory have been developed, a Wagner based method (WBM) and a nonlinear boundary element method (BEM). A procedure to account for three-dimensional effects is suggested. The deck is assumed to be rigid. Initial studies of the importance of hydroelasticity for wave loads on an existing deck structure have been performed. For a given design wave, the local structural responses were found to behave quasi-static. Global structural response has not been studied. In the Wagner based method gravity is neglected and a linear spatial distribution of the relative impact velocity along the deck is assumed. The resulting boundary value problem is solved analytically for each time step. A numerical scheme for stepping the wetted deck area in time is presented. The nonlinear boundary element method includes gravity, and the exact impact velocity is considered. The incident wave velocity potential is given a priori, and a boundary value problem for the perturbation velocity potential associated with the impact is defined. The boundary value problem is solved for each time step by applying Green's second identity. The exact boundary conditions are imposed on the exact boundaries. A Kutta condition is introduced as the fluid flow reaches the downstream end of the deck. At present, the BEM is only applicable for fixed platform decks. To validate the theories, experiments have been carried out in a wave flume. The experiments were performed in two-dimensional flow condition with a fixed horizontal deck at different vertical levels above the mean free surface. The vertical force on the deck and the wetting of the deck were the primary parameters measured. Only regular propagating waves were applied. When a wave hits the deck, the

  11. Space station operations task force. Panel 4 report: Management integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    The Management Integration Panel of the Space Station Operations Task Force was chartered to provide a structure and ground rules for integrating the efforts of the other three panels and to address a number of cross cutting issues that affect all areas of space station operations. Issues addressed include operations concept implementation, alternatives development and integration process, strategic policy issues and options, and program management emphasis areas.

  12. Panel data analysis using EViews

    CERN Document Server

    Agung, I Gusti Ngurah

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive and accessible guide to panel data analysis using EViews software This book explores the use of EViews software in creating panel data analysis using appropriate empirical models and real datasets. Guidance is given on developing alternative descriptive statistical summaries for evaluation and providing policy analysis based on pool panel data. Various alternative models based on panel data are explored, including univariate general linear models, fixed effect models and causal models, and guidance on the advantages and disadvantages of each one is given. Panel Data Analysis

  13. Lightweight, Thermally Insulating Structural Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Howard J.; Hickey, Gregory; Wen, Liang-Chi; Layman, William E.; Rainen, Richard A.; Birur, Gajanana C.

    1996-01-01

    Lightweight, thermally insulating panels that also serve as structural members developed. Honeycomb-core panel filled with low-thermal-conductivity, opacified silica aerogel preventing convection and minimizes internal radiation. Copper coating on face sheets reduces radiation. Overall thermal conductivities of panels smaller than state-of-art commercial non-structurally-supporting foam and fibrous insulations. On Earth, panels suitable for use in low-air-pressure environments in which lightweight, compact, structurally supporting insulation needed; for example, aboard high-altitude aircraft or in partially evacuated panels in refrigerators.

  14. Large thermal protection system panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, David J. (Inventor); Myers, Franklin K. (Inventor); Tran, Tu T. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A protective panel for a reusable launch vehicle provides enhanced moisture protection, simplified maintenance, and increased temperature resistance. The protective panel includes an outer ceramic matrix composite (CMC) panel, and an insulative bag assembly coupled to the outer CMC panel for isolating the launch vehicle from elevated temperatures and moisture. A standoff attachment system attaches the outer CMC panel and the bag assembly to the primary structure of the launch vehicle. The insulative bag assembly includes a foil bag having a first opening shrink fitted to the outer CMC panel such that the first opening and the outer CMC panel form a water tight seal at temperatures below a desired temperature threshold. Fibrous insulation is contained within the foil bag for protecting the launch vehicle from elevated temperatures. The insulative bag assembly further includes a back panel coupled to a second opening of the foil bag such that the fibrous insulation is encapsulated by the back panel, the foil bag, and the outer CMC panel. The use of a CMC material for the outer panel in conjunction with the insulative bag assembly eliminates the need for waterproofing processes, and ultimately allows for more efficient reentry profiles.

  15. Embodied Energy Optimization of Prestressed Concrete Slab Bridge Decks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Alcalá

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents one approach to the analysis and design of post-tensioned cast-in-place concrete slab bridge decks. A Simulated Annealing algorithm is applied to two objective functions: (i the economic cost; and (ii the embodied energy at different stages of production materials, transport, and construction. The problem involved 33 discrete design variables: five geometrical ones dealing with the thickness of the slab, the inner and exterior web width, and two flange thicknesses; concrete type; prestressing cables, and 26 variables for the reinforcement set-up. The comparison of the results obtained shows two different optimum families, which indicates that the traditional criteria of economic optimization leads to inefficient designs considering the embodied energy. The results indicate that the objectives are not competing functions, and that optimum energy designs are close to the optimum cost designs. The analysis also showed that the savings of each kW h of energy consumed carries an extra cost of 0.49€. The best cost solution presents 5.3% more embodied energy. The best energy solution is 9.7% more expensive than that of minor cost. In addition, the results have showed that the best cost solutions are not the best energy solutions.

  16. Structural assessment of roof decking using visual inspection methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giller, R.A.; McCoy, R.M.; Wagenblast, G.R.

    1993-01-01

    The Hanford Site has approximately 1,100 buildings, some of which date back to the early 1940s. The roof on these buildings provides a weather resisting cover as well as the load resisting structure. Past experience has been that these roof structures may have structural modifications, the weather resisting membrane may have been replaced several times, and the members may experience some type of material degradation. This material degradation has progressed to cause the collapse of some roof deck members. The intent of the Hanford Site Central Engineering roof assessment effort is to provide an expedient structural assessment of the large number of buildings at the Hanford Site. This assessment is made by qualified structural inspectors following the open-quotes Preliminary Assessmentclose quotes procedures given in the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) Standard ASCE 11-90. This roof assessment effort does not provide a total qualification of the roof for the design or in-place loads. This inspection does provide a reasonable estimate of the roof loading capacity to determine if personnel access restrictions are needed. A document search and a visual walkdown inspection provide the initial screening to identify modifications and components having questionable structural integrity. The structural assessment consists of baseline dead and live load stress calculations of all roofing components based on original design material strengths. The results of these assessments are documented in a final report which is retrievable in a form that future inspections will have comparative information

  17. ANDERS: future of concrete bridge deck evaluation and rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gucunski, Nenad; Moon, Franklin

    2011-04-01

    The Automated Nondestructive Evaluation and Rehabilitation System (ANDERS) aims to provide a uniquely comprehensive tool that will transform the manner in which bridge decks are assessed and rehabilitated. It is going to be achieved through: 1) much higher evaluation detail and comprehensiveness of detection at an early stage deterioration, 2) comprehensive condition and structural assessment at all stages of deterioration, and 3) integrated assessment and rehabilitation that will be minimally invasive, rapid and cost effective. ANDERS is composed of four systems. that merge novel imaging and NDE techniques, together with novel intervention approaches to arrest the deterioration processes. These technologies are incorporated within a series of human-operated and robotic vehicles. To perform assessments, ANDERS will be equipped with two complimentary nondestructive approaches. The first, Multi-Modal Nondestructive Evaluation (MM-NDE) System aims to identify and characterize localized deterioration with a high degree of resolution. The second, Global Structural Assessment (GSA) System aims to capture global structural characteristics and identify any appreciable effects of deterioration on a bridge structure. Output from these two approaches will be merged through a novel Automated Structural Identification (Auto St-Id) approach that will construct, calibrate, and utilize simulation models to assess overall structural vulnerability and capacity. These three systems comprise the assessment suite of ANDERS and will directly inform the Nondestructive Rehabilitation (NDR) System. The NDR System leverages robotics for the precision and rapid delivery of novel materials capable of halting the early-stage deterioration identified.

  18. Structural assessment of roof decking using visual inspection methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giller, R.A.; McCoy, R.M.; Wagenblast, G.R.

    1993-10-01

    The Hanford Site has approximately 1,100 buildings, some of which date back to the early 1940s. The roof on these buildings provides a weather resisting cover as well as the load resisting structure. Past experience has been that these roof structures may have structural modifications, the weather resisting membrane may have been replaced several times, and the members may experience some type of material degradation. This material degradation has progressed to cause the collapse of some roof deck members. The intent of the Hanford Site Central Engineering roof assessment effort is to provide an expedient structural assessment of the large number of buildings at the Hanford Site. This assessment is made by qualified structural inspectors following the open-quotes Preliminary Assessment close-quote procedures given in the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) Standard ASCE 11-90. This roof assessment effort does not provide a total qualification of the roof for the design or in-place loads. This inspection does provide a reasonable estimate of the roof loading capacity to determine if personnel access restrictions are needed. A document search and a visual walkdown inspection provide the initial screening to identify modifications and components having questionable structural integrity. The structural assessment consists of baseline dead and live load stress calculations of all roofing components based on original design material strengths. The results of these assessments are documented in a final report which is retrievable form that future inspections will have comparative information

  19. Composite Action in Prestressed NU I-Girder Bridge Deck Systems Constructed with Bond Breakers to Facilitate Deck Removal : Technical Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Results are reported from tests of small-scale push-off and large-scale composite NU I-girder specimens conducted to establish an interface connection detail that (1) Facilitates in-situ removal of the bridge deck without damaging prestressed girders...

  20. Thermal insulating panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, J.T.

    1985-09-11

    A panel of thermal insulation material has at least one main portion which comprises a dry particulate insulation material compressed within a porous envelope so that it is rigid or substantially rigid and at least one auxiliary portion which is secured to and extends along at least one of the edges of the main portions. The auxiliary portions comprise a substantially uncompressed dry particulate insulation material contained within an envelope. The insulation material of the auxiliary portion may be the same as or may be different from the insulation material of the main portion. The envelope of the auxiliary portion may be made of a porous or a non-porous material. (author).

  1. Concentrating photovoltaic solar panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashion, Steven A; Bowser, Michael R; Farrelly, Mark B; Hines, Braden E; Holmes, Howard C; Johnson, Jr., Richard L; Russell, Richard J; Turk, Michael F

    2014-04-15

    The present invention relates to photovoltaic power systems, photovoltaic concentrator modules, and related methods. In particular, the present invention features concentrator modules having interior points of attachment for an articulating mechanism and/or an articulating mechanism that has a unique arrangement of chassis members so as to isolate bending, etc. from being transferred among the chassis members. The present invention also features adjustable solar panel mounting features and/or mounting features with two or more degrees of freedom. The present invention also features a mechanical fastener for secondary optics in a concentrator module.

  2. Photovoltaic panel clamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittan, Margaret Birmingham [Oakland, CA; Miros, Robert H. J. [Fairfax, CA; Brown, Malcolm P [San Francisco, CA; Stancel, Robert [Loss Altos Hills, CA

    2012-06-05

    A photovoltaic panel clamp includes an upper and lower section. The interface between the assembled clamp halves and the module edge is filled by a flexible gasket material, such as EPDM rubber. The gasket preferably has small, finger like protrusions that allow for easy insertion onto the module edge while being reversed makes it more difficult to remove them from the module once installed. The clamp includes mounting posts or an integral axle to engage a bracket. The clamp also may include a locking tongue to secure the clamp to a bracket.

  3. Ground penetrating radar and microwave tomography 3D applications for the deck evaluation of the Musmeci bridge in Potenza, Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bavusi, Massimo; Loperte, Antonio; Lapenna, Vincenzo; Soldovieri, Francesco; Di Napoli, Rosario; Di Cesare, Antonio; Carlo Ponzo, Felice

    2011-01-01

    An extensive experimental and numerical investigation has been carried out to assess the status of the 'Ponte sul Basento' (1967–1976), in the town of Potenza (Basilicata region, southern Italy), better known as the Musmeci bridge. Architecturally, the bridge is a considerable reinforced 20th century concrete structure that was designed and built by the Italian architect Sergio Musmeci (1926–1981). Moreover, the bridge represents an important element of the infrastructural network, linking the city centre to the Potenza-Sicignano highway, crossing the Basento river and the railway close to the main train station of the city. Recently, due to ageing and continuous and significant traffic, the bridge started to be affected by several problems such as water infiltration. Within the presented study, a widespread ground penetrating radar (GPR) survey has been designed to investigate the geometrical characteristics of the bridge deck (Gerber saddles, internal stiffening walls, pillar supports) and detect the presence of defects or damage due to water infiltration and traffic fatigue. Concerning this, a 900 MHz 3D GPR survey has been performed along a zone of one of the lanes on the road surface. Moreover, a second 1500 MHz 3D survey has been carried out at the bottom of the bridge deck in order to gain detailed information about an important structural element of the bridge, the Gerber saddle. Both results have been processed following two approaches: the first a classical time-domain processing session based on commercial software and the use of migration; the second in microwave tomography, an advanced frequency domain automatic PC-based inversion algorithm. In this paper, we present a comparative interpretation of both kinds of processed results, and provide considerations about the investigated structures

  4. Application Side Casing on Open Deck RoRo to Improve Ship Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanudin; K. A. P Utama, I.; Chen, Jeng-Horng

    2018-03-01

    RoRo is a vessel that can transport passengers, cargo, container and cars. Open Car Deck is favourite RoRo Vessel in developing countries due to its small GT, small tax and spacious car deck, but it has poor survival of stability. Many accident involve Open Car Deck RoRo which cause fatalities and victim. In order to ensure the safety of the ship, IMO had applied intact stability criteria IS Code 2008 which adapted from Rahola’s Research, but since 2008 IMO improved criteria become probabilistic damage stability SOLAS 2009. The RoRo type Open Car Deck has wide Breadth (B), small Draft (D) and small freeboard. It has difficulties to satisfy the ship’s stability criteria. Side Casings which has been applied in some RoRo have be known reduce freeboard or improve ship’s safety. In this paper investigated the effect side casings to survival of intact dan damage ship’s stability. Calculation has been conducted for four ships without, existing and full side casings. The investigation results shows that defect stability of Open Deck RoRo can be reduce with fitting side casing.

  5. Rapid multichannel impact-echo scanning of concrete bridge decks from a continuously moving platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzeo, Brian A.; Larsen, Jacob; McElderry, Joseph; Guthrie, W. Spencer

    2017-02-01

    Impact-echo testing is a non-destructive evaluation technique for determining the presence of defects in reinforced concrete bridge decks based on the acoustic response of the bridge deck when struck by an impactor. In this work, we build on our prior research with a single-channel impactor to demonstrate a seven-channel impact-echo scanning system with independent control of the impactors. This system is towed by a vehicle and integrated with distance measurement for registering the locations of the impacts along a bridge deck. The entire impact and recording system is computer-controlled. Because of a winch system and hinged frame construction of the apparatus, setup, measurement, and take-down of the apparatus can be achieved in a matter of minutes. Signal processing of the impact responses is performed on site and can produce a map of delaminations immediately after data acquisition. This map can then be used to guide other testing and/or can be referenced with the results of other testing techniques to facilitate comprehensive condition assessments of concrete bridge decks. This work demonstrates how impact-echo testing can be performed in a manner that makes complete bridge deck scanning for delaminations rapid and practical.

  6. Solar panel parallel mounting configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutschler, Jr., Edward Charles (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A spacecraft includes a plurality of solar panels interconnected with a power coupler and an electrically operated device to provide power to the device when the solar cells are insolated. The solar panels are subject to bending distortion when entering or leaving eclipse. Spacecraft attitude disturbances are reduced by mounting each of the solar panels to an elongated boom made from a material with a low coefficient of thermal expansion, so that the bending of one panel is not communicated to the next. The boom may be insulated to reduce its bending during changes in insolation. A particularly advantageous embodiment mounts each panel to the boom with a single mounting, which may be a hinge. The single mounting prevents transfer of bending moments from the panel to the boom.

  7. NextGen Flight Deck Surface Trajectory-Based Operations (STBO): Contingency Holds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakowski, Deborah Lee; Hooey, Becky Lee; Foyle, David C.; Wolter, Cynthia A.; Cheng, Lara W. S.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot-in-the-loop taxi simulation was to investigate a NextGen Surface Trajectory-Based Operations (STBO) concept called "contingency holds." The contingency-hold concept parses a taxi route into segments, allowing an air traffic control (ATC) surface traffic management (STM) system to hold an aircraft when necessary for safety. Under nominal conditions, if the intersection or active runway crossing is clear, the hold is removed, allowing the aircraft to continue taxiing without slowing, thus improving taxi efficiency, while minimizing the excessive brake use, fuel burn, and emissions associated with stop-and-go taxi. However, when a potential traffic conflict exists, the hold remains in place as a fail-safe mechanism. In this departure operations simulation, the taxi clearance included a required time of arrival (RTA) to a specified intersection. The flight deck was equipped with speed-guidance avionics to aid the pilot in safely meeting the RTA. On two trials, the contingency hold was not released, and pilots were required to stop. On two trials the contingency hold was released 15 sec prior to the RTA, and on two trials the contingency hold was released 30 sec prior to the RTA. When the hold remained in place, all pilots complied with the hold. Results also showed that when the hold was released at 15-sec or 30-sec prior to the RTA, the 30-sec release allowed pilots to maintain nominal taxi speed, thus supporting continuous traffic flow; whereas, the 15-sec release did not. The contingency-hold concept, with at least a 30-sec release, allows pilots to improve taxiing efficiency by reducing braking, slowing, and stopping, but still maintains safety in that no pilots "busted" the clearance holds. Overall, the evidence suggests that the contingency-hold concept is a viable concept for optimizing efficiency while maintaining safety.

  8. Comparison of deck- and trial-based approaches to advantageous decision making on the Iowa Gambling Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visagan, Ravindran; Xiang, Ally; Lamar, Melissa

    2012-06-01

    We compared the original deck-based model of advantageous decision making assessed with the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) with a trial-based approach across behavioral and physiological outcomes in 33 younger adults (15 men, 18 women; 22.2 ± 3.7 years of age). One administration of the IGT with simultaneous measurement of skin conductance responses (SCRs) was performed and the two methods applied: (a) the original approach of subtracting disadvantageous picks of Decks A and B from advantageous picks of Decks C and D and (b) a trial-based approach focused on the financial outcome for each deck leading up to the trial in question. When directly compared, the deck-based approach resulted in a more advantageous behavioral profile than did the trial-based approach. Analysis of SCR data revealed no significant differences between methods for physiological measurements of SCR fluctuations or anticipatory responses to disadvantageous picks. Post hoc investigation of the trial-based method revealed Deck B contributed to both advantageous and disadvantageous decision making for the majority of participants. When divided by blocks of 20, the number of advantageous to disadvantageous choices reversed as the task progressed despite the total number of picks from Deck B remaining high. SCR fluctuations for Deck B, although not significantly different from the other decks, did show a sharp decline after the first block of 20 and remained below levels for Decks C and D toward the end of the task, suggesting that participants may have gained knowledge of the frequency of loss for this deck. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved

  9. Reliability Study in Solar Panels

    OpenAIRE

    Español Lifante, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Crystalline silicon Modules are formed by single silicon photovoltaic cells. Since each one of these cells individually contributes to the overall electric power of the panel, the failure of one of them directly affects to its benefits and performance. To Minimize these negative effects, junction boxes with few bypass diodes are usually included in Photovoltaic Solar panels. A still experimental way to built solar panels is to integrate bypass diodes in every single cell, which would in...

  10. ALDS 1978 panel review. [PNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, D.L. (ed.)

    1979-08-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is examining the analysis of large data sets (ALDS). After one year's work, a panel was convened to evaluate the project. This document is the permanent record of that panel review. It consists of edited transcripts of presentations made to the panel by the PNL staff, a summary of the responses of the panel to these presentations, and PNL's plans for the development of the ALDS project. The representations of the PNL staff described various aspects of the project and/or the philosophy surrounding the project. Supporting materials appear in appendixes. 20 figures, 4 tables. (RWR)

  11. Proficiency testing for sensory profile panels : measuring panel performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mcewan, J.A.; Hunter, E.A.; Gemert, L.J. van; Lea, P.

    2002-01-01

    Proficiency testing in sensory analysis is an important step towards demonstrating that results from one sensory panel are consistent with the results of other sensory panels. The uniqueness of sensory analysis poses some specific problems for measuring the proficiency of the human instrument

  12. Panel summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Previous Advisory Group Meetings have led to IAEA Technical Reports No.15=5 (1974) on thermal discharge, 118 (1970) and 169 (1975) on sampling, storage and analysis methods for marine radioactivity studies, 167 (1975) on design of marine biological studies permitting comparative evaluation, and 172 (1976) on the effects of ionizing radiation on aquative organisms and eco-systems. The aim of the present report was a bringing into perspective not only problems designing radioecological experiments but to describe reliable experimental methodology suitable for a successful evaluation of radioactivity cycling, and of the effects of such radioactive additions to aquatic environments, as a result of nuclear activities. Specific examples are described. Individual studies presented to the Panel have been treated in detail, and constitute 19 separate INIS entries

  13. Ground penetrating radar utilization in exploring inadequate concrete covers in a new bridge deck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Istiaque Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The reinforced concrete cast in place four span deck of a concrete bridge near Roanoke, Texas, was recently completed. Due to possible construction errors, it was suspected that the concrete covers in the deck did not conform to drawings and specifications. A full scale non-destructive evaluation of the concrete covers was carried out using ground penetrating radar (GPR equipment. Cover values were determined from the radargram generated from the scan. The estimated covers were plotted on contour maps. Migration data can substitute the drilling based ground truth data without compromising the concrete cover estimations, except for areas with very high cover values. Areas with high water content may result in inaccurate concrete dielectric constants. Based on the results, significant retrofitting of the bridge deck, such as additional overlay, was recommended.

  14. Experimental and Computational Investigation of Triple-rotating Blades in a Mower Deck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Woochong; Amano, Ryoichi S.

    Experimental and computational studies were performed on the 1.27m wide three-spindle lawn mower deck with side discharge arrangement. Laser Doppler Velocimetry was used to measure the air velocity at 12 different sections under the mower deck. The high-speed video camera test provided valuable visual evidence of airflow and grass discharge patterns. The strain gages were attached at several predetermined locations of the mower blades to measure the strain. In computational fluid dynamics work, computer based analytical studies were performed. During this phase of work, two different trials were attempted. First, two-dimensional blade shapes at several arbitrary radial sections were selected for flow computations around the blade model. Finally, a three-dimensional full deck model was developed and compared with the experimental results.

  15. Super-light SL-Deck elements with fixed end connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2015-01-01

    Super-light structures combining light and strong concrete are invented by the author at the Technical University of Denmark and commercialized by the spin-out company Abeo Ltd. The first product is the SL-Deck element that represents a number of strong improvements to the building industry among...... to low weight and due to possibilities of continuous elements and fixed end connections. A new machine is constructed producing the elements and BIM software is developed optimizing the structures, the production, and the logistics and running the machine. New production lines are established...... building projects leading to considerable savings of time and costs and opening up new possibilities for architects and users. Furthermore, the paper describes full-scale test results with new fixed end connections between decks and walls and between decks and columns in facades giving more possibilities...

  16. Flow field analysis of a pentagonal-shaped bridge deck by unsteady RANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Naimul Haque

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-span cable-stayed bridges are susceptible to dynamic wind effects due to their inherent flexibility. The fluid flow around the bridge deck should be well understood for the efficient design of an aerodynamically stable long-span bridge system. In this work, the aerodynamic features of a pentagonal-shaped bridge deck are explored numerically. The analytical results are compared with past experimental work to assess the capability of two-dimensional unsteady RANS simulation for predicting the aerodynamic features of this type of deck. The influence of the bottom plate slope on aerodynamic response and flow features was investigated. By varying the Reynolds number (2 × 104 to 20 × 104 the aerodynamic behavior at high wind speeds is clarified.

  17. Study on load test of 100m cross-reinforced deck type concrete box arch bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jing Xian; Cheng, Ying Jie

    2018-06-01

    Found in the routine quality inspection of highway bridge that many vertical fractures on the main beam (10mT beam) of the steel reinforced concrete arch bridge near the hydropower station. In order to grasp the bearing capacity of this bridge under working conditions with cracks, the static load and dynamic load test of box arch bridge are carried out. The Midas civil theory is calculated by using the special plate trailer - 300 as the calculation load, and the deflection and stress of the critical section are tested by the equivalent cloth load in the test vehicle. The pulsation test, obstacles and no obstacle driving test were carried out. Experimental results show that the bridge under the condition of the test loads is in safe condition, main bearing component of the strength and stiffness meet the design requirements, the crack width does not increase, in the process of loading bridge overall work performance is good.

  18. Fracture Mechanics Analyses of the Slip-Side Joggle Regions of Wing-Leading Edge Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Ivatury S.; Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Song, Kyongchan; Phillips, Dawn R.

    2010-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbiter wing comprises of 22 leading edge panels on each side of the wing. These panels are part of the thermal protection system that protects the Orbiter wings from extreme heating that take place on the reentry in to the earth atmosphere. On some panels that experience extreme heating, liberation of silicon carbon (SiC) coating was observed on the slip side regions of the panels. Global structural and local fracture mechanics analyses were performed on these panels as a part of the root cause investigation of this coating liberation anomaly. The wing-leading-edge reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) panels, Panel 9, T-seal 10, and Panel 10, are shown in Figure 1 and the progression of the stress analysis models is presented in Figure 2. The global structural analyses showed minimal interaction between adjacent panels and the T-seal that bridges the gap between the panels. A bounding uniform temperature is applied to a representative panel and the resulting stress distribution is examined. For this loading condition, the interlaminar normal stresses showed negligible variation in the chord direction and increased values in the vicinity of the slip-side joggle shoulder. As such, a representative span wise slice on the panel can be taken and the cross section can be analyzed using plane strain analysis.

  19. Acoustic Panel Liner for an Engine Nacelle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Michael G. (Inventor); Nark, Douglas M. (Inventor); Ayle, Earl (Inventor); Ichihashi, Fumitaka (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An acoustic panel liner includes a face sheet, back plate, and liner core positioned there-between, which may be used in an engine nacelle. Elongated chambers contain variable amounts of septa at a calibrated depth or depths. The septa may have varying DC flow resistance. The chambers may have a hexagonal or other polygonal cross sections. The septa, such as mesh caps, may be bonded to an inner wall of a corresponding chamber. The insertion depths may be the same or different. If different, the pattern of distribution of the depths may be randomized.

  20. 46 CFR 179.350 - Openings in the side of a vessel below the bulkhead or weather deck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... whether the port light is or is not capable of being opened. (c) Except for engine exhausts, each inlet or... deck. (a) On a vessel operating on exposed or partially protected waters, an opening port light is not permitted below the weather deck unless the sill of the port light is at least 760 millimeters (30 inches...

  1. 49 CFR 214.519 - Floors, decks, stairs, and ladders of on-track roadway maintenance machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... roadway maintenance machines. 214.519 Section 214.519 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... SAFETY On-Track Roadway Maintenance Machines and Hi-Rail Vehicles § 214.519 Floors, decks, stairs, and ladders of on-track roadway maintenance machines. Floors, decks, stairs, and ladders of on-track roadway...

  2. Stress analysis on passenger deck due to modification from passenger ship to vehicle-carrying ship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubaydi, A.; Sujiatanti, S. H.; Hariyanto, T. R.

    2018-03-01

    Stress is a basic concept in learning about material mechanism. The main focus that needs to be brought to attention in analyzing stress is strength, which is the structural capacity to carry or distribute loads. The structural capacity not only measured by comparing the maximum stress with the material’s yield strength but also with the permissible stress required by the Indonesian Classification Bureau (BKI), which certainly makes it much safer. This final project analyzes stress in passenger deck that experiences modification due to load changes, from passenger load to vehicle one, carrying: 6-wheels truck with maximum weight of 14 tons, a passenger car with maximum weight of 3.5 tons, and a motorcycle with maximum weight of 0.4 tons. The deck structure is modelled using finite element software. The boundary conditions given to the structural model are fix and simple constraint. The load that works on this deck is the deck load which comes from the vehicles on deck with three vehicles’ arrangement plans. After that, software modelling is conducted for analysis purpose. Analysis result shows a variation of maximum stress that occurs i.e. 135 N/mm2, 133 N/mm2, and 152 N/mm2. Those maximum stresses will not affect the structure of passenger deck’s because the maximum stress that occurs indicates smaller value compared to the Indonesian Classification Bureau’s permissible stress (175 N/mm2) as well as the material’s yield strength (235 N/mm2). Thus, the structural strength of passenger deck is shown to be capable of carrying the weight of vehicles in accordance with the three vehicles’ arrangement plans.

  3. Simple model of cable-stayed bridge deck subjected to static wind loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yi-Lung; Wang, Yang Cheng

    1997-05-01

    Cable-stayed bridges have been known since 18th century with aesthetics design. The structural system and the structural behavior are significantly different from those of continuous bridges. Compared to continuous bridge, cable- stayed bridges have more flexure bridge deck than those of continuous bridges.On the other hand, cable-stayed bridges have less stiffness to resist wind loading especially for lateral loads. The first considering of bridge engineering is safety. In 1940's, Tacoma Narrows Suspension Bridge destroyed by wind loading is a good example even though it is not a cable-stayed bridge. After the bridge was destroyed, a lot of research articles have been published regarding cable supported bridge subjected to wind loading. In recent days, high strength materials have been served. The bridge engineers use the advantages to expand the span length of cable-stayed bridges. Due to the span length increased and the use of high strength materials, cable- stayed bridges have more significant nonlinear behavior subjected to wind loading. In this paper, a slice bridge deck of cable-stayed bridge connected to internal support cables is considered. The deck has been considered to be subjected to lateral static wind loading. Since cables can not take compressive force, the deck has strongly nonlinear behavior even though the materials are linear elastic. Several primary load combinations have ben considered in this paper such as the bridge deck supposed to be moved horizontally without rotation or the bridge deck supposed to be moved horizontally with rotational deformation. The mathematical formulas and the numerical solutions are found and represented in graphical forms. The results can be provided to bridge designers and researchers for further study of this type of structure subjected to wind loading.

  4. Towards a characterization of information automation systems on the flight deck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Rachel Feddersen

    This thesis summarizes research to investigate the characteristics that define information automation systems used on aircraft flight decks and the significant impacts that these characteristics have on pilot performance. Major accomplishments of the work include the development of a set of characteristics that describe information automation systems on the flight deck and an experiment designed to study a subset of these characteristics. Information automation systems on the flight deck are responsible for the collection, processing, analysis, and presentation of data to the flightcrew. These systems pose human factors issues and challenges that must be considered by designers of these systems. Based on a previously developed formal definition of information automation for aircraft flight deck systems, an analysis process was developed and conducted to reach a refined set of information automation characteristics. In this work, characteristics are defined as a set of properties or attributes that describe an information automation system's operation or behavior, which can be used to identify and assess potential human factors issues. Hypotheses were formed for a subset of the characteristics: Automation Visibility, Information Quality, and Display Complexity. An experimental investigation was developed to measure performance impacts related to these characteristics, which showed mixed results of expected and surprising findings, with many interactions. A set of recommendations were then developed based on the experimental observations. Ensuring that the right information is presented to pilots at the right time and in the appropriate manner is the job of flight deck system designers. This work provides a foundation for developing recommendations and guidelines specific to information automation on the flight deck with the goal of improving the design and evaluation of information automation systems before they are implemented.

  5. Energy Production and Regional Economic Growth in China: A More Comprehensive Analysis Using a Panel Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaobin Liu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available China has witnessed a fast economic growth in the recent two decades. However, the heavy energy exploitation seems to show a negative relation to regional economic growth. Thus, the issue is whether the energy production is a curse or blessing for the regional economic growth in China. The present study deploys a comprehensive approach to rigorously prove the validity of a proposed panel data model that includes a second generation panel unit root test and panel cointegration and a spatial panel model. The results from the second generation panel unit root test and panel cointegration allowing for cross-sectional dependences show the differenced series are stationary and there exists a cointegration relationship among these variables for all sub-regions. The results from the spatial panel data model support the conjecture of the spatial dependent and show that there is a “resource curse” only for the Western region and Central region in China.

  6. STS-36 Commander Creighton listens to music on OV-104's forward flight deck

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    STS-36 Commander John O. Creighton, smiling and wearing a headset, listens to music as the tape recorder freefloats in front of him. During this lighter moment of the mission, Creighton is positioned at the commanders station on the forward flight deck of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104. Forward flight deck windows W1 and W2 appear on his left. Creighton and four other astronauts spent four days, 10 hours and 19 minutes aboard the spacecraft for the Department of Defense (DOD) devoted mission.

  7. STS-31 crewmembers during simulation on the flight deck of JSC's FB-SMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    On the flight deck of JSC's fixed based (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS), Mission Specialist (MS) Steven A. Hawley (left), on aft flight deck, looks over the shoulders of Commander Loren J. Shriver, seated at the commanders station (left) and Pilot Charles F. Bolden, seated at the pilots station and partially blocked by the seat's headrest (right). The three astronauts recently named to the STS-31 mission aboard Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, go through a procedures checkout in the FB-SMS. The training simulation took place in JSC's Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5.

  8. Flight Deck Display Technologies for 4DT and Surface Equivalent Visual Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Jones, Denis R.; Shelton, Kevin J.; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Bailey, Randall E.; Allamandola, Angela S.; Foyle, David C.; Hooey, Becky L.

    2009-01-01

    NASA research is focused on flight deck display technologies that may significantly enhance situation awareness, enable new operating concepts, and reduce the potential for incidents/accidents for terminal area and surface operations. The display technologies include surface map, head-up, and head-worn displays; 4DT guidance algorithms; synthetic and enhanced vision technologies; and terminal maneuvering area traffic conflict detection and alerting systems. This work is critical to ensure that the flight deck interface technologies and the role of the human participants can support the full realization of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) and its novel operating concepts.

  9. Strong increase of solar panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segers, R.; Janssen, S.

    2012-01-01

    The number of installed solar panels in 2011 has increased again. 40 megawatt of new panels have been installed. This increase is twice as high as the year before. The production of solar power increased to 90 million kWh in 2011 as a result of this expansion. However, the share of solar power in total energy use is still very limited. [nl

  10. Panel Smooth Transition Regression Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    González, Andrés; Terasvirta, Timo; Dijk, Dick van

    We introduce the panel smooth transition regression model. This new model is intended for characterizing heterogeneous panels, allowing the regression coefficients to vary both across individuals and over time. Specifically, heterogeneity is allowed for by assuming that these coefficients are bou...

  11. Matlab Software for Spatial Panels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elhorst, J.Paul

    2014-01-01

    Elhorst provides Matlab routines to estimate spatial panel data models at his website. This article extends these routines to include the bias correction procedure proposed by Lee and Yu if the spatial panel data model contains spatial and/or time-period fixed effects, the direct and indirect

  12. Mounting clips for panel installation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavieres, Andres; Al-Haddad, Tristan; Goodman, Joseph; Valdes, Francisco

    2017-02-14

    An exemplary mounting clip for removably attaching panels to a supporting structure comprises a base, spring locking clips, a lateral flange, a lever flange, and a spring bonding pad. The spring locking clips extend upwardly from the base. The lateral flange extends upwardly from a first side of the base. The lateral flange comprises a slot having an opening configured to receive at least a portion of one of the one or more panels. The lever flange extends outwardly from the lateral flange. The spring bonding flange extends downwardly from the lever flange. At least a portion of the first spring bonding flange comprises a serrated edge for gouging at least a portion of the one or more panels when the one or more panels are attached to the mounting clip to electrically and mechanically couple the one or more panels to the mounting clip.

  13. A simple nonstationary-volatility robust panel unit root test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demetrescu, Matei; Hanck, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    We propose an IV panel unit root test robust to nonstationary error volatility. Its finite-sample performance is convincing even for many units and strong cross-correlation. An application to GDP prices illustrates the inferential impact of nonstationary volatility. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  14. Monetary dynamics in the euro area : a disaggregate panel approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, J.; Kool, C.J.M.

    In this paper, we use panel cointegration estimation to analyze the determinants of heterogeneous monetary dynamics in ten euro area member countries over the period 1999-2013. In particular, we investigate the role of real house prices, real equity prices and cross border bank credit. For the

  15. Persistence Heterogeneity Testing in Panels with Interactive Fixed Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ergemen, Yunus Emre; Velasco, Carlos

    We consider large N,T panel data models with fixed effects, a common factor allowing for cross-section dependence, and persistent data and shocks, which are assumed fractionally integrated. In a basic setup, the main interest is on the fractional parameter of the idiosyncratic component, which...

  16. Health Care Use, Health Behaviors, and Medical Conditions Among Individuals in Same-Sex and Opposite-Sex Partnerships: A Cross-Sectional Observational Analysis of the Medical Expenditures Panel Survey (MEPS), 2003-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blosnich, John R; Hanmer, Janel; Yu, Lan; Matthews, Derrick D; Kavalieratos, Dio

    2016-06-01

    Prior research documents disparities between sexual minority and nonsexual minority individuals regarding health behaviors and health services utilization. However, little is known regarding differences in the prevalence of medical conditions. To examine associations between sexual minority status and medical conditions. We conducted multiple logistic regression analyses of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (2003-2011). We identified individuals who reported being partnered with an individual of the same sex, and constructed a matched cohort of individuals in opposite-sex partnerships. A total of 494 individuals in same-sex partnerships and 494 individuals in opposite-sex partnerships. Measures of health risk (eg, smoking status), health services utilization (eg, physician office visits), and presence of 15 medical conditions (eg, cancer, diabetes, arthritis, HIV, alcohol disorders). Same-sex partnered men had nearly 4 times the odds of reporting a mood disorder than did opposite-sex partnered men [adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=3.96; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.85-8.48]. Compared with opposite-sex partnered women, same-sex partnered women had greater odds of heart disease (aOR=2.59; 95% CI, 1.19-5.62), diabetes (aOR=2.75; 95% CI, 1.10-6.90), obesity (aOR=1.92; 95% CI, 1.26-2.94), high cholesterol (aOR=1.89; 95% CI, 1.03-3.50), and asthma (aOR=1.90; 95% CI, 1.02-1.19). Even after adjusting for sociodemographics, health risk behaviors, and health conditions, individuals in same-sex partnerships had 67% increased odds of past-year emergency department utilization and 51% greater odds of ≥3 physician visits in the last year compared with opposite-sex partnered individuals. A combination of individual-level, provider-level, and system-level approaches are needed to reduce disparities in medical conditions and health care utilization among sexual minority individuals.

  17. Essaying a Pseudo-Panel Approach: Studies on Education, Women, and Income Inequality in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warunsiri, Sasiwimon

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is composed of three studies on Thai labor markets using a pseudo-panel data set: The first chapter estimates the rate of return to education in Thailand, while treating the endogeneity bias common to estimates from data on individuals. Pseudo-panel data are constructed from repeated cross sections of Labor Force Surveys…

  18. Panel discussion: Nuclear cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwaiger, M.

    1991-01-01

    The panel discussion opened with a question concerning whether true quantification of myocardial sympathetic presynaptic function or receptor density can be obtained with currently available radiopharmaceuticals. What are the relative advantages of the two general approaches that have been proposed for quantification: (1) The assessment of tracer distribution volume in tissue following bolus injection and (2) quantification based on tracer displacement kinetics following administration of excess unlabeled tracer. It was pointed out that tracer kinetics for the delineation of presynaptic and postsynaptic binding sites by radiopharmaceuticals or radiolabeled receptor antagonists are rather complex, reflecting several physiologic processes that are difficult to separate. Several approaches were examined. The possibility of regional definition of receptor density by PET was questioned and it was noted that regions of interest can be applied to calculate regional receptor kinetics. However, due to the limited spatial resolution of PET, only average transmural values can be determined. The discussion then turned to the discrepancy between the known sparse parasympathetic innervation of the heart and the high density of muscarinic receptors observed with PET. Experiences with MIBG imaging were reported, including uptake in the transplanted heart and interaction of drugs with MIBG uptake

  19. 1994 Panel 1 Utilization Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is intended to receive, handle, and permanently dispose of transuranic (TRU) waste. To fulfill this mission, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) constructed a full-scale facility to demonstrate both technical and operational principles of the permanent isolation of TRU waste. The WIPP consists of surface and underground facilities. Panel 1 is situated in the underground facility horizon which is located approximately 2,150 feet below the surface in the predominantly halite Salado Formation. The Panel 1 Utilization Plan provides a strategy for the optimum use of Panel 1 which is consistent with the priorities established by the DOE to accomplish the WIPP mission. These priorities, which include maintaining personnel safety, conducting performance assessment, and continued operational enhancements, are the guiding premise for the decisions on the planned usage of the WIPP underground facility. The continuation of ongoing investigations along with the planned testing and training to be carried out in Panel 1 will enhance the current knowledge and understanding of the operational and geotechnical aspects of the panel configuration. This enhancement will ultimately lead to safer, more efficient, and more cost-effective methods of operation. Excavation of the waste storage area began in May 1986 with the mining of entries to Panel 1. The original design for the waste storage rooms at the WIPP provided a limited period of time during which to mine the openings and to emplace waste. Each panel, consisting of seven storage rooms, was scheduled to be mined and filled in less than 5 years. Panel 1 was developed to receive waste for a demonstration phase that was scheduled to start in October 1988. The demonstration phase was deferred, and the experimental test program was modified to use contact-handled (CH) transuranic waste in bin-scale tests, planned for Room 1, Panel 1

  20. Axial Compression Behavior of a New Type of Prefabricated Concrete Sandwich Wall Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qun, Xie; Shuai, Wang; Chun, Liu

    2018-03-01

    A novel type of prefabricated concrete sandwich wall panel which could be used as a load-bearing structural element in buildings has been presented in this paper. Compared with the traditional sandwich panels, there are several typical characteristics for this wall system, including core columns confined by spiral stirrup along the cross-section of panel with 600mm spacing, precast foamed concrete block between two structural layers as internal insulation part, and a three-dimensional (3D) steel wire skeleton in each layer which is composed of two vertical steel wire meshes connected by horizontally short steel bar. All steel segments in the panel are automatically prefabricated in factory and then are assembled to form steel system in site. In order to investigate the structural behavior of this wall panel, two full-scale panels have been experimentally studied under axial compressive load. The test results show that the wall panel presents good load-bearing capacity and integral stiffness without out-of-plane flexural failure. Compared to the panel with planar steel wire mesh in concrete layer, the panel with 3D steel wire skeleton presents higher strength and better rigidity even in the condition of same steel ratio in panels which verifies that the 3D steel skeleton could greatly enhance the structural behavior of sandwich panel.

  1. Measurement of bridge deck layout prior to concrete placement : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to develop a method of measuring and : producing as built bridge drawings. This was the first step in the feasibility : assessment for automated bridge deck paving. The research goes to show the : standard meth...

  2. STS-26 crew on fixed based (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS) flight deck

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Commander Frederick H. Hauck (left) and Pilot Richard O. Covey review checklists in their respective stations on the foward flight deck. The STS-26 crew is training in the fixed base (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS) located in JSC Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5.

  3. Research on construction technology for orthotropic steel deck pavement of Haihe River Chunyi Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Y. C.; Qian, Z. D.; Zhang, M.

    2017-01-01

    In order to ensure the good service quality of orthotropic steel deck pavement of Haihe River Chunyi Bridge in Tianjin, and to reduce the occurrence of pavement diseases like lateral and longitudinal cracks, the key working procedures such as steel deck cleaning, anticorrosive coating, bonding layer spraying, seam cutting, epoxy asphalt concrete’s mixing, transportation, paving and compaction were studied. The study was based on the main features of epoxy asphalt concrete which is the pavement materials of Haihe River Chunyi Bridge, and combined with the basic characteristics and construction conditions of Haihe River Chunyi Bridge. Furthermore, some processing measures like controlling time and temperature, continuous paving with two pavers, lateral feeding, and improving the compaction method were proposed. The project example shows that the processing measures can effectively solve the technical difficulties in the construction of orthotropic steel deck pavement of Haihe River Chunyi Bridge, can greatly improve the construction speed and quality, and can provide reference for the same kinds of orthotropic steel deck pavement construction.

  4. To the question of reliability and durability ballastless deck of bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Prystynskaya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The principal causes of operational defects in bridge ballastless deck plates are considered in the article. The drawbacks of these plates construction that prevent from achieving a higher level of bridge framework reliability and durability have been analysed.

  5. A simple analytic treatment of rescattering effects in the Deck model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowler, M.G.

    1979-01-01

    A simple application of old-fashioned final-state interaction theory is shown to give the result that rescattering the Deck model of diffraction dissociation is well represented by multiplying the bare amplitude by esup(idelta)cosdelta. The physical reasons for this result emerge particularly clearly in this formulation. (author)

  6. Field performance of timber bridges. 5, Little Salmon Creek stress-laminated deck bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. A. Ritter; J. A. Kainz; G. J. Porter

    The Little Salmon Creek bridge was constructed in November 1988 on the Allegheny National Forest in Pennsylvania. The bridge is a simple span, single-lane, stress-laminated deck superstructure that is approximately 26-ft long and 16-ft wide. The bridge is unique in that it is the first known stress-laminated timber bridge to be constructed of hardwood lumber. The...

  7. Moving dynamic loads caused by bridge deck joint unevenness - a case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, WJV

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper focus on the general guidelines regarding maximum unevenness from bridge deck joints for typical South African heavy vehicles, in order to minimize the generation of moving variable loads. In a recent investigation it was found that areas...

  8. Field performance of timber bridges. 15, Pueblo County, Colorado, stress-laminated deck bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. E. Hislop

    The Pueblo County 204B bridge was constructed in March 1990 in Pueblo, Colorado, as a demonstration bridge under the USDA Forest Service Timber Bridge Initiative. The stress-laminated deck superstructure is approximately 10 m long, 9 m wide, and 406 mm deep, with a skew of 10 degrees. Performance monitoring was conducted for 3 years, beginning at...

  9. Field performance of timber bridges. 7, Connell Lake stress-laminated deck bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. E. Hislop; M. A. Ritter

    The Connell Lake bridge was constructed in early 1991 on the Tongass National Forest, Alaska, as a demonstration bridge under the Timber Bridge Initiative. The bridge is a stress-laminated deck structure with an approximate 36-ft length and 18-ft width and is the first known stress-laminated timber bridge constructed in Alaska. Performance of the bridge was monitored...

  10. Field performance of timber bridges. 6, Hoffman Run stress-laminated deck bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. A. Ritter; P. D. Hilbrich Lee; G. J. Porter

    The Hoffman Run bridge, located just outside Dahoga, Pennsylvania, was constructed in October 1990. The bridge is a simple-span, single-lane, stress-laminated deck superstructure that is approximately 26 ft long and 16 ft wide. It is the second stress-laminated timber bridge to be constructed of hardwood lumber in Pennsylvania. The performance of the bridge was...

  11. NextGen Flight Deck Data Comm : Auxiliary Synthetic Speech Phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Data Comma text-based controller-pilot communication systemis expected to yield several NextGen safety and efficiency benefits. With Data Comm, communication becomes a visual task, and may potentially increase head-down time on the flight deck ...

  12. Stacked Deck: An Effective, School-Based Program for the Prevention of Problem Gambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert J.; Wood, Robert T.; Currie, Shawn R.

    2010-01-01

    School-based prevention programs are an important component of problem gambling prevention, but empirically effective programs are lacking. Stacked Deck is a set of 5-6 interactive lessons that teach about the history of gambling; the true odds and "house edge"; gambling fallacies; signs, risk factors, and causes of problem gambling; and…

  13. 14 CFR 121.550 - Secret Service Agents: Admission to flight deck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Secret Service Agents: Admission to flight... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.550 Secret Service Agents: Admission to flight deck. Whenever an Agent of the Secret Service who is assigned the duty...

  14. Mechanical and chemical properties of CCA-treated lumber removed from spent residential decks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Smith; David Bailey; Philip A. Araman

    2007-01-01

    The amount of chromated copper arsenate (CCA)- treated wood being removed from spent residential decks is increasing at a tremendous rate. While most spent CCA-treated wood is being disposed in landfills, further useful and environmentally beneficial alternatives have to be met. If the volume of CCA-treated wood reaching landfills continues to rise, stricter disposal...

  15. Load test of the 277W Building high bay roof deck and support structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    The 277W Building high bay roof area was load tested according to the approved load-test procedure, WHC-SD-GN-TP-30015, Revision 1. The 277W Building is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site and has the following characteristics: roof deck -- wood decking supported by 4 x 14 timber purlins; roof membrane -- tar and gravel; roof slope -- flat (<10 deg); and roof elevation -- maximum height of about 63 ft. The 227W Building was visited in March 1994 for a visual inspection. During this inspection, cracked areas were visible in the decking, but it was not possible to determine whether these cracks extended completely through the decking, which is 2-in. thick. The building was revisited in March 1994 for the purpose of writing this test report. Because the roof requires personnel access, a test was determined to be the best way to qualify the roof. The conclusions are that the roof has been qualified for 500-lb total roof load and that the ''No Roof Access'' signs can be changed to ''Roof Access Restricted'' signs

  16. Evaluation of performance and maximum length of continuous decks in bridges : part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the performance history of continuous bridge decks in the State of Georgia, to determine why the current design detail works, to recommend a new design detail, and to recommend the maximum and/or optimum l...

  17. Effects of Adhesive Connection on Composite Action between FRP Bridge Deck and Steel Girder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, X.; Luo, Chengwei; Qiang, X.; Kolstein, M.H.; Bijlaard, F.S.K.

    2017-01-01

    The FRP-steel girder composite bridge system is increasingly used in new constructions of bridges as well as rehabilitation of old bridges. However, the understanding of composite action between FRP decks and steel girders is limited and needs to be systematically investigated. In this paper,

  18. Experimental Investigation of Membrane Materials used in Multilayer Surfacing Systems for Orthotropic Steel Deck Bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tzimiris, G.

    2017-01-01

    In the Netherlands asphaltic surfacings on orthotropic steel deck bridges (OSDB) mostly consist of two structural layers. The upper layer consists of what is known as very open porous asphalt (ZOAB) for noise reduction. For the lower layer Guss Asphalt (GA) is used. Earlier investigations have shown

  19. STS 51-L crewmembers during training session in flight deck simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    S85-46207 (December 1985) --- Shuttle Mission Simulator (SMS) scene of astronauts Michael J. Smith, Ellison S. Onizuka, Judith A. Resnik, and Francis R. (Dick) Scobee in their launch and entry positions on the flight deck. The photo was taken by Bill Bowers.

  20. Two-course bonded concrete bridge deck construction : condition and performance after six years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    This report presents the findings from a six-year study of two-course bonded concrete bridge decks constructed in Virginia. Each of three special portland cement concretes was applied as an overlay, or wearing course, on two experimental spans. The o...

  1. Plans for crash-tested wood bridge railings for concrete decks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Ritter; Ronald K. Faller; Barry T. Rosson; Paula D. Hilbrich Lee; Sheila Rimal. Duwadi

    1998-01-01

    As part of a continuing cooperative research between the Midwest Roadside Safety Facility (MwRSF); the USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory (FPL); and the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), several crashworthy wood bridge railings and approach railing transitions have been adapted for use on concrete bridge decks. These railings meet testing and...

  2. Bridge deck cracking : effects on in-service performance, prevention, and remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The main objectives of this project were: (a) to identify the causes of early-age cracking in concrete bridge decks, (b) to provide : recommendations for effective mitigation of early-age cracking, (c) to assess the effect of cracks on the long-term ...

  3. Numerical investigation of the bearing capacity of transversely prestressed concrete deck slabs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amir, S.; Van der Veen, C.; Walraven, J.C.; De Boer, A.

    2014-01-01

    The research subject of this paper is the bearing capacity of transversely prestressed concrete bridge decks between concrete girders under concentrated loads. Experiments on a 1:2 scale model of this bridge were carried out in the laboratory and a 3D nonlinear finite element model was developed in

  4. Effectiveness of polymer bridge deck overlays in highway noise reduction : technical paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The Kansas Department of Transportation (KDOT) began placing multi-layer polymer bridge deck overlays in 1999 and at the present time have over 200 in service. A few years after placing the overlays, individuals indicated that they noticed how quiet ...

  5. Thermal Analysis of Solar Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Nicolas; de Correia, João Pedro Magalhães; Ahzi, Saïd; Khaleel, Mohammad Ahmed

    In this work, we propose to analyze the thermal behavior of PV panels using finite element simulations (FEM). We applied this analysis to compute the temperature distribution in a PV panel BP 350 subjected to different atmospheric conditions. This analysis takes into account existing formulations in the literature and, based on NOCT conditions, meteorological data was used to validate our approach for different wind speed and solar irradiance. The electrical performance of the PV panel was also studied. The proposed 2D FEM analysis is applied to different region's climates and was also used to consider the role of thermal inertia on the optimization of the PV device efficiency.

  6. Solar Array Panels With Dust-Removal Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Stephen; Mardesich, Nick; Spence, Brian; White, Steve

    2004-01-01

    It has been proposed to incorporate piezoelectric vibrational actuators into the structural supports of solar photovoltaic panels, for the purpose of occasionally inducing vibrations in the panels in order to loosen accumulated dust. Provided that the panels were tilted, the loosened dust would slide off under its own weight. Originally aimed at preventing obscuration of photovoltaic cells by dust accumulating in the Martian environment, the proposal may also offer an option for the design of solar photovoltaic panels for unattended operation at remote locations on Earth. The figure depicts a typical lightweight solar photovoltaic panel comprising a backside grid of structural spars that support a thin face sheet that, in turn, supports an array of photovoltaic cells on the front side. The backside structure includes node points where several spars intersect. According to the proposal, piezoelectric buzzers would be attached to the node points. The process of designing the panel would be an iterative one that would include computational simulation of the vibrations by use of finite- element analysis to guide the selection of the vibrational frequency of the actuators and the cross sections of the spars to maximize the agitation of dust.

  7. Pain and Joy of a Panel Survey on Transport Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comendador Arquero, María Eugenia López-Lambas

    2016-07-01

    Over ten years ago, it was established that the most frequent reason that motivates a panel survey on transport studies is the evaluation of a change in the transportation system, or a specific transportation-planning project, especially when the project involves novel elements. From a statistical viewpoint, a panel survey has the definite advantage to offer more accurate estimatesof changes than cross-sectional surveys for the same sample size. Observing travel patterns of individuals and households overseveral consecutive days, has offered insights into activity scheduling and travel planning. Variability in travel patterns has important policy implications as well, but how much effort is worth to design a panel survey? To evaluate the effects of the transport policies introduced in Madrid during the last five years, a ‘short-long’ panel survey wasbuilt, based on a sample of a Madrid-worker subpopulation most affected by those recent changes in transport policy. The paper describes both the design and construction of the panel based on GPS technology, and presents some results based on an analysis of its two waves; for example, it registered an increment of public transport use and walking trips in 10%. The panel overcomes the known attrition problem thanks to providing incentives, maintaining contact, using the same interviewer for the same respondents, and conducting face-to-face interviews. (Author)

  8. Study of the action of blast deck charge in rocky soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boiko V.V.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Blasting (B in the industry, including the mining extraction of minerals, are carried out mostly with the use of blasthole charges that systematically distributed on the block that is undermined, by individual groups. The latter are blasted according to the scheme of short-delay firing (SDF through the intervals that are accepted not less than 20 Ms. Thus, the seismic effect of group charge explosion, consisting of individual blasthole charges and that actually is a group located charge determined by the formula of concentrated charge. Blast deck charges are effectively used in the driving of the trenches in the mining, formation of screens and cracks near the security objects. Only this method of performing blasting allows to define seismic effect in the transition from one diameter of a charge to another, as well as to determine the actual number of detonated charges in one group, which may differ from the calculated in drilling and blasting project. The work analyzes the physical essence of processes happened while blasting of blast deck charges. The effect of the orientation of the seismic action of blasting of blast deck charges towards the allocation line of charges is investigated. The results of generalized dependence of the speed of the displacement of the ground by the blast parameters and epicentral distance are obtained. We demonstrate with specific examples that blast deck charges that blasting simultaneously make a major chain of the career massive explosions at mining. Keywords: seismic fluctuations; the number of charges; the interaction of charges; the distance between the charges; the coefficients of the seismicity and the attenuation of the intensity of the waves; the unit charge; blast deck and blasthole charges; phase shifting; effective charge.

  9. FDI and Income Inequality: Evidence from a Panel of US States

    OpenAIRE

    Pandej Chintrakarn; Dierk Herzer; Peter Nunnenkamp

    2010-01-01

    This study employs state-level panel data to explore the relationship between inward foreign direct investment (FDI) and income inequality in the United States. Using panel cointegration techniques that allow for cross-sectional heterogeneity, cross-sectional dependence, and endogenous regressors, we find that the short-run effects of FDI on income inequality are insignificant or weakly significant and negative. In the long run, however, FDI exerts a significant and robust negative effect on ...

  10. Exascale Workshop Panel Report Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2010-07-01

    The Exascale Review Panel consists of 12 scientists and engineers with experience in various aspects of high-performance computing and its application, development, and management. The Panel hear presentations by several representatives of the workshops and town meetings convened over the past few years to examine the need for exascale computation capability and the justification for a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) program to develop such capability. This report summarizes information provided by the presenters and substantial written reports to the Panel in advance of the meeting in Washington D.C. on January 19-20, 2010. The report also summarizes the Panel's conclusions with regard to the justification of a DOE-led exascale initiative.

  11. Analysis of 3-panel and 4-panel microscale ionization sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natarajan, Srividya; Parker, Charles B.; Glass, Jeffrey T.; Piascik, Jeffrey R.; Gilchrist, Kristin H.; Stoner, Brian R.

    2010-01-01

    Two designs of a microscale electron ionization (EI) source are analyzed herein: a 3-panel design and a 4-panel design. Devices were fabricated using microelectromechanical systems technology. Field emission from carbon nanotube provided the electrons for the EI source. Ion currents were measured for helium, nitrogen, and xenon at pressures ranging from 10 -4 to 0.1 Torr. A comparison of the performance of both designs is presented. The 4-panel microion source showed a 10x improvement in performance compared to the 3-panel device. An analysis of the various factors affecting the performance of the microion sources is also presented. SIMION, an electron and ion optics software, was coupled with experimental measurements to analyze the ion current results. The electron current contributing to ionization and the ion collection efficiency are believed to be the primary factors responsible for the higher efficiency of the 4-panel microion source. Other improvements in device design that could lead to higher ion source efficiency in the future are also discussed. These microscale ion sources are expected to find application as stand alone ion sources as well as in miniature mass spectrometers.

  12. Algorithms for highway-speed acoustic impact-echo evaluation of concrete bridge decks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzeo, Brian A.; Guthrie, W. Spencer

    2018-04-01

    A new acoustic impact-echo testing device has been developed for detecting and mapping delaminations in concrete bridge decks at highway speeds. The apparatus produces nearly continuous acoustic excitation of concrete bridge decks through rolling mats of chains that are placed around six wheels mounted to a hinged trailer. The wheels approximately span the width of a traffic lane, and the ability to remotely lower and raise the apparatus using a winch system allows continuous data collection without stationary traffic control or exposure of personnel to traffic. Microphones near the wheels are used to record the acoustic response of the bridge deck during testing. In conjunction with the development of this new apparatus, advances in the algorithms required for data analysis were needed. This paper describes the general framework of the algorithms developed for converting differential global positioning system data and multi-channel audio data into maps that can be used in support of engineering decisions about bridge deck maintenance, rehabilitation, and replacement (MR&R). Acquisition of position and audio data is coordinated on a laptop computer through a custom graphical user interface. All of the streams of data are synchronized with the universal computer time so that audio data can be associated with interpolated position information through data post-processing. The audio segments are individually processed according to particular detection algorithms that can adapt to variations in microphone sensitivity or particular chain excitations. Features that are greater than a predetermined threshold, which is held constant throughout the analysis, are then subjected to further analysis and included in a map that shows the results of the testing. Maps of data collected on a bridge deck using the new acoustic impact-echo testing device at different speeds ranging from approximately 10 km/h to 55 km/h indicate that the collected data are reasonably repeatable. Use

  13. Numerical simulations and experimental measurements of steel and ice impacts on concrete for acoustic interrogation of delaminations in bridge decks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzeo, Brian A.; Patil, Anjali N.; Klis, Jeffrey M. [Brigham Young University, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Provo, Utah, 84602 (United States); Hurd, Randy C.; Truscott, Tadd T. [Brigham Young University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Provo, Utah, 84602 (United States); Guthrie, W. Spencer [Brigham Young University, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Provo, Utah, 84602 (United States)

    2014-02-18

    Delaminations in bridge decks typically result from corrosion of the top mat of reinforcing steel, which leads to a localized separation of the concrete cover from the underlying concrete. Because delaminations cannot be detected using visual inspection, rapid, large-area interrogation methods are desired to characterize bridge decks without disruption to traffic, without the subjectivity inherent in existing methods, and with increased inspector safety. To this end, disposable impactors such as water droplets or ice chips can be dropped using automatic dispensers onto concrete surfaces to excite mechanical vibrations while acoustic responses can be recorded using air-coupled microphones. In this work, numerical simulations are used to characterize the flexural response of a model concrete bridge deck subject to both steel and ice impactors, and the results are compared with similar experiments performed in the laboratory on a partially delaminated concrete bridge deck slab. The simulations offer greater understanding of the kinetics of impacts and the responses of materials.

  14. Evaluation of bridge decks using non-destructive evaluation (NDE) at near highway speeds for effective asset management - pilot project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-29

    This project piloted the findings from an initial research and development project pertaining to the detection, : quantification, and visualization of bridge deck distresses through the use of remote sensing techniques, specifically : combining optic...

  15. Flight deck human factors issues for National Airspace System (NAS) en route controller pilot data link communications (CPDLC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Fundamental differences exist between transmissions of Air Traffic Control clearances over voice and those transmitted via Controller Pilot Data Link Communications (CPDLC). This paper provides flight deck human factors issues that apply to processin...

  16. Environmental Durability of Reinforced Concrete Deck Girders Strengthened for Shear with Surface-Bonded Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    "This research investigated the durability of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer composites (CFRP) used for shear strengthening reinforced concrete deck girders. Large beams were used to avoid accounting for size effects in the data analysis. The effort...

  17. Human factors considerations in the design and evaluation of flight deck displays and controls : version 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this effort is to have a single source reference document for human factors regulatory and guidance material for flight deck displays and controls, in the interest of improving aviation safety. This document identifies guidance on hu...

  18. Development and validation of deterioration models for concrete bridge decks - phase 1 : artificial intelligence models and bridge management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    This research documents the development and evaluation of artificial neural network (ANN) models to predict the condition ratings of concrete highway bridge decks in Michigan. Historical condition assessments chronicled in the national bridge invento...

  19. Development and validation of deterioration models for concrete bridge decks - phase 2 : mechanics-based degradation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    This report summarizes a research project aimed at developing degradation models for bridge decks in the state of Michigan based on durability mechanics. A probabilistic framework to implement local-level mechanistic-based models for predicting the c...

  20. Development of a precast bridge deck overhang system for the rock creek bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Precast, prestressed panels are commonly used at interior beams for bridges in Texas. The use of these : panels provides ease of construction, sufficient capacity, and good economy for the construction of : bridges in Texas. Current practice for the ...

  1. High temperature structural sandwich panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakonstantinou, Christos G.

    High strength composites are being used for making lightweight structural panels that are being employed in aerospace, naval and automotive structures. Recently, there is renewed interest in use of these panels. The major problem of most commercial available sandwich panels is the fire resistance. A recently developed inorganic matrix is investigated for use in cases where fire and high temperature resistance are necessary. The focus of this dissertation is the development of a fireproof composite structural system. Sandwich panels made with polysialate matrices have an excellent potential for use in applications where exposure to high temperatures or fire is a concern. Commercial available sandwich panels will soften and lose nearly all of their compressive strength temperatures lower than 400°C. This dissertation consists of the state of the art, the experimental investigation and the analytical modeling. The state of the art covers the performance of existing high temperature composites, sandwich panels and reinforced concrete beams strengthened with Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP). The experimental part consists of four major components: (i) Development of a fireproof syntactic foam with maximum specific strength, (ii) Development of a lightweight syntactic foam based on polystyrene spheres, (iii) Development of the composite system for the skins. The variables are the skin thickness, modulus of elasticity of skin and high temperature resistance, and (iv) Experimental evaluation of the flexural behavior of sandwich panels. Analytical modeling consists of a model for the flexural behavior of lightweight sandwich panels, and a model for deflection calculations of reinforced concrete beams strengthened with FRP subjected to fatigue loading. The experimental and analytical results show that sandwich panels made with polysialate matrices and ceramic spheres do not lose their load bearing capability during severe fire exposure, where temperatures reach several

  2. Solar Panel based Milk Pasteurization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard; Pedersen, Tom Søndergaard

    This paper treats the subject of analysis, design and development of the control system for a solar panel based milk pasteurization system to be used in small villages in Tanzania. The analysis deals with the demands for an acceptable pasteurization, the varying energy supply and the low cost, low...... complexity, simple user interface and high reliability demands. Based on these demands a concept for the pasteurization system is established and a control system is developed. A solar panel has been constructed and the energy absorption has been tested in Tanzania. Based on the test, the pasteurization...... system is dimensioned. A functional prototype of the pasteurization facility with a capacity of 200 l milk/hour has been developed and tested. The system is prepared for solar panels as the main energy source and is ready for a test in Tanzania....

  3. Solar Panel based Milk Pasteurization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard; Pedersen, Tom Søndergaard

    2002-01-01

    This paper treats the subject of analysis, design and development of the control system for a solar panel based milk pasteurization system to be used in small villages in Tanzania. The analysis deals with the demands for an acceptable pasteurization, the varying energy supply and the low cost, low...... complexity, simple user interface and high reliability demands. Based on these demands a concept for the pasteurization system is established and a control system is developed. A solar panel has been constructed and the energy absorption has been tested in Tanzania. Based on the test, the pasteurization...... system is dimensioned. A functional prototype of the pasteurization facility with a capacity of 200 l milk/hour has been developed and tested. The system is prepared for solar panels as the main energy source and is ready for a test in Tanzania....

  4. Stress Regression Analysis of Asphalt Concrete Deck Pavement Based on Orthogonal Experimental Design and Interlayer Contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuntao; Feng, Jianhu; Wang, Hu; Hong, Shidi; Zheng, Supei

    2018-03-01

    A three-dimensional finite element box girder bridge and its asphalt concrete deck pavement were established by ANSYS software, and the interlayer bonding condition of asphalt concrete deck pavement was assumed to be contact bonding condition. Orthogonal experimental design is used to arrange the testing plans of material parameters, and an evaluation of the effect of different material parameters in the mechanical response of asphalt concrete surface layer was conducted by multiple linear regression model and using the results from the finite element analysis. Results indicated that stress regression equations can well predict the stress of the asphalt concrete surface layer, and elastic modulus of waterproof layer has a significant influence on stress values of asphalt concrete surface layer.

  5. An Advanced Coupled Genetic Algorithm for Identifying Unknown Moving Loads on Bridge Decks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Youl Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with an inverse method to identify moving loads on bridge decks using the finite element method (FEM and a coupled genetic algorithm (c-GA. We developed the inverse technique using a coupled genetic algorithm that can make global solution searches possible as opposed to classical gradient-based optimization techniques. The technique described in this paper allows us to not only detect the weight of moving vehicles but also find their moving velocities. To demonstrate the feasibility of the method, the algorithm is applied to a bridge deck model with beam elements. In addition, 1D and 3D finite element models are simulated to study the influence of measurement errors and model uncertainty between numerical and real structures. The results demonstrate the excellence of the method from the standpoints of computation efficiency and avoidance of premature convergence.

  6. An alternative randomized response model using two deck of cards: a rejoinder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghunath Arnab

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Randomized response (RR technique with two decks of cards proposed by Odumade and Singh (2009 can always be made more efficient than the RR techniques proposed by Warner (1965, Mangat and Singh (1990, and Mangat (1994 by adjusting the proportion of cards in the decks. Abdelfatah et al. (2011 modified Odumade and Singh (2009 RR technique and claimed that their method can be more efficient than the Warner (1965 model. In this paper it is shown that such claim is not valid and the RR technique proposed by Abdelfatah et al. (2011 is in fact less efficient than the Warner (1965 technique at equal protection of respondents. Such finding are recently shown by Giordano and Perri (2011.

  7. Human engineering analysis for the high speed civil transport flight deck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regal, David M.; Alter, Keith W.

    1993-01-01

    The Boeing Company is investigating the feasibility of building a second generation supersonic transport. If current studies support its viability, this airplane, known as the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT), could be launched early in the next century. The HSCT will cruise at Mach 2.4, be over 300 feet long, have an initial range of between 5000 and 6000 NM, and carry approximately 300 passengers. We are presently involved in developing an advanced flight deck for the HSCT. As part of this effort we are undertaking a human engineering analysis that involves a top-down, mission driven approach that will allow a systematic determination of flight deck functional and information requirements. The present paper describes this work.

  8. Structural maintenance planning based on historical data of corroded deck plates of tankers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbatov, Y.; Guedes Soares, C.

    2009-01-01

    A probabilistic maintenance and repair analysis of tanker deck plates subjected to general corrosion is presented. The decisions about when to perform maintenance and repair on the structure are studied. Different practical scenarios are analyzed and optimum repair times are proposed. The optimum repair age and intervals are defined based on the statistical analysis of operational data using the Weibull model and some assumptions about the inspection and time needed for repair. The total cost is calculated in normalized form.

  9. Field performance of timber bridges. 9, Big Erick`s stress-laminated deck bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. A. Kainz; J. P. Wacker; M. Nelson

    The Big Erickas bridge was constructed during September 1992 in Baraga County, Michigan. The bridge is 72 ft long, 16 ft wide, and consists of three simple spans: two stress-laminated deck approach spans and a stress-laminated box center span. The bridge is unique in that it is one of the first known stress-laminated timber bridge applications to use Eastern Hemlock...

  10. Field performance of timber bridges. 17, Ciphers stress-laminated deck bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    James P. Wacker; James A. Kainz; Michael A. Ritter

    In September 1989, the Ciphers bridge was constructed within the Beltrami Island State Forest in Roseau County, Minnesota. The bridge superstructure is a two-span continuous stress-laminated deck that is approximately 12.19 m long, 5.49 m wide, and 305 mm deep (40 ft long, 18 ft wide, and 12 in. deep). The bridge is one of the first to utilize red pine sawn lumber for...

  11. Field performance of timber bridges. 10, Sanborn Brook stress-laminated deck bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. D. Hilbrich Lee; J. P. Wacker; M. A. Ritter

    The Sanborn Brook bridge was constructed in August 1991, 10 miles northeast of Concord, New Hampshire, as part of the demonstration timber bridge program of the USDA Forest Service. The bridge is a simple-span, double-lane, stress-laminated deck superstructure constructed from Southern Pine lumber and is approximately 25 ft long and 28 ft wide with a skew of 14 degrees...

  12. STS-46 'blue' shift crewmembers look up from work on OV-104's flight deck

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    STS-46 'blue' shift crewmembers look up from checklist procedures to have their picture taken on the forward flight deck of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104. Seated at the commanders station (left) is Pilot Andrew M. Allen with Italian Payload Specialist Franco Malerba positioned in front of the center console and European Space Agency (ESA) Mission Specialist seated at the pilots station (right). MS Marsha S. Ivins is in the interdeck access hatch at the right bottom corner of the photo.

  13. Choice Experiment Analysis of Outdoor Decking Material Selection in E-Commerce Market in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Holopainen, Jani Markus; Toppinen, Anne Maarit Kristiina; Lähtinen, Katja Päivikki; Rekola, Mika Olavi

    2017-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, there has been hope that the uptake of certified forest products would ensure more sustainable forest management and also deliver business benefits along the value chain. Our study applies a Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE) to model an e-commerce purchase in the case of multiple products with various attribute and certification combinations in the Finnish retail outdoor decking material market. We received 2772 responses from 231 participants in an online survey. Applyi...

  14. Long-term behaviour of a steel-concrete composite railway bridge deck

    OpenAIRE

    STAQUET, S; TAILHAN, JL; ESPION, B

    2005-01-01

    A prefabricated, composite and prestressed railway bridge deck has been instrumented in June 2000 with strain gages and vibrating wire extensometers. The purpose of this paper is to report on the comparison between strains recorded in situ up to four years with values computed within the framework of an original time-dependent analysis base on the evolution of the degree of hydration and the internal relative humidity in concrete. These fundamental parameters used in the proposed model to com...

  15. Modelling and fatigue life assessment of orthotropic bridge deck details using FEM

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aygül, M.; AL-Emrani, M.; Urushadze, Shota

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 40, July (2012), s. 129-142 ISSN 0142-1123 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7E08098 Grant - others:evropská komise(XE) RFSR-CT-2008-00033 (BRIFAG) Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : orthotropic bridge deck * open ribs * structural hot spot stress * effective notch stress Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering Impact factor: 1.976, year: 2012

  16. Load test of the 272E Building high bay roof deck and support structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    The 272E Building high bay roof area was load tested according to the approved load-test procedure. The 272E Building is located in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site and has the following characteristics: Roof deck -- wood decking supported by 4 x 14 timber purlins; Roof membrane -- tar and gravel; Roof slope -- flat (<10 deg); and Roof elevation -- maximum height of about 63 ft. The 272 Building was visited in August 1992 for a visual inspection. During this inspection, cracked areas were visible in the decking, but it was not possible to determine whether these cracks extended completely through the decking, which is 2-in. thick. The building was revisited in March 1994 for the purpose of writing this test report. Because the roof requires personnel access, a test was determine to be the best way to qualify the roof. The pre-test briefing consisted of filling out the pre-test checklist, discussing proper lifting techniques, reviewing the fall-protection plan, reviewing the job hazards analysis, and reviewing the robot travel path. The load-test results consist of visual observations and the test engineer's conclusions. Visual observations found no adverse conditions such as large deflections or permanent deformations. No deflection measurements were recorded because the tar and gravel on roof get displaced by the robot tracks; the result is large variations in deflection measurements. The conclusions are that the roof has been qualified for 500-lb total roof load and that the ''No Roof Access'' signs can be changed to ''Roof Access Restricted'' signs

  17. Nondestructive Evaluation of Concrete Bridge Decks with Automated Acoustic Scanning System and Ground Penetrating Radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongbin; Pashoutani, Sepehr; Zhu, Jinying

    2018-06-16

    Delamanintions and reinforcement corrosion are two common problems in concrete bridge decks. No single nondestructive testing method (NDT) is able to provide comprehensive characterization of these defects. In this work, two NDT methods, acoustic scanning and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), were used to image a straight concrete bridge deck and a curved intersection ramp bridge. An acoustic scanning system has been developed for rapid delamination mapping. The system consists of metal-ball excitation sources, air-coupled sensors, and a GPS positioning system. The acoustic scanning results are presented as a two-dimensional image that is based on the energy map in the frequency range of 0.5⁻5 kHz. The GPR scanning results are expressed as the GPR signal attenuation map to characterize concrete deterioration and reinforcement corrosion. Signal processing algorithms for both methods are discussed. Delamination maps from the acoustic scanning are compared with deterioration maps from the GPR scanning on both bridges. The results demonstrate that combining the acoustic and GPR scanning results will provide a complementary and comprehensive evaluation of concrete bridge decks.

  18. Thermal analysis of GFRP-reinforced continuous concrete decks subjected to top fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawileh, Rami A.; Rasheed, Hayder A.

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents a numerical study that investigates the behavior of continuous concrete decks doubly reinforced with top and bottom glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) bars subjected to top surface fire. A finite element (FE) model is developed and a detailed transient thermal analysis is performed on a continuous concrete bridge deck under the effect of various fire curves. A parametric study is performed to examine the top cover thickness and the critical fire exposure curve needed to fully degrade the top GFRP bars while achieving certain fire ratings for the deck considered. Accordingly, design tables are prepared for each fire curve to guide the engineer to properly size the top concrete cover and maintain the temperature in the GFRP bars below critical design values in order to control the full top GFRP degradation. It is notable to indicate that degradation of top GFRP bars do not pose a collapse hazard but rather a serviceability concern since cracks in the negative moment region widen resulting in simply supported spans.

  19. Prediction of radiation ratio and sound transmission of complex extruded panel using wavenumber domain Unite element and boundary element methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H; Ryue, J; Thompson, D J; Müller, A D

    2016-01-01

    Recently, complex shaped aluminium panels have been adopted in many structures to make them lighter and stronger. The vibro-acoustic behaviour of these complex panels has been of interest for many years but conventional finite element and boundary element methods are not efficient to predict their performance at higher frequencies. Where the cross-sectional properties of the panels are constant in one direction, wavenumber domain numerical analysis can be applied and this becomes more suitable for panels with complex cross-sectional geometries. In this paper, a coupled wavenumber domain finite element and boundary element method is applied to predict the sound radiation from and sound transmission through a double-layered aluminium extruded panel, having a typical shape used in railway carriages. The predicted results are compared with measured ones carried out on a finite length panel and good agreement is found. (paper)

  20. Solar panel truss mounting systems and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Haddad, Tristan Farris; Cavieres, Andres; Gentry, Russell; Goodman, Joseph; Nolan, Wade; Pitelka, Taylor; Rahimzadeh, Keyan; Brooks, Bradley; Lohr, Joshua; Crooks, Ryan; Porges, Jamie; Rubin, Daniel

    2016-06-28

    An exemplary embodiment of the present invention provides a solar panel truss mounting system comprising a base and a truss assembly coupled to the base. The truss assembly comprises a first panel rail mount, second panel rail mount parallel to the first panel rail mount, base rail mount parallel to the first and second panel rail mounts, and a plurality of support members. A first portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first and second panel rail mounts. A second portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first panel rail mount and the base rail mount. A third portion of the plurality of support members extends between the second panel rail mount and the base rail mount. The system can further comprise a plurality of connectors for coupling a plurality of photovoltaic solar panels to the truss assembly.

  1. Solar panel truss mounting systems and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Haddad, Tristan Farris; Cavieres, Andres; Gentry, Russell; Goodman, Joseph; Nolan, Wade; Pitelka, Taylor; Rahimzadeh, Keyan; Brooks, Bradley; Lohr, Joshua; Crooks, Ryan; Porges, Jamie; Rubin, Daniel

    2018-01-30

    An exemplary embodiment of the present invention provides a solar panel truss mounting system comprising a base and a truss assembly coupled to the base. The truss assembly comprises a first panel rail mount, second panel rail mount parallel to the first panel rail mount, base rail mount parallel to the first and second panel rail mounts, and a plurality of support members. A first portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first and second panel rail mounts. A second portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first panel rail mount and the base rail mount. A third portion of the plurality of support members extends between the second panel rail mount and the base rail mount. The system can further comprise a plurality of connectors for coupling a plurality of photovoltaic solar panels to the truss assembly.

  2. Solar panel truss mounting systems and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Haddad, Tristan Farris; Cavieres, Andres; Gentry, Russell; Goodman, Joseph; Nolan, Wade; Pitelka, Taylor; Rahimzadeh, Keyan; Brooks, Bradley; Lohr, Joshua; Crooks, Ryan; Porges, Jamie; Rubin, Daniel

    2015-10-20

    An exemplary embodiment of the present invention provides a solar panel truss mounting system comprising a base and a truss assembly coupled to the base. The truss assembly comprises a first panel rail mount, second panel rail mount parallel to the first panel rail mount, base rail mount parallel to the first and second panel rail mounts, and a plurality of support members. A first portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first and second panel rail mounts. A second portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first panel rail mount and the base rail mount. A third portion of the plurality of support members extends between the second panel rail mount and the base rail mount. The system can further comprise a plurality of connectors for coupling a plurality of photovoltaic solar panels to the truss assembly.

  3. Mobile response in web panels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijne, M.A.; Wijnant, A.

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates unintended mobile access to surveys in online, probability-based panels. We find that spontaneous tablet usage is drastically increasing in web surveys, while smartphone usage remains low. Further, we analyze the bias of respondent profiles using smartphones and tablets

  4. Keuringspanele ("Screening Panels") as Gepaste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this particular article attention is paid to screening panels as pre-trial mechanism with the exclusive purpose to select malpractice disputes, discourage unfounded disputes and to encourage an early settlement in case of a prima facie case. Several objections have been raised by critics in this regard, for instance, ...

  5. ASIST 2003: Part II: Panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proceedings of the ASIST Annual Meeting, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Forty-six panels address topics including women in information science; users and usability; information studies; reference services; information policies; standards; interface design; information retrieval; information networks; metadata; shared access; e-commerce in libraries; knowledge organization; information science theories; digitization;…

  6. Risk-based decisionmaking (Panel)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, T.H.

    1995-12-31

    By means of a panel discussion and extensive audience interaction, explore the current challenges and progress to date in applying risk considerations to decisionmaking related to low-level waste. This topic is especially timely because of the proposed legislation pertaining to risk-based decisionmaking and because of the increased emphasis placed on radiological performance assessments of low-level waste disposal.

  7. Use of Internet panels to conduct surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Ron D; Liu, Honghu; Kapteyn, Arie

    2015-09-01

    The use of Internet panels to collect survey data is increasing because it is cost-effective, enables access to large and diverse samples quickly, takes less time than traditional methods to obtain data for analysis, and the standardization of the data collection process makes studies easy to replicate. A variety of probability-based panels have been created, including Telepanel/CentERpanel, Knowledge Networks (now GFK KnowledgePanel), the American Life Panel, the Longitudinal Internet Studies for the Social Sciences panel, and the Understanding America Study panel. Despite the advantage of having a known denominator (sampling frame), the probability-based Internet panels often have low recruitment participation rates, and some have argued that there is little practical difference between opting out of a probability sample and opting into a nonprobability (convenience) Internet panel. This article provides an overview of both probability-based and convenience panels, discussing potential benefits and cautions for each method, and summarizing the approaches used to weight panel respondents in order to better represent the underlying population. Challenges of using Internet panel data are discussed, including false answers, careless responses, giving the same answer repeatedly, getting multiple surveys from the same respondent, and panelists being members of multiple panels. More is to be learned about Internet panels generally and about Web-based data collection, as well as how to evaluate data collected using mobile devices and social-media platforms.

  8. 2017 Cybersecurity Workshop: Cross Cutting Panel - Video Text Version |

    Science.gov (United States)

    tell an audience - let's say you are doing a Ted X talk. You've been invited. And these people are kind , was at a reception the same day of his graduation. I think it's 1965, it's Berkeley. He comes out, and impact to the grid. Erfan Ibrahim: Wonderful. So I'll entertain two questions for the audience, and then

  9. Continuous Time Modeling of the Cross-Lagged Panel Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oud, J.H.L.

    2002-01-01

    Since Newton (1642-1727) continuous time modeling by means of differential equations is the standard approach of dynamic phenomena in natural science. It is argued that most processes in behavioral science also unfold in continuous time and should be analyzed accordingly. After dealing with the

  10. El Salvador - Rural Electrification - Solar Panels

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — This is a summative qualitative performance evaluation (PE) of the solar panel component of the solar panel component of the RE Sub-Activity. The final report will...

  11. Installation package for concentrating solar collector panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The concentrating solar collector panels comprise a complete package array consisting of collector panels using modified Fresnel prismatic lenses for a 10 to 1 concentrating ratio, supporting framework, fluid manifolding and tracking drive system, and unassembled components for field erection.

  12. Retaining Ring Fastener for Solar Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A. H.

    1983-01-01

    Simple articulating linkage secures solar panels into supporting framework. Five element linkage collapses into W-shape for easy placement into framework, then expands to form rectangle of same dimensions as those of panel.

  13. PV panel model based on datasheet values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sera, Dezso; Teodorescu, Remus; Rodriguez, Pedro

    2007-01-01

    This work presents the construction of a model for a PV panel using the single-diode five-parameters model, based exclusively on data-sheet parameters. The model takes into account the series and parallel (shunt) resistance of the panel. The equivalent circuit and the basic equations of the PV cell....... Based on these equations, a PV panel model, which is able to predict the panel behavior in different temperature and irradiance conditions, is built and tested....

  14. Grounds of two positions photovoltaic panels

    OpenAIRE

    Castán Fortuño, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this Master Thesis is to find the optimum positioning for a two positions photovoltaic panel. Hence, it will be implemented a model in order to optimize the energy of the sun that the photovoltaic panel is receiving by its positioning. Likewise this project will include the comparison with other photovoltaic panel systems as the single position photovoltaics panels. Ultimately, it is also going to be designed a system array for the optimized model of two positions photovoltai...

  15. Synergistic Allocation of Flight Expertise on the Flight Deck (SAFEdeck): A Design Concept to Combat Mode Confusion, Complacency, and Skill Loss in the Flight Deck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Paul; Goodrich, Kenneth; Williams, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a new design and function allocation philosophy between pilots and automation that seeks to support the human in mitigating innate weaknesses (e.g., memory, vigilance) while enhancing their strengths (e.g., adaptability, resourcefulness). In this new allocation strategy, called Synergistic Allocation of Flight Expertise in the Flight Deck (SAFEdeck), the automation and the human provide complementary support and backup for each other. Automation is designed to be compliant with the practices of Crew Resource Management. The human takes a more active role in the normal operation of the aircraft without adversely increasing workload over the current automation paradigm. This designed involvement encourages the pilot to be engaged and ready to respond to unexpected situations. As such, the human may be less prone to error than the current automation paradigm.

  16. Control panel for CMC 8080 crate controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masayuki Inokuchi

    1978-01-01

    The main features of Control Panel for CAMAC Crate Controller CMC 8080 are described. The control panel can be directly connected with CRATE CONTROLLER's front panel connector with a 50 lines cable without any changes in CMC 8080 system circuits. (author)

  17. 78 FR 63501 - Meetings of Humanities Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Meetings of Humanities Panel AGENCY: National Endowment for the Humanities. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: Pursuant to section 10(a)(2) of the... Humanities Panel will be held during November, 2013 as follows. The purpose of the meetings is for panel...

  18. 78 FR 74175 - Meetings of Humanities Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Meetings of Humanities Panel AGENCY: National Endowment for the Humanities. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: Pursuant to section 10(a)(2) of the... Humanities Panel will be held during January 2014 as follows. The purpose of the meetings is for panel review...

  19. Solar panel assembly and support pad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawley, W.W.

    1980-10-07

    A solar panel assembly is described comprising at least one solar panel, support means for carrying said panel, and at least one support pad having a base plate, upstanding longitudinal sides, and spaced apart flange means for connection to said support means, said upstanding sides and opposed flange means defining an interior volume for receiving and holding weighting material.

  20. Flat panel planar optic display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veligdan, J.T. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Advanced Technology

    1994-11-01

    A prototype 10 inch flat panel Planar Optic Display, (POD), screen has been constructed and tested. This display screen is comprised of hundreds of planar optic class sheets bonded together with a cladding layer between each sheet where each glass sheet represents a vertical line of resolution. The display is 9 inches wide by 5 inches high and approximately 1 inch thick. A 3 milliwatt HeNe laser is used as the illumination source and a vector scanning technique is employed.

  1. Panel 4 - applications to transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, F. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Au, J. [Sundstrand Aerospace, Rockford, IL (United States); Bhattacharya, R. [Universal Energy Systems, Inc., Dayton, OH (United States); Bhushan, B. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus (United States); Blunier, D. [Caterpillar, Inc., Peoria, IL (United States); Boardman, B. [Deere & Co., Moline, IL (United States); Brombolich, L. [Compu-Tec Engineering, Chesterfield, MO (United States); Davidson, J. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States); Graham, M. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Hakim, N. [Detroit Diesel Corp., MI (United States); Harris, K. [Dubbeldee Harris Diamond Corp., Mt. Arlington, NJ (United States); Hay, R. [Norton Diamond Film, Northboro, MA (United States); Herk, L. [Southwest Research Inst., Southfield, MI (United States); Hojnacki, H.; Rourk, D. [Intelligent Structures Incorporated, Canton, MI (United States); Kamo, R. [Adiabatics, Inc., Columbus, IN (United States); Nieman, B. [Allied-Signal Inc., Des Plaines, IL (United States); O`Neill, D. [3M, St. Paul, MN (United States); Peterson, M.B. [Wear Sciences, Arnold, MD (United States); Pfaffenberger, G. [Allison Gas Turbine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Pryor, R.W. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States); Russell, J. [Superconductivity Publications, Inc., Somerset, NJ (United States); Syniuta, W. [Advanced Mechanical Technology, Inc., Newton, MA (United States); Tamor, M. [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States); Vojnovich, T. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Yarbrough, W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States); Yust, C.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this group was to compile a listing of current and anticipated future problem areas in the transportation industry where the properties of diamond and DLC films make them especially attractive and where the panel could strongly endorse the establishment of DOE/Transportation Industry cooperative research efforts. This section identifies the problem areas for possible applications of diamond/DLC technology and presents indications of current approaches to these problems.

  2. Comparison between major repair and replacement options for a bridge deck life cycle assessment: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Dabous Saleh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Material production, manufacturing, transportation, usage, and end of lifeprocessing are usually the main contributors defining the life cycle assessment (LCA. Bridge infrastructure is important to the economy and the society. Over their life cycle, highway bridges experience several stressors that can significantly affect their structural performance and therefore require rehabilitation. This paper discusses the life cycle analysis of bridge rehabilitation decisions and demonstrates the analysis with a case study of a bridge located in Ontario, Canada. The LCA of the bridge deck is analyzed for two rehabilitation strategies: major repair and replacement. The study focuses on evaluating the different life cycle phases of the bridge deck by assessing their carbon dioxide emission, energy consumption and cost. Also, the paper presents the impact of the different elements within each phase to identify the most contributing elements. The LCA of the bridge deck is analyzed and estimated with the aid of CES EduPack 2016 software that includes a database of more than 4000 different materials and more than 200 manufacturing processes. Analysis of the case study shows that material phase causes significant life cycle impact. The study concluded that the deck replacement yields higher environmental impact and life cycle cost compared to repairing and strengthening the deck.

  3. Deck and Cable Dynamic Testing of a Single-span Bridge Using Radar Interferometry and Videometry Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piniotis, George; Gikas, Vassilis; Mpimis, Thanassis; Perakis, Harris

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents the dynamic testing of a roadway, single-span, cable-stayed bridge for a sequence of static load and ambient vibration monitoring scenarios. Deck movements were captured along both sideways of the bridge using a Digital Image Correlation (DIC) and a Ground-based Microwave Interfererometer (GBMI) system. Cable vibrations were measured at a single point location on each of the six cables using the GBMI technique. Dynamic testing involves three types of analyses; firstly, vibration analysis and modal parameter estimation (i. e., natural frequencies and modal shapes) of the deck using the combined DIC and GBMI measurements. Secondly, dynamic testing of the cables is performed through vibration analysis and experimental computation of their tension forces. Thirdly, the mechanism of cable-deck dynamic interaction is studied through their Power Spectra Density (PSD) and the Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT) analyses. Thereby, the global (deck and cable) and local (either deck or cable) bridge modes are identified, serving a concrete benchmark of the current state of the bridge for studying the evolution of its structural performance in the future. The level of synergy and complementarity between the GBMI and DIC techniques for bridge monitoring is also examined and assessed.

  4. Comparisons between various cavity and panel noise reduction control in double-panel structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, J.H.; Kalverboer, J.; Berkhoff, A.P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents comparisons between various panel and cavity resonance control methods to reduce the transmitted sound in a double-panel structure. The double-panel, which consists of two panels with air in the gap, has the advantages of low weight and effective transmission-loss at high

  5. Panel Resonance Control and Cavity Control in Double-Panel Structures for Active Noise Reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, J.; Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2011-01-01

    An analytical and experimental investigation of panel resonance control and cavity control in a double-panel structure is presented in this paper. The double-panel structure, which consists of two panels with air in the gap, is widely adopted in many applications such as aerospace due to its low

  6. Noise Reduction in Double‿Panel Structures by Cavity and Panel Resonance Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, J.; Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the cavity and the panel resonance control in a double‿panel structure. The double‿panel structure, which consists of two panels with air in the gap, is widely adopted in many applications such as aerospace due to its light weight and effective

  7. Noise reduction in double-panel structures by cavity and panel resonance control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, J.-H.; Berkhoff, A.P

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the cavity and the panel resonance control in a double‐panel structure. The double‐panel structure, which consists of two panels with air in the gap, is widely adopted in many applications such as aerospace due to its light weight and effective

  8. Cavity Control and Panel Control Strategies in Double-Panel Structures for Transmitted Noise Reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, J.; Kalverboer, J.; Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2012-01-01

    Investigation and comparisons of the cavity control and the panel control in a double-panel structure are presented in this paper. The double-panel structure, which comprises two panels with air in the gap, provides the advantages of low sound-transmission at high frequency, low heat-transmission

  9. Clinical observation of the glaucoma trabeculectomy with tunnel knife making the double-deck scleral flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Fu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the trabeculectomy clinical effect of use tunnel knife to make double-deck scleral flap and to cut off the layer scleral flap of glaucoma.METHODS:Using the random grouping method to divide 46 cases(60 eyesof glaucoma into the treatment group of 24 cases(32 eyesand control group of 22 cases(28 eyes. The treatment group, tunnel knife was used to make double-deck sclera flap and superficial scleral flap about the size of 5mm×5.5mm,1/3 scleral thickness, under the sclera flap made another one about the size of 3.5mm×4mm, 1/3 scleral thickness, resected the middle layer of the sclera flap, removed 2mm×2mm trabecular tissue, underwent routine peripheral iridectomy, could adjust suture the superficial scleral flap, sutured Ball fascia and bulbar conjunctiva. In control group, routine glaucoma trabeculectomy was undergone.RESULTS:Patients were followed up for 1a, the vision in treatment group was obviously better than that in the control group, with a statistically significant difference(PP>0.05. But after 6 and 12mo, the intraocular pressure of the treatment group were significantly lower than that of the control group, with statistically significant difference(PPCONCLUSION:The trabeculectomy have a good effect to lower the intraocular pressure by use tunnel knife to make double-deck scleral flap and to cut off the layer scleral flap. The scleral flap have uniform thickness, smooth surface, and the function of the filtering bleb maintained for a long time, less postoperative complications, suitable for various types of glaucoma, so it is worthy of clinical promotion.

  10. Comparison of Controller and Flight Deck Algorithm Performance During Interval Management with Dynamic Arrival Trees (STARS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battiste, Vernol; Lawton, George; Lachter, Joel; Brandt, Summer; Koteskey, Robert; Dao, Arik-Quang; Kraut, Josh; Ligda, Sarah; Johnson, Walter W.

    2012-01-01

    Managing the interval between arrival aircraft is a major part of the en route and TRACON controller s job. In an effort to reduce controller workload and low altitude vectoring, algorithms have been developed to allow pilots to take responsibility for, achieve and maintain proper spacing. Additionally, algorithms have been developed to create dynamic weather-free arrival routes in the presence of convective weather. In a recent study we examined an algorithm to handle dynamic re-routing in the presence of convective weather and two distinct spacing algorithms. The spacing algorithms originated from different core algorithms; both were enhanced with trajectory intent data for the study. These two algorithms were used simultaneously in a human-in-the-loop (HITL) simulation where pilots performed weather-impacted arrival operations into Louisville International Airport while also performing interval management (IM) on some trials. The controllers retained responsibility for separation and for managing the en route airspace and some trials managing IM. The goal was a stress test of dynamic arrival algorithms with ground and airborne spacing concepts. The flight deck spacing algorithms or controller managed spacing not only had to be robust to the dynamic nature of aircraft re-routing around weather but also had to be compatible with two alternative algorithms for achieving the spacing goal. Flight deck interval management spacing in this simulation provided a clear reduction in controller workload relative to when controllers were responsible for spacing the aircraft. At the same time, spacing was much less variable with the flight deck automated spacing. Even though the approaches taken by the two spacing algorithms to achieve the interval management goals were slightly different they seem to be simpatico in achieving the interval management goal of 130 sec by the TRACON boundary.

  11. Broadband transmission noise reduction of smart panels featuring piezoelectric shunt circuits and sound-absorbing material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaehwan; Lee, Joong-Kuen

    2002-09-01

    The possibility of a broadband noise reduction of piezoelectric smart panels is experimentally studied. A piezoelectric smart panel is basically a plate structure on which piezoelectric patches with electrical shunt circuits are mounted and sound-absorbing material is bonded on the surface of the structure. Sound-absorbing material can absorb the sound transmitted at the midfrequency region effectively while the use of piezoelectric shunt damping can reduce the transmission at resonance frequencies of the panel structure. To be able to reduce the sound transmission at low panel resonance frequencies, piezoelectric damping using the measured electrical impedance model is adopted. A resonant shunt circuit for piezoelectric shunt damping is composed of resistor and inductor in series, and they are determined by maximizing the dissipated energy through the circuit. The transmitted noise-reduction performance of smart panels is tested in an acoustic tunnel. The tunnel is a square cross-sectional tube and a loudspeaker is mounted at one side of the tube as a sound source. Panels are mounted in the middle of the tunnel and the transmitted sound pressure across panels is measured. When an absorbing material is bonded on a single plate, a remarkable transmitted noise reduction in the midfrequency region is observed except for the fundamental resonance frequency of the plate. By enabling the piezoelectric shunt damping, noise reduction is achieved at the resonance frequency as well. Piezoelectric smart panels incorporating passive absorbing material and piezoelectric shunt damping is a promising technology for noise reduction over a broadband of frequencies.

  12. Income and CO2 emissions: Evidence from panel unit root and cointegration tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.-C.; Lee, J.-D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper re-investigates the stationarity properties of per capita carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions and real Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita for 109 countries within seven regional panel sets covering 1971-2003. We apply the recent unit-root test of the panel seemingly unrelated regressions augmented Dickey-Fuller (SURADF) test developed by Breuer et al. [2001. Misleading inferences from panel unit-root tests with an illustration from purchasing power parity. Review of International Economics 9, 482-493; 2002. Series-specific unit-root tests with panel data, Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics 64, 527-546]. The panel SURADF test accounts for the presence of cross-country correlations in the data, and the parameters in the panel specification vary across countries. More importantly, this test allows us to identify how many and which members of the panel contain a unit root. Overall, our empirical results illustrate that real GDP and CO 2 emissions in these countries are a mixture of I(0) and I(1) processes, and that the traditional panel unit-root tests could lead to misleading inferences as well as the conduct of cointegration analysis being perhaps inappropriate. The results of our analysis carry critical implications for the modeling of CO 2 emissions and GDP because of the different orders of integration for the two variables

  13. Structural condition assessment and service load performance of deteriorated prestressed concrete deck beam bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Juan Bolivar

    Precast pretensioned deck beam bridges are a generic bridge type widely used by IDOT for new construction through the end of the 1970's and still widely used on county roads throughout Illinois. While these bridges were economical to build, IDOT discontinued their use because reflective cracks developed along the length of the longitudinal joints between beams. Three 30 years old deteriorated beams were removed from an existing bridge over Spoon River in Fulton County, IL and delivered to Newmark Civil Engineering Laboratory. The program consisted of a series of comprehensive, destructive and non-destructive, tests and evaluations of the three beams with emphasis on three major areas; (1) The Condition Assessment of the as-delivered beams. (2) The service load performance of the bridge sub-assemblage constructed from those beams. After a comprehensive inspection of the beams was completed, the beams were integrated together into a bridge subassembly that simulated a bridge lane. (3) Following the service load tests, the three beams were separated and tested individually to failure. The critical signs to be observed in existing structures that will lead the inspectors to conclude that a deck beam is being overloaded were are also studied. Several conclusions were found. Cracking of the longitudinal joint has little effect on the stiffness of the bridge if the transverse rod is snug. The presence of a snug transverse tie rod increases the strength of the longitudinal joint. After a longitudinal joint has fractured, reincorporating a snug transverse rod can significantly reestablish the stiffness of the longitudinal joint and reduce overloading of a deteriorated beam. Participation factors must be based on relative bending moments of one beam with respect to the total amount of bending moment produced by the applied load and not to the amount of total vertical displacement. The participation factors will vary along the span of the bridge deck and will depend on the

  14. Study of deflection and crack interrelation that use deck slab's automatic measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung Woo; Park, Yung Suk; Joo, Kwon Yong

    2004-01-01

    Reinforce concrete slab executes finish work if 6 - 8 hours pass since concrete placing. Specially, because minimize process composition slab occasion early space-time that use structure deck plate, concrete strength revelation is very important. The reason is that when strength revelation is not made, fine shock and deflection can provoke concrete crack. Executed radio automatic measure to prevent these crack initiation cause in the advance. Apply radio automatic measure is il-san culture center building and pasta measure period 03/09/06 - 03/10/08.

  15. Attachments for fire modeling for Building 221-T, T Plant canyon deck and railroad tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oar, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this attachment is to provide historical information and documentation for Document No. WHC-SD-CP-ANAL-008 Rev 0, ''Fire Modeling for Building 221-T--T Plant Canyon Deck and Railroad Tunnel'', dated September 29, 1994. This data compilation contains the following: Resumes of the Technical Director, Senior Engineer and Junior Engineer; Review and Comment Record; Software Files; CFAST Input and Output Files; Calculation Control Sheets; and Estimating Sprinkler Actuation Time in the Canyon and Railroad Tunnel. The T Plant was originally a fuel reprocessing facility. It was modified later to decontaminate and repair PuRex process equipment

  16. STS-42 Payload Specialist Merbold with drink on OV-103's aft flight deck

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    STS-42 Payload Specialist Ulf D. Merbold, wearing a lightweight headset (HDST), experiments with a grapefruit drink and straw on the aft flight deck of Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103. Merbold watches the liquid ball of grapefruit drink he created float in the weightlessness of space. The Los Angeles Dodger cap Merbold is wearing is part of a tribute to Manley L. (Sonny) Carter, originally assigned as a mission specialist on this flight. During the eight-day flight, the crewmembers each wore the cap on a designated day. Carter, a versatile athlete and avid Dodger fan, died in the crash of a commuter airline in 1991.

  17. Flat panel display - Impurity doping technology for flat panel displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Toshiharu [Advanced Technology Planning, Sumitomo Eaton Nova Corporation, SBS Tower 9F, 10-1, Yoga 4-chome, Setagaya-ku, 158-0097 Tokyo (Japan)]. E-mail: suzuki_tsh@senova.co.jp

    2005-08-01

    Features of the flat panel displays (FPDs) such as liquid crystal display (LCD) and organic light emitting diode (OLED) display, etc. using low temperature poly-Si (LTPS) thin film transistors (TFTs) are briefly reviewed comparing with other FPDs. The requirements for fabricating TFTs used for high performance FPDs and system on glass (SoG) are addressed. This paper focuses on the impurity doping technology, which is one of the key technologies together with crystallization by laser annealing, formation of high quality gate insulator and gate-insulator/poly-Si interface. The issues to be solved in impurity doping technology for state of the art and future TFTs are clarified.

  18. Flat panel display - Impurity doping technology for flat panel displays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Toshiharu

    2005-01-01

    Features of the flat panel displays (FPDs) such as liquid crystal display (LCD) and organic light emitting diode (OLED) display, etc. using low temperature poly-Si (LTPS) thin film transistors (TFTs) are briefly reviewed comparing with other FPDs. The requirements for fabricating TFTs used for high performance FPDs and system on glass (SoG) are addressed. This paper focuses on the impurity doping technology, which is one of the key technologies together with crystallization by laser annealing, formation of high quality gate insulator and gate-insulator/poly-Si interface. The issues to be solved in impurity doping technology for state of the art and future TFTs are clarified

  19. High Efficiency, High Density Terrestrial Panel. [for solar cell modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlgemuth, J.; Wihl, M.; Rosenfield, T.

    1979-01-01

    Terrestrial panels were fabricated using rectangular cells. Packing densities in excess of 90% with panel conversion efficiencies greater than 13% were obtained. Higher density panels can be produced on a cost competitive basis with the standard salami panels.

  20. 33 CFR 149.419 - Can the water supply for the helicopter deck fire protection system be part of a fire water system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Can the water supply for the... § 149.419 Can the water supply for the helicopter deck fire protection system be part of a fire water system? (a) The water supply for the helicopter deck fire protection system required under § 149.420 or...

  1. Laboratory panel and radiometer calibration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Deadman, AJ

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Griffith1_2011.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 16659 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Griffith1_2011.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 LABORATORY PANEL... of Land surface imaging through a ground reference standard test site?, on http://qa4eo.org/documentation.html, 2009. [2] K. J. Thome, D. L. Helder, D. Aaron, and J. D. Dewald, ?Landsat-5 TM and Landsat-7 ETM+ Absolute Radiometric Calibration Using...

  2. [Using consumer panels in public health observational studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matilla-Santander, Nuria; Fu, Marcela; Ballbè, Montse; Lidón-Moyano, Cristina; Martín-Sánchez, Juan Carlos; Fernández, Esteve; Martínez-Sánchez, José M

    Consumer panels are a market research method useful for gathering information about low-frequency or difficult-access customers. The objective of this field-note is to explain our experience using this method in a cross-sectional public health study on the use of electronic cigarettes. After taking into account other non-probabilistic sampling techniques to obtain a huge sample of electronic-cigarette users (n=600), in the end we decided to use consumer panels (recruiters) because of the relative short duration of the field work and the high representativeness of the sample. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Load test of the 3701U Building roof deck and support structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    The 3701U Building roof area was load tested according to the approved load-test procedure. The 3701U Building is located in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site and has the following characteristics: Roof deck--metal decking supported by steel purlins; Roof membrane--tar and gravel; Roof slope--flat (<10 deg); and Roof elevation--height of about 12.5 ft. The 3701U Building was visited in August 1992 for a visual inspection, but because of insulation an inspection could not be performed. The building was revisited in March 1994 for the purpose of writing this test report. Because the roof could not be inspected, a test was determined to be the best way to qualify the roof for personnel access. The test procedure called for the use of a remotely-controlled robot. The conclusions are that the roof has been qualified for 500-lb total roof load and that the ''No Roof Access'' signs can be changed to ''Roof Access Restricted'' signs

  4. A review on the suitability of rubberized concrete for concrete bridge decks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syamir Senin, Mohamad; Shahidan, Shahiron; Radziah Abdullah, Siti; Anting Guntor, Nickholas; Syazani Leman, Alif

    2017-11-01

    Road authorities manage a large population of ageing bridges, a substantial number of which fail to meet the current requirements either due to deterioration and other structural deficiencies or as a result of the escalating demands imposed by increased traffic. This problem is related to the dynamic load from vehicles. This problem can be solved by producing a type of concrete that can reduce the amplitude of oscillation or vibration such as rubberized concrete. Green construction has been a very important aspect in concrete production field in the last decade. One of the most problematic waste materials is scrap tires. The use of scrap tires in civil engineering is increasing by producing rubberized concrete. Rubberized concrete is a type of concrete that is mixed with rubber. The purpose of this review is to justify the suitability of rubberized concrete for concrete bridge decks. Several parameters named physical, chemical and mechanical properties were measured to ensure the suitability of rubberized concrete for concrete bridge decks. Rubberized concrete has similar workability to normal concrete. The rubber reduced the density and compressive strength of the concrete while increased the flexural strength, water absorption and damping ratio. The used of rubber in concrete beyond 20% is not recommended due to decreasing in compressive strength. Rubberized concrete recommended to be used in circumstances where vibration damping was required such as in bridge construction as shock-wave absorber.

  5. Reducing commercial fishing deck hazards with engineering solutions for winch design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Jennifer M; Lucas, Devin L; McKibbin, Robert W; Woodward, Chelsea C; Bevan, John E

    2008-01-01

    The majority (67%) of hospitalized injuries among Alaska commercial fishermen are associated with deck machinery. This paper describes the "Prevention Through Design" process to mitigate one serious machinery entanglement hazard posed by a capstan deck winch. After observing that the capstan winch provides no entanglement protection and the hydraulic controls are usually out of reach of the entangled person, NIOSH personnel met with fishermen and winch manufacturers to discuss various design solutions to mitigate these hazards. An emergency-stop ("e-stop") system was developed that incorporated a momentary contact button that when pushed, switches a safety-relay that de-energizes the solenoid of an electro-hydraulic valve stopping the rotating winch. The vessel owners that had the e-stop installed enthusiastically recommend it to other fishermen. NIOSH entered into a Proprietary Technology Licensing Agreement with a company to develop the system for commercial use. This is an example of a practical engineering control that effectively protects workers from a hazardous piece of equipment by preventing injuries due to entanglement. This solution could reduce these types of debilitating injuries and fatalities in this industry.

  6. Optimum design of composite panel with photovoltaic-thermo module. Absorbing effect of cooling panel; Hikari netsu fukugo panel no saiteki sekkei. Reikyaku panel no kyunetsu koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, M; Kikuchi, S; Tani, T [Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Kadotani, K; Imaizumi, H [Komatsu Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    The composite panel with photovoltaic-thermo module becomes higher in energy-saving than the conventional air-conditioning system by the independent radiational heating and cooling effect obtained when the generating panel using a solar cell module is combined with the heating and cooling panel using a thermo-element module. The output of a solar cell module can be directly used because the solar cell module operates in AC. This paper reports the relation between the absorbed value and power consumption of the cooling panel, while paying attention to the cooling panel. The performance coefficient of the maximum absorbed value from an non-absorbing substance to a cooling panel is 2 to 3. Assume that the cooling panel during non-adiabatic operation is operated using a solar cell module of 800 W/m{sup 2} in solar intensity and 15% in conversion efficiency. The cooling-surface temperature difference is 12.12 K, and the maximum absorbed value of a non-absorbing substance to a cooling panel is 39.12 W/m{sup 2}. The absorbed value of the outer temperature to the cooling panel is 74.4 W/m{sup 2}, and each performance coefficient is 3.26 and 0.62. The absorbed value must be calculated for evaluation from the cooling-surface temperature difference measured directly from the cooling panel. 4 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Characterization of stormwater runoff from bridge decks in eastern Massachusetts, 2014–16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.; Sorenson, Jason R.; Granato, Gregory E.

    2018-05-02

    The quality of stormwater runoff from bridge decks (hereafter referred to as “bridge-deck runoff”) was characterized in a field study from August 2014 through August 2016 in which concentrations of suspended sediment (SS) and total nutrients were monitored. These new data were collected to supplement existing highway-runoff data collected in Massachusetts which were deficient in bridge-deck runoff concentration data. Monitoring stations were installed at three bridges maintained by the Massachusetts Department of Transportation in eastern Massachusetts (State Route 2A in the city of Boston, Interstate 90 in the town of Weston, and State Route 20 near Quinsigamond Village in the city of Worcester). The bridges had annual average daily traffic volumes from 21,200 to 124,000 vehicles per day; the land use surrounding the monitoring stations was 25 to 67 percent impervious.Automatic-monitoring techniques were used to collect more than 160 flow-proportional composite samples of bridge-deck runoff. Samples were analyzed for concentrations of SS, loss on ignition of suspended solids (LOI), particulate carbon (PC), total phosphorus (TP), total dissolved nitrogen (DN), and particulate nitrogen (PN). The distribution of particle size of SS also was determined for composite samples. Samples of bridge-deck runoff were collected year round during rain, mixed precipitation, and snowmelt runoff and with different dry antecedent periods throughout the 2-year sampling period.At the three bridge-deck-monitoring stations, median concentrations of SS in composite samples of bridge-deck runoff ranged from 1,490 to 2,020 milligrams per liter (mg/L); however, the range of SS in individual composites was vast at 44 to 142,000 mg/L. Median concentrations of SS were similar in composite samples collected from the State Route 2A and Interstate 90 bridge (2,010 and 2,020 mg/L, respectively), and lowest at the State Route 20 bridge (1,490 mg/L). Concentrations of coarse sediment (greater

  8. General stability of composite panels reinforced with flexible rods taking account of the side boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudchenko, A. A.; Elpat'evskii, A. N.

    1995-07-01

    Reinforced panels are the basic load-bearing elements of various structures. Optimization of massive structures requires consideration of deformation of the panel cross-sections. This is particularly important in determining the bearing strength at buckling. The load scheme, conditions for fixation of the panel cross-section, and bend-torsional stiffness taking account of the deformation of the rod cross-section affect the buckling load in real structures. The stress distribution prior to buckling must be known to solve the buckling problem properly. The stress in the panel is proportional to the active load. The stress distribution is assumed to be known according to our previous method [1]. The load scheme and panel dimensions are shown in Fig. 1. The stress distribution in the panel prior to buckling can be found using Eqs. (1)-(3). A view of the cross-section is given in Fig. 1. The displacements in the panel at buckling for the boundary area are found using Eqs. (4)-(6), while the stresses in the skin and stiffness are found using Eq. (7). Roots k1 and k2 are those of the characteristic equation and β is a dimensionless coordinate. The problem was solved using variational theory. The potential energy is given by Eqs. (8) and (9) by orihogonalization of Eqs. (5). The basic equations are converted to Eqs. (10) by evaluation of the components in Eqs. (8) and (9). Its calculation (11) gives the compression load. Optimization of parameter α gives the critical strength P1 = 6.93 kN (without taking account of the boundary area) and P2 = 5.31 kN (taking account of the boundary area).

  9. Solar-Panel Dust Accumulation and Cleanings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Air-fall dust accumulates on the solar panels of NASA's Mars Exploration Rovers, reducing the amount of sunlight reaching the solar arrays. Pre-launch models predicted steady dust accumulation. However, the rovers have been blessed with occasional wind events that clear significant amounts of dust from the solar panels. This graph shows the effects of those panel-cleaning events on the amount of electricity generated by Spirit's solar panels. The horizontal scale is the number of Martian days (sols) after Spirit's Jan. 4, 2005, (Universal Time) landing on Mars. The vertical scale indicates output from the rover's solar panels as a fraction of the amount produced when the clean panels first opened. Note that the gradual declines are interrupted by occasional sharp increases, such as a dust-cleaning event on sol 420.

  10. Solar Panel Installations on Existing Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Tim D. Sass; Pe; Leed

    2013-01-01

    The rising price of fossil fuels, government incentives and growing public aware-ness for the need to implement sustainable energy supplies has resulted in a large in-crease in solar panel installations across the country. For many sites the most eco-nomical solar panel installation uses existing, southerly facing rooftops. Adding solar panels to an existing roof typically means increased loads that must be borne by the building-s structural elements. The structural desig...

  11. Geothermal Technologies Program Blue Ribbon Panel Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-06-17

    The Geothermal Technologies Program assembled a geothermal Blue Ribbon Panel on March 22-23, 2011 in Albuquerque, New Mexico for a guided discussion on the future of geothermal energy in the United States and the role of the DOE Program. The Geothermal Blue Ribbon Panel Report captures the discussions and recommendations of the experts. An addendum is available here: http://www.eere.energy.gov/geothermal/pdfs/gtp_blue_ribbon_panel_report_addendum10-2011.pdf

  12. Sound transmission loss of composite sandwich panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ran

    Light composite sandwich panels are increasingly used in automobiles, ships and aircraft, because of the advantages they offer of high strength-to-weight ratios. However, the acoustical properties of these light and stiff structures can be less desirable than those of equivalent metal panels. These undesirable properties can lead to high interior noise levels. A number of researchers have studied the acoustical properties of honeycomb and foam sandwich panels. Not much work, however, has been carried out on foam-filled honeycomb sandwich panels. In this dissertation, governing equations for the forced vibration of asymmetric sandwich panels are developed. An analytical expression for modal densities of symmetric sandwich panels is derived from a sixth-order governing equation. A boundary element analysis model for the sound transmission loss of symmetric sandwich panels is proposed. Measurements of the modal density, total loss factor, radiation loss factor, and sound transmission loss of foam-filled honeycomb sandwich panels with different configurations and thicknesses are presented. Comparisons between the predicted sound transmission loss values obtained from wave impedance analysis, statistical energy analysis, boundary element analysis, and experimental values are presented. The wave impedance analysis model provides accurate predictions of sound transmission loss for the thin foam-filled honeycomb sandwich panels at frequencies above their first resonance frequencies. The predictions from the statistical energy analysis model are in better agreement with the experimental transmission loss values of the sandwich panels when the measured radiation loss factor values near coincidence are used instead of the theoretical values for single-layer panels. The proposed boundary element analysis model provides more accurate predictions of sound transmission loss for the thick foam-filled honeycomb sandwich panels than either the wave impedance analysis model or the

  13. Case Study - Monitoring the Photovoltaic Panels

    OpenAIRE

    PACURAR Ana Talida; TOADER Dumitru; PACURAR Cristian

    2014-01-01

    The photovoltaic cell represents one of the most dynamic and attractive way to converts renewable energy sources in electricity production. That means to convert solar energy into electricity. In this paper is presented a analogy between two types of photovoltaic panels installed, with educational role for students. Also the objective of this paper is to estimate the performance of photovoltaic panels and to provide the best solution for industry. These two types of photovoltaic panels wer...

  14. Program SIGMA1 (version 79-1): Doppler broaden evaluated cross sections in the evaluated nuclear data file/version B (ENDF/B) format

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullen, D.E.

    1979-01-01

    Program SIGMA1 Doppler-broadens evaluated cross sections in the ENDF/B format. The program requires that input cross sections be tabulated as linearly interpolable functions of energy in ENDF/B File 3; broadened cross sections, in this same form, replace the original values in the output tape. This report describes the methods used in the code and serves as a user's guide. A listing of the source deck is available on request

  15. The Efficiency of Split Panel Designs in an Analysis of Variance Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Guo; Liu, Hai-Jun

    2016-01-01

    We consider split panel design efficiency in analysis of variance models, that is, the determination of the cross-sections series optimal proportion in all samples, to minimize parametric best linear unbiased estimators of linear combination variances. An orthogonal matrix is constructed to obtain manageable expression of variances. On this basis, we derive a theorem for analyzing split panel design efficiency irrespective of interest and budget parameters. Additionally, relative estimator efficiency based on the split panel to an estimator based on a pure panel or a pure cross-section is present. The analysis shows that the gains from split panel can be quite substantial. We further consider the efficiency of split panel design, given a budget, and transform it to a constrained nonlinear integer programming. Specifically, an efficient algorithm is designed to solve the constrained nonlinear integer programming. Moreover, we combine one at time designs and factorial designs to illustrate the algorithm’s efficiency with an empirical example concerning monthly consumer expenditure on food in 1985, in the Netherlands, and the efficient ranges of the algorithm parameters are given to ensure a good solution. PMID:27163447

  16. Uncertainties in predicting solar panel power output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anspaugh, B.

    1974-01-01

    The problem of calculating solar panel power output at launch and during a space mission is considered. The major sources of uncertainty and error in predicting the post launch electrical performance of the panel are considered. A general discussion of error analysis is given. Examples of uncertainty calculations are included. A general method of calculating the effect on the panel of various degrading environments is presented, with references supplied for specific methods. A technique for sizing a solar panel for a required mission power profile is developed.

  17. Orbiter radiator panel solar focusing test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, H. R.; Rankin, J. G.

    1983-01-01

    Test data are presented which define the area around the Orbiter radiator panels for which the solar reflections are concentrated to one-sun or more. The concave shape of the panels and their specular silver/Teflon coating causes focusing of the reflected solar energy which could have adverse heating effects on equipment or astronaut extravehicular activity (EVA) in the vicinity of the radiator panels. A room ambient test method was utilized with a one-tenth scale model of the radiator panels.

  18. Interagency Security Classification Appeals Panel (ISCAP) Decisions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — This online collection includes documents decided upon by the Interagency Security Classification Appeals Panel (ISCAP) starting in Fiscal Year 2012. The documents...

  19. Development of Electrostatically Clean Solar Array Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Theodore G.

    2000-01-01

    Certain missions require Electrostatically Clean Solar Array (ECSA) panels to establish a favorable environment for the operation of sensitive scientific instruments. The objective of this program was to demonstrate the feasibility of an ECSA panel that minimizes panel surface potential below 100mV in LEO and GEO charged particle environments, prevents exposure of solar cell voltage and panel insulating surfaces to the ambient environment, and provides an equipotential, grounded structure surrounding the entire panel. An ECSA panel design was developed that uses a Front Side Aperture-Shield (FSA) that covers all inter-cell areas with a single graphite composite laminate, composite edge clips for connecting the FSA to the panel substrate, and built-in tabs that interconnect the FSA to conductive coated coverglasses using a conductive adhesive. Analysis indicated the ability of the design to meet the ECSA requirements. Qualification coupons and a 0.5m x 0.5m prototype panel were fabricated and tested for photovoltaic performance and electrical grounding before and after exposure to acoustic and thermal cycling environments. The results show the feasibility of achieving electrostatic cleanliness with a small penalty in mass, photovoltaic performance and cost, with a design is structurally robust and compatible with a wide range of current solar panel technologies.

  20. Necessity of Proper Lashing of Containers on the Ship's Deck as Part of Optimization of the Sea Voyage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Radišić

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available These days we are witnessing an increase of container trafficin general and at sea in particular. In order to economizetheir business the ship owners are building bigger container vesselswhich can carry up to 8000 TEUs (Maersk line and otherbig carriers are following suit. On the drawing board is the vesselof 12000 TEUs from the mentioned ship owner. Obviously,such large quantity of containers requires highly efficient lashingequipment in order to secure them, particularly thosestowed on the deck Under the deck, almost as a rule all contemporarycontainer ships have cell guides as securing devices.Attention in this work is focused on container lashing systemexposed on the ship's deck and the relevant forces acting on thelash system during transportation at sea. Once containers areloaded on the ship's deck they should be safely secured by oneof the lashing systems in order to prevent damage and that is theprincipal task of the lashing equipment engaged within theframe of the lash system. In order to fulfill its objective theforces acting on the container should be properly calculated.The acting forces, their influence and the way of calculatingthem have been explained for all the major ship movementsand suggestions for optimum lashing equipment are given.

  1. A Double-Deck Elevator Group Supervisory Control System with Destination Floor Guidance System Using Genetic Network Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lu; Zhou, Jin; Mabu, Shingo; Hirasawa, Kotaro; Hu, Jinglu; Markon, Sandor

    The Elevator Group Supervisory Control Systems (EGSCS) are the control systems that systematically manage three or more elevators in order to efficiently transport the passengers in buildings. Double-deck elevators, where two elevators are connected with each other, serve passengers at two consecutive floors simultaneously. Double-deck Elevator systems (DDES) become more complex in their behavior than conventional single-deck elevator systems (SDES). Recently, Artificial Intelligence (AI) technology has been used in such complex systems. Genetic Network Programming (GNP), a graph-based evolutionary method, has been applied to EGSCS and its advantages are shown in some papers. GNP can obtain the strategy of a new hall call assignment to the optimal elevator when it performs crossover and mutation operations to judgment nodes and processing nodes. Meanwhile, Destination Floor Guidance System (DFGS) is installed in DDES, so that passengers can also input their destinations at elevator halls. In this paper, we have applied GNP to DDES and compared DFGS with normal systems. The waiting time and traveling time of DFGS are all improved because of getting more information from DFGS. The simulations showed the effectiveness of the double-deck elevators with DFGS in different building traffics.

  2. Reliability Analysis of Offshore Jacket Structures with Wave Load on Deck using the Model Correction Factor Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Friis-Hansen, P.; Nielsen, J.S.

    2006-01-01

    failure/collapse of jacket type platforms with wave in deck loads using the so-called Model Correction Factor Method (MCFM). A simple representative model for the RSR measure is developed and used in the MCFM technique. A realistic example is evaluated and it is seen that it is possible to perform...

  3. Benefits of measuring half-cell potentials and rebar corrosion rates in condition surveys of concrete bridge decks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The practice of conducting a half-cell potential survey during the assessment of the condition of a concrete deck was reexamined with the objective of eliminating some of the doubts concerning its benefits. It was found that the survey grid size of 4...

  4. A Usability and Learnability Case Study of Glass Flight Deck Interfaces and Pilot Interactions through Scenario-based Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cino, Thomas J., II

    In the aviation industry, digitally produced and presented flight, navigation, and aircraft information is commonly referred to as glass flight decks. Glass flight decks are driven by computer-based subsystems and have long been a part of military and commercial aviation sectors. Over the past 15 years, the General Aviation (GA) sector of the aviation industry has become a recent beneficiary of the rapid advancement of computer-based glass flight deck (GFD) systems. While providing the GA pilot considerable enhancements in the quality of information about the status and operations of the aircraft, training pilots on the use of glass flight decks is often delivered with traditional methods (e.g. textbooks, PowerPoint presentations, user manuals, and limited computer-based training modules). These training methods have been reported as less than desirable in learning to use the glass flight deck interface. Difficulties in achieving a complete understanding of functional and operational characteristics of the GFD systems, acquiring a full understanding of the interrelationships of the varied subsystems, and handling the wealth of flight information provided have been reported. Documented pilot concerns of poor user experience and satisfaction, and problems with the learning the complex and sophisticated interface of the GFD are additional issues with current pilot training approaches. A case study was executed to explore ways to improve training using GFD systems at a Midwestern aviation university. The researcher investigated if variations in instructional systems design and training methods for learning glass flight deck technology would affect the perceptions and attitudes of pilots of the learnability (an attribute of usability) of the glass flight deck interface. Specifically, this study investigated the effectiveness of scenario-based training (SBT) methods to potentially improve pilot knowledge and understanding of a GFD system, and overall pilot user

  5. Causal Relationship Between Relative Price Variability and Inflation in Turkey: Evidence from Panel Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebiye Yamak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the causal relationship between inflation and relative price variability in Turkey for the period of January 2003-January 2014, by using panel data. In the study, a Granger (1969 non-causality test in heterogeneous panel data models developed by Dumitrescu and Hurlin (2012 is utilized to determine the causal relations between inflation rate relative price variability. The panel data consists of 4123 observations: 133 time observations and 31 cross-section observations. The results of panel causality test indicate that there is a bidirectional causality between inflation rate and relative price variability by not supporting the imperfection information model of Lucas and the menu cost model of Ball and Mankiw.

  6. Are fluctuations in energy consumption per capita transitory? Evidence from a panel of Pacific Island countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Vinod; Sharma, Susan; Smyth, Russell

    2009-01-01

    This study applies the panel stationarity test developed by [Carrion-i-Silvestre et al 2005. Breaking the panels: An application to GDP per capita. Econometrics Journal 8, 159-175] to examine the stationarity of energy consumption per capita for a panel of 13 Pacific Island countries over the period 1980-2005. This test has the advantage that it allows for multiple structural breaks at unknown dates that can differ across countries and can account for all forms of cross-sectional correlation between countries. The conclusion from the study is that energy consumption per capita in approximately 60% of countries is stationary and that energy consumption per capita for the panel as a whole is stationary. The study offers several suggestions for modelling energy consumption and policy-making in the Pacific Islands.

  7. Is energy consumption per capita broken stationary? New evidence from regional-based panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, P.-F.; Lee, C.-C.

    2007-01-01

    For the first time, a new panel unit root testing procedure, developed by [51]Carrion-i-Silvestre et al. [2005. Breaking the panels: an application to GDP per capita. Econometrics Journal 8, 159-175], is applied to re-investigate the stationarity of energy consumption per capita for 7 regional panel sets covering the 1971-2002 period. With structural breaks and cross-sectional correlations introduced into the model, it becomes clear that all regional-based panels of energy consumption per capita are stationary. The structural breakpoints identify the likely causes of major changes in energy consumption in the past. The findings underscore the importance of accounting for exogenous shocks to a series and offer several important implications for policy makers and energy economists

  8. Are fluctuations in energy consumption per capita transitory? Evidence from a panel of Pacific Island countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Vinod [Department of Economics, Monash University, Clyde Road Berwick, VIC. 3086 (Australia); Sharma, Susan [School of Economics, University of the South Pacific, Suva (Fiji); Smyth, Russell [Department of Economics, Monash University, 900 Dandenong Road, Caulfield East, VIC. 3145 (Australia)

    2009-06-15

    This study applies the panel stationarity test developed by [Carrion-i-Silvestre et al 2005. Breaking the panels: An application to GDP per capita. Econometrics Journal 8, 159-175] to examine the stationarity of energy consumption per capita for a panel of 13 Pacific Island countries over the period 1980-2005. This test has the advantage that it allows for multiple structural breaks at unknown dates that can differ across countries and can account for all forms of cross-sectional correlation between countries. The conclusion from the study is that energy consumption per capita in approximately 60% of countries is stationary and that energy consumption per capita for the panel as a whole is stationary. The study offers several suggestions for modelling energy consumption and policy-making in the Pacific Islands. (author)

  9. Laser illuminated flat panel display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veligdan, J.T.

    1995-12-31

    A 10 inch laser illuminated flat panel Planar Optic Display (POD) screen has been constructed and tested. This POD screen technology is an entirely new concept in display technology. Although the initial display is flat and made of glass, this technology lends itself to applications where a plastic display might be wrapped around the viewer. The display screen is comprised of hundreds of planar optical waveguides where each glass waveguide represents a vertical line of resolution. A black cladding layer, having a lower index of refraction, is placed between each waveguide layer. Since the cladding makes the screen surface black, the contrast is high. The prototype display is 9 inches wide by 5 inches high and approximately I inch thick. A 3 milliwatt HeNe laser is used as the illumination source and a vector scanning technique is employed.

  10. Microclimate boxes for panel paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadum, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    The use of microclimate boxes to protect vulnerable panel paintings is, therefore, not a new phenomenon of the past two or three decades. Rather, it has been a concern for conservators and curators to protect these objects of art at home and in transit since the end of the nineteenth century....... The increased number of travelling exhibitions in recent years has heightened the need to protect paintings during circulation (Thomson 1961; Mecklenburg 1991). The use and design of microclimate boxes have been evolving since 1892. These boxes may be divided into three broad groups: those using an active...... buffer material to stabilize the internal RH, a more recent box containing no added buffer material, and, in recent times, boxes with an altered gas content. Another concern is the appearance (aesthetics) of the box....

  11. AQUEOUS HOMOGENEOUS REACTORTECHNICAL PANEL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond, D.J.; Bajorek, S.; Bakel, A.; Flanagan, G.; Mubayi, V.; Skarda, R.; Staudenmeier, J.; Taiwo, T.; Tonoike, K.; Tripp, C.; Wei, T.; Yarsky, P.

    2010-12-03

    Considerable interest has been expressed for developing a stable U.S. production capacity for medical isotopes and particularly for molybdenum- 99 (99Mo). This is motivated by recent re-ductions in production and supply worldwide. Consistent with U.S. nonproliferation objectives, any new production capability should not use highly enriched uranium fuel or targets. Conse-quently, Aqueous Homogeneous Reactors (AHRs) are under consideration for potential 99Mo production using low-enriched uranium. Although the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has guidance to facilitate the licensing process for non-power reactors, that guidance is focused on reactors with fixed, solid fuel and hence, not applicable to an AHR. A panel was convened to study the technical issues associated with normal operation and potential transients and accidents of an AHR that might be designed for isotope production. The panel has produced the requisite AHR licensing guidance for three chapters that exist now for non-power reactor licensing: Reac-tor Description, Reactor Coolant Systems, and Accident Analysis. The guidance is in two parts for each chapter: 1) standard format and content a licensee would use and 2) the standard review plan the NRC staff would use. This guidance takes into account the unique features of an AHR such as the fuel being in solution; the fission product barriers being the vessel and attached systems; the production and release of radiolytic and fission product gases and their impact on operations and their control by a gas management system; and the movement of fuel into and out of the reactor vessel.

  12. PubliForum 'Electricity and Society'. Citizen Panel Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    In the Citizen Panel's Report on 'Electricity and Society' we present the first results of three intensive week-ends. In this document, 27 Swiss citizens have recorded their opinions on the future of our electricity supply system. Solutions are sought without making claims on having found the ultimate recipe. The recommendations are the result of an assessment made by a representative cross-section of the public - one could almost say 'the voice of the people'. They reflect not only the public's apprehensions and worries, but also their ideas and desires. (authors)

  13. A guidance on MELCOR input preparation : An input deck for Ul-Chin 3 and 4 Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Song Won

    1997-02-01

    The objective of this study is to enhance the capability of assessing the severe accident sequence analyses and the containment behavior using MELCOR computer code and to provide the guideline of its efficient use. This report shows the method of the input deck preparation as well as the assessment strategy for the MELCOR code. MELCOR code is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code that models the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor nuclear power plants. The code is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the U.S. NRC as a second generation plant risk assessment tool and the successor to the source term code package. The accident sequence of the reference input deck prepared in this study for Ulchin unit 3 and 4 nuclear power plants, is the total loss of feedwater (TLOFW) without any success of safety systems, which is similar to station blackout (TLMB). It is very useful to simulate a well-known sequence through the best estimated code or experiment, because the results of the simulation before core melt can be compared with the FSAR, but no data is available after core melt. The precalculation for the TLOFW using the reference input deck is performed successfully as expected. The other sequences will be carried out with minor changes in the reference input. This input deck will be improved continually by the adding of the safety systems not included in this input deck, and also through the sensitivity and uncertainty analyses. (author). 19 refs., 10 tabs., 55 figs.

  14. A guidance on MELCOR input preparation : An input deck for Ul-Chin 3 and 4 Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Song Won.

    1997-02-01

    The objective of this study is to enhance the capability of assessing the severe accident sequence analyses and the containment behavior using MELCOR computer code and to provide the guideline of its efficient use. This report shows the method of the input deck preparation as well as the assessment strategy for the MELCOR code. MELCOR code is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code that models the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor nuclear power plants. The code is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the U.S. NRC as a second generation plant risk assessment tool and the successor to the source term code package. The accident sequence of the reference input deck prepared in this study for Ulchin unit 3 and 4 nuclear power plants, is the total loss of feedwater (TLOFW) without any success of safety systems, which is similar to station blackout (TLMB). It is very useful to simulate a well-known sequence through the best estimated code or experiment, because the results of the simulation before core melt can be compared with the FSAR, but no data is available after core melt. The precalculation for the TLOFW using the reference input deck is performed successfully as expected. The other sequences will be carried out with minor changes in the reference input. This input deck will be improved continually by the adding of the safety systems not included in this input deck, and also through the sensitivity and uncertainty analyses. (author). 19 refs., 10 tabs., 55 figs

  15. Enhanced Vision Flight Deck Technology for Commercial Aircraft Low-Visibility Surface Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Norman, R. Michael; Kramer, Lynda J.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Ellis, Kyle K. E.; Harrison, Stephanie J.; Comstock, J. Ray

    2013-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center and the FAA collaborated in an effort to evaluate the effect of Enhanced Vision (EV) technology display in a commercial flight deck during low visibility surface operations. Surface operations were simulated at the Memphis, TN (FAA identifier: KMEM) air field during nighttime with 500 Runway Visual Range (RVR) in a high-fidelity, full-motion simulator. Ten commercial airline flight crews evaluated the efficacy of various EV display locations and parallax and mini cation effects. The research paper discusses qualitative and quantitative results of the simulation experiment, including the effect of EV display placement on visual attention, as measured by the use of non-obtrusive oculometry and pilot mental workload. The results demonstrated the potential of EV technology to enhance situation awareness which is dependent on the ease of access and location of the displays. Implications and future directions are discussed.

  16. Enhanced vision flight deck technology for commercial aircraft low-visibility surface operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Jarvis J.; Norman, R. M.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Prinzel, Lawerence J.; Ellis, Kyle K.; Harrison, Stephanie J.; Comstock, J. R.

    2013-05-01

    NASA Langley Research Center and the FAA collaborated in an effort to evaluate the effect of Enhanced Vision (EV) technology display in a commercial flight deck during low visibility surface operations. Surface operations were simulated at the Memphis, TN (FAA identifier: KMEM) airfield during nighttime with 500 Runway Visual Range (RVR) in a high-fidelity, full-motion simulator. Ten commercial airline flight crews evaluated the efficacy of various EV display locations and parallax and minification effects. The research paper discusses qualitative and quantitative results of the simulation experiment, including the effect of EV display placement on visual attention, as measured by the use of non-obtrusive oculometry and pilot mental workload. The results demonstrated the potential of EV technology to enhance situation awareness which is dependent on the ease of access and location of the displays. Implications and future directions are discussed.

  17. Touch panel system for control applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crook, K.; Johnson, R.

    1976-12-01

    The use of finger-sensitive touch panels in association with computer-generated displays for control and monitoring of the Stanford linear accelerator is discussed. This control concept has proven to be very effective. The hardware and software aspects of the Touch Panel portion of the control system are described

  18. Electronic unit for fotovoltaic solar panelling validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, J.; Valverde, J.; Garcia, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    A low cost and easy to use electronic system for photovoltaic solar panelling validation is described. It measures, with a certain periodicity, voltage and current given by the panel, determines the supplied power, and every so often, its maximum valves. The unit is fitted with a data storage system which allows data recording for later analysis. (Author)

  19. Outgassing tests on iras solar panel samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premat, G.; Zwaal, A.; Pennings, N. H.

    1980-01-01

    Several outgassing tests were carried out on representative solar panel samples in order to determine the extent of contamination that could be expected from this source. The materials for the construction of the solar panels were selected as a result of contamination obtained in micro volatile condensable materials tests.

  20. 49 CFR 845.22 - Technical panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Technical panel. 845.22 Section 845.22... Technical panel. The Director, Bureau of Accident Investigation, or the Director, Bureau of Field Operations, shall designate members of the Board's technical staff to participate in the hearing and initially...

  1. Dynamic spatial panels : models, methods, and inferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elhorst, J. Paul

    This paper provides a survey of the existing literature on the specification and estimation of dynamic spatial panel data models, a collection of models for spatial panels extended to include one or more of the following variables and/or error terms: a dependent variable lagged in time, a dependent

  2. 78 FR 74174 - Humanities Panel Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Humanities Panel Advisory Committee AGENCY: National Endowment for the Humanities. ACTION: Notice of Charter Renewal for Humanities Panel Advisory... its implementing regulations, 41 CFR 102-3.65, the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) gives...

  3. 76 FR 6828 - Meetings of Humanities Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-08

    ... THE NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Meetings of Humanities Panel AGENCY: The National Endowment for the Humanities. ACTION: Notice of Meetings. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of... following meetings of Humanities Panels will be held at the Old Post Office, 1100 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW...

  4. 75 FR 18906 - Meetings of Humanities Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Meetings of Humanities Panel AGENCY: The National Endowment for the Humanities. ACTION: Notice of Meetings. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of... following meetings of Humanities Panels will be held at the Old Post Office, 1100 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW...

  5. 76 FR 14434 - Meetings of Humanities Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... THE NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Meetings of Humanities Panel AGENCY: The National Endowment for the Humanities, National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities. ACTION: Notice...-463, as amended), notice is hereby given that the following meetings of Humanities Panels will be held...

  6. 75 FR 50007 - Meetings of Humanities Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... THE NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Meetings of Humanities Panel AGENCY: The National Endowment for the Humanities. ACTION: Notice of Meetings. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of... following meetings of Humanities Panels will be held at the Old Post Office, 1100 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW...

  7. 75 FR 26285 - Meetings of Humanities Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... THE NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Meetings of Humanities Panel AGENCY: The National Endowment for the Humanities. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of... following meetings of Humanities Panels will be held at the Old Post Office, 1100 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW...

  8. 76 FR 77559 - Meeting of Humanities Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... THE NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Meeting of Humanities Panel AGENCY: The National Endowment for the Humanities. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of... of the Humanities Panel will be held at the Old Post Office, 1100 Pennsylvania Avenue NW., Washington...

  9. 77 FR 22359 - Meetings of Humanities Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... THE NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Meetings of Humanities Panel AGENCY: The National Endowment for the Humanities. ACTION: Notice of Meetings. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of... following meetings of Humanities Panels will be held at the Old Post Office, 1100 Pennsylvania Avenue NW...

  10. 76 FR 20375 - Meetings of Humanities Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Meetings of Humanities Panel AGENCY: The National Endowment for the Humanities ACTION: Notice of additional meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the... the following meeting of the Humanities Panel will be held at the Old Post Office, 1100 Pennsylvania...

  11. 76 FR 70168 - Meetings of Humanities Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Meetings of Humanities Panel AGENCY: The National Endowment for the Humanities. ACTION: Notice of additional meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the... the following meeting of the Humanities Panel will be held at the Old Post Office, 1100 Pennsylvania...

  12. 76 FR 41826 - Meetings of Humanities Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Meetings of Humanities Panel AGENCY: The National Endowment for the Humanities. ACTION: Notice of additional meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the... the following meeting of the Humanities Panel will be held at the Old Post Office, 1100 Pennsylvania...

  13. 76 FR 52697 - Meetings of Humanities Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Meetings of Humanities Panel AGENCY: The National Endowment for the Humanities. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of... following meetings of Humanities Panels will be held at the Old Post Office, 1100 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW...

  14. 76 FR 56242 - Meetings of Humanities Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... THE NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Meetings of Humanities Panel AGENCY: The National Endowment for the Humanities, The National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities. ACTION... Humanities Panel at the Old Post Office, 1100 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20506 which was...

  15. 76 FR 70765 - Meetings of Humanities Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-15

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Meetings of Humanities Panel AGENCY: The National Endowment for the Humanities, National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities. ACTION: Notice...-463, as amended), notice is hereby given that the following meetings of Humanities Panels will be held...

  16. 76 FR 63664 - Meetings of Humanities Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Meetings of Humanities Panel AGENCY: The National Endowment for the Humanities. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of... following meetings of Humanities Panels will be held at the Old Post Office, 1100 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW...

  17. 77 FR 17102 - Meetings of Humanities Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... THE NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Meetings of Humanities Panel AGENCY: The National Endowment for the Humanities, National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities ACTION... Humanities Panel at the Old Post Office, 1100 Pennsylvania Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20506, which was...

  18. Blood Test: Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Blood Test: Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP) KidsHealth / For Parents / Blood ... de sangre: panel metabólico ampliado What Is a Blood Test? A blood test is when a sample of ...

  19. Documentation Panels Enhance Teacher Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warash, Bobbie Gibson

    2005-01-01

    Documentation of children's projects is advantageous to their learning process and is also a good method for student teachers to observe the process of learning. Documentation panels are a unique way to help student teachers understand how children learn. Completing a panel requires a student teacher to think through a process. Teachers must learn…

  20. Delamination tolerance studies in laminated composite panels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Determination of levels of tolerance in delaminated composite panels is an important issue in composite structures technology. The primary intention is to analyse delaminated composite panels and estimate Strain. Energy Release Rate (SERR) parameters at the delamination front to feed into acceptability criteria.

  1. Response problems in a vacation panel study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christine A. Vogt; Susan I. Stewart

    2001-01-01

    This paper investigates response problems encountered in a panel study of travel behavior. Though the overall response rate to the three-wave panel study was acceptable (over 60%), three types of response problems were encountered: refusal, non-response, and attrition. In a follow-up phone survey, a sample of individuals from each problem response group was questioned...

  2. 78 FR 42982 - Arts Advisory Panel Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice of Meetings SUMMARY... hereby given one meeting of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held at...

  3. 77 FR 61643 - Arts Advisory Panel Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY... hereby given that sixteen meetings of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be...

  4. 78 FR 17942 - Arts Advisory Panel Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-25

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY... hereby given that five meetings of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be...

  5. 78 FR 59978 - Arts Advisory Panel Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY... hereby given that one meeting of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held...

  6. 77 FR 49026 - Arts Advisory Panel Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY... hereby given that one meeting of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held...

  7. 78 FR 21978 - Arts Advisory Panel Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY... is hereby given that one meeting of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will...

  8. 78 FR 26399 - Arts Advisory Panel Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY... hereby given that one meeting of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held...

  9. 77 FR 13154 - Arts Advisory Panel Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice--meeting. Pursuant to... given that a meeting of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held by...

  10. 77 FR 67836 - Arts Advisory Panel Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-14

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY... hereby given that fifteen meetings of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be...

  11. 78 FR 5213 - Arts Advisory Panel Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-24

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY... hereby given that one meeting of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held...

  12. 77 FR 75672 - Arts Advisory Panel Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY... hereby given that seven meetings of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be...

  13. 77 FR 41808 - Arts Advisory Panel Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-16

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY... hereby given that two meetings of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be...

  14. 78 FR 68099 - Arts Advisory Panel Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY... hereby given that twenty- one meetings of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts...

  15. 78 FR 50451 - Arts Advisory Panel Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice of Meetings. SUMMARY... hereby given that one meeting of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held...

  16. 77 FR 56875 - Arts Advisory Panel Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-14

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY... hereby given that two meetings of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be...

  17. 77 FR 13367 - Arts Advisory Panel Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY... hereby given that a meeting of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held...

  18. Research challenges for energy data management (panel)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Torben Bach; Lehner, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    This panel paper aims at initiating discussion at the Second International Workshop on Energy Data Management (EnDM 2013) about the important research challenges within Energy Data Management. The authors are the panel organizers, extra panelists will be recruited before the workshop...

  19. Air loads on solar panels during launch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beltman, W.M.; van der Hoogt, Peter; Spiering, R.M.E.J.; Tijdeman, H.

    1996-01-01

    The dynamical behaviour of solar panels during launch is significantly affected by the thin layers of air trapped between the panels. For narrow gaps the air manifests itself not only as a considerable added mass, but its viscosity can result in a substantial amount of damping. A model has been

  20. Circuits in the Sun: Solar Panel Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gfroerer, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Typical commercial solar panels consist of approximately 60 individual photovoltaic cells connected in series. Since the usual Kirchhoff rules apply, the current is uniform throughout the circuit, while the electric potential of the individual devices is cumulative. Hence, a solar panel is a good analog of a simple resistive series circuit, except…