WorldWideScience

Sample records for cross cultural study

  1. Study of Politeness in Cross Cultural Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桂仁娜; 姜艳

    2012-01-01

      Politeness is a universal linguistic phenomenon but also relative by nature and subject to culture. The politeness in pragmatic study and its cultural specificity in cross cultural communication are explained. Some tactics in cross communication are also suggested.

  2. Types of cross-cultural studies in cross-cultural psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Vijver, F.J.R.; Lonner, W.J.; Dinnel, D.L.; Hayes, S.A.; Sattler, D.N.

    2003-01-01

    From a methodological perspective cross-cultural studies in psychology differ in three dimensions. First, cross-cultural psychological studies can be exploratory or test specific hypotheses. Second, some cross-cultural studies compare countries or ethnic groups while other cross-cultural studies

  3. Data handling in cross-cultural studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Sound marketing research can significantly reduce the risk associated with new product decisions. In a globalised economy, this often requires the collection of market and consumer data across different countries, cultures, and language communities. However, are such data actually comparable? Thi......, model specification, estimation, testing, and interpretation. The chapter includes a worked example, complete with command syntax for three different software packages.......? This chapter will familiarise the reader with a set of statistical techniques by which the cross-cultural comparability of data - their measurement invariance - can explicitly be assessed. The statistical framework (multi-group confirmatory factor analysis) is described in detail, including data requirements...

  4. Repetitions: A Cross-Cultural Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Kumiko

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated how repetition is used in conversation among native speakers of British English, native speakers of Japanese, and Japanese speakers of English. Five interactional functions of repetition (interruption-orientated, solidarity, silence-avoidance, hesitation, and reformulation) were identified, as well as the cultural factors…

  5. Data handling in cross-cultural studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Sound marketing research can significantly reduce the risk associated with new product decisions. In a globalised economy, this often requires the collection of market and consumer data across different countries, cultures, and language communities. However, are such data actually comparable? Thi...

  6. Study of Cultural Negative Transfer in Cross-cultural Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    国玲

    2015-01-01

    Different nations in the world have their own cultures, and these cultures are characterized by both universality and particularity. The former provides a foundation and guarantee for intercultural communication, while the latter often leads to neg⁃ative cultural transfer in communication if the speakers are unconscious of cultural differences. This paper makes a general analysis of the negative transfer of surface-structure culture in language forms and that of deep-structure culture in values, thought pat⁃terns, religious beliefs and ethics. It holds that failure in intercultural communication will occur if inadequate attention is paid to cultural differences in the process of language and culture learning.

  7. Researching measurement equivalence in cross-cultural studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Kankaraš

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In cross-cultural comparative studies it is essential to establish equivalent measurement of relevant constructs across cultures. If this equivalence is not confirmed it is difficult if not impossible to make meaningful comparison of results across countries. This work presents concept of measurement equivalence, its relationship with other related concepts, different equivalence levels and causes of inequivalence in cross-cultural research. It also reviews three main approaches to the analysis of measurement equivalence – multigroup confirmatory factor analysis, differential item functioning, and multigroup latent class analysis – with special emphasis on their similarities and differences, as well as comparative advantages.

  8. A Cross-Cultural Study of Adolescent Procrastination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Robert M.; Ang, Rebecca P.; Chong, Wan Har; Krawchuk, Lindsey L.; Huan, Vivien S.; Wong, Isabella Y. F.; Yeo, Lay See

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we explore academic procrastination and associated motivation variables in 612 adolescents from Canada and Singapore. Few studies have explored adolescent procrastination and no previous studies have investigated adolescent procrastination using a cross-cultural framework. Singaporean adolescents reported higher levels of…

  9. A Cross-cultural Study on American and Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志远

    2015-01-01

    Compliment is one of the most commonly used speech acts in social communication. This thesis, through the comparative studies on topic distribution and compliment response of Chinese compliments and Ameri-can compliments, aims at helping English learners have a profound understanding on compliments in cross-cultural communication.

  10. Data management in a longitudinal cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, R J; Musick, B S; Olley, B; Hall, K S; Hendrie, H C; Oyediran, A B

    The Indianapolis-Ibadan Dementia Project compares the rates of dementia at two sites, one in the U.S.A. and one in Nigeria. This paper concentrates on the data management issues in this longitudinal cross-cultural study. Approximately 2500 elderly people were recruited at each site, and continue to be re-assessed every two years. All the data are collected on paper and then entered into a FoxPro relational database. Most of the data management, including data cleaning, is done in Indianapolis. The design of the data collection forms is particularly important in a cross-cultural study, with the questions and the coding of responses clear and simple. Since Nigeria and the U.S.A. have different levels of technological development, the computer hardware and software were chosen to be suitable for use at either site. Exchange visits have been needed to address data management issues and resolve unexpected problems. The data management on cross-cultural studies can be handled successfully, given careful planning.

  11. A Study on Pragmatic Failure in Cross-Cultural Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jie

    2010-01-01

    Through analyzing and comparing the anecdotes of pragmatic failure in cross-cultural communication from the aspects of lexicon, syntax and discourse, some pragmatic strategies are suggested in intercultural communication. To improve learners' cultural awareness and communicative competence, a cultural-linguistic approach in foreign language…

  12. Importance of Hofstede's study of cultural dimensions to the field of cross-cultural communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周斌

    2008-01-01

    In 1980, Culture's Consequences: International Differences in Work-Related Values showed Geert Hofstede' s study of five cuhural dimensions: individualism versus collectivism, masculinity versus femininity, power distance, uncertainty avoidance and long-term versus short-term orientation to life. This essay discusses this theory' s weakness and usefulness as well as its importance to the cross-cultural communication that will give readers a better understanding about this cultural dimension. It concludes that Geert Hofstede's study of these five cultural dimensions is a starting point to the beginners to know about this field and the government offices even can establish economic policies according to the specific culture. It is really a useful research to the field of cross-cultural communication.

  13. Making sense of (exceptional) causal relations. A cross-cultural and cross-linguistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Guen, Olivier; Samland, Jana; Friedrich, Thomas; Hanus, Daniel; Brown, Penelope

    2015-01-01

    In order to make sense of the world, humans tend to see causation almost everywhere. Although most causal relations may seem straightforward, they are not always construed in the same way cross-culturally. In this study, we investigate concepts of "chance," "coincidence," or "randomness" that refer to assumed relations between intention, action, and outcome in situations, and we ask how people from different cultures make sense of such non-law-like connections. Based on a framework proposed by Alicke (2000), we administered a task that aims to be a neutral tool for investigating causal construals cross-culturally and cross-linguistically. Members of four different cultural groups, rural Mayan Yucatec and Tseltal speakers from Mexico and urban students from Mexico and Germany, were presented with a set of scenarios involving various types of causal and non-causal relations and were asked to explain the described events. Three links varied as to whether they were present or not in the scenarios: Intention-to-Action, Action-to-Outcome, and Intention-to-Outcome. Our results show that causality is recognized in all four cultural groups. However, how causality and especially non-law-like relations are interpreted depends on the type of links, the cultural background and the language used. In all three groups, Action-to-Outcome is the decisive link for recognizing causality. Despite the fact that the two Mayan groups share similar cultural backgrounds, they display different ideologies regarding concepts of non-law-like relations. The data suggests that the concept of "chance" is not universal, but seems to be an explanation that only some cultural groups draw on to make sense of specific situations. Of particular importance is the existence of linguistic concepts in each language that trigger ideas of causality in the responses from each cultural group.

  14. Making sense of (exceptional causal relations. A cross-cultural and cross-linguistic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier eLe Guen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to make sense of the world, humans tend to see causation almost everywhere. Although most causal relations may seem straightforward, they are not always construed in the same way cross-culturally. In this study, we investigate concepts of ‘chance’, ‘coincidence’ or ‘randomness’ that refer to assumed relations between intention, action, and outcome in situations, and we ask how people from different cultures make sense of such non-law-like connections. Based on a framework proposed by Alicke (2000, we administered a task that aims to be a neutral tool for investigating causal construals cross-culturally and cross-linguistically. Members of four different cultural groups, rural Mayan Yucatec and Tseltal speakers from Mexico and urban students from Mexico and Germany, were presented with a set of scenarios involving various types of causal and non-causal relations and were asked to explain the described events. Three links varied as to whether they were present or not in the scenarios: Intention to Action, Action to Outcome, and Intention to Outcome. Our results show that causality is recognized in all four cultural groups. However, how causality and especially non-law-like causality are interpreted depends on the type of links, the cultural background and the language used. In all three groups, Action to Outcome is the decisive link for recognizing causality. Despite the fact that the two Mayan groups share similar cultural backgrounds, they display different ideologies regarding concepts of non-law causality. The data suggests that the concept of ‘chance’ is not universal, but seems to be an explanation that only some cultural groups draw on to make sense of specific situations. Of particular importance is the existence of linguistic concepts in each language that trigger ideas of causality in the responses from each cultural group.

  15. Making sense of (exceptional) causal relations. A cross-cultural and cross-linguistic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Guen, Olivier; Samland, Jana; Friedrich, Thomas; Hanus, Daniel; Brown, Penelope

    2015-01-01

    In order to make sense of the world, humans tend to see causation almost everywhere. Although most causal relations may seem straightforward, they are not always construed in the same way cross-culturally. In this study, we investigate concepts of “chance,” “coincidence,” or “randomness” that refer to assumed relations between intention, action, and outcome in situations, and we ask how people from different cultures make sense of such non-law-like connections. Based on a framework proposed by Alicke (2000), we administered a task that aims to be a neutral tool for investigating causal construals cross-culturally and cross-linguistically. Members of four different cultural groups, rural Mayan Yucatec and Tseltal speakers from Mexico and urban students from Mexico and Germany, were presented with a set of scenarios involving various types of causal and non-causal relations and were asked to explain the described events. Three links varied as to whether they were present or not in the scenarios: Intention-to-Action, Action-to-Outcome, and Intention-to-Outcome. Our results show that causality is recognized in all four cultural groups. However, how causality and especially non-law-like relations are interpreted depends on the type of links, the cultural background and the language used. In all three groups, Action-to-Outcome is the decisive link for recognizing causality. Despite the fact that the two Mayan groups share similar cultural backgrounds, they display different ideologies regarding concepts of non-law-like relations. The data suggests that the concept of “chance” is not universal, but seems to be an explanation that only some cultural groups draw on to make sense of specific situations. Of particular importance is the existence of linguistic concepts in each language that trigger ideas of causality in the responses from each cultural group. PMID:26579028

  16. Language and Cross-Culture Understanding—Through Cross-Culture Study of the Word'Dragon'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周玲

    2016-01-01

    This essay contributes to the analysis of the significance of cross-culture understanding in connection with language. It is important and necessary to promote cross-cultural understanding in order to communicate with people from various cultural backgrounds with the development of globalization. This essay also gives the example of the word'dragon'to illustrate that the cross-culture understanding of language will make us communicate with each other more effectively.

  17. A Comparative Study between Chinese and Western Food Culture in Cross-cultural Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦体霞

    2014-01-01

    The differences of food culture play an important role in cross-cultural communication. Learn the cultural rooted causes of food culture between Chinese and Western countries, will promote mutual understanding between people and enjoy different feelings different foods brings, enhance cultural exchange, complement and integration.

  18. The transmission and stability of cultural life scripts: a cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Steve M J; Haque, Shamsul

    2017-06-06

    Cultural life scripts are shared knowledge about the timing of important life events. In the present study, we examined whether cultural life scripts are transmitted through traditions and whether there are additional ways through which they can be attained by asking Australian and Malaysian participants which information sources they had used to generate the life script of their culture. Participants hardly reported that they had used cultural and religious traditions. They more often reported that they had used their own experiences and experiences of relatives and friends. They also reported the use of comments of relatives and friends and the use of newspapers, books, movies and television programmes. Furthermore, we examined the stability of life scripts and similarities and differences across cultures. We found that life scripts are stable cognitive structures and that there are, besides cross-cultural differences in the content, small cross-cultural differences in the valence and distribution of life script events, with the Australian life script containing more positive events and more events expected to occur before the age of 16.

  19. The Study of Language and Communication in Cross Cultural Business

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁爽

    2016-01-01

    Language plays an important role in the contemporary business communication. Regarding to the businesspersons' choices of language, jargon, jokes and their applications in cross cultural business, suggests that language is in fact a part of a strategic discourse between diverse groups within the organization and the business scope.

  20. Contexts in tourism and leisure studies : a cross-cultural contribution to the production of knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Platenkamp, V.

    2007-01-01

    In this PhD an attempt has been made to deliver a cross-cultural contribution to the production of knowledge in tourism and leisure studies. The necessity of this attempt originates in: thegrowing cultural complexity in a globalising world. From a cross-cultural

  1. Contexts in tourism and leisure studies : a cross-cultural contribution to the production of knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Platenkamp, V.

    2007-01-01

    In this PhD an attempt has been made to deliver a cross-cultural contribution to the production of knowledge in tourism and leisure studies. The necessity of this attempt originates in: thegrowing cultural complexity in a globalising world. From a cross-cultural perspe

  2. Cross-Cultural Leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Minelgaite Snaebjornsson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Ongoing low participation of women in global leadership calls for more research in this field. In this article, we set out to include gendered expectations toward leader behavior as part of cross-cultural leadership theory. Building on an existing body of research, we focus on propositions about the effects of gendered expectations on the leader, from the followers’ standpoint. The consideration of gendered effects from the follower standpoint is an under-researched area in leadership literature, and it is even more rarely to be found in empirical data. In every culture, there are certain expectations toward leaders of the two genders that influence their behavior. In this article, we will attempt to answer the following question: How does perceived leader behavior and gendered behavior relate to national culture and actual leader behavior? We present a conceptual model that seeks to incorporate gendered expectations into cross-cultural leadership as an answer. Moreover, we provide a conceptual guideline toward operationalization of the model. The model includes the potential of dissonance between male expectations as a dominating leadership role and female leadership. This might serve as an explanation as to why in some cases women are not seen as successful as men when they adopt a masculine leadership style. The article seeks to advance cross-cultural leadership theory by focusing on expected gendered leadership behavior. Our ideas and model could eventually contribute to the advancement of leadership theory, as well as contributing to gender studies, cross-cultural leadership, and business communication.

  3. Specific Approaches in Cross Cultural Management Research in Geert Hofstede’s Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Sergiu Pirju

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of Cross Cultural Management is a natural consequence of the realities brought about by globalization, technological explosion and competition between the growing number of international corporations, plus the free movement of persons, goods and capital. The aim of this article is to present that the observations and studies of Geert Hofstede offer both cross cultural management specialists and those interested in this phenomenon, a very valuable image regarding the dynamics of cross cultural relations.

  4. A Cross-cultural Comparative Study on the English Euphemism and Chinese Euphemism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶益好; 单俊; 杨黎璟

    2015-01-01

    In this essay,on the basis of cultural research,the author illustrates a number of examples to explore the cultural difference between Chinese and English euphemism.Through the cross cultural comparative study of English and Chinese euphemisms,we can learn about lots of both similarities and peculiarities of the two languages,which is of considerable value and guidance to our foreign language learning and cross-cultural communication.

  5. A Study of Junior Students'Cross- Culture Obstacles in English Reading Comprehension%A Study of Junior Students' Cross-Culture Obstacles in English Reading Comprehension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱雅琴

    2015-01-01

    This paper will research Junior students' cross-cultural obstacles in English reading from the perspective of culture background,Eliminating Junior students'cross-cultural barriers can improve intercultural communication competent.

  6. A cross-cultural study of cereal food quality perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krutulyte, Rasa; Costa, Ana I. A.; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2009-01-01

    Cereal food production and use show substantial heterogeneity across Europe. For a category central in most EU diets, cereal food quality perception is, nevertheless, surprisingly understudied. With this in mind, 357 Danish, Lithuanian and Portuguese citizens were interviewed about the importance...... were more often assessed by the Portuguese as relevant for decision-making at the point-of-purchase. This highlights the need for further cross-cultural research on food quality perception.......Cereal food production and use show substantial heterogeneity across Europe. For a category central in most EU diets, cereal food quality perception is, nevertheless, surprisingly understudied. With this in mind, 357 Danish, Lithuanian and Portuguese citizens were interviewed about the importance...... of several cues and dimensions in their evaluation of the perceived quality of bread, cookies, breakfast cereals, pasta and vodka. Portuguese and Lithuanians consistently gave a significantly higher average importance to all the cues and quality dimensions considered, for all products, than their Danish...

  7. A cross-cultural study of cereal food quality perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krutulyte, Rasa; Costa, Ana I. A.; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2009-01-01

    Cereal food production and use show substantial heterogeneity across Europe. For a category central in most EU diets, cereal food quality perception is, nevertheless, surprisingly understudied. With this in mind, 357 Danish, Lithuanian and Portuguese citizens were interviewed about the importance...... were more often assessed by the Portuguese as relevant for decision-making at the point-of-purchase. This highlights the need for further cross-cultural research on food quality perception....... of several cues and dimensions in their evaluation of the perceived quality of bread, cookies, breakfast cereals, pasta and vodka. Portuguese and Lithuanians consistently gave a significantly higher average importance to all the cues and quality dimensions considered, for all products, than their Danish...

  8. Examining Students' Perceptions of Plagiarism: A Cross-Cultural Study at Tertiary Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayaoglu, M. Naci; Erbay, Sakire; Flitner, Cristina; Saltas, Dogan

    2016-01-01

    Plagiarism continues to dominate the academic world as one of its greatest challenges, and the existing literature suggests cross-cultural investigation of this critical issue may help all shareholders who detect, are confronted by and struggle with this issue to address it. Therefore, the present study, drawing upon a cross-cultural investigation…

  9. Examining Students' Perceptions of Plagiarism: A Cross-Cultural Study at Tertiary Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayaoglu, M. Naci; Erbay, Sakire; Flitner, Cristina; Saltas, Dogan

    2016-01-01

    Plagiarism continues to dominate the academic world as one of its greatest challenges, and the existing literature suggests cross-cultural investigation of this critical issue may help all shareholders who detect, are confronted by and struggle with this issue to address it. Therefore, the present study, drawing upon a cross-cultural investigation…

  10. A Study of Pragmatic Failure of Address Forms in Cross-cultural Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙美玮

    2012-01-01

      As the process of globalization moves on, cross-cultural communication has been a part of people’ s daily lives. It is quite important for people to know how to behave properly in many situations.The present study analyses the phenomena of pragmatic failure of address forms. The study may help enhance peoples’ awareness on polite address in cross-cultural communi⁃cation and improve their communicative competence. Foreign language teachers can get implications for their teaching methods, paying more attention on cultural teaching. In addition, the author hopes that equal cultural communication and multi-cultural concept can be achieved.

  11. Practical Issues of Conducting a Q Methodology Study: Lessons Learned From a Cross-cultural Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Teresa Elizabeth; Maguire, Jane; Kang, Sook Jung; Cha, Chiyoung

    2016-12-06

    This article advances nursing research by presenting the methodological challenges experienced in conducting a multination Q-methodology study. This article critically analyzes the relevance of the methodology for cross-cultural and nursing research and the challenges that led to specific responses by the investigators. The use of focus groups with key stakeholders supplemented the Q-analysis results. The authors discuss practical issues and shared innovative approaches and provide best-practice suggestions on the use of this flexible methodology. Q methodology has the versatility to explore complexities of contemporary nursing practice and cross-cultural health research.

  12. A Cross-Disciplinary and Cross-Cultural Study of Directives in Discussions and Conclusions of Research Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilifar, Alireza; Mehrabi, Khodayar

    2014-01-01

    The current study provided cross-cultural and cross-disciplinary analyses of the distribution of directives in discussion and conclusion sections of English and Persian research articles (RAs) in disciplines of physics, chemistry, counseling, and sociology, representing hard and soft sciences, respectively. To that aim, 80 RAs from both English…

  13. Cross cultural usability testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil; Goyal, Shivam

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present the results of a pilot study in Denmark of cross cultural effects on Think Aloud usability testing. We provide an overview of previous research on cross cultural usability evaluation with a special focus on the relationship between the evaluator and the test user....... This relation was studied in an experiment with usability testing of a localized clipart application in which eight participants from Denmark and India formed pairs of evaluator-test user. The test users were asked to think aloud and the evaluators' role were to facilitate the test users thinking aloud...... and hereby identify usability problems with the clipart application. Data on the evaluators' and test users' behaviour were recorded and analyzed by coding and summarizing statistics on these behavioural events. The results show that Think Aloud Usability Test of a localized application is most effectively...

  14. Computerized tools in psychology: cross cultural and genetically informative studies of memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismatullina V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we presented the computerized tools for psychological studies of memory. The importance of implementing computerized automated tools for psychological studies is discussed. It has been shown that this tools can be used both for cross-cultural and genetically informative studies. The validity of these tools for cross-cultural and genetically informative studies of memory can be seen as the first step to use automated computerized tools for big data collection in psychology.

  15. Effects of culture shock and cross-cultural adaptation on learning satisfaction of mainland China students studying in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Shieh, Chich-Jen

    2014-01-01

    With the national impact of low fertility, the enrollment of higher education in Taiwan is facing a dilemma. To cope with such a problem, the government has actively promoted Mainland China students to study in Taiwan. In addition to enhancing the international competitiveness of domestic universities, cross-strait education, and real academic exchange, it is expected to solve the enrollment shortage of colleges. However, the situations and pressures of Culture Shock, Cross-Cultural Adaptatio...

  16. Do consumers care about ethics? A cross-cultural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Malheiro

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Discussion towards an understanding about ethical and social responsible corporate behaviours has increased over last two decades. Both marketers and academicians emphasize the interest of the topic. Developed research has been focusing the understanding of a few organizational practices, but consumer’s dyad of the problem calls for further investigation. This work presents some of the main theoretical contributions about consumer ethics, emphasizing the way how purchase attitude may be influenced by consumers’ perceptions about firms’ behaviour. The study aims to fill two important gaps in the burgeoning literature on marketing ethics: by looking at the consumer side of the marketing exchange dyad, and comparing consumer perspectives on ethics across cultures. As such, levels of consumer ethical awareness and expectations, and their impact on purchasing behaviours are measured in the contexts of Portugal and Cape Verde, one of its former colonies in Africa. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses were developed.

  17. CHALLENGES IN CROSS CULTURAL ADVERTISING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuni Retnowati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available At first, marketing practitioners and academics consider standardized approaches to marketing and advertising strategies in globalization, and then some studies proved that the standardization of advertising across culture is not valid. Therefore, cross cultural advertising takes local culture into account when conveying messages in advertisements. Cross cultural understanding is very important in order to produce successful localized advertising that would reflect the cultural values and norms of intended audience. Challenge in cross cultural advertising is the problem of communicating to people of diverse cultural background. Cross cultural solutions are applied in areas such as language, communication style, images and cultural values. Cross cultural advertising is simply about using common sense and analyzing how the different elements of an advertising campaign are impacted by culture and modifying them to best speak to the target audience. Other challenges are determining between standardization and adaptation of cultural values content of advertising when facing different people from diverse cultures. In academic side, the challenge is preparing students to design advertisements that communicate effectively to diverse cultures.

  18. Facilitating cultural border crossing in urban secondary science classrooms: A study of inservice teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Anna Karina

    Research acknowledges that if students are to be successful science, they must learn to navigate and cross cultural borders that exist between their own cultures and the subculture of science. This dissertation utilized a mixed methods approach to explore how inservice science teachers working in urban schools construct their ideas of and apply the concepts about the culture of science and cultural border crossing as relevant to the teaching and learning of science. The study used the lenses of cultural capital, social constructivism, and cultural congruency in the design and analysis of each of the three phases of data collection. Phase I identified the perspectives of six inservice science teachers on science culture, cultural border crossing, and which border crossing methods, if any, they used during science teaching. Phase II took a dialectical approach as the teachers read about science culture and cultural border crossing during three informal professional learning community meetings. This phase explored how teachers constructed their understanding of cultural border crossing and how the concept applied to the teaching and learning of science. Phase III evaluated how teachers' perspectives changed from Phase I. In addition, classroom observations were used to determine whether teachers' practices in their science classrooms changed from Phase I to Phase III. All three phases collected data through qualitative (i.e., interviews, classroom observations, and surveys) and quantitative (Likert items) means. The findings indicated that teachers found great value in learning about the culture of science and cultural border crossing as it pertained to their teaching methods. This was not only evidenced by their interviews and surveys, but also in the methods they used in their classrooms. Final conclusions included how the use of student capital resources (prior experiences, understandings and knowledge, ideas an interests, and personal beliefs), if supported by

  19. Language Learning Strategies of Turkish and Arabic Students: A Cross-Cultural Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köksal, Dinçay; Ulum, Ömer Gökhan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the language learning strategy use of Turkish and Arabic students enrolled in middle schools and having different cultural and linguistic backgrounds. Using a strategy inventory for language learning, the study examines the cross-cultural differences in strategy use of the mentioned students while learning English as a…

  20. Intergenerational Transmission Effects on Relationship Satisfaction: A Cross-Cultural Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Keitaro; Busby, Dean M.

    2012-01-01

    Although intergenerational transmission processes have been studied on various aspects of family life, cross-cultural comparisons have rarely been made. In the present study, the authors examine how intergenerational transmission processes on relationship satisfaction differ between individuals with different gender and cultural identities. A…

  1. Culture and Economic Growth——Cross Country Empirical Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤薇

    2015-01-01

    The folowing paper aims to analyze the relationship of cultural factors for economic growth, using Penn world table data and Hofstede's five dimension data from 96 countries and regions. We provide strong evidence that cultures (extremely uncertainty avoidance), together with human resource and capital stock, play an important part in a country's economic. While including standard neo-classical growth model variables such as investment rates and a substitute for human capital, the impact of cultural variables like power distance, individualism, masculinity, uncertainty avoidance, pragmatism, and indulgence are investigated. In particular, we find that uncertainty avoidance is always robust to the gross economic growth across countries.

  2. A cross-cultural comparison of brand extension success factors: A meta-study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henseler, Jörg; Horvath, Csilla; Sarstedt, Marko; Zimmermann, Lorenz

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we examine the influence of cross-cultural traits on brand extension success. Drawing on prior brand extension studies from different countries, we conduct a comprehensive meta-analysis, complementing the data sets with Hofstede's cultural dimensions values. Our results show that al

  3. Parenting Styles and Academic Achievement: A Cross-Cultural Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Kwok; Lau, Sing; Lam, Wai-Lim

    1998-01-01

    Investigated relationships between parenting style and adolescents' academic achievement in Hong Kong, United States, and Australia. Found cultural differences in general and academic authoritarianism and general authoritativeness. Academic achievement was negatively related to academic authoritarianism and was positively related to general…

  4. Kinship and altruism: a cross-cultural experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Elainie A; Tunney, Richard J; Fieldman, George; Plotkin, Henry C; Dunbar, Robin I M; Richardson, Jean-Marie; McFarland, David

    2007-05-01

    Humans are characterized by an unusual level of prosociality. Despite this, considerable indirect evidence suggests that biological kinship plays an important role in altruistic behaviour. All previous reports of the influence of kin selection on human altruism have, however, used correlational (rather than experimental) designs, or imposed only a hypothetical or negligible time cost on participants. Since these research designs fail either to control for confounding variables or to meet the criteria required as a test of Hamilton's rule for kin selection (that the altruist pays a true cost), they fail to establish unequivocally whether kin selection plays a role. We show that individuals from two different cultures behave in accordance with Hamilton's rule by acting more altruistically (imposing a higher physical cost upon themselves) towards more closely related individuals. Three possible sources of confound were ruled out: generational effects, sexual attraction and reciprocity. Performance on the task however did not exhibit a perfect linear relationship with relatedness, which might reflect either the intrusion of other variables (e.g. cultural differences in the way kinship is costed) or that our behavioural measure is insufficiently sensitive to fine-tuned differences in the way individuals view their social world. These findings provide the first unequivocal experimental evidence that kinship plays a role in moderating altruistic behaviour. Kinship thus represents a baseline against which individuals pitch other criteria (including reciprocity, prosociality, obligation and a moral sense) when deciding how to behave towards others.

  5. Cross cultural training

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王容

    2014-01-01

    Under the background of economic globalization, the globalization of human resources management determines the success of enterprise success or failure, in a sense, human resource is the first resource of the enterprise. Cross-cultural training is the core problems in global human resource management, it can let employees quickly familiar with the company's business and job content, understand the enterprise culture and core idea, to play a huge role in promoting enterprise development. Therefore, strengthen enterprise staff training, improve the comprehensive quality of enterprise personnel has become the urgent problems now in the process of enterprise development. Articles in samsung electronics of South Korea, for example, introduces the samsung especial y cross-cultural training content, training method and training effect. And analysis of cross-cultural training impact in the global business team and establish business relationship.

  6. Cross-Cultural Impression Management: A Cultural Knowledge Audit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spong, Abigail; Kamau, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Many people moving into a new culture for work or study do so without prior cross-cultural training, yet successful cultural adaptation has important ramifications. The purpose of this paper is to focus on cross-cultural impression management as an element of cultural adaptation. Does cultural adaptation begin by paying strong attention…

  7. A Cross-Cultural Study of Punishment Beliefs and Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanyan; Chen, Chuansheng; Greenberger, Ellen; Knowles, Eric D

    2016-12-07

    The current research examined cultural similarities and differences in punishment beliefs and decisions. Participants were European Americans (N = 50), Chinese Americans (N = 57), and Chinese in Mainland China (N = 50). The Functions of Punishment Questionnaire was used to measure participants' beliefs about the retributive or deterrent functions of punishment and a scenario method was used to measure the extent to which punishment decisions were driven by individuals' concerns for retribution or deterrence. The results indicated that, contrary to the hypothesis that the retributive function would be emphasized by individualistic groups and the deterrent function by collectivistic groups, Mainland Chinese participants had a stronger belief in retribution and a weaker belief in deterrence than did European and Chinese Americans. The results also indicated that retribution played a bigger role in punishment decisions for Chinese than for the other two groups, but the importance of the deterrence function in punishment decisions did not differ across the three groups. Finally, the correlation between interdependence orientation and the belief in retribution was positive for Chinese but negative for European Americans. Taken together, the findings provided little evidence that collectivists are more deterrence-oriented and individualists more retribution-oriented.

  8. IMPLICITE THEORIES OF CREATIVITY: CROSS-CULTURAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milos Kankaras

    Full Text Available In this work we analyzed laypersons’ implicit theories of creativity in twodifferent national cultures: Serbia (N=257 and the United States of America(N=255. Relying on previous works in this field, we have constructed aquestionnaire comprised of 52 indicative and 36 contra-indicative personalcharacteristic which were rated by respondents on a 5-point scale on criteria of theircreativity and desirability. Results show that both groups have similar conceptionsof a creative person, which they see as an energetic, self-confident individual, giftedwith creative talents and exceptional intellectual abilities, with profoundemotionality and brightness. The main difference between the two groups is thatrespondents from Serbia, contrary to their American counterparts, do not perceivecharacteristics which reflect obedience to social norms as a contra-indication tocreativity. Respondents have mostly seen creative attributes as desirable, althoughthere is a number of characteristics that are rated differently in terms of theircreativity and desirability. These results confirm that creativity and desirability aretwo distinct concepts and indicate positive view of creativity as a phenomenon andcreative person as such.

  9. Implicit theories of creativity: Cross-cultural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kankaraš Miloš

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we analyzed laypersons' implicit theories of creativity in two different national cultures: Serbia (N=257 and the United States of America (N=255. Relying on previous works in this field, we have constructed a questionnaire comprised of 52 indicative and 36 contra-indicative personal characteristic which were rated by respondents on a 5-point scale on criteria of their creativity and desirability. Results show that both groups have similar conceptions of a creative person, which they see as an energetic, self-confident individual, gifted with creative talents and exceptional intellectual abilities, with profound emotionality and brightness. The main difference between the two groups is that respondents from Serbia, contrary to their American counterparts, do not perceive characteristics which reflect obedience to social norms as a contra-indication to creativity. Respondents have mostly seen creative attributes as desirable, although there is a number of characteristics that are rated differently in terms of their creativity and desirability. These results confirm that creativity and desirability are two distinct concepts and indicate positive view of creativity as a phenomenon and creative person as such.

  10. COMPARATIVE ADVERTISING EFFECTIVENESS: A CROSS-CULTURAL STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    KONSOLAKI, KALLIOPI

    2015-01-01

    The lucrative world of comparative advertising has been attractive to marketers, who seek economic types of persuasive communication. Nevertheless, research in the actual effectiveness of comparative advertising has been inconclusive, contradicting, and insufficient. The increasing importance of comparative advertising in the current competitive global environment requires immediate findings about how comparative advertising can work effectively. This study is the first study to develop an in...

  11. A Study of Junior Students’ Cross-Culture Obstacles in English Reading Comprehension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱雅琴

    2015-01-01

    This paper will research Junior students’ cross cultural obstacles in English reading from the perspective o culture background,Eliminating Junior students’ cross-cultura barriers can improve intercultural communication competent.

  12. Crying and Mood Change : a Cross-Cultural Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becht, M.C.; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the influence of crying-related variables and country characteristics on mood change after crying. It was hypothesized that mood improvement would be positively associated to crying frequency, Individualism-Collectivism, and the extent of gender empowerment in a

  13. Women's ICT Career Choices: Four Cross-Cultural Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiadou, Elli; Abu-Hassan, Norihan; Siakas, Kerstin Viola; Wang, Xueming; Ross, Margaret; Anandan, Prem Anand

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to consider the under-representation of women in computing, information technology (IT) and information systems in most Western countries. This under-representation can only be detrimental to society. Design/methodology/approach: The authors discuss recently published studies on the under-representation of…

  14. Women's ICT Career Choices: Four Cross-Cultural Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiadou, Elli; Abu-Hassan, Norihan; Siakas, Kerstin Viola; Wang, Xueming; Ross, Margaret; Anandan, Prem Anand

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to consider the under-representation of women in computing, information technology (IT) and information systems in most Western countries. This under-representation can only be detrimental to society. Design/methodology/approach: The authors discuss recently published studies on the under-representation of…

  15. A Cross-Cultural Study on Transformational Leadership

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Wei

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines transformational leadership theory and the relationship between transformational leadership and group performance as well. Transformational leadership asks leaders to understand the needs of followers and motivate follow-ers for their overall development, which brings benefits to a group. It is hoped that this paper can contribute to comparative stud-ies on Transformational leadership in the U.S. and China.

  16. Benefits and challenges of qualitative methodologies in cross-cultural psychology studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Quadros Rigoni, R.

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative research has been considered increasingly valuable for cross-cultural psychology studies, but its contributions and challenges to the field remain under discussed. This chapter does that by analysing a qualitative study which compares interpretive beliefs and behaviour of street-level

  17. Autonomous versus Heteronomous Moral Judgment Types: A Longitudinal Cross-Cultural Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Regina; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Discusses a study of moral types (autonomous vs. heteronomous) based on Kohlberg's theory of moral development in order to establish cross-cultural validity. The sample included kibbutz-educated Israeli adolescents. Compares results to studies of adolescents in the United States, Turkey, Taiwan, and the Bahamas. Israeli subject were most likely to…

  18. Cultural competence among nursing students in Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, J P; Alquwez, N; Cruz, C P; Felicilda-Reynaldo, R F D; Vitorino, L M; Islam, S M S

    2017-06-01

    This study assessed the cultural competence of nursing students in a Saudi University. With the current situation of immigration in Saudi Arabia, the cultural diversity in healthcare facilities is anticipated to grow. This presents a great challenge to the members of the healthcare team. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 272 nursing students in a Saudi university using a self-administered questionnaire consisting of two parts, namely the respondents' demographics and cultural background information sheet and the Cultural Capacity Scale Arabic version. The respondents showed the highest competence in their ability to demonstrate communication skills with culturally diverse patients and lowest in the familiarity with health- or illness-related cultural knowledge or theory. Gender, academic level, clinical exposure, prior diversity training, the experience of taking care of culturally diverse patients and patients belonging to special population groups were significant factors that could likely to influence cultural competence. The findings suggest that the Saudi nursing students possess the ability to provide culturally appropriate nursing care to patients with a diverse cultural background. Despite the good cultural competence reflected in this study, some aspects in ensuring a culturally competent care rendered by Saudi nursing students need to be improved. With the country's Saudization policy in health care (replacing foreign nurses with Saudi nurses), the findings can be used in designing training and interventions to meet the needs of Saudi nursing students regarding cultural competence development, which is integral in their preparation to assume their future roles as nurses. Policy guidelines, such as including cultural competency training and foreign languages training as mandatory continuing education for nurses, as well as integrating cultural competency and foreign languages in the prelicensure curriculum, should be developed and implemented in

  19. The emergence of sex differences in personality traits in early adolescence: A cross-sectional, cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bolle, Marleen; De Fruyt, Filip; McCrae, Robert R; Löckenhoff, Corinna E; Costa, Paul T; Aguilar-Vafaie, Maria E; Ahn, Chang-kyu; Ahn, Hyun-nie; Alcalay, Lidia; Allik, Jüri; Avdeyeva, Tatyana V; Bratko, Denis; Brunner-Sciarra, Marina; Cain, Thomas R; Chan, Wayne; Chittcharat, Niyada; Crawford, Jarret T; Fehr, Ryan; Ficková, Emília; Gelfand, Michele J; Graf, Sylvie; Gülgöz, Sami; Hřebíčková, Martina; Jussim, Lee; Klinkosz, Waldemar; Knežević, Goran; Leibovich de Figueroa, Nora; Lima, Margarida P; Martin, Thomas A; Marušić, Iris; Mastor, Khairul Anwar; Nakazato, Katsuharu; Nansubuga, Florence; Porrata, Jose; Purić, Danka; Realo, Anu; Reátegui, Norma; Rolland, Jean-Pierre; Schmidt, Vanina; Sekowski, Andrzej; Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; Shimonaka, Yoshiko; Simonetti, Franco; Siuta, Jerzy; Szmigielska, Barbara; Vanno, Vitanya; Wang, Lei; Yik, Michelle; Terracciano, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Although large international studies have found consistent patterns of sex differences in personality traits among adults (i.e., women scoring higher on most facets), less is known about cross-cultural sex differences in adolescent personality and the role of culture and age in shaping them. The present study examines the NEO Personality Inventory-3 (McCrae, Costa, & Martin, 2005) informant ratings of adolescents from 23 cultures (N = 4,850), and investigates culture and age as sources of variability in sex differences of adolescents' personality. The effect for Neuroticism (with females scoring higher than males) begins to take on its adult form around age 14. Girls score higher on Openness to Experience and Conscientiousness at all ages between 12 and 17 years. A more complex pattern emerges for Extraversion and Agreeableness, although by age 17, sex differences for these traits are highly similar to those observed in adulthood. Cross-sectional data suggest that (a) with advancing age, sex differences found in adolescents increasingly converge toward adult patterns with respect to both direction and magnitude; (b) girls display sex-typed personality traits at an earlier age than boys; and (c) the emergence of sex differences was similar across cultures. Practical implications of the present findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. The Colors of Anger, Envy, Fear, and Jealously: A Cross-Cultural Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupka, Ralph B.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Studies to what extent emotion words--anger, envy, fear, and jealousy--reminded samples of Americans, Germans, Mexicans, Poles and Russians, of 12 terms of color. Responses from 661 undergraduates suggest that cross-modal associations originate in universal human experiences and in culture-specific variables, such as language, mythology, and…

  1. The Colors of Anger, Envy, Fear, and Jealously: A Cross-Cultural Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupka, Ralph B.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Studies to what extent emotion words--anger, envy, fear, and jealousy--reminded samples of Americans, Germans, Mexicans, Poles and Russians, of 12 terms of color. Responses from 661 undergraduates suggest that cross-modal associations originate in universal human experiences and in culture-specific variables, such as language, mythology, and…

  2. A Comparison Between Mexican-American and South American Students: A Cross-Cultural Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escotet, Miguel A.

    Addressing problem areas Mexican American students identify as important and differences between South American and Mexican American student problems, this research was guided by earlier work on cross-cultural methods and student problems. The study involved 1,189 high school and university students from Chile, Columbia, Ecuador, Venezuela,…

  3. Cross-cultural upbringing : A comparison of the "Third Culture Kids" framework and "Kaigai/Kikoku-shijo" studies

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    This paper will look at two fields of study which, although dealing with a similar subject matter, have up until now grown quite independently from each other. American scholars who look at the phenomenon of "Third Culture Kids" and Japanese scholars in "Kaigai/Kikoku-shijo" studies are both interested in the impact of a cross-cultural overseas upbringing on a child's subsequent life experience. We will examine some of the main findings from the respective fields, and point out their common t...

  4. Predictors of cultural competence among nursing students in the Philippines: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Jonas Preposi; Estacio, Joel C; Bagtang, Cristeta E; Colet, Paolo C

    2016-11-01

    With the continued emigration of Filipino nurses and increasing globalization, there is a need for globally competent nurses. Thus, the development of cultural competence among nursing students is critical in their preparation to assume their future responsibilities in the profession. This study investigated the predictors of cultural competence among nursing students in the Philippines. This is a descriptive, cross-section study. This study included 332 Bachelor of Science in nursing students in three nursing schools situated in the northern Philippines. The Cultural Capacity Scale was used to gather data from the respondents. The demographic characteristics and cultural background of the students were entered in a regression analysis to predict their cultural competence. The respondents manifested appreciably good cultural competence with a mean score of 68.98±11.73. The ability to understand the beliefs of various cultural groups received the highest mean of 3.65±0.86, while the ability to identify the care needs of patients with diverse cultural backgrounds received the lowest (mean, 3.31±0.74). Living in an environment with culturally diverse people, prior diversity training, being in the latter years of the nursing program, and with experience of caring for patients from diverse cultures and special population groups, were identified as predictors, accounting for 68.1% of the variance of cultural competence. Nursing education should devise strategies to ensure future culturally competent Filipino nurses. Considering the fact that most of the Filipino nurses will potentially work overseas, they should be well prepared to provide competent care that is culturally sensitive. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Korean Social Studies Preservice Teachers' Cross-Cultural Learning and Global Perspective Development: Crossing Borders between Korea and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoonjung; Choi, Minsik

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of cross-cultural learning experiences on Korean preservice social studies teachers' global perspectives development. Social studies preservice teachers in a large woman's university in Korea participated in a cross-cultural learning course, which focused on critical understanding of globalization and global…

  6. Cross-cultural validity: ethnocentrism in health studies with special reference to the Vietnamese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyton, J; Neuwirth, G

    1984-01-01

    The paper presents a methodological analysis of some recent studies concerned with health and socio-cultural adaptational problems of Vietnamese refugees. Using certain methodological rules, developed by social scientists for comparative research, such as conceptual equivalence or equivalence of measures, the claim of the studies to have employed cross-culturally valid instruments is examined. Since none of the studies have sought to achieve conceptual equivalence of their comparative concepts it is shown that several salient cultural differences in beliefs regarding the conception and treatment of illness among Vietnamese are over-looked. The studies only use indicators derived from, and based on, American samples and do not take into account culturally conditioned responses. Thus it is shown in some detail that the claim of cross-cultural validity should be seriously questioned as far as the Social Readjustment Rating Questionnaire and the Cornell Medical Index are concerned. The social class differences between 1975 and 1979 Vietnamese refugees are discussed in order to caution the reader that findings based on 1975 refugees will not apply to 1979 refugees. The paper concludes with the suggestion that different research strategies are required namely that open-ended interviews be used in societies of which our knowledge concerning salient cultural differences is fragmentary.

  7. Effects of culture shock and cross-cultural adaptation on learning satisfaction of mainland China students studying in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shieh, Chich-Jen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available With the national impact of low fertility, the enrollment of higher education in Taiwan is facing a dilemma. To cope with such a problem, the government has actively promoted Mainland China students to study in Taiwan. In addition to enhancing the international competitiveness of domestic universities, cross-strait education, and real academic exchange, it is expected to solve the enrollment shortage of colleges. However, the situations and pressures of Culture Shock, Cross-Cultural Adaptation, and Learning Satisfaction are critical for Mainland China students. Taking Mainland China students who study in Taiwan for more than four months (about a semester as the research participants, a total of 250 questionnaires were distributed and 167 valid ones were retrieved, with a retrieval rate of 67%. The research findings show significant correlations between Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Culture Shock, Culture Shock and Learning Satisfaction, and Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Learning Satisfaction.Debido al impacto de la baja fertilidad en el país, Taiwán afronta un dilema en relación con la inscripción en la enseñanza superior. Para enfrentarse al problema el gobierno ha promovido activamente que estudiantes de la China continental estudien en Taiwán. Además de incrementar la competitividad internacional de las universidades taiwanesas, la formación a ambos lados del estrecho y un verdadero intercambio académico, se espera que ello solucione la escasez de inscripciones en las facultades. Sin embargo, las situaciones y las presiones que generan el choque cultural, la adaptación multicultural y la satisfacción con el aprendizaje resultan críticas para los estudiantes de la China continental. Tomando como muestra de investigación a estudiantes de la China continental que estudian en Taiwán durante más de cuatro meses (aproximadamente un semestre, se distribuyó un total de 250 cuestionarios, de los cuales 167 fueron válidos, con una tasa

  8. A Pragmatic Cross-Cultural Study of Complaints Expressions in Jordan and England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisreen Al-Khawaldeh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Research shows an increasing interest in the area of cross-cultural pragmatics due to the existence of diverse problematic pragmatic norms (Al-Khawaldeh and Zegarac, 2013. It has been found that identifying cross-cultural differences in linguistic expression and socio-pragmatic norms of communicative acts would help to reduce problems in cross-cultural communication (Meier, 2010. To the best of the researcher's knowledge, no study has been conducted to compare the linguistic expression of complaining by Jordanian native speakers of Arabic and native speakers of English. To bridge the research gap, this study compares the number and types of politeness strategies that Jordanian native speakers of Arabic and native speakers of English use to complain. The study investigates the cultural styles and politeness strategies used by Jordanian native speakers Arabic and native speakers of English for expressing complaints. The analysis of the Discourse-Completion Tasks’ (DCT results revealed that eleven complaints strategies were the most commonly-used by both groups, namely opting out, general annoyance, direct threat, accusation, prayer, advice, irony, rejoinder that shows no disapproval, exclamation, request for repair, and request for explanation. These strategies are manifested in the speech of both languages to save the hearer's face and remain polite when performing the inherently face-threatening speech act of complaint. Though both groups used various complaints strategies at overall frequencies that were closer, they were statistically distinguishable in the type of the linguistic expression of complaints, i.e. opting out and prayer. The results are then discussed from the universality and cultures-specificity perspective. Keywords: Complaint, cross-cultural study, politeness, pragmatics, speech acts

  9. Cross-Cultural Leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Inga Minelgaite Snaebjornsson; Ingi Runar Edvardsson; Vilma Zydziunaite; Vlad Vaiman

    2015-01-01

    Ongoing low participation of women in global leadership calls for more research in this field. In this article, we set out to include gendered expectations toward leader behavior as part of cross-cultural leadership theory. Building on an existing body of research, we focus on propositions about the effects of gendered expectations on the leader, from the followers’ standpoint. The consideration of gendered effects fro...

  10. Enhancing students' cultural competence using cross-cultural experiential learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzke, Cynthia; Bertolo, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore undergraduate community health students' perceptions of their cultural competence. Little is known about students' cultural awareness, knowledge, and skills after their experience working with diverse cultural groups and language barriers. A cross-cultural experiential learning exercise was used as an educational approach. Reflective writing was used to elicit students' attitudes of the other culture and their coping skills. Three themes emerged as cultural awareness and knowledge, observation and learning, and cross-cultural communication. Results underscore the need for student academic preparation using cross-cultural educational approaches to enhance cultural competence.

  11. Cross-Cultural Perspectives After Participation in the YES Program: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa E. Fuentes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:  Guided by empowerment and ecological theories, the Youth Empowerment Solutions (YES program facilitates character development through activities based in cultural differences, team building, and social change. This pilot study consisted of two focus groups (n = 13 of middle school youth conducted after their participation in an abbreviated version of the YES program. Specifically, the present study examined youth’s cross-cultural perspectives after participation. The focus groups were transcribed and coded for emergent themes using Heaton’s (2005 supplementary data analysis framework. Qualitative analysis resulted in two emergent themes: 1 enhanced appreciation for similarities and differences in cultural and ethnic backgrounds, and 2 the role of respect in understanding differences and confronting stereotypes. Specifically, youth reported that engagement in this program fostered positive awareness of cultural differences and respect for inter-ethnic relationships. The findings provide support for the benefits of the YES program on moral development and promotion of healthy peer relationships.

  12. Cultural and Personality Predictors of Facebook Intrusion: A Cross-Cultural Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błachnio, Agata; Przepiorka, Aneta; Benvenuti, Martina; Cannata, Davide; Ciobanu, Adela M.; Senol-Durak, Emre; Durak, Mithat; Giannakos, Michail N.; Mazzoni, Elvis; Pappas, Ilias O.; Popa, Camelia; Seidman, Gwendolyn; Yu, Shu; Wu, Anise M. S.; Ben-Ezra, Menachem

    2016-01-01

    The increase in the number of users of social networking sites (SNS) has inspired intense efforts to determine intercultural differences between them. The main aim of the study was to investigate the cultural and personal predictors of Facebook intrusion. A total of 2628 Facebook users from eight countries took part in the study. The Facebook Intrusion Questionnaire, the Ten-Item Personality Inventory, and the Singelis Scale were used. We found that two variables related to Country were significantly related to Facebook intrusion: uniqueness (negatively) and low context (positively); of the personality variables, conscientiousness, and emotional stability were negatively related to the dependent variable of Facebook intrusion across different countries, which may indicate the universal pattern of Facebook intrusion. The results of the study will contribute to the international debate on the phenomenon of SNS. PMID:27994566

  13. Cultural and Personality Predictors of Facebook Intrusion: A Cross-Cultural Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Błachnio

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the number of users of social networking sites has inspired intense efforts to determine intercultural differences between them. The main aim of the study was to investigate the cultural and personal predictors of Facebook intrusion. A total of 2,628 Facebook users from eight countries took part in the study. The Facebook Intrusion Questionnaire, the Ten-Item Personality Measure, and the Singelis Scale were used. We found that two variables related to Country were significantly related to Facebook intrusion: uniqueness (negatively and low context (positively; of the personality variables, conscientiousness and emotional stability were negatively related to the dependent variable of Facebook intrusion across different countries, which may indicate the universal pattern of Facebook intrusion. The results of the study will contribute to the international debate on the phenomenon of social networking sites (SNS.

  14. Cultural and Personality Predictors of Facebook Intrusion: A Cross-Cultural Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błachnio, Agata; Przepiorka, Aneta; Benvenuti, Martina; Cannata, Davide; Ciobanu, Adela M; Senol-Durak, Emre; Durak, Mithat; Giannakos, Michail N; Mazzoni, Elvis; Pappas, Ilias O; Popa, Camelia; Seidman, Gwendolyn; Yu, Shu; Wu, Anise M S; Ben-Ezra, Menachem

    2016-01-01

    The increase in the number of users of social networking sites (SNS) has inspired intense efforts to determine intercultural differences between them. The main aim of the study was to investigate the cultural and personal predictors of Facebook intrusion. A total of 2628 Facebook users from eight countries took part in the study. The Facebook Intrusion Questionnaire, the Ten-Item Personality Inventory, and the Singelis Scale were used. We found that two variables related to Country were significantly related to Facebook intrusion: uniqueness (negatively) and low context (positively); of the personality variables, conscientiousness, and emotional stability were negatively related to the dependent variable of Facebook intrusion across different countries, which may indicate the universal pattern of Facebook intrusion. The results of the study will contribute to the international debate on the phenomenon of SNS.

  15. Discourse in virtual cross-cultural communication: a dialogue of cultures or a clash of mentalities? (a case study research in EFL education in Russia)

    OpenAIRE

    NAZARENKO ALLA L.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a case study research based on the experience of Moscow State University of using cross-cultural telecommunication projects as a "testing ground" for developing students' cross-cultural communicative competence. This competence was assessed in terms of success / failure of cross-cultural interaction. The transcripts of forums and chats have been analyzed as well as the results of the survey of students-participants, aimed at getting their opinion about the project ("studen...

  16. Discourse in virtual cross-cultural communication: a dialogue of cultures or a clash of mentalities? (a case study research in EFL education in Russia)

    OpenAIRE

    NAZARENKO ALLA L.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a case study research based on the experience of Moscow State University of using cross-cultural telecommunication projects as a "testing ground" for developing students' cross-cultural communicative competence. This competence was assessed in terms of success / failure of cross-cultural interaction. The transcripts of forums and chats have been analyzed as well as the results of the survey of students-participants, aimed at getting their opinion about the project ("studen...

  17. A Study of Cross-cultural Pragmatic Failures in Tourism Interpretation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei-jie

    2015-01-01

    In the tourism interpretation, guide interpreter incompetent in cross-cultural pragmatic awareness and ability happens to make various cross-cultural pragmatic failures, which would result in misunderstandings or even failures in communication. The phenomenon of cross-cultural pragmatic failures in the tourism interpretation from two subdivisions:pragmalinguistic failure and sociopragmatic failure would be discussed from the interdisciplinary perspective, aiming to the promotion of the quality of tourism interpretation and the advancement of the cross-cultural communication between China and the west.

  18. Cultural Competence among Maternal Healthcare Providers in Bahir Dar City Administration, Northwest Ethiopia: Cross sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragaw, Amanu; Yigzaw, Tegbar; Tetemke, Desalegn; G/Amlak, Wubalem

    2015-09-24

    Cultural competency is now a core requirement for maternal health providers working in multicultural society. However, it has not yet received due attention in Ethiopia. This study aimed to determine the level of cultural competence and its associated factors among maternal health care providers in Bahir Dar City Administration, Northwest Ethiopia. Institution based cross-sectional study was carried out using both quantitative and qualitative methods. Maternal health care providers from all health facilities were our study participants. Structured Questionnaire with some modification of Campinha Bacote's tool was used to collect quantitative data from health workers and semi structured guide line was used for qualitative data among women. While quantitative data analysis was done using SPSS, qualitative data was analyzed using open code software. P-value of less than 0.05 was taken to determine statistical significance. Cronbach's alpha was used to test internal reliability and a factor loading of 0.3 or greater was the criterion used to retain items. Two hundred seventy four health workers and seven women were involved in the study. The overall competency level was 57.3 % thought vary in different subscales or stages. Of the cultural competent health workers near to three fourth (73.0 %) were in awareness stage which is the earliest stage of competence in which individuals were aware only their own culture but not the world view of their clients. The voices of mothers in the qualitative assessment also showed discordance in cultural competence with their healthcare providers. Female health workers almost six times [AOR,5.5; 2.71, 11.30] more competent than male providers and those who got in-service training related to maternal care provided services more culturally competent than their counter parts with [AOR,3.5; 1.4, 8.64]. Reliability Cronbach's α coefficient value of cultural competence subscales showed 0.672,0 .719, 0.658, 0.714, and 0.631 for cultural

  19. A cross-cultural study on emotion expression and the learning of social norms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shlomo eHareli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available When we do not know how to correctly behave in a new context, the emotions that people familiar with the context show in response to the behaviors of others, can help us understand what to do or not to do. The present study examined cross-cultural differences in how group emotional expressions (anger, sadness, neutral can be used to deduce a norm violation in four cultures (Germany, Israel, Greece and the US, which differ in terms of decoding rules for negative emotions. As expected, in all four countries, anger was a stronger norm violation signal than sadness or neutral expressions. However, angry and sad expressions were perceived as more intense and the relevant norm was learned better in Germany and Israel than in Greece and the US. Participants in Greece were relatively better at using sadness as a sign of a likely norm violation. The results demonstrate both cultural universality and cultural differences in the use of group emotion expressions in norm learning. In terms of cultural differences they underscore that the social signal value of emotional expressions may vary with culture as a function of cultural differences, both in emotion perception, and as a function of a differential use of emotions.

  20. A cross-cultural study on emotion expression and the learning of social norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hareli, Shlomo; Kafetsios, Konstantinos; Hess, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    When we do not know how to correctly behave in a new context, the emotions that people familiar with the context show in response to the behaviors of others, can help us understand what to do or not to do. The present study examined cross-cultural differences in how group emotional expressions (anger, sadness, neutral) can be used to deduce a norm violation in four cultures (Germany, Israel, Greece, and the US), which differ in terms of decoding rules for negative emotions. As expected, in all four countries, anger was a stronger norm violation signal than sadness or neutral expressions. However, angry and sad expressions were perceived as more intense and the relevant norm was learned better in Germany and Israel than in Greece and the US. Participants in Greece were relatively better at using sadness as a sign of a likely norm violation. The results demonstrate both cultural universality and cultural differences in the use of group emotion expressions in norm learning. In terms of cultural differences they underscore that the social signal value of emotional expressions may vary with culture as a function of cultural differences, both in emotion perception, and as a function of a differential use of emotions.

  1. Cultural border crossing in three urban classrooms: A mixed methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopnarine, Rupnarain

    This study examined the effects of the instruction of four youth cultural border crossing behaviors: flexibility, being at ease, playfulness, and citizenship as an intervention aimed at helping students to transition across three borders, student to student, student to science, and student to teacher. The research involved 12 ninth- and 10th-grade students in a large urban school district in three diverse classrooms, A, B, and C. Four students in each classroom volunteered for the study. The students in Groups A and B were in 9th grade Living Environment and students in Group B were in 10th grade chemistry. These students participated in this instructional intervention for three months. The study was conducted using both quantitative and qualitative methods based on participant observations, interviews, and questionnaire. The result indicated that there was no significant effect of the cultural border crossing instructions on the students' interactions across the three borders examined. However, the instructions helped Group A and Group B to be more flexible but not group C. Also, the instructions helped Group A to be more playful and at ease but not Group B and C. The instructions also helped Group A to show more citizenship but not Group B and C. In addition, there was no difference between the pretest and posttest cultural bother crossing behavior. Moreover, qualitative data analysis showed that the participants were more flexible, at ease, and playful among peers than across student to teacher and student to science borders. Also, the use of citizenship in the three groups showed no effect on the participants' interaction with peers. Although, the findings showed no effect of cultural border crossing instructions on students' interactions, it is suggested that we continue to find ways to help students feel more comfortable in science.

  2. Cultural competency of health-care providers in a Swiss University Hospital: self-assessed cross-cultural skillfulness in a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background As the diversity of the European population evolves, measuring providers’ skillfulness in cross-cultural care and understanding what contextual factors may influence this is increasingly necessary. Given limited information about differences in cultural competency by provider role, we compared cross-cultural skillfulness between physicians and nurses working at a Swiss university hospital. Methods A survey on cross-cultural care was mailed in November 2010 to front-line providers in Lausanne, Switzerland. This questionnaire included some questions from the previously validated Cross-Cultural Care Survey. We compared physicians’ and nurses’ mean composite scores and proportion of “3-good/4-very good” responses, for nine perceived skillfulness items (4-point Likert-scale) using the validated tool. We used linear regression to examine how provider role (physician vs. nurse) was associated with composite skillfulness scores, adjusting for demographics (gender, non-French dominant language), workplace (time at institution, work-unit “sensitized” to cultural-care), reported cultural-competence training, and cross-cultural care problem-awareness. Results Of 885 questionnaires, 368 (41.2%) returned the survey: 124 (33.6%) physicians and 244 (66.4%) nurses, reflecting institutional distribution of providers. Physicians had better mean composite scores for perceived skillfulness than nurses (2.7 vs. 2.5, p cultural training (β = 0.14, p = 0.01) and lack of practical experience caring for diverse populations (β = 0.11, p = 0.04). In stratified analyses among physicians alone, having French as a dominant language (β = −0.34, p cultural competency improvement among providers. These results support the need for cross-cultural skills training with an inter-professional focus on nurses, education that attunes provider awareness to the local issues in cross-cultural care, and increased diversity efforts in the work force

  3. Nencki Affective Picture System: Cross-Cultural Study in Europe and Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riegel, Monika; Moslehi, Abnoos; Michałowski, Jarosław M.; Żurawski, Łukasz; Horvat, Marko; Wypych, Marek; Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Marchewka, Artur

    2017-01-01

    Although emotions have been assumed conventionally to be universal, recent studies have suggested that various aspects of emotions may be mediated by cultural background. The purpose of our research was to test these contradictory views, in the case of the subjective evaluation of visual affective stimuli. We also sought to validate the recently introduced Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS) database on a different cultural group. Since there has been, to date, no attempt to compare the emotions of a culturally distinct sample of Iranians with those of Europeans, subjective ratings were collected from 40 Iranians and 39 Europeans. Each cultural group was asked separately to provide normative affective ratings and classify pictures according to discrete emotions. The results were analyzed to identify cultural differences in the ratings of individual images. One hundred and seventy NAPS pictures were rated with regard to the intensity of the basic emotions (happiness, sadness, fear, surprise, anger, and disgust) they elicited, as well as in terms of affective dimensions (valence and arousal). Contrary to previous studies using the International Affective Picture System, our results for Europeans and Iranians show that neither the ratings for affective dimensions nor for basic emotions differed across cultural groups. In both cultural groups, the relationship between valence and arousal ratings could be best described by a classical boomerang-shaped function. However, the content of the pictures (animals, faces, landscapes, objects, or people) had a significant effect on the ratings for valence and arousal. These findings indicate that further studies in cross-cultural affective research should control for the content of stimuli. PMID:28316576

  4. A cross-cultural study of how usability professionals experience the usability of everyday systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Yun; Sun, Xianghong; Li, Huiyang

    2009-01-01

    Culture influences many aspects of the design and use of computer systems; understanding better this influence on their own thinking may benefit usability professionals who do cross-cultural usability work. Using Kelly's notion of personal constructs, we focus on one mediator of culture: how...

  5. A Cross-Cultural Study of How Usability Professionals Experience the Usability of Everyday Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Y.; Sun, X.; Li, H.

    2009-01-01

    Culture influences many aspects of the design and use of computer systems; understanding better this influence on their own thinking may benefit usability professionals who do cross-cultural usability work. Using Kelly’s notion of personal constructs, we focus on one mediator of culture: how...

  6. Cultural competency of health-care providers in a Swiss University Hospital: self-assessed cross-cultural skillfulness in a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casillas, Alejandra; Paroz, Sophie; Green, Alexander R; Wolff, Hans; Weber, Orest; Faucherre, Florence; Ninane, Françoise; Bodenmann, Patrick

    2014-01-30

    As the diversity of the European population evolves, measuring providers' skillfulness in cross-cultural care and understanding what contextual factors may influence this is increasingly necessary. Given limited information about differences in cultural competency by provider role, we compared cross-cultural skillfulness between physicians and nurses working at a Swiss university hospital. A survey on cross-cultural care was mailed in November 2010 to front-line providers in Lausanne, Switzerland. This questionnaire included some questions from the previously validated Cross-Cultural Care Survey. We compared physicians' and nurses' mean composite scores and proportion of "3-good/4-very good" responses, for nine perceived skillfulness items (4-point Likert-scale) using the validated tool. We used linear regression to examine how provider role (physician vs. nurse) was associated with composite skillfulness scores, adjusting for demographics (gender, non-French dominant language), workplace (time at institution, work-unit "sensitized" to cultural-care), reported cultural-competence training, and cross-cultural care problem-awareness. Of 885 questionnaires, 368 (41.2%) returned the survey: 124 (33.6%) physicians and 244 (66.4%) nurses, reflecting institutional distribution of providers. Physicians had better mean composite scores for perceived skillfulness than nurses (2.7 vs. 2.5, p diverse populations (β = 0.11, p = 0.04). In stratified analyses among physicians alone, having French as a dominant language (β = -0.34, p diversity efforts in the work force, particularly among physicians.

  7. Genre analysis of literature research article abstracts: A cross-linguistic, cross-cultural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamideh Marefat

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Following Swales’s (1981 works on genre analysis, studies on different sections of Research Articles (RAs in various languages and fields abound however, only scant attention has been directed toward abstracts written in Persian, and in the field of literature. Moreover, claims made by Lores (2004 regarding the correspondence of two types of abstracts with different models, and by Martin (2004 concerning the influence of sociocultural factors on the way writers write needed evaluation. To fill this gap, 90 English and Persian abstracts written in the field of literature, by English and Persian native speakers, were analyzed based on the IMRD (Introduction, Method, Results, and Discussion and CARS (Create A Research Space models. The results demonstrated that literature RA writers generally focus on Introduction and Results, neglect Method and Discussion, and do not mention the niche in previous related work secondly, although none of the models were efficient, literature abstracts generally matched CARS more than IMRD and thirdly, abstracts written by Persian native speakers had minor deviations from both the Persian and the international norms, and exhibited a standard of their own. The present study also discusses steps which the models fail to predict. In addition, it offers a number of pedagogical implications for TEFL, especially for the writing skill.

  8. Are nurse presenteeism and patient safety culture associated: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brborović, Hana; Brborović, Ognjen; Brumen, Vlatka; Pavleković, Gordana; Mustajbegović, Jadranka

    2014-06-01

    Working as a nurse involves great dedication and sacrifice: working night shifts, working overtime, and coming to work sick. The last is also known as presenteeism. Research has shown that poor nurse performance can affect both caregiver's and patient's safety. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate whether nurse presenteeism affected patient safety culture and to look deeper into the characteristics of nurse presenteeism and patient safety culture in Croatia. The study was conducted in one general hospital in Croatia over April and May 2012 and specifically targeted medical nurses as one of the largest groups of healthcare professionals. They were asked to fill two questionnaires: the six-item Stanford Presenteeism Scale (SPS-6) and the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPSC). We found no association between presenteeism and patient safety culture. Overall positive perception of safety was our sample's strength, but other dimensions were positively rated by less than 65 % of participants. The lowest positive response concerned "nonpunitive response to error", which is consistent with previous studies. Presenteeist nurses did not differ in their characteristics from nurses without presenteeism (gender, age, years of experience, working hours, contact with patients and patient safety grades). Our future research will have to include a broader healthcare population for us to be able to identify weak spots and suggest improvements toward high-quality and cost-effective health care.

  9. Semiology of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures: An international cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi-Pooya, Ali A; Valente, Kette; Alessi, Ruda; Tinker, Jennifer

    2017-08-30

    We compared the semiology of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) between patients from the USA and Brazil. This international cross-cultural comparative study may expand understanding of PNES across the borders. We retrospectively investigated all patients with PNES admitted to one epilepsy center in the USA and one in Brazil. We classified their seizures into four classes: generalized motor, akinetic, focal motor, and subjective symptoms. All patients were interviewed by an epileptologist in both countries and were administered psychological assessment measures, including questions about PNES risk factors. For the statistical analyses, we compared patients from the two nations. Eighty-nine patients (49 from the USA and 40 from Brazil) were studied. Patients from the two countries were not significantly different with regard to sex and age, but patients from Brazil had earlier age at onset (26years vs. 34years; P=0.004) and a significantly greater delay in diagnosis (9.9years vs. 5.6years; P=0.001). Some characteristics of PNES were different between the two groups; patients from the USA had generally more seizure types and more often reported subjective seizures (55% in the USA vs. 10% in Brazil; P=0.0001). Clinical and historical characteristics of the patients were not significantly different. Delay in diagnosis of PNES may represent a major factor in resource-limited countries. Large multicenter cross-cultural studies may reveal subtle but significant cross-cultural differences with respect to the semiological, clinical, and historical aspects of PNES; however, patients with PNES share more similarities than differences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Boosting in English and Indonesian Research Articles: A Cross-Cultural and Cross-Disciplinary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Suka Sanjaya

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Boosters, defined as linguistic devices (e.g. certainly used by writers to indicate full commitment to the truth value of a proposition, has received little attention from applied linguists, despite their persuasive power in research writing. The present study investigated the effects of the two variables of sociocultural context and discipline on the frequency of use of boosters in research articles. A specialized corpus of 104 research articles published between 2007 and 2010 taken from applied linguistics and chemistry written in English and Indonesian by the respective native speaker scholars were quantitatively analyzed using 2 x 2 Factorial ANOVA. The results showed that there was a significant main effect of sociocultural context, F (1, 100 = 44,34, p <0,05, ŋ2 = 0,307, a significant main effect of discipline, F (1,100 = 19,16, p < 0,05, ŋ2 = 0,161, and a significant interaction between sociocultural context and discipline, F (1,100 = 6,90, p < 0,05, ŋ2 = 0,065. However, the within-sociocultural context simple effects analysis revealed that English applied linguistics and chemistry research articles were not significantly different from each other, F (1,101 = 1,07, n.s. suggesting that, discipline might not be a decisive factor that influences boosting usage in research articles. These results indicate that the two variables (sociocultural context and discipline exerted unequal influence upon boosting practices in research articles. The differential characteristics of the two sociocultural contexts are offered as explanations to account for the differential boosting practices of English and Indonesian research articles.

  11. Cross-Cultural Register Differences in Infant-Directed Speech: An Initial Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lama K Farran

    Full Text Available Infant-directed speech (IDS provides an environment that appears to play a significant role in the origins of language in the human infant. Differences have been reported in the use of IDS across cultures, suggesting different styles of infant language-learning. Importantly, both cross-cultural and intra-cultural research suggest there may be a positive relationship between the use of IDS and rates of language development, underscoring the need to investigate cultural differences more deeply. The majority of studies, however, have conceptualized IDS monolithically, granting little attention to a potentially key distinction in how IDS manifests across cultures during the first two years. This study examines and quantifies for the first time differences within IDS in the use of baby register (IDS/BR, an acoustically identifiable type of IDS that includes features such as high pitch, long duration, and smooth intonation (the register that is usually assumed to occur in IDS, and adult register (IDS/AR, the type of IDS that does not include such features and thus sounds as if it could have been addressed to an adult. We studied IDS across 19 American and 19 Lebanese mother-infant dyads, with particular focus on the differential use of registers within IDS as mothers interacted with their infants ages 0-24 months. Our results showed considerable usage of IDS/AR (>30% of utterances and a tendency for Lebanese mothers to use more IDS than American mothers. Implications for future research on IDS and its role in elucidating how language evolves across cultures are explored.

  12. Non-Verbal Intelligence in Primary School Students: A Cross-Cultural Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davydova Yulia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present the results of a cross-cultural study of non-verbal intelligence in primary school students. Significant differences with the effect size of 9% were found in non-verbal intelligence scores of 1057 students from Russia and Kyrgyzstan. The differences were also found for city and countryside residents (effect size of 10%. These results might be explained both by the features of educational systems and socio-economic development level in Russia and Kyrgyzstan.

  13. A cross-disciplinary and cross-cultural study of directives in discussions and conclusions of research articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Jalilifar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study provided cross-cultural and cross-disciplinary analyses of the distribution of directives in discussion and conclusion sections of English and Persian research articles (RAs in disciplines of physics, chemistry, counseling, and sociology, representing hard and soft sciences, respectively. To that aim, 80 RAs from both English and Persian journals between 2000 and 2012 were selected. The RAs were textually analyzed to determine the distribution of directives. Findings revealed a significant difference between Persian hard and soft science RAs in the employment of directives, with soft science writers employing directives more frequently in discussion and conclusion sections in comparison with hard science writers. However, no significant difference was found in the distribution of directives across discussion and conclusion sections of English soft and hard RAs. Moreover, findings did not show a significant difference across Persian and English RAs. Overall, results suggest that Persian and English academic writers tend to follow a similar generic and discursive trend in the employment of directives in their discussion and conclusion sections pointing to the universal nature of directives as persuasive strategies employed by academic writers in canonical branches of science. The findings of the present study might raise learners' awareness of the conventions and lexico-grammatical features of academic writing in Persian and/or English RAs.

  14. Cross-cultural awareness

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with the importance of cultural awareness for businesspeople when they go abroad. It also gives some cultural advice and factors which are thought to be the most important in creating a culture.

  15. Cultural hegemony? Educators’ perspectives on facilitating cross-cultural dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Zareen; Verstegen, Daniëlle; Vyas, Rashmi; Hamed, Omayma; Dornan, Tim; Morahan, Page

    2016-01-01

    Background We live in an age when education is being internationalized. This can confront students with ‘cultural hegemony’ that can result from the unequal distribution of power and privilege in global society. The name that is given to awareness of social inequality is ‘critical consciousness’. Cross-cultural dialogue provides an opportunity for learners to develop critical consciousness to counter cultural hegemony. The purpose of this research was to understand how learners engage with cross-cultural dialogue, so we can help them do so more effectively in the future. Method The setting for this research was an online discussion in an international health professions educator fellowship program. We introduced scenarios with cultural references to study the reaction of participants to cultural conversation cues. We used an inductive thematic analysis to explore power and hegemony issues. Results Participants reflected that personally they were more likely to take part in cross-cultural discussions if they recognized the context discussed or had prior exposure to educational settings with cultural diversity. They identified barriers as lack of skills in facilitating cross-cultural discussions and fear of offending others. They suggested deliberately introducing cultural issues throughout the curriculum. Conclusion Our results indicate that developing critical consciousness and cross-cultural competency will require instructional design to identify longitudinal opportunities to bring up cross-cultural issues, and training facilitators to foster cross-cultural discussions by asking clarifying questions and navigating crucial/sensitive conversations. PMID:27890048

  16. Cultural hegemony? Educators’ perspectives on facilitating cross-cultural dialogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zareen Zaidi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: We live in an age when education is being internationalized. This can confront students with ‘cultural hegemony’ that can result from the unequal distribution of power and privilege in global society. The name that is given to awareness of social inequality is ‘critical consciousness’. Cross-cultural dialogue provides an opportunity for learners to develop critical consciousness to counter cultural hegemony. The purpose of this research was to understand how learners engage with cross-cultural dialogue, so we can help them do so more effectively in the future. Method: The setting for this research was an online discussion in an international health professions educator fellowship program. We introduced scenarios with cultural references to study the reaction of participants to cultural conversation cues. We used an inductive thematic analysis to explore power and hegemony issues. Results: Participants reflected that personally they were more likely to take part in cross-cultural discussions if they recognized the context discussed or had prior exposure to educational settings with cultural diversity. They identified barriers as lack of skills in facilitating cross-cultural discussions and fear of offending others. They suggested deliberately introducing cultural issues throughout the curriculum. Conclusion: Our results indicate that developing critical consciousness and cross-cultural competency will require instructional design to identify longitudinal opportunities to bring up cross-cultural issues, and training facilitators to foster cross-cultural discussions by asking clarifying questions and navigating crucial/sensitive conversations.

  17. Teaching NHCE with Cross-Cultural Simulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨非

    2008-01-01

    Cross-cultural communication competence is very important for the students who study English as a second language. In order to teach effectively.the teachers may try to teach with cross-cultural simulations.The au- thor Of the article uses 5 simulations in the course of New Horizon College English.Although the sample size in this research is small,the author shows the ideas that cross-cultural awareness is related to communication competence and teaching with cross-cultural simulations helps understanding.

  18. A Study of Cross-Cultural Interactions in“The Tempest”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang; Lei

    2014-01-01

    Cross-cultural analysis is becoming an important way to realize the different cultures. This article is mainly focusing on the colonialism in "The Tempest". Colonialism is one main aspect of cross-cultural interaction. "The Tempest" is the last play written by William Shakespeare. In his play, he mentioned several characters and some special relationships between them. These can be regarded as the reflection of colonialism which is the most important theme in this play. As we all know, some colonialism can make good influence while some only produce bad influence. In this article, it introduces the negative cross-cultural interaction from several aspects. As a result, we could understand the process of formation of colonialism from these debates.

  19. A Study of Cross-Cultural Interactions in“The Tempest”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Lei

    2014-01-01

    Cross-cultural analysis is becoming an important way to realize the different cultures. This article is mainly focusing on the colonialism in“The Tempest”. Colonialism is one main aspect of cross-cultural interaction. “The Tempest” is the last play written by William Shakespeare. In his play, he mentioned several characters and some special relationships between them. These can be regarded as the reflection of colonialism which is the most important theme in this play. As we all know, some colonialism can make good influence while some only produce bad influence. In this article, it introduces the negative cross-cultural interaction from several aspects. As a result, we could understand the process of formation of colonialism from these debates.

  20. Cross-Cultural Nongeneralizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Michael Quinn

    1985-01-01

    This synthesis of the previous articles concludes that cultural considerations are important for effective evaluation practice. Culturally sensitive and situationally responsive evaluation practices can contribute to international understanding. (BS)

  1. Body Dysmorphic Symptoms Scale for patients seeking esthetic surgery: cross-cultural validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Dalpasquale Ramos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Rhinoplasty is one of the most sought-after esthetic operations among individuals with body dysmorphic disorder. The aim of this study was to cross-culturally adapt and validate the Body Dysmorphic Symptoms Scale. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-cultural validation study conducted in a plastic surgery outpatient clinic of a public university hospital. METHODS: Between February 2014 and March 2015, 80 consecutive patients of both sexes seeking rhinoplasty were selected. Thirty of them participated in the phase of cultural adaptation of the instrument. Reproducibility was tested on 20 patients and construct validity was assessed on 50 patients, with correlation against the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale for Body Dysmorphic Disorder. RESULTS: The Brazilian version of the instrument showed Cronbach's alpha of 0.805 and excellent inter-rater reproducibility (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC = 0.873; P < 0.001 and intra-rater reproducibility (ICC = 0.939; P < 0.001. Significant differences in total scores were found between patients with and without symptoms (P < 0.001. A strong correlation (r = 0.841; P < 0.001 was observed between the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale for Body Dysmorphic Disorder and the Body Dysmorphic Symptoms Scale. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.981, thus showing good accuracy for discriminating between presence and absence of symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder. Forty-six percent of the patients had body dysmorphic symptoms and 54% had moderate to severe appearance-related obsessive-compulsive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: The Brazilian version of the Body Dysmorphic Symptoms Scale is a reproducible instrument that presents face, content and construct validity.

  2. Performance-based vs socially supportive culture : A cross-national study of descriptive norms and entrepreneurship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ute, S.; Uhlaner, L.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a cross-national study testing a framework relating cultural descriptive norms to entrepreneurship in a sample of 40 nations. Based on data from the Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness project, we identify two higher-order dimensions of culture – socially suppor

  3. Performance-based vs socially supportive culture : A cross-national study of descriptive norms and entrepreneurship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ute, S.; Uhlaner, L.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a cross-national study testing a framework relating cultural descriptive norms to entrepreneurship in a sample of 40 nations. Based on data from the Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness project, we identify two higher-order dimensions of culture – socially suppor

  4. Values and beliefs of psychedelic drug users: a cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Michael; Lyvers, Michael

    2006-06-01

    Psychedelic drugs such as LSD and psilocybin are often claimed to be capable of inducing life-changing experiences described as mystical or transcendental, especially if high doses are taken. The present study examined possible enduring effects of such experiences by comparing users of psychedelic drugs (n = 88), users of nonpsychedelic illegal drugs (e.g., marijuana, amphetamines) (n = 29) and non illicit drug-using social drinkers (n = 66) on questionnaire measures of values, beliefs and emotional empathy. Samples were obtained from Israel (n = 110) and Australia (n = 73) in a cross-cultural comparison to see if values associated with psychedelic drug use transcended culture of origin. Psychedelic users scored significantly higher on mystical beliefs (e.g., oneness with God and the universe) and life values of spirituality and concern for others than the other groups, and lower on the value of financial prosperity, irrespective of culture of origin. Users of nonpsychedelic illegal drugs scored significantly lower on a measure of coping ability than both psychedelic users and non illicit drug users. Both groups of illegal drug users scored significantly higher on empathy than non illicit drug users. Results are discussed in the context of earlier findings from Pahnke (1966) and Doblin (1991) of the transformative effect of psychedelic experiences, although the possibility remains that present findings reflect predrug characteristics of those who chose to take psychedelic drugs rather than effects of the drugs themselves.

  5. Cross-cultural examination of the tripartite model with children: data from the Barretstown studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiernan, G; Laurent, J; Joiner, T E; Catanzaro, S J; MacLachlan, M

    2001-10-01

    The Positive and Negative Affect Scale for Children (PANAS-C) and the Physiological Hyperarousal Scale for Children (PH-C) were administered to a group of 240 children from European countries to determine their utility in examining the tripartite model of anxiety and depression in a cross-cultural sample. Most of the children (n = 196) had been diagnosed with a medical illness; the remainder were siblings of these youngsters (n = 44). Only slight variations were noted in items between this sample and samples from the United States. Despite these minor differences, 3 distinct scales measuring the positive affect, negative affect, and physiological hyperarousal constructs of the tripartite model were identified. These findings illustrate that the PH-PANAS-C provides a useful measure of the tripartite model in a cross-cultural sample of youth. The findings also demonstrate that the tripartite model is generalizable to a cross-cultural milieu.

  6. Cross-cultural organizational behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, Michele J; Erez, Miriam; Aycan, Zeynep

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews research on cross-cultural organizational behavior (OB). After a brief review of the history of cross-cultural OB, we review research on work motivation, or the factors that energize, direct, and sustain effort across cultures. We next consider the relationship between the individual and the organization, and review research on culture and organizational commitment, psychological contracts, justice, citizenship behavior, and person-environment fit. Thereafter, we consider how individuals manage their interdependence in organizations, and review research on culture and negotiation and disputing, teams, and leadership, followed by research on managing across borders and expatriation. The review shows that developmentally, cross-cultural research in OB is coming of age. Yet we also highlight critical challenges for future research, including moving beyond values to explain cultural differences, attending to levels of analysis issues, incorporating social and organizational context factors into cross-cultural research, taking indigenous perspectives seriously, and moving beyond intracultural comparisons to understand the dynamics of cross-cultural interfaces.

  7. Health problem behaviors in Iranian adolescents: A study of cross-cultural adaptation, reliability, and validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ali Eslami

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The main purpose of this study was to assess the factorial validity and reliability of the Iranian versions of the personality and behavior system scales (49 items of the AHDQ (The Adolescent Health and Development Questionnaire and interrelations among them based on Jessor′s PBT (Problem Behavior Theory. Methods: A multi-staged approach was employed. The cross-cultural adaptation was performed according to the internationally recommended methodology, using the following guidelines: translation, back-translation, revision by a committee, and pretest. After modifying and identifying of the best items, a cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the psychometric properties of Persian version using calibration and validation samples of adolescents. Also 113 of them completed it again two weeks later for stability. Results: The findings of the exploratory factor analysis suggested that the 7-factor solution with low self concept, emotional distress, general delinquency, cigarette, hookah, alcohol, and hard drugs use provided a better fitting model. The a range for these identified factors was 0.69 to 0.94, the ICC range was 0.73 to 0.93, and there was a significant difference in mean scores for these instruments in compare between the male normative and detention adolescents. The first and second-order measurement models testing found good model fit for the 7-factor model. Conclusions: Factor analyses provided support of existence internalizing and externalizing problem behavior syndrome. With those qualifications, this model can be applied for studies among Persian adolescents.

  8. A cross-cultural study of noblesse oblige in economic decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiddick, Laurence; Cummins, Denise Dellarosa; Janicki, Maria; Lee, Sean; Erlich, Nicole

    2013-09-01

    A cornerstone of economic theory is that rational agents are self-interested, yet a decade of research in experimental economics has shown that economic decisions are frequently driven by concerns for fairness, equity, and reciprocity. One aspect of other-regarding behavior that has garnered attention is noblesse oblige, a social norm that obligates those of higher status to be generous in their dealings with those of lower status. The results of a cross-cultural study are reported in which marked noblesse oblige was observed on a reciprocal-contract decision-making task. Participants from seven countries that vary along hierarchical and individualist/collectivist social dimensions were more tolerant of non-reciprocation when they adopted a high-ranking perspective compared with a low-ranking perspective.

  9. The perception of musical phrase structure: a cross-cultural ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Yun; Knösche, Thomas R; Friederici, Angela D

    2006-06-13

    Electroencephalography (EEG) was used in a cross-cultural music study investigating phrase boundary perception. Chinese and German musicians performed a cultural categorization task under Chinese and Western music listening conditions. Western music was the major subject for both groups of musicians, while Chinese music was familiar to Chinese subjects only. By manipulating the presence of pauses between two phrases in the biphrasal melodies, EEG correlates for the perception of phrase boundaries were found in both groups under both music listening conditions. Between 450 and 600 ms, the music CPS (closure positive shift), which had been found in earlier studies with a false tone detection task, was replicated for the more global categorization task and for all combinations of subject group and musical style. At short latencies (100 and 450 ms post phrase boundary offset), EEG correlates varied as a function of musical styles and subject group. Both bottom-up (style properties of the music) and top-down (acculturation of the subjects) information interacted during this early processing stage.

  10. Smoking in movies and adolescent smoking: cross-cultural study in six European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morgenstern, M.; Poelen, E.A.P.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Karlsdottir, S.; Jonsson, S.H.; Mathis, F.; Faggiano, F.; Florek, E.; Sweeting, H.; Hunt, K.; Sargent, J.D.; Hanewinkel, R.

    2011-01-01

    Aim To investigate whether the association between exposure to smoking in movies and smoking among youth is independent of cultural context. Method Cross-sectional survey of 16 551 pupils recruited in Germany, Iceland, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland and Scotland with a mean age of 13.4 years (SD =

  11. A Cross-Cultural Study of Differences in Romantic Attitudes between American and Albanian College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoxha, Eneda; Hatala, Mark N.

    2012-01-01

    Cross-cultural differences in romantic attitudes are often taken for granted and accepted. However, very little research has been conducted to clearly state how much and how different Albanian and American college students are in the way they love. Results indicate that Americans are more romantic than Albanians. In addition, Americans are more…

  12. Test Anxiety Among Black College Students: A Cross-Cultural Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronzaft, Arline L.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    On the Alpert-Haber Achievement Anxiety Test, University of the West Indies black students had significantly higher facilitating test anxiety and significantly lower debilitating test anxiety in comparison to black students at Lehman College in the United States. Results are explained in terms of cross-cultural differences in attitudes toward…

  13. CULTURE CROSSING IN THE SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Padrós

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The educational centres are a multicultural reality that comprises the coexistenceof different cultural minorities, languages, religions, lifestyles and social codes.The critical pedagogy presents ways of living and learning in this culture crossing overcomingboth the ethnocentric model of racism (assimilation to the culture understood as“superior” as well as the relativist model (with emphasis on the difference and denyingequality, aiming for the idea of equality of differences. In the article are presented waysof crossing cultures and historical backgrounds from a critical, supportive and transformationalapproach among languages, religions and believes. It is stated that the consensusis possible in the framework of the plurality of identities and cultural patterns, andthat egalitarian dialog between cultures in the school promotes not only individualtransformations but also changes in the social relationships.

  14. Networking: a study in planning and developing cross-cultural collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Singh

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a collaboration between the authors at the University of Brighton (UK and the University of Delhi, South Campus. The collaboration came about as a result of the EU-India Cross-Cultural Innovation Network collaboration programme, a project involving several universities and organizations across Europe and India. The authors of this paper both lecture in the area of computer networking. Following meetings in Delhi, they agreed to work together to produce a Web-based networking resource to be generated by the students of both institutions. The first phase of development involved the mounting of Web-based tutorials and documents produced by the students. The second phase will centre on the development of a knowledge base generated by the interaction of the students within an asynchronous forum. Running alongside these phases will be a collaborative bookmarking system, a database in which the students will post URLs of Web-based resources that they find useful in their studies. This system incorporates a form of collaborative filtering, an evolutionary mechanism which seeks to embody the qualities that students value in resources to provide a dynamic set of ratings to assist in the selection of those of most use. The planning of such a system raises some unusual issues, not least in the process of collaboration itself, with concerns as diverse as technical compatibility, institutional and cultural differences, timezones and the reliability of email. Limited bandwidth between our institutions causes special problems with the interactive elements of the resource. We present the methods we are investigating to reduce the impact of this. The fact that the students share an intellectual discipline but are otherwise separated by a cultural and geographical divide is expected to lead to fruitful diversity in thinking and approaches to problem-solving.

  15. Cross-cultural Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕游

    2012-01-01

    In Longman Modern English Dictionary, “culture” is defined as: “the social and religious structures and intellectual and artistic manifestations etc. that characterize a society.” Kluckhohn’s definition is: “culture is way of thinking, feeling, believing. It is the group’s knowledge stored up for future use.”

  16. Navigation in Cross-cultural business relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman

    2001-01-01

    Cross-cultural business navigation concerns the process of handling the complexity of several interacting cultural spheres of influence......Cross-cultural business navigation concerns the process of handling the complexity of several interacting cultural spheres of influence...

  17. Navigation in Cross-cultural business relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman

    2001-01-01

    Cross-cultural business navigation concerns the process of handling the complexity of several interacting cultural spheres of influence......Cross-cultural business navigation concerns the process of handling the complexity of several interacting cultural spheres of influence...

  18. Cross-cultural study: experience, understanding of menopause, and related therapies in Australian and Laotian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayakhot, Padaphet; Vincent, Amanda; Teede, Helena

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and compare symptom experiences, beliefs, attitudes, and understanding of menopause and menopausal therapies in Australian and Laotian women. This was a cross-cultural, questionnaire-based study involving 108 women (56 Australian women and 52 Laotian women aged 40-65 y) attending outpatient clinics in Australia and Laos. Descriptive statistics and univariate analysis were conducted using Student's t test or Mann-Whitney U test, where appropriate. Psychological symptoms, depression, vasomotor symptoms, and sexual dysfunction were significantly higher in Australian women compared with Laotian women (P menopause as aging (57%), whereas most Laotian women reported not knowing what menopause meant to them (81%). Australian women's fears about menopause included weight gain (43%), aging (41%), and breast cancer (38%), whereas Laotian women reported not knowing about potential menopausal problems (85%). Exercise (55%), education and awareness (46%), and improving lifestyle (41%) were reported by Australian women as being effective in alleviating menopausal symptoms, with only 21% reporting not knowing what was effective compared with 83% of Laotian women. Many women reported not knowing the risks/benefits of hormonal therapies (50% of Australian women and 87% of Laotian women) and herbal therapies (79% of Australian women and 92% of Laotian women). General practitioners were the most common source of menopause information for both Australians (73%) and Laotians (67%). Sociocultural factors influence women's perception of menopause. Psychological symptoms, sexual dysfunction, and vasomotor symptoms are more commonly reported by Australian women than by Laotian women. Women have a limited understanding of the risks/benefits of menopausal therapies, and culturally appropriate education is needed.

  19. Role of smoking and diet in the cross-cultural variation in lung-cancer mortality : the Seven Countries Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, I.; Jansen, M.C.J.F.; Smit, H.A.; Jacobs, D.R.; Menotti, A.; Nissinen, A.; Kromhout, D.

    2000-01-01

    We examined the role of smoking and diet in the cross-cultural variation in lung-cancer mortality, using aggregated data of the Seven Countries Study, a follow-up study comprising 12,763 middle-aged men in 16 cohorts in Europe, the United States and Japan, which started around 1960. Smoking habits

  20. A Cross-Cultural Study of Students' Behaviors and Classroom Management Strategies in the USA and Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sunwoo; Koh, Myung-sook

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-cultural study is to investigate comparative students' problem behaviors and classroom behavior management strategies for students in urban public schools between teachers in the United States and Korea. This study incorporated data collected from two different teacher self-reported survey questionnaires, the Student…

  1. Consumer Attitude and Behaviour towards Organic Food: Cross-cultural study of Turkey and Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Mutlu, Nihan

    2007-01-01

    Organic food market is very challenging in Europe and developing rapidly with different rates between western and eastern part. Consumers have raised great interest to healthy and tasty diet with high nutritional compounds, confidence in food safety, environmental and animal welfare concern and also sustainability. This paper presents cross-cultural results for organic food consumers in Turkey and Germany. Quantitative data is collected by survey method consisting of structured...

  2. A Cross-Cultural Study of Implicit Theories of an Intelligent Person

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidrun Stoeger

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This contribution is based on the assumption that implicit theories influence the subjective action space and hence the learning behavior of students. The implicit theory that an individual holds of an intelligent person is of particular importance in this context. For this cross-cultural study, we asked 200 students from Kenya and Germany to draw an intelligent person and then to rate the typicality of the drawing with respect to a number of attributes. The data indicated considerable differences among the students’ implicit theories of intelligence. Implicit theories of an intelligent person correlated with the nationality and the gender of the students who made the drawings. German girls, in particular, frequently ascribed a gender to their prototypically intelligent person which differed from their own. Our data offer evidence that implicit theories of an intelligent person reflect a multifaceted picture. The most meaningful single attribute identified by participants for the figures they had drawn was that of being hardworking. We conclude that future studies should further examine the influence of implicit theories on the learning behavior of gifted students.

  3. Safety culture in a pharmacy setting using a pharmacy survey on patient safety culture: a cross-sectional study in China

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, P L; Zhang, L. H.; Zhang, M.M; Zhang, L.L.; Zhang,C.; Qin, S F; Li, X. L.; Liu, K. X.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the attitudes and perceptions of patient safety culture for pharmacy workers in China by using a Pharmacy Survey on Patient Safety Culture (PSOPSC), and to assess the psychometric properties of the translated Chinese language version of the PSOPSC. Design Cross-sectional study. Participants Data were obtained from 20 hospital pharmacies in the southwest part of China. Methods We performed χ2 test to explore the differences on pharmacy staff in different hospital and quali...

  4. Templates for Cross-Cultural and Culturally Specific Usability Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil

    2011-01-01

    The cultural diversity of users of technology challenges our methods for usability testing. This article suggests templates for cross-culturally and culturally specific usability testing, based on studies of usability testing in companies in Mumbai, Beijing, and Copenhagen. Study 1 was a cross...... tests. The result was the construction of templates for usability testing. The culturally specific templates were in Mumbai “user-centered evaluation,” Copenhagen “client-centered evaluation,” and Beijing “evaluator-centered evaluation.” The findings are compared with related research......-cultural field study of think-aloud testing done by usability vendor companies in the three countries. The result was a grounded theory of cultural variations in the production of a usability problem list. Study 2 was a follow-up, ethnographic interview study of how the companies typically perform usability...

  5. Cross-Cultural Knowledge Management

    CERN Document Server

    Giudice, Manlio Del; Peruta, Maria Rosaria Della

    2012-01-01

    Cross-cultural knowledge management, an elusive yet consequential phenomenon, is becoming an increasingly essential factor in organizational practice and policy in the era of globalization. In order to overcome culturally shaped blind spots in conducting research in different settings, this volume highlights how the structuring of roles, interests, and power among different organizational elements, such as teams, departments, and management hierarchies (each comprised of members from different intellectual and professional backgrounds), generates various paradoxes and tensions that bring into

  6. The Cross-cultural Generalizability of the Theory of Planned Behavior: a study on job seeking in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A.J. van Hooft (Edwin); M.Ph. Born (Marise); T.W. Taris (Toon); H. van der Flier (Henk)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis study examined the cross-cultural generalizability of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) as applied to job seeking, by comparing samples of native-Dutch and Turkish individuals in The Netherlands. Results supported the equivalence of the measures used. Moreover, the TPB ­relations

  7. ' Emotional Learning and Identity Development in Medicine : A Cross-Cultural Qualitative Study Comparing Taiwanese and Dutch Medical Undergraduates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmich, Esther; Yeh, Huei-Ming; Yeh, Chi-Chuan; de Vries-Erich, Joy M; Tsai, Daniel Fu-Chang; Dornan, Tim

    Purpose Current knowledge about the interplay between emotions and professional identity formation is limited and largely based on research in Western settings. This study aimed to broaden understandings of professional identity formation cross-culturally. Method In fall 2014, the authors

  8. The Cross-cultural Generalizability of the Theory of Planned Behavior: a study on job seeking in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A.J. van Hooft (Edwin); M.Ph. Born (Marise); T.W. Taris (Toon); H. van der Flier (Henk)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis study examined the cross-cultural generalizability of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) as applied to job seeking, by comparing samples of native-Dutch and Turkish individuals in The Netherlands. Results supported the equivalence of the measures used. Moreover, the TPB

  9. The Cross-cultural Generalizability of the Theory of Planned Behavior: a study on job seeking in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A.J. van Hooft (Edwin); M.Ph. Born (Marise); T.W. Taris (Toon); H. van der Flier (Henk)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis study examined the cross-cultural generalizability of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) as applied to job seeking, by comparing samples of native-Dutch and Turkish individuals in The Netherlands. Results supported the equivalence of the measures used. Moreover, the TPB ­relations

  10. Comparative Study on Two English Versions of Hong Lou Meng from the Perspective of Cross-culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚青; 向凤雅; 侯方丽

    2015-01-01

    Hong Lou Meng is not only one of the four most famous ancient books in China,but also a classic masterpiece in the history of world literature.It presents the background and living statues in China feudal society as well as the language and culture of China.Two most completely and widely popular versions are that,one is translated by Yang Hsien-Yi and his wife Gladys Yang who are the famous translator couple (the Yang's version) and the other is translated by Oxford University's Sinologists David Hawks and John Minford,which refers to Hawks' version.In this paper,a comparative study on different translation methods in two versions are made to explore differences between China and western cultures,and thus discuss the influences on translation of different cultures,especially study how the factors of culture,thoughts,language habits and translation methods impact on translation from the perspective of cross-culture.

  11. The modified patient enablement instrument: a Portuguese cross-cultural adaptation, validity and reliability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remelhe, Mafalda; Teixeira, Pedro M; Lopes, Irene; Silva, Luís; Correia de Sousa, Jaime

    2017-01-12

    Enabling patients with asthma to obtain the knowledge, confidence and skills they need in order to assume a major role in the management of their disease is cost effective. It should be an integral part of any plan for long-term control of asthma. The modified Patient Enablement Instrument (mPEI) is an easily administered questionnaire that was adapted in the United Kingdom to measure patient enablement in asthma, but its applicability in Portugal is not known. Validity and reliability of questionnaires should be tested before use in settings different from those of the original version. The purpose of this study was to test the applicability of the mPEI to Portuguese asthma patients after translation and cross-cultural adaptation, and to verify the structural validity, internal consistency and reproducibility of the instrument. The mPEI was translated to Portuguese and back translated to English. Its content validity was assessed by a debriefing interview with 10 asthma patients. The translated instrument was then administered to a random sample of 142 patients with persistent asthma. Structural validity and internal consistency were assessed. For reproducibility analysis, 86 patients completed the instrument again 7 days later. Item-scale correlations and exploratory factor analysis were used to assess structural validity. Cronbach's alpha was used to test internal consistency, and the intra-class correlation coefficient was used for the analysis of reproducibility. All items of the Portuguese version of the mPEI were found to be equivalent to the original English version. There were strong item-scale correlations that confirmed construct validity, with a one component structure and good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha >0.8) as well as high test-retest reliability (ICC=0.85). The mPEI showed sound psychometric properties for the evaluation of enablement in patients with asthma making it a reliable instrument for use in research and clinical practice in

  12. Euphemisms in Cross-Cultural Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙萌珏

    2009-01-01

    As an important language phenomenon,euphemism surely has an influence on cross-cultural communication. Using euphemism can make the language communication go smoothly and successfully. The paper first gives the source of euphemism and the significance of the study of euphemism. It then discusses the features of euphemism:its definition and classification and the principles. By using a large number of examples,it finally focuses on comparison and analysis of cultural differences and similarity between English and Chinese euphemisms. Through this paper,we can cultivate the consciousness of cross-cultural communication and avoid pragmatic errors of euphemisms.

  13. Analysis of perceived risk among construction workers: a cross-cultural study and reflection on the Hofstede model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Fiestas, Myriam; Rodríguez-Garzón, Ignacio; Delgado-Padial, Antonio; Lucas-Ruiz, Valeriano

    2017-09-01

    This article presents a cross-cultural study on perceived risk in the construction industry. Worker samples from three different countries were studied: Spain, Peru and Nicaragua. The main goal was to explain how construction workers perceive their occupational hazard and to analyze how this is related to their national culture. The model used to measure perceived risk was the psychometric paradigm. The results show three very similar profiles, indicating that risk perception is independent of nationality. A cultural analysis was conducted using the Hofstede model. The results of this analysis and the relation to perceived risk showed that risk perception in construction is independent of national culture. Finally, a multiple lineal regression analysis was conducted to determine what qualitative attributes could predict the global quantitative size of risk perception. All of the findings have important implications regarding the management of safety in the workplace.

  14. Aging, culture, and memory for socially meaningful item-context associations: an East-West cross-cultural comparison study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixia Yang

    Full Text Available Research suggests that people in Eastern interdependent cultures process information more holistically and attend more to contextual information than do people in Western independent cultures. The current study examined the effects of culture and age on memory for socially meaningful item-context associations in 71 Canadians of Western European descent (35 young and 36 older and 72 native Chinese citizens (36 young and 36 older. All participants completed two blocks of context memory tasks. During encoding, participants rated pictures of familiar objects. In one block, objects were rated either for their meaningfulness in the independent living context or their typicality in daily life. In the other block, objects were rated for their meaningfulness in the context of fostering relationships with others or for their typicality in daily life. The encoding in each block was followed by a recognition test in which participants identified pictures and their associated contexts. The results showed that Chinese outperformed Canadians in context memory, though both culture groups showed similar age-related deficits in item and context memory. The results suggest that Chinese are at an advantage in memory for socially meaningful item-context associations, an advantage that continues from young adulthood into old age.

  15. Aging, culture, and memory for socially meaningful item-context associations: an East-West cross-cultural comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lixia; Li, Juan; Spaniol, Julia; Hasher, Lynn; Wilkinson, Andrea J; Yu, Jing; Niu, Yanan

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that people in Eastern interdependent cultures process information more holistically and attend more to contextual information than do people in Western independent cultures. The current study examined the effects of culture and age on memory for socially meaningful item-context associations in 71 Canadians of Western European descent (35 young and 36 older) and 72 native Chinese citizens (36 young and 36 older). All participants completed two blocks of context memory tasks. During encoding, participants rated pictures of familiar objects. In one block, objects were rated either for their meaningfulness in the independent living context or their typicality in daily life. In the other block, objects were rated for their meaningfulness in the context of fostering relationships with others or for their typicality in daily life. The encoding in each block was followed by a recognition test in which participants identified pictures and their associated contexts. The results showed that Chinese outperformed Canadians in context memory, though both culture groups showed similar age-related deficits in item and context memory. The results suggest that Chinese are at an advantage in memory for socially meaningful item-context associations, an advantage that continues from young adulthood into old age.

  16. The modified patient enablement instrument: a Portuguese cross-cultural adaptation, validity and reliability study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remelhe, Mafalda; Teixeira, Pedro M; Lopes, Irene; Silva, Luís; Correia de Sousa, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    Enabling patients with asthma to obtain the knowledge, confidence and skills they need in order to assume a major role in the management of their disease is cost effective. It should be an integral part of any plan for long-term control of asthma. The modified Patient Enablement Instrument (mPEI) is an easily administered questionnaire that was adapted in the United Kingdom to measure patient enablement in asthma, but its applicability in Portugal is not known. Validity and reliability of questionnaires should be tested before use in settings different from those of the original version. The purpose of this study was to test the applicability of the mPEI to Portuguese asthma patients after translation and cross-cultural adaptation, and to verify the structural validity, internal consistency and reproducibility of the instrument. The mPEI was translated to Portuguese and back translated to English. Its content validity was assessed by a debriefing interview with 10 asthma patients. The translated instrument was then administered to a random sample of 142 patients with persistent asthma. Structural validity and internal consistency were assessed. For reproducibility analysis, 86 patients completed the instrument again 7 days later. Item-scale correlations and exploratory factor analysis were used to assess structural validity. Cronbach’s alpha was used to test internal consistency, and the intra-class correlation coefficient was used for the analysis of reproducibility. All items of the Portuguese version of the mPEI were found to be equivalent to the original English version. There were strong item-scale correlations that confirmed construct validity, with a one component structure and good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha >0.8) as well as high test–retest reliability (ICC=0.85). The mPEI showed sound psychometric properties for the evaluation of enablement in patients with asthma making it a reliable instrument for use in research and clinical practice

  17. Study protocol for improving asthma outcomes through cross-cultural communication training for physicians: a randomized trial of physician training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Minal R; Thomas, Lara J; Hafeez, Kausar; Shankin, Matthew; Wilkin, Margaret; Brown, Randall W

    2014-06-16

    Massive resources are expended every year on cross-cultural communication training for physicians. Such training is a focus of continuing medical education nationwide and is part of the curriculum of virtually every medical school in America. There is a pressing need for evidence regarding the effects on patients of cross-cultural communication training for physicians. There is a need to understand the added benefit of such training compared to more general communication. We know of no rigorous study that has assessed whether cross-cultural communication training for physicians results in better health outcomes for their patients. The current study aims to answer this question by enhancing the Physician Asthma Care Education (PACE) program to cross cultural communication (PACE Plus), and comparing the effect of the enhanced program to PACE on the health outcomes of African American and Latino/Hispanic children with asthma. A three-arm randomized control trial is used to compare PACE Plus, PACE, and usual care. Both PACE and PACE Plus are delivered in two, two-hour sessions over a period of two weeks to 5-10 primary care physicians who treat African American and Latino/Hispanic children with asthma. One hundred twelve physicians and 1060 of their pediatric patients were recruited who self-identify as African American or Latino/Hispanic and experience persistent asthma. Physicians were randomized into receiving either the PACE Plus or PACE intervention or into the control group. The comparative effectiveness of PACE and PACE Plus on clinician's therapeutic and communication practices with the family/patient, children's urgent care use for asthma, asthma control, and quality of life, and parent/caretaker satisfaction with physician performance will be assessed. Data are collected via telephone survey and medical record review at baseline, 9 months following the intervention, and 21 months following the intervention. This study aims to reduce disparities in asthma

  18. The Cross-Cultural Knowledge Sharing Challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, John Stouby

    2013-01-01

    Cross-cultural offshoring in software development challenges effective knowledge sharing. While research has suggested temporarily co-locating participants to address this challenge, few studies are available on what knowledge sharing practices emerge over time when co-locating cross-cultural sof......Cross-cultural offshoring in software development challenges effective knowledge sharing. While research has suggested temporarily co-locating participants to address this challenge, few studies are available on what knowledge sharing practices emerge over time when co-locating cross......-cultural software developers. This paper presents a longitudinal case study of an offshoring project with co-location of Indian and Danish software developers for 10½ months. A community-of-practice (CoP) analysis is offered of what knowledge sharing practices emerge over time and how these where facilitated...... period of colocation four facilitators of cross-cultural knowledge sharing were shared office, shared responsibility for tasks and problems, shared prioritization of team spirit, and a champion of social integration....

  19. Revising and Updating the Inventory of Cross-Cultural Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Jennifer A.; Cushner, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    The following article outlines research conducted to examine cross-cultural sensitivity in a sample of 949 incoming university students in the USA. The study was conducted during the process of updating an existing measure of cross-cultural sensitivity known as the Inventory of Cross-Cultural Sensitivity (ICCS), and to examine the various levels…

  20. Exploring the relationship between convenience and fish consumption: a cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Svein Ottar; Scholderer, Joachim; Brunsø, Karen; Verbeke, Wim

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of the present study is to explore cultural differences in the meaning of convenience and the relationships between convenience, attitudes and fish consumption in five European countries. The results suggest that the meaning of meal convenience is not culture specific, whilst the absolute levels of convenience orientation and the perceived inconvenience of fish differ between cultures. Convenience orientation was highest in Poland, followed by Spain, and was lowest in the Netherlands. The relationships between convenience orientation and attitudes towards fish, and convenience orientation and fish consumption, were insignificant in most countries. However, convenience orientation was positively related to the perceived inconvenience of fish. Perceived inconvenience of fish was negatively related to both attitudes towards fish and to fish consumption. Together, these results confirm some earlier findings that fish is generally perceived as a relatively inconvenient type of food. This study suggests that convenience orientation can be crucial to understanding food choice or behaviour only when critical mediating constructs are explored.

  1. Native Culture Issues in Cross-cultural Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万欣

    2012-01-01

      The bi-direction of cross-cultural communication determines culture teaching should include both target culture and native culture. Currently, however, mere emphasis of target culture with ignoring native culture has resulted in“two-skin”phenomenon and“aphasia of Chinese culture”. Therefore, this paper aims to underline native culture teaching, to explore proper techniques for native culture teaching, to achieve integration of target culture and native culture, to enhance students’expressive competence in native culture and finally to carry out effective cross-cultural communication.

  2. A Cross-Cultural Study of Taiwanese and Kuwaiti EFL Students' Learning Styles and Multiple Intelligences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shu-hua; Alrabah, Sulaiman

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to relate the findings of a survey of learning styles and multiple intelligences that was distributed among two different cultural groups of Freshman-level EFL students in Taiwan and Kuwait in order to confirm its consistency for developing teaching techniques appropriate for each group's general profiles. Data…

  3. Teacher Images in Spain and Turkey: A Cross-Cultural Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Nese

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the metaphorical images of "teacher" produced by 55 Spanish and 72 Turkish preservice teachers at Universitat de Barcelona, in Barcelona, Spain, and at Ege University, in Izmir, Turkey. It is based on a theory of teacher socialization which affirms that cultural values have an impact on the…

  4. Teacher Images in Spain and Turkey: A Cross-Cultural Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Nese

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the metaphorical images of "teacher" produced by 55 Spanish and 72 Turkish preservice teachers at Universitat de Barcelona, in Barcelona, Spain, and at Ege University, in Izmir, Turkey. It is based on a theory of teacher socialization which affirms that cultural values have an impact on the…

  5. Exploring the relationship between convenience and fish consumption: A cross-cultural study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Svein Ottar; Scholderer, Joachim; Brunsø, Karen

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to explore cultural differences in the meaning of convenience and the relationships between convenience, attitudes and fish consumption in five European countries. The results suggest that the meaning of meal convenience is not culture specific, whilst...... the absolute levels of convenience orientation and the perceived inconvenience of fish differ between cultures. Convenience orientation was highest in Poland, followed by Spain, and was lowest in the Netherlands. The relationships between convenience orientation and attitudes towards fish, and convenience...... orientation and fish consumption, were insignificant in most countries. However, convenience orientation was positively related to the perceived inconvenience of fish. Perceived inconvenience of fish was negatively related to both attitudes towards fish and to fish consumption. Together, these results confirm...

  6. Associations among teacher-student interpersonal relationships and students’ intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and academic achievement: A cross cultural study

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    This cross-cultural study explored associations among teacher-student relationship, students’ intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and students’ academic achievement in grade 5 and 6 students from Vancouver, Canada (n = 102) and Hong Kong, China (n = 207). Hong Kong students perceived their teachers to be more dissatisfied, strict, admonishing, and uncertain, while Vancouver students perceived their teachers to be more helpful and friendly. Students’ levels of intrinsic and extrinsic motivatio...

  7. Social and cultural factors underlying generational differences in overweight: a cross-sectional study among ethnic minorities in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Nierkens Vera; van Valkengoed Irene; Nicolaou Mary; Hosper Karen; Stronks Karien

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The prevalence of overweight appears to vary in people of first and second generation ethnic minority groups. Insight into the factors that underlie these weight differences might help in understanding the health transition that is taking place across generations following migration. We studied the role of social and cultural factors associated with generational differences in overweight among young Turkish and Moroccan men and women in the Netherlands. Methods Cross-secti...

  8. A Brief Study of the Potential Problems in Cross-cultural Business Nego-tiations and Recommendations for Chinese Negotiators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    明瑞强

    2013-01-01

    Globalization has become a hot topic in the world economy realm. As international trade booms worldwide, especially in China, it requires negotiators despite their genders, regions, ethics or ages to sit together around the table and achieve their goals. Various problems do occur in this process. This paper is going to study the potential problems in cross-culture business ne-gotiations and put forward some workable suggestions and recommendations for Chinese negotiators with the view to clearing the situation up.

  9. Associations among teacher-student interpersonal relationships and students’ intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and academic achievement: A cross cultural study

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    This cross-cultural study explored associations among teacher-student relationship, students’ intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and students’ academic achievement in grade 5 and 6 students from Vancouver, Canada (n = 102) and Hong Kong, China (n = 207). Hong Kong students perceived their teachers to be more dissatisfied, strict, admonishing, and uncertain, while Vancouver students perceived their teachers to be more helpful and friendly. Students’ levels of intrinsic and extrinsic motivatio...

  10. How Do Scientists Cross Cultural Borders Between Religion and Science: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barner, Chester A., III

    The cultures of science and religion have had different levels of conflict throughout the past several hundred years due in part to the development of the theory of evolution. Although many ideas abound in science education as to the alleviation of this struggle, few studies have examined how scientists who profess religious beliefs deal with this conflict. In general, the study sought to understand the cognitive dynamic of the cultural interaction between the scientific and religious culture within a few individuals. Specifically, the study allowed scientists to explain how they found a measure of compatibility between their faith and their scientific endeavors. Within the boundaries of both the general and specific purposes for the study, the following research question was used: How do college science professors describe the interaction between their faith and their scientific knowledge in reference to their transitioning between a naturalistic or scientific understanding and a super-naturalistic or religious understanding? Three theoretical lenses were used as backdrop to view the cultural interaction. World View (Kearney, 1984), Collateral Learning Theory (Jegede, 1995), and Faith Perspective in relation to the Stages of Faith Theory (Fowler, 1981) constituted the theoretical framework. Because of the qualitative nature of the research, the author used a modified naturalistic paradigm that stressed an emergent quality, grounded categorical design, and a modified case study written format that aided in the understanding of data generated through multiple qualitative methods. Three overlapping themes emerged within the data that offer new insights not only into the complex nature of the conflict but also into the ways scientists themselves find a reason to have faith as well as scientific knowledge. Boundaries based upon a philosophical and world view difference, conflict due to culturally integrative ideas, and cultural bridges without distortion made up the

  11. Discourse Issues in Cross-Cultural Pragmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxer, Diana

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on recent research in cross-cultural pragmatics as distinct from interlanguage pragmatics. The essential difference between the two lies in the perspective from which each views cross-cultural communication. (Author/VWL)

  12. Translating Answers to Open-Ended Survey Questions in Cross-Cultural Research: A Case Study on the Interplay between Translation, Coding, and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, Dorothée

    2015-01-01

    Open-ended probing questions in cross-cultural surveys help uncover equivalence problems in cross-cultural survey research. For languages that a project team does not understand, probe answers need to be translated into a common project language. This article presents a case study on translating open-ended, that is, narrative answers. It describes…

  13. The Cross-Cultural Invariance of Creative Cognition: A Case Study of Creative Writing in U.S. and Russian College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornilov, Sergey A.; Kornilova, Tatiana V.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2016-01-01

    Unlike intelligence, creativity has rarely been investigated from the standpoint of cross-cultural invariance of the structure of the instruments used to measure it. In the study reported in this article, we investigated the cross-cultural invariance of expert ratings of creative stories written by undergraduate students from the Russian…

  14. The relationship between study addiction and work addiction: A cross-cultural longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atroszko, Paweł A; Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Griffiths, Mark D; Pallesen, Ståle

    2016-12-01

    Aims Recent empirical studies investigating "study addiction" have conceptualized it as a behavioral addiction, defined within the framework of work addiction. This study is the first attempt to examine the longitudinal relationship between study addiction and work addiction. Methods The Bergen Study Addiction Scale (BStAS), the Bergen Work Addiction Scale (BWAS), and the Ten-Item Personality Inventory were administered online together with questions concerning demographics and study-related variables in two waves. In Wave 1, a total of 2,559 students in Norway and 2,177 students in Poland participated. A year later, in Wave 2, 379 Norwegians and 401 Polish who began to work professionally completed the survey. Results The intraclass correlation between BStAS and BWAS revealed that the scores were somewhat related; however, the relationship was slightly weaker than the temporal stability of both constructs. In the Norwegian sample, scoring higher on neuroticism and lower on learning time outside educational classes in Wave 1 was positively related to work addiction in Wave 2, whereas gender was unrelated to work addiction in Wave 2 when controlling for other studied variables in either samples. Conclusion Study addiction and work addiction appear to be closely related suggesting that the former may be a precursor for (or an early form of) the latter.

  15. Approaches to learning among occupational therapy undergraduate students: A cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ted; Fong, Kenneth N K; Bonsaksen, Tore; Lan, Tan Hwei; Murdolo, Yuki; Gonzalez, Pablo Cruz; Beng, Lim Hua

    2017-07-01

    Students may adopt various approaches to academic learning. Occupational therapy students' approaches to study and the impact of cultural context have not been formally investigated to date. To examine the approaches to study adopted by undergraduate occupational therapy students from four different cultural settings. 712 undergraduate occupational therapy students (n = 376 from Australia, n = 109 from Hong Kong, n = 160 from Norway and n = 67 from Singapore) completed the Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students (ASSIST). A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to compare the ASSIST subscales for the students from the four countries. Post-hoc comparisons using the Tukey HSD test indicated that the mean scores for the strategic approach were significantly different between Australia and the other three countries. The mean scores for the surface approach were significantly different between Australia and Hong Kong, and Hong Kong and Norway. There were no significant differences between the deep approach to studying between Australia, Norway, Singapore and Hong Kong. Culture and educational context do appear to impact the approaches to study adopted by undergraduate occupational therapy students. Academic and practice educators need to be cognizant of what approaches to studying the students they work with adopt.

  16. Implementing guidelines and training initiatives to improve cross-cultural communication in primary care consultations: a qualitative participatory European study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, E.; Gravenhorst, K.; Dowrick, C.; Weel-Baumgarten, E.M. van; Driessen Mareeuw, F.A. van den; Brun, T. de; Burns, N.; Lionis, C.; Mair, F.S.; O'Donnell, C.; O'Reilly-de Brun, M.; Papadakaki, M.; Saridaki, A.; Spiegel, W.; Weel, C. van; Muijsenbergh, M.E.T.C. van den; Macfarlane, A.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cross-cultural communication in primary care is often difficult, leading to unsatisfactory, substandard care. Supportive evidence-based guidelines and training initiatives (G/TIs) exist to enhance cross cultural communication but their use in practice is sporadic. The objective of this

  17. Eye contact perception in the West and East: a cross-cultural study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shota Uono

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether eye contact perception differs in people with different cultural backgrounds. Finnish (European and Japanese (East Asian participants were asked to determine whether Finnish and Japanese neutral faces with various gaze directions were looking at them. Further, participants rated the face stimuli for emotion and other affect-related dimensions. The results indicated that Finnish viewers had a smaller bias toward judging slightly averted gazes as directed at them when judging Finnish rather than Japanese faces, while the bias of Japanese viewers did not differ between faces from their own and other cultural backgrounds. This may be explained by Westerners experiencing more eye contact in their daily life leading to larger visual experience of gaze perception generally, and to more accurate perception of eye contact with people from their own cultural background particularly. The results also revealed cultural differences in the perception of emotion from neutral faces that could also contribute to the bias in eye contact perception.

  18. Chinese parenting and children's compliance to adults: a cross-cultural comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Ching-Yu Soar

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the parenting beliefs and practices of Taiwanese, Chinese immigrant (all first-generation immigrants in the UK) and English mothers, and the compliance of their young children (aged 5–7), in order to elucidate the effects of child temperament, culture and acculturation strategies on reported parenting beliefs and practices, observed parental behaviour, child behaviour, mother–child interaction dynamics and children’s compliance. The data were colle...

  19. Are the users of social networking sites homogeneous? A cross-cultural study

    OpenAIRE

    MARÍA-DEL-CARMEN eALARCÓN-DEL-AMO; MIGUEL-ÁNGEL eGÓMEZ-BORJA; CARLOTA eLORENZO-ROMERO

    2015-01-01

    The growing use of Social Networking Sites (SNS) around the world has made it necessary to understand individuals’ behaviours within these sites according to different cultures. Based on a comparative study between two different European countries (The Netherlands versus Spain), a comparison of typologies of networked Internet users has been obtained through a latent segmentation approach. These typologies are based on the frequency with which users perform different activities, their socio-d...

  20. Cross-cultural difference in OSH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starren, A.; Drupsteen, L.

    2014-01-01

    In this article we describe cross-cultural aspects in the context of safety management. When working abroad, cross-cultural differences ask for other competencies to enhance safe behaviour than at home due to cultural and language differences. In this wiki some guidance is given on aspects of cultur

  1. The influence of sociocultural factors on the eating attitudes of Lebanese and Cypriot students: a cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeni, N; Gharibeh, N; Katsounari, I

    2013-07-01

    The present comparative cross-cultural study aimed to explore the relationship between eating behaviour and sociocultural influences with respect to appearance and body image in female university students from two cultural contexts, namely Cyprus and Lebanon. The Dutch Eating Behavior questionnaire (DEBQ) and the Perceived Sociocultural Influences on Body Image and Body Change Questionnaire were used to assess sociocultural influences and body image, respectively, in 200 students from each country. The results indicated that the Lebanese students were more likely to engage in emotional and external eating and their body image was impacted to a larger extent by sociocultural agents, including media influences, compared to the Cypriot students. Also, a positive relationship was found between emotional and external eating in both cultures. Finally, sociocultural influences correlated positively with external eating only in the Cypriot sample. Culture-specific factors, such as the societal values and norms, as well as the Westernisation history of each country, are discussed as underpinnings for the differences found. These findings are significant for understanding the rise of eating pathology in these two cultures and provide evidence for a need to consider cultural environment when designing public health policies addressing the negative aspects of nutrition transition. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  2. A cross-cultural study of gambling disorder: a comparison between women from Brazil and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo C. Medeiros

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To perform a cross-cultural comparison of gambling disorder (GD in women from Brazil and the United States, two countries with pronounced social and cultural differences. We hoped to produce insight into the impact of cultural influences on the presentation of GD in women, which may be useful for the development of culturally-sensitive interventions. Method: We assessed 681 women with GD: 406 from a Brazilian sample and 275 from a U.S. sample. We assessed demographic and gambling behavior variables in addition to co-occurring psychiatric disorders. Results: Fewer Brazilian participants were Caucasian (73.3 vs. 91.3%; p = 0.022. Also, Brazilian women had lower levels of education (59.9% with high school or less vs. 44.4%; p < 0.001, and were more likely to have a current partner (54.9 vs. 43.4%; p = 0.003. Brazilian gamblers also reported lower urge scores (6.6±4.3 vs. 11.6±2.4; p < 0.001 and higher chasing rates (89.1 vs. 80.0%; p = 0.002. Brazilian gamblers reported higher rates of bingo gambling (19.2 vs. 5.7%; p < 0.001, but lower rates of card game gambling (5.8 vs. 23.1%; p < 0.001. Finally, Brazilian gamblers were more likely to endorse a history of major depressive disorder (36.9 vs. 24.4%; p = 0.001. Conclusions: This study reinforces the need for further general cross-cultural research on GD and particularly for studies investigating how gender mediates these differences. Finally, the differences noted in this analysis suggest that the findings of predominantly Anglo-Saxon cultures may not be generalizable to other world populations.

  3. The Association between Negative and Dysexecutive Syndromes in Schizophrenia: A Cross-Cultural Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ihara

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined the relationship between the ‘negative syndrome’ (NS and the neuropsychological ‘dysexecutive syndrome’ (DES in schizophrenia. The study also examined whether any relationship that exists between the NS and the DES holds equally for British and Japanese subjects. We compared 26 Japanese with 17 British schizophrenic patients, divided into ‘mild’ and ‘severe’ NS groups, on the basis of performance on neuropsychological tests, including the ‘Behavioural Assessment of Dysexecutive Syndrome’ (BADS. We found that patients with severe NS showed more everyday executive deficits than those with mild NS. The severity of NS was correlated with executive competence. The association between NS and the BADS performance was closer than that between NS and other conventional executive measures. These findings were not influenced by cultural differences between Japanese and British subjects, and, hence, suggested the existence of culture-neutral neurobehavioural processes.

  4. Toward True Partnership: A Case Study of Researching in Cross-Cultural Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutch, Carol; Wong, Marge

    2008-01-01

    Aotearoa New Zealand has two main cultures ("Maori," the Indigenous people; and "Pakeha," New Zealanders of European extraction). This article describes the journey of 2 researchers, 1 from each culture, coming to an understanding of how to bridge the cultural divide and research in respectful, culturally sensitive ways. (Contains 1 figure, 1…

  5. Cross-Cultural Training in Motivational Interviewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, William R.; Hendrickson, Stacey M. L.; Venner, Kamilla; Bisono, Ani; Daugherty, Mikyta; Yahne, Carolina E.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the cross-cultural transportability of motivational interviewing (MI), an evidence-based addiction treatment method. Free clinical training in MI was offered in separate targeted workshops for 86 African American, Native American, and Spanish-speaking addiction treatment providers. Audiotaped pre- and posttraining clinical…

  6. Cross-Cultural Investigations of Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Rod; Brødsgaard, Inger

    1999-01-01

    Authors review all available articles illuminating cross-cultural studies about pain. Searches used Medline, PsycInfo and Sociological Abstracts. All types of pains are covered: Headache, back pain, dental pain, arthritis and cancer pain. Methodological considerations are discussed including...

  7. Cyberbullying: A Cross-Cultural Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Jieun; Bullock, Lyndal M.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies conducted in different countries have focused on empirical research and literature reviews on prevalence, consequences, and strategies relative to cyberbullying; however, there is a lack of research regarding cyberbullying from a cross-cultural perspective. This article reviews recent research on cyberbullying and presents…

  8. Cyberbullying: A Cross-Cultural Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Jieun; Bullock, Lyndal M.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies conducted in different countries have focused on empirical research and literature reviews on prevalence, consequences, and strategies relative to cyberbullying; however, there is a lack of research regarding cyberbullying from a cross-cultural perspective. This article reviews recent research on cyberbullying and presents…

  9. Cross Cultural Differences in Unconscious Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyokawa, Sachiko; Dienes, Zoltan; Tanaka, Daisuke; Yamada, Ayumi; Crowe, Louise

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated cross cultural differences in conscious processes, such that Asians have a global preference and Westerners a more analytical one. We investigated whether these biases also apply to unconscious knowledge. In Experiment 1, Japanese and UK participants memorized strings of large (global) letters made out of small…

  10. Cross-Cultural Training in Motivational Interviewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, William R.; Hendrickson, Stacey M. L.; Venner, Kamilla; Bisono, Ani; Daugherty, Mikyta; Yahne, Carolina E.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the cross-cultural transportability of motivational interviewing (MI), an evidence-based addiction treatment method. Free clinical training in MI was offered in separate targeted workshops for 86 African American, Native American, and Spanish-speaking addiction treatment providers. Audiotaped pre- and posttraining clinical…

  11. A cross-cultural comparison of biology lessons between China and Germany: a video study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Neuhaus, Birgit Jana

    2017-08-01

    Given the globalization of science education and the different cultures between China and Germany, we tried to compare and explain the differences on teacher questions and real life instances in biology lessons between the two countries from a culture-related perspective. 22 biology teachers from China and 21 biology teachers from Germany participated in this study. Each teacher was videotaped for one lesson on the unit blood and circulatory system. Before the teaching unit, students' prior knowledge was tested with a pretest. After the teaching unit, students' content knowledge was tested with a posttest. The aim of the knowledge tests here was for the better selection of the four samples for qualitative comparison in the two countries. The quantitative analysis showed that more lower-order teacher questions and more real life instances that were introduced after learning relevant concepts were in Chinese lessons than in German lessons. There were no significant differences in the frequency of higher-order questions or real life instances that were introduced before learning concepts. Qualitative analysis showed that both German teachers guided students to analyze the reasoning process of Landsteiner experiment, but nor Chinese teachers did that. The findings reflected the subtle influence of culture on classroom teaching. Relatively, Chinese biology teachers focused more on learning content and the application of the content in real life; German biology teachers emphasized more on invoking students' reasoning and divergent thinking.

  12. Perception of risk for Domoic Acid related health problems: A Cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Sparkle M; Grattan, Lynn M; Toben, Alexandra C; Ausherman, Christina; Trainer, Vera; Tracy, Kate; Morris, J Glenn

    2016-07-01

    Risk perception is a complex process that refers to the way people approach, think about and interpret risks in their environment. An important element of risk perception is that it is culturally situated. Since HAB's can present a health risk in many places around the world, looking at cultural parameters for understanding and interpreting risks are important. This study examined how two different groups of people perceive the potential health risks of low level exposure to domoic acid (DA) through razor clam consumption. The risk perceptions of Washington State, USA coastal dwelling Native American nations (NA) were compared to that of a community sample of recreational razor clam harvesters (CRH). Overall, the findings support the hypothesis that cultural and community specific contexts impact the perception of risk of a DA related illness. Specifically, the NA sample was distinguished by worrying more about ocean pollution, attributing DA risks to climate change, expressing concerns about the potential impact of DA on future generations, and feeling better informed than the CRH group. The CRH group were more likely to attribute the DA problem to anthropogenic or industrial causes; and view the risk of health problems as lower than that associated with smoking, high cholesterol, anxiety or depression, alcoholism, high blood pressure or obesity. The CRH group was also more likely to turn to the media for DA related information. Both groups trust the decisions of state and tribe health and natural resources officials and demonstrated a complex pattern of findings that involved gender. It was recommended that risk communication and outreach activities are designed to take into consideration factors that specifically apply to each cultural community.

  13. Comparative Study on Two English Versions of Hong Lou Meng from the Perspective of Cross-culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚青; 向凤雅; 侯方丽

    2015-01-01

    Hong Lou Meng is not only one of the four most famous ancient books in China,but also a classic masterpiece in the history of world literature.It presents the background and living statues in China feudal society as well as the language and culture of China.Two most completely and widely popular versions are that,one is translated by Yang Hsien-Yi and his wife Gladys Yang who are the famous translator couple(the Yang’s version) and the other is translated by Oxford University’s Sinologists David Hawks and John Minford,which refers to Hawks’ version.In this paper,a comparative study on different translation methods in two versions are made to explore differences between China and western cultures,and thus discuss the influences on translation of different cultures,especially study how the factors of culture,thoughts,language habits and translation methods impact on translation from the perspective of cross-culture.

  14. A study of socioeconomic determinants of family planning practice based on cross cultural regressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, V V; Yuan, T

    1980-01-01

    It has been traditional in demographic research to undertake studies based on cross country regression analyses of crude birth rate (CBR), its correlates, or even marital fertility rates (MFR), on various socioeconomic indicators. The general conclusion to emerge from these studies has been that there exists a relationship between fertility and certain significant socioeconomic correlates. This conclusion does not go much beyond observations based on demographic transition theory or differential fertility studies. These multiple regression studies do not come close to the dynamics and underlying processes that generate the actual observations. It seems that cross country regression analyses of the prevalence of family planning may be more useful for policy purposes. Certain correlates of the level of family planning practice have been identified: foremost among these are per capita income, adult literacy, and the period of family planning advocacy. From a policy standpoint, the literacy of the population seems to be the most amenable to intervention by policy making bodies interested in achieving optimal demographic and socioeconomic conditions within a society.

  15. Obesity, Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Amongst British and Saudi Youth: A Cross-Cultural Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Nevill

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study explores differences in weight status, obesity and patterns of physical activity (PA in relation to gender and age of youth from two culturally, environmentally and geographically diverse countries, the United Kingdom (UK and Saudi Arabia (SA. A total of 2,290 males and females (15–17 years volunteered to participate in this study. Participants completed a validated self-report questionnaire that contained 47 items relating to patterns of PA, sedentary activity and eating habits. The questionnaire allows the calculation of total energy expenditure in metabolic equivalent (MET-min values per week. Significant differences in percentage of overweight/obese and levels of PA were evident between the youth from the two countries, with males being generally more physically active than females. Additionally, there were significant associations between Body Mass Index (BMI, PA and sedentary behaviors; the youth with higher BMI reported lower levels of PA and higher amounts of sedentary time. These findings highlight the diverse nature of lifestyle of youth living in different geographical areas of the world and the need for further research to explore the socio-cultural factors that impact on the prevalence of obesity and patterns of PA of youth in different populations.

  16. Culture, parenting, and child behavioral problems: a comparative study of cross-cultural immigrant families and native-born families in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hao-Jan; Kuo, Yi-Jin; Wang, Lee; Yang, Chien-Ying

    2014-08-01

    Little is known about the interplay of cultural, parenting, and sociodemographic/socioeconomic factors on children's behavioral problems, especially within culturally mixed families in Chinese society. This study compares the presence of behavioral problems between children from families with an immigrant mother and those from native-born families in a randomly selected sample of 957 children aged 6 to 12 years from three counties in central Taiwan. Behavioral problems were assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist completed by parents and the Teacher's Report Form. Parenting styles were assessed using the Parental Bonding Instrument completed by children. Children of immigrant mothers had higher scores for all behavioral syndromes based on the parent's report. However, in the teacher's report a difference was only observed for withdrawn/depressed syndrome. Children of immigrant mothers were more likely, and children with high paternal care were less likely, to have internalizing and total problems in the parent's report. For the teacher's report, only high education in fathers was associated with decreased internalizing and total problems in children. These findings suggest that children growing up in a cross-cultural environment with an immigrant mother, as opposed to a native-born Taiwanese family environment, are more likely to have higher internalizing problems and total behavioral problem scores, due to a number of cultural, parenting, and sociodemographic factors. Children's behaviors appear to be more influenced by fathers' than mothers' parenting styles, regardless of family type. The study findings imply that unequal health and social conditions exist between cross-cultural and native-born families. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  17. Cross-cultural aspects of ICT use by older people: preliminary results of a four-country ethnographical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blat, Josep; Sayago, Sergio; Kälviäinen, Mirja

    2011-01-01

    Culture is crucial in understanding how people use technologies and designing better ones. However, very little is known about cross-cultural aspects of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) use by older people (60+), despite the heterogeneity of this user group. This short paper...... addresses this issue by drawing on an ethnographical study of ICT use conducted with over 120 people, aged 67-71, in four European countries: Finland, Denmark, Italy and Spain, over a 6-month period. The preliminary results show that making a social, independent and worth use of ICT are common aspects...... across the four countries, despite the so-called heterogeneity of older people as ICT users. This short paper also touches on two key aspects which emerged from the study, engaging older people in research and the evolution of some barriers to technology use....

  18. Cross-cultural Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorel Mihai PARASCHIV

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The success of international companies in providing high quality products and outstanding services is subject, on the one hand, to the increasing dynamic of the economic environment and on the other hand to the adoption of worldwide quality standards and procedures. As market place is becoming more and more global, products and services offered worldwide by international companies must face the multi-cultural environment challenges. These challenges manifest themselves not only at customer relationship level but also deep inside companies, at employee level. Important support in facing all these challenges has been provided at cognitive level by management system models and at technological level by information cutting edge technologies Business Intelligence & Knowledge Management Business Intelligence is already delivering its promised outcomes at internal business environment and, with the explosive deployment of public data bases, expand its analytical power at national, regional and international level. Quantitative measures of economic environment, wherever available, may be captured and integrated in companies’ routine analysis. As for qualitative data, some effort is still to be done in order to integrate measures of social, political, legal, natural and technological environment in companies’ strategic analysis. An increased difficulty is found in treating cultural differences, common knowledge making the most hidden part of any foreign environment. Managing cultural knowledge is crucial to success in cultivating and maintaining long-term business relationships in multicultural environments. Knowledge Management provides the long needed technological support for cross-cultural management in the tedious task of improving knowledge sharing in multi-national companies and using knowledge effectively in international joint ventures. The paper is approaching the conceptual frameworks of knowledge management and proposes an unified model

  19. Safety culture in a pharmacy setting using a pharmacy survey on patient safety culture: a cross-sectional study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, P L; Zhang, L H; Zhang, M M; Zhang, L L; Zhang, C; Qin, S F; Li, X L; Liu, K X

    2014-06-30

    To explore the attitudes and perceptions of patient safety culture for pharmacy workers in China by using a Pharmacy Survey on Patient Safety Culture (PSOPSC), and to assess the psychometric properties of the translated Chinese language version of the PSOPSC. Cross-sectional study. Data were obtained from 20 hospital pharmacies in the southwest part of China. We performed χ(2) test to explore the differences on pharmacy staff in different hospital and qualification levels and countries towards patient safety culture. We also computed descriptive statistics, internal consistency coefficients and intersubscale correlation analysis, and then conducted an exploratory factor analysis. A test-retest was performed to assess reproducibility of the items. A total of 630 questionnaires were distributed of which 527 were responded to validly (response rate 84%). The positive response rate for each item ranged from 37% to 90%. The positive response rate on three dimensions ('Teamwork', 'Staff Training and Skills' and 'Staffing, Work Pressure and Pace') was higher than that of Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) data (ppatient safety culture at different hospital and qualification levels. The internal consistency of the total survey was comparatively satisfied (Cronbach's α=0.89). The results demonstrated that among the pharmacy staffs surveyed in China, there was a positive attitude towards patient safety culture in their organisations. Identifying perspectives of patient safety culture from pharmacists in different hospital and qualification levels are important, since this can help support decisions about action to improve safety culture in pharmacy settings. The Chinese translation of the PSOPSC questionnaire (V.2012) applied in our study is acceptable. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Study protocol for improving asthma outcomes through cross-cultural communication training for physicians: a randomized trial of physician training

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background Massive resources are expended every year on cross-cultural communication training for physicians. Such training is a focus of continuing medical education nationwide and is part of the curriculum of virtually every medical school in America. There is a pressing need for evidence regarding the effects on patients of cross-cultural communication training for physicians. There is a need to understand the added benefit of such training compared to more general communication. We know o...

  1. Are the users of Social Networking Sites homogeneous? A cross-cultural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARÍA-DEL-CARMEN eALARCÓN-DEL-AMO

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The growing use of Social Networking Sites (SNS around the world has made it necessary to understand individuals’ behaviours within these sites according to different cultures. Based on a comparative study between two different European countries (The Netherlands versus Spain, a comparison of typologies of networked Internet users has been obtained through a latent segmentation approach. These typologies are based on the frequency with which users perform different activities, their socio-demographic variables, and experience in social networking and interaction patterns. The findings show new insights regarding international segmentation in order to analyse SNS user behaviours in both countries. These results are relevant for marketing strategists eager to use the communication potential of networked individuals and for marketers willing to explore the potential of online networking as a low cost and a highly efficient alternative to traditional networking approaches. For most businesses, expert users could be valuable opinion leaders and potential brand influencers.

  2. Are the users of social networking sites homogeneous? A cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón-Del-Amo, María-Del-Carmen; Gómez-Borja, Miguel-Ángel; Lorenzo-Romero, Carlota

    2015-01-01

    The growing use of Social Networking Sites (SNS) around the world has made it necessary to understand individuals' behaviors within these sites according to different cultures. Based on a comparative study between two different European countries (The Netherlands versus Spain), a comparison of typologies of networked Internet users has been obtained through a latent segmentation approach. These typologies are based on the frequency with which users perform different activities, their socio-demographic variables, and experience in social networking and interaction patterns. The findings show new insights regarding international segmentation in order to analyse SNS user behaviors in both countries. These results are relevant for marketing strategists eager to use the communication potential of networked individuals and for marketers willing to explore the potential of online networking as a low cost and a highly efficient alternative to traditional networking approaches. For most businesses, expert users could be valuable opinion leaders and potential brand influencers.

  3. Executive functioning of Portuguese preschoolers in the Shape School test: A cross cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rato, Joana Rodrigues; Ribeiro, Filipa; Castro-Caldas, Alexandre

    2017-02-22

    The Shape School is a neuropsychological test of executive functions (EF) for preschool-aged children. The purposes of this study were: (a) to adapt the use of the Shape School for European Portuguese preschool children and (b) to examine the cultural sensitivity of this test comparing the performance of Portuguese sample and U.S. normative sample. The executive functioning of 233 typically developing children aged 3 to 5 years old (M = 57.52; SD = 10.25; in months) was analyzed and according to our results, the adapted version was appropriate to obtain the discrimination among age-groups. Portuguese and American preschoolers show similar EF profiles. It was possible, in both samples, to note the sensitivity of the measurement to age-related differences, with the older age groups outperforming the younger. Therefore, the Portuguese version of the Shape School was considered suitable for research and clinical purposes.

  4. Are the users of social networking sites homogeneous? A cross-cultural study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón-del-Amo, María-del-Carmen; Gómez-Borja, Miguel-Ángel; Lorenzo-Romero, Carlota

    2015-01-01

    The growing use of Social Networking Sites (SNS) around the world has made it necessary to understand individuals' behaviors within these sites according to different cultures. Based on a comparative study between two different European countries (The Netherlands versus Spain), a comparison of typologies of networked Internet users has been obtained through a latent segmentation approach. These typologies are based on the frequency with which users perform different activities, their socio-demographic variables, and experience in social networking and interaction patterns. The findings show new insights regarding international segmentation in order to analyse SNS user behaviors in both countries. These results are relevant for marketing strategists eager to use the communication potential of networked individuals and for marketers willing to explore the potential of online networking as a low cost and a highly efficient alternative to traditional networking approaches. For most businesses, expert users could be valuable opinion leaders and potential brand influencers. PMID:26321971

  5. Cultural-cognitive Dimension and Entrepreneurial Activity: A Cross-country Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Alvarez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationship between independence, risk taking, creativity, and entrepreneurial activity at the country level, in the light of institutional economics, concretely using the cultural-cognitive dimension. The main findings demonstrate through a regression model that risk taking and creativity have a positive and significant influence on entrepreneurship. Data were obtained from the World Values Survey, for the period 2005-2008, from a sample size of 42 countries. The study advances the literature by providing new information on the effect of environmental factors on entrepreneurial activity. Also, the research contributes to the definition of educational policies that promote favorable attitudes to risk taking and creativity, thereby increasing the number of potential entrepreneurs.

  6. Motivation for choice and healthiness perception of calorie-reduced dairy products. a cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Susanne Bølling; Næs, Tormod; Hersleth, Margrethe

    2011-02-01

    Understanding consumers' motives for selecting calorie-reduced dairy products are important to provide targeted communication to different consumer segments. The aim of this study was to identify motives for consumption of calorie-reduced dairy products among young consumers, and to identify how these consumers perceive the healthiness of such products compared to other food products. Consumers, aged 18-30 years, from Norway (n=118), Denmark (n=125), and California (n=127) participated in this cross-cultural study. The respondents sorted 24 statements referring to motives for choosing calorie-reduced yoghurt and cheese. The study also assessed the aspect of perceived healthiness of these products in comparison with a selection of other food products using a two-step ranking procedure. The data were analysed using chi-square analysis, Friedman's test and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The results show that fat content, healthiness and taste were the most important motivators for choice of the calorie-reduced dairy products. In all three countries salmon was perceived as the healthiest among the products presented. The calorie-reduced dairy products were ranked as relatively healthy, with yoghurt ranked as healthier than cheese. Although cross-cultural differences existed in motives for choice and perceived healthiness of the products, the similarities between the countries were evident in this study.

  7. Cultural Understanding Through Cross-Cultural Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briere, Jean-Francois

    1986-01-01

    A college course used an explicit intercultural approach and collective research activities to compare French and American cultures and to examine the reasons for cultural attitudes and culture conflict. Class assignments dealt with contrastive analyses of American and French institutions like advertising, cinema, feminism, etc. (MSE)

  8. Cultural Understanding Through Cross-Cultural Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briere, Jean-Francois

    1986-01-01

    A college course used an explicit intercultural approach and collective research activities to compare French and American cultures and to examine the reasons for cultural attitudes and culture conflict. Class assignments dealt with contrastive analyses of American and French institutions like advertising, cinema, feminism, etc. (MSE)

  9. Social representation of hearing aids: cross-cultural study in India, Iran, Portugal, and the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manchaiah V

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Vinaya Manchaiah,1 Berth Danermark,2 Vinay,3 Tayebeh Ahmadi,4 David Tomé,5 Rajalakshmi Krishna,6 Per Germundsson7 1Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences, Lamar University, Beaumont, Texas, USA; 2Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; 3Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway; 4Department of Audiology, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 5Department of Audiology, School of Allied Health Sciences, Polytechnic Institute of Porto, Vila Nova de Gaia, Portugal; 6All India Institute of Speech and Hearing, University of Mysore, Mysore, India; 7The Department of Health and Welfare Studies, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden Background: The current study was aimed at understanding the social representation of hearing aids in India, Iran, Portugal, and the United Kingdom. We also compared these results to explore the cross-cultural differences and similarities among these countries. Methods: The study involved a cross-sectional design, and the data were collected from four different countries using the snowball sampling method. Data were analyzed using a content analysis to identify the most-similar categories of responses reported, a co-occurrences analysis to see which of these categories are reported commonly, and a chi-square analysis to study if there was any association between positive, neutral, and negative connotations among participants in different countries. Results: The current study revealed four different social representations of hearing aids from India, Iran, Portugal, and the United Kingdom, and also a global index. Conclusion: The study results provide very useful insights into how hearing aids are represented in the society. These findings may have important implications for public education and also for manufacturers from the viewpoint of designing and marketing hearing aids in different countries. Keywords: hearing aids

  10. Networking - concepts and dimensions of the cross-cultural comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2000-01-01

    The litarature about networking is weak regarding precise definitions of networking and methodologies to analyse how networking is carried out in practice. Besides, the croos cultural dimension is often underestimated.......The litarature about networking is weak regarding precise definitions of networking and methodologies to analyse how networking is carried out in practice. Besides, the croos cultural dimension is often underestimated....

  11. A Cross-Cultural Study on Consumption of Luxury Goods in China and Western Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王颖

    2015-01-01

    With the development of economy, China has become the world’s second largest consumer of luxury goods surpass⁃ing U.S. .This research is an attempt to examine the cultural factors that lie behind this phenomenon, and based on distinctions between Chinese and Western societies, explores how the people’s practice of luxury consumption differs in these two different cultures.

  12. Cultural Analysis - towards cross-cultural understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gullestrup, Hans

    The book considers intercultural understanding and co-action, partly by means of general insight into concept of culture and the dimensions which bring about cultural differences, and partly as a methodology to analyse a certain culture - whether one's own or others'. This leads towards an unders......The book considers intercultural understanding and co-action, partly by means of general insight into concept of culture and the dimensions which bring about cultural differences, and partly as a methodology to analyse a certain culture - whether one's own or others'. This leads towards...... a theoretical/abstract proposal for cultural understanding. The second part presents a theoretical/abstract proposal for under-standing intercultural plurality and complexity. The third part provides an empirical model for the analysis of intercultural co-action. Finally, the fourth part present and discusses...

  13. Metaphor and Cross-cultural Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晶

    2009-01-01

    The nature of metaphor is not only a matter of language, but also a matter of mind. Metaphor, as a kind of common language phenomenon, reflects different cultural models used in different languages, that is called cognitive models. The application of metaphorical concept shows that the metaphor cognition is universal across cultures, but at the same time, it has some differences in their application because of their different social and cultural backgrounds. We should consider the factor of context when perform cross-cultural communication in order to avoid the misunderstanding between different cultures.[Key Words]Metaphor;Culture;Cross-cultural Communication

  14. Significant differences in cross cultural negotiations

    OpenAIRE

    Luminita Vochita

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the importance of different factors that influences cross cultural negotiations. Learning about the components of a cross cultural negotiation process to increase negotiators’ success in avoiding barriers and failures in the international business arena is one of the most challenging achievements of the negotiators in the global environment. In the second part, the paper focuses on the one of the most important componenet of cross cultural business negotiations: difference...

  15. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among Adolescents in Seven Arab Countries: A Cross-Cultural Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman O. Musaiger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to find out the prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents in seven Arab countries using similar reference standard. Methods. A school-based cross-sectional study was carried out in seven cities in Arab countries, namely, Algeria, Jordan, Kuwait, Libya, Palestine, Syria, and United Arab Emirates. A multistage stratified random sampling technique was used. The total sample included was 4698 adolescents aged from 15 to 18 years (2240 males, 2458 females. The International Obesity Task Force (IOTF reference standard was used to classify the adolescents as nonobese, overweight, and obese. Results. Among males, overweight was highest among Kuwaiti adolescents (25.6%, followed by Jordanian (21.6%, and Syrian (19.7% adolescents. Among females, the highest prevalence of overweight was reported in Libyan adolescents (26.6%, followed by Kuwaiti (20.8%, and Syrian (19.7% adolescents. As for obesity, Kuwaiti adolescents showed the highest prevalence of obesity for both males (34.8% and females (20.6%. Conclusion. There is an urgent need to establish a plan of action to combat obesity in schoolchildren in these countries.

  16. Does Chinese culture influence psychosocial factors for heroin use among young adolescents in China? A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Wei

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little empirical research has examined how cultural factors influence psychosocial factors for heroin drug use. The objectives of the study were to investigate the levels of individualism and collectivism among young adolescents and how cultural differences were associated with the constructs of the Theory of Planned Behavior and other psychosocial factors for heroin drug use. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among young adolescents in an HIV and heroin-stricken area in China. The Individualism-Collectivism Interpersonal Assessment Inventory (ICIAI was used to measure cultural norms and values in the context of three social groups: family members, close friends, and classmates. Results A total of 220 boys and 241 girls were recruited and participated in an interview. Compared to boys, girls reported higher levels of the three specific-relationship ICIAIs, as well as higher levels of perceived behavioral control for heroin use, perceived peer control, and communication with parent about heroin use, but a lower level of favorable attitude towards heroin use. The levels of descriptive and subjective norms of heroin use were low in both girls and boys. Among boys, family ICIAI was positively associated with perceived behavioral control, and friend ICIAI was positively associated with perceived peer control and communication with parent. Among girls, family ICIAI was positively associated with perceived behavioral control and communication with parents about heroin use, but negatively with favorable attitudes to heroin use; friend ICIAI was positively associated with perceived peer control, and classmate ICIAI was negatively associated with favorable attitudes toward heroin use. Conclusions This study documents that collectivistic aspects of Chinese culture may influence psychosocial factors for heroin use, although the patterns are varied by gender. Findings provide an empirical basis for the development of

  17. Cross- cultural Communication in Business English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗雪

    2014-01-01

    The factors in cross - cultural communication affects business activities should be paid attention through the process of learning Business English. The successful communication can be realized through the identity with inter- culture.

  18. A CASE STUDY OF CROSS-CULTURE MARRIAGE BETWEEN JAPANESE AND BALINESE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Sena Darmasetiyawan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available From the viewpoint of sociolinguistics, marriage is one of the crucial events that may affect the development of language use. Comprehending the actual application of Japanese and Balinese culture in marriage would need a significant overview on several factors that emphasize the characteristics. In Japanese culture, the actual characteristics may be seen through their attire, equipments, and common practices. While in Balinese culture, characteristics may be seen through their appearance, instrument, and process. Implication in the result is best seen through the child that gives several changes in daily language use and usual habit or even manners.

  19. Cross-cultural Communication and English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘爽

    2014-01-01

    Language is the carrier of culture .Culture is the essence of language .However , most Chinese English teaching seriously lacksthe diverse English culture acquisition .The main topic of this essay is to point out the lexicon differences between English and Chinese languagesand then is about the application of cross -cultural knowledge in English teaching .

  20. Detection of Streptococcus agalactiae colonization in pregnant women by using combined swab cultures: cross-sectional prevalence study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Marconi

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Maternal Streptococcus agalactiae colonization and early-onset neonatal sepsis have aroused interest in the worldwide literature. Streptococcal neonatal disease is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in the perinatal period, especially among premature neonates. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of maternal streptococcal colonization by using combined swab cultures, compared with swab collection from a single site. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study at Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Universidade Estadual Paulista. METHODS: Samples were obtained from 405 patients at gestational ages of 35 to 37 weeks. Swabs from the perianal (rectal region, vaginal introitus and upper lateral vaginal vault were cultured in Todd-Hewitt selective broth. Colonies suggestive of Streptococcus agalactiae were subjected to the catalase and CAMP (Christie, Atkins, Munch-Petersen tests. To evaluate the positivity of combined swab cultures, Tukey's test was used for comparison of proportions. RESULTS: The prevalence of streptococcal colonization was 25.4%. Among the patients with positive cultures, 28.1% had this at only one collection site, 24.2% simultaneously at two sites and 47.5% at all three sites. Associating the swabs from two collection sites significantly increased streptococcal isolation, compared with a single swab (P < 0.05, except for perianal (rectal collection. Use of combined swabs from three collection sites showed statistically higher isolation rates. CONCLUSION: In combined swab cultures collected from three collection sites, the prevalence of maternal Streptococcus agalactiae colonization was higher than in swabs collected from a single site.

  1. Administrative Behaviors and Emotional and Social Competences of Higher Education Administrators: A Cross-Cultural Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Ferda BEYTEKİN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, higher education administrators, administrative behaviors; as educator, leader and manager, emotional competency; as self awareness and self management and social competency; as social awareness and social skills were compared according to two different cultures. The data was collected by inventories from 165 educators, and head of the departments Istanbul, and Helsinki Universities in 2008-2009 educational year. Elkins' administrative behaviors of higher education administrators inventory and Goleman's emotional and social competence inventory were conducted to test the differences. The manager behaviors of Istanbul University administrators are significantly higher than University of Helsinki administrators. The emotional competences of University of Helsinki administrators are significantly higher than the administrators of Istanbul University in the dimensions of self-awareness, self management, emotional selfcontrol, achievement orientation and positive outlook. The social competencies of University of Helsinki administrators are significantly higher than the administrators of Istanbul University in the dimensions of social awareness, empathy, and conflict management. On the other hand, the social competencies of Istanbul University administrators are significantly higher than the administrators of University of Helsinki in the dimensions of organizational awareness, coach and mentor, influence and teamwork. There is a significant positive relationship between the leadership behaviors and emotional and social competencies administrators in both Istanbul University and University of Helsinki. Significant differences are found between faculties and administrators about the administrative behaviors and emotional and social competences of administrators both at İstanbul University and University of Helsinki.

  2. Morality as a predictor of loneliness: a cross-cultural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jordaan

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Loneliness is currently regarded as one of the most common and prevalent problems experienced by adolescents, and it is also observed as a painful, unpleasant and negative experience. South African adolescents also have to face and cope with this predicament daily. The main objective of this study was to establish the perception of adolescents of different cultures regarding loneliness and morality and to investigate the relationship between them. It was also determined which of the independent variables, namely morality, gender, age, mother tongue and ethnicity, contributed significantly to the prediction of loneliness. A total of 714 adolescents from three different secondary schools in the greater Bloemfontein area between the ages of 13 and 17 were selected. Adolescents were used because they are increasingly being confronted with moral issues and because loneliness occurs more commonly during adolescence. The focus was on three ethnic groups, namely Coloured, black and white. Three different questionnaires, namely the Le Roux Loneliness Scale, the Morally Debatable Behaviours Scale and a biographical questionnaire were completed to obtain the necessary data.

  3. Examining Cultural Intelligence and Cross-Cultural Negotiation Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Kevin S.; Feyerherm, Ann; Gu, Minhua

    2015-01-01

    International negotiation failures are often linked to deficiencies in negotiator cross-cultural capabilities, including limited understanding of the cultures engaged in the transaction, an inability to communicate with persons from different cultural backgrounds, and limited behavioral flexibility to adapt to culturally unfamiliar contexts.…

  4. Cancer Appetite and Symptom Questionnaire (CASQ) for Brazilian Patients: Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Sergio Vicente; Halliday, Vanessa; Maroco, João; Campos, Juliana Alvares Duarte Bonini

    2016-01-01

    Background Appetite and symptoms, conditions generally reported by the patients with cancer, are somewhat challenging for professionals to measure directly in clinical routine (latent conditions). Therefore, specific instruments are required for this purpose. This study aimed to perform a cultural adaptation of the Cancer Appetite and Symptom Questionnaire (CASQ), into Portuguese and evaluate its psychometric properties on a sample of Brazilian cancer patients. Methods This is a validation study with Brazilian cancer patients. The face, content, and construct (factorial and convergent) validities of the Cancer Appetite and Symptom Questionnaire, the study tool, were estimated. Further, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted. The ratio of chi-square and degrees of freedom (χ2/df), comparative fit index (CFI), goodness of fit index (GFI) and root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) were used for fit model assessment. In addition, the reliability of the instrument was estimated using the composite reliability (CR) and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (α), and the invariance of the model in independent samples was estimated by a multigroup analysis (Δχ2). Results Participants included 1,140 cancer patients with a mean age of 53.95 (SD = 13.25) years; 61.3% were women. After the CFA of the original CASQ structure, 2 items with inadequate factor weights were removed. Four correlations between errors were included to provide adequate fit to the sample (χ2/df = 8.532, CFI = .94, GFI = .95, and RMSEA = .08). The model exhibited a low convergent validity (AVE = .32). The reliability was adequate (CR = .82 α = .82). The refined model showed strong invariance in two independent samples (Δχ2: λ: p = .855; i: p = .824; Res: p = .390). A weak stability was obtained between patients undergoing chemotherapy and radiotherapy (Δχ2: λ: p = .155; i: p < .001; Res: p < .001), and between patients undergoing chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy and

  5. Association of violence against women with religion and culture in Erbil Iraq: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Tawil Namir Ghanim

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Violence against women by intimate partners is still a public health problem. The study aims at finding out the prevalence of violence among women residing in Erbil city (Muslim culture and in Ankawa sub-district (Christian culture, finding out the role of religion and culture on the prevalence, and finding out some other factors (like occupation of husband and wife, age at marriage, woman agreement for marriage, illegitimate relations of husband that might be associated with violence. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in Erbil during the second half of the year 2011. Two groups were considered; group one (G1 included women residing in Ankawa sub-district (representing Christian culture, and group two (G2 included women residing in Erbil city (representing Muslim culture. A convenience method of sampling was used to collect the sample (250 women of each group. Questionnaire was designed to collect information about history of exposure to physical, sexual, and psychological violence, in addition to the related factors. These forms were distributed (by women of the Assyrian Women Union in sealed envelopes to women attending the Mass in three churches located in Ankawa. Women of Erbil group were recruited from the maternity teaching hospital of Erbil. The same questionnaire was distributed to them by the same team. Binary logistic regression was used to show the independent effect of each factor on the prevalence of violence. Results Overall prevalence of violence (physical and/or sexual in G2 (20.8% was higher than that of G1 (18.8%. The prevalence of psychological violence was 40% in Erbil, which was significantly higher than the prevalence (24.8% of Ankawa. The rates of physical and sexual violence were also higher in Erbil (18.4%, and 10.8% respectively than rates of Ankawa (16.8% and 8% respectively. Factors found to be significantly associated with overall violence were: culture of Erbil, alcoholic husband

  6. Assessing Career Decision-Making Difficulties: A Cross-Cultural Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mau, Wei-Cheng

    2001-01-01

    The Career Decision-Making Difficulties Questionnaire was administered to 540 U.S. and 1,026 Taiwanese students (1,461 completed). Structural equation modeling showed that the taxonomy of difficulties can be reliably measured for U.S. students, but not Taiwanese students, suggesting that cultural differences influence decision-making difficulties.…

  7. A cross-cultural study of explicit and implicit motivation for long-term volunteering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aydinli, A.; Bender, M.; Chasiotis, A.; van de Vijver, F.J.R.; Cemalcilar, Z.; Chong, A.; Yue, X.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a model of volunteering and test its validity across four cultural groups. We hypothesize that individuals’ explicit prosocial motivation relates positively to sustained volunteering, which is conceptualized as a latent factor comprising activity as a volunteer, service length, service fr

  8. The Effects of Cross-Cultural Competence on My Teaching and Studying in the UK Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, I reflect on my experiences as a Chinese educator, attempting to take my previous experiences into a new situation: teaching in the UK. These reflections take me down a path that shows how my Chinese cultural background and experiences created both challenges and opportunities for my teaching. I attempt to show how important it is…

  9. Cross-Cultural Adaptation of Developmental Criteria for Young Children: A Preliminary Psychometric Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Faridah

    2014-01-01

    Authentic assessment approach applies naturalistic observation method to gather and analyse data about children's development that are socio-culturally appropriate to plan for individual teaching and learning needs. This article discusses the process of adapting an authentic developmental instrument for children of 3-6 years old. The instrument…

  10. Creating the Global Graduate: A Cross-Cultural Videoconferencing Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, Diane L.; Kydd, Christine T.; Boyles, Corinne

    2012-01-01

    Business people in multinational environments must deal with a variety of situational barriers and cultural differences, such as time zones, languages, and common practice differences. Learning to accommodate these barriers and differences effectively often takes years of practice. Students who experience some of these barriers and become aware of…

  11. China English in Cross-cultural Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢红艳; 张妮

    2013-01-01

      China English,as an international variant of English, is gradually known and recognized by scholars around the world. Its emergence has its own objectivity and rationality. China English plays a very important role in cross-cultural communication and its functions can not be ignored in cross-cultural communication.

  12. Developing the Polish Educational Needs Assessment Tool (Pol-ENAT) in rheumatoid arthritis and systemic sclerosis: a cross-cultural validation study using Rasch analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierakowska, Matylda; Sierakowski, Stanisław; Sierakowska, Justyna; Horton, Mike; Ndosi, Mwidimi

    2015-03-01

    To undertake cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the educational needs assessment tool (ENAT) for use with people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic sclerosis (SSc) in Poland. The study involved two main phases: (1) cross-cultural adaptation of the ENAT from English into Polish and (2) Cross-cultural validation of Polish Educational Needs Assessment Tool (Pol-ENAT). The first phase followed an established process of cross-cultural adaptation of self-report measures. The second phase involved completion of the Pol-ENAT by patients and subjecting the data to Rasch analysis to assess the construct validity, unidimensionality, internal consistency and cross-cultural invariance. An adequate conceptual equivalence was achieved following the adaptation process. The dataset for validation comprised a total of 278 patients, 237 (85.3 %) of which were female. In each disease group (145, RA and 133, SSc), the 7 domains of the Pol-ENAT were found to fit the Rasch model, X (2)(df) = 16.953(14), p = 0.259 and 8.132(14), p = 0.882 for RA and SSc, respectively. Internal consistency of the Pol-ENAT was high (patient separation index = 0.85 and 0.89 for SSc and RA, respectively), and unidimensionality was confirmed. Cross-cultural differential item functioning (DIF) was detected in some subscales, and DIF-adjusted conversion tables were calibrated to enable cross-cultural comparison of data between Poland and the UK. Using a standard process in cross-cultural adaptation, conceptual equivalence was achieved between the original (UK) ENAT and the adapted Pol-ENAT. Fit to the Rasch model, confirmed that the construct validity, unidimensionality and internal consistency of the ENAT have been preserved.

  13. Luxury consumption motivations : a cross-cultural study between France and China

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Maria Sofia de Souza Coutinho Nunes de

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade, international luxury brands have been expanding continuously to new markets, transferring the industry’s gravity center from West to East. The present research aims at investigating how consumers’ motivations for buying luxury products differ in developed and emerging markets and what role culture plays in those differences. More precisely, the paper focuses on two main actors of this industry: France (the first country offering luxury-branded products) and China (host...

  14. Validation of the cross-linguistic naming test: a naming test for different cultures? A preliminary study in the Spanish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez-Lara, Mario; Moriana, Juan Antonio; Vilar-López, Raquel; Fasfous, Ahmed Fayez; Hidalgo-Ruzzante, Natalia; Pérez-García, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Despite the consensus pointing out the importance of cultural variables in neuropsychological assessments, empirical studies within cross-cultural neuropsychology continue to be limited. The Cross-Linguistic Naming Test (CLNT) is a naming test that is supposed to have no influence from cultural variables. The aim of this paper is to determine the psychometric properties of the CLNT and its discriminatory validity (Experiment 1) and to determine the performance of the CLNT in different cultures (Experiment 2). Three groups followed the CLNT in Experiment 1: dementia patients, individuals with subjective memory complaints, and neurologically healthy volunteers. Three groups followed the CLNT in Experiment 2: Colombians, Moroccans, and Spaniards. The results showed that the psychometric properties of the CLNT are appropriate and that this test obtains a high specificity but a low sensitivity. Furthermore, no differences were found in the CLNT among the three cultural groups. The CLNT may be appropriate for the screening of naming impairment in Colombian, Moroccan, and Spanish cultures.

  15. Cross-cultural Context and Politeness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱芬

    2012-01-01

    In social interaction,politeness is a universal phenomenon existing in all languages.However,for social,ethnographic and even historical reasons,politeness strategies in a specific cultural context may vary from one to another.And for most time it is not language itself but different politeness strategies that lead to cross-cultural communicative failure.Knowing about these differences will help to overcome pragmatic failure in cross-cultural communication.

  16. A Cross-Cultural Study on Environmental Risk Perception and Educational Strategies: Implications for Environmental Education in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Duan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This cross-cultural study examined college students' environmental risk perception and their preference in terms of risk communication and educational strategies in China and the U.S. The results indicated that the Chinese respondents were more concerned about environmental risk, and they perceived the environmental issues to be more harmful to health, to the environment, and to social economic development of the nation than did the American respondents. Both groups desired transparent communications in decision processes and would support educational strategies that foster behavior change for reduction of environmental risks. On the basis of the findings, the paper discusses the changes that would potentially improve non-formal and formal environmental education in China from the perspectives of program foci and approaches.

  17. Tandem Language Learning through a Cross-Cultural Keypal Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabata, Kaori; Edasawa, Yasuyo

    2011-01-01

    Patterns of students' language learning were examined through an asynchronous cross-cultural bilingual communication project conducted between Japanese university students learning English and Canadian university students learning Japanese. Previous studies on cross-cultural communication projects have reported positive outcomes in providing…

  18. Cross-Cultural Skills for Deployed Air Force Personnel: Defining Cross-Cultural Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    International Journal of Intercultural Relations , 27, 421–443. Harrison, J. K. (1992... International Journal of Intercultural Relations , 23, 77–90. Manacapilli, T., C. M. Hardison, B. Gifford, A. Bailey, and A. Bower (2007). Common Battlefield...Longitudinal Study of Psychological and Sociocultural Adjustment During Cross-Cultural Transition,” International Journal of Intercultural Relations , 22,

  19. Cross-culture Communications in Tourism under Conditions of Globalisation

    OpenAIRE

    Aldoshyna Mariia V.; Brusilseva Anna N.

    2014-01-01

    The article is devoted to the study of cross-cultural specific features of interaction within social and business communication in the international tourism. The goal of the article is analysis of the cross-cultural environment of Ukraine in the context of the world globalisation for efficient interaction in the sphere of international management and marketing. The article shows a necessity of a study of influence of national cultural features upon business activity of tourist enterprises wit...

  20. Studying Cross-Cultural Differences in Temperament in the First Year of Life: United States and Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montirosso, Rosario; Cozzi, Patrizia; Putnam, Samuel P.; Gartstein, Maria A.; Borgatti, Renato

    2011-01-01

    An Italian translation of the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised (IBQ-R) was developed and evaluated with 110 infants, demonstrating satisfactory internal consistency, discriminant validity, and construct validity in the form of gender and age differences, as well as factorial integrity. Cross-cultural differences were subsequently evaluated…

  1. Developing Cross-Cultural Awareness through Foreign Immersion Programs: Implications of University Study Abroad Research for Global Competency Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokkesmoe, Karen J.; Kuchinke, K. Peter; Ardichvili, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the efficacy of foreign immersion programs in terms of increasing cross-cultural awareness among university students in business, accounting, human resources and agriculture. The authors extrapolate from their population to the practice of developing business professionals on international…

  2. Acculturative stressors and acculturative strategies as predictors of negative affect among Chinese international students in Australia and Hong Kong: a cross-cultural comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jia-Yan; Wong, Daniel Fu Keung

    2011-11-01

    There are few studies comparing cross-cultural adaptation of migrant groups in two different cultural settings. This study compares the level of negative affect and acculturative stressors between Chinese international students in Australia and Mainland Chinese students in Hong Kong. The predictive effects of acculturative stressors and acculturative strategies on negative affect were also compared between the two groups. A total of 606 graduate students were recruited for a cross-sectional survey in Melbourne, and Hong Kong, China. The measurement included the Acculturative Hassles Scale for Chinese Students, Acculturative Strategy Scale, and Chinese Affect Scale. Independent t-tests and hierarchical regression analysis were conducted for data analysis. Chinese international students in Australia were found to encounter more acculturative stressors and experience a higher level of negative affect than their counterparts in Hong Kong. The acculturative stressor of academic work and a marginalization strategy significantly predicted negative affect in both groups. The acculturative stressor of cultural difference predicted negative affect in the Hong Kong sample, and assimilation strategy predicted negative affect in the Australian sample only. It is more difficult for Chinese international students to adapt to a host society with greater cultural distance. Cross-cultural comparative study helps to find out culture-general and culture-specific predictors of acculturation and helps design tailor-made intervention programs for international students across cultures.

  3. Breaking difficult news in a cross-cultural setting: a qualitative study about Latina mothers of children with down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Kayla M; Baty, Bonnie J; Vázquez, Juan Carlos; Carey, John C; Hobson, Wendy L

    2012-08-01

    Giving difficult news to patients represents a common dilemma for health care professionals. Based on three decades of research, various authors have proposed guidelines outlining the ideal setting, delivery, and timing. Existing publications focus on patients of European descent and may not be applicable in cross-cultural settings. We explored perceptions of Spanish-speaking mothers who have a child with Down syndrome and how they preferred to receive the news of their child's diagnosis. We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews (n = 14), which were coded and analyzed by thematic networks to identify common themes. Six significant themes emerged: Cultural Belief System, Communication, Support/Lack of Support, Feelings Engendered, Medical Issues, and Medical System. One overarching theme of mother-child bonding encompassed all sub-themes. The mothers desired the news in a more positive, balanced light and with more complete explanations about the condition. Mothers felt excluded from the diagnostic process and wanted to be better informed about the need for diagnostic studies. Participants used religious beliefs to explain the reason for their child's condition. Many factors influenced Latina mothers' ability to bond initially with their children with Down syndrome. Ideally, these factors should be acknowledged during informing interviews to assist Latino families in adjustment.

  4. Vietnamese Cross-Cultural Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Joseph Trung

    This report provides information that will help Americans deal with or counsel Vietnamese refugees. The following topics are covered: (1) history and geography of Vietnam; (2) culture of Vietnam; (3) differences between American and Vietnamese culture; (4) counseling recommendations; (5) differences between American and Vietnamese students; and…

  5. Cross Cultural Conflicts in Not Without my Daughter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setyoningsih Setyoningsih

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify and analyze the cultural conflicts between the main characters in the novel Not Without my Daughter (NW. The analysis was carried out through the following process. The first procedure related to problems of classification i.e. cross cultural conflicts. The next phase of data analysis related to the colletion data of cross cultural conflicts in NW. The last phase is presentation the result of the analysis that had been conducted in this research. Having analyzed the data, the researcher concludes  that cultural conflicts occured in NW because of  stereotype, prejudice, and ethnocentrism. Cultural conflicts can be prevented if we increase our awareness of our own attitudes and learn to be sensitive to cross-cultural differences. However, if we develop intercultural sensitivity, it does not mean that we need to lose our cultural identities-but rather that we recognize cultural influences within ourselves and within others.

  6. The Cross-Cultural Invariance of Creative Cognition: A Case Study of Creative Writing in U.S. and Russian College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornilov, Sergey A; Kornilova, Tatiana V; Grigorenko, Elena L

    2016-01-01

    Unlike intelligence, creativity has rarely been investigated from the standpoint of cross-cultural invariance of the structure of the instruments used to measure it. In the study reported in this article, we investigated the cross-cultural invariance of expert ratings of creative stories written by undergraduate students from the Russian Federation and the United States. Analyses of differential rater and item functioning using Many-Facet Rasch Measurement and multiple levels of invariance using confirmatory factor analyses suggested partial measurement invariance of creative ability estimates obtained using this method in two cultures. Russian and U.S. students demonstrated similar overall levels of creativity; however, U.S. students received higher emotionality ratings than Russian students did. The findings are discussed in the context of viewing creativity as at least a partially culturally invariant trait whose manifestation is moderated by culture-specific semantic knowledge and patterns of linguistic behavior.

  7. Cross-cultural School Based Encounters as Health Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruselius-Jensen, Maria; Renwick, Kerry; Aagaard-Hansen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    : Qualitative analysis of 18 focus group discussions with 72 Danish and 36 Kenyan students. Results: Cross-cultural dialogues promoted students’ engagement and reflections on their own and peers’ health condition, access to education, food cultures, gender and family structures. Conclusion: Findings indicate......Objective: Drawing on the concepts of the cosmopolitan person and democratic health education, this article explores the merits of primary school–based, cross-cultural dialogues for global health education. Design: A qualitative study of the learning outcomes of the Move|Eat|Learn (MEL) project...... the merits of cross-cultural dialogues as a means of educating students to become global health agents with a cosmopolitan outlook....

  8. Eye contact and Cross-cultural Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘西娟

    2009-01-01

    It is commonly agreed by contemporary schohrs that it is important to understand the role of culture and its characteristics and potential impact on individuals engaged in cross-cultural communication.Nonverbal Communication often reveals basic culture traits.Eye contact,as a mediunq to convey emodon.attitudes and intention.phys an undeniably vital role in communication.The concentration of this paper is to discuss the functions of eye contact in communication,different information conveyed by eve contact on the basis of different cultures and the importance of understanding and respecting the rituals of eye contact in cross-culmral communication.

  9. Cross-cultural perspectives on critical thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Sheryl Daun

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this cross-cultural study was to explore critical thinking among nurse scholars in Thailand and the United States. The study used qualitative methodology to examine how nurse scholars describe critical thinking in nursing. Nurse educators in Thailand and the United States were questioned concerning the following aspects of critical thinking: essential components; teaching and evaluation techniques; characteristics of critical thinkers; and the importance of a consensus definition for critical thinking in nursing. Their statements, which revealed both common and specific cultural aspects of critical thinking, were subjected to content analysis. Certain themes emerged that have not been widely discussed in the literature, including the link between staying calm and thinking critically, the assertion that happiness is an essential component of critical thinking, and the participants' nearly unanimous support for coming to a consensus definition of critical thinking for nursing.

  10. Computer Usage and Reading in Elementary Schools: A Cross-Cultural Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Shu-Ling; Chang, Tai-Shent; Ye, Renmin

    2006-01-01

    This study uses international data to investigate computer use situations in elementary school reading classes and the impacts of computer usage on students' reading performance across 15 countries. The study compares and reveals computer use levels in reading classes, frequencies of teachers having students use computers, times and places of…

  11. Concepts and Causation of Depression: A Cross-Cultural Study of the Beliefs of Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Vanessa; Murray, Joanna; Banerjee, Sube; Turner, Sara; Sangha, Kuljeet; Byng, Richard; Bhurgra, Dinesh; Huxley, Peter; Tylee, Andre; Macdonald, Alastair

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This U.K. study explored how older adults with depression (treated and untreated) and the general older population conceptualize depression. A multicultural approach was used that incorporated the perspectives of Black Caribbean, South Asian, and White British older adults. The study sought to explore and compare beliefs about the nature…

  12. Social and cultural factors underlying generational differences in overweight: a cross-sectional study among ethnic minorities in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nierkens Vera

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of overweight appears to vary in people of first and second generation ethnic minority groups. Insight into the factors that underlie these weight differences might help in understanding the health transition that is taking place across generations following migration. We studied the role of social and cultural factors associated with generational differences in overweight among young Turkish and Moroccan men and women in the Netherlands. Methods Cross-sectional data were derived from the LASER-study in which information on health-related behaviour and socio-demographic factors, level of education, occupational status, acculturation (cultural orientation and social contacts, religious and migration-related factors was gathered among Turkish and Moroccan men (n = 334 and women (n = 339 aged 15-30 years. Participants were interviewed during a home visit. Overweight was defined as a Body Mass Index ≥ 25 kg/m2. Using logistic regression analyses, we tested whether the measured social and cultural factors could explain differences in overweight between first and second generation ethnic groups. Results Second generation women were less often overweight than first generation women (21.8% and 45.0% respectively, but this association was no longer significant when adjusting for the socioeconomic position (i.e. higher level of education of second generation women (Odds Ratio (OR = 0.77, 95%, Confidence Interval (CI 0.40-1.46. In men, we observed a reversed pattern: second generation men were more often overweight than first generation men (32.7% and 27.8%. This association (OR = 1.89, 95% CI 1.09-3.24 could not be explained by the social and cultural factors because none of these factors were associated with overweight among men. Conclusions The higher socio-economic position of second generation Turkish and Moroccan women may partly account for the lower prevalence of overweight in this group compared to first

  13. Problems in Cross Cultural Trust Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    Based on an explorative study of the Danish Public Diplomacy activities in Pakistan this paper brings to attention a number of issues related to cross cultural trust building. The empirical data includes information from the communication consultant at the Danish Embassy in Islamabad, and other...... public documents from the Danish Foreign Ministry. The conclusion is a list of research problems that needs to be investigated in the future, because there are still too many unknown factors that are of relevance for international trust building....

  14. Interracial and Cross-cultural Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Reagan H.; Goldstein, Helen Haft

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the need to improve interracial and cross-cultural relationships within therapeutic settings. Suggests strategies counselors can use to communicate more successfully with clients from different racial or ethnic backgrounds who have different values and personal characteristics. (MK)

  15. Cross-Cultural Challenges and Adjustments of Expatriates: A Case Study in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Maimunah Ismail, Aida Hafitah Mohd Tahir and

    2007-01-01

    Due to globalization and vision to be an industrialized nation, Malaysia acknowledges the inflow ofexpatriates into the country to meet the demands for skilled and professional manpower. This paperreports on a study conducted among a group of expatriates in Malaysia. The objectives of the study areto examine challenges faced by the expatriates and adjustments made to the challenges. Culturalclashes between foreign and local values are inevitable in which expatriates experience challenges. Ind...

  16. Pricing strategies, the strength of bidding intentions, and online auction performance: a cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yu-Shu; Jan, Lih-Tsyr

    2009-10-01

    Over the past decade, electronic markets based on the Internet, particularly online auctions, have become popular venues for conducting business. Previous studies often focused on the construction of the best bidding model, while few studies have tried to integrate multiple pricing strategies to predict the probability of closing an auction and the price premium. This study constructs a mediated model to examine the relationship among pricing strategies, the strength of bidding intentions, and online auction performance. The sample consists of 1,055 auctions of iPod MP3 players from eBay Web sites in Hong Kong, Singapore, Belgium, and France. Empirical results show that the pricing strategies directly influence both the probability of closing an auction and the level of price premium. The pricing strategies also indirectly influence the price premium through the mediating effect of the strength of bidding intentions.

  17. Bridge Building Potential in Cross-Cultural Learning: A Mixed Method Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienties, Bart; Johan, Novie; Jindal-Snape, Divya

    2015-01-01

    Although many international students experience transitional issues, most research assumes that these issues will disappear over time with increased interaction. Using principles of social network theory, this study addressed why some students become bridge builders between international and host students, while others primarily interact with…

  18. Traumatic Responding in Children Exposed to Domestic Violence: A Cross-Cultural Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Peter; Elliston, Ellen J.

    2001-01-01

    A study examined posttraumatic stress disorder in Mexican, Mexican American, and non-Mexican American children exposed to domestic violence. Surveys of 68 mothers with children in shelters in Mexico and Texas revealed no ethnic differences in children's overall trauma symptoms. Mothers' experience of physical and sexual abuse predicted greater…

  19. Antioxidants, oxidative stress, and cardiovascular diseases : cross-cultural comparisons and prospective cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijsse, B.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Antioxidants in plant foods have been proposed to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) by reducing oxidative stress. The objective was to confirm prospective studies on CVD and traditional antioxidants (beta-carotene, alpha-tocopherol), and to investigate emerging antioxidant

  20. PRF Cross-Cultural Psychological Study of Lithuanian Students, Teachers, and Special Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illovsky, Michael E.; Gintiliene, Grazina; Bulotaite, Laima; Rickman, Jacqueline; Belekiene, Marijona; Janowitz, Karl

    2008-01-01

    The Personality Research Form (PRF) was used to study the psychological traits of Lithuanian college of education students, teachers, and special education teachers. A sample of American college students was also used for comparison. Chi-square results indicated no statistical differences among the groups. Interpretations of the lack of…

  1. Cross-Cultural Management Learning through Innovative Pedagogy: An Exploratory Study of Globally Distributed Student Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartel-Radic, Anne; Moos, J. Chris; Long, Suzanna K.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an innovative pedagogy based on student participation in globally distributed project teams. The study questions the link between student learning of intercultural competence and the global teaming experience. Data was collected from 115 students participating in 22 virtual intercultural teams. Results revealed that students…

  2. A Cross-Cultural Study of Reference Point Adaptation: Evidence from China, Korea, and the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkes, Hal R.; Hirshleifer, David; Jiang, Danling; Lim, Sonya S.

    2010-01-01

    We examined reference point adaptation following gains or losses in security trading using participants from China, Korea, and the US. In both questionnaire studies and trading experiments with real money incentives, reference point adaptation was larger for Asians than for Americans. Subjects in all countries adapted their reference points more…

  3. Cross-Cultural Study of Cognitive and Metacognitive Processes during Math Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozza, Barbara; Oreshkina, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was: (a) to explore the cognitive and metacognitive processes of mathematics problem-solving discourse of 10-year-old students in Russia, Spain, Hungary, and the United States; and (b) to explore the patterns of social interactions during small group work. Data were analyzed using a cognitive/metacognitive…

  4. A Cross-Cultural Study of Learning Behaviours in the Classroom: From a Thinking Style Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hongyu; Andrade, Heidi L.; Yan, Zheng

    2011-01-01

    Chinese students were often portrayed as passive learners in the classroom, whereas their American peers have been viewed as active learners. This study was designed to examine and explain the distinct learning behaviours in the classroom between these two student groups in relation to thinking style. Surveys of learning behaviours and thinking…

  5. Public Attitudes toward People with Intellectual Disabilities: A Cross-Cultural Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scior, Katrina; Kan, Ka-ying; McLoughlin, Anna; Sheridan, Joel

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated attitudes toward people with intellectual disabilities among the general Hong Kong Chinese population and compared these to a White British sample, using the Community Living Attitudes Scale-Mental Retardation form (CLAS-MR; D. Henry, C. Keys, F. Balcazar, & D. Jopp, 1996). As predicted, attitudes among the Hong Kong…

  6. Parenting Practices and Quality of Life in Dutch and Portuguese Adolescents : A Cross-Cultural Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunes, Cristina; Bodden, Denise; Lemos, Ida; Lorence, Barbara; Jimenez, Lucia; Bodden, Denise

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine differences in Quality of life (QoL) and parenting practices, as well as the impact of parenting practices on QoL in Dutch and Portuguese adolescents. A total of 168 Portuguese (44.64% girls, 55.36% boys) and 155 Dutch adolescents (55.68% girls, 44.32% boys) aged

  7. The Development of Concepts of Handicap in Adolescence: A Cross-Cultural Study-Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Jim; Obani, Tim

    1986-01-01

    Reports the results of quasi-experimental study of 155 Nigerian and 151 British boys' and girls' understanding of handicaps. Presents information regarding the content of the questionnaire, which posed both direct and indirect questions regarding causality, effects, rehabilitation and interaction of handicapped persons. (JDH)

  8. A cross-cultural study: anti-inflammatory activity of Australian and Chinese plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rachel W; Myers, Stephen P; Leach, David N; Lin, G David; Leach, Greg

    2003-03-01

    In this study, in vitro inhibitory effects of 33 ethanol extracts obtained from 24 plant species (representing 11 different families) on cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) were evaluated. The plant materials selected for this study have been used in aboriginal medicine in Australia and traditional medicine in China for the treatment of various diseases that are considered as inflammation in nature, e.g. asthma, arthritis, rheumatism, fever, edema, infections, snakebite and related inflammatory diseases. All of the selected plants, with one exception, showed inhibitory activity against COX-1, which supports their traditional uses. The most potent COX-1 inhibition were observed from the extracts of Acacia ancistrocarpa leaves (IC(50)=23 microg/ml). Ficus racemosa bark, Clematis pickeringii stem, Acacia adsurgens leaves, Tinospora smilacina stem and Morinda citrifolia fruit powder exhibited inhibition of COX-1 with the IC(50) of 100, 141, 144, 158 and 163 microg/ml, respectively. Aspirin and indomethacin used as the reference COX-1 inhibitors in this study inhibited COX-1 with IC(50) of 241 and 1.2 microg/ml, respectively. The findings of this study may explain at least in part why these plants have been traditionally used for the treatment of inflammatory conditions in Australian aboriginal medicine and traditional Chinese medicine.

  9. A Multicountry Study of Cross-Cultural Differences in Psychological Wellness of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asamsama, Octaviana Hemmy; Huang, Leesa; Nelson, R. Brett; Chen, Cin-Ru; Huang, Lily; Kwon, Kyongboon; Kodama, Naoko

    2014-01-01

    Relative to positive psychology, a focus on increasing psychological well-being has been recently supported. Positive psychology is the study of influences and processes that contribute to the successful and optimal functioning of individuals. Nurturing and encouraging wellness competencies creates a buffer against mental illness and fosters…

  10. Parenting Practices and Quality of Life in Dutch and Portuguese Adolescents: A Cross-Cultural Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunes, C.; Bodden, D.H.M.; Lemos, I.; Lorence, B.; Jimenez, L.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine differences in Quality of life (QoL) and parenting practices, as well as the impact of parenting practices on QoL in Dutch and Portuguese adolescents. A total of 168 Portuguese (44.64% girls, 55.36% boys) and 155 Dutch adolescents (55.68% girls, 44.32% boys) aged

  11. Parenting Practices and Quality of Life in Dutch and Portuguese Adolescents : A Cross-Cultural Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunes, Cristina; Bodden, Denise; Lemos, Ida; Lorence, Barbara; Jimenez, Lucia; Bodden, Denise|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/297688499

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine differences in Quality of life (QoL) and parenting practices, as well as the impact of parenting practices on QoL in Dutch and Portuguese adolescents. A total of 168 Portuguese (44.64% girls, 55.36% boys) and 155 Dutch adolescents (55.68% girls, 44.32% boys) aged

  12. Sexual survey: a cross-cultural perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Luiz Cardoso

    Full Text Available This is a comparative cross-cultural investigation and an analysis of the sexual life of presumably middle class college students of four countries: Israel, Colombia, Canada and Brazil. Post graduation-level students of the Institute for Advanced Studies in Human Sexuality (IASHS in San Francisco collected the data as a PhD requirement. The data analysis revealed that, even though members of various sample groups speak different languages and belong to distinct cultures, they exhibit some similar aspects in their sexual life. Additionally, comparisons were made with the data of the NHSLS Report (USA in a few selected topics and, again, more similarities were found among the international university students.

  13. Studying students' attitudes towards science from a cultural perspective but with a quantitative methodology: border crossing into the physics classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, L.; Thomsen, Poul V.

    2005-01-01

    are hypothesized; for example, family background (parents' occupation and thinking style), low general school interest among family and peers, students' non-scientific perception of knowledge, their 'more-than-just-absorption' purposes of knowledge-acquisition and other value-related judgements. The quantitative...... methodology used here makes it possible to build regression models of students' attitudes and compare the possible impact of the border crossings with that of personality variables and teacher and teaching style characteristics. It is found that cultural border crossing factors are important predictors...

  14. Studying students' attitudes towards science from a cultural perspective but with a quantitative methodology: border crossing into the physics classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, L.; Thomsen, Poul V.

    2005-01-01

    methodology used here makes it possible to build regression models of students' attitudes and compare the possible impact of the border crossings with that of personality variables and teacher and teaching style characteristics. It is found that cultural border crossing factors are important predictors...... are hypothesized; for example, family background (parents' occupation and thinking style), low general school interest among family and peers, students' non-scientific perception of knowledge, their 'more-than-just-absorption' purposes of knowledge-acquisition and other value-related judgements. The quantitative...

  15. How can service organizations improve the customer orientation of frontline employees? : a cross cultural study

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, Even Meek; Sky, Astrid

    2013-01-01

    Frontline employees, the employees with customer contact, are the face of service organizations and play a critical role in determining customer satisfaction. Service quality is greatly improved when these employees are customer oriented. Customer orientation refers to an individual’s commitment to delivering great customer service. While some research exists, the antecedents to customer orientation are insufficiently studied. Answering a call for new insights into this importa...

  16. A Cross-Cultural Study on Hedging Devices in Kurdish Conversation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biook BEHNAM

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Hedges are words whose job is to make things fuzzier or less fuzzy. Truth and falsity are a matter of degree, and hedges make natural language sentences more/less true or more/less false.  The purpose of the study is to investigate hedging devices in Kurdish spoken language. The aim is  to know how hedging devices are used in Kurdish spoken discourse. Also the researchers are willing to know whether Kurdish speakers use hedging devices to indicate a lack of complete commitment to the truth of the proposition, and a desire not to express the commitment categorically, or to lessen the impact of an utterance. The data needed for the study was collected through observation, tape recording, and interviews. The dialogues of 35 people were recorded by the researchers as well as the researchers have interviewed with 21 people from different social classes.15 classes and meetings which Kurdish language was the means of communication were observed. The research showed that hedging as a mitigating device is extensively employed in different conversations. The study shows that hedging devices have the same roles  in Kurdish as they have in English. They are used to reduce the certainty and sureness of the utterances. It indicates that some pragmatic devices modify the epistemic strength of the statement in Kurdish language just as they do in English and Arabic.

  17. Religiosity and ethical ideology of physicians: a cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, D C; Sevigny, P R; Hadjistavropoulos, T; Bond, K; Fahey McCarthy, E; Murakami, M; Paholpak, S; Shalini, N; Liu, P L; Peng, H

    2014-02-01

    In this study of ethical ideology and religiosity, 1,255 physicians from Canada, China, Ireland, India, Japan and Thailand participated. Forsyth's (1980) Ethical Position Questionnaire and Rohrbaugh and Jessor's (J Pers 43:136-155, 1975) Religiosity Measure were used as the survey instruments. The results demonstrated that physicians from India, Thailand and China reported significantly higher rates of idealism than physicians from Canada and Japan. India, Thailand and China also scored significantly higher than Ireland. Physicians from Japan and India reported significantly higher rates of relativism than physicians from Canada, Ireland, Thailand and China. Physicians from China also reported higher rates of relativism than physicians from Canada, Ireland and Thailand. Overall, religiosity was positively associated with idealism and negatively associated with relativism. This study is the first to explore the differences between ethical ideology and religiosity among physicians in an international setting as well as the relationship between these two constructs. Both religiosity and ethical ideology are extremely generalized, and the extent to which they may impact the actual professional behaviour of physicians is unknown. This paper sets up a point of departure for future research that could investigate the extent to which physicians actually employ their religious and/or ethical orientation to solve ambiguous medical decisions.

  18. A Cross-Cultural Study of Gifted Students' Scientific, Societal, and Moral Questions Concerning Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi Tirri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the number and nature of gifted female and male students' scientific, societal, and moral questions concerning science. The participants (=658 of this study were 16–19-year-old international students from 55 countries and two continents, Asia and Europe. They applied to participate in the Millennium Youth Camp held in 2011 in Finland. The students came from scientifically and mathematically oriented schools, and they had shown an interest towards science through competitions, school success, and their own research. The students were asked to formulate questions they would like to get answers to during the camp. The nature and number of the students' questions were analyzed with qualitative and quantitative content analysis. The results showed that the boys asked more scientific questions than the girls, and the girls asked more societal questions than the boys. The students asked less questions about morality than scientific or societal questions. The most common questions about morality were related to pollution and fresh air, environmental problems, and water protection. The results point to the need for teachers to teach socioscientific issues and discuss moral questions related to science.

  19. The Pragmatics of Cross-cultural Contact and Some False Dichotomies in Translation Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mona Baker

    2003-01-01

    Based on the assumption that translation studies, as an emerging discipline, is part of a general intellectual movement which is not confined to the humanities, this paper outlines the features which characterize this trans-disciplinary intellectual debate, using examples from linguistics. It is stressed that, rather than setting itself in opposition to other disciplines, translation studies needs to acknowledge and embrace shared concerns, issues and directions.%本文认为作为一门新兴学科的翻译研究不局限于人文学科,而是一般知识运动的一部分.文章用大量的语言学例句来勾勒翻译研究作为一种跨学科的知识的特征,强调翻译研究不将自己摆在其他学科的对立面,而是承认其他学科的存在并关心一些共同的课题和研究方向.

  20. Participation in Physical Activity, Fitness, and Risk for Obesity in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Cross-cultural Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cermak, S A; Katz, N; Weintraub, N; Steinhart, S; Raz-Silbiger, S; Munoz, M; Lifshitz, N

    2015-12-01

    Decreased physical activity has been linked to poor fitness and obesity, resulting in increased risk for health concerns. The objective is to study the relationships between children's motor coordination and their physical activity, sedentary behaviour, fitness and weight status in a cross-cultural study in the United States and Israel. Participants included 118 children 6-11 years of age: 53 children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and 65 typical children. The US sample included 31 DCD children and 44 typical children. The Israeli sample included 22 DCD children and 21 typical children. Participants were assessed on Movement Assessment Battery for Children 2, strength test of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency 2 and Six-minute Walk Test and wore an accelerometer. Parents completed physical activity questionnaires and demographic information. Body mass index was calculated based on height and weight. Testing took place in two sessions. Findings are that in both Israel and the United States, children with DCD demonstrated significantly reduced physical activity, increased sedentary behaviour, poorer fitness and increased overweight compared with typical children. No significant differences were found for country. With relevance to clinical practice, fitness and obesity are major concerns for children with DCD in both countries. Inclusion of occupational therapy in health promotion for this population is critical. Additional studies with testers blind to group, larger samples and other countries are recommended.

  1. 新时期军队跨文化交际研究%Study on cross-cultural communication in new military time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范金平; 张萍

    2012-01-01

    新时期国与国之间的联系越来越密切,军队的国际交往也更加频繁。从文化的视角看,军队对外交往属于跨文化交际的范畴;军队跨文化交际的成功与否无论在和平时期还是战争时期都具有很大影响;研究军队跨文化交际是对普通跨文化交际研究领域的拓展,从军队对外交往实践的需要来看,要从外语教育、外国文化和外国军情三个方面开展相关研究。%With much more contact among countries, military external intercourse becomes more and more frequent. As viewed from culture, military external intercourse belongs to the category of the cross-cultural communication. Successful military cross-cultural communication in both the peaceful period and the war period is of great importance. Military cross-cultural communication research can be viewed as the expanding of studying the general cross-cultural communication. On basis of the need of the military external intercourse, correlative research can be conducted in the three aspects, foreign language education, foreign culture and the foreign army.

  2. County council politicians' attitudes toward suicide and suicide prevention: a qualitative cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knizek, Birthe Loa; Hjelmeland, Heidi; Skruibis, Paulius; Fartacek, Reinhold; Fekete, Sandor; Gailiene, Danute; Osvath, Peter; Renberg, Ellinor Salander; Rohrer, Rudolf R

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare county council politicians' attitudes toward suicide and suicide prevention in five European countries. A questionnaire was distributed and here the responses to the open-ended questions are analyzed qualitatively. Considerable differences were found in what the politicians in the five countries believed to be the most important causes of suicide and how suicide can be prevented. There were also differences in to what degree the politicians revealed a judgmental attitude toward suicide, which seemed to be related to the magnitude of the problem in the respective countries. A certain implicit inconsistency in the logic directing the politicians' responses was found when their views on causes to suicide and suicide prevention strategies were compared. The responses indicate a need for increased consciousness and knowledge about suicide and suicide prevention among politicians in all the five countries. This is important since they are responsible for initiating and funding suicide preventive efforts.

  3. Favourite alcohol advertisements and binge drinking among adolescents: a cross-cultural cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Matthis; Sargent, James D; Sweeting, Helen; Faggiano, Fabrizio; Mathis, Federica; Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the association between having a favourite alcohol advertisement and binge drinking among European adolescents. Data were obtained from a longitudinal observational study on relationships between smoking and drinking and film tobacco and alcohol exposures. State-funded schools. Baseline survey of 12 464 German, Italian, Polish and Scottish adolescents (mean age 13.5 years), of whom 10 259 (82%) were followed-up 12 months later. Pupils were asked the brand of their favourite alcohol advertisement at baseline. Multi-level mixed-effects logistic regressions assessed relationships between having a favourite alcohol advertisement ('alcohol marketing receptivity') and (i) binge drinking at baseline; and (ii) initiating binge drinking during follow-up among a subsample of 7438 baseline never binge drinkers. Life-time binge drinking prevalence at baseline was 29.9% and 25.9% initiated binge drinking during follow-up. Almost one-third of the baseline sample (32.1%) and 22.6% of the follow-up sample of never-bingers named a branded favourite alcohol advertisement, with high between-country variation in brand named. After controlling for age, gender, family affluence, school performance, TV screen time, personality characteristics and drinking behaviour of peers, parents and siblings, alcohol marketing receptivity was related significantly to both binge drinking at baseline [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.13, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.92, 2.36] and binge drinking initiation in longitudinal analysis (AOR = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.26, 1.66). There was no evidence for effect heterogeneity across countries. Among European adolescents naming a favourite alcohol advertisement was associated with increased likelihood of initiating binge drinking during 1-year follow-up, suggesting a relationship between alcohol marketing receptivity and adolescent binge drinking. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. A cross-cultural study of self-image: Indian, American, Australian, and Irish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, P

    1978-03-01

    Planning for research and youth welfare programs in every developed and developing country is essential if man envisages the normalization of sick adolescents. Adolescent unit programs are needed in India, as in all parts of the United States, and should be an integral part of medical institutes in every university. Actually, the problem of generation gap, ego identity, and subcultures (i.e., peer group pressure) creating negative attitudes in youth is one of the most explosive problems that behavioral scientists face in the modern era. The present project is an attempt to study the self-image, ego strength, self-esteem, or level of psychological well-being of a normal adolescent group of Indians and to compare this with youth of three other nationalities-American, Irish, and Australian. To measure the self-esteem of an individual, 11 areas of conflict including impulse control, emotional tone, body and self-image, social attitudes, morals, sexual attitudes, family relations, external mastery, vocational and educational goals, psychopathology, and superior adjustment have been examined. The Hindi version of the Offer Self-image Questionnaire has been used. The sample consists of 400 boys and 400 girls, ages 14 to 18, of middle class socioeconomic status; the educational level is high school/intermediate. It is concluded that American and Australian adolescents, in general, have higher self-esteem or ego strength than do Indian and Irish adolescents, respectively.

  5. A cross-cultural study of organizational factors on safety: Japanese vs. Taiwanese oil refinery plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Shang Hwa; Lee, Chun-Chia; Wu, Muh-Cherng; Takano, Kenichi

    2008-01-01

    This study attempts to identify idiosyncrasies of organizational factors on safety and their influence mechanisms in Taiwan and Japan. Data were collected from employees of Taiwanese and Japanese oil refinery plants. Results show that organizational factors on safety differ in the two countries. Organizational characteristics in Taiwanese plants are highlighted as: higher level of management commitment to safety, harmonious interpersonal relationship, more emphasis on safety activities, higher devotion to supervision, and higher safety self-efficacy, as well as high quality of safety performance. Organizational characteristics in Japanese plants are highlighted as: higher level of employee empowerment and attitude towards continuous improvement, more emphasis on systematic safety management approach, efficient reporting system and teamwork, and high quality of safety performance. The casual relationships between organizational factors and workers' safety performance were investigated using structural equation modeling (SEM). Results indicate that the influence mechanisms of organizational factors in Taiwan and Japan are different. These findings provide insights into areas of safety improvement in emerging countries and developed countries respectively.

  6. Cultural Consumption of the Overseas Chinese Garden in the Process of Cross-cultural Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, L.

    2015-08-01

    When referring to the tangible cultural heritage, people tend to concern more about the conservation and research of the entity of the tangible heritage than the cross-cultural communication of the cultural heritage which is also one of the most important components of the preservation of the cultural heritage. As an exotic new born of the cultural heritage, the entity born from the cross-cultural communication inherits the properties of the cultural heritage on the one hand, and on the other hand generates diversities as a result of the differences based on social, cultural and environment. And the business model is one of the most important reasons for the production of diversities. There's no doubt that a good form of business model makes great significance to the cross-cultural communication. Therefore, the study of the business model of cultural heritage in the process of cross-cultural communication will not only contributes to the deeper understanding towards the phenomenon of the cultural heritage's cross-cultural communication, but also leads to the introspection to the tangible cultural heritage itself. In this way, a new kind of conservative notion could take form, and the goal of protecting cultural heritage could be achieved. Thus the Chinese Garden is a typical representation of the cultural heritage which makes great sense in the cross-cultural communication. As a kind of tangible cultural heritage, the Chinese gardens are well preserved in different regions in China. While the spirits of the Chinese garden carry forward through the construction of the Chinese gardens abroad during the cross-cultural communication. As a new kind of form of the cross-cultural communication of the cultural heritage, on the one hand, the Chinese gardens overseas built ever since China's Reform and Opening express creatively of the materialist and the spirituality of the traditional Chinese Garden, and on the other hand, those Chinese gardens overseas face all kinds of

  7. Four Levels of Cross-cultural Awareness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管秀丽

    2008-01-01

    In order to attain intercultural awareness, we have to know Robert Hanvey's statement of four levels of inter-cultural awareness described in his book An Attainable Global Perspective (1976). This passage anazlyes the four levels of cross-cultural awareness.

  8. Cross-Cultural Analysis on Complements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘恒

    2014-01-01

    Nativized varieties of English must reflect native pragmatic norms and cultural conventions. Complements, as a polite social behavior, is analyzed from the perspective of Chinese English speaker and American English speaker to emphasize the im-portance of the cross-cultural differences in pragmatic uses.

  9. Cross-Cultural Analysis on Apologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘恒; 范明

    2014-01-01

    Nativized varieties of English must reflect native pragmatic norms and cultural conventions. Apology, as a polite social behavior, was analyzed from the perspective of Chinese English speaker and American English speaker to emphasize the impor-tance of the cross-cultural differences in pragmatic uses.

  10. The Obstacles in Cross-cultural Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian-hua

    2009-01-01

    In Cross-cultural communication,the ability of the languages and the ability of the cultures ale the crucial factors in the communicating activities.People with the sanle cultural background communicate with each other easily and smoothly,and understand each other better,and there are fewer or no obstacles in their communication at all.The different cultural backgrounds and traditions,the different social customs and everyday living habits,and the different values all will affect the communication quality and will surely result in obstacles in cross-cultural communication.The obstacles which frequently occur in the cross-cultural communication are:ethnocentrism,stereotyping,prejudice,and the different cultural backgrounds.In order to do away with the obstacles and to make the communication smoothly and successfully,the communicating parties both should observe the cooperative principles and politeness principles.And what's more,they must discard their own prejudices,and respect others,together to fulfill the cross-cultural communicating activities.

  11. Curiosity and Its Role in Cross-Cultural Knowledge Creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie S. Mikhaylov

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the role of curiosity in promoting cross-cultural knowledge creation and competence development. It is based on a study with four international higher educational institutions, all of which offer management and business education for local and international students. The reality of multicultural and intercultural relationships is researched using constructivist grounded theory method, with data collected through indepth interviews, long-term observation and participation, and discussion of the social reality as it was experienced by the participants. The study applies the concepts of cultural knowledge development, cross-cultural competence and cultural distance. Based on the comparative analysis, curiosity emerged as a personal condition conducive to the cultural knowledge development process. The paper presents a cross-cultural competence development process model, which takes into account the cultural curiosity of the learners. The paper also provides tentative recommendations for the steps that knowledge-creating multicultural organizations can take to develop cross-cultural exchange, cultural knowledge creation and cross-cultural competence development.

  12. Validation and cross-cultural adaptation of the 'Fibromyalgia Participation Questionnaire' to the Spanish population: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Calvente, M; Medina-Porqueres, I; Fontalba-Navas, A; Pena-Andreu, J M; de Vos-Martin, C

    2015-09-01

    There are few high-quality instruments to evaluate the participation and social functioning of fibromyalgia patients. The Fibromyalgia Participation Questionnaire (FPQ) is a questionnaire that evaluates these aspects with high reliability and validity in its German original version. The aim of this work was to describe the translation and cross-cultural adaptation process of the FPQ into Spanish and its validation to ensure the equivalence against the original version. The questionnaire will be translated according to the FACIT methodology, and it will be tested in the Clinical Management Unit of North Almeria Health Area. This methodology includes several stages: double forward translation, reconciled version, back-translation, review of the previous versions and development of the prefinal version for the pretest. Once the pretest ends, the final version of the questionnaire will be developed, which will be subjected to a validation process to study its psychometric properties. Reliability will be studied by internal consistency and test-retest reliability through Cronbach's alpha and Pearson's correlation coefficient, respectively. External and construct validity will be analysed using correlation coefficients, content validity with an empirical analysis, and a differential item functioning analysis will be employed to measure discriminative validity. The presence of ceiling and floor effects will be calculated too. The validation of the FPQ into different languages will allow better evaluation and treatment based on the observed limitations fibromyalgia patients suffer from, as well as bringing the possibility to compare between other countries and generalize its use in the scientific community.

  13. Bridging Cultures: Evaluating Teachers' Understanding of Cross-Cultural Conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbull, Elise; Greenfield, Patricia; Quiroz, Blanca; Rothstein-Fisch, Carrie

    The Bridging Cultures Project is a collaboration among several researchers and teachers (n=8) to design professional development activities on the topic of cross-cultural understanding. During the fall of 1996, participating teachers will be given a pre-assessment and post-assessment. The assessments are designed to give some information on how…

  14. Cultural and Intercultural Experiences in European Adult Education. Essays on Popular and Higher Education since 1890. Leeds Studies in Continuing Education. Cross-Cultural Studies in the Education of Adults, Number 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, Stuart, Ed.; Hake, Barry J., Ed.

    This book contains the following papers from a European research seminar examining the history and theory of cross-cultural communication in adult education: "Introduction" (Stuart Marriott, Barry J. Hake); "Formative Periods in the History of Adult Education: The Role of Social and Cultural Movements in Cross-Cultural Communication" (Barry J.…

  15. Cross-Cultural Awareness. Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    planning or executing military operations. Understanding a given culture is a time- consuming endeavor. First, a definition of the concept of...importance of time. 13. Dimension “ Ethnocentrism ”. High vs. low ethnocentrism . 5.2.b. Psychological factors It is important to have information about...time consuming . At least the effects and probable reactions of the main actors (and the population as a whole) to our own “Blue” COAs (us & allies

  16. Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia for Heart Turkish Version Study: cross-cultural adaptation, exploratory factor analysis, and reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acar S

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Serap Acar,1 Sema Savci,1 Pembe Keskinoğlu,2 Bahri Akdeniz,3 Ebru Özpelit,3 Buse Özcan Kahraman,1 Didem Karadibak,1 Can Sevinc4 1School of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation, 2Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Medicine, 3Department of Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, 4Department of Chest Disease, Faculty of Medicine, Dokuz Eylul University, İzmir, Turkey Purpose: Individuals with cardiac problems avoid physical activity and exercise because they expect to feel shortness of breath, dizziness, or chest pain. Assessing kinesiophobia related to heart problems is important in terms of cardiac rehabilitation. The Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia Swedish Version for the Heart (TSK-SV Heart is reliable and has been validated for cardiac diseases in the Swedish population. The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability, parallel-form validity, and exploratory factor analysis of the TSK for the Heart Turkish Version (TSK Heart Turkish Version for evaluating kinesiophobia in patients with heart failure and pulmonary arterial hypertension.Methods: This cross-sectional study involved translation, back translation, and cross-cultural adaptation (localization. Forty-three pulmonary arterial hypertension and 32 heart failure patients were evaluated using the TSK Heart Turkish Version. The 17-item scale, originally composed for the Swedish population, has four factors: perceived danger for heart problem, avoidance of exercise, fear of injury, and dysfunctional self. Cronbach’s alpha (internal ­consistency and exploratory factor analysis were used to assess the questionnaire’s reliability. Results of the patients in the 6-minute walk test, International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and Nottingham Health Profile were analyzed by Pearson’s correlation analysis with the TSK Heart Turkish Version to indicate the convergent validity.Results: Cronbach’s alpha for the TSK Heart Turkish Version was 0.75, indicating acceptable internal

  17. Cross-cultural aspects of anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Stefan G; Hinton, Devon E

    2014-06-01

    A person's cultural background influences the experience and expression of emotions. In reviewing the recent literature on cross-cultural aspects of anxiety disorders, we identified some culturally related ethnopsychology/ethnophysiology factors (the culture's conceptualizations of how the mind and body function) and contextual factors that influence anxiety disorders. Ethnopsychology/ethnophysiology factors include the person's ideas about the mental and bodily processes (and their interaction), whereas contextual factors are associated with the social norms and rules that may contribute to anxiety, including individualism vs. collectivism and self-construals. From the perspective of ethnopsychology/ethnophysiology and contextual factors, we will discuss "khyâl cap" ("wind attacks"), taijin kyofusho, and ataques de nervios, three prominent examples of culture-specific expressions of anxiety disorders that have all been included in the DSM-5 list of cultural concepts of distress.

  18. The Cultivation of Cross-Cultural Awareness in English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔佳

    2012-01-01

      By putting certain ideas about communication,culture,society,education and human psychology together,a different way of facing with and learning about interaction among cultures has emerged. So a multi-disciplinary approach to the study of inter-culture contact and interaction has widened and deepened the research in this field. Furthermore,it is necessary to help students to build up a certain 'cultural awareness' during the teacher's English Teaching. This article will first explain inter-culture communication and how to develop cross-culture awareness in details. Meanwhile,the thesis puts forwards a series of strategies for cultivating students' cultural awareness,and systematically designs different cultural activities to make the study of culture an integral part of each lesson. Finally,several practical suggestions are proposed for the foreign language teachers to fulfill this project.

  19. Robustness and cross-cultural equivalence of the Cultural Intelligence Scale (CQS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bücker, J.J.L.E.; Furrer, O.F.G.; Peeters Weem, T.

    2016-01-01

    - PURPOSE - The purpose of this paper is to assess the cross-cultural equivalence of the four-dimensional 20-item Cultural Intelligence Scale (CQS) and the two-dimensional 12-item cultural intelligence (CQ) short scale. Furthermore, the study elaborates on the results by discussing the differences

  20. Reading Literature Cross-Culturally: Albert Camus'"L'Etranger."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, Louise Fiber

    With America's growing commitment to global education and intercultural understanding, one option for reading foreign literature is to study the text from a cross-cultural perspective, decoding the cultural assumptions both in the work and in the reader's perceptions of that work. Contrasting elements of the French and American value systems, of…

  1. Adolescent Behavior and Health in Cross-Cultural Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2012-01-01

    Specific behavioral problems appear during early adolescence, and they become more pronounced. Although these problems are universal in many aspects, cultural differences are also conspicuous. The author, in addition to analyzing the five studies in the Special Issue, addresses questions concerning the cross-cultural context. The analysis reveals…

  2. Cross-Informant Evaluations of Preschoolers' Adjustment in Different Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israelashvili, Moshe

    2017-01-01

    An accurate and agreed upon evaluation of preschoolers' behavior is crucial for young children's positive development. This study explores possible cultural differences in cross-informants' evaluations. The premise is that informants who are from different cultures tend to give different evaluations of preschoolers' adjustment and/or that the…

  3. Future Issues for Cross-Cultural Psychology: Research on Parenting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    The present article reviews historical characteristics of cross-cultural psychology and cultural psychology, and then reviews cross-cultural psychology parenting research on gender-roles in parenting and parenting style...

  4. Consequences of 'tiger' parenting: a cross-cultural study of maternal psychological control and children's cortisol stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Stacey N; Tardif, Twila; Miller, Alison; Olson, Sheryl; Kessler, Daniel; Felt, Barbara; Wang, Li

    2016-05-04

    Parenting strategies involving psychological control are associated with increased adjustment problems in children. However, no research has examined the extent to which culture and psychological control predict children's stress physiology. We examine cultural differences in maternal psychological control and its associations with children's cortisol. Chinese (N = 59) and American (N = 45) mother-child dyads participated in the study. Mothers reported on psychological control. Children's cortisol was collected during a stressor and two indices of Area Under the Curve (AUC) were computed: AUCg which accounts for total output, and AUCi, which captures reactivity. Results indicate that Chinese mothers reported higher levels of psychological control and Chinese children had higher levels of AUCg than their American counterparts. Across both cultures, psychological control was significantly associated with increased cortisol levels as indexed by AUCg. There were no associations for AUCi. Finally, mediation analyses demonstrated that psychological control fully explained cultural differences in children's cortisol stress response as indexed by AUCg.

  5. Chinese engineering students' cross-cultural adaptation in graduate school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xinquan

    This study explores cross-cultural adaptation experience of Chinese engineering students in the U.S. I interact with 10 Chinese doctoral students in engineering from a public research university through in-depth interviews to describe (1) their perceptions of and responses to key challenges they encountered in graduate school, (2) their perspectives on the challenges that stem from cross-cultural differences, and (3) their conceptualization of cross-cultural adaptation in the context of graduate school. My findings reveal that the major challenges participants encounter during graduate school are academic issues related to cultural differences and difficulties of crossing cultural boundaries and integrating into the university community. These challenges include finding motivation for doctoral study, becoming an independent learner, building a close relationship with faculty, interacting and forming relationships with American people, and gaining social recognition and support. The engineering students in this study believe they are less successful in their social integration than they are in accomplishing academic goals, mainly because of their preoccupation with academics, language barriers and cultural differences. The presence of a large Chinese student community on campus has provided a sense of community and social support for these students, but it also contributes to diminishing their willingness and opportunities to interact with people of different cultural backgrounds. Depending on their needs and purposes, they have different insights into the meaning of cross-cultural adaptation and therefore, and choose different paths to establish themselves in a new environment. Overall, they agree that cross-cultural adaptation involves a process of re-establishing themselves in new academic, social, and cultural communities, and adaptation is necessary for their personal and professional advancement in the U.S. They also acknowledge that encountering and adjusting

  6. Social representation of “hearing loss”: cross-cultural exploratory study in India, Iran, Portugal, and the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manchaiah V

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Vinaya Manchaiah,1 Berth Danermark,2 Tayebeh Ahmadi,3 David Tomé,4 Fei Zhao,5 Qiang Li,6 Rajalakshmi Krishna,7 Per Germundsson8 1Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences, Lamar University, Beaumont, TX, USA; 2Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; 3Department of Audiology, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 4Department of Audiology, School of Allied Health Sciences, Polytechnic Institute of Porto, Vila Nova de Gaia, Portugal; 5Centre for Speech Language Therapy and Hearing, Cardiff Metropolitan University, Cardiff, UK; 6Department of Social Science and Law, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China; 7All India Institute of Speech and Hearing, University of Mysore, Mysore, India; 8Department of Health and Welfare Studies, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden Background: Hearing loss is one of the most common chronic conditions in older adults. In audiology literature, several studies have examined the attitudes and behavior of people with hearing loss; however, not much is known about the manner in which society in general views and perceives hearing loss. This exploratory study was aimed at understanding the social representation of hearing loss (among the general public in the countries of India, Iran, Portugal, and the UK. We also compared these social representations.Materials and methods: The study involved a cross-sectional design, and participants were recruited using the snowball sampling method. A total of 404 people from four countries participated in the study. Data were collected using a free-association task where participants were asked to produce up to five words or phrases that came to mind while thinking about hearing loss. In addition, they were also asked to indicate if each word they presented had positive, neutral, or negative associations in their view. Data were analyzed using various qualitative and quantitative

  7. Crossing cultural frontiers: representations of the Amish in American culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Štekovič

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the typology of Amish fiction, representations of the Amish in literature, and the roles of authors, publishers and readers. Special attention is dedicated to the role of film directors as cultural travellers when crossing cultural frontiers by entering the Amish cultural milieu. The paper also presents a more critical view of the Amish by demonstrating how the perception of the Amish groups has changed with time - from victims of religious persecution in their homeland to becoming highly romanticised people in the Land of Liberty via literature and film.

  8. A cross-cultural mentoring program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang-Nissen, S.; Myers, R.Y.

    1995-04-01

    This report summarized the results of the pilot Cross-Cultural Mentoring Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, from the inception of the program idea through its implementation and assessment. It discusses the benefits of mentoring, the origins of the program, program design and implementation, program assessment, and conclusions and recommendations.

  9. A cross-cultural mentoring program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang-Nissen, S.; Myers, R.Y.

    1995-04-01

    This report summarized the results of the pilot Cross-Cultural Mentoring Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, from the inception of the program idea through its implementation and assessment. It discusses the benefits of mentoring, the origins of the program, program design and implementation, program assessment, and conclusions and recommendations.

  10. "Leyendas" (Legends): Connecting Reading Cross-Culturally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Machail, Nancy; Leavell, Judy A.

    2000-01-01

    Describes how using the Hispanic tale "La Llorona" can help teachers connect cross-culturally with their students for enhanced literacy instruction. Describes ways "La Llorona" may be used in courses for preservice education majors and in elementary and middle-grade classes. Includes an annotated list of seven printed versions of "La Llorona." (SR)

  11. Cross-Cultural Counseling: An Existential Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vontress, Clemmont E.

    1979-01-01

    Counselors continue to express concern about problems inherent in cross-cultural counseling. Three concepts--Umwelt (the physical environment), Mitwelt (the interpersonal world), and Eigenwelt (one's inner world)--offer significant philosophical assistance because humans are fundamentally more alike than they are different. (Author)

  12. Teaching Cross-Cultural Conflict Management Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, David A.

    One of the most important areas for business educators to address in preparing their students to compete effectively in world markets is cross-cultural negotiating and conflict management. To do so, teachers must prepare students to understand the markets into which they enter as managers. The objective is not to learn a great deal about one…

  13. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF INTERCULTURAL COMPETENCE IN CROSS-CULTURAL COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadranka Zlomislić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to explore the influence of education and additional factors influencing students’ awareness of intercultural differences. For the purposes of this research assessment was carried out with regard to their role in promoting cultural awareness and facing cross-cultural challenges posed by unfamiliar cross-cultural contexts. Cultural education is presumed to be a key factor for achieving a significant increase of cultural sensitivity and cultural awareness in order to ensure successful cross-cultural communication and increase mobility of students/working professionals. For this study, it was assumed that the cultural awareness of students increases due to the courses they take and their overall study experience. A special questionnaire was developed for the purposes of this research, and the obtained results were statistically analyzed with the help of descriptive statistics, the non-parametric chi-square test, and the Mann-Whitney test. The research has shown that intercultural competence has a statistically significant positive effect on the readiness of students to participate in study and work programs abroad. Thus, it is mandatory that foreign language competence as well as intercultural competence be a priority of the curriculum if we are to increase the number of highly educated experts who will be capable to compete successfully as students or professionals in all fields and all cultural areas. If we recognize that globalization has made the world a global village, we all need the intercultural competence to successfully live in it.

  14. Cross Cultural Collaboration: Opportunities and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Ho

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the next section of this special issue, which examines the politics of cross-cultural collaboration to resist racism and war. In an era defined by a ‘War on Terror’ which has transformed both foreign policy and domestic community relations, social movements need to find more effective ways of bringing activists together to respond to the Islamophobia and aggressive forms of nationalism that have emerged in countries like Australia. However, as the paper shows, collaboration across cultures is a fraught and potentially dangerous process. In outlining some of the challenges of cross-cultural collaboration, the paper aims to contribute to more informed and critical practices within social movements mobilising against the ‘War on Terror’, whether internationally or at home.

  15. Cross Cultural Scientific Communication in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, K. B.

    2006-12-01

    An example of cross-cultural education is provided by the Aurora Alive curriculum. Aurora Alive communicates science to Alaska Native students through cross-cultural educational products used in Alaska schools for more than a decade, including (1) a CDROM that provides digital graphics, bilingual (English and Athabascan language) narration-over-text and interactive elements that help students visualize scientific concepts, and (2) Teacher's Manuals containing more than 150 hands-on activities aligned to national science standards, and to Alaska Standards for Culturally Responsive Schools. Created by Native Elders and teachers working together with University Alaska Fairbanks Geophysical Institute scientists, Aurora Alive blends Native "ways of knowing" with current "western" research to teach the physics and math of the aurora.

  16. Cross-culture Communications in Tourism under Conditions of Globalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldoshyna Mariia V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of cross-cultural specific features of interaction within social and business communication in the international tourism. The goal of the article is analysis of the cross-cultural environment of Ukraine in the context of the world globalisation for efficient interaction in the sphere of international management and marketing. The article shows a necessity of a study of influence of national cultural features upon business activity of tourist enterprises with consideration of their international and cross-cultural nature of activity. The article identifies functions of culture and presents basic classifications of the world cultures by Geert Hofstede, Fons Trompenaars and Edward Twitchell Hall Jr. It considers specific features of activity of tourist enterprises in the spheres of cross-cultural management and marketing, formulates problems of manifestation of cultural differences in these spheres. It offers main advertising strategies in the international communication policy, which help enterprises to promote their tourist products to international markets more efficiently.

  17. A Cross-Country Study on Research Students' Perceptions of the Role of Supervision and Cultural Knowledge in Thesis Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, Suzanne Claire; Koo, Yew Lie; Saeidi, Mahnaz

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary findings from a research study in Australia, Malaysia and Iran on students' perceptions of the roles of supervisor and student in the production of their thesis and the contribution of their cultural knowledge to thesis development. The 360 respondents who answered an online survey were studying for their Master's…

  18. A Cross-Country Study on Research Students' Perceptions of the Role of Supervision and Cultural Knowledge in Thesis Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, Suzanne Claire; Koo, Yew Lie; Saeidi, Mahnaz

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary findings from a research study in Australia, Malaysia and Iran on students' perceptions of the roles of supervisor and student in the production of their thesis and the contribution of their cultural knowledge to thesis development. The 360 respondents who answered an online survey were studying for their Master's…

  19. Study on the in vitro culture of cut plants in wheat haploid embryo induction by a wheat × maize cross

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian GU; Kun LIU; Shaoxiang LI; Yuxian TIAN; Hexian YANG; Mujun YANG

    2008-01-01

    The wheat × maize system is one of the most effective ways to produce haploids in wheat. Whether and how it could be successfully applied in practical breeding mostly depends upon the efficiency of haploid embryo pro-duction. To perfect the protocols of haploid embryo induc-tion, the efficiency of haploid embryo production between in vitro culture of cut plant and intact plant growth for hybrid spikes with two F1 wheat hybrids and two maize varieties was compared. Effects of different cutting plant times and formulas of nutrient solutions for cut plant cul-ture on haploid embryo formation were also studied. Results indicated that the embryo rate of in vitro culture was 3.29 times that of intact plant growth, with the figures of 31.6% vs 9.6%, respectively. The optimal time for cut plant culture was 24 h after pollination. Formulas of nutri-ent solutions significantly affected the efficiency of haploid embryo induction. With an embryo rate of 0-35.5%, add-could raise the caryopsis and embryo rates. According to this study, the best medium for cut plant culture was: phate, with which a caryopsis rate of 95% and an embryo rate of about 30% could be obtained.

  20. Cross-Cultural Understanding of Robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peronard, Jean-Paul

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to improve our understanding of how people in a healthcare context adopt robot technology and, in particular, the importance of culture in this process. The adoption of technology can be problematic when transferring technology from one culture to another. Differences in values...... and beliefs about robotics can affect the motivation for as well as the practice of using robotics in healthcare. Therefore, this paper seeks to develop a deeper theoretical understanding of the cultural impact on robotics adoption by using a cross-cultural perspective to explain variation in priorities...... and discuss possible guidelines to help build a strategy for introducing robotics into a culture’s healthcare sector and broaden the current agenda in international technology marketing....

  1. Estimating one's own and one's relatives' multiple intelligence: a cross-cultural study from East Timor and Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Félix; Furnham, Adrian; Pinto, Maria da Conceição

    2009-11-01

    This study examined estimates of their own, and their parents' general and multiple intelligences. Three hundred and twenty three students from East Timor, and one hundred eighty three students from Portugal estimated their own, and their parents' IQ scores on each of Gardner's ten multiple intelligences. Men believed they were more intelligent than were women on mathematical (logical), spatial, and naturalistic intelligence. There were consistent and clear culture differences. Portuguese gave higher self, and family ratings than Timorese, as expected. Participants of both cultures rated overall intelligence of their father higher than that of their mother. Implications of these results for education and self-presentations are considered.

  2. Motor Profile of Portuguese Preschool Children on the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales-2: A Cross-Cultural Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Linda; Rodrigues, Luis P.; Cordovil, Rita; Barreiros, Joao

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the cultural sensitivity of the PDMS-2 for Portuguese preschool children aged 36-71 months. A total of 540 children (255 males and 285 females) from 15 public preschools of Viana do Castelo, Portugal, were assessed. Age and gender effects in motor performance were examined. Results indicated that PDMS-2 is valid…

  3. A Comparative Study of Cross-Cultural Gratitude Strategies among Hausa, the Case of Arab and Chinese Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isyaku, Hassan; Yuepeng, Ma; Mahdi, Qusay; Sarhan, Gassan; Salih, Nahid; Paramasivan, Shamala

    2016-01-01

    The research investigated the thanking/gratitude strategies of three distinct cultures; Hausa, Chinese and Arabic languages with the aim of finding out the different strategies used by them and how different they are in their use of such strategies. The study employs Cheng (2005) Taxonomy of gratitude strategies in analyzing the data which was…

  4. Western Conceptualizations and Eastern Experience : A Cross-cultural Study of Traumatic Stress Reactions among Tibetan Refugees in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terheggen, M.A.; Stroebe, M.S.; Kleber, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated the nature and impact of traumatic experiences among Tibetan refugees in India. It explored the applicability of western conceptualizations of reactions to traumatic events among this cultural group. A randomly selected sample of refugee camp students was assessed on measures

  5. Western conceptualizations and Eastern experience: A cross-cultural study of traumatic stress reactions among Tibetan refugees in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terheggen, M.A.; Stroebe, M.S.; Kleber, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated the nature and impact of traumatic experiences among Tibetan refugees in India. It explored the applicability of western conceptualizations of reactions to traumatic events among this cultural group. A randomly selected sample of refugee camp students was assessed on measures

  6. Similarities and differences in emotion regulation and psychopathology in Iranian and German school-children: A cross-cultural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niloufar Tahmouresi

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: A main result of the study showed that children in Iran report more internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Culture and emotional expression may explain differences between Iranian and German children. It seems to be difficult for young children in Iran to express themselves, this may be because they are expected to show respect to maintain harmony in the family.

  7. A Cross-Cultural Study of ICT Competency, Attitude and Satisfaction of Turkish, Polish and Czech University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dincer, Serkan; Sahinkayasi, Yunis

    2011-01-01

    Due to various factors, countries begin to have different levels of information and communication technologies (ICT) and they have their own unique culture of ICT usage. This case appears interesting especially when we consider university students' proficiency, attitudes and satisfaction in use of ICT. The purpose of this study is to examine the…

  8. Motor Profile of Portuguese Preschool Children on the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales-2: A Cross-Cultural Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Linda; Rodrigues, Luis P.; Cordovil, Rita; Barreiros, Joao

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the cultural sensitivity of the PDMS-2 for Portuguese preschool children aged 36-71 months. A total of 540 children (255 males and 285 females) from 15 public preschools of Viana do Castelo, Portugal, were assessed. Age and gender effects in motor performance were examined. Results indicated that PDMS-2 is valid…

  9. Western conceptualizations and Eastern experience : a cross-cultural study of traumatic stress reactions among Tibetan refugees in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terheggen, M A; Stroebe, M S; Kleber, R J

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated the nature and impact of traumatic experiences among Tibetan refugees in India. It explored the applicability of western conceptualizations of reactions to traumatic events among this cultural group. A randomly selected sample of refugee camp students was assessed on measures

  10. Adaptive Strategies in Response to the Economic Crisis: A Cross-Cultural Study in Austria and Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietmar Sternad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study builds on prior research on culture-specific differences instrategic decision-making and strategic issue analysis, and extends it tothe field of strategic crisis adaptation. Taking an upper echelons perspective,it is investigated whether the cultural dimension of uncertaintyavoidance had an effect on strategic directions that managerschose in response to the 2008–2009 global financial and economic crisis.Building on a framework of strategic crisis responses and a quantitativesurvey conducted among 257 managers in Austria and Slovenia,the findings suggest that strategic issue interpretations of the economiccrisis as well as country differences influence whether firms are usingexternally versus internally-directed strategic responses, and pro-activeversus retrenchment strategies. The differences in strategy deploymentbetween the two countries, however, could not be consistently tracedto differences in the cultural dimension of uncertainty avoidance, thussuggesting that other country-specific factors like institutional or socialdifferences also play an important role.

  11. On Cross-cultural Communication from the Perspective of Semiotics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勇; 缑英俊

    2015-01-01

    Cross-cultural communication refers to the activities that people with different cultural backgrounds communicate with each other and have information disseminated and exchanged. Ways of cross-cultural communication can be verbal communica-tion and nonverbal communication. Language is a symbolic system used to record the culture, and culture is transmitted by sym-bols as the medium, thus, the meaning of signs is divergent from culture to culture. In cross-cultural communication, to learn the meaning theory of semiotics consciously helps improve the ability of cross-cultural communication by contrasting the differenc-es from the verbal symbols and nonverbal symbols.

  12. Cross-cultural and cross-linguistic perception of authentic emotions through speech: An acoustic-phonetic study with Brazilian and Swedish listeners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington da SILVA

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was conducted to investigate whether the listeners' culture and mother language influence the perception of emotions through speech and which acoustic cues listeners use in this process. Swedish and Brazilian listeners were presented with authentic emotional speech samples of Brazilian Portuguese and Swedish. They judged on 5-point Likert scales the expression of basic emotions as described by eight adjectives in the utterances in Brazilian Portuguese and the expression of five emotional dimensions in the utterances in Swedish. The PCA technique revealed that two components explain more than 94% of the variance of the judges' responses in both experiments. These components were predicted through multiple linear regressions from twelve acoustic parameters automatically computed from the utterances. The results point to a similar perception of the emotions between both cultures.

  13. A Cross-Cultural Study in Germany, Russia, and China: Are Resilient and Social Supported Students Protected Against Depression, Anxiety, and Stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brailovskaia, Julia; Schönfeld, Pia; Zhang, Xiao Chi; Bieda, Angela; Kochetkov, Yakov; Margraf, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    This study cross-culturally investigated resilience and social support as possible protective factors for mental health. The values of depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms, resilience and social support were collected from German (N = 4433), Russian (N = 3774), and Chinese students (N = 4982). The samples were split (two-thirds vs. one-third) to cross-validate the results. In all samples, resilience and social support were significantly negatively associated with depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms. While in Germany those associations were stronger for social support, in Russia and in China stronger associations were found for resilience. Furthermore, in all samples, resilience was found to mediate the association between social support and the negative mental health variables significantly. In conclusion, resilience and social support are universal interrelated protective factors for mental health independently of historical, cultural, social, and geographical conditions of a country.

  14. An Existential Approach to Cross-Cultural Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vontress, Clemmont E.

    1988-01-01

    Defines existentialism, culture, and cross-cultural counseling and explains how various existential concepts can serve as guidelines for cross-cultural counseling. Advocates finding approach to help counselors and counselor trainees understand how their own cultural identities affect their ability to help culturally different clients. (NB)

  15. Psychological Dimensions of Cross-Cultural Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    individualism- collectivism , tightness-looseness, social axioms, values as per the work of Schwartz, and social norm concepts derived from work of...regularity norms, and hierarchical family values. In contrast, conventional cross-cultural variables (e.g., individualism- collectivism ) showed only moderate...source: (a) social axioms, (c) collectivism , (d) Duke religion index, (e) extremist thinking patterns, (f) family values, (g) GLOBE social norms, (h

  16. Assessing Gains in Language Proficiency, Cross-Cultural Competence, and Regional Awareness during Study Abroad: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jeffrey R.; Siska, Peter; Wolfel, Richard L.

    2013-01-01

    As a critical part of the internationalization movement in college curricula, study abroad initiatives are becoming more and more popular and the need to assess their outcomes more and more evident. While numerous studies have investigated the language gain associated with study abroad, researchers are also beginning to look at potential gains in…

  17. Socio-cultural determinants of adiposity and physical activity in preschool children: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kriemler Susi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both individual socio-cultural determinants such as selected parental characteristics (migrant background, low educational level and workload as well as the regional environment are related to childhood overweight and physical activity (PA. The purpose of the study was to compare the impact of distinct socio-cultural determinants such as the regional environment and selected parental characteristics on adiposity, PA and motor skills in preschool children. Methods Forty preschools (N = 542 children of two culturally different urban regions (German and French speaking part of Switzerland participated in the study (Ballabeina Study. Outcome measures included adiposity (BMI and skinfold thickness, objectively measured sedentary activities and PA (accelerometers and agility performance (obstacle course. Parental characteristics (migrant status, educational level and workload were assessed by questionnaire. Results Children from the French speaking areas had higher adiposity, lower levels of total and of more intense PA, were more sedentary and less agile than children from the German speaking regions (percent differences for all outcome parameters except for BMI ≥10%; all p ≤ 0.04. Differences in skinfold thickness, sedentary activities and agility, but not in PA, were also found between children of Swiss and migrant parents, though they were ≤8% (p ≤ 0.02. While paternal workload had no effect, maternal workload and parental education resulted in differences in some PA measures and/or agility performance (percent differences in both: ≤9%, p ≤ 0.008, but not in adiposity or sedentary activities (p = NS. Regional differences in skinfold thickness, PA, sedentary activities and agility performance persisted after adjustment for parental socio-cultural characteristics, parental BMI and, where applicable, children's skinfolds (all p ≤ 0.01. Conclusions The regional environment, especially the broader social environment

  18. Examining the cross-cultural sensitivity of the Revised Two-Factor Study Process Questionnaire (R-SPQ-2F and validation of a Dutch version.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Stes

    Full Text Available The Revised Two-Factor Study Process Questionnaire (R-SPQ-2F is used to examine students' study approaches in higher education. The questionnaire assumes to measure two factors: a deep and a surface study approach. Analyses into the validity and reliability of the original English R-SPQ-2F yielded positive results. In this study, we examined the degree to which these positive results can also be found for the Dutch version that we developed. By comparing our results with the results of earlier studies in different cultures, we conclude cross-cultural sensitivity is an important point to be borne in mind when using the R-SPQ-2F. Our research supports the validity and reliability of our Dutch version of the R-SPQ-2F.

  19. Work Factors, Work-Family Conflict, the Theory of Planned Behaviour and Healthy Intentions: A Cross-Cultural Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukri, Madihah; Jones, Fiona; Conner, Mark

    2016-12-01

    The present study examined the roles of work factors (i.e. job demands and job resources), work-family conflicts and culture on predictors of healthy intentions (fruit and vegetable consumption, low-fat diet and physical activity) within the framework of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). Employees from the United Kingdom (N = 278) and Malaysia (N = 325) participated in the study. Results indicated that higher job demands were significantly related to lower intentions to eat a low-fat diet. Women reported higher intentions to eat a low-fat diet than men did, while participants from the United Kingdom had lower intentions to engage in physical activity compared with those from Malaysia. The efficacy of TPB variables in explaining intentions was verified, with perceived behavioural control (i.e. self-efficacy), attitudes and descriptive norms combined with past behaviour predictive across the samples. The results also suggest the roles of culture and work interference with family variables in moderating TPB-intention relationships and confirm that TPB variables mediate the effects of job demands and job resources on intentions. Practically, to promote health, identifying strategies to reduce stress factors; specifying important cognitive factors affecting work factors and thus, healthy intentions; and acknowledging cultural-specific determinants of healthy intentions are recommended. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Cross-Cultural Collaboration - With Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryboy, N. C.

    2015-12-01

    Cross-Cultural Collaboration - with Integrity This poster will show the value of cross-cultural collaboration, between scientific institutions and Indigenous ways of knowing, as practiced by the Indigenous Education Institute. Focus is on respect for diverse worldviews, integrity as process, and academic diversity and equity. Today, as never before, traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) is of vital importance as it speaks strongly to the significance of balance to create a healthy environment. Utilizing a lens of contemporary scientific perspective along with a traditional Indigenous perspective illuminates the complementary aspects of both ways of knowing and a greater sense of understanding the earth and sky than would be possible with one perspective alone. The poster will highlight several examples of successful cross-cultural collaborations. *Collaborative partnership with University of Washington, Tacoma, Symposium on Contemporary Native American Issues in Higher Education: Intersectionality of Native Language and Culture in Modern Society (Sharing Our Skies - Looking at the Stars Through Indigenous Eyes and Western Astronomy Lenses) *AST 201, Introduction to Indigenous Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northern Arizona University: a course that fulfills the Diversity Requirement for graduation *Native Universe: a National Science Foundation funded project, which honors Indigenous Voice in science museums to deepen our relationship with nature, vital in this time of climate change *MAVEN - Imagine Mars Through Indigenous Eyes: a NASA funded project which provides middle and high school curriculum delivered in science centers and Indigenous schools *Navajo Sky: modules and shows for planetariums, funded by NASA, that juxtapose Navajo and western astronomy concepts and context, highlighting place-based science

  1. Occupational therapy students' perspectives regarding international cross-cultural experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humbert, Tamera Keiter; Burket, Allison; Deveney, Rebecca; Kennedy, Katelyn

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the perspectives of occupational therapy students who have engaged in international, cross-cultural learning and service experiences. This study utilized a qualitative, phenomenological design. Nine semi-structured interviews were conducted with students who engaged in international learning opportunities. The interviews were coded and analyzed using a constant comparative analysis approach. Three central themes emerged from the data analysis. Connectedness is the process of forming relationships with others while engaging in cross-cultural experiences. Students formed relationships with faculty, other students, and people within the community. Cultural awareness is the recognition and understanding of a different culture and responding to those differences. Students attempted to understand the new culture in comparison to their own lived experiences. Complexity portrays cross-cultural opportunities as dynamic, multi-faceted and intricate. This was demonstrated as the students raised additional questions about the conflict between their own culture and the new culture they entered. Students also identified limited orientation, support and structure with such experiences and the conflicting roles between volunteer, student, and team member. The ability to connect with others when building relationships in diverse cultural contexts held meaning for the students; however, the students also expressed conflict in trying to make sense of the new culture as it often challenged personal beliefs and constructs. The complexity and challenges of engaging in these opportunities needs to be recognized and further explored to assess how curricula and faculty best supports culturally responsive care. © 2011 The Authors Australian Occupational Therapy Journal © 2011 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  2. New insights in cross-cultural communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schapira, Lidia

    2012-01-01

    Improving clinician-patient communication, improving clinical decision making, and eliminating mistrust have been identified as three key areas for reducing disparities in care. An important step is the training of cancer professionals to deliver culturally competent care in clinical settings as well as increasing the proportion of underrepresented minorities in the health care workforce. Providing care that is attuned to the patient's cultural preferences begins by talking to the patient about his or her cultural history and identifying the locus of decision making, preferences for disclosure of vital health information, and goals of care. Patients with low literacy and those with poor fluency of the dominant language require additional services. Language interpretation by trained professionals is fundamental to ensure that patients are able to provide informed consent for treatment. A working definition of culture involves multiple dimensions and levels and must be viewed as both dynamic and adaptive, rather than simply as a collection of beliefs and values. Effective cross-cultural education avoids stereotyping and promotes communication and negotiation to solve problems and minimize tension and conflict. Recent research has identified that unconscious biases held by clinicians affect their behavior and recommendations for treatment.

  3. A cross-cultural, multilevel study of inquiry-based instruction effects on conceptual understanding and motivation in physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negishi, Meiko

    Student achievement and motivation to learn physics is highly valued in many industrialized countries including the United States and Japan. Science education curricula in these countries emphasize the importance and encourage classroom teachers to use an inquiry approach. This dissertation investigated high school students' motivational orientations and their understanding of physics concepts in a context of inquiry-based instruction. The goals were to explore the patterns of instructional effects on motivation and learning in each country and to examine cultural differences and similarities. Participants consisted of 108 students (55 females, 53 males) and 9 physics teachers in the United States and 616 students (203 females and 413 males) and 11 physics teachers in Japan. Students were administered (a) Force Concept Inventory measuring physics conceptual understanding and (b) Attitudes about Science Questionnaire measuring student motivational orientations. Teachers were given a survey regarding their use of inquiry teaching practices and background information. Additionally, three teachers in each country were interviewed and observed in their classrooms. For the data analysis, two-level hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) methods were used to examine individual student differences (i.e., learning, motivation, and gender) within each classroom (i.e., inquiry-based teaching, teaching experience, and class size) in the U.S. and Japan, separately. Descriptive statistical analyses were also conducted. The results indicated that there was a cultural similarity in that current teaching practices had minimal influence on conceptual understanding as well as motivation of high school students between the U.S. and Japan. In contrast, cultural differences were observed in classroom structures and instructional approaches. Furthermore, this study revealed gender inequity in Japanese students' conceptual understanding and self-efficacy. Limitations of the study, as well as

  4. Using Popular Movies in Teaching Cross-Cultural Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Satish

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The present study aims to understand context and dynamics of cognitive learning of students as an outcome of the usage of popular movies as a learning tool in the management classroom and specifically in the context of a course on cross-cultural management issues. Design/methodology/approach: This is an exploratory study based on…

  5. The Effectiveness of Cross-cultural Competence in Joint Ventures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Zheng; TONG Jing-wei

    2005-01-01

    The paper uses the theory of core competence based on knowledge capital to build up international joint venture's effective capability system of cross-culture. It involves in forming common mind of business, strategies of glocalization, complementary skills of cross-culture and cross-cultural training. It also presents the case of Lansheng Daewoo Corp to give a positive analysis.

  6. CANCER PATIENT’S EXPERIENCE CROSSING THE HEALTH CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura G. Felea

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive anthropology does not predict human behavior, but tries to access principles that rule behavior. Cross-cultural communication is a skill acquired through a learning process, and it can improve doctor-patient relationship and enhance the outcomes of care. The unfulfilled expectations of a patient may influence the patient self-esteem and his perceived role in the society. For some patients living with cancer, it was found as an unforeseen benefit of learning to be closer to God. Based on a narrative communication, we tried to underline cross-cultural differences in cancer patients from different countries with various backgrounds. We described the patient reactions, his way of interpreting the things that happened to him, and his actions regarding adaptive changes in behavior. The originality of the study resides in understanding cross-cultural patterns of cancer patients. The innovative element is the use of qualitative research and its application in health care.

  7. CROSS-CULTURAL ASPECTS OF ACADEMIC WRITING: A STUDY OF HUNGARIAN AND NORTH AMERICAN COLLEGE STUDENTS L1 ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ágnes M. Godó

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the findings and implications of a contrastive rhetorical study of Hungarian and North American college students’ L1 argumentative writing. With the help of the refined version of Mann &Thompson’s Rhetorical Structure Analysis, the investigation highlights potentially culture-bound differences in the positioning and function of nuclear or thesis statements, logical organisation in terms of rhetorical structure relations on different levels of text and the representation of alternative viewpoints. Differing argumentative schemata are related to different underlying intellectual traditions, and suggestions are made for the pedagogical integration of findings.

  8. Teachers’ intended classroom management strategies for students with ADHD: a cross-cultural study between South Korea and Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumi Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background The purpose of this study was to investigate Korean and German teachers’ intentions of using classroom management strategies (CMS for students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD based on the theory of reasoned action (TRA and the theory of planned behavior (TPB. Participants and procedure Participants were 639 Korean and 317 German teachers. Disproportional stratified sampling was used. As a result, 264 Korean and 264 German matched teachers were obtained. Kos’s questionnaire was slightly modified. The survey instrument was distributed from September 2012 to December 2013. SPSS 22.0 was used to analyze the data. Results Korean teachers were more influenced by norms of colleagues and parents than German teachers were. Teachers in both countries have more favorable attitudes towards positive-oriented CMS compared to negative-oriented CMS, and perceived themselves as being able to control all CMS in the classroom. The TRA proved to better predict both Korean and German teachers’ intentions of using CMS compared to the TPB. Conclusions This study is an important step towards understanding teachers’ CMS in the cultural context of Korea and Germany. The findings of this study will be an essential resource to develop an ADHD management manual based on theoretical and cultural perspectives, so that teachers in both countries are prepared for students with ADHD in their classroom, rather than give up on them.

  9. Cross-cultural investigations of preschool education in foreign countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazranova L.Zh.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the theoretical review and analysis of cross-cultural investigations carried out in the sphere of preschool education in foreign countries in recent decades. The article introduces the results of the studies aimed at estimation ofpreschool children’s understanding of racial cues, disclosure of ethno-cultural and socio-cultural conditions affecting children’s school readiness; criteria which parents from different ethno-cultures use to estimate the efficiency of preschool education; specificity of child-educator and mother-child relationships; problems and resources of children-migrants adaptation in terms of multi-cultural settlements. Stated problems, their analysis and solutions make it possibleto increase the efficiency of educational process in modern socio-cultural environment.

  10. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire (MHQ for Brazil: validation study

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    Sandra Mara Meireles

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic systemic disease that causes joint damage. A variety of methods have been used to evaluate the general health status of these patients but few have specifically evaluated the hands. The objective of this study was to translate, perform cultural adaptation and assess the validity of the Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire for Brazil.DESIGN AND SETTING: Validation study conducted at a university hospital in Curitiba, Brazil.METHODS: Firstly, the questionnaire was translated into Brazilian Portuguese and back-translated into English. The Portuguese version was tested on 30 patients with rheumatoid arthritis and proved to be understandable and culturally adapted. After that, 30 patients with rheumatoid arthritis were evaluated three times. On the first occasion, two evaluators applied the questionnaire to check inter-rater reproducibility. After 15 days, one of the evaluators reassessed the patients to verify intra rater reproducibility. To check the construct validity at the first assessment, one of the evaluators also applied other similar instruments.RESULTS: There were strong inter and intra rater correlations in all the domains of the Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire. Cronbach's alpha was higher than 0.90 for all the domains of the questionnaire, thus indicating excellent internal validity. Almost all domains of the questionnaire presented moderate or strong correlation with other instruments, thereby showing good construct validity.CONCLUSION: The Brazilian Portuguese version of the Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire was translated and culturally adapted successfully, and it showed excellent internal consistency, reproducibility and construct validity.

  11. Self-Review: A Prerequisite for Cross-Cultural Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Nathan W.

    1987-01-01

    Suggests that self-assessment and self-awareness can help Catholic educators to reexamine attitudes toward and interactions with others, especially those of other cultures. Underscores the importance of cultural literacy and cross-cultural formation. (DMM)

  12. Olympic Education and Cross-Cultural Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Hai

    2009-01-01

    @@ In recent years, Olympic education has received increasingly greater attention. It is not just Olympic host cities that have established specialized Olympic education prograrnmes across the board, but also non-host cities are developing Olympic education activities to different degrees. Olympic education has also become an important project in the Olympic preparatory work, and has been an important project in the preparations for the Beijing Olympics. How to understand Olympic education? There are many different ways of looking at it. This essay attempts to take the unique characteristics of Olympic education as a starting point to explore the important role played by issues of cross-cultural communication in Olympic education.

  13. Cross Cultural Instruction: An Instructional Design Case

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    Monica W. Tracey

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In an authentic example of linking design and development with learning and performance, an international real estate development firm defined a problem; implementing a cleaning system in the largest mall in the world with a cross-cultural unskilled work force in Dubai, UAE. Partnering with a university instructional design team employing a rapid prototyping methodology and the constructivist ID approach, Layers of Negotiation Model, a comprehensive curriculum was designed. This article describes the project background, initial design, the ID team's work in Dubai, illustrates the product, and summarizes the design experience.

  14. Effect of a culture-based screening algorithm on tuberculosis incidence in immigrants and refugees bound for the United States: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yecai; Posey, Drew L; Cetron, Martin S; Painter, John A

    2015-03-17

    Before 2007, immigrants and refugees bound for the United States were screened for tuberculosis (TB) by a smear-based algorithm that could not diagnose smear-negative/culture-positive TB. In 2007, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention implemented a culture-based algorithm. To evaluate the effect of the culture-based algorithm on preventing the importation of TB to the United States by immigrants and refugees from foreign countries. Population-based, cross-sectional study. Panel physician sites for overseas medical examination. Immigrants and refugees with TB. Comparison of the increase of smear-negative/culture-positive TB cases diagnosed overseas among immigrants and refugees by the culture-based algorithm with the decline of reported cases among foreign-born persons within 1 year after arrival in the United States from 2007 to 2012. Of the 3 212 421 arrivals of immigrants and refugees from 2007 to 2012, a total of 1 650 961 (51.4%) were screened by the smear-based algorithm and 1 561 460 (48.6%) were screened by the culture-based algorithm. Among the 4032 TB cases diagnosed by the culture-based algorithm, 2195 (54.4%) were smear-negative/culture-positive. Before implementation (2002 to 2006), the annual number of reported cases among foreign-born persons within 1 year after arrival was relatively constant (range, 1424 to 1626 cases; mean, 1504 cases) but decreased from 1511 to 940 cases during implementation (2007 to 2012). During the same period, the annual number of smear-negative/culture-positive TB cases diagnosed overseas among immigrants and refugees bound for the United States by the culture-based algorithm increased from 4 to 629. This analysis did not control for the decline in new arrivals of nonimmigrant visitors to the United States and the decrease of incidence of TB in their countries of origin. Implementation of the culture-based algorithm may have substantially reduced the incidence of TB among newly arrived, foreign-born persons in

  15. Examining the relation between ratings of executive functioning and academic achievement: findings from a cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorell, Lisa B; Veleiro, Alberto; Siu, Angela F Y; Mohammadi, Hiwa

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the relation between academic performance and ratings of executive functioning in children aged 6-11 from four countries: Sweden, Spain, Iran, and China. Ratings of executive functioning were made by both parents and teachers using the Childhood Executive Functioning Inventory (CHEXI). The results showed that the Chinese sample was generally rated as having more executive deficits compared to the other samples. The finding that executive functioning deficits are exacerbated in China is most likely the result of cultural biases. Boys were generally rated as having poorer executive functioning compared to girls, except in Iran where parents, but not teachers, rated girls as having poorer executive functioning compared to boys. However, this opposite pattern of results found for Iran is not likely to reflect true gender differences in executive functioning. Despite some differences in the levels of executive functioning across countries, both the inhibition and working memory subscales of the CHEXI were related to academic achievement in all four countries, except for CHEXI parent ratings in China. Altogether, the results indicate that the CHEXI may be used as a screening measure for early academic difficulties, although cultural biases clearly have to be taken into consideration.

  16. Affordances in the Home Environment for Motor Development: A Cross-Cultural Study between American and Lebanese Children

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    Diala Ammar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerable efforts have been devoted to map the relations between the home environment and selected aspects of child’s development. A recent instrument was developed that aimed at assessing the affordances in the home environment, the AHEMD-SR. Although the AHEMD-SR gave insight into affordances in the home, it was focused on two specific populations from the United States and Portugal. Currently, there is limited research regarding the validity of this instrument when used in different cultures. The purpose of this study was to compare a sample of Middle Eastern children to the normative sample that was used to validate the AHEMD. Results showed a significance difference between the socioeconomic statuses between the groups. Concerning factor analysis, results showed that the Lebanese group had five factors loading as did the American/Portuguese sample but with variables loading differently. Interestingly, the Lebanese group showed higher scores for affordances inside the home such replica toys and games. Our findings show that the state of the environment may play a role in the affordances and development. Future work is needed to look at the specific loading and possible variables that may be included in the AHMED-SR to look at other cultures that may have other limitations.

  17. The effects of the gender-culture interaction on self-reports of depressive symptoms: cross-cultural study among Egyptians and Canadians

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    Vivian Huang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Research in depression has revealed differences in the way depressed individuals across cultures report their symptoms. This literature also points to possible differences in symptom reporting patterns between men and women. Using data from a larger dataset (Beshai et al. 2016, the current study examined whether non-depressed and depressed Egyptian and Canadian men and women differed in their self-report of the various domains of the Beck Depression Inventory –II (BDI-II. Method We recruited a total of 131 depressed and non-depressed participants from both Egypt (n = 29 depressed; n = 29 non-depressed and Canada (n = 35 depressed; n = 38 non-depressed. Depression status was ascertained using a structured interview. All participants were asked to complete the BDI-II along with other self-report measures of depression. BDI-II items were divided into two subscales in accordance with Dozois, Dobson & Ahnberg (1998 factor analysis: cognitive-affective and somatic-vegetative subscales. Results We found a significant three-way interaction effect on the cognitive-affective (F(1,121 = 9.51, p = .003 and main effect of depression status on somatic-vegetative subscales (F(1,121 = 42.80, p < .001. Post hoc analyses revealed that depressed Egyptian men reported lower scores on the cognitive-affective subscale of the BDI-II compared to their depressed Canadian male counterparts. Conclusions These results suggest that males across cultures may differentially report cognitive symptoms of depression. These results also suggest that clinicians and clinical scientists need to further examine the interaction effect of culture and gender when investigating self-reported symptoms of depression.

  18. Cross Cultural Perspectives of Gender and Management in Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, K.; Riordan, S.; Ozkanli, O.; Neale, J.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: This article presents preliminary results of a cross cultural study of gender and management in universities. Methodology: Qualitative interviews with senior managers in each country were analysed in relation to key concepts of career paths, support, gate keeping, management skills, disciplinary factors, gendered leadership styles and…

  19. Curiosity and Its Role in Cross-Cultural Knowledge Creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhaylov, Natalie S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the role of curiosity in promoting cross-cultural knowledge creation and competence development. It is based on a study with four international higher educational institutions, all of which offer management and business education for local and international students. The reality of multicultural and intercultural relationships…

  20. A comparative cross-cultural study of the prevalence and nature of misconceptions in physics amongst English and Chinese undergraduate students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahams, Ian; Homer, Matt; Sharpe, Rachael; Zhou, Mengyuan

    2015-01-01

    Background:Despite the large body of literature regarding student misconceptions, there has been relatively little cross-cultural research to directly compare the prevalence of common scientific misconceptions amongst students from different cultural backgrounds. Whilst previous research does suggest the international nature of many misconceptions, there is little evidence as to whether the prevalence of such common misconceptions varies from culture to culture. Purpose:To undertake a preliminary examination of the prevalence and reasons for some previously studied scientific misconceptions amongst English and Chinese undergraduate students so as to ascertain whether there is any evidence of cultural difference. Such a finding could help to identify teaching approaches in either country that are more effective in reducing the prevalence of common student misconceptions. Sample:The study involved a convenience sample of 40 undergraduate students - 20 English and 20 Chinese drawn equally from two universities in the North of England - whose formal science education ended at ages 16 and 15 respectively. Design and methods:The study employed semi-structured interview schedule containing eight questions. Results:Whilst similar misconceptions existed amongst both English and Chinese undergraduates, their prevalence was significantly higher amongst the English students (Overall mean score for scientifically correct answers amongst Chinese students was 27.7% higher, p English and Chinese undergraduates had similar misconceptions, they tended to explain these by drawing upon very similar erroneous analogies and these appear to be only nominally culturally independent in that they are based on globally shared everyday experiences. Conclusion:Differences in the prevalence of misconceptions amongst English and Chinese undergraduates appear to arise from differences in the way in which specific areas of physics are taught in both countries. It might be possible to reduce the

  1. Grammatical Structures in Cross-Cultural Comparisons

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    Анна Н Гладкова

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses how cultural information is embedded at the level of grammar and it treats grammar as inseparable from semantics and pragmatics. The study is done within the approach known as ethnosyntax. The article provides examples of cultural meaning embedded at the level of syntax relying on examples from Russian and English. In particular, it demonstrates variation in impersonal constructions in Russian and causative constructions in English. It then discusses variation in the use of grammatical structures due to the influence of cultural factors on the basis of ways of wording ‘requests’ in English and Russian. The linguistic examples in the discussion are sources from the Russian National Corpus for Russian and Collins Wordbanks Online for English. The article argues for the importance of culture-sensitive linguistic studies in language teaching.

  2. Cross-cultural advertising research: Where we have been and where we need to go

    OpenAIRE

    Okazaki, Shintaro; Mueller, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine recent pattems and developments in the literature on cross cultural advertising research. Design/methodology/approach: Citation analysis was performed for cross cultural advertis"ing articles published in major marketing and business joumals from 1995 to 2006. Findings Cultural values were the most studied topic area in cross cultural advertising research. Content analysis was the most widely employed methodology, followed by survey...

  3. Parenting and child mental health: a cross-cultural perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H

    2013-10-01

    In its most general instrumental sense, parenting consists of care of the young in preparing them to manage the tasks of life. Parents provide childhood experiences and populate the environments that guide children's development and so contribute to child mental health. Parenting is expressed in cognitions and practices. However, parents do not parent, and children do not grow up, in isolation, but in multiple contexts, and one notable context of parenting and child mental health is culture. Every culture is characterized, and distinguished from other cultures, by deep-rooted and widely acknowledged ideas about how one needs to feel, think, and act as an adequately functioning member of the culture. Insofar as parents subscribe to particular conventions of a culture, they likely follow prevailing "cultural scripts" in childrearing. Broadening our definition, it is therefore the continuing task of parents also to enculturate children by preparing them for the physical, psychosocial, and educational situations that are characteristic of their specific culture. Cross-cultural comparisons show that virtually all aspects of parenting children are informed by culture: culture influences when and how parents care for children, what parents expect of children, and which behaviors parents appreciate, emphasize and reward or discourage and punish. Thus, cultural norms become manifest in the mental health of children through parenting. Furthermore, variations in what is normative in different cultures challenge our assumptions about what is universal and inform our understanding of how parent-child relationships unfold in ways both culturally universal and specific. This essay concerns the contributions of culture to parenting and child mental health. No study of a single society can address this broad issue. It is possible, however, to learn lessons about parenting and child mental health from the study of different societies.

  4. Cross-cultural Pragmatic Failures and Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佟倩

    2012-01-01

      In cross-cultural communication, it is found that many communicational aims could not be successful y achieved, even if the speaker is good at using the target language. The problem may lie in the insufficient awareness of the cultural differences. This paper aims to point out the importance of cross-cultural communication in language teaching by discussing the different types of the cross-cultural prag-matic failures.

  5. CROSS CULTURAL CONFLICT RESOLUTION STYLES: DATA REVISITED

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    Nuray ALAGÖZLÜ

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The way conflicts are solved is thought to be culturally learned (Hammer, 2005; therefore, this is reflected through language use. Conflicts, as inevitable parts of communication, naturally mirror cultural differences. Intercultural conflict styles have been studied so far by various researchers. How conflicts are initiated, maintained and escalated or terminated are all culture bound (Leung, 2002 and all the related stages vary from one culture to another. In the related literature, there have been attempts to describe different conflict handling classifications. Using Hammer’s (2005 categorization that was found to be more refined and summative, conflict resolution styles of Turkish and American College students were explored using Discourse Completion Tests (DCT with eight conflict situations where the respondents were required to write verbal solutions to overcome the conflicts described in the test. Those utterances were categorized according to Directness/Indirectness Scale modified from Hammer’s (2005 “International Conflict Style Inventory (ICSI” that classifies intercultural conflict resolution styles as high/low level of directness and high/low level of emotional expressiveness. It is believed that the study provides insight into intercultural communication as there are culturally generalizable (etic and learned patterns of conflict resolution styles pertinent to different cultures (Hammer, 2009, p. 223; Ting-Toomey, 1994.

  6. Perception of Time, Creative Attitudes, and Adoption of Innovations: A Cross-Cultural Study from Chinese and US College Students

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    Seung-Hee Lee

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study explores how earlier (vs. later adopters of innovation differ in time perception and creative attitudes, comparing Chinese and US college students. Research on the perception of time and creative attitudes is useful to understand how sustainability and creative collaboration might work together. Various relationships exist between different levels of innovation adoption groups and creative attitudes or perceptions of time. We found that earlier adopters scored higher on economic time and future time orientation. This may indicate that earlier adopters are sensitive about their planned schedule. Also, earlier adopters with a future time orientation are forward-thinking and anticipate the introduction of new styles, items, or events in the future. We also find that Chinese (vs. US participants scored higher on creative capacity and creative collaboration but did not differ in general creative attitudes or creative risk-taking. For all participants from these two countries, earlier adopters (vs. later scored higher on all aspects of creative attitudes. This study suggests academic and practical implications regarding sustainability issues. From an academic perspective, this study adds a new perspective to the literature about the relationships among time of adoption, time perception, creative attitudes, and cultural values, and is especially useful for how these four variables influence sustainability. From a practitioner perspective, this study provides information of how consumer values and attitudes in a developing economy (China and a developed economy (US might facilitate open innovation and induce sustainability.

  7. The Weird World of Cross-Cultural False-Belief Research: A True- and False-Belief Study among Samoan Children Based on Commands

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    Mayer, Andreas; Träuble, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    Previous cross-cultural research using false-belief tasks has explored whether children's theory of mind develops synchronously across cultures. Success on false-belief tasks is usually interpreted as an important indicator of children's mental state understanding, but inconsistent findings have led to questions regarding the interpretation of…

  8. Modernization Theory Revisited: A Cross-Cultural Study of Adolescent Conformity to Significant Others in Mainland China, Taiwan, and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Thomas, Darwin L.

    1994-01-01

    Responses from college students in differing cultural settings contradicted modernization theory (MT). Contrary to MT, education held less importance as a social institution. American society highly valued religion with the reverse holding true in the two Chinese societies. MT tests with cross-cultural data should always consider cultural…

  9. Exploring cultural tensions in cross-cultural social work practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Miu Chung

    2008-10-01

    Discussion of cultural tension in the social work literature is piecemeal. As part of a grounded theory study, this article reports some major findings on cultural tensions experienced by 30 frontline social workers. Cultural tensions caused by cultural similarities and differences among social workers, clients, organizations, and society are multifaceted. Social workers, however, are always at the center of the tensions. Findings indicate that the social work profession may need to consider the neutrality claim of the profession, the different experience of ethnic minority social workers, and the need of critical reflexivity for reflective practitioners. Implications for social work practice, social work education for ethnic minority social workers, and social work research are discussed.

  10. Cross-cultural communication in medicine: questions for educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, J R; Kai, J; Loudon, R F

    2001-03-01

    Most research into medical communication has had a western setting. It has been undertaken by western researchers and been influential in shaping communication skills curricula. However we know much less about what communication is effective under other circumstances. This article highlights gaps in our knowledge from research in this field, and poses attendant questions for debate by medical educators. We consider the following key aspects of debate on cross-cultural work. (i) To what extent can our understanding of general principles in other cultures be summarized and presented for teaching in a way which does not descend into caricature? Alternatively, can features of other cultures be presented in ways which do not descend into particularity? (ii) Can such paradigms as "patient-centredness" be transferred from culture to culture? Should they be presented across cultures as features of "good" consultations? (iii) What use can be made of the role of interpreters for teaching purposes? What importance does it have to the educator that a doctor may not be a native speaker of the majority language of the culture in which s/he is operating? (iv) Although the language of illness, and particularly metaphors associated with illness, are studied in other cultures, the way in which illness is metaphorized in British English is seldom discussed. What can educators learn and teach from a study of such matters? (v) What are the implications for communication skills teachers of the need to present materials within a culturally diverse environment?

  11. Cultural Integration of Cross-Border M&A Activities in the Chinese Auto Industry : Case Study: the Acquisition of Geely and Volvo

    OpenAIRE

    Wan, Ruoling

    2015-01-01

    Along with the development and strategy change of Chinese economy, an increasing number of Chinese companies tend to start their globalization via cross-border mergers and acquisitions. However, the huge cultural differences usually cause cultural conflicts, which can be great challenges and obstacles to companies who are seeking to develop overseas. Thus, in the post-merger stage, it is significant for Chinese companies to pay enough attention to cultural integration in order to improve the ...

  12. Film Cross-culture Research under the Perspective of Language and Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗淞译

    2015-01-01

    Language as an important tool of cultural transmission, it can achieve the cross-culture development of film. With the strength of globalization, film cross-culture communication are increasing, and how to enhance the communication of film through language and culture and let more people enjoy the thought expressed in film is one of the most important content for cross-culture development of mant films. Different cultural backgrounds will produce large diversities in watching a same film, so it is helpful for the cross-culture development of film when making good use of culture and language, on the contrary, it will become a hindrance. This article do research on cross-culture development of film under the perspective of language and culture to find out the existing problems in present cross-culture development of film and put forward effective resolution strategy in order to promote certain reference for the internationalization of China’s film industry.

  13. Beating of wives: a cross-cultural perspective.

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    Campbell, J C

    1985-01-01

    This paper reports a more in-depth analysis of wife beating from a cross-cultural perspective. As background for the analysis, the methodological, operationalization, and measurement in previous cross-cultural research on wife beating is examined. Subsequently, a review of findings from these studies and the theoretical explanations from selected disciplines are presented as the basis of selection of variables expected to affect the presence and severity of wife abuse in a given culture. These variables are then examined with evidence from female perspective ethnographies on eleven different societies. This cross-cultural analysis of wife beating has illuminated more issues of methodology and variations of patterns than it has answered any questions about what may increase the frequency and severity of wife-beating in a given culture. It is possible that the beating of wives is a personal expression of hostility against women that may be expressed in addition to, or instead of, institutionalized aggression toward women in that culture. As such, wife beating can take many forms. It can be an indication of manhood, a means of personal control, a reflection of personal animosity, and an expression of sexual jealousy. These personal forms would be paralleled by societal expression such as gang rape, control of women by exclusion from the public sphere, general hostility between sexes, and the virtue of women becoming an issue of extended family and community honor. In conclusion, the importance of the variables is summarized and directions for future cross-cultural research on wife beating are suggested.

  14. Body weight concern among female university students in five Arab countries – a preliminary cross-cultural study

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    Abdulrahman Musaiger

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available [b][/b]Objective. The aim of this study was to explore some body weight concerns among females at university in five Arab countries. Methods. The sample comprised 1,134 females aged 17–32 from universities in five Arab countries: Bahrain, Egypt, Jordan, Oman and Syria. A pretested questionnaire was used to determine the aspects of body weight concern. Results. Approximately 32% – 39% of females were dissatisfied with their weight, 17% – 31% wanted their body shape to be similar to Western fashion models, and 5% – 16% believed that men preferred plump women. Of the females, 22–37% had dieted to lose weight during the six months prior to the study, and 8–15% performed exercises to improve body shape most of the time. The differences in body weight concerns were statistically significant between countries. Conclusions. Body weight concern is relatively highly prevalent among young Arab women; however the prevalence varied between countries, mainly due to differences in socio-cultural background between countries.

  15. Social representation of “hearing loss”: cross-cultural exploratory study in India, Iran, Portugal, and the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchaiah, Vinaya; Danermark, Berth; Ahmadi, Tayebeh; Tomé, David; Zhao, Fei; Li, Qiang; Krishna, Rajalakshmi; Germundsson, Per

    2015-01-01

    Background Hearing loss is one of the most common chronic conditions in older adults. In audiology literature, several studies have examined the attitudes and behavior of people with hearing loss; however, not much is known about the manner in which society in general views and perceives hearing loss. This exploratory study was aimed at understanding the social representation of hearing loss (among the general public) in the countries of India, Iran, Portugal, and the UK. We also compared these social representations. Materials and methods The study involved a cross-sectional design, and participants were recruited using the snowball sampling method. A total of 404 people from four countries participated in the study. Data were collected using a free-association task where participants were asked to produce up to five words or phrases that came to mind while thinking about hearing loss. In addition, they were also asked to indicate if each word they presented had positive, neutral, or negative associations in their view. Data were analyzed using various qualitative and quantitative methods. Results The most frequently occurring categories were: assessment and management; causes of hearing loss; communication difficulties; disability; hearing ability or disability; hearing instruments; negative mental state; the attitudes of others; and sound and acoustics of the environment. Some categories were reported with similar frequency in most countries (eg, causes of hearing loss, communication difficulties, and negative mental state), whereas others differed among countries. Participants in India reported significantly more positive and fewer negative associations when compared to participants from Iran, Portugal, and the UK. However, there was no statistical difference among neutral responses reported among these countries. Also, more differences were noted among these countries than similarities. Conclusion These findings provide useful insights into the public

  16. Social representation of "hearing loss": cross-cultural exploratory study in India, Iran, Portugal, and the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchaiah, Vinaya; Danermark, Berth; Ahmadi, Tayebeh; Tomé, David; Zhao, Fei; Li, Qiang; Krishna, Rajalakshmi; Germundsson, Per

    2015-01-01

    Hearing loss is one of the most common chronic conditions in older adults. In audiology literature, several studies have examined the attitudes and behavior of people with hearing loss; however, not much is known about the manner in which society in general views and perceives hearing loss. This exploratory study was aimed at understanding the social representation of hearing loss (among the general public) in the countries of India, Iran, Portugal, and the UK. We also compared these social representations. The study involved a cross-sectional design, and participants were recruited using the snowball sampling method. A total of 404 people from four countries participated in the study. Data were collected using a free-association task where participants were asked to produce up to five words or phrases that came to mind while thinking about hearing loss. In addition, they were also asked to indicate if each word they presented had positive, neutral, or negative associations in their view. Data were analyzed using various qualitative and quantitative methods. The most frequently occurring categories were: assessment and management; causes of hearing loss; communication difficulties; disability; hearing ability or disability; hearing instruments; negative mental state; the attitudes of others; and sound and acoustics of the environment. Some categories were reported with similar frequency in most countries (eg, causes of hearing loss, communication difficulties, and negative mental state), whereas others differed among countries. Participants in India reported significantly more positive and fewer negative associations when compared to participants from Iran, Portugal, and the UK. However, there was no statistical difference among neutral responses reported among these countries. Also, more differences were noted among these countries than similarities. These findings provide useful insights into the public perception of hearing loss that may prove useful in public

  17. Urine culture doubtful in determining etiology of diffuse symptoms among elderly individuals: a cross-sectional study of 32 nursing homes

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    Ulleryd Peter

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The high prevalence of bacteriuria in elderly individuals makes it difficult to know if a new symptom is related to bacteria in the urine. There are different views concerning this relationship and bacteriuria often leads to antibiotic treatments. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between bacteria in the urine and new or increased restlessness, fatigue, confusion, aggressiveness, not being herself/himself, dysuria, urgency and fever in individuals at nursing homes for elderly when statistically considering the high prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in this population. Methods In this cross-sectional study symptoms were registered and voided urine specimens were collected for urinary cultures from 651 elderly individuals. Logistic regressions were performed to evaluate the statistical correlation between bacteriuria and presence of a symptom at group level. To estimate the clinical relevance of statistical correlations at group level positive and negative etiological predictive values (EPV were calculated. Results Logistic regression indicated some correlations at group level. Aside from Escherichia coli in the urine and not being herself/himself existing at least one month, but less than three months, EPV indicated no clinically useful correlation between any symptoms in this study and findings of bacteriuria. Conclusions Urinary cultures provide little or no useful information when evaluating diffuse symptoms among elderly residents of nursing homes. Either common urinary tract pathogens are irrelevant, or urine culture is an inappropriate test.

  18. A Cross-cultural Approach to Business English

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    Violeta Lilians Negrea

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The cultural competence training is becoming a must for the Romanian professionals in economicsto get them ready to integrate the multicultural family in Europe. The article makes reference to the crossculturecompetence engineering and training through business English programme carried out by eMulticultproject (91068/2007-10 which produced an educational portal for interactive learning. The research followsthe European Commission Strategy for Multilinguism and it develops specific cross-culture concepts andtheory. The pedagogical approach is based on the 1990’s revised version of Bloom’s taxonomy carried out byAnderson and Krathwohl (2000. The results and conclusions are drawn by surveys and case study researchand dedicated to the development of a new strategy of academic applied English programmes. The keycontribution of the paper lies on the pedagogical insights of cross-cultural approach in business English.

  19. A Cross-Cultural Exercise: Expat in the Marketplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddou, Gary R.

    2005-01-01

    With the increasing importance of the global marketplace, students need to be more effectively prepared to manage themselves in the context of different cultures. This article explains an effective cross-cultural exercise that is simple to set up yet effective in its simulation of a cross-cultural interaction. Debriefing notes are included to help…

  20. Model Errors in the Cross Cultural Use of the Rorschach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Ronald D.; DeBlassie, Richard R.

    1989-01-01

    Notes that efforts are being made to validate the Rorschach with minority cultures and that preliminary psychometric review of Rorschach data tends to confirm its usefulness in cross-cultural work, and the legitimacy of the concept of modal personality. Reviews several significant issues in cross-cultural use of Rorschach, including norms,…

  1. Consumer-driven definition of traditional food products and innovation in traditional foods. A qualitative cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Luis; Guàrdia, Maria Dolors; Xicola, Joan; Verbeke, Wim; Vanhonacker, Filiep; Zakowska-Biemans, Sylwia; Sajdakowska, Marta; Sulmont-Rossé, Claire; Issanchou, Sylvie; Contel, Michele; Scalvedi, M Luisa; Granli, Britt Signe; Hersleth, Margrethe

    2009-04-01

    Traditional food products (TFP) are an important part of European culture, identity, and heritage. In order to maintain and expand the market share of TFP, further improvement in safety, health, or convenience is needed by means of different innovations. The aim of this study was to obtain a consumer-driven definition for the concept of TFP and innovation and to compare these across six European countries (Belgium, France, Italy, Norway, Poland and Spain) by means of semantic and textual statistical analyses. Twelve focus groups were performed, two per country, under similar conditions. The transcriptions obtained were submitted to an ordinary semantic analysis and to a textual statistical analysis using the software ALCESTE. Four main dimensions were identified for the concept of TFP: habit-natural, origin-locality, processing-elaboration and sensory properties. Five dimensions emerged around the concept of innovation: novelty-change, variety, processing-technology, origin-ethnicity and convenience. TFP were similarly perceived in the countries analysed, while some differences were detected for the concept of innovation. Semantic and statistical analyses of the focus groups led to similar results for both concepts. In some cases and according to the consumers' point of view the application of innovations may damage the traditional character of TFP.

  2. Cross-Culturalism of Harry Potter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Suljic

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Seven books in the Harry Potter series by J. K. Rowling have broken sales records worldwide. They have been made into films which have also attracted millions of fans, and the Harry Potter brand has been a hallmark since the beginning of the new millennium. Fifteen years after publishing the first book in the heptalogy, e-books again made more than 1 million pounds in just three days in April 2012. The article "Cross-Culturalism of Harry Potter" examines what attracted readers to the first and then subsequent books in the Harry Potter series and presents some of the cross-cultural implications in socio-linguistic, educational and psychological areas. It analyzes the reasons for the sales records around the world and why the books appeal to both young and adult population. It also includes some controversy following the series' world success. The research methods include: evaluation of the primary sources (seven books in the series, the media coverage, literary reviews by scholars such as Bloom and Thomas, literary critics' essays, and a survey of English language instructors in an educational institution. The main contributing factors to the global popularity of the series are: highly entertaining, well-plotted text with fantastic setting but also realistic references to the modern era; the text which continues the archetypal story-telling traditions, incorporating the contemporary socio-economic, political and educational issues; smart marketing; excessive media coverage; the Internet; the film industry involvement; and the universal human need to believe that good can triumph over evil.

  3. Adult Education between Cultures. Encounters and Identities in European Adult Education since 1890. Leeds Studies in Continuing Education. Cross-Cultural Studies in the Education of Adults, Number 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hake, Barry J., Ed.; Marriott, Stuart, Ed.

    This book contains the following papers from a European research seminar examining the history and theory of cross-cultural communication in adult education: "Introduction: Encounters and Identities in European Adult Education since 1890" (Barry J. Hake, Stuart Marriott); "The University Extension Movement (1892-1914) in Ghent, Belgium in…

  4. Cross-cultural issues in CRM training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, A.; Helmreich, R. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    The author presents six stages of intercultural awareness and relates them to cockpit resource management training. A case study examines cultural differences between South American and United States flight crews and the problems that can occur when pilots minimize differences. Differences in leadership styles are highlighted and strategies for training South American pilots are provided.

  5. Empathy and Cross-Cultural Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steward, Robbie J.; Jo, Hanik; Roberts, Amber

    Multicultural empathy has been recognized as an important factor in successfully treating ethnic minority clients. A study detailing the relationship between White counselor trainees' general ability to empathize and their ability to interact comfortably outside their culture of origin is described in this paper. Thirty-three counselor trainees…

  6. Cross-cultural issues in CRM training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, A

    1995-05-01

    The author presents six stages of intercultural awareness and relates them to cockpit resource management training. A case study examines cultural differences between South American and United States flight crews and the problems that can occur when pilots minimize differences. Differences in leadership styles are highlighted and strategies for training South American pilots are provided.

  7. Cross-cultural issues in CRM training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, A.; Helmreich, R. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    The author presents six stages of intercultural awareness and relates them to cockpit resource management training. A case study examines cultural differences between South American and United States flight crews and the problems that can occur when pilots minimize differences. Differences in leadership styles are highlighted and strategies for training South American pilots are provided.

  8. Cultural events provided by employer and occupational wellbeing of employees: A cross-sectional study among hospital nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuisku, Katinka; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Virtanen, Marianna

    2016-09-27

    Occupational well-being in health care is essential for the quality of care and productivity. Some of the major challenges facing hospital nurses are the personnel turnover, emotional loading and health care reforms. After primary occupational safety and risk management, complementary positive health promotion approaches with cultural interventions can be experimented. To examine the association between well-being indicators of hospital nurses and their participation in cultural events provided by the employer (theater, concerts, exhibitions, museums, sight-seeing, and musicals) during past 6 months. Subjective well-being was measured by work engagement, workplace support for new ideas, work satisfaction and experienced stress. A dose-dependent association was found between participation in cultural events and positive psychology parameters of occupational well-being (support for new ideas and work engagement), but the experience of stress was unrelated to participation in cultural events. Collective participation has a positive covariant effect on work engagement and seems to mediate the innovative work climate measured by workplace support for new ideas. Collective cultural events for employees may promote positive aspects of occupational wellbeing.

  9. A Pilot Study of the Interface Design of Cross-Cultural Web Sites through Usability Testing of Multilanguage Web Sites and Determining the Preferences of Taiwanese and American Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, David Tawei; Chang, Chia-Chi

    2014-01-01

    By conducting usability testing on a multilanguage Web site, this study analyzed the cultural differences between Taiwanese and American users in the performance of assigned tasks. To provide feasible insight into cross-cultural Web site design, Microsoft Office Online (MOO) that supports both traditional Chinese and English and contains an almost…

  10. A Pilot Study of the Interface Design of Cross-Cultural Web Sites through Usability Testing of Multilanguage Web Sites and Determining the Preferences of Taiwanese and American Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, David Tawei; Chang, Chia-Chi

    2014-01-01

    By conducting usability testing on a multilanguage Web site, this study analyzed the cultural differences between Taiwanese and American users in the performance of assigned tasks. To provide feasible insight into cross-cultural Web site design, Microsoft Office Online (MOO) that supports both traditional Chinese and English and contains an almost…

  11. Instrument Adaptation in Cross-Cultural Studies of Students' Mathematics-Related Beliefs: Learning from Healthcare Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Paul; Diego-Mantecón, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Much comparative research into education-related beliefs has exploited questionnaires developed in one culture for use in another. This has been particularly the case in mathematics education, the focus of this paper. In so doing, researchers have tended to assume that translation alone is sufficient to warrant a reliable and valid instrument for…

  12. Cross-cultural differences in the practices of hotel managers: A study of Dutch and Belgian hotel managers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Jansen-Verbeke (Myriam)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractIn the service sector there has been debate and research on whether it is the culture of the organization or that of the location that shapes hotel management practice - particularly given the internationalization of certain, mostly US-style practices. Here Myriam Jansen-Verbeke and Lies

  13. Cross-cultural differences in the practices of hotel managers: A study of Dutch and Belgian hotel managers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Jansen-Verbeke (Myriam)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractIn the service sector there has been debate and research on whether it is the culture of the organization or that of the location that shapes hotel management practice - particularly given the internationalization of certain, mostly US-style practices. Here Myriam Jansen-Verbeke and

  14. A cross-cultural study of the lifespan distributions of life script events and autobiographical memories of life story events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaragoza Scherman, Alejandra; Salgado, Sinué; Shao, Zhifang

    of major transitional life events in an idealized life course. By comparing the lifespan distribution of life scripts events and memories of life story events, we can determine the degree to which the cultural life script serves as a recall template for autobiographical memories, especially of positive...

  15. Cross-cultural differences in the practices of hotel managers: A study of Dutch and Belgian hotel managers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Jansen-Verbeke (Myriam)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractIn the service sector there has been debate and research on whether it is the culture of the organization or that of the location that shapes hotel management practice - particularly given the internationalization of certain, mostly US-style practices. Here Myriam Jansen-Verbeke and Lies

  16. A Cross Cultural Model for FlexibleMotivation in Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gratiela Dana BOCA

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The importance of world business has created a demand for managers sophisticated in global management skills and working with people from other countries. Organizational behavior from different countries and cultures compares organizational behavior across countries and cultures and seeks to understand how to improve the interaction of co workers, manager’s executives, client’s suppliers and alliance partners from around the world. The economic world shows us that all the elements that we consider static have a pulsation around an equilibrium position. The present study concerning the organization’s culture the motivational factors of the employees an outlet in this field. The flexibility in a global economy is an important element on which people can communicate and the manager can exercise his leading task thus is an imperfect world that imposed the necessity of adaptation to a cross cultural model.

  17. Soldiers Working Internationally: Impacts of Masculinity, Military Culture, and Operational Stress on Cross-Cultural Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keats, Patrice A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the ramifications of masculinized military culture and operational stress on cross-cultural adaptation. The author examines how characteristics of military culture may obstruct effective cross-cultural adaptation by promoting a hypermasculinity that tends to oppose effective management of trauma, and thereby suppresses skills…

  18. Half a century of cross-cultural psychology: A grateful coda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonner, Walter J

    2015-11-01

    This article provides brief commentaries on culture-oriented research in psychology and a synopsis of the author's 50-year involvement in cross-cultural psychology. Overviews of several areas with which he is more familiar are given. These include his career-long stewardship of the Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, of which he is founding and special issues editor, continuous involvement with the International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology, ongoing interest in the search for psychological universals, studying the influence of cultures on personality, values, and other psychological dimensions, monitoring the inclusion of culture in introductory psychology texts, contributions to cross-cultural counseling, and sustained involvement with the Online Readings in Psychology and Culture since its inception. Also included are comments on both the ever-expanding research on culture's influence on behavior and thought by a growing network of scholars who have different, yet complementary, agendas and research methods.

  19. How Does National Culture Impact on Consumers’ Decision-making Styles? A Cross Cultural Study in Brazil, the United States and Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Yie Leng

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This empirical article investigates the relationship between national culture and consumer decision-making styles in the purchase of cell phones, a product category that appears to be required by consumers independent of their nationalities. To make the research measurable, we used Hofstede’s four cultural dimensions (power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism, and masculinity and Sproles and Kendall’s Consumer Style Inventory framework (quality conscious, brand conscious, innovative, recreation, price conscious, impulsive, confused and brand loyal, and tested nine hypotheses through MANOVA in a sample of 108 buyers of the product in Brazil, 104 in the USA, and 107 in Japan, countries ranked in the top ten of the world’s largest cell phone market. Factor Analysis via Principal Component Analysis was conducted to examine the suitability of the eight-factor model in observations from each country. The three nationalities and the eight decision making styles were treated as independent and dependent variables, respectively. Findings showed mixed evidence for the application of Hofstede’s cultural dimensions to decision-making styles. Managerial implications and suggestions for future research are presented to help understand the relationship between national culture and consumer decision-making styles.

  20. Job Satisfaction Affecting Cross-Cultural Adjustment in Taiwanese Expatriates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Chen (Chiu-Yi/Joy Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available By means of the increasing global competition and internationalization of world markets, international expatriates assignments are more and more essential to successful worldwide development for many multinational corporations. Therefore, international expatriates are imperative to the survival of globe enterprises in the twenty-first century. Expatriates can become an important human resource to international enterprises or multinational operations. Also, for the past two decades, research has examined a variety of correlates for the performance problems and dissatisfaction associated with global assignment. To facilitate business expatriates adjust to an overseas environment and work effectively, Multinational Corporations (MNCs need to recognise the expatriates’ job satisfaction factor to affect cross-cultural adjustment. The main purpose of this study is utilising previous researcher Lee’s (2002 questionnaire to investigate the relationship between the job satisfaction and cross-cultural adjustment of Taiwanese Banks’ expatriates assigned to America, and this study employed same questionnaire to examine the relationship between the job satisfaction and cross-cultural adjustment of Taiwanese expatriates in several different industries assigned to Mainland China. Also, the empirical outcomes were compared between Taiwanese expatriates located in Mainland China and United States.In examining the significant degree of Taiwanese expatriates assigned to Mainland China, the instrument was a questionnaire survey conducted to this study. The variables of interest were measured using items Likert-type questions, and those items are divided into seven categories. Data collected from 353 participants who have experience of a posting to Mainland China for international assignments. Multiple regression and correlation were employed to analyse data.The statistical results of this study were compared Lee’s (2002 research that associated with

  1. On the possibilities and impossibilities of cross-cultural communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Ožbot

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available As is well known, the second half of the last century has witnessed an un­ precedented increase in cross-cultural communication at a practical level as well as a remarkable development of research on various aspects of translation as cross-cultural communication par excellence. Such an interest in the study of translation appears to be directly linked with the expansion of translational activities and reflects the impor­ tance attributed to them in the society at large. At the same time, the burgeoning growth of translation studies is to be explained within the context of the expansion of the discipline of linguistics over the past half-century , an important part of which is the development of various text-oriented branches in which attention has been given to previously largely unstudied phenomena of the functioning of language in real communicative situations.

  2. A cross-sectional study to assess the patient safety culture in the Palestinian hospitals: a baseline assessment for quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsous, Aymen; Akbari Sari, Ali; Rashidian, Arash; Aljeesh, Yousef; Radwan, Mahmoud; AbuZaydeh, Hatem

    2016-12-01

    To measure and establish a baseline assessment of the patient safety culture in the Palestinian hospitals. A cross-sectional descriptive study using the Arabic version of the Safety Attitude Questionnaire (Short Form 2006). A total of 339 nurses and physicians returned the questionnaire out of 370 achieving a response rate of 91.6%. Four public general hospitals in the Gaza Strip, Palestine. Nurses and physicians were randomly selected using a proportionate random sampling. Data analysis performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software version 20, and p value less than 0.05 was statistically significant. Current status of patient safety culture among healthcare providers and percentage of positive attitudes. Male to female ratio was 2.16:1, and mean age was 36.5 ± 9.4 years. The mean score of Arabic Safety Attitude Questionnaire across the six dimensions on 100-point scale ranged between 68.5 for Job Satisfaction and 48.5 for Working Condition. The percentage of respondents holding a positive attitude was 34.5% for Teamwork Climate, 28.4% for Safety Climate, 40.7% for Stress Recognition, 48.8% for Job Satisfaction, 11.3% for Working Conditions and 42.8% for Perception of Management. Healthcare workers holding positive attitudes had better collaboration with co-workers than those without positive attitudes. Findings are useful to formulate a policy on patient safety culture and targeted a specific safety culture dimension to improve the safety of patients and improve the clinical outcomes within healthcare organisations.

  3. Cross-Cultural Homestays: An Analysis of College Students' Responses After Living in an Unfamiliar Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baty, Roger M.; Dold, Eugene

    1977-01-01

    Discusses a study designed to investigate the effects of a cross-cultural homestay program on students' attitudes and health. Available from: International Journal of Intercultural Relations, Transaction Periodicals Consortium, Rutgers-The State University, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08903. (MH)

  4. Perceived stress, coping resources, and life satisfaction among U. S. and mexican college students : a cross-cultural study

    OpenAIRE

    Matheny, Kenneth B.; Roque Tovar, Bernardo Enrique; Curlette, William L.

    2008-01-01

    Este artículo presenta un estudio trans-cultural del estrés percibido, los recursos de afrontamiento ante el mismo y la satisfacción con la vida de estudiantes universitarios en México y los Estados Unidos. 206 estudiantes universitarios de México (41 hombres y 165 mujeres) y 241 estudiantes universitarios de Estados Unidos (69 hombres y 172 mujeres) completaron la Escala de Estrés Percibido, el Inventario de Recursos para el Afrontamiento del Estrés y la Escala de Satisfacción con la Vida. E...

  5. CROSS-CULTURAL INCENTIVES FOR THE FDI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru ZAIȚ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to invest there are some incentives needed, including among them, certainly, the ones discussed and analysed in the scientific literature such as: specific earning chances (expectations of each participant (wage, profit, dividend, budget revenue, etc., potential investor’s general or current state, etc.. Less visible incentives from complex areas not obviously related to the investment are, however, less considered. Among these could be incentives arising from inherited or education and culture transmitted philosophy, generally regarding earnings, business and investment. We notice these incentives in case of FDI in different shades and intensities.Investor’s decision to acquire, sell or to carry out projects in a particular area, region or country is not only due to purely economic, commercial or financial reasoning. In such operations, meeting among businessmen, managers and other professionals in the field is, first of all, meeting in specific circumstances, among more or less different cultures.Both theory and practice must be concerned in what way and to what extent these factors influence the investment intention, outcome and yield. Our study proposes a list of the most important cultural type incentives for investment (mainly FDI, based on a set of cases, through a logical and empirical research, using some of the most relevant and recent studies and several real situations to which we got access. These are early data and analysis that will allow us to draw attention to the problem and to develop further research to reach generalizable results

  6. Review of Deconversion: Qualitative and Quantitative Results from Cross-Cultural Research in Germany and the USA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andreea Nica

    2016-01-01

    ...: the active process by which individuals disaffiliate from religion. The 'Bielefeld-Based Cross-Cultural Study of Deconversion' consists of a mixed methods and cross-cultural approach to religious change in the USA and Germany...

  7. The effect of medium composition on ovary-slice culture and ovule culture in intraspecific Tulipa gesneriana crosses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creij, van M.G.M.; Kerckhoffs, D.M.F.J.; Bruijn, de S.M.; Tuyl, van J.M.; Vreugdenhil, D.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of several media components on the germination percentage of ovules in intraspecific T. gesneriana L. crosses was studied by using two embryo rescue techniques, viz. ovary-slice culture followed by ovule culture and direct ovule culture. The addition of 9% sucrose to medium for

  8. A cross-cultural study of the higher-order structures underlying personality disorders in French-speaking Africa and Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigozzi, Christine; Rossier, Jérôme; Dahourou, Donatien; Adjahouisso, Marcel; Ah-Kion, Jennifer; Amoussou-Yeye, Denis; Barry, Oumar; Bhowon, Uma; Bouatta, Cherifa; Cissé, Daouda Dougoumalé; Mbodji, Mamadou; Meyer de Stadelhofen, Franz; Minga, David Minga; Tseung, Caroline Ng; Ondongo, François; Romdhane, Mohamed Nouri; Sfayhi, Nicole; Tsokini, Dieudonné; Verardi, Sabrina

    2009-04-01

    Most studies about the higher-order dimensions to be considered in order to parsimoniously describe Personality Disorders (PDs) have identified between two and four factors but there is still no consensus about their exact number. In this context, the cultural stability of these structures might be a criterion to be considered. The aim of this study was to identify stable higher-order structures of PD traits in a French-speaking African and Swiss sample (N = 2,711). All subjects completed the IPDE screening questionnaire. Using Everett's criterion and conducting a series of principal component analyses, a cross-culturally stable two- and four-factor structure were identified, associated with a total congruence coefficient of .98 and .94, respectively, after Procrustes rotation. Moreover, these two structures were also highly replicable across the four African regions considered, North Africa, West Africa, Central Africa, and Mauritius, with a mean total congruence coefficient of .97 and .87, respectively. The four-factor structure presented the advantage of being similar to Livesely's four components and of describing the ten PDs more accurately.

  9. Book received: Crossing cultures: conflict, migration and convergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edited by Professor Jaynie Anderson

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Crossing cultures: conflict, migration and convergence [The Proceedings of the 32nd International Congress of the History of Art. Edited by Professor Jaynie Anderson.] Contains information, table of contents and introductory essay by Jaynie Anderson 'Playing between the Lines: The Melbourne Experience of Crossing Cultures'.

  10. Can One Undergraduate Course Increase Cross-Cultural Competence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, Lois

    2015-01-01

    The majority of students who took this general education undergraduate course in developing cross-cultural understanding at a state college in the northeastern United States reported that their level of cross-cultural competence and global awareness increased by the end of the course. The primary course objective was to help students better…

  11. Together We Innovate: Cross-Cultural Teamwork through Virtual Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duus, Rikke; Cooray, Muditha

    2014-01-01

    In a global business environment, marketing education must support students to develop cross-cultural agility and adeptness with an aim to enhance their employability. This article contributes with an experiential cross-cultural exercise that enables students to develop new enterprises in collaboration with other students in a different country…

  12. Together We Innovate: Cross-Cultural Teamwork through Virtual Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duus, Rikke; Cooray, Muditha

    2014-01-01

    In a global business environment, marketing education must support students to develop cross-cultural agility and adeptness with an aim to enhance their employability. This article contributes with an experiential cross-cultural exercise that enables students to develop new enterprises in collaboration with other students in a different country…

  13. Challenges and Opportunities in Cross-Cultural Geographic Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesche, Sonia; Huynh, Niem Tu; Nelson, Erin; Ramachandran, Leela

    2010-01-01

    While qualitative fieldwork in cross-cultural settings is central to human geography, there has been limited focus in the literature on the expectations and skills required to succeed as a field researcher in this area. Some practical advice is available for researchers who are new to cross-cultural fieldwork (e.g. graduate students, junior…

  14. Pilot study of the influence of a communicator’s speech characteristics on a recipient’s willingness to maintain interaction in cross-cultural online communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudenko, Nadezhda S.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The success of cross-cultural online communication in an academic environment is defined by the degree of student involvement in such an interaction. The authors’ experience testifies that a number of objective, language, and psychological factors may decrease the activeness of these interactions, and as a result learning may not be effective for students in these types of cross-cultural interactions. Among such factors the current article investigates the influence of a communicator’s speech peculiarities on a recipient’s willingness to maintain interaction in native-to-nonnative, written online communication in the English language. The study was aimed at verifying a hypothesis about the influence of Russian communicants’ speech characteristics on American communicants’ willingness to maintain conversations. The research method chosen was content analysis. Thematic chats involving Russian and American students participating in the Global Understanding course were analyzed. The results of the content analysis allowed us to distinguish certain Russian communicants’ written speech characteristics, such as the prevalence of language and grammar mistakes, the degree of vocabulary richness, and the use of complex sentences. Significant correlations were discovered between the American communicants’ willingness to maintain conversations and the number of mistakes, indicators of lexical richness and scarcity in Russian communicants’ utterances. Language and speech mistakes as well as the quantity of words in the utterances of micro themes had the highest number of significant correlations with indicators of the willingness to maintain conversations. The first factor, language and speech mistakes, decreased the willingness to maintain conversations, whereas the second factor, the number of words in Russian students’ utterances, increased such willingness.

  15. Cross-Cultural Examination of Depression Expression and Help-Seeking Behavior: A Comparative Study of American and Korean College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Sung-Kyung; Skovholt, Thomas M.

    2001-01-01

    Examines cross-cultural differences in depression expression and help-seeking behavior among college students in the United States and Korea. Results indicate that the Korean students showed more somatization tendency, negative affect, and negative help-seeking behavior. Negative help-seeking behavior of Korean students was shown to relate to…

  16. Maternal Coping Strategies in Response to a Child's Chronic and Oncological Disease: a Cross-Cultural Study in Italy and Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perricone, Giovanna; Guerra, Marina Prista; Cruz, Orlanda; Polizzi, Concetta; Lima, Lígia; Morales, Maria Regina; de Lemos, Marina Serra; Fontana, Valentina

    2013-06-13

    A child's oncological or chronic disease is a stressful situation for parents. This stress may make it difficult for appropriate management strategies aimed at promoting the child's wellbeing and helping him or her cope with a disease to be adopted. In particular, this study focuses on the possible connections between the variable national cultural influences and the parental strategies used to cope with a child's severe disease by comparing the experiences of Italian and Portuguese mothers. The study investigates differences and cross-cultural elements among the coping strategies used by Italian and Portuguese mothers of children with oncological or chronic disease. Two groups of mothers took part: 59 Italian mothers (average age 37.7 years; SD=4.5) and 36 Portuguese mothers (average age 39.3 years; SD=4.6). The tool used was the Italian and the Portuguese versions of the COPE inventory that measures five coping strategies: Social Support, Avoidance Coping, Positive Aptitude, Religious Faith and Humor, Active Coping. There were statistically significant differences between Portuguese and Italian mothers regarding Social Support (F(3, 94)=6.32, P=0.014, ɳ(2)=0.065), Religious Faith and Humor (F(3, 94)=20.06, P=0.001, ɳ(2)=0.18, higher values for Portuguese mothers) and Avoidance Coping (F(3, 94)=3.30, P=0.06, ɳ(2)=0.035, higher values for Italian mothers). Regarding child's disease, the only statistically significant difference was in Religious Faith and Humor (F(3, 94)=7.49, P=0.007, ɳ(2)=0.076, higher values for mothers of children with chronic disease). The findings of specific cultural transversalities provide the basis for reflection on important factors emerging on the relationship between physicians and parents. In fact, mothers' coping abilities may allow health workers involved in a child's care not only to understand how parents face a distressful event, but also to provide them with professional support.

  17. A New Areas of Cross-cultural Psychology in China——A Cross-cultural Psychological Study of the Class of Urban-rural Areas in China%当代中国跨文化心理学的新领域——中国城乡区域阶层文化心理跨文化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海钟; 姜永志

    2012-01-01

    按照比较教育学、比较经济学、比较文学等学科概念的定义,跨文化心理学应该称为比较心理学,可是,早在20世纪初,比较心理学这个概念就被心理学家用来指人和动物的心理比较研究。于是,不同国别、种族、民族之间的心理比较研究,就被称呼为跨文化心理学。20世纪80-90年代,我国学者引进跨文化心理学之后,主要是模仿西方的跨文化心理学,开展西方心理学理论在中国不同民族的检验,随后开始国内不同民族儿童发展心理的比较研究。再后来,就出现了不同宗教信仰人群的心理比较研究。新世纪以来,城乡之间、区域之间、年龄之间、性别之间的心理比较研究逐步展开。开展这些研究,有一个基本假设,就是除了生物遗传因素之外,文化是影响人的心理活动特征的重要变量。而且文化与心理特别是人格之间相互作用。我们把新扩展的这些领域称为城乡跨文化心理学、区域跨文化心理学、年龄跨文化心理学、性别跨文化心理学、阶层跨文化心理学。%According to the definition of comparative education, comparative economics, comparative literature and other disciplines, cross-cultural psychology should be called comparative psychology. However, in the early 20th century, the concept of comparative psychology was used to refer to comparative study between human and animal. Thus, it was called as cross-cultural psychology in different country, race and ethnic. In 1980s and 1990s, after the scholars of china introduce the cross-cultural psychology from elsewhere, it mainly was an imitation of the West’s cross-cultural psychology and carry out the Western psychological theory test between different ethnic groups in China. Soon afterwards, they started the comparative study of psychological development of children in different nationalities. Still later, there has been more psychological research in different

  18. What's wrong with cross-cultural comparisons of subjective Likert scales?: The reference-group effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Steven J; Lehman, Darrin R; Peng, Kaiping; Greenholtz, Joe

    2002-06-01

    Social comparison theory maintains that people think about themselves compared with similar others. Those in one culture, then, compare themselves with different others and standards than do those in another culture, thus potentially confounding cross-cultural comparisons. A pilot study and Study 1 demonstrated the problematic nature of this reference-group effect: Whereas cultural experts agreed that East Asians are more collectivistic than North Americans, cross-cultural comparisons of trait and attitude measures failed to reveal such a pattern. Study 2 found that manipulating reference groups enhanced the expected cultural differences, and Study 3 revealed that people from different cultural backgrounds within the same country exhibited larger differences than did people from different countries. Cross-cultural comparisons using subjective Likert scales are compromised because of different reference groups. Possible solutions are discussed.

  19. Socio-economic and cultural vulnerabilities to cervical cancer and challenges faced by patients attending care at Tikur Anbessa Hospital: a cross sectional and qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Sara Kebede

    2015-09-16

    Cervical cancer is a leading cause of death among women in Ethiopia, affecting them at a time of their life when they are critical to social and economic stability. This study was mainly focused on assessing different socioeconomic and cultural related factors that make women vulnerable to cervical cancer and challenges women face in the process of diagnosis and treatment. To achieve the objective of the study both qualitative and quantitative methods were utilized.198 participants were enrolled in a cross- sectional survey and 10 in-depth interviews were conducted with patients in Tikur Anbessa Hospital. A consecutive sampling method was used to select participants in the survey while purposive sampling was employed to select participants in the qualitative design. For the population covered in the study, poverty along with other socio-cultural practices such as early marriage, high parity and to certain extent polygamy were identified as factors that increased the vulnerability of women to cervical cancer. In addition, the study has uncovered several challenges faced by cervical cancer patients in the diagnosis and treatment process. Three types of challenges that include, health care based, psychological and economic were identified. System and practitioner delay were found as the main hurdles within the variable of health care related challenges. What's more, the psychological challenges identified included, fear of recurrence, negative social attitude and distress associated with the side effects from treatments such as fecal & urinary leakage. Furthermore, inability of bearing costs related to treatment and accommodation were cited as the main economic challenges. The study showed various socio-economic and cultural vulnerabilities that expose women to cervical cancer and the challenges encountered by cervical cancer patients after their diagnosis. Addressing this issue largely lies in strengthening primary and secondary preventive mechanisms, providing

  20. A cross-cultural study on the usage of cooperative learning techniques in graduate level education in five different countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sefa Bulut

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de esta investigación fue examinar las experiencias del aprendizaje cooperativo en estudiantes graduados de nivel universitario en cinco países cultural, etnográfica y geográficamente diferentes. Este estudio fue realizado con el propósito de entender cómo influye la educación culturamente distinta y los ambientes académicos en el proceso de aprendizaje y sus implicaciones en el desarrollo de mejores sistemas educativos. Se encuestaron estudiantes universitarios originarios de Arabia Saudita, Brasil, Corea,Turquía, Estados Unidos. A sus respuestas se les aplicó un análisis de varianza y técnicas de análisis factorial. Los resultados mostraron que la cultura no tuvo efecto alguno en las preferencias de aprendizaje. Los estudiantes universitarios realizaron una elección consciente con respecto a su participación o no en el aprendizaje cooperativo en sus ambientes educativos.

  1. Spontaneous Emotional Communication and Social Biofeedback: A Cross-Cultural Study of Emotional Expression and Communication in Chinese and Taiwanese Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Ross; Teng, Wan-Cheng

    Different cultures develop different rules of emotional expression and communication which may have important consequences within the culture and which may impose barriers to communication between cultures. A study was conducted to examine this issue. Emotionally-loaded color slides were shown to 44 college students from Taiwan and the People's…

  2. Cultivating a Cross-Cultural Disposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Activities in Teaching French Values and Culture. Geertz , Clifford . 1973. The Interpretation of Cultures; Selected Essays. New York: Basic Books...variety of social needs and priorities across cultures. It even addresses the role of symbols, mainstays of much cultural taxonomy ( Geertz 1973; Hofstede...prominent figures in the social sciences (Hall 1959; Hofstede and Hofstede 2005; Geertz 1973; Stewart and Bennett 1991; Trompenaars 1996). Gaining

  3. Experimental designs for cross-cultural interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Culture is not the first aspect that comes to mind when discussing human robot interaction. But our cultural upbringing does to a large degree influence our patterns of behavior and interpretation. Thus, culture is present in the development of robotic systems right from the start, unconsciously ...

  4. Reciprocity, culture and human cooperation: previous insights and a new cross-cultural experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gächter, Simon; Herrmann, Benedikt

    2009-03-27

    Understanding the proximate and ultimate sources of human cooperation is a fundamental issue in all behavioural sciences. In this paper, we review the experimental evidence on how people solve cooperation problems. Existing studies show without doubt that direct and indirect reciprocity are important determinants of successful cooperation. We also discuss the insights from a large literature on the role of peer punishment in sustaining cooperation. The experiments demonstrate that many people are 'strong reciprocators' who are willing to cooperate and punish others even if there are no gains from future cooperation or any other reputational gains. We document this in new one-shot experiments, which we conducted in four cities in Russia and Switzerland. Our cross-cultural approach allows us furthermore to investigate how the cultural background influences strong reciprocity. Our results show that culture has a strong influence on positive and in especially strong negative reciprocity. In particular, we find large cross-cultural differences in 'antisocial punishment' of pro-social cooperators. Further cross-cultural research and experiments involving different socio-demographic groups document that the antisocial punishment is much more widespread than previously assumed. Understanding antisocial punishment is an important task for future research because antisocial punishment is a strong inhibitor of cooperation.

  5. A cross-cultural study of the structure of comorbidity among common psychopathological syndromes in the general health care setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krueger, RF; Chentsova-Dutton, YE; Markon, KE; Goldberg, D; Ormel, J

    2003-01-01

    This study presents analyses of 7 common psychopathological syndromes in the World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborative Study of Psychological Problems in General Health Care (T. B. Ustun & N. Sartorius, 1995). Data on depression, somatization, hypochondriasis, neurasthenia, anxious worry, anxiou

  6. Teachers' Implicit Theories of Learning to Read: A Cross-Cultural Study in Ibero-American Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Juan E.; Rodríguez, Cristina; Suárez, Natalia; O'Shanahan, Isabel; Villadiego, Yalov; Uribe, Claudia; Villalobos, Jose Angel; Rodas, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to explore the nature and structure of implicit theories of Spanish-speaking in-service teachers on learning to read. The study sample consisted of 591 in-service teachers from various Ibero-American countries (Spain, Mexico, Guatemala, Colombia, and Ecuador). The study analyzed attributional structure or teacher…

  7. Teachers' Implicit Theories of Learning to Read: A Cross-Cultural Study in Ibero-American Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Juan E.; Rodríguez, Cristina; Suárez, Natalia; O'Shanahan, Isabel; Villadiego, Yalov; Uribe, Claudia; Villalobos, Jose Angel; Rodas, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to explore the nature and structure of implicit theories of Spanish-speaking in-service teachers on learning to read. The study sample consisted of 591 in-service teachers from various Ibero-American countries (Spain, Mexico, Guatemala, Colombia, and Ecuador). The study analyzed attributional structure or teacher…

  8. Cross-cultural differences in emotion suppression in everyday interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huwae, Sylvia; Schaafsma, Juliëtte

    2016-01-01

    Previous research suggests that in collectivistic cultures, people tend to suppress their emotions more than in individualistic cultures. Little research, however, has explored cross-cultural differences in emotion regulation in everyday interactions. Using a daily social interaction method, we exam

  9. Negotiating Cross-Cultural Misunderstandings in Collaborative Therapeutic Conversations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sametband, Ines; Strong, Tom

    2013-01-01

    In this article we discuss how clients who have immigrated to Canada and Canadian counsellors negotiate cross-cultural misunderstandings as opportunities to transcend reified assumptions about cultures. Cultural differences as well as discrepancies in translation need to be worked out for counsellors and clients to arrive at shared understandings…

  10. Cross-cultural Communication and ELT in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChengTongchun

    2004-01-01

    Culture plays a significant role in teaching and learning a language. The acquisition of cultural knowledge is an indispensable part of language learning. This paper discusses the importance and necessity of cross-cultural communication in the language teaching, and focuses on three parts:

  11. Bafa Bafa--A Cross-Culture Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, James R.

    Bafa Bafa is a cross-culture simulation exercise developed by R. Garry Shirts. It is designed for administrators, faculty, and students who are in situations that require an experiential understanding of another culture. After participants are given a brief orientation to the exercise, they are divided into two groups or "cultures." They are then…

  12. ASYNCHRONICAL MEANS OF FORMING CROSS CULTURAL COMPETENCE OF HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS (IN THE CASE OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy G. Apalkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article covers the key problems of forming cross cultural competence by means of asynchronic Internet-communication techniques. A concise overview of main studies in using e-mail group in forming cross cultural competence. An algorithm of forming cross cultural competence of high school students is described. 

  13. A Cross-Cultural Study of the Psychometric Properties of the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire among Italian Nonclinical Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossati, Andrea; Raine, Adrian; Borroni, Serena; Bizzozero, Alice; Volpi, Elisa; Santalucia, Iolanda; Maffei, Cesare

    2009-01-01

    Five independent studies were used to test the hypothesis that a reliable 2-factor structure underlies the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (RPQ) items and that the 2 scales show distinct patterns of association with personality and bullying behavior measures. Study 1 (N = 1,447) gave evidence of a clear 2-factor structure of RPQ items…

  14. A Cross-Cultural Study on Meaning and the Nature of Children's Experiences in Australian and French Swimming Clubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on a study conducted in Australia and France that inquired into the meaning and the nature of children's experiences of being in swimming clubs with a focus on the positive aspects of membership that keep them in their clubs. Three-month long case studies were conducted in a club in Australia and in a club in France, employing…

  15. Interpersonal relationship and lay third parties' side-taking preference : A cross-cultural study among Chinese and Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Huadong; Van de Vliert, Evert; Shi, Kan

    2007-01-01

    In two comparative studies, both conducted in China and in the Netherlands, we investigated the effect of an asymmetric relationship on lay third parties' side-taking preference in an interpersonal dispute. The first study shows that a perceived close relationship with one of the disputants motivate

  16. Interpersonal Relationship and Lay Third Parties' Side-Taking Preference : A Cross-Cultural Study Among Chinese and Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Huadong; Vliert, van de Evert; Shi, Kan

    2007-01-01

    In two comparative studies, both conducted in China and in the Netherlands, we investigated the effect of an asymmetric relationship on lay third parties' side-taking preference in an interpersonal dispute. The first study shows that a perceived close relationship with one of the disputants motivate

  17. Cross-Cultural and Global Interdependency Development in STEM Undergraduate Students: Results from Singapore Study Abroad Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexis, Frank; Casco, M.; Martin, J.; Zhang, G.

    2017-01-01

    The goal of study abroad programs is to educate and train future global leaders. This article examines the effectiveness of Clemson University's Singapore Study Abroad program in meeting this goal by exposing students to global perspectives of science technology, engineering and math (STEM) research and learning through an international summer…

  18. A Cross-Cultural Study on Meaning and the Nature of Children's Experiences in Australian and French Swimming Clubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on a study conducted in Australia and France that inquired into the meaning and the nature of children's experiences of being in swimming clubs with a focus on the positive aspects of membership that keep them in their clubs. Three-month long case studies were conducted in a club in Australia and in a club in France, employing…

  19. Cross-Cultural Equivalency of the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskifoglu, Gökhan

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the cross-cultural applicability of a multidimensional inventory of students' evaluation of critical thinking dispositions (California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory). The goal was to assess the cross-cultural psychometric equivalency of the CCTDI through testing measurement invariance across American and Turkish…

  20. Enhancing Cross-Cultural Competence in Multicultural Teacher Education: Transformation in Global Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeberg, Vilma; Minick, Theresa

    2012-01-01

    Teacher education needs to engage teacher candidates in developing cross-cultural competence so that they may be able to transmit global learning to their future students. This study theorizes cross-cultural competence (CCC) from the perspectives of multicultural and global education. During a four-year project at a mid-western US university,…

  1. Choosing an adequate design and analysis in cross-cultural personality research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, Jia; van de Vijver, Fons

    2017-01-01

    The flourishing of cross-cultural personality research requires a keen eye for rigorous methodology in such research. With decades of experience in cross-cultural research methods, we have come to appreciate that methodological aspects of such studies are critical for obtaining valid findings. Ill-d

  2. Using Facebook for Cross-Cultural Collaboration: The Experience of Students from Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Min

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the use of Facebook among college students in a cross-cultural collaboration project between Taiwan and the United States, and focuses specifically on Taiwanese students' perceptions. Questions explored are: (1) Is Facebook a feasible platform for cross-cultural collaboration? (2) How does this…

  3. Cross-Cultural Differences in Sibling Power Balance and Its Concomitants across Three Age Periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buist, Kirsten L.; Metindogan, Aysegül; Coban, Selma; Watve, Sujala; Paranjpe, Analpa; Koot, Hans M.; van Lier, Pol; Branje, Susan J. T.; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2017-01-01

    We examined cross-cultural differences in (1) sibling power balance and (2) the associations between sibling power balance and internalizing and externalizing problems in three separate cross-cultural studies (early childhood, late childhood, and adolescence). The "early childhood samples" consisted of 123 Turkish and 128 Dutch mothers…

  4. Using Facebook for Cross-Cultural Collaboration: The Experience of Students from Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Min

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the use of Facebook among college students in a cross-cultural collaboration project between Taiwan and the United States, and focuses specifically on Taiwanese students' perceptions. Questions explored are: (1) Is Facebook a feasible platform for cross-cultural collaboration? (2) How does this…

  5. Acceptance of functional foods in Denmark, Finland and the US: A cross-cultural study of consumer values and preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Poulsen, Jacob; Grunert, Klaus G.

    1999-01-01

    that some consumers seem to approve of such manipu-lations whereas others don't. One possible explanation is differ-ences in con-sumers' values, especially the values pertaining to the relationship between man and nature. The aim of the study presented in this paper is, by means of conjoint analysis......, to study consumer acceptance of functional foods in Denmark, Finland and the United States and to investi-gate to which extent acceptance can be explained by consumer values. The three countries are selected due to differences in the importance attached to the value dimensions 'harmony' and 'mastery...

  6. Dimensions of Communication Apprehension beyond Boundaries: A Cross-Cultural Comparative Study of U.S. and Japanese Management Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucel, Joanna K.; And Others

    A study explored the self-reported nonverbal stress behaviors perceived by men and women in management positions in both Japan and the United States who were required to give public speeches as part of their employment or daily lives. The sample included 136 subjects from the United States (60 males, 76 females) and 99 Japanese subjects (86 males,…

  7. Assessing the cross-cultural applicability of tailored advertising: a comparative study between the Netherlands and Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maslowska, E.; Smit, E.G.; van den Putte, B.

    2013-01-01

    This study compares the effectiveness of tailored advertising in two European Union member states: a longstanding member with a long history of advertising, the Netherlands; and a new member with a shorter advertising tradition, Poland. The positive effects of tailored advertising are hypothesised

  8. Cross-Cultural Study of Special Education Teachers' Perception of Iconicity of Graphic Symbols for Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Soo Jung

    2011-01-01

    This study was to investigate whether there are differences in perception of the symbols representing six emotions between the Korean and the American teachers. For an accurate comparison, two transparency tasks (Task 1-1 and Task 2) and one translucency task (Task 3) were used to investigate differences between Korean and American special…

  9. Health-related quality of life in Iranian patients with multiple sclerosis: a cross-cultural study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pakpour, Amir H; Yekaninejad, Mir S; Mohammadi, Nastaran K

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate aspects of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) who live in Tehran and to compare data with evaluations of both the general population and MS patients in other countries. MATERIAL AND METHODS: One hund...

  10. Assessing the cross-cultural applicability of tailored advertising: a comparative study between the Netherlands and Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maslowska, E.; Smit, E.G.; van den Putte, B.

    2013-01-01

    This study compares the effectiveness of tailored advertising in two European Union member states: a longstanding member with a long history of advertising, the Netherlands; and a new member with a shorter advertising tradition, Poland. The positive effects of tailored advertising are hypothesised t

  11. Silence in Cross-cultural Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常利娜; 郭芳芳; 郝继亭; 顾庆媛; 孙胜强

    2008-01-01

    In academic field, silence is classified as part of the nonverbal communication. Edward T. Hall regarded silence as a key standard of dividing high-context cultures and low-context cultures (毕 46). In high-context cultures, information is provided through gestures, the use of space, and even silence. Little information is explicitly explained by words. Chinese, Japanese, Native American cultures are high-context ones. However, "in low-context cultures, the verbal message contains most of the information and very little is embedded in the context." (Samovar, A. Larry, Richard E. Porter and Lisa A. Stefani 79). How do people from different cultures respond to silence? How their values affect their attitudes? What causes silence?

  12. Cultural Self-confidence in the Perspective of Cross-cultural Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Wenyuan

    2016-01-01

    In the process of economic development around the world, there are more and more cross-cultural interactions among people with different cultures. The key point is how to maintain our own excellent cultures and make communication effectively and success-fully. The paper will focus on the topic. The first part of the essay introduces the present cross-cultural situations in international communication and its threat that Chinese culture has in the process of economical development. Several points to be mentioned are in the following parts,such as culture, cultural consciousness, cultural confidence and the tactics of keeping self-confidence in the cross-cultural interactions. All in all,a series of problems will be dis-cussed in the perspective of culture.

  13. Perception of Time, Creative Attitudes, and Adoption of Innovations: A Cross-Cultural Study from Chinese and US College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Seung-Hee Lee; Jane Workman; Kwangho Jung

    2016-01-01

    This study explores how earlier (vs. later) adopters of innovation differ in time perception and creative attitudes, comparing Chinese and US college students. Research on the perception of time and creative attitudes is useful to understand how sustainability and creative collaboration might work together. Various relationships exist between different levels of innovation adoption groups and creative attitudes or perceptions of time. We found that earlier adopters scored higher on economic t...

  14. A cross-cultural study of relationships between daily social interaction and the five-factor model of personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezlek, John B; Schütz, Astrid; Schröder-Abé, Michela; Smith, C Veronica

    2011-08-01

    Two studies, one in the United States (N = 130) and another in Germany (N = 100), examined relationships between daily social interaction and the traits of the Five-Factor Model. In both studies, student participants described their social interactions for 2 weeks using the Rochester Interaction Record. In both countries, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness were positively related to reactions to social interaction, whereas Neuroticism was unrelated to reactions to interactions. In the United States, Extraversion and Openness were positively related to reactions to interactions, whereas these factors were not related to reactions to interactions in Germany. In the United States, Extraversion was positively related to how socially active participants were, whereas none of the FFM traits was related to amount of social interaction in the German sample. In both countries, Extraversion was positively related to percent of interactions involving friends. The results highlight the importance of taking into account the sociocultural milieus within which personality unfolds. © 2011 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. THE CONCEPT OF FRAMING IN CROSS-CULTURAL BUSINESS COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIELA DUMBRAVĂ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the concept of cultural frames and their role in signifying human experience, the paper aims at pointing out that business communication, like any social interaction, is underrun by a process of framing, according to which individuals perceive, comprehend and appropriate otherness. Expanded to cross - cultural business communication, framing provides a clearer perspective on cultural divergence and ensures the acquiring of cultural sensitivity, which, in a global business environment, is of crucial importance for effective interactions.

  16. Is it meaningful to distinguish between generalized and specific Internet addiction? Evidence from a cross-cultural study from Germany, Sweden, Taiwan and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Christian; Bey, Katharina; Sha, Peng; Li, Mei; Chen, Ya-Fei; Liu, Wei-Yin; Zhu, Yi-Kang; Li, Chun-Bo; Markett, Sebastian; Keiper, Julia; Reuter, Martin

    2015-03-01

    It has been hypothesized that two distinctive forms of Internet addiction exist. Here, generalized Internet addiction refers to the problematic use of the Internet covering a broad range of Internet-related activities. In contrast, specific forms of Internet addiction target the problematic use of distinct online activities such as excessive online video gaming or activities in social networks. The present study investigates the relationship between generalized and specific Internet addiction in a cross-cultural study encompassing data from China, Taiwan, Sweden and Germany in n = 636 participants. In this study, we assessed - besides generalized Internet addiction - addictive behavior in the domains of online video gaming, online shopping, online social networks and online pornography. The results confirm the existence of distinct forms of specific Internet addiction. One exception, however, was established in five of the six samples under investigation: online social network addiction correlates in large amounts with generalized Internet addiction. In general, it is of importance to distinguish between generalized and specific Internet addiction. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. Acceptance of functional foods in Denmark, Finland and the US: A cross-cultural study of consumer values and preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Poulsen, Jacob; Grunert, Klaus G.

    1999-01-01

    that some consumers seem to approve of such manipu-lations whereas others don't. One possible explanation is differ-ences in con-sumers' values, especially the values pertaining to the relationship between man and nature. The aim of the study presented in this paper is, by means of conjoint analysis...... that may prevent disease or promote health. As such, functional foods are a prod-uct cate-gory which can be characterised as processed with a relatively high degree of tech-nological manipulation compared to basic food products. Experience with functional foods that have been introduced so far indicates......' (Schwartz, 1994), because these values are assumed to be especially important for the acceptance of technological manipulation of food products. People who score high on the 'mastery' dimension emphasize active mastery of the social and natural environment through self-assertion. This is comparable...

  18. Is the genetic structure of human personality universal? A cross-cultural twin study from North America, Europe, and Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagata, Shinji; Suzuki, Atsunobu; Ando, Juko; Ono, Yutaka; Kijima, Nobuhiko; Yoshimura, Kimio; Ostendorf, Fritz; Angleitner, Alois; Riemann, Rainer; Spinath, Frank M; Livesley, W John; Jang, Kerry L

    2006-06-01

    This study examined whether universality of the 5-factor model (FFM) of personality operationalized by the Revised NEO Personality Inventory is due to genetic influences that are invariant across diverse nations. Factor analyses were conducted on matrices of phenotypic, genetic, and environmental correlations estimated in a sample of 1,209 monozygotic and 701 dizygotic twin pairs from Canada, Germany, and Japan. Five genetic and environmental factors were extracted for each sample. High congruence coefficients were observed when phenotypic, genetic, and environmental factors were compared in each sample as well as when each factor was compared across samples. These results suggest that the FFM has a solid biological basis and may represent a common heritage of the human species.

  19. The lexical approach to the study of personality structure: toward the identification of cross-culturally replicable dimensions of personality variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Michael C; Lee, Kibeom

    2005-06-01

    The structure of personality variation is discussed from the perspective of the lexical approach, which is based on the examination of relations among personality-descriptive adjectives that are indigenous to various languages. The results of this approach--which reveal a cross-culturally replicated set of six dimensions--are described. Specifically, the obtained structure corresponds rather closely to the Five-Factor Model, but differs from that model in the nature of the Agreeableness and Emotionality/Neuroticism factors and also in the existence of a sixth factor known as Honesty-Humility. It is suggested that the emergence of this structure provides support for attempts to establish a cross-culturally generalizable structural model that could summarize normal and abnormal personality variation.

  20. Perceived Barriers to Healthy Eating and Physical Activity among Adolescents in Seven Arab Countries: A Cross-Cultural Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman O. Musaiger

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To highlight the perceived personal, social, and environmental barriers to healthy eating and physical activity among Arab adolescents. Method. A multistage stratified sampling method was used to select 4698 students aged 15–18 years (2240 males and 2458 females from public schools. Seven Arab counties were included in the study, namely, Algeria, Jordan, Kuwait, Libya, Palestine, Syria, and the United Arab Emirates. Self-reported questionnaire was used to list the barriers to healthy eating and physical activity facing these adolescents. Results. It was found that lack of information on healthy eating, lack of motivation to eat a healthy diet, and not having time to prepare or eat healthy food were the main barriers to healthy eating among both genders. For physical activity, the main barriers selected were lack of motivation to do physical activity, less support from teachers, and lack of time to do physical activity. In general, females faced more barriers to physical activity than males in all countries included. There were significant differences between males and females within each country and among countries for most barriers. Conclusion. Intervention programmes to combat obesity and other chronic noncommunicable diseases in the Arab world should include solutions to overcome the barriers to weight maintenance, particularly the sociocultural barriers to practising physical activity.

  1. A Cross-Cultural Study of the Cognitive Model of Depression: Cognitive Experiences Converge between Egypt and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshai, Shadi; Dobson, Keith S; Adel, Ashraf; Hanna, Niveen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Models of depression that arise in the West need to be examined in other regions of the world. This study examined a set of foundational hypotheses generated by Beck’s cognitive model of depression among depressed individuals in Egypt and Canada. Method We recruited 29 depressed and 29 non-depressed Egyptians and compared their results with those of 35 depressed and 38 non-depressed Canadians. Depression status was ascertained using a structured interview, scores on the Beck Depression Inventory, and scores on the Psychiatric Diagnostic Screening Questionnaire. Participants completed questionnaires designed to measure the frequency of negative and positive automatic thoughts (ATQ–N, BHS, and ATQ–P), and dysfunctional attitudes (DAS). Results Depressed individuals in both countries had significantly more negative thoughts about self and future, greater frequency of dysfunctional attitudes, and diminished positive self-thoughts in comparison to non-depressed individuals. Egyptians generally showed significantly more dysfunctional attitudes than their Canadian counterparts. Discussion The four hypotheses that were tested were supported among the depressed Egyptian sample, which is consistent with the cognitive model. Implications for the cognitive-behavioral model and treatment for this group of sufferers are discussed. PMID:27010706

  2. Generic structure and promotional elements in best-selling online book blurbs: a cross-cultural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neslihan Önder

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the generic structure and promotional elements of the online fiction blurbs accompanying the 95 best-selling books from Amazon United Kingdom and Okuoku Turkey (1999-2011, a company that sells books online that are written in Turkish or translated into Turkish, and adds to the growing number of investigations into this genre (Kathpalia, 1997; Bhatia, 2004; Cacchiani, 2007; Gea-Valor, 2007; Gesuato, 2007; Basturkmen, 2009. Based on the findings, a two-level schematic structure (moves and steps is proposed for the blurbs following Swales (1990. The findings suggest that Amazon UK book blurbs have a six-move schematic structure: complimenting the author, book description, justifying the book by establishing a niche, book promotion, author’s background and author’s website/blog being the second, fourth and fifth obligatory moves. However, Okuoku book blurbs feature a five-move schematic structure with complimenting the author, book description, involving the reader in the text, book promotion and author’s background, the second and fourth being obligatory. Analysis of promotional elements in the corpora reveals that online fiction book blurbs employ the art of advertising through the use of favorable expressions (Bhatia, 2005 and innovative uses of rhetorical strategies to persuade the reader to read the book.

  3. Crossing the Atlantic: Integrating Cross-Cultural Experiences into Undergraduate Business Courses Using Virtual Communities Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luethge, Denise J.; Raska, David; Greer, Bertie M.; O'Connor, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Today's business school academics are tasked with pedagogy that offers students an understanding of the globalization of markets and the cross-cultural communication skills needed in today's business environment. The authors describe how a virtual cross-cultural experience was integrated into an undergraduate business course and used as an…

  4. Academic Globalization: Cultureactive to Ice- the Cross-Cultural, Crossdisciplinary and Cross-Epistemological Transformation

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    Marta Szabo White

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Commensurate with the concept of Academic Globalization, coupled with the foray of Globalization, this paper underscores the cross-cultural, cross-disciplinary and cross-epistemological transformation from the first-generation Cultureactive to the second-generation InterCultural Edge [ICE]. The former is embedded in the experiential works of cross-cultural consultant. Richard Lewis and the latter is grounded in established theoretical frameworks. Both serve to underscore the impact of the Globalization Phenomenon, as manifested in and enabled by the acceleration of academic and practitioner cross-cultural activities. The contribution of this paper is the celebration of the longawaited arrival of ICE [InterCultural Edge]. While previous research streams have underscored global similarities and differences among cultures, a previous paper [19] established that cross-professional rather than cross-cultural differences are more paramount. Employing Cultureactive and the LMR framework, it was noted that business versus non-business predisposition had a more direct impact on one's individual cultural profile than did nationality. Regardless of culture, persons involved in business are characterized primarily by linear-active modes of communication, and persons involved in non-business activities typically employ more multiactive/hybrid and less linear modes of communication. The pivotal question is this: Now that we have a new and improved tool, are we in a better position to assess and predict leadership, negotiating styles, individual behaviors, etc., which are central to academic globalization and preparing global business leaders?

  5. Academic Globalization: Cultureactive to Ice- the Cross-Cultural, Crossdisciplinary and Cross-Epistemological Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Szabo White

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Commensurate with the concept of Academic Globalization, coupled with the foray of Globalization, this paper underscores the cross-cultural, cross-disciplinary and cross-epistemological transformation from the first-generation Cultureactive to the second-generation InterCultural Edge [ICE]. The former is embedded in the experiential works of cross-cultural consultant. Richard Lewis and the latter is grounded in established theoretical frameworks. Both serve to underscore the impact of the Globalization Phenomenon, as manifested in and enabled by the acceleration of academic and practitioner cross-cultural activities. The contribution of this paper is the celebration of the longawaited arrival of ICE [InterCultural Edge]. While previous research streams have underscored global similarities and differences among cultures, a previous paper [19] established that cross-professional rather than cross-cultural differences are more paramount. Employing Cultureactive and the LMR framework, it was noted that business versus non-business predisposition had a more direct impact on one's individual cultural profile than did nationality. Regardless of culture, persons involved in business are characterized primarily by linear-active modes of communication, and persons involved in non-business activities typically employ more multiactive/hybrid and less linear modes of communication. The pivotal question is this: Now that we have a new and improved tool, are we in a better position to assess and predict leadership, negotiating styles, individual behaviors, etc., which are central to academic globalization and preparing global business leaders?

  6. Acculturation, quality of life and work environment of international nurses in a multi-cultural society: A cross-sectional, correlational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Yong-Shian; Lopez, Violeta

    2016-05-01

    The aim is to examine the acculturation level of international nurses working in a multi-cultural society. The relationship between acculturation, working environment and quality of life of international nurses was also explored. A cross-sectional, correlational study using self-report questionnaire was conducted on 814 international nurses using stratified random sampling based on the nationality distribution of international nurses registered with the Singapore Nursing Board. Outcome measures included World Health Organisation Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL_BREF) and Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index-Revised (PES-NWI-R). Data were collected from June to December 2012. There were variations in the acculturation level among different nationality groups of international nurses. Acculturation levels were the lowest among Mainland Chinese international nurses (M=27.47, SD 5.23). A positive correlation was found between acculturation and quality of life whereas a lower perception of work environment was associated with lower acculturation level. Data obtained from this study can be utilized to develop interventions targeted at the unique needs of the international nurses as they migrate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Reality, Dysconsciousness, and Transformations: Personal Reflections on the Ethics of Cross-Cultural Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janusch, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    In this personal narrative, I offer reflections about the process of conducting a cross-cultural, cross-linguistic research project with teachers of English in China. Lessons learned from this study address some of the hegemonic perspectives and assumptions that can be dysconsciously held by native English-speakers, the value of crossing borders…

  8. International Students from Melbourne Describing Their Cross-Cultural Transitions Experiences: Culture Shock, Social Interaction, and Friendship Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belford, Nish

    2017-01-01

    Drawing from a study that explored how international students experience cross-cultural transitions after living and studying in Melbourne for a few years, this paper, in particular, examines the participants' experiences with culture shock, social interaction, and friendship development. The findings include narratives of their personal stories…

  9. Are They Thinking Differently: A Cross-Cultural Study on the Relationship of Thinking Styles and Emerging Roles in Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaoqing; Wang, Huawen; Mason, Jon

    2017-01-01

    Numerous studies have recognized collaboration as an effective way of learning. When collaboration involves students from different cultural backgrounds, a question arises: "Will cultural differences influence the manner in which roles are adopted within collaborative learning?" In this study, a correlation analysis was used to explore…

  10. Maternal coping strategies in response to a child’s chronic and oncological disease: a cross-cultural study in Italy and Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Perricone

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A child’s oncological or chronic disease is a stressful situation for parents. This stress may make it difficult for appropriate management strategies aimed at promoting the child’s well-being and helping him or her cope with a disease to be adopted. In particular, this study focuses on the possible connections between the variable national cultural influences and the parental strategies used to cope with a child’s severe disease by comparing the experiences of Italian and Portuguese mothers. The study investigates differences and cross-cultural elements among the coping strategies used by Italian and Portuguese mothers of children with oncological or chronic disease. Two groups of mothers took part: 59 Italian mothers (average age 37.7 years; SD=4.5 and 36 Portuguese mothers (average age 39.3 years; SD=4.6. The tool used was the Italian and the Portuguese versions of the COPE inventory that measures five coping strategies: Social Support, Avoidance Coping, Positive Aptitude, Religious Faith and Humor, Active Coping. There were statistically significant differences between Portuguese and Italian mothers regarding Social Support (F(3, 94=6.32, P=0.014, η2=0.065, Religious Faith and Humor (F(3, 94=20.06, P=0.001, η2=0.18, higher values for Portuguese mothers and Avoidance Coping (F(3, 94=3.30, P=0.06, η2=0.035, higher values for Italian mothers. Regarding child’s disease, the only statistically significant difference was in Religious Faith and Humor (F(3, 94=7.49, P=0.007, η2=0.076, higher values for mothers of children with chronic disease. The findings of specific cultural transversalities provide the basis for reflection on important factors emerging on the relationship between physicians and parents. In fact, mothers’ coping abilities may allow health workers involved in a child’s care not only to understand how parents face a distressful event, but also to provide them with professional support.

  11. Interdisciplinary Area of Research Offers Tool of Cross-Cultural Understanding: Cross-Cultural Student Seminar for Communication Training on Biomedical Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigehiro Hashimoto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Misunderstanding often occurs in a multidisciplinary field of study, because each field has its own background of thinking. Communication training is important for students, who have a potential to develop the multidisciplinary field of study. Because each nation has its own cultural background, communication in an international seminar is not easy, either. A cross-cultural student seminar has been designed for communication training in the multidisciplinary field of study. Students from a variety of back grounds have joined in the seminar. Both equations and figures are effective tools for communication in the field of science. The seminar works well for communication training in the multidisciplinary field of study of biomedical engineering. An interdisciplinary area of research offers the tool of cross-cultural understanding. The present study refers to author's several experiences: the student internship abroad, the cross-cultural student camp, multi PhD theses, various affiliations, and the creation of the interdisciplinary department.

  12. Cross-cultural Communication and Translation of Culture-loaded Words%跨文化交际与词语的文化涵义翻译

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章国健

    2003-01-01

    Language and culture are closely related to each other. This paper studies the principles and approaches of translating culture -loaded words in the context of cross-cultural communication by exploring the relation between culture and translation. Culture-loaded words are considered difficult to translate because these words contain cultural connotations and obviously mirror cultural characteristics. In light of cross-cultural communication research, the paper proposes that in translation of culture-loaded words semantic and pragmatic equivalence should be achieved by adopting proper translating methods.

  13. Thinking about the Notion of "Cross-Cultural" from a Social Semiotic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, Gunther

    2012-01-01

    In this article the main question is: what might Social Semiotics offer to studies of the "cross-cultural"? Social Semiotics distinguishes between "society" and "culture". "The social" is the domain of "interaction" seen as semiotic work, organized in fields of power. "Culture" is the repository of semiotic resources, of material and non-material…

  14. A Conceptual/Cross-cultural Model for Teaching Anthropology in the Elementary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynneson, Thomas L.

    A conceptual/cross-cultural model, developed to help elementary teachers cope with the problems of initiating cultural, ethnic, or anthropology studies, is presented in five sections. (1) A brief description of the structure and methodology of anthropology defines in outline form the fields of cultural and social anthropology, physical…

  15. Avenues of Influence: Cross-Cultural Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    adapt the United Nations (UN taxonomy of 23 culture groups to four cultural groups based on NATO School 2008 (or 2009, when available) matriculation ...ungegndivisions.htm#ecsee). Minor adjustments to the UN taxonomy were proposed, as some countries on the NATO School 2008 matriculation were listed in...Dialogue, and other nations. Of NATO School students matriculating in 2008, just 17% were from native-English speaking countries. Of the

  16. Cross-cultural variation in symptom perception of hypoglycemia

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    Sanjay Kalra

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Significant cross-cultural differences related to the symptomatology of hypoglycemia are noted. Indian diabetologists should be aware of the varying presentation of hypoglycemia based on language and ethnic background.

  17. Research Report: A Cross-Cultural Perspective on Practical Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Jane R.

    1987-01-01

    Questions the extent to which practical intelligence can be measured in a reliable and valid fashion cross-culturally. Differentiates between the internal validity of our measure of practical intelligence and its external validity. (LHW)

  18. Problems of Translation in Cross-Cultural Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechrest, Lee; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Various types of translation problems in cross-cultural research are translation of questions or other verbal stimuli, vocabulary equivalence, equivalence in idiom, grammar, syntax, and back-translation. (Author/SB)

  19. Cross-cultural comparison of long-term care in the United States and Finland: Research done through a short-term study-abroad experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Tina M; Gilland, Sarah; Frank, Jacquelyn B; Murphy, Bridget C; English, Courtney; Meade, Jana; Morrow, Kaylee; Rush, Evan

    2017-01-01

    In May 2014, a short-term study-abroad experience was conducted in Finland through a course offered at Indiana State University (ISU). Students and faculty from ISU and Eastern Illinois University participated in the experience, which was created to facilitate a cross-cultural comparison of long-term-care settings in the United States and Finland. With its outstanding system of caring for the health and social needs of its aging populace, Finland is a logical model to examine when considering ways to improve the quality of life for older adults who require care in the United States . Those participating in the course visited a series of long-term-care facilities in the region surrounding Terre Haute, Indiana, then travelled to Lappeenranta, Finland to visit parallel sites. Through limited-participation observation and semistructured interviews, similarities and differences in experiences, educations, and policies affecting long-term care workers in the United States and Finland were identified and are described here.

  20. Ensuring Quality in qualitative cross-cultural research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin

    2013-01-01

    Within recent years, there has been an increasing call for qualitative research in cross-cultural psychology. Despite this general openness, there seems to be some confusion about how to evaluate the quality of such research. This has been partly due to the heterogeneity of the field and the epis...... aims at motivating cross-cultural psychologists to produce high quality qualitative research that will contribute to the further advancement of the field....

  1. On English Teaching and Cross-cultural Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琪

    2016-01-01

    Since last century, because of reforming and opening policy, many people, especially young people go abroad to get a better job or get further education and so on. Besides, many foreigners are curious about our country. Consequently, people come to realize that if we known little about cross-cultural communication, there will be many conflicts. Some experts suggest that today's English teaching should emphasize intercultural communication. Learners ought to know not only grammar or words, but should learn cultural knowledge. If not, they will meet many difficulties while they communicate with foreigners. Therefore, it is important to introduce this kind of knowledge while teaching. This paper mainly talks about cross-cultural communication in foreign language teaching in China. In the first part, we talk about the importance of learn cross-culture and discuss the relationship between language teaching and cultural teaching. Next part is talk about the problems of culture teaching nowadays. According to these problems, we explore some culture teaching methods to improve culture teaching. The aim of this paper is to emphasize the importance of culture teaching during foreign language teaching. Culture teaching is necessary for all of us, it can make it possible for learners to prevent miscommunication from occurring in intercultural communications.

  2. Cultural Intelligence, Culture Novelty and Cross-Cultural Adjustment:An Empirical Study on Expatriate Academics%基于外派学者的文化智力、文化新颖性与跨文化适应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王泽宇; 王国锋; 井润田

    2013-01-01

    在对中国外派到其他国家的访问学者进行大样本调查的基础上进行实证研究.研究发现,动机文化智力与跨文化适应的3个维度(总体适应、互动适应、工作适应)都正相关.其中,元认知文化智力与总体适应维度正相关、认知文化智力与互动适应维度正相关.此外,文化新颖性与跨文化适应的3个维度都呈正相关关系.%Through the survey on a large sample of visiting scholars dispatched to other countries to do cooperative research, including those studying abroad, it is found that, motivational cultural intelligence is positively related to all three dimensions of cross-cultural adjustment (i. e. , general adjustment, interactional adjustment and work adjustment), while there are positive relationships between metacognitive cultural intelligence and general adjustment, and between cognitive cultural intelligence and interactional adjustment. Additionally, it is also found that culture novelty has a positive effect on all three dimensions of cross-cultural adjustment.

  3. Cross-Cultural Practice in International Corporate Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Chen (Chiu-Yi/Joy Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available By means of the increasing global competition and internationalization of world markets, international expatriates assignments are more and more essential to successful worldwide development for many multinational corporations. Therefore, international expatriates are imperative to the survival of globe enterprises in the twenty-first century. Expatriates can become an important human resource to international enterprises or multinational operations. To facilitate business expatriates adjust to an overseas environment and work effectively, MNCs need to recognize the demographic factors those to affect cross-cultural adjustment. The main purpose of this study is utilizing Lee’s (2002 model to investigate the relationship among the demographic factors and cross-cultural adjustment of Taiwanese expatriates assigned to Mainland. Also, the empirical outcomes were compared between Taiwanese expatriates located in Mainland China and United States.In examining the significant degree of Taiwanese expatriates assigned to Mainland China, the instrument was a questionnaire survey conducted to this study. The variables of interest were measured using items Likert-type of questions, and those items are divided into seven categories. Data collected from 353 participants who have experience of post to Mainland China for international assignments. Descriptive statistics, ANOVA and T-test were employed to analyse data.The statistical results of this study were compared Lee’s (2002 research that associated with Taiwanese banking expatriates in United States. This thesis concludes with suggestions for both international enterprises or MNCs and individual expatriate who operate overseas journey in their normal path of business.

  4. The Internet in the Context of Cross-Cultural Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsoomair, Jon Franklin

    1997-01-01

    The Internet offers inexpensive contact with other cultures. This article describes the development of a cross-cultural management course for university seniors in business and economics and MBA students that made extensive use of the Internet to establish relationships with counterparts and mentors in other countries. Outlines course objectives,…

  5. Counternarrative and antenarrative inquiry in two cross-cultural contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boje, David M.; Svane, Marita Susanna; Gergerich, Erika

    2016-01-01

    stereotypical representations of race, class, and gender, and offer theory and methodology resources for a more meaningful understanding of homeless life and cultures. The second case explores narrative-counternarrative and antenarrative inquiry into a cross-cultural merger between two companies. Both cases...

  6. Cultural Cross-Currents in Second Language Literacy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodycott, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of "cultural cross-currents," their implicit nature and the potential they have to effect second language literacy learning, teaching and curriculum reform in Hong Kong primary classrooms. Despite the substantive implications for learning, the exploration of cultural influences upon teacher and student thinking and…

  7. Disability Policy Implementation from a Cross-Cultural Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdugo, Miguel A.; Jenaro, Cristina; Calvo, Isabel; Navas, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    Implementation of disability policy is influenced by social, political, and cultural factors. Based on published work, this article discusses four guidelines considered critical for successful policy implementation from a cross-cultural perspective. These guidelines are to: (a) base policy implementation on a contextual analysis, (b) employ a…

  8. Navigating the ethics of cross-cultural health promotion research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haintz, Greer Lamaro; Graham, Melissa; McKenzie, Hayley

    2015-12-01

    Health promotion researchers must consider the ethics of their research, and are usually required to abide by a set of ethical requirements stipulated by governing bodies (such as the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council) and human research ethics committees (HRECs). These requirements address both deontological (rule-based) and consequence-based issues. However, at times there can be a disconnect between the requirements of deontological issues and the cultural sensitivity required when research is set in cultural contexts and settings etic to the HREC. This poses a challenge for health promotion researchers who must negotiate between meeting both the requirements of the HREC and the needs of the community with whom the research is being conducted. Drawing on two case studies, this paper discusses examples from cross-cultural health promotion research in Australian and international settings where disconnect arose and negotiation was required to appropriately meet the needs of all parties. The examples relate to issues of participant recruitment and informed consent, participants under the Australian legal age of consent, participant withdrawal when this seemingly occurs in an ad hoc rather than a formal manner and reciprocity. Although these approaches are context specific, they highlight issues for consideration to advance more culturally appropriate practice in research ethics and suggest ways a stronger anthropological lens can be applied to research ethics to overcome these challenges.

  9. Cross Cultural Educational Exchanges between Indonesia and Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tati Rohayati

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Currently, Japan has become a country which has a big influence especially in South East Asia. They actively build bilateral and multilateral cooperation with other countries like establishing the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA in August 1974. The cooperation has involved many sectors such as technology, politics, economy, social affairs and culture.On the ASEAN stage, Japan is actively promoting its culture to ASEAN countries, including Indonesia. One major program is “Pesantren Leaders’ Visit to Japan”. The program is a cooperation between the Japanese Embassy and the Center for the Study of Islam and Society (PPIM, UIN Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta, which has run from 2004 until now.In the program, the Japanese Government every year invites several religious education leaders in Indonesia to observe the social and culture dynamics of the Japanese. Not only that, they are also invited to visit some schools, government offices, small and medium enterprises in Japan to see the latest productivity developments, including the problems and challanges they have in many sectors. As a result of its ongoing work, this bilateral program has produced a cross-cultural network and inter-faith dialogue among Islamic schools in Indonesia and Japan. 

  10. Cross cultural aspects of health interpreting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    昝婷

    2014-01-01

    In today’s society, the migrant phenomenon occurs easily and frequently. In the host society, they will meet language difficulties in different sectors, for example, in the medical context. In this case we need the medical interpreters. As it has been known, medical interpretation is extremely challenging. For medical interpreters, how to overcome language and cultural obstacles becomes very important.

  11. Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Pitch Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trehub, Sandra E.; Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Nakata, Takayuki

    2008-01-01

    We examined effects of age and culture on children's memory for the pitch level of familiar music. Canadian 9- and 10-year-olds distinguished the original pitch level of familiar television theme songs from foils that were pitch-shifted by one semitone, whereas 5- to 8-year-olds failed to do so (Experiment 1). In contrast, Japanese 5- and…

  12. Challenges in Cross-Cultural Business Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Alli; Ruggieri, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    One of the most important and lasting legacies of the 20th century is globalization and the increased integration among countries and economies leading to more interactions among the peoples of different cultures. This effect has also percolated into the business environment and into the realm of business education. We have seen the…

  13. Crossing Cultures with Multi-Voiced Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styslinger, Mary E.; Whisenant, Alison

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss the benefits of using multi-voiced journals as a teaching strategy in reading instruction. Multi-voiced journals, an adaptation of dual-voiced journals, encourage responses to reading in varied, cultured voices of characters. It is similar to reading journals in that they prod students to connect to the lives…

  14. Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Pitch Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trehub, Sandra E.; Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Nakata, Takayuki

    2008-01-01

    We examined effects of age and culture on children's memory for the pitch level of familiar music. Canadian 9- and 10-year-olds distinguished the original pitch level of familiar television theme songs from foils that were pitch-shifted by one semitone, whereas 5- to 8-year-olds failed to do so (Experiment 1). In contrast, Japanese 5- and…

  15. Cross Cultural Learning with the Navajo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckmann, Charles

    1989-01-01

    Describes the final segment of a Seattle high school anthropology course--a four-week stay on the Navajo Reservation. Examines how this immersion in Navajo culture changed the values and perspectives of White students as they were forced to confront paradoxes in their own lives. (SV)

  16. Bridging Cultural Borders: American Students’ Pedagogical Cross-Cultural Experiences in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackie Greene

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In exploring the best practices for preparing new teachers to meet the challenges of the changing demographics present in contemporary classrooms, cross-cultural internship experiences emerge as an important component to teacher training curriculums. The authors present information based on the experiences of American student teachers spending three weeks teaching English and American Culture in Szent István’s Practice School, making presentations to local clubs, churches, libraries, and traveling throughout Hungary. This exchange program presented a great opportunity for the authors to conduct a study related to exploring the impact of the student teaching abroad experience in their teaching dispositions as well as in developing an understanding of working within a culturally and linguistically diverse environment.

  17. Engaging migrants and other stakeholders to improve communication in cross-cultural consultation in primary care: a theoretically informed participatory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lionis, Christos; Papadakaki, Maria; Saridaki, Aristoula; Dowrick, Christopher; O'Donnell, Catherine A; Mair, Frances S; van den Muijsenbergh, Maria; Burns, Nicola; de Brún, Tomas; O'Reilly de Brún, Mary; van Weel-Baumgarten, Evelyn; Spiegel, Wolfgang; MacFarlane, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Guidelines and training initiatives (G/TIs) are available to support communication in cross-cultural consultations but are rarely implemented in routine practice in primary care. As part of the European Union RESTORE project, our objective was to explore whether the available G/TIs make sense to migrants and other key stakeholders and whether they could collectively choose G/TIs and engage in their implementation in primary care settings. Setting As part of a comparative analysis of 5 linked qualitative case studies, we used purposeful and snowball sampling to recruit migrants and other key stakeholders in primary care settings in Austria, England, Greece, Ireland and the Netherlands. Participants A total of 78 stakeholders participated in the study (Austria 15, England 9, Ireland 11, Greece 16, Netherlands 27), covering a range of groups (migrants, general practitioners, nurses, administrative staff, interpreters, health service planners). Primary and secondary outcome measures We combined Normalisation Process Theory (NPT) and Participatory Learning and Action (PLA) research to conduct a series of PLA style focus groups. Using a standardised protocol, stakeholders' discussions about a set of G/TIs were recorded on PLA commentary charts and their selection process was recorded through a PLA direct-ranking technique. We performed inductive and deductive thematic analysis to investigate sensemaking and engagement with the G/TIs. Results The need for new ways of working was strongly endorsed by most stakeholders. Stakeholders considered that they were the right people to drive the work forward and were keen to enrol others to support the implementation work. This was evidenced by the democratic selection by stakeholders in each setting of one G/TI as a local implementation project. Conclusions This theoretically informed participatory approach used across 5 countries with diverse healthcare systems could be used in other settings to establish positive

  18. Childhood Development Cross Culturally:Implications for Designing Childhood Obesity Interventions and Providing Culturally Competent Care

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiying Ling; PhD.MS.RN.Vicki Hines-Martin; PhD.CNS.RN.FAAN Hong Ji; MSN

    2013-01-01

    United States is experiencing significant growth in its foreign -born population , especially Chinese American population comprising of 1.2% of the U.S.population.Many healthcare providers are challenged in their efforts to provide culturally competent healthcare to this population. To provide culturally competent healthcare ,healthcare providers should understand variations in cultural at-tributes that impact health. One group in which cultural variation holds great influence is that of children. Culture influences a child's be-havior,development and health. This article provides a cross -cultural,comparative examination of important cultural influences on child behaviors development and health in China and the U. S.Using the findings about these two populations ,interventions for childhood obesity cross culturally are addressed through the analysis of a U. S.based Children's Obesity Program. The author suggests that uniquely different approaches to childhood obesity intervention research are needed based upon the cultural differences identified within this paper.

  19. Hermeneutic notions illuminate cross-cultural nursing experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, D G

    2001-08-01

    To articulate selected hermeneutic notions for the purpose of extending current understanding of cross-cultural nursing practice. This paper builds upon the findings of a New Zealand project that explored the experience of nursing people from cultures other than one's own (Spence 1999). The project asserted that the notions of prejudice, paradox and possibility portray a nursing view of this phenomenon. The discussion is based on philosophical hermeneutics as interpreted from the works of Gadamer (1996), Taylor (1985a, 1985b, 1995) and Lampert (1997). However the emphasis in this paper, rather than being methodological, is on showing how specific hermeneutic notions contribute to deeper understanding of the nature of cross-cultural practice. It is argued that contact with, and the capacity to explore, the play of conflicting prejudices and possibilities enhances understanding of the complex and paradoxical nature of cross-cultural nursing.

  20. Study on Cross-cultural Communication of Chinese Martial Arts%中国武术跨文化交流之研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方斌; 张斌

    2013-01-01

    中国武术博大精深,跨文化交流日益广泛。要在全球化的背景下更好地弘扬和传播中国武术文化,我们必须提升援教素养,注重民间武术交流,加大宣传力度。%Chinese martial arts have a long history and its cross -cultural communication has been widely car-ried out .To better carry forward under the background of globalization ,and dissemination of Chinese martial arts culture ,we must improve teach literacy ,pay attention to folk martial arts exchange ,intensify propaganda .

  1. ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHINGIN CROSS-CULTURAL CONTEXTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JinWenhua

    2004-01-01

    Improving learners' intercultural communicativecompetence has been acknowledged to be the major goal ofcurrent English Language Teaching (ELT) in China. Yet, noconsensus has been reached even today on the definition ofIntercultural Communicative Competence (ICC). The author ofthis paper proposes her understanding of ICC and points out tha tthe key element of fostering our learners' ICC lies in improvingtheir social-cultural competence, towards which three feasiblesteps are further illustrated : getting an inside view of the targetculture; getting an outside view of the native culture; seeking athird perspective. Improving learners' intercultural communicativecompetence has been acknowledged to be the major goal ofcurrent English Language Teaching in China. Whatintercultural communicative competence is and how this may beachieved by our English learners have become issues of majorconcern. Addressing these issues, this paper proposes possiblesolutions to the problem.

  2. Cross cultural aspects of health interpreting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    昝婷

    2014-01-01

    In today’s society,the migrant phenomenon occurs easily and frequently.In the host society,they will meet language difficulties in different sectors,for example,in the medical context.In this case we need the medical interpreters.As it has been known,medical interpretation is extremely challenging.For medical interpreters,how to overcome language and cultural obstacles becomes very important.

  3. Cultural Context and Associative Meaning of Words in Cross-culture Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴玉侠; 董艇舰

    2014-01-01

    Language is the vehicle of culture, vocabulary is the most active part of a language. This article compares and analyses the relationship of cultural context and the associative meaning of words in three aspects—associative meaning overlap, associative meaning mismatch and associative meaning gap, revealing its importance in the cross-cultural communication.

  4. Cultural Differences and Cultivation of Cross-Cultural Communicative Competence in Chinese FLT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaobo

    2009-01-01

    In order to improve their abilities in cross-cultural communication, language learners should develop not only their language competence, but also communicative competence. This paper presents an understanding on the general cultural differences between the west and China by applying the cultural dimensions of Hofstede and Bond, and points out…

  5. Cross-cultural and cross-ecotype production of a killer whale `excitement' call suggests universality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehn, Nicola; Filatova, Olga A.; Durban, John W.; Foote, Andrew D.

    2011-01-01

    Facial and vocal expressions of emotion have been found in a number of social mammal species and are thought to have evolved to aid social communication. There has been much debate about whether such signals are culturally inherited or are truly biologically innate. Evidence for the innateness of such signals can come from cross-cultural studies. Previous studies have identified a vocalisation (the V4 or `excitement' call) associated with high arousal behaviours in a population of killer whales in British Columbia, Canada. In this study, we compared recordings from three different socially and reproductively isolated ecotypes of killer whales, including five vocal clans of one ecotype, each clan having discrete culturally transmitted vocal traditions. The V4 call was found in recordings of each ecotype and each vocal clan. Nine independent observers reproduced our classification of the V4 call from each population with high inter-observer agreement. Our results suggest the V4 call may be universal in Pacific killer whale populations and that transmission of this call is independent of cultural tradition or ecotype. We argue that such universality is more consistent with an innate vocalisation than one acquired through social learning and may be linked to its apparent function of motivational expression.

  6. Characterization of culturable vaginal Lactobacillus species among women with and without bacterial vaginosis from the United States and India: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhivanan, Purnima; Raphael, Eva; Rumphs, Alnecia; Krupp, Karl; Ravi, Kavitha; Srinivas, Vijaya; Arun, Anjali; Reingold, Arthur L; Klausner, Jeffrey D; Riley, Lee W

    2014-07-01

    Lactobacillus species play an integral part in the health of the vaginal microbiota. We compared vaginal Lactobacillus species in women from India and the USA with and without bacterial vaginosis (BV). Between July 2009 and November 2010, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 40 women attending a women's health clinic in Mysore, India, and a sexually transmitted diseases clinic in San Francisco, USA. Women were diagnosed with BV using Amsel's criteria and the Nugent score. Lactobacillus 16S rDNA was sequenced to speciate the cultured isolates. Ten Indian and 10 US women without BV were compared with an equal number of women with BV. Lactobacilli were isolated from all healthy women, but from only 10% of Indian and 50% of US women with BV. 16S rDNA from 164 Lactobacillus colonies was sequenced from healthy women (126 colonies) and women with BV (38 colonies). Seven cultivable Lactobacillus species were isolated from 11 Indian women and nine species from 15 US women. The majority of Lactobacillus species among Indian women were L. crispatus (25.0%), L. jensenii (25.0%) and L. reuteri (16.7%). Among US women, L. crispatus (32.0%), L. jensenii (20.0%) and L. coleohominis (12.0%) predominated. L. jensenii and L. crispatus dominated the vaginal flora of healthy Indian and US women. Indian women appeared to have a higher percentage of obligate heterofermentative species, suggesting the need for a larger degree of metabolic flexibility and a more challenging vaginal environment. © 2014 The Authors.

  7. The Voice of Silence in Communication-from cross-culture perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹琪雯

    2014-01-01

    This paper makes a study of silence from cross-culture perspective and holds that silence is an indispensable compo-nent of human communication without which the proper decoding of the information would be impossible.

  8. Parental Acceptance-Rejection: Theory, Methods, Cross-Cultural Evidence, and Implications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ronald P. Rohner; Abdul Khaleque; David E. Cournoyer

    2005-01-01

    ...). The theory focuses primarily on parental love-its expressions, impact, and origins. Nearly 2,000 studies in the United States and cross-culturally confirm the widely held belief that children everywhere need acceptance (love...

  9. The cross-cultural generalizability and validity of the Multicultural Personality Questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leone, L; Van der Zee, KI; van Oudenhoven, JP; Perugini, M; Ercolani, AP

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined the validity of the Multicultural Personality Questionnaire (MPQ), an instrument designed to measure five personality dimensions linked to multicultural orientation and adaptation. First, the cross-cultural generalizability of the scales was investigated across Italian (N

  10. Cross-Cultural Challenges in Web-Based Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolanle A. Olaniran

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Web Based Instruction (WBI possesses great potential for delivering e-learning solutions into Lower Economically Disadvantaged Countries (LEDCs and organizations with virtual networks of employees spread across the globe. However, these e-learning solutions are not without cross-cultural challenges. In order to adequately utilize these resources, it is imperative that developers and organizations understand how to address differences in norms, preferences and values of culturally diverse individuals when designing WBI. When instruction does not effectively address student needs, users can be distracted, or even discouraged, from completing instruction and quite possibly reject the technology through which the instruction is delivered. The purpose of this paper is to present an examination of cross cultural challenges in implementing WBI, through a discussion of Hofstede’s (1980 cultural dimensions, cultural technology perceptions, language barriers and user needs. The paper concludes with a discussion the implications of WBI and future trends in WBI design.

  11. A Cross - cultural Study of the Brand Name Vocabulary%英语品牌名称词汇的跨文化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭萍萍

    2013-01-01

      Brand name vocabulary is the highly cognitive words in any culture . Brand name vocabulary reflectes every aspects of a culture such as a nation's tradition ,religion , literary works and popular culture etc .Pragmatically speaking ,the misuse of the brand name vocabulary leads to cultural conflicts and the failure in sales and bussiness activities .Therefore , in cross - cultural communications brand name vocabulary is essential . The use of brand name vocabulary must observe the rules . On the pragmatic problem of the brand name vocabulary three - division method should be employed .%  品牌名称词汇在任何文化中都是认知度很高的词汇。品牌名称词汇反映了这个国家的传统文化、宗教、文学作品和流行文化等文化的各个方面。品牌名称词汇的语用失误会导致文化冲突,并进而影响到该品牌商品的销售,甚至导致商业活动的失败。因此,品牌名称词汇在跨文化的商业活动中的语用问题显得尤为重要。在跨文化的商业活动中,品牌名称词汇的使用必须遵守相关原则。对于品牌名称词汇的语用问题应采用三分法进行处理。

  12. A Bumpy Border Crossing into the Teaching Culture on a U.S. Campus: Experience of a Chinese Faculty Member

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qiang; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Shaoan

    2013-01-01

    Guided by cultural border crossing and teacher identity development theories, this case study explores the bumpy process of a junior Chinese faculty member's border crossing into the U.S. teaching culture and analyzes the challenges, coping strategies, and consequences of his border crossing on teaching and teacher identity development. The…

  13. Cross-cultural Pragmatic Analysis on Speech Act

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟威

    2014-01-01

    The theory of speech acts tells us that when words are uttered, they perform three different kinds of speech acts. But cross-cultural communication raises a question that the same locutionary acts may perform different illocutionary acts and perlo-cutionary acts, and in order to achieve the same illocutionary acts and perlocutionary acts, people with different native languages may employ different locutionary acts to avoid the pragmatic failure. This paper aims to illustrate the differences on greeting, re-questing, and rejecting between Chinese and Americans, focus on the cultural factors in language and cross-cultural communica-tion, and using the fundamental cross-cultural theories to analyze the distinctions, such as Austin ’s Speech Act Theory, Brown and Levinson Face Theory, Edward T Hall’s High-Context and Low-Context Communication, and Hofestede’s Value Dimen-sions. Finally, it tells the English learners to focus on the cultural difference in the cross-cultural communication to achieve the successful communication.

  14. Inter-Cultural Competence and Cross-Border Inter-firm Learning Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John

    2006-01-01

    Studies in cross-cultural management and cross-border interfirm relations have been among the dominant research themes in international business management during the last three decades. There are significant commonalities in the foundational thoughts underlying these studies and there have been...

  15. Inter-Cultural Competence and Cross-Border Inter-firm Learning Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John

    2006-01-01

    Studies in cross-cultural management and cross-border interfirm relations have been among the dominant research themes in international business management during the last three decades. There are significant commonalities in the foundational thoughts underlying these studies and there have been ...

  16. Predicting civil religion at a cross-cultural level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavrič Miran

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of civil religion has caught major attention among scholars studying the junction of religion and politics (J.-J. Rousseau, E. Durkheim, R. Bellah. The notion focuses on the phenomenon of cultural contents sacralizing and ritualizing the ruling political institutions of a society, extending support to the integration of the political and social system at a cultural level. The notion of civil religion has recently been operationalized crossculturally, but light has not been shed upon its predictors. In this paper authoritarianism is tested as a predictor of civil religion cross-culturally. Four student samples of Bosnian, Serbian, Slovenian and US students were analyzed. Very strong, significant associations between authoritarianism, as operationalized by a modified Lane scale, and civil religion were found in all cases. Moreover, upon introducing femininity, anxiety and gender into the analysis, a strong, dominant and significant impact on the part of authoritarianism was still found when civil religion was observed crossculturally. When the same predictors were applied to explaining general religiosity, authoritarianism fell short of being a significant predictor in most of the environments observed. Such results suggest an especially close link between civil religion and authoritarianism.

  17. Simulation experiences of paramedic students: a cross-cultural examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams B

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Brett Williams,1 Chloe Abel,1 Eihab Khasawneh,2 Linda Ross,1 Tracy Levett-Jones31Department of Community Emergency Health & Paramedic Practice, Monash University, Frankston, Victoria, Australia; 2Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan; 3School of Nursing and Midwifery, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales, AustraliaBackground: Simulation-based education is an important part of paramedic education and ­training. While accessing clinical placements that are adequate in quality and quantity continues to be challenging, simulation is being recognized by paramedic academics as a potential alternative. Examining students’ satisfaction of simulation, particularly cross-culturally is therefore important in providing feedback to academic teaching staff and the international paramedic community.Objective: This study aimed to compare simulation satisfaction among paramedic students from universities in Australia and Jordan.Methods: A cross-sectional study using a paper-based English version of the Satisfaction with Simulation Experience Scale was administered to paramedic students from all year levels.Results: A total of 511 students participated in this study; 306 students (60% from Australia (Monash University and 205 students (40% from Jordan (Jordan University of Science and Technology. There were statistically significant differences with large effect size noted in all three original factors between Australian and Jordanian students: debrief and feedback (mean =38.66 vs mean =34.15; P<0.001; d=0.86, clinical reasoning (mean =21.32 vs mean =18.28; P<0.001; d=0.90, and clinical learning (mean =17.59 vs mean =15.47; P<0.001; d=1.12.Conclusion: This study has demonstrated that simulation education is generally well received by students in Australia and Jordan although Australian students reported having higher satisfaction levels then their Jordanian counterparts. These results

  18. Measurement in Cross-Cultural Neuropsychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedraza, Otto; Mungas, Dan

    2010-01-01

    The measurement of cognitive abilities across diverse cultural, racial, and ethnic groups has a contentious history, with broad political, legal, economic, and ethical repercussions. Advances in psychometric methods and converging scientific ideas about genetic variation afford new tools and theoretical contexts to move beyond the reflective analysis of between-group test score discrepancies. Neuropsychology is poised to benefit from these advances to cultivate a richer understanding of the factors that underlie cognitive test score disparities. To this end, the present article considers several topics relevant to the measurement of cognitive abilities across groups from diverse ancestral origins, including fairness and bias, equivalence, diagnostic validity, item response theory, and differential item functioning. PMID:18814034

  19. Pragmatic Failures in Cross-Cultural Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴西

    2015-01-01

    Pragmatics was only invented in 1973 and its first major theory,Speech Act Theory,did not take shape until the 50s. G.Leech argues that“we cannot really understand the nature of language itself unless we understand pragmatics:how language is used in communication.” Therefore,the most important element in pragmatics is the context.According to Thomas,pragmatic failure can be divided into two levels:pragmalinguistic failure and socio-pragmatic failure.Therefore,communicative competence must include pragmalinguistic competence and sociopragmatic competence,if inter-cultural pragmatic problems are to be avoided.The paper aims to analyze the causes of pragmatic failures and solutions to this problem will be presented.

  20. Pragmatic Failures in Cross-Cultural Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴西

    2015-01-01

    Pragmatics was only invented in 1973 and its first major theory,Speech Act Theory,did not take shape until the 50s.G.Leech argues that"we cannot really understand the nature of language itself unless we understand pragmatics:how language is used in communication."Therefore,the most important element in pragmatics is the context.According to Thomas,pragmatic failure can be divided into two levels:pragmalinguistic failure and socio-pragmatic failure.Therefore,communicative competence must include pragmalinguistic competence and sociopragmatic competence,if inter-cultural pragmatic problems are to be avoided.The paper aims to analyze the causes of pragmatic failures and solutions to this problem will be presented.