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Sample records for crop structure incidence

  1. Significant relationship between soil bacterial community structure and incidence of bacterial wilt disease under continuous cropping system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Siyuan; Niu, Jiaojiao; Zhang, Chao; Xiao, Yunhua; Chen, Wu; Dai, Linjian; Liu, Xueduan; Yin, Huaqun

    2017-03-01

    Soil bacteria are very important in biogeochemical cycles and play significant role in soil-borne disease suppression. Although continuous cropping is responsible for soil-borne disease enrichment, its effect on tobacco plant health and how soil bacterial communities change are yet to be elucidated. In this study, soil bacterial communities across tobacco continuous cropping time-series fields were investigated through high-throughput sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA genes. The results showed that long-term continuous cropping could significantly alter soil microbial communities. Bacterial diversity indices and evenness indices decreased over the monoculture span and obvious variations for community structures across the three time-scale tobacco fields were detected. Compared with the first year, the abundances of Arthrobacter and Lysobacter showed a significant decrease. Besides, the abundance of the pathogen Ralstonia spp. accumulated over the monoculture span and was significantly correlated with tobacco bacterial wilt disease rate. Moreover, Pearson's correlation demonstrated that the abundance of Arthrobacter and Lysobacter, which are considered to be beneficial bacteria had significant negative correlation with tobacco bacterial wilt disease. Therefore, after long-term continuous cropping, tobacco bacterial wilt disease could be ascribed to the alteration of the composition as well as the structure of the soil microbial community.

  2. The effect of crop protection strategy on pest and beneficials incidence in protected crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, I; Rodrigues, S; Figueiredo, E; Godinho, M C; Marques, C; Amaro, F; Mexia, A

    2002-01-01

    This study took place in the Oeste region from 1996-1999 and it intended to analyse if the crop protection strategy followed by the farmer influenced the arthropod incidence and the natural control in protected vegetable crops under Mediterranean conditions. The observations were made fortnightly (Autumn/Winter) or weekly (Spring/Summer) in 30-60 plants/parcel (1 plant/35 m2) in order to evaluate incidences. Samples of pests and natural enemies were collected for systematic identification in two greenhouses for each protection strategy (traditional chemical control (TCC), integrated pest management (IPM) and pest control allowed in organic farming (OF)) in lettuce, tomato, green beans and cucumber. Data on incidence of mites, aphids, caterpillars, leafminers, whiteflies, thrips and respective natural enemies were registered as well as phytosanitary treatments performed (farmers' information and/or in loco traces). The leafminers were the pest whose incidence more often presented significant statistical differences between the studied protection strategies. In relation to this pest, the main results obtained were: a higher feeding punctures incidence in TCC than in IPM; higher incidence of adults, mines and feeding punctures in TCC than in OF; and a higher mines' incidence in IPM than in OF. Both in TCC and IPM high percentages of plants with mines were found although without an adult proportional presence. In the first case this was due to the repeatedly phytosanitary treatments applied; in the second case it was due to the natural control, since in IPM and OF greenhouses the collected larvae were mostly parasitized or dead. In spite of the fact these two strategies have as final result a similar mines and adults incidence, their production and environmental costs are quite different. Significant differences at the beneficials' population level between TCC greenhouses and IPM or OF greenhouses were found. As the farmers did no biological treatments these

  3. Water footprint of crop production for different crop structures in the Hebei southern plain, North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yingmin; Shen, Yanjun; Yuan, Zaijian

    2017-06-01

    The North China Plain (NCP) has a serious shortage of freshwater resources, and crop production consumes approximately 75 % of the region's water. To estimate water consumption of different crops and crop structures in the NCP, the Hebei southern plain (HSP) was selected as a study area, as it is a typical region of groundwater overdraft in the NCP. In this study, the water footprint (WF) of crop production, comprised of green, blue and grey water footprints, and its annual variation were analyzed. The results demonstrated the following: (1) the WF from the production of main crops was 41.8 km3 in 2012. Winter wheat, summer maize and vegetables were the top water-consuming crops in the HSP. The water footprint intensity (WFI) of cotton was the largest, and for vegetables, it was the smallest; (2) the total WF, WFblue, WFgreen and WFgrey for 13 years (2000-2012) of crop production were 604.8, 288.5, 141.3 and 175.0 km3, respectively, with an annual downtrend from 2000 to 2012; (3) winter wheat, summer maize and vegetables consumed the most groundwater, and their blue water footprint (WFblue) accounted for 74.2 % of the total WFblue in the HSP; (4) the crop structure scenarios analysis indicated that, with approximately 20 % of arable land cultivated with winter wheat-summer maize in rotation, 38.99 % spring maize, 10 % vegetables and 10 % fruiters, a sustainable utilization of groundwater resources can be promoted, and a sufficient supply of food, including vegetables and fruits, can be ensured in the HSP.

  4. Water footprint of crop production for different crop structures in the Hebei southern plain, North China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Chu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The North China Plain (NCP has a serious shortage of freshwater resources, and crop production consumes approximately 75 % of the region's water. To estimate water consumption of different crops and crop structures in the NCP, the Hebei southern plain (HSP was selected as a study area, as it is a typical region of groundwater overdraft in the NCP. In this study, the water footprint (WF of crop production, comprised of green, blue and grey water footprints, and its annual variation were analyzed. The results demonstrated the following: (1 the WF from the production of main crops was 41.8 km3 in 2012. Winter wheat, summer maize and vegetables were the top water-consuming crops in the HSP. The water footprint intensity (WFI of cotton was the largest, and for vegetables, it was the smallest; (2 the total WF, WFblue, WFgreen and WFgrey for 13 years (2000–2012 of crop production were 604.8, 288.5, 141.3 and 175.0 km3, respectively, with an annual downtrend from 2000 to 2012; (3 winter wheat, summer maize and vegetables consumed the most groundwater, and their blue water footprint (WFblue accounted for 74.2 % of the total WFblue in the HSP; (4 the crop structure scenarios analysis indicated that, with approximately 20 % of arable land cultivated with winter wheat–summer maize in rotation, 38.99 % spring maize, 10 % vegetables and 10 % fruiters, a sustainable utilization of groundwater resources can be promoted, and a sufficient supply of food, including vegetables and fruits, can be ensured in the HSP.

  5. Behavior of hybrid corn crop as second rot incidence in West Region Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Sérgio Rosset

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence and influence of stalk rot and ear in cultivation of hybrid corn second crop in west region Paraná. The experiment was conducted in randomized block design with six transgenic corn hybrids (DKB 330PRO, P4285HX, P3646HX, 30F53HX, P3340HX and P3161HX with four replications at spacing of 0.90 m between rows and 0.20 m between plants. The characteristics evaluated were: number of healthy and symptomatic plants, number of ears healthy and symptomatic and total number of spikes. After harvest, we assessed the length of ears healthy and symptomatic, bulk grain ears healthy and symptomatic, thousand grain weight of ears healthy and symptomatic, and grain mass per spike weighted, thousand grain weight and weighted productivity. The hybrid P3646HX showed 100% of plants with stem base rot (Colletotrichum graminicola and soft rot cob (Erwinia chrysanthemi pv. Zeae and 100% of ears with symptoms of soft rot, followed by hybrid 30F53HX, DKB 330PRO with 34.9 and 29.1% of ears with symptoms of soft rot respectively. The hybrid DKB330PRO showed healthy spikes and patients with superior size, resulting in less interference in the grain yield. The hybrid P3340 productivity was higher, with 7952 kg ha-1 , followed by hybrid 30F53HX and DKB330PRO. A positive correlation between agronomic characteristics and grain yield.

  6. Effect of Incident Rainfall Redistribution by Maize Canopy on Soil Moisture at the Crop Row Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Martello

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The optimization of irrigation use in agriculture is a key challenge to increase farm profitability and reduce its ecological footprint. To this context, an understanding of more efficient irrigation systems includes the assessment of water redistribution at the microscale. This study aimed to investigate rainfall interception by maize canopy and to model the soil water dynamics at row scale as a result of rain and sprinkler irrigation with HYDRUS 2D/3D. On average, 78% of rainfall below the maize canopy was intercepted by the leaves and transferred along the stem (stemflow, while only 22% reached the ground directly (throughfall. In addition, redistribution of the water with respect to the amount (both rain and irrigation showed that the stemflow/throughfall ratio decreased logarithmically at increasing values of incident rainfall, suggesting the plant capacity to confine the water close to the roots and diminish water stress conditions. This was also underlined by higher soil moisture values observed in the row than in the inter-row at decreasing rainfall events. Modelled data highlighted different behavior in terms of soil water dynamics between simulated irrigation water distributions, although they did not show significant changes in terms of crop water use efficiency. These results were most likely affected by the soil type (silty-loam where the experiment was conducted, as it had unfavorable physical conditions for the rapid vertical water movement that would have increased infiltration and drainage.

  7. Electronic structure of incident carbon ions on a graphite surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiuchi, Masato; Takeuchi, Takae; Yamamoto, Masao.

    1997-01-01

    The electronic structure of an incident carbon ion on a graphite surface is discussed on the basis of ab initio molecular orbital calculations. A carbon cation forms a covalent bond with the graphite, and a carbon nonion is attracted to the graphite surface through van der Waals interaction. A carbon anion has no stable state on a graphite surface. The charge effects of incident ions become clear upon detailed examination of the electronic structure. (author)

  8. Quantifying the effect of crop spatial arrangement on weed suppression using functional-structural plant modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Jochem B; Bastiaans, Lammert

    2016-05-01

    Suppression of weed growth in a crop canopy can be enhanced by improving crop competitiveness. One way to achieve this is by modifying the crop planting pattern. In this study, we addressed the question to what extent a uniform planting pattern increases the ability of a crop to compete with weed plants for light compared to a random and a row planting pattern, and how this ability relates to crop and weed plant density as well as the relative time of emergence of the weed. To this end, we adopted the functional-structural plant modelling approach which allowed us to explicitly include the 3D spatial configuration of the crop-weed canopy and to simulate intra- and interspecific competition between individual plants for light. Based on results of simulated leaf area development, canopy photosynthesis and biomass growth of the crop, we conclude that differences between planting pattern were small, particularly if compared to the effects of relative time of emergence of the weed, weed density and crop density. Nevertheless, analysis of simulated weed biomass demonstrated that a uniform planting of the crop improved the weed-suppression ability of the crop canopy. Differences in weed suppressiveness between planting patterns were largest with weed emergence before crop emergence, when the suppressive effect of the crop was only marginal. With simultaneous emergence a uniform planting pattern was 8 and 15 % more competitive than a row and a random planting pattern, respectively. When weed emergence occurred after crop emergence, differences between crop planting patterns further decreased as crop canopy closure was reached early on regardless of planting pattern. We furthermore conclude that our modelling approach provides promising avenues to further explore crop-weed interactions and aid in the design of crop management strategies that aim at improving crop competitiveness with weeds.

  9. Incidence and molecular diversity of poleroviruses infecting cucurbit crops and weed plants in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheewachaiwit, S; Warin, N; Phuangrat, B; Rukpratanporn, S; Gajanandana, O; Balatero, C H; Chatchawankanphanich, O

    2017-07-01

    Overall, 244 samples of cucurbit crops with yellowing symptoms and selected weed species, from 15 provinces in Thailand, were screened by RT-PCR using primers Polero-CP-F and Polero-CP-R. A total of 160 samples (~66%) were infected by poleroviruses. Analysis of a 1.4 kb region covering the 3' RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene, the intergenic non-coding region (iNCR), and the coat protein (CP), showed that four poleroviruses, namely, cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV), luffa aphid-borne yellows virus (LABYV), melon aphid-borne yellows virus (MABYV) and suakwa aphid-borne yellows virus (SABYV) were associated with the yellowing symptoms in cucurbit crops. Further analyses indicated presence of putative recombinant viruses referred to as CABYV-R and SABYV-R. CABYV-R was derived from the recombination between MABYV and the common strain of CABYV (CABYV-C). SABYV-R was derived from the recombination of MABYV and SABYV.

  10. A spatial ecology study on the effects of field conditions and crop rotation on the incidence of Plectris aliena (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) grub damage to sweetpotato roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, Nancy L; Osborne, Jason; Abney, Mark R

    2013-10-01

    A farmscape study was conducted in commercial sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) fields in Columbus County, NC, in 2010 and 2011 to investigate the effects of the following field conditions: soil drainage class, soil texture, field size, border habitat, land elevation, and the previous year's crop rotation on the incidence of damage caused by Plectris aliena Chapman (Coleoptera:Scarabaeidae) larval feeding. Soil drainage and crop rotation significantly affected the incidence of damage to roots, with well drained soils having a low estimated incidence of damaged roots (0.004) compared with all other drainage classes (0.009-0.011 incidence of damaged roots). Fields with soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merr] planted the preceding year had the highest incidence of root damage (0.15) compared with all other crops. The effects of border habitats, which were adjacent to grower fields where roots were sampled, showed that as the location of the roots was closer to borders of soybean (planted the year before) or grass fields, the chance of damage to roots decreased. Results indicate that growers can use crop rotation as a management technique and avoid planting sweetpotatoes the year after soybeans to reduce the incidence of P. aliena larval feeding on sweetpotato roots. Environmental conditions such as fields with poor drainage and certain border habitats may be avoided, or selected, by growers to reduce risk of damage to roots by P. aliena.

  11. Effect of sunflower climbing bean intercroping system on insect pest incidence and crop productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuey, R.K.; Koros, I.; Wanyonyi, W.

    2001-01-01

    Intercropping of sunflower and climping beans were evaluated for pest incidence and yield advantages during the main season of 2000/2001 at KARI-NPBRC, Njoro. Three sunflower varieties, Fedha, Record, PAN-7553 and three climbing beans varieties, Puebla, Omukingi and Flora were laid out in a complete randomised block design with four replications. Sunflower was spaced at 75 x 30 cm while the climbing beans were spaced at 50 x 37.5 cm. Assessment of pest damage on various treatments commenced 17 days after planting. Results showed that low plant germination was mainly a result of dry weather and taht cutworm damage was insignificant. There was a sunflower x climbing bean variety interaction, which regulated the aphid infestation of the climbing beans. Sunflower variety PAN-7553 recorded significantly (P<0.01) more pecked heads than the other two varieties. (author)

  12. [Effects of crop tree release on stand growth and stand structure of Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian-qiang; Wang, Yi-xiang; Yang, Yi; Zhu, Ting-ting; Zhu, Xu-dan

    2015-02-01

    Crop trees were selected in a 26-year-old even-aged Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation in Lin' an, and compared in plots that were released and unreleased to examine growth and structure responses for 3 years after thinning. Crop tree release significantly increased the mean increments of diameter and volume of individual tree by 1.30 and 1.25 times relative to trees in control stands, respectively. The increments of diameter and volume of crop trees were significantly higher than those of general trees in thinning plots, crop trees and general trees in control plots, which suggested that the responses from different tree types to crop tree release treatment were different. Crop tree release increased the average distances of crop trees to the nearest neighboring trees, reducing competition among crop trees by about 68.2%. 3-year stand volume increment for thinning stands had no significant difference with that of control stands although the number of trees was only 81.5% of the control. Crop trees in thinned plots with diameters over than 14 cm reached 18.0% over 3 years, compared with 12.0% for trees without thinning, suggesting that crop tree release benefited the larger individual trees. The pattern of tree locations in thinning plots tended to be random, complying with the rule that tree distribution pattern changes with growth. Crop tree release in C. lanceolata plantation not only promoted the stand growth, but also optimized the stand structure, benefiting crop trees sustained rapid growth and larger diameter trees production.

  13. Using Multi-Spectral UAV Imagery to Extract Tree Crop Structural Properties and Assess Pruning Effects

    KAUST Repository

    Johansen, Kasper; Raharjo, Tri; McCabe, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) provide an unprecedented capacity to monitor the development and dynamics of tree growth and structure through time. It is generally thought that the pruning of tree crops encourages new growth, has a positive effect

  14. Structure and location of macronutrients in ancient and alternative crops (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Structure, histochemistry and composition of mature seeds of several ancient or alternative crops were studied by light and electron microscopies to localize specific macronutrients including protein, starch, non-starch carbohydrates and lipid. Botanically, these seeds fall into different classifica...

  15. Time-Varying Estimation of Crop Insurance Program in Altering North Dakota Farm Economic Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Coleman, Jane A.; Shaik, Saleem

    2009-01-01

    This study examines how federal farm policies, specifically crop insurance, have affected the farm economic structure of North Dakota’s agriculture sector. The system of derived input demand equations is estimated to quantify the changes in North Dakota farmers’ input use when they purchase crop insurance. Further, the cumulative rolling regression technique is applied to capture the varying effects of the farm policies over time. Empirical results from the system of input demand functions in...

  16. Uncertain and multi-objective programming models for crop planting structure optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo LI,Ping GUO,Liudong ZHANG,Chenglong ZHANG

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Crop planting structure optimization is a significant way to increase agricultural economic benefits and improve agricultural water management. The complexities of fluctuating stream conditions, varying economic profits, and uncertainties and errors in estimated modeling parameters, as well as the complexities among economic, social, natural resources and environmental aspects, have led to the necessity of developing optimization models for crop planting structure which consider uncertainty and multi-objectives elements. In this study, three single-objective programming models under uncertainty for crop planting structure optimization were developed, including an interval linear programming model, an inexact fuzzy chance-constrained programming (IFCCP model and an inexact fuzzy linear programming (IFLP model. Each of the three models takes grayness into account. Moreover, the IFCCP model considers fuzzy uncertainty of parameters/variables and stochastic characteristics of constraints, while the IFLP model takes into account the fuzzy uncertainty of both constraints and objective functions. To satisfy the sustainable development of crop planting structure planning, a fuzzy-optimization-theory-based fuzzy linear multi-objective programming model was developed, which is capable of reflecting both uncertainties and multi-objective. In addition, a multi-objective fractional programming model for crop structure optimization was also developed to quantitatively express the multi-objective in one optimization model with the numerator representing maximum economic benefits and the denominator representing minimum crop planting area allocation. These models better reflect actual situations, considering the uncertainties and multi-objectives of crop planting structure optimization systems. The five models developed were then applied to a real case study in Minqin County, north-west China. The advantages, the applicable conditions and the solution methods

  17. Effect of green manure crops and organic amendments on incidence of nematode-borne tobacco rattle virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoon, F.C.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.; Heij, de A.; Asjes, C.J.; Ende, van den J.E.

    2002-01-01

    Tobacco rattle tobravirus (TRV) may infect several ornamental bulb crops and is transmitted by trichodorid nematodes. Paratrichodorus teres, P. pachydermus and Trichodorus similis are the main vectors in the Netherlands. In field experiments the effects of various pre-crops and organic amendments on

  18. [Mass maritime casualty incidents in German waters: structures and resources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castan, J; Paschen, H-R; Wirtz, S; Dörges, V; Wenderoth, S; Peters, J; Blunk, Y; Bielstein, A; Kerner, T

    2012-07-01

    The Central Command for Maritime Emergencies was founded in Germany in 2003 triggered by the fire on board of the cargo ship "Pallas" in 1998. Its mission is to coordinate and direct measures at or above state level in maritime emergency situations in the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. A special task in this case is to provide firefighting and medical care. To face these challenges at sea emergency doctors and firemen have been specially trained. This form of organization provides a concept to counter mass casualty incidents and peril situations at sea. Since the foundation of the Central Command for Maritime Emergencies there have been 5 operations for firefighting units and 4 for medical response teams. Assignments and structure of the Central Command for Maritime Emergencies are unique in Europe.

  19. Active Micro structured Optical Arrays of Grazing Incidence Reflectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willingale, R.; Feldman, Ch.; Michette, A.; Hart, D.; McFaul, Ch; Morrison, G.R.; Pfauntsch, S.; Powell, A.K.; Sahraei, Sh.; Shand, M.T.; Button, T.; Rodriguez-Sanmartin, D.; Zhang, D.; Dunare, C.; Parkes, W.; Stevenson, T.; Folkard, M.; Vojnovic, B.; Vojnovic, B.

    2011-01-01

    The UK Smart X-Ray Optics (SXO) programme is developing active/adaptive optics for terrestrial applications. One of the technologies proposed is micro structured optical arrays (MOAs), which focus X-rays using grazing incidence reflection through consecutive aligned arrays of microscopic channels. Although such arrays are similar in concept to poly capillary and microchannel plate optics, they can be bent and adjusted using piezoelectric actuators providing control over the focusing and inherent aberrations. Custom configurations can be designed, using ray tracing and finite element analysis, for applications from sub-keV to several-keV X-rays, and the channels of appropriate aspect ratios can be made using deep silicon etching. An exemplar application will be in the micro probing of biological cells and tissue samples using Ti Ka radiation (4.5?keV) in studies related to radiation-induced cancers. This paper discusses the optical design, modelling, and manufacture of such optics

  20. Structure of bacterial communities in soil following cover crop and organic fertilizer incorporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Adria L; Sheaffer, Craig C; Wyse, Donald L; Staley, Christopher; Gould, Trevor J; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2016-11-01

    Incorporation of organic material into soils is an important element of organic farming practices that can affect the composition of the soil bacterial communities that carry out nutrient cycling and other functions crucial to crop health and growth. We conducted a field experiment to determine the effects of cover crops and fertilizers on bacterial community structure in agricultural soils under long-term organic management. Illumina sequencing of 16S rDNA revealed diverse communities comprising 45 bacterial phyla in corn rhizosphere and bulk field soil. Community structure was most affected by location and by the rhizosphere effect, followed by sampling time and amendment treatment. These effects were associated with soil physicochemical properties, including pH, moisture, organic matter, and nutrient levels. Treatment differences were apparent in bulk and rhizosphere soils at the time of peak corn growth in the season following cover crop and fertilizer application. Cover crop and fertilizer treatments tended to lower alpha diversity in early season samples. However, winter rye, oilseed radish, and buckwheat cover crop treatments increased alpha diversity in some later season samples compared to a no-amendment control. Fertilizer treatments and some cover crops decreased relative abundance of members of the ammonia-oxidizing family Nitrosomonadaceae. Pelleted poultry manure and Sustane® (a commercial fertilizer) decreased the relative abundance of Rhizobiales. Our data point to a need for future research exploring how (1) cover crops influence bacterial community structure and functions, (2) these effects differ with biomass composition and quantity, and (3) existing soil conditions and microbial community composition influence how soil microbial populations respond to agricultural management practices.

  1. Effects of atmospheric sulfur dioxide on the incidence of injury symptoms in vegetable crops and on their growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, T; Ishikawa, H

    1971-05-01

    Four types of fruit crops (tomato, eggplant, cucumber, and green pepper), two types of root crops (turnip and radish), and four types of leaf crops (Chinese cabbage, cabbage, lettuce, and spinach) were continuously exposed for periods of 14-56 days to gas with a concentration of 0-0.26 ppm in order to study the effects of SO/sub 2/ on vegetable crops. The injury symptoms which were observed included: grayish-white or brown flecks on the leaves, yellowing of the leaves, and morphological changes in the leaves. The green peppers and radishes had the greatest resistance to SO/sub 2/ of all the vegetable crops tested; no injury symptoms appeared at 0.26 ppm; and there was no inhibition of their growth. The spinach was the most sensitive, injury symptoms appearing in one day (during summer and autumn) at 0.26 ppm. The other crops displayed a medium degree of sensitivity. That is, no injury symptoms appeared at a low concentration of 0.065 ppm; inhibition of growth was observed only in turnips, Chinese cabbage, and cabbage; but the others were not inhibited. There were no direct effects on flowering and fruiting within the experimental range of gas concentrations. Injury symptoms tended to appear less readily during the winter season.

  2. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Collard Landraces and their Relationship to Other Brassica oleracea Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra E. Pelc

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Landraces have the potential to provide a reservoir of genetic diversity for crop improvement to combat the genetic erosion of the food supply. A landrace collection of the vitamin-rich specialty crop collard ( L. var. was genetically characterized to assess its potential for improving the diverse crop varieties of . We used the Illumina 60K SNP BeadChip array with 52,157 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs to (i clarify the relationship of collard to the most economically important crop types, (ii evaluate genetic diversity and population structure of 75 collard landraces, and (iii assess the potential of the collection for genome-wide association studies (GWAS through characterization of genomic patterns of linkage disequilibrium. Confirming the collection as a valuable genetic resource, the collard landraces had twice the polymorphic markers (11,322 SNPs and 10 times the variety-specific alleles (521 alleles of the remaining crop types examined in this study. On average, linkage disequilibrium decayed to background levels within 600 kilobase (kb, allowing for sufficient coverage of the genome for GWAS using the physical positions of the 8273 SNPs polymorphic among the landraces. Although other relationships varied, the previous placement of collard with the cabbage family was confirmed through phylogenetic analysis and principal coordinates analysis (PCoA.

  3. Impact of Cropping Systems, Soil Inoculum, and Plant Species Identity on Soil Bacterial Community Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaq, Suzanne L; Johnson, Stephen P; Miller, Zach J; Lehnhoff, Erik A; Olivo, Sarah; Yeoman, Carl J; Menalled, Fabian D

    2017-02-01

    Farming practices affect the soil microbial community, which in turn impacts crop growth and crop-weed interactions. This study assessed the modification of soil bacterial community structure by organic or conventional cropping systems, weed species identity [Amaranthus retroflexus L. (redroot pigweed) or Avena fatua L. (wild oat)], and living or sterilized inoculum. Soil from eight paired USDA-certified organic and conventional farms in north-central Montana was used as living or autoclave-sterilized inoculant into steam-pasteurized potting soil, planted with Am. retroflexus or Av. fatua and grown for two consecutive 8-week periods to condition soil nutrients and biota. Subsequently, the V3-V4 regions of the microbial 16S rRNA gene were sequenced by Illumina MiSeq. Treatments clustered significantly, with living or sterilized inoculum being the strongest delineating factor, followed by organic or conventional cropping system, then individual farm. Living inoculum-treated soil had greater species richness and was more diverse than sterile inoculum-treated soil (observed OTUs, Chao, inverse Simpson, Shannon, P soil contained more Chloroflexi and Acidobacteria, while the sterile inoculum soil had more Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Gemmatimonadetes, and Verrucomicrobia. Organically farmed inoculum-treated soil had greater species richness, more diversity (observed OTUs, Chao, Shannon, P soil. Cyanobacteria were higher in pots growing Am. retroflexus, regardless of inoculum type, for three of the four organic farms. Results highlight the potential of cropping systems and species identity to modify soil bacterial communities, subsequently modifying plant growth and crop-weed competition.

  4. Genetic structure of farmer-managed varieties in clonally-propagated crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarcelli, N; Tostain, S; Vigouroux, Y; Luong, V; Baco, M N; Agbangla, C; Daïnou, O; Pham, J L

    2011-08-01

    The relative role of sexual reproduction and mutation in shaping the diversity of clonally propagated crops is largely unknown. We analyzed the genetic diversity of yam-a vegetatively-propagated crop-to gain insight into how these two factors shape its diversity in relation with farmers' classifications. Using 15 microsatellite loci, we analyzed 485 samples of 10 different yam varieties. We identified 33 different genotypes organized in lineages supported by high bootstrap values. We computed the probability that these genotypes appeared by sexual reproduction or mutation within and between each lineage. This allowed us to interpret each lineage as a product of sexual reproduction that has evolved by mutation. Moreover, we clearly noted a similarity between the genetic structure and farmers' classifications. Each variety could thus be interpreted as being the product of sexual reproduction having evolved by mutation. This highly structured diversity of farmer-managed varieties has consequences for the preservation of yam diversity.

  5. Distribution, utilization structure and potential of biomass resources in rural China: With special references of crop residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, H [Laboratory of Quantitative Vegetation Ecology, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20 Nanxincun, Xiangshan, Beijing 100093 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Jiang, G M [Laboratory of Quantitative Vegetation Ecology, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20 Nanxincun, Xiangshan, Beijing 100093 (China); Agronomy Department, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai' an 271018, Shandong Province (China); Zhuang, H Y [National Bio-Energy CO., LTD, No. 26B, Financial Street, Xicheng District, Beijing 100032 (China); Shandong Academy of Sciences, No. 19, Keyuan Road, Ji' nan 250014, Shandong Province (China); Wang, K J [Agronomy Department, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai' an 271018, Shandong Province (China)

    2008-06-15

    As the largest developing country in the world, China is urgently in short of energy and natural resources. However, biological resources such as crop residues are burnt in the field, which cause serious environmental pollution. Still it is not clear how much storage and potential of these huge crop residues are in China. This paper firstly reported the distribution, utilization structure and potential of crop biomass and provided the tangible information of crop residues in rural China through careful collecting and recalculating data. From 1995 to 2005, China produces some 630 million tons of crop residues per year, 50% of which comes from east and central south of China. The amount of crop residues is 1.3 times of the total yield of crops, 2 times of the total fodder of grassland, which covers 41% of China's territory. Crop residues of corn, wheat and rice amounted to 239, 137 and 116 million tons, respectively, accounting for nearly 80% of the total crop residues. Unfortunately, the utilizing structure is seriously improper for such abundant biomass resources. Although 23% of the crop residues are used for forage, 4% for industry materials and 0.5% for biogas, the large parts are used with lower efficiency or wasted, with 37% being directly combusted by farmers, 15% lost during collection and the rest 20.5% discarded or directly burnt in the field. Reasonable adjustment of the utilizing pattern and popularization of the recycling agriculture are essential out-ways for residues, with the development of the forage industry being the breakthrough point. We suggested that utilizing the abandoned 20.5% of the total residues for forage and combining agriculture and stock raising can greatly improve the farm system and cut down fertilizer pollution. Through the development of forage industries, the use efficiency of crop residues could be largely enhanced. Commercializing and popularizing technologies of biomass gasification and liquefaction might be substitute

  6. Simultaneous improvement in productivity, water use, and albedo through crop structural modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewry, Darren T; Kumar, Praveen; Long, Stephen P

    2014-06-01

    Spanning 15% of the global ice-free terrestrial surface, agricultural lands provide an immense and near-term opportunity to address climate change, food, and water security challenges. Through the computationally informed breeding of canopy structural traits away from those of modern cultivars, we show that solutions exist that increase productivity and water use efficiency, while increasing land-surface reflectivity to offset greenhouse gas warming. Plants have evolved to maximize capture of radiation in the upper leaves, thus shading competitors. While important for survival in the wild, this is suboptimal in monoculture crop fields for maximizing productivity and other biogeophysical services. Crop progenitors evolved over the last 25 million years in an atmosphere with less than half the [CO2] projected for 2050. By altering leaf photosynthetic rates, rising [CO2] and temperature may also alter the optimal canopy form. Here using soybean, the world's most important protein crop, as an example we show by applying optimization routines to a micrometeorological leaf canopy model linked to a steady-state model of photosynthesis, that significant gains in production, water use, and reflectivity are possible with no additional demand on resources. By modifying total canopy leaf area, its vertical profile and angular distribution, and shortwave radiation reflectivity, all traits available in most major crop germplasm collections, increases in productivity (7%) are possible with no change in water use or albedo. Alternatively, improvements in water use (13%) or albedo (34%) can likewise be made with no loss of productivity, under Corn Belt climate conditions. © 2014 California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  7. Quantifying the effect of crop spatial arrangement on weed suppression using functional-structural plant modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, Jochem B.; Bastiaans, Lammert

    2016-01-01

    Suppression of weed growth in a crop canopy can be enhanced by improving crop competitiveness. One way to achieve this is by modifying the crop planting pattern. In this study, we addressed the question to what extent a uniform planting pattern increases the ability of a crop to compete with weed

  8. Modeling patient safety incidents knowledge with the Categorial Structure method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souvignet, Julien; Bousquet, Cédric; Lewalle, Pierre; Trombert-Paviot, Béatrice; Rodrigues, Jean Marie

    2011-01-01

    Following the WHO initiative named World Alliance for Patient Safety (PS) launched in 2004 a conceptual framework developed by PS national reporting experts has summarized the knowledge available. As a second step, the Department of Public Health of the University of Saint Etienne team elaborated a Categorial Structure (a semi formal structure not related to an upper level ontology) identifying the elements of the semantic structure underpinning the broad concepts contained in the framework for patient safety. This knowledge engineering method has been developed to enable modeling patient safety information as a prerequisite for subsequent full ontology development. The present article describes the semantic dissection of the concepts, the elicitation of the ontology requirements and the domain constraints of the conceptual framework. This ontology includes 134 concepts and 25 distinct relations and will serve as basis for an Information Model for Patient Safety.

  9. Population structure of Cynara cardunculus complex and the origin of the conspecific crops artichoke and cardoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, Angela; De Paola, Domenico; Bagnoli, Francesca; Vendramin, Giovanni Giuseppe; Sonnante, Gabriella

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Globe artichoke and leafy cardoon, two crops within the same species Cynara cardunculus, are traditionally cultivated in the Mediterranean region and play a significant role in the agricultural economy of this area. The two cultigens have different reproductive systems: artichoke is generally vegetatively propagated, while leafy cardoon is seed propagated. The domestication events underlying the origin of both artichoke and cultivated cardoon from their wild relative and the area of occurrence are not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate population structure in wild cardoon, globe artichoke and leafy cardoon material and infer domestication events. Methods Thirty-five microsatellite (simple sequence repeat) markers, distributed in the C. cardunculus genome, and a large geographical and numerical sampling in southern Europe and North Africa were used to assess population structure and diversity. Key Results The results suggest the presence of two distinct domestication events for artichoke and leafy cardoon, and also suggest a new possible scenario, with western wild cardoon having originated from cultivated cardoon escaped from cultivation. Evidence was found for a demographic bottleneck in the past history of globe artichoke. Conclusions The results shed new light on the relationships between the three taxa of C. cardunculus and highlight relevant aspects on the evolution of domestication of two crops with a different reproductive system within the same species. It is proposed that the probable centre of origin of artichoke is located in southern Italy, probably Sicily. PMID:23877076

  10. Population structure of Cynara cardunculus complex and the origin of the conspecific crops artichoke and cardoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, Angela; De Paola, Domenico; Bagnoli, Francesca; Vendramin, Giovanni Giuseppe; Sonnante, Gabriella

    2013-09-01

    Globe artichoke and leafy cardoon, two crops within the same species Cynara cardunculus, are traditionally cultivated in the Mediterranean region and play a significant role in the agricultural economy of this area. The two cultigens have different reproductive systems: artichoke is generally vegetatively propagated, while leafy cardoon is seed propagated. The domestication events underlying the origin of both artichoke and cultivated cardoon from their wild relative and the area of occurrence are not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate population structure in wild cardoon, globe artichoke and leafy cardoon material and infer domestication events. Thirty-five microsatellite (simple sequence repeat) markers, distributed in the C. cardunculus genome, and a large geographical and numerical sampling in southern Europe and North Africa were used to assess population structure and diversity. The results suggest the presence of two distinct domestication events for artichoke and leafy cardoon, and also suggest a new possible scenario, with western wild cardoon having originated from cultivated cardoon escaped from cultivation. Evidence was found for a demographic bottleneck in the past history of globe artichoke. The results shed new light on the relationships between the three taxa of C. cardunculus and highlight relevant aspects on the evolution of domestication of two crops with a different reproductive system within the same species. It is proposed that the probable centre of origin of artichoke is located in southern Italy, probably Sicily.

  11. Monoculture Maize (Zea mays L. Cropped Under Conventional Tillage, No-tillage and N Fertilization: (II Fumonisin Incidence on Kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Marocco

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Planting maize under no-tillage is an increasing farming practice for sustainable agriculture and sound environmental management. Although several studies on yield of no-till maize have been done, there is few information about the effect of tillage on fumonisin contamination. The present study was done to determine the effect of notillage and conventional tillage with two rates of nitrogen on fumonisin content in kernels of continuous maize. Average grain contamination with fumonisins B1 and B2 over the years 2004-06 was not significantly different, with mean values of 1682, 1984 and 2504 μg kg-1, respectively. Fumonisin B1 was the most abundant toxin found in the samples. No-tillage significantly affected the incidence of fumonisins during the first year of the trial, in which fumonisin content was significantly higher with no-till (2008 μg kg-1 compared with conventional tillage (1355 μg kg-1. However, no-tillage did not significantly affect the incidence of fumonisins in the second and third years of the study. Fumonisin content at the rate of 300 kg N ha-1 was not statistically different compared to that obtained without N fertilization. The interaction between the soil management system and the rate of applied nitrogen was only evident in the second year. Our results indicate that fumonisin contamination was affected by no-tillage only in the first year. Nitrogen fertilization had no significant effect on fumonisin content in any year. The weather conditions during susceptible stages of maize development have probably overridden the effect of nitrogen fertilization.

  12. Distribution Frequency and Incidence of Seed-borne Pathogens of Some Cereals and Industrial Crops in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Lević

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 41 species of fungi were isolated from seed samples of barley, maize, soybean,and sunflower collected at different locations in Serbia. The majority of detected speciesoccurred on barley (35 of 41 species or 87.8% comparing to soybean (17 of 41 species or41.5%, sunflower (16 of 41 species or 39.0% and maize (15 of 41 species or 36.9%. Speciesbelonging to genera Alternaria, Chaetomium, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Penicillium and Rhizopuswere present on seeds of all four plant species. Alternaria species were dominant on soybean,barley and sunflower seeds (85.7%, 84.7% and 76.9%. F. verticillioides and Penicilliumspp. were mainly isolated from maize seeds (100 and 92.3% respectively, while other specieswere isolated up to 38.5% (Chaetomium spp. and Rhizopus spp.. F. graminearum, F. proliferatum,F. poae and F. sporotrichioides were the most common Fusarium species isolatedfrom barley (51.1-93.3%, while on the soybean seeds F. oxysporum (71.4%, F. semitectum(57.1% and F. sporotrichioides (57.1% were prevalent. Frequency of Fusarium species onsunflower seeds varied from 7% (F. equiseti, F. graminearum, F. proliferatum and F. subglutinansto 15.4% (F. verticillioides. Statistically significant negative correlation (r = –0.678* wasdetermined for the incidence of F. graminearum and Alternaria spp., as well as, Fusarium spp.and Alternaria spp. (r = –0.614*, on barley seeds. The obtained results revealed that seedbornepathogens were present in most seed samples of important cereals and industrialcrops grown under different agroecological conditions in Serbia. Some of the identifiedfungi are potential producers of mycotoxins, thus their presence is important in termsof reduced food safety for humans and animals. Therefore, an early and accurate diagnosisand pathogen surveillance will provide time for the development and the applicationof disease strategies.

  13. Weed populations and crop rotations: exploring dynamics of a structured periodic system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mertens, S.K.; Bosch, F. van den; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.

    2002-01-01

    The periodic growing of a certain set of crops in a prescribed order, called a crop rotation, is considered to be an important tool for managing weed populations. Nevertheless, the effects of crop rotations on weed population dynamics are not well understood. Explanations for rotation effects on

  14. New uses of clover-grass mixtures in the structure of fodder crops on arable land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Sláma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of clover-grasses in the structure of fodder crops grown on arable soil, especially those with intergeneric hybrids as the main component part, could avert the negative current trend, i.e. further decreasing the area of perennial fodder plants or fodder crops as a whole on arable soil. They have an irreplaceable role in crop sequences and in preserving the cultural character of the countryside, above all due to the fact that they improve soil fertility and microbial life in the soil and that they have an excellent pre-produce value, and, at the same time, they are applied in various farming systems (both conventional and ecological and in various climatic conditions, and agricultural businesses are well equipped for growing, harvesting and storing them. In the Czech Republic, the area of fodder crops grown on arable soil was decreased from 1,019.9 thousand hectares to mere 396.7 thousand hectares between 1980 and 2009, which is 15.6 % of the total area of arable soil whereas perennial fodder plants only take up 8.5 %. Fodder from clover crops and clover-grass growths on arable soil are one of the main resources of voluminous fodder for dairy cows. Most of this fodder is preserved through a fermentation process (silages, hay storage; a smaller part is fed as fresh fodder, or serves for production of hay. Silages made with perennial fodder plants are the most important source of both proteins and other nutrients for ruminants, especially for high-yielding milch cows. The basis of fodder production systems are the conservative elements of the landscape area (geomorphology in combination with the progressive elements (weather conditions, plants and human labour and relict ones, the representative of which is the soil. The fodder production systems in Europe are divided into five main fodder production zones. From this point of view, the areas where short-term clover-grass mixtures are grown on arable soil could be classed with Zone 4, i

  15. Yield and yield structure of spring barley (Hodeum vulgare L. grown in monoculture after different stubble crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Gawęda

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted in the period 2006- 2008 in the Uhrusk Experimental Farm belonging to the University of Life Sciences in Lublin. The experimental factor was the type of stubble crop ploughed in each year after harvest of spring barley: white mustard, lacy phacelia, winter rape, and a mixture of narrow-leaf lupin with field pea. In the experiment, successive spring barley crops were grown one after the other (in continuous monoculture. The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the effect of stubble crops used on the size and structure of barley yield. The three-year study showed an increasing trend in grain yield of spring barley grown after the mixture of legumes, lacy phacelia, and white mustard compared to its size in the treatment with no cover crop. Straw yield was significantly higher when barley was grown after the mixture of narrowleaf lupin with field pea than in the other treatments of the experiment. The type of ploughed-in stubble crop did not modify significantly plant height, ear length, and grain weight per ear. Growing the mixture of leguminous plants as a cover crop resulted in a significant increase in the density of ears per unit area in barley by an average of 14.7% relative to the treatment with winter rape. The experiment also showed the beneficial effect of the winter rape cover crop on 1000-grain weight of spring barley compared to that obtained in the treatments with white mustard and the mixture of legumes. All the cover crops caused an increase in the number of grains per ear of barley relative to that found in the control treatment. However, this increase was statistically proven only for the barley crops grown after lacy phacelia and the mixture of legumes.

  16. Split-field FDTD method for oblique incidence study of periodic dispersive metallic structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baida, F I; Belkhir, A

    2009-08-15

    The study of periodic structures illuminated by a normally incident plane wave is a simple task that can be numerically simulated by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. On the contrary, for off-normal incidence, a widely modified algorithm must be developed in order to bypass the frequency dependence appearing in the periodic boundary conditions. After recently implementing this FDTD algorithm for pure dielectric materials, we here extend it to the study of metallic structures where dispersion can be described by analytical models. The accuracy of our code is demonstrated through comparisons with already-published results in the case of 1D and 3D structures.

  17. Long-term rotation and tillage effects on soil structure and crop yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Heck, R; Deen, B

    2013-01-01

    long-term rotation and tillage treatment experiment on a Canadian silt loam soil. Topsoil measurements were carried out for three different rotations: R1, (C–C–C–C) continuous corn (Zea mays L.), R6, (C–C–O(RC), B(RC)) corn, corn, oats (Avena fatua L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and R8, (C......–C–S–S) corn, corn, soybean (Glycine max L.), soybean. A red clover (Trifolium pretense L.) cover crop was under seeded in oats and spring barley in R6. In 2010, first year corn was grown in R6 and R8. The tillage treatments included no tillage, NT and mouldboard ploughing, MP. Topsoil structural quality...

  18. A survey on technical efficiency, marketing and market structure of saffron crop, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Shaban

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The current study attempted to determine technical efficiency as well as study the marketing and market structure of Saffarn crop in Iran. To access the research goals 140 farms, 25 retailers and 14 wholesalers randomly selected. The necessary data collected through interview and filling questionarie. Apart from this, some agricultural Expert from selected cities of Razavi province have been chosen to interview. To determine the market time-series data for the period of 1995-12 was used. To determine technical efficiency DEA method, to calculate marketing margins Digbi method and to find market structure concentration ratio and Herfindal index were used. The results indicated that, the average technical efficiency was 63.49 and minimum and maximum technical efficiency respectively 19.04 and 100, retailer margin mean of Saffron was more than wholesale margin mean and average marketing cost coefficient of Saffron was about 14.78. It means that, marketing factors share in final price is 14.78. Address to the results the Saffaran’s market structure is oligopoly.

  19. Using Multi-Spectral UAV Imagery to Extract Tree Crop Structural Properties and Assess Pruning Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper Johansen

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV provide an unprecedented capacity to monitor the development and dynamics of tree growth and structure through time. It is generally thought that the pruning of tree crops encourages new growth, has a positive effect on fruiting, makes fruit-picking easier, and may increase yield, as it increases light interception and tree crown surface area. To establish the response of pruning in an orchard of lychee trees, an assessment of changes in tree structure, i.e., tree crown perimeter, width, height, area and Plant Projective Cover (PPC, was undertaken using multi-spectral UAV imagery collected before and after a pruning event. While tree crown perimeter, width and area could be derived directly from the delineated tree crowns, height was estimated from a produced canopy height model and PPC was most accurately predicted based on the NIR band. Pre- and post-pruning results showed significant differences in all measured tree structural parameters, including an average decrease in tree crown perimeter of 1.94 m, tree crown width of 0.57 m, tree crown height of 0.62 m, tree crown area of 3.5 m2, and PPC of 14.8%. In order to provide guidance on data collection protocols for orchard management, the impact of flying height variations was also examined, offering some insight into the influence of scale and the scalability of this UAV-based approach for larger orchards. The different flying heights (i.e., 30, 50 and 70 m produced similar measurements of tree crown width and PPC, while tree crown perimeter, area and height measurements decreased with increasing flying height. Overall, these results illustrate that routine collection of multi-spectral UAV imagery can provide a means of assessing pruning effects on changes in tree structure in commercial orchards, and highlight the importance of collecting imagery with consistent flight configurations, as varying flying heights may cause changes to tree structural measurements.

  20. Using Multi-Spectral UAV Imagery to Extract Tree Crop Structural Properties and Assess Pruning Effects

    KAUST Repository

    Johansen, Kasper

    2018-04-18

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) provide an unprecedented capacity to monitor the development and dynamics of tree growth and structure through time. It is generally thought that the pruning of tree crops encourages new growth, has a positive effect on fruiting, makes fruit-picking easier, and may increase yield, as it increases light interception and tree crown surface area. To establish the response of pruning in an orchard of lychee trees, an assessment of changes in tree structure, i.e. tree crown perimeter, width, height, area and Plant Projective Cover (PPC), was undertaken using multi-spectral UAV imagery collected before and after a pruning event. While tree crown perimeter, width and area could be derived directly from the delineated tree crowns, height was estimated from a produced canopy height model and PPC was most accurately predicted based on the NIR band. Pre- and post-pruning results showed significant differences in all measured tree structural parameters, including an average decrease in tree crown perimeter of 1.94 m, tree crown width of 0.57 m, tree crown height of 0.62 m, tree crown area of 3.5 m2, and PPC of 14.8%. In order to provide guidance on data collection protocols for orchard management, the impact of flying height variations was also examined, offering some insight into the influence of scale and the scalability of this UAV based approach for larger orchards. The different flying heights (i.e. 30, 50 and 70 m) produced similar measurements of tree crown width and PPC, while tree crown perimeter, area and height measurements decreased with increasing flying height. Overall, these results illustrate that routine collection of multi-spectral UAV imagery can provide a means of assessing pruning effects on changes in tree structure in commercial orchards, and highlight the importance of collecting imagery with consistent flight configurations, as varying flying heights may cause changes to tree structural measurements.

  1. Influence on ultrasonic incident angle and defect detection sensitivity by cast stainless steel structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurozumi, Y.

    2004-01-01

    It is well known that ultrasonic waves are affected strongly by macro-structures in cast stainless steel, as in the primary pipe or other components in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). In this work, ultrasonic refractive angles and defect detection sensitivities are investigated at different incident angles to cast stainless steel. The aims of the investigation are to clarify the transmission of ultrasonic waves in cast stainless steel and to contribute to the transducer design. The results are that ultrasonic refractive angles in cast stainless steel shift towards the 45-degree direction with respect to the direction of dendritic structures by 11.8 degrees at the maximum and that the sensitivity of transducer for inner surface breaking cracks increases with decreasing incident angle. However, in an ultrasonic inspection of actual welds at smaller incident angles, a trade-off occurs between increased defect detection sensitivity and decreased defect discrimination capability due to intense false signals produced by non-defective features. (orig.)

  2. Preparedness of emergency departments in northwest England for managing chemical incidents: a structured interview survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Darren

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of significant chemical incidents occur in the UK each year and may require Emergency Departments (EDs to receive and manage contaminated casualties. Previously UK EDs have been found to be under-prepared for this, but since October 2005 acute hospital Trusts have had a statutory responsibility to maintain decontamination capacity. We aimed to evaluate the level of preparedness of Emergency Departments in North West England for managing chemical incidents. Methods A face-to-face semi-structured interview was carried out with the Nurse Manager or a nominated deputy in all 18 Emergency Departments in the Region. Results 16/18 departments had a written chemical incident plan but only 7 had the plan available at interview. All had a designated decontamination area but only 11 felt that they were adequately equipped. 12/18 had a current training programme for chemical incident management and 3 had no staff trained in decontamination. 13/18 could contain contaminated water from casualty decontamination and 6 could provide shelter for casualties before decontamination. Conclusion We have identified major inconsistencies in the preparedness of North West Emergency Departments for managing chemical incidents. Nationally recognized standards on incident planning, facilities, equipment and procedures need to be agreed and implemented with adequate resources. Issues of environmental safety and patient dignity and comfort should also be addressed.

  3. Vitality structure of the populations of some weed species in crop sowings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Tikhonova

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Features of development of populations of weed species (Cirsium arvense (L. Scop., Sonchus arvensis L., Melandium album (Mill. Garke, Setaria glauca (L. Beauv., Fallopia convolvulus (L. А. Lоve in most typical crops in the forest-steppe zone of the Sumy region. It was studied the crop sowings (winter wheat, rye, barley, buckwheat, pea which was not subjected to the herbicide treatment.

  4. Brain function and structure and risk for incident diabetes: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancks, Michael P; Alonso, Alvaro; Gottesman, Rebecca F; Mosley, Thomas H; Selvin, Elizabeth; Pankow, James S

    2017-12-01

    Diabetes is prospectively associated with cognitive decline. Whether lower cognitive function and worse brain structure are prospectively associated with incident diabetes is unclear. We analyzed data for 10,133 individuals with cognitive function testing (1990-1992) and 1212 individuals with brain magnetic resonance imaging (1993-1994) from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities cohort. We estimated hazard ratios for incident diabetes through 2014 after adjustment for traditional diabetes risk factors and cohort attrition. Higher level of baseline cognitive function was associated with lower risk for diabetes (per 1 standard deviation, hazard ratio = 0.94; 95% confidence interval = 0.90, 0.98). This association did not persist after accounting for baseline glucose level, case ascertainment methods, and cohort attrition. No association was observed between any brain magnetic resonance imaging measure and incident diabetes. This is one of the first studies to prospectively evaluate the association between both cognitive function and brain structure and the incidence of diabetes. Copyright © 2017 the Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Simultaneous Improvement in Water Use, Productivity and Albedo Through Crop Structural Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewry, D.; Kumar, P.; Long, S.

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural lands provide a tremendous opportunity to address challenges at the intersection of climate change, food and water security. Global demand for the major grain and seed crops is beginning to outstrip production, while population growth and the expansion of the global middle class have motivated calls for a doubling of food production by the middle of this century. This is occurring as yield gains for the major food crops have stagnated. At current rates of yield improvement this doubling will not be achieved. Plants have evolved to maximize the capture of radiation in the upper leaves, resulting in sub-optimal monoculture crop fields for maximizing productivity and other biogeophysical services. Using the world's most important protein crop, soybean, as an example, we show that by applying numerical optimization to a micrometeorological crop canopy model that significant, simultaneous gains in water use, productivity and reflectivity are possible with no increased demand on resources. Here we apply the MLCan multi-layer canopy biophysical model, which vertically resolves the radiation and micro-environmental variations that stimulate biochemical and ecophysiological functions that govern canopy-atmosphere exchange processes. At each canopy level photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and energy balance are solved simultaneously for shaded and sunlit foliage. A multi-layer sub-surface model accounts for water availability as a function of root biomass distribution. MLCan runs at sub-hourly temporal resolution, allowing it to capture variability in CO2, water and energy exchange as a function of environmental variability. By modifying total canopy leaf area, its vertical distribution, leaf angle, and shortwave radiation reflectivity, all traits available in most major crop germplasm collections, we show that increases in either productivity (7%), water use (13%) or albedo (34%) could be achieved with no detriment to the other objectives, under United

  6. Distribution and incidence of atoxigenic Aspergillus flavus VCG in tree crop orchards in California: A strategy for identifying potential antagonists, the example of almonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picot, Adeline; Doster, Mark; Islam, Md-Sajedul; Callicott, Kenneth; Ortega-Beltran, Alejandro; Cotty, Peter; Michailides, Themis

    2018-01-16

    To identify predominant isolates for potential use as biocontrol agents, Aspergillus flavus isolates collected from soils of almond, pistachio and fig orchard in the Central Valley of California were tested for their membership to 16 atoxigenic vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs), including YV36, the VCG to which AF36, an atoxigenic isolate commercialized in the United States as biopesticide, belongs. A surprisingly large proportion of isolates belonged to YV36 (13.3%, 7.2% and 6.6% of the total almond, pistachio and fig populations, respectively), while the percentage of isolates belonging to the other 15 VCGs ranged from 0% to 2.3%. In order to gain a better insight into the structure and diversity of atoxigenic A. flavus populations and to further identify predominant isolates, seventeen SSR markers were then used to genetically characterize AF36, the 15 type-isolates of the VCGs and 342 atoxigenic isolates of the almond population. There was considerable genetic diversity among isolates with a lack of differentiation among micro-geographical regions or years. Since isolates sharing identical SSR profiles from distinct orchards were rare, we separated them into groups of at least 3 closely-related isolates from distinct orchards that shared identical alleles for at least 15 out of the 17 loci. This led to the identification of 15 groups comprising up to 24 closely-related isolates. The group which contained the largest number of isolates were members of YV36 while five groups were also found to be members of our studied atoxigenic VCGs. These results suggest that these 15 groups, and AF36 in particular, are well adapted to various environmental conditions in California and to tree crops and, as such, are good candidates for use as biocontrol agents. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Grazing incidence diffraction anomalous fine structure of self-assembled semiconductor nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenier, S.; Letoublon, A.; Proietti, M.G.; Renevier, H.; Gonzalez, L.; Garcia, J.M.; Priester, C.; Garcia, J.

    2003-01-01

    We have studied self-organized quantum wires of InAs, grown by molecular beam epitaxy onto a InP(0 0 1) substrate, by means of grazing incidence diffraction anomalous fine structure (DAFS). The equivalent quantum wires thickness is 2.5 monolayers. We measured the (4 4 0) and (4 2 0) GIDAFS spectra, at the As K-edge, keeping the incidence and exit angles close to the InP critical angle. The analysis of both the smooth and oscillatory contributions of the DAFS spectrum, provide valuable information about composition and strain inside the quantum wires and close to the interface. We also show preliminary results on InAs wires encapsulated by a 40 A thick InP capping layer, suggesting the DAFS capability of probing different iso-strain regions of the wires

  8. Population structure from NOS genes correlates with geographical differences in coronary incidence across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreras-Torres, Robert; Ferran, Albert; Zanetti, Daniela; Esteban, Esther; Varesi, Laurent; Pojskic, Naris; Coia, Valentina; Chaabani, Hassen; Via, Marc; Moral, Pedro

    2016-12-01

    The population analysis of cardiovascular risk and non-risk genetic variation can help to identify adaptive or random demographic processes that shaped coronary incidence variation across geography. In this study, 114 single nucleotide polymorphisms and 17 tandem repeat polymorphisms from Nitric Oxide Synthases (NOS) regions were analyzed in 1686 individuals from 35 populations from Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East. NOS genes encode for key enzymes on nitric oxide availability, which is involved in several cardiovascular processes. These genetic variations were used to test for selection and to infer the population structure of NOS regions. Moreover, we tested whether the variation in the incidence of coronary events and in the levels of classical risk factors in 11 of these European populations could be explained by the population structure estimates. Our results supported, first, the absence of clear signs of selection for NOS genetic variants associated with cardiovascular diseases, and second, the presence of a continuous genetic pattern of variation across European and North African populations without a Mediterranean barrier for gene flow. Finally, population structure estimates from NOS regions are closely correlated with coronary event rates and classical risk parameters (explaining 39-98%) among European populations. Our results reinforce the hypothesis that genetic bases of cardiovascular diseases and associated complex phenotypes could be geographically shaped by random demographic processes. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Effect of pre-sowing soil tillage for wheat on the crop structure and the yield components in Dobrudzha region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Yankov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The investigation was carried out in the trial field of Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute on slightly leached chernozem soil. In order to clarify the effect of some types of pre-sowing soil tillage for wheat on the crop structure and certain yield components, the following variants of a stationary field experiment were analyzed: double disking at depth 10-12 cm (check variant; ploughing at 14-16 cm + disking; no-tillage (direct sowing – pre-sowing treatment of the area with total herbicides. Wheat was sown after previous crop grain maize and was fertilized with N P K . Wheat cultivar Enola was planted at norm 550 germinating 140 120 80 2 seeds/m . The number of emerging wheat plants was read using square sampling frames sized 50 cm x 50 cm. Using the same sampling frames, the tillering in autumn prior to the wintering of the crops was followed, and in spring – prior to booting stage. The number of productive tillers was also read using these sampling frames. To determine the length of spike, the number of grains in it, and their weight, 30 spikes from 8 replications of each variant were analyzed. The emerging of the wheat plants, under the conditions of slightly leached chernozem soil in Dobrudzha region, was more uniform after sowing following disking, and after direct sowing. The minimal pre-sowing tillage and no-tillage for wheat ensured better autumn development of the crop and the plants. In these variants, higher number of overwintering plants and productive tillers per unit area were registered. Spike length was the highest after ploughing as pre-sowing tillage. Significant variations in the number of grains per spike of the investigated variants were not found. Grain weight per spike was the lowest under direct sowing.

  10. NAC Transcription Factors in Senescence: From Molecular Structure to Function in Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmara Podzimska-Sroka

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Within the last decade, NAC transcription factors have been shown to play essential roles in senescence, which is the focus of this review. Transcriptome analyses associate approximately one third of Arabidopsis NAC genes and many crop NAC genes with senescence, thereby implicating NAC genes as important regulators of the senescence process. The consensus DNA binding site of the NAC domain is used to predict NAC target genes, and protein interaction sites can be predicted for the intrinsically disordered transcription regulatory domains of NAC proteins. The molecular characteristics of these domains determine the interactions in gene regulatory networks. Emerging local NAC-centered gene regulatory networks reveal complex molecular mechanisms of stress- and hormone-regulated senescence and basic physiological steps of the senescence process. For example, through molecular interactions involving the hormone abscisic acid, Arabidopsis NAP promotes chlorophyll degradation, a hallmark of senescence. Furthermore, studies of the functional rice ortholog, OsNAP, suggest that NAC genes can be targeted to obtain specific changes in lifespan control and nutrient remobilization in crop plants. This is also exemplified by the wheat NAM1 genes which promote senescence and increase grain zinc, iron, and protein content. Thus, NAC genes are promising targets for fine-tuning senescence for increased yield and quality.

  11. Types of structural chromosome aberrations and their incidences in human spermatozoa X-irradiated in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiguchi, Yujiroh; Tateno, Hiroyuki; Mikamo, Kazuya (Asahikawa Medical College (Japan). Department of Biological Sciences)

    1990-02-01

    The authors studied the effects of in vitro X-irradiation on human sperm chromosomes, using our interspecific in vitro fertilization system between human spermatozoa and zona-free hamster oocytes. 28 semen samples from 5 healthy men were exposed to 0.23, 0.45, 0.91 and 1.82 Gy of X-rays. Totals of 2098 and 2862 spermatozoa were karyotyped in the control and the irradiated groups, respectively. The indicence of spermatozoa with X-ray-induced structural chromosome aberrations (Y) increased linearly with increasing dosage (D), being best expressed by the equation, Y = 0.08 + 34.52 D. The incidence of breakage-type aberrations was moe than 9 times higher than that of exchange-type aberrations. Both of them showed linear dose-dependent increases, which were expressed by the regression lines, Y = -0.014 + 0.478 D and Y -0.010 + 0.057 D, respectively. The incidence of chromosome-ltype aberrations was about 6 times higher than that of chromatid-type aberrations. Their dose-dependent increases were expressed by the regression lines, Y = -0.015 + 0.462 D and Y = -0.006 + 0.079 D, respectively. These results are discussed in relation to the previous data obtained with {gamma}-rays. The repair mechanism of X-ray-induced sperm DNA lesions is also discussed. (author). 21 refs.; 4 figs.; 4 tabs.

  12. Structured surface reflector design for oblique incidence beam splitter at 610 GHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defrance, F; Casaletti, M; Sarrazin, J; Wiedner, M C; Gibson, H; Gay, G; Lefèvre, R; Delorme, Y

    2016-09-05

    An iterative alternate projection-based algorithm is developed to design structured surface reflectors to operate as beam splitters at GHz and THz frequencies. To validate the method, a surface profile is determined to achieve a reflector at 610 GHz that generates four equal-intensity beams towards desired directions of ±12.6° with respect to the specular reflection axis. A prototype is fabricated and the beam splitter behavior is experimentally demonstrated. Measurements confirm a good agreement (within 1%) with computer simulations using Feko, validating the method. The beam splitter at 610 GHz has a measured efficiency of 78% under oblique incidence illumination that ensures a similar intensity between the four reflected beams (variation of about 1%).

  13. Characterizing the dependence of vegetation model parameters on crop structure, incidence angle, and polarization at L-band

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigneron, J-P.; Pardé, M.; Waldteufel, P.

    2004-01-01

    To retrieve soil moisture over vegetation-covered areas from microwave radiometry, it is necessary to account for vegetation effects. At L-band, many retrieval approaches are based on a simple model that relies on two vegetation parameters: the optical depth (tau) and the single-scattering albedo......, wheat, grass, and alfalfa) based on L-band experimental datasets. The results should be useful for developing more accurate forward modeling and retrieval methods over mixed pixels including a variety of vegetation types....

  14. The incidence of chromosome abnormalities in neonates with structural heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykes, John C; Al-mousily, Mohammad F; Abuchaibe, Eda-Cristina; Silva, Jennifer N; Zadinsky, Jennifer; Duarte, Daniel; Welch, Elizabeth

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of chromosomal anomalies in newborns with structural heart disease admitted to the cardiac intensive care unit (CICU) at Nicklaus Children's Hospital (NCH). A retrospective review identified newborns age 30 days or less admitted to NCH CICU between 2004 and 2010. Patients with structural heart disease who required admission to our CICU and received karyotype or karyotype and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) testing were included in the study. All patients were examined for the presence of dysmorphic features. Four hundred and eighty-two patients met the criteria for the study; 405 (84%) received both karyotype and FISH. Chromosome abnormalities were present in 86 (17.8%) patients. Syndromes accounted for 20 (5.1%) of those with normal chromosomes. Dysmorphic features were seen in 79.1% of patients with abnormal chromosomes and 25.5% of those with normal chromosomes. All patients with syndromes were dysmorphic. Race and gender did not significantly affect the incidence of genetic abnormalities. Chromosome abnormalities, including syndromes, are prevalent in newborns with congenital heart disease. Further research is needed to evaluate the utility of cytogenetic screening in all children with congenital heart disease. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. Influência de sistemas de plantio e armadilha adesiva na incidência de Frankliniella williamsi Hood na cultura do milho = Influence of planting systems and adhesive trap on the incidence of Frankliniella williamsi Hood in crop maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Alves de Albuquerque

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa objetivou avaliar a influência de diferentes sistemas de plantio de milho e o efeito de armadilha adesiva na incidência de Frankliniella williamsi Hood. Os tratamentos consistiram no plantio direto do milho sobre aveia dessecada com glyphosate, aveia tombada, aveia roçada e plantas daninhas, aveia incorporada e plantio convencional. Alguns tratamentos foram associados a armadilha adesiva de coloração azul, colocada horizontalmente no centro da parcela. Verificou-se que tanto a presença de armadilha quanto os diferentes sistemas de plantio influíram significativamente na infestação das plantas de milho pelo tripes, sendo que os tratamentos “aveia dessecada” e “aveia roçada e plantas daninhas” apresentaram menor incidência do inseto, com esse efeito diminuindo com o desenvolvimento das plantas.This research aimed to evaluate the influence of different systems of corn planting and the effect of adhesive trap on the incidence ofFrankliniella williamsi. The treatments consisted of sowing the corn seed directly on oats dried by glyphosate, tilt oats, cut oats and weeds, incorporated oats, and also conventional planting. Some treatments were associated with adhesive trap of blue coloration, puthorizontally in the center of the plot. Results showed that the presence of traps, as well as the different planting systems influenced significantly on the thrips infestation, and the treatmentswith "dry oats" and "cut oats and weeds" presented smaller incidence of the insect with a decreasing effect along the plants growth.

  16. Humic substances and its distribution in coffee crop under cover crops and weed control methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Henrique Martins

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Humic substances (HS comprise the passive element in soil organic matter (SOM, and represent one of the soil carbon pools which may be altered by different cover crops and weed control methods. This study aimed to assess HS distribution and characteristics in an experimental coffee crop area subjected to cover crops and cultural, mechanical, and chemical weed control. The study was carried out at Londrina, in the state of Paraná, southern Brazil (23°21’30” S; 51°10’17” W. In 2008, seven weed control/cover crops were established in a randomized block design between two coffee rows as the main-plot factor per plot and soil sampling depths (0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, 20-30 cm and 30-40 cm as a split-plot. HS were extracted through alkaline and acid solutions and analyzed by chromic acid wet oxidation and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Chemical attributes presented variations in the topsoil between the field conditions analyzed. Cover crop cutting and coffee tree pruning residues left on the soil surface may have interfered in nutrient cycling and the humification process. Data showed that humic substances comprised about 50 % of SOM. Although different cover crops and weed control methods did not alter humic and fulvic acid carbon content, a possible incidence of condensed aromatic structures at depth increments in fulvic acids was observed, leading to an average decrease of 53 % in the E4/E6 ratio. Humin carbon content increased 25 % in the topsoil, particularly under crop weed-control methods, probably due to high incorporation of recalcitrant structures from coffee tree pruning residues and cover crops.

  17. Linking canopy reflectance to crop structure and photosynthesis to capture and interpret spatiotemporal dimensions of per-field photosynthetic productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Wei; Jeong, Seungtaek; Ko, Jonghan; Tenhunen, John

    2017-03-01

    Nitrogen and water availability alter canopy structure and physiology, and thus crop growth, yielding large impacts on ecosystem-regulating/production provisions. However, to date, explicitly quantifying such impacts remains challenging partially due to lack of adequate methodology to capture spatial dimensions of ecosystem changes associated with nitrogen and water effects. A data fitting, where close-range remote-sensing measurements of vegetation indices derived from a handheld instrument and an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) system are linked to in situ leaf and canopy photosynthetic traits, was applied to capture and interpret inter- and intra-field variations in gross primary productivity (GPP) in lowland rice grown under flooded conditions (paddy rice, PD) subject to three nitrogen application rates and under rainfed conditions (RF) in an East Asian monsoon region of South Korea. Spatial variations (SVs) in both GPP and light use efficiency (LUEcabs) early in the growing season were enlarged by nitrogen addition. The nutritional effects narrowed over time. A shift in planting culture from flooded to rainfed conditions strengthened SVs in GPP and LUEcabs. Intervention of prolonged drought late in the growing season dramatically intensified SVs that were supposed to seasonally decrease. Nevertheless, nitrogen addition effects on SV of LUEcabs at the early growth stage made PD fields exert greater SVs than RF fields. SVs of GPP across PD and RF rice fields were likely related to leaf area index (LAI) development less than to LUEcabs, while numerical analysis suggested that considering strength in LUEcabs and its spatial variation for the same crop type tends to be vital for better evaluation in landscape/regional patterns of ecosystem photosynthetic productivity at critical phenology stages.

  18. Relationships between Fusarium population structure, soil nutrient status and disease incidence in field-grown asparagus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yergeau, E.; Sommerville, D.W.; Maheux, E.; Vujanovic, V.; Hamel, C.; Whalen, J.K.; St-Arnaud, M.

    2006-01-01

    Fusarium species cause important diseases in many crops. Lack of knowledge on how Fusarium species and strains interact with their environment hampers growth management strategies to control root diseases. A field experiment involving asparagus as host plant and three phosphorus fertilization levels

  19. Influence of cotton crop development and level of irrigation of microbial community structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil microbial population densities can easily reach one billion cells per gram of soil;and soil microbial diversity has been shown to exceed fifty thousand individual species per gram of soil. Soil type and underlying soil structure are considered primary determinants of microbial community structu...

  20. Utilization threshold of surface water and groundwater based on the system optimization of crop planting structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang FU,Jiahong LI,Tianxiao LI,Dong LIU,Song CUI

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on the diversity of the agricultural system, this research calculates the planting structures of rice, maize and soybean considering the optimal economic-social-ecological aspects. Then, based on the uncertainty and randomness of the water resources system, the interval two-stage stochastic programming method, which introduces the uncertainty of the interval number, is used to calculate the groundwater exploitation and the use efficiency of surface water. The method considers the minimum cost of water as the objective of the uncertainty model for surface water and groundwater joint scheduling optimization for different planting structures. Finally, by calculating harmonious entropy, the optimal exploitation utilization interval of surface water and groundwater is determined for optimal cultivation in the Sanjiang Plain. The optimal matching of the planting structure under the economic system is suitable when the mining ratio of the surface is in 44.13%—45.45% and the exploitation utilization of groundwater is in 54.82%—66.86%, the optimal planting structure under the social system is suitable when surface water mining ratio is in 47.84%—48.04% and the groundwater exploitation threshold is in 67.07%—72.00%. This article optimizes the economic-social-ecological-water system, which is important for the development of a water- and food-conserving society and providing a more accurate management environment.

  1. Chemical evaluation of soil organic matter structure in diverse cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil organic matter (SOM) improves soil structure, nutrient and water retention, and biodiversity while reducing susceptibility to soil erosion. SOM also represents an important pool of C that can be increased to help mitigate global climate change. Our understanding of how agricultural management ...

  2. MULTI-TEMPORAL ASSESSMENT OF LYCHEE TREE CROP STRUCTURE USING MULTI-SPECTRAL RPAS IMAGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Johansen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The lychee tree is native to China and produce small fleshy fruit up to 5 cm in diameter. Lychee production in Australia is worth > $20 million annually. Pruning of trees encourages new growth, has a positive effect on fruiting of lychee, makes fruit-picking easier, and may increase yield, as it increases light interception and tree crown surface area. The objective of this research was to assess changes in tree structure, i.e. tree crown circumference, width, height and Plant Projective Cover (PPC using multi-spectral Remotely Piloted Aircraft System (RPAS imagery collected before and after pruning of a lychee plantation. A secondary objective was to assess any variations in the results as a function of various flying heights (30, 50 and 70 m. Pre- and post-pruning results showed significant differences in all measured tree structural parameters, including an average decrease in: tree crown circumference of 1.94 m; tree crown width of 0.57 m; tree crown height of 0.62 m; and PPC of 14.8 %. The different flying heights produced similar measurements of tree crown width and PPC, whereas tree crown circumference and height measurements decreased with increasing flying height. These results show that multi-spectral RPAS imagery can provide a suitable means of assessing pruning efforts undertaken by contractors based on changes in tree structure of lychee plantations and that it is important to collect imagery in a consistent manner, as varying flying heights may cause changes to tree structural measurements.

  3. Application of PCR-denaturing-gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) method to examine microbial community structure in asparagus fields with growth inhibition due to continuous cropping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urashima, Yasufumi; Sonoda, Takahiro; Fujita, Yuko; Uragami, Atsuko

    2012-01-01

    Growth inhibition due to continuous cropping of asparagus is a major problem; the yield of asparagus in replanted fields is low compared to that in new fields, and missing plants occur among young seedlings. Although soil-borne disease and allelochemicals are considered to be involved in this effect, this is still controversial. We aimed to develop a technique for the biological field diagnosis of growth inhibition due to continuous cropping. Therefore, in this study, fungal community structure and Fusarium community structure in continuously cropped fields of asparagus were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction/denaturing-gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). Soil samples were collected from the Aizu region of Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. Soil samples were taken from both continuously cropped fields of asparagus with growth inhibition and healthy neighboring fields of asparagus. The soil samples were collected from the fields of 5 sets in 2008 and 4 sets in 2009. We were able to distinguish between pathogenic and non-pathogenic Fusarium by using Alfie1 and Alfie2GC as the second PCR primers and PCR-DGGE. Fungal community structure was not greatly involved in the growth inhibition of asparagus due to continuous cropping. By contrast, the band ratios of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. asparagi in growth-inhibited fields were higher than those in neighboring healthy fields. In addition, there was a positive correlation between the band ratios of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. asparagi and the ratios of missing asparagus plants. We showed the potential of biological field diagnosis of growth inhibition due to continuous cropping of asparagus using PCR-DGGE.

  4. Vascular Structures of the Right Colon: Incidence and Variations with Their Clinical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsabilah, J; Kim, W R; Kim, N K

    2017-06-01

    There is a demand for a better understanding of the vascular structures around the right colonic area. Although right hemicolectomy with the recent concept of meticulous lymph node dissection is a standardized procedure for malignant diseases among most surgeons, variations in the actual anatomical vascular are not well understood. The aim of the present review was to present a detailed overview of the vascular variation pertinent to the surgery for right colon cancer. Medical literature was searched for the articles highlighting the vascular variation relevant to the right colon cancer surgery. Recently, there have been many detailed studies on applied surgical vascular anatomy based on cadaveric dissections, as well as radiological and intraoperative examinations to overcome misconceptions concerning the arterial supply and venous drainage to the right colon. Ileocolic artery and middle colic artery are consistently present in all patients arising from the superior mesenteric artery. Even though the ileocolic artery passes posterior to the superior mesenteric vein in most of the cases, in some cases courses anterior to the superior mesenteric artery. The right colic artery is inconsistently present ranging from 63% to 10% across different studies. Ileocolic vein and middle colic vein is always present, while the right colic vein is absent in 50% of patients. The gastrocolic trunk of Henle is present in 46%-100% patients across many studies with variation in the tributaries ranging from bipodal to tetrapodal. Commonly, it is found that the right colonic veins, including the right colic vein, middle colic vein, and superior right colic vein, share the confluence forming the gastrocolic trunk of Henle in a highly variable frequency and different forms. Understanding the incidence and variations of the vascular anatomy of right side colon is of crucial importance. Failure to recognize the variation during surgery can result in troublesome bleeding especially during

  5. Organic management and cover crop species steer soil microbial community structure and functionality along with soil organic matter properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez-García, Laura B.; Korthals, Gerard; Brussaard, Lijbert; Jørgensen, Helene Bracht; Deyn, de Gerlinde B.

    2018-01-01

    It is well recognized that organic soil management stimulates bacterial biomass and activity and that including cover crops in the rotation increases soil organic matter (SOM). Yet, to date the relative impact of different cover crop species and organic vs. non-organic soil management on soil

  6. Alternative crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreasen, L.M.; Boon, A.D.

    1992-01-01

    Surplus cereal production in the EEC and decreasing product prices, mainly for cereals, has prompted considerable interest for new earnings in arable farming. The objective was to examine whether suggested new crops (fibre, oil, medicinal and alternative grains crops) could be considered as real alternatives. Whether a specific crop can compete economically with cereals and whether there is a market demand for the crop is analyzed. The described possibilities will result in ca. 50,000 hectares of new crops. It is expected that they would not immediately provide increased earnings, but in the long run expected price developments are more positive than for cereals. The area for new crops will not solve the current surplus cereal problem as the area used for new crops is only 3% of that used for cereals. Preconditions for many new crops is further research activities and development work as well as the establishment of processing units and organizational initiatives. Presumably, it is stated, there will then be a basis for a profitable production of new crops for some farmers. (AB) (47 refs.)

  7. Structural properties and growth evolution of diamond-like carbon films with different incident energies: A molecular dynamics study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiaowei; Ke, Peiling; Zheng, He; Wang, Aiying

    2013-01-01

    Structural properties and growth evolution of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films with different incident energies were investigated systematically by the molecular dynamics simulation using a Tersoff interatomic potential for carbon-carbon interaction. The results revealed that the density, sp 3 fraction and residual compressive stress as a function of incident energy increased firstly and then decreased; when the incident energy was 70 eV/atom, the density could reach to 3.0 g/cm 3 with the maximal compressive stress of 15.5 GPa. Structure analysis indicated that the deviation of both bond angles and lengths from the equilibrium position led to the generation of a large residual stress, while the high compressive stress mainly attributed to the decrease of both bond angles and lengths among carbon atoms. The growth of DLC films underwent a formation process of “Line-Net” structure accompanied with the interaction of many atomic motion mechanisms, and the “Point” stage was only found for DLC films with low incident energy.

  8. Dynamics of soil diazotrophic community structure, diversity, and functioning during the cropping period of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Sandhya; Singh, Dileep Kumar; Annapurna, Kannepalli

    2015-01-01

    The soil sampled at different growth stages along the cropping period of cotton were analyzed using various molecular tools: restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), terminal restriction length polymorphism (T-RFLP), and cloning-sequencing. The cluster analysis of the diazotrophic community structure of early sampled soil (0, 15, and 30 days) was found to be more closely related to each other than the later sampled one. Phylogenetic and diversity analysis of sequences obtained from the first (0 Day; C0) and last soil sample (180 day; C180) confirmed the data. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that C0 was having more unique sequences than C180 (presence of γ-Proteobacteria exclusively in C0). A relatively higher richness of diazotrophic community sequences was observed in C0 (S(ACE) : 30.76; S(Chao1) : 20.94) than C180 (S(ACE) : 18.00; S(Chao1) : 18.00) while the evenness component of Shannon diversity index increased from C0 (0.97) to C180 (1.15). The impact of routine agricultural activities was more evident based on diazotrophic activity (measured by acetylene reduction assay) than its structure and diversity. The nitrogenase activity of C0 (1264.85 ± 35.7 ηmol of ethylene production g(-1) dry soil h(-1) ) was statistically higher when compared to all other values (p structure/diversity and N2 fixation rates. Thus, considerable functional redundancy of nifH was concluded to be existing at the experimental site. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. [Effects of cotton stalk biochar on microbial community structure and function of continuous cropping cotton rhizosphere soil in Xinjiang, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Mei-ying; Tang, Guang-mu; Liu, Hong-liang; Li, Zhi-qiang; Liu, Xiao-wei; Xu, Wan-li

    2016-01-01

    In this study, field trials were conducted to examine the effects of cotton stalk biochar on microbial population, function and structural diversity of microorganisms in rhizosphere soil of continuous cotton cropping field in Xinjiang by plate count, Biolog and DGGE methods. The experiment was a factorial design with four treatments: 1) normal fertilization with cotton stalk removed (NPK); 2) normal fertilization with cotton stalk powdered and returned to field (NPKS); 3) normal fertilization plus cotton stalk biochar at 22.50 t · hm⁻² (NPKB₁); and 4) normal fertilization plus cotton stalk biochar at 45.00 t · hm⁻² (NPKB₂). The results showed that cotton stalk biochar application obviously increased the numbers of bacteria and actinomycetes in the rhizospheric soil. Compared with NPK treatment, the number of fungi was significantly increased in the NPKB₁treatment, but not in the NPKB₂ treatment. However, the number of fungi was generally lower in the biochar amended (NPKB₁, NPKB₂) than in the cotton stalk applied plots (NPKS). Application of cotton stalk biochar increased values of AWCD, and significantly improved microbial richness index, suggesting that the microbial ability of utilizing carbohydrates, amino acids and carboxylic acids, especially phenolic acids was enhanced. The number of DGGE bands of NPKB₂ treatment was the greatest, with some species of Gemmatimonadetes, Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria being enriched. UPGMC Cluster analysis pointed out that bacterial communities in the rhizospheric soil of NPKB₂ treatment were different from those in the NPK, NPKS and NPKB₁treatments, which belonged to the same cluster. These results indicated that application of cotton stalk biochar could significantly increase microbial diversity and change soil bacterial community structure in the cotton rhizosphere soil, thus improving the health of soil ecosystem.

  10. Impacts of the cultivation of energy crops for generation of biogas on the landscape structure and avifauna; Auswirkungen des Energiepflanzenanbaus zur Biogaserzeugung auf Landschaftsstruktur und Avifauna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruehmkorf, Hilke

    2011-07-01

    In its effort to implement new climate and energy policies, Germany has been heavily promoting the adoption of renewable energies. This has brought about a dramatic change in the use of arable land during the last years. The primary objective of this study was therefore to assess the effect of energy cropping on existing landscape structures in intensively cultivated regions in the course of the year. According to the available structural parameters an investigation was conducted to ascertain the fallout of energy plant cultivation on both migratory and overwintering birds. The period covered entailed the winter months. Both the advent of the energy crops as well as the associated biogas facilities that sprang up outside built-in areas seem to have reshaped the existing agricultural landscape. Hence, an additional aim of this study was to identify birds that use biogas plants for breeding or as a feeding habitat in winter. In conclusion, it can be asserted that energy crops can definitely contribute to the expansion of structural diversity in the agricultural landscape provided those energy crops were not cultivated on a large scale prior to the advent of the biogas facilities. Hence, there is still room for further energy crop diversification as its potential has not been exhausted. During the winter months mostly common species such as the carrion crow or the wood pigeon consider the maize fields as a viable source of nutrition. Cranes are seen as newcomers, as they probably started resting in the 'Boerde' precisely due to the advent of energy maize cultivation. And more availability of nourishment when the ground is covered by snow is another benefit the avifauna reaps from biogas plants. However, for endangered farmland birds this type of nutrition is a rarely used source, as it runs counter to their escape strategies and food preferences. For these species the habitat function and the food availability depends especially on how the land is managed (e

  11. THE STRUCTURE AND YIELD LEVEL OF SWEET CORN DEPENDING ON THE TYPE OF WINTER CATCH CROPS AND WEED CONTROL METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Rosa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Organic manuring is suggested to be necessary in sweet corn cultivation. It is not always possible to use farmyard manure due to economic, production or technical reasons. Catch crops used as green manures can be an alternative source of organic matter. The experiment was carried out in central-east Poland (52°06’N, 22°55’E, in years 2008–2011. The successive effect of winter catch crops (hairy vetch, white clover, winter rye, Italian ryegrass, winter turnip rape and the type of weed control on the growth and yielding of sweet corn was examined. The catch crops were sown in early September, incorporated in early May. The effect of the winter catch crops on yield was compared to the effect of FYM at a rate of 30 t·ha-1 and the control without organic manuring. The sweet corn was grown directly after organic fertilization. Three methods of weed control was used: Hw – hand weeding, twice during the growing period, GCM – herbicide Guardian CompleteMix 664 SE, immediately after sowing the seed corn, Z+T – a mixture of herbicides Zeagran 340 SE + Titus 25 WG, in the 3–4 leaf stage sweet corn. The highest yields of biomass were found for winter rye (35.5 t·ha-1 FM and 7.3 t·ha-1 DM, the most of macroelements accumulated winter turnip rape (480.2 kg N+P+K+Ca+Mg·ha-1. Generally, leguminous catch crops had similar to the FYM and better than non-leguminous catch crops yield-forming effect. The highest yield of marketable ears of sweet corn was obtained after FYM (14.4 t·ha-1 and after hairy vetch catch crop (14.0 t·ha-1. A similar yield-forming effect also had white clover and Italian ryegrass. The most of ears from 1 ha was achieved after white clover catch crop (59.3 tausend, similar after FYM and hairy vetch catch crop. The highest kernel yields were found after FYM (10.7 t·ha-1. The yields of kernel after hairy vetch and white clover catch crops were significantly higher than after non-leguminous catch crops. Z+T weed control

  12. Application of Real-Time Automated Traffic Incident Response Plan Management System: A Web Structure for the Regional Highway Network in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfeng Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic incidents, caused by various factors, may lead to heavy traffic delay and be harmful to traffic capacity of downstream sections. Traffic incident management (TIM systems have been developed widely to respond to traffic incidents intelligently and reduce the losses. Traffic incident response plans, as an important component of TIM, can effectively guide responders as to what and how to do in traffic incidents. In the paper, a real-time automated traffic incident response plan management system was developed, which could generate and manage traffic incident response plans timely and automatically. A web application structure and a physical structure were designed to implement and show these functions. A standard framework of data storage was also developed to save information about traffic incidents and generated response plans. Furthermore, a conformation survey and case-based reasoning (CBR were introduced to identify traffic incident and generate traffic incident response plans automatically, respectively. Twenty-three traffic crash-related incidents were selected and three indicators were used to measure the system performance. Results showed that 20 of 23 cases could be retrieved effectively and accurately. The system is practicable to generate traffic incident response plans and has been implemented in China.

  13. Effect of ageing and pulmonary inflammation on the incidence and number of cross-bridging structures in pneumothorax patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Tomoaki; Takahashi, Koji; Aburano, Tamio

    2011-01-01

    Background. There is an improved prognosis for T4 non-small-cell lung cancer in patients who show particular patterns of direct mediastinal invasion. The particular patterns suggest the presence of direct pathways other than the pulmonary hilum between each of the lungs and the mediastinum/chest wall. Purpose. To determine the incidence and number of such direct pathways in pneumothorax patients as well as the factors that affect the development of these pathways. Material and Methods. Two radiologists independently analyzed multidetector computed tomographic images of 81 patients with pneumothorax to assess the incidence and distribution pattern of the cross-bridging structures in the pleural cavity. Results. Cross-bridging structures were observed in the right pneumothorax in 34/54 (63%) patients and in the left pneumothorax in 19/32 (59%) patients. The number of cross-bridging structures was found to be positively correlated with ageing and pulmonary disease. The distribution patterns of cross-bridging structures were found to be specific in formation and often in repeated locations, regardless of the presence of pulmonary disease or the age of the patient. Conclusion. Cross-bridging structures in pneumothoraces were found more frequently in older patients and in patients with pulmonary disease. However, some of the cross-bridging structures may have been congenital because of their specific formations and repeated locations

  14. Effect of ageing and pulmonary inflammation on the incidence and number of cross-bridging structures in pneumothorax patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Tomoaki; Takahashi, Koji; Aburano, Tamio (Dept. of Radiology, Asahikawa Medical Univ., Asahikawa, Hokkaido (Japan)), email: tomoaki3est@gmail.com

    2011-12-15

    Background. There is an improved prognosis for T4 non-small-cell lung cancer in patients who show particular patterns of direct mediastinal invasion. The particular patterns suggest the presence of direct pathways other than the pulmonary hilum between each of the lungs and the mediastinum/chest wall. Purpose. To determine the incidence and number of such direct pathways in pneumothorax patients as well as the factors that affect the development of these pathways. Material and Methods. Two radiologists independently analyzed multidetector computed tomographic images of 81 patients with pneumothorax to assess the incidence and distribution pattern of the cross-bridging structures in the pleural cavity. Results. Cross-bridging structures were observed in the right pneumothorax in 34/54 (63%) patients and in the left pneumothorax in 19/32 (59%) patients. The number of cross-bridging structures was found to be positively correlated with ageing and pulmonary disease. The distribution patterns of cross-bridging structures were found to be specific in formation and often in repeated locations, regardless of the presence of pulmonary disease or the age of the patient. Conclusion. Cross-bridging structures in pneumothoraces were found more frequently in older patients and in patients with pulmonary disease. However, some of the cross-bridging structures may have been congenital because of their specific formations and repeated locations

  15. Grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence analysis of buried interfaces in periodically structured crystalline silicon thin-film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenhauer, David; Preidel, Veit; Becker, Christiane [Young Investigator Group Nanostructured Silicon for Photovoltaic and Photonic Implementations (Nano-SIPPE), Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Pollakowski, Beatrix; Beckhoff, Burkhard [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Berlin (Germany); Baumann, Jonas; Kanngiesser, Birgit [Institut fuer Optik und Atomare Physik, Technische Universitaet Berlin (Germany); Amkreutz, Daniel; Rech, Bernd [Institut Silizium Photovoltaik, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Back, Franziska; Rudigier-Voigt, Eveline [SCHOTT AG, Mainz (Germany)

    2015-03-01

    We present grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence (GIXRF) experiments on 3D periodically textured interfaces of liquid phase crystallized silicon thin-film solar cells on glass. The influence of functional layers (SiO{sub x} or SiO{sub x}/SiC{sub x}) - placed between glass substrate and silicon during crystallization - on the final carbon and oxygen contaminations inside the silicon was analyzed. Baring of the buried structured silicon surface prior to GIXRF measurement was achieved by removal of the original nano-imprinted glass substrate by wet-chemical etching. A broad angle of incidence distribution was determined for the X-ray radiation impinging on this textured surface. Optical simulations were performed in order to estimate the incident radiation intensity on the structured surface profile considering total reflection and attenuation effects. The results indicate a much lower contamination level for SiO{sub x} compared to the SiO{sub x}/SiC{sub x} interlayers, and about 25% increased contamination when comparing structured with planar silicon layers, both correlating with the corresponding solar cell performances. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Grazing incidence x-ray diffraction at free-standing nanoscale islands: fine structure of diffuse scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoriev, D; Hanke, M; Schmidbauer, M; Schaefer, P; Konovalov, O; Koehler, R

    2003-01-01

    We have investigated the x-ray intensity distribution around 220 reciprocal lattice point in case of grazing incidence diffraction at SiGe nanoscale free-standing islands grown on Si(001) substrate by LPE. Experiments and computer simulations based on the distorted wave Born approximation utilizing the results of elasticity theory obtained by FEM modelling have been carried out. The data reveal fine structure in the distribution of scattered radiation with well-pronounced maxima and complicated fringe pattern. Explanation of the observed diffraction phenomena in their relation to structure and morphology of the island is given. An optimal island model including its shape, size and Ge spatial distribution was elaborated

  17. Cognitive simulation of incident risks in the structure of loading and transport enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkina, S. V.; Pristupa, Yu D.; Pavlova, L. D.; Fryanov, V. N.

    2017-09-01

    Organizational and technical system of a manufacturing enterprise was identified, which includes three subsystems: main production, industrial and social infrastructure. Based on the results of cognitive modeling, significant system concepts were identified that reduce the risks of incidents. The internal control influences formed in accordance with level of competence of heads of services, departments, sections, dispatchers, acting on the basis of regulations, job profiles. The second concept influencing the enterprise management system is personnel, which is assessed by the compliance of competencies of crane operators, loader operators, slingers, loaders, and acceptance/delivery agents to job responsibilities and labor functions. At a low level of professional competencies, the personnel does not fully comply with job duties and labor functions, the risk of an incident is maximal. The application of cognitive modeling allows us to identify the essential elements that ensure stable functioning of the system as a whole.

  18. Grazing exit versus grazing incidence geometry for x-ray absorption near edge structure analysis of arsenic traces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meirer, F.; Streli, C.; Wobrauschek, P.; Zoeger, N.; Pepponi, G.

    2009-01-01

    In the presented study the grazing exit x-ray fluorescence was tested for its applicability to x-ray absorption near edge structure analysis of arsenic in droplet samples. The experimental results have been compared to the findings of former analyses of the same samples using a grazing incidence (GI) setup to compare the performance of both geometries. Furthermore, the investigations were accomplished to gain a better understanding of the so called self-absorption effect, which was observed and investigated in previous studies using a GI geometry. It was suggested that a normal incidence-grazing-exit geometry would not suffer from self-absorption effects in x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analysis due to the minimized path length of the incident beam through the sample. The results proved this assumption and in turn confirmed the occurrence of the self-absorption effect for GI geometry. Due to its lower sensitivity it is difficult to apply the GE geometry to XAFS analysis of trace amounts (few nanograms) of samples but the technique is well suited for the analysis of small amounts of concentrated samples

  19. Different continuous cropping spans significantly affect microbial community membership and structure in a vanilla-grown soil as revealed by deep pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wu; Zhao, Qingyun; Zhao, Jun; Xun, Weibing; Li, Rong; Zhang, Ruifu; Wu, Huasong; Shen, Qirong

    2015-07-01

    In the present study, soil bacterial and fungal communities across vanilla continuous cropping time-series fields were assessed through deep pyrosequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. The results demonstrated that the long-term monoculture of vanilla significantly altered soil microbial communities. Soil fungal diversity index increased with consecutive cropping years, whereas soil bacterial diversity was relatively stable. Bray-Curtis dissimilarity cluster and UniFrac-weighted principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) revealed that monoculture time was the major determinant for fungal community structure, but not for bacterial community structure. The relative abundances (RAs) of the Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Basidiomycota phyla were depleted along the years of vanilla monoculture. Pearson correlations at the phyla level demonstrated that Actinobacteria, Armatimonadetes, Bacteroidetes, Verrucomicrobia, and Firmicutes had significant negative correlations with vanilla disease index (DI), while no significant correlation for fungal phyla was observed. In addition, the amount of the pathogen Fusarium oxysporum accumulated with increasing years and was significantly positively correlated with vanilla DI. By contrast, the abundance of beneficial bacteria, including Bradyrhizobium and Bacillus, significantly decreased over time. In sum, soil weakness and vanilla stem wilt disease after long-term continuous cropping can be attributed to the alteration of the soil microbial community membership and structure, i.e., the reduction of the beneficial microbes and the accumulation of the fungal pathogen.

  20. Canaryseed Crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Cogliatti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Canaryseed (Phalaris canariensis L. is a graminaceous crop species with production practices and cycle similar to those of other winter cereal crops such as spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and oat (Avena sativa L.. Currently its grains are used almost exclusively as feed for birds, alone or mixed with other grains like millet, sunflower seed, and flaxseed. Canaryseed is a genuine cereal with a unique composition that suggests its potential for food use. P. canariensis is cultivated in many areas of temperate climates. Currently, its production is concentrated in the southwestern provinces of Canada (Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba and on a smaller scale in Argentina, Thailand and Australia. Globally it is considered to be a minor crop with regional relevance, with a production about of 250000 tonnes per year, which restricts private investment and public research on its genetic and technological improvement. For this reason, the type of crop management that is applied to this species largely depends on innovations made in other similar crops. This work provides an updated summary of the available information on the species: its requirements, distribution, genetic resources, cultivation practices, potential uses, marketing and other topics of interest to researchers and producers.

  1. Flow structure in the downstream of a square cylinder with different angles of incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Jamshidi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents comparisons between flow fields for turbulent flow over square cylinder with two different angles of incidence in free stream at Reynolds number of Re = 3400. The present numerical results were obtained using a two-dimensional finite-volume code which solves governing equations. The pressure field was obtained with well known SIMPLE algorithm. The central difference scheme was employed for the discretization of convection and diffusion terms. The ν2 f and standard k - ε model were used for simulation of turbulent flow. Time averaged velocity, root mean square velocities and streamlines in the downstream of square cylinders are presented. A number of quantities such as Strouhal number, drag coefficient and the length of the wake are calculated for the case of angle of incidence α = 0°, 45° with two turbulent models. Strouhal number and the length of the wake are larger for the case of α = 45° because of the sharp corners in it which results in more diffusion of turbulence in the downstream of the cylinder. On the other hand, with comparison of results obtained by ν2 f and standard k - ε models with experiment, it is obvious that ν2 f leads to much more accurate results.

  2. Dependence of secondary electron emission on the incident angle and the energy of primary electrons bombarding bowl-structured beryllium surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawata, Jun; Ohya, Kaoru.

    1994-01-01

    A Monte Carlo simulation of the secondary electron emission from beryllium is combined with a model of bowl structure for surface roughness, for analyzing the difference between the electron emissions for normal and oblique incidences. At normal incidence, with increasing the roughness parameter H/W, the primary energy E pm at which the maximum electron yield occurs becomes higher, and at more than the E pm , the decrease in the yield is slower; where H and W are the depth and width of the bowl structure, respectively. The dispersion of incident angle to the microscopic surface causes a small increase in the yield at oblique incidence, whereas the blocking of primary electrons from bombarding the bottom of the structure causes an opposite trend. The strong anisotropy in the polar angular distribution with respect to the azimuthal angle is calculated at oblique incidence. (author)

  3. Incidents analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, P.

    1996-01-01

    We undertook a study programme at the end of 1991. To start with, we performed some exploratory studies aimed at learning some preliminary lessons on this type of analysis: Assessment of the interest of probabilistic incident analysis; possibility of using PSA scenarios; skills and resources required. At the same time, EPN created a working group whose assignment was to define a new approach for analysis of incidents on NPPs. This working group gave thought to both aspects of Operating Feedback that EPN wished to improve: Analysis of significant incidents; analysis of potential consequences. We took part in the work of this group, and for the second aspects, we proposed a method based on an adaptation of the event-tree method in order to establish a link between existing PSA models and actual incidents. Since PSA provides an exhaustive database of accident scenarios applicable to the two most common types of units in France, they are obviously of interest for this sort of analysis. With this method we performed some incident analyses, and at the same time explores some methods employed abroad, particularly ASP (Accident Sequence Precursor, a method used by the NRC). Early in 1994 EDF began a systematic analysis programme. The first, transient phase will set up methods and an organizational structure. 7 figs

  4. Incidents analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francois, P

    1997-12-31

    We undertook a study programme at the end of 1991. To start with, we performed some exploratory studies aimed at learning some preliminary lessons on this type of analysis: Assessment of the interest of probabilistic incident analysis; possibility of using PSA scenarios; skills and resources required. At the same time, EPN created a working group whose assignment was to define a new approach for analysis of incidents on NPPs. This working group gave thought to both aspects of Operating Feedback that EPN wished to improve: Analysis of significant incidents; analysis of potential consequences. We took part in the work of this group, and for the second aspects, we proposed a method based on an adaptation of the event-tree method in order to establish a link between existing PSA models and actual incidents. Since PSA provides an exhaustive database of accident scenarios applicable to the two most common types of units in France, they are obviously of interest for this sort of analysis. With this method we performed some incident analyses, and at the same time explores some methods employed abroad, particularly ASP (Accident Sequence Precursor, a method used by the NRC). Early in 1994 EDF began a systematic analysis programme. The first, transient phase will set up methods and an organizational structure. 7 figs.

  5. Creating European guidelines for Chiropractic Incident Reporting and Learning Systems (CIRLS: relevance and structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wangler Martin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2009, the heads of the Executive Council of the European Chiropractors' Union (ECU and the European Academy of Chiropractic (EAC involved in the European Committee for Standardization (CEN process for the chiropractic profession, set out to establish European guidelines for the reporting of adverse reactions to chiropractic treatment. There were a number of reasons for this: first, to improve the overall quality of patient care by aiming to reduce the application of potentially harmful interventions and to facilitate the treatment of patients within the context of achieving maximum benefit with a minimum risk of harm; second, to inform the training objectives for the Graduate Education and Continuing Professional Development programmes of all 19 ECU member nations, regarding knowledge and skills to be acquired for maximising patient safety; and third, to develop a guideline on patient safety incident reporting as it is likely to be part of future CEN standards for ECU member nations. Objective To introduce patient safety incident reporting within the context of chiropractic practice in Europe and to help individual countries and their national professional associations to develop or improve reporting and learning systems. Discussion Providing health care of any kind, including the provision of chiropractic treatment, can be a complex and, at times, a risky activity. Safety in healthcare cannot be guaranteed, it can only be improved. One of the most important aspects of any learning and reporting system lies in the appropriate use of the data and information it gathers. Reporting should not just be seen as a vehicle for obtaining information on patient safety issues, but also be utilised as a tool to facilitate learning, advance quality improvement and to ultimately minimise the rate of the occurrence of errors linked to patient care. Conclusions Before a reporting and learning system can be established it has to be clear

  6. Structure of Co-Doped Alq3 thin films investigated by grazing incidence X-ray absorption fine structure and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Liang; Pang, Zhiyong; Fang, Shaojie; Wang, Fenggong; Song, Shumei; Huang, Yuying; Wei, Xiangjun; Yu, Haisheng; Han, Shenghao

    2011-02-10

    The structural properties of Co-doped tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq(3)) have been studied by grazing incidence X-ray absorption fine structure (GIXAFS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). GIXAFS analysis suggests that there are multivalent Co-Alq(3) complexes and the doped Co atoms tend to locate at the attraction center with respect to N and O atoms and bond with them. The FTIR spectra indicate that the Co atoms interact with the meridional (mer) isomer of Alq(3) rather than forming inorganic compounds.

  7. Gracing incidence small angle neutron scattering of incommensurate magnetic structures in MnSi thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedemann, Birgit; Pfleiderer, Christian; Boeni, Peter [Physik Department, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Zhang, Shilei; Hesjedal, Thorsten [Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford (United Kingdom); Khaydukov, Yury; Soltwedel, Olaf; Keller, Thomas [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung (Germany); Max Planck Society, Outstation at FRM-II (Germany); Muehlbauer, Sebastian [Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier Leibnitz, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Chacon, Alfonso [Physik Department, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier Leibnitz, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The topological stability of skyrmions in bulk samples of MnSi and the observation of spin transfer torque effects at ultra-low current densities have generated great interest in skyrmions in chiral magnets as a new route towards next generation spintronics devices. Yet, the formation of skyrmions in MBE grown thin films of MnSi reported in the literature is highly controversial. We report gracing incidence small angle neutron scattering (GISANS) of the magnetic order in selected thin films of MnSi grown by state of the art MBE techniques. In combination with polarised neutron reflectometry (PNR) and magnetisation measurements of the same samples our data provide direct reciprocal space information of the incommensurate magnetic order, clarifying the nature of magnetic phase diagram.

  8. Incidence Angle Effect of Energetic Carbon Ions on Deposition Rate, Topography, and Structure of Ultrathin Amorphous Carbon Films Deposited by Filtered Cathodic Vacuum Arc

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, N.; Komvopoulos, K.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of the incidence angle of energetic carbon ions on the thickness, topography, and structure of ultrathin amorphous carbon (a-C) films synthesized by filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA) was examined in the context of numerical

  9. Optimal Use of Agricultural Water and Land Resources through Reconfiguring Crop Planting Structure under Socioeconomic and Ecological Objectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Tan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Many economic, social and ecological problems can be attributed to the scarcity and mismanagement of water and land resources. In this study, a multi-objective fuzzy–robust programming (MOFRP method was developed for supporting the optimal use of land and water resources in agriculture. MOFRP improved existing methods through taking ecological services of crop cultivation into account. It was also capable of reflecting fuzziness in preferences, priorities and parameters that were largely neglected in previous agricultural decision making. This method was applied to address a case in arid northwestern China. Optimal plans of crop cultivation reconfiguration were generated for sustaining local development under economic, ecological and social objectives as well as physical restraints in water and land resources. Compared to the status quo, the optimized plan would increase economic and ecological benefits by 12.2% and 18.8%, respectively. The efficiency of irrigation water could also be enhanced with the economic and ecological benefits per unit water being raised and the water consumption per unit land being reduced. The comparisons of the MOFRP model to four alternatives validated that it was capable of achieving satisfactory benefits and reducing system-violation risks without neglecting valuable uncertain information and ecological services of crops. The proposed method was also applicable to other multi-objective management problems under uncertainty without loss of generality.

  10. Study of the in-plane magnetic structure of a layered system using polarized neutron scattering under grazing incidence geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, R., E-mail: ryuji.maruyama@j-parc.jp [J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata Shirane, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Bigault, T.; Wildes, A.R.; Dewhurst, C.D. [Institut Laue Langevin, 71 avenue des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble (France); Soyama, K. [J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata Shirane, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Courtois, P. [Institut Laue Langevin, 71 avenue des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble (France)

    2016-05-21

    The in-plane magnetic structure of a layered system with a polycrystalline grain size less than the ferromagnetic exchange length was investigated using polarized neutron off-specular scattering and grazing incidence small angle scattering measurements to gain insight into the mechanism that controls the magnetic properties which are different from the bulk. These complementary measurements with different length scales and the data analysis based on the distorted wave Born approximation revealed the lateral correlation on a length scale of sub- μm due to the fluctuating orientation of the magnetization in the layer. The obtained in-plane magnetic structure is consistent with the random anisotropy model, i.e. competition between the exchange interactions between neighboring spins and the local magnetocrystalline anisotropy.

  11. Multistep Cylindrical Structure Analysis at Normal Incidence Based on Water-Substrate Broadband Metamaterial Absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Chonghua

    2018-01-01

    A new multistep cylindrical structure based on water-substrate broadband metamaterial absorbers is designed to reduce the traditional radar cross-section (RCS) of a rod-shaped object. The proposed configuration consists of two distinct parts. One of these components is formed by a four-step cylindrical metal structure, whereas the other one is formed by a new water-substrate broadband metamaterial absorber. The designed structure can significantly reduce the radar cross section more than 10 dB from 4.58 to 18.42 GHz which is the 86.5 % bandwidth of from C-band to 20 GHz. The results of measurement show reasonably good accordance with the simulated ones, which verifies the ability and effect of the proposed design.

  12. Incidence and significance of cystic structures in the ovaries of gadoid fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Domínguez-Petit

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Fish regulate egg production by atresia. Sometimes, oocytes are encapsulated in cystic structures that might remain in the ovary for months, altering female reproductive potential in future spawning seasons. Ovaries of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua, L. from the Flemish Cap and European hake (Merluccius merluccius, L. from the Galician Shelf (NW Spain were analysed from 1999 to 2006. The prevalence and abundance of ovarian cysts were estimated. Cyst prevalence increased with female size and/or age for both species, and decreased with high condition factor in hake. Cyst intensity does not correlate with any analysed factor. The size/age structure of spawning stock biomass and female condition could affect the prevalence of cysts in the ovaries, though it does not seem to affect cyst intensity in the ovary. Further research is needed to determine cyst resorption time and the impact that it has on egg production and consequently on stock reproductive potential.

  13. The incidence angle influence on the structure of secondary-emission characteristics of single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasanov, E.R.; Aliyev, B.Z.

    2012-01-01

    Full text : The dependences of Wand MO single crystals in different atom planes have been studied in this work. It is revealed that maximums are added to each dependency and also minimums of first and second degree. This fact is explained by diffraction dynamic theory. It is established that electron diffraction oriented not perpendicularly to crystal surface is the reason of appearance of second order structure on studied secondary-emission characteristics. In the present work being the continuation and development of SEE investigations of high-melting metal single crystals begun earlier by authors, the structure dependence of SEE main characteristics of angle has been studied. This angle has been chosen because as it is mentioned before the bad repeatability in different experiments for it is observed

  14. Structured surface reflector design for oblique incidence beam splitter at 610 GHz

    OpenAIRE

    Defrance , Fabien; Casaletti , Massimiliano; Sarrazin , Julien; Wiedner , Martina; Gibson , Hugh; Gay , Gregory; Lefevre , Roland; Delorme , Yan

    2016-01-01

    International audience; An iterative alternate projection-based algorithm is developed to design structured surface reflectors to operate as beam splitters at GHz and THz frequencies. To validate the method, a surface profile is determined to achieve a reflector at 610 GHz that generates four equal-intensity beams towards desired directions of ±12.6° with respect to the specular reflection axis. A prototype is fabricated and the beam splitter behavior is experimentally demonstrated. Measureme...

  15. Associations between soil bacterial community structure and nutrient cycling functions in long-term organic farm soils following cover crop and organic fertilizer amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Adria L; Sheaffer, Craig C; Wyse, Donald L; Staley, Christopher; Gould, Trevor J; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2016-10-01

    Agricultural management practices can produce changes in soil microbial populations whose functions are crucial to crop production and may be detectable using high-throughput sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA. To apply sequencing-derived bacterial community structure data to on-farm decision-making will require a better understanding of the complex associations between soil microbial community structure and soil function. Here 16S rRNA sequencing was used to profile soil bacterial communities following application of cover crops and organic fertilizer treatments in certified organic field cropping systems. Amendment treatments were hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), winter rye (Secale cereale), oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus), buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), beef manure, pelleted poultry manure, Sustane(®) 8-2-4, and a no-amendment control. Enzyme activities, net N mineralization, soil respiration, and soil physicochemical properties including nutrient levels, organic matter (OM) and pH were measured. Relationships between these functional and physicochemical parameters and soil bacterial community structure were assessed using multivariate methods including redundancy analysis, discriminant analysis, and Bayesian inference. Several cover crops and fertilizers affected soil functions including N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase and β-glucosidase activity. Effects, however, were not consistent across locations and sampling timepoints. Correlations were observed among functional parameters and relative abundances of individual bacterial families and phyla. Bayesian analysis inferred no directional relationships between functional activities, bacterial families, and physicochemical parameters. Soil functional profiles were more strongly predicted by location than by treatment, and differences were largely explained by soil physicochemical parameters. Composition of soil bacterial communities was predictive of soil functional profiles. Differences in soil function were

  16. Direct reactions in inverse kinematics for nuclear structure studies far off stability at low incident energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egelhof, P.

    1997-02-01

    The investigation of light-ion induced direct reactions with exotic beams in inverse kinematics gives access to a wide field of nuclear structure studies in the region far off stability. The present contribution will focus on the investigation of few-nucleon transfer reactions, which turn out to be most favourably studied with good-quality low-energy radioactive beams, as provided by the new generation of radioactive beam facilities presently planned or under construction at Caen, Grenoble, Munich, and elsewhere. An overview on the physics motivation, basically concerning nuclear structure and nuclear astrophysics questions, is given. Of particular interest are the nuclear shell model in the region far off stability, the two-body residual interaction in nuclei, the structure of halo nuclei, as well as the understanding of the r-process scenario. The experimental conditions, along with the experimental concept, for such measurements are discussed with particular emphasis on the kinematical conditions, the observables, as well as the appropriate detection schemes. The concept of a large solid angle TPC ionization chamber as an active target for experiments with low-energy radioactive beams is presented. It turns out to be a highly effective detection scheme, well suited for the present experimental conditions, at least for light exotic beams up to Z∼20. (orig.)

  17. Incidence and predictors of obstetric and fetal complications in women with structural heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hagen, Iris M; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W; Donvito, Valentina; Liptai, Csilla; Morissens, Marielle; Murphy, Daniel J; Galian, Laura; Bazargani, Nooshin Mohd; Cornette, Jérôme; Hall, Roger; Johnson, Mark R

    2017-10-01

    Women with cardiac disease becoming pregnant have an increased risk of obstetric and fetal events. The aim of this study was to study the incidence of events, to validate the modified WHO (mWHO) risk classification and to search for event-specific predictors. The Registry Of Pregnancy And Cardiac disease is a worldwide ongoing prospective registry that has enrolled 2742 pregnancies in women with known cardiac disease (mainly congenital and valvular disease) before pregnancy, from January 2008 up to April 2014. Mean age was 28.2±5.5 years, 45% were nulliparous and 33.3% came from emerging countries. Obstetric events occurred in 231 pregnancies (8.4%). Fetal events occurred in 651 pregnancies (23.7%). The mWHO classification performed poorly in predicting obstetric (c-statistic=0.601) and fetal events (c-statistic=0.561). In multivariable analysis, aortic valve disease was associated with pre-eclampsia (OR=2.6, 95%CI=1.3 to 5.5). Congenital heart disease (CHD) was associated with spontaneous preterm birth (OR=1.8, 95%CI=1.2 to 2.7). Complex CHD was associated with small-for-gestational-age neonates (OR=2.3, 95%CI=1.5 to 3.5). Multiple gestation was the strongest predictor of fetal events: fetal/neonatal death (OR=6.4, 95%CI=2.5 to 16), spontaneous preterm birth (OR=5.3, 95%CI=2.5 to 11) and small-for-gestational age (OR=5.0, 95%CI=2.5 to 9.8). The mWHO classification is not suitable for prediction of obstetric and fetal events in women with cardiac disease. Maternal complex CHD was independently associated with fetal growth restriction and aortic valve disease with pre-eclampsia, potentially offering an insight into the pathophysiology of these pregnancy complications. The increased rates of adverse obstetric and fetal outcomes in women with pre-existing heart disease should be highlighted during counselling. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless

  18. Changes in Actinomycetes community structure under the influence of Bt transgenic brinjal crop in a tropical agroecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amit Kishore; Singh, Major; Dubey, Suresh Kumar

    2013-05-29

    The global area under brinjal cultivation is expected to be 1.85 million hectare with total fruit production about 32 million metric tons (MTs). Brinjal cultivars are susceptible to a variety of stresses that significantly limit productivity. The most important biotic stress is caused by the Brinjal fruit and shoot Borer (FSB) forcing farmers to deploy high doses of insecticides; a matter of serious health concern. Therefore, to control the adverse effect of insecticides on the environment including the soil, transgenic technology has emerged as the effective alternative. However, the reports, regarding the nature of interaction of transgenic crops with the native microbial community are inconsistent. The effect of a Bt transgenic brinjal expressing the bio-insecticidal protein (Cry1Ac) on the rhizospheric community of actinomycetes has been assessed and compared with its non-transgenic counterpart. Significant variation in the organic carbon observed between the crops (non-Bt and Bt brinjal) may be due to changes in root exudates quality and composition mediated by genetic attributes of Bt transgenic brinjal. Real time quantitative PCR indicated significant differences in the actinomycetes- specific 16S rRNA gene copy numbers between the non-Bt (5.62-27.86) × 1011 g-1 dws and Bt brinjal planted soil (5.62-24.04) × 1011 g-1 dws. Phylogenetic analysis indicated 14 and 11, actinomycetes related groups in soil with non-Bt and Bt brinjal crop, respectively. Micrococaceaea and Nocardiodaceae were the dominant groups in pre-vegetation, branching, flowering, maturation and post-harvest stage. However, Promicromonosporaceae, Streptosporangiaceae, Mycobacteriaceae, Geodermatophilaceae, Frankiaceae, Kineosporaceae, Actisymmetaceae and Streptomycetaceae were exclusively detected in a few stages in non-Bt brinjal rhizosphere soil while Nakamurellaceae, Corynebactericeae, Thermomonosporaceae and Pseudonocardiaceae in Bt brinjal counterpart. Field trails envisage

  19. African Crop Science Journal: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Particular attention should be paid to the study factors/treatments and their structure, design, ... The African Crop Science Journal uses the Harvard citation style. Only published articles (journals and proceedings) or books may be cited.

  20. Bacterial Community Structure in a Mollisol Under Long-Term Natural Restoration, Cropping, and Bare Fallow History Estimated by PCR-DGGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guang-Hua; JIN Jian; LIU Jun-Jie; CHEN Xue-Li; LIU Ju-Dong; LIU Xiao-Bing

    2009-01-01

    Soil microbial biomass and community structures are commonly used as indicators for soil quality and fertility.A investigation was performed to study the effects of long-term natural restoration,cropping,and bare fallow managements on the soil microbial biomass and bacterial community structures in depths of 0-10,20-30,and 40-50 cm in a black soil (Mollisol).Microbial biomass was estimated from chloroform fumigation-extraction,and bacterial community structures were determined by analysis of 16S rDNA using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCRDGGE).Experimental results showed that microbial biomass significantly declined with soil depth in the managements of restoration and cropping,but not in the bare fallow.DGGE profiles indicated that the band number in top 0-10 cm soils was less than that in depth of 20-30 or 40-50 cm.These suggested that the microbial population was high but the bacterial community structure was simple in the topsoil.Cluster and principle component analysis based on DGGE banding patterns showed that the bacterial community structure was affected by soil depth more primarily than by managements,and the succession of bacterial community as increase of soil depth has a similar tendency in the three managements.Fourteen predominating DGGE bands were excised and sequenced,in which 6 bands were identified as the taxa of Verrucomicrobia,2 bands as Actinobacteria,2 bands as α-Proteobacteria,and the other 4 bands as δ-Proteobacteria,Acidobacteria,Nitrospira,and unclassified bacteria.In addition,the sequences of 11 DGGE bands were closely related to uncultured bacteria.Thus,the bacterial community structure in black soil was stable,and the predominating bacterial groups were uncultured.

  1. Structure of a monolayer of molecular rotors on aqueous subphase from grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleta, Jiří; Wen, Jin; Magnera, Thomas F; Dron, Paul I; Zhu, Chenhui; Michl, Josef

    2018-03-23

    In situ grazing-incidence X-ray scattering shows that a monolayer of artificial rod-shaped dipolar molecular rotors produced on the surface of an aqueous subphase in a Langmuir trough has a structure conducive to a 2D ferroelectric phase. The axes of the rotors stand an average of 0.83 nm apart in a triangular grid, perpendicular to the surface within experimental error. They carry 2,3-dichlorophenylene rotators near rod centers, between two decks of interlocked triptycenes installed axially on the rotor axle. The analysis is based first on simultaneous fitting of observed Bragg rods and second on fitting the reflectivity curve with only three adjustable parameters and the calculated rotor electron density, which also revealed the presence of about seven molecules of water near each rotator. Dependent on preparation conditions, a minor and variable amount of a different crystal phase may also be present in the monolayer.

  2. Application of Incident Command Structure to clinical trial management in the academic setting: principles and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Penny S; Michael, Mary J; Spiess, Bruce D

    2017-02-09

    Clinical trial success depends on appropriate management, but practical guidance to trial organisation and planning is lacking. The Incident Command System (ICS) is the 'gold standard' management system developed for managing diverse operations in major incident and public health arenas. It enables effective and flexible management through integration of personnel, procedures, resources, and communications within a common hierarchical organisational structure. Conventional ICS organisation consists of five function modules: Command, Planning, Operations, Logistics, and Finance/Administration. Large clinical trials will require a separate Regulatory Administrative arm, and an Information arm, consisting of dedicated data management and information technology staff. We applied ICS principles to organisation and management of the Prehospital Use of Plasma in Traumatic Haemorrhage (PUPTH) trial. This trial was a multidepartmental, multiagency, randomised clinical trial investigating prehospital administration of thawed plasma on mortality and coagulation response in severely injured trauma patients. We describe the ICS system as it would apply to large clinical trials in general, and the benefits, barriers, and lessons learned in utilising ICS principles to reorganise and coordinate the PUPTH trial. Without a formal trial management structure, early stages of the trial were characterised by inertia and organisational confusion. Implementing ICS improved organisation, coordination, and communication between multiple agencies and service groups, and greatly streamlined regulatory compliance administration. However, unfamiliarity of clinicians with ICS culture, conflicting resource allocation priorities, and communication bottlenecks were significant barriers. ICS is a flexible and powerful organisational tool for managing large complex clinical trials. However, for successful implementation the cultural, psychological, and social environment of trial participants must be

  3. Incidence of Trailer Frame Structure on Driver’s Safety during Log Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Manzone

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The frame structure of the trailer may influence both the traction and the tractor-trailer stability, especially along sloped paths. The aim of this research was to analyze a trailer overturning and the strains on the connected tractors (wheeled, or crawled during log transportation (loose or tied along a hillside. Two two-axle trailers were used: tandem and turntable steering. Three types of measurements were carried out during the field tests: (i the detachment from the ground of the rear upstream wheels (or crawler; (ii the transversal and longitudinal strains occurring when the trailer overturned (and released the hooking system of the tractor; (iii the lateral deviation of the rear wheels (or crawler of the tractor. The study highlighted that the two-axle trailer with turntable steering combined with the crawl tractor gave better results in terms of safety during trailer overturning. In addition, independent of the type of trailer, a tied load was found to be more dangerous than a load restrained only by steel struts, because when overturning, the load forms a single unit with the trailer mass which increases the strains.

  4. Long-Term Effects of Rotational Tillage On Visual Evaluation of Soil Structure, Soil Quality and Crop Yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Heck, Richard; Deen, Bill

    year old long-term rotation and tillage treatment experiment on a Canadian silt loam soil. Measurements were carried out in the topsoil for three different rotations: R1 (C-C-C-C) continuous corn (Zea mays L.), R6. (C-C-O(RC), B(RC)) corn, corn, oats (Avena fatua L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare...... L.) and R8, (C-C-S-S) corn, corn, soybean (Glycine max L.), soybean. A red clover (Trifolium pretense L.) cover crop was under seeded in oats and spring barley in R6. In 2010, first year corn was grown in R6 and R8. The tillage treatments included no tillage, NT and mouldboard plowing, MP. Topsoil...

  5. A distribution benefits model for improved information on worldwide crop production. Volume 1: Model structure and application to wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, J.

    1976-01-01

    The improved model is suitable for the study of benefits of worldwide information on a variety of crops. Application to the previously studied case of worldwide wheat production shows that about $108 million per year of distribution benefits to the United States would be achieved by a satellite-based wheat information system meeting the goals of LACIE. The model also indicates that improved information alone will not change world stock levels unless production itself is stabilized. The United States benefits mentioned above are associated with the reduction of price fluctuations within the year and the more effective use of international trade to balance supply and demand. Price fluctuations from year to year would be reduced only if production variability were itself reduced.

  6. Molecular dynamics simulation for the influence of incident angles of energetic carbon atoms on the structure and properties of diamond-like carbon films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiaowei; Ke, Peiling; Lee, Kwang-Ryeol; Wang, Aiying

    2014-01-01

    The influence of incident angles of energetic carbon atoms (0–60°) on the structure and properties of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films was investigated by the molecular dynamics simulation using a Tersoff interatomic potential. The present simulation revealed that as the incident angles increased from 0 to 60°, the surface roughness of DLC films increased and the more porous structure was generated. Along the growth direction of DLC films, the whole system could be divided into four regions including substrate region, transition region, stable region and surface region except the case at the incident angle of 60°. When the incident angle was 45°, the residual stress was significantly reduced by 12% with little deterioration of mechanical behavior. The further structure analysis using both the bond angles and bond length distributions indicated that the compressive stress reduction mainly resulted from the relaxation of highly distorted C–C bond length. - Highlights: • The dependence of films properties on different incident angles was investigated. • The change of incident angles reduced the stress without obvious damage of density. • The stress reduction attributed to the relaxation of highly distorted bond length

  7. Structure and Dissipation Characteristics of an Electron Diffusion Region Observed by MMS During a Rapid, Normal-Incidence Magnetopause Crossing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torbert, R. B.; Burch, J. L.; Argall, M. R.; Alm, L.; Farrugia, C. J.; Forbes, T. G.; Giles, B. L.; Rager, A.; Dorelli, J.; Strangeway, R. J.; Ergun, R. E.; Wilder, F. D.; Ahmadi, N.; Lindqvist, P.-A.; Khotyaintsev, Y.

    2017-12-01

    On 22 October 2016, the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft encountered the electron diffusion region (EDR) when the magnetosheath field was southward, and there were signatures of fast reconnection, including flow jets, Hall fields, and large power dissipation. One rapid, normal-incidence crossing, during which the EDR structure was almost stationary in the boundary frame, provided an opportunity to observe the spatial structure for the zero guide field case of magnetic reconnection. The reconnection electric field was determined unambiguously to be 2-3 mV/m. There were clear signals of fluctuating parallel electric fields, up to 6 mV/m on the magnetosphere side of the diffusion region, associated with a Hall-like parallel current feature on the electron scale. The width of the main EDR structure was determined to be 2 km (1.8 de). Although the MMS spacecraft were in their closest tetrahedral separation of 8 km, the divergences and curls for these thin current structures could therefore not be computed in the usual manner. A method is developed to determine these quantities on a much smaller scale and applied to compute the normal component of terms in the generalized Ohm's law for the positions of each individual spacecraft (not a barocentric average). Although the gradient pressure term has a qualitative dependence that follows the observed variation of E + Ve × B, the quantitative magnitude of these terms differs by more than a factor of 2, which is shown to be greater than the respective errors. Thus, future research is required to find the manner in which Ohm's law is balanced.

  8. Nodal structure and phase shifts of zero-incident-energy wave functions: Multiparticle single-channel scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwinski, Z.R.; Rosenberg, L.; Spruch, L.

    1986-01-01

    For potential scattering, with delta/sub L/(k) the phase shift modulo π for an incident wave number k, Levinson's theorem gives delta/sub L/(0)-delta/sub L/(infinity) in terms of N/sub L/, the number of bound states of angular momentum L, for delta/sub L/(k) assumed to be a continuous function of k. N/sub L/ also determines the number of nodes of the zero-energy wave function u/sub L/(r). A knowledge of the nodal structure and of the absolute value of delta/sub L/(0) is very useful in theoretical studies of low-energy potential scattering. Two preliminary attempts, one formal and one ''physical,'' are made to extend the above results to single-channel scattering by a compound system initially in its ground state. The nodal structure will be of greater interest to us here than an extension of Levinson's theorem

  9. Untangling the Relationship Between Antiretroviral Therapy Use and Incident Pregnancy: A Marginal Structural Model Analysis Using Data From 47,313 HIV-Positive Women in East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elul, Batya; Wools-Kaloustian, Kara K; Wu, Yingfeng; Musick, Beverly S; Nuwagaba-Biribonwoha, Harriet; Nash, Denis; Ayaya, Samuel; Bukusi, Elizabeth; Okong, Pius; Otieno, Juliana; Wabwire, Deo; Kambugu, Andrew; Yiannoutsos, Constantin T

    2016-07-01

    Scale-up of triple-drug antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Africa has transformed the context of childbearing for HIV-positive women and may impact pregnancy incidence in HIV programs. Using observational data from 47,313 HIV-positive women enrolled at 26 HIV clinics in Kenya and Uganda between 2001 and 2009, we calculated the crude cumulative incidence of pregnancy for the pre-ART and on-ART periods. The causal effect of ART use on incident pregnancy was assessed using inverse probability weighted marginal structural models, and the relationship was further explored in multivariable Cox models. Crude cumulative pregnancy incidence at 1 year after enrollment/ART initiation was 4.0% and 3.9% during the pre-ART and on-ART periods, respectively. In marginal structural models, ART use was not significantly associated with incident pregnancy [hazard ratio = 1.06; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99 to 1.12]. Similarly, in Cox models, there was no significant relationship between ART use and incident pregnancy (cause-specific hazard ratio: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.91 to 1.05), but effect modification was observed. Specifically, women who were pregnant at enrollment and on ART had an increased risk of incident pregnancy compared to those not pregnant at enrollment and not on ART (cause-specific hazard ratio: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.23). In this large cohort, ART initiation was not associated with incident pregnancy in the general population of women enrolling in HIV care but rather only among those pregnant at enrollment. This finding further highlights the importance of scaling up access to lifelong treatment for pregnant women.

  10. Influence of straw incorporation with and without straw decomposer on soil bacterial community structure and function in a rice-wheat cropping system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun; Ni, Tian; Xun, Weibing; Huang, Xiaolei; Huang, Qiwei; Ran, Wei; Shen, Biao; Zhang, Ruifu; Shen, Qirong

    2017-06-01

    To study the influence of straw incorporation with and without straw decomposer on bacterial community structure and biological traits, a 3-year field experiments, including four treatments: control without fertilizer (CK), chemical fertilizer (NPK), chemical fertilizer plus 7500 kg ha -1 straw incorporation (NPKS), and chemical fertilizer plus 7500 kg ha -1 straw incorporation and 300 kg ha -1 straw decomposer (NPKSD), were performed in a rice-wheat cropping system in Changshu (CS) and Jintan (JT) city, respectively. Soil samples were taken right after wheat (June) and rice (October) harvest in both sites, respectively. The NPKS and NPKSD treatments consistently increased crop yields, cellulase activity, and bacterial abundance in both sampling times and sites. Moreover, the NPKS and NPKSD treatments altered soil bacterial community structure, particularly in the wheat harvest soils in both sites, separating from the CK and NPK treatments. In the rice harvest soils, both NPKS and NPKSD treatments had no considerable impacts on bacterial communities in CS, whereas the NPKSD treatment significantly shaped bacterial communities compared to the other treatments in JT. These practices also significantly shifted the bacterial composition of unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) rather than shared OTUs. The relative abundances of copiotrophic bacteria (Proteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Actinobacteria) were positively correlated with soil total N, available N, and available P. Taken together, these results indicate that application of straw incorporation with and without straw decomposer could particularly stimulate the copiotrophic bacteria, enhance the soil biological activity, and thus, contribute to the soil productivity and sustainability in agro-ecosystems.

  11. Measurement of the radiation incident on ALS NdFeB permanent magnet insertion device structures and a determination of their lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krebs, G.F.; Holmes, M.

    1997-05-01

    Measurements of the radiation incident on ALS insertion device NdFeB permanent magnet structures were carried out using thermoluminescence dosimeters. A plastic scintillator gamma telescope was utilized to unravel the various contributions to the integrated dose. Magnet lifetimes were calculated for various operational conditions

  12. Design and validation of portable optical instrument for crop diagnose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Gang; Zheng, Wengang; Huang, Wengjiang; Wan, Huawei; Liu, Liangyun

    2005-12-01

    In this paper, a portable diagnostic instrument was designed and tested, which can measure the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and structure insensitive pigment index (SIPI) of crop canopy in field. The instrument have a valid survey area of 1 m*1 m when the height between instrument and the ground was fixed to 1.3 meter The crop growth condition can be assessed based on their NDVI and SIPI values, so it will be very important for crop management to get these values. The instrument uses sunlight as its light source. There are six special different photoelectrical detectors within red, blue and near infrared bands, which are used for detecting incidence sunlight and reflex light from the canopy of crop. This optical instrument includes photoelectric detector module, signal process and A/D convert module, the data storing and transmission module and human-machine interface module. The detector is the core of the instrument which measures the spectrums at special bands. The microprocessor calculates the NDVI and SIPI value based on the A/D value. And the value can be displayed on the instrument's LCD, stored in the flash memory of instrument and can also be uploaded to PC through the PC's RS232 serial interface. The prototype was tested in the crop field at different view directions. This paper also provided the method of calibration, the results showed that the average measurement error to SIPI value of instrument was 5.25% and the average measurement error to NDVI value in vegetation-covered region is 6.40%. It reveals the on-site and non-sampling mode of crop growth monitoring by fixed on the agricultural machine traveling in the field.

  13. Incidence Angle Effect of Energetic Carbon Ions on Deposition Rate, Topography, and Structure of Ultrathin Amorphous Carbon Films Deposited by Filtered Cathodic Vacuum Arc

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, N.

    2012-07-01

    The effect of the incidence angle of energetic carbon ions on the thickness, topography, and structure of ultrathin amorphous carbon (a-C) films synthesized by filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA) was examined in the context of numerical and experimental results. The thickness of a-C films deposited at different incidence angles was investigated in the light of Monte Carlo simulations, and the calculated depth profiles were compared with those obtained from high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The topography and structure of the a-C films were studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The film thickness decreased with the increase of the incidence angle, while the surface roughness increased and the content of tetrahedral carbon hybridization (sp 3) decreased significantly with the increase of the incidence angle above 45° , measured from the surface normal. TEM, AFM, and XPS results indicate that the smoothest and thinnest a-C films with the highest content of sp 3 carbon bonding were produced for an incidence angle of 45°. The findings of this study have direct implications in ultrahigh-density magnetic recording, where ultrathin and smooth a-C films with high sp 3 contents are of critical importance. © 2012 IEEE.

  14. Use of large-scale multi-configuration EMI measurements to characterize heterogeneous subsurface structures and their impact on crop productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogi, Cosimo; Huisman, Johan Alexander; Kaufmann, Manuela Sarah; von Hebel, Christian; van der Kruk, Jan; Vereecken, Harry

    2017-04-01

    Soil subsurface structures can play a key role in crop performance, especially during water stress periods. Geophysical techniques like electromagnetic induction EMI have been shown to be able of providing information about dominant shallow subsurface features. However, previous work with EMI has typically not reached beyond the field scale. The objective of this study is to use large-scale multi-configuration EMI to characterize patterns of soil structural organization (layering and texture) and the associated impact on crop vegetation at the km2 scale. For this, we carried out an intensive measurement campaign and collected high spatial resolution multi-configuration EMI data on an agricultural area of approx. 1 km2 (102 ha) near Selhausen (North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany) with a maximum depth of investigation of around 2.5 m. We measured using two EMI instruments simultaneously with a total of nine coil configurations. The instruments were placed inside polyethylene sleds that were pulled by an all-terrain-vehicle along parallel lines with a spacing of 2 to 2.5 m. The driving speed was between 5 and 7 km h-1 and we used a 0.2 Hz sampling frequency to obtain an in-line resolution of approximately 0.3 m. The survey area consists of almost 50 different fields managed in different way. The EMI measurements were collected between April and December 2016 within a few days after the harvest of each field. After data acquisition, EMI data were automatically filtered, temperature corrected, and interpolated onto a common grid. The resulting EMI maps allowed us to identify three main areas with different subsurface heterogeneities. The differences between these areas are likely related to the late quaternary geological history (Pleistocene and Holocene) of the area that resulted in spatially variable soil texture and layering, which has a strong impact on spatio-temporal soil water content variability. The high resolution surveys also allowed us to identify small scale

  15. Soil aggregation and bacterial community structure as affected by tillage and cover cropping in the Brazilian Cerrados

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peixoto, R. S.; Coutinho, H. L. C.; Madari, B.; Machado, P. L. O. A.; Rumjanek, N. G.; Van Elsas, J. D.; Seldin, L.; Rosado, A. S.

    2006-01-01

    Microbial-based indicators of soil quality are believed to be more dynamic than those based on physical and chemical properties. Recent developments in molecular biology based techniques have led to rapid and reliable tools to characterize microbial community structures. We determined the effects of

  16. Molecular-beam epitaxy growth and structural characterization of semiconductor-ferromagnet heterostructures by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satapathy, D.K.

    2005-12-19

    The present work is devoted to the growth of the ferromagnetic metal MnAs on the semiconductor GaAs by molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE). The MnAs thin films are deposited on GaAs by molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE). Grazing incidence diffraction (GID) and reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) are used in situ to investigate the nucleation, evolution of strain, morphology and interfacial structure during the MBE growth. Four stages of the nucleation process during growth of MnAs on GaAs(001) are revealed by RHEED azimuthal scans. GID shows that further growth of MnAs films proceed via the formation of relaxed islands at a nominal thickness of 2.5 ML which increase in size and finally coalesce to form a continuous film. Early on, an ordered array of misfit dislocations forms at the interface releasing the misfit strain even before complete coalescence occurs. The fascinating complex nucleation process of MnAs on GaAs(0 0 1) contains elements of both Volmer-Weber and Stranski-Krastanov growth. A nonuniform strain amounting to 0.66%, along the [1 -1 0] direction and 0.54%, along the [1 1 0] direction is demonstrated from x-ray line profile analysis. A high correlation between the defects is found along the GaAs[1 1 0] direction. An extremely periodic array of misfit dislocations with a period of 4.95{+-}0.05 nm is formed at the interface along the [1 1 0] direction which releases the 7.5% of misfit. The inhomogeneous strain due to the periodic dislocations is confined at the interface within a layer of 1.6 nm thickness. The misfit along the [1 -1 0] direction is released by the formation of a coincidence site lattice. (orig.)

  17. Genetic Variability and Population Structure of the Potential Bioenergy Crop Miscanthus sinensis (Poaceae in Southwest China Based on SRAP Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Nie

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The genus Miscanthus has great potential as a biofuel feedstock because of its high biomass, good burning quality, environmental tolerance, and good adaptability to marginal land. In this study, the genetic diversity and the relationship of 24 different natural Miscanthus sinensis populations collected from Southwestern China were analyzed by using 33 pairs of Sequence Related Amplified Polymorphism (SRAP primers. A total of 688 bands were detected with 646 polymorphic bands, an average of 19.58 polymorphic bands per primer pair. The average percentage of polymorphic loci (P, gene diversity (H, and Shannon’s diversity index (I among the 24 populations are 70.59%, 0.2589, and 0.3836, respectively. The mean value of total gene diversity (HT was 0.3373 ± 0.0221, while the allelic diversity within populations (HS was 0.2589 ± 0.0136 and the allelic diversity among populations (DST was 0.0784. The mean genetic differentiation coefficient (Gst = 0.2326 estimated from the detected 688 loci indicated that there was 76.74% genetic differentiation within the populations, which is consistent with the results from Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA analysis. Based upon population structure and phylogenetic analysis, five groups were formed and a special population with mixed ancestry was inferred indicating that human-mediated dispersal may have had a significant effect on population structure of M. sinensis. Evaluating the genetic structure and genetic diversity at morphological and molecular levels of the wild M. sinensis in Southwest China is critical to further utilize the wild M. sinensis germplasm in the breeding program. The results in this study will facilitate the biofuel feedstock breeding program and germplasm conservation.

  18. Note: Comparison of grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering of a titania sponge structure at the beamlines BW4 (DORIS III) and P03 (PETRA III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawolle, M.; Körstgens, V.; Ruderer, M. A.; Metwalli, E.; Guo, S.; Müller-Buschbaum, P.; Herzog, G.; Benecke, G.; Schwartzkopf, M.; Buffet, A.; Perlich, J.; Roth, S. V.

    2012-01-01

    Grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering (GISAXS) is a powerful technique for morphology investigation of nanostructured thin films. GISAXS measurements at the newly installed P03 beamline at the storage ring PETRA III in Hamburg, Germany, are compared to the GISAXS data from the beamline BW4 at the storage ring DORIS III, which had been used extensively for GISAXS investigations in the past. As an example, a titania thin film sponge structure is investigated. Compared to BW4, at beamline P03 the resolution of larger structures is slightly improved and a higher incident flux leads to a factor of 750 in scattered intensity. Therefore, the acquisition time in GISAXS geometry is reduced significantly at beamline P03.

  19. Starch Biosynthesis in Crop Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian J. Tetlow

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Starch is a water-insoluble polyglucan synthesized inside the plastids of plant tissues to provide a store of carbohydrate. Starch harvested from plant storage organs has probably represented the major source of calories for the human diet since before the dawn of civilization. Following the advent of agriculture and the building of complex societies, humans have maintained their dependence on high-yielding domesticated starch-forming crops such as cereals to meet food demands, livestock production, and many non-food applications. The top three crops in terms of acreage are cereals, grown primarily for the harvestable storage starch in the endosperm, although many starchy tuberous crops also provide an important source of calories for various communities around the world. Despite conservation in the core structure of the starch granule, starches from different botanical sources show a high degree of variability, which is exploited in many food and non-food applications. Understanding the factors underpinning starch production and its final structure are of critical importance in guiding future crop improvement endeavours. This special issue contains reviews on these topics and is intended to be a useful resource for researchers involved in improvement of starch-storing crops.

  20. Genetic diversity in a crop metapopulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerwaarden, van J.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.; Ross-Ibarra, J.

    2010-01-01

    The need to protect crop genetic resources has sparked a growing interest in the genetic diversity maintained in traditional farming systems worldwide. Although traditional seed management has been proposed as an important determinant of genetic diversity and structure in crops, no models exist that

  1. Effects of temporal changes in climate variables on crop production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    comprehensive study of the impacts of climate variability on some common classes of food crops. (tubers, grains ... erosion, incidents of pests and diseases, and sea level rise (Onyekwelu et .... calamities and human sufferings. The productivity ...

  2. Wheelchair incidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drongelen AW van; Roszek B; Hilbers-Modderman ESM; Kallewaard M; Wassenaar C; LGM

    2002-01-01

    This RIVM study was performed to gain insight into wheelchair-related incidents with powered and manual wheelchairs reported to the USA FDA, the British MDA and the Dutch Center for Quality and Usability Research of Technical Aids (KBOH). The data in the databases do not indicate that incidents with

  3. Radiation balance in the sweet sorghum crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assis, F.N. de; Mendez, M.E.G.; Martins, S.R.; Verona, L.A.

    1987-01-01

    The fluxes of incident solar radiation, reflected and net radiation were measured during the growing cicle of two fields of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.), cus. BR-501 and BR-503, maintained under convenient irrigation level. Resultant data allowed to estimate the crop albedo as well as the estimates of Rn. (M.A.C.) [pt

  4. Rainfed intensive crop systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jørgen E

    2014-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the importance of intensive cropping systems in contributing to the world supply of food and feed. The impact of climate change on intensive crop production systems is also discussed.......This chapter focuses on the importance of intensive cropping systems in contributing to the world supply of food and feed. The impact of climate change on intensive crop production systems is also discussed....

  5. Biosolarization in garlic crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabeiro, Concepcion; Andres, Manuela; Wic, Consuelo

    2014-05-01

    One of the most important limitations of garlic cultivation is the presence of various soil pathogens. Fusarium proliferatum and Sclerotinium cepivorum and nematode Ditilenchus dipsaci cause such problems that prevent the repetition of the crop in the same field for at least 5 -8 years or soil disinfection is necessary. Chemical disinfection treatments have an uncertain future, in the European Union are reviewing their use, due to the effect on the non-pathogenic soil fauna. This situation causes a itinerant cultivation to avoid the limitations imposed by soil diseases, thereby increasing production costs. The Santa Monica Cooperative (Albacete, Spain) requested advice on possible alternative techniques, solarization and biosolarization. For which a trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness on the riverside area of the municipality. This place has recently authorized irrigation, which would allow the repeated cultivation of garlic if the incidence of soil diseases and the consequent soil fatigue could be avoided. Additionally, this work will serve to promote the cultivation of organic garlic. Last, but not least, the biosolarization technique allows to use waste from wineries, oil mills and mushroom crops. (Bello et al. 2003). The essay should serve as demonstrative proof for farmers' cooperative members. The specific objective for this first year is to assess, the effect on the global soil biota, on the final garlic production and quality and the effect of biosolarization to control soil pathogens. The trial is set on a cooperative's plot previously cultivated with corn. 5 treatments were set, defined by different amounts of organic matter applied, 7.5, 5, 2.5 kg m -2, a solarized with no organic matter, and a control without any treatment. The plot has inground sprinkler for full coverage with four sprinkler lines demarcating the five bands of differential treatment, randomly arranged. Organic matter was incorporated the August 14, 2013, then thoroughly

  6. Effects of Continuous Cropping on Bacterial Flora Structure in Soybean Rhizosphere Soil%连作对大豆根际土壤细菌菌群结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷继忠; 李亮; 接伟光; 蔡柏岩

    2018-01-01

    土壤细菌的菌群结构是土壤生态环境质量的重要组成部分.为探明大豆连作种植后根际土壤细菌群落结构变化,试验选取连作0年大豆根际土样与连作2年大豆根际土壤,利用Illumina高通量测序技术对比研究了其中的细菌群落结构.结果表明,连作0年根际土壤中的细菌丰富度和多样性指数均高于连作2年大豆根际土壤中相应值.大豆根际土壤中的噬纤维菌科(Cytophagaceae)、鞘氨纯单胞菌(Sphingomonas)、慢生根瘤菌(Bradyrhizobium)及链霉菌属(Streptomyces)等一些有益菌的相对丰度要变化并不显著.大豆连作会降低土壤的细菌多样性,改变细菌菌群结构.但是在短期连作过程中,不同作物根际微生物类群的变化规律各不相同,难以用来推断作物连作所存在普遍现象.以期试验结果同时为缓解短期大豆连作障碍提高大豆产量提供一定的理论依据.%The flora structure of soil bacteria is an important part of soil ecological environment quality. In order to find out the changes of bacterial flora structure in the rhizosphere soil after continuous cropping of soybean,soybean rhizosphere soil samples of zero- and 2-year of continuous cropping were selected,and their bacterial flora structures were studied using Illumina high-throughput sequencing technique. The results showed that the bacterial abundances and diversity indexes in the rhizosphere soil of zero-year continuous cropping were higher than those of the rhizosphere soil of 2-year continuous cropping. The abundances of these beneficial bacteria Cytophagaceae,Sphingomonas, Bradyrhizobium,and Streptomyces varied insignificantly. Soybean continuous cropping reduced the bacterial diversity of the soil and changed the bacterial flora structure. However,during the short-term continuous cropping process,the variation pattern of rhizosphere microbes in different crops differed,thus it was difficult to infer a common phenomenon resulted

  7. Si Nanoribbons on Ag(110) Studied by Grazing-Incidence X-Ray Diffraction, Scanning Tunneling Microscopy, and Density-Functional Theory: Evidence of a Pentamer Chain Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prévot, Geoffroy; Hogan, Conor; Leoni, Thomas; Bernard, Romain; Moyen, Eric; Masson, Laurence

    2016-12-30

    We report a combined grazing incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXD), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and density-functional theory (DFT) study which clearly elucidates the atomic structure of the Si nanoribbons grown on the missing-row reconstructed Ag(110) surface. Our study allows us to discriminate between the theoretical models published in the literature, including the most stable atomic configurations and those based on a missing-row reconstructed Ag(110) surface. GIXD measurements unambiguously validate the pentamer model grown on the reconstructed surface, obtained from DFT. This pentamer atomistic model accurately matches the high-resolution STM images of the Si nanoribbons adsorbed on Ag(110). Our study closes the long-debated atomic structure of the Si nanoribbons grown on Ag(110) and definitively excludes a honeycomb structure similar to that of freestanding silicene.

  8. Crop residue management in arable cropping systems under a temperate climate. Part 2: Soil physical properties and crop production. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiel, MP.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Residues of previous crops provide a valuable amount of organic matter that can be used either to restore soil fertility or for external use. A better understanding of the impact of crop residue management on the soil-water-plant system is needed in order to manage agricultural land sustainably. This review focuses on soil physical aspects related to crop residue management, and specifically on the link between soil structure and hydraulic properties and its impact on crop production. Literature. Conservation practices, including crop residue retention and non-conventional tillage, can enhance soil health by improving aggregate stability. In this case, water infiltration is facilitated, resulting in an increase in plant water availability. Conservation practices, however, do not systematically lead to higher water availability for the plant. The influence of crop residue management on crop production is still unclear; in some cases, crop production is enhanced by residue retention, but in others crop residues can reduce crop yield. Conclusions. In this review we discuss the diverse and contrasting effects of crop residue management on soil physical properties and crop production under a temperate climate. The review highlights the importance of environmental factors such as soil type and local climatic conditions, highlighting the need to perform field studies on crop residue management and relate them to specific pedo-climatic contexts.

  9. Effects of surface soil loss in South Eastern Nigeria: I. crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The widespread incidence of soil erosion in the tropics has been identified, though few studies have dealt with specific problems of decline in crop productivity associated with soil loss. An understanding of the influence of surface soil loss on crop yield is necessary in order to find out their effects on performance of crops.

  10. Human risk contributions in process industry: Guides for their pre-identification in well-structured activities and for post-incident analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, O.M.

    1985-05-01

    The report should be considered a guide for the treating of human errors: for identifying their possibilities of occurrence when designing well-structured human tasks and for their improvement when they occur in reality. For these purposes a strong coupling between predictive and retrospective analysis is emphasized: In order to control human errors, post-incident analysis of cases with human errors in a given industrial plant should be performed as means of feedback from reality for the verification of results of predictive analysis and also as general means of identifying and improving such human errors which cannot be expected covered by predictive analysis. Primarily, the guide addresses people with a knowledge of the technical plant in question and involved in the safety-oriented design and improvement of human activities and without a particular human factors background. The main report describes the procedures for post-incident analysis and for Work Analysis, which is a search strategy developed for well-defined activities, e.g. test and calibration, and constitutes a formalized procedure for the pre-identification of relevant human errors leading to a lack of task result and/or to immediate effects not covered by the lack of task result itself. Work Analysis and the post-incident analysis procedure are based on a common description system for human malfunctions. This system is explained in appendix and so are its underlying models and way of reasoning. Finally, a word index is provided for supporting the reader. (author)

  11. Development of Dynamic Loudspeakers Modified as Incident Pressure Sources for Noise Reductiuon in a Double Panel Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, J.H.; Berkhoff, A.P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a modified loudspeaker source for decentralized feedback cavity control in a double panel structure to reduce the noise transmission. The double panel structure con-sists of two panels with air in between and offers the advantages of low weight, low sound transmission at high

  12. Development of dynamic loudspeakers modified as incident pressure sources for noise reduction in a double panel structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, J.; Berkhoff, Arthur P.; Crocker, Malcolm J.; Pawelczyk, Marek; Paosawatyanyong, Boonchoat

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a modified loudspeaker source for decentralized feedback cavity control in a double panel structure to reduce the noise transmission. The double panel structure con-sists of two panels with air in between and offers the advantages of low weight, low sound transmission at high

  13. ANALYSIS OF THE INCIDENCE AND STRUCTURE OF THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM DISEASES IN THE FAR NORTH MIGRANTS OVER THE PERIOD OF READAPTATION TO THE NEW CLIMATIC CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Anatolyevich Yaskevich

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study. To study the frequency and structure of cardiovascular diseases of the Far North migrants within the period of readaptation to the new climatic conditions. Materials and methods. 145 migrants with stages II–III of arterial hypertension (AH coming from the Far North arrived in the southern regions of central Siberia for permanent residence. The survey included questionnaires, clinical, instrumental, and functional and laboratory research methods. Results. After moving to central Siberia, the hypertensive crisis is more common in people who lived in the Far North for 30 years or more. An increase in the hypertensive crisis frequency was observed in men, rather than women, whereas the stroke incidence in female migrants gets higher, but remains unchanged in male migrants. An increase in the incidence of diseases that complicate the hypertension progression was detected in the migrants during the period following the migration. An increase in the incidence of angina attacks and strokes as well as a trend towards an increase in the incidence of myocardial infarction and heart failure after moving to central Siberia is caused by an increase in the level of neurotic disorders associated with social and economic factors. Conclusion. The identified patterns should be taken into account in the construction of prevention and rehabilitation programs for the Far North migrants along with an obligatory assessment of the adaptive and readaptive capabilities of the organism. Both the follow-up plan and the list of the required measures should be made individually, while taking into account the identified cardiovascular diseases, concomitant pathology and risk factors. Should the migrant be diagnosed with any cardiovascular diseases, they need to consult a cardiologist with the purpose of correcting both medicated and medication-free therapy for the readaptation period.

  14. Impact of cash cropping and perennial crops on food crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    significant effects on food crop production and productivity. ... 2 Department of Economics and Resource management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway ... food markets work well, the problem of imperfect markets does not allow ..... prices at the time of purchase with the remaining balance due at the end of the.

  15. Development and application of a novel crop stress and quality instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wengjiang; Sun, Gang; Wang, Jihua; Liu, Liangyun; Zheng, Wengang

    2005-12-01

    In this paper, a portable diagnostic instrument for crop quality analysis was designed and tested, which can measure the normalized difference vegetation index (PRI) and structure insensitive pigment index (NRI) of crop canopy in the field. The instrument have a valid survey area of 1m×1m when the height between instrument and the ground was fixed to 1.3 meter. The crop quality can be assessed based on their PRI and NRI values, so it will be very important for crop management to get these values. The instrument uses sunlight as its light source. There are six special different photoelectrical detectors within red, blue and near infrared bands, which are used for detecting incidence sunlight and reflex light from the canopy of crop. This optical instrument includes photoelectric detector module, signal process and A/D convert module, the data storing and transmission module and human-machine interface module. The detector is the core of the instrument which measures the spectrums at special bands. The microprocessor calculates the NDVI and SIPI value based on the A/D value. And the value can be displayed on the instrument's LCD, stored in the flash memory of instrument and can also be uploaded to PC through the PC's RS232 serial interface. The prototype was tested in the crop field at different view directions. It reveals the on-site and non-sampling mode of crop growth monitoring by fixed on the agricultural machine traveling in the field. Such simple instruments can diagnose the plant growth status by the acquired spectral response.

  16. Gender in crop agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Food and Agriculture Organization; The World Bank; IFAD

    2008-01-01

    Metadata only record This is a module in the "Gender in Agriculture Sourcebook" published by the World Bank, UN Food and Agriculture Organization, and International Fund for Agricultural Development. This module examines the role of gender in crop agriculture as an essential component of development and poverty reduction. Gender is an integral aspect of crop agriculture because women's roles in crop production and household subsistence, as well as their knowledge of complex production syst...

  17. Radiation balance of an alfalfa crop in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Yemeni, M.N.; Grace, J.

    1995-01-01

    Short-wave reflectivity or albedo is an important component of net radiation which represents the major determinant of radiation balance of crop surface. This study was conducted on an irrigated alfalfa crop field at Al-Kharj agricultural area in Saudi Arabia, grown according to normal agricultural practices. Data on radiation balance and crop cover were collected over a number of days from March to October 1986, crop albedo varying from 0–4 in early morning to 0–20 at noon, the overall mean value of the crop albedo being estimated at 0–26. The relation between the individual components of radiation balance was studied, and a significant correlation between incident radiation and net radiation was found. Possible causes responsible for changes in crop albedo were discussed. (author)

  18. Crystal and electronic structures of pentacene thin films from grazing-incidence x-ray diffraction and first-principles calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabok, Dmitrii; Puschnig, Peter; Ambrosch-Draxl, Claudia; Werzer, Oliver; Resel, Roland; Smilgies, Detlef-M.

    2007-01-01

    Combined experimental and theoretical investigations on thin films of pentacene are performed in order to determine the structure of the pentacene thin film phase. Grazing incidence x-ray diffraction is used for studying a pentacene thin film with a nominal thickness of 180 nm. The crystal structure is found to exhibit the lattice parameters a=0.592 nm, b=0.754 nm, c=1.563 nm, α=81.5 deg. , β=87.2 deg. , and γ=89.9 deg. . These crystallographic unit cell dimensions are used as the only input parameters for ab initio total-energy calculations within the framework of density functional theory revealing the molecular packing within the crystal structure. Moreover, we calculate the electronic band structure of the thin film phase and compare it to that of the bulk phase. We find the intermolecular bandwidths of the thin film phase to be significantly larger compared to the bulk structure, e.g., the valence bandwidth is twice as large. This remarkable effect is traced back to an enhanced intermolecular π-π overlap due to the upright standing molecules in the thin film phase

  19. Numerical Study on Dynamic Response of a Horizontal Layered-Structure Rock Slope under a Normally Incident Sv Wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifa Zhan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Several post-earthquake investigations have indicated that the slope structure plays a leading role in the stability of rock slopes under dynamic loads. In this paper, the dynamic response of a horizontal layered-structure rock slope under harmonic Sv wave is studied by making use of the Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua method (FLAC. The suitability of FLAC for studying wave transmission across rock joints is validated through comparison with analytical solutions. After parametric studies on Sv wave transmission across the horizontal layered-structure rock slope, it is found that the acceleration amplification coefficient η, which is defined as the ratio of the acceleration at the monitoring point to the value at the toe, wavily increases with an increase of the height along the slope surface. Meanwhile, the fluctuation weakens with normalized joint stiffness K increasing and enhances with normalized joint spacing ξ increasing. The acceleration amplification coefficient of the slope crest ηcrest does not monotonously increase with the increase of ξ, but decreases with the increase of K. Additionally, ηcrest is more sensitive to ξ compared to K. From the contour figures, it can also be found that the contour figures of η take on rhythm, and the effects of ξ on the acceleration amplification coefficient are more obvious compared to the effects on K.

  20. Numerical simulation of cropping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo; Hutchinson, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Cropping is a cutting process whereby opposing aligned blades create a shearing failure by exerting opposing forces normal to the surfaces of a metal sheet or plate. Building on recent efforts to quantify cropping, this paper formulates a plane strain elastic-plastic model of a plate subject to s...

  1. Applied Crop Protection 2017

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup; Nielsen, Bent Jørgen; Mathiassen, Solvejg Kopp

    Linket til højre henviser til rapporten i trykt format til download. This publication contains results from crop protection trials which were carried out at the Department of Agroecology within the area of gricultural crops. Most of the results come from field trials, but results from greenhouse...

  2. Applied Crop Protection 2017

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup; Nielsen, Bent Jørgen; Mathiassen, Solvejg Kopp

    Linket til højre henviser til rapporten i trykt format til download. This publication contains results from crop protection trials which were carried out at the Department of Agroecology within the area of gricultural crops. Most of the results come from field trials, but results from greenhouse ...

  3. Applied crop protection 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup; Nielsen, Bent Jørgen; Jensen, Peter Kryger

    This publication contains results from crop protection trials which were carried out at the Department of Agroecology within the area of agricultural crops. Most of the results come from field trials, but results from greenhouse and semi-field trials are also included. The report contains results...

  4. Investigation of impact phenomena on the marine structures: Part II - Internal energy of the steel structure applied by selected materials in the ship-ship collision incidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabowo, A. R.; Baek, S. J.; Lee, S. G.; Bae, D. M.; Sohn, J. M.

    2018-01-01

    Phenomena of impact loads on the marine structures has attracted attention to be predicted regarding its influences to structural damage. This part demands sustainable analysis and observation as tendency may vary from one to others since impact involves various scenario models and the structure itself experiences continuous development. Investigation of the damage extent can be conducted by observation on the energy behaviour during two entities involve in a contact. This study aimed to perform numerical investigation to predict structural damage by assessing absorbed strain energy represented by the internal energy during a series of ship collisions. The collision target in ship-ship interactions were determined on the single and double hulls part of a passenger ship. Tendency of the internal energy by the steel structures was summarized, and verification was presented by several crashworthiness criteria. It was found that steel structures applied by the material grades A and B produced different tendencies compared to the material grades D and E. Effect of the structural arrangement to structural responses in terms of strain and stress indicated that the single hull presented contour expansion mainly on the longitudinal directions.

  5. Structure of ultrathin films of Co on Cu(111) from normal-incidence x-ray standing wave and medium-energy ion scattering measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butterfield, M.T.; Crapper, M.D.; Noakes, T.C.Q.; Bailey, P.; Jackson, G.J.; Woodruff, D.P.

    2000-01-01

    Applications of the techniques of normal-incidence x-ray standing wave (NIXSW) and medium-energy ion scattering (MEIS) to the elucidation of the structure of an ultrathin metallic film, Co on Cu(111), are reported. NIXSW and MEIS are shown to yield valuable and complementary information on the structure of such systems, yielding both the local stacking sequence and the global site distribution. For the thinnest films of nominally two layers, the first layer is of entirely fcc registry with respect to the substrate, but in the outermost layer there is significant occupation of hcp local sites. For films up to 8 monolayers (ML) thick, the interlayer spacing of the Co layers is 0.058±0.006 Aa smaller than the Cu substrate (111) layer spacing. With increasing coverage, the coherent fraction of the (1(bar sign)11) NIXSW decreases rapidly, indicating that the film does not grow in a fcc continuation beyond two layers. For films in this thickness range, hcp-type stacking dominates fcc twinning by a ratio of 2:1. The variation of the (1(bar sign)11) NIXSW coherent fraction with thickness shows that the twinning occurs close to the Co/Cu interface. For thicker films of around 20 ML deposited at room temperature, medium-energy ion scattering measurements reveal a largely disordered structure. Upon annealing to 300 deg. C the 20-ML films order into a hcp structure

  6. Protein improvement in crop plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabson, R

    1974-07-01

    There are compelling reasons for attempting to increase the quality and quantity of protein available in crop plants through plant breeding, despite the fact that some critics have argued that no worldwide protein shortage exists. What used to be thought of as a 'protein gap' has now come to be considered in terms of protein-calorie malnutrition. This is only right since protein and calorie nutrition are inextricable. t the moment there are still unanswered questions as to the precise protein requirements of humans as a function of age, health and ambient conditions. There are, in addition, some indications that the incidence of Kwashiorkor (protein deficiency disease) is increasing in different parts of the world. At a recent meeting of the Protein Advisory Group of the United Nations System, Dr. Jean Mayer, an eminent human nutritionist of Harvard University, U.S.A., indicated the reasons for concern for the current food situation generally, and the protein food supply in particular. These factors include: - Immoderate continuing human population increases, most pronounced in some poor developing countries. - The highly accelerated consumption of animal foods associated with increasing affluence in the richer countries of the world. The production of such foods as meat demands great expenditures of grain, which is an inefficient mode of obtaining the required calories and protein for human consumption. - The over-exploitation of many of the world's fishery resources resulting in reduced yields, perhaps irreversibly, of some fishes. - Recent price increases in petroleum and fertilizer products which have imposed a major obstacle to increasing crop production. - The apparent alteration of climates in places like Africa, Asia and other parts of the Northern hemisphere which may put significant restrictions on crop production. hey are cogent reasons to be seriously concerned about these matters. (author)

  7. Protein improvement in crop plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabson, R.

    1974-01-01

    There are compelling reasons for attempting to increase the quality and quantity of protein available in crop plants through plant breeding, despite the fact that some critics have argued that no worldwide protein shortage exists. What used to be thought of as a 'protein gap' has now come to be considered in terms of protein-calorie malnutrition. This is only right since protein and calorie nutrition are inextricable. t the moment there are still unanswered questions as to the precise protein requirements of humans as a function of age, health and ambient conditions. There are, in addition, some indications that the incidence of Kwashiorkor (protein deficiency disease) is increasing in different parts of the world. At a recent meeting of the Protein Advisory Group of the United Nations System, Dr. Jean Mayer, an eminent human nutritionist of Harvard University, U.S.A., indicated the reasons for concern for the current food situation generally, and the protein food supply in particular. These factors include: - Immoderate continuing human population increases, most pronounced in some poor developing countries. - The highly accelerated consumption of animal foods associated with increasing affluence in the richer countries of the world. The production of such foods as meat demands great expenditures of grain, which is an inefficient mode of obtaining the required calories and protein for human consumption. - The over-exploitation of many of the world's fishery resources resulting in reduced yields, perhaps irreversibly, of some fishes. - Recent price increases in petroleum and fertilizer products which have imposed a major obstacle to increasing crop production. - The apparent alteration of climates in places like Africa, Asia and other parts of the Northern hemisphere which may put significant restrictions on crop production. hey are cogent reasons to be seriously concerned about these matters. (author)

  8. How Clean is Safe? Improving the Effectiveness of Decontamination of Structures and People Following Chemical and Biological Incidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt (Sorensen), B.M.

    2003-04-03

    This report describes a U.S. Department of Energy, (DOE) Chemical and Biological National Security Program project that sought to establish what is known about decontamination of structures, objects, and people following an exposure to chemical or biological materials. Specifically we sought to identify the procedures and protocols used to determine when and how people or buildings are considered ''clean'' following decontamination. To fulfill this objective, the study systematically examined reported decontamination experiences to determine what procedures and protocols are currently employed for decontamination, the timeframe involved to initiate and complete the decontamination process, how the contaminants were identified, the factors determining when people were (or were not) decontaminated, the problems encountered during the decontamination process, how response efforts of agencies were coordinated, and the perceived social psychological effects on people who were decontaminated or who participated in the decontamination process. Findings and recommendations from the study are intended to aid decision-making and to improve the basis for determining appropriate decontamination protocols for recovery planners and policy makers for responding to chemical and biological events.

  9. Crop responses to CO2 enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, H.H.; Dahlman, R.C.

    1993-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is rising in the global atmosphere, and this increase can be expected to continue into the foreseeable future. This compound is an essential input to plant life. Crop function is affected across all scales from biochemical to agroecosystem. An array of methods (leaf cuvettes, field chambers, free-air release systems) are available for experimental studies of CO 2 effects. Carbon dioxide enrichment of the air in which crops grow usually stimulates their growth and yield. Plant structure and physiology are markedly altered. Interactions between CO 2 and environmental factors that influence plants are known to occur. Implications for crop growth and yield are enormous. Strategies designed to assure future global food security must include a consideration of crop responses to elevated atmospheric CO 2 . 137 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  10. African Crop Science Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL ... The African Crop Science Journal, a quarterly publication, publishes original ... interactions, information science, environmental science and soil science.

  11. African Crop Science Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Crop Science Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 1, No 2 (1993) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  12. African Crop Science Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Crop Science Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 22 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  13. Radioactivity in food crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drury, J.S.; Baldauf, M.F.; Daniel, E.W.; Fore, C.S.; Uziel, M.S.

    1983-05-01

    Published levels of radioactivity in food crops from 21 countries and 4 island chains of Oceania are listed. The tabulation includes more than 3000 examples of 100 different crops. Data are arranged alphabetically by food crop and geographical origin. The sampling date, nuclide measured, mean radioactivity, range of radioactivities, sample basis, number of samples analyzed, and bibliographic citation are given for each entry, when available. Analyses were reported most frequently for 137 Cs, 40 K, 90 Sr, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, plutonium, uranium, total alpha, and total beta, but a few authors also reported data for 241 Am, 7 Be, 60 Co, 55 Fe, 3 H, 131 I, 54 Mn, 95 Nb, 210 Pb, 210 Po, 106 Ru, 125 Sb, 228 Th, 232 Th, and 95 Zr. Based on the reported data it appears that radioactivity from alpha emitters in food crops is usually low, on the order of 0.1 Bq.g -1 (wet weight) or less. Reported values of beta radiation in a given crop generally appear to be several orders of magnitude greater than those of alpha emitters. The most striking aspect of the data is the great range of radioactivity reported for a given nuclide in similar food crops with different geographical origins

  14. Radioactivity in food crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drury, J.S.; Baldauf, M.F.; Daniel, E.W.; Fore, C.S.; Uziel, M.S.

    1983-05-01

    Published levels of radioactivity in food crops from 21 countries and 4 island chains of Oceania are listed. The tabulation includes more than 3000 examples of 100 different crops. Data are arranged alphabetically by food crop and geographical origin. The sampling date, nuclide measured, mean radioactivity, range of radioactivities, sample basis, number of samples analyzed, and bibliographic citation are given for each entry, when available. Analyses were reported most frequently for /sup 137/Cs, /sup 40/K, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 226/Ra, /sup 228/Ra, plutonium, uranium, total alpha, and total beta, but a few authors also reported data for /sup 241/Am, /sup 7/Be, /sup 60/Co, /sup 55/Fe, /sup 3/H, /sup 131/I, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 95/Nb, /sup 210/Pb, /sup 210/Po, /sup 106/Ru, /sup 125/Sb, /sup 228/Th, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 95/Zr. Based on the reported data it appears that radioactivity from alpha emitters in food crops is usually low, on the order of 0.1 Bq.g/sup -1/ (wet weight) or less. Reported values of beta radiation in a given crop generally appear to be several orders of magnitude greater than those of alpha emitters. The most striking aspect of the data is the great range of radioactivity reported for a given nuclide in similar food crops with different geographical origins.

  15. Genetically modified crops: the fastest adopted crop technology in the history of modern agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khush Gurdev S

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The major scientific advances of the last century featured the identification of the structure of DNA, the development of molecular biology and the technology to exploit these advances. These breakthroughs gave us new tools for crop improvement, including molecular marker-aided selection (MAS and genetic modification (GM. MAS improves the efficiency of breeding programs, and GM allows us to accomplish breeding objectives not possible through conventional breeding approaches. MAS is not controversial and is now routinely used in crop improvement programs. However, the international debate about the application of genetic manipulation to crop improvement has slowed the adoption of GM crops in developing as well as in European countries. Since GM crops were first introduced to global agriculture in 1996, Clive James has published annual reports on the global status of commercialized GM crops as well as special reports on individual GM crops for The International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications (ISAAA. His 34th report, Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/ GM crops: 2011 [1] is essential reading for those who are concerned about world food security.

  16. Addressing crop interactions within cropping systems in LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goglio, Pietro; Brankatschk, Gerhard; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman

    2018-01-01

    objectives of this discussion article are as follows: (i) to discuss the characteristics of cropping systems which might affect the LCA methodology, (ii) to discuss the advantages and the disadvantages of the current available methods for the life-cycle assessment of cropping systems, and (iii) to offer...... management and emissions, and (3) functional unit issues. The LCA approaches presented are as follows: cropping system, allocation approaches, crop-by-crop approach, and combined approaches. The various approaches are described together with their advantages and disadvantages, applicability...... considers cropping system issues if they are related to multiproduct and nutrient cycling, while the crop-by-crop approach is highly affected by assumptions and considers cropping system issues only if they are related to the analyzed crop. Conclusions Each LCA approach presents advantages and disadvantages...

  17. Temperature-Dependent Change of Packing Structure of Condensed-Phase in a Micro-Phase Separated Langmuir Monolayer Studied by Grazing-Incidence X-ray Diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iimura, Ken-ichi [Department of Applied Chemisty, Faculty of Engineering, Utsunomiya University, 7-1-2 Yoto, Utsunomiya 321-8585, Utsunomiya (Japan); Kato, Teiji [Department of Applied Chemisty, Faculty of Engineering, Utsunomiya University, 7-1-2 Yoto, Utsunomiya 321-8585, Utsunomiya (Japan); Brezesinski, Gerald [Max-Planck Instutite of Colloids and Interfaces, Research Campus Golm, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany)

    2007-10-15

    Packing structure of condensed-phase in a binary mixed Langmuir monolayer of behenic acid (C22) and perfluoro-2,5,8-trimethyl-3,6,9-trioxadodecanoic acid (PFPE) on a cadmium acetate aqueous solution was studied by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) as a function of the subphase temperature. The measurements were made during temperature scan at a fixed molecular area to explain the morphological change of the condensed-phase domains due to a thermal treatment reported previously. Analysis of GIXD data implies that the condensed-phase domains are composed of only the C22 molecules perpendicularly oriented and very closely packed in a centered rectangular unit cell with orthorhombic distortion at low temperatures. As the temperature increases the area occupied by molecule increases, and above 25 deg. C the lattice becomes disordered, which would allow morphological transformation of the condensed-phase domains. The process of packing structure change is almost reversible except for non-equilibrium phases observed for the monolayer spread at a low temperature, 5.5 deg. C.

  18. Using marginal structural measurement-error models to estimate the long-term effect of antiretroviral therapy on incident AIDS or death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Stephen R; Jacobson, Lisa P; Tien, Phyllis C; Kingsley, Lawrence; Chmiel, Joan S; Anastos, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    To estimate the net effect of imperfectly measured highly active antiretroviral therapy on incident acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or death, the authors combined inverse probability-of-treatment-and-censoring weighted estimation of a marginal structural Cox model with regression-calibration methods. Between 1995 and 2007, 950 human immunodeficiency virus-positive men and women were followed in 2 US cohort studies. During 4,054 person-years, 374 initiated highly active antiretroviral therapy, 211 developed acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or died, and 173 dropped out. Accounting for measured confounders and determinants of dropout, the weighted hazard ratio for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or death comparing use of highly active antiretroviral therapy in the prior 2 years with no therapy was 0.36 (95% confidence limits: 0.21, 0.61). This association was relatively constant over follow-up (P = 0.19) and stronger than crude or adjusted hazard ratios of 0.75 and 0.95, respectively. Accounting for measurement error in reported exposure using external validation data on 331 men and women provided a hazard ratio of 0.17, with bias shifted from the hazard ratio to the estimate of precision as seen by the 2.5-fold wider confidence limits (95% confidence limits: 0.06, 0.43). Marginal structural measurement-error models can simultaneously account for 3 major sources of bias in epidemiologic research: validated exposure measurement error, measured selection bias, and measured time-fixed and time-varying confounding.

  19. Temperature-Dependent Change of Packing Structure of Condensed-Phase in a Micro-Phase Separated Langmuir Monolayer Studied by Grazing-Incidence X-ray Diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iimura, Ken-ichi; Kato, Teiji; Brezesinski, Gerald

    2007-01-01

    Packing structure of condensed-phase in a binary mixed Langmuir monolayer of behenic acid (C22) and perfluoro-2,5,8-trimethyl-3,6,9-trioxadodecanoic acid (PFPE) on a cadmium acetate aqueous solution was studied by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) as a function of the subphase temperature. The measurements were made during temperature scan at a fixed molecular area to explain the morphological change of the condensed-phase domains due to a thermal treatment reported previously. Analysis of GIXD data implies that the condensed-phase domains are composed of only the C22 molecules perpendicularly oriented and very closely packed in a centered rectangular unit cell with orthorhombic distortion at low temperatures. As the temperature increases the area occupied by molecule increases, and above 25 deg. C the lattice becomes disordered, which would allow morphological transformation of the condensed-phase domains. The process of packing structure change is almost reversible except for non-equilibrium phases observed for the monolayer spread at a low temperature, 5.5 deg. C

  20. Grand challenges for crop science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crop science is a highly integrative science using the disciplines of conventional plant breeding, transgenic crop improvement, plant physiology, and cropping system sciences to develop improved varieties of agronomic, turf, and forage crops to produce feed, food, fuel, and fiber for our world's gro...

  1. Biotechnology: herbicide-resistant crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic, herbicide-resistant (HR) crops are planted on about 80% of the land covered by transgenic crops. More than 90% of HR crios are glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops, the others being resistant to glufosinate. The wide-scale adoption of HR crops, largely for economic reasons, has been the mos...

  2. Energy from field crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubr, J.

    1990-04-15

    At the Research Station of Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Copenhagen, Denmark, investigation concerning cultivation and exploitation of field crops for production of fuels was carried out during the period 1986-1989. High yielding crops, such as sugar beet - BETA VULGARIS, jerusalem artichoke - HELIANTHUS TUBEROSUS, rhubarb - RHEUM RHAPONTICUM, and comfrey - SYMPHYTUM ASPERUM, were grown experimentally in the field. Different cultivation methods for the crops were used and evaluated. Simultaneously with the field experiment, laboratory investigation was carried out to determine the energy potential of different products and by-products from the crops processes, such as alcoholic and methanogenic fermantation. Production expenses for the crops were determined, and cost of the fuels was estimated. The experimental results show that beet is a superior crop for the climatic conditions of Northern Europe. In the season 1986, yields exceeded 20 t TS/ha in the form of roots and tops, where achieved. A combined exploitation of beet roots and tops via alcoholic and methanogenic fermantation gave a gross energy corresponding to 80 hl OE/ha/yr. Using methanogenic fermentation exclusively, from ensiled beet roots and tops, gross energy yield corresponding to 85 hl IE/ha/yr, was achieved. The cost of energy in the form of alcohol from beet roots was estimated to be 5.17 DKK/1 OE (0.64 ECU/l OE). The cost of energy in the form of methane from ensiled beet tops, was estimated to be 2.68 DKK/l OE (0.33 ECU/l OE). At the present time, methane produced on the basis of ensiled beet roots and tops appears to be competitive with fossil fuels. Irrespective of the cost, however, the possibility of producing clean energy from field crops remains of interest for the future. (author) 27 refs.

  3. Thin Film Structure of Tetraceno(2,3-B)thiophene Characterized By Grazing Incidence X-Ray Scattering And Near-Edge X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Q.; Mannsfeld, S.C.B.; Tang, M.L.; Toney, M.F.; Luening, J.; Bao, Z.A.

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the structure-property relationship for organic semiconductors is crucial in rational molecular design and organic thin film process control. Charge carrier transport in organic field-effect transistors predominantly occurs in a few semiconductor layers close to the interface in contact with the dielectric layer, and the transport properties depend sensitively on the precise molecular packing. Therefore, a better understanding of the impact of molecular packing and thin film morphology in the first few monolayers above the dielectric layer on charge transport is needed to improve the transistor performance. In this Article, we show that the detailed molecular packing in thin organic semiconductor films can be solved through a combination of grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD), near-edge X-ray absorption spectra fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy, energy minimization packing calculations, and structure refinement of the diffraction data. We solve the thin film structure for 2 and 20 nm thick films of tetraceno(2,3-b)thiophene and detect only a single phase for these thicknesses. The GIXD yields accurate unit cell dimensions, while the precise molecular arrangement in the unit cell was found from the energy minimization and structure refinement; the NEXAFS yields a consistent molecular tilt. For the 20 nm film, the unit cell is triclinic with a = 5.96 A, b = 7.71 A, c = 15.16 A, alpha = 97.30 degrees, beta = 95.63 degrees, gamma = 90 degrees; there are two molecules per unit cell with herringbone packing (49-59 degree angle) and tilted about 7 degrees from the substrate normal. The thin film structure is significantly different from the bulk single-crystal structure, indicating the importance of characterizing thin film to correlate with thin film device performance. The results are compared to the corresponding data for the chemically similar and widely used pentacene. Possible effects of the observed thin film structure and morphology on

  4. Viral diseases affecting chickpea crops in Eritrea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAFAA G. KUMARI

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available A survey to identify virus diseases affecting chickpea crops in the major production areas of Eritrea was conducted during November 2005. The survey covered 31 randomly selected chickpea fi elds. Virus disease incidence was determined on the basis of laboratory testing of 100–200 randomly collected samples from each fi eld against antisera of 9 legume viruses. Serological tests indicated that the Luteoviruses were the most common, with an overall incidence of 5.6%, followed by Faba bean necrotic yellows virus (FBNYV, genus Nanovirus, family Nanoviridae (4.1% and Chickpea chlorotic dwarf virus (CpCDV, genus Mastrevirus, family Geminiviridae (0.9%. The reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR test showed that the most common luteoviruses in Eritrea are Chickpea chlorotic stunt virus (CpCSV followed by Beet western yellows virus (BWYV, genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae. Based on the fi eld symptoms observed, 29 fi elds had, at the time of the survey, a virus disease incidence of 1% or less and only two fi elds had an incidence of about 5%, whereas on the basis of laboratory testing, 19 fi elds had more than 6% virus incidence (three of these had an incidence of 29.5, 34.5 and 40.5%. This is the fi rst survey of chickpea viruses in Eritrea and the fi rst report of BWYV, CpCDV, CpCSV and FBNYV naturally infecting chickpea in Eritrea.

  5. Cultivos de cobertura: efectos sobre la macroporosidad y la estabilidad estructural de un suelo franco-limoso Cover crops: effects on soil macroporosity and soil structural stability in a silt loam soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Florencia Varela

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Los suelos franco-limosos manejados con siembra directa a menudo poseen porosidad estructural baja e inestable. Con el objetivo de determinar la capacidad de los cultivos de cobertura (CC de mejorar la porosidad y estabilidad estructural de estos suelos se llevaron a cabo experimentos de campo y de invernáculo. Ambos tuvieron tratamientos con y sin CC (avena, Avena sativa L., en rotación con soja (Glicine max L. Merr.. Luego de los CC se midieron densidad aparente (DA, el índice de inestabilidad estructural (IE y en el ensayo de invernáculo además, se midió la evolución de la distribución de tamaño de poros (DTP. En ambos ensayos la introducción de CC no disminuyó la DA, aunque incrementó la estabilidad del suelo (PNo- till (NT silt loam topsoils have often a low and unstable structural porosity. The objective of this study was to determine the capability of cover crops (CC of improving the structural porosity and stability of silt loam soils under NT. Greenhouse and field experiments were carried out on a silt loam soil (Typic Argiudoll with and without CC (oat, Avena sativa L. in crop sequences with soybean (Glicine max L. Merr.. Soil bulk density (DA and aggregate instability index (IE were measured after the CC in both experiments. In the greenhouse experiment, soil pore size distribution (DTP was measured. The use of CC did not change DA, but soil IE was significantly lower in crop sequences with CC (P < 0.05 both under field and greenhouse conditions. Stability increases were likely due to the effect of CC residues and root mass. No differences in DTP were found between treatments, although a significant effect of sampling date was observed (P<0.05. Changes in DTP were due to significant increases in mesopore (517.5% and macropore (52.7% volumes. Such changes occurred in all the treatments, probably due to the soil wetting-drying cycles. The results found in this study agree with other studies carried out on silt loams in the

  6. Plant biotechnology: transgenic crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewry, Peter R; Jones, Huw D; Halford, Nigel G

    2008-01-01

    Transgenesis is an important adjunct to classical plant breeding, in that it allows the targeted manipulation of specific characters using genes from a range of sources. The current status of crop transformation is reviewed, including methods of gene transfer, the selection of transformed plants and control of transgene expression. The application of genetic modification technology to specific traits is then discussed, including input traits relating to crop production (herbicide tolerance and resistance to insects, pathogens and abiotic stresses) and output traits relating to the composition and quality of the harvested organs. The latter include improving the nutritional quality for consumers as well as the improvement of functional properties for food processing.

  7. Increased occurrence of pesticide residues on crops grown in protected environments compared to crops grown in open field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Gina; Halsall, Crispin J; Ukpebor, Justina; Paul, Nigel D; Ridall, Gareth; Wargent, Jason J

    2015-01-01

    Crops grown under plastic-clad structures or in greenhouses may be prone to an increased frequency of pesticide residue detections and higher concentrations of pesticides relative to equivalent crops grown in the open field. To test this we examined pesticide data for crops selected from the quarterly reports (2004-2009) of the UK's Pesticide Residue Committee. Five comparison crop pairs were identified whereby one crop of each pair was assumed to have been grown primarily under some form of physical protection ('protected') and the other grown primarily in open field conditions ('open'). For each pair, the number of detectable pesticide residues and the proportion of crop samples containing pesticides were statistically compared (n=100 s samples for each crop). The mean concentrations of selected photolabile pesticides were also compared. For the crop pairings of cabbage ('open') vs. lettuce ('protected') and 'berries' ('open') vs. strawberries ('protected') there was a significantly higher number of pesticides and proportion of samples with multiple residues for the protected crops. Statistically higher concentrations of pesticides, including cypermethrin, cyprodinil, fenhexamid, boscalid and iprodione were also found in the protected crops compared to the open crops. The evidence here demonstrates that, in general, the protected crops possess a higher number of detectable pesticides compared to analogous crops grown in the open. This may be due to different pesticide-use regimes, but also due to slower rates of pesticide removal in protected systems. The findings of this study raise implications for pesticide management in protected-crop systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cover crops support ecological intensification of arable cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittwer, Raphaël A.; Dorn, Brigitte; Jossi, Werner; van der Heijden, Marcel G. A.

    2017-02-01

    A major challenge for agriculture is to enhance productivity with minimum impact on the environment. Several studies indicate that cover crops could replace anthropogenic inputs and enhance crop productivity. However, so far, it is unclear if cover crop effects vary between different cropping systems, and direct comparisons among major arable production systems are rare. Here we compared the short-term effects of various cover crops on crop yield, nitrogen uptake, and weed infestation in four arable production systems (conventional cropping with intensive tillage and no-tillage; organic cropping with intensive tillage and reduced tillage). We hypothesized that cover cropping effects increase with decreasing management intensity. Our study demonstrated that cover crop effects on crop yield were highest in the organic system with reduced tillage (+24%), intermediate in the organic system with tillage (+13%) and in the conventional system with no tillage (+8%) and lowest in the conventional system with tillage (+2%). Our results indicate that cover crops are essential to maintaining a certain yield level when soil tillage intensity is reduced (e.g. under conservation agriculture), or when production is converted to organic agriculture. Thus, the inclusion of cover crops provides additional opportunities to increase the yield of lower intensity production systems and contribute to ecological intensification.

  9. Sustainable Agriculture: Cover Cropping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Megan

    2018-01-01

    Sustainable agriculture practices are increasingly being used by farmers to maintain soil quality, increase biodiversity, and promote production of food that is environmentally safe. There are several types of sustainable agriculture practices such as organic farming, crop rotation, and aquaculture. This lesson plan focuses on the sustainable…

  10. Transpiration and crop yields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de C.T.

    1958-01-01

    Theoretical and practical aspects of the transpiration of crops in the field are discussed and he concludes that the relationship between transpiration and total dry matter production is much less affected by growing conditions than has been supposed. In semi-arid and arid regions, this relationship

  11. Biotechnology Towards Energy Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaritopoulou, Theoni; Roka, Loukia; Alexopoulou, Efi; Christou, Myrsini; Rigas, Stamatis; Haralampidis, Kosmas; Milioni, Dimitra

    2016-03-01

    New crops are gradually establishing along with cultivation systems to reduce reliance on depleting fossil fuel reserves and sustain better adaptation to climate change. These biological assets could be efficiently exploited as bioenergy feedstocks. Bioenergy crops are versatile renewable sources with the potential to alternatively contribute on a daily basis towards the coverage of modern society's energy demands. Biotechnology may facilitate the breeding of elite energy crop genotypes, better suited for bio-processing and subsequent use that will improve efficiency, further reduce costs, and enhance the environmental benefits of biofuels. Innovative molecular techniques may improve a broad range of important features including biomass yield, product quality and resistance to biotic factors like pests or microbial diseases or environmental cues such as drought, salinity, freezing injury or heat shock. The current review intends to assess the capacity of biotechnological applications to develop a beneficial bioenergy pipeline extending from feedstock development to sustainable biofuel production and provide examples of the current state of the art on future energy crops.

  12. Future-proof crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kissoudis, Christos; Wiel, van de Clemens; Visser, R.G.F.; Linden, van der Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Breeding for stress-resilient crops strongly depends on technological and biological advancements that have provided a wealth of information on genetic variants and their contribution to stress tolerance. In the context of the upcoming challenges for agriculture due to climate change, such as

  13. Mycorrhiza and crop production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayman, D S

    1980-10-09

    This article describes recent research with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza, a symbiotic fungus-root association. The suggestion that the symbiotic association may be harnessed to achieve more economical use of phosphate fertilizers is discussed and the results from various test crops are given.

  14. Technical efficiency among the food crop farmers in Rivers State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study estimated technical efficiency and isolated determinants of technical inefficiency among food crop farmers in Rivers State, Nigeria. The data was collected with structured questionnaire from 180 food crop farmers randomly selected from 10 out of the 15 upland LGAs that make up Rivers State. A stochastic frontier ...

  15. Building crop models within different crop modelling frameworks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adam, M.Y.O.; Corbeels, M.; Leffelaar, P.A.; Keulen, van H.; Wery, J.; Ewert, F.

    2012-01-01

    Modular frameworks for crop modelling have evolved through simultaneous progress in crop science and software development but differences among these frameworks exist which are not well understood, resulting in potential misuse for crop modelling. In this paper we review differences and similarities

  16. arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi status of some crops in the cross river ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    The incidence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) colonization and rhizospheric spore prevalence of ten crops was studied in relation to their foliar concentration of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in the Calabar area of the Cross. River Basin of Nigeria in order to determine their mycorrhizal status. All crops studied ...

  17. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi status of some crops in the cross river ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) colonization and rhizospheric spore prevalence of ten crops was studied in relation to their foliar concentration of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in the Calabar area of the Cross River Basin of Nigeria in order to determine their mycorrhizal status. All crops studied ...

  18. Crop responses to climatic variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porter, John R.; Semenov, Mikhail A.

    2005-01-01

    The yield and quality of food crops is central to the well being of humans and is directly affected by climate and weather. Initial studies of climate change on crops focussed on effects of increased carbon dioxide (CO2) level and/or global mean temperature and/or rainfall and nutrition on crop...... production. However, crops can respond nonlinearly to changes in their growing conditions, exhibit threshold responses and are subject to combinations of stress factors that affect their growth, development and yield. Thus, climate variability and changes in the frequency of extreme events are important...... for yield, its stability and quality. In this context, threshold temperatures for crop processes are found not to differ greatly for different crops and are important to define for the major food crops, to assist climate modellers predict the occurrence of crop critical temperatures and their temporal...

  19. Structural characterization of copia-type retrotransposons leads to insights into the marker development in a biofuel crop, Jatropha curcas L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Recently, Jatropha curcas L. has attracted worldwide attention for its potential as a source of biodiesel. However, most DNA markers have demonstrated high levels of genetic similarity among and within jatropha populations around the globe. Despite promising features of copia-type retrotransposons as ideal genetic tools for gene tagging, mutagenesis, and marker-assisted selection, they have not been characterized in the jatropha genome yet. Here, we examined the diversity, evolution, and genome-wide organization of copia-type retrotransposons in the Asian, African, and Mesoamerican accessions of jatropha, then introduced a retrotransposon-based marker for this biofuel crop. Results In total, 157 PCR fragments that were amplified using the degenerate primers for the reverse transcriptase (RT) domain of copia-type retroelements were sequenced and aligned to construct the neighbor-joining tree. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that isolated copia RT sequences were classified into ten families, which were then grouped into three lineages. An in-depth study of the jatropha genome for the RT sequences of each family led to the characterization of full consensus sequences of the jatropha copia-type families. Estimated copy numbers of target sequences were largely different among families, as was presence of genes within 5 kb flanking regions for each family. Five copia-type families were as appealing candidates for the development of DNA marker systems. A candidate marker from family Jc7 was particularly capable of detecting genetic variation among different jatropha accessions. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to metaphase chromosomes reveals that copia-type retrotransposons are scattered across chromosomes mainly located in the distal part regions. Conclusion This is the first report on genome-wide analysis and the cytogenetic mapping of copia-type retrotransposons of jatropha, leading to the discovery of families bearing high potential as DNA

  20. Resistance Genes in Global Crop Breeding Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, K A; Andersen, K F; Asche, F; Bowden, R L; Forbes, G A; Kulakow, P A; Zhou, B

    2017-10-01

    Resistance genes are a major tool for managing crop diseases. The networks of crop breeders who exchange resistance genes and deploy them in varieties help to determine the global landscape of resistance and epidemics, an important system for maintaining food security. These networks function as a complex adaptive system, with associated strengths and vulnerabilities, and implications for policies to support resistance gene deployment strategies. Extensions of epidemic network analysis can be used to evaluate the multilayer agricultural networks that support and influence crop breeding networks. Here, we evaluate the general structure of crop breeding networks for cassava, potato, rice, and wheat. All four are clustered due to phytosanitary and intellectual property regulations, and linked through CGIAR hubs. Cassava networks primarily include public breeding groups, whereas others are more mixed. These systems must adapt to global change in climate and land use, the emergence of new diseases, and disruptive breeding technologies. Research priorities to support policy include how best to maintain both diversity and redundancy in the roles played by individual crop breeding groups (public versus private and global versus local), and how best to manage connectivity to optimize resistance gene deployment while avoiding risks to the useful life of resistance genes. [Formula: see text] Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY 4.0 International license .

  1. Salt resistant crop plants

    KAUST Repository

    Roy, Stuart J.

    2014-04-01

    Soil salinity is a major constraint to agriculture. To improve salinity tolerance of crops, various traits can be incorporated, including ion exclusion, osmotic tolerance and tissue tolerance. We review the roles of a range of genes involved in salt tolerance traits. Different tissues and cells are adapted for specific and often diverse function, so it is important to express the genes in specific cell-types and to pyramid a range of traits. Modern biotechnology (marker- assisted selection or genetic engineering) needs to be increasingly used to introduce the correct combination of genes into elite crop cultivars. Importantly, the effects of introduced genes need to be evaluated in the field to determine their effect on salinity tolerance and yield improvement.

  2. Radiation and crop improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1960-09-15

    The present state of the research was reviewed and its results analyzed at an international scientific Symposium on the Effects of Ionizing Radiations on Seeds and their Significance for Crop Improvement held at Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany, in 1960. The experts began a detailed examination of certain special aspects of the radiobiology of seeds. Some of the topics discussed related to the processes initiated in seeds as a result of irradiation. The influence of environmental factors, such as temperature, humidity and the presence or absence of oxygen, was also evaluated. Variations in the sensitivity to radiation were taken into consideration and ways of modifying the sensitivity were examined. Two sessions were devoted to a study of radiation- and chemically-induced chromosome breakage and reunion. The nature and mechanism of chromosome breakage and reunion area subject of basic importance in all radiobiological studies and naturally constituted one of the main topics of discussion at the Karlsruhe symposium. The symposium discussed the relevance of these basic scientific questions to crop improvement. Whether irradiation itself, without producing any hereditary changes, can stimulate crop yields is a matter of considerable interest. It has been found that in some cases the effect is stimulating, while in others it is inhibitive. A number of experiments were described and an attempt was made to deduce certain principles from the results obtained

  3. Crop stress detection and classification using hyperspectral remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irby, Jon Trenton

    Agricultural production has observed many changes in technology over the last 20 years. Producers are able to utilize technologies such as site-specific applicators and remotely sensed data to assist with decision making for best management practices which can improve crop production and provide protection to the environment. It is known that plant stress can interfere with photosynthetic reactions within the plant and/or the physical structure of the plant. Common types of stress associated with agricultural crops include herbicide induced stress, nutrient stress, and drought stress from lack of water. Herbicide induced crop stress is not a new problem. However, with increased acreage being planting in varieties/hybrids that contain herbicide resistant traits, herbicide injury to non-target crops will continue to be problematic for producers. With rapid adoption of herbicide-tolerant cropping systems, it is likely that herbicide induced stress will continue to be a major concern. To date, commercially available herbicide-tolerant varieties/hybrids contain traits which allow herbicides like glyphosate and glufosinate-ammonium to be applied as a broadcast application during the growing season. Both glyphosate and glufosinate-ammonium are broad spectrum herbicides which have activity on a large number of plant species, including major crops like non-transgenic soybean, corn, and cotton. Therefore, it is possible for crop stress from herbicide applications to occur in neighboring fields that contain susceptible crop varieties/hybrids. Nutrient and moisture stress as well as stress caused by herbicide applications can interact to influence yields in agricultural fields. If remotely sensed data can be used to accurately identify specific levels of crop stress, it is possible that producers can use this information to better assist them in crop management to maximize yields and protect their investments. This research was conducted to evaluate classification of specific

  4. BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM CATCH CROPS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molinuevo-Salces, Beatriz; Larsen, Søren U.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2014-01-01

    -substrate in manure-based biogas plants and the profit obtained from the sale of biogas barely compensates for the harvest costs. A new agricultural strategy to harvest catch crops together with the residual straw of the main crop was investigated to increase the biomass and thereby the methane yield per hectare......Catch crop cultivation combined with its use for biogas production would increase renewable energy production in the form of methane, without interfering with the production of food and fodder crops. The low biomass yield of catch crops is the main limiting factor for using these crops as co...... biomass. Leaving the straw on the field until harvest of the catch crop in the autumn could benefit biogas production due to the organic matter degradation of the straw taking place on the field during the autumn months. This new agricultural strategy may be a good alternative to achieve economically...

  5. Changes in the structure of bacterial complexes of vegetable crops in the course of their growth on a cultivated soddy-podzolic soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrovol'skaya, T. G.; Khusnetdinova, K. A.

    2017-11-01

    The dynamics of population density and taxonomic structure of epiphytic bacterial communities on the leaves and roots of potatoes, carrots, and beets have been studied. Significant changes take place in the ontogenesis of these vegetables with substitution of hydrolytic bacteria for eccrisotrophic bacteria feeding on products of plant exosmosis. The frequency of domination of representatives of different taxa of epiphytic bacteria on the studied plants has been determined for the entire period of their growth. Bacteria of different genera have been isolated from the aboveground and underground organs of vegetables; their functions are discussed. It is shown that the taxonomic structure of bacterial communities in the soil under studied plants is not subjected to considerable changes and is characterized by the domination of typical soil bacteria— Arthrobacter and bacilli—with the appearance of Rhodococcus as a codominant at the end of the season (before harvesting).

  6. Mixed model with spatial variance-covariance structure for accommodating of local stationary trend and its influence on multi-environmental crop variety trial assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negash, A. W.; Mwambi, H.; Zewotir, T.; Eweke, G.

    2014-06-01

    The most common procedure for analyzing multi-environmental trials is based on the assumption that the residual error variance is homogenous across all locations considered. However, this may often be unrealistic, and therefore limit the accuracy of variety evaluation or the reliability of variety recommendations. The objectives of this study were to show the advantages of mixed models with spatial variance-covariance structures, and direct implications of model choice on the inference of varietal performance, ranking and testing based on two multi-environmental data sets from realistic national trials. A model comparison with a {chi}{sup 2}-test for the trials in the two data sets (wheat data set BW00RVTI and barley data set BW01RVII) suggested that selected spatial variance-covariance structures fitted the data significantly better than the ANOVA model. The forms of optimally-fitted spatial variance-covariance, ranking and consistency ratio test were not the same from one trial (location) to the other. Linear mixed models with single stage analysis including spatial variance-covariance structure with a group factor of location on the random model also improved the real estimation of genotype effect and their ranking. The model also improved varietal performance estimation because of its capacity to handle additional sources of variation, location and genotype by location (environment) interaction variation and accommodating of local stationary trend. (Author)

  7. Crop yield response to climate change varies with cropping intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challinor, Andrew J; Parkes, Ben; Ramirez-Villegas, Julian

    2015-04-01

    Projections of the response of crop yield to climate change at different spatial scales are known to vary. However, understanding of the causes of systematic differences across scale is limited. Here, we hypothesize that heterogeneous cropping intensity is one source of scale dependency. Analysis of observed global data and regional crop modelling demonstrate that areas of high vs. low cropping intensity can have systematically different yields, in both observations and simulations. Analysis of global crop data suggests that heterogeneity in cropping intensity is a likely source of scale dependency for a number of crops across the globe. Further crop modelling and a meta-analysis of projected tropical maize yields are used to assess the implications for climate change assessments. The results show that scale dependency is a potential source of systematic bias. We conclude that spatially comprehensive assessments of climate impacts based on yield alone, without accounting for cropping intensity, are prone to systematic overestimation of climate impacts. The findings therefore suggest a need for greater attention to crop suitability and land use change when assessing the impacts of climate change. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The Crop Journal Calls for Papers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    We would like to invite you to submit your latest research accomplishments to The Crop Journal,an international,peer‐reviewed research publication covering all aspects of crop sciences including crop genetics,breeding,agronomy,crop physiology,germplasm resources,grain chemistry,grain storage and processing,crop management practices,crop biotechnology,and biomathematics on a bimonthly basis.

  9. The Crop Journal Call for Papers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    We would like to invite you to submit your latest research accomplishments to The Crop Journal,an international,peer‐reviewed research publication covering all aspects of crop sciences including crop genetics,breeding,agronomy,crop physiology,germplasm resources,grain chemistry,grain storage and processing,crop management practices,crop biotechnology,and biomathematics on a bimonthly basis.

  10. The Crop Journal Call for Papers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    We would like to invite you to submit your latest research accomplishments to The Crop Journal,an international,peer-reviewed research publication covering all aspects of crop sciences including crop genetics,breeding,agronomy,crop physiology,germplasm resources,grain chemistry,grain storage and processing,crop management practices,crop biotechnology,and biomathematics on a bimonthly basis.

  11. The Crop Journal Calls for Papers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    We would like to invite you to submit your latest research accomplishments to The Crop Journal,an international,peer‐reviewed research publication covering all aspects of crop sciences including crop genetics,breeding,agronomy,crop physiology,germplasm resources,grain chemistry,grain storage and processing,crop management practices,crop biotechnology,and biomathematics on a bimonthly basis.

  12. The Crop Journal Calls for Papers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    We would like to invite you to submit your latest research accomplishments to The Crop Journal,an international,peer-reviewed research publication covering all aspects of crop sciences including crop genetics,breeding,agronomy,crop physiology,germplasm resources,grain chemistry,grain storage and processing,crop management practices,crop biotechnology,and biomathematics on a bimonthly basis.

  13. Fusarium and mycotoxin spectra in Swiss barley are affected by various cropping techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöneberg, Torsten; Martin, Charlotte; Wettstein, Felix E; Bucheli, Thomas D; Mascher, Fabio; Bertossa, Mario; Musa, Tomke; Keller, Beat; Vogelgsang, Susanne

    2016-10-01

    Fusarium head blight is one of the most important cereal diseases worldwide. Cereals differ in terms of the main occurring Fusarium species and the infection is influenced by various factors, such as weather and cropping measures. Little is known about Fusarium species in barley in Switzerland, hence harvest samples from growers were collected in 2013 and 2014, along with information on respective cropping factors. The incidence of different Fusarium species was obtained by using a seed health test and mycotoxins were quantified by LC-MS/MS. With these techniques, the most dominant species, F. graminearum, and the most prominent mycotoxin, deoxynivalenol (DON), were identified. Between the three main Swiss cropping systems, Organic, Extenso and Proof of ecological performance, we observed differences with the lowest incidence and toxin accumulation in organically cultivated barley. Hence, we hypothesise that this finding was based on an array of growing techniques within a given cropping system. We observed that barley samples from fields with maize as previous crop had a substantially higher F. graminearum incidence and elevated DON accumulation compared with other previous crops. Furthermore, the use of reduced tillage led to a higher disease incidence and toxin content compared with samples from ploughed fields. Further factors increasing Fusarium infection were high nitrogen fertilisation as well as the application of fungicides and growth regulators. Results from the current study can be used to develop optimised cropping systems that reduce the risks of mycotoxin contamination.

  14. Genetic structure of landraces in foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.) revealed with transposon display and interpretation to crop evolution of foxtail millet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Ryoko; Naito, Ken; Fukunaga, Kenji; Watanabe, Kazuo N; Ohsawa, Ryo; Kawase, Makoto

    2011-06-01

    Although the origin and domestication process of foxtail millet (Setaria italica subsp. italica (L.) P. Beauv.) has been studied by several groups, the issue is still ambiguous. It is essential to resolve this issue by studying a large number of accessions with sufficient markers covering the entire genome. Genetic structures were analyzed by transposon display (TD) using 425 accessions of foxtail millet and 12 of the wild ancestor green foxtail (Setaria italica subsp. viridis (L.) P. Beauv.). We used three recently active transposons (TSI-1, TSI-7, and TSI-10) as genome-wide markers and succeeded in demonstrating geographical structures of the foxtail millet. A neighbor-joining dendrogram based on TD grouped the foxtail millet accessions into eight major clusters, each of which consisted of accessions collected from adjacent geographical areas. Eleven out of 12 green foxtail accessions were grouped separately from the clusters of foxtail millet. These results indicated strong regional differentiations and a long history of cultivation in each region. Furthermore, we discuss the relationship between foxtail millet and green foxtail and suggest a monophyletic origin of foxtail millet domestication.

  15. Sudex cover crops can kill and stunt subsequent tomato, 
lettuce and broccoli transplants through allelopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Summers, Charles G.; Mitchell, Jeffrey P.; Prather, Timothy S.; Stapleton, James J.

    2009-01-01

    Grass cover crops can be harvested for biomass or used as a surface mulch to reduce erosion, improve soil structure, suppress weeds and conserve moisture. There is concern, however, that such plantings may affect subsequent crops. We studied the effects of sudex, a sorghum hybrid used as a cover crop, on subsequent crops of tomato, broccoli and lettuce started from transplants. Within 3 to 5 days of being transplanted into recently killed sudex, all three crops showed symptoms of phytotoxicit...

  16. GEOGLAM Crop Monitor Assessment Tool: Developing Monthly Crop Condition Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaughey, K.; Becker Reshef, I.; Barker, B.; Humber, M. L.; Nordling, J.; Justice, C. O.; Deshayes, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) developed the Global Agricultural Monitoring initiative (GEOGLAM) to improve existing agricultural information through a network of international partnerships, data sharing, and operational research. This presentation will discuss the Crop Monitor component of GEOGLAM, which provides the Agricultural Market Information System (AMIS) with an international, multi-source, and transparent consensus assessment of crop growing conditions, status, and agro-climatic conditions likely to impact global production. This activity covers the four primary crop types (wheat, maize, rice, and soybean) within the main agricultural producing regions of the AMIS countries. These assessments have been produced operationally since September 2013 and are published in the AMIS Market Monitor Bulletin. The Crop Monitor reports provide cartographic and textual summaries of crop conditions as of the 28th of each month, according to crop type. This presentation will focus on the building of international networks, data collection, and data dissemination.

  17. in crop plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Antoni Rafalski

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Most important crop productivity traits, such as yield under normal and environmental stress conditions, are determined by a large number of genes, each with a small phenotypic effect. Genetic improvement of these traits through breeding or genetic engineering has been frustrating researchers in academia and industry. The reasons for this include the complexity of the traits, the difficulty of precise phenotyping and the lack of validated candidate genes. Different approaches to the discovery of the genetic architecture of such traits, such as Genetic Association Mapping and Genomic Selection and their engineering, are expected to yield benefits for farmers and consumers.

  18. State and trends of oil crops production in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Tiankui

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to present a full picture of current situation and future trends of Chinese oil crop production. The total oil crop production remained broadly constant during 2011–2014. The top three oil crops are soybean, peanut and rapeseed, together accounting for more than 70% of total oil crop production. The area under cultivation and the production of peanuts will keep steadily increasing because most Chinese like its pleasant roasted flavor. Because of their high content in polyunsaturated fatty acids and the natural minor functional components in their oils, more attention is being paid to sunflower seed and rice bran. The diminishing availability of arable land and concern over the security of edible oil supplies is driving both a change in cultivation structure of crops and improvements in the efficiency of oilseed production in China.

  19. Space Data for Crop Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    CROPIX, Inc., formed in 1984 by Frank Lamb, president of the Eastern Oregon Farming Company, monitors primarily potato crops in a 20,000 square mile area of northern Oregon and central Washington. Potatoes are a high value specialty crop that can be more profitable to the farmer if he has advance knowledge of market conditions, knows when to harvest, and when to take it to market. By processing and collecting data collected by the NASA-developed Landsat Earth Resources survey satellites, Lamb is able to provide accurate information on crop acreage and conditions on a more timely basis than the routine estimates by the USDA. CROPIX uses Landsat data to make acreage estimates of crops, and to calculate a field-by-field vegetative index number. CROPIX then distributes to its customers a booklet containing color-coded maps, an inventory of crops, plus data and graphs on crop conditions and other valuable information.

  20. Introduction of Alley Cropping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugeng Parmadi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the efforts to preserve the sources of vegetarian, soil, and water is to rehabilitate the land and soil conservation. The aim of this rehabilitation is increasing and maintaining the produtivity of the land, so it can be preserved and used optimally. Therefore, it is necessary to a  develop a variety of good soil conservation, such as vegetative method and civil engineering. To find an appropriate technology, so it is necessary to develop some alternatives of soil conservation technique that are mainly implemented at dry land with its slope of more than 15% in the upstream area of discharge. One of the most suitable soil conservation technique today is Alley Cropping. Based on the research (trial and error in some areas, Alley Cropping could really provide a positive result in terms of erotion controlling and running off and maintain the land productivity. In addition, the technique is more easly operated and spends a cheaper cost than making a bench terrace.

  1. SALT TOLERANCE OF CROP PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Hamdia, M. A; Shaddad, M. A. K.

    2010-01-01

    Several environmental factors adversely affect plant growth and development and final yield performance of a crop. Drought, salinity, nutrient imbalances (including mineral toxicities and deficiencies) and extremes of temperature are among the major environmental constraints to crop productivity worldwide. Development of crop plants with stress tolerance, however, requires, among others, knowledge of the physiological mechanisms and genetic controls of the contributing traits at different pla...

  2. Structural stability of naphthyl end-capped oligothiophenes in organic field-effect transistors measured by grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction in operando

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huss-Hansen, Mathias K.; Lauritzen, Andreas E.; Bikondoa, Oier

    2017-01-01

    We report on microstructural durability of 5,5′-bis(naphth-2-yl)-2,2′-bithiophene (NaT2) in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) in operando monitored by grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD). NaT2 maintains its monoclinic bulk motif in operating OFETs with a=20.31±0.06 Å, b=6.00±0.01 Å...

  3. GIFAD for He/KCl(001). Structure in the pattern for 〈 110 〉 incidence as a measure of the projectile-cation interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocan, G. A.; Gravielle, M. S.

    2018-04-01

    In this article we address grazing incidence fast atom diffraction (GIFAD) for the He/KCl(001) system, for which a systematic experimental study was recently reported [E. Meyer, Ph.D dissertation, Humboldt-Universität, Berlin, Germany, 2015]. Our theoretical model is built from a projectile-surface interaction obtained from Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations and the Surface Initial-Value Representation (SIVR), which is a semi-quantum approach to describe the scattering process. For incidence along the 〈 100 〉 and 〈 110 〉 directions, we present and discuss the main features of our interaction potential, the dependence of the rainbow angle with the impact energy normal to the surface, and the simulated GIFAD patterns, which reproduce the main aspects of the reported experimental charts. The features of the diffraction charts for He/KCl(001) are related to the averaged equipotential curves of the system and a comparison is established with the case of He/LiF(001). The marked differences observed for 〈 110 〉 incidence are explained as due to the much larger size of the K+ ion relative to that of Li+.

  4. Evaluation of Aqua crop Model to Predict Crop Water Productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Noor Hidayat Adenan; Faiz Ahmad; Shyful Azizi Abdul Rahman; Abdul Rahim Harun; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim

    2015-01-01

    Water and nutrient are critical inputs for crop production, especially in meeting challenges from increasing fertilizer cost and irregular water availability associated with climate change. The Land and Water Division of Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) has developed Aqua Crop, an integrated application software to simulate the interactions between plant, water and soil. Field management and irrigation management are the factors that need to be considered since it affects the interactions. Four critical components are needed in the Aqua Crop model, viz. climate, crop, field management and soil conditions. In our case study, climate data from rice field in Utan Aji, Kangar, Perlis was applied to run a simulation by using AquaCrop model. The rice crop was also assessed against deficit irrigation schedules and we found that use of water at optimum level increased rice yield. Results derived from the use of the model corresponded conventional assessment. This model can be adopted to help farmers in Malaysia in planning crop and field management to increase the crop productivity, especially in areas where the water is limited. (author)

  5. Crop Protection in Medieval Agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zadoks, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Mediterranean and West European pre-modern agriculture (agriculture before 1600) was by necessity ‘organic agriculture’. Crop protection is part and parcel of this agriculture, with weed control in the forefront. Crop protection is embedded in the medieval agronomy text books but specialised

  6. Potential photosynthesis of crop surfaces.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de C.T.

    1959-01-01

    A formula for calculating the potential photosynthesis of a closed crop surface is proposed, assuming that the leaves of the crop are not arranged in any definite direction. In the Netherlands, values for potential photosynthesis vary from 290 kg. CH2O/ha./day in June to 50 kg./ha./day in December.

  7. Cassava as an energy crop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Søren Bech Pilgaard; Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Rasmussen, Kjeld

    2014-01-01

    of the Attieké cassava variety. Little competition with food crops is likely, as cassava most likely would replace cotton as primary cash crop, following the decline of cotton production since 2005 and hence food security concerns appear not to be an issue. Stated price levels to motivate an expansion of cassava...

  8. Climate Impacts of Cover Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardozzi, D.; Wieder, W. R.; Bonan, G. B.; Morris, C. K.; Grandy, S.

    2016-12-01

    Cover crops are planted in agricultural rotation with the intention of protecting soil rather than harvest. Cover crops have numerous environmental benefits that include preventing soil erosion, increasing soil fertility, and providing weed and pest control- among others. In addition to localized environmental benefits, cover crops can have important regional or global biogeochemical impacts by increasing soil organic carbon, changing emissions of greenhouse trace gases like nitrous oxide and methane, and reducing hydrologic nitrogen losses. Cover crops may additionally affect climate by changing biogeophysical processes, like albedo and latent heat flux, though these potential changes have not yet been evaluated. Here we use the coupled Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) - Community Land Model (CLM4.5) to test how planting cover crops in the United States may change biogeophysical fluxes and climate. We present seasonal changes in albedo, heat fluxes, evaporative partitioning, radiation, and the resulting changes in temperature. Preliminary analyses show that during seasons when cover crops are planted, latent heat flux increases and albedo decreases, changing the evaporative fraction and surface temperatures. Understanding both the biogeophysical changes caused by planting cover crops in this study and the biogeochemical changes found in other studies will give a clearer picture of the overall impacts of cover crops on climate and atmospheric chemistry, informing how this land use strategy will impact climate in the future.

  9. Chemical mutagenesis for crop improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Focusses on methodological aspects for the efficient induction of mutations in crop plants by chemomutagens. Mutagen treatment of barley seeds with ethylmethane sulfonate (EMS) is documented in detail to exemplify procedural phases. Reference is made to safe handling and the prevention of biohazards. Induced biological and genetic effects at various plant generations are documented and the use of mutants for crop improvement is discussed

  10. Genetic Engineering and Crop Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Helen C.; Frost, S.

    1991-01-01

    With a spotlight upon current agricultural difficulties and environmental dilemmas, this paper considers both the extant and potential applications of genetic engineering with respect to crop production. The nonagricultural factors most likely to sway the impact of this emergent technology upon future crop production are illustrated. (JJK)

  11. Archives: African Crop Science Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 99 ... Archives: African Crop Science Journal. Journal Home > Archives: African Crop Science Journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 50 of 99 ...

  12. Archives: African Crop Science Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 99 of 99 ... Archives: African Crop Science Journal. Journal Home > Archives: African Crop Science Journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 51 - 99 of 99 ...

  13. Strain, size and composition of InAs quantum sticks, embedded in InP, determined via X-ray anomalous diffraction and diffraction anomalous fine structure in grazing incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letoublon, A.; Favre-Nicolin, V.; Renevier, H.; Proietti, M.G.; Monat, C.; Gendry, M.; Marty, O.; Priester, C.

    2005-01-01

    We report on the study of strain, size and composition of small-size encapsulated semiconductor nanostructures. We show that the partial structure factor of As atoms in InAs stick-like nanostructures (quantum sticks), embedded in InP, can be directly extracted from grazing incidence anomalous X-ray diffraction maps at the As K-edge. We have recovered the average height and strain of the islands and determined their composition. The average height of the quantum sticks (QSs), as deduced from the width of the structure factor profile is 2.54 nm. The InAs out of plane deformation, relative to InP, is equal to 6.1%. Fixed-Q anomalous diffraction spectra, measured at the As K-edge, in grazing incidence provide clear evidence of pure InAs QSs. This is confirmed by the analysis of the diffraction anomalous fine structure (DAFS) that also gives a direct way to recover the strain accomodation inside the quantum sticks. Finite difference method calculations reproduce well the diffraction data. Chemical mixing at interfaces is at most 1 ML. This paper shows that ultimate application of anomalous diffraction and DAFS together with reciprocal space maps is a powerful method to sudy the structural properties of nanostructures

  14. Energy crops for biogas plants. Saxony; Energiepflanzen fuer Biogasanlagen. Sachsen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biertuempfel, A.; Buttlar, C. von; Conrad, M. [and others

    2012-08-15

    In the brochure under consideration the Agency for Renewable Resources (Guelzow-Pruezen, Federal Republic of Germany) reports on the support of the implementation of different plant cultures in structure of plantations and crop rotation systems of companies under consideration of the Federal State Saxony. The main chapters of this brochure are: Crops for the production of biogas; implementation in plantations; ensilage and biogas yields; economy of the cultivation of energy plants.

  15. Energy crops for biogas plants. Thuringia; Energiepflanzen fuer Biogasanlagen. Thueringen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biertuempfel, A.; Bischof, R.; Conrad, M. (and others)

    2012-06-15

    In the brochure under consideration the Agency for Renewable Resources (Guelzow-Pruezen, Federal Republic of Germany) reports on the support of the implementation of different plant cultures in structure of plantations and crop rotation systems of companies under consideration of the Federal State Thuringia. The main chapters of this brochure are: Crops for the production of biogas; implementation in plantations; ensilage and biogas yields; economy of the cultivation of energy plants.

  16. Incident Information Management Tool

    CERN Document Server

    Pejovic, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Flaws of\tcurrent incident information management at CMS and CERN\tare discussed. A new data\tmodel for future incident database is\tproposed and briefly described. Recently developed draft version of GIS-­‐based tool for incident tracking is presented.

  17. Coevolution between human's anticancer activities and functional foods from crop origin center in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ya-Wen; Du, Juan; Pu, Xiao-Ying; Yang, Jia-Zhen; Yang, Tao; Yang, Shu-Ming; Yang, Xiao-Meng

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of death around the world. Anticancer activities from many functional food sources have been reported in years, but correlation between cancer prevalence and types of food with anticancer activities from crop origin center in the world as well as food source with human migration are unclear. Hunger from food shortage is the cause of early human evolution from Africa to Asia and later into Eurasia. The richest functional foods are found in crop origin centers, housing about 70% in the world populations. Crop origin centers have lower cancer incidence and mortality in the world, especially Central Asia, Middle East, Southwest China, India and Ethiopia. Asia and Africa with the richest anticancer crops is not only the most important evolution base of humans and origin center of anticancer functional crop, but also is the lowest mortality and incidence of cancers in the world. Cancer prevention of early human migrations was associated with functional foods from crop origin centers, especially Asia with four centers and one subcenter of crop origin, accounting for 58% of the world population. These results reveal that coevolution between human's anticancer activities associated with functional foods for crop origin centers, especially in Asia and Africa.

  18. Estimation of Vegetable Crop Parameter by Multi-temporal UAV-Borne Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Moeckel

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available 3D point cloud analysis of imagery collected by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV has been shown to be a valuable tool for estimation of crop phenotypic traits, such as plant height, in several species. Spatial information about these phenotypic traits can be used to derive information about other important crop characteristics, like fresh biomass yield, which could not be derived directly from the point clouds. Previous approaches have often only considered single date measurements using a single point cloud derived metric for the respective trait. Furthermore, most of the studies focused on plant species with a homogenous canopy surface. The aim of this study was to assess the applicability of UAV imagery for capturing crop height information of three vegetables (crops eggplant, tomato, and cabbage with a complex vegetation canopy surface during a complete crop growth cycle to infer biomass. Additionally, the effect of crop development stage on the relationship between estimated crop height and field measured crop height was examined. Our study was conducted in an experimental layout at the University of Agricultural Science in Bengaluru, India. For all the crops, the crop height and the biomass was measured at five dates during one crop growth cycle between February and May 2017 (average crop height was 42.5, 35.5, and 16.0 cm for eggplant, tomato, and cabbage. Using a structure from motion approach, a 3D point cloud was created for each crop and sampling date. In total, 14 crop height metrics were extracted from the point clouds. Machine learning methods were used to create prediction models for vegetable crop height. The study demonstrates that the monitoring of crop height using an UAV during an entire growing period results in detailed and precise estimates of crop height and biomass for all three crops (R2 ranging from 0.87 to 0.97, bias ranging from −0.66 to 0.45 cm. The effect of crop development stage on the predicted crop height was

  19. Prevalence, incidence and molecular identification of root-knot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tomato is a widely grown vegetable in Pakistan. However, its production is severely constrained by root knot nematodes (RKNs). Accurate identification of RKNs is essential for an appropriate control program. The current study evaluated the prevalence, incidence and diversity of RKNs of tomato crops grown in the Khyber ...

  20. A blended approach to analyze staple and high-value crops using remote sensing with radiative transfer and crop models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davitt, A. W. D.; Winter, J.; McDonald, K. C.; Escobar, V. M.; Steiner, N.

    2017-12-01

    The monitoring of staple and high-value crops is important for maintaining food security. The recent launch of numerous remote sensing satellites has created the ability to monitor vast amounts of crop lands, continuously and in a timely manner. This monitoring provides users with a wealth of information on various crop types over different regions of the world. However, a challenge still remains on how to best quantify and interpret the crop and surface characteristics that are measured by visible, near-infrared, and active and passive microwave radar. Currently, two NASA funded projects are examining the ability to monitor different types of crops in California with different remote sensing platforms. The goal of both projects is to develop a cost-effective monitoring tool for use by vineyard and crop managers. The first project is designed to examine the capability to monitor vineyard water management and soil moisture in Sonoma County using Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP), Sentinel-1A and -2, and Landsat-8. The combined mission products create thorough and robust measurements of surface and vineyard characteristics that can potentially improve the ability to monitor vineyard health. Incorporating the Michigan Microwave Canopy Scattering (MIMICS), a radiative transfer model, enables us to better understand surface and vineyard features that influence radar measurements from Sentinel-1A. The second project is a blended approach to analyze corn, rice, and wheat growth using Sentinel-1A products with Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) and MIMICS models. This project aims to characterize the crop structures that influence Sentinel-1A radar measurements. Preliminary results have revealed the corn, rice, and wheat structures that influence radar measurements during a growing season. The potential of this monitoring tool can be used for maintaining food security. This includes supporting sustainable irrigation practices, identifying crop

  1. Mutation Breeding for Crop Improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajbir, S. Sangwan

    2017-01-01

    Chromosomes contain genes responsible of different traits of any organism. Induced mutation using chemical mutagens and radiation to modify molecular structure of plants played a major role in the development of high genetic variability and help develop new superior crop varieties. The Mutation Breeding is applicable to all plants and has generated lot of agronomically interesting mutants, both in vegetatively and seed propagated plants. The technique is easy but long and challenging to detect, isolate and characterize the mutant and gene. A specific dose of irradiation has to be used to obtain desired mutants. However, with modern molecular technique, the gene responsible for mutation can be identified. The CRISPR-Cas9 allows the removal of a specific gene which is responsible of unwanted trait and replacing it with a gene which induces a desired trait. There have been more than 2700 officially released mutant varieties from 170 different plant species in more than 60 countries throughout the world and A more participatory approach, involving all stakeholders in plant breeding, is needed to ensure that it is demand/farmers driven.

  2. Biogas production from energy crops and crop residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtomaeki, A.

    2006-07-01

    The feasibility of utilising energy crops and crop residues in methane production through anaerobic digestion in boreal conditions was evaluated in this thesis. Potential boreal energy crops and crop residues were screened for their suitability for methane production, and the effects of harvest time and storage on the methane potential of crops was evaluated. Codigestion of energy crops and crop residues with cow manure, as well as digestion of energy crops alone in batch leach bed reactors with and without a second stage upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB) or methanogenic filter (MF) were evaluated. The methane potentials of crops, as determined in laboratory methane potential assays, varied from 0.17 to 0.49 m3 CH{sub 4} kg-1 VS{sub added} (volatile solids added) and from 25 to 260 m3 CH4 t-1 ww (tons of wet weight). Jerusalem artichoke, timothy-clover and reed canary grass gave the highest methane potentials of 2 900-5 400 m3 CH{sub 4} ha-1, corresponding to a gross energy potential of 28-53 MWh ha-1 and 40 000-60 000 km ha-1 in passenger car transport. The methane potentials per ww increased with most crops as the crops matured. Ensiling without additives resulted in minor losses (0-13%) in the methane potential of sugar beet tops but more substantial losses (17-39%) in the methane potential of grass, while ensiling with additives was shown to have potential in improving the methane potentials of these substrates by up to 19-22%. In semi-continuously fed laboratory continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) co-digestion of manure and crops was shown feasible with feedstock VS containing up to 40% of crops. The highest specific methane yields of 0.268, 0.229 and 0.213 m3 CH{sub 4} kg-1 VS{sub added} in co-digestion of cow manure with grass, sugar beet tops and straw, respectively, were obtained with 30% of crop in the feedstock, corresponding to 85-105% of the methane potential in the substrates as determined by batch assays. Including 30% of crop in

  3. Stable Food Crops Turning Into Commercial Crops: Case studies of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RahelYilma

    case study analyses for the cereal crops of teff3, wheat and rice. Specifically, the ... behavior of households during the process of commercial transformation of subsistence ..... roducer → rural assembler, and producer → consumer. As with teff ...

  4. Recycling crop residues for use in recirculating hydroponic crop production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackowiak, C. L.; Garland, J. L.; Sager, J. C.

    1996-01-01

    As part of bioregenerative life support feasibility testing by NASA, crop residues are being used to resupply elemental nutrients to recirculating hydroponic crop production systems. Methods for recovering nutrients from crop residues have evolved from water soaking (leaching) to rapid aerobic bioreactor processing. Leaching residues recovered the majority of elements but it also recovered significant amounts of soluble organics. The high organic content of leachates was detrimental to plant growth. Aerobic bioreactor processing reduced the organic content ten-fold, which reduced or eliminated phytotoxic effects. Wheat and potato production studies were successful using effluents from reactors having with 8- to 1-day retention times. Aerobic bioreactor effluents supplied at least half of the crops elemental mass needs in these studies. Descriptions of leachate and effluent mineral content, biomass productivity, microbial activity, and nutrient budgets for potato and wheat are presented.

  5. Injury profile SIMulator, a Qualitative aggregative modelling framework to predict injury profile as a function of cropping practices, and abiotic and biotic environment. II. Proof of concept: design of IPSIM-wheat-eyespot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, Marie-Hélène; Colbach, Nathalie; Lucas, Philippe; Montfort, Françoise; Cholez, Célia; Debaeke, Philippe; Aubertot, Jean-Noël

    2013-01-01

    IPSIM (Injury Profile SIMulator) is a generic modelling framework presented in a companion paper. It aims at predicting a crop injury profile as a function of cropping practices and abiotic and biotic environment. IPSIM's modelling approach consists of designing a model with an aggregative hierarchical tree of attributes. In order to provide a proof of concept, a model, named IPSIM-Wheat-Eyespot, has been developed with the software DEXi according to the conceptual framework of IPSIM to represent final incidence of eyespot on wheat. This paper briefly presents the pathosystem, the method used to develop IPSIM-Wheat-Eyespot using IPSIM's modelling framework, simulation examples, an evaluation of the predictive quality of the model with a large dataset (526 observed site-years) and a discussion on the benefits and limitations of the approach. IPSIM-Wheat-Eyespot proved to successfully represent the annual variability of the disease, as well as the effects of cropping practices (Efficiency = 0.51, Root Mean Square Error of Prediction = 24%; bias = 5.0%). IPSIM-Wheat-Eyespot does not aim to precisely predict the incidence of eyespot on wheat. It rather aims to rank cropping systems with regard to the risk of eyespot on wheat in a given production situation through ex ante evaluations. IPSIM-Wheat-Eyespot can also help perform diagnoses of commercial fields. Its structure is simple and permits to combine available knowledge in the scientific literature (data, models) and expertise. IPSIM-Wheat-Eyespot is now available to help design cropping systems with a low risk of eyespot on wheat in a wide range of production situations, and can help perform diagnoses of commercial fields. In addition, it provides a proof of concept with regard to the modelling approach of IPSIM. IPSIM-Wheat-Eyespot will be a sub-model of IPSIM-Wheat, a model that will predict injury profile on wheat as a function of cropping practices and the production situation.

  6. Plant senescence and crop productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Per L.; Culetic, Andrea; Boschian, Luca

    2013-01-01

    Senescence is a developmental process which in annual crop plants overlaps with the reproductive phase. Senescence might reduce crop yield when it is induced prematurely under adverse environmental conditions. This review covers the role of senescence for the productivity of crop plants....... With the aim to enhance productivity, a number of functional stay-green cultivars have been selected by conventional breeding, in particular of sorghum and maize. In many cases, a positive correlation between leaf area duration and yield has been observed, although in a number of other cases, stay...... plants, the expression of the IPT gene under control of senescence-associated promoters has been the most successful. The promoters employed for senescence-regulated expression contain cis-elements for binding of WRKY transcription factors and factors controlled by abscisic acid. In most crops...

  7. Crop diversity for yield increase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengyun Li

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditional farming practices suggest that cultivation of a mixture of crop species in the same field through temporal and spatial management may be advantageous in boosting yields and preventing disease, but evidence from large-scale field testing is limited. Increasing crop diversity through intercropping addresses the problem of increasing land utilization and crop productivity. In collaboration with farmers and extension personnel, we tested intercropping of tobacco, maize, sugarcane, potato, wheat and broad bean--either by relay cropping or by mixing crop species based on differences in their heights, and practiced these patterns on 15,302 hectares in ten counties in Yunnan Province, China. The results of observation plots within these areas showed that some combinations increased crop yields for the same season between 33.2 and 84.7% and reached a land equivalent ratio (LER of between 1.31 and 1.84. This approach can be easily applied in developing countries, which is crucial in face of dwindling arable land and increasing food demand.

  8. The incidence and genetic variability of Small Round-Structured Viruses (SRSV) in outbreaks of gastroenteritis in 1996 in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinje J; Altena SA; Lodder WJ; Koopmans MPG; LIO; MGB

    1997-01-01

    Small round-structured viruses (SRSV), ook wel Norwalk-achtige virussen genoemd, zijn belangrijke verwekkers van explosies van gastroenteritis. De detectie van deze groep genetisch uiterst variabele virussen is door de recente ontwikkeling van een generische RT-PCR test sterk vereenvoudigd. Om de

  9. How can we improve Mediterranean cropping systems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benlhabib, O.; Yazar, A.; Qadir, M.

    2014-01-01

    In the Mediterranean region, crop productivity and food security are closely linked to the adaptation of cropping systems to multiple abiotic stresses. Limited and unpredictable rainfall and low soil fertility have reduced agricultural productivity and environmental sustainability. For this reason...... the tested interventions, incorporation of crop residues coupled with supplementary irrigation showed a significantly positive effect on crop productivity, yield stability and environmental sustainability....

  10. Alternatives to crop residues for soil amendment

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, J.M.; Unger, P.W.

    1997-01-01

    Metadata only record In semiarid agroecosystems, crop residues can provide important benefits of soil and water conservation, nutrient cycling, and improved subsequent crop yields. However, there are frequently multiple competing uses for residues, including animal forage, fuel, and construction material. This chapter discusses the various uses of crop residues and examines alternative soil amendments when crop residues cannot be left on the soil.

  11. Crop rotation modelling - A European model intercomparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kollas, Chris; Kersebaum, Kurt C; Nendel, Claas

    2015-01-01

    Diversification of crop rotations is considered an option to increase the resilience of European crop production under climate change. So far, however, many crop simulation studies have focused on predicting single crops in separate one-year simulations. Here, we compared the capability of fiftee...

  12. Study of interface correlation in W/C multilayer structure by specular and non-specular grazing incidence X-ray reflectivity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, A., E-mail: arupb@barc.gov.in; Bhattacharyya, D.; Sahoo, N. K. [Atomic and Molecular Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Maidul Haque, S.; Tripathi, S.; De, Rajnarayan [Atomic and Molecular Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, VIZAG Centre, Visakhapatnam 530012 (India); Rai, S. [Indus Synchrotron Utilization Division, Raja Raman Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India)

    2015-10-28

    W/C/W tri-layer thin film samples have been deposited on c-Si substrates in a home-built Ion Beam Sputtering system at 1.5 × 10{sup −3} Torr Ar working pressure and 10 mA grid current. The tri-layer samples have been deposited at different Ar{sup +} ion energies between 0.6 and 1.2 keV for W layer deposition and the samples have been characterized by specular and non-specular grazing incidence X-ray reflectivity (GIXR) measurements. By analyzing the GIXR spectra, various interface parameters have been obtained for both W-on-C and C-on-W interfaces and optimum Ar{sup +} ion energy for obtaining interfaces with low imperfections has been found. Subsequently, multilayer W/C samples with 5-layer, 7-layer, 9-layer, and 13-layer have been deposited at this optimum Ar{sup +} ion energy. By fitting the specular and diffused GIXR data of the multilayer samples with the parameters of each interface as fitting variables, different interface parameters, viz., interface width, in-plane correlation length, interface roughness, and interface diffusion have been estimated for each interface and their variation across the depth of the multilayers have been obtained. The information would be useful in realizing W/C multilayers for soft X-ray mirror application in the <100 Å wavelength regime. The applicability of the “restart of the growth at the interface” model in the case of these ion beam sputter deposited W/C multilayers has also been investigated in the course of this study.

  13. Cancer incidence among waiters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reijula, Jere; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: To study cancer risk patterns among waiters in the Nordic countries. METHODS: We identified a cohort of 16,134 male and 81,838 female waiters from Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. During the follow-up period from 1961 to 2005, we found that 19,388 incident cancer cases were...... diagnosed. Standardised incidence ratio (SIR) was defined as the observed number of cancer cases divided by the expected number, based on national age, time period and gender-specific cancer incidence rates in the general population. RESULTS: The SIR of all cancers in waiters, in the five countries combined...... INCIDENCE IN SOME CANCER SITES CAN LIKELY BE EXPLAINED BY HIGHER ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION, THE PREVALENCE OF SMOKING AND OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO TOBACCO SMOKE HOPEFULLY, THE INCIDENCE OF CANCER AMONG WAITERS WILL DECREASE IN THE FUTURE, DUE TO THE BANNING OF TOBACCO SMOKING IN RESTAURANTS AND BARS IN THE NORDIC...

  14. Radiological incidents in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobzova, L.; Novotny, J.

    2008-01-01

    In many countries a reporting system of radiological incidents to national regulatory body exists and providers of radiotherapy treatment are obliged to report all major and/or in some countries all incidents occurring in institution. State Office for Nuclear Safety (SONS) is providing a systematic guidance for radiotherapy departments from 1997 by requiring inclusion of radiation safety problems into Quality assurance manual, which is the basic document for obtaining a license of SONS for handling with sources of ionizing radiation. For that purpose SONS also issued the recommendation 'Introduction of QA system for important sources in radiotherapy-radiological incidents' in which the radiological incidents are defined and the basic guidance for their classification (category A, B, C, D), investigation and reporting are given. At regular periods the SONS in co-operation with radiotherapy centers is making a survey of all radiological incidents occurring in institutions and it is presenting obtained information in synoptic communication (2003 Motolske dny, 2005 Novy Jicin). This presentation is another summary report of radiological incidents that occurred in our radiotherapy institutions during last 3 years. Emphasis is given not only to survey and statistics, but also to analysis of reasons of the radiological incidents and to their detection and prevention. Analyses of incidents in radiotherapy have led to a much broader understanding of incident causation. Information about the error should be shared as early as possible during or after investigation by all radiotherapy centers. Learning from incidents, errors and near misses should be a part of improvement of the QA system in institutions. Generally, it is recommended that all radiotherapy facilities should participate in the reporting, analyzing and learning system to facilitate the dissemination of knowledge throughout the whole country to prevent errors in radiotherapy.(authors)

  15. 77 FR 22467 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Fresh Market Tomato (Dollar Plan) Crop Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ...-0006] RIN 0563-AC32 Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Fresh Market Tomato (Dollar Plan) Crop... Insurance Corporation (FCIC) finalizes the Common Crop Insurance Regulations, Fresh Market Tomato (Dollar... Common Crop Insurance Regulations (7 CFR part 457), Fresh Market Tomato (Dollar Plan) Crop Provisions...

  16. 76 FR 71276 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Pecan Revenue Crop Insurance Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ...-0008] RIN 0563-AC35 Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Pecan Revenue Crop Insurance Provisions AGENCY... Corporation (FCIC) proposes to amend the Common Crop Insurance Regulations, Pecan Revenue Crop Insurance... Regulations (7 CFR part 457) by revising Sec. 457.167 Pecan Revenue Crop Insurance Provisions, to be effective...

  17. 75 FR 15603 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Avocado Crop Insurance Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... to: (1) Theft; or (2) Inability to market the avocados for any reason other than actual physical... Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Avocado Crop Insurance Provisions AGENCY: Federal Crop Insurance... Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Avocado Crop Insurance Provisions to convert the Florida...

  18. Characterization of protein and carbohydrate mid-IR spectral features in crop residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Hangshu; Zhang, Yonggen; Wang, Mingjun; Li, Zhongyu; Wang, Zhibo; Yu, Peiqiang

    2014-08-01

    To the best of our knowledge, a few studies have been conducted on inherent structure spectral traits related to biopolymers of crop residues. The objective of this study was to characterize protein and carbohydrate structure spectral features of three field crop residues (rice straw, wheat straw and millet straw) in comparison with two crop vines (peanut vine and pea vine) by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) technique with attenuated total reflectance (ATR). Also, multivariate analyses were performed on spectral data sets within the regions mainly related to protein and carbohydrate in this study. The results showed that spectral differences existed in mid-IR peak intensities that are mainly related to protein and carbohydrate among these crop residue samples. With regard to protein spectral profile, peanut vine showed the greatest mid-IR band intensities that are related to protein amide and protein secondary structures, followed by pea vine and the rest three field crop straws. The crop vines had 48-134% higher spectral band intensity than the grain straws in spectral features associated with protein. Similar trends were also found in the bands that are mainly related to structural carbohydrates (such as cellulosic compounds). However, the field crop residues had higher peak intensity in total carbohydrates region than the crop vines. Furthermore, spectral ratios varied among the residue samples, indicating that these five crop residues had different internal structural conformation. However, multivariate spectral analyses showed that structural similarities still exhibited among crop residues in the regions associated with protein biopolymers and carbohydrate. Further study is needed to find out whether there is any relationship between spectroscopic information and nutrition supply in various kinds of crop residue when fed to animals.

  19. Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks as pest in agricultural crop of economic interest of the municipalities Abreu and Aguada de Pasajeros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leydi Díaz García

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The investigation was developed during six winter and spring seasons in the municipalities of Abreus and Aguada de Pasajeros with the aims to know the preference of Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks and levels of incidence for crops. The data filed were obtained in the Protection Station of Yaguaramas about four the crops in the register of existent areas, stationary fields, journeys of itinerary, reports of seasons and historical territorial registration. It was analyzed the levels of incidence by varieties, sowing times or plantation according to meteorological variables. It was picked up affected crops and frequency of incidence of the mite, percentage of area with presence and level of incidence per crops and season. It is reported the white mite as important pest, with high percent of affected areas in cold and spring season for potato, common bean, cowpea, pepper at fields and greenhouse. This surpassed the Control Economic Threshold in all cultivations sowed or planted; not being this way in common bean that only it happened in two seasons. In February-March, April-May the higher incidences occurred in the fields, without a marked preference for pepper greenhouse. The highest incidences happened to minimum temperature of 18 0C and 94 % of relative humidity. It don not put on in evidence the preference of the mite for some variety of the crops in study; throwing differences among early, intermediate and late season for pepper greenhouse in spring and for common bean and cowpea.

  20. Faba bean in cropping systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen Jensen, Erik; Peoples, Mark B.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    The grain legume (pulse) faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is grown world-wide as a protein source for food and feed. At the same time faba bean offers ecosystem services such as renewable inputs of nitrogen (N) into crops and soil via biological N2 fixation, and a diversification of cropping systems. Even...... though the global average grain yield has almost doubled during the past 50 years the total area sown to faba beans has declined by 56% over the same period. The season-to-season fluctuations in grain yield of faba bean and the progressive replacement of traditional farming systems, which utilized...... legumes to provide N to maintain soil N fertility, with industrialized, largely cereal-based systems that are heavily reliant upon fossil fuels (=N fertilizers, heavy mechanization) are some of the explanations for this decline in importance. Past studies of faba bean in cropping systems have tended...

  1. Automated phenotyping of permanent crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPeek, K. Thomas; Steddom, Karl; Zamudio, Joseph; Pant, Paras; Mullenbach, Tyler

    2017-05-01

    AGERpoint is defining a new technology space for the growers' industry by introducing novel applications for sensor technology and data analysis to growers of permanent crops. Serving data to a state-of-the-art analytics engine from a cutting edge sensor platform, a new paradigm in precision agriculture is being developed that allows growers to understand the unique needs of each tree, bush or vine in their operation. Autonomous aerial and terrestrial vehicles equipped with multiple varieties of remote sensing technologies give AGERpoint the ability to measure key morphological and spectral features of permanent crops. This work demonstrates how such phenotypic measurements combined with machine learning algorithms can be used to determine the variety of crops (e.g., almond and pecan trees). This phenotypic and varietal information represents the first step in enabling growers with the ability to tailor their management practices to individual plants and maximize their economic productivity.

  2. Results of an online questionnaire to survey calf management practices on dairy cattle breeding farms in Austria and to estimate differences in disease incidences depending on farm structure and management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein-Jöbstl, Daniela; Arnholdt, Tim; Sturmlechner, Franz; Iwersen, Michael; Drillich, Marc

    2015-08-19

    Calf disease may result in great economic losses. To implement prevention strategies it is important to gain information on management and to point out risk factors. The objective of this internet based survey was to describe calf management practices on registered dairy breeding farms in Austria and to estimate differences in calf disease incidences depending on farm structure and management practices. A total of 1287 questionnaires were finally analysed (response rate 12.2 %). Herd characteristics and regional distribution of farms indicated that this survey gives a good overview on calf management practices on registered dairy farms in Austria. The median number of cows per farm was 20 (interquartile range 13-30). Significant differences regarding farm characteristics and calf management between small and large farms (≤20 vs >20 cows) were present. Only 2.8 % of farmers tested first colostrum quality by use of a hydrometer. Storing frozen colostrum was more prevalent on large farms (80.8 vs 64.2 %). On 85.1 % of the farms, whole milk, including waste milk, was fed to the calves. Milk replacer and waste milk were more often used on large farms. In accordance with similar studies from other countries, calf diarrhoea was indicated as the most prevalent disease. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that herd size was associated with calf diarrhoea and calf respiratory tract disease, with higher risk of disease on large farms. Furthermore, feeding waste milk to the calves was associated with increasing calf diarrhoea incidence on farm. In the final model with calf respiratory tract disease as outcome, respondents from organic farms reported less often a respiratory tract disease incidence of over 10 % compared with conventional farms [odds ratio (OR) 0.40, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.21-0.75] and farmers that housed calves individually or in groups after birth significantly reported more often to have an incidence of respiratory tract

  3. Fungal and Oomycete Diseases of Tropical Tree Fruit Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenth, André; Guest, David I

    2016-08-04

    The tropics produce a range of fruit from tree crops that cannot be grown in colder climates. Bananas, mangos, several nuts, spices, coffee, and cacao are widely traded and much sought after around the world. However, the sustainable production of these tropical tree fruit crops faces significant challenges. Among these, losses due to pests and diseases play a large part in reducing yields, quality, and profitability. Using bananas and cacao as key examples, we outline some of the reasons fungal and oomycete diseases cause such significant losses to tropical tree crops. Cultivation of monocultures derived from limited genetic diversity, environmental conditions conducive for disease development, high levels of disease incidence and severity, a lack of disease resistance in planting materials, shortages of labor, and inadequate infrastructure and investment pose significant challenges, especially for smallholder producers. The expansion of travel and trade has given rise to emerging infectious plant diseases that add further insecurity and pressure. We conclude that holistic actions are needed on multiple fronts to address the growing problem of disease in tropical fruit tree crops.

  4. Helping to increase tree crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1970-07-01

    Tree crops such as coffee, coconuts, palm oil, citrus fruits and cocoa are of major importance to the economies of countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America, and may be a prime source of foreign exchange earnings. The search for ways to improve efficiently the yields of crops like these - now being aided by the Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture operated jointly with the Food and Agriculture Organization - thus has a clearly defined practical goal. D. Nethsinghe deals here with some of the work. (author)

  5. Helping to increase tree crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    Tree crops such as coffee, coconuts, palm oil, citrus fruits and cocoa are of major importance to the economies of countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America, and may be a prime source of foreign exchange earnings. The search for ways to improve efficiently the yields of crops like these - now being aided by the Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture operated jointly with the Food and Agriculture Organization - thus has a clearly defined practical goal. D. Nethsinghe deals here with some of the work. (author)

  6. Ammonia volatilization from crop residues and frozen green manure crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijter, de F.J.; Huijsmans, J.F.M.; Rutgers, B.

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural systems can lose substantial amounts of nitrogen (N). To protect the environment, the European Union (EU) has adopted several directives that set goals to limit N losses. National Emission Ceilings (NEC) are prescribed in the NEC directive for nitrogen oxides and ammonia. Crop residues

  7. Compositions comprising lignosulfonates for crop protection and crop improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, L.H.; Kok, C.J.; Krieken, van der W.M.

    2009-01-01

    International patent application number: WO2004067699http://www.wipo.int/patentscope/search/en/WO2004067699 (EN)The invention relates to a composition for protecting an agricultural crop against external threats, such as weeds, pathogens, abiotic and biotic stresses and/or for improving the quality

  8. Progress update: crop development of biofortified staple food crops ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Over the past 15 years, biofortification, the process of breeding nutrients into food crops, has gained ample recognition as a cost-effective, complementary, feasible means of delivering micronutrients to populations that may have limited access to diverse diets, supplements, or commercially fortified foods. In 2008, a panel of ...

  9. Validation of crop weather models for crop assessment arid yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IRSIS and CRPSM models were used in this study to see how closely they could predict grain yields for selected stations in Tanzania. Input for the models comprised of weather, crop and soil data collected from five selected stations. Simulation results show that IRSIS model tends to over predict grain yields of maize, ...

  10. Energy balance and cost-benefit analysis of biogas production from perennial energy crops pretreated by wet oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uellendahl, Hinrich; Wang, Guangtao; Møller, Henrik B.

    2008-01-01

    Perennial crops need far less energy to plant, require less fertilizer and pesticides, and show a lower negative environmental impact compared with annual crops like for example corn. This makes the cultivation of perennial crops as energy crops more sustainable than the use of annual crops....... The conversion into biogas in anaerobic digestion plants shows however much lower specific methane yields for the raw perennial crops like miscanthus and willow due to their lignocellulosic structure. Without pretreatment the net energy gain is therefore lower for the perennials than for corn. When applying wet...... oxidation to the perennial crops, however, the specific methane yield increases significantly and the ratio of energy output to input and of costs to benefit for the whole chain of biomass supply and conversion into biogas becomes higher than for corn. This will make the use of perennial crops as energy...

  11. Police Incident Blotter (Archive)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Police Blotter Archive contains crime incident data after it has been validated and processed to meet Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) standards, published on a...

  12. 2011 Japanese Nuclear Incident

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s RadNet system monitored the environmental radiation levels in the United States and parts of the Pacific following the Japanese Nuclear Incident. Learn about EPA’s response and view historical laboratory data and news releases.

  13. Prediction of Safety Incidents

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Safety incidents, including injuries, property damage and mission failures, cost NASA and contractors thousands of dollars in direct and indirect costs. This project...

  14. Marine Animal Incident Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Large whale stranding, death, ship strike and entanglement incidents are all recorded to monitor the health of each population and track anthropogenic factors that...

  15. Acute incidents during anaesthesia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    management of acute incidents and the prevention of ... High or total (complete) spinal blocks in obstetric .... Pain and opioid analgesics lead to delayed ... Step up postoperative care and use ... recognise suprasternal and supraclavicular.

  16. Higher US crop prices trigger little area expansion so marginal land for biofuel crops is limited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinton, Scott M.; Babcock, Bruce A.; James, Laura K.; Bandaru, Varaprasad

    2011-01-01

    By expanding energy biomass production on marginal lands that are not currently used for crops, food prices increase and indirect climate change effects can be mitigated. Studies of the availability of marginal lands for dedicated bioenergy crops have focused on biophysical land traits, ignoring the human role in decisions to convert marginal land to bioenergy crops. Recent history offers insights about farmer willingness to put non-crop land into crop production. The 2006-09 leap in field crop prices and the attendant 64% gain in typical profitability led to only a 2% increase in crop planted area, mostly in the prairie states. At this rate, a doubling of expected profitability from biomass crops would expand cropland supply by only 3.2%. Yet targets for cellulosic ethanol production in the US Energy Independence and Security Act imply boosting US planted area by 10% or more with perennial biomass crops. Given landowner reluctance to expand crop area with familiar crops in the short run, large scale expansion of the area in dedicated bioenergy crops will likely be difficult and costly to achieve. - Highlights: → Biofuel crops on cropland can displace food crops, reducing food supply and triggering indirect land use. → Growing biofuel crops on non-crop marginal land avoids these problems. → But US farmers expanded cropland by only 2% when crop profitability jumped 64% during 2006-09. → So medium-term availability of marginal lands for biofuel crops is limited and costly.

  17. The relationship between extreme weather events and crop losses in central Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Li-Wei

    2017-09-01

    The frequency of extreme weather events, which cause severe crop losses, is increasing. This study investigates the relationship between crop losses and extreme weather events in central Taiwan from 2003 to 2015 and determines the main factors influencing crop losses. Data regarding the crop loss area and meteorological information were obtained from government agencies. The crops were categorised into the following five groups: `grains', `vegetables', `fruits', `flowers' and `other crops'. The extreme weather events and their synoptic weather patterns were categorised into six and five groups, respectively. The data were analysed using the z score, correlation coefficient and stepwise regression model. The results show that typhoons had the highest frequency of all extreme weather events (58.3%). The largest crop loss area (4.09%) was caused by two typhoons and foehn wind in succession. Extreme wind speed coupled with heavy rainfall is an important factor affecting the losses in the grain and vegetable groups. Extreme wind speed is a common variable that affects the loss of `grains', `vegetables', `fruits' and `flowers'. Consecutive extreme weather events caused greater crop losses than individual events. Crops with long production times suffered greater losses than those with short production times. This suggests that crops with physical structures that can be easily damaged and long production times would benefit from protected cultivation to maintain food security.

  18. Ground-based hyperspectral remote sensing to discriminate biotic stress in cotton crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, Rahul; Kot, Rajsi; Sandhu, Sandeep S.; Bhattacharya, Bimal K.; Chandi, Ravinder S.; Singh, Manjeet; Singh, Jagdish; Manjunath, K. R.

    2016-05-01

    stresses interfere with physical structure and function of plant and influence the absorption of light energy and therefore changes the reflectance spectrum of plants. Moreover, remote sensing provides better means to objectively quantify crop stress than visual methods and it can be used repeatedly to collect sample measurements non-destructively and non-invasively (Nutteret et al., 1990; Nilson, 1995). Recent advances in the field of spectroscopy and other remote sensing techniques offer much needed technology of hyperspectral remote sensing (Prabhakar et al., 2011). Hyperspectral remote sensing for disease detection helps in monitoring the diseases in plants with the help of different plant spectral properties at the visible, near infrared and shortwave infrared regions ranging from 350 - 2500 nm, which develops specific signatures for a specific stress for a given plant (Yang et al., 2009). It has been effectively used in assessment of disease in agricultural crops like wheat, rice, tomato etc across the world. Cotton (Gissypium hirsutum L.) is one of the major commercial crops grown in India, and supports about 60 million people in the country directly or indirectly through the process of production, processing, marketing and trade (Prabhakar et al., 2011). India ranks first in global acreage, occupying about 33% of world cotton area. With regard to production it is ranked second next to China. In recent years, farmers are facing many challenges because of rising incidents of white flies, jassid, leafhoppers, aphids, mealybugs and stainers. Whiteflies are tiny, sap- sucking insects that may become abundant in vegetable and ornamental plantings, especially during warm weather. They excrete sticky honeydew and cause yellowing or death of leaves. Outbreaks often occur when the natural biological control is disrupted. Management is difficult once populations are high. White flies develop rapidly in warm weather, and populations can build up quickly in situations where

  19. Crop modelling for integrated assessment of risk to food production from climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewert, F.; Rötter, R.P.; Bindi, M.

    2015-01-01

    . However, progress on the number of simulated crops, uncertainty propagation related to model parameters and structure, adaptations and scaling are less advanced and lagging behind IAM demands. The limitations are considered substantial and apply to a different extent to all crop models. Overcoming...... climate change risks to food production and to which extent crop models comply with IAM demands. Considerable progress has been made in modelling effects of climate variables, where crop models best satisfy IAM demands. Demands are partly satisfied for simulating commonly required assessment variables...

  20. INFESTACIÓN E INCIDENCIA DE BROCA, ROYA Y MANCHA DE HIERRO EN CULTIVO DE CAFÉ DEL DEPARTAMENTO DEL CAUCA ESTUDO DE INFESTAÇÃO E INCIDÊNCIA DA BROCA, A FERRUGEM E A CERCOSPOREOSE O CULTIVO DO CAFÉ NO DEPARTAMENTO DO CAUCA INFESTATION AND INCIDENCE STUDY OF THE COFFEE BORER, COFFEE RUST AND IRON SPOT DISEASE ON THE COFFEE CROP IN CAUCA DEPARTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CONSUELO MONTES R.

    2012-06-01

    Coffee borer and 4,8% on Iron spot disease. The temperature and precipitation variables were the ones which exhibited closer relationship with the plagues epidemiological dynamics. High temperatures are related to high Coffee borer and Rust incidence, mainly between June and September, contrary to the Iron spot disease, which was related to high precipitations, mainly between March and May. The results give en alert concerning plagues presence on the regional crops.

  1. Impacts of previous crops on Fusarium foot and root rot, and on yields of durum wheat in North West Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia CHEKALI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of ten previous crop rotations (cereals, legumes and fallow on Fusarium foot and root rot of durum wheat were investigated for three cropping seasons in a trial established in 2004 in Northwest Tunisia. Fungi isolated from the roots and stem bases were identified using morphological and molecular methods, and were primarily Fusarium culmorum and F. pseudograminearum. Under low rainfall conditions, the previous crop affected F. pseudograminearum incidence on durum wheat roots but not F. culmorum. Compared to continuous cropping of durum wheat, barley as a previous crop increased disease incidence more than fivefold, while legumes and fallow tended to reduce incidence.  Barley as a previous crop increased wheat disease severity by 47%, compared to other rotations. Grain yield was negatively correlated with the incidence of F. culmorum infection, both in roots and stem bases, and fitted an exponential model (R2 = -0.61 for roots and -0.77 for stem bases, P<0.0001. Fusarium pseudograminearum was also negatively correlated with yield and fitted an exponential model (R2 = -0.53 on roots and -0.71 on stem bases, P < 0.0001 but was not correlated with severity.

  2. Nitrogen research for perennial crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, G.D.; Danso, S.K.A.

    1987-01-01

    The article describes the role of trees in restoring and maintaining soil fertility. Cropping systems that include trees can provide the ecological framework within which food, fuelwood, and fibre production can be intergrated. The IAEA has been actively involved in studies on nitrogen-fixing pasture legumes and is ready to embark on similar studies of trees. 1 tab

  3. Energy crops - where are they?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, Jim [CPL Scientific Ltd., Newbury (United Kingdom)

    1999-07-01

    The author examines briefly the factors controlling the growth of energy crops, particularly the relationship between dry matter yield and fuel costs and conversion efficiency and electricity price. The EU target is for 135 Mtoe from biomass by 2010 and consideration is given on how this can be met.

  4. Cover Crops in Hillside Agriculture

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Our study focuses on the wet tropical hillsides of northern Honduras (Figure 1). ..... The eastern extreme of the region (Jutiapa) is a dry spot, with less rainfall (2 000 mm a-1) as a result ...... Paper presented at the International Workshop on Green Manure–Cover Crops for Smallholders in ..... Lamaster, J.P.; Jones, I.R. 1923.

  5. Vegetable Crop Pests. MEP 311.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantzes, James G.; And Others

    As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland, this publication introduces the identification and control of common agricultural pests of vegetable crops. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests in the categories of insects,…

  6. Fruit Crop Pests. MEP 312.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Leslie O.; And Others

    As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland this publication introduces the identification and control of common agricultural pests of fruit crops. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests in the categories of insects, weeds,…

  7. Economic impact of GM crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Graham; Barfoot, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A key part of any assessment of the global value of crop biotechnology in agriculture is an examination of its economic impact at the farm level. This paper follows earlier annual studies which examined economic impacts on yields, key costs of production, direct farm income and effects, and impacts on the production base of the four main crops of soybeans, corn, cotton and canola. The commercialization of genetically modified (GM) crops has continued to occur at a rapid rate, with important changes in both the overall level of adoption and impact occurring in 2012. This annual updated analysis shows that there have been very significant net economic benefits at the farm level amounting to $18.8 billion in 2012 and $116.6 billion for the 17-year period (in nominal terms). These economic gains have been divided roughly 50% each to farmers in developed and developing countries. GM technology have also made important contributions to increasing global production levels of the four main crops, having added 122 million tonnes and 230 million tonnes respectively, to the global production of soybeans and maize since the introduction of the technology in the mid-1990s. PMID:24637520

  8. Botrytis species on bulb crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorbeer, J.W.; Seyb, A.M.; Boer, de M.; Ende, van den J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract. A number of Botrytis species are pathogens of bulb crops. Botrytis squamosa (teleomorph=Botrytotinia squamosa) causal agent of botrytis leaf blight and B. allii the causal agent of botrytis neck rotare two of the most important fungal diseases of onion. The taxonomics of several of the

  9. Water, heat and crop growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feddes, R.A.

    1971-01-01

    To a large extent the results of a farmer's efforts to get higher crop yields will be determined by the prevailing environmental conditions, i.e. by the existing complex of physical, chemical and biological factors. The possibilities of an efficient use of these factors are enlarged by our

  10. WEED INTERFERENCE IN EGGPLANT CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIZ JUNIOR PEREIRA MARQUES

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled weed growth interferes with the growth eggplants and crop yields. To control weeds, the main weed species must be identified in crop growing areas and during weed control periods, as weed species might vary in relation to management practices. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the main weed species and determine the periods of weed interference in the eggplant cultivar Nápoli when grown under certain cultural practices, including plant staking and sprout thinning. The experiment was carried out in 2014 using a randomized complete block design, with 3 replications. The treatments consisted of 11 periods of (1 increasing weed control and (2 increasing coexistence of eggplant with weeds from the first day of transplanting (0-14, 0-28, 0-42, 0-56, 0-70, 0-84, 0-98, 0-112, 0-126, 0-140, and up do day 154. Eggplant staking and sprout thinning were performed 42 days after transplanting (DAT. Weed identification and crop yield assessments were performed to determine the Period Before Interference (PBI, Total Period of Interference Prevention (TPIP, and the Critical Period of Interference Prevention (CPIP. The major weeds found in the eggplant cultivar Nápoli were Eleusine indica, Portulaca oleracea, and Cyperus rotundus. Coexistence between the weed community and the eggplant throughout the entire crop production cycle reduced eggplant fruit yield by 78%. The PBI was 29 DAT and the TPIP was 48 DAT, resulting in 19 days of CPIP.

  11. Sex and age data from cropping of Buffalo Syncerus caffer in the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.R Mason

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Sex and age classifications of buffalo cropped in the Kruger National Park suggest that cropping is biased towards females, and prime breeding individuals of both sexes are apparently under-represented. The implications are discussed in relation to buffalo social organisation and comparative data on population structure.

  12. Microbial biomass and nutrient dynamics during decomposition of cover crop mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drost, S.M.

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable agriculture is needed to reduce losses of soil organic matter (SOM) and to ensure crop production with a minimum of negative impact on the environment. Cover crops, planted in the fallow season, are commonly used to improve soil functions, such as soil structure, nutrient cycling,

  13. Crop residue decomposition, residual soil organic matter and nitrogen mineralization in arable soils with contrasting textures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matus, F.J.

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the significance of cropping, soil texture and soil structure for the decomposition of 14C- and 15N-labelled crop residues, a study was conducted in a sand and a

  14. Influence Of Socio-Economic Factors On Crop Farmers' Production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigated the influence of socio-economic factors on crop farmers production in Ogba/Egbema/Ndoni Local Government Area of Rivers State. Purposive and stratefied random sampling techniques were used to select the locations of Green River Project, cooperative societies and respondents. Using structured ...

  15. Rural Women\\'s Response To Selected Crop Production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study centered on rural women's response to selected crop production technologies in Imo State with a view to making policy recommendations. Structured questionnaire and interview schedule were administered through the assistance of extension agents to 258 randomly sampled rural women farmers from the three ...

  16. Anthocyanin biosynthesis in fruit tree crops: Genes and their regulation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway is a little complex with branches responsible for the synthesis of a variety of metabolites. In fruit tree crops, during the past decade, many structural genes encoding enzymes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway and various regulatory genes encoding transcription factors that ...

  17. Grazing incidence diffraction : A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilles, B [LTPCM, ENSEEG. St. Martin d` Heres. (France)

    1996-09-01

    Different Grazing Incidence Diffraction (GID) methods for the analysis of thin films and multilayer structures are reviewed in three sections: the reflectivity is developed in the first one, which includes the non-specular diffuse scattering. The second one is devoted to the extremely asymmetric Bragg diffraction and the third one to the in-plane Bragg diffraction. Analytical formulations of the scattered intensities are developed for each geometry, in the framework of the kinetical analysis as well as the dynamical theory. Experimental examples are given to illustrate the quantitative possibility of the GID techniques.

  18. The food and environmental safety of Bt crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Michael S; Ward, Jason M; Levine, Steven L; Baum, James A; Vicini, John L; Hammond, Bruce G

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) microbial pesticides have a 50-year history of safety in agriculture. Cry proteins are among the active insecticidal ingredients in these pesticides, and genes coding for Cry proteins have been introduced into agricultural crops using modern biotechnology. The Cry gene sequences are often modified to enable effective expression in planta and several Cry proteins have been modified to increase biological activity against the target pest(s). Additionally, the domains of different but structurally conserved Cry proteins can be combined to produce chimeric proteins with enhanced insecticidal properties. Environmental studies are performed and include invertebrates, mammals, and avian species. Mammalian studies used to support the food and feed safety assessment are also used to support the wild mammal assessment. In addition to the NTO assessment, the environmental assessment includes a comparative assessment between the Bt crop and the appropriate conventional control that is genetically similar but lacks the introduced trait to address unintended effects. Specific phenotypic, agronomic, and ecological characteristics are measured in the Bt crop and the conventional control to evaluate whether the introduction of the insect resistance has resulted in any changes that might cause ecological harm in terms of altered weed characteristics, susceptibility to pests, or adverse environmental impact. Additionally, environmental interaction data are collected in field experiments for Bt crop to evaluate potential adverse effects. Further to the agronomic and phenotypic evaluation, potential movement of transgenes from a genetically modified crop plants into wild relatives is assessed for a new pest resistance gene in a new crop. This review summarizes the evidence for safety of crops containing Cry proteins for humans, livestock, and other non-target organisms.

  19. The Food and Environmental Safety of Bt Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Stephen Koch

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis microbial pesticides have a 50-year history of safe use in agriculture. Cry proteins are among the active insecticidal ingredients in these pesticides, and genes coding for Cry proteins have been introduced into agricultural crops using modern biotechnology. The Cry gene sequences are often modified to enable effective expression in planta and several Cry proteins have been modified to increase biological activity against the target pest(s. Additionally, the domains of different but structurally conserved Cry proteins can be combined to produce chimeric proteins with enhanced insecticidal properties. Environmental studies are performed and include invertebrates, mammals and avian species. Mammalian studies used to support the food and feed safety assessment are also used to support the wild mammal assessment. In addition to the NTO assessment, the environmental assessment includes a comparative assessment between the Bt crop and the appropriate conventional control that is genetically similar but lacks the introduced trait to address unintended effects. Specific phenotypic, agronomic, and ecological characteristics are measured in the Bt crop and the conventional control to evaluate whether the introduction of the insect resistance has resulted in any changes that might cause ecological harm in terms of altered weed characteristics, susceptibility to pests, or adverse environmental impact. Additionally, environmental interaction data are collected in field experiments for Bt crop to evaluate potential adverse effects. Further to the agronomic and phenotypic evaluation, potential movement of transgenes from a genetically modified crop plants into wild relatives is assessed for a new pest resistance gene in a new crop. This review summarizes the evidence for safety of crops containing Cry proteins for humans, livestock, and other non-target organisms.

  20. The food and environmental safety of Bt crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Michael S.; Ward, Jason M.; Levine, Steven L.; Baum, James A.; Vicini, John L.; Hammond, Bruce G.

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) microbial pesticides have a 50-year history of safety in agriculture. Cry proteins are among the active insecticidal ingredients in these pesticides, and genes coding for Cry proteins have been introduced into agricultural crops using modern biotechnology. The Cry gene sequences are often modified to enable effective expression in planta and several Cry proteins have been modified to increase biological activity against the target pest(s). Additionally, the domains of different but structurally conserved Cry proteins can be combined to produce chimeric proteins with enhanced insecticidal properties. Environmental studies are performed and include invertebrates, mammals, and avian species. Mammalian studies used to support the food and feed safety assessment are also used to support the wild mammal assessment. In addition to the NTO assessment, the environmental assessment includes a comparative assessment between the Bt crop and the appropriate conventional control that is genetically similar but lacks the introduced trait to address unintended effects. Specific phenotypic, agronomic, and ecological characteristics are measured in the Bt crop and the conventional control to evaluate whether the introduction of the insect resistance has resulted in any changes that might cause ecological harm in terms of altered weed characteristics, susceptibility to pests, or adverse environmental impact. Additionally, environmental interaction data are collected in field experiments for Bt crop to evaluate potential adverse effects. Further to the agronomic and phenotypic evaluation, potential movement of transgenes from a genetically modified crop plants into wild relatives is assessed for a new pest resistance gene in a new crop. This review summarizes the evidence for safety of crops containing Cry proteins for humans, livestock, and other non-target organisms. PMID:25972882

  1. AN APPROACH TO TRANSGENIC CROP MONITORING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remote sensing by aerial or satellite images may provide a method of identifying transgenic pesticidal crop distribution in the landscape. Genetically engineered crops containing bacterial gene(s) that express an insecticidal protein from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are regulated...

  2. Nutritionally Enhanced Food Crops; Progress and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen L. Hefferon

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Great progress has been made over the past decade with respect to the application of biotechnology to generate nutritionally improved food crops. Biofortified staple crops such as rice, maize and wheat harboring essential micronutrients to benefit the world’s poor are under development as well as new varieties of crops which have the ability to combat chronic disease. This review discusses the improvement of the nutritional status of crops to make a positive impact on global human health. Several examples of nutritionally enhanced crops which have been developed using biotechnological approaches will be discussed. These range from biofortified crops to crops with novel abilities to fight disease. The review concludes with a discussion of hurdles faced with respect to public perception, as well as directions of future research and development for nutritionally enhanced food crops.

  3. The Crop Journal Calls for Papers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>We would like to invite you to submit your latest research accomplishments to The Crop Journal(ISSN:2095-5421;Online ISSN:2214-5141,CN 10-1112/S),a new bimonthly academic journal co-sponsored by the Crop Science Society of China and the Institute of Crop Science,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences.The Crop Journal is freely available online(Open Access)in ScienceDirect.The Editor-in-Chief of The Crop Journal is Professor Jianmin Wan,PhD,Cheung Kong Scholar,Director of the Institute of Crop Science and Executive Vice President of the Crop Science Society of China,supported by the Editorial Board of 85 international experts from various fields of crop sciences.

  4. Marketing biofortified crops: insights from consumer research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marketing biofortified crops: insights from consumer research. ... To develop a global strategy for consumer marketing of biofortified crops, research is needed to understand consumer ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  5. Efficiency of chlorophyll in gross primary productivity: A proof of concept and application in crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitelson, Anatoly A; Peng, Yi; Viña, Andrés; Arkebauer, Timothy; Schepers, James S

    2016-08-20

    One of the main factors affecting vegetation productivity is absorbed light, which is largely governed by chlorophyll. In this paper, we introduce the concept of chlorophyll efficiency, representing the amount of gross primary production per unit of canopy chlorophyll content (Chl) and incident PAR. We analyzed chlorophyll efficiency in two contrasting crops (soybean and maize). Given that they have different photosynthetic pathways (C3 vs. C4), leaf structures (dicot vs. monocot) and canopy architectures (a heliotrophic leaf angle distribution vs. a spherical leaf angle distribution), they cover a large spectrum of biophysical conditions. Our results show that chlorophyll efficiency in primary productivity is highly variable and responds to various physiological and phenological conditions, and water availability. Since Chl is accessible through non-destructive, remotely sensed techniques, the use of chlorophyll efficiency for modeling and monitoring plant optimization patterns is practical at different scales (e.g., leaf, canopy) and under widely-varying environmental conditions. Through this analysis, we directly related a functional characteristic, gross primary production with a structural characteristic, canopy chlorophyll content. Understanding the efficiency of the structural characteristic is of great interest as it allows explaining functional components of the plant system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Crop diversity prevents serious weed problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melander, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Weed management in organic crop production could benefit from more diversification of today’s cropping systems. However, the potential of diversification needs better documentation and solid suggestions for employment in practise must be identified.......Weed management in organic crop production could benefit from more diversification of today’s cropping systems. However, the potential of diversification needs better documentation and solid suggestions for employment in practise must be identified....

  7. The Crop Journal Calls for Papers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>We would like to invite you to submit your latest research accomplishments to The Crop Journal(ISSN:2095-5421;Online ISSN:2214-5141,CN 10-1112/S),a new bimonthly academic journal co-sponsored by the Crop Science Society of China and the Institute of Crop Science,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences.The Crop Journal is freely available online(Open Access)in ScienceDirect.

  8. The Crop Journal Calls for Papers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>We would like to invite you to submit your latest research accomplishments to The Crop Journal(ISSN:2095-5421;Online ISSN:2214-5141,CN 10-1112/S),a new bimonthly academic journal co-sponsored by the Crop Science Society of China and the Institute of Crop Science,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences.The Crop Journal is freely available online(Open Access)in ScienceDirect.

  9. The Crop Journal Calls for Papers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>We would like to invite you to submit your latest research accomplishments to The Crop Journal(ISSN:2095-5421;Online ISSN:2214-5141,CN 10-1112/S),a new bimonthly academic journal co-sponsored by the Crop Science Society of China and the Institute of Crop Science,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences.The Crop Journal is freely available online(Open Access)in ScienceDirect.The Editor-in-Chief

  10. The Crop Journal Calls for Papers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>We would like to invite you to submit your latest research accomplishments to The Crop Journal(ISSN:2095-5421;Online ISSN:2214-5141,CN 10-1112/S),a new bimonthly academic journal co-sponsored by the Crop Science Society of China and the Institute of Crop Science,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences.The Crop Journal is freely available online(Open Access)in ScienceDirect.The Editor-in-Chief of

  11. 7th International Crop Science Congress Announcement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    August 14–19,2016 Beijing,China Crop Science—Innovation and SustainabilityInternational Crop Science Congress(ICSC)is a regular forum for crop scientists from around the world to integrate current knowledge into a global context and international applications.The Congress is organized about every four years beginning in July,1992.The International Crop Science Society has primary oversight for general

  12. Looking forward to genetically edited fruit crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamangala Kanchiswamy, Chidananda; Sargent, Daniel James; Velasco, Riccardo; Maffei, Massimo E; Malnoy, Mickael

    2015-02-01

    The availability of genome sequences for many fruit crops has redefined the boundaries of genetic engineering and genetically modified (GM) crop plants. However commercialization of GM crops is hindered by numerous regulatory and social hurdles. Here, we focus on recently developed genome-editing tools for fruit crop improvement and their importance from the consumer perspective. Challenges and opportunities for the deployment of new genome-editing tools for fruit plants are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Hazmat Yearly Incident Summary Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Series of Incident data and summary statistics reports produced which provide statistical information on incidents by type, year, geographical location, and others....

  14. Impact of Lipid Oxidization on Vertical Structures and Electrostatics of Phospholipid Monolayers Revealed by Combination of Specular X-ray Reflectivity and Grazing-Incidence X-ray Fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korytowski, Agatha; Abuillan, Wasim; Makky, Ali; Konovalov, Oleg; Tanaka, Motomu

    2015-07-30

    The influence of phospholipid oxidization of floating monolayers on the structure perpendicular to the global plane and on the density profiles of ions near the lipid monolayer has been investigated by a combination of grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence (GIXF) and specular X-ray reflectivity (XRR). Systematic variation of the composition of the floating monolayers unravels changes in the thickness, roughness and electron density of the lipid monolayers as a function of molar fraction of oxidized phospholipids. Simultaneous GIXF measurements enable one to qualitatively determine the element-specific density profiles of monovalent (K(+) or Cs(+)) and divalent ions (Ca(2+)) in the vicinity of the interface in the presence and absence of two types of oxidized phospholipids (PazePC and PoxnoPC) with high spatial accuracy (±5 Å). We found the condensation of Ca(2+) near carboxylated PazePC was more pronounced compared to PoxnoPC with an aldehyde group. In contrast, the condensation of monovalent ions could hardly be detected even for pure oxidized phospholipid monolayers. Moreover, pure phospholipid monolayers exhibited almost no ion specific condensation near the interface. The quantitative studies with well-defined floating monolayers revealed how the elevation of lipid oxidization level alters the structures and functions of cell membranes.

  15. Radiation incidents in dentistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovelock, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Most dental practitioners act as their own radiographer and radiologist, unlike their medical colleagues. Virtually all dental surgeons have a dental X-ray machine for intraoral radiography available to them and 40% of dental practices have equipment for dental panoramic tomography. Because of the low energy of X-ray equipment used in dentistry, radiation incidents tend to be less serious than those associated with other aspects of patient care. Details of 47 known incidents are given. The advent of the 1985 and 1988 Ionising Radiation Regulations has made dental surgeons more aware of the hazards of radiation. These regulations, and general health and safety legislation, have led to a few dental surgeons facing legal action. Because of the publicity associated with these court cases, it is expected that there will be a decrease in radiation incidents arising from the practice of dentistry. (author)

  16. Crop succession requirements in agricultural production planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Haneveld, W.K.; Stegeman, A.

    2005-01-01

    A method is proposed to write crop succession requirements as linear constraints in an LP-based model for agricultural production planning. Crop succession information is given in the form of a set of inadmissible successions of crops. The decision variables represent the areas where a certain

  17. Perceptions of Crop Science Instructional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, D. M.

    1994-01-01

    A number of crop science instructors have indicated that there is a shortage of quality, current crop/plant science teaching materials, particularly textbooks. A survey instrument was developed to solicit information from teachers about the use and adequacy of textbooks, laboratory manuals, and videotapes in crop/plant science instruction. (LZ)

  18. Do green manures as winter cover crops impact the weediness and crop yield in an organic crop rotation?

    OpenAIRE

    Madsen, Helena; Talgre, Liina; Eremeev, Viacheslav; Alaru, Maarika; Kauer, Karin; Luik, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The effects of different winter cover crops and their combination with composted cattle manure on weeds and crop yields were investigated within a five-field crop rotation (barley undersown with red clover, red clover, winter wheat, pea, potato) in three organic cropping systems. The control system (Org 0) followed the rotation. In organic systems Org I and Org II the winter cover crops were used as follows: ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. in 2011/2012) and a mixture of winter oilseed-rape (Brass...

  19. Variation of Bacterial Community Diversity in Rhizosphere Soil of Sole-Cropped versus Intercropped Wheat Field after Harvest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenping Yang

    Full Text Available As the major crops in north China, spring crops are usually planted from April through May every spring and harvested in fall. Wheat is also a very common crop traditionally planted in fall or spring and harvested in summer year by year. This continuous cropping system exhibited the disadvantages of reducing the fertility of soil through decreasing microbial diversity. Thus, management of microbial diversity in the rhizosphere plays a vital role in sustainable crop production. In this study, ten common spring crops in north China were chosen sole-cropped and four were chosen intercropped with peanut in wheat fields after harvest. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE and DNA sequencing of one 16S rDNA fragment were used to analyze the bacterial diversity and species identification. DGGE profiles showed the bacterial community diversity in rhizosphere soil samples varied among various crops under different cropping systems, more diverse under intercropping system than under sole-cropping. Some intercropping-specific bands in DGGE profiles suggested that several bacterial species were stimulated by intercropping systems specifically. Furthermore, the identification of these dominant and functional bacteria by DNA sequencing indicated that intercropping systems are more beneficial to improve soil fertility. Compared to intercropping systems, we also observed changes in microbial community of rhizosphere soil under sole-crops. The rhizosphere bacterial community structure in spring crops showed a strong crop species-specific pattern. More importantly, Empedobacter brevis, a typical plant pathogen, was only found in the carrot rhizosphere, suggesting carrot should be sown prudently. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that crop species and cropping systems had significant effects on bacterial community diversity in the rhizosphere soils. We strongly suggest sorghum, glutinous millet and buckwheat could be taken into account as intercropping

  20. Variation of Bacterial Community Diversity in Rhizosphere Soil of Sole-Cropped versus Intercropped Wheat Field after Harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenping; Yang, Wenping; Li, Shengcai; Hao, Jiaomin; Su, Zhifeng; Sun, Min; Gao, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Chunlai

    2016-01-01

    As the major crops in north China, spring crops are usually planted from April through May every spring and harvested in fall. Wheat is also a very common crop traditionally planted in fall or spring and harvested in summer year by year. This continuous cropping system exhibited the disadvantages of reducing the fertility of soil through decreasing microbial diversity. Thus, management of microbial diversity in the rhizosphere plays a vital role in sustainable crop production. In this study, ten common spring crops in north China were chosen sole-cropped and four were chosen intercropped with peanut in wheat fields after harvest. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and DNA sequencing of one 16S rDNA fragment were used to analyze the bacterial diversity and species identification. DGGE profiles showed the bacterial community diversity in rhizosphere soil samples varied among various crops under different cropping systems, more diverse under intercropping system than under sole-cropping. Some intercropping-specific bands in DGGE profiles suggested that several bacterial species were stimulated by intercropping systems specifically. Furthermore, the identification of these dominant and functional bacteria by DNA sequencing indicated that intercropping systems are more beneficial to improve soil fertility. Compared to intercropping systems, we also observed changes in microbial community of rhizosphere soil under sole-crops. The rhizosphere bacterial community structure in spring crops showed a strong crop species-specific pattern. More importantly, Empedobacter brevis, a typical plant pathogen, was only found in the carrot rhizosphere, suggesting carrot should be sown prudently. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that crop species and cropping systems had significant effects on bacterial community diversity in the rhizosphere soils. We strongly suggest sorghum, glutinous millet and buckwheat could be taken into account as intercropping crops with peanut

  1. Ammonia volatilization from crop residues and frozen green manure crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruijter, F. J.; Huijsmans, J. F. M.; Rutgers, B.

    2010-09-01

    Agricultural systems can lose substantial amounts of nitrogen (N). To protect the environment, the European Union (EU) has adopted several directives that set goals to limit N losses. National Emission Ceilings (NEC) are prescribed in the NEC directive for nitrogen oxides and ammonia. Crop residues may contribute to ammonia volatilization, but sufficient information on their contribution to the national ammonia volatilization is lacking. Experiments were carried out with the aim to assess the ammonia volatilization of crop residues left on the soil surface or incorporated into the soil under the conditions met in practice in the Netherlands during late autumn and winter. Ammonia emission from residues of broccoli, leek, sugar beet, cut grass, fodder radish (fresh and frozen) and yellow mustard (frozen) was studied during two winter seasons using volatilization chambers. Residues were either placed on top of soil or mixed with soil. Mixing residues with soil gave insignificant ammonia volatilization, whereas volatilization was 5-16 percent of the N content of residues when placed on top of soil. Ammonia volatilization started after at least 4 days. Total ammonia volatilization was related to C/N-ratio and N concentration of the plant material. After 37 days, cumulative ammonia volatilization was negligible from plant material with N concentration below 2 percent, and was 10 percent of the N content of plant material with 4 percent N. These observations can be explained by decomposition of plant material by micro-organisms. After an initial built up of the microbial population, NH 4+ that is not needed for their own growth is released and can easily emit as NH 3 at the soil surface. The results of the experiments were used to estimate the contribution of crop residues to ammonia volatilization in the Netherlands. Crop residues of arable crops and residues of pasture topping may contribute more than 3 million kg NH 3-N to the national ammonia volatilization of the

  2. Impact of perennial energy crops income variability on the crop selection of risk averse farmers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, Peter; Moran, Dominic

    2013-01-01

    The UK Government policy is for the area of perennial energy crops in the UK to expand significantly. Farmers need to choose these crops in preference to conventional rotations for this to be achievable. This paper looks at the potential level and variability of perennial energy crop incomes and the relation to incomes from conventional arable crops. Assuming energy crop prices are correlated to oil prices the results suggests that incomes from them are not well correlated to conventional arable crop incomes. A farm scale mathematical programming model is then used to attempt to understand the affect on risk averse farmers crop selection. The inclusion of risk reduces the energy crop price required for the selection of these crops. However yields towards the highest of those predicted in the UK are still required to make them an optimal choice, suggesting only a small area of energy crops within the UK would be expected to be chosen to be grown. This must be regarded as a tentative conclusion, primarily due to high sensitivity found to crop yields, resulting in the proposal for further work to apply the model using spatially disaggregated data. - Highlights: ► Energy crop and conventional crop incomes suggested as uncorrelated. ► Diversification effect of energy crops investigated for a risk averse farmer. ► Energy crops indicated as optimal selection only on highest yielding UK sites. ► Large establishment grant rates to substantially alter crop selections.

  3. 75 FR 15777 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations, Basic Provisions; and Various Crop Insurance Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... (protection for production losses only) within one Basic Provisions and the applicable Crop Provisions to..., Macadamia Nut Crop Insurance Provisions, Onion Crop Insurance Provisions, Dry Pea Crop Insurance Provisions... (protection for production losses only) and revenue protection (protection against loss of revenue caused by...

  4. Organic fertigation for greenhouse crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pokhrel, Bhaniswor

    2017-01-01

    productivity is suboptimal nutrient management resulting from poor synchronization between crop nutrient demand and nutrient release from organic fertilizers, affecting the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the root zone environment, and thus plant growth and productivity. Compared to solid...... organic fertilizers, the application of liquid organic fertilizers potentially more accurately addresses the nutrient demand, because nutrients are readily available and different fertilizers are easily mixed. This PhD work explores the possibilities and challenges related to the application of liquid...... organic fertilizers in organic greenhouse crop production. Four greenhouse experiments were designed where different liquid organic fertilizers were prepared: acidic extraction or anaerobic digestion of red clover and white mustard silage, water extraction of composted chicken manure and flushing...

  5. Biogas production from catch crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molinuevo-Salces, Beatriz; Larsen, Søren U.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2013-01-01

    , being in the ranges of 1.4–3.0 t ha−1 and 0.3–1.7 t ha−1 for Holstebro and Aabenraa, respectively. Specific methane yields were in the range of 229–450 m3 t−1 of VS. Methane yields per hectare of up to 800 m3 ha−1 were obtained, making catch crops a promising source of feedstock for manure-based biogas......Manure-based biogas plants in Denmark are dependent on high yielding biomass feedstock in order to secure economically feasible operation. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of ten different catch crop species or mixtures as feedstock for biogas production in co...

  6. The stochastic resonance for the incidence function model of metapopulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiang-Cheng; Dong, Zhi-Wei; Zhou, Ruo-Wei; Li, Yun-Xian; Qian, Zhen-Wei

    2017-06-01

    A stochastic model with endogenous and exogenous periodicities is proposed in this paper on the basis of metapopulation dynamics to model the crop yield losses due to pests and diseases. The rationale is that crop yield losses occur because the physiology of the growing crop is negatively affected by pests and diseases in a dynamic way over time as crop both grows and develops. Metapopulation dynamics can thus be used to model the resultant crop yield losses. The stochastic metapopulation process is described by using the Simplified Incidence Function model (IFM). Compared to the original IFMs, endogenous and exogenous periodicities are considered in the proposed model to handle the cyclical patterns observed in pest infestations, diseases epidemics, and exogenous affecting factors such as temperature and rainfalls. Agricultural loss data in China are used to fit the proposed model. Experimental results demonstrate that: (1) Model with endogenous and exogenous periodicities is a better fit; (2) When the internal system fluctuations and external environmental fluctuations are negatively correlated, EIL or the cost of loss is monotonically increasing; when the internal system fluctuations and external environmental fluctuations are positively correlated, an outbreak of pests and diseases might occur; (3) If the internal system fluctuations and external environmental fluctuations are positively correlated, an optimal patch size can be identified which will greatly weaken the effects of external environmental influence and hence inhibit pest infestations and disease epidemics.

  7. Spatial Distribution of Black Bear Incident Reports in Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden-Hiller, Jamie E; Beyer, Dean E; Belant, Jerrold L

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between humans and carnivores have existed for centuries due to competition for food and space. American black bears are increasing in abundance and populations are expanding geographically in many portions of its range, including areas that are also increasing in human density, often resulting in associated increases in human-bear conflict (hereafter, bear incidents). We used public reports of bear incidents in Michigan, USA, from 2003-2011 to assess the relative contributions of ecological and anthropogenic variables in explaining the spatial distribution of bear incidents and estimated the potential risk of bear incidents. We used weighted Normalized Difference Vegetation Index mean as an index of primary productivity, region (i.e., Upper Peninsula or Lower Peninsula), primary and secondary road densities, and percentage land cover type within 6.5-km2 circular buffers around bear incidents and random points. We developed 22 a priori models and used generalized linear models and Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) to rank models. The global model was the best compromise between model complexity and model fit (w = 0.99), with a ΔAIC 8.99 units from the second best performing model. We found that as deciduous forest cover increased, the probability of bear incident occurrence increased. Among the measured anthropogenic variables, cultivated crops and primary roads were the most important in our AIC-best model and were both positively related to the probability of bear incident occurrence. The spatial distribution of relative bear incident risk varied markedly throughout Michigan. Forest cover fragmented with agriculture and other anthropogenic activities presents an environment that likely facilitates bear incidents. Our map can help wildlife managers identify areas of bear incident occurrence, which in turn can be used to help develop strategies aimed at reducing incidents. Researchers and wildlife managers can use similar mapping techniques to

  8. Spatial Distribution of Black Bear Incident Reports in Michigan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie E McFadden-Hiller

    Full Text Available Interactions between humans and carnivores have existed for centuries due to competition for food and space. American black bears are increasing in abundance and populations are expanding geographically in many portions of its range, including areas that are also increasing in human density, often resulting in associated increases in human-bear conflict (hereafter, bear incidents. We used public reports of bear incidents in Michigan, USA, from 2003-2011 to assess the relative contributions of ecological and anthropogenic variables in explaining the spatial distribution of bear incidents and estimated the potential risk of bear incidents. We used weighted Normalized Difference Vegetation Index mean as an index of primary productivity, region (i.e., Upper Peninsula or Lower Peninsula, primary and secondary road densities, and percentage land cover type within 6.5-km2 circular buffers around bear incidents and random points. We developed 22 a priori models and used generalized linear models and Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC to rank models. The global model was the best compromise between model complexity and model fit (w = 0.99, with a ΔAIC 8.99 units from the second best performing model. We found that as deciduous forest cover increased, the probability of bear incident occurrence increased. Among the measured anthropogenic variables, cultivated crops and primary roads were the most important in our AIC-best model and were both positively related to the probability of bear incident occurrence. The spatial distribution of relative bear incident risk varied markedly throughout Michigan. Forest cover fragmented with agriculture and other anthropogenic activities presents an environment that likely facilitates bear incidents. Our map can help wildlife managers identify areas of bear incident occurrence, which in turn can be used to help develop strategies aimed at reducing incidents. Researchers and wildlife managers can use similar mapping

  9. Taxonometric Applications in Radiotherapy Incident Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunscombe, Peter B.; Ekaette, Edidiong U.; Lee, Robert C.; Cooke, David L.

    2008-01-01

    Recent publications in both the scientific and the popular press have highlighted the risks to which patients expose themselves when entering a healthcare system. Patient safety issues are forcing us to, not only acknowledge that incidents do occur, but also actively develop the means for assessing and managing the risks of such incidents. To do this, we ideally need to know the probability of an incident's occurrence, the consequences or severity for the patient should it occur, and the basic causes of the incident. A structured approach to the description of failure modes is helpful in terms of communication, avoidance of ambiguity, and, ultimately, decision making for resource allocation. In this report, several classification schemes or taxonomies for use in risk assessment and management are discussed. In particular, a recently developed approach that reflects the activity domains through which the patient passes and that can be used as a basis for quantifying incident severity is described. The estimation of incident severity, which is based on the concept of the equivalent uniform dose, is presented in some detail. We conclude with a brief discussion on the use of a defined basic-causes table and how adding such a table to the reports of incidents can facilitate the allocation of resources

  10. ECONOMIC BACKGROUND CROP ROTATION AS A WAY TO PREVENT THE DEGRADATION OF AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevchenko O.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article explores that to successfully combat land degradation on lands occupied in agriculture, it is necessary to conduct complex soil conservation measures constitute a single interconnected system and protect soil from degradation. Found that rotation – a reasonable compromise between the main requirements of production, organization of territory and environment, placing crops in view of a favorable combination; compliance with acceptable saturation parameters optimally varying cultures, and thus the possible timing of a return to their previous cultivation while taking into account the duration of the accepted rotation. Determined that the implementation and observance of crop rotation and better ensure the replenishment of nutrients of the soil, improving and maintaining its favorable physical properties, prevent the emergence of weeds, pests and pathogens cultivated crops and preventing the depletion of soil degradation processes and development. Found that scientifically based crop rotation is the basis for the use of all complex farming practices, differentiated cultivation, rational use of fertilizers and caring for plants. Rotation is correct – it agroecosystem, which created the best conditions for growth and development of various crops, thus providing a growing high and stable yields, obtaining high quality products. Soil and climatic conditions, specialty farms, crops structure and their biological characteristics defined as the type of crop rotation and crop rotation order. Each rotation should be selected such status, which would provide the greatest yield per unit area of rational use of all land. Therefore, proper placement crops in crop rotation must necessarily take into account the requirements of crops to their predecessor, thus it must evaluate not only the direct action of the first culture, but also take into account the impact of the latter on the following crops rotation. On unproductive and degraded lands is

  11. Decomposing global crop yield variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ari, Tamara; Makowski, David

    2014-11-01

    Recent food crises have highlighted the need to better understand the between-year variability of agricultural production. Although increasing future production seems necessary, the globalization of commodity markets suggests that the food system would also benefit from enhanced supplies stability through a reduction in the year-to-year variability. Here, we develop an analytical expression decomposing global crop yield interannual variability into three informative components that quantify how evenly are croplands distributed in the world, the proportion of cultivated areas allocated to regions of above or below average variability and the covariation between yields in distinct world regions. This decomposition is used to identify drivers of interannual yield variations for four major crops (i.e., maize, rice, soybean and wheat) over the period 1961-2012. We show that maize production is fairly spread but marked by one prominent region with high levels of crop yield interannual variability (which encompasses the North American corn belt in the USA, and Canada). In contrast, global rice yields have a small variability because, although spatially concentrated, much of the production is located in regions of below-average variability (i.e., South, Eastern and South Eastern Asia). Because of these contrasted land use allocations, an even cultivated land distribution across regions would reduce global maize yield variance, but increase the variance of global yield rice. Intermediate results are obtained for soybean and wheat for which croplands are mainly located in regions with close-to-average variability. At the scale of large world regions, we find that covariances of regional yields have a negligible contribution to global yield variance. The proposed decomposition could be applied at any spatial and time scales, including the yearly time step. By addressing global crop production stability (or lack thereof) our results contribute to the understanding of a key

  12. Selenium Enrichment of Horticultural Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puccinelli, Martina; Malorgio, Fernando; Pezzarossa, Beatrice

    2017-06-04

    The ability of some crops to accumulate selenium (Se) is crucial for human nutrition and health. Selenium has been identified as a cofactor of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase, which is a catalyzer in the reduction of peroxides that can damage cells and tissues, and can act as an antioxidant. Plants are the first link in the food chain, which ends with humans. Increasing the Se quantity in plant products, including leafy and fruity vegetables, and fruit crops, without exceeding the toxic threshold, is thus a good way to increase animal and human Se intake, with positive effects on long-term health. In many Se-enriched plants, most Se is in its major organic form. Given that this form is more available to humans and more efficient in increasing the selenium content than inorganic forms, the consumption of Se-enriched plants appears to be beneficial. An antioxidant effect of Se has been detected in Se-enriched vegetables and fruit crops due to an improved antioxidative status and to a reduced biosynthesis of ethylene, which is the hormone with a primary role in plant senescence and fruit ripening. This thus highlights the possible positive effect of Se in preserving a longer shelf-life and longer-lasting quality.

  13. Selenium Enrichment of Horticultural Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Puccinelli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability of some crops to accumulate selenium (Se is crucial for human nutrition and health. Selenium has been identified as a cofactor of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase, which is a catalyzer in the reduction of peroxides that can damage cells and tissues, and can act as an antioxidant. Plants are the first link in the food chain, which ends with humans. Increasing the Se quantity in plant products, including leafy and fruity vegetables, and fruit crops, without exceeding the toxic threshold, is thus a good way to increase animal and human Se intake, with positive effects on long-term health. In many Se-enriched plants, most Se is in its major organic form. Given that this form is more available to humans and more efficient in increasing the selenium content than inorganic forms, the consumption of Se-enriched plants appears to be beneficial. An antioxidant effect of Se has been detected in Se-enriched vegetables and fruit crops due to an improved antioxidative status and to a reduced biosynthesis of ethylene, which is the hormone with a primary role in plant senescence and fruit ripening. This thus highlights the possible positive effect of Se in preserving a longer shelf-life and longer-lasting quality.

  14. Responsive Polymers for Crop Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serban F. Peteu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This review outlines the responsive polymer methods currently in use with their potential application to plant protection and puts forward plant-specific mechanisms as stimuli in newly devised methods for smart release of crop protection agents (CPAs. CPAs include chemicals (fungicides, insecticides, herbicides, biochemicals (antibiotics, RNA-based vaccines for plant viruses, semiochemicals (pheromones, repellents, allomones, microbial pesticides, growth regulators (insect and plant or micronutrients, all with crop protection effects. This appraisal focuses on emerging uses of polymer nano-encapsulated CPAs. Firstly, the most interesting advances in controlled release methods are critically discussed with their advantages and drawbacks. Secondly, several plant-specific stimuli-based smart methods are anticipated for use alongside the polymer nano- or micro-capsules. These new CPA release methods are designed to (i protect plants against infection produced by fungi or bacteria, and (ii apply micro-nutrients when the plants need it the most. Thus, we foresee (i the responsive release of nano- encapsulated bio-insecticides regulated by plant stress enzymes, and (ii the delivery of micro-nutrients synchronized by the nature or intensity of plant root exudates. Such continued advances of nano-scale smart polymer-based CPAs for the protection of crops herald a “small revolution” for the benefit of sustainable agriculture.

  15. SALT TOLERANCE OF CROP PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdia, M. A

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Several environmental factors adversely affect plant growth and development and final yield performance of a crop. Drought, salinity, nutrient imbalances (including mineral toxicities and deficiencies and extremes of temperature are among the major environmental constraints to crop productivity worldwide. Development of crop plants with stress tolerance, however, requires, among others, knowledge of the physiological mechanisms and genetic controls of the contributing traits at different plant developmental stages. In the past 2 decades, biotechnology research has provided considerable insights into the mechanism of biotic stress tolerance in plants at the molecular level. Furthermore, different abiotic stress factors may provoke osmotic stress, oxidative stress and protein denaturation in plants, which lead to similar cellular adaptive responses such as accumulation of compatible solutes, induction of stress proteins, and acceleration of reactive oxygen species scavenging systems. Recently, the authores try to improve plant tolerance to salinity injury through either chemical treatments (plant hormones, minerals, amino acids, quaternary ammonium compounds, polyamines and vitamins or biofertilizers treatments (Asymbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria, symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria and mycorrhiza or enhanced a process used naturally by plants to minimise the movement of Na+ to the shoot, using genetic modification to amplify the process, helping plants to do what they already do - but to do it much better."

  16. Androgenesis in recalcitrant solanaceous crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguí-Simarro, José M; Corral-Martínez, Patricia; Parra-Vega, Verónica; González-García, Beatriz

    2011-05-01

    Tomato, eggplant, and pepper are three solanaceous crops of outstanding importance worldwide. For hybrid seed production in these species, a fast and cheap method to obtain pure (homozygous) lines is a priority. Traditionally, pure lines are produced by classical inbreeding and selection techniques, which are time consuming (several years) and costly. Alternatively, it has become possible to accelerate the production of homozygous lines through a biotechnological approach: the induction of androgenesis to generate doubled haploid (homozygous) plants. This biotechnological in vitro tool reduces the process to only one generation, which implies important time and costs savings. These facts make androgenic doubled haploids the choice in a number of important crops where the methodology is well set up. Unfortunately, recalcitrant solanaceous crops such as tomato, eggplant, and pepper are still far from an efficient and reliable technology to be applied on a routine basis to different genotypes in breeding programs. In eggplant and pepper, only anther cultures are known to work relatively well. Unfortunately, a more efficient and promising technique, the culture of isolated microspores, is not sufficiently developed yet. In tomato, none of these methods is available nowadays. However, recent advances in the knowledge of embryo development are filling the gaps and opening new ways to achieve the final goal of an efficient protocol in these three recalcitrant species. In this review, we outline the state of the art on androgenic induction in tomato, eggplant, and pepper, and postulate new experimental ways in order to overcome current limitations.

  17. Lightning incidents in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myagmar Doljinsuren

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This is one of the first studies that has been conducted in Mongolia on the distribution of lightning incidents. The study covers a 10-year period from 2004 to 2013. The country records a human death rate of 15.4 deaths per 10 million people per year, which is much higher than that of many countries with similar isokeraunic level. The reason may be the low-grown vegetation observed in most rural areas of Mongolia, a surface topography, typical to steppe climate. We suggest modifications to Gomes–Kadir equation for such countries, as it predicts a much lower annual death rate for Mongolia. The lightning incidents spread over the period from May to August with the peak of the number of incidents occurring in July. The worst lightning affected region in the country is the central part. Compared with impacts of other convective disasters such as squalls, thunderstorms and hail, lightning stands as the second highest in the number of incidents, human deaths and animal deaths. Economic losses due to lightning is only about 1% of the total losses due to the four extreme weather phenomena. However, unless precautionary measures are not promoted among the public, this figure of losses may significantly increase with time as the country is undergoing rapid industrialization at present.

  18. Incident users of antipsychotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, Lone; Kruse, Marie

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: In Denmark, as well as in many other countries, consumption of antipsychotics is on the rise, partly due to increasing off-label use. The aim of this study was to analyze and quantify the extent of off-label use and polypharmacy in incident users of antipsychotic medication, and to examine...

  19. Simple weighing lysimeters for measuring reference and crop evapotranspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowledge of cotton crop evapotranspiration is important in scheduling irrigations, optimizing crop production, and modeling evapotranspiration and crop growth. The ability to measure, estimate, and predict evapotranspiration and cotton crop water requirements can result in better satisfying the cr...

  20. Microeconomic aspects of energy crops cultivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartolelli, V.; Mutinati, G.; Pisani, F.

    1992-01-01

    The topic of energy crops, namely of those crops designed to produce biomass to transform into ethanol, has been explored, in Italy and abroad, in all its technical and agronomical aspects. The microeconomic aspect, including the evaluation of convenience for the farmer in adopting such crops, is, on the contrary, less well researched. RENAGRI has developed a research methodology able to give information about the level of convenience of two energy crops (Sweet Sorghum and Topinambour) and has applied it to different Italian agricultural situations, in order to verify the existence of conditions favourable to the cultivation of the two crops, or to indicate the necessity of eventual subvention. (author)

  1. Crop Resources Ethic in Plant Genetic Engineering and Fortune Transfer Between Generations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiaowei; DING Guangzhou; LIANG Xueqing

    2006-01-01

    The relation between human and crop resources belongs to the ethic of resources exploitation. The purposes of discussing the ethic of crop resources are to protect the ecology and safety of crops, to gain sustainable development, furthermore, to choose and form the production structure that is favorable to saving crop resources and protecting the ecology of crops. Plant genetic engineering is the technology of molecule breeding of rearrangement of inheritance materials at the level of molecule directionally, of improving plant properties and of breeding high quality and yield varieties of crops. The prominent effects of the technology on the crop ecological system are human subjective factors increasing as well as violating the nature and intensifying the conflict between human being and nature.Therefore, in plant genetic engineering, crop resources exploitation should follow certain ethic principles. Under the theory of ethics of natural resources, by the means of biologioal statistics, the author systematically analyzed the possible model of crop resources transfer between generations as well as the transfer mode of magnitude of real materials and magnitude of value.

  2. Integrating soil conservation practices and glyphosate-resistant crops: impacts on soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Martin A; Zablotowicz, Robert M; Reddy, Krishna N

    2008-04-01

    Conservation practices often associated with glyphosate-resistant crops, e.g. limited tillage and crop cover, improve soil conditions, but only limited research has evaluated their effects on soil in combination with glyphosate-resistant crops. It is assumed that conservation practices have similar benefits to soil whether or not glyphosate-resistant crops are used. This paper reviews the impact on soil of conservation practices and glyphosate-resistant crops, and presents data from a Mississippi field trial comparing glyphosate-resistant and non-glyphosate-resistant maize (Zea mays L.) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) under limited tillage management. Results from the reduced-tillage study indicate differences in soil biological and chemical properties owing to glyphosate-resistant crops. Under continuous glyphosate-resistant maize, soils maintained greater soil organic carbon and nitrogen as compared with continuous non-glyphosate-resistant maize, but no differences were measured in continuous cotton or in cotton rotated with maize. Soil microbial community structure based on total fatty acid methyl ester analysis indicated a significant effect of glyphosate-resistant crop following 5 years of continuous glyphosate-resistant crop as compared with the non-glyphosate-resistant crop system. Results from this study, as well as the literature review, indicate differences attributable to the interaction of conservation practices and glyphosate-resistant crop, but many are transient and benign for the soil ecosystem. Glyphosate use may result in minor effects on soil biological/chemical properties. However, enhanced organic carbon and plant residues in surface soils under conservation practices may buffer potential effects of glyphosate. Long-term field research established under various cropping systems and ecological regions is needed for critical assessment of glyphosate-resistant crop and conservation practice interactions. Copyright (c) 2008 by John Wiley & Sons

  3. Handling Procedures of Vegetable Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchonok, Michele; French, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is working towards future long duration manned space flights beyond low earth orbit. The duration of these missions may be as long as 2.5 years and will likely include a stay on a lunar or planetary surface. The primary goal of the Advanced Food System in these long duration exploratory missions is to provide the crew with a palatable, nutritious, and safe food system while minimizing volume, mass, and waste. Vegetable crops can provide the crew with added nutrition and variety. These crops do not require any cooking or food processing prior to consumption. The vegetable crops, unlike prepackaged foods, will provide bright colors, textures (crispy), and fresh aromas. Ten vegetable crops have been identified for possible use in long duration missions. They are lettuce, spinach, carrot, tomato, green onion, radish, bell pepper, strawberries, fresh herbs, and cabbage. Whether these crops are grown on a transit vehicle (e.g., International Space Station) or on the lunar or planetary surface, it will be necessary to determine how to safely handle the vegetables while maintaining acceptability. Since hydrogen peroxide degrades into water and oxygen and is generally recognized as safe (GRAS), hydrogen peroxide has been recommended as the sanitizer. The objective of th is research is to determine the required effective concentration of hydrogen peroxide. In addition, it will be determined whether the use of hydrogen peroxide, although a viable sanitizer, adversely affects the quality of the vegetables. Vegetables will be dipped in 1 % hydrogen peroxide, 3% hydrogen peroxide, or 5% hydrogen peroxide. Treated produce and controls will be stored in plastic bags at 5 C for up to 14 days. Sensory, color, texture, and total plate count will be measured. The effect on several vegetables including lettuce, radish, tomato and strawberries has been completed. Although each vegetable reacts to hydrogen peroxide differently, the

  4. GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD CROPS AND PUBLIC HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Chaparro Giraldo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The progress made in plant biotechnology has provided an opportunity to new food crops being developed having desirable traits for improving crop yield, reducing the use of agrochemicals and adding nutritional properties to staple crops. However, genetically modified (GM crops have become a subject of intense debate in which opponents argue that GM crops represent a threat to individual freedom, the environment, public health and traditional economies. Despite the advances in food crop agriculture, the current world situation is still characterised by massive hunger and chronic malnutrition, representing a major public health problem. Biofortified GM crops have been considered an important and complementary strategy for delivering naturally-fortified staple foods to malnourished populations. Expert advice and public concern have led to designing strategies for assessing the potential risks involved in cultivating and consuming GM crops. The present critical review was aimed at expressing some conflicting points of view about the potential risks of GM crops for public health. It was concluded that GM food crops are no more risky than those genetically modified by conventional methods and that these GM crops might contribute towards reducing the amount of malnourished people around the world. However, all this needs to be complemented by effective political action aimed at increasing the income of people living below the poverty-line.

  5. Leaf photosynthesis and respiration of three bioenergy crops in relation to temperature and leaf nitrogen: how conserved are biochemical model parameters among crop species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archontoulis, S. V.; Yin, X.; Vos, J.; Danalatos, N. G.; Struik, P. C.

    2012-01-01

    Given the need for parallel increases in food and energy production from crops in the context of global change, crop simulation models and data sets to feed these models with photosynthesis and respiration parameters are increasingly important. This study provides information on photosynthesis and respiration for three energy crops (sunflower, kenaf, and cynara), reviews relevant information for five other crops (wheat, barley, cotton, tobacco, and grape), and assesses how conserved photosynthesis parameters are among crops. Using large data sets and optimization techniques, the C3 leaf photosynthesis model of Farquhar, von Caemmerer, and Berry (FvCB) and an empirical night respiration model for tested energy crops accounting for effects of temperature and leaf nitrogen were parameterized. Instead of the common approach of using information on net photosynthesis response to CO2 at the stomatal cavity (An–Ci), the model was parameterized by analysing the photosynthesis response to incident light intensity (An–Iinc). Convincing evidence is provided that the maximum Rubisco carboxylation rate or the maximum electron transport rate was very similar whether derived from An–Ci or from An–Iinc data sets. Parameters characterizing Rubisco limitation, electron transport limitation, the degree to which light inhibits leaf respiration, night respiration, and the minimum leaf nitrogen required for photosynthesis were then determined. Model predictions were validated against independent sets. Only a few FvCB parameters were conserved among crop species, thus species-specific FvCB model parameters are needed for crop modelling. Therefore, information from readily available but underexplored An–Iinc data should be re-analysed, thereby expanding the potential of combining classical photosynthetic data and the biochemical model. PMID:22021569

  6. The Crop Journal Calls for Papers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>We would like to invite you to submit your latest research accomplishments to The Crop Journal(ISSN:2095-5421;Online ISSN:2214-5141,CN 10-1112/S),a new bimonthly academic journal co-sponsored by the Crop Science Society of China and the Institute of Crop Science,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences.The Crop Journal is freely available online(Open Access)in Science Direct.The Editor-in-Chief of The Crop Journal is Professor Jianmin Wan,Ph D,Cheung Kong Scholar,Director of the Institute of Crop Science and Executive Vice President of the Crop Science Society of China,supported by

  7. The Crop Journal Calls for Papers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>We would like to invite you to submit your latest research accomplishments to The Crop Journal(ISSN:2095-5421;Online ISSN:2214-5141,CN 10-1112/S),a new bimonthly academic journal co-sponsored by the Crop Science Society of China and the Institute of Crop Science,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences.The Crop Journal is freely available online(Open Access) in Science Direct.The Editor-in-Chief of The Crop Journal is Professor Jianmin Wan,PhD,Cheung Kong Scholar,Director of the Institute of Crop Science and Executive Vice President of the Crop Science Society of China,supported by

  8. Incidents with hazardous radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenhacker, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Incidents with hazardous radiation sources can occur in any country, even those without nuclear facilities. Preparedness for such incidents is supposed to fulfill globally agreed minimum standards. Incidents are categorized in incidents with licensed handling of radiation sources as for material testing, transport accidents of hazardous radiation sources, incidents with radionuclide batteries, incidents with satellites containing radioactive inventory, incidents wit not licensed handling of illegally acquired hazardous radiation sources. The emergency planning in Austria includes a differentiation according to the consequences: incidents with release of radioactive materials resulting in restricted contamination, incidents with release of radioactive materials resulting in local contamination, and incidents with the hazard of e@nhanced exposure due to the radiation source.

  9. Hydroponic Crop Production using Recycled Nutrients from Inedible Crop Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Jay L.; Mackowiak, Cheryl L.; Sager, John C.

    1993-01-01

    The coupling of plant growth and waste recycling systems is an important step toward the development of bioregenerative life support systems. This research examined the effectiveness of two alternative methods for recycling nutrients from the inedible fraction (residue) of candidate crops in a bioregenerative system as follows: (1) extraction in water, or leaching, and (2) combustion at 550 C, with subsequent reconstitution of the ash in acid. The effectiveness of the different methods was evaluated by (1) comparing the percent recovery of nutrients, and (2) measuring short- and long-term plant growth in hydroponic solutions, based on recycled nutrients.

  10. Maximum Credible Incidents

    CERN Document Server

    Strait, J

    2009-01-01

    Following the incident in sector 34, considerable effort has been made to improve the systems for detecting similar faults and to improve the safety systems to limit the damage if a similar incident should occur. Nevertheless, even after the consolidation and repairs are completed, other faults may still occur in the superconducting magnet systems, which could result in damage to the LHC. Such faults include both direct failures of a particular component or system, or an incorrect response to a “normal” upset condition, for example a quench. I will review a range of faults which could be reasonably expected to occur in the superconducting magnet systems, and which could result in substantial damage and down-time to the LHC. I will evaluate the probability and the consequences of such faults, and suggest what mitigations, if any, are possible to protect against each.

  11. Cover Crops Effects on Soil Chemical Properties and Onion Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Assis de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cover crops contribute to nutrient cycling and may improve soil chemical properties and, consequently, increase crop yield. The aim of this study was to evaluate cover crop residue decomposition and nutrient release, and the effects of these plants on soil chemical properties and on onion (Allium cepa L. yield in a no-tillage system. The experiment was carried out in an Inceptisol in southern Brazil, where cover crops were sown in April 2012 and 2013. In July 2013, shoots of weeds (WD, black oats (BO, rye (RY, oilseed radish (RD, oilseed radish + black oats (RD + BO, and oilseed radish + rye (RD + RY were cut at ground level and part of these material from each treatment was placed in litter bags. The litter bags were distributed on the soil surface and were collected at 0, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 days after distribution (DAD. The residues in the litter bags were dried, weighed, and ground, and then analyzed to quantify lignin, cellulose, non-structural biomass, total organic carbon (TOC, N, P, K, Ca, and Mg. In November 2012 and 2013, onion crops were harvested to quantify yield, and bulbs were classified according to diameter, and the number of rotted and flowering bulbs was determined. Soil in the 0.00-0.10 m layer was collected for chemical analysis before transplanting and after harvesting onion in December 2012 and 2013. The rye plant residues presented the highest half-life and they released less nutrients until 90 DAD. The great permanence of rye residue was considered a protection to soil surface, the opposite was observed with spontaneous vegetation. The cultivation and addition of dry residue of cover crops increased the onion yield at 2.5 Mg ha-1.

  12. Adverse weather impacts on arable cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobin, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Damages due to extreme or adverse weather strongly depend on crop type, crop stage, soil conditions and management. The impact is largest during the sensitive periods of the farming calendar, and requires a modelling approach to capture the interactions between the crop, its environment and the occurrence of the meteorological event. The hypothesis is that extreme and adverse weather events can be quantified and subsequently incorporated in current crop models. Since crop development is driven by thermal time and photoperiod, a regional crop model was used to examine the likely frequency, magnitude and impacts of frost, drought, heat stress and waterlogging in relation to the cropping season and crop sensitive stages. Risk profiles and associated return levels were obtained by fitting generalized extreme value distributions to block maxima for air humidity, water balance and temperature variables. The risk profiles were subsequently confronted with yields and yield losses for the major arable crops in Belgium, notably winter wheat, winter barley, winter oilseed rape, sugar beet, potato and maize at the field (farm records) to regional scale (statistics). The average daily vapour pressure deficit (VPD) and reference evapotranspiration (ET0) during the growing season is significantly lower (p < 0.001) and has a higher variability before 1988 than after 1988. Distribution patterns of VPD and ET0 have relevant impacts on crop yields. The response to rising temperatures depends on the crop's capability to condition its microenvironment. Crops short of water close their stomata, lose their evaporative cooling potential and ultimately become susceptible to heat stress. Effects of heat stress therefore have to be combined with moisture availability such as the precipitation deficit or the soil water balance. Risks of combined heat and moisture deficit stress appear during the summer. These risks are subsequently related to crop damage. The methodology of defining

  13. Contaminated Mexican steel incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This report documents the circumstances contributing to the inadvertent melting of cobalt 60 (Co-60) contaminated scrap metal in two Mexican steel foundries and the subsequent distribution of contaminated steel products into the United States. The report addresses mainly those actions taken by US Federal and state agencies to protect the US population from radiation risks associated with the incident. Mexico had much more serious radiation exposure and contamination problems to manage. The United States Government maintained a standing offer to provide technical and medical assistance to the Mexican Government. The report covers the tracing of the source to its origin, response actions to recover radioactive steel in the United States, and return of the contaminated materials to Mexico. The incident resulted in significant radiation exposures within Mexico, but no known significant exposure within the United States. Response to the incident required the combined efforts of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Department of Energy, Department of Transportation, Department of State, and US Customs Service (Department of Treasury) personnel at the Federal level and representatives of all 50 State Radiation Control Programs and, in some instances, local and county government personnel. The response also required a diplomatic interface with the Mexican Government and cooperation of numerous commercial establishments and members of the general public. The report describes the factual information associated with the event and may serve as information for subsequent recommendations and actions by the NRC. 8 figures

  14. Weed management strategies for castor bean crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Guerreiro Fontoura Costa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Castor bean crops are agriculturally relevant due to the quality and versatility of their oil, both for the chemical industry and for biodiesel production. Proper weed management is important for both the cultivation and the yield of castor bean crops; therefore, the intention of the present work is to review pertinent information regarding weed management, including the studies regarding weed interference periods, chemical controls for use in different crop production systems and herbicide selectivity, for castor bean crops. Weed science research for castor bean crops is scarce. One of the main weed management challenges for castor bean crops is the absence of herbicides registered with the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply (MALFS. Research for viable herbicides for weed control in castor bean crops should be directed by research and/or rural extension institutions, associations and farmers cooperatives, as well as by manufactures, for the registration of these selective herbicides, which would be primarily used to control eudicotyledons in castor bean crops. New studies involving the integration of weed control methods in castor bean also may increase the efficiency of weed management, for both small farmers using traditional crop methods in the Brazilian Northeast region, as well as for areas with the potential for large scale production, using conservation tillage systems, such as the no-tillage crop production system.

  15. Alternative Crops and Biofuel Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenkel, Philip [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States); Holcomb, Rodney B. [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States)

    2013-03-01

    In order for the biofuel industry to meet the RFS benchmarks for biofuels, new feedstock sources and production systems will have to be identified and evaluated. The Southern Plains has the potential to produce over a billion gallons of biofuels from regionally produced alternative crops, agricultural residues, and animal fats. While information on biofuel conversion processes is available, it is difficult for entrepreneurs, community planners and other interested individuals to determine the feasibility of biofuel processes or to match production alternatives with feed stock availability and community infrastructure. This project facilitates the development of biofuel production from these regionally available feed stocks. Project activities are concentrated in five major areas. The first component focused on demonstrating the supply of biofuel feedstocks. This involves modeling the yield and cost of production of dedicated energy crops at the county level. In 1991 the DOE selected switchgrass as a renewable source to produce transportation fuel after extensive evaluations of many plant species in multiple location (Caddel et al,. 2010). However, data on the yield and cost of production of switchgrass are limited. This deficiency in demonstrating the supply of biofuel feedstocks was addressed by modeling the potential supply and geographic variability of switchgrass yields based on relationship of available switchgrass yields to the yields of other forage crops. This model made it possible to create a database of projected switchgrass yields for five different soil types at the county level. A major advantage of this methodology is that the supply projections can be easily updated as improved varieties of switchgrass are developed and additional yield data becomes available. The modeling techniques are illustrated using the geographic area of Oklahoma. A summary of the regional supply is then provided.

  16. Minichromosomes: Vectors for Crop Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon P. Cody

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Minichromosome technology has the potential to offer a number of possibilities for expanding current biofortification strategies. While conventional genome manipulations rely on random integration of one or a few genes, engineered minichromosomes would enable researchers to concatenate several gene aggregates into a single independent chromosome. These engineered minichromosomes can be rapidly transferred as a unit to other lines through the utilization of doubled haploid breeding. If used in conjunction with other biofortification methods, it may be possible to significantly increase the nutritional value of crops.

  17. Metabolomics of Genetically Modified Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Simó

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Metabolomic-based approaches are increasingly applied to analyse genetically modified organisms (GMOs making it possible to obtain broader and deeper information on the composition of GMOs compared to that obtained from traditional analytical approaches. The combination in metabolomics of advanced analytical methods and bioinformatics tools provides wide chemical compositional data that contributes to corroborate (or not the substantial equivalence and occurrence of unintended changes resulting from genetic transformation. This review provides insight into recent progress in metabolomics studies on transgenic crops focusing mainly in papers published in the last decade.

  18. Induced mutations for crop improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micke, A.; Donini, B.; Maluszynski, M.

    1990-01-01

    Mutation induction has become an established tool in plant breeding to supplement existing germ plasma and to improve cultivars in certain specific traits. Hundreds of improved varieties have been released to farmers for many different crop species, demonstrating the economic value of the technology. Limitations arise mainly from the large mutagenized populations to be screened and from the unsatisfactory selection methods. Both limitations may be eased to some extent by advances in techniques of plant in-vitro culture. (author). Refs, 1 fig., 7 tabs

  19. Metabolomics of Genetically Modified Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simó, Carolina; Ibáñez, Clara; Valdés, Alberto; Cifuentes, Alejandro; García-Cañas, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Metabolomic-based approaches are increasingly applied to analyse genetically modified organisms (GMOs) making it possible to obtain broader and deeper information on the composition of GMOs compared to that obtained from traditional analytical approaches. The combination in metabolomics of advanced analytical methods and bioinformatics tools provides wide chemical compositional data that contributes to corroborate (or not) the substantial equivalence and occurrence of unintended changes resulting from genetic transformation. This review provides insight into recent progress in metabolomics studies on transgenic crops focusing mainly in papers published in the last decade. PMID:25334064

  20. The critical incident technique reappraised: using critical incidents to illuminate organizational practices and build theory

    OpenAIRE

    Bott, Gregory; Tourish, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to offer a reconceptualization of the critical incident technique (CIT) and affirm its utility in management and organization studies.\\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach: Utilizing a case study from a leadership context, the paper applies the CIT to explore various leadership behaviours in the context of nonprofit boards in Canada. Semi-structured critical incident interviews were used to collect behavioural data from 53 participants – board chairs, board...

  1. Medication incidents reported to an online incident reporting system.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Alrwisan, Adel

    2011-01-15

    AIMS: Approximately 20% of deaths from adverse events are related to medication incidents, costing the NHS an additional £500 million annually. Less than 5% of adverse events are reported. This study aims to assess the reporting rate of medication incidents in NHS facilities in the north east of Scotland, and to describe the types and outcomes of reported incidents among different services. Furthermore, we wished to quantify the proportion of reported incidents according to the reporters\\' profession. METHODS: A retrospective description was made of medication incidents reported to an online reporting system (DATIX) over a 46-month-period (July 2005 to April 2009). Reports originated from acute and community hospitals, mental health, and primary care facilities. RESULTS: Over the study period there were 2,666 incidents reported with a mean monthly reporting rate of 78.2\\/month (SD±16.9). 6.1% of all incidents resulted in harm, with insulin being the most commonly implicated medication. Nearly three-quarters (74.2%, n=1,978) of total incidents originated from acute hospitals. Administration incidents were implicated in the majority of the reported medication incidents (59%), followed by prescribing (10.8%) and dispensing (9.9%), while the nondescript "other medication incidents" accounted for 20.3% of total incidents. The majority of reports were made by nursing and midwifery staff (80%), with medical and dental professionals reporting the lowest number of incidents (n=56, 2%). CONCLUSIONS: The majority of medication incidents in this study were reported by nursing and midwifery staff, and were due to administration incidents. There is a clear need to elucidate the reasons for the limited contribution of the medical and dental professionals to reporting medication incidents.

  2. Environmental considerations in energy crop production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranney, J.W.; Mann, L.K.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is a preliminary attempt to provide information on the probable environmental effects of energy crop production relative to other potential uses of the land. While dedicated energy crop production is anticipated to occur primarily on land currently in agricultural production, some pastureland and forestland with a high potential for conversion to agricultural production may be utilized. Experimental results suggest that chemical use on energy crops will be lower than on most row crops and that land producing energy crops should experience less erosion than land producing row crops. Long-term site productivity should not be a major issue if macro-and micro-fertilizers are added as needed and nutrient-conserving production techniques are used. (Author)

  3. Managing for Multifunctionality in Perennial Grain Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Matthew R; Crews, Timothy E; Culman, Steven W; DeHaan, Lee R; Hayes, Richard C; Jungers, Jacob M; Bakker, Matthew G

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Plant breeders are increasing yields and improving agronomic traits in several perennial grain crops, the first of which is now being incorporated into commercial food products. Integration strategies and management guidelines are needed to optimize production of these new crops, which differ substantially from both annual grain crops and perennial forages. To offset relatively low grain yields, perennial grain cropping systems should be multifunctional. Growing perennial grains for several years to regenerate soil health before rotating to annual crops and growing perennial grains on sloped land and ecologically sensitive areas to reduce soil erosion and nutrient losses are two strategies that can provide ecosystem services and support multifunctionality. Several perennial cereals can be used to produce both grain and forage, and these dual-purpose crops can be intercropped with legumes for additional benefits. Highly diverse perennial grain polycultures can further enhance ecosystem services, but increased management complexity might limit their adoption. PMID:29662249

  4. Dynamics of world oil crops market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Marija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the harvested area, oil crops are the second most important crops after cereals. Soybean is the most important oil crop in terms of production and trade of oilseeds and meals, and second most important in terms of production and trade of vegetable oils after palm oil. Dynamics of prices of derived oil crop products in the international market is conditioned by the relationship between supply and demand in the overall market of oil crops. The substitution of animal fats with vegetable oils in human nutrition, the expansion of biodiesel industry and intensification of livestock production have led to increased demand for oil crops. The objective of this paper was to identify trends in production, consumption and trade of soybeans, rapeseed and sunflower and their derived products.

  5. Short rotation Wood Crops Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, L.L.; Ehrenshaft, A.R.

    1990-08-01

    This report synthesizes the technical progress of research projects in the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program for the year ending September 30, 1989. The primary goal of this research program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Division, is the development of a viable technology for producing renewable feedstocks for conversion to biofuels. One of the more significant accomplishments was the documentation that short-rotation woody crops total delivered costs could be $40/Mg or less under optimistic but attainable conditions. By taking advantage of federal subsidies such as those offered under the Conservation Reserve Program, wood energy feedstock costs could be lower. Genetic improvement studies are broadening species performance within geographic regions and under less-than-optimum site conditions. Advances in physiological research are identifying key characteristics of species productivity and response to nutrient applications. Recent developments utilizing biotechnology have achieved success in cell and tissue culture, somaclonal variation, and gene-insertion studies. Productivity gains have been realized with advanced cultural studies of spacing, coppice, and mixed-species trials. 8 figs., 20 tabs.

  6. Connecting Biochemical Photosynthesis Models with Crop Models to Support Crop Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Alex; Song, Youhong; van Oosterom, Erik J.; Hammer, Graeme L.

    2016-01-01

    The next advance in field crop productivity will likely need to come from improving crop use efficiency of resources (e.g., light, water, and nitrogen), aspects of which are closely linked with overall crop photosynthetic efficiency. Progress in genetic manipulation of photosynthesis is confounded by uncertainties of consequences at crop level because of difficulties connecting across scales. Crop growth and development simulation models that integrate across biological levels of organization and use a gene-to-phenotype modeling approach may present a way forward. There has been a long history of development of crop models capable of simulating dynamics of crop physiological attributes. Many crop models incorporate canopy photosynthesis (source) as a key driver for crop growth, while others derive crop growth from the balance between source- and sink-limitations. Modeling leaf photosynthesis has progressed from empirical modeling via light response curves to a more mechanistic basis, having clearer links to the underlying biochemical processes of photosynthesis. Cross-scale modeling that connects models at the biochemical and crop levels and utilizes developments in upscaling leaf-level models to canopy models has the potential to bridge the gap between photosynthetic manipulation at the biochemical level and its consequences on crop productivity. Here we review approaches to this emerging cross-scale modeling framework and reinforce the need for connections across levels of modeling. Further, we propose strategies for connecting biochemical models of photosynthesis into the cross-scale modeling framework to support crop improvement through photosynthetic manipulation. PMID:27790232

  7. Connecting Biochemical Photosynthesis Models with Crop Models to Support Crop Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Alex; Song, Youhong; van Oosterom, Erik J; Hammer, Graeme L

    2016-01-01

    The next advance in field crop productivity will likely need to come from improving crop use efficiency of resources (e.g., light, water, and nitrogen), aspects of which are closely linked with overall crop photosynthetic efficiency. Progress in genetic manipulation of photosynthesis is confounded by uncertainties of consequences at crop level because of difficulties connecting across scales. Crop growth and development simulation models that integrate across biological levels of organization and use a gene-to-phenotype modeling approach may present a way forward. There has been a long history of development of crop models capable of simulating dynamics of crop physiological attributes. Many crop models incorporate canopy photosynthesis (source) as a key driver for crop growth, while others derive crop growth from the balance between source- and sink-limitations. Modeling leaf photosynthesis has progressed from empirical modeling via light response curves to a more mechanistic basis, having clearer links to the underlying biochemical processes of photosynthesis. Cross-scale modeling that connects models at the biochemical and crop levels and utilizes developments in upscaling leaf-level models to canopy models has the potential to bridge the gap between photosynthetic manipulation at the biochemical level and its consequences on crop productivity. Here we review approaches to this emerging cross-scale modeling framework and reinforce the need for connections across levels of modeling. Further, we propose strategies for connecting biochemical models of photosynthesis into the cross-scale modeling framework to support crop improvement through photosynthetic manipulation.

  8. Relay cropping as a sustainable approach: problems and opportunities for sustainable crop production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanveer, Mohsin; Anjum, Shakeel Ahmad; Hussain, Saddam; Cerdà, Artemi; Ashraf, Umair

    2017-03-01

    Climate change, soil degradation, and depletion of natural resources are becoming the most prominent challenges for crop productivity and environmental sustainability in modern agriculture. In the scenario of conventional farming system, limited chances are available to cope with these issues. Relay cropping is a method of multiple cropping where one crop is seeded into standing second crop well before harvesting of second crop. Relay cropping may solve a number of conflicts such as inefficient use of available resources, controversies in sowing time, fertilizer application, and soil degradation. Relay cropping is a complex suite of different resource-efficient technologies, which possesses the capability to improve soil quality, to increase net return, to increase land equivalent ratio, and to control the weeds and pest infestation. The current review emphasized relay cropping as a tool for crop diversification and environmental sustainability with special focus on soil. Briefly, benefits, constraints, and opportunities of relay cropping keeping the goals of higher crop productivity and sustainability have also been discussed in this review. The research and knowledge gap in relay cropping was also highlighted in order to guide the further studies in future.

  9. The Economics of Genetically Modified Crops

    OpenAIRE

    Matin Qaim

    2009-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops have been used commercially for more than 10 years. Available impact studies of insect-resistant and herbicide-tolerant crops show that these technologies are beneficial to farmers and consumers, producing large aggregate welfare gains as well as positive effects for the environment and human health. The advantages of future applications could even be much bigger. Given a conducive institutional framework, GM crops can contribute significantly to global food se...

  10. Ethics and Transgenic Crops: a Review

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Jonathan

    1999-01-01

    This article represents a review of some of the ethical dilemmas that have arisen as a result of the development and deployment of transgenic crop plants. The potential for transgenic crops to alleviate human hunger and the possible effects on human health are discussed. Risks and benefits to the environment resulting from genetic engineering of crops for resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses are considered, in addition to effects on biodiversity. The socio-economic impacts and distributi...

  11. Genetically Modified Crops and Food Security

    OpenAIRE

    Qaim, Matin; Kouser, Shahzad

    2013-01-01

    The role of genetically modified (GM) crops for food security is the subject of public controversy. GM crops could contribute to food production increases and higher food availability. There may also be impacts on food quality and nutrient composition. Finally, growing GM crops may influence farmers’ income and thus their economic access to food. Smallholder farmers make up a large proportion of the undernourished people worldwide. Our study focuses on this latter aspect and provides the firs...

  12. The spatial impact of genetically modified crops

    OpenAIRE

    MUNRO, Alistair

    2008-01-01

    Although genetically modified (GM) organisms have attracted a great deal of public attention, analysis of their economic impacts has been less common. It is, perhaps, spatial externalities where the divergence between efficient and unregulated outcomes is potentially largest, because the presence of transgenic crops may eliminate or severely reduce the planting of organic varieties and other crops where some consumers have a preference for non-GM crops. This paper constructs a simple model of...

  13. Saline water irrigation for crop production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, A R [Directorate of Water Management Research, Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), Walmi Complex, P.O. - Phulwari Sharif, Patna (India); [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Singh, S S; Singh, S R [Directorate of Water Management Research, Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), Walmi Complex, P.O. - Phulwari Sharif, Patna (India)

    2001-05-01

    Salinity is one of agriculture's most complex production problems. Excessive salts from irrigation water or high water tables can severely limit crop production. Years of saline water irrigation on poorly drained soils can eventually make economic crop production impossible. About 10% of all land are affected by salinity problems. They occur in every continent in different proportions, more frequently in arid and semi-arid areas. This paper discusses a range of problems related to use of saline water for crop irrigation.

  14. Saline water irrigation for crop production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.R.; Singh, S.S.; Singh, S.R.

    2001-05-01

    Salinity is one of agriculture's most complex production problems. Excessive salts from irrigation water or high water tables can severely limit crop production. Years of saline water irrigation on poorly drained soils can eventually make economic crop production impossible. About 10% of all land are affected by salinity problems. They occur in every continent in different proportions, more frequently in arid and semi-arid areas. This paper discusses a range of problems related to use of saline water for crop irrigation

  15. Statistical text classifier to detect specific type of medical incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Zoie Shui-Yee; Akiyama, Masanori

    2013-01-01

    WHO Patient Safety has put focus to increase the coherence and expressiveness of patient safety classification with the foundation of International Classification for Patient Safety (ICPS). Text classification and statistical approaches has showed to be successful to identifysafety problems in the Aviation industryusing incident text information. It has been challenging to comprehend the taxonomy of medical incidents in a structured manner. Independent reporting mechanisms for patient safety incidents have been established in the UK, Canada, Australia, Japan, Hong Kong etc. This research demonstrates the potential to construct statistical text classifiers to detect specific type of medical incidents using incident text data. An illustrative example for classifying look-alike sound-alike (LASA) medication incidents using structured text from 227 advisories related to medication errors from Global Patient Safety Alerts (GPSA) is shown in this poster presentation. The classifier was built using logistic regression model. ROC curve and the AUC value indicated that this is a satisfactory good model.

  16. Prevalence Incidence Mixture Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    The R package and webtool fits Prevalence Incidence Mixture models to left-censored and irregularly interval-censored time to event data that is commonly found in screening cohorts assembled from electronic health records. Absolute and relative risk can be estimated for simple random sampling, and stratified sampling (the two approaches of superpopulation and a finite population are supported for target populations). Non-parametric (absolute risks only), semi-parametric, weakly-parametric (using B-splines), and some fully parametric (such as the logistic-Weibull) models are supported.

  17. Remote Sensing and Cropping Practices: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnès Bégué

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available For agronomic, environmental, and economic reasons, the need for spatialized information about agricultural practices is expected to rapidly increase. In this context, we reviewed the literature on remote sensing for mapping cropping practices. The reviewed studies were grouped into three categories of practices: crop succession (crop rotation and fallowing, cropping pattern (single tree crop planting pattern, sequential cropping, and intercropping/agroforestry, and cropping techniques (irrigation, soil tillage, harvest and post-harvest practices, crop varieties, and agro-ecological infrastructures. We observed that the majority of the studies were exploratory investigations, tested on a local scale with a high dependence on ground data, and used only one type of remote sensing sensor. Furthermore, to be correctly implemented, most of the methods relied heavily on local knowledge on the management practices, the environment, and the biological material. These limitations point to future research directions, such as the use of land stratification, multi-sensor data combination, and expert knowledge-driven methods. Finally, the new spatial technologies, and particularly the Sentinel constellation, are expected to improve the monitoring of cropping practices in the challenging context of food security and better management of agro-environmental issues.

  18. Origins of food crops connect countries worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achicanoy, Harold A.; Bjorkman, Anne D.; Navarro-Racines, Carlos; Guarino, Luigi; Flores-Palacios, Ximena; Engels, Johannes M. M.; Wiersema, John H.; Dempewolf, Hannes; Sotelo, Steven; Ramírez-Villegas, Julian; Castañeda-Álvarez, Nora P.; Fowler, Cary; Jarvis, Andy; Rieseberg, Loren H.; Struik, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    Research into the origins of food plants has led to the recognition that specific geographical regions around the world have been of particular importance to the development of agricultural crops. Yet the relative contributions of these different regions in the context of current food systems have not been quantified. Here we determine the origins (‘primary regions of diversity’) of the crops comprising the food supplies and agricultural production of countries worldwide. We estimate the degree to which countries use crops from regions of diversity other than their own (‘foreign crops’), and quantify changes in this usage over the past 50 years. Countries are highly interconnected with regard to primary regions of diversity of the crops they cultivate and/or consume. Foreign crops are extensively used in food supplies (68.7% of national food supplies as a global mean are derived from foreign crops) and production systems (69.3% of crops grown are foreign). Foreign crop usage has increased significantly over the past 50 years, including in countries with high indigenous crop diversity. The results provide a novel perspective on the ongoing globalization of food systems worldwide, and bolster evidence for the importance of international collaboration on genetic resource conservation and exchange.

  19. Challenges Facing Crop Production And (Some) Potential Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnable, P. S.

    2017-12-01

    To overcome some of the myriad challenges facing sustainable crop production we are seeking to develop statistical models that will predict crop performance in diverse agronomic environments. Crop phenotypes such as yield and drought tolerance are controlled by genotype, environment (considered broadly) and their interaction (GxE). As a consequence of the next generation sequencing revolution genotyping data are now available for a wide diversity of accessions in each of the major crops. The necessary volumes of phenotypic data, however, remain limiting and our understanding of molecular basis of GxE is minimal. To address this limitation, we are collaborating with engineers to construct new sensors and robots to automatically collect large volumes of phenotypic data. Two types of high-throughput, high-resolution, field-based phenotyping systems and new sensors will be described. Some of these technologies will be introduced within the context of the Genomes to Fields Initiative. Progress towards developing predictive models will be briefly summarized. An administrative structure that fosters transdisciplinary collaborations will be briefly described.

  20. Tillage System and Cover Crop Effects on Soil Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdollahi, Lotfollah; Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    2014-01-01

    Information about the quantitative effect of conservation tillage combined with a cover crop on soil structure is still limited. This study examined the effect of these management practices on soil pore characteristics of a sandy loam soil in a long-term field trial. The tillage treatments (main...... plots) included direct drilling (D), harrowing to a depth of 8 to 10 cm (H), and moldboard plowing (MP). The cover crop treatments were subplot with cover crop (+CC) and without cover crop (−CC). Minimally disturbed soil cores were taken from the 4- to 8-, 12- to 16-, and 18- to 27-cm depth intervals...... in the spring of 2012 before cultivation. Soil water retention and air permeability were measured for matric potentials ranging from −1 to −30 kPa. Gas diffusivity was measured at −10 kPa. Computed tomography (CT) scanning was also used to characterize soil pore characteristics. At the 4- to 8- and 18- to 27-cm...

  1. [Crop geometry identification based on inversion of semiempirical BRDF models].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chun-jiang; Huang, Wen-jiang; Mu, Xu-han; Wang, Jin-diz; Wang, Ji-hua

    2009-09-01

    With the rapid development of remote sensing technology, the application of remote sensing has extended from single view angle to multi-view angles. It was studied for the qualitative and quantitative effect of average leaf angle (ALA) on crop canopy reflected spectrum. Effect of ALA on canopy reflected spectrum can not be ignored with inversion of leaf area index (LAI) and monitoring of crop growth condition by remote sensing technology. Investigations of the effect of erective and horizontal varieties were conducted by bidirectional canopy reflected spectrum and semiempirical bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) models. The sensitive analysis was done based on the weight for the volumetric kernel (fvol), the weight for the geometric kernel (fgeo), and the weight for constant corresponding to isotropic reflectance (fiso) at red band (680 nm) and near infrared band (800 nm). By combining the weights of the red and near-infrared bands, the semiempirical models can obtain structural information by retrieving biophysical parameters from the physical BRDF model and a number of bidirectional observations. So, it will allow an on-site and non-sampling mode of crop ALA identification, which is useful for using remote sensing for crop growth monitoring and for improving the LAI inversion accuracy, and it will help the farmers in guiding the fertilizer and irrigation management in the farmland without a priori knowledge.

  2. Improving freight crash incident management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the most effective way to mitigate the effect of freight : crash incidents on Louisiana freeways. Candidate incident management strategies were reviewed from : practice in other states and from those publi...

  3. 78 FR 70485 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Extra Long Staple Cotton Crop Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    ... planting period may be deemed appropriate and actuarially sound. No change has been made in the final rule... in the table for crops in the Crop Insurance Handbook (CIH). Response: The option for providing a...

  4. 78 FR 33690 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Pecan Crop Insurance Provisions; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ...-0008] RIN 0563-AC35 Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Pecan Crop Insurance Provisions; Correction... FR 13454-13460). The regulation pertains to the insurance of Pecans. DATES: Effective Date: June 5...: [[Page 33691

  5. Increasing incidence of pyogenic spondylodiscitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehrer, Michala; Pedersen, Court; Jensen, Thøger G

    2014-01-01

    Smaller studies indicate that the incidence of pyogenic spondylodiscitis is increasing, possible related to a growing elderly population. Data supporting this is sparse, and we therefore studied patient characteristics and changes in spondylodiscitis incidence 1995-2008.......Smaller studies indicate that the incidence of pyogenic spondylodiscitis is increasing, possible related to a growing elderly population. Data supporting this is sparse, and we therefore studied patient characteristics and changes in spondylodiscitis incidence 1995-2008....

  6. Incident Management: Process into Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Gayle; Moore, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Tornados, shootings, fires--these are emergencies that require fast action by school district personnel, but they are not the only incidents that require risk management. The authors have introduced the National Incident Management System (NIMS) and the Incident Command System (ICS) and assured that these systems can help educators plan for and…

  7. Topography Mediates the Influence of Cover Crops on Soil Nitrate Levels in Row Crop Agricultural Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ladoni, Moslem; Kravchenko, Alexandra N.; Robertson, G. Phillip

    2015-01-01

    Supplying adequate amounts of soil N for plant growth during the growing season and across large agricultural fields is a challenge for conservational agricultural systems with cover crops. Knowledge about cover crop effects on N comes mostly from small, flat research plots and performance of cover crops across topographically diverse agricultural land is poorly understood. Our objective was to assess effects of both leguminous (red clover) and non-leguminous (winter rye) cover crops on poten...

  8. Biomass supply from alternative cellulosic crops and crop residues: A spatially explicit bioeconomic modeling approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egbendewe-Mondzozo, Aklesso; Swinton, Scott M.; Izaurralde, César R.; Manowitz, David H.; Zhang, Xuesong

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a spatially-explicit bioeconomic model for the study of potential cellulosic biomass supply. For biomass crops to begin to replace current crops, farmers must earn more from them than from current crops. Using weather, topographic and soil data, the terrestrial ecosystem model, EPIC, dynamically simulates multiple cropping systems that vary by crop rotation, tillage, fertilization and residue removal rate. EPIC generates predicted crop yield and environmental outcomes over multiple watersheds. These EPIC results are used to parameterize a regional profit-maximization mathematical programming model that identifies profitable cropping system choices. The bioeconomic model is calibrated to 2007–09 crop production in a 9-county region of southwest Michigan. A simulation of biomass supply in response to rising biomass prices shows that cellulosic residues from corn stover and wheat straw begin to be supplied at minimum delivered biomass:corn grain price ratios of 0.15 and 0.18, respectively. At the mean corn price of $162.6/Mg ($4.13 per bushel) at commercial moisture content during 2007–2009, these ratios correspond to stover and straw prices of $24 and $29 per dry Mg. Perennial bioenergy crops begin to be supplied at price levels 2–3 times higher. Average biomass transport costs to the biorefinery plant range from $6 to $20/Mg compared to conventional crop production practices in the area, biomass supply from annual crop residues increased greenhouse gas emissions and reduced water quality through increased nutrient loss. By contrast, perennial cellulosic biomass crop production reduced greenhouse gas emissions and improved water quality. -- Highlights: ► A new bioeconomic model predicts biomass supply and its environmental impacts. ► The model captures the opportunity cost of switching to new cellulosic crops. ► Biomass from crop residues is supplied at lower biomass price than cellulosic crops. ► Biomass from cellulosic crops has

  9. Energy crops in rotation. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zegada-Lizarazu, Walter; Monti, Andrea [Department of Agroenvironmental Science and Technology, University of Bologna, Viale G. Fanin, 44 - 40127, Bologna (Italy)

    2011-01-15

    The area under energy crops has increased tenfold over the last 10 years, and there is large consensus that the demand for energy crops will further increase rapidly to cover several millions of hectares in the near future. Information about rotational systems and effects of energy crops should be therefore given top priority. Literature is poor and fragmentary on this topic, especially about rotations in which all crops are exclusively dedicated to energy end uses. Well-planned crop rotations, as compared to continuous monoculture systems, can be expected to reduce the dependence on external inputs through promoting nutrient cycling efficiency, effective use of natural resources, especially water, maintenance of the long-term productivity of the land, control of diseases and pests, and consequently increasing crop yields and sustainability of production systems. The result of all these advantages is widely known as crop sequencing effect, which is due to the additional and positive consequences on soil physical-chemical and biological properties arising from specific crops grown in the same field year after year. In this context, the present review discusses the potential of several rotations with energy crops and their possibilities of being included alongside traditional agriculture systems across different agro-climatic zones within the European Union. Possible rotations dedicated exclusively to the production of biomass for bioenergy are also discussed, as rotations including only energy crops could become common around bio-refineries or power plants. Such rotations, however, show some limitations related to the control of diseases and to the narrow range of available species with high production potential that could be included in a rotation of such characteristics. The information on best-known energy crops such as rapeseed (Brassica napus) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) suggests that conventional crops can benefit from the introduction of energy crops in

  10. Effect of Mixed Systems on Crop Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senturklu, Songul; Landblom, Douglas; Cihacek, Larry; Brevik, Eric

    2017-04-01

    The goals of this non-irrigated research has been to determine the effect of mixed systems integration on crop, soil, and beef cattle production in the northern Great Plains region of the United States. Over a 5-year period, growing spring wheat (HRSW-C) continuously year after year was compared to a 5-year crop rotation that included spring wheat (HRSW-R), cover crop (dual crop consisting of winter triticale/hairy vetch seeded in the fall and harvested for hay followed by a 7-species cover crop that was seeded in June after hay harvest), forage corn, field pea/barley, and sunflower. Control 5-year HRSW yield was 2690 kg/ha compared to 2757 kg/ha for HRSW grown in rotation. Available soil nitrogen (N) is often the most important limitation for crop production. Expensive fertilizer inputs were reduced in this study due to the mixed system's complementarity in which the rotation system that included beef cattle grazing sustained N availability and increased nutrient cycling, which had a positive effect on all crops grown in the rotation. Growing HRSW continuously requires less intensive management and in this research was 14.5% less profitable. Whereas, when crop management increased and complementing crops were grown in rotation to produce crops and provide feed for grazing livestock, soil nutrient cycling improved. Increased nutrient cycling increased crop rotation yields and yearling beef cattle steers that grazing annual forages in the rotation gain more body weight than similar steers grazing NGP native range. Results of this long-term research will be presented in a PICO format for participant discussion.

  11. Origin and Domestication of Native Amazonian Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doriane Picanço-Rodrigues

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular analyses are providing new elements to decipher the origin, domestication and dispersal of native Amazonian crops in an expanding archaeological context. Solid molecular data are available for manioc (Manihot esculenta, cacao (Theobroma cacao, pineapple (Ananas comosus, peach palm (Bactris gasipaes and guaraná (Paullinia cupana, while hot peppers (Capsicum spp., inga (Inga edulis, Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa and cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum are being studied. Emergent patterns include the relationships among domestication, antiquity (terminal Pleistocene to early Holocene, origin in the periphery, ample pre-Columbian dispersal and clear phylogeographic population structure for manioc, pineapple, peach palm and, perhaps, Capsicum peppers. Cacao represents the special case of an Amazonian species possibly brought into domestication in Mesoamerica, but close scrutiny of molecular data suggests that it may also have some incipiently domesticated populations in Amazonia. Another pattern includes the relationships among species with incipiently domesticated populations or very recently domesticated populations, rapid pre- or post-conquest dispersal and lack of phylogeographic population structure, e.g., Brazil nut, cupuassu and guaraná. These patterns contrast the peripheral origin of most species with domesticated populations with the subsequent concentration of their genetic resources in the center of the basin, along the major white water rivers where high pre-conquest population densities developed. Additional molecular genetic analyses on these and other species will allow better examination of these processes and will enable us to relate them to other historical ecological patterns in Amazonia.

  12. Globally Increased Crop Growth and Cropping Intensity from the Long-Term Satellite-Based Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin

    2018-04-01

    Understanding the spatiotemporal change trend of global crop growth and multiple cropping system under climate change scenarios is a critical requirement for supporting the food security issue that maintains the function of human society. Many studies have predicted the effects of climate changes on crop production using a combination of filed studies and models, but there has been limited evidence relating decadal-scale climate change to global crop growth and the spatiotemporal distribution of multiple cropping system. Using long-term satellite-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and observed climate data from 1982 to 2012, we investigated the crop growth trend, spatiotemporal pattern trend of agricultural cropping intensity, and their potential correlations with respect to the climate change drivers at a global scale. Results show that 82.97 % of global cropland maximum NDVI witnesses an increased trend while 17.03 % of that shows a decreased trend over the past three decades. The spatial distribution of multiple cropping system is observed to expand from lower latitude to higher latitude, and the increased cropping intensity is also witnessed globally. In terms of regional major crop zones, results show that all nine selected zones have an obvious upward trend of crop maximum NDVI (p impact on the crop growth trend.

  13. Will breeding for nitrogen use efficient crops lead to nitrogen use efficient cropping systems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dresbøll, Dorte Bodin; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of improving nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in crops are typically studied through the performance of the individual crop. However, in order to increase yields in a sustainable way, improving NUE of the cropping systems must be the aim. We did a model simulation study to investigate h...

  14. Crop to wild introgression in lettuce: following the fate of crop genome segments in backcross populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uwimana, B.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Hooftman, D.A.P.; Hartman, Y.; van Tienderen, P.H.; Jansen, J.; McHale, L.K.; Michelmore, R.W.; Visser, R.G.F.; van de Wiel, C.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: After crop-wild hybridization, some of the crop genomic segments may become established in wild populations through selfing of the hybrids or through backcrosses to the wild parent. This constitutes a possible route through which crop (trans)genes could become established in natural

  15. Crop to wild introgression in lettuce: following the fate of crop genome segments in backcross populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uwimana, B.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Hooftman, D.A.P.; Hartman, Y.; Tienderen, van P.H.; Jansen, J.; McHale, L.K.; Michelmore, R.; Visser, R.G.F.; Wiel, van de C.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    After crop-wild hybridization, some of the crop genomic segments may become established in wild populations through selfing of the hybrids or through backcrosses to the wild parent. This constitutes a possible route through which crop (trans)genes could become established in natural populations. The

  16. GLOBALLY INCREASED CROP GROWTH AND CROPPING INTENSITY FROM THE LONG-TERM SATELLITE-BASED OBSERVATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Chen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the spatiotemporal change trend of global crop growth and multiple cropping system under climate change scenarios is a critical requirement for supporting the food security issue that maintains the function of human society. Many studies have predicted the effects of climate changes on crop production using a combination of filed studies and models, but there has been limited evidence relating decadal-scale climate change to global crop growth and the spatiotemporal distribution of multiple cropping system. Using long-term satellite-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and observed climate data from 1982 to 2012, we investigated the crop growth trend, spatiotemporal pattern trend of agricultural cropping intensity, and their potential correlations with respect to the climate change drivers at a global scale. Results show that 82.97 % of global cropland maximum NDVI witnesses an increased trend while 17.03 % of that shows a decreased trend over the past three decades. The spatial distribution of multiple cropping system is observed to expand from lower latitude to higher latitude, and the increased cropping intensity is also witnessed globally. In terms of regional major crop zones, results show that all nine selected zones have an obvious upward trend of crop maximum NDVI (p < 0.001, and as for climatic drivers, the gradual temperature and precipitation changes have had a measurable impact on the crop growth trend.

  17. Assessing climate change effects on European crop yields using the Crop Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Supit, I.; Diepen, van C.A.; Wit, de A.J.W.; Wolf, J.; Kabat, P.; Baruth, B.; Ludwig, F.

    2012-01-01

    Climate change impacts on potential and rainfed crop yields on the European continent were studied using output of three General Circulation Models and the Crop Growth Monitoring System in combination with a weather generator. Climate change impacts differ per crop type and per CO2 emission

  18. Sweet potato weevil (Cylas formicarius) incidence in the humid lowlands of Papua New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Powell, K.S.; Hartemink, A.E.; Eganae, J.F.; Walo, C.; Poloma, S.

    2001-01-01

    Sweet potato is the main staple crop in PNG and this paper presents a study from the humid lowlands of the Morobe Province. Three experiments were carried out at two locations (Hobu and Unitech) to evaluate the effect of inorganic fertiliser inputs and fallow vegetation on the incidence of sweet

  19. How are arbuscular mycorrhizal associations related to maize growth performance during short-term cover crop rotation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higo, Masao; Takahashi, Yuichi; Gunji, Kento; Isobe, Katsunori

    2018-03-01

    Better cover crop management options aiming to maximize the benefits of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) to subsequent crops are largely unknown. We investigated the impact of cover crop management methods on maize growth performance and assemblages of AMF colonizing maize roots in a field trial. The cover crop treatments comprised Italian ryegrass, wheat, brown mustard and fallow in rotation with maize. The diversity of AMF communities among cover crops used for maize management was significantly influenced by the cover crop and time course. Cover crops did not affect grain yield and aboveground biomass of subsequent maize but affected early growth. A structural equation model indicated that the root colonization, AMF diversity and maize phosphorus uptake had direct strong positive effects on yield performance. AMF variables and maize performance were related directly or indirectly to maize grain yield, whereas root colonization had a positive effect on maize performance. AMF may be an essential factor that determines the success of cover crop rotational systems. Encouraging AMF associations can potentially benefit cover cropping systems. Therefore, it is imperative to consider AMF associations and crop phenology when making management decisions. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Grazing incidence beam expander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkapeddi, P.R.; Glenn, P.; Fuschetto, A.; Appert, Q.; Viswanathan, V.K.

    1985-01-01

    A Grazing Incidence Beam Expander (GIBE) telescope is being designed and fabricated to be used as an equivalent end mirror in a long laser resonator cavity. The design requirements for this GIBE flow down from a generic Free Electron Laser (FEL) resonator. The nature of the FEL gain volume (a thin, pencil-like, on-axis region) dictates that the output beam be very small. Such a thin beam with the high power levels characteristic of FELs would have to travel perhaps hundreds of meters or more before expanding enough to allow reflection from cooled mirrors. A GIBE, on the other hand, would allow placing these optics closer to the gain region and thus reduces the cavity lengths substantially. Results are presented relating to optical and mechanical design, alignment sensitivity analysis, radius of curvature analysis, laser cavity stability analysis of a linear stable concentric laser cavity with a GIBE. Fabrication details of the GIBE are also given.

  1. Engineering insect-resistant crops: A review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dgeorge

    African Journal of Biotechnology ... Transgenic crops engineered for enhanced levels of resistance to insect ... this background that research work targeting other candidate genes such as ... nisms, and potential deleterious environmental effects. ... The global market value of biotech crops was esti- .... located in repeat 11.

  2. Leaf wetness distribution within a potato crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusinkveld, B. G.

    2010-07-01

    The Netherlands has a mild maritime climate and therefore the major interest in leaf wetness is associated with foliar plant diseases. During moist micrometeorological conditions (i.e. dew, fog, rain), foliar fungal diseases may develop quickly and thereby destroy a crop quickly. Potato crop monocultures covering several hectares are especially vulnerable to such diseases. Therefore understanding and predicting leaf wetness in potato crops is crucial in crop disease control strategies. A field experiment was carried out in a large homogeneous potato crop in the Netherlands during the growing season of 2008. Two innovative sensor networks were installed as a 3 by 3 grid at 3 heights covering an area of about 2 hectares within two larger potato crops. One crop was located on a sandy soil and one crop on a sandy peat soil. In most cases leaf wetting starts in the top layer and then progresses downward. Leaf drying takes place in the same order after sunrise. A canopy dew simulation model was applied to simulate spatial leaf wetness distribution. The dew model is based on an energy balance model. The model can be run using information on the above-canopy wind speed, air temperature, humidity, net radiation and within canopy air temperature, humidity and soil moisture content and temperature conditions. Rainfall was accounted for by applying an interception model. The results of the dew model agreed well with the leaf wetness sensors if all local conditions were considered. The measurements show that the spatial correlation of leaf wetness decreases downward.

  3. Analysis of yield advantage in mixed cropping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranganathan, R.

    1993-01-01

    It has long been recognized that mixed cropping can give yield advantages over sole cropping, but methods that can identify such yield benefits are still being developed. This thesis presents a method that combines physiological and economic principles in the evaluation of yield advantage.

  4. Crop yield response to increasing biochar rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The benefit or detriment to crop yield from biochar application varies with biochar type/rate, soil, crop, or climate. The objective of this research was to identify yield response of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), corn (Zea mayes L.), and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) to hardwood biochar applied at...

  5. Engineering Sclerotinia Sclerotiorum Resistance in Oilseed Crops ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary is worldwide in distribution and pathogenic to more than 400 plant species. This disease causes significant yield losses of various important crops including sunflower, canola, and soybean. Applying fungicides and crop rotation are currently the major methods of ...

  6. Effects of cropping systems on soil biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The need for fertilizer use to enhance soil nutrient pools to achieve good crop yield is essential to modern agriculture. Specific management practices, including cover cropping, that increase the activities of soil microorganisms to fix N and mobilize P and micronutrients may reduce annual inputs ...

  7. Soil water evaporation and crop residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crop residues have value when left in the field and also when removed from the field and sold as a commodity. Reducing soil water evaporation (E) is one of the benefits of leaving crop residues in place. E was measured beneath a corn canopy at the soil suface with nearly full coverage by corn stover...

  8. Improving selenium nutritional value of major crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micronutrient efficiency and development of nutrient-dense crops continue to be one of the most important global challenges. Se is an essential micronutrient to humans and serves as a cancer preventative agent. In order to improve Se nutritional and health promoting values in food crops, a better un...

  9. Sustainable production of grain crops for biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grain crops of the Gramineae are grown for their edible, starchy seeds. Their grain is used directly for human food, livestock feed, and as raw material for many industries, including biofuels. Using grain crops for non-food uses affects the amount of food available to the world. Grain-based biofuel...

  10. Kenaf and cowpea as sugarcane cover crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of cover crops during the fallow period prior to planting sugarcane has the potential to influence not only the following sugarcane crop, but the economics of the production system as a whole. Typically, a Louisiana sugarcane field is replanted every four years due to declining yields, and,...

  11. Mathematical analysis and simulation of crop micrometeorology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, J.

    1984-01-01

    In crop micrometeorology the transfer of radiation, momentum, heat and mass to or from a crop canopy is studied. Simulation models for these processes do exist but are not easy to handle because of their complexity and the long computing time they need. Moreover, up to now such models can

  12. Cover crop and CO2 emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural land management practices account for about 50% of soil organic carbon (SOC) loss. Restoring SOC is important to soil productivity and fertility. Management strategies to rebuild SOC include addition of manure or other organic amendments, increasing root biomass from crops, leaving crop...

  13. Emerging Viral Diseases of Tomato Crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanssen, I.M.; Lapidot, M.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Viral diseases are an important limiting factor in many crop production systems. Because antiviral products are not available, control strategies rely on genetic resistance or hygienic measures to prevent viral diseases, or on eradication of diseased crops to control such diseases. Increasing

  14. Characterizing pesticide dissipation in food crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Juraske, R.; Jolliet, O.

    2013-01-01

    Ingestion of residues via consumption of food crops is the predominant exposure route of the general population toward pesticides. However, pesticide dissipation in crops constitutes a main source of uncertainty in estimating residues in harvested crop parts and subsequent human exposure. Neverth......Ingestion of residues via consumption of food crops is the predominant exposure route of the general population toward pesticides. However, pesticide dissipation in crops constitutes a main source of uncertainty in estimating residues in harvested crop parts and subsequent human exposure....... Nevertheless, dissipation is a key mechanism in models assessing pesticide distribution in the cropenvironment and the magnitude of residues in harvest. We provide a consistent framework for characterizing pesticide dissipation in food crops for use in modeling approaches applied in health risk and impact...... degradation is dominating. We are currently testing the regression to predict degradation half-lives in crops. By providing mean degradation half-lives at 20°C for more than 300 pesticides, we reduce uncertainty and improve assumptions in current practice of health risk and impact assessments....

  15. Cotton genetic resources and crop vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    A report on the genetic vulnerability of cotton was provided to the National Genetic Resources Advisory Council. The report discussed crop vulnerabilities associated with emerging diseases, emerging pests, and a narrowing genetic base. To address these crop vulnerabilities, the report discussed the ...

  16. Putting mechanisms into crop production models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boote, Kenneth J; Jones, James W; White, Jeffrey W; Asseng, Senthold; Lizaso, Jon I

    2013-09-01

    Crop growth models dynamically simulate processes of C, N and water balance on daily or hourly time-steps to predict crop growth and development and at season-end, final yield. Their ability to integrate effects of genetics, environment and crop management have led to applications ranging from understanding gene function to predicting potential impacts of climate change. The history of crop models is reviewed briefly, and their level of mechanistic detail for assimilation and respiration, ranging from hourly leaf-to-canopy assimilation to daily radiation-use efficiency is discussed. Crop models have improved steadily over the past 30-40 years, but much work remains. Improvements are needed for the prediction of transpiration response to elevated CO₂ and high temperature effects on phenology and reproductive fertility, and simulation of root growth and nutrient uptake under stressful edaphic conditions. Mechanistic improvements are needed to better connect crop growth to genetics and to soil fertility, soil waterlogging and pest damage. Because crop models integrate multiple processes and consider impacts of environment and management, they have excellent potential for linking research from genomics and allied disciplines to crop responses at the field scale, thus providing a valuable tool for deciphering genotype by environment by management effects. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Optimization of the cropping pattern in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Osama

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Continuous increase of population in Egypt, limited fresh water, poor maintenance and low efficiency of irrigation systems lead to a real burden on the Egyptian natural water resources. Accordingly, for Egypt, land and water resources management is considered an absolutely strategic priority. In this study, a linear optimization model is developed to maximize the net annual return from the three old regions of Egypt. Data for 28 crops in five years from 2008 to 2012 are being analyzed. The spatial variations of crops, irrigation water needs, crop yields and food requirements are incorporated in the model. The results show that there is a significant reduction in the allocated areas for onion, garlic, barley, flax, fenugreek, chickpeas, lentil and lupine since they are considered as non-strategic crops. On the other side, the allocated areas for strategic crops such as wheat, maize, clover, rice, sugar products and cotton remained almost the same to satisfy their actual food requirements. However, crops with high net returns such as tomatoes have increased substantially. The trend for the gross net benefit is decreasing and is expected to reach a lower value in year 2017. Different approaches and scenarios are analyzed. The developed model proposes a change in the cropping pattern in the old lands of Egypt to increase the gross net return without adding further any other expenses. Keywords: Cropping pattern, Linear programming, Net return, Optimization

  18. 7 CFR 457.166 - Blueberry crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Blueberry crop insurance provisions. 457.166 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.166 Blueberry crop insurance provisions. The Blueberry Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2005 and succeeding crop years are as follows...

  19. Danish farmer’s perception of GM-crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Janus; Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Gylling, Morten

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a study of 185 farmer’s perception of GM-crops in Denmark. The respondent’s attitude to GM-crops mainly reflects a conservative view of the adoption of GM-crops. Among farmers only the exciting crops in rotation is seen as their future potential GM-crops. Findings from...

  20. A bioenergy feedstock/vegetable double-cropping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certain warm-season vegetable crops may lend themselves to bioenergy double-cropping systems, which involve growing a winter annual bioenergy feedstock crop followed by a summer annual crop. The objective of the study was to compare crop productivity and weed communities in different pumpkin product...

  1. Strategies for Improving Enterprise Standardization Management of Tropical Crop Machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ There are two categories of tropical crop machinery. One comprises operation machinery that is used for planting, managing and harvesting tropical crops, while the other comprises process machinery for processing tropical crops. Tropical crop machinery is distinguished from other agricultural machinery by the special crops that such machinery cultivates and processes.

  2. 7 CFR 457.123 - Almond crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Almond crop insurance provisions. 457.123 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.123 Almond crop insurance provisions. The Almond Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2008 and succeeding crop years are as follows: FCIC...

  3. 7 CFR 457.162 - Nursery crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nursery crop insurance provisions. 457.162 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.162 Nursery crop insurance provisions. The Nursery Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2006 and succeeding crop years are as follows: FCIC...

  4. Impacts on Water Management and Crop Production of Regional Cropping System Adaptation to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, H.; Sun, L.; Tian, Z.; Liang, Z.; Fischer, G.

    2014-12-01

    China is one of the most populous and fast developing countries, also faces a great pressure on grain production and food security. Multi-cropping system is widely applied in China to fully utilize agro-climatic resources and increase land productivity. As the heat resource keep improving under climate warming, multi-cropping system will also shifting northward, and benefit crop production. But water shortage in North China Plain will constrain the adoption of new multi-cropping system. Effectiveness of multi-cropping system adaptation to climate change will greatly depend on future hydrological change and agriculture water management. So it is necessary to quantitatively express the water demand of different multi-cropping systems under climate change. In this paper, we proposed an integrated climate-cropping system-crops adaptation framework, and specifically focused on: 1) precipitation and hydrological change under future climate change in China; 2) the best multi-cropping system and correspondent crop rotation sequence, and water demand under future agro-climatic resources; 3) attainable crop production with water constraint; and 4) future water management. In order to obtain climate projection and precipitation distribution, global climate change scenario from HADCAM3 is downscaled with regional climate model (PRECIS), historical climate data (1960-1990) was interpolated from more than 700 meteorological observation stations. The regional Agro-ecological Zone (AEZ) model is applied to simulate the best multi-cropping system and crop rotation sequence under projected climate change scenario. Finally, we use the site process-based DSSAT model to estimate attainable crop production and the water deficiency. Our findings indicate that annual land productivity may increase and China can gain benefit from climate change if multi-cropping system would be adopted. This study provides a macro-scale view of agriculture adaptation, and gives suggestions to national

  5. Integrating incident investigation into the management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, E.E.

    1992-01-01

    In the last 10 yr, the size and frequency of incidents affecting the communities and environment surrounding chemical processing facilities has increased. The chemical process industry, which has always concerned itself with the safety of its facilities, has responded by committing to stricter standards of operation and management. A critical element of these management practices is the use of a structured incident investigation program. Many facilities have implemented and disciplined themselves to perform good investigation of incidents. However, most of these facilities maintain incident investigation as part of their safety management programs. This allows the process to be disconnected from the management system that deals with the day-to-day business of the facility. The first step of integration is understanding the objectives and functions of the management system into which the integration is to occur. To begin, a common definition of management is needed. Management, for the purposes of this discussion, is defined as the system of activities used to control, coordinate, and improve the flow of work within a facility or organization. This definition refers to several concepts that need further development in order to understand how incident investigation can be integrated into a management system, including (a) flow of work, (b) control, and (c) improvement. Application can be made to the nuclear industry

  6. Use of composts to improve soil properties and crop productivity under low input agricultural system in West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouédraogo, E.; Mando, A.; Zombré, N.P.

    2000-01-01

    Lack of adequate nutrient supply and poor soil structure are the principal constraints to crop production under low input agriculture systems of West Africa. Experiments at two sites (Mediga and Yimtenga) were conducted in Burkina Faso to assess the impact of compost on improving crop production and

  7. Reproducibility of crop surface maps extracted from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) derived digital surface maps

    KAUST Repository

    Parkes, Stephen

    2016-10-25

    Crop height measured from UAVs fitted with commercially available RGB cameras provide an affordable alternative to retrieve field scale high resolution estimates. The study presents an assessment of between flight reproducibility of Crop Surface Maps (CSM) extracted from Digital Surface Maps (DSM) generated by Structure from Motion (SfM) algorithms. Flights were conducted over a centre pivot irrigation system covered with an alfalfa crop. An important step in calculating the absolute crop height from the UAV derived DSM is determining the height of the underlying terrain. Here we use automatic thresholding techniques applied to RGB vegetation index maps to classify vegetated and soil pixels. From interpolation of classified soil pixels, a terrain map is calculated and subtracted from the DSM. The influence of three different thresholding techniques on CSMs are investigated. Median Alfalfa crop heights determined with the different thresholding methods varied from 18cm for K means thresholding to 13cm for Otsu thresholding methods. Otsu thresholding also gave the smallest range of crop heights and K means thresholding the largest. Reproducibility of median crop heights between flight surveys was 4-6cm for all thresholding techniques. For the flight conducted later in the afternoon shadowing caused soil pixels to be classified as vegetation in key locations around the domain, leading to lower crop height estimates. The range of crop heights was similar for both flights using K means thresholding (35-36cm), local minimum thresholding depended on whether raw or normalised RGB intensities were used to calculate vegetation indices (30-35cm), while Otsu thresholding had a smaller range of heights and varied most between flights (26-30cm). This study showed that crop heights from multiple survey flights are comparable, however, they were dependent on the thresholding method applied to classify soil pixels and the time of day the flight was conducted.

  8. Reproducibility of crop surface maps extracted from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) derived digital surface maps

    KAUST Repository

    Parkes, Stephen; McCabe, Matthew; Al-Mashhawari, Samir K.; Rosas, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Crop height measured from UAVs fitted with commercially available RGB cameras provide an affordable alternative to retrieve field scale high resolution estimates. The study presents an assessment of between flight reproducibility of Crop Surface Maps (CSM) extracted from Digital Surface Maps (DSM) generated by Structure from Motion (SfM) algorithms. Flights were conducted over a centre pivot irrigation system covered with an alfalfa crop. An important step in calculating the absolute crop height from the UAV derived DSM is determining the height of the underlying terrain. Here we use automatic thresholding techniques applied to RGB vegetation index maps to classify vegetated and soil pixels. From interpolation of classified soil pixels, a terrain map is calculated and subtracted from the DSM. The influence of three different thresholding techniques on CSMs are investigated. Median Alfalfa crop heights determined with the different thresholding methods varied from 18cm for K means thresholding to 13cm for Otsu thresholding methods. Otsu thresholding also gave the smallest range of crop heights and K means thresholding the largest. Reproducibility of median crop heights between flight surveys was 4-6cm for all thresholding techniques. For the flight conducted later in the afternoon shadowing caused soil pixels to be classified as vegetation in key locations around the domain, leading to lower crop height estimates. The range of crop heights was similar for both flights using K means thresholding (35-36cm), local minimum thresholding depended on whether raw or normalised RGB intensities were used to calculate vegetation indices (30-35cm), while Otsu thresholding had a smaller range of heights and varied most between flights (26-30cm). This study showed that crop heights from multiple survey flights are comparable, however, they were dependent on the thresholding method applied to classify soil pixels and the time of day the flight was conducted.

  9. Switchgrass a valuable biomass crop for energy

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The demand of renewable energies is growing steadily both from policy and from industry which seeks environmentally friendly feed stocks. The recent policies enacted by the EU, USA and other industrialized countries foresee an increased interest in the cultivation of energy crops; there is clear evidence that switchgrass is one of the most promising biomass crop for energy production and bio-based economy and compounds. Switchgrass: A Valuable Biomass Crop for Energy provides a comprehensive guide to  switchgrass in terms of agricultural practices, potential use and markets, and environmental and social benefits. Considering this potential energy source from its biology, breed and crop physiology to its growth and management to the economical, social and environmental impacts, Switchgrass: A Valuable Biomass Crop for Energy brings together chapters from a range of experts in the field, including a foreword from Kenneth P. Vogel, to collect and present the environmental benefits and characteristics of this a ...

  10. Biodiversity, evolution and adaptation of cultivated crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigouroux, Yves; Barnaud, Adeline; Scarcelli, Nora; Thuillet, Anne-Céline

    2011-05-01

    The human diet depends on very few crops. Current diversity in these crops is the result of a long interaction between farmers and cultivated plants, and their environment. Man largely shaped crop biodiversity from the domestication period 12,000 B.P. to the development of improved varieties during the last century. We illustrate this process through a detailed analysis of the domestication and early diffusion of maize. In smallholder agricultural systems, farmers still have a major impact on crop diversity today. We review several examples of the major impact of man on current diversity. Finally, biodiversity is considered to be an asset for adaptation to current environmental changes. We describe the evolution of pearl millet in West Africa, where average rainfall has decreased over the last forty years. Diversity in cultivated varieties has certainly helped this crop to adapt to climate variation. Copyright © 2011 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Automatic crop row detection from UAV images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtiby, Henrik; Rasmussen, Jesper

    are considered weeds. We have used a Sugar beet field as a case for evaluating the proposed crop detection method. The suggested image processing consists of: 1) locating vegetation regions in the image by thresholding the excess green image derived from the orig- inal image, 2) calculate the Hough transform......Images from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles can provide information about the weed distribution in fields. A direct way is to quantify the amount of vegetation present in different areas of the field. The limitation of this approach is that it includes both crops and weeds in the reported num- bers. To get...... of the segmented image 3) determine the dominating crop row direction by analysing output from the Hough transform and 4) use the found crop row direction to locate crop rows....

  12. Crop insurance: Risks and models of insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of crop protection is very important because of a variety of risks that could cause difficult consequences. One type of risk protection is insurance. The author in the paper states various models of insurance in some EU countries and the systems of subsidizing of insurance premiums by state. The author also gives a picture of crop insurance in the U.S., noting that in this country pays great attention to this matter. As for crop insurance in Serbia, it is not at a high level. The main problem with crop insurance is not only the risks but also the way of protection through insurance. The basic question that arises not only in the EU is the question is who will insure and protect crops. There are three possibilities: insurance companies under state control, insurance companies that are public-private partnerships or private insurance companies on a purely commercial basis.

  13. Energy crops for biogas plants. Lower Saxony; Energiepflanzen fuer Biogasanlagen. Niedersachsen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurbacher, J.; Benke, M.; Formowitz, B. (and others)

    2012-06-15

    In the brochure under consideration the Agency for Renewable Resources (Guelzow-Pruezen, Federal Republic of Germany) reports on the support of the implementation of different plant cultures in structure of plantations and crop rotation systems of companies under consideration of the Federal State Lower Saxony. The main chapters of this brochure are: Crops for the production of biogas; implementation in plantations; ensilage and biogas yields; economy of the cultivation of energy plants.

  14. Productivity and profitability of maize-pumpkin mix cropping in Chitwan, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Shiva Chandra Dhakal; Punya Prasad Regmi; Resham Bahadur Thapa; Shrawan Kumar Sah; Dilli Bahadur Khatri-Chhetri

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine the productivity, profitability and resource use efficiency of maize-pumpkin mix crop production in Chitwan. The study used 53 maize-pumpkin mix crop adopting farmers from among 300 farmers adopting different pollinator friendly practices. Descriptive and statistical tools including Cobb-Douglas production function were used to analyze data, collected from structured interview schedule. The benefit cost ratio (1.58) indicates that maize-pumpkin mix croppin...

  15. Benefits of seasonal forecasts of crop yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, G.; Okada, M.; Nishimori, M.; Yokozawa, M.

    2017-12-01

    Major factors behind recent fluctuations in food prices include increased biofuel production and oil price fluctuations. In addition, several extreme climate events that reduced worldwide food production coincided with upward spikes in food prices. The stabilization of crop yields is one of the most important tasks to stabilize food prices and thereby enhance food security. Recent development of technologies related to crop modeling and seasonal weather forecasting has made it possible to forecast future crop yields for maize and soybean. However, the effective use of these technologies remains limited. Here we present the potential benefits of seasonal crop-yield forecasts on a global scale for choice of planting day. For this purpose, we used a model (PRYSBI-2) that can well replicate past crop yields both for maize and soybean. This model system uses a Bayesian statistical approach to estimate the parameters of a basic process-based model of crop growth. The spatial variability of model parameters was considered by estimating the posterior distribution of the parameters from historical yield data by using the Markov-chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method with a resolution of 1.125° × 1.125°. The posterior distributions of model parameters were estimated for each spatial grid with 30 000 MCMC steps of 10 chains each. By using this model and the estimated parameter distributions, we were able to estimate not only crop yield but also levels of associated uncertainty. We found that the global average crop yield increased about 30% as the result of the optimal selection of planting day and that the seasonal forecast of crop yield had a large benefit in and near the eastern part of Brazil and India for maize and the northern area of China for soybean. In these countries, the effects of El Niño and Indian Ocean dipole are large. The results highlight the importance of developing a system to forecast global crop yields.

  16. Embodied crop calories in animal products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, Prajal; Lüdeke, Matthias K B; Reusser, Dominik E; Kropp, Jürgen P

    2013-01-01

    Increases in animal products consumption and the associated environmental consequences have been a matter of scientific debate for decades. Consequences of such increases include rises in greenhouse gas emissions, growth of consumptive water use, and perturbation of global nutrients cycles. These consequences vary spatially depending on livestock types, their densities and their production system. In this letter, we investigate the spatial distribution of embodied crop calories in animal products. On a global scale, about 40% of the global crop calories are used as livestock feed (we refer to this ratio as crop balance for livestock) and about 4 kcal of crop products are used to generate 1 kcal of animal products (embodied crop calories of around 4). However, these values vary greatly around the world. In some regions, more than 100% of the crops produced is required to feed livestock requiring national or international trade to meet the deficit in livestock feed. Embodied crop calories vary between less than 1 for 20% of the livestock raising areas worldwide and greater than 10 for another 20% of the regions. Low values of embodied crop calories are related to production systems for ruminants based on fodder and forage, while large values are usually associated with production systems for non-ruminants fed on crop products. Additionally, we project the future feed demand considering three scenarios: (a) population growth, (b) population growth and changes in human dietary patterns and (c) changes in population, dietary patterns and feed conversion efficiency. When considering dietary changes, we project the global feed demand to be almost doubled (1.8–2.3 times) by 2050 compared to 2000, which would force us to produce almost equal or even more crops to raise our livestock than to directly nourish ourselves in the future. Feed demand is expected to increase over proportionally in Africa, South-Eastern Asia and Southern Asia, putting additional stress on

  17. Crop residue harvest for bioenergy production and its implications on soil functioning and plant growth: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Roberto Cherubin

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The use of crop residues as a bioenergy feedstock is considered a potential strategy to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. However, indiscriminate harvesting of crop residues can induce deleterious effects on soil functioning, plant growth and other ecosystem services. Here, we have summarized the information available in the literature to identify and discuss the main trade-offs and synergisms involved in crop residue management for bioenergy production. The data consistently showed that crop residue harvest and the consequent lower input of organic matter into the soil led to C storage depletions over time, reducing cycling, supply and availability of soil nutrients, directly affecting the soil biota. Although the biota regulates key functions in the soil, crop residue can also cause proliferation of some important agricultural pests. In addition, crop residues act as physical barriers that protect the soil against raindrop impact and temperature variations. Therefore, intensive crop residue harvest can cause soil structure degradation, leading to soil compaction and increased risks of erosion. With regard to GHG emissions, there is no consensus about the potential impact of management of crop residue harvest. In general, residue harvest decreases CO2 and N2O emissions from the decomposition process, but it has no significant effect on CH4 emissions. Plant growth responses to soil and microclimate changes due to crop residue harvest are site and crop specific. Adoption of the best management practices can mitigate the adverse impacts of crop residue harvest. Longterm experiments within strategic production regions are essential to understand and monitor the impact of integrated agricultural systems and propose customized solutions for sustainable crop residue management in each region or landscape. Furthermore, private and public investments/cooperations are necessary for a better understanding of the potential environmental

  18. Assessment of recent outbreaks of Dickeya sp (syn. Erwinia chrysanthemi) slow wilt in potato crops in Israel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsror, L.; Erlich, O.; Lebiush, S.; Hazanovsky, M.; Zig, U.; Slawiak, M.; Grabe, G.; Wolf, van der J.M.; Haar, van de J.J.

    2009-01-01

    Suspected Dickeya sp. strains were obtained from potato plants and tubers collected from commercial plots. The disease was observed on crops of various cultivars grown from seed tubers imported from the Netherlands during the spring seasons of 2004-2006, with disease incidence of 2-30% ( 10% in

  19. Effect of weather data aggregation on regional crop simulation for different crops, production conditions, and response variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Gang; Hoffmann, Holger; Bussel, Van L.G.J.; Enders, Andreas; Specka, Xenia; Sosa, Carmen; Yeluripati, Jagadeesh; Tao, Fulu; Constantin, Julie; Raynal, Helene; Teixeira, Edmar; Grosz, Balázs; Doro, Luca; Zhao, Zhigan; Nendel, Claas; Kiese, Ralf; Eckersten, Henrik; Haas, Edwin; Vanuytrecht, Eline; Wang, Enli; Kuhnert, Matthias; Trombi, Giacomo; Moriondo, Marco; Bindi, Marco; Lewan, Elisabet; Bach, Michaela; Kersebaum, Kurt Christian; Rötter, Reimund; Roggero, Pier Paolo; Wallach, Daniel; Cammarano, Davide; Asseng, Senthold; Krauss, Gunther; Siebert, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the weather data aggregation effect (DAE) on the simulation of cropping systems for different crops, response variables, and production conditions. Using 13 processbased crop models and the ensemble mean, we simulated 30 yr continuous cropping systems for 2 crops (winter wheat and

  20. Summary of Auger-Related Entanglement Incidents Occurring Inside Agricultural Confined Spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Y H; Field, W E

    2016-04-01

    when the victim stepped into an unguarded opening or well in the floor of the confined space. The primary reason identified as to why workers were exposed to energized augers in the cases documented was to assist in the removal of residual or out-of-condition grain. The large number of cases involving augers on top-unloading silo unloaders (36) was not anticipated. Silo unloaders also accounted for the largest number of documented fatalities (15). This analysis is the first known attempt to provide a better understanding of the frequency, severity, and causative factors of these incidents. Those key causative factors were found to be: (1) lack of or inadequate guarding, (2) unintentional energizing of components due to a lack of lockout/tagout training and provisions, and (3) exposure of untrained or inexperienced workers to energized and unguarded components during procedures to remove residual grain or other agricultural crops from storage structures. It is hoped that the results and recommendations presented will raise awareness of the hazards related to using energized equipment in confined spaces as well as contribute to development of new evidenced-based educational resources, engineering safety standards, and workplace safety regulations.

  1. Structuralism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piaget, Jean

    Provided is an overview of the analytical method known as structuralism. The first chapter discusses the three key components of the concept of a structure: the view of a system as a whole instead of so many parts; the study of the transformations in the system; and the fact that these transformations never lead beyond the system but always…

  2. Spatio-temporal Eigenvector Filtering: Application on Bioenergy Crop Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M.; Kamarianakis, Y.; Georgescu, M.

    2017-12-01

    A suite of 10-year ensemble-based simulations was conducted to investigate the hydroclimatic impacts due to large-scale deployment of perennial bioenergy crops across the continental United States. Given the large size of the simulated dataset (about 60Tb), traditional hierarchical spatio-temporal statistical modelling cannot be implemented for the evaluation of physics parameterizations and biofuel impacts. In this work, we propose a filtering algorithm that takes into account the spatio-temporal autocorrelation structure of the data while avoiding spatial confounding. This method is used to quantify the robustness of simulated hydroclimatic impacts associated with bioenergy crops to alternative physics parameterizations and observational datasets. Results are evaluated against those obtained from three alternative Bayesian spatio-temporal specifications.

  3. Tillage System and Cover Crop Effects on Soil Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdollahi, Lotfollah; Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    2014-01-01

    ), and moldboard plowing (MP) with and without a cover crop were evaluated in a long-term experiment on a sandy loam soil in Denmark. Chemical, physical, and biological soil properties were measured in the spring of 2012. The field measurements included mean weight diameter (MWD) after the drop-shatter test......, penetration resistance, and visual evaluation of soil structure (VESS). In the laboratory, aggregate strength, water-stable aggregates (WSA), and clay dispersibility were measured. The analyzed chemical and biological properties included soil organic C (SOC), total N, microbial biomass C, labile P and K......Optimal use of management systems including tillage and winter cover crops is recommended to improve soil quality and sustain agricultural production. The effects on soil properties of three tillage systems (as main plot) including direct drilling (D), harrowing to a depth of 8 to 10 cm (H...

  4. Lundby revisited: first incidence of mental disorders 1947-1997

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogren, Mats; Mattisson, Cecilia; Horstmann, Vibeke

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate how first incidence of various mental disorders changed between the periods of 1947-1972 to 1972-1997 in the Lundby cohort. METHOD: First-incidence rates of mental disorders were calculated for two 25 year periods and ten 5 year periods. RESULTS: From 1947-1972 to 1972......-1997 a decrease in almost all age- and sex-specific incidences of neurotic and organic brain disorders was observed, whereas incidence rates of psychotic disorders increased consistently in male subjects but decreased in most age intervals in female subjects. For both sexes the age-standardized 5 year period...... incidences of neurotic disorders decreased after 1972, fluctuated for psychotic disorders 1947-1997 and decreased steadily for organic disorders 1947-1997. CONCLUSIONS: The reduction in neurotic and organic brain disorder incidences may be linked to structural changes in society and medical advances...

  5. Effects of Temperature and Growing Seasons on Crop Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    The crop water requirement (CWR) depends on several factors including temperature and ...... infrastructure for collection, treatment and recycling of wastewater (MOEP, 2010 .... blue and grey water footprint of crops and derived crop products ...

  6. The incidence and aetiology of acute pancreatitis across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Stephen E; Morrison-Rees, Sian; John, Ann; Williams, John G; Brown, Tim H; Samuel, David G

    Acute pancreatitis is increasingly one of the most important acute gastrointestinal conditions throughout much of the world, although incidence and aetiology varies across countries and regions. This study investigated regional and national patterns in the incidence and aetiology of acute pancreatitis, demographic patterns in incidence and trends over time in incidence across Europe. A structured review of acute pancreatitis incidence and aetiology from studies of hospitalised patient case series, cohort studies or other population based studies from 1989 to 2015 and a review of trends in incidence from 1970 to 2015 across all 51 European states. The incidence of acute pancreatitis was reported from 17 countries across Europe and ranged from 4.6 to 100 per 100 000 population. Incidence was usually highest in eastern or northern Europe, although reported rates often varied according to case ascertainment criteria. Of 20 studies that reported on trends in incidence, all but three show percentage increases over time (overall median increase = 3.4% per annum; range = -0.4%-73%). The highest ratios of gallstone to alcohol aetiologies were identified in southern Europe (Greece, Turkey, Italy and Croatia) with lowest ratios mainly in eastern Europe (Latvia, Finland, Romania, Hungary, Russia and Lithuania). The incidence of acute pancreatitis varies across Europe. Gallstone is the dominant aetiology in southern Europe and alcohol in eastern Europe with intermediate ratios in northern and western Europe. Acute pancreatitis continues to increase throughout most of Europe. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Cancer incidence among firefighters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pukkala, Eero; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Firefighters are potentially exposed to a wide range of known and suspected carcinogens through their work. The objectives of this study were to examine the patterns of cancer among Nordic firefighters, and to compare them with the results from previous studies. METHODS: Data for this......OBJECTIVES: Firefighters are potentially exposed to a wide range of known and suspected carcinogens through their work. The objectives of this study were to examine the patterns of cancer among Nordic firefighters, and to compare them with the results from previous studies. METHODS: Data...... for this study were drawn from a linkage between the census data for 15 million people from the five Nordic countries and their cancer registries for the period 1961-2005. SIR analyses were conducted with the cancer incidence rates for the entire national study populations used as reference rates. RESULTS......: A total of 16 422 male firefighters were included in the final cohort. A moderate excess risk was seen for all cancer sites combined, (SIR=1.06, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.11). There were statistically significant excesses in the age category of 30-49 years in prostate cancer (SIR=2.59, 95% CI 1.34 to 4...

  8. Precursor incident program at EDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourest, B.; Maliverney, B.; Rozenholc, M.; Piovesan, C.

    1998-01-01

    The precursor program was started by EDF in 1994, after an investigation of the US NRC's Accident Sequence Precursor Program. Since then, reported operational events identified as Safety Outstanding Events have been analyzed whenever possible using probabilistic methods based on PSAs. Analysis provides an estimate of the remaining protection against core damage at the time the incident occurred. Measuring the incidents' severity enables to detect incidents important regarding safety. Moreover, the most efficient feedback actions can be derived from the main accident sequences identified through the analysis. Therefore, incident probabilistic analysis provides a way to assess priorities in terms of treatment and resource allocation, and so, to implement countermeasures preventing further occurrence and development of the most significant incidents. As some incidents cannot be analyzed using this method, probabilistic analysis can only be one among the methods used to assess the nuclear power plants' safety level. Nevertheless, it provides an interesting complement to classical methods of deterministic studies. (author)

  9. The benefits of herbicide-resistant crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jerry M

    2012-10-01

    Since 1996, genetically modified herbicide-resistant crops, primarily glyphosate-resistant soybean, corn, cotton and canola, have helped to revolutionize weed management and have become an important tool in crop production practices. Glyphosate-resistant crops have enabled the implementation of weed management practices that have improved yield and profitability while better protecting the environment. Growers have recognized their benefits and have made glyphosate-resistant crops the most rapidly adopted technology in the history of agriculture. Weed management systems with glyphosate-resistant crops have often relied on glyphosate alone, have been easy to use and have been effective, economical and more environmentally friendly than the systems they have replaced. Glyphosate has worked extremely well in controlling weeds in glyphosate-resistant crops for more than a decade, but some key weeds have evolved resistance, and using glyphosate alone has proved unsustainable. Now, growers need to renew their weed management practices and use glyphosate with other cultural, mechanical and herbicide options in integrated systems. New multiple-herbicide-resistant crops with resistance to glyphosate and other herbicides will expand the utility of existing herbicide technologies and will be an important component of future weed management systems that help to sustain the current benefits of high-efficiency and high-production agriculture. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Functional molecular markers for crop improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kage, Udaykumar; Kumar, Arun; Dhokane, Dhananjay; Karre, Shailesh; Kushalappa, Ajjamada C

    2016-10-01

    A tremendous decline in cultivable land and resources and a huge increase in food demand calls for immediate attention to crop improvement. Though molecular plant breeding serves as a viable solution and is considered as "foundation for twenty-first century crop improvement", a major stumbling block for crop improvement is the availability of a limited functional gene pool for cereal crops. Advancement in the next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies integrated with tools like metabolomics, proteomics and association mapping studies have facilitated the identification of candidate genes, their allelic variants and opened new avenues to accelerate crop improvement through development and use of functional molecular markers (FMMs). The FMMs are developed from the sequence polymorphisms present within functional gene(s) which are associated with phenotypic trait variations. Since FMMs obviate the problems associated with random DNA markers, these are considered as "the holy grail" of plant breeders who employ targeted marker assisted selections (MAS) for crop improvement. This review article attempts to consider the current resources and novel methods such as metabolomics, proteomics and association studies for the identification of candidate genes and their validation through virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) for the development of FMMs. A number of examples where the FMMs have been developed and used for the improvement of cereal crops for agronomic, food quality, disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance traits have been considered.

  11. Crop improvement projects in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broeshart, H.

    1978-01-01

    Only two percent of the territory of Peru consists of arable land. Sixteen million people depend on the production of about three million hectares of land, which means that on the average only 1800 square metres is available per person. It is clear that Peru is one of the poorest countries of the world as far as available arable land is concerned and consequently it will have to drastically increase its agricultural production per unit area or import large quantities of agricultural products to feed its rapidly growing population. Agricultural research on the efficient use of fertilizers is being carried out by the regional experiment station (CRIA), by the National University of Agriculture, La Molina, Lima, dealing with programmes on maize, potatoes, cereals and forage crops, by national universities in the country and by specialized research institutes for tropical agriculture on sugar-cane, cotton, coffee and tea. Isotope and radiation techniques are a particularly effective means of determining the best cultural practices for the efficient use of fertilizers and water, and the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture has been involved in the organization of field and greenhouse programmes at experiment stations and universities in Peru since 1963

  12. GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS: INTERNATIONAL TRADE AND TRADE POLICY EFFECTS

    OpenAIRE

    George Frisvold; Jeanne Reeves

    2015-01-01

    Where approved, producers have adopted genetically modified (GM) crops extensively. Yet, areas not adopting GM crops account for large shares of production and consumption. GM crops differ from previous agricultural innovations because consumers may perceive them as fundamentally different from (and potentially inferior to) conventionally grown crops. Many countries maintain restrictions on production and importation of GM crops. GM crop adoption affects producers and consumers, not only thro...

  13. IMPACT OF AGRICULTURAL POLICY ON RELATIVE PRICE VARIABILITY OF FOOD CROPS AND INFLATION IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ifeoluwa Akin Babalola

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Prices of food crops in Nigeria tend to exhibit similar trend with inflation. The study therefore established quantitatively relationships among agricultural policy, relative price variability (RPV of food crops and inflation in Nigeria. Data for the study includes annual producer prices (nominal and output of food crops and annual inflation rate obtained from the publications of the Central Bank of Nigeria, Nigerian Bureau of Statistics, Food and Agricultural Organisation and Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research covering the period of 1970-2009. Analytical tools used were RPV index and Error Correction Method (ECM. The results showed that the variables are stationary at their levels. As inflation increases, RPV of food crops also increases both in short run (0.0002 and the long run (0.0310. Civilian Post-Structural Adjustment Period Policies (CPSAP caused a significant reduction in inflation and consequently reduced the   RPV of food crops in the long run. There is a need for policies that will buffer the food crop sub-sector from the effects of inflation. Policies that reduce the rate of inflation and minimise RPV among food crops are needed. Effective management of inefficiencies and misallocation of resources in the sub-sector should be explored.

  14. Back to the Origin: In Situ Studies Are Needed to Understand Selection during Crop Diversification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda H. Chen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Crop domestication has been embraced as a model system to study the genetics of plant evolution. Yet, the role of the environment, including biotic forces such as microbial and insect communities, in contributing to crop phenotypes under domestication and diversification has been poorly explored. In particular, there has been limited progress in understanding how human selection, agricultural cultivation (soil disturbance, fertilization, and irrigation, and biotic forces act as selective pressures on crop phenotypes. For example, geographically-structured pathogenic, pestiferous, and mutualistic interactions with crop plants have likely given rise to landraces that interact differently with local microbial and insect communities. In order to understand the adaptive role of crop traits, we argue that more studies should be conducted in the geographic centers of origin to test hypotheses on how abiotic, biotic, and human selective forces have shaped the phenotypes of domesticated plants during crop domestication and subsequent diversification into landraces. In these centers of origin, locally endemic species associated with wild ancestors have likely contributed to the selection on plant phenotypes. We address a range of questions that can only be studied in the geographic center of crop origin, placing emphasis on Mesoamerican polyculture systems, and highlight the significance of in situ studies for increasing the sustainability of modern agricultural systems.

  15. The effect of different tillage and cover crops on soil quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdollahi, Lotfollah; Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    This paper examines the effect of different tillage treatments and cover crop on soil physical, chemical and biological properties of a sandy loam soil in a long-term field trial set up in 2007 at Foulum, Denmark. The experimental design is a split plot design with different tillage practices (di...... that P improved soil quality compared to H and D, especially when combined with cover crop. We also conclude that D may benefit from cover crop to yield better soil friability and hence soil quality.......This paper examines the effect of different tillage treatments and cover crop on soil physical, chemical and biological properties of a sandy loam soil in a long-term field trial set up in 2007 at Foulum, Denmark. The experimental design is a split plot design with different tillage practices...... (direct drilling (D), harrowing (H) to a depth of 8 cm and ploughing to a depth of 20 cm (P)) as main plot. The soil was cropped with cover crop (+CC) or left without cover crop (-CC) as split plot treatments in the main plots with different tillage treatments. We assessed topsoil structural quality...

  16. Two 238Pu inhalation incidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, R.R.; Hall, R.M.

    1978-06-01

    Two employees inhaled significant amounts of 238 Pu in separate unrelated contamination incidents in 1977. Both acute exposure incidents are described and the urine, feces, and in-vivo chest count data for each employee. Case B ( 238 PuNO 3 ) received 24 DTPA treatments beginning the day of the incident while, for medical reasons, Case A ( 238 PuO 2 ) received no therapy

  17. Short Rotation Crops in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, L L

    1998-06-04

    The report is based primarily on the results of survey questions sent to approximately 60 woody and 20 herbaceous crop researchers in the United States and on information from the U.S. Department of Energy's Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program. Responses were received from 13 individuals involved in woody crops research or industrial commercialization (with 5 of the responses coming from industry). Responses were received from 11 individuals involved in herbaceous crop research. Opinions on market incentives, technical and non-technical barriers, and highest priority research and development areas are summarized in the text. Details on research activities of the survey responders are provided as appendices to the paper. Woody crops grown as single-stem systems (primarily Populus and Eucalyptus species) are perceived to have strong pulp fiber and oriented strand board markets, and the survey responders anticipated that energy will comprise 25% or less of the utilization of single-stem short-rotation woody crops between now and 2010. The only exception was a response from California where a substantial biomass energy market does currently exist. Willows (Salix species) are only being developed for energy and only in one part of the United States at present. Responses from herbaceous crop researchers suggested frustration that markets (including biomass energy markets) do not currently exist for the crop, and it was the perception of many that federal incentives will be needed to create such markets. In all crops, responses indicate that a wide variety of research and development activities are needed to enhance the yields and profitability of the crops. Ongoing research activities funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program are described in an appendix to the paper.

  18. Safety culture and learning from incidents: the role of incident reporting and causal analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilpert, B.

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear industry more than any other industrial branch has developed and used predictive risk analysis as a method of feedforward control of safety and reliability. Systematic evaluation of operating experience, statistical documentation of component failures, systematic documentation and analysis of incidents are important complementary elements of feedback control: we are dealing here with adjustment and learning from experience, in particular from past incidents. Using preliminary findings from ongoing research at the Research Center Systems Safety at the Berlin University of Technology the contribution discusses preconditions for an effective use of lessons to be learnt from closely matched incident reporting and in depth analyses of causal chains leading to incidents. Such conditions are especially standardized documentation, reporting and analyzing methods of incidents; structured information flows and feedback loops; abstaining from culpability search; mutual trust of employees and management; willingness of all concerned to continually evaluate and optimize the established learning system. Thus, incident related reporting and causal analyses contribute to safety culture, which is seen to emerge from tightly coupled organizational measures and respective change in attitudes and behaviour. (author) 2 figs., 7 refs

  19. Occupation with grain crops is associated with lower type 1 diabetes incidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haupt-Jorgensen, Martin; Nielsen, Erik; Engkilde, Kåre

    2017-01-01

    Intranasal administration of gliadin prevents autoimmune diabetes in non-obese diabetic mice. The current study was designed to investigate if bakers are intranasally exposed to gluten during work and whether occupation as baker is inversely associated with type 1 diabetes. Gliadin was measured...... in nasal swabs from eight bakers and butchers. The odds ratio of type 1 diabetes in selected profession groups was analysed in a registry-based case-control study with data from 1980 to 2010 derived from Statistics Denmark. The cohort included 1,210,017 Danish individuals, thereof 15,451 with type 1...... diabetes (1.28%). Average nasal gliadin swab content after full working days was 6.3 μg (confidence interval (CI): 2.8 to 9.7) among bakers, while no nasal gliadin was detected among butchers. The odds ratio of type 1 diabetes was lower among bakers (OR = 0.57; CI: 0.52 to 0.62) and agriculture workers...

  20. Analysis of the community compositions of rhizosphere fungi in soybeans continuous cropping fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Li; Cui, Jiaqi; Jie, Weiguang; Cai, Baiyan

    2015-11-01

    We used rhizosphere soil sampled from one field during zero year and two years of continuous cropping of high-protein soybean to analyze the taxonomic community compositions of fungi during periods of high-incidence of root rot. Our objectives were to identify the dominant pathogens in order to provide a theoretical basis for the study of pathogenesis as well as control tactics for soybean root rot induced by continuous cropping. A total of 17,801 modified internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences were obtained from three different soybean rhizosphere soil samples after zero year and 1 or 2 years of continuous cropping using 454 high-throughput sequencing. The dominant eumycote fungal were identified to be Ascomycota and Basidiomycota in the three soil samples. Continuous cropping of soybean affected the diversity of fungi in rhizosphere soils and increased the abundance of Thelebolus and Mortierellales significantly. Thanatephorus, Fusarium, and Alternaria were identified to be the dominant pathogenic fungal genera in rhizosphere soil from continuously cropped soybean fields. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Morphostructural characterization of soil conventionally tilled with mechanized and animal traction with and without cover crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ralisch

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The structural stability and restructuring ability of a soil are related to the methods of crop management and soil preparation. A recommended strategy to reduce the effects of soil preparation is to use crop rotation and cover crops that help conserve and restore the soil structure. The aim of this study was to evaluate and quantify the homogeneous morphological units in soil under conventional mechanized tillage and animal traction, as well as to assess the effect on the soil structure of intercropping with jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis L.. Profiles were analyzed in April of 2006, in five counties in the Southern-Central region of Paraná State (Brazil, on family farms producing maize (Zea mays L., sometimes intercropped with jack bean. The current structures in the crop profile were analyzed using Geographic Information Systems (GIS and subsequently principal component analysis (PCA to generate statistics. Morphostructural soil analysis showed a predominance of compact units in areas of high-intensity cultivation under mechanized traction. The cover crop did not improve the structure of the soil with low porosity and compact units that hamper the root system growth. In areas exposed to animal traction, a predominance of cracked units was observed, where roots grew around the clods and along the gaps between them.

  2. Deconstructing crop processes and models via identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porter, John Roy; Christensen, Svend

    2013-01-01

    This paper is part review and part opinion piece; it has three parts of increasing novelty and speculation in approach. The first presents an overview of how some of the major crop simulation models approach the issue of simulating the responses of crops to changing climatic and weather variables......, mainly atmospheric CO2 concentration and increased and/or varying temperatures. It illustrates an important principle in models of a single cause having alternative effects and vice versa. The second part suggests some features, mostly missing in current crop models, that need to be included...

  3. Jerusalem artichoke as an agricultural crop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosaric, N.; Cosentino, G.P.; Wieczorek, A.; Duvnjak, Z.

    1984-01-01

    The Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) is an agricultural crop which is of great potential for food, production of fuels, and industrial products. This crop gives a high yield in tubers, it grows better in poor soils than most crops, and it is resistant to pests and common plant diseases as well as to cold temperatures. In this article, the agronomic characteristics of this plant are discussed in detail. Special emphasis is given to the effects of various parameters on the production of both tubers and tops from the Jerusalem artichoke. 74 references.

  4. Impacts of ozone on trees and crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felzer, B.S.; Cronina, T.; Melillo, J.M.; Reilly, J.M.; Xiaodong, Wang

    2007-01-01

    In this review article, we explore how surface-level ozone affects trees and crops with special emphasis on consequences for productivity and carbon sequestration. Vegetation exposure to ozone reduces photosynthesis, growth, and other plant functions. Ozone formation in the atmosphere is a product of NO x , which are also a source of nitrogen deposition. Reduced carbon sequestration of temperate forests resulting from ozone is likely offset by increased carbon sequestration from nitrogen fertilization. However, since fertilized crop-lands are generally not nitrogen-limited, capping ozone-polluting substances in the USA, Europe, and China can reduce future crop yield loss substantially. (authors)

  5. Agricultural Residues and Biomass Energy Crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    There are many opportunities to leverage agricultural resources on existing lands without interfering with production of food, feed, fiber, or forest products. In the recently developed advanced biomass feedstock commercialization vision, estimates of potentially available biomass supply from agriculture are built upon the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA’s) Long-Term Forecast, ensuring that existing product demands are met before biomass crops are planted. Dedicated biomass energy crops and agricultural crop residues are abundant, diverse, and widely distributed across the United States. These potential biomass supplies can play an important role in a national biofuels commercialization strategy.

  6. Role of soil, crop debris, and a plant pathogen in Salmonella enterica contamination of tomato plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeri D Barak

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the U.S., tomatoes have become the most implicated vehicle for produce-associated Salmonellosis with 12 outbreaks since 1998. Although unconfirmed, trace backs suggest pre-harvest contamination with Salmonella enterica. Routes of tomato crop contamination by S. enterica in the absence of direct artificial inoculation have not been investigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This work examined the role of contaminated soil, the potential for crop debris to act as inoculum from one crop to the next, and any interaction between the seedbourne plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and S. enterica on tomato plants. Our results show S. enterica can survive for up to six weeks in fallow soil with the ability to contaminate tomato plants. We found S. enterica can contaminate a subsequent crop via crop debris; however a fallow period between crop incorporation and subsequent seeding can affect contamination patterns. Throughout these studies, populations of S. enterica declined over time and there was no bacterial growth in either the phyllosphere or rhizoplane. The presence of X. campestris pv. vesicatoria on co-colonized tomato plants had no effect on the incidence of S. enterica tomato phyllosphere contamination. However, growth of S. enterica in the tomato phyllosphere occurred on co-colonized plants in the absence of plant disease. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: S. enterica contaminated soil can lead to contamination of the tomato phyllosphere. A six week lag period between soil contamination and tomato seeding did not deter subsequent crop contamination. In the absence of plant disease, presence of the bacterial plant pathogen, X. campestris pv. vesicatoria was beneficial to S. enterica allowing multiplication of the human pathogen population. Any event leading to soil contamination with S. enterica could pose a public health risk with subsequent tomato production, especially in areas prone to bacterial spot disease.

  7. 4F CROPS: Future crops for food, feed, fibre and fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Alexopoulou, E.; Christou, M.; Eleftheriadis, I. [Center for Renewable Energy Sources (CRES), Pikermi Attikis (Greece)

    2008-07-01

    As different sectors - food, feed, fiber, and fuels - compete for land, the yielding potential of the future non-food crops has to be as efficient as possible in order to minimize the competition for land. The main objective of 4F CROPS project is to survey and analyze all the parameters that will play an important role in successful non-food cropping systems in the agriculture of EU27 alongside the existing food crop systems. The work will start with the prediction of the future land use in short term (2020) and long term (2030), taking under consideration restrict factors for agriculture and the market demand for non-food crops. The cropping possibilities based on regional potential levels, ecology and climate will be determined. This group of non-food crops will be then subjected to a comparative cost analysis with conventional crops for the same time framework. Socio-economic impacts, like farmers' income, rural development, public development, and public acceptance will analyze. Then environmental implications will be assessed compared to their respective conventional products (fossil energy, conversional materials). Several environmental impacts will be assessed like soil quality and soil erosion, air quality and climate change, water issues, biodiversity and landscape by using LCA and EIE methods. The regulatory framework of the non-food crops will be considered including existing policies, co-existence and safety measures when the crops used for both food and non-food crops. All the collected information will be used for the formation of scenarios for successful non-food cropping alongside food cropping systems answering whether a completive bioeconomy is a viable option for EU27.

  8. Goiania incident case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petterson, J.S.

    1988-06-01

    The reasons for wanting to document this case study and present the findings are simple. According to USDOE technical risk assessments (and our own initial work on the Hanford socioeconomic study), the likelihood of a major accident involving exposure to radioactive materials in the process of site characterization, construction, operation, and closure of a high-level waste repository is extremely remote. Most would agree, however, that there is a relatively high probability that a minor accident involving radiological contamination will occur sometime during the lifetime of the repository -- for example, during transport, at an MRS site or at the permanent site itself during repacking and deposition. Thus, one of the major concerns of the Yucca Mountain Socioeconomic Study is the potential impact of a relatively minor radiation-related accident. A large number of potential impact of a relatively minor radiation-related accident. A large number of potential accident scenarios have been under consideration (such as a transportation or other surface accident which results in a significant decline in tourism, the number of conventions, or the selection of Nevada as a retirement residence). The results of the work in Goiania make it clear, however, that such a significant shift in established social patterns and trends is not likely to occur as a direct outcome of a single nuclear-related accident (even, perhaps, a relatively major one), but rather, are likely to occur as a result of the enduring social interpretations of such an accident -- that is, as a result of the process of understanding, communicating, and socially sustaining a particular set of associations with respect to the initial incident

  9. Grazing Incidence Optics Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Brian; Smith, W. Scott; Gubarev, Mikhail; McCracken, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    This project is to demonstrate the capability to directly fabricate lightweight, high-resolution, grazing-incidence x-ray optics using a commercially available robotic polishing machine. Typical x-ray optics production at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) uses a replication process in which metal mirrors are electroformed on to figured and polished mandrels from which they are later removed. The attraction of this process is that multiple copies can be made from a single master. The drawback is that the replication process limits the angular resolution that can be attained. By directly fabricating each shell, errors inherent in the replication process are removed. The principal challenge now becomes how to support the mirror shell during all aspects of fabrication, including the necessary metrology to converge on the required mirror performance specifications. This program makes use of a Zeeko seven-axis computer-controlled polishing machine (see fig. 1) and supporting fabrication, metrology, and test equipment at MSFC. The overall development plan calls for proof-of-concept demonstration with relatively thick mirror shells (5-6 mm, fig. 2) which are straightforward to support and then a transition to much thinner shells (2-3 mm), which are an order of magnitude thinner than those used for Chandra. Both glass and metal substrates are being investigated. Currently, a thick glass shell is being figured. This has enabled experience to be gained with programming and operating the polishing machine without worrying about shell distortions or breakage. It has also allowed time for more complex support mechanisms for figuring/ polishing and metrology to be designed for the more challenging thinner shells. These are now in fabrication. Figure 1: Zeeko polishing machine.

  10. The Crop Journal: A new scientific journal for the global crop science community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianmin Wan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available As global population increases and demands for food supplies become greater, we face great challenges in providing more products and in larger quantities from less arable land. Crop science has gained increasing importance in meeting these challenges and results of scientific research must be communicated worldwide on a regular basis. In many countries, however, crop scientists have to publish the results of their investigations in national journals with heterogeneous contents and in their native languages. As a consequence, valuable work often remains unknown to scientists elsewhere. As a big country with a large number of crop scientists, China has a wide range of climatic and ecological environments, diverse plant species and cropping systems, and different regional needs for food supplies, which justify the recent decision by the Crop Science Society of China and the Institute of Crop Science within the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, to launch a new communication channel, The Crop Journal. The goal of The Crop Journal is to meet an urgent need for a major Asia-based journal that covers the diverse fields of crop science. Our aim is to create a vital and thought-provoking journal that will highlight state-of-the-art original work and reviews by high-profile crop scientists and investigative groups throughout the world — a journal that will respond to the needs of specialists in strategic crop research. We will work with scientific and publishing colleagues worldwide, using The Plant Journal and Crop Science as models, to establish The Crop Journal as a broadly based high quality journal and a premier forum for issues in crop science. The Crop Journal will cover a wide range of topics, including crop genetics, breeding, agronomy, crop physiology, germplasm resources, grain chemistry, grain storage and processing, crop management practices, crop biotechnology, and biomathematics. The journal also encourages the submission of review

  11. The Use of Cover Crops as Climate-Smart Management in Midwest Cropping Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basche, A.; Miguez, F.; Archontoulis, S.; Kaspar, T.

    2014-12-01

    The observed trends in the Midwestern United States of increasing rainfall variability will likely continue into the future. Events such as individual days of heavy rain as well as seasons of floods and droughts have large impacts on agricultural productivity and the natural resource base that underpins it. Such events lead to increased soil erosion, decreased water quality and reduced corn and soybean yields. Winter cover crops offer the potential to buffer many of these impacts because they essentially double the time for a living plant to protect and improve the soil. However, at present, cover crops are infrequently utilized in the Midwest (representing 1-2% of row cropped land cover) in particular due to producer concerns over higher costs and management, limited time and winter growing conditions as well as the potential harm to corn yields. In order to expand their use, there is a need to quantify how cover crops impact Midwest cropping systems in the long term and namely to understand how to optimize the benefits of cover crops while minimizing their impacts on cash crops. We are working with APSIM, a cropping systems platform, to specifically quantify the long term future impacts of cover crop incorporation in corn-based cropping systems. In general, our regional analysis showed only minor changes to corn and soybean yields (<1% differences) when a cover crop was or was not included in the simulation. Further, a "bad spring" scenario (where every third year had an abnormally wet/cold spring and cover crop termination and planting cash crop were within one day) did not result in any major changes to cash crop yields. Through simulations we estimate an average increase of 4-9% organic matter improvement in the topsoil and an average decrease in soil erosion of 14-32% depending on cover crop planting date and growth. Our work is part of the Climate and Corn-based Cropping Systems Coordinated Agriculture Project (CSCAP), a collaboration of eleven Midwestern

  12. Biofuel crops with CAM photosynthesis: Economic potential on moisture-limited lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Mark; Hartzell, Samantha; Porporato, Amilcare

    2017-04-01

    As the demand for food and renewable energy increases, the intelligent utilization of marginal lands is becoming increasingly critical. In marginal lands classified by limited rainfall or soil salinity, the cultivation of traditional C3 and C4 photosynthesis crops often is economically infeasible. However, in such lands, nontraditional crops with crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) photosynthesis show great economic potential for cultivation. CAM crops including Opuntia (prickly pear) and Ananas (pineapple) achieve a water use efficiency which is three fold higher than C4 crops such as corn and 6-fold higher than C3 crops such as wheat, leading to a comparable annual productivity with only 20% of the water demand. This feature, combined with a shallow rooting depth and a high water storage capacity, allows CAM plants to take advantage of small, infrequent rainfall amounts in shallow, quickly draining soils. Furthermore, CAM plants typically have properties (e.g., high content of non-structural carbohydrates) that are favorable for biofuel production. Here, for marginal lands characterized by low soil moisture availability and/or high salinity, we assess the potential productivity and economic benefits of CAM plants. CAM productivity is estimated using a recently developed model which simulates CAM photosynthesis under a range of soil and climate conditions. From these results, we compare the energy and water resource inputs required by CAM plants to those required by more traditional C3 and C4 crops (corn, wheat, sorghum), and we evaluate the economic potential of CAM crops as sources of food, fodder, or biofuel in marginal soils. As precipitation events become more intense and infrequent, we show that even though marginal land area may increase, CAM crop cultivation shows great promise for maintaining high productivity with minimal water inputs. Our analysis indicates that on marginal lands, widespread cultivation of CAM crops as biofuel feedstock may help

  13. 3D Convolutional Neural Networks for Crop Classification with Multi-Temporal Remote Sensing Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunping Ji

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes a novel three-dimensional (3D convolutional neural networks (CNN based method that automatically classifies crops from spatio-temporal remote sensing images. First, 3D kernel is designed according to the structure of multi-spectral multi-temporal remote sensing data. Secondly, the 3D CNN framework with fine-tuned parameters is designed for training 3D crop samples and learning spatio-temporal discriminative representations, with the full crop growth cycles being preserved. In addition, we introduce an active learning strategy to the CNN model to improve labelling accuracy up to a required threshold with the most efficiency. Finally, experiments are carried out to test the advantage of the 3D CNN, in comparison to the two-dimensional (2D CNN and other conventional methods. Our experiments show that the 3D CNN is especially suitable in characterizing the dynamics of crop growth and outperformed the other mainstream methods.

  14. African Crop Science Journal: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Crop Science Journal was established with the primary objective of ... and all those concerned with agricultural development issues in the region. .... as possible, the editors avoid appointing reviewers from the country of origin of ...

  15. Sensitivity of annual and seasonal reference crop ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    scheduling and water resources management. Ref- ... time, and refers to evapotranspiration rate from a reference ... variable per unit increase in independent variable. Sensitivity ...... Pereira L S 2007 Relating water productivity and crop.

  16. TALE nucleases and next generation GM crops.

    KAUST Repository

    Mahfouz, Magdy M.; Li, Lixin

    2011-01-01

    Site-specific and adaptable DNA binding domains are essential modules to develop genome engineering technologies for crop improvement. Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) proteins are used to provide a highly specific and adaptable DNA

  17. Institutional Factors Influencing Crop Farmers Adoption of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E M IGBOKWE

    recommended agrochemical practices (RAPs) among crop farmers in Nigeria. A total of 260 ... It would neither be logical nor ethical to expect poor people to forego the benefits of ..... Credit use is expected to assist farmers purchase necessary.

  18. Smallholder integrated crop management (ICM) research planning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    More women farmers were invited because they do most of the farming. Other participants came from ... smallholders to innovate their land and crop management strategies. This would be ..... Asian Farming Systems Association, 2 (2): 67.

  19. Crop physiology calibration in the CLM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Bilionis

    2015-04-01

    scalable and adaptive scheme based on sequential Monte Carlo (SMC. The model showed significant improvement of crop productivity with the new calibrated parameters. We demonstrate that the calibrated parameters are applicable across alternative years and different sites.

  20. Storage of catch crops to produce biogas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molinuevo-Salces, Beatriz; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Uellendahl, Hinrich

    2014-01-01

    . On the contrary, the poor quality of IR silage, due to its high TS content, made it inappropriate as feedstock for biogas production. A TS content of 25-35% is preferable, to obtain a proper fermentation avoid leachate run-off and growth of Clostridium sp. or mold formation. Avoiding soil particles in the bales......Catch crop biomass is a promising co-substrate for manure-based biogas plants in Denmark since the cultivation of catch crops is mandatory to retain nutrients in the soil, contributing to protect the aquatic environment. In general, the growth period for catch crops is from harvest of the previous...... crop in July-August to the end of the growing season and harvest in late October. Hence, for use of the biomass in biogas production there is a need for storage of the biomass. Storage as silage would guarantee the availability of the feedstock for biogas production during the whole year. A proper...

  1. Energy Crops and the Common Agricultural Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, Kes; Nilsson, Helen; Tomescu, Mihail [Lund Univ. (Sweden). International Inst. for Industrial Environmental Economics (IIIEE)

    2006-07-15

    The Biomass Action Plan (BAP) for Europe outlines how to achieve the targets for bioenergy and energy crops defined by the European Commission and member states. However, it is the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) that shapes the utilisation of agricultural land. This paper therefore reviews the supportive measures for energy crops in recent CAP reforms and investigates the effects on farmers in 'real-life' case studies from Sweden, Italy and Austria. This paper explores if the recent CAP reforms are sufficient to motivate farmers to cultivate energy crops; identifies the barriers and drivers for energy crops from the perspective of farmers; and suggests how to enhance supportive measures in the CAP to overcome barriers and complement the BAP.

  2. Biomass for energy from field crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubr, J.

    1988-01-01

    On the basis of a field experiment, selected crops were evaluated for feasibility in producing biomass applicable as raw material for fuels. Both the main products and byproducts of the crops were investigated in the laboratory for qualitative characteristics and were subjected to methanogenic fermentation under mesophilic conditions. The biogas energy potential and gross energy potential were determined. Under the climatic conditions of Northern Europe, sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) was found to be a superior energy crop. White cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. Capitata), rhubarb (Rheum rhaponticum) and comfrey (Symphytum asperum) can be considered as potential crops for biomass. The agrotechnical and the economic aspects of the biomass production are being subjected to further investigation.

  3. The effect of catch crop species on selenium availability for succeeding crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stavridou, Eleftheria; Young, Scott D.; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    2007–10 investigated the ability of catch crops (Italian ryegrass, fodder radish and hairy vetch) under different fertiliser regimes to reduce soil Se content in the autumn and to increase its availability in spring to the succeeding crop. Results and Conclusions The catch crops (Italian ryegrass...... and fodder radish) increased water-extractable Se content in the 0.25–0.75msoil layer in only one of the experiments. Selenium uptake by the catch crops varied between 65 and 3263 mg ha−1, depending on species, year and fertilisation treatment; this corresponded to 0.1–3.0% of the water-extractable soil Se......Background and Aims Selenium (Se) is an essential nutrient for humans and animals. In order to ensure an optimal concentration of Se in crops, Se fertilisers are applied. Catch crops may be an alternative way to increase Se concentrations in vegetables. Methods Three experiments in Denmark between...

  4. Adaptation to a warming-drying trend through cropping system adjustment over three decades: A case study in the northern agro-pastural ecotone of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingting; An, Pingli; Pan, Zhihua; Hao, Baozhen; Wang, Liwei; Dong, Zhiqiang; Pan, Xuebiao; Xue, Qingwu

    2015-06-01

    Long-term field monitoring data and historical crop data are useful to assess the impacts of climate change and to manage cropping systems. The objectives of this study are to understand the cropping system response to a warming-drying trend in the northern agro-pastural ecotone (NAE) of China and to document how farmers can adapt to the warming-drying trend by changing cropping system structure and adjusting planting date. The results indicate that a significant warming-drying trend existed in the NAE from 1980 to 2009, and this trend significantly decreased crop (spring wheat, naked oat, and potato) yields. Furthermore, the yield decreased by 16.2%-28.4% with a 1°C increase in maximum temperature and decreased by 6.6%-11.8% with a 10% decrease in precipitation. Considering food security, water use efficiency, and water ecological adaptability in the semi-arid NAE, cropping system structure adjustment (e.g., a shift from wheat to potato as the predominant crop) and planting date adaptation (e.g., a delay in crop planting date) can offset the impact of the warming-drying trend in the NAE. Based on the successful offsetting of the impact of the warming-drying trend in the NAE, we conclude that farmers can reduce the negative effects of climate change and minimize the risk of crop failure by adapting their cropping system structure at the farming level.

  5. Real time freeway incident detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The US Department of Transportation (US-DOT) estimates that over half of all congestion : events are caused by highway incidents rather than by rush-hour traffic in big cities. Real-time : incident detection on freeways is an important part of any mo...

  6. True incidence of vestibular schwannoma?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangerup, Sven-Eric; Tos, Mirko; Thomsen, Jens

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of diagnosed sporadic unilateral vestibular schwannomas (VS) has increased, due primarily to more widespread access to magnetic resonance imaging.......The incidence of diagnosed sporadic unilateral vestibular schwannomas (VS) has increased, due primarily to more widespread access to magnetic resonance imaging....

  7. Potential of irradiation technology in horticultural crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.

    1994-01-01

    Fresh fruits and vegetables are living tissues which are subject to continuous change after harvest leading to senescence, cellular break-down and death. Post harvest losses in quality and quantity of horticultural crops result from physiological, pathological and physical processes, acting separately or in combination. Temperature management, maintenance of proper relative humidity of air, manipulation of storage temperature and exposing to ionizing radiation such as gamma rays enhance the shelf-life of horticultural crops

  8. A database for coconut crop improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, Velamoor; Manimekalai, Ramaswamy; Devakumar, Krishnamurthy; Rajesh; Karun, Anitha; Niral, Vittal; Gopal, Murali; Aziz, Shamina; Gunasekaran, Marimuthu; Kumar, Mundappurathe Ramesh; Chandrasekar, Arumugam

    2005-12-08

    Coconut crop improvement requires a number of biotechnology and bioinformatics tools. A database containing information on CG (coconut germplasm), CCI (coconut cultivar identification), CD (coconut disease), MIFSPC (microbial information systems in plantation crops) and VO (vegetable oils) is described. The database was developed using MySQL and PostgreSQL running in Linux operating system. The database interface is developed in PHP, HTML and JAVA. http://www.bioinfcpcri.org.

  9. Modelling nutrient management in tropical cropping systems

    OpenAIRE

    Delve, R. (ed.); Probert, M. (ed.)

    2004-01-01

    Metadata only record In tropical regions, organic materials are often more important than fertilizers in maintaining soil fertility, yet fertilizer recommendations and most crop models are unable to take account of the level and quality of organic inputs that farmers use. Computer simulation models, such as the Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM) developed by CSIRO and the Queensland Department of Primary Industries, have proven their value in many cropping environments. Thes...

  10. Will energy crop yields meet expectations?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Searle, Stephanie Y.; Malins, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Expectations are high for energy crops. Government policies in the United States and Europe are increasingly supporting biofuel and heat and power from cellulose, and biomass is touted as a partial solution to energy security and greenhouse gas mitigation. Here, we review the literature for yields of 5 major potential energy crops: Miscanthus spp., Panicum virgatum (switchgrass), Populus spp. (poplar), Salix spp. (willow), and Eucalyptus spp. Very high yields have been achieved for each of these types of energy crops, up to 40 t ha −1  y −1 in small, intensively managed trials. But yields are significantly lower in semi-commercial scale trials, due to biomass losses with drying, harvesting inefficiency under real world conditions, and edge effects in small plots. To avoid competition with food, energy crops should be grown on non-agricultural land, which also lowers yields. While there is potential for yield improvement for each of these crops through further research and breeding programs, for several reasons the rate of yield increase is likely to be slower than historically has been achieved for cereals; these include relatively low investment, long breeding periods, low yield response of perennial grasses to fertilizer, and inapplicability of manipulating the harvest index. Miscanthus × giganteus faces particular challenges as it is a sterile hybrid. Moderate and realistic expectations for the current and future performance of energy crops are vital to understanding the likely cost and the potential of large-scale production. - Highlights: • This review covers Miscanthus, switchgrass, poplar, willow, and Eucalyptus. • High yields of energy crops are typically from small experimental plots. • Field scale yields are lower due to real world harvesting losses and edge effects. • The potential for yield improvement of energy crops is relatively limited. • Expectations must be realistic for successful policies and commercial production

  11. Integrated crop protection as a system approach

    OpenAIRE

    Haan, de, J.J.; Wijnands, F.G.; Sukkel, W.

    2005-01-01

    New farming systems in vegetable production are required as demands for high quality products that do not pollute the environment are rising, and production risks are large and incomes low. The methodology of prototyping new systems is described, especially the themes, parameters and target values connected to integrated crop protection. The role of integrated crop protection in prototyping new systems is discussed. The results of twenty years working with this prototyping methodology are pre...

  12. Topography Mediates the Influence of Cover Crops on Soil Nitrate Levels in Row Crop Agricultural Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moslem Ladoni

    Full Text Available Supplying adequate amounts of soil N for plant growth during the growing season and across large agricultural fields is a challenge for conservational agricultural systems with cover crops. Knowledge about cover crop effects on N comes mostly from small, flat research plots and performance of cover crops across topographically diverse agricultural land is poorly understood. Our objective was to assess effects of both leguminous (red clover and non-leguminous (winter rye cover crops on potentially mineralizable N (PMN and [Formula: see text] levels across a topographically diverse landscape. We studied conventional, low-input, and organic managements in corn-soybean-wheat rotation. The rotations of low-input and organic managements included rye and red clover cover crops. The managements were implemented in twenty large undulating fields in Southwest Michigan starting from 2006. The data collection and analysis were conducted during three growing seasons of 2011, 2012 and 2013. Observational micro-plots with and without cover crops were laid within each field on three contrasting topographical positions of depression, slope and summit. Soil samples were collected 4-5 times during each growing season and analyzed for [Formula: see text] and PMN. The results showed that all three managements were similar in their temporal and spatial distributions of NO3-N. Red clover cover crop increased [Formula: see text] by 35% on depression, 20% on slope and 32% on summit positions. Rye cover crop had a significant 15% negative effect on [Formula: see text] in topographical depressions but not in slope and summit positions. The magnitude of the cover crop effects on soil mineral nitrogen across topographically diverse fields was associated with the amount of cover crop growth and residue production. The results emphasize the potential environmental and economic benefits that can be generated by implementing site-specific topography-driven cover crop management

  13. Topography Mediates the Influence of Cover Crops on Soil Nitrate Levels in Row Crop Agricultural Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladoni, Moslem; Kravchenko, Alexandra N; Robertson, G Phillip

    2015-01-01

    Supplying adequate amounts of soil N for plant growth during the growing season and across large agricultural fields is a challenge for conservational agricultural systems with cover crops. Knowledge about cover crop effects on N comes mostly from small, flat research plots and performance of cover crops across topographically diverse agricultural land is poorly understood. Our objective was to assess effects of both leguminous (red clover) and non-leguminous (winter rye) cover crops on potentially mineralizable N (PMN) and [Formula: see text] levels across a topographically diverse landscape. We studied conventional, low-input, and organic managements in corn-soybean-wheat rotation. The rotations of low-input and organic managements included rye and red clover cover crops. The managements were implemented in twenty large undulating fields in Southwest Michigan starting from 2006. The data collection and analysis were conducted during three growing seasons of 2011, 2012 and 2013. Observational micro-plots with and without cover crops were laid within each field on three contrasting topographical positions of depression, slope and summit. Soil samples were collected 4-5 times during each growing season and analyzed for [Formula: see text] and PMN. The results showed that all three managements were similar in their temporal and spatial distributions of NO3-N. Red clover cover crop increased [Formula: see text] by 35% on depression, 20% on slope and 32% on summit positions. Rye cover crop had a significant 15% negative effect on [Formula: see text] in topographical depressions but not in slope and summit positions. The magnitude of the cover crop effects on soil mineral nitrogen across topographically diverse fields was associated with the amount of cover crop growth and residue production. The results emphasize the potential environmental and economic benefits that can be generated by implementing site-specific topography-driven cover crop management in row-crop

  14. Soil Quality Indicators as Affected by a Long Term Barley-Maize and Maize Cropping Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Manachini

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Most soil studies aim a better characterization of the system through indicators. In the present study nematofauna and soil structure were chosen as indicators to be assess soil health as related to agricultural practices. The field research was carried out on the two fodder cropping systems continuous maize (CM, Zea mays L. and a 3-year rotation of silage-maize – silage-barley (Hordeum vulgare L. with Italian ryegrass (R3 and grain-maize maintained in these conditions for 18 years. Each crop system was submitted to two management options: 1 the high input level (H, done as a conventional tillage, 2 the low input level (L, where the tillage was replaced by harrowing and the manure was reduced by 30%. The effects of the two different cropping systems was assessed on soil nematofauna and soil physic parameters (structure or aggregate stability. Comparison was made of general composition, trophic structure and biodiversity of the nematofauna collected in both systems. Differences in nematode genera composition and distribution between the two systems were also recorded. The monoculture, compared to the three year rotation, had a negative influence on the nematofauna composition and its ecological succession. The Structural Stability Index (SSI values indicate that both the cropping systems had a negative effect on the aggregate stability. The results indicate that nematofauna can be used to assess the effects of cropping systems on soil ecosystem, and therefore be considered a good indicator of soil health to integrate information from different chemical or physical indicators.

  15. Soil Quality Indicators as Affected by a Long Term Barley-Maize and Maize Cropping Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Corsini

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Most soil studies aim a better characterization of the system through indicators. In the present study nematofauna and soil structure were chosen as indicators to be assess soil health as related to agricultural practices. The field research was carried out on the two fodder cropping systems continuous maize (CM, Zea mays L. and a 3-year rotation of silage-maize – silage-barley (Hordeum vulgare L. with Italian ryegrass (R3 and grain-maize maintained in these conditions for 18 years. Each crop system was submitted to two management options: 1 the high input level (H, done as a conventional tillage, 2 the low input level (L, where the tillage was replaced by harrowing and the manure was reduced by 30%. The effects of the two different cropping systems was assessed on soil nematofauna and soil physic parameters (structure or aggregate stability. Comparison was made of general composition, trophic structure and biodiversity of the nematofauna collected in both systems. Differences in nematode genera composition and distribution between the two systems were also recorded. The monoculture, compared to the three year rotation, had a negative influence on the nematofauna composition and its ecological succession. The Structural Stability Index (SSI values indicate that both the cropping systems had a negative effect on the aggregate stability. The results indicate that nematofauna can be used to assess the effects of cropping systems on soil ecosystem, and therefore be considered a good indicator of soil health to integrate information from different chemical or physical indicators.

  16. Toxicological evaluation of proteins introduced into food crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kough, John; Herouet-Guicheney, Corinne; Jez, Joseph M.

    2013-01-01

    This manuscript focuses on the toxicological evaluation of proteins introduced into GM crops to impart desired traits. In many cases, introduced proteins can be shown to have a history of safe use. Where modifications have been made to proteins, experience has shown that it is highly unlikely that modification of amino acid sequences can make a non-toxic protein toxic. Moreover, if the modified protein still retains its biological function, and this function is found in related proteins that have a history of safe use (HOSU) in food, and the exposure level is similar to functionally related proteins, then the modified protein could also be considered to be “as-safe-as” those that have a HOSU. Within nature, there can be considerable evolutionary changes in the amino acid sequence of proteins within the same family, yet these proteins share the same biological function. In general, food crops such as maize, soy, rice, canola etc. are subjected to a variety of processing conditions to generate different food products. Processing conditions such as cooking, modification of pH conditions, and mechanical shearing can often denature proteins in these crops resulting in a loss of functional activity. These same processing conditions can also markedly lower human dietary exposure to (functionally active) proteins. Safety testing of an introduced protein could be indicated if its biological function was not adequately characterized and/or it was shown to be structurally/functionally related to proteins that are known to be toxic to mammals. PMID:24164515

  17. The Effect of Long-Term Continuous Cropping of Black Pepper on Soil Bacterial Communities as Determined by 454 Pyrosequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wu; Li, Zhigang; Liu, Hongjun; Xue, Chao; Zhang, Ruifu; Wu, Huasong; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, 3 replanted black pepper orchards with continuously cropping histories for 10, 21, and 55 years in tropical China, were selected for investigating the effect of monoculture on soil physiochemical properties, enzyme activities, bacterial abundance, and bacterial community structures. Results showed long-term continuous cropping led to a significant decline in soil pH, organic matter contents, enzymatic activities, and resulted in a decrease in soil bacterial abundance. 454 pyrosequencing analysis of 16S rRNA genes revealed that the Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria were the main phyla in the replanted black pepper orchard soils, comprising up to 73.82% of the total sequences; the relative abundances of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes phyla decreased with long-term continuous cropping; and at genus level, the Pseudomonas abundance significantly depleted after 21 years continuous cropping. In addition, bacterial diversity significantly decreased after 55 years black pepper continuous cropping; obvious variations for community structures across the 3 time-scale replanted black pepper orchards were observed, suggesting monoculture duration was the major determinant for bacterial community structure. Overall, continuous cropping during black pepper cultivation led to a significant decline in soil pH, organic matter contents, enzymatic activities, resulted a decrease in soil bacterial abundance, and altered soil microbial community membership and structure, which in turn resulted in black pepper poor growth in the continuous cropping system. PMID:26317364

  18. Ecophysiology of horticultural crops: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restrepo-Díaz Hermann

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Horticultural crops include a wide range of commodities, such as fruits and vegetables that are highly valuable for humanity. They are extensively grown worldwide, and their production can be described as an open and highly complex system affected by many factors, among which we can count weather, soil and cropping system, as well as the interaction between these factors. The aim of environmental physiology is to characterize the interaction between environmental stress and crop response, in order to maximize both yield quantity and quality. This review presents the most recent findings about the effects of the main abiotic environmental factors (light, temperature, and water on whole plant physiology of horticultural crops. Environmental stresses can cause morpho-anatomical, physiological and biochemical changes in crops, resulting in a strong profit reduction. A clear understanding of environmental factors and their interaction with physiological processes is extremely important for improving horticultural practices (irrigation, light management, mineral nutrition, greenhouse design, etc., optimizing photosynthetic carbon assimilation and increasing fruit productivity and crop quality. In addition, the information obtained by ecophysiological studies can be incorporated into breeding programs or agricultural zoning strategies.

  19. Doses and application seasons of potassium on soybean crop in succession the cover crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilton Ferreira Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Potassium (K is the second nutrient that is required in larger amounts by soybean crop. With the use of high doses of that nutrient and increase of no-tillage areas in last years, some changes occurred in ways of this nutrient application, as well as the introduction of cover crops in the system for straw formation. Due those facts, the aim with this work was to study doses and times of potassium application for soybean sowed as succession for cover crops in no-tillage system, in a clayey Distrofic Red Latosol, in cerrado region. The experimental design was a randomized block with treatments arranged in 3x3x5 factorial scheme, with the following factors, cover crops: Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum and Proso millet (Panicum miliaceum and a control (fallow area, rates of K2O (0, 50 e 100 kg ha-1 and K2O application forms (100% in the cover crops; 100% at sowing of soybean; 100% in topdressing in soybean; 50% at sowing cover crops + 50% at soybean sowing; 50% at soybean sowing + 50% in topdressing in the soybean with four replicates. The Pennisetum glaucum as soybean predecessor crop yields higher dry matter content than the Panicum miliaceum in a short period of time. In clay soil with high content of potassium there was no response to the applied potassium levels. Full doses of potassium maintenance fertilization can be applied in the predecessor cover crop, at sowing or topdressing in soybean crop.

  20. Pea-barley intercropping and short-term subsequent crop effects across European organic cropping conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Gooding, M.; Ambus, Per

    2009-01-01

    . In the replacement design the total relative plant density is kept constant, while the additive design uses the optimal sole crop density for pea supplementing with ‘extra’ barley plants. The pea and barley crops were followed by winter wheat with and without N application. Additional experiments in Denmark......) to grain N yield with 25–30% using the Land Equivalent ratio. In terms of absolute quantities, sole cropped pea accumulated more N in the grains as compared to the additive design followed by the replacement design and then sole cropped barley. The post harvest soil mineral N content was unaffected...

  1. Predicting optimum crop designs using crop models and seasonal climate forecasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, D; de Voil, P; Hudson, D; Brown, J N; Hayman, P; Marrou, H; Meinke, H

    2018-02-02

    Expected increases in food demand and the need to limit the incorporation of new lands into agriculture to curtail emissions, highlight the urgency to bridge productivity gaps, increase farmers profits and manage risks in dryland cropping. A way to bridge those gaps is to identify optimum combination of genetics (G), and agronomic managements (M) i.e. crop designs (GxM), for the prevailing and expected growing environment (E). Our understanding of crop stress physiology indicates that in hindsight, those optimum crop designs should be known, while the main problem is to predict relevant attributes of the E, at the time of sowing, so that optimum GxM combinations could be informed. Here we test our capacity to inform that "hindsight", by linking a tested crop model (APSIM) with a skillful seasonal climate forecasting system, to answer "What is the value of the skill in seasonal climate forecasting, to inform crop designs?" Results showed that the GCM POAMA-2 was reliable and skillful, and that when linked with APSIM, optimum crop designs could be informed. We conclude that reliable and skillful GCMs that are easily interfaced with crop simulation models, can be used to inform optimum crop designs, increase farmers profits and reduce risks.

  2. New indicators for global crop monitoring in CropWatch -case study in North China Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingfang, Wu; Miao, Zhang; Hongwei, Zeng; Guoshui, Liu; Sheng, Chang; Gommes, René

    2014-01-01

    CropWatch is a monitoring system developed and operated by the Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth (Chinese Academy of Sciences) to provide global-scale crop information. Now in its 15th year of operation, CropWatch was modified several times to be a timely, comprehensive and independent global agricultural monitoring system using advanced remote sensing technology. Currently CropWatch is being upgraded with new indicators based on new sensors, especially those on board of China Environmental Satellite (HJ-1 CCD), the Medium Resolution Spectral Imager (MERSI) on Chinese meteorological satellite (FY-3A) and cloud classification products of FY-2. With new satellite data, CropWatch will generate new indicators such as fallow land ratio (FLR), crop condition for irrigated (CCI) and non-irrigated (CCNI) areas separately, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), radiation use efficiency for the photosynthetically active radiation (RUE PAR ) and cropping index (CI) with crop rotation information (CRI). In this paper, the methods for monitoring the new indicators are applied to the North China Plain which is one of the major grain producing areas in China. This paper shows the preliminary results of the new indicators and methods; they still need to be thoroughly validated before being incorporated into the operational CropWatch system. In the future, the new and improved indicators will help us to better understand the global situation of food security

  3. CWRML: representing crop wild relative conservation and use data in XML.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jonathan D; Kell, Shelagh P; Iriondo, Jose M; Ford-Lloyd, Brian V; Maxted, Nigel

    2008-02-25

    Crop wild relatives are wild species that are closely related to crops. They are valuable as potential gene donors for crop improvement and may help to ensure food security for the future. However, they are becoming increasingly threatened in the wild and are inadequately conserved, both in situ and ex situ. Information about the conservation status and utilisation potential of crop wild relatives is diverse and dispersed, and no single agreed standard exists for representing such information; yet, this information is vital to ensure these species are effectively conserved and utilised. The European Community-funded project, European Crop Wild Relative Diversity Assessment and Conservation Forum, determined the minimum information requirements for the conservation and utilisation of crop wild relatives and created the Crop Wild Relative Information System, incorporating an eXtensible Markup Language (XML) schema to aid data sharing and exchange. Crop Wild Relative Markup Language (CWRML) was developed to represent the data necessary for crop wild relative conservation and ensure that they can be effectively utilised for crop improvement. The schema partitions data into taxon-, site-, and population-specific elements, to allow for integration with other more general conservation biology schemata which may emerge as accepted standards in the future. These elements are composed of sub-elements, which are structured in order to facilitate the use of the schema in a variety of crop wild relative conservation and use contexts. Pre-existing standards for data representation in conservation biology were reviewed and incorporated into the schema as restrictions on element data contents, where appropriate. CWRML provides a flexible data communication format for representing in situ and ex situ conservation status of individual taxa as well as their utilisation potential. The development of the schema highlights a number of instances where additional standards-development may

  4. Estimating yield gaps at the cropping system level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilpart, Nicolas; Grassini, Patricio; Sadras, Victor O; Timsina, Jagadish; Cassman, Kenneth G

    2017-05-01

    Yield gap analyses of individual crops have been used to estimate opportunities for increasing crop production at local to global scales, thus providing information crucial to food security. However, increases in crop production can also be achieved by improving cropping system yield through modification of spatial and temporal arrangement of individual crops. In this paper we define the cropping system yield potential as the output from the combination of crops that gives the highest energy yield per unit of land and time, and the cropping system yield gap as the difference between actual energy yield of an existing cropping system and the cropping system yield potential. Then, we provide a framework to identify alternative cropping systems which can be evaluated against the current ones. A proof-of-concept is provided with irrigated rice-maize systems at four locations in Bangladesh that represent a range of climatic conditions in that country. The proposed framework identified (i) realistic alternative cropping systems at each location, and (ii) two locations where expected improvements in crop production from changes in cropping intensity (number of crops per year) were 43% to 64% higher than from improving the management of individual crops within the current cropping systems. The proposed framework provides a tool to help assess food production capacity of new systems ( e.g. with increased cropping intensity) arising from climate change, and assess resource requirements (water and N) and associated environmental footprint per unit of land and production of these new systems. By expanding yield gap analysis from individual crops to the cropping system level and applying it to new systems, this framework could also be helpful to bridge the gap between yield gap analysis and cropping/farming system design.

  5. The Effects of Cattle Manure and Garlic Rotation on Soil under Continuous Cropping of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changming; Wang, Yongqi; Ma, Jianxiang; Zhang, Yong; Li, Hao; Zhang, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Continuous cropping of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) can lead to reduced yield and quality. We aimed to determine the effects of cattle manure addition and rotation with green garlic to improve yield and reduce disease incidence in watermelon and to examine the effects on the biological and chemical characteristics of the soil. Field experiments were performed during 2012–2014 on land previously under two years of continuous watermelon cropping in northwest China. We examined three treatment combinations: watermelon and garlic rotation, cattle manure application before watermelon planting, and combined cattle manure addition and crop rotation. Watermelon monoculture was retained as a control. Watermelon yield was significantly higher and disease incidence was lower in the treatments than the control. The populations of soil bacteria and actinomycetes and the bacteria/fungi ratio increased significantly and soil enzyme activities were generally enhanced under treatments. Available nutrients and soil organic matter contents were much higher under experimental treatments than the control. Results suggest both cattle manure application and garlic rotation can ameliorate the negative effects of continuous cropping. The combined treatment of cattle manure addition and green garlic rotation was optimal to increase yield, reduce disease incidence and enhance soil quality. PMID:27258145

  6. The Effects of Cattle Manure and Garlic Rotation on Soil under Continuous Cropping of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruiping; Mo, Yanling; Liu, Changming; Wang, Yongqi; Ma, Jianxiang; Zhang, Yong; Li, Hao; Zhang, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Continuous cropping of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) can lead to reduced yield and quality. We aimed to determine the effects of cattle manure addition and rotation with green garlic to improve yield and reduce disease incidence in watermelon and to examine the effects on the biological and chemical characteristics of the soil. Field experiments were performed during 2012-2014 on land previously under two years of continuous watermelon cropping in northwest China. We examined three treatment combinations: watermelon and garlic rotation, cattle manure application before watermelon planting, and combined cattle manure addition and crop rotation. Watermelon monoculture was retained as a control. Watermelon yield was significantly higher and disease incidence was lower in the treatments than the control. The populations of soil bacteria and actinomycetes and the bacteria/fungi ratio increased significantly and soil enzyme activities were generally enhanced under treatments. Available nutrients and soil organic matter contents were much higher under experimental treatments than the control. Results suggest both cattle manure application and garlic rotation can ameliorate the negative effects of continuous cropping. The combined treatment of cattle manure addition and green garlic rotation was optimal to increase yield, reduce disease incidence and enhance soil quality.

  7. Nitrate leaching and pesticide use in energy crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Uffe

    2006-01-01

    Nitrate leaching measured below willow and miscanthus is very low from the established crops. Pesticide use in energy crops is low as well.......Nitrate leaching measured below willow and miscanthus is very low from the established crops. Pesticide use in energy crops is low as well....

  8. Herbicide-resistant crop biotechnology: potential and pitfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbicide-resistant crops are an important agricultural biotechnology that can enable farmers to effectively control weeds without harming their crops. Glyphosate-resistant (i.e. Roundup Ready) crops have been the most commercially successful varieties of herbicide-resistant crops and have been plan...

  9. Agroecology of Novel Annual and Perennial Crops for Biomass Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manevski, Kiril; Jørgensen, Uffe; Lærke, Poul Erik

    The agroecological potential of many crops under sustainable intensification has not been investigated. This study investigates such potential for novel annual and perennial crops grown for biomass production.......The agroecological potential of many crops under sustainable intensification has not been investigated. This study investigates such potential for novel annual and perennial crops grown for biomass production....

  10. Winter rye cover crop effect on corn seedling pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover crops have been grown successfully in Iowa, but sometimes a cereal rye cover crop preceding corn can reduce corn yields. Our research examines the effect of a rye cover crop on infections of the succeeding corn crop by soil fungal pathogens. Plant measurements included: growth stage, height, r...

  11. Winter cover crop effect on corn seedling pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover crops are an excellent management tool to improve the sustainability of agriculture. Winter rye cover crops have been used successfully in Iowa corn-soybean rotations. Unfortunately, winter rye cover crops occasionally reduce yields of the following corn crop. We hypothesize that one potential...

  12. 7 CFR 457.142 - Northern potato crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance provisions. 457.142... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.142 Northern potato crop insurance provisions. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2008 and succeeding...

  13. Estruturas automáticas para controle de água nos canais em lavoura de arroz irrigado Automatic structures for water control in channels on irrigated rice crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís G. H. do Amaral

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O Rio Grande do Sul apresenta a maior área irrigada do Brasil, devido principalmente à lavoura de arroz irrigado por inundação. Um dos fatores que contribuem para reduzir a eficiência de irrigação nessas lavouras é o baixo grau de controle exercido pelas estruturas de distribuição de água. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram projetar e construir dois protótipos de estruturas hidráulicas para controle automático de vazão em canais de irrigação e comparar sua sensibilidade de controle de vazão com a sensibilidade de duas comportas fixas. Os protótipos construídos - uma comporta hidromecânica automática e um regulador automático de vazão - foram instalados à entrada de um canal secundário, juntamente com uma comporta-gaveta e uma comporta-vertedor, que são as estruturas mais utilizadas para controle de vazão no RS. Provocou-se uma variação de 0,20 m na altura da lâmina de água a montante, determinando-se a vazão em cada estrutura. A menor variação de vazão com a alteração da lâmina foi de 5,6%, obtida com o regulador automático de vazão, seguido da comporta-gaveta com 23,7%, da comporta hidromecânica com 30,5%, e da comporta vertedor com 1.177,2%.In Brazil, the State that presents the largest extension of irrigated lands is Rio Grande do Sul, mainly due to rice that grows under flooded conditions. One of the factors that contribute to decrease the efficiency of irrigation is the low degree of control obtained with the structures used on water distribution. The objectives of this work were to design and build two hydraulic structures for automatic flow control on irrigation channels, and to compare the flow control sensitivity of the built prototypes with two types of gates that are widely used in the rice fields at the Rio Grande do Sul State. The constructed prototypes - a hydro-mechanical gate and an automatic flow regulator - were installed at the entrance of a secondary channel, next to a sluice gate and

  14. Cover crops and crop residue management under no-till systems improve soils and environmental quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Wegner, Brianna; Vahyala, Ibrahim; Osborne, Shannon; Schumacher, Thomas; Lehman, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Crop residue harvest is a common practice in the Midwestern USA for the ethanol production. However, excessive removal of crop residues from the soil surface contributes to the degradation of important soil quality indicators such as soil organic carbon (SOC). Addition of a cover crop may help to mitigate these negative effects. The present study was set up to assess the impacts of corn (Zea mays L.) residue removal and cover crops on various soil quality indicators and surface greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes. The study was being conducted on plots located at the North Central Agricultural Research Laboratory (NCARL) in Brookings, South Dakota, USA. Three plots of a corn and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) rotation under a no-till (NT) system are being monitored for soils and surface gas fluxes. Each plot has three residue removal (high residue removal, HRR; medium residue removal, MRR; and low residue removal, LRR) treatments and two cover crops (cover crops and no cover crops) treatments. Both corn and soybean are represented every year. Gas flux measurements were taken weekly using a closed static chamber method. Data show that residue removal significantly impacted soil quality indicators while more time was needed for an affect from cover crop treatments to be noticed. The LRR treatment resulted in higher SOC concentrations, increased aggregate stability, and increased microbial activity. The LRR treatment also increased soil organic matter (SOM) and particulate organic matter (POM) concentrations. Cover crops used in HRR (high corn residue removal) improved SOC (27 g kg-1) by 6% compared to that without cover crops (25.4 g kg-1). Cover crops significantly impacted POM concentration directly after the residue removal treatments were applied in 2012. CO2 fluxes were observed to increase as temperature increased, while N2O fluxes increased as soil moisture increased. CH4 fluxes were responsive to both increases in temperature and moisture. On average, soils under

  15. Quantifying the Impact of Tropospheric Ozone on Crops Productivity at regional scale using JULES-crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, F.

    2016-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) is the third most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas. It is causing significant crop production losses. Currently, O3 concentrations are projected to increase globally, which could have a significant impact on food security. The Joint UK Land Environment Simulator modified to include crops (JULES-crop) is used here to quantify the impacts of tropospheric O3 on crop production at the regional scale until 2100. We evaluate JULES-crop against the Soybean Free-Air-Concentration-Enrichment (SoyFACE) experiment in Illinois, USA. Experimental data from SoyFACE and various literature sources is used to calibrate the parameters for soybean and ozone damage parameters in soybean in JULES-crop. The calibrated model is then applied for a transient factorial set of JULES-crop simulations over 1960-2005. Simulated yield changes are attributed to individual environmental drivers, CO2, O3 and climate change, across regions and for different crops. A mixed scenario of RCP 2.6 and RCP 8.5 climatology and ozone are simulated to explore the implication of policy. The overall findings are that regions with high ozone concentration such as China and India suffer the most from ozone damage, soybean is more sensitive to O3 than other crops. JULES-crop predicts CO2 fertilisation would increase the productivity of vegetation. This effect, however, is masked by the negative impacts of tropospheric O3. Using data from FAO and JULES-crop estimated that ozone damage cost around 55.4 Billion USD per year on soybean. Irrigation improves the simulation of rice only, and it increases the relative ozone damage because drought can reduce the ozone from entering the plant stomata. RCP 8.5 scenario results in a high yield for all crops mainly due to the CO2 fertilisation effect. Mixed climate scenarios simulations suggest that RCP 8.5 CO2 concentration and RCP 2.6 O3 concentration result in the highest yield. Further works such as more crop FACE-O3 experiments and more Crop

  16. Do cover crop mixtures have the same ability to suppress weeds as competitive monoculture cover crops?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brust, Jochen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of farmers use cover crop mixtures instead of monoculture cover crops to improve soil and crop quality. However, only little information is available about the weed suppression ability of cover crop mixtures. Therefore, two field experiments were conducted in Baden-Württemberg between 2010 and 2012, to compare growth and weed suppression of monoculture cover crops and cover crop mixtures. In the first experiment, heterogeneous results between yellow mustard and the cover crop mixture occurred. For further research, a field experiment was conducted in 2012 to compare monocultures of yellow mustard and hemp with three cover crop mixtures. The evaluated mixtures were: “MELO”: for soil melioration; “BETA”: includes only plant species with no close relation to main cash crops in Central Europe and “GPS”: for usage as energy substrate in spring. Yellow mustard, MELO, BETA and GPS covered 90% of the soil in less than 42 days and were able to reduce photosynthetically active radiation (PAR on soil surface by more than 96% after 52 days. Hemp covered 90% of the soil after 47 days and reduced PAR by 91% after 52 days. Eight weeks after planting, only BETA showed similar growth to yellow mustard which produced the highest dry matter. The GPS mixture had comparatively poor growth, while MELO produced similar dry matter to hemp. Yellow mustard, MELO and BETA reduced weed growth by 96% compared with a no cover crop control, while hemp and GPS reduced weeds by 85% and 79%. In spring, weed dry matter was reduced by more than 94% in plots with yellow mustard and all mixtures, while in hemp plots weeds were only reduced by 71%. The results suggest that the tested cover crop mixtures offer similar weed suppression ability until spring as the monoculture of the competitive yellow mustard.

  17. Can phosphorus application and cover cropping alter arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities and soybean performance after a five-year phosphorus-unfertilized crop rotational system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higo, Masao; Sato, Ryohei; Serizawa, Ayu; Takahashi, Yuichi; Gunji, Kento; Tatewaki, Yuya; Isobe, Katsunori

    2018-01-01

    Understanding diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) is important for optimizing their role for phosphorus (P) nutrition of soybeans ( Glycine max (L.) Merr.) in P-limited soils. However, it is not clear how soybean growth and P nutrition is related to AMF colonization and diversity of AMF communities in a continuous P-unfertilized cover cropping system. Thus, we investigated the impact of P-application and cover cropping on the interaction among AMF colonization, AMF diversity in soybean roots, soybean growth and P nutrition under a five-year P-unfertilized crop rotation. In this study, we established three cover crop systems (wheat, red clover and oilseed rape) or bare fallow in rotation with soybean. The P-application rates before the seeding of soybeans were 52.5 and 157.5 kg ha -1 in 2014 and 2015, respectively. We measured AMF colonization in soybean roots, soybean growth parameters such as aboveground plant biomass, P uptake at the flowering stage and grain yields at the maturity stage in both years. AMF community structure in soybean roots was characterized by specific amplification of small subunit rDNA. The increase in the root colonization at the flowering stage was small as a result of P-application. Cover cropping did not affect the aboveground biomass and P uptake of soybean in both years, but the P-application had positive effects on the soybean performance such as plant P uptake, biomass and grain yield in 2015. AMF communities colonizing soybean roots were also significantly influenced by P-application throughout the two years. Moreover, the diversity of AMF communities in roots was significantly influenced by P-application and cover cropping in both years, and was positively correlated with the soybean biomass, P uptake and grain yield throughout the two years. Our results indicated that P-application rather than cover cropping may be a key factor for improving soybean growth performance with respect to AMF diversity in P-limited cover

  18. Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Libraries of Pulse Crops: Characteristics and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kangfu

    2012-01-01

    Pulse crops are considered minor on a global scale despite their nutritional value for human consumption. Therefore, they are relatively less extensively studied in comparison with the major crops. The need to improve pulse crop production and quality will increase with the increasing global demand for food security and people's awareness of nutritious food. The improvement of pulse crops will require fully utilizing all their genetic resources. Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries of pulse crops are essential genomic resources that have the potential to accelerate gene discovery and enhance molecular breeding in these crops. Here, we review the availability, characteristics, applications, and potential applications of the BAC libraries of pulse crops. PMID:21811383

  19. Glyphosate sustainability in South American cropping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoffoleti, Pedro J; Galli, Antonio J B; Carvalho, Saul J P; Moreira, Murilo S; Nicolai, Marcelo; Foloni, Luiz L; Martins, Bianca A B; Ribeiro, Daniela N

    2008-04-01

    South America represents about 12% of the global land area, and Brazil roughly corresponds to 47% of that. The major sustainable agricultural system in South America is based on a no-tillage cropping system, which is a worldwide adopted agricultural conservation system. Societal benefits of conservation systems in agriculture include greater use of conservation tillage, which reduces soil erosion and associated loading of pesticides, nutrients and sediments into the environment. However, overreliance on glyphosate and simpler cropping systems has resulted in the selection of tolerant weed species through weed shifts (WSs) and evolution of herbicide-resistant weed (HRW) biotypes to glyphosate. It is a challenge in South America to design herbicide- and non-herbicide-based strategies that effectively delay and/or manage evolution of HRWs and WSs to weeds tolerant to glyphosate in cropping systems based on recurrent glyphosate application, such as those used with glyphosate-resistant soybeans. The objectives of this paper are (i) to provide an overview of some factors that influence WSs and HRWs to glyphosate in South America, especially in Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay soybean cropped areas; (ii) to discuss the viability of using crop rotation and/or cover crops that might be integrated with forage crops in an economically and environmentally sustainable system; and (iii) to summarize the results of a survey of the perceptions of Brazilian farmers to problems with WSs and HRWs to glyphosate, and the level of adoption of good agricultural practices in order to prevent or manage it. Copyright (c) 2008 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Future contributions of crop modelling : from heuristics and supporting decision making to understanding genetic regulation and aiding crop improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammer, G.L.; Kropff, M.J.; Sinclair, T.R.; Porter, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    Crop modelling has evolved over the last 30 or so years in concert with advances in crop physiology, crop ecology and computing technology. Having reached a respectable degree of acceptance, it is appropriate to review briefly the course of developments in crop modelling and to project what might be