WorldWideScience

Sample records for crop innovative economic

  1. Final Report for Harvesting a New Wind Crop: Innovative Economic Approaches for Rural America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan Innis; Randy Udall; Project Officer - Keith Bennett

    2005-09-30

    Final Report for ''Harvesting a New Wind Crop: Innovative Economic Approaches for Rural America'': This project, ''Harvesting a New Wind Crop'', helped stimulate wind development by rural electric cooperatives and municipal utilities in Colorado. To date most of the wind power development in the United States has been driven by large investor-owned utilities serving major metropolitan areas. To meet the 5% by 2020 goal of the Wind Powering America program the 2,000 municipal and 900 rural electric cooperatives in the country must get involved in wind power development. Public power typically serves rural and suburban areas and can play a role in revitalizing communities by tapping into the economic development potential of wind power. One barrier to the involvement of public power in wind development has been the perception that wind power is more expensive than other generation sources. This project focused on two ways to reduce the costs of wind power to make it more attractive to public power entities. The first way was to develop a revenue stream from the sale of green tags. By selling green tags to entities that voluntarily support wind power, rural coops and munis can effectively reduce their cost of wind power. Western Resource Advocates (WRA) and the Community Office for Resource Efficiency (CORE) worked with Lamar Light and Power and Arkansas River Power Authority to develop a strategy to use green tags to help finance their wind project. These utilities are now selling their green tags to Community Energy, Inc., an independent for-profit marketer who in turn sells the tags to consumers around Colorado. The Lamar tags allow the University of Colorado-Boulder, the City of Boulder, NREL and other businesses to support wind power development and make the claim that they are ''wind-powered''. This urban-rural partnership is an important development for the state of Colorado's rural communities

  2. Economic impact of GM crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Graham; Barfoot, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A key part of any assessment of the global value of crop biotechnology in agriculture is an examination of its economic impact at the farm level. This paper follows earlier annual studies which examined economic impacts on yields, key costs of production, direct farm income and effects, and impacts on the production base of the four main crops of soybeans, corn, cotton and canola. The commercialization of genetically modified (GM) crops has continued to occur at a rapid rate, with important changes in both the overall level of adoption and impact occurring in 2012. This annual updated analysis shows that there have been very significant net economic benefits at the farm level amounting to $18.8 billion in 2012 and $116.6 billion for the 17-year period (in nominal terms). These economic gains have been divided roughly 50% each to farmers in developed and developing countries. GM technology have also made important contributions to increasing global production levels of the four main crops, having added 122 million tonnes and 230 million tonnes respectively, to the global production of soybeans and maize since the introduction of the technology in the mid-1990s. PMID:24637520

  3. Agricultural innovations for sustainable crop production intensification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Pisante

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable crop production intensification should be the first strategic objective of innovative agronomic research for the next 40 years. A range of options exist (often very location specific for farming practices, approaches and technologies that ensure sustainability, while at the same time improving crop production. The main challenge is to encourage farmers in the use of appropriate technologies,  and  to  ensure  that  knowledge  about  sound  production  practices  is  increasingly accepted and applied by farmers. There is a huge, but underutilized potential to link farmers’ local knowledge with science-based innovations, through favourable institutional arrangements.  The same  holds  for  the  design,  implementation  and  monitoring  of  improved  natural  resource management  that  links  community  initiatives  to  external  expertise.  It is also suggested that a comprehensive effort be undertaken to measure different stages of the innovation system, including technological adoption and diffusion at the farm level, and to investigate the impact of agricultural policies on technological change and technical efficiency. This paper provides a brief review of agronomic management practices that support sustainable crop production system and evidence on developments  in the selection of crops and cultivars; describes farming systems for crop which take a predominantly ecosystem approach; discusses the scientific application of ecosystem principles for the management of pest and weed populations; reviews the  improvements in fertilizer and nutrient management that explain productivity growth; describes the benefits and constraints of irrigation technologies; and suggests a way forward. Seven changes in the context for agricultural development are proposed that heighten the need to examine how innovation occurs in the agricultural sector.

  4. Innovation, resources and economic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curzio, A.Q.; Fortis, M.; Zoboli, R.

    1994-01-01

    The book is concerned with the following items: 1. Technological Creativity and Institutions, 2. Innovation at Work in an Historical-Economic Perspective: Energy and Industrial Materials, 3. Scientific Revolutions and Strategies of Economic Supremacy: Advanced Materials and Biotechnologies, 4. Economic Growth and Agro-Food Policies in Key Problem Regions: Former USSR and LDCs, 5. Economic Growth and Natural Resources at Risk: Climate Change, Forests and Water and in Conclusion: Innovation and Resources in a Global Policy Perspective. Only one chapter have regard to energy problems: Energie efficient technologies: past and future perspectives. (UA)

  5. Replacing fallow by cover crops: economic sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, José Luis; Garrido, Alberto; Quemada, Miguel

    2013-04-01

    Replacing fallow by cover crops in intensive fertilized systems has been demonstrated as an efficient tool for reducing nitrate leaching. However, despite the evident environmental services provided and the range of agronomic benefits documented in the literature, farmers' adoption of this new technology is still limited because they are either unwilling or unable, although adoption reluctance is frequently rooted in low economic profitability, low water se efficiency or poor knowledge. Economic analyses permit a comparison between the profit that farmers obtain from agricultural products and the cost of adopting specific agricultural techniques. The goal of this study was to evaluate the economic impact of replacing the usual winter fallow with cover crops (barley (Hordeum vulgare L., cv. Vanessa), vetch (Vicia villosa L., cv. Vereda) and rapeseed (Brassica napus L., cv. Licapo)) in irrigated maize systems and variable Mediterranean weather conditions using stochastic Monte-Carlo simulations of key farms' financial performance indicators. The three scenarios studied for each cover crop were: i) just leaving the cover crop residue in the ground, ii) leaving the cover crop residue but reduce following maize fertilization according to the N available from the previous cover crop and iii) selling the cover crop residue for animal feeding. All the scenarios were compared with respect to a typical maize-fallow rotation. With observed data from six different years and in various field trials, looking for different weather conditions, probability distribution functions of maize yield, cover crop biomass production and N fertilizer saving was fitted. Based in statistical sources maize grain price, different forage prices and the cost of fertilizer were fitted to probability distribution functions too. As result, introducing a cover crop involved extra costs with respect to fallow as the initial investment, because new seed, herbicide or extra field operations. Additional

  6. Notes on innovation systems and economic development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundvall, Bengt-Åke

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives a brief history and background for the concept 'national innovation system' and discusses its usefulness for understanding and managing economic development.......This paper gives a brief history and background for the concept 'national innovation system' and discusses its usefulness for understanding and managing economic development....

  7. PRIORITY GUIDELINES OF INNOVATIVE NATIONAL ECONOMICS' MODERNIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Davletbaeva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical basis of innovative modernization of the industry as a background for sustainable development of the national economy of Kazakhstan is reviewed. The changes, that are in process in the whole system of production relations in Kazakhstan, are related to new stage of economics reform – to ensure sustainable economic growth based on industrial and innovational development of the industry.

  8. The economics of producing energy crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapouri, H.; Duffield, J.

    1993-01-01

    The US agricultural sector has an immense supply of natural resources which can be used to product energy. Production of energy from these resources could stimulate economic growth, improve environmental quality, and enhance energy security. However, producing feedstocks and converting biomass to energy require large amounts of capital, equipment, labor, and processing facilities. This paper looks at the costs and benefits of producing energy crops for fuel conversion. A review of studies and crop data show that the cost of growing and converting various feedstocks with current technology is greater than the cost of producing conventional fuels. Conventional motor fuels have a price advantage over biofuels, but market prices don't always reflect the cost of negative externalities imposed on society. Government decisions to invest in alternative energy sources should be based on research that includes the environmental costs and benefits of energy production. The future of biofuels will depend on the continuation of government research and incentive programs. As new technologies advance, the costs of processing energy crops and residues will fall, making biofuels more competitive in energy markets

  9. Agriculture and crop science in China:Innovation and sustainability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunbi Xu; Jiayang Li; Jianmin Wan

    2017-01-01

    The International Crop Science Congress (ICSC) is a regularly held event allowing crop scientists to integrate current knowledge into a global context and international applications. The 7th ICSC was held on August 14–19, 2016 in Beijing, China, with the theme "Crop Science: Innovation and Sustainability". As a companion production for this great congress, the nine papers collected in this special issue feature important fields of crop science in China. This editorial first briefly introduces the 7th ICSC, followed by a brief discussion of the current status of, constraints to, and innovations in Chinese agriculture and crop science. Finally, the main scientific points of the papers published in this special issue are surveyed, covering important advances in hybrid rice breeding, minor cereals, food legumes, rapeseed, crop systems, crop management, cotton, genomics-based germplasm research, and QTL mapping. In a section describing future prospects, it is indicated that China faces a full transition from traditional to modern agriculture and crop science.

  10. Perception of Innovative Crop Insurance in Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Molnar, T.A.

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide, extreme climate risks cause stakeholders in food supply chains to search for new risk management tools. In Australia, recently so-called crop yield simulation insurance has been introduced based on an integrated agrometeorological simulation model. Current uptake is relatively low,

  11. Crop farmers and pastoralists' socio-economic characteristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crop farmers and pastoralists' socio-economic characteristics influencing ... Journal of Agricultural Research and Development ... family size and farm size) influenced positively and significantly crop farmers and pastoralists land use conflict.

  12. Economic significance of viroids in ornamental crops (Book Chapter)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The economic significance of viroids in ornamental crops is less obvious than in food crops. Most serious direct impact is known for chrysanthemum stunt viroid in chrysanthemum and, to a lesser extent, for chrysanthemum chlorotic mottle viroid in the same crop. However, the majority of viroid infect...

  13. The Economics of Genetically Modified Crops

    OpenAIRE

    Matin Qaim

    2009-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops have been used commercially for more than 10 years. Available impact studies of insect-resistant and herbicide-tolerant crops show that these technologies are beneficial to farmers and consumers, producing large aggregate welfare gains as well as positive effects for the environment and human health. The advantages of future applications could even be much bigger. Given a conducive institutional framework, GM crops can contribute significantly to global food se...

  14. INNOVATION – CREATIVE MANIFESTATION WITH ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VALENTINA MUNTEANU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims at a correct perception of innovation, regarded as a present phenomenon, for which it is necessary to resorts to a series of notions and definitions, as well as to multiple perspectives. Thus, the definition of this phenomenon - in all that it captures in it - suggests dynamism and ease of communication. The complexity of the phenomenon of innovation is the creative capacity, around which there revolve all other matters concerning innovation. The present paper also illustrates the relationship between technology and economy, meaning that technical progress makes the economic system that created it. This, in turn, provides a more consistent support for changing technology. Economic factors play a major role in the development of technology, because they are interested in reducing costs, increasing productivity, sales volume, as well as goals that can be achieved through innovation. Successful entrepreneurs in an increasingly more competitive environment try to assert through value creation rewardingly new and different outputs, a fact which represents a change from what was known at the beginning of the business. In general, innovation and to the same extent technical and technological innovation has always accompanied the development of human society. Innovation has manifesting itself throughout history with different levels of intensity. Technical-scientific revolution, present in all spheres of human activity through the accelerated mutations that produce them, fundamentally influence the way in which orientation and innovation evolve.

  15. Energy-, environmental and economic evaluation of energy crops utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    This preliminary project is prepared in order to clarify the economic possibilities and rentability of energy crops. Examples of energy crop resource potential, environmental and economic consequences are calculated on the basis of existing data. Utilization of annual and perennial crops is evaluated with regard to the usual following of agricultural areas, and to the traditional power generation in a coal-fueled plant. Two technological options are discussed: one based on energy crop fuels supplementing the conventional coal fuel, and the other based on a separate biomass-fueled boiler, connected to the conventional coal-fueled unit. Implementation of the main project,following the preliminary one will permit to estimate the future prospects and strategies of energy crop utilization as a profitable energy resource. (EG)

  16. INNOVATION ASPECTS OF THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Veselovsky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the problems of economic increase and development under the conditions for the growth of crisis phenomena in the economy of Russia is investigated. Are analyzed the factors, which infl uence economic of the development of state and guarantee of its steady increase. Is examined the integral approach in conducting of economic reforms, which is based to the use of innovation developments and new forms of management of control. They are given to recommendation regarding conducting of the necessary reforms in the systems of management, planning, of organizing of labor, of circulation of money and crediting, taxation and other systems, which have the direct and defi ned by example eff ect on economic development. Is emphasized that for steady economic development is, in the first place, necessary further integration of Russia in the world community, the adjusting of mutually benefi cial intergovermental connections, the exchange, by scientific, technical and economic information, the free motion of labor and capital.Purposes / tasks. The purpose of article is a study of the factors of influencing the economic development in build-up conditions crisis phenomena and the development of the proposals, which ensure economic increase and development.Article tasks: to investigate and to isolate the growth factors, under the conditions of the being deteriorated economic situation, which is expedient to use with the solution of the problem of economic development, the application of innovation developments and new forms of management of control.Methodology. With conducting of the present investigation by the basic sources of initial data served the materials of the state statistics and other information sources. The comparative methods of analysis and synthesis are assumed as the basis of systematic developments.Results. The need for the complex conducting of economic reforms is revealed. The influence of new technologies on the development of

  17. Economics-based optimal control of greenhouse tomato crop production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tap, F.

    2000-01-01

    The design and testing of an optimal control algorithm, based on scientific models of greenhouse and tomato crop and an economic criterion (goal function), to control greenhouse climate, is described. An important characteristic of this control is that it aims at maximising an economic

  18. Optimal weed management in crop rotations: incorporating economics is crucial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den F.; Gilligan, C.A.; Lemmen-Gerdessen, van J.C.; Gregoire, L.A.H.; Bosch, van den F.

    2010-01-01

    Although the effects of crop rotation sequence and length on weed population dynamics have been studied, it is not clear whether or not the best strategy, from a weed population dynamics point of view, is also the economic optimal strategy. It is also not clear which biological and economic

  19. Cultural Challenges of Social-Economic Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajde, Domen; Ottlewski, Lydia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We introduce the concept of social-economic innovation (SEI) and point to cultural challenges involved in instituting SEI. In the second part of the paper, we delve into the alternative exchange system of “Housing for help” (HFH) to explore the challenging negotiation of roles and relations...... of the cultural processes and challenges involved in instituting unconventional social-economic systems. The paucity of existent research and the preliminary nature of our study call for further investigation. Practical implications The study informs individual and institutional efforts to negotiate...

  20. Assessing the ecological and economic sustainability of energy crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanegraaf, M.C.; Biewinga, E.E.; Bijl, G. van der

    1998-01-01

    The production and use of biomass for energy has both positive and negative impacts on the environment. The environmental impacts of energy crops should be clarified before political choices concerning energy are made. An important aid to policy-making would be a systematic methodology to assess the environmental sustainability of energy crops. So far, most studies on the environmental aspects of energy crops deal mainly with the energy production of the crops and the possible consequences for CO 2 mitigation. The Dutch Centre for Agriculture and Environment (CLM) has developed a systematic methodology to assess the ecological and socio-economic sustainability of biomass crops. The method is best described as a multicriteria analysis of process chains and is very much related to Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Characteristics of our methodology are the use of: definition of functional units; analysis of the entire lifecycle; definition of yield levels and corresponding agricultural practices; analysis of both ecological and economic criteria; definition of reference systems; definition of procedures for normalisation and weighting. CLM has applied the method to assess the sustainability of ten potentially interesting energy crops in four European regions. The results are used to outline the perspectives for large scale production of biomass crops with regard to the medium and long term land availability in Europe. For the crops considered, net energy budget ranges from 85 GJ net avoided energy per ha for rape seed for fuel to 248 GJ net avoided fossil energy per ha for silage maize for electricity from gasification. The methodology of the tool and its results were discussed at the concerted action ''Environmental aspects of biomass production and routes for European energy supply'' (AIR3-94-2455), organised by CLM in 1996. Major conclusions of the research: multicriteria analyhsis of process lifecycles is at present the best available option to assess the ecological

  1. Economic analysis of biomass crop production in Florida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmani, M.; Hodges, A.W.; Stricker, J.A.; Kiker, C.F.

    1997-01-01

    Favorable soil and climate conditions for production of biomass crops in Florida, and a market for their use, provide the essentials for developing a biomass energy system in the State. Recent surveys showed that there is low opportunity cost land available and several high yield herbaceous and woody crops have potential as biomass crops. Comparison of biomass crop yields, farmgate costs, and costs of final products in Florida and other states show that Florida can be considered as one of the best areas for development of biomass energy systems in the United States. This paper presents facts and figures on biomass production and conversion in Florida and addresses issues of concern to the economics of biomass energy in the State. (author)

  2. Economic analysis of biomass crop production in Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahmani, M.; Hodges, A.W.; Stricker, J.A.; Kiker, C.F. [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Favorable soil and climate conditions for production of biomass crops in Florida, and a market for their use, provide the essentials for developing a biomass energy system in the State. Recent surveys showed that there is low opportunity cost land available and several high yield herbaceous and woody crops have potential as biomass crops. Comparison of biomass crop yields, farmgate costs, and costs of final products in Florida and other states show that Florida can be considered as one of the best areas for development of biomass energy systems in the United States. This paper presents facts and figures on biomass production and conversion in Florida and addresses issues of concern to the economics of biomass energy in the State. (author)

  3. ECOGEN - Soil ecological and economic evaluation of genetically modified crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, P. H

    2007-01-01

    ECOGEN is a project funded by the EU under the 6th Framework Programme. Based on results obtained from soil biodiversity studies and economic evaluations, ECOGEN assessed the impact on soil organisms of different agricultural management practices, including those involving genetically modified (GM...... Policy were then evaluated. These two major factors - ecological and economic - were then integrated into decision support models for predicting the overall consequences of introducing GM crops into an agricultural system. Bt-maize line MON 810, resistant to a widespread insect pest called the European...... and economic results were integrated into a decision support model to facilitate the assessment of the impact of various cropping systems on soil quality and economics. In conclusion, the ECOGEN results indicate no difference of biological relevance in the impact on soil organisms between Bt-maize line MON 810...

  4. Economic assessment and comparison of acacia energy crop with annual traditional crops in Southern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasol, Carles M.; Rieradevall, Joan; Gabarrell, Xavier; Brun, Filippo; Mosso, Angela

    2010-01-01

    In several policy documents bioenergy is recognized as an important renewable energy source in Italy. The increase in energy prices represents an opportunity for lignocellulosic energy crops such as acacia and poplar. However, for Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) and Short Rotation Forestry (SRF) to be adopted by farmers, these crops must be perceived to be at least as profitable as crops that normally compete with these plantations for land use. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the economic feasibility of acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia) as an energy crop in a low input production regime in Italy and, in particular, to consider its competitiveness with wheat. Our results show that neither SRC and SRF techniques using assumed production costs (EUR3820 and EUR5285 ha -1 yr -1 ) nor biomass productions are able to obtain a positive profit (-EUR184 and -EUR172 ha -1 yr -1 ) that can convince farmers to invest in biomass plantations on their land. The results demonstrate that wheat is a more economically secure option than SRC or SRF. The viability of local biomass production in Italy and Southern Europe depends on the active support of the governments; without them, biomass is not economically competitive for the farmers when compared to crops such as wheat. (author)

  5. Influence Of Socio-Economic Factors On Crop Farmers' Production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigated the influence of socio-economic factors on crop farmers production in Ogba/Egbema/Ndoni Local Government Area of Rivers State. Purposive and stratefied random sampling techniques were used to select the locations of Green River Project, cooperative societies and respondents. Using structured ...

  6. Economic analysis of wildlife conservation in crop farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenum, van J.H.

    2002-01-01

    The general objective of this thesis was to present an economic analysis of wildlife conservation in Dutch crop farming. This general objective was broken down into 5 specific research objectives around which the research was organised: (1) selection and definition of appropriate indicators for

  7. State of Technological Development of Crop Production by Rural Territorial Economic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usenko Lyudmila N.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Low level of distribution of innovations and technological development in the Russian agriculture exerts a negative influence upon the basic branch of the economy of rural territories – crop production, which, by production factors, possesses the highest potential in the world. Moreover, Russia’s joining WTO has an effect on the strategy of the branch development and disposes to another, innovative way of formation of the competitive agrarian sector of economy. The article uses retrospective analysis of main factors of production and many-sided indicators of financial and economic activity of agriculture in order to assess the state of technological development and innovation potential of the crop industry in Russia. The article draws conclusions about influence of these factors and indicators upon formation and development of the innovative basis of the agro-industrial complex of Russia and identifies potential of its further growth. The article also focuses on interdependence of groups of indicators that form the current picture of the study. The article reveals weaknesses and negative factors that interfere with establishment of the innovative agrarian sector of Russian economy.

  8. Convergent innovation for sustainable economic growth and affordable universal health care: innovating the way we innovate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Laurette; Jha, Srivardhini; Faber, Aida; Struben, Jeroen; London, Ted; Mohapatra, Archisman; Drager, Nick; Lannon, Chris; Joshi, P K; McDermott, John

    2014-12-01

    This paper introduces convergent innovation (CI) as a form of meta-innovation-an innovation in the way we innovate. CI integrates human and economic development outcomes, through behavioral and ecosystem transformation at scale, for sustainable prosperity and affordable universal health care within a whole-of-society paradigm. To this end, CI combines technological and social innovation (including organizational, social process, financial, and institutional), with a special focus on the most underserved populations. CI takes a modular approach that convenes around roadmaps for real world change-a portfolio of loosely coupled complementary partners from the business community, civil society, and the public sector. Roadmaps serve as collaborative platforms for focused, achievable, and time-bound projects to provide scalable, sustainable, and resilient solutions to complex challenges, with benefits both to participating partners and to society. In this paper, we first briefly review the literature on technological innovation that sets the foundations of CI and motivates its feasibility. We then describe CI, its building blocks, and enabling conditions for deployment and scaling up, illustrating its operational forms through examples of existing CI-sensitive innovation. © 2014 The New York Academy of Sciences.

  9. Economics of trees versus annual crops on marginal agricultural lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, T.; Mohan, D.

    1982-01-01

    The results of a study conducted by the CMA in Rajasthan, selected as one of the major problem states because of its hot, arid and drought-prone character, and its present declining agricultural, livestock and fuelwood production coupled with an expansion of the area under annual crops. The present situation in Rajasthan is described and estimates made of returns from current land based enterprises (annual crops and livestock rearing) in comparison with the expected costs and returns of establishing suitable tree crops in the area. The financial and social feasibility of changing land use from annual to tree crops (while maintaining livestock production) is discussed, together with a consideration of some management and policy issues. Six tree species (Acacia tortilis, Albizzia (Albizia) lebbek, Prosopis cineraria, P. juliflora, Zizyphus species and Leucaena leucocephala) were identified as adaptable for the region and the economics of raising each over 1 felling cycle calculated. Depending on the species and cycle length, net annual returns were Rs 360-3270/ha (using a discount factor of 11%), with an expected return of Rs1680/ha if the species were allocated equally; this is considerably better than the expected returns from annual crops and standing farm trees (Rs-40 to Rs30/ha, with or without including the costs of family labor). Fifteen tables in the text and 9 in appendices give detailed breakdowns of costs and returns. 104 references.

  10. Gm crops: between biological risk and environmental and economic benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaparro Giraldo, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    The transgenic crops were the result of the application of recombinant DNA technology in agriculture. These crops were developed by transfer of foreign genes (transgenes) from any biological origin (animal, plant, microbial, viral) to the genome of cultivated species of plants. The crops genetically modified (GM) have been used in the world since 1996; up to December 2010 they counted to a billion hectares planted throughout the period. In just the past year 2010 148 million hectares were planted, grown by 15.4 million farmers in 29 countries. GM crops that are used in global agriculture are mainly soybean, cotton, corn and canola, which express transgenes derived from bacteria, and confer resistance to lepidopteron insects (ILR) or herbicide tolerance (HT; glyphosate and glufosinate ammonium). the first transgenic varieties containing only a single transgene, or simple event, while the current varieties express several transgenes, or stacked, conferring resistance to different species of Lepidoptera and coleopteran insects and tolerance to two different herbicides. In 2010 were planted in Colombia, 18.874 hectares of GM cotton, 16.793 hectares of GM corn, and 4 hectares of GM carnations and GM roses. GM corn and GM cotton were planted in Sucre, Cesar, Cordoba, Huila and Tolima. GM corn was planted in Antioquia, Valle del Cauca, Meta, Cundinamarca and Santander. Carnations and roses were planted in Cundinamarca. GM maize and GM cotton expressing ILR and HT features, as simple events or stacked. In the case of GM carnation and GM roses, these genotypes that express the color blue. Academia has tried to organize the debate on the adoption of GM crops around the analysis of biological risks and environmental vs environmental and economic benefits. Biological hazards are defined by the possible negative effects on human consumers or negative effects on the environment. The environmental benefits are related to reduce use of agrochemicals (insecticides and herbicides

  11. INNOVATION-LED ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT THROUGH MARKETING AND TAX INCENTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Surugiu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Specialists and decision-makers recognize the power of innovation in inducing economic growth and development of regions and countries. The question is how to sustain an innovative environment, in order to generate creative ideas for the market. The authors debate two solutions, namely marketing and fiscal policy, but we have to underline that there are other instruments available to induce innovativeness. This paper submits to the attention, the innovation as being one of the main forces which supports economic development and economic recovery. Governments which sustain enterprises’ innovation of products and process will have many chances to transform economies into developed and prosperous ones. But innovation by itself does not bring always success, and that is why marketers, economists and innovators must cooperate for favourable outcomes to occur.

  12. Modes of Innovation and the Prospects for Economic Integration in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article develops and applies a concept of modes of innovation to the issue of economic development and the integration of African economies. This concept, which is located in the systems of innovation approach to economic dynamics, is first developed in the context of the development of capitalism. It is then applied ...

  13. ECONOMIC AND MATHEMATICAL MODELING INNOVATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Makarov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents one of the mathematical tools for modeling innovation processes. With the help of Kondratieff long waves can define innovation cycles. However, complexity of the innovation system implies a qualitative description. The article describes the problems of this area of research.

  14. The economic essence and the nature of innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. Danilkova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the problems of the conceptual apparatus of innovation as an economic category, the basic aspects of the innovation activities of the organization, conducted a historical analysis of the evolution of the concept of “innovation”. Previously, it was customary to assume that the process is driven by innovative organizations that develop and offer innovations, today; society has come to the realization of the consumer – the driving force of innovation development. All the analyzed theory can be combined approach to “innovation” consideration in terms of business benefits. The authors of the twentieth millennium write about innovation because of constant movement and change of the market economy, which leads to the speedy preparation of pre – businessman benefits by satisfying needs. Based on the foregoing, we believe that it is necessary to distinguish the concept of “invention” and “innovation”. Under the invention, we mean a new technical solution. An innovation is the initiation of the idea of innovation as a way out of intellectual activity, i. e., a new product, a new method, a new solution. By innovation author implies innovation, ie an invention or innovation after the commercialization process, demanded and implemented - introduction to the market, has successfully sold and which brought a profit. Treat innovation as the development process is not entirely correct, because not every development is innovation, development or process cannot be measured qualitatively, and it is impossible to talk about innovation as a result of the process will not be launched on the market and consumer demand there as the final result of the innovative activity of the enterprise. Because such an interpretation does not meet the scientific and practical needs of economic systems, the resolution of the identified contradictions, perhaps for the demarcation of the terms “innovation” and “innovation process

  15. The system of management of innovative potential of economic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostyshak Mikhail

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to develop a mechanism for managing the innovative potential of a development organization, which is capable to ensure the transformation of real estate objects due to the changes in market needs. The main approaches to the development of innovative potential of economic systems are presented. Efficiency criteria of management of innovation potential of development organizations are formed. A model based on joint use of system and resource and potential approaches to the management of innovative potential of a development organization is formed. The analysis of modern tendencies of development of innovative potential of economic systems, based on rationalization of management of innovative potential of a development organization is conducted.

  16. Regional technical innovation suitability and economic growth in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Qing; Zhu, Dan; Brouwers-Ren, Liqin

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to use quantitative method to analyse the suitability of regional technical innovation and further compare its influence to regional economic growth in China. Based on literature review, the authors develop an evaluation index system containing four aspects (namely, innovators,

  17. Innovation and Diffusion of Site-specific Crop Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Pedersen, Jørgen Lindgaard

    2006-01-01

    Site-specific crop management or precision farming is a highly complex managementsystem for site-specific input application of lime, fertilizers and pesticides in arable farming. The Global Positioning System (GPS)is the backbone of the system. To conduct precision farming several technical systems...

  18. Innovation and diffusion of site-specific crop management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Pedersen, Jørgen Lindgaard

    2004-01-01

    Site-specific crop management or precision farming (PF) is a highly complex management system for site-specific input application of lime, fertilizers and pesticides in arable farming. The Global Positioning System (GPS) is the backbone of the system. To conduct PF several technical systems...

  19. Socio-Economic Environment as the Basis for Innovation Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Akhmetova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors carried out a correlation analysis of the socio-economic environment factors, which have a decisive influence on the territorial innovative development according to data for the year 2012. The paper discloses socio-economic determinants that provide to reinforce territory’s innovative development. These determinants are higher education development, improving of social and transport infrastructure, growth in small business and trade. The paper also carried out a dynamic analysis according to data for period of 2012 - 2014 in the group of regions (Russian Federation "Generators of Innovations" and disclosed the positive impact of selected key determinants on the regional innovative development. The results of this research may be used in the government practice of different territories (countries, regions for decision-making in the field of socio-economic development.

  20. Innovation systems, saving, trust, and economic development in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pamuk, H.

    2014-01-01

    The five essays in the dissertation explore the interaction between economic development in Africa and three economic concepts from different fields: decentralized agricultural innovation systems, trust and saving practices. A relatively new view to boost agricultural growth is the implementation of

  1. Innovation diffusion, technological convergence and economic growth

    OpenAIRE

    R. Andergassen; F. Nardini; M. Ricottilli

    2013-01-01

    The paper investigates the mechanics through which novel technological principles are developed and diffused throughout an economy consisting of a technologically heterogeneous ensemble of firms. In the model entrepreneurs invest in the discovery and in the diffusion of a technological principle and their profit flow depends on how many firms adopt the innovation and on how long it takes other entrepreneurs to improve it. We show that technological convergence emerges from the competition amo...

  2. Economic Aspects of Innovations in Energy Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Strielkowski, Wadim; Lisin, Evgeny

    2017-01-01

    Energy storage is emerging as a potential method for addressing global energy system challenges across many different application areas. However, there are technical and non-technical barriers to the widespread deployment of energy storage devices. With regard to the above, it seems crucial to identify innovation processes, mechanisms and systems (in a broad sense) that can allow energy storage to help meet energy system challenges, and also deliver industrial growth from technology developme...

  3. Economic significance of Viroids in vegetable and fruit crops (Book Chapter)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crop losses due to viroid infection occur in vegetable and field crops worldwide. In addition to potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd), several viroids in the family Pospiviroidae infect these crops and economic losses range from minimal to severe depending upon the viroid/host combination, the host c...

  4. INNOVATIVE ASPECTS OF ECONOMIC GROWTH (THE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei A. Orekhov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Principles of implementation of innovativetechnologies are positioned as a priorityarea for development in the managementof economic processes in the modernRussian economy. Declares that they are the economic growth of the country. This paper discusses the practice of building existing schemes of organization ofthe economy, which is why the definingelement of this process is the businessclass passengers - is the situation quitedependent and extremely nekomfortnomsituation.

  5. National and regional economic impacts of electricity production from energy crops in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlasblom, J.; Broek, R. van den; Meeusen-van Onna, M.

    1998-01-01

    Besides the known environmental benefits, national and regional economic impacts may form additional arguments for stimulating government measures in favour of electricity production from energy crops in the Netherlands. Therefore, we compared the economic impacts (at both national and regional

  6. Building Regional Economic Growth and Innovation Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafn, H. Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Like many states at the turn of the century, Wisconsin was faced with a multibillion-dollar deficit due to a sagging economy brought on by the dotcom bubble burst and the economic impact of the 9/11 terrorist attack on the World Trade Center. As the state legislature grappled with the budget crisis, blame was freely assigned. The state was at…

  7. Innovative farmers and regulatory gatekeepers: Genetically modified crops regulation and adoption in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinebo, Woldeyesus; Maredia, Karim

    2016-01-02

    The regulation of genetically modified (GM) crops is a topical issue in agriculture and environment over the past 2 decades. The objective of this paper is to recount regulatory and adoption practices in some developing countries that have successfully adopted GM crops so that aspiring countries may draw useful lessons and best practices for their biosafatey regulatory regimes. The first 11 mega-GM crops growing countries each with an area of more than one million hectares in 2014 were examined. Only five out of the 11 countries had smooth and orderly adoption of these crops as per the regulatory requirement of each country. In the remaining 6 countries (all developing countries), GM crops were either introduced across borders without official authorization, released prior to regulatory approval or unapproved seeds were sold along with the approved ones in violation to the existing regulations. Rapid expansion of transgenic crops over the past 2 decades in the developing world was a result of an intense desire by farmers to adopt these crops irrespective of regulatory roadblocks. Lack of workable biosafety regulatory system and political will to support GM crops encouraged unauthorized access to GM crop varieties. In certain cases, unregulated access in turn appeared to result in the adoption of substandard or spurious technology which undermined performance and productivity. An optimal interaction among the national agricultural innovation systems, biosafety regulatory bodies, biotech companies and high level policy makers is vital in making a workable regulated progress in the adoption of GM crops. Factoring forgone opportunities to farmers to benefit from GM crops arising from overregulation into biosafety risk analysis and decision making is suggested. Building functional biosafety regulatory systems that balances the needs of farmers to access and utilize the GM technology with the regulatory imperatives to ensure adequate safety to the environment and human

  8. The role of technological innovation in sustainable economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Andreea Constantinescu; Simona Frone

    2014-01-01

    As in science an accurate picture of present is highlighted from a future outlook, we should recognize the crucial role of new technologies and innovation to improve knowledge in this field. They may give guarantee of sustainable economic development, provided prioritization of research in some fields such as: information technology and communication, resource depletion and climate change. Technological innovation becomes support of all strategies and policies aimed at ensuring sustainable ec...

  9. Multi-Attribute Modelling of Economic and Ecological Impacts of Cropping Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohanec, M.; Dzeroski, S.; Znidarsic, M.; Messéan, A.; Scatasta, S.; Wesseler, J.H.H.

    2004-01-01

    Modelling of economic and ecological impacts of genetically modified crops is a demanding task. We present some preliminary attempts made for the purpose of the ECOGEN project "Soil ecological and economic evaluation of genetically modified crops". One of the goals of the project is to develop a

  10. Workplace Innovations as Reflected in the Romanian Economic Press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Leovaridis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Workplace innovations are designed to optimize production processes in firms and improve employees’ working conditions; few researches on this topic have shown that workplace innovations increased employees’ job satisfaction, as well as a sense of responsibility and autonomy, but also employees’ overall well-being, especially regarding to work–life balance and health. Workplace innovation includes aspects regarding work organization (job autonomy, self-managed teams, flexible working etc., organizational structure and systems (devolution of decision-making to employees, fairness and equality, supporting employee initiative etc., learning and development (high involvement innovation, staff learning and development, shared knowledge and experience etc., workplace partnership (social dialogue, representative participation, involvement in change, openness and communication, integrating tacit and strategic knowledge etc.. This paper aims to highlight the main characteristics of workplace innovations in Romanian firms, as they are presented in some economical, business and academic, journals in our country. The research methodology consisted of a content analysis performed on four Romanian economic journals two from academic area (Management and Marketing and Management Dynamics in Knowledge Economy and two from business area (Cariere and Biz. The dimensions of content analysis included the different types of workplace innovations and their effects on organizational performance as well as on employees’ quality of life at the workplace, the size and the source of capital and economic sector of firms that innovate in human resource management, barriers and drivers to the implementation of workplace innovations etc. The period for journals content analysis was 1 year, between January 1 and December 31, 2013. The paper contains a case study for each journal, including abstracts of the most relevant articles on the workplace innovations and

  11. Innovations as a Factor for Ensuring Economic Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim SANDU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In modern conditions of development of the competitive environment, one of the main ways to solve economic, social and environmental problems is to use the latest achievements of science and technology. Each enterprise seeks to ensure that economic growth is intense, i.e. to be a consequence of the application of more sophisticated factors of production and technology. The prerequisite for intensive growth is the use of innovative strategy in the practical activities of enterprises. The end result of innovations is the materialization and industrial development of innovation, the idea of which can be the scientific and technical activity, and marketing research to identify unmet needs. The innovations are an effective defensive reaction of the firm to the emerging threats of losing market place, constant pressure from competitors, the challenge of new technologies, shortening the life of products, legislative restrictions and changing the market situation. In the offensive version, the innovation is a mean of exploiting new opportunities to preserve or gain a competitive advantage. In the long term aspect, the company has no choice but to pursue an innovation policy, which is the only source of lasting success. The main objective of researching the innovation activity of any organization is to ensure competitiveness in market conditions in order to identify risk factors and ways to overcome them.

  12. Cropping system innovation for coping with climatic warming in China

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Aixing; Chen, Changqing; Feng, Jinfei; Chen, Jin; Zhang, Weijian

    2017-01-01

    China is becoming the largest grain producing and carbon-emitting country in the world, with a steady increase in population and economic development. A review of Chinese experiences in ensuring food self-sufficiency and reducing carbon emission in the agricultural sector can provide a valuable reference for similar countries and regions. According to a comprehensive review of previous publications and recent field observations, China has experienced on average a larger and faster climatic wa...

  13. Health and innovation: economic dynamics and Welfare State in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Grabois Gadelha

    Full Text Available Abstract: The effective enforcement of the access to healthcare as fundamental right requires an important theoretical and political effort at linking the often contradictory economic and social dimensions of development. This study suggests the need for a systemic view of policies related to the industrial base and innovation in health and the construction of the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS. The authors investigate the relations between health, innovation, and development, seeking to show and update the political, economic, and social determinants of the recent Brazilian experience with the Health Economic-Industrial Complex (HEIC. They discuss how the agenda for innovation and domestic industrial production in health gained a central place in the project for construction of the SUS. The article thus seeks to link inherent issues from the agenda for development, production, and innovation to social policy in healthcare, as observed in recent years, and based on this analysis, points to political and conceptual challenges for implementing the SUS, especially as regards strengthening its technological and industrial base. As a byproduct, the article develops an analytical and factual focus on the consolidation of the HEIC in Brazil, both as a dynamic vector of industrial development, generating investment, income, employment, and innovations, and as a decisive element for reducing vulnerability and structural dependence in health. The authors aim to show that strengthening the SUS and orienting it to social needs is an essential part of building a social Welfare State in Brazil.

  14. THE CONDITIONS OF TRANSITION TO INNOVATIVE TYPE OF ECONOMIC GROWTH

    OpenAIRE

    D. E. Sorokin

    2010-01-01

    Article is devoted theoretical-methodological problems of transition of the Russian economy to innovative type of economic growth. Realization of the problems set forth above are possible only in case of a support of the Russian economy on the fifth technological way and its abilities to pass to the sixth technological way.

  15. REPLACEMENT CONTROL OF INNOVATION MANAGERS: ORGANIZATIONAL AND ECONOMIC ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Gurina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper substantiates phases of specialists’ replacement ensuring innovation development of the national economy in Belarus, i.e. managers of innovation activity. Realization of replacement phases is presented within the system consisting of four blocks – objective, managing, controllable and providing. Analysis results of the current state of the innovation activity managers replacement system reveal main problems in interaction of its basic agents. The paper considers solution of specified problems in the context of formation of organizational and economic approaches to managing the innovation activity managers replacement system which presupposes modernization of organizational interrelations between state- run public authorities in the managing block and micro-incentive structures in the controllable block as well as the usage of the process approach in every phase of the replacement process. 

  16. Institutional Problems and Development Perspectives Innovative Entrepreneurship in Resource Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutskiy Vladislav, N.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper justifies the necessity to transit towards the mobilization model "triple helix" (strategic partnership of science and education organizations, business and government, the public. Innovation as a product of entrepreneurship permeate the system of relations from top to bottom – from more efficient ways of doing home Ho households, and to design mechanisms of state regulation of the economy. However, at the theoretical level, the relationship remains poorly studied in-novations as a function of entrepreneurship and entrepreneurship as social phenomenon in the system of institutional relations "business-authorities-society". Modern Russian economy has features of "dual enclave economy" with isolated more productive export-oriented resource sector. Innovative entrepreneurs do not become actors of change because of weak protection of property rights, manipulated state, weak sanctions for rent-seeking. The transition from innovative system "technology push" (fundamental knowledge on demand of state towards innovation system "market pull" (innovations on demand of business is complicated within Y-matrix of competitive institutional environment. It could turn out to be more effective to transit to the mobilization model "triple helix" (strategic partnership of science and education organizations, business and government, the public in compliance with X-matrix of cooperative institutional environment of redistribution. This will allow to create the necessary mechanisms for the exchange of missing codified knowledge (for those who imitate innovations and tacit knowledge (for pure innovators in the cross-sectoral technological chains. The design of institutional change in compliance with real needs of participants of innovative processes requires formal analysis of the region economic development type through assessing its key spheres, revealing and modeling prevailing type of entrepreneurship as well as identifying the relationship between

  17. Some ecological and socio-economic considerations for biomass energy crop production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paine, L.K.; Undersander, D.J.; Temple, S.A.; Klemme, R.M.; Peterson, T.L.; Bartelt, G.A.; Sample, D.W.; Rineer, K.C.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to suggest a regional approach to ensure that energy crop production will proceed in an ecologically and economically sustainable way. At this juncture, we have the opportunity to build into the system some ecological and socio-economic values which have not traditionally been considered. If crop species are chosen and sited properly, incorporation of energy crops into our agricultural system could provide extensive wildlife habitat and address soil and water quality concerns, in addition to generating renewable power. We recommend that three types of agricultural land be targeted for perennial biomass energy crops: (1) highly erodible land; (2) wetlands presently converted to agricultural uses; and (3) marginal agricultural land in selected regions. Fitting appropriate species to these lands, biomass crops can be successfully grown on lands not ecologically suited for conventional farming practices, thus providing an environmental benefit in addition to producing an economic return to the land owner. (author)

  18. Can organic crops increase the economic potential for biorefineries?

    OpenAIRE

    Gylling, Morten; Jakobsen, Anders B.

    2017-01-01

    With the current cost and price relations, the profitability of biorefineries is still challenged. The use of organic crops, such as grass, in biorefineries can increase the profitability because organic products can be sold at higher prices.

  19. What are the socio-economic impacts of genetically modified crops worldwide? A systematic map protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Yi, J.; Lapikanonth, T.; Vionita, H.; Vu, H.; Yang, S.; Zhong, Y.; Li, Y.; Nagelschneider, V.; Schlindwein, B.; Wesseler, J.H.H.

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops have generated a great deal of controversy. Since commercially introduced to farmers in 1996, the global area cultivated with GM crops has increased 94-fold. The rapid adoption of GM technology has had substantial socio-economic impacts which a vast amount of

  20. Environmental and economic assessment of protected crops in four European scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torrellas, M.; Antón, A.; Ruijs, M.N.A.; Garcia Victoria, N.; Stanghellini, C.; Montero, J.I.

    2012-01-01

    In this study we analysed the environmental and economic profile of current agricultural practices for greenhouse crops, in cold and warm climates in Europe, using four scenarios as reference systems: tomato crop in a plastic greenhouse in Spain, and in glasshouses in Hungary and the Netherlands,

  1. Regional Innovation System And Local Economic Development In Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adiwan F Aritenang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In Indonesia, decentralization and globalization has introduced a new spirit for localism. Since decentralisation, regions have been motivated to accelerate economic development through local endowment and resources. The democratic Indonesia government has been interested to follow economy theories and case studies develop in the advance countries. Over the years, government policies have supported and strengthen technology development through industrial clusters and national and regional innovation systems. This research aims to explore current progress of Indonesia innovation system through industrial clusters. The research found the presence of industry clustering and very limited innovation system in Indonesia. The research argues that these activities has significant impact on employment growth, but does not increase the industry's value added.

  2. Innovative Entrepreneurship: a Source of Economic Growth in the Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Leonidovna Andreeva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the findings of the study on the role of innovative entrepreneurship in the regional economy. The analysis is based on the methodology developed by Hermann Simon, a German scientist who has coined the term ”hidden champions” describing the phenomenon of little-known successful companies that act as innovative growth engines in the German economy. Today, the economies in different countries are developing amid the ”new normal,” in which no expected recovery followed the global crisis of 2008. This makes it necessary to rethink the role of entrepreneurship during a prolonged recession. The authors proposed and tested the hypothesis that, in this environment, the economic growth in the country and the region is increasingly determined not so much by large businesses, but by many small innovative companies. To identify Russian ”hidden champions,” we studied more than 1247 companies listed in the Innovation and Investment Market, a specialized section of the Moscow Exchange, and included in the specialized Register of Business Entities that use nanotechnology. We identified specifically Russian features of innovative entrepreneurship related to national cultural and historical characteristics and the current policy of import substitution. The authors proposed their own method for assessing the innovative entrepreneurship as a source of economic growth in the Russian regions that defines five groups of innovative entrepreneurs (global market leader, one of the global market leaders, Russian market leader, one of the Russian market leaders, not the leader in the Russian market and compares them with large companies in terms of turnover and profit dynamics. Based on such criteria as ”number of ”hidden champions” and ”number of large enterprises per 100 thousand organizations,” we built a model for the ratio of ”hidden champions” to major companies in the Russian regions that identifies, for each criterion

  3. Economic Constitution, social democracy, innovation and economic culture of Basque Cooperativism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Larrazabal Basañez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the study of Constitutional Law, the author calls for more attention to be paid to the part in which almost all Constitutions set down economic models, the guiding principles of social and economic policy and economic and social rights. He makes this suggestion with a view to going beyond a formal democracy and moving towards a material democracy. For this purpose, he focuses on the values and economic culture of the cooperative movement and advocates inspiration in these values to innovate and search for a fairer economic and social model which will enable us to overcome the present crisis. Lastly, he poses some issues related to innovation in the specific contextof Basque cooperativism.Received: 06.07.2009Accepted: 08.07.2009

  4. Thermodynamics of long-run economic innovation and growth

    OpenAIRE

    Garrett, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    This article derives prognostic expressions for the evolution of globally aggregated economic wealth, productivity, inflation, technological change, innovation and growth. The approach is to treat civilization as an open, non-equilibrium thermodynamic system that dissipates energy and diffuses matter in order to sustain existing circulations and to further its material growth. Appealing to a prior result that established a fixed relationship between a very general representation of global eco...

  5. Modelling the economic tradeoffs between allocating water for crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-06-05

    Jun 5, 2009 ... for crop production or leaching for salinity management ... reduce the area irrigated under limited water supply conditions in .... same as ECe because the concentration of salts in the soil is .... to-scale (VRS) (Banker et al., 1984) DEA model. ... ensures that the interpolated input used for the reference units.

  6. ECONOMIC BACKGROUND CROP ROTATION AS A WAY TO PREVENT THE DEGRADATION OF AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevchenko O.

    2017-05-01

    recommended rotation of soil saturation with large crops of grasses and crops of solid cover, which makes it possible to avoid or minimize the growing row crops. Introduce a rotation of soil combined with contour reclamation of the territory, which includes, band allocation of agricultural crops, construction of various water-regulating structures meadow to the degree of degradation of soil and the steepness of the slope. This limits the fields are projected across the slope or parallel horizontally, and to combat deflation - across the direction of prevailing winds. The study crop rotation over time as a way of preventing the degradation of agricultural landscapes allowed to establish scientifically grounded crop rotation not only performs reclamation feature - provides protection from degradation of the soil and creates a favorable ecological environment in agricultural landscapes, but also can have significant economic efficiency. By comparison the actual amount of sales of crop considering the cost of its production in the administrative districts of Kyiv region (2703,4 million UAH with a forecast value of crop production while maintaining a crop pattern in the rotation with a corresponding set of crops (3075,8 million UAH proved that the economic effect of the introduction of scientifically grounded crop rotations in the region will be about 372,4 million USD, and additional income from 1 hectare of crop area – 322,8 USD. It is proved that, in addition to rotation for a successful fight against land degradation on lands occupied in agriculture also need to implement complex soil conservation measures to protect soil from degradation. To determine the economically justified soil conservation measures were examined the economic impact and effectiveness of each in current market conditions.

  7. Economics of wheat based cropping systems in rainfed areas of pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaliq, P.; Cheema, N.M.; Malik, A.; Umair, M.

    2012-01-01

    The Pothwar tract of rainfed area has enormous potential to meet incremental food grain needs of the country. However, a significant yield gap in wheat has been reported between yields of substantive and the progressive growers mainly due to poor management of soil, water and fertility issues. A field study was conducted at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad and the traditional wheat-fallow-wheat (W-F-W) cropping system was evaluated with the improved wheat-maize fodder-wheat (W-MF-W) and wheat-mungbean-wheat (W-MB-W) cropping systems. Two tillage practices, i.e. shallow tillage with cultivator and deep tillage with moldboard; and four fertilizer treatments viz., control (C), recommended dose of fertilizer for each crop (F), farmyard manure (FYM) at the rate -15 tha . The recommended doses of fertilizer for individual crop with FYM (F+FYM) were also included in the study to know their impact on the crops yield in the cropping systems. Economic analysis of the data revealed that the traditional wheat-fallow-wheat cropping system could be economically replaced with wheat-maize fodder-wheat cropping system even under drought condition and there will be no economical loss of wheat yield when planted after maize fodder. Application of recommended dose of fertilizer -1 along with FYM at the rate 5 tha will enhance the yield of wheat and maize fodder. The improved cropping system of wheat-maize fodder-wheat will help the farmers to sustain productivity of these crops, stable economic benefits and improvement in soil nutrients and organic matter over time. (author)

  8. The economic rationale for investing decisions innovative projects rationalization of investments for innovative projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. O. Zhitinskaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article provides a selection of methods for determining the feasibility of an investment-innovative project. Estimated indicators are identified analytically, on their basis a conclusion is made about the economic efficiency and feasibility of the project, which is the basis of its competitiveness. Such growth analytics is necessary, since the social and economic development of the country and the region largely depends on the investment climate, which is facilitated by the legislation of the Russian Federation (the Tax Code of the Russian Federation, the law of the Russian Federation on the regulation of investment activities, etc.. Since competitiveness is also determined by the economic feasibility and financial solvency of innovative projects, modern information and software, as well as the methodology for project appraisal and the corresponding order of their implementation, are needed. In the Russian Federation, a method is used to assess the efficiency of capital investments in capitalist countries, as well as the methodology of economic (competitive analysis of investment-innovative projects. The basis of the method is that reimbursement of investments occurs in two economic forms: net profit and depreciation (net income. Of the numerous methods for assessing the feasibility of investment, the most often used along with discount methods (taking into account the factor of money changes over time, statistical methods with determining the payback period and the average rate of return on investment. Defined indicators: the net present value (NPV and the internal rate of return (IRR. The methodology specified in the article is useful to the investor in order to rationalize investment flows, helps to achieve the maximum IRR. The implementation of the innovative project serves the competitiveness of the manufacturing enterprise by increasing the technical and technological levels of the products.

  9. Socio-economic research for innovative energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Yuichi [Tokyo Univ., High Temperature Plasma Center, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan); Okano, Kunihiko [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    2006-10-15

    In the 21st century global environment and energy issues become very important, and this is characterized by the long-term (in the scale of a few tens years) and world-wide issue. In addition, future prospect of these issues might be quite uncertain, and scientific prediction could be very difficult. For these issues vigorous researches and various efforts have been carried out from various aspects; e.g., world-wide discussion such as COP3 in Kyoto, promotion of the energy-saving technology and so on. Development of environment-friendly energy has been promoted, and new innovative technologies are explored. Nuclear fusion is, of course, a promising candidate. While, there might be some criticism for nuclear fusion from the socio-economic aspect; e.g., it would take long time and huge cost for the fusion reactor development. In addition, other innovative energy technologies might have their own criticism, as well. Therefore, socio-economic research might be indispensable for future energy resources. At first we have selected six items as for the characteristics, which might be important for future energy resources; i.e., energy resource, environmental load, economics, reliability/stability, flexibility on operation and safety/security. Concerning to innovative energy technologies, we have nominated seven candidates; i.e., advanced coal technology with CO2 recovery system, SOFC top combined cycle, solar power, wind power, space solar power station, advanced fission and fusion. Based on questionnaires for ordinary people and fusion scientists, we have tried to assess the fusion energy development, comparing with other innovative energy technologies. (author)

  10. Site-adapted cultivation of bioenergy crops - a strategy towards a greener and innovative feedstock production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruf, Thorsten; Emmerling, Christoph

    2017-04-01

    Cultivation of bioenergy crops is of increasing interest to produce valuable feedstocks e.g. for anaerobic digestion. In the past decade, the focus was primarily set to cultivation of the most economic viable crop, namely maize. In Germany for example, the cultivation area of maize was expanded from approx. 200,000 ha in 2006 to 800,000 ha in 2015. However, this process initiated a scientific and public discussion about the sustainability of intense maize cultivation. Concerns addressed in this context are depletion of soil organic matter, soil erosion and compaction as well as losses of (agro-)biodiversity. However, from a soil science perspective, several problems arise from not site-adapted cultivation of maize. In contrast, the cultivation of perennial bioenergy crops may provide a valuable opportunity to preserve or even enhance soil fertility and agrobiodiversity without limiting economic efficiency. Several perennial energy crops, with various requirements regarding stand conditions, allow a beneficial selection of the most suitable species for a respective location. The study aimed to provide a first step towards a more strategic planning of bioenergy crop cultivation with respect to spatial arrangement, distribution and connectivity of sites on a regional scale. The identification of pedological site characteristics is a crucial step in this process. With the study presented, we tried to derive site information that allow for an assessment of the suitability for specific energy crops. Our idea is to design a multifunctional landscape with a coexistence of sites with reduced management for soil protection and highly productive site. By a site adapted cultivation of perennial energy plants in sensitive areas, a complex, heterogeneous landscape could be reached.

  11. Technological economics: innovation, project management, and technology transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, F R

    1981-06-01

    The relationship between economics and technology, as well as their interaction in production, productivity, project management, and in technology transfer processes are reviewed. Over the last two decades there has been an increasing interest by economists in the technologist's view of technical change and its mechanisms. The author looks at the zone between technology and economics, the technological economics, and discusses the theory of innovation recently sketched out by Nelson and Winter. The relevance to project management and technology transfer of contemporary writing by economists leads to the view that there are welcome signs of a convergence of the conceptual models now emerging and the practical problems of technology management and movement. Economists now seem more willing to come to terms with technology than technologists with economics. The economic significance of the multitudes of technically unglamorous activities in development work is seriously neglected as a result of over-emphasis on the spectacular technological break. If economic elegance were to be admitted to the criteria of success, one might get a significant improvement in the engineering of technological change. 29 references, 4 figure.

  12. Trade-offs between economic and environmental impacts of introducing legumes into cropping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz eReckling

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Europe’s agriculture is highly specialized, dependent on external inputs and responsible for negative environmental impacts. Legume crops are grown on less than 2 % of the arable land and more than 70 % of the demand for protein feed supplement is imported from overseas. The integration of legumes into cropping systems has the potential to contribute to the transition to a more resource-efficient agriculture and reduce the current protein deficit. Legume crops influence the production of other crops in the rotation making it difficult to evaluate the overall agronomic effects of legumes in cropping systems. A novel assessment framework was developed and applied in five case study regions across Europe with the objective of evaluating trade-offs between economic and environmental effects of integrating legumes into cropping systems. Legumes resulted in positive and negative impacts when integrated into various cropping systems across the case studies. On average, cropping systems with legumes reduced nitrous oxide emissions by 18 % and 33 % and N fertilizer use by 24 % and 38 % in arable and forage systems, respectively, compared to systems without legumes. Nitrate leaching was similar with and without legumes in arable systems and reduced by 22 % in forage systems. However, grain legumes reduced gross margins in 3 of 5 regions. Forage legumes increased gross margins in 3 of 3 regions. Among the cropping systems with legumes, systems could be identified that had both relatively high economic returns and positive environmental impacts. Thus, increasing the cultivation of legumes could lead to economic competitive cropping systems and positive environmental impacts, but achieving this aim requires the development of novel management strategies informed by the involvement of advisors and farmers.

  13. Crop residue recycling for economic and environmental sustainability: The case of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Saroj

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available India is one of the key producers of food grain, oilseed, sugarcane and other agricultural products. Agricultural crops generate considerable amounts of leftover residues, with increases in food production crop residues also increasing. These leftover residues exhibit not only resource loss but also a missed opportunity to improve a farmer’s income. The use of crop residues in various fields are being explored by researchers across the world in areas such as textile composite non-woven making processes, power generation, biogas production, animal feed, compost and manures, etc. The increasing trend in addition of bio-energy cogeneration plants, increasing demand for animal feedstock and increasing trend for organic agriculture indicates a competitive opportunity forcrop residue in Agriculture. It is to be noted that the use of this left over residue isoften not mutually exclusive which makes measurement of its economic value more difficult.For example, straw can be used as animal bedding and thereafter as a crop fertilizer. In view of this, the main aim of this paper envisaged to know about how much crop residue is left unutilized and how best they can be utilized for alternative purposes for environmental stewardship and sustainability. In this context, an attempt has been made to estimate the total crop residue across the states and its economic value though data available from various government sources and a SWOT analysis performed for possible alternative uses of residue in India. This paper also discusses the successful case studies of India and global level of use of crop residues in economic activities. Over all 516 Mtonnes of crop residue was produced in 2014-15 in India among which cereals were the largest producer of crop residue followed by sugarcane. The energy potential from paddy rice straw crop residue was estimated as 486,955 megawatt for 2014-15 and similarly for coarse cereals it was 226,200megawatt.

  14. Biofuel crops with CAM photosynthesis: Economic potential on moisture-limited lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Mark; Hartzell, Samantha; Porporato, Amilcare

    2017-04-01

    As the demand for food and renewable energy increases, the intelligent utilization of marginal lands is becoming increasingly critical. In marginal lands classified by limited rainfall or soil salinity, the cultivation of traditional C3 and C4 photosynthesis crops often is economically infeasible. However, in such lands, nontraditional crops with crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) photosynthesis show great economic potential for cultivation. CAM crops including Opuntia (prickly pear) and Ananas (pineapple) achieve a water use efficiency which is three fold higher than C4 crops such as corn and 6-fold higher than C3 crops such as wheat, leading to a comparable annual productivity with only 20% of the water demand. This feature, combined with a shallow rooting depth and a high water storage capacity, allows CAM plants to take advantage of small, infrequent rainfall amounts in shallow, quickly draining soils. Furthermore, CAM plants typically have properties (e.g., high content of non-structural carbohydrates) that are favorable for biofuel production. Here, for marginal lands characterized by low soil moisture availability and/or high salinity, we assess the potential productivity and economic benefits of CAM plants. CAM productivity is estimated using a recently developed model which simulates CAM photosynthesis under a range of soil and climate conditions. From these results, we compare the energy and water resource inputs required by CAM plants to those required by more traditional C3 and C4 crops (corn, wheat, sorghum), and we evaluate the economic potential of CAM crops as sources of food, fodder, or biofuel in marginal soils. As precipitation events become more intense and infrequent, we show that even though marginal land area may increase, CAM crop cultivation shows great promise for maintaining high productivity with minimal water inputs. Our analysis indicates that on marginal lands, widespread cultivation of CAM crops as biofuel feedstock may help

  15. Innovation, markets and uncertainty in Classical Economic Sociology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Herranz González

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article we address two important dimensions of the sociological approach to markets by such classics as Max Weber, Emile Durkheim, Georg Simmel and Charles Horton Cooley. We observe the way in which they have all analysed two important dimensions: the role of innovation and the role played by institutions. In particular, we look at the role of innovation in the division of labor and the expansion of markets, and analyze the role of institutions in the social construction of markets, the reduction of uncertainty and its performance in the circulation of commodities. The paper shows how they have all adopted an evolutionary and historical perspective and, with the exception of Weber, chosen a dynamic perspective (that is, a critical perspective using the neo-classical approach in economics.

  16. Innovative economic structures – support for development of urban systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Marian Buhociu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Training and development of urban systems (US is a main direction of territorial and regional development which requires multiple studies, including those of economic background. They should aim to highlight, on the one hand, the economic potential of geographical areas making up the urban system and secondly to assess development trends you need to focus their own resources and those that are to be attracted to getting a economic trend upward in that area. It is therefore very important a zonal configuration of the urban system by following the joint capitalization of existing human and material resources, including by building synergy effect to be achieved following the joint evolution of settlements in the US. Along with the development of US is required, from the economical point of view, to implement new forms of economic structures to directly potentate the development of the area through constant cooperation, innovation and transfer of know-how. Romania currently has seven major urban centers that were selected and were assigned the role of growth poles. There were also 13 designated urban growth poles, including Galati and Braila. Urban agglomeration formed by the two municipalities, located at a distance from each other of about 25 km, is the second largest in the country after Bucharest. There is currently underway specialized documentation to achieve an optimal configuration for US Galati-Braila. From the economic point of view in the respective area can be implemented new development structures of cluster (Porter, M.E.,2000 type aimed at achieving the competitiveness poles and which will constitute the true engine of economic development. These two new structures of economic development are characterized by the fact that they allow and provide the necessary conditions to attract the systems and modern technologies to build local innovation systems that can be integrated into similar systems at regional and even national level. It is

  17. Toward behavioural innovation economics – Heuristics and biases in choice under novelty

    OpenAIRE

    Kate Morrison; Jason Potts

    2008-01-01

    A framework for ‘behavioural innovation economics’ is proposed here as a synthesis of behavioural economics and innovation economics in the specific context of choice under novelty. We seek to apply the heuristics and biases framework of behavioural economics to the study of the innovation process in order to map and analyze systematic choice failures in the innovation process. We elaborate the distinction between choice under uncertainty and choice under novelty, as well as drawing out the ‘...

  18. Economic evaluation of cereal cropping systems under semiarid conditions: minimum input, organic and conventional

    OpenAIRE

    Pardo,Gabriel; Aibar,Joaquín; Cavero,José; Zaragoza,Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Cropping systems like organic farming, selling products at a higher price and promoting environmental sustainability by reducing fertilizer and pesticides, can be more profitable than conventional systems. An economic evaluation of three cropping systems in a seven year period experiment was performed, using a common rotation (fallow-barley-vetch-durum wheat) in a semi-arid rainfed field of Spain. The minimum input system included mouldboard ploughing, cultivator preparation, sowing and harve...

  19. Time-Varying Estimation of Crop Insurance Program in Altering North Dakota Farm Economic Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Coleman, Jane A.; Shaik, Saleem

    2009-01-01

    This study examines how federal farm policies, specifically crop insurance, have affected the farm economic structure of North Dakota’s agriculture sector. The system of derived input demand equations is estimated to quantify the changes in North Dakota farmers’ input use when they purchase crop insurance. Further, the cumulative rolling regression technique is applied to capture the varying effects of the farm policies over time. Empirical results from the system of input demand functions in...

  20. Towards a globally optimized crop distribution: Integrating water use, nutrition, and economic value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, K. F.; Seveso, A.; Rulli, M. C.; D'Odorico, P.

    2016-12-01

    Human demand for crop production is expected to increase substantially in the coming decades as a result of population growth, richer diets and biofuel use. In order for food production to keep pace, unprecedented amounts of resources - water, fertilizers, energy - will be required. This has led to calls for `sustainable intensification' in which yields are increased on existing croplands while seeking to minimize impacts on water and other agricultural resources. Recent studies have quantified aspects of this, showing that there is a large potential to improve crop yields and increase harvest frequencies to better meet human demand. Though promising, both solutions would necessitate large additional inputs of water and fertilizer in order to be achieved under current technologies. However, the question of whether the current distribution of crops is, in fact, the best for realizing sustainable production has not been considered to date. To this end, we ask: Is it possible to increase crop production and economic value while minimizing water demand by simply growing crops where soil and climate conditions are best suited? Here we use maps of yields and evapotranspiration for 14 major food crops to identify differences between current crop distributions and where they can most suitably be planted. By redistributing crops across currently cultivated lands, we determine the potential improvements in calorie (+12%) and protein (+51%) production, economic output (+41%) and water demand (-5%). This approach can also incorporate the impact of future climate on cropland suitability, and as such, be used to provide optimized cropping patterns under climate change. Thus, our study provides a novel tool towards achieving sustainable intensification that can be used to recommend optimal crop distributions in the face of a changing climate while simultaneously accounting for food security, freshwater resources, and livelihoods.

  1. Socio-economic impacts of energy crops for heat generation in Northern Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panoutsou, Calliope

    2007-01-01

    Bioenergy is considered to be an attractive option mainly due to driving forces of an environmental nature (e.g. climate change and sustainability issues). This is particularly the case for energy crops, which show higher productivity per land unit than their conventional counterparts. In addition, by comparison, such crops are more homogeneous in terms of their physical and chemical characteristics than residual resources that are often described as the biomass resource of the future. However, despite the long-term research and the considerable efforts to promote them, implementation is still rather slow across Europe. In this paper, two perennial energy crops, cardoon and giant reed, are evaluated in Rodopi, northern Greece, as alternative land use, through comparative financial appraisal with the main conventional crops. Based on the output of this analysis, the breakeven for the two energy crops is defined and an economic and socio-economic evaluation of a biomass district heating system is conducted. Results prove that energy crops can be attractive alternatives if they are properly integrated into existing agricultural activities and complement the current cropping options. As such, they provide raw material for local heat applications, thus resulting in increased income for the region and an increase in the number of jobs. (author)

  2. Homegrown or imported? Frugal innovation and local economic development in Zambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pesa, I.

    2015-01-01

    Innovation and entrepreneurship have the potential to stimulate economic growth. Yet it remains unclear whether top-down or bottom-up innovations are more likely to lead to local economic development. By looking at three cases of frugal innovation on the Zambian Copperbelt, in the spheres of

  3. Economic Efficiency of Innovative Materials for Sectors of Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroshnikova Tatyana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes an approach to the assessment of the economic efficiency of innovative anti-corrosion coatings for sectors of the national economy of the Russia on the basis of a synthesis of strategic sectoral and cost analysis. According to the authors, a comparative analysis of composite polymeric anticorrosion protecting coatings with similar products, estimating of direct and indirect economic effect and prognosis of implementation, forms a deeper understanding of the role of innovative technologies in the Russian state development of import substitution, the investment attractiveness of Russian industries in the new part technologies, applied research activities of private companies. Metal consumption sectors of the economy were chosen as an object of research, as they are characterized by the use of the following products: industrial construction and reconstruction, nuclear and thermal power, chemical, oil and gas, utilities, food processing, automotive, shipbuilding, aviation and rocket science, other industry. Basic modeling of implementation of anticorrosion protecting coatings in industrial enterprises was carried out on the basis of generating energy enterprises as one of the main end-users of anti-corrosive materials that also issue accurate statements.

  4. What Prompts Agricultural Innovation in Rural Nepal: A Study Using the Example of Macadamia and Walnut Trees as Novel Cash Crops

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    Andrea Karin Barrueto

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural innovations are important, especially as climatic conditions around the world have been subject to increasing change over the past decades. Through innovation, farmers can adapt to the changing conditions and secure their livelihoods. In Nepal, 75% of the population depends upon agriculture, which is impacted by climate change, migration, and feminisation. In this context, it is important to understand what drives a household to start agricultural innovation to increase its economic benefits and resilience in the face of multiple pressures. We sought a comprehensive understanding of these drivers by investigating the determinants of rural innovation, using macadamia and walnut trees as examples of novel, potentially commercialised cash crops. After conducting an in-depth household survey that divided farmers into those who cultivate nuts and those who do not, we analysed the socio-economic and cultural characteristics of each category using statistical tests and a multiple logistic regression. Our results show that the individual variables of ethnicity, wealth and “years of experience with fruit trees” correlate significantly with nut cultivation. The results of the multiple regression suggest that “years of experience with tree cultivation” and “having an income through fruit trees” most influence nut cultivation. Overall, we conclude that nut cultivation is an accepted and promising cash crop mostly grown by wealthier households, and that, for poor, landless, or female-headed households to benefit, alternative business models and new policies must be explored and developed. We further suggest that this is also true for other nut or other cash crop trees that have gained recent attention in Nepal such as almond, hazelnut, or pecan farming.

  5. Homegrown or imported? Frugal innovation and local economic development in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Pesa, I.

    2015-01-01

    Innovation and entrepreneurship have the potential to stimulate economic growth. Yet it remains unclear whether top-down or bottom-up innovations are more likely to lead to local economic development. By looking at three cases of frugal innovation on the Zambian Copperbelt, in the spheres of housing, water and energy, it will be argued that polycentric innovation (which connects local and international actors) is most likely to generate inclusive development. Yet even a polycentric approach d...

  6. How much is a bee worth? Economic aspects of pollination of selected crops in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Zych

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Scientific studies state that a considerable part of the economic value of crop plant production should be attributed to the free services of pollinating insects. Such calculations are available for several EU and North American countries, and the present paper evaluates the value of pollination services to 19 important Polish crop plants. It is estimated that the market value of 19 entomogamous crops reaches the sum of approx. 7.5 billion PLN (thousand million (approx. 1.8 billion EUR, 39% of this may be attributed to the insect activities, the most important being bees (the service value of approx. 2.5 billion PLN/0.6 billion EUR and dipterans (almost 0.3 billion PLN/ 74 billion EUR. The paper discusses also the challenges and pitfalls of similar estimations and the need for conservation actions directed on crop plant pollinators.

  7. Impact of mine waste dumps on growth and biomass of economically important crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiyazhagan, Narayanan; Natarajan, Devarajan

    2012-11-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of magnesite and bauxite waste dumps on growth and biochemical parameters of some edible and economically important plants such as Vigna radiata, V. mungo, V. unguiculata, Eleusine coracana, Cajanus cajan, Pennisetum glaucum, Macrotyloma uniflorum, Oryza sativa, Sorghum bicolour, Sesamum indicum, Ricinus communis, Brassica juncea, Gossypium hirsutum and Jatropha curcas. The growth rate of all the crops was observed in the range of 75 to 100% in magnesite and 15 to 100% in bauxite mine soil. The moisture content of roots and shoots of all the crops were in the range of 24 to 77, 20 to 88% and 42 to 87, 59 to 88% respectively. The height of the crops was in the range of 2.6 to 48 cm in magnesite soil and 3 to 33 cm in bauxite soil. Thus the study shows that both mine soils reflects some physical and biomolecule impact on selected crops.

  8. Sustainable innovation, business models and economic performance: an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montalvo Corral, C.

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable development requires radical and systemic innovations. Such innovations can be more effectively created and studied when building on the concept of business models. This concept provides firms with a holistic framework to envision and implement sustainable innovations. For researchers,

  9. Health and innovation: economic dynamics and Welfare State in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadelha, Carlos Augusto Grabois; Braga, Patrícia Seixas da Costa

    2016-11-03

    The effective enforcement of the access to healthcare as fundamental right requires an important theoretical and political effort at linking the often contradictory economic and social dimensions of development. This study suggests the need for a systemic view of policies related to the industrial base and innovation in health and the construction of the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS). The authors investigate the relations between health, innovation, and development, seeking to show and update the political, economic, and social determinants of the recent Brazilian experience with the Health Economic-Industrial Complex (HEIC). They discuss how the agenda for innovation and domestic industrial production in health gained a central place in the project for construction of the SUS. The article thus seeks to link inherent issues from the agenda for development, production, and innovation to social policy in healthcare, as observed in recent years, and based on this analysis, points to political and conceptual challenges for implementing the SUS, especially as regards strengthening its technological and industrial base. As a byproduct, the article develops an analytical and factual focus on the consolidation of the HEIC in Brazil, both as a dynamic vector of industrial development, generating investment, income, employment, and innovations, and as a decisive element for reducing vulnerability and structural dependence in health. The authors aim to show that strengthening the SUS and orienting it to social needs is an essential part of building a social Welfare State in Brazil. Resumo: A efetivação da saúde como um direito fundamental exige importante esforço, teórico e político, de articulação das dimensões econômicas e sociais, por vezes contraditórias, do desenvolvimento. Este trabalho indica a necessidade de um olhar sistêmico das políticas relacionadas à base produtiva e de inovação em saúde e à construção do Sistema Único de Sa

  10. Economic impact of GM crops: the global income and production effects 1996-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Graham; Barfoot, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A key part of any assessment of the global value of crop biotechnology in agriculture is an examination of its economic impact at the farm level. This paper follows earlier annual studies which examined economic impacts on yields, key costs of production, direct farm income and effects, and impacts on the production base of the four main crops of soybeans, corn, cotton and canola. The commercialization of genetically modified (GM) crops has continued to occur at a rapid rate, with important changes in both the overall level of adoption and impact occurring in 2012. This annual updated analysis shows that there have been very significant net economic benefits at the farm level amounting to $18.8 billion in 2012 and $116.6 billion for the 17-year period (in nominal terms). These economic gains have been divided roughly 50% each to farmers in developed and developing countries. GM technology have also made important contributions to increasing global production levels of the four main crops, having added 122 million tonnes and 230 million tonnes respectively, to the global production of soybeans and maize since the introduction of the technology in the mid-1990s.

  11. Crop production and soil nutrient management : an economic analysis of households in Western and Central Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salasya, B.

    2005-01-01

    The study examines how a combination of socio-economic and household factors influences farm household decisions on soil nutrient management and on crop production in two regions of Kenya (Kiambu and Vihiga). It further examines how these decisions impact on household objectives and on productivity.

  12. Economic damages of ozone air pollution to crops using combined air quality and GIS modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachokostas, Ch.; Nastis, S. A.; Achillas, Ch.; Kalogeropoulos, K.; Karmiris, I.; Moussiopoulos, N.; Chourdakis, E.; Banias, G.; Limperi, N.

    2010-09-01

    This study aims at presenting a combined air quality and GIS modelling methodological approach in order to estimate crop damages from photochemical air pollution, depict their spatial resolution and assess the order of magnitude regarding the corresponding economic damages. The analysis is conducted within the Greater Thessaloniki Area, Greece, a Mediterranean territory which is characterised by high levels of photochemical air pollution and considerable agricultural activity. Ozone concentration fields for 2002 and for specific emission reduction scenarios for the year 2010 were estimated with the Ozone Fine Structure model in the area under consideration. Total economic damage to crops turns out to be significant and estimated to be approximately 43 M€ for the reference year. Production of cotton presents the highest economic loss, which is over 16 M€, followed by table tomato (9 M€), rice (4.2 M€), wheat (4 M€) and oilseed rape (2.8 M€) cultivations. Losses are not spread uniformly among farmers and the major losses occur in areas with valuable ozone-sensitive crops. The results are very useful for highlighting the magnitude of the total economic impacts of photochemical air pollution to the area's agricultural sector and can potentially be used for comparison with studies worldwide. Furthermore, spatial analysis of the economic damage could be of importance for governmental authorities and decision makers since it provides an indicative insight, especially if the economic instruments such as financial incentives or state subsidies to farmers are considered.

  13. Organizational-economic maintenance of innovation activity in the region: comparative assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda Igorevna Antipina

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes the approach to evaluate the organizational-economic maintenance of innovation activity in the regions in quantitative and qualitative indicators, as well as the method to calculate the assessment of regulatory support of this activity. It justifies the author’s approach of comparative efficiency evaluation of innovation legislation and regions’ innovation development level. The article gives the qualitative estimation of regulatory support of innovation development in the regions that are innovation leaders. It singles out key directions to develop regulatory support of innovation activity, which encourage RF subjects’ innovation activity

  14. Farm Household Economic Model of The Integrated Crop Livestock System: Conceptual and Empirical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atien Priyanti

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available An integrated approach to enhance rice production in Indonesia is very prospectus throughout the implementation of adapted and liable integrated program. One of the challenges in rice crop sub sector is the stagnation of its production due to the limitation of organic matter availability. This provides an opportunity for livestock development to overcome the problems on land fertility through the use of manure as the source of organic fertilizer. Ministry of Agriculture had implemented a program on Increasing Integrated Rice Productivity with an Integrated Crop Livestock System as one of the potential components since 2002. Integrated crop livestock system program with special reference to rice field and beef cattle is an alternative to enhance the potential development of agriculture sector in Indonesia. The implementation on this integrated program is to enhance rice production and productivity through a system involving beef cattle with its goal on increasing farmers’ income. Household economic model can be used as one of the analysis to evaluate the success of the implemented crop livestock system program. The specificity of the farmers is that rationality behavior of the role as production and consumption decision making. In this case, farmers perform the production to meet home consumption based on the resources that used directly for its production. The economic analysis of farmers household can be described to anticipate policy options through this model. Factors influencing farmers’ decisions and direct interrelations to production and consumption aspects that have complex implications for the farmers’ welfare of the integrated crop livestock system program.

  15. Economic evaluation of a crop rotation portfolio for irrigated farms in central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge González U

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable use of productive resources by agricultural producers in the central valley of Chile should be compatible with economic results so that producers can select an appropriate rotation or succession of annual crops and pasture. The objective of this work was to evaluate the economic behavior of four food crop and supplementary forage rotations using indicators of profitability and profit variability. Productive data were used from a long-term experiment (16 yr in the central valley of Chile under conditions of irrigation. With productive data and information on historic input/output prices, the real net margin per rotation (RNMR and its coefficient of variation (CV were determined. The results indicated that the highest economic benefits and greatest economic stability were obtained with rotations that only included crops, namely sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. subsp. vulgaris-wheat (Triticum aestivum L.-bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.-barley (Hordeum vulgare L. (CR2 and corn (Zea mays L.-wheat-bean-barley (CR4. These rotations included crops with low CV of the net margin, such as wheat, barley and beans, with values between 0.31 and 0.34. The rotations with crops and pasture, sugar beet-wheat-red clover (Trifolium pratense L. (2 (CR1 and corn-wheat-red clover (2 (CR3 had lower net margins and more variability of this indicator. Red clover had the highest CV value (1.00. The selection of crops for rotations and their sequence were determining factors in the economic behavior of rotations, affecting the level of RNMR and the degree of inter-annual variability of this indicator. Thus, differences among rotations of 47% in net margin were determined (CR2 vs. CR1, which only differed in the replacement of pasture with red clover (2 by bean-barley. The economic analysis based on the net margin and its variability allow for discriminating among rotations, providing valuable information for producers in deciding which crops to use in rotations.

  16. Innovation Cluster and Economic Development in Bucharest Ilfov Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Adumitroaei

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous globalisation tendencies have created policy challenges for national and local governments. One response to these challenges has been a dramatic proliferation of development policies based on clusters of firms and industries. In EU Strategy 2020 – COM 546/6.10.2010 Initiative “An Union of Innovation”, COM 614/27.10.2010 Initiative “Industrial Policy in the Globalization Era” innovative clusters were considered the “engine” of economic development. They represent a framework for business development, collaboration between companies, universities, research institutions, suppliers, customers and competitors located in the same geographical area. Clusters of small and medium sized firms in developing economies are coming under increased pressure from competition as products mature, technology becomes widely available, and companies seek lower cost locations for production. In this paper, we consider that the cluster is an engine for economic development in our region and we need to have a regional strategy for clusters in Bucharest Ilfov Regional Development Plan for 2014-2020.

  17. Measuring the economic impact of climate change on major South African field crops: a Ricardian approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbetibouo, G. A.; Hassan, R. M.

    2005-07-01

    This study employed a Ricardian model to measure the impact of climate change on South Africa's field crops and analysed potential future impacts of further changes in the climate. A regression of farm net revenue on climate, soil and other socio-economic variables was conducted to capture farmer-adapted responses to climate variations. The analysis was based on agricultural data for seven field crops (maize, wheat, sorghum, sugarcane, groundnut, sunflower and soybean), climate and edaphic data across 300 districts in South Africa. Results indicate that production of field crops was sensitive to marginal changes in temperature as compared to changes in precipitation. Temperature rise positively affects net revenue whereas the effect of reduction in rainfall is negative. The study also highlights the importance of season and location in dealing with climate change showing that the spatial distribution of climate change impact and consequently needed adaptations will not be uniform across the different agro-ecological regions of South Africa. Results of simulations of climate change scenarios indicate many impacts that would induce (or require) very distinct shifts in farming practices and patterns in different regions. Those include major shifts in crop calendars and growing seasons, switching between crops to the possibility of complete disappearance of some field crops from some region.

  18. Development of Innovative Component for the Region’s Economic Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Markovna Golova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the development of innovative component for the region’s economic security. The hypothesis of the study is that in the context of globalization and development of network society, innovation is becoming one of the key elements ensuring the economic security of a region. We considered the relationship between the concepts of sustainable development and economic security. The authors show that currently, the economic security of the country directly depends on its place within the innovation chain. We substantiate that Russian Federation and its regions need to shift to the innovation development based on strengthening its own sources for long-term growth. The paper considers the basic theoretical and methodological problems in the formation of innovation component of the Russian regions’ economic security. We reveal the major essence and elements of the innovative component of the sustainable economic development of the region. The authors show that the formation of the innovative component of the region’s economic security demands the correlation of the strategy of regional innovation development and the production and technological type of territory. Additionally, this strategy should correlate with the desirable ways of production type transformation in the future, considering the trends of the world economy. We have highlighted the production and technological types of Russian regions as well as identified the features of relevant regional components for the innovation system of the Russian Federation to ensure sustainable development. The study defines the priority directions and goals for the development of economic security innovative component in the Russian regions. The authors’ calculations allowed to select a group of territorial subjects of the Russian Federation, which appear to be the most promising for the development of innovative activities for the elaboration of export-oriented high-tech industries

  19. Formation of Innovative Consciousness as One of the Key Aspects of Ensuring the Innovative Scenario of Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksey Zhanovich Yakushev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article is devoted to questions of formation of consciousness of decision-making persons, and consciousness roles at management of innovative development which is considered as a necessary condition of steady growth, especially in the conditions of the current crisis. Ensuring development of Russia as social and economic system, demands wide use of technical, organizational and administrative, and social innovations that can’t be reached without distribution of innovative consciousness. The consciousness determines character of decisions on an exit from a crisis situation, in particular by overcoming “a raw damnation”. Innovative consciousness allows to identify challenges adequately and to realize effective system of actions on the basis of the systematized threats. In these circumstances the consciousness becomes economic factor, one of the most important drivers of growth. Using the system and systemic-functional analysis, as well as the theory of crisis management, the author reveals a role of innovative consciousness in overcoming crisis situations, and also the factors defining formation of innovative consciousness in Russia. In this article the model according to which any consciousness, including innovative, is defined by cumulative influence of ideology, outlook, the social and economic stimulation given to the system corresponding to national model of management is offered. It is shown that in Russia, distribution of innovative consciousness as dominating for the persons making the decision can be reached at correction of the most mobile factors forming consciousness, ideologies, and socio-economic stimulation. Results of the work are intended for federal and regional authorities of Russia, managing directors of innovation development of economics.

  20. A New Direction for Technology-Based Economic Development: The Role of Innovation Intermediaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendis, Richard A.; Seline, Richard S.; Byler, Ethan J.

    2008-01-01

    Accelerating innovation to drive economic growth is the foremost goal for technology-based economic development organizations today. Realizing this goal through programmes is challenged by limited and outdated operating models. The authors outline their 21st Century Innovation Intermediary model, which pairs commercialization with regional…

  1. Assessing human health risks from pesticide use in conventional and innovative cropping systems with the BROWSE model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammoglia, Sabine-Karen; Kennedy, Marc C; Barriuso, Enrique; Alletto, Lionel; Justes, Eric; Munier-Jolain, Nicolas; Mamy, Laure

    2017-08-01

    Reducing the risks and impacts of pesticide use on human health and on the environment is one of the objectives of the European Commission Directive 2009/128/EC in the quest for a sustainable use of pesticides. This Directive, developed through European national plans such as Ecophyto plan in France, promotes the introduction of innovative cropping systems relying, for example, on integrated pest management. Risk assessment for human health of the overall pesticide use in these innovative systems is required before the introduction of those systems to avoid that an innovation becomes a new problem. The objectives of this work were to assess and to compare (1) the human exposure to pesticides used in conventional and innovative cropping systems designed to reduce pesticide needs, and (2) the corresponding risks for human health. Humans (operator and residents) exposure to pesticides and risks for human health were assessed for each pesticide with the BROWSE model. Then, a method was proposed to represent the overall risk due to all pesticides used in one system. This study considers 3 conventional and 9 associated innovative cropping systems, and 116 plant protection products containing 89 different active substances (i.e. pesticides). The modelling results obtained with BROWSE showed that innovative cropping systems such as low input or no herbicide systems would reduce the risk for human health in comparison to the corresponding conventional cropping systems. On the contrary, BROWSE showed that conservation tillage system would lead to unacceptable risks in the conditions of our study, because of a high number of pesticide applications, and especially of some herbicides. For residents, the dermal absorption was the main exposure route while ingestion was found to be negligible. For operators, inhalation was also a predominant route of exposure. In general, human exposure to pesticides and human health risks were found to be correlated to the treatment frequency

  2. Innovation, Decentralization, and Planning in a Multi-Region Model of Schumpeterian Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Batabyal, Amit; Nijkamp, Peter

    2014-01-01

    We study innovation and the resulting Schumpeterian economic growth that this innovation gives rise to in a model with N heterogeneous regions. For each region i where i=1,...,N, our analysis leads to five findings. First, we define the balanced growth path (BGP) allocations and the equilibrium of interest. Second, we stipulate the form of the innovation possibilities frontier that is consistent with balanced economic growth. Third, we derive the growth rate of the ith region in the decentral...

  3. Coupled Effects of Climatic and Socio-economic Factors on Winter Cropping in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, M.; Mondal, P.; Galford, G. L.; DeFries, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    India is predicted to be one of the most vulnerable regions in terms of agricultural sensitivity to future climate changes. Approximately 69% of India's population is rural, and over 55% of the working population relies on agriculture for sustenance and livelihoods. Indian smallholder farmers who own less than 2 ha of farmland represent 78% of the total Indian farmers and produce 41% of the country's food crops. These smallholder farmers are among some of the most vulnerable communities to climatic and economic changes due to limited access to technology, infrastructure, markets, and institutional or financial support in the case of adverse climatic events. Baseline information on agricultural sensitivity to climate variability will provide useful information for regional-level, and eventually state- and national-level, strategies and policies that promote adaption to climate variability. We use a decade of remote sensing analysis of cropping patterns and climatic factors along with census data for irrigation and demographic factors to understand winter cropping trajectories across agro-ecological zones in India. Findings from multiple agro-ecological zones indicate that there are three primary trajectories in winter cropping in India - increasing, fluctuating, and decreasing. In the Central Indian Highlands, for example, the most dominant trend is that of fluctuating cropped area, ranging between ~37,300 km2 in 2010 and ~21,100 km2 in 2013, which is associated with village-level access to irrigation and local labor dynamics. Clay soil type and increasing irrigation coverage were associated with intensification. Yet, suitable soil type and access to irrigation do not reduce vulnerability to high daytime temperatures that is negatively associated with winter crop cover. With pronounced winter warming projected in the coming decades, effective adaptation by smallholder farmers would require additional strategies, such as access to fine-scale temperature forecasts

  4. Crop production and economic loss due to wind erosion in hot arid ecosystem of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santra, Priyabrata; Moharana, P. C.; Kumar, Mahesh; Soni, M. L.; Pandey, C. B.; Chaudhari, S. K.; Sikka, A. K.

    2017-10-01

    Wind erosion is a severe land degradation process in hot arid western India and affects the agricultural production system. It affects crop yield directly by damaging the crops through abrasion, burial, dust deposition etc. and indirectly by reducing soil fertility. In this study, an attempt was made to quantify the indirect impact of wind erosion process on crop production loss and associated economic loss in hot arid ecosystem of India. It has been observed that soil loss due to wind erosion varies from minimum 1.3 t ha-1 to maximum 83.3 t ha-1 as per the severity. Yield loss due to wind erosion was found maximum for groundnut (Arachis hypogea) (5-331 kg ha-1 yr-1), whereas minimum for moth bean (Vigna aconitifolia) (1-93 kg ha-1 yr-1). For pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum), which covers a major portion of arable lands in western Rajasthan, the yield loss was found 3-195 kg ha-1 yr-1. Economic loss was found higher for groundnut and clusterbean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) than rest crops, which are about

  5. The economic impact of climate change on Kenyan crop agriculture: A Ricardian approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabubo-Mariara, Jane; Karanja, Fredrick K.

    2007-06-01

    This paper measures the economic impact of climate on crops in Kenya. We use cross-sectional data on climate, hydrological, soil and household level data for a sample of 816 households. We estimate a seasonal Ricardian model to assess the impact of climate on net crop revenue per acre. The results show that climate affects crop productivity. There is a non-linear relationship between temperature and revenue on one hand and between precipitation and revenue on the other. Estimated marginal impacts suggest that global warming is harmful for crop productivity. Predictions from global circulation models confirm that global warming will have a substantial impact on net crop revenue in Kenya. The results also show that the temperature component of global warming is much more important than precipitation. Findings call for monitoring of climate change and dissemination of information to farmers to encourage adaptations to climate change. Improved management and conservation of available water resources, water harvesting and recycling of wastewater could generate water for irrigation purposes especially in the arid and semi-arid areas.

  6. Economic incentives to promote innovation in healthcare delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luft, Harold S

    2009-10-01

    Economics influences how medical care is delivered, organized, and progresses. Fee-for-service payment encourages delivery of services. Fee-for-individual-service, however, offers no incentives for clinicians to efficiently organize the care their patients need. Global capitation provides such incentives; it works well in highly integrated practices but not for independent practitioners. The failures of utilization management in the 1990s demonstrated the need for a third alternative to better align incentives, such as bundling payment for an episode of care. Building on Medicare's approach to hospital payment, one can define expanded diagnosis-related groups that include all hospital, physician, and other costs during the stay and appropriate preadmission and postdischarge periods. Physicians and hospitals voluntarily forming a new entity (a care delivery team) would receive such bundled payments along with complete flexibility in allocating the funds. Modifications to gainsharing and antikickback rules, as well as reforms to malpractice liability laws, will facilitate the functioning of the care delivery teams. The implicit financial incentives encourage efficient care for the patient; the episode focus will facilitate measuring patient outcomes. Payment can be based on the resources used by those care delivery teams achieving superior outcomes, thereby fostering innovation improving outcomes and reducing waste.

  7. Cover crops effect on farm benefits and nitrate leaching: linking economic and environmental analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, José Luis; Vanclooster, Marnik; Garrido, Alberto; Quemada, Miguel

    2013-04-01

    Introducing cover crops interspersed with intensively fertilized crops in rotation has the potential to reduce nitrate leaching. However, despite the evident environmental services provided and the range of agronomic benefits documented in the literature, farmers' adoption of the technique is still limited because growing CC could lead to extra costs for the farm in three different forms: direct, indirect, and opportunity costs. Environmental studies are complex, and evaluating the indicators that are representative of the environmental impact of an agricultural system is a complicated task that is conducted by specialized groups and methodologies. Multidisciplinary studies may help to develop reliable approaches that would contribute to choosing the best agricultural strategies based on linking economic and environmental benefits. This study evaluates barley (Hordeum vulgare L., cv. Vanessa), vetch (Vicia villosa L., cv. Vereda) and rapeseed (Brassica napus L., cv. Licapo) as cover crops between maize, leaving the residue in the ground or selling it for animal feeding, and compares the economic and environmental results with respect to a typical maize-fallow rotation. Nitrate leaching for different weather conditions was calculated using the mechanistic-deterministic WAVE model, using the Richards equation parameterised with a conceptual model for the soil hydraulic properties for describing the water flow in the vadose zone, combined with field observed data. The economic impact was evaluated through stochastic (Monte-Carlo) simulation models of farms' profits using probability distribution functions of maize yield and cover crop biomass developed fitted with data collected from various field trials (during more than 5 years) and probability distribution functions of maize and different cover crop forage prices fitted from statistical sources. Stochastic dominance relationships are obtained to rank the most profitable strategies from a farm financial perspective

  8. Combining Biophysical and Price Simulations to Assess the Economics of Long-Term Crop Rotations

    OpenAIRE

    Murray-Prior, Roy B.; Whish, J.; Carberry, Peter S.; Dalgleish, N.

    2003-01-01

    Biophysical simulation models (e.g. APSIM) using historical rainfall data are increasingly being used to provide yield and other data on crop rotations in various regions of Australia. However, to analyse the economics of these rotations it is desirable to incorporate the other main driver of profitability, price variation. Because the context was that APSIM was being used to simulate an existing trial site being monitored by a farmer group Gross Margin output was considered most appropriate....

  9. ECOGEN - Soil ecological and economic evaluation of genetically modified crops (preface)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, P. H.; Griffiths, B. S.

    2007-01-01

    to integrate the combined soil ecological and economic effects of introducing systems including genetically modified (GM) crops by performing data mining and building decision support systems. The project involved eight academic partners from five EU countries and an input from Monsanto. Maize expressing......The biodiversity of, and processes performed by soil organisms make up a crucial part of the natural basis for agricultural production and, therefore, have subsequent economic consequences. ECOGEN was a research initiative funded under the European Commission Framework 5 programme, designed...

  10. Eco-innovation Dynamics and Green Economic Change: the role of sectoral-specific patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Maj Munch; Faria, Lourenco

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the features of Green Economic Change process at the meso-level, the greening of industries. We posit that, as for “traditional” innovations, it is possible to identify sectoral eco-innovation patterns and that these represent key but neglected factors in the dynamics...... of green economic evolution. . The paper represents early speculative conceptual work. We have posited that, as for “general” innovations, it is possible to identify sectoral eco-innovation patterns and that these represent key but neglected factors in the dynamics of green economic chance. The paper...... identifies seven specific characteristics of eco-innovation which form the basis for identifying 4 core hypothesis which may explain sectoral heterogeneity and identify likely sectoral eco-innovation leaders....

  11. The Role of Innovation in Fostering Competitiveness and Economic Growth: Evidence from Developing Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terzić Lejla

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the essential features determining the role of innovation in developing economies by examining the structure of innovation measures. The economic growth and competitiveness of developing economies are powerfully connected to its innovation status. The purpose of this paper is to examine the significance of innovation in driving economic growth per capita and competitiveness in selected developing economies. In order to determine the interconnection among the variables of innovation, competitiveness, and growth, assorted methodological measurement instruments have been applied. The data were collected from both primary and secondary sources. The results suggest the importance of specific innovation dimensions for prospective economic growth in developing economies. The identical measures responsible for fragile innovation are associated to the low composite measures of innovation accomplishment. This demonstrates the enormous disparity concentrated in every innovation aspect over time, specifically in innovation output and enterprise performances between the developing economies and the EU-28 average measures. The research results indicate the usage of appropriate economic instruments in diminishing the problems that developing economies are currently dealing with.

  12. Identifying obstacles and ranking common biological control research priorities for Europe to manage most economically important pests in arable, vegetable and perennial crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamichhane, Jay Ram; Bischoff-Schaefer, Monika; Bluemel, Sylvia; Dachbrodt-Saaydeh, Silke; Dreux, Laure; Jansen, Jean-Pierre; Kiss, Jozsef; Köhl, Jürgen; Kudsk, Per; Malausa, Thibaut; Messéan, Antoine; Nicot, Philippe C; Ricci, Pierre; Thibierge, Jérôme; Villeneuve, François

    2017-01-01

    EU agriculture is currently in transition from conventional crop protection to integrated pest management (IPM). Because biocontrol is a key component of IPM, many European countries recently have intensified their national efforts on biocontrol research and innovation (R&I), although such initiatives are often fragmented. The operational outputs of national efforts would benefit from closer collaboration among stakeholders via transnationally coordinated approaches, as most economically important pests are similar across Europe. This paper proposes a common European framework on biocontrol R&I. It identifies generic R&I bottlenecks and needs as well as priorities for three crop types (arable, vegetable and perennial crops). The existing gap between the market offers of biocontrol solutions and the demand of growers, the lengthy and expensive registration process for biocontrol solutions and their varying effectiveness due to variable climatic conditions and site-specific factors across Europe are key obstacles hindering the development and adoption of biocontrol solutions in Europe. Considering arable, vegetable and perennial crops, a dozen common target pests are identified for each type of crop and ranked by order of importance at European level. Such a ranked list indicates numerous topics on which future joint transnational efforts would be justified. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Impact of technological innovations on economic growth of nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eulalia SkawiŃska

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to review current achievements relating to the theory of innovative activity and innovation including concept of 'triple helix' and its extension by adding customer. A concept of horizontal and vertical product differentiation and access to sources of knowledge has been linked to product quality and innovative activity. Access to knowledge depends on the type of research and development (R&D activity and network governance between firms.

  14. Assessing the Economic Viability of Bio-based Products for Missouri Value-added Crop Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholas Kalaitzandonakes

    2005-11-30

    While research and development on biobased products has continued strong over the years, parallel attention on the economics and management of such product innovation has been lacking. With the financial support of the Department of Energy, the Economics and Management of Agrobiotechnology Center at the University of Missouri-Columbia has launched a pilot graduate education program that seeks to fill the gap. Within this context, a multi-disciplinary research and teaching program has been structured with an emphasis on new product and innovation economics and management. More specifically, this pilot graduate education program has the following major objectives: (1) To provide students with a strong background in innovation economics, management, and strategy. (2) To diversify the students academic background with coursework in science and technology. (3) To familiarize the student with biobased policy initiatives through interaction with state and national level organizations and policymakers. (4) To facilitate active collaboration with industry involved in the development and production of biobased products. The pilot education program seeks to develop human capital and research output. Although the research is, initially, focused on issues related to the State of Missouri, the results are expected to have national implications for the economy, producers, consumers and environment.

  15. Economic and physical determinants of the global distributions of crop pests and pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebber, Daniel P; Holmes, Timothy; Smith, David; Gurr, Sarah J

    2014-05-01

    Crop pests and pathogens pose a significant and growing threat to food security, but their geographical distributions are poorly understood. We present a global analysis of pest and pathogen distributions, to determine the roles of socioeconomic and biophysical factors in determining pest diversity, controlling for variation in observational capacity among countries. Known distributions of 1901 pests and pathogens were obtained from CABI. Linear models were used to partition the variation in pest species per country amongst predictors. Reported pest numbers increased with per capita gross domestic product (GDP), research expenditure and research capacity, and the influence of economics was greater in micro-organisms than in arthropods. Total crop production and crop diversity were the strongest physical predictors of pest numbers per country, but trade and tourism were insignificant once other factors were controlled. Islands reported more pests than mainland countries, but no latitudinal gradient in species richness was evident. Country wealth is likely to be a strong indicator of observational capacity, not just trade flow, as has been interpreted in invasive species studies. If every country had US levels of per capita GDP, then 205 ± 9 additional pests per country would be reported, suggesting that enhanced investment in pest observations will reveal the hidden threat of crop pests and pathogens. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. The invisible college of the economics of innovation and technological change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verspagen, B.; Werker, C.

    2003-01-01

    The research area of the economics of innovation and technological change (EITC) has flourished over the past decades. While it was a relatively marginal field of economics in the 1950s and 1960s, the field has now grown to become a major part of economic analysis. Because many of the early scholars

  17. Economic Growth, Convergence and Innovation in the EU Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiiu Paas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on quantitative assessment of the innovation’s role in explaining regional disparities and convergence in Europe. The empirical part of the study bases on the regional GDP pc and innovation indicators on the EU-27 NUTS2 level regions. Based on the selected set of initial regional innovation indicators and using the principal components factor analysis method, three composite indicators of regional innovation capacity are extracted. Estimating convergence equations, we noticed that regional innovations tend to increase inter-regional differences, at least during the short-run period. Thus, if regional income convergence is a policy target, additional policy measures beside innovation activities should be effectively implemented.

  18. ON THE ECONOMIC ESSENCE CONCEPT INNOVATION AND INNOVATION IN LAND TENURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tretyak A.M.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Transformation processes that take place at the present stage in Ukraine's economy, connected with the formation of innovative development model, which is directly based on obtaining of the new scientific results and their technological implementation in production, зproviding a real GDP increase is mainly due to the production and sale of high technology products. It is characterized by the presence of government policy and legislation designed to stimulate of innovation processes, the prevalence of intellectual nature of work on industrial and integrated technologies. Therefore, in performing the tasks to ensure the dynamic development of the economy's primary role is played by innovation and innovation activities. Innovative economy (knowledge economy, intellectual economy – type of economy based on innovation stream, on constant technological improvement, in manufacturing and exporting of high technology products with a high added value and themselves technologies. It is assumed that this is mainly income creates intelligence of innovators and scientists, information sphere, rather than material production (industrial economy and not the concentration of finance (capital. Innovative Economy includes six main components: education; science; human capital, including high quality of life and highly qualified specialists; innovation systemthat includes legislative framework and material components of the innovation system (technology transfer centers, business incubators, technology parks, technopolises, innovation centers, clusters, territory of development of high technology venture business etc.; innovative industry that implements innovations; favorable environment of functioning of scientific and educational system, work and life of innovators. The number of major components of an effective innovation economy in land management can be reduced to four: high-quality scientific and educational system in the broad definition; effective

  19. Economic and ecological impacts of bioenergy crop production—a modeling approach applied in Southwestern Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Georg Schwarz-v. Raumer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers scenarios of cultivating energy crops in the German Federal State of Baden-Württemberg to identify potentials and limitations of a sustainable bioenergy production. Trade-offs are analyzed among income and production structure in agriculture, bioenergy crop production, greenhouse gas emissions, and the interests of soil, water and species habitat protection. An integrated modelling approach (IMA was implemented coupling ecological and economic models in a model chain. IMA combines the Economic Farm Emission Model (EFEM; key input: parameter sets on farm production activities, the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate model (EPIC; key input: parameter sets on environmental cropping effects and GIS geo-processing models. EFEM is a supply model that maximizes total gross margins on farm level with simultaneous calculation of greenhouse gas emission from agriculture production. Calculations by EPIC result in estimates for soil erosion by water, nitrate leaching, Soil Organic Carbon and greenhouse gas emissions from soil. GIS routines provide land suitability analyses, scenario settings concerning nature conservation and habitat models for target species and help to enable spatial explicit results. The model chain is used to calculate scenarios representing different intensities of energy crop cultivation. To design scenarios which are detailed and in step to practice, comprehensive data research as well as fact and effect analyses were carried out. The scenarios indicate that, not in general but when considering specific farm types, energy crop share extremely increases if not restricted and leads to an increase in income. If so this leads to significant increase in soil erosion by water, nitrate leaching and greenhouse gas emissions. It has to be expected that an extension of nature conservation leads to an intensification of the remaining grassland and of the arable land, which were not part of nature conservation measures

  20. Pheromone dispensers, including organic polymer fibers, described in the crop protection literature: comparison of their innovation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Hans E; Langner, S S; Eisinger, M-T

    2013-01-01

    Pheromone dispensers, although known in a variety of different designs, are one of the few remaining technical bottlenecks along the way to a sustainable pheromone based strategy in integrated pest management (IPM). Mating disruption with synthetic pheromones is a viable pest management approach. Suitable pheromone dispensers for these mating disruption schemes, however, are lagging behind the general availability of pheromones. Specifically, there is a need for matching the properties of the synthetic pheromones, the release rates suitable for certain insect species, and the environmental requirements of specific crop management. The "ideal" dispenser should release pheromones at a constant but pre-adjustable rate, should be mechanically applicable, completely biodegradable and thus save the costs for recovering spent dispensers. These should be made from renewable, cheap organic material, be economically inexpensive, and be toxicologically and eco-toxicologically inert to provide satisfactory solutions for the needs of practicing growers. In favourable cases, they will be economically competitive with conventional pesticide treatments and by far superior in terms of environmental and eco-toxicological suitability. In the course of the last 40 years, mating disruption, a non-toxicological approach, provided proof for its potential in dozens of pest insects of various orders and families. Applications for IPM in many countries of the industrialized and developing world have been reported. While some dispensers have reached wide circulation, only few of the key performing parameters fit the above requirements ideally and must be approximated with some sacrifice in performance. A fair comparison of the innovation potential of currently available pheromone dispensers is attempted. The authors advance here the use of innovative electrospun organic fibers with dimensions in the "meso" (high nano- to low micrometer) region. Due to their unique multitude of adjustable

  1. Recent Transformations in China's Economic, Social, and Education Policies for Promoting Innovation and Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Weiguo; Plucker, Jonathan A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to review major Chinese policies related to creativity education. We first identify and describe the role of innovation and creativity in economic and social development policies over the past 20 years, then analyze how the call for enhanced Chinese innovation and creativity was actualized in corresponding education…

  2. The EU in 2040: Envisioning an Inclusive Powerhouse for Innovation and Economic Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foray, Dominique; Romme, Georges; Andersen, Per Dannemand

    2016-01-01

    The EU and its leadership is often criticized as lacking a coherent long-term vision on Europe’s future. Thus far, EU policy in the area of innovation and economic growth has been primarily framed as an effort to close the so-called innovation gap with USA, South-Korea, and other countries. In th...

  3. Innovation, Decentralization and Planning in a Multi-Region Model of Schumpeterian Economic Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batabyal, A.; Nijkamp, P.

    2014-01-01

    We study innovation and the resulting Schumpeterian economic growth that this innovation gives rise to in a model with N heterogeneous regions. For each region i where i = 1,…,N, our analysis leads to six findings. First, we define the balanced growth path (BGP) allocations and the equilibrium of

  4. Financial innovation: Economic growth versus instability in bank-based versus financial market driven economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Marinč, M.

    2010-01-01

    A fundamental feature of recent financial innovations is their focus on augmenting marketability. We point at the potential dark side of marketability. The paper casts its analysis of the pros and cons of financial innovation within the financial development and economic growth debate. The

  5. Market Regulators of Service Spheres Innovative Development as a Tool of Regional Socio-Economic Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Pugacheva, Anna S.; Filippova, Viktoriya P.; Kon, Andrei Y.; Dorzhieva, Lyudmila B.; Silchenok, Igor S.; Pugacheva, Natalya B.; Lunev, Alexander N.; Mustafina, Alfiya A.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the study is conditioned by the innovative development of service spheres as the reduction of territorial social and economic differentiation to the level, due to objective differences of the regions and to balance of their revenue base and expenditure commitments. The service sector is one of the most dynamic and growing segments of regional markets and one of the characteristics of effective socio-economic policy in the region. Innovative development of service spheres as a...

  6. Gender Diversity and Innovation: The Role of Women’s Economic Opportunity in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ritter-Hayashi, D.; Vermeulen, P.A.M.; Knoben, Joris

    2016-01-01

    This research examines how gender diversity interacts with women’s economic opportunity, such as prevailing laws, practices and attitudes in a country allowing women to participate in the workforce under similar conditions like men, to explain innovation in developing countries. We suggest that the level of women’s economic opportunity in the country, within which firms operate, moderates the effect of gender diversity on a firms’ likelihood to innovate. We examine the proposed moderating eff...

  7. MANAGEMENT OF A COMPANY’S ECONOMIC SUSTAINABILITY IN THE PROCESS OF INNOVATIVE PROJECTS IMPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana M. Sulejmanova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to management of a company’s sustainability in the process of innovative projects implementation. The author suggests using dynamic index named aggregated index of a company’s economic stability. Criteria of choosing innovative projects to be implemented are worked out. These criteria add traditional estimation and take into account changing company’s economic stability at every stage of project lifecycle.

  8. Clustering applications in financial and economic analysis of the crop production in the Russian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gromov Vladislav Vladimirovich

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We used the complex mathematical modeling, multivariate statistical-analysis, fuzzy sets to analyze the financial and economic state of the crop production in Russian regions. We developed a system of indicators, detecting the state agricultural sector in the region, based on the results of correlation, factor, cluster analysis and statistics of the Federal State Statistics Service. We performed clustering analyses to divide regions of Russia on selected factors into five groups. A qualitative and quantitative characteristics of each cluster was received.

  9. Phylogeny of economically important insect pests that infesting several crops species in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, Siti Zafirah; Zain, Badrul Munir Md.; Yaakop, Salmah

    2014-09-01

    This paper reported molecular data on insect pests of commercial crops in Peninsular Malaysia. Fifteen insect pests (Metisa plana, Calliteara horsefeldii, Cotesia vestalis, Bactrocera papayae, Bactrocera carambolae, Bactrocera latifrons, Conopomorpha cramella, Sesamia inferens, Chilo polychrysa, Rhynchophorus vulneratus, and Rhynchophorus ferrugineus) of nine crops were sampled (oil palm, coconut, paddy, cocoa, starfruit, angled loofah, guava, chili and mustard) and also four species that belong to the fern's pest (Herpetogramma platycapna) and storage and rice pests (Tribolium castaneum, Oryzaephilus surinamensis and Cadra cautella). The presented phylogeny summarized the initial phylogenetic hypothesis, which concerning by implementation of the economically important insect pests. In this paper, phylogenetic relationships among 39 individuals of 15 species that belonging to three orders under 12 genera were inferred from DNA sequences of mitochondrial marker, cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and nuclear marker, ribosomal DNA 28S D2 region. The phylogenies resulted from the phylogenetic analyses of both genes are relatively similar, but differ in the sequence of evolution. Interestingly, this most recent molecular data of COI sequences data by using Bayesian Inference analysis resulted a more-resolved phylogeny that corroborated with traditional hypotheses of holometabolan relationships based on traditional hypotheses of holometabolan relationships and most of recently molecular study compared to 28S sequences. This finding provides the information on relationships of pests species, which infested several crops in Malaysia and also estimation on Holometabola's order relationships. The identification of the larval stages of insect pests could be done accurately, without waiting the emergence of adults and supported by the phylogenetic tree.

  10. Biomass productivity and radiation utilisation of innovative cropping systems for biorefinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manevski, Kiril; Lærke, Poul Erik; Jiao, Xiurong

    2017-01-01

    rotation of annual crops (maize, beet, hemp/oat, triticale, winter rye and winter rapeseed), ii) perennial crops intensively fertilised (festulolium, reed canary, cocksfoot and tall fescue), low-fertilised (miscanthus) or unfertilised (grass-legume mixtures) and iii) traditional systems (continuous...

  11. Energy and economic analysis of traditional versus introduced crops cultivation in the mountains of the Indian Himalayas: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nautiyal, Sunil; Kaechele, H. [Leibniz-Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Institute of Socioeconomics, Eberswalder Str. 84, 15374 Muencheberg (Germany); Rao, K.S. [Centre for Inter-disciplinary Studies of Mountain and Hill Environment, Academic Research Center, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Maikhuri, R.K. [G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development, Garhwal Unit, P.O. Box 92, Srinagar (Garhwal) 246174 (India); Saxena, K.G. [School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India)

    2007-12-15

    This study analyzed the energy and economics associated with cultivation of traditional and introduced crops in the mountains of the Central Himalaya, India. The production cost in terms of energy for introduced crops such as tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) cultivation was 90,358-320,516 MJ ha{sup -1} as compared to between 19,814 and 42,380 MJ ha{sup -1} for traditional crops within Himalayan agroecosystems. For the introduced crops, high energy and monetary input was associated with human labor, forest resources, chemical fertilizer and pesticides. However, energy threshold/projection for farmyard manure in traditional crop cultivation was 80-90% of the total energy cost, thus traditional crop cultivation was more efficient in energy and economics. During the study, the farm productivity of introduced crops cultivation declined with increasing years of cultivation. Consequently, the energy output from the system has been declining at the rate of -y20,598 to y20,748 MJ ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} for tomato and y12,072 to y15,056 MJ ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} for bell pepper under irrigated and rain-fed land use in the mountains, respectively. The comparative analysis on this paradigm shift indicates that more research is needed to support sustainable crop cultivation in the fragile Himalayan environment. (author)

  12. TRANSITION TO INNOVATIVE ECONOMICS ON THE BASIS OF «ROAD CARD»: EXAMINATION, EVALUATION, PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Baklanov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The innovative economics model is examined in its interaction with the environment that includes such components as science, society, state, education, business and market as well as safety and court systems. Three main RF economics innovative and active development strategies are suggested and discussed: «resource-export», «resource-science» and «resource-innovation» strategies. Preference is given to the resourceinnovation strategy characteristic with multiple effect resulting from innovations used to update domestic technologies and to restructure the processing and manufacturing industries. An instrument called «Road map» is developed as a set and succession of measures required for Russia to transit to innovative economy.

  13. Water and Land Footprints and Economic Productivity as Factors in Local Crop Choice: The Case of Silk in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick J. Hogeboom

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In deciding what crops to grow, farmers will look at, among other things, the economically most productive use of the water and land resources that they have access to. However, optimizing water and land use at the farm level may result in total water and land footprints at the catchment level that are in conflict with sustainable resource use. This study explores how data on water and land footprints, and on economic water and land productivity can inform micro-level decision making of crop choice, in the macro-level context of sustainable resource use. For a proposed sericulture project in Malawi, we calculated water and land footprints of silk along its production chain, and economic water and land productivities. We compared these to current cropping practices, and addressed the implications of water consumption at the catchment scale. We found that farmers may prefer irrigated silk production over currently grown rain-fed staple crops, because its economic water and land productivity is higher than that for currently grown crops. However, because the water footprint of irrigated silk is higher, sericulture will increase the pressure on local water resources. Since water consumption in the catchment generally does not exceed the maximum sustainable footprint, sericulture is a viable alternative crop for farmers in the case study area, as long as silk production remains small-scale (~3% of the area at most and does not depress local food markets.

  14. Innovation, entrepreneurship and culture : the interaction between technology, progress and economic growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, T.E.; Ulijn, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Any technological advance, innovation or economic growth created by an organization is dependent on how that organization’s culture and environment fosters or inhibits these developments. This process is further complicated by the global nature of economic activity and differences in national

  15. On the Market for Principles of Economics Textbooks: Innovation and Product Differentiation--A Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Bradley

    1988-01-01

    Responding to Stiglitz's article "On the Market for Principles of Economics Textbooks: Innovation and Product Differentiation," Schiller disputes the claim that there is growing dissatisfaction with textbooks, stating that the central issue in the debate is "how best to teach economic principles." Discusses the importance of…

  16. Ensuring innovation competitiveness and economic sustainability of Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru A. GRIBINCEA

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The world is facing major economic and environmental change. Climate change, demographic issues, global urbanization pose challenges and constraints over the last decades. International bodies are worried about population growth, including urban over 7 billion, of which about 60% live in urban areas. More than 76% of Europe’s energy consumption is in the urban environment. Effective measures are needed to reduce emissions of gases and harmful substances in order to avoid the worst scenarios coming. The aim of the research is to investigate the real situation in the economic sector aiming at sustainable development and the experience of promoting economic development with the protection of the oikumene.

  17. THE ROLE OF INTERNATIONAL INNOVATION CLUSTERS ON INCREASING ECONOMIC AGENTS SUSTAINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ustymenko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of enterprises integration into international innovation clusters on the increasing of enterprises, countries and regions economic sustainability under the global instability are explored. Potential sources of instability and threats of the integration into international cluster structures are defined. Author outlines the main benefits of international innovation cluster for enhancement of economic agents sustainability, such as: possibility for joint exploitation of market opportunities and efforts consolidation for overcoming market threats, cluster self-sufficiency, effective cluster internal reorganization and adaptation in response to external changes. Three clusters (engineering for agriculture production cluster (Hersonska oblast and German enterprises, IT cluster (Lvivska oblast and Poland enterprises, cluster for R&D commercialization (Slobodzanschina euroregion are examined to uncover the role of international innovation cluster formation on enhancement of economic agents' economic sustainability.

  18. Technological innovation as a mean to increase economic competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela VASILE

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Corporations must be able to adapt and evolve if they wish to survive. Businesses operate with the knowledge that their competitors will inevitably come to the market with a product that changes the basis of competition. The ability to change and adapt is essential to survival.(1 European Union and its member states set several frameworks to support companies to acquire knowledge and strengthen their competitiveness, as follows:- National Programs for R & D funding which support national actors;- Sectorial Operational Programs (either at national or regional level, in full compliance with national rules;- EU programs (e.g. Competitiveness and Innovation Program – CIP, R&D Framework Programs – FP;- Pan-European programs (e.g. EUREKA.Romania is participating to all programs and pan-European R & D frameworks. Furthermore, its innovation program within the National Plan for research facilitates company participation to knowledge development and technology development. Nevertheless Romania’s Innovation performance is still at one of the lowest level in Europe(2. The followings present how companies are considering their participation to R & D programs and the impact of an R & D project in a company.

  19. THE ROLE OF THE INNOVATION POTENTIAL IN THE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM OF ECONOMIC SECURITY OF ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. P. Anisimov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the theoretical foundations of innovative potential of the enterprise and its role for sustainable development and economic security. The urgency of the problem of sustainable development innovative capacity, low level of theoretical and practical elaboration, poor methodological and conceptual basis for the development of economic security, increasing competitiveness and strengthening market situation of enterprises, determined the choice of the research topic. Scientific awareness of the key problems of the economy determined the significance of the research topic, the relevance of which is determined by the need for new theoretical concepts, methodological developments and practical recommendations on the role of innovation potential in the management system of economic security of enterprises. The system of economic security management is the basis of the successful functioning and development of enterprises. In market conditions, the economic security of organizations is directly outside-the implementation of innovations into the production process, which is an effective means of increasing competitiveness, improving the quality of products. The innovative capacity of enterprises consists of a unique ability to increase such components as material and investment, information, personnel that will help the organization to achieve new strategic goals. It should be noted that not all products are offered by organizations on the existing market, generates potential, but only one that is potentially profitable. That is, the products created on the basis of innovative technologies, from-while a high quality and should demand amongst consumers. Economic security policy is a system of views, different measures, methods of solutions, specific actions in the area of economic security, which determine the conditions for achieving business goals. Thus, the implemented security policy allocates the organization to carry out economic

  20. THE ROLE OF INNOVATION POLICIES IN ECONOMIC SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THE EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica CRUDU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Innovation is one of the key-elements providing increased competitiveness to countries which is defining in building effective economies. In modern conditions, great attention is paid to economic sustainability which besides effectiveness takes into account the impact of human activities over the environment. Europe has always been one of leading forces of innovation in the world. However, its importance has constantly decreased due to rise of the US, Japan and newly of China. The European Union has oriented much effort towards fostering innovation through various policies and instruments in order to keep up with the growing pace of economic and technologic development in the modern world. By these policies, the EU aims at creating favourable conditions for countries to promote innovation taking into account the national peculiarities as to allow improved flexibility and adaptability. The main goal of the present paper is to assess the impact of the EU innovation policies upon sustainable development of the member countries. There are to be analysed the main paradigms,concepts, initiatives and strategies frame-working innovation in the EU and, consequently, their impact upon economic development and the consistence in facing new challenges. In the end,on the base on identified correlations, concrete actions and measures to foster performance of innovation policies in general are identified.

  1. Innovative development of universities: organizational and economic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belokrylova Olga, S.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that the innovative activity of universities in Russia is always accompanied by the organizational changes carried out in the framework of the concept of stage-by-stage approach – a combination of natural and subjectively rational principle and based on intra-organizational integration of all subjects of University ethos for joint decisions in the field of organizational change. The authors analyze the mission transformation of universities determined by formation of information society which now is including not only development of the human capital, but also creation of knowledge as the competitive product possessing the essential production and social importance.

  2. Renewable energy from pyrolysis using crops and agricultural residuals: An economic and environmental evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kung, Chih-Chun; Zhang, Ning

    2015-01-01

    This study examines pyrolysis-based electricity generation and ethanol production using various crops and agricultural residuals in Taiwan. It analyzes the net economic and environmental effects within the framework of the Extended Taiwanese Agricultural Sector Model by incorporating ongoing and potential gasoline, coal and GHG (greenhouse gas) prices. The study discusses the effects of agricultural shifts, which have several important implications for the Taiwanese bioenergy development. First, the cost of collecting rice straw is much lower than the production cost of other energy crops, implying that the efficient use of agricultural waste may eventually result in positive social effects in terms of farmers' revenue, the renewable energy supply and GHG emissions offset. Second, farmers with idle land usually suffer a lower steady income. Encouraging the development of the renewable energy industry increases the demand of raw feedstocks, which involves converting the idle land into cultivation and increasing farmers' revenue. Third, agricultural waste is usually burned and emits CO_2, which accelerates the global climate shift. Approximately one third of emissions could be offset by rice straw-based bioenergy in certain cases. Turning this waste into bioenergy, which offsets net GHG emissions, has positive effects on the climate change mitigation. - Highlights: • Pyrolyzing rice straw provides considerable energy supply (max 4.68 billion kWh). • High emission offset when combined with rice straw (max 2.73 million tons). • Affordable government subsidy ($204 million a year). • Collection and transportation costs of wastes could impact the result significantly.

  3. Eco-innovation Dynamics - Creative Destruction ad Creative accumulation in green Economic Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Maj Munch

    2010-01-01

    The last few years green innovation or ‘eco-innovation’ is increasingly recognized as a main driver and goal of economic development. This represents a marked shift from earlier when the environment generally was considered a burden to business. This paper seeks to contribute to a fundamental...... of the economic system. The discussion aims more generally to contribute to the understanding of the dynamics of techno-economic paradigm shifts. It is argued that green economic evolution represents an interesting case of how selection properties are undergoing change over time, a neglected theme in evolutionary...... explanation of (green) economic evolution. At the micro level, the paper argues, and seeks to exemplify, that eco-innovation dynamics are characterized by both processes of creative destruction and creative accumulation. The paper proposes that it is possible to define a specific green heuristics leading...

  4. Development of innovative architecture of the organizational and economic mechanism for the nature protection management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailov, V. G.; Kiseleva, T. V.; Karasev, V. A.; Mikhailov, G. S.; Skukin, V. A.

    2017-05-01

    The problems of the efficient functioning of environmental and economic systems of various levels on the basis of the adequate organizational and economic management mechanism are considered in the article. The purpose of the study is the analysis and development of theoretical provisions for the formation of a modern, innovative organizational and economic mechanism of the nature protection management. The compliance matrix of the innovative elements presented in the structure of the organizational and economic mechanism of the nature protection management is developed. The main result of the study is the improvement of the existing management mechanism to minimize the negative impact on the environment, including through the incentive system, and to improve the financial performance of the economic entity. The practical component of the study conducted can be recommended to municipal, regional and federal authorities, as well as the industrial enterprises, to support the adoption of the effective, environmentally sound management decisions that are consistent with the global concept of sustainable development.

  5. EFFICIENCY OF EDUCATIONAL INNOVATIVE TECHNIQUES IN TEACHING FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC DISCIPLINES (BASED ON SOCIAL RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Konstantinovna Bitkina

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Importance of the presented study consists in need of the introduction innovation educational technology when teaching in high educational institutions. Objectivity specified need you-is the Russian system of the higher education called by turning on standards within the framework of Bolognaagreement. Existing in persisting time scientific studies and practical developments in incomplete measure touch in-ask, concerning using educational innovation technology in the field of teaching social-humanitarian sciences, including coursesfinancial-economic profile. Considering aforesaid, purpose persisting studies is a development of the methodical approach to estimation of efficiency of the using educational innovation and proving of the directions on improvement of their use in high school thrifty persons of the profile when learning student discipline to specialization. In the course of undertaking the study were used methods of the collection and processing statistical and sociological information, summeries and groups got data, quantitative estimation to efficiency applicable technology. The Results of the study touch the methodical questions of the estimation to efficiency educational innovation in high school financial-economic profile and practical aspects of their use when teaching of discipline to specialization beside student.Purpose: development methodical approach educational innovation estimation and proving ways of improving using educational innovation in the economical universities.Methodology: statistical summary, statistical grouping, sociological questioning, effectivity estimation, comparative analyses.Results:1 ways of effectivity estimation educational innovation using were revealed;2 the practical recommendation for improving using educational innovation  were proved.Practical implications: educational activity in the socio-economical higher institutions.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-8-37

  6. Legal and economic aspects of contracts of insurance of crops and yields against drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselinović Janko P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The contract of insurance of crops and yields against drought is based on the risk of decrease of precipitation in comparison with an earlier relevant period. The authors analysed the specificities of the case of draught risk, but also other regulations characteristic of this contractual relationship, both from the economic and the legal point of view. The paper also treats the position of contractual parties in this contractual relationship, partly arising from the monopolising position of the insuring organisation. That part also analyses the contract freedom that is endangered due to unequal positions of contractual parties. Special attention is paid to legal sources, especially the general and special conditions of insurance organisations, seeing as they are the main source of law, as there is a lack of legal regulation of this field. The number of Serbian insurance organisations that offer this type of insurance is extremely low, as well as the percentage of insurance against this risk. The authors analyse the reasons for which this type of insurance is underdeveloped in Serbia, as well as the consequences of such a state to a safe agricultural production. The paper also covers the topic of the role of legislators and the state in general, in terms of regulation of certain elements of this contractual relation, but also in terms of state incentives that would contribute to a higher percentage of insured agricultural areas. This would reduce the uncertainty and the damage suffered by agricultural producers due to increasing weather fluctuations. Taking into account the inadequate legal and economic tradition, education in this field would represent a significant contribution to the development of this kind of insurance. The authors analyse the difference between the contracts of insurance of crops and yields against drought and the weather derivative contracts, which can be traded on the stock market.

  7. Shale gas technology innovation rate impact on economic Base Case – Scenario model benchmarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weijermars, Ruud

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Cash flow models control which technology is affordable in emerging shale gas plays. • Impact of technology innovation on IRR can be as important as wellhead price hikes. • Cash flow models are useful for technology decisions that make shale gas plays economic. • The economic gap can be closed by appropriate technology innovation. - Abstract: Low gas wellhead prices in North America have put its shale gas industry under high competitive pressure. Rapid technology innovation can help companies to improve the economic performance of shale gas fields. Cash flow models are paramount for setting effective production and technology innovation targets to achieve positive returns on investment in all global shale gas plays. Future cash flow of a well (or cluster of wells) may either improve further or deteriorate, depending on: (1) the regional volatility in gas prices at the wellhead – which must pay for the gas resource extraction, and (2) the cost and effectiveness of the well technology used. Gas price is an externality and cannot be controlled by individual companies, but well technology cost can be reduced while improving production output. We assume two plausible scenarios for well technology innovation and model the return on investment while checking against sensitivity to gas price volatility. It appears well technology innovation – if paced fast enough – can fully redeem the negative impact of gas price decline on shale well profits, and the required rates are quantified in our sensitivity analysis

  8. Modelling efficient innovative work: integration of economic and social psychological approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babanova Yulia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the relevance of integration of economic and social psychological approaches to the solution of enhancing the efficiency of innovation management. The content, features and specifics of the modelling methods within each of approaches are unfolded and options of integration are considered. The economic approach lies in the generation of the integrated matrix concept of management of innovative development of an enterprise in line with the stages of innovative work and the use of the integrated vector method for the evaluation of the innovative enterprise development level. The social psychological approach lies in the development of a system of psychodiagnostic indexes of activity resources within the scope of psychological innovative audit of enterprise management and development of modelling methods for the balance of activity trends. Modelling the activity resources is based on the system of equations accounting for the interaction type of psychodiagnostic indexes. Integration of two approaches includes a methodological level, a level of empirical studies and modelling methods. There are suggested options of integrating the economic and psychological approaches to analyze available material and non-material resources of the enterprises’ innovative work and to forecast an optimal option of development based on the implemented modelling methods.

  9. Evolutionary-Hierarchical Bases of the Formation of Cluster Model of Innovation Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya Vladimirovna Dubrovskaya

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The functioning of a modern economic system is based on the interaction of objects of different hierarchical levels. Thus, the problem of the study of innovation processes taking into account the mutual influence of the activities of these economic actors becomes important. The paper dwells evolutionary basis for the formation of models of innovation development on the basis of micro and macroeconomic analysis. Most of the concepts recognized that despite a big number of diverse models, the coordination of the relations between economic agents is of crucial importance for the successful innovation development. According to the results of the evolutionary-hierarchical analysis, the authors reveal key phases of the development of forms of business cooperation, science and government in the domestic economy. It has become the starting point of the conception of the characteristics of the interaction in the cluster models of innovation development of the economy. Considerable expectancies on improvement of the national innovative system are connected with the development of cluster and network structures. The main objective of government authorities is the formation of mechanisms and institutions that will foster cooperation between members of the clusters. The article explains that the clusters cannot become the factors in the growth of the national economy, not being an effective tool for interaction between the actors of the regional innovative systems.

  10. ORGANIZATIONAL AND ECONOMIC ASSUMPTIONS OF IMPROVEMENT INNOVATIVE MECHANISM OF UKRAINIAN AGRICULTURAL SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Bogdan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the structure of the potential of innovative development of the of ukrainian agroindustrial sector. There was studied scientific potential and agribusiness production capacity in order to identify significant disparities hamper scientific and industrial cooperation. The author considers the market and the state priorities of innovation and constructed cross-section. The recommendations for areas of improvement of the innovative development organizational-economic mechanism of the sector, which will enhance the competitiveness of agribusiness sector, providing a high level of scientific and technological development of the agricultural sector as one of the priorities in Ukraine.

  11. THE PRACTICE OF EVALUATING THE ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF THE INNOVATIVE PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Vorobiev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available At the present stage of development of the society of scientific and technical activities is the most important factor in the intensification of production and the growth of its economic performance. It is therefore important now gets to determine the effectiveness of research and development activities, improving the measurement methods of economic evaluation of innovative projects and innovation. For informed decision-making requires a deep study and objective assessment of the real situation. This is due to changes in economic relations between the producers and consumers of scientific and technical products. Earlier in this activity involved only state scientific institution and the enterprise, then now they are gradually joining financial institutions, commercial and non-profit organizations. The adoption of innovative solutions should be preceded by thorough and comprehensive analysis of the economic feasibility of the innovative project. In this paper we propose to consider how business is costing innovative projects and determine their effectiveness for the enterprise business hotel.

  12. Implications of Reverse Innovation for Socio-Economic Sustainability: A Case Study of Philips China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Shan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The idea of reverse innovation, local innovation happening in emerging markets for the global market, has gained much academic and managerial attention in recent years. The purpose of this study is to understand how reverse innovation has successfully diffused into the product and market development strategies at Philips Inc., a prominent multinational company (MNC of the modern era. Furthermore, the study presents the success achieved by these innovations at both the domestic and global levels, along with their implications regarding socio-economic sustainability in emerging markets. In order to investigate the research questions, a case study of Philips China was conducted involving three product innovations that were found to be suitable examples of reverse innovation. After the study of extant literature on the topic, drawing from research databases, newspaper articles, and company press releases, five semi-structuredinterviews were conducted with key managers and a market practitioner to gain sufficient understanding for this exploratory study. Subsequent case analysis concludes that these innovations are examples of reverse innovation representing a new paradigm change in innovation flow. This flow of innovation from emerging markets to developed markets as confirmed by Corsi’s framework could potentially disrupt developed markets as well as contribute to ensure healthy living conditions for the population living in developing countries. If so, this represents a sustainable socio-economic change in-line with the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goal (SDG of “ensuring healthy lives and promoting well-being for all at all ages.” This is relevant as Philips aspires to be a prominent private sector player in achieving the above-stated goal by defeating non-communicable disease and strengthening local healthcare systems.

  13. Modelling regional cropping patterns under scenarios of climate and socio-economic change in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sen; Juhász-Horváth, Linda; Pintér, László; Rounsevell, Mark D A; Harrison, Paula A

    2018-05-01

    Impacts of socio-economic, political and climatic change on agricultural land systems are inherently uncertain. The role of regional and local-level actors is critical in developing effective policy responses that accommodate such uncertainty in a flexible and informed way across governance levels. This study identified potential regional challenges in arable land use systems, which may arise from climate and socio-economic change for two counties in western Hungary: Veszprém and Tolna. An empirically-grounded, agent-based model was developed from an extensive farmer household survey about local land use practices. The model was used to project future patterns of arable land use under four localised, stakeholder-driven scenarios of plausible future socio-economic and climate change. The results show strong differences in farmers' behaviour and current agricultural land use patterns between the two regions, highlighting the need to implement focused policy at the regional level. For instance, policy that encourages local food security may need to support improvements in the capacity of farmers to adapt to physical constraints in Veszprém and farmer access to social capital and environmental awareness in Tolna. It is further suggested that the two regions will experience different challenges to adaptation under possible future conditions (up to 2100). For example, Veszprém was projected to have increased fallow land under a scenario with high inequality, ineffective institutions and higher-end climate change, implying risks of land abandonment. By contrast, Tolna was projected to have a considerable decline in major cereals under a scenario assuming a de-globalising future with moderate climate change, inferring challenges to local food self-sufficiency. The study provides insight into how socio-economic and physical factors influence the selection of crop rotation plans by farmers in western Hungary and how farmer behaviour may affect future risks to agricultural

  14. Advance innovations of an intelligent sprayer for nursery and fruit tree crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conventional spray application technology requires excessive amounts of pesticide use to achieve effective pest control in floral, nursery, and other specialty crop productions. This onerous challenge is now overcome by our newly developed automated variable-rate, air-assisted precision sprayer. Thi...

  15. Discrete event simulation of crop operations in sweet pepper in support of work method innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooster, van 't Bert; Aantjes, Wiger; Melamed, Z.

    2017-01-01

    Greenhouse Work Simulation, GWorkS, is a model that simulates crop operations in greenhouses for the purpose of analysing work methods. GWorkS is a discrete event model that approaches reality as a discrete stochastic dynamic system. GWorkS was developed and validated using cut-rose as a case

  16. Innovations in LED lighting for reduced-ESM crop production in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Gioia; Mitchell, Cary; Bourget, C. Michael; Morrow, Robert

    In controlled-environment crop production such as will be practiced at the lunar outpost and Mars base, the single most energy-demanding aspect is electric lighting for plant growth, including energy costs for energizing lamps as well as for removing excess heat. For a variety of reasons, sunlight may not be a viable option as the main source of crop lighting off-Earth and traditional electric lamps for crop lighting have numerous drawbacks for use in a space environment. A collaborative research venture between the Advanced Life Support Crops Group at Purdue University and the Orbital Technologies Corporation (ORBITEC) has led to the development of efficient, reconfigurable LED lighting technologies for crop growth in an ALSS. The light sources use printed-circuit red and blue LEDs, which are individually tunable for a range of photosynthetic photon fluxes and photomorphogenic plant responses. Initial lighting arrays have LEDs that can be energized from the bottom upward when deployed in a vertical, intracanopy configuration, allowing the illumination to be tailored for stand height throughout the cropping cycle. Preliminary testing with the planophile crop cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp, breeding line IT87D-941-1), resulted in optimizing internal reflectance of growth compartments by lining walls, floor, and a movable ceiling with white Poly film, as well as by determining optimal planting density and plant positioning. Additionally, these light strips, called "lightsicles", can be configured into an overhead plane of light engines. When intracanopy and overhead-LED-lit cowpea crop production was compared, cowpea plants grown with intracanopy lighting had much greater understory leaf retention and produced more dry biomass per kilowatt-hour of lighting energy than did overhead-lit plants. The efficiency of light capture is reduced in overhead-lit scenarios due to mutual shading of lower leaves by upper leaves in closed canopies leading to premature abscission

  17. New pesticides regulation: potential economic impacts of the withdrawal of Pendimethalin in horticultural crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-German, S.; Bardaji, I.; Garrido, A.

    2014-06-01

    The Thematic Strategy on the Sustainable Use of Pesticides moves forward towards the sustainability of agriculture fostering the use of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) practices in the European Union (EU). EC Regulation 1107/2009 was adopted in this framework leading to the eventual drop in the Vademecum of authorized substances of some important pesticides which are presently used in EU agriculture. Herbicide Pendimethalin will have to renew its registration in 2016 under the new regulation and there is a high probability that it will be removed. In this study we analyze the potential impact of the prohibition of Pendimethalin in two export driven horticultural crops grown in Southeastern Spain lettuce and celery to provide an illustration of possible consequences of the loss of certain active substances due to the new regulation. To do so, gross margin stochastic models are developed and used to generate Monte-Carlo simulations to look at farms’ economic results and their production risks. Econometric models are used to examine consumers’ and producers’ surplus in export markets of lettuce and celery. The results show that the Pendimethalin ban might modify the economic risk profile that the farm faces, affecting the crops’ profitability in the short-term. These changes would pass on to markets through shifts in supply and price and finally to European consumers, who would be the major losers. (Author)

  18. FEED SYSTEM INNOVATION FOR GASIFICATION OF LOCALLY ECONOMICAL ALTERNATIVE FUELS (FIGLEAF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael L. Swanson; Mark A. Musich; Darren D. Schmidt; Joseph K. Schultz

    2003-02-01

    The Feed System Innovation for Gasification of Locally Economical Alternative Fuels (FIGLEAF) project was conducted by the Energy & Environmental Research Center and Gasification Engineering Corporation of Houston, Texas (a subsidiary of Global Energy Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio), with 80% cofunding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The goal of the project was to identify and evaluate low-value fuels that could serve as alternative feedstocks and to develop a feed system to facilitate their use in integrated gasification combined-cycle and gasification coproduction facilities. The long-term goal, to be accomplished in a subsequent project, is to install a feed system for the selected fuel(s) at Global Energy's commercial-scale 262-MW Wabash River Coal Gasification Facility in West Terre Haute, Indiana. The feasibility study undertaken for the project consisted of identifying and evaluating the economic feasibility of potential fuel sources, developing a feed system design capable of providing a fuel at 400 psig to the second stage of the E-Gas (Destec) gasifier to be cogasified with coal, performing bench- and pilot-scale testing to verify concepts and clarify decision-based options, reviewing information on high-pressure feed system designs, and determining the economics of cofeeding alternative feedstocks with the conceptual feed system design. A preliminary assessment of feedstock availability within Indiana and Illinois was conducted. Feedstocks evaluated included those with potential tipping fees to offset processing cost: sewage sludge, municipal solid waste, used railroad ties, urban wood waste (UWW), and used tires/tire-derived fuel. Agricultural residues and dedicated energy crop fuels were not considered since they would have a net positive cost to the plant. Based on the feedstock assessment, sewage sludge was selected as the primary feedstock for consideration at the Wabash River Plant. Because of the limited waste heat available for drying and

  19. Economic and ecological advantages of innovative project implementation at woodworking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina N. Yepifanova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation to innovative development involves the strategic focus onto manufacturing high-tech products in the priority sectors of the economy. Implementation of innovative projects aimed at reducing the energy component in overall costs of enterprise is demanded and necessary. The aim of the research is to prove the economic and ecological benefits of using at domestic wood industry enterprises the wood pellets as an alternative biofuel. The main economic indicators of the project for the pellets production presented indicate the expenses-to-profits ratio; studied is the cost of season heating in Ukraine of 1000 m2 with both traditional and alternative fuels. Noted is that the use of pellets as ecological biofuel is more economical in comparison with electricity and gas. Exposed are the economic benefits of the pellet boiler heating by different fuels.

  20. Public health policy decisions on medical innovations: what role can early economic evaluation play?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartz, Susanne; John, Jürgen

    2009-02-01

    Our contribution aims to explore the different ways in which early economic data can inform public health policy decisions on new medical technologies. A literature research was conducted to detect methodological contributions covering the health policy perspective. Early economic data on new technologies can support public health policy decisions in several ways. Embedded in horizon scanning and HTA activities, it adds to monitoring and assessment of innovations. It can play a role in the control of technology diffusion by informing coverage and reimbursement decisions as well as the direct public promotion of healthcare technologies, leading to increased efficiency. Major problems include the uncertainty related to economic data at early stages as well as the timing of the evaluation of an innovation. Decision-makers can benefit from the information supplied by early economic data, but the actual use in practice is difficult to determine. Further empirical evidence should be gathered, while the use could be promoted by further standardization.

  1. Bamboo vs. crops: An integrated emergy and economic evaluation of using bamboo to replace crops in south Sichuan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Based on long-term monitoring conducted in Chang-ning county, a pilot site of the ‘Grain for Green Program’ (GFGP), an integrated emergy and economic method was applied to evaluate the dynamic ecological-economic performance of 3 kinds of bamboo systems planted on slo...

  2. Farmers’ perceptions of crop pest severity in Nigeria are associated with landscape, agronomic and socio-economic factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Wei; Kato, Edward; Bianchi, Felix; Bhandary, Prapti; Gort, Gerrit; Werf, van der Wopke

    2018-01-01

    Insect pests are a major cause of crop yield losses around the world and pest management plays a critical role in providing food security and farming income. This study links Nigerian farmers’ perceptions of pest severity to the landscape, agronomic, biophysical, and socio-economic context in which

  3. An economic assessment of the health effects and crop yield losses caused by air pollution in mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Weijie; Huang, Xin; Song, Yu

    2017-06-01

    Air pollution is severe in China, and pollutants such as PM 2.5 and surface O 3 may cause major damage to human health and crops, respectively. Few studies have considered the health effects of PM 2.5 or the loss of crop yields due to surface O 3 using model-simulated air pollution data in China. We used gridded outputs from the WRF-Chem model, high resolution population data, and crop yield data to evaluate the effects on human health and crop yield in mainland China. Our results showed that outdoor PM 2.5 pollution was responsible for 1.70-1.99 million cases of all-cause mortality in 2006. The economic costs of these health effects were estimated to be 151.1-176.9 billion USD, of which 90% were attributed to mortality. The estimated crop yield losses for wheat, rice, maize, and soybean were approximately 9, 4.6, 0.44, and 0.34 million tons, respectively, resulting in economic losses of 3.4 billion USD. The total economic losses due to ambient air pollution were estimated to be 154.5-180.3 billion USD, accounting for approximately 5.7%-6.6% of the total GDP of China in 2006. Our results show that both population health and staple crop yields in China have been significantly affected by exposure to air pollution. Measures should be taken to reduce emissions, improve air quality, and mitigate the economic loss. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. THE INNOVATIVE POLICY OPTIONS FOR COASTAL FISHERIES ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: A CASE OF KWANDANG BAY COASTAL ECOSYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Taylor Moore

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Socio-environmental problems, such as climate change, pollution and habitat destruction, present serious challenges for fisheries economic development. The integration of interventions or investments within a coastal marine ecosystem, a defined spatial area, is considered important in the economic development of local communities leading to the planned outcomes of livelihoods, food security and conservation The coastal marine ecosystem, is the provider of products and services to the local economy adjacent to the ecosystem where the benefit flows, within that area, are interconnected. The roles of science, technology and innovation (STI are an integral part of these multi-dimensional interventions. Hence the need for an integrated approach for these interventions by government and/or through donor funded projects to enhance economic development of coastal communities. The policy framework proposed is therefore an STI perspective of the links between these intervention and investment options, based on a ‘fisheries economic development Hub’ (Hub and discussed using the multi-level perspective (MLP. The policy innovation proposal suggests an implementation strategy of a pilot project and analyses the selection and implications of a potential Indonesian site for the application of the Hub. This paper aims to introduce the MLP into the framework of coastal community-based fisheries economic development.   Key words: policy innovation. coastal marine ecosystem, fisheries economic development Hub, value chains, multi-level perspective (MLP

  5. Methods of assessing functioning of organizational and economic mechanism during innovation process implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blinkov Maksim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes methods of assessing the efficiency of organizational and economic mechanism of an industrial enterprise when implementing innovation processes. These methods allow continuous monitoring at all stages of innovation process implementation, lead to reduction in costs of innovation activity and enable maximum use of the creative potential of enterprise personnel. The significance and attractiveness of this method is ensured by the fact that it can be applied by industrial companies in any market fields regardless of the lifecycle stage applicable to the studied goods, company and/or innovative process because the composition and the number of specific indicators can be adjusted by the work group both before the study and in the course of the company’s innovative activities (at any stage of their implementation. The multi-sided approach proposed for assessing the efficiency of organizational and economic mechanism of the industrial enterprise when implementing innovation processes ensures full and accurate assessment of the impact of certain factors on the final result.

  6. Nutrition economics: an innovative approach to informed public health management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuijten, Mark; Lenoir-Wijnkoop, Irene

    2011-09-01

    The role of nutrition to optimize the use of scarce resources through its linkage with health and welfare should be considered of interest by healthcare decision makers. A favorable impact of food on non-communicable disorders and general health status will improve healthcare expenditure and quality of life.In health economics, an analysis of the costs and effects of a healthcare technology by means of a cost-effectiveness analysis has become an established tool. Projections about the effectiveness and expected costs of an intervention can be modeled using realistic and explicit assumptions based on outcomes from randomized clinical studies. However, the use of health economic techniques to assess costs and effects is not solely restricted to classic healthcare products such as medicines. To illustrate this we used two published cost-effectiveness studies, which consider respectively a preventive treatment against severe respiratory syncytial virus infection in children at high risk of hospitalization and the use of prebiotics for the primary prevention of atopic dermatitis.These examples illustrate that there is a parallel between the methodologies for extrapolation of intermediate outcomes to long-term outcomes between a cost-effectiveness analysis for pharmaceutical or nutrition, as long as the clinical evidence for nutrition fulfils the requirements for pharmaceuticals. Another requirement is that there is clinical widely accepted evidence that matches a comparable level of epidemiological observations about the link between short-term and long-term outcomes.Better understanding of how nutritional status and behavior may interplay with the socioeconomic environment will ultimately contribute to preserving the sustainability of healthcare provisions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. ORGANIZATIONAL-ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF THE DEVELOPMENT AND OPERATION OF SMALL INNOVATIVE BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ya. Veselovsky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines problems of development and functioning of small innovation entrepreneurship in Russia, discusses their advantages and disadvantages. Statistical indicators of development of innovations in recent years in the context of the report "Global innovation index". The authors off er interventions aimed at the expansion of reproduction of high technologies for the further development of innovation in the Russian Federation. Critically considers the opinions of various experts in forecasting the development of macroeconomic situation in Russia. Conclusions about the necessity of the innovation process in the economy.Purposes / tasks. The aim of the article is elaboration of measures aimed at enhancing the reproduction of high technology for processes of development and implementation of innovations in the field of engineering, technology, Economics, organization and management.Tasks of the article: to analyze and isolate problems pertaining to:• the state of innovation activities in Russia;• a weak small innovative enterprises;• state stimulation of small innovative enterprises;• increase the pace of development of small business in innovative sphere of the country.Methodology. In conducting this research the main sources of baseline data were the materials of state statistics, data from Rosstat and excerpts from Government programs. The basis of methodological developments based on a descriptive, comparative method and morphological analysis. They are allowed to perform all of the necessary information and to draw conclusions on this work.Results. This broad concept to small innovative entrepreneurship, analysed its current status in Russia, given his brief analysis of the advantages and disadvantages. Shown low efficiency of functioning and development of small enterprises in General. Analyzes the dynamics of the positions of the Russian Federation the report "Global innovation index": 2014–2016, as well as Russian and

  8. Investigating water productivity and economic efficiency of wheat-crop under different sowing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirani, A.A.; Dahri, Z.H.

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted at PARC's research station Kala Shah Kaku, Lahore, in order to calculate the water productivity and economic efficiency of wheat-crop under different sowing methods in a combined harvested paddy filed. The sowing methods were direct drilling with FMI Seeder, Zero tillage and conventional method. Data were collected during 2008-09. Wheat-yield was 2750 kg/ha, 2665 kg/ha and 2610 kg/ha for direct drilling with F MI Seeder, Zero tillage and conventional method, respectively. The direct drilling in heavy residue gave 5.4 % more yield than the conventional method and 3.2 % more yield than zero tillage. The zero tillage ensured 2.1% more yield than the conventional method. The net water applied as 323, 354, and 380 mm for direct drilling with FMI seeder, zero tillage and conventional methods respectively against the potential crop evapotranspiration of 383 mm. This indicates that the direct drilling of wheat-crop in heave rice stubbles saves 15% irrigation water as compared to conventional method and 8.8% over zero tillage. The zero tillage method saves 6.8 % of irrigation water over the conventional method. The water productivity was found to be 0.851 kg/m3. 0.753 kg/m/sup 3/ and 0.687 kg/m/sup 3/ for direct drilling with FMI Seeder, Zero tillage and conventional method respectively. This indicates that the direct drilling ensures 23.9% increase in water productivity over conventional method and 13.01% over zero tillage. The zero tillage gave 9.6% more water productivity than the conventional method. The costs of production for the three sowing methods were Rs. 39123/ha, Rs.43737/ha and Rs. 53047/ha for direct drilling, zero tillage and conventional method respectively. This indicates an overall saving of Rs. 13924/ha (26.2 %) by the direct drilling method as compared to the conventional method and Rs. 4613/ha (10.5%) over zero tillage method. The zero tillage saves Rs. 9319/ha (17.6 %) over the conventional method. Thus, the resource

  9. Does Innovation Performance Depend on Economic Growth?: The Case of a Country in Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej H Jasinski

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to analyze a possible influence of economic growth on innovation performance. Econometric model based on principal component analysis is the research tool. Poland, as a country in transition, is here a case-study. The analysis has confirmed an interesting pattern: in 1989-2007, corporate innovation performance was changing, in principle, in the same direction as macro-economic changes but with a one-to-two-year delay. This is some proof that the innovation activity followed the cyclical development of the national economy. Innovation performance was demand-driven, i.e., pulled by demand resulting from the economy's recovery and high economic growth. So, technological innovation appeared to be highly sensitive to the general economic situation in Poland as a transitional economy. Economic growth seems to be a kind of tag-boat pulling innovation activities in the business sector.Este artículo intenta analizar una posible influencia del crecimiento económico en el desempeño de la innovación. La herramienta de investigación empleada es el modelo econométrico basado en un componente principal de análisis. El estudio de caso es Polonia, una economía en transición. El análisis ha confirmado un patrón interesante: durante el periodo 1989-2007, el desempeño de la innovación cambió, en principio, en la misma dirección que los cambios macroeconómicos pero con un retraso de uno a dos años. Esto muestra de algún modo que la actividad innovadora correspondió al desarrollo cíclico de la economía nacional. El desempeño innovador se orientó por la demanda, es decir, una demanda impulsada por la recuperación económica y el alto crecimiento económico. Por lo tanto, la innovación tecnológica parece ser muy sensible a la situación económica en general de Polonia, como economía en transición. El crecimiento económico parece ser una especie de motor que impulsa las actividades innovadoras del sector de negocios.

  10. Collaborative innovation as a tool for environmental, economic and social sustainability in regional governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torfing, Jacob; Hofstad, Hege

    2015-01-01

    solutions to common problems. The paper analyses the efforts of Norwegian regions to enhance collaborative innovation through the formation of interactive governance arenas. It compares three different policy areas in order to better understand how different forms of interactive governance enhance...... collaborative innovation for economic, social and environmental sustainability. The ultimate goal is to assess the ability and potential of Norwegian regions to solve wicked and unruly problems through collaborative innovation.......In the Scandinavian countries, the regional level of governance is neither the locus of large-scale policy reforms nor a significant provider of welfare to citizens. Nevertheless, it has some important policy tasks in the area of environmental, economic, and social sustainability. These policy...

  11. Gender Diversity and Innovation : The Role of Women’s Economic Opportunity in Developing Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritter-Hayashi, D.; Vermeulen, P.A.M.; Knoben, Joris

    This research examines how gender diversity interacts with women’s economic opportunity, such as prevailing laws, practices and attitudes in a country allowing women to participate in the workforce under similar conditions like men, to explain innovation in developing countries. We suggest that the

  12. Principles of Economics Textbooks: Innovation and Product Differentiation--A Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sichel, Werner

    1988-01-01

    Focusing on areas of contention, the author responds to "Principles of Economics Textbooks: Innovation and Product Differentiation" by Stiglitz. Contends that Stiglitz's description of principles textbooks is insufficient, states that the textbook market is more oligopolistic than monopolistic, and cautions writers against deleting parts…

  13. ROMANIA AND THE KNOWLEDGE-BASED ECONOMY: INNOVATION THE SOURCE OF ECONOMIC GROWTH

    OpenAIRE

    Holban (Oncioiu) Ionica; Oncioiu Florin Razvan

    2008-01-01

    The is already a vast literature on the role of knowledge in economic growth butthere is need to clarify the meaning and scope of this term and define the Romanianperspective on the relationship between knowledge-based economy and growth. This paper focuses on innovation systems in Romania as the key challenge and meanfor embracing growth based on knowledge-based economy.

  14. A Multi-Region Model of Economic Growth with Human Capital and Negative Externalities in Innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batabyal, A.; Nijkamp, P.

    2013-01-01

    We use a multi-region model and provide the first theoretical analysis of the effects of human capital use and a particular kind of innovative activity on economic growth. In each of the N heterogeneous regions in our model, consumers have constant relative risk aversion preferences, there are

  15. Innovative Economy as the Objective Necessity of the Contemporary Development of an Economic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gotsuliak Liudmyla V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers substance and main features of innovation economy, discloses the basic principles of its building, its signs and indicators. The results of transition to innovative economy both in the developed countries and in the so-called newly industrializing countries have been studied and are visualized. Thus, formation of the innovation economy in the era of postindustrial society, generally based on science and knowledge, stipulates that embedding in the production of the results of research and development, as well as informational and other new technologies, not only can be able to radically change the mechanism of interaction between countries, regions, individual enterprises, but also can entail changing our view of the laws and basics of functioning and developing of economic systems on different levels. The sine qua non conditions for efficiency of innovation economy, conditions for scientific-technological breakthrough and civilized existence of our country in the 21st century have been disclosed.

  16. The impact of innovative commercial technologies on students’ behaviour of an economic university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurentiu-Dan Anghel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In a dynamic business environment, implementing innovative commercial technologies facilitates the winning of new competitive advantages in the retail industry, given the manifested influence on consumer buying behaviour towards commercial units, as well as the significant contribution to the development of modern shops image. This paper presents the attitude of students from the Bucharest University of Economic Studies towards the adoption of innovative retail technologies within hypermarkets in Romania, based on a selective marketing research, conducted on a sample of 359 students from undergraduate and master cycles. The main objectives focused on identifying: the image of certain instruments belonging to the innovative commercial technologies in terms of usefulness in the process of buying; the intention to use innovative commercial technologies; the perception of the main advantages and disadvantages of using innovative commercial technologies in the buying process; the importance of commercial technologies in relation to other attributes underlying the development of a hypermarket image. Research results show a relatively low level of awareness among buyers, due to a reduced exposure to innovative commercial technologies, but a relatively high availability of acceptance in the purchasing process. Thus, there is a favourable assessment of the utility of commercial instruments in the buying process and a relatively high intention of use. The paper also highlights the influence of innovative commercial technologies on store image and loyalty of buyers.

  17. Bioenergy Crop Production in the United States. Potential Quantities, Land Use Changes, and Economic Impacts on the Agricultural Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, Marie E.; Torre Ugarte, D.G. de la; Shapouri, H.; Slinsky, S.P.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Departments of Agriculture and Energy jointly analyzed the economic potential for, and impacts of, large-scale bioenergy crop production in the United States. An agricultural sector model (POLYSYS) was modified to include three potential bioenergy crops (switchgrass, hybrid poplar, and willow). At farmgate prices of US $2.44/GJ, an estimated 17 million hectares of bioenergy crops, annually yielding 171 million dry Mg of biomass, could potentially be produced at a profit greater than existing agricultural uses for the land. The estimate assumes high productivity management practices are permitted on Conservation Reserve Program lands. Traditional crops prices are estimated to increase 9 to 14 percent above baseline prices and farm income increases annually by US $6.0 billion above baseline. At farmgate prices of US $1.83/GJ, an estimated 7.9 million hectares of bioenergy crops, annually yielding 55 million dry Mg of biomass, could potentially be produced at a profit greater than existing agricultural uses for the land. The estimate assumes management practices intended to achieve high environmental benefits on Conservation Reserve Program lands. Traditional crops prices are estimated to increase 4 to 9 percent above baseline prices and farm income increases annually by US $2.8 billion above baseline

  18. Economic assessment of conventional and conservation tillage practices in different wheat-based cropping systems of Punjab, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Muhammad; Hussain, Mubshar; Farooq, Muhammad; Farooq, Shahid; Jabran, Khawar; Nawaz, Ahmad

    2017-11-01

    Wheat productivity and profitability is low under conventional tillage systems as they increase the production cost, soil compaction, and the weed infestation. Conservation tillage could be a pragmatic option to sustain the wheat productivity and enhance the profitability on long term basis. This study was aimed to evaluate the economics of different wheat-based cropping systems viz. fallow-wheat, rice-wheat, cotton-wheat, mung bean-wheat, and sorghum-wheat, with zero tillage, conventional tillage, deep tillage, bed sowing (60/30 cm beds and four rows), and bed sowing (90/45 cm beds and six rows). Results indicated that the bed sown wheat had the maximum production cost than other tillage systems. Although both bed sowing treatments incurred the highest production cost, they generated the highest net benefits and benefit: cost ratio (BCR). Rice-wheat cropping system with bed sown wheat (90/45 cm beds with six rows) had the highest net income (4129.7 US$ ha -1 ), BCR (2.87), and marginal rate of return compared with rest of the cropping systems. In contrast, fallow-wheat cropping system incurred the lowest input cost, but had the least economic return. In crux, rice-wheat cropping system with bed sown wheat (90/45 cm beds with six rows) was the best option for getting the higher economic returns. Moreover, double cropping systems within a year are more profitable than sole planting of wheat under all tillage practices.

  19. An innovative approach for Predicting Farmers' Adaptive Behavior at the Large Watershed Scale: Implications for Water Quality and Crop Yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcu-Lisman, A. M.; Gassman, P. W.; Arritt, R. W.; Kling, C.; Arbuckle, J. G.; Roesch-McNally, G. E.; Panagopoulos, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Projected changes in the climatic patterns (higher temperatures, changes in extreme precipitation events, and higher levels of humidity) will affect agricultural cropping and management systems in major agricultural production areas. The concept of adaption to new climatic or economic conditions is an important aspect of the agricultural decision-making process. Adopting cover crops, reduced tillage, extending the drainage systems and adjusting crop management are only a few examples of adaptive actions. These actions can be easily implemented as long as they have private benefits (increased profits, reduced risk). However, each adaptive action has a different impact on water quality. Cover crops and no till usually have a positive impact on water quality, but increased tile drainage typically results in more degraded water quality due primarily to increased export of soluble nitrogen and phosphorus. The goal of this research is to determine the changes in water quality as well in crop yields as farmers undertake these adaptive measures. To answer this research question, we need to estimate the likelihood that these actions will occur, identify the agricultural areas where these actions are most likely to be implemented, and simulate the water quality impacts associated with each of these scenarios. We apply our modeling efforts to the whole Upper-Mississippi River Basin Basin (UMRB) and the Ohio-Tennessee River Basin (OTRB). These two areas are critical source regions for the re-occurring hypoxic zone in the gulf of Mexico. The likelihood of each adaptive agricultural action is estimated using data from a survey conducted in 2012. A large, representative sample of farmers in the Corn Belt was used in the survey to elicit behavioral intentions regarding three of the most important agricultural adaptation strategies (no-till, cover crops and tile drainage). We use these data to study the relationship between intent to adapt, farmer characteristics, farm

  20. Biofuel Crops Expansion: Evaluating the Impact on the Agricultural Water Scarcity Costs and Hydropower Production with Hydro Economic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, G.

    2015-12-01

    Biofuels such as ethanol from sugar cane remain an important element to help mitigate the impacts of fossil fuels on the atmosphere. However, meeting fuel demands with biofuels requires technological advancement for water productivity and scale of production. This may translate into increased water demands for biofuel crops and potential for conflicts with incumbent crops and other water uses including domestic, hydropower generation and environmental. It is therefore important to evaluate the effects of increased biofuel production on the verge of water scarcity costs and hydropower production. The present research applies a hydro-economic optimization model to compare different scenarios of irrigated biofuel and hydropower production, and estimates the potential tradeoffs. A case study from the Araguari watershed in Brazil is provided. These results should be useful to (i) identify improved water allocation among competing economic demands, (ii) support water management and operations decisions in watersheds where biofuels are expected to increase, and (iii) identify the impact of bio fuel production in the water availability and economic value. Under optimized conditions, adoption of sugar cane for biofuel production heavily relies on the opportunity costs of other crops and hydropower generation. Areas with a lower value crop groups seem more suitable to adopt sugar cane for biofuel when the price of ethanol is sufficiently high and the opportunity costs of hydropower productions are not conflicting. The approach also highlights the potential for insights in water management from studying regional versus larger scales bundled systems involving water use, food production and power generation.

  1. Innovative Methods in Strategic Planning of Foreign Economic Activity of Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentyna Yakubiv

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the external conditions of business in Ukraine, European integration vector of the country development, and possibilities of import/export operations facilitate foreign trade. Modern methods of strategic management and strategic diagnostics should be developed in line with international requirements and needs of managers in Ukraine and partners abroad. Therefore substantiation of innovation trends for enterprise development strategies on the international arena as a constituent of stable economy is important and necessary. The purpose of this article is to define innovative approaches to planning, development and implementation of strategies and to develop a comprehensive diagnosis of the strategic potential of foreign economic activity. During the research, the following methods: logical abstraction, modeling, PEST-analysis, systems analysis, graphic. The main results of the study are: 1 disclosure of the features of the construction of strategic management in international business; 2 analysis of European and American practices of strategic management of foreign economic activity of enterprises; 3 study of algorithmic scheme of strategic management in the Ukraine; 4 justification of methods of three-level system of strategic analysis using matrix methods of assessment; 5 the classification of the main methods of matrix analysis within groups: macro, meso, macro level; 6 a comprehensive diagnosis of the strategic potential of foreign economic activity of enterprises in Ukraine. The study proved the main areas of innovation and strategic principles of international management and comprehensive methodology for strategic planning matrix based on innovative methods.

  2. The Relation Between Socio-Economic Characteristics and the Innovation Decision Making of Digital Television Broadcasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryati Haryati

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Migration from analog to digital technology, requires a lot of preparation, both from the side of the device, the regulation of the broadcasting industry, and the society. This study refers to the Diffusion of Innovations theory (the theory of Diffusion of Innovation (Rogers, 1986 that try to explain how an innovation (technology can be accepted into the community, through a process of decision. The aim of the research is to find out the relationship between socio-economic characteristics of the innovation and decision-making broadcast of digital television. This research uses a quantitative approach with descriptive methods aim to find out the relationship between socio-economic characteristics of the innovation and decision-making broadcast of digital television. The research was carried out in seven counties/cities in West Java Province and Banten Province. The selection of samples is carried out by Multistage Random Cluster Sampling. The number of samples as many as 813 people assigned by Proportional Sampling techniques, with the character category of respondents age 15 years until 64 years. Significance test results with the method at the rate of 5% Pearson pointed out that, the relationship between innovation decision-making variables with socio-economic characteristics on three aspects, namely, education, income, and spending is weak and insignificant, while on access to information, the value of relationships and significant. This suggests the necessity of strengthening the capacity of absorption of community efforts in the face of digital broadcast television, can be done by fixing the value of any existing components on the operational level. As a priority, is how the effort to improve the economy of society, especially in terms of education, income, and expenditure permonth.

  3. Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA frames innovation as critical to the protection of human health and the environment through initiatives such as sustainable practices, innovative research, prize competitions, innovation awards, partnerships, and community activities.

  4. The Innovation Paradigm of New Industrialization in the Conditions of the Integrated World Economic Way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Aleksandrovna Romanova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article emphasizes the importance of the concept of «technical and economic paradigm», which characterizes the certain stage of the world economy development associated with the corresponding technological revolution. The paper reveals the feature of the modern technical and economic paradigm development connected with new concepts determining a priority of general values. The author states the hypothesis that in the conditions of the emergence of the fourth industrial revolution elements (so-called 4.0 industry, it is fair to consider the innovation paradigm of development as the foundation of the new industrialization which preceds this revolution. The author considers new industrialization as the process contributing to the global technological parity of Russia and the countries-technological leaders. The most significant statements from this post of view are allocated: consideration of new industrialization as a process of continuous innovations and distribution of breakthrough technologies, computerization of production, robotization, cross-disciplinary nature of high technologies, the ecology of technologies, intellectualization of the potential of all persons occupied in industrial production, etc. The author analyses strategic documents connected with the development of innovative activities in Russia. The paper emphasizes that the indicators characterizing these activities do not allow to rank Russia as a country having the developed innovative economy. The article reveals the possibilities of the activation of innovative activities in Russia connected to the development of the approved private priorities in the main spheres of activity with the state priorities of social development; with construction of integrated strategy of a scientific and technological, institutional and industrial development of the country; with creation of the system of scientific monitoring allowing to adjust the necessary corrective actions in time. The

  5. A regional scale modeling framework combining biogeochemical model with life cycle and economic analysis for integrated assessment of cropping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaie, Seyed Mohammad Hossein; Bolte, John P; Murthy, Ganti S

    2018-06-01

    The goal of this study was to integrate a crop model, DNDC (DeNitrification-DeComposition), with life cycle assessment (LCA) and economic analysis models using a GIS-based integrated platform, ENVISION. The integrated model enables LCA practitioners to conduct integrated economic analysis and LCA on a regional scale while capturing the variability of soil emissions due to variation in regional factors during production of crops and biofuel feedstocks. In order to evaluate the integrated model, the corn-soybean cropping system in Eagle Creek Watershed, Indiana was studied and the integrated model was used to first model the soil emissions and then conduct the LCA as well as economic analysis. The results showed that the variation in soil emissions due to variation in weather is high causing some locations to be carbon sink in some years and source of CO 2 in other years. In order to test the model under different scenarios, two tillage scenarios were defined: 1) conventional tillage (CT) and 2) no tillage (NT) and analyzed with the model. The overall GHG emissions for the corn-soybean cropping system was simulated and results showed that the NT scenario resulted in lower soil GHG emissions compared to CT scenario. Moreover, global warming potential (GWP) of corn ethanol from well to pump varied between 57 and 92gCO 2 -eq./MJ while GWP under the NT system was lower than that of the CT system. The cost break-even point was calculated as $3612.5/ha in a two year corn-soybean cropping system and the results showed that under low and medium prices for corn and soybean most of the farms did not meet the break-even point. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks as pest in agricultural crop of economic interest of the municipalities Abreu and Aguada de Pasajeros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leydi Díaz García

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The investigation was developed during six winter and spring seasons in the municipalities of Abreus and Aguada de Pasajeros with the aims to know the preference of Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks and levels of incidence for crops. The data filed were obtained in the Protection Station of Yaguaramas about four the crops in the register of existent areas, stationary fields, journeys of itinerary, reports of seasons and historical territorial registration. It was analyzed the levels of incidence by varieties, sowing times or plantation according to meteorological variables. It was picked up affected crops and frequency of incidence of the mite, percentage of area with presence and level of incidence per crops and season. It is reported the white mite as important pest, with high percent of affected areas in cold and spring season for potato, common bean, cowpea, pepper at fields and greenhouse. This surpassed the Control Economic Threshold in all cultivations sowed or planted; not being this way in common bean that only it happened in two seasons. In February-March, April-May the higher incidences occurred in the fields, without a marked preference for pepper greenhouse. The highest incidences happened to minimum temperature of 18 0C and 94 % of relative humidity. It don not put on in evidence the preference of the mite for some variety of the crops in study; throwing differences among early, intermediate and late season for pepper greenhouse in spring and for common bean and cowpea.

  7. Transformational leadership as a prerequisite for organizational innovations during turbulent socio-economic circumstances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Ana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, many organizations are operating in turbulent socio-economic circumstances which do not represent a matter of certain time, but the only certainty and consistency. There is a necessity for an adequate organizational response to changes so that organizations can remain competitive. The paper highlights the importance of new forms of management and leadership in managing organizations. Transformational leadership represents a form of leadership that encourages and nurtures employee creativity at all levels within the organization - individual, group and organizational, which implies the generating and establishment of organizational innovation. Due to the fact that creativity is a necessary condition for organizational innovation, this paper points out that transformational leadership is essential for the induction of organizational innovations and their management which further results in organizational changes that contribute to the survival and competitiveness of organizations and business systems on the market.

  8. Economical bridge solutions based on innovative composite dowels and integrated abutments ecobridge

    CERN Document Server

    Băncilă, Radu

    2015-01-01

    This book is an outcome of the research project “ECOBRIDGE – Demonstration of ECOnomical BRIDGE solutions based on innovative composite dowels and integrated abutments – RFCS – CT 2010-00024”, which has been co-funded by the Research Fund for Coal and Steel (R.F.C.S.) of the European Community. The main topics of the book are the following: design of integral bridges, innovative composite dowels for the shear transmission, construction of bridges, structural analysis of bridges and monitoring. The book joins the technical experience and the contributions of the involved research partners. The technical content of all the papers is present-day in the field of the design, construction and monitoring of innovative composite bridges. The efficient design and construction improve and consolidate the market position of steel construction and steel producing industry. In addition, the advanced forms of construction are contributing to savings in material and energy consumption for the structure during prod...

  9. Resistance Economics of Transgenic Crops under Uncertainty: A Real Option Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesseler, J.H.H.

    2003-01-01

    The development of pest resistance is one of the many concerns about the long-term success of transgenic crops. This chapter discusses resistances as additional irreversible costs related to the release of transgenic crops. These irreversible costs, their uncertainty, and the uncertainty about

  10. Grazing winter rye cover crop in a cotton no-till system: yield and economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter cover crop adoption in conservation management systems continues to be limited in the US but could be encouraged if establishment costs could be offset. A 4-yr field experiment was conducted near Watkinsville, Georgia in which a rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crop was either grazed by catt...

  11. Global economic effects of changes in crops, pasture, and forests due to changing climate, carbon dioxide, and ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, J.; Paltsev, S.; Felzer, B.; Wang, X.; Kicklighter, D.; Melillo, J.; Prinn, R.; Sarofim, M.; Sokolov, A.; Wang, C.

    2007-01-01

    Multiple environmental changes will have consequences for global vegetation. To the extent that crop yields and pasture and forest productivity are affected, there can be important economic consequences. We examine the combined effects of changes in climate, increases in carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), and changes in tropospheric ozone on crop, pasture, and forest lands and the consequences for the global and regional economies. We examine scenarios where there is limited or little effort to control these substances, and policy scenarios that limit emissions of CO 2 and ozone precursors. We find the effects of climate and CO 2 to be generally positive, and the effects of ozone to be very detrimental. Unless ozone is strongly controlled, damage could offset CO 2 and climate benefits. We find that resource allocation among sectors in the economy, and trade among countries, can strongly affect the estimate of economic effect in a country

  12. Economic comparison of food, non food crops, set-aside at a regional level with a linear programming model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sourie, J.C.; Hautcolas, J.C.; Blanchet, J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper is concerned with a regional linear programming model. Its purpose is a simulation of the European Economic Community supply of non-food crops at the farm gate according to different sets of European Common Agriculture Policy (CAP) measures. The methodology is first described with a special emphasis on the aggregation problem. The model allows the simultaneous calculation of the impact of non food crops on the farmer's income and on the agricultural budget. The model is then applied to an intensive agricultural region (400 000 ha of arable land). In this region, sugar beet and rape seem the less costly resources, both for the farmers and the CAP taxpayers. An improvement of the economic situation of the two previous agents can be obtained only if a tax exemption on ethanol and rape oil and a subsidy per hactare are allowed. This subsidy can be lower than the set aside premium. (author)

  13. Crop Loss Relationships and Economic Injury Levels for Ferrisia gilli (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) Infesting Pistachio in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haviland, David R; Beede, Robert H; Daane, Kent M

    2015-12-01

    Ferrisia gilli Gullan (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is a new pest in California pistachios, Pistacea vera L. We conducted a 3-yr field study to determine the type and amount of damage caused by F. gilli. Using pesticides, we established gradients of F. gilli densities in a commercial pistachio orchard near Tipton, CA, from 2005 to 2007. Each year, mealybug densities on pistachio clusters were recorded from May through September and cumulative mealybug-days were determined. At harvest time, nut yield per tree (5% dried weight) was determined, and subsamples of nuts were evaluated for market quality. Linear regression analysis of cumulative mealybug-days against fruit yield and nut quality measurements showed no relationships in 2005 and 2006, when mealybug densities were moderate. However, in 2007, when mealybug densities were very high, there was a negative correlation with yield (for every 1,000 mealybug-days, there was a decrease in total dry weight per tree of 0.105 kg) and percentage of split unstained nuts (for every 1,000 mealybug-days, there was a decrease in the percentage of split unstained of 0.560%), and a positive correlation between the percentage of closed kernel and closed blank nuts (for every 1,000 mealybug-days, there is an increase in the percentage of closed kernel and closed blank of 0.176 and 0.283%, respectively). The data were used to determine economic injury levels, showing that for each mealybug per cluster in May there was a 4.73% reduction in crop value associated with quality and a 0.866 kg reduction in yield per tree (4.75%). © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Economic factor environmental protection. Extending analysis according to environmental protection and innovation; Wirtschaftsfaktor Umweltschutz. Vertiefende Analyse zu Umweltschutz und Innovation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edler, Dietmar [Deutsches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung, Berlin (Germany); Blazejczak, Juergen [Deutsches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung, Berlin (Germany); Fachhochschule Merseburg (Germany); Walz, Rainer [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Innovations- und Systemforschung (FhG ISI), Karlsruhe (DE)] (and others)

    2007-06-15

    Within the bounds of a research project, the authors of the contribution under consideration report on an extending analysis according to environmental protection and innovation. The stocktaking and evaluation of more important documents prove that despite the differences in the estimation of individual ranges an international consent insists according to central ecological challenges on global level. The consent covers the following target areas: Climate protection, preservation of the biological variety, water supply including waste water disposal and water protection, health protection. It is to be expected that in the next decades its validity will keep these ecological challenges although defusing or new environmental problems may result in single areas. It is to be expected that due to the world-wide economic development some emphasis of important ecological challenges will shift gradually to developing countries, in particular China and India.

  15. Organizing the Financial and Economic Security of Business Processes of Innovation Development of Enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    Otenko Iryna P.; Komarkov Dmytriy V.; Shkreben Roman P.

    2017-01-01

    The article is aimed at analyzing ways and means of organizing the financial and economic security of business processes of innovation development of enterprise. The business processes of enterprise, which act as objects of managerial decision-making, are considered. It has been determined that the time for decision-making by directors is ensured as result not only of reactive but also proactive management, that is, one that involves modeling the problematic situations, related to business pr...

  16. Essays on the effects of human capital, innovation and technology on economic performance

    OpenAIRE

    Tiruneh, Esubalew Alehegn

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is on human capital (HC) and innovation in Germany and comprises of three essays. The first essay provides a comparative analysis on the economic performance impacts of creative class and HC at regional level with the purpose of testing whether the contemporary occupation-based creative class or the conventional education-based HC can be used as a better driver of regional economy. In doing so, I disaggregate creative class into creative core (scientific experts), creative profess...

  17. On the Economics of Innovation Projects Product Experimentation in the Music Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Lorenzen; Lars Frederiksen

    2005-01-01

    The paper is conceptual, combining project and economic organization literatures in order to explain the organization and management of market-based projects. It dedicates particular focus to projects set up in order to facilitate product innovation through experimentation. It investigates the internal vs. market economies of scale and scope related to projects, as well as the issues of governance, planning and coordination related to reaping such economies. Incorporating trans...

  18. The Effect of Socio-Economic Factors on Adoption of Innovations in Dairy Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysun Yener

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted with the aim of determining the social and economic factors which are effective on the adoption of new technologies at dairy farms in the province of Konya. The data used in the research was obtained on a volunteer basis by questionnaire technique from 128 dairy farms determined with stratified sampling method that is one of random sampling method. 51.56% of enterprises investigated were high innovators and 48.44% of enterprises were low innovators. In conclusion, it was determined that the milk yield, enterprise income, education of enterpriser, family size, number of animals, existence of land, case of receiving services of consultancy and frequency of using mass media tools made positive contributions to adoption of innovations by enterprises in the research field. But the training level decreased as the age of enterpriser increased in the research field. This case retards the adoption process of innovations and deescalates the use of new technologies in the enterprises. The young farmers come to the forefront in the adoption and implementation of innovations.

  19. Russian Innovative Potential in the Conditions of Economic Sanctions: Reserves of Grown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustem M. Nureev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the impact of economic sanctions in general for innovative development of Russia, as well as individual sectors of oil, gas, financial and banking sector. It is shown that the ban on exports to the Russian oil and gas technology has led to the freezing of existing and refusal to enter into new projects. Increased production and export of US oil and gas have led to an increase in excess of the global scope of these types of raw materials and led to long-term downward trend in world energy prices. In recent years there has been a sharp decline in the net inflow of foreign direct investment in Russia, which exacerbates the problem of domestic sources of domestic innovation policy. The effect of sanctions on the development of the Russian economy as a whole and its individual regions is condifered. The paper describes the approaches to the definition of the innovation potential of the Russian region, identified several levels of manifestation of the region's potential and its characteristics, provides a definition of the region's innovation potential, discussed the factors influencing the development of the region's innovative capacity. The current state of the regional innovation system of the Russian Federation is analysed. The paper describes the main tasks of the Russian Federation Innovative Development Strategy for the period up to 2020. The degree of implementation of the Strategy, problems and prospects of realization of the basic provisions of the Strategy, the impact of the implementation of the Strategy on the Russian economy, its position in the index business are analysed in the paper.

  20. The Problematics of Implementing Innovation Activities by National Economic Actors in Conditions of the Currently Effective Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nosovets Oleksandra I.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the problematics of current effective legislation on the issues of regulating the innovation activities as to assessing the extent of obstacles and the ways of eliminating them, along with encouraging enterprises to move from an innovative focus to the actual commercialization of innovations. Systems of facilitating as well as impediment factors for the corresponding economic activities in Ukraine are presented in the format of grouping and structuring the elements of influence according to the principle of subordination of relations between them together with description of «bottlenecks» in the legal support and institutional provision, in the financing and preparedness of business entities to implement innovations. The chain of appearance of the low quality innovation supply in the marketplace starting from actors in innovative processes and weak formation of innovation demand for the transition to an innovative type of entrepreneurial activity has been substantiated.

  1. Genetic engineering represents a safe approach for innovations improving nutritional contents of major food crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Arber

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available About 70 years ago early microbial genetic research revealed that inherited phenotypic traits become determined by DNA filaments composed of 4 different nucleotides that are linearly arranged. In the meantime we know that genes, the determinants of specific life functions, are genomic segments of an average size of about 1000 nucleotides, i.e. a very small part of a genome. Fundamental insights into the structures and functions of selected genes can be reached by sorting out the relevant short DNA segment, splicing this fragment into a natural gene vector such as a viral genome or a fertility plasmid. This allows the researchers to transfer the genetic hybrid into an appropriate host cell in order to produce many copies that can then serve for functional and structural analysis. This research approach became efficient in the 1970s. On the request of involved researchers, safety guidelines became proposed 1975 at the Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA (Berg, Baltimore, Brenner, Roblin, & Singer, 1975, then generally introduced and still largely followed nowadays. Carefully carried out genetic engineering by horizontally transferring a selected and functionally well known DNA segment into the genome of another organism has in many published biosafety investigations never shown any unexpected harmful effect. We will present below selected examples of research contributions enabling innovations for the benefit of human life conditions.

  2. Economic factors influencing potential use of cellulosic crop residues for electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maung, Thein A.; McCarl, Bruce A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines cellulosic crop residues for biopower production in the context of (greenhouse gas) GHG emission mitigation. We employ sector modeling to simulate future market potential for biopower production from crop residues. Our findings suggest that in order for crop residues to have any role in electricity generation either the carbon or (carbon dioxide) CO 2 equivalent GHG price must rise to about 15 dollars per ton or the price of coal has to increase to about 43 dollars per ton. We find that crop residues with higher heat content have greater opportunities in biopower production than the residues with lower heat content. In addition, our evidence shows that improvements in crop yields do not have much impact on biopower production. However, the energy recovery efficiency does have significant positive impact but only if the CO 2 equivalent price rises substantially. Moreover, our analysis indicates the desirability of cofiring biomass as opposed to 100% replacement because this reduces transportation cost and increases the efficiency of heat recovery. In terms of policy implications, imposing carbon emission pricing could be an important step in inducing electric power producers to include biomass feedstocks in their fuel-mix power generation portfolios and achieve GHG emission reductions. - Highlights: • Crop residues with higher heat content have greater market opportunities. • Improvement in crop and residue yields does not have much impact on biopower production. • Advancement in biopower production technology does not encourage more use of crop residues. • The main factor that induces biopower production is an increase in future carbon prices

  3. Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Janni; Yaganeh, Suzanne; Bloch Rasmussen, Leif

    2013-01-01

    This paper contributes to a theoretical discussion of creation of innovation with participants in, or outside, organisations. We address the creation of innovation with a complex theoretical understanding drawing on the Scandinavian and the Participatory Design tradition introducing two approaches...... to the processes of innovation. We ask if innovation can be initiated and enhanced looking at two collaborative approaches; participatory innovation (PIN) and cooperative innovation (COIN). We invite to dialogue and reflections on PIN’s conflict and creative frictions on one side and COIN’s complexity......, complementarity in diversity and the didactic scaffolding of the innovation process on the other side. Our contribution focuses on the methods and practices for facilitation of co-creating activities between different groups leading to cooperation, and innovation in thinking....

  4. ECONOMIC COMPETITIVENESS ANALYSIS OF THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA IN TERMS OF: SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulita BIRCA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An important condition for achieving a sustainable economic growth and for improving living standards of the population of the Republic of Moldova is the active involvement of the national economy in the international exchange of goods, services, knowledge, technology, etc., and also strengthening its positions on the international market. Therefore, to achieve and maintain competitiveness has become a fundamental economic policies issue in the context of globalization. In the contemporary world, national economic competitiveness is determined by a wide variety of features and important factors. In this article, the authors will focus their attention on the part of science, technology and innovation as being one of the key tools in the modern future of any modern state.

  5. Formation of the perspective innovation policy of the enterprise in the conditions of organizational-economic changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uvarova, Svetlana; Vlasenko, Vyacheslav; Bukreev, Anatoly; Myshovskaya, Ludmila; Kuzina, Olga

    2018-03-01

    This article is based on the analysis of modern condition and dynamics of innovational development of high-rise buildings construction. A number of cardinal organizational and economic changes in management at the macro and meso-levels is taken into the account. Principal scheme of development of the methodology of formation of perspective innovation politics in high-ruse buildings construction based on inculcation of modern methods of strategic control of innovational activity is suggested in this article.

  6. Out flying the eagle: China's drive for domestic economic innovation and its impact on U.S.-China relations

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Samuel R.

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. In 2006, the People's Republic of China adopted an innovation policy designed to accelerate domestic economic innovation. With this policy, China aimed to shift its economy from one that manufactures products at the lower end of the value-added chain to one manufacturing products at the top of the value-added chain. China plans to become not only a high-technology manufacturing nation but to become the world-leader in innovation. Cert...

  7. Formation of the perspective innovation policy of the enterprise in the conditions of organizational-economic changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uvarova Svetlana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on the analysis of modern condition and dynamics of innovational development of high-rise buildings construction. A number of cardinal organizational and economic changes in management at the macro and meso-levels is taken into the account. Principal scheme of development of the methodology of formation of perspective innovation politics in high-ruse buildings construction based on inculcation of modern methods of strategic control of innovational activity is suggested in this article.

  8. Points of Economic and Innovative Growth: a Model for Organizing the Effective Functioning of the Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. D. Burkaltseva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose: the main goal of the article is to build a conceptual model for the organization of effective functioning of the points of economic and innovative growth of the region in modern conditions, taking into account regional and municipal limitations of internal and external nature, with the aim of ensuring economic security, effective interaction of subjects of the "business-power" system Taking into account the influence of institutional factors. Methods: the methodological basis of research in the article is the dialectical method of scientific cognition, the systemic and institutional approach to studying and building an organization for the effective functioning of the regional economy in order to ensure its economic security from internal and external threats. Results: the existing mechanism of interaction "business and power" is considered. The financial stability of economic entities of the Republic of Crimea is determined. The financial independence of the regional budget of the Republic of Crimea has been determined. The dynamics of financing of the Federal Target Program "Social and Economic Development of the Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol until 2020" has been revealed. The regional and municipal restrictions of internal and external nature, which constitute a threat to social and economic development, are indicated. Points of economic and innovative growth at the present stage and their advantages and stages of technical organization of their implementation have been determined. A conceptual model of building effective interaction between subjects of the "business-power" system is proposed taking into account the influence of institutional factors. The conceptual model of organization of effective functioning of points of economic and innovative growth of the region, as a territorial socio-economic system, under modern conditions is constructed. Conclusions and Relevance: we propose to define four

  9. Innovation policies and entrepreneurship in the Baltic States - key to European Economic success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesea SIRBU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship is by far the most important force stimulating economic growth and social progress. In case of the Baltic States pro-market regulation allowed passing over the transition period in a relatively short period of time and, therefore, be sufficiently competitive as to integrate into the European Union. Thus, presently, the Baltic States came to be the most economically developed countries among the former USSR states. Consequently, the present research addresses three key questions, first, which is the role of entrepreneurship in determining the Baltic States’ economic development, second, what is the influence of R&D investments of the society in general and of business in particular in boosting economic development, and third, will the present fiscal policies in the Baltic States motivate further economic growth by stimulating entrepreneurial and innovation? The methodology involved in this paper includes both quantitative and qualitative indicators which combined will offer a deeper insight upon the matter of the present research. The results received allowed reaching the conclusion that entrepreneurship has enhanced all the Baltic States’ economic competitiveness yet the extent differ, with Estonia leading followed by Lithuania and Latvia.

  10. Economic innovation and efficiency gains as the driving force for accelerating carbon dioxide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, T. J.

    2012-12-01

    It is normally assumed that gains in energy efficiency are one of the best routes that society has available to it for stabilizing future carbon dioxide emissions. For a given degree of economic productivity less energy is consumed and a smaller quantity of fossil fuels is required. While certainly this observation is true in the instant, it ignores feedbacks in the economic system such that efficiency gains ultimately lead to greater energy consumption: taken as a global whole, they permit civilization to accelerate its expansion into the energy reserves that sustain it. Here this argument is formalized from a general thermodynamic perspective. The core result is that there exists a fixed, time-independent link between a very general representation of global inflation-adjusted economic wealth (units currency) and civilization's total capacity to consume power (units energy per time). Based on 40 years of available statistics covering more than a tripling of global GDP and a doubling of wealth, this constant has a value of 7.1 +/- 0.01 Watts per one thousand 2005 US dollars. Essentially, wealth is power. Civilization grows by dissipating power in order to sustain all its current activities and to incorporate more raw material into its existing structure. Growth of its structure is related to economic production, so more energy efficient economic production facilitates growth. Growth is into the reserves that sustain civilization, in which case there is a positive feedback in the economic system whereby energy efficiency gains ultimately "backfire" if their intended purpose is to reduce energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. The analogy that can be made is to a growing child: a healthy child who efficiently incorporates food into her structure grows quickly and is able to consume more in following years. Economically, an argument is made that, for a range of reasons, there are good reasons to refer to efficiency gains as economic "innovation", both for

  11. “Italy System” as a Case of Innovative Economic Diplomacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman O. Raynkhardt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the description and analysis of functioning of the Italian national system of economic diplomacy.The author provides an insight into the historical and economic background and conditions of its development from the earliest stages to present time focusing on the latest events (from 2010 onwards.He casts light upon the procedures and mechanisms of interaction between the key national economic-diplomatic agents i.e. ministry of foreign affairs, ministry of economic development, export-promotion agency ITA, investment-attraction agency Invitalia, other authorized bodies (in particular, the Coordination Council on the Internationalization of the Italian Economy - CRII, public and private institutes. The article outlines the main principles of the new system of foreign economic policy "Sistema Paese" which is being implemented since 2011. This concept is based upon efficient cooperation ("team play" between the chief institutes of economic diplomacy with a system approach to elaboration and realizing measures aimed at the internationalization of the Italian business. Innovative elements of "Sistema Paese" do not just imply another reorganization of the MFA, but a completely new approach to issues concerning the position of Italy on the world arena. The author looks into concrete mechanisms of economic diplomacy which basically include measures of national export promotion and assistance to Italian companies in the course of new markets penetration, as well as measures on attraction of foreign direct investment inter alia from developing countries. He mentions that subnational regions of Italy, especially Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Veneto and Sicily, tend to be more and more involved into processes of FDI attraction. Another important trend and particular feature of Italy's modern economic diplomacy is the practice of decentralization of financial management within the MFA system through providing the heads of diplomatic

  12. European Union’s research and innovation performances under the impact of the economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor-Romeo Ionescu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the analysis of the R&D and innovation activities’ impact on the sustainable economic development. There are two approaches of this phenomenon: national and regional. The main objective of the paper is to quantify and measure the disparities between the Member States and to define their trend until 2020. The analysis in the paper is built on three steps: a regression under ANOVA table in order to establish the R&D and innovation disparities across EU28, a cluster analysis used to group the Member States into distinct clusters and a forecast of the gross domestic expenditure on R&D as % of GDP during 2014-2020. The whole analysis and all its results are supported by the latest official statistic data and pertinent tables and diagrams. The main conclusion of the paper is that EU28 is not the best competitor on the global R&D and innovation market. Moreover, there are great disparities between the Member States and European regions connected to their innovative capacities. And the forecast for 2020 is not a positive one.

  13. Multi-farm economic analysis of perennial energy crops in Central Greece, taking into account the CAP reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lychnaras, Vassilis; Schneider, Uwe A.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyses farm level economic impacts of biomass production from perennial crops including Arundo donax L. (arundo), Miscanthus x giganteus (miscanthus), Panicum virgatum L. (switchgrass) and Cynara cardunculus L. (cardoon). Regional biomass supply curves are estimated with a dynamic, multi-farm, mathematical programming model. Micro-economic data for the model are generated from farm surveys covering 52 farms containing a total of 400 parcels, in Central Greece. The study also examines the potential effects of the Common Agricultural Policy reform in 2003 on regional biomass supply. Simulations show that the policy reform toward decoupled subsidies lowers the cost of biomass between 15 and 25 euro per tonne. Switchgrass appears to be the most attractive option, followed by cardoon and miscanthus. Due to high specific machinery cost, arundo is never preferred. Relative to the agricultural policy setting of Agenda 2000, the biomass potential increases more for farms of small economic size and farms with a higher share of cotton. (author)

  14. Multi-farm economic analysis of perennial energy crops in Central Greece, taking into account the CAP reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lychnaras, Vassilis [Centre for Planning and Economic Research, 11, Amerikis str., 106 72 Athens (Greece); Schneider, Uwe A. [Research Unit Sustainability and Global Change, University of Hamburg, KlimaCampus Hamburg, Bundesstrasse 55, D-20146 Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    This study analyses farm level economic impacts of biomass production from perennial crops including Arundo donax L. (arundo), Miscanthus x giganteus (miscanthus), Panicum virgatum L. (switchgrass) and Cynara cardunculus L. (cardoon). Regional biomass supply curves are estimated with a dynamic, multi-farm, mathematical programming model. Micro-economic data for the model are generated from farm surveys covering 52 farms containing a total of 400 parcels, in Central Greece. The study also examines the potential effects of the Common Agricultural Policy reform in 2003 on regional biomass supply. Simulations show that the policy reform toward decoupled subsidies lowers the cost of biomass between 15 and 25 euro per tonne. Switchgrass appears to be the most attractive option, followed by cardoon and miscanthus. Due to high specific machinery cost, arundo is never preferred. Relative to the agricultural policy setting of Agenda 2000, the biomass potential increases more for farms of small economic size and farms with a higher share of cotton. (author)

  15. The system of innovative development of the agroindustrial complex in order to ensure the economic security of the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Ovchinnikova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The basis for innovative development of the agroindustrial complex is the goals, principles and methods that determine the economic security of the region. The category of “economic security”is often identified with the sustainability, competitiveness and risk-free economy of agricultural and processing enterprises. Ensuring the economically safe functioning of all industries and spheres of regional agribusiness is impossible without interconnection with science and education. The most important principles necessary for the formation in the regional and national agribusinesses of a developed economically secure market of scientific, technical and innovative products for agroindustrial purposes are the following: providing the scientific and research sphere of the agro-industrial complex with highly qualified personnel; ensuring real freedom and independence in the activities of research institutions; the formation of a common interdependent economic space and interest; organization of specialized market structures in the field of research and innovation development; development and application within the regional agro-industrial complex of a scientifically grounded economic mechanism for regulating the functioning and stimulating the development of the market for scientific and technical innovation products. Purposeful development of the civilized market of scientific, technical and innovative products of agro-industrial design with its corresponding structures and organizational-economic mechanism is an objective necessity of functioning of economic security of the national economy. The interests of the economic and food security of the region and the state as a whole need to increase the financing of the agricultural sector and the processing industry to a level that will overcome the investment and innovation crisis caused by sanctions. To this end, we believe it is necessary to finance the innovative investment agrarian fund at the

  16. Dynamics of energy use, technological innovation, economic growth and trade openness in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohag, Kazi; Begum, Rawshan Ara; Abdullah, Sharifah Mastura Syed; Jaafar, Mokhtar

    2015-01-01

    This study extends the Marshallian demand framework to investigate the effects of TI (technological innovation) on energy use in Malaysia. This extended theoretical frameworks predicts that TI, an exogenous element in the energy demand function, increases energy efficiency and, correspondingly, reduces energy consumption at a given level of economic output. Using an ARDL (autoregressive distributed lag) bounds testing approach for the sample period 1985–2012, this study confirms both short- and log-run theoretical predictions. However, controlling for the effect of TI, this study finds that increasing GDP per capita and trade openness produce a rebound effect of TI on energy use. - Highlights: • Technological innovation increases energy efficiency in the long run. • GDP per capita intensifies the energy use in the short run and long run. • Trade openness augments energy use in the long run.

  17. The effects of innovative changes influence on social and economic processes of the region development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. O. Tolstykh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of strategy of social and economic development of the Voronezh region till 2035 requires the careful analysis of a condition of all activities of the region, their interaction and interference. The special role in this process belongs to the higher school as the engine of knowledge, information and innovations. In case of all conservatism of an education system its task not only to give estimates and forecasts of the future, but also to serve as a leader of changes in all industries. The models realizing these tasks are a possibility of receipt of the effective instrument of increase in innovation of potential of economy of the region, forming of the environment which is adequately reflecting scientific and technical and economic challenges of modern realities and also developments of processes and technologies of transition of economy of the region to the principles of digital economy. Direct task of the higher school are increase in the amount of knowledge which is saved up by society, handling and transformation of information to knowledge, generation of new information and new knowledge, forming of the competitive specialist. In article approaches to an impact assessment of changes in the higher school on processes of social and economic development of the region, to classification of straight lines and side effects (spillover-effects in the conditions of development of programs of a strategic development of the region are considered, the model of development of the higher school taking into account spillover-effect based on the principles of digital economy is offered. For the purpose of an impact assessment of changes in the higher school on processes of social and economic development in the region the task is set to analyse influence of various factors at each other, and also on basic factors of economic growth of the region.

  18. The physical limits to economic growth by R&D funded innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaudreau, Bernard C.; Lightfoot, H. Douglas

    2015-01-01

    For over three decades, worldwide R&D expenditure has risen steadily, reaching $1.3 trillion in 2011. Underlying this unprecedented growth is a deeply-held belief that R&D is a prime mover of economic growth. Ironically, despite three decades of massive R&D expenditure, growth levels have remained substantially lower than that of the immediate post World War II period. This raises important theoretical questions regarding R&D and its impact on growth per se. For example, R&D-growth has been modeled and continues to be modeled as an unbounded set. This has not been inconsequential because it has introduced an upward bias in growth projections as evidenced in the literature. More importantly, are there physically-determined upper limits to R&D-based growth and, if so, what are they? This paper uses the physical sciences to map the physical limits to R&D-based innovation. A consilient model of economic growth is presented and upper bounds for energy efficiency-based growth rates are provided, both for individual energy sectors and globally. We find that with economic growth by innovation limited by physical conditions, increasing the rate of economic growth can only come through increasing the rate of energy consumption. - Highlights: • Worldwide, R&D expenditures have grown steadily yet economic growth remains anemic. • This paper examines the physics of process-based R&D using a consilient model of wealth creation. • Growth is formalized in terms of (i) energy consumption growth and (ii) changes in energy efficiency. • Detailed estimates of changes in energy efficiency are provided for the period 1990–2100. • The results of the paper establish the upper bound of changes in energy efficiency at 0.68 percent per year

  19. Quantifying the Effects of Biomass Market Conditions and Policy Incentives on Economically Feasible Sites to Establish Dedicated Energy Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya Nepal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study used a spatially-explicit model to identify the amount and spatial distribution of economically feasible sites for establishing dedicated energy crops under various market and policy scenarios. A sensitivity analysis was performed for a biomass market with different discount rates and biomass prices as well as policy scenarios including propriety tax exemption, carbon offset payments, and the inclusion of farmland for biomass production. The model was applied to a four-county study area in Kentucky representing conditions commonly found in the Ohio River Valley. Results showed that both biomass price and discount rate have a can strongly influence the amount of economically efficient sites. Rising the biomass price by 5 $·t−1 and lowering discount rate by 1% from the baseline scenario (40 $·t−1 and 5% resulted in an over fourteen fold increment. Property tax exemption resulted in a fourfold increase, a carbon payment on only 1 $·t−1 caused a twelve fold increase and extending the landbase from marginal land to farmland only slightly increase the economically efficient sites. These results provide an objective evaluation of market and policy scenarios in terms of their potential to increase land availability for establishing dedicated energy crops and to promote the bioenergy industry.

  20. THE CONCEPT OF SYSTEM-INNOVATION BIBLIOMETRIC ANALYSIS AND MAPPING OF ECONOMIC LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lychagin M. V.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the historical background and the stages of formation and approval of the concept of system-innovation bibliometriс analysis and mapping of economic literature (SIBAMEL. We show that the roots of modern system and bibliometric analysis are in the ancient Indian treatise «Arthasastra» and in some other old documents and works. The Department of Economics of the National Research University - Novosibirsk State University and the Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciencescreated and developed this concept SIBAMEL. JEL subject classification and the electronic bibliography EconLit are important foundation for suggested variant of bibliometriс analysis. It is necessary to stress the role of special techniques and software that were elaborated in the framework of the SIBAMEL. The concept received approval in different research, education and publication projects. This approbation provided a number of new results for the development of research and professional education. This article contain the brief presentation of new project on the EconLit basis. This project shows new directions of economic research, which has grown on the intersections of 822 subject micro fields of JEL classification in 2006-2013. The American Economic Association gave her kind permission to publish the results of the new project in English and Russian.

  1. Dynamics of the Economic Effect in the Process of Managing the Life Cycle of Innovations in Terms of Their Commercialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tymofeyev Dmytro V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at studying the theoretical aspects of changes in the dynamics of economic effect in the processes of management of life cycle of the industrial innovations at the stage of their commercialization. On the basis of an analysis of the scientific papers by the domestic and the foreign authors on methods of commercialization of the innovative products, the current status and essence of the definitions of «innovation», «commercialization», and «economic effect» was researched. Possibilities of managing the duration of the stage of commercialization of innovations were researched. It has been proposed to implement extension of the maturity stage of the life cycle of innovation by reducing the phase of designing and creating the innovative product and, as a consequence, change of value of the cumulative economic effect. Further researches should focus on the interdependence of development costs, creating an innovation and time period for the implementing, as well as determine the mechanism for calculating the quantitative indicators of commercialization of innovations.

  2. The economic and environmental cost of delayed GM crop adoption: The case of Australia's GM canola moratorium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biden, Scott; Smyth, Stuart J; Hudson, David

    2018-01-02

    Incorporating socio-economic considerations (SECs) into national biosafety regulations regarding genetically modified (GM) crops have opportunity costs. Australia approved the cultivation of GM canola through a science-based risk assessment in 2003, but allowed state moratoria to be instituted based on potential trade impacts over the period 2004 to 2008 and 2010 in the main canola growing states. This analysis constructs a counterfactual assessment using Canadian GM canola adoption data to create an S-Curve of adoption in Australia to measure the environmental and economic opportunity costs of Australia's SEC-based moratoria between 2004 and 2014. The environmental impacts are measured through the amount of chemical active ingredients applied during pest management, the Environmental Impact Quotient indicator, and greenhouse gas emissions. The economic impacts are measured through the variable costs of the weed control programs, yield and the contribution margin. The environmental opportunity costs from delaying the adoption of GM canola in Australia include an additional 6.5 million kilograms of active ingredients applied to canola land; a 14.3% increase in environmental impact to farmers, consumers and the ecology; 8.7 million litres of diesel fuel burned; and an additional 24.2 million kilograms of greenhouse gas (GHG) and compound emissions released. The economic opportunity costs of the SEC-based moratoria resulted in foregone output of 1.1 million metric tonnes of canola and a net economic loss to canola farmers' of AU$485.6 million. The paper provides some of the first quantified, post-adoption evidence on the opportunity cost and environmental impacts of incorporating SECs into GM crop regulation.

  3. Unfolding innovation: modelling the interplay of science, technology, and economic growth

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

      In this talk I will show that the space in which scientific, technological and economic developments interplay with each other can be mathematically shaped using pioneering multilayer network and complexity techniques. We build the tri-layered network of human activities (scientific production, patenting, and industrial production) and study the interactions among them, also taking into account the possible time delays. Within this construction we can identify which capabilities and prerequisites are needed to be competitive in a given activity, and even measure how much time is needed to transform, for instance, the technological know-how into economic wealth and scientific innovation, being able to make predictions with a very long time horizon. Quite unexpectedly, we find empirical evidence that the naive knowledge flow from science, to patents, to products is not supported by data, being instead technology the best predictor for industrial and scientific production for the next decades. &...

  4. New perspectives on internationalization and competitiveness integrating economics, innovation and higher education

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This volume showcases contributions from leading academics, educators and policymakers derived from two workshops hosted by the Interdisciplinary Center for Economic Science (ICES) at George Mason University on internationalization and competitiveness. It aims to present key areas of current research and to identify basic problems within the field to promote further discussion and research. This book is organized into two sections, focusing on: science and economics and innovation policy and its measurement, with an underlying emphasis on exploring connections across disciplines and across research, practice and policy. The first workshop was held at George Mason University (GMU) in Arlington, VA, USA in March 2013 and a second, building on the key results from the first, was held at the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) in Stockholm, Sweden in October 2013. A variety of problems were discussed and several interdisciplinary concepts in internationalization and competitiveness have already emerged from the...

  5. Innovators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NEA Today, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Describes various innovations that have been developed to enhance education. These innovations include: helping educators help at-risk students succeed; promoting high school journalism; ensuring quality online learning experiences; developing a student performing group that uses theater to address social issues; and having students design their…

  6. THE FORMATION OF ECONOMIC MECHANISMS OF CORPORATE MARKETS, STIMULATING THE ACTIVATION OF INNOVATIVE ENTREPRENEURSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titov V. V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available As noted by the academician N. P. Fedorenko, «economic incentives is quite rightly regarded as a force deliberately included in the system of optimal functioning of the economy». Thus, the considered problem is relevant for not only the founders and owners of individual firms and corporations, but also for the economy as a whole. The purpose of this research is to develop a theoretical and methodological approach to solving the problem of stimulation of entrepreneurship, innovation and investment activity in industrial enterprises (and other organizations on the basis of economic incentives of their employees, ensuring the implementation of this process. The problem lies in the construction of such economic mechanism that would provide incentives at not only the level of the Corporation as a whole, but at each firm (enterprise and division of firm level and would affect the activity of each employee. This mechanism will be viable only if the distribution of the profit received from realization of work and services in all divisions of the enterprise, firms, corporations involved in carrying out such works in accordance with the quantity and effectiveness of their work based on value added. It uses the principle of self-organization and self-government based on the allocation of the final economic result of their activities using specially designed intra-firm, transfer prices.

  7. Calculation of economic and financing of NPP and conventional power plant using spreadsheet innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moch Djoko Birmano; Imam Bastori

    2008-01-01

    The study for calculating the economic and financing of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) and conventional power plant using spreadsheet Innovation has been done. As case study, the NPP of PWR type of class 1050 MWe is represented by OPR-1000 (Optimized Power Reactor, 1000 MWe) and the conventional plant of class 600 MWe, is coal power plant (Coal PP). The purpose of the study is to assess the economic and financial feasibility level of OPR-1000 and Coal PP. The study result concludes that economically, OPR-1000 is more feasible compared to Coal PP because its generation cost is cheaper. Whereas financially, OPR-1000 is more beneficial compared to Coal PP because the higher benefit at the end of economic lifetime (NPV) and the higher ratio of benefit and cost (B/C Ratio). For NPP and Coal PP, the higher Discount Rate (%) is not beneficial. NPP is more sensitive to the change of discount rate compared to coal PP, whereas Coal PP is more sensitive to the change of power purchasing price than NPP. (author)

  8. Identifying obstacles and ranking common biological control research priorities for Europe to manage most economically important pests in arable, vegetable and perennial crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamichhane, Jay Ram; Bischoff-Schaefer, Monika; Bluemel, Sylvia; Dachbrodt-Saaydeh, Silke; Dreux, Laure; Jansen, Jean Pierre; Kiss, Jozsef; Kohl, Jurgen; Kudsk, Per; Malausa, Thibaut; Messéan, Antoine; Nicot, Philippe C.; Ricci, Pierre; Thibierge, Jérôme; Villeneuve, François

    2017-01-01

    EU agriculture is currently in transition from conventional crop protection to integrated pest management (IPM). Because biocontrol is a key component of IPM, many European countries recently have intensified their national efforts on biocontrol research and innovation (R&I), although such

  9. Economics of herbaceous bioenergy crops for electricity generation: Implications for greenhouse gas mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanna, M.; Onal, H.; Dhungana, B.; Wander, M. [University of Illinois Urbana Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States)

    2011-04-15

    This paper examines the optimal land allocation for two perennial crops, switchgrass and miscanthus that can be co-fired with coal for electricity generation. Detailed spatial data at county level is used to determine the costs of producing and transporting biomass to power plants in Illinois over a 15-year period. A supply curve for bioenergy is generated at various levels of bioenergy subsidies and the implications of production for farm income and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are analyzed. GHG emissions are estimated using lifecycle analysis and include the soil carbon sequestered by perennial grasses and the carbon emissions displaced by these grasses due to both conversion of land from row crops and co-firing the grasses with coal. We find that the conversion of less than 2% of the cropland to bioenergy crops could produce 5.5% of the electricity generated by coal-fired power plants in Illinois and reduce carbon emissions by 11% over the 15-year period. However, the cost of energy from biomass in Illinois is more than twice as high as that of coal. Costly government subsidies for bioenergy or mandates in the form of Renewable Portfolio Standards would be needed to induce the production and use of bioenergy for electricity generation. Alternatively, a modest price for GHG emissions under a cap-and-trade policy could make bioenergy competitive with coal without imposing a fiscal burden on the government.

  10. Increased crop failure due to climate change: assessing adaptation options using models and socio-economic data for wheat in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Challinor, Andrew J [Institute for Climate and Atmospheric Science, School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Simelton, Elisabeth S; Fraser, Evan D G [Sustainability Research Institute, School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Hemming, Debbie; Collins, Mathew, E-mail: a.j.challinor@leeds.ac.uk [Met Office Hadley Centre, FitzRoy Road, Exeter EX1 3PB (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-15

    Tools for projecting crop productivity under a range of conditions, and assessing adaptation options, are an important part of the endeavour to prioritize investment in adaptation. We present ensemble projections of crop productivity that account for biophysical processes, inherent uncertainty and adaptation, using spring wheat in Northeast China as a case study. A parallel 'vulnerability index' approach uses quantitative socio-economic data to account for autonomous farmer adaptation. The simulations show crop failure rates increasing under climate change, due to increasing extremes of both heat and water stress. Crop failure rates increase with mean temperature, with increases in maximum failure rates being greater than those in median failure rates. The results suggest that significant adaptation is possible through either socio-economic measures such as greater investment, or biophysical measures such as drought or heat tolerance in crops. The results also show that adaptation becomes increasingly necessitated as mean temperature and the associated number of extremes rise. The results, and the limitations of this study, also suggest directions for research for linking climate and crop models, socio-economic analyses and crop variety trial data in order to prioritize options such as capacity building, plant breeding and biotechnology.

  11. Regional economic impacts of biomass based energy service use: A comparison across crops and technologies for East Styria, Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trink, Thomas; Schmid, Christoph; Schinko, Thomas; Steininger, Karl W.; Loibnegger, Thomas; Kettner, Claudia; Pack, Alexandra; Toeglhofer, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Biomass action plans in many European countries seek to expand biomass heat and fuel supply, mainly to be supplied by peripheral, agricultural regions. We develop a two-plus-ten-region energy-focused computable general equilibrium (CGE) model that acknowledges land competition in analysing the sub-state local-regional economic implications of such a strategy, embedded within a global context. Our model is based on a full cost analysis of selected biomass technologies covering a range of agricultural and forestry crops, as well as thermal insulation. The local-regional macroeconomic effects differ significantly across technologies and are governed by factors such as net labour intensity in crop production. The high land intensity of agricultural biomass products crowds out conventional agriculture, and thus lowers employment and drives up land prices and the consumer price index. The regional economic results show that net employment effects are positive for all forestry based biomass energy, and also show for which agriculture based biomass systems this is true, even when accounting for land competition. When regional consumer price development governs regional wages or when the agricultural sector is in strong enough competition to the international market, positive employment and welfare impacts vanish fully for agriculture based bio-energy.

  12. Optimal Cropping Pattern Based on Multiple Economic, Regional, and Agricultural Sustainability Criteria in Sari, Iran: Application of a Consolidated Model of AHP and Linear Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Fallahi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Determining a suitable cropping pattern is an important task for planners and requires an exact and realistic decision-making process based on several goals and criteria corresponding to secure the interest of agricultural beneficiaries in long-term. Accordingly, this study reviews the current pattern operated by farmers in Sari, Iran, and intends to provide a cropping pattern that considers the multifold regional and agricultural sustainability criteria along with economic considerations. Materials and Methods: In order to achieve the study goals, a consolidated model of AHP and Linear Programming was applied. For this purpose, we constructed a three-level AHP, including a goal (determining the weight of each crop, seven criteria, and seven alternatives. Profitability, compatibility with regional and geographical conditions, water consumption, environmental effects of cropping, job creation opportunities, skill and proficiency required for producing a crop, and risk taken to cultivate a crop were considered as the criteria in the model. Seven alternative crops including rice, wheat, rapeseed, barley, soybean, clover, and vegetables were considered too. The next step is determining the weight of each criterion with regard to the goal and the weight of each alternative with regard to each criteria. By multiplying these weights, final weights for various crops were obtained from the model. Derived weights for each crop were then applied as objective function coefficients in the Linear Programming model and the model was solved subject to the constraints. Results and Discussion: Optimal cropping pattern determined based on the consolidated model of AHP and Linear Programming and the results compared to a scenario that only looks forward to maximizing the economic interests. Due to the low profitability of rapeseed and barley, these crops eliminated from the pattern in the profit-maximizing scenario. According to the results, the

  13. The economics of soil conservation in developing countries: the case of crop residue mulching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erenstein, O.C.A.

    1999-01-01

    The study contributes to the search for a methodology to assess soil conservation, particularly in developing countries. The study first assesses the economics of soil conservation in general - with special emphasis on the relationships between technology, economic analysis and policy implications.

  14. Economically optimal timing for crop disease control under uncertainty: an options approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ndeffo Mbah, M.L.; Forster, G.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Gilligan, C.A.

    2010-01-01

    Severe large-scale disease and pest infestations in agricultural regions can cause significant economic damage. Understanding if and when disease control measures should be taken in the presence of risk and uncertainty is a key issue. We develop a framework to examine the economically optimal timing

  15. Phytoremediation, a sustainable remediation technology? II: Economic assessment of CO2 abatement through the use of phytoremediation crops for renewable energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witters, N.; Mendelsohn, R.; Van Passel, S.; Van Slycken, S.; Weyens, N.; Schreurs, E.; Meers, E.; Tack, F.; Vanheusden, B.; Vangronsveld, J.

    2012-01-01

    Phytoremediation could be a sustainable remediation alternative for conventional remediation technologies. However, its implementation on a commercial scale remains disappointing. To emphasize its sustainability, this paper examines whether and how the potential economic benefit of CO 2 abatement for different crops used for phytoremediation or sustainable land management purposes could promote phytotechnologies. Our analysis is based on a case study in the Campine region, where agricultural soils are contaminated with mainly cadmium. We use Life Cycle Analysis to show for the most relevant crops (willow (Salix spp), energy maize (Zea mays), and rapeseed (Brassica napus)), that phytoremediation, used for renewable energy production, could abate CO 2 . Converting this in economic numbers through the Marginal Abatement Cost of CO 2 (€ 20 ton −1 ) we can integrate this in the economic analysis to compare phytoremediation crops among each other, and phytoremediation with conventional technologies. The external benefit of CO 2 abatement when using phytoremediation crops for land management ranges between € 55 and € 501 per hectare. The purpose of these calculations is not to calculate a subsidy for phytoremediation. There is no reason why one would prefer phytoremediation crops for renewable energy production over “normal” biomass. Moreover, subsidies for renewable energy already exist. Therefore, we should not integrate these numbers in the economic analysis again. However, these numbers could contribute to making explicit the competitive advantage of phytoremediation compared to conventional remediation technologies, but also add to a more sustainably funded decision on which crop should be grown on contaminated land. -- Highlights: ► We add CO 2 abatement for each remediation crop to the private economic analysis. ► This values the advantage of phytoremediation compared to conventional remediation. ► This leads to a crop choice that considers an

  16. Management of Innovative Projects for Ensuring the Economic Safety in the Conditions of Integration of Economies into the World Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. Usmanova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the aim of the article is to reveal problems and prospects, formulate economic security within the framework of innovation projects management, plan technologies in the context of integrating economies into the world economy, identify opportunities for forming, organizing, financing, managing priority economic directions. The subject is the management of innovative projects to ensure the economic security of Russian regions. The relevance of the chosen topic is due to the study of the features of the current state and the problems of the formation of economic security, the development of innovative design solutions in the context of integrating economies into the world economy. Ensuring the economic security of the regions of Russia directly depends on the introduction of innovative technologies and project management in the sectors of the national economy of Russia. Methods: the methodology of the solution of objectives is based on usage of a method of dialectic research, methods of the economic analysis, forecasting, the situational and systemic analysis, expert evaluations and the analysis of empirical data. Hypothesis. Ensuring an economic safety requires formation of innovative solutions, change of the current legislation within the Strategy of social and economic development in the conditions of integration of economies into the world economy. Results: the practical significance of the work is to identify the interrelationship between the development processes of innovative projects that ensure the economic security of the regions of Russia within the framework of regulating the current legislation, forecasting effective economic activity within the framework of the New Industrialization Strategy, selecting optimal project planning models to ensure the country's economic security and competitiveness in the conditions of integration Economies into the world economy. Conclusions and Relevance: in the conditions of integration of

  17. Innovation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In recent years ULA has emphasized advocacy, and contributed to progress towards new legislation (freedom of information, copyright, the ... East African Community e-government strategy) of importance to the library and ... Innovation Vol.

  18. Chat (Catha edulis): a socio economic crop in Harar Region, Eastern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandari, Laxman S; Yadav, Hiranmai R; Thakur, Ashok K; Kandari, Tripti

    2014-01-01

    Chat (Catha edulis) is an important perennial crop and its leaves are chewed for a stimulating effect. It is widely cultivated in the Ethiopian highlands of Oromia region and is figured as Ethiopia's second largest foreign exchange earner. Its cultivation accounts for about 70% of farmer's income in the study area. The common effect of its consumption leads to insomnia, a condition that the users sometimes try to overcome with sedatives or alcohol. The present study is an attempt to survey and assess the impact of crop on the community. It has been observed to implicate health problems, reduces savings and nutritional standards of the family members. The chat yields in the area ranges from 1500-1800 kg/ha through monoculture. During the study, the average monthly income of the family practicing chat cultivation was from Birr 8, 533.00 to 13, 166.00 kg/ha per year in Baate and Genede cultivating areas. When the average cost per/ha was rupees 60/kg. The present study shows that during the recent past, leaf consumption has increased significantly. Chat growers are not only producers but also traders and consumers. Its consumption has become a widespread habit from secondary schools. Highest number of consumers was found to be among drivers followed by students and shopkeepers. The consumption of the plant is not considered a taboo but on contrary a status symbol in the region. It has no legal or moral implications and is considered as a part of custom and habit of local people. High value cash crop like vegetables and orchard fruits needs to be used as a replacement for chat which could be a regular source of income to farmers. Alternative sources of income for farmers needs to be scientifically worked out and proposed keeping in view the proportion of agricultural land reserved under chat cultivation and to increase the production of food grains being produced.

  19. An environmental-economic assessment of genetic modification of agricultural crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.; Holley, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of genetic modification of organisms in agriculture are reviewed. These relate to the environment, human health, socio-economic effects, population growth, and differential consequences for developed and developing countries. An overall evaluation requires that

  20. The problem of innovation in the context of intellectual property research: from the economic-juridical into the sociocultural paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Stovpets

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of innovation in the context of Intellectual Property becomes actual as the society’s development moves from the economic, technical and juridical paradigms towards the sociocultural paradigm. The reflection on abovementioned issues is performed within the monographic social­philosophic research for Intellectual Property Institution as one of the most significant social institutions of postindustrial postmodern society in the era of information. Therefore the article is devoted to the social­philosophic study of the innovation concept’s genesis, the process of innovative problematic consolidation in the context of intellectual property, as well as the justification of innovation as a social­cultural phenomenon. In particular, it was performed a sociophilosophical and semantic analysis for the concept of «innovation» in its correlation with the concepts of «discovery», «invention», «new modification», «novelty», in order to identify the essence of innovation itself. It was emphasized the importance of innovation’s research in the socio­cultural context, taking into account the specific ontological status for innovation in its integrity with Intellectual Property institution. In the studying of innovation (as the very important substantial aspect of intellectual property it was explicated that interpretations of this phenomenon are frequently concentrated within technical, economic and juridical paradigms. However, today the innovation is primarily a social and cultural phenomenon caused by the specifics of appropriate sociocultural environment. It is logical that changes’ vector related to the information and technological novelties, now shifts from technical, economic and legal fields to the socio­cultural dimension. Following the producing sectors, other areas of life became the objects of conscious and deliberate innovative activities, that allow us to fix the transition towards an innovative model of social

  1. Orchestrating innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkers, F.T.H.M.; Klein Woolthuis, R.J.A.; Boer, J. de

    2015-01-01

    Orchestrating Innovation increases the probability of success, minimizing the probability of failure of technological innovations by creating sustained societal and economic value. Orchestrating innovation propagates to take into account and actively involve all relevant stakeholders of the (future)

  2. Semer: a simple calculational tool for the economic evaluations of reactor systems and associated innovations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nisan, S. [CEA Cadarache, Nuclear Reactor Directorate, DRN, Dept. of Reactor Studies, DER, Reactor and Innovative Systems Service, SERSI, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Rouyer, J.L. [Electricite de France (EDF), Pole Industrie, Div. Ingenierie et Services, 93 - Saint-Denis (France)

    2001-07-01

    This paper summarises part of our on-going investigations on the economic evaluations of various nuclear and fossil energy systems and related innovations. These investigations are principally concerned with the development of the code system SEMER and its validation. SEMER has been developed to furnish top management and project leaders a simple tool for cost evaluations enabling a choice between competitive technological options. The cost evaluation models, actually integrated in the SEMER system, already cover a very wide range of electricity producing systems and, where relevant, their associated fuel cycles: The ''global models'', allowing rapid but relatively approximate overall cost estimations (about 15 % error). These include: Almost all the electricity producing systems using fossil energies (Oil, Coal, Gas, including gas turbines with combined cycles); Nuclear reactor systems including all the French PWRs, HTRs, Compact PWRs, and PWRs for nuclear propulsion systems. (author)

  3. Semer: a simple calculational tool for the economic evaluations of reactor systems and associated innovations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisan, S.; Rouyer, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarises part of our on-going investigations on the economic evaluations of various nuclear and fossil energy systems and related innovations. These investigations are principally concerned with the development of the code system SEMER and its validation. SEMER has been developed to furnish top management and project leaders a simple tool for cost evaluations enabling a choice between competitive technological options. The cost evaluation models, actually integrated in the SEMER system, already cover a very wide range of electricity producing systems and, where relevant, their associated fuel cycles: The ''global models'', allowing rapid but relatively approximate overall cost estimations (about 15 % error). These include: Almost all the electricity producing systems using fossil energies (Oil, Coal, Gas, including gas turbines with combined cycles); Nuclear reactor systems including all the French PWRs, HTRs, Compact PWRs, and PWRs for nuclear propulsion systems. (author)

  4. Quality and safety of agri-food systems: technological and economic innovations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Ragazzi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to point out the evolution of the economical approach to the topics of agri-food product quality and safety with particular attention to the schemes developed at European level. Thus, we wish to underline the forces which identified the insurance and certification systems as innovative tools for quality problem management in agri-food systems and what aspects they allow to manage according to the different needs of the stakeholders. In the last years, the proliferation of these schemes was so strong to considered the recent Iso 22000 Law as a possible solution for the harmonization process. Finally, some aspects of traceability systems are examined, apart from law obligations, identifying important opportunity of differentiation and acquisition of competitive advantages for the organization choosing them.

  5. Economic performance of photovoltaic water pumping systems with business model innovation in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Chi; Campana, Pietro Elia; Yang, Jin; Yan, Jinyue

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new business model of PV systems is proposed for PV water pumping systems (PVWP). • Three PVWP and one PV-roof scenarios are analysed to estimate economic performance. • The impacts of market incentives in four PV scenarios are insubstantial for its economic payback. • The PVWP system with added-value products will improve economy potential. - Abstract: Expansion by photovoltaic (PV) technologies in the renewable energy market requires exploring added value integrated with business model innovation. In recent years, a pilot trial of PV water pumping (PVWP) technologies for the conservation of grassland and farmland has been conducted in China. In this paper, we studied the added value of the PVWP technologies with an emphasis on the integration of the value proposition with the operation system and customer segmentation. Using the widely used existing PV business models (PV-roof) as a reference, we evaluated discounted cash flow (DCF) and net present value (NPV) under the scenarios of traditional PV roof, PVWP pilot, PVWP scale-up, and PVWP social network, where further added value via social network was included in the business model. The results show that the integrated PVWP system with social network products significantly improves the performance in areas such as the discounted payback period, internal rate of return (IRR), and return on investment (ROI). We conclude that scenario PVWP social network with business model innovation, can result in value add-ins, new sources of revenue, and market incentives. The paper also suggests that current policy incentives for PV industry are not efficient due to a limited source of revenue, and complex procedures of feed-in tariff verification.

  6. Alternative crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreasen, L.M.; Boon, A.D.

    1992-01-01

    Surplus cereal production in the EEC and decreasing product prices, mainly for cereals, has prompted considerable interest for new earnings in arable farming. The objective was to examine whether suggested new crops (fibre, oil, medicinal and alternative grains crops) could be considered as real alternatives. Whether a specific crop can compete economically with cereals and whether there is a market demand for the crop is analyzed. The described possibilities will result in ca. 50,000 hectares of new crops. It is expected that they would not immediately provide increased earnings, but in the long run expected price developments are more positive than for cereals. The area for new crops will not solve the current surplus cereal problem as the area used for new crops is only 3% of that used for cereals. Preconditions for many new crops is further research activities and development work as well as the establishment of processing units and organizational initiatives. Presumably, it is stated, there will then be a basis for a profitable production of new crops for some farmers. (AB) (47 refs.)

  7. AGRO-ECOLOGICAL AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF CROP PROTECTION IN CHILI-BASED AGRIBUSINESS IN CENTRAL JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Mariyono

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze the socio-economic and agro-ecological aspects of chili production in three selected communities of three districts —Magelang, Brebes, and Rembang—that represent distinct agro-ecosystems of chili cultivation within Central Java province. This is to answer a problem statement that chili farming still faces crop protection aspects as limiting factors in chili production. This study uses quantitative descriptive methods. Data were compiled from a survey of 160 chili farmers in 2010-2011. The results show that yield loss due to pests and diseases was considerable, and some of these problems were becoming difficult to control. The three top pests were thrips, mites, and whitefly; and the top three diseases were Anthracnose, Gemini-viruses, and Phytophthora. During the wet season, risk of anthracnose was very high; in the dry season, risk of yield lost to Gemini-viruses and Phytophthora was high. The potential losses could reach 100%. There is a crucial need to solve the problems by enhancing farmers’ knowledge and involving research institutions focusing on crop protection strategy.

  8. CONCEPTUAL APPROACHES TO STUDY THE INNOVATIVE DEVELOPMENT OF REGIONAL SOCIO-ECONOMIC SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Fedulova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to find out and identify conceptual approaches to the study of the innovative development of regional socio-economic systems to take into account global requirements for global water security. Methodology. We used in our study traditional and special methods, including: historical and logical method, abstraction and analogy, and system analysis methods. Results. The article deals with the problems of innovative development of regional socio-economic systems. Conceptual approaches to the study of the innovative development of these systems are determined. Theoretical approaches to regionalization are generalized and the regional typology in world regionalism is presented. The study devotes a sufficient attention to the issues of infrastructure support for regional systems, which is a prerequisite for the functioning and development of such systems. The article focuses on the priority of research of such a component of regional infrastructure as engineering and technical infrastructure. The model of regulation of development of regional socio-economic systems on the basis of infrastructure support with the consideration of world requirements of global water security is offered. Practical implications. In recent times, the discussion on the definition of the essence of the concept of “region” is rather lively. The new paradigm of the regional economy represents the region as a variety of spatial systems of various scales. Yes, there are ongoing discussions that under the region can be understood as a group of states and small-sized administrative-territorial units. Despite the important role played by such regional systems in the economy of many countries, this topic in domestic studies is not given with enough attention. Also, in the domestic scientific schools of the regional economy, studies devoted to the problems of patterns and tendencies of the formation and development of regional systems of Ukraine, the

  9. Economic impact of the Commission's 'opt-out' proposal on the use of approved GM crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoste, R.; Wagenberg, van C.P.A.; Wijnands, J.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    The European Commission proposed the opportunity for individual EU Member States to restrict or prohibit the use of GMOs in food or feed on their territory (a national ‘opt-out’). The economic impact on individual sectors of the feed and food chain (the vegetable oil and meal industry, trade, animal

  10. Innovation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of Innovation journal of appropriate librarianship and information work in Southern Africa is to publish material on libraries, information supply and other related matters in South and Southern Africa. Vol 45 (2012). DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access ...

  11. Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torfing, Jacob; Ricard, Lykke Margot

    2017-01-01

    Innovation i krydsfeltet mellem forskellige styringsparadigmer i offentlige organisationer. New Public Governance gør det muligt at skabe offentlig værdi på nye måder. Men NPG er ingen trylledrik, der fra den ene dag til den anden skaber balance mellem borgernes store forventninger og en trængt ø...

  12. Economic and greenhouse gas emission analysis of bioenergy production using multi-product crops-case studies for the Netherlands and Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dornburg, V.; Termeer, G.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2005-01-01

    In the face of climate change that may result from greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the scarcity of agricultural land and limited competitiveness of biomass energy on the market, it is desirable to increase the performance of bioenergy systems. Multi-product crops, i.e. using a crop partially for energy and partially for material purposes can possibly create additional incomes as well as additional GHG emission reductions. In this study, the performance of several multi-product crop systems is compared to energy crop systems, focused on the costs of primary biomass fuel costs and GHG emission reductions per hectare of biomass production. The sensitivity of the results is studied by means of a Monte-Carlo analysis. The multi-product crops studied are wheat, hemp and poplar in the Netherlands and Poland. GHG emission reductions of these multi-product crop systems are found to be between 0.2 and 2.4 Mg CO 2eq /(ha yr) in Poland and 0.9 and 7.8 Mg CO 2eq /(ha yr) in the Netherlands, while primary biomass fuel costs range from -4.1 to -1.7 EURO /GJ in the Netherlands and from 0.1 to 9.8 EURO /GJ in Poland. Results show that the economic attractiveness of multi-product crops depends strongly on material market prices, crop production costs and crop yields. Net annual GHG emission reductions per hectare are influenced strongly by the specific GHG emission reduction of material use, reference energy systems and GHG emissions of crop production. Multi-product use of crops can significantly decrease primary biomass fuel costs. However, this does not apply in general, but depends on the kind of crops and material uses. For the examples analysed here, net annual GHG emission reductions per hectare are not lowered by multi-product use of crops. Consequently, multi-product crops are not for granted an option to increase the performance of bioenergy systems. Further research on the feasibility of large-scale multi-product crop systems and their impact on land and material markets

  13. Agro-economic yield of taro clones in Brazil, propagated with different types of cuttings, in three crop seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NÉSTOR A. HEREDIA ZÁRATE

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The experimental studies were conducted in 2007-2008, 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 crop seasons, in order to know the agro-economic yield of 'Chinês' and "Macaquinho" taro clones, propagated using huge, extra, large, medium, small and tiny cormels. The harvest was done on average on 202 days after planting, in three crop seasons. Based on the joint analysis of variance carried out, it was observed that taro clones showed significant differences in the yield of fresh and dry weight of leaves, cormels, and commercial and non-commercial comels; besides, there were significant differences in yield of a crop season to another and the size of the cuttings induced significant differences in yield. In the conditions that the experiments were conducted, and considering the highest average yield of fresh weight of commercial cormels (28.69 t.ha-1 and highest net income (US $14,741.14 correspondent to the three crop seasons, it is recommended to cultivate 'Macaquinho' clone using small cuttings in propagation.Os trabalhos experimentais foram realizados nos anos agrícolas de 2007-2008, 2008-2009 e 2009-2010, com o objetivo de conhecer a produtividade agroeconômica dos clones de taro Chinês e Macaquinho, propagados usando rizomas-filhos graúdos, extras, grandes, médios, pequenos e muito pequenos. A colheita foi realizada em média aos 202 dias após o plantio, nos três anos agrícolas. Com base nas análises de vari ância conjuntas realizadas, observou-se que os clones de taro apresentaram diferenças significativas quanto à produtividade de massas frescas e secas de folhas, rizomas-mãe, rizomas-filho comerciais e rizomas-filho não-comerciais; que existiam diferenças significativas de produtividade de um ano agrícola para o outro; e o tamanho das mudas induziu diferenças significativas na produtividade. Nas condições em que foram conduzidos os experimentos e considerando a maior produtividade média de massa fresca de rizomas-filho comerciais (28

  14. Design Capitalism: Design, Economics and Innovation in the Auto-Industrial Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Murphy

    Full Text Available Automation is replacing white-collar office work and non-dexterous manual work, causing major structural change in the job market. As advanced economies shift from a post-industrial to an auto-industrial model, all kinds of routine work is being replaced by machines. Mid-range job opportunities are shrinking, and labor markets are polarizing. Demand for dexterous service work nevertheless remains strong, as does demand for abstract labor working with patterns rather than with rules or procedures. Design is a mid-tier occupation that is growing rather than declining. “Design” is also a metaphor for abstract labor of all kinds; it exemplifies work that is creative, innovative, problem-solving, and reliant on judgment rather than rules. Heightened demand for abstract labor reflects the evolving nature of capitalist economies. The contribution of invention, ingenuity and imagination to the creation of economic value continues to expand. The auto-industrial era is coeval with design capitalism; together they represent a key dimension of future economics.

  15. Techno-economical analysis of innovative technologies in electrical power systems. A feasibility study for a Russian distribution system operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Holger; Nikitina, Elena; Makarov, Andrej

    2015-01-01

    Since the liberalization of the energy market in Europe transmission and distribution system operators have been facing fundamentally new challenges when ensuring a safe and reliable power supply. In addition to purely technical criteria economical aspects have become increasingly important in the strategic planning and operation of power systems. As described in this contribution, the results of a feasibility study demonstrate how the use of innovative technologies can make a valuable contribution to improve the economical situation.

  16. Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Présenté par FutuRIS, plate-forme prospective sur la recherche, l’innovation et la société animée par l’Association Nationale de la Recherche et de la Technologie, ce volume livre un panorama du système français de recherche et d’innovation dans son environnement européen. Sont abordés dans une première partie les champs décisionnels concernés, les politiques nationales menées en matière de R&D, les relations entre enseignement supérieur et recherche et l’Espace européen de la recherche à l’h...

  17. INNOVATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helms, Niels Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Kravet om innovation og kreativitet er på flere måder en stor og en ny udfordring for voksenuddannelserne. Det udfordrer det didaktiske dilemma, det at vi skal gøres til kompetente og frie mennesker gennem pædagogiske handlinger, som netop pålægger os en ufrihed. – Men hvor denne ufrihed tidligere...... kunne begrundes med, at skolen eller uddannelsen vidste bedre, så er det ikke længere tilfældet. Skolen skal sørge for, at vi lærer noget – og ikke noget andet. Men det kan ikke længere med bestemthed afgøres, hvad det er vi skal lære i skolen, fordi det nye, det kreative og ikke mindst innovative...

  18. Transformation of the Terminological Apparatus of Economic Development of Innovation Activity under Conditions of Dynamic Changes in the External Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharko Margarita V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to analyze the content interpretation of categorical concepts of economic development of production functioning under conditions of dynamic changes in the exploitation of the external environment. The article presents the author’s interpretation of the concepts of economic development and economic growth under conditions of dynamic changes in the external environment. The urgency of unification and systematization of the main interpretations of economic growth as a means of choosing and using certain management solutions under specific production conditions is substantiated. Based on the construction of the Ishikawa diagram, the reasons and difficulties of the economic growth of enterprises are graded. The conditions and factors of the conceptual apparatus of innovation activity under uncertainty are structured. It is shown that the complex application of iterative methods and methods of factor analysis provides a holistic perception of the dominant tendencies of economic development under conditions of dynamic changes in the external environment.

  19. Economics of technological change and the natural environment: How effective are innovations as a remedy for resource scarcity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bretschger, Lucas

    2005-01-01

    The paper aims to substantiate the importance of endogenous innovations when evaluating the compatibility of natural resource use and economic development. It explains that technological change has the potential to compensate for natural resource scarcity, diminishing returns to capital, poor input substitution, and material balance restrictions, but is limited by various restrictions like fading returns to innovative investments and rising research costs. It also shows how innovative activities are fostered by accurate price signals and research-favouring sectoral change. The simultaneous effects of increasing technical knowledge, decreasing resource inputs, and increasing world population largely determine the chances of long-run sustainable development. Consequently, future research has to be directed at a more thorough understanding of the mechanisms driving innovations in the presence of natural resource scarcity

  20. Between China and South Asia: A Middle Asian corridor of crop dispersal and agricultural innovation in the Bronze Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Chris J; Murphy, Charlene; Roberts, Rebecca; Lucas, Leilani; Silva, Fabio; Fuller, Dorian Q

    2016-10-01

    The period from the late third millennium BC to the start of the first millennium AD witnesses the first steps towards food globalization in which a significant number of important crops and animals, independently domesticated within China, India, Africa and West Asia, traversed Central Asia greatly increasing Eurasian agricultural diversity. This paper utilizes an archaeobotanical database (AsCAD), to explore evidence for these crop translocations along southern and northern routes of interaction between east and west. To begin, crop translocations from the Near East across India and Central Asia are examined for wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) and barley ( Hordeum vulgare ) from the eighth to the second millennia BC when they reach China. The case of pulses and flax ( Linum usitatissimum ) that only complete this journey in Han times (206 BC-AD 220), often never fully adopted, is also addressed. The discussion then turns to the Chinese millets, Panicum miliaceum and Setaria italica , peaches ( Amygdalus persica ) and apricots ( Armeniaca vulgaris ), tracing their movement from the fifth millennium to the second millennium BC when the Panicum miliaceum reaches Europe and Setaria italica Northern India, with peaches and apricots present in Kashmir and Swat. Finally, the translocation of japonica rice from China to India that gave rise to indica rice is considered, possibly dating to the second millennium BC. The routes these crops travelled include those to the north via the Inner Asia Mountain Corridor, across Middle Asia, where there is good evidence for wheat, barley and the Chinese millets. The case for japonica rice, apricots and peaches is less clear, and the northern route is contrasted with that through northeast India, Tibet and west China. Not all these journeys were synchronous, and this paper highlights the selective long-distance transport of crops as an alternative to demic-diffusion of farmers with a defined crop package.

  1. The economic value of biochar in crop production and carbon sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galinato, Suzette P.; Yoder, Jonathan K.; Granatstein, David

    2011-01-01

    This paper estimates the economic value of biochar application on agricultural cropland for carbon sequestration and its soil amendment properties. In particular, we consider the carbon emissions avoided when biochar is applied to agricultural soil, instead of agricultural lime, the amount of carbon sequestered, and the value of carbon offsets, assuming there is an established carbon trading mechanism for biochar soil application. We use winter wheat production in Eastern Whitman County, Washington as a case study, and consider different carbon offset price scenarios and different prices of biochar to estimate a farm profit. Our findings suggest that it may be profitable to apply biochar as a soil amendment under some conditions if the biochar market price is low enough and/or a carbon offset market exists. - Highlights: → We estimate the economic value of biochar application on agricultural cropland. → We consider biochar's carbon sequestration and soil amendment properties. → Biochar soil application may be profitable if a carbon offset market exists for it. → Farmers may use biochar if its market price is low enough to earn a profit.

  2. Sustainable clinical research, health economic aspects and medical marketing: drivers of product innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haschke, Ferdinand; Klassen-Wigger, Petra

    2010-01-01

    Marketing-driven innovation in the field of pediatric nutrition, in particular in the infant formula segment is not sustainable. New benefits of products must be scientifically proven and safety and efficacy of new formulae established in clinical trials. The scientific innovation process of three infant formulae is described. Improvement in protein quality allowed to reduce the protein concentration in whey-based infant formula. Weight gain and BMI of infants fed those formulae corresponds to breastfed infants and is lower than in infants fed traditional formulae with higher protein concentration. A meta-analysis indicates associations between rapid weight gain in infancy and obesity later in life. If infants cannot be exclusively breastfed until 4-6 months of age, feeding low-protein formulae may contribute to positive long-term health outcome with potentially important health economic effects. A partially hydrolyzed whey based formula for prevention of allergic symptoms in children with hereditary risk for allergic diseases was developed more than 25 years ago. The most recent meta-analysis which included 15 randomized clinical trials indicates that the risk of all allergic diseases and atopic dermatitis/eczema is significantly reduced in infants at risk when the partially hydrolyzed formula is fed. The partially hydrolyzed formula had the same protective effect as casein-based high-degree extensively hydrolyzed formula. Because of substantial price differences between the two formulae, feeding the partially hydrolyzed whey formula is cost saving. Hypoallergenic claims can be made in many countries, and international nutrition committees have positively commented the preventive effect of those formulae. Acidified formulae have been widely used during the last decade in replacement feeding programs for infants whose mothers are HIV positive. The formula was innovated by improving whey protein quality and lowering protein concentration. The bacteriostatic

  3. Economical data on the value chain of the photovoltaic sector, and quantitative study of the economic impact of innovation. Assessment of the innovation impacts. Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, Nicolas; Baggioni, Vincent; Durand, Yvonnick; Gaspard, Albane; Guillerminet, Marie-Laure; Marchal, David; Morlot, Rodolphe; Parrouffe, Jean-Michel; Varet, Anne; Ravel, Frederic; Equer, Bernard

    2012-10-01

    This synthesis reports a comprehensive study (October 2012) for ADEME, the French office for energy management and sustainable development, which presents an assessment of the potential impact of innovations in the field of photovoltaic components and systems. After a review of the photovoltaic industry and market in France and in the world, the production cost structure of a photovoltaic system is presented (module, assembly, installation). The impacts of innovations are then considered at the various stages of the chain value, from the material level (silicon, CdTe) to the installation level (ground based systems, roof installed, residential, etc.). Innovation impacts on the system production costs, on the electric power generation cost and on each market and sector (materials, wafers, cells, modules, systems, installation), are assessed. The potential impacts on job creations are also estimated. Assessment methodologies are systematically detailed

  4. ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY ANALYSIS OF ORGANIC CROP AND ANIMAL FARMS IN ROMANIA. COMPARATIVE EVOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra MUSCĂNESCU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The organic sector in our country, although as shown in continuous development, faces a multitude of problems: the climatic conditions of our country, characterized by periods of drought in many parts of the country, high input prices, the majority of which are imported; difficulties in identifying markets for products, reduced subsidies, standardized conditions difficult to meet, etc. The problems the sector is facing reflect in the organization of the production activity and hence the economic performance of farm production. Accordingly, the aim of this paper was to analyze on the basis of annual financial and accounting information collected in the two vegetable farms and the two animal breeding farms, their efficiency / inefficiency, and the results were compared to identify the causes of the differences obtained in the efficiency at a farm level. The results obtained reveal a higher level of return on integrated vegetable farm in a joint recovery and a high efficiency for chain integrated animal farms.

  5. Game Changers and Transformative Social Innovation : the case of the economic crisis and the new economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemp, René; Weaver, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The paper discusses transformative social innovation, conceptualised as the process through which social innovation contributes to societal transformation. A conceptual heuristic is introduced that proposes five foundational concepts to help distinguish between different pertinent ‘shades’ of change

  6. Agronomic and economic potential of sweet sorghum and Kenaf: Preliminary results of the California Industrial Crops Demonstration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaffer, S.D.; Jenkins, B.M.; Brink, D.L.; Merriman, M.M.; Mouser, B.; Campbell, M.L.; Frate, C.; Schmierer, J.

    1992-01-01

    Sweet sorghum is proving to have excellent potential as a biomass energy crop for the production of fuel alcohol and/or electricity. Its advantages include high biomass and fermentables production per unit area of land, relatively low input requirements, and good suitability to a variety of California growing conditions. Average biomass yield for twelve projects involving nine growers, and eight cultivars was 7.6 bone dry tons per acre (bdt/ac) (17 t/ha) at an average cost of production of $58/bdt ($64/t), ready for harvest. With an ethanol yield of 89 gal/bdt (371 L/t), feed stock costs would be about $0.65/gal ($0.17/L). Improved crop yields at reduced costs can be expected in the future. Kenaf is a potential paper pulp and fiber feed stock which produces a long bast fiber and a short- fiber core material. About 30% of the stem material is long fiber, and the remaining 70% is short fiber. The current cost of production, given demonstration project yields of 4 bdt/ac (9t/ha) is about $222/bdt ($245/t), and available higher-value uses command prices of $300/bdt ($330/t) for long fiber for cordage and $160/bdt ($175/t) for core material as poultry litter, precluding its use directly as an energy feed stock. However, reusing the poultry litter core material for energy production may be economically feasible. This material may be obtained for about $15/bdt ($17/t), and with an ethanol yield of 34 ga/bdt (142 L/t), feed stock cost may be about $0.44/gal ($0.12/L)

  7. Nanotechnology and Innovation, Recent status and the strategic implication for the formation of high tech clusters in Greece, in between a global economic crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Evangelos I. Gkanas; Vasso MagkouKriticou; Sofoklis S. Makridis; Athanasios K. Stubos; Ioannis Bakouros

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology is the first major worldwide research initiative of the 21st century and probably is the solution vector in the economic environment. Also, innovation is widely recognized as a key factor in the economic development of nations, and is essential for the competitiveness of the industrial firms as well. Policy and management of innovation are necessary in order to develop innovation and it involves processes. It is essential to develop new methods for nanotechnology development fo...

  8. Economic evaluation of innovative storage technologies in energy systems with a high share of renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondziella, Hendrik

    2017-01-01

    This work addresses the question of whether the ongoing transformation to a low-carbon energy system in Germany will also create market opportunities for innovative market participants, in particular for storage operators. The economic effects that occur in energy systems with high levels of variable renewable energy (vEE) can be measured by their integration costs. Scientific research into the additional storage and flexibility needs of such an energy system often addresses imbalances in the system balance sheet. The respective methods are, however, based on different assumptions and framework conditions, so that the results can only be compared with one another to a limited extent. The hourly fluctuating wholesale price on the electricity exchange is an important indicator to signal the need for flexibility. Many analyzes use historical or predicted pricing time series to evaluate storage options. However, while the feedback of the operation of an energy storage on the market prices is left out. Therefore, a method is developed in this work to estimate the impact of an increasing market volume of storage and other flexibility options on spot market prices. The influence of storage use on electricity demand and spot market prices in 2020 and 2030 is examined. The scenarios to be defined for the electricity market are model-based and evaluated. To answer the question, techno-economic models, e.g. The MICOES power market model for power plant deployment planning, the DeSiflex model for smoothing residual load through integrated flexibility options and the Arturflex model for estimating arbitrage gains through the use of flexibility options on the spot market. [de

  9. Economics of seawater desalination with innovative nuclear reactors and other energy sources: the EURODESAL project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisan, S.; Volpi, L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarises our recent investigations undertaken as part of the EURODESAL project on nuclear desalination, which were carried out by a consortium of four EU and one Canadian, Industrials and two leading EU R and D organisations. Major results of the project, in particular of its economic evaluation work package as discussed in this paper, are: 1. A coherent demonstration of the technical feasibility of nuclear desalination through the development of technical principles for the optimum cogeneration of electricity and water and by exploring the unique capabilities of the innovative nuclear reactors and desalination technologies; verification that the integrated system design does not adversely affect nuclear reactor safety. 2. The development of codes and methods for an objective assessment of the competitiveness and sustainability of proposed solutions through comparison, in European conditions, with fossil and renewable energy based solutions. The results obtained so far seem to be quite encouraging as regards the economical viability of nuclear desalination options. Thus, for example, specific desalination costs ($/m 3 of desalted water) for nuclear systems such as the AP600 and the French PWR900 (reference base case), coupled to Multiple Effect Distillation (MED) or the Reverse Osmosis (RO) processes, are 30% to 60% lower than fossil energy based systems using pulverised coal and natural gas with combined cycle, at low discount rates and recommended fuel prices. Even in the most unfavourable scenarios for nuclear energy (discount rates = 10%, low fossil fuel prices) desalination costs with the nuclear options with the nuclear reactors are 7% to 15% lower, depending upon the desalination capacities. Furthermore, with the high performance coupling schemes developed by the EURODESAL partners, the specific desalination costs of nuclear systems are reduced by another 2% to 14%, even without system and design optimisation. (author)

  10. Networks and Innovation: An Economic Model for European Regions (2002-2006)

    OpenAIRE

    Alfonso Badiola; Pedro Casares-Hontañón; Pablo Coto-Millán; Miguel Ángel Pesquera

    2012-01-01

    This research provides a new theoretical approach to innovation. The work also provides data processed in recent years (2002-2006) to regions of European regions, providing relevant empirical evidence on the relationship between Human Capital, Technological Capital, Innovation Capital, Network Capital and Innovation. In econometric modeling is considered especially for the regions of the European Union.

  11. Health economic value of an innovation: delimiting the scope and framework of future market entry agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launois, Robert; Navarrete, Lucia Fiestas; Ethgen, Olivier; Le Moine, Jean-Gabriel; Gatsinga, René

    2014-01-01

    The objective of our paper is to offer a new, payer-friendly taxonomy of market entry agreements (MEAs) that aims to twin contracts with their methodological designs in an effort to clarify the distinction between contracts that are based on performance and those that are based on demonstrated effect. Our analysis proceeds in two stages: First, we delimit the scope and framework of pay for performance (P4P) and pay for demonstrated effect (P4E) agreements. Second, we distinguish the methodological designs supporting the implementation of each of these contracts. We elucidate why P4P contracts prevent the payer from funding the true effectiveness of an innovation by expanding on their limitations. These include: 1) the normative nature of comparisons, 2) the impossibility of true effect imputability for each individual, and 3) the use of intermediary outcome measures. We then explore three main criticisms that payers must take into account when reasoning in terms of performance rather than in terms of the product effectiveness. The potential effect that performance-based reimbursements may have on dissociating the components of the cost-effectiveness ratio constitutes an obstacle to a true health economic reasoning.

  12. Study of the economic viability of the innovative nuclear reactor SMART in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escanhoela, Cordelia Mara Fazzio; Lima, Ana Cecilia de Souza; Sabundjian, Gaianê

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to evaluate the economic viability of the installation and operation of the innovative System - Integrated Modular Advanced Reactor (SMART) in Brazil. SMART, developed by the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), is a small and modular Power Water Reactor (PWR), presents electric power of 100 MW and thermal power of 330 MW; it has a passive safety system and integral refrigeration configuration, characteristics that, allied with modularization, simplification and technological improvements, give SMART greater reliability and economy when compared to conventional reactors. SMART presents, in addition to electricity production, the functions of seawater desalination and district heat generation. The research is based on projections of energy demand in the medium and long term with emphasis on electricity and search for the reduction of greenhouse gases. These previsions indicate the need for energy expansion and diversification of the current sources in Brazil, predominantly water sources. The methodology used is based on the cost of electric generation, production capacity and construction time of SMART, adopting the investment model similar to the Angra 3 plant and the use of mirrored costs between the plants. The feasibility of the project was evaluated through the financial criteria: Internal Rate of Return (IRR), Net Present Value (NPV) and Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC), whose revenue should be generated through a tariff passed on to the consumer. (author)

  13. Study of the economic viability of the innovative nuclear reactor SMART in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escanhoela, Cordelia Mara Fazzio; Lima, Ana Cecilia de Souza; Sabundjian, Gaianê, E-mail: liafazzio@hotmail.com, E-mail: aclima@ipen.br, E-mail: gdjian@ipen.br [Centro de Engenharia Nuclear - CEN, Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The main objective of this study is to evaluate the economic viability of the installation and operation of the innovative System - Integrated Modular Advanced Reactor (SMART) in Brazil. SMART, developed by the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), is a small and modular Power Water Reactor (PWR), presents electric power of 100 MW and thermal power of 330 MW; it has a passive safety system and integral refrigeration configuration, characteristics that, allied with modularization, simplification and technological improvements, give SMART greater reliability and economy when compared to conventional reactors. SMART presents, in addition to electricity production, the functions of seawater desalination and district heat generation. The research is based on projections of energy demand in the medium and long term with emphasis on electricity and search for the reduction of greenhouse gases. These previsions indicate the need for energy expansion and diversification of the current sources in Brazil, predominantly water sources. The methodology used is based on the cost of electric generation, production capacity and construction time of SMART, adopting the investment model similar to the Angra 3 plant and the use of mirrored costs between the plants. The feasibility of the project was evaluated through the financial criteria: Internal Rate of Return (IRR), Net Present Value (NPV) and Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC), whose revenue should be generated through a tariff passed on to the consumer. (author)

  14. An innovative use of marine energies can economically produce fifteen per cent of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemperiere, F.

    2013-12-01

    After having outlined some interesting characteristics and opportunities of marine energies, the author analyses the peculiarities of tidal energy, presents the different components of tidal power stations: tanks or basins, plants (horizontal bulb-turbines, orthogonal turbines). Then, he focuses on an innovative solution: tidal gardens which can be created as closed basins along the coast comprising channels equipped with tidal turbines, and sea walls. Performance of such an installation is assessed. Issues of production gain by pumping, of connection to the grid and energy storage are addressed. The construction modality is described. Visual impacts, impact on the environment, direct and indirect social-economic impacts are discussed. The issue of ship navigation is also addressed. The example of the Somme Bay is presented and assessed in terms of production, of costs (turbines, channels, main sea wall), of impacts, and of possible additional wind turbines. Other potential and more or less important sites in France, in Great-Britain, in India, Bangladesh and Korea, in America (Canada, Argentina, Brazil) and notably in Australia are identified and briefly assessed

  15. Economic and Social Sustainable Synergies to Promote Innovations in Rural Tourism and Local Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Quaranta

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of tourism in rural areas is pivotal for the integration and valorization of territorial resources and it is strengthened by the capacity to promote local community participation in processes of development. The paper addresses the issue by presenting and discussing a case study of a rural area of southern Italy where a territorial network for the development of local tourism has been set up. The innovative initiative aimed, firstly, to facilitate a closer connection between production and consumption by reducing transaction costs and, secondly, to connect local production with quality conscious consumers looking for traditional products. The network project also aimed to create conditions conducive to increasing the competitiveness of the local production chain and tourism sector. The case study shows how the challenge for many rural territories lies in increasing levels of trust and rebuilding social capital as a precondition of developing the tourism sector and fostering socio-economic development as a whole. Traditional institutions, as well as hybrid institutions, with the support of research organizations, can play a key role.

  16. ECONOMIC VIABILITY OF NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR BANANA CROP VIABILIDADE ECONÔMICA DE MANEJOS NUTRICIONAIS NA CULTURA DE BANANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Seiko Tsutsui Esperancini

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Proper fertilizing management, in order to optimize fruit quality and yield, is a relevant stage on the production process to the rural entrepreneur profitability. So, the aim of this study was to analyze the economic feasibility of five nutrient management practices for banana crop, Cavendish cultivars, in the Médio Paranapanema region, São Paulo State, Brazil, in 2009/2010. The effective operational cost (EOC and total operational cost (TOC structures and three profitability indicators were used. Significant differences were observed among the management systems, and the system that resulted in major economic advantage to the producer provided an average profit rate 25.6% higher than other treatments, with total net revenue about 29.5% higher than other management types. The unitary cost was lower for the most profitable nutrient management practice, although the yield was 9.5% lower than the management system that presented the highest yield levels.

    KEY-WORDS: Musa sp.; banana crop; fertilization; production cost; profitability.

    O manejo adequado da adubação, visando à otimização da produtividade e qualidade dos frutos, é uma etapa representativa do processo produtivo para rentabilidade do empreendedor rural. Neste contexto, objetivou-se analisar a viabilidade econômica de cinco tipos de manejo nutricional de bananeiras de cultivares do subgrupo Cavendish, na região do Médio Paranapanema (SP, em 2009/2010. Foram utilizadas estruturas do custo operacional efetivo (COE e custo operacional total (COT e três indicadores de rentabilidade. Diferenças significativas foram observadas entre os manejos, sendo que o sistema de manejo que resultou em maior vantagem econômica para o produtor proporcionou índice médio de lucratividade 25,6% superior aos demais

  17. EVOLUTION OF THEORIES AND EMPIRICAL MODELS OF A RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ECONOMIC GROWTH, SCIENCE AND INNOVATIONS (PART I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaneva M. A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is a first chapter of an analytical review of existing theoretical models of a relationship between economic growth / GRP and indicators of scientific development and innovation activities, as well as empirical approaches to testing this relationship. Aim of the paper is a systematization of existing approaches to modeling of economic growth geared by science and innovations. The novelty of the current review lies in the authors’ criteria of interconnectedness of theoretical and empirical studies in the systematization of a wide range of publications presented in a final table-scheme. In the first part of the article the authors discuss evolution of theoretical approaches, while the second chapter presents a time gap between theories and their empirical verification caused by the level of development of quantitative instruments such as econometric models. The results of this study can be used by researchers and graduate students for familiarization with current scientific approaches that manifest progress from theory to empirical verification of a relationship «economic growth-innovations» for improvement of different types of models in spatial econometrics. To apply these models to management practices the presented review could be supplemented with new criteria for classification of knowledge production functions and other theories about effect of science on economic growth.

  18. Socio-economic evaluation of energy crops as a means for a better environment; Samfundsoekonomisk vurdering af energiafgroeder som virkemiddel for et bedre miljoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.; Dubgaard, A.

    2012-10-15

    The purpose of the economic analysis is to describe the economy by growing willow compared to alternative rotations in order to assess whether there would be an economic interest, to grow willow on selected soil types. The goal of the socio-economic analysis is to assess whether the price to reduce N leaching or emissions of greenhouse gases is cost-effective compared to other instruments. The analysis shows that it is economically attractive to grow energy crops on moist marginal soils (+1.800 Kr. / hectare / year) and in some cases also on sandy soil (600 kr. / hectare / year). A low grain prices will make energy crops attractive to all soil types, while a high grain prices would mean that it is only economically viable on marginal soils. There is some uncertainty about yields and prices for energy crops. Generally, a decrease in yield of two tonnes per year per hectare means a reduction in the contribution margin of almost 1,200 Kr. per hectare. Conversely, an increase in price from 42 to 45 Kr. per GJ will mean an increase in the contribution margin of DKK 400 per hectare. The welfare economic analyses show that there are negative costs (= gain) associated with energy crops, both in relation to the reduction of greenhouse gases and compared to N leaching from agricultural land. The assessment also includes the effect of reduced ammonia volatilization. It is estimated that willow cultivation reduces pesticide use calculated as the frequency of treatment of 50-97% and the load index of 19-89% compared to cereals cultivation. There is therefore a significant reduction of pesticide use. Compared to the cost of alternative measures, 23 DKK. per. kg N or 140 DKK per. tonnes of CO{sub 2}, it is therefore a cost-effective instrument under specified conditions. (LN)

  19. A global analysis of alternative tillage and crop establishment practices for economically and environmentally efficient rice production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Debashis; Ladha, Jagdish Kumar; Rana, Dharamvir Singh; Jat, Mangi Lal; Gathala, Mahesh Kumar; Yadav, Sudhir; Rao, Adusumilli Narayana; Ramesha, Mugadoli S; Raman, Anitha

    2017-08-24

    Alternative tillage and rice establishment options should aim at less water and labor to produce similar or improved yields compared with traditional puddled-transplanted rice cultivation. The relative performance of these practices in terms of yield, water input, and economics varies across rice-growing regions. A global meta and mixed model analysis was performed, using a dataset involving 323 on-station and 9 on-farm studies (a total of 3878 paired data), to evaluate the yield, water input, greenhouse gas emissions, and cost and net return with five major tillage/crop establishment options. Shifting from transplanting to direct-seeding was advantageous but the change from conventional to zero or reduced tillage reduced yields. Direct-seeded rice under wet tillage was the best alternative with yield advantages of 1.3-4.7% (p Direct-seeding under zero tillage was another potential alternative with high savings in water input and cost of cultivation, with no yield penalty. The alternative practices reduced methane emissions but increased nitrous oxide emissions. Soil texture plays a key role in relative yield advantages, and therefore refinement of the practice to suit a specific agro-ecosystem is needed.

  20. Orchestrating innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Berkers, F.T.H.M.; Klein Woolthuis, R.J.A.; Boer, J. de

    2015-01-01

    Orchestrating Innovation increases the probability of success, minimizing the probability of failure of technological innovations by creating sustained societal and economic value. Orchestrating innovation propagates to take into account and actively involve all relevant stakeholders of the (future) ecosystem in which the innovation will, can or has to be adopted.

  1. Canaryseed Crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Cogliatti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Canaryseed (Phalaris canariensis L. is a graminaceous crop species with production practices and cycle similar to those of other winter cereal crops such as spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and oat (Avena sativa L.. Currently its grains are used almost exclusively as feed for birds, alone or mixed with other grains like millet, sunflower seed, and flaxseed. Canaryseed is a genuine cereal with a unique composition that suggests its potential for food use. P. canariensis is cultivated in many areas of temperate climates. Currently, its production is concentrated in the southwestern provinces of Canada (Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba and on a smaller scale in Argentina, Thailand and Australia. Globally it is considered to be a minor crop with regional relevance, with a production about of 250000 tonnes per year, which restricts private investment and public research on its genetic and technological improvement. For this reason, the type of crop management that is applied to this species largely depends on innovations made in other similar crops. This work provides an updated summary of the available information on the species: its requirements, distribution, genetic resources, cultivation practices, potential uses, marketing and other topics of interest to researchers and producers.

  2. Fostering Innovation in Chile: OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 454

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavente, Jose-Miguel; de Mello, Luiz; Mulder, Nanno

    2005-01-01

    A good framework for investment in innovation can contribute to increasing Chile's growth potential. Spending on R&D is currently low in relation to GDP and heavily reliant on government financing. Innovation activity in the business sector is also limited by insufficient seed and venture capital and human capital constraints. This is despite…

  3. The economics of nuclear power: four essays on the role of innovation and industrial organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthelemy, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This thesis studies the role of innovation and industrial structures in the nuclear power sector. The analysis of innovation is based on the use of patent data as a measure of innovation effort. On the one hand, we study the determinants of innovation and, on the other hand, its impact on operating and safety performance of existing nuclear reactors and on construction costs. We show that nuclear safety regulation can induce innovation and improve safety performance, but at the same time contributes to increases in construction costs. The analysis of the role of industrial structures allows us to study the impact of learning by doing opportunities both for construction and operation of reactors, as well as the effect of electricity market liberalization on operating performance. In particular, we show that the divestiture of electricity production and distribution activities induces a substantial improvement in the availability of nuclear reactors. (author)

  4. The innovation of nuclear science and technology supporting for the central plains economic zone construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiaowei

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the nuclear agronomy support for the central plains economic zone construction, radiation chemical new material support for the central plains economic zone construction, nuclear medical support for the central plains economic zone construction, nuclear instrument and meter industry support for the central plains economic zone construction and the development trend of related disciplines. (author)

  5. Methodological Approaches to Ensuring Innovative Development of Metallurgical Enterprises on the Basis of Principles of Economic Nationalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denysov Kostyantyn V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The economic, energy and environmental aspects of the activities of metallurgical enterprises are analyzed in the context of the need to ensure their sustainable development. The high energy intensity of the production process, the low efficiency and irrational structure of capital expenditures for environmental protection, the dominance of material costs in the final cost of finished products at the expense of labor and social contributions are indicated. There proved the low effectiveness of the previous measures of the industrial policy of the metallurgical industry innovative development that were not in compliance with the requirements of the WTO and led to taking compensatory measures against the Ukrainian steel on world markets. The potential of economic nationalism as a system for ensuring the innovative development of the metallurgical industry is considered. There determined the priorities of the industrial policy for the development of metallurgical enterprises based on the principles of economic nationalism and taking into account the global trends in the development of trade and economic relations and Ukraine’s commitments to the WTO.

  6. State policy as a driver of innovation to support economic growth: California energy-efficiency policy (1975-2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klementich, Eloisa Y.

    2011-12-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this research was to identify whether a relationship exists between state energy-efficiency policy and innovation in the State of California and to shed light on the impact that energy-efficiency policy can have on supporting statewide economic development goals. Theoretical Framework. The theoretical framework drew from foundations in neoclassical economic theory, technology change theory, and new growth theory. Together these theories formed the basis to describe the impacts caused by the innovations within the market economy. Under this framework, policy-generated innovations are viewed to be translated into efficiency and productivity that propel economic benefits. Methodological Considerations. This study examined various economic indices and efficiency attainment indices affecting four home appliances regulated under Title 20's energy-efficiency standard established by the California Energy Commission, Warren Alquist Act. The multiple regression analysis performed provided an understanding of the relationship between the products regulated, the regulation standard, and the policy as it relates to energy-efficiency regulation. Findings. There is enough evidence to show that strategies embedded in the Warren Alquist Act, Title 20 do drive innovation. Three of the four product categories tested showed statistical significance in the policy standard resulting in an industry efficiency improvement. Conclusively, the consumption of electricity per capita in California has positively diverged over a 35-year period from national trends, even though California had mirrored the nation in income and family size during the same period, the only clear case of divergence is the state's action toward a different energy policy. Conclusions and Recommendations. California's regulations propelled manufacturers to reach higher efficiency levels not otherwise pursued by market forces. The California effort included alliances all working together to make

  7. Addressing economic development goals through innovative teaching of university statistics: a case study of statistical modelling in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oseloka Ezepue, Patrick; Ojo, Adegbola

    2012-12-01

    A challenging problem in some developing countries such as Nigeria is inadequate training of students in effective problem solving using the core concepts of their disciplines. Related to this is a disconnection between their learning and socio-economic development agenda of a country. These problems are more vivid in statistical education which is dominated by textbook examples and unbalanced assessment 'for' and 'of' learning within traditional curricula. The problems impede the achievement of socio-economic development objectives such as those stated in the Nigerian Vision 2020 blueprint and United Nations Millennium Development Goals. They also impoverish the ability of (statistics) graduates to creatively use their knowledge in relevant business and industry sectors, thereby exacerbating mass graduate unemployment in Nigeria and similar developing countries. This article uses a case study in statistical modelling to discuss the nature of innovations in statistics education vital to producing new kinds of graduates who can link their learning to national economic development goals, create wealth and alleviate poverty through (self) employment. Wider implications of the innovations for repositioning mathematical sciences education globally are explored in this article.

  8. Soil redistribution and nutrient delivery in a Mediterranean rain-fed agro-ecosystem with different crops and management: environmental and economic aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Vicente, Manuel; Álvarez, Sara

    2017-04-01

    Mediterranean agro-ecosystems are characterised by fragmented fields and patched vegetation. This shape governs the spatial patterns of water, soil and nutrient redistribution. Rainfall parameters, human infrastructures, crop management, support practices, and land use changes (set aside crops, land abandonment) control the magnitude of these processes. Under rain-fed water supply conditions, runoff generation and soil water content are two important factors in determining crop yield. Soil erosion and nutrient delivery are two of the factors which limit crop yield and thus, the gross earning of the landowner. In hilly landscapes, farmers usually supply extra soil to fill in the ephemeral gullies, and nutrient replenishment with fertilizers is a common practice. The aim of this study is to evaluate the environmental (runoff yield, soil erosion and nutrient delivery) and economic (replenishment of soil and nutrient losses with new soil and fertilizers) consequences of different conventional and conservative practices (fallow/crop rotation, cover crops, land abandonment, buffer strips) in a Mediterranean rain-fed agro-ecosystem (27 ha) with vineyards, cereal crops, cultivated and abandoned olive orchards, several trails and patches of natural vegetation. The five winter cereal fields (wheat and barley) follow fallow/crop rotation. The four vineyards are devoted to the Garnacha variety: one planted in 2007 with white wine grapes, and three planted in 2008 with red wine grapes. The inter-crop strips are managed with a mixture of plant species as cover crop (CC), including: i) spontaneous vegetation, and ii) plantation of common sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia). The maintenance of the CC includes one mowing pass at the end of spring, between May and June. The appearance and development of ephemeral gullies and the deposition of soil at the bottom of the hillslope are two of the main concerns of the landowners. In some places, the accumulation of soil complicates grape

  9. A quantification of damage and assessment of economic loss due to crop raiding by Asian Elephant Elephas maximus (Mammalia: Proboscidea: Elephantidae: a case study of Manas National Park, Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naba K. Nath

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out in Manas National Park, Assam in northeastern India between 2007 and 2009 to understand the magnitude of human-elephant conflict through a quantification of damage and assessment of economic loss. A cluster of six villages adjacent to the Park was selected for this study. Five major agricultural crops were grown during the study period of which three were raided by elephants: winter paddy, autumn paddy and pulses. Paddy was the principle crop central to the farmers’ subsistence. Winter paddy was the most cultivated crop and autumn paddy was the least cultivated. The incidence rate of crop raiding was highest for autumn paddy and lowest for pulses. Overall economic loss due to crop raiding was negligible, however at the individual farmer level, it was quite high. The study revealed that human-elephant conflict is not so severe, indicating ample opportunity for human-elephant coexistence in the region. Crop fields adjacent to the Park were particularly vulnerable to crop raiding which necessitates creation of a buffer zone. The frequency of raiding and the extent of damage was found to be significantly less in crop fields which were guarded by farmers. This was due to traditional crop guarding practices being followed in the region, the strengthening of which could effectively reduce annual crop loss and thus human-elephant conflict could be minimized to a large extent.

  10. KNOWLEDGE AND INNOVATION - ESSENTIAL FACTORS FOR OVERCOMING THE CURRENT ECONOMIC IMPASSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Frunză

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Human resource is currently the most valuable wealth of a nation and carries with it the most important principle of development; it is about innovation, without which competitiveness is unthinkable. Romania is part of the “catching–up” group of countries in innovation. In order to assume new responsibilities and to prepare for the competition with other European countries and not only, manyreforms and changes is necessary. Assuming these premises, in this paper, our intention is to analyze the situation of innovation at EUlevel and to see at what chapters our authorities must to work harder to equalize the other states from the Western European states. This thing is absolutely necessary because, now, when our country makes part from EU, it needs to invest in human resources through better education, skills and support.

  11. Organisational, technological and economic innovations: the nuclear industry reinvents itself to face 2030 challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faudon, Valerie; Jouette, Isabelle; Le Ngoc, Boris

    2016-06-01

    As the French nuclear industry is facing a major challenge (financial weakness, an electric power market in crisis, 15 years without building any reactor, delayed works), this report first outlines why innovation is necessary to guarantee a low carbon and competitive electricity, to comfort the leadership position of this sector in the world, and to respond to expectations of civil society. Then, it describes how the French nuclear industry is already implementing organisational, technological and social innovations, notably through the development of digital technologies. The third part identifies priorities of new public policies: to imagine a new business model for nuclear (a better visibility for investors, taking all induced costs in the power system into account in a diversified mix, reform of the carbon market, taking avoided atmospheric pollution into account), to rethink regulation in order to free innovation spirit, and to prepare the future by investing in research

  12. Biotechnology: herbicide-resistant crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic, herbicide-resistant (HR) crops are planted on about 80% of the land covered by transgenic crops. More than 90% of HR crios are glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops, the others being resistant to glufosinate. The wide-scale adoption of HR crops, largely for economic reasons, has been the mos...

  13. Modeling Financial Innovation and Economic Growth: Why the Financial Sector Matters to the Real Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Yuan K.

    2007-01-01

    The author devises a simple way of incorporating the financial sector into a growth model that is pedagogically useful. Financial innovation raises the efficiency of financial intermediation by increasing the variety of financial products and services, resulting in improved matching of the needs of individual savers with those of firms raising…

  14. Marshall's disciples: Knowledge and innovation driving regional economic development and growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werker, C.; Athreye, S.

    2004-01-01

    Studies of knowledge and innovation as driving forces of regional development and growth offer a myriad of approaches. Here, questions asked, methods used and answers given are manifold. In our overview, we cover recent developments in this research area. Moreover, we explore the question as to the

  15. Particle physics, a key driver for innovation Facing Europe’s socio-economic challenges

    CERN Multimedia

    Le Goff, Jean-Marie; Koutchouk, Jean-Pierre; Stapnes, Steinar; Stavrev, Svetlomir

    2011-01-01

    The complex and sophisticated tools of particle physics are rich sources of new concepts, innovation and groundbreaking technologies, which benefit various applied research disciplines and eventually find their way into many applications that have a significant impact on the economy and society.

  16. Contribution of the Science, the Technology and the Innovation of the Universidad de Oriente to the Local Economic Revitalizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Salvador Soulary–Carracedo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the research is to design a methodology to evaluate the contribution of the science, the technology and the innovation of universities to the local economic revitalizing. The scientific novelty resides in a sequence of procedures, based on administration, statistical and mathematical modeling methods that constitutes a tool for the qualitative improvement of this relationship. The application of the methodology in the Universidad de Oriente allowed to verify that if the optimal structure of scientific projects is implemented it would increase, in the year 2017, the economic impact of the scientific projects in 5% like average, what would improve the efficiency in the use of the financial and human resources, as well as the relevancy of its results. Also, the partial implementation of the proposed plan of actions, it has impacted positively on the detected problems denoting a more favorable situation that the one evaluated initially. 

  17. An Innovative Economic Incentive Model for Improvement of the Working Environment in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian

    1997-01-01

    work injury compensation system, that a number of European countries operate. Building on an understanding of enterprise decision processes and ressources, it is suggested to implement a range of tools targetting different groups of enterprises. The central tools are bonus schemes, a special scheme......The design of economic incentive schemes to promote working environment embetterment has proven complicated. The contribution list some central preconditions and tools of an economic incentive model for improving the working environment. The economic incentive is proposed built into the compulsory...... for small enterprises, a marketing label and low interest investment aid. It is finally discussed what contrains the implementation of such a scheme can be confronted with....

  18. Monitoring outcomes of environmental service provision in low socio-economic indigenous Australia using innovative CyberTracker Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E J Ens

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Payments for environmental services (PES are increasingly promoted as an economic mechanism that could potentially address socio-economic and environmental conservation objectives in developing regions. However, the reporting and conditionality requirements of PES projects can be inhibitory, particularly for people with low environmental monitoring or administration capacity. Here, I provide five case studies where Indigenous Land and Sea Management groups in remote northern Australia, have combined Indigenous ecological knowledge, Western science, and the innovative CyberTracker technology to record and monitor the ecological outcomes of their land management activities to facilitate engagement with mainstream economies in Australia. The case studies elucidate methods of data collection and recording for established and potential PES projects where environmental monitoring and adaptive land and sea management are clear objectives, with longer term prospects for socio-economic benefits of Indigenous community education, empowerment and development. Similar monitoring and reporting methods could be applied in other contexts where individuals or community groups want to engage in emerging mainstream environmental service markets, but lack environmental monitoring and reporting capacity, such as other Indigenous groups, people from economically poor regions, or farmers in environmentally valuable regions.

  19. Innovative entrepreneurship in aspect of sustainable socio-economical development of the republic of Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Kozhabaeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to topical problems of small business development in the world production practice. The main tendencies of development of small business in modern conditions are noted, in particular, the directions of development of innovation-oriented small business are considered on the example of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Domestic and foreign experience has proved that supporting small businesses from the state is an integral part of the market economy. Small business, gaining a solid position in the market, needs development and state regulation. In foreign countries, small and medium-sized businesses represent an important sphere of employment for the population, promotes the development of the innovative potential of the economy, and the search for and introduction of innovations that are a factor in obtaining competitive advantages for enterprises, industries, regions. To realize its potential, state support should be carried out simultaneously in several directions, which will enable it to cover all small business sectors: the sphere of real production through the subcontracting mechanism, the sphere of circulation through the franchising mechanism, the sphere of applied science through the mechanism of venture contracts. It is also necessary to have banks specially created to participate in small business support programs and the activities of "business incubators". For a significant rise in the national economy, it is necessary to promote the maximum increase in the number of small innovative enterprises in the production sector, to stimulate the development of interrelations between small, medium and large industrial business, to creatively use the relevant foreign experience. All this should become an integral part of the overall policy in the field of restructuring the domestic economy, since business as a whole, regardless of its scale, is a single and interrelated process.

  20. New Technologies and Innovation Capacity - Boosting Economic Transition Processes in the Less Favoured Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Kati-Jasmin Kosonen

    2003-01-01

    In the era of knowledge society many regions and local communities/ towns are trying to compete with larger, growing cities over the knowledge and intellectual capital resources. Regional or local knowledge environment has become more important. Building innovation capacity and the institutional capacity as one part of it could be a development tool to some lagging behind-regions, (which are called as less-favoured regions) and quite often do not have universities of their own or successful i...

  1. Corporate governance, innovation, and economic performance: A case study on Volkswagen

    OpenAIRE

    Jürgens, Ulrich

    2002-01-01

    "In the debate on globalisation of the financial markets and its effect on corporate governance it is often claimed that the pressure for higher rates of return exerted by institutional investors in the name of shareholder value, has led to a fundamental change of company policy among listed companies. Due to short-term profit orientation and increased dividend pay-outs to investors, the critiques argue, long-term development of the innovation potential of these companies will suffer, and thi...

  2. Economic impacts of short-rotation woody crops for energy or oriented strand board: a Minnesota case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    William F. Lazarus; Douglas G. Tiffany; Ronald S. Zalesny Jr.; Don E. Riemenschneider

    2011-01-01

    Short-rotation woody crops (SRWC) such as hybrid poplars are becoming increasingly competitive with agriculture on marginal land. The trees can be grown for energy and for traditional uses such as oriented strandboard. Using IMPLAN (Impact Analysis for Planning) software, we modeled the impacts of shifting land use from hay and pasture for cow-calf beef operations to...

  3. Modern trends in economic regulation of the innovative development of the higher education system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Аleksandr LEVCHENKO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The consensus in the high school is valued by how much we invest in human capital which is determinant of efficiency. High school is a pillar contributor to productivity growth. There is evidence that innovation is a key player in nurturing technology chan¬ge. In today’s knowledge based economy, it becomes more evident that investing in human capital has greater return for university and corporation which is more effec¬tive than that of physical assets. Simultaneously, the conceptual fundamental of hu¬man capital is based on knowledge, skills, competencies, and tools that are developed through coaching and learning activities provided by the concerned institution. This paper intend to tackle and to develop separate positions of the theory and practice of financing the innovative development of higher education (IDHE toward the formati¬on and development of the national economy of knowledge. Furthermore, it examines the retention of the increased globalization of higher education, while state financial obligation is in decrease, which leads to greater distinction among universities in res¬pect of financial support and security. Financial support should be a priority to support the innovative development of higher education.

  4. Improving SFR Economics through Innovations from Thermal Design and Analysis Aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Vincent Mousseau; Per F. Peterson

    2008-06-01

    Achieving economic competitiveness as compared to LWRs and other Generation IV (Gen-IV) reactors is one of the major requirements for large-scale investment in commercial sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) power plants. Advances in R&D for advanced SFR fuel and structural materials provide key long-term opportunities to improve SFR economics. In addition, other new opportunities are emerging to further improve SFR economics. This paper provides an overview on potential ideas from the perspective of thermal hydraulics to improve SFR economics. These include a new hybrid loop-pool reactor design to further optimize economics, safety, and reliability of SFRs with more flexibility, a multiple reheat and intercooling helium Brayton cycle to improve plant thermal efficiency and reduce safety related overnight and operation costs, and modern multi-physics thermal analysis methods to reduce analysis uncertainties and associated requirements for over-conservatism in reactor design. This paper reviews advances in all three of these areas and their potential beneficial impacts on SFR economics.

  5. Sustainable commercialization of new crops for the agricultural bioeconomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.R. Jordan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Diversification of agroecological systems to enhance agrobiodiversity is likely to be critical to advancing environmental, economic, and social sustainability of agriculture. Temperate-zone agroecological systems that are currently organized for production of summer-annual crops can be diversified by integration of fallow-season and perennial crops. Integration of such crops can improve sustainability of these agroecological systems, with minimal interference with current agricultural production. Importantly, these crops can provide feedstocks for a wide range of new bio-products that are forming a new agricultural bioeconomy, potentially providing greatly increased economic incentives for diversification. However, while there are many fallow-season and perennial crops that might be used in such a “bioeconomic” strategy for diversification, most are not yet well adapted and highly-marketable. Efforts are underway to enhance adaptation and marketability of many such crops. Critically, these efforts require a strategic approach that addresses the inherent complexity of these projects. We outline a suitable approach, which we term “sustainable commercialization”: a coordinated innovation process that integrates a new crop into the agriculture of a region, while intentionally addressing economic, environmental and social sustainability challenges via multi-stakeholder governance. This approach centers on a concerted effort to coordinate and govern innovation in three critical areas: germplasm development, multifunctional agroecosystem design and management, and development of end uses, supply chains, and markets. To exemplify the approach, we describe an ongoing effort to commercialize a new fallow-season crop, field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L..

  6. Innovations and economic success in Finnish equine and bio-energy enterprises; Innovaatiotoiminta ja taloudellinen menestyminen hevosalan ja bioenergia-alan pienyrityksissae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiilikainen, S.

    2009-07-01

    Cluster of industries is the critical mass of industries, which are located into certain geographical areas. In cluster supporting and related industries are linked through vertical and a horizontal relationship. Rural clusters are based on local traditions, resources and knowledge. The key advantage of cluster of industries is the fact that innovations are often created in them. The purpose of this study is to find out how creation of innovations can be improved in rural cluster of industries. The subject of this study is the link between innovations and the financial success of enterprises. The research questions are formulated as: What kinds of innovations take place in equine and bio-energy enterprises? How different factors affect to innovations made in these enterprises? How does competitiveness, the economic success of enterprises relate these innovations? Theoretical background of the study lies on the Schumpeter's' theory of entrepreneurship and innovations are defined broadly as doing new things or doing things already done on a new way. Data were collected by postal survey in August 2008 (n =165), the respondents were equine entrepreneurs from Uusimaa region and bio-energy entrepreneurs in Pohjois-Pohjanmaa region. Data were analysed using multivariate analyses. The study results reveal that, most of the innovations related to services or pricing the services. It was fairly uncommon to develop new business models, which was worrying, because many of the enterprises had enlarged or invested heavily on the capacity. The economic success did relate to innovations; those enterprises who performed poorly had not introduced any innovations or improvements during past three years, whist enterprises with good or average performance had introduced innovations or improvements. (orig.)

  7. The Innovative Socio-economic Interventions Against Tuberculosis (ISIAT) project: an operational assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, C; Montoya, R; Zevallos, K; Curatola, A; Ynga, W; Franco, J; Fernandez, F; Becerra, N; Sabaduche, M; Tovar, M A; Ramos, E; Tapley, A; Allen, N R; Onifade, D A; Acosta, C D; Maritz, M; Concha, D F; Schumacher, S G; Evans, C A

    2011-06-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) affected households in impoverished shantytowns, Lima, Peru. To evaluate socio-economic interventions for strengthening TB control by improving uptake of TB care and prevention services. Barriers to TB control were characterised by interviews with TB-affected families. To reduce these barriers, a multidisciplinary team offered integrated community and household socio-economic interventions aiming to: 1) enhance uptake of TB care by education, community mobilisation and psychosocial support; and 2) reduce poverty through food and cash transfers, microcredit, microenterprise and vocational training. An interim analysis was performed after the socio-economic interventions had been provided for 2078 people in 311 households of newly diagnosed TB patients for up to 34 months. Poverty (46% earned microcredit; poverty;social determinants.

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL INNOVATIVE BUSINESS SOLUTIONS AS A STRATEGIC FACTOR OF ECONOMIC SECURITY ISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Senin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of this work lies in the fact that it attempts to disclose the key theoretical and practical issues of economic security solutions, taking into account the problems of global transformations taking place in the global economy. As part of the article we have been studied various aspects that characterize global economic, environmental trends that will shape the future of modern civilization. The article also addresses the problem of exit from the raw model of the economy, the formation of economic mechanisms that take into account environmental costs, proposed internalization of environmental externalities.The purpose/goal. The purpose of this article and its main task is to systematize the areas of environmentally oriented development of economic entities, as well as the determination of the list of key provisions of environmental policies, which will ensure the further socio-economic development of Russia in line with the green economy.Methods. In this article, based on content analysis of theoretical and empirical basic conceptual provisions of economic security were formulated in the context of eco-oriented production, the transition to which world civilization is currently implementing. It was concluded that the economic, energy, environmental and social issues of sustainable development of modern civilization is directly linked, so the transition to ecooriented production is possible, firstly, it provided aggressive reduction of production and wasteful use of traditional hydrocarbon resources, and, secondly, on the condition of rational replacement of traditional energy sources with renewable energy.Results. This article outlines the basic solutions that can be used to provide environmentally responsible operation and development of Russian business and corporate structures. Also offered in the basic decisions that are to be included in the national environmental policy as a major incentive for the further transition to a

  9. Economic efficiency of application of innovative materials and structures in high-rise construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golov, Roman; Dikareva, Varvara; Gorshkov, Roman; Agarkov, Anatoly

    2018-03-01

    The article is devoted to the analysis of technical and economic efficiency of application of tube confined concrete structures in high-rise construction. The study of comparative costs of materials with the use of different supporting columns was carried out. The main design, operational, technological and economic advantages of the tube confined concrete technology were evaluated, conclusions were drawn about the high strength and deformation properties of axial compression of steel tubes filled with high-strength concrete. The efficiency of the tube confined concrete use is substantiated, which depends mainly on the scale factor and percentage of reinforcement affecting its load-bearing capacity.

  10. Modeling & Analysisng of Economic Behaviour of Insurance Acceptance of Wheat crop by using of Thinking System Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hamid balali

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Unsustainability and precarious conditions of agricultural production have caused this sector be associated with risk . Crops insurance is efficient tool for controlling and reducing production and market risk and stabilizing farmers' income. In this study, the thinking system approach by using of I Think software is used for analyzing and modeling of the effects of different alternatives of policies on wheat insurance acceptance. The results show that the decision making process of insurance acceptance is function of some variables including of probability of brooz khesarat, amount of brooz khesarat, share of farmer’s insurance payment, gross return of fermers and maximum tahood of bimegar payments. Also, by increasing of the probability of brooz khesarat the number of insurance acceptance will increaseal production have caused this sector be associated with risk . Crops insurance is efficient tool for controlling and reducing production and market risk and stabilizing farmers' income. In .

  11. Technical, economic and policy considerations on marker-assisted selection in crops: lessons from the experience at an international agricultural research centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    William, H.M.; Warburton, M.; Morris, M.; Hoisington, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Molecular markers and related technologies have been used extensively in genetic characterization and identification of loci controlling traits of economic importance in many crop species. However, the application of such tools for crop improvement has not been extensive, at least in the public sector. Although there are clear advantages in using molecular markers as tools for indirect selection of traits of importance, available examples indicate that their use is restricted to traits with monogenic inheritance or when the inheritance is conditioned by a few genes with large effects. Another important limitation of large-scale marker applications is the cost involved in marker assays, which may be beyond the capacities of many public plant breeding enterprises. For an effective marker-assisted selection (MAS) activity to facilitate ongoing crop improvement programmes, especially in the context of the developing countries, laboratories with adequate capacity and adequately trained scientific personnel as well as operational resources are required. Although recent technological advances such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and associated assay protocols are likely to reduce assay costs significantly, for many of these operations, assay platforms with significant capital investments including computational capacity are required. Coupled with these limitations, private sector domination of biotechnology research with proprietary rights to important products and processes with immediate benefits to developing countries may further constrain the benefits these technologies may offer to resource-poor farmers. Policy-makers in different national programmes and international development and research agencies have a responsibility to sustain and augment the capacity of national public agricultural research organizations to ensure that biotechnology tools and processes are infused appropriately into national research efforts. They must also ensure that any

  12. The role of natural resource and environmental economics in determining the trade-offs in consumption and production of energy inputs: The case of biomass energy crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downing, M.; Graham, R.L.

    1993-12-31

    Natural resource economics issues deal with flows and funds of renewable and nonrenewable resources over time. These issues include topics concerned with management of fisheries, forests, mineral, energy resources, the extinction of species and the irreversibility of development over time. Environmental economics issues deal with regulation of polluting activities and the valuation of environmental amenities. In this study we outline a framework for studying both natural resource and environmental economics issues for any renewable or nonrenewable resource. Valuation from both the cost and benefit sides are addressed as they relate to the valuation of environmental programs or policies. By using this top-down approach to analyze and determine the costs and benefits of using renewable or nonrenewable resources, policy-makers on the global, national and local scales may be better informed as to the probable nonmarket and market ramifications of their natural resource and environmental policy decisions. This general framework for analysis is then focused to address biomass energy crops and their usage as inputs to energy production. As with any energy technology, a complete analysis must include an examination of the entire fuel cycle; specifically both production and consumption sides. From a production standpoint, market valuation issues such as crop management techniques, inputs to production, and community economics issues must be addressed as well as nonmarket valuation issues such as soil erosion, ground water effects and carbon sequestration. On the consumption side, market valuation considerations such as energy fuel efficiency and quality, cost of conversion and employment of labor are important factors while the critical nonmarket valuation factors are ambient air visibility, greenhouse gas release, and disposal of the by-products of conversion and combustion.

  13. The role of natural resource and environmental economics in determining the trade-offs in consumption and production of energy inputs: The case of biomass energy crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downing , M.; Graham, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    Natural resource economics issues deal with flows and funds of renewable and nonrenewable resources over time. These issues include topics concerned with management of fisheries, forests, mineral, energy resources, the extinction of species and the irreversibility of development over time. Environmental economics issues deal with regulation of polluting activities and the valuation of environmental amenities. In this study we outline a framework for studying both natural resource and environmental economics issues for any renewable or nonrenewable resource. Valuation from both the cost and benefit sides are addressed as they relate to the valuation of environmental programs or policies. By using this top-down approach to analyze and determine the costs and benefits of using renewable or nonrenewable resources, policy-makers on the global, national and local scales may be better informed as to the probable nonmarket and market ramifications of their natural resource and environmental policy decisions. The general framework for analysis is then focused to address biomass energy crops and their usage as inputs to energy production. As with any energy technology, a complete analysis must include an examination of the entire fuel cycle; specifically both production and consumption sides. From a production standpoint, market valuation issues such as crop management techniques, inputs to production, and community economics issues must be addressed as well as nonmarket valuation issues such as soil erosion, ground water effects and carbon sequestration. On the consumption side, market valuation considerations such as energy fuel efficiency and quality, cost of conversion and employment of labor are important factors while the critical nonmarket valuation factors are ambient air visibility, greenhouse gas release, and disposal of the by-products of conversion and combustion

  14. How Can Innovative Practices In HEIs Facilitate Sustainable Social And Economic Development ?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Psillaki, M.; Youssef, A.B.; Filippov, S.; Ravesteijn, W.; Zvereva, T.Y.

    2010-01-01

    The paper is focused on analyzing net-based practices in Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) as a policy tool for instituting a sustainable social and economic development. The purpose of the study is to identify relationships between net-based HEIs and welfare perspective; to investigate the

  15. On the Market for Principles of Economics Textbooks: Innovation and Product Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiglitz, Joseph E.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the problems presented by current principles of economics textbooks, proposing two theses: that the market for principles textbooks is one of monopolistic competition, and that it reflects certain market failures. Examines changes that are needed so that textbooks will reflect more adequately important changes in the economy and economic…

  16. The innovative strategy of social and economic development of mining region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bereznev Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Depressed state of Russian economy in recent years, the unstable functioning of most regional social and economic systems in the conditions of increased uncertainty of the global economy makes strategizing of the development based on a new model of economic growth a highly important issue. It assumes the tasks of modernization and restructuring of the economy, as well as improving the quality of management. It is known that the solution of these conceptual target problems was suggested by the concept 2020, but the global crisis of 2007-2009 and other geopolitical factors in the post-crisis period pushed their implementation back. The results of 2016 show an adaptation of Russian economy to the difficult internal and external challenges. In this article, the authors analyze the strategizing process by the example of the “Strategy of social and economic development of the Kemerovo Region up to 2025”, as well as analysis comparatively the strategies for the development of the national economy, the Siberian Federal District and the region. Based on the study results the authors formulated and substantiated conclusions and recommendations to improve strategizing process and the effectiveness of strategic management of the development of social and economic systems.

  17. Development of innovation complexes as a mechanism of technologies transfer and an instrument of social-economic policy in the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Sukhovey

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article is developed a role of innovation complexes of a region at the base of analysis of foreign and domestic experience of organization science-technological complexes. Main reasons, braking innovation transformations in Russia are cleared. For example of Russia it is shown, that unsystematic forming objects of innovation infrastructure without interaction with needs of development region and state its science-technical and industrial potential do not taken to positive change at economy and do not help to activation of innovation processes. Peculiarity different innovation complexes as instrument of social-economic policy, its participation at decision, those actual problems as overcoming of decline traditional branches of industry, forming high-tech sector, rise of outlaying districts, rise of competitive ability of industry were cleared. It is given special attention to possibility of innovation complexes as effective mechanism passing of technologies, allowing to create favorable conditions to subjects of innovation activity and to speed up process “research — production”. Measures to foundation of effective innovation infrastructure as one conditions of acceleration innovation development in Russia are offered.

  18. Geostrategy of Economic Spaces: Innovation and Change in Latin America Territorial Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euripedes Falcão Vieira

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In this essay we analyze the geostrategy of economic spaces in the sphere of new links in the global economy, placing Latin America in the scenario of the new world order. The geostrategic dimension of economic spaces includes spatial redefinitions as a result of new global strategies of the major transnational corporations. This is, therefore, of a space-time configuration of scenarios in the articulation between the importance of the place, action site, and expression of power. Territorial administration adopts new outlines, sharing and is linked to the logistics of market interests. In the new configuration of interests of global economics, the spatial barriers are set aside and global places are created, representing fragmentations of territorialized space. Territorialization of global productive spaces represents deterritorialization of national spaces. Forms of power and influence of power radiate from them in all directions. Power and administration of territory in the large complex economic and political organisms – regional blocks – confront each member’s historic reality, the inequalities of the rates of development, culture and social levels. These realities are hard to harmonize and eventually categorize hegemonic centers of power and a national fringe of dependence. Global geostrategy, therefore, takes over, redefines and reorders productive circulation spaces, establishing new relations of power and administration of territories. Historically, Latin America continued to depend heavily on the economic order established by the colonizing countries and this dependence gradually shifted to the world financial supremacies. This dependence intensified the indebtedness process that today characterizes the so-called market of foreign debts, with significant reflections on the internal social order.

  19. Effect of a 5-Year Multi-Crop Rotation on Mineral N and Hard Red Spring Wheat Yield, Protein, Test Weight and Economics in Western North Dakota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landblom, Douglas; Senturklu, Songul; Cihacek, Larry; Brevik, Eric

    2016-04-01

    The objectives of this non-irrigated cropping study was to employ the principles of soil health and determine the effect of rotation on seasonal mineral N, HRSW production, protein, test weight, and economics. Prior to the initiation of this research, the cropping study area had been previously seeded to hard red spring wheat (HRSW). The cropping systems consisted of a continuous HRSW control (C) compared to HRSW grown in a multi-crop 5-year rotation (R). The 5-yr rotation consisted of HRSW, cover crop (dual crop winter triticale-hairy vetch harvested for hay in June and immediately reseeded to a 7-species cover crop mix grazed by cows after weaning from mid-November to mid-December), forage corn, field pea-forage barley, and sunflower. The cereal grains, cover crops, and pea-barley intercrop were seeded using a JD 1590 no-till drill, 19 cm row spacing, and seed depth of 2.54 cm Cereal grain plant population was 3,088,750 plants/ha. The row crops were planted using a JD 7000 no-till planter, 76.2 cm row spacing, and seed depth of 5.08 cm. Plant population for the row crops was 46,947 plants/ha. Weeds were controlled using a pre-plant burn down and post-emergence control except for cover crops and pea-barley where a pre-plant burn down was the only chemical applied. Fertilizer application was based on soil test results and recommendations from the North Dakota State University Soil Testing Laboratory. During the 1st three years of the study 31.8 kg of N was applied to the C HRSW and then none the last two years of the 5-year period. The R HRSW was fertilized with 13.6 kg of N the 1st two years of the study and none the remaining three years of the 5-year period. However, chloride was low; therefore, 40.7-56.1 kg/ha were applied each year to both the C and R treatments. Based on 2014 and 2015 seasonal mineral N values, the data suggests that N levels were adequate to meet the 2690 kg/ha yield goal. In 2015, however, the R yield goal was exceeded by 673 kg/ha whereas

  20. Create full-scale predictive economic models on ROI and innovation with performance computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, Earl C. [IDC Research, Inc., Framingham, MA (United States); Conway, Steve [IDC Research, Inc., Framingham, MA (United States)

    2017-10-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the world's largest buyer and user of supercomputers, awarded IDC Research, Inc. a grant to create two macroeconomic models capable of quantifying, respectively, financial and non-financial (innovation) returns on investments in HPC resources. Following a 2013 pilot study in which we created the models and tested them on about 200 real-world HPC cases, DOE authorized us to conduct a full-out, three-year grant study to collect and measure many more examples, a process that would also subject the methodology to further testing and validation. A secondary, "stretch" goal of the full-out study was to advance the methodology from association toward (but not all the way to) causation, by eliminating the effects of some of the other factors that might be contributing, along with HPC investments, to the returns produced in the investigated projects.

  1. RESEARCHES CONCERNING THE ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY ACHIEVED SUCCESSIVE TO THE APPLICATION OF BIOLOGICALLY-ACTIVE PRODUCTS IN SMOOTH BROME CROP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELENA PEł

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Within any branch of material production, the supervision of the economic effects caused by the applied technologies is an essential requirement. Not only related to the productive activity, but also related to scientific research, designing and other fields of activity, the final goal is represented by the achievement of immediate or far off economic effects. The introduction and generalization into production of the newest technologies of forage production must rely upon calculations of economic efficiency, too. The objective of these calculations is to offer to any producer the possibility to choose among the optimal technologic variants, with great productions per surface unit, of high quality and low costs. The calculations of economic efficiency were carried out during the three years of experimentation. The economic efficiency obtained after the application of biostimulants in smooth brome during the first year of production is expressed through the achievement of a profit per surface unit of 75.85 – 127.00 €/ha. Successive to the calculations of economic efficiency, during the second year of production, the profit per surface unit recorded values between 79.10 – 153.10 €/ha depending upon the applied biostimulant, and during the third year of production the profit obtained per surface unit was 211.05 – 270.70 €/ha.

  2. Diffusion of an economic development policy innovation: explaining the international spread of casino gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Brian

    2010-06-01

    This study uses an event history analysis to examine the factors that lead to the adoption of casino gambling among 13 nations around the world. Specifically, measures of fiscal stress, economic development, tourism, religiosity, and income levels are tested for their relationship to national decisions to legalize casino gambling. This study found that economic development needs, as measured by general unemployment rates, were associated with the casino legalization decisions of national governments. Higher unemployment rates were more likely in the years that nations legalized casino gambling. Religiosity, measured by frequency of church attendance, was also found to be a significant barrier in legalization decisions. Measures of fiscal stress, tourism, and income levels were not found to have significant relationships with the legalization decisions. This is interesting because these factors are often cited in case studies, media reports, and the statements of politicians during legalization processes. This study points to the need for further research in several areas. Further exploration of potential explanatory variables and more appropriate measures of currently theorized factors is warranted. Another area for further research is the seeming contradictory findings of multiple statistical analyses and multiple anecdotal findings of the impacts of fiscal stress on the casino legalization decision.

  3. The agrarian innovation in Camajuaní: inequities and contradictions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annia Martínez Massip

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The agrarian innovation in Camajuaní shows a group of social problems, despite of being a leading municipality in the production of different crops, tobacco and livestock farming. The article is aimed at characterizing, from a sociological approach, the agrarian innovation in producers of different crops, industrial crops, livestock farming and poultry in Camajuaní. A survey, a semi-structured interview and an analysis of the content were applied to an intentional simple of 39 innovators. The outcomes resulted in: gender and age inequity, variability in the levels of scholarship and the tenure of the land of the farmers for an insufficient cognitive domain of innovation, and predominance of a medium level of innovation for most agrarian practices with a high efficiency but low novelty in the various cultures. The agrarian innovations are affected by the contradiction of lacking a bond to the social innovations, with economical aims and being absent to a local system of innovation, which not only limits its growing and development, but also reflects the lack of projection of local entities and civil society; what put at risk the agrarian, rural, and local development.

  4. Technology development and innovation for the bottom of the economic pyramid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadgil, Ashok

    2015-04-01

    Directed development of new technologies to solve specific problems of the poor in the developing world is a daunting task. Developing countries can be a wasteland littered with failed technologies sent there with much goodwill and effort from the industrial countries. Drawing on my team's experience I summarize our answers to some key questions for the technology designer or developer: How might one go about it? What works and what doesn't? What lessons can one draw from an examination of select successes and failures? The key lessons from our experience are: (1) successful technology design and implementation can not be separated from each other - they are tightly intertwined, (2) social factors are as critical for a technology's success as factors based on engineering science, and (3) ignorance of political economy, behavioral economics, organizational behavior, institutional imperatives, cultural norms and social drivers can prove fatal flaws when a new technology leaves the laboratory and meets the real world.

  5. Socio-economic characterization of integrated cropping systems in urban and peri-urban agriculture of Faisalabad, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoaib Ur Rehman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Faisalabad city is surrounded by agricultural lands, where farmers are growing vegetables, grain crops, and fodder for auto-consumption and local marketing. To study the socioeconomic impact and resource use in these urban and peri-urban agricultural production (UPA systems, a baseline survey was conducted during 2009–2010. A total of 140 households were selected using a stratified sampling method and interviewed with a structured questionnaire. The results revealed that 96 % of the households rely on agriculture as their main occupation. Thirty percent of the households were owners of the land and the rest cultivated either rented or sharecropped land. Most of the families (70 % were headed by a member with primary education, and only 10 % of the household head had a secondary school certificate. Irrigationwater was obtained from waste water (37 %, canals (27 %, and mixed alternative sources (36 %. A total of 35 species were cultivated in the UPA systems of which were 65% vegetables, 15% grain and fodder crops, and 5% medicinal plants. Fifty-nine percent of the households cultivated wheat, mostly for auto-consumption. The 51 % of the respondents grew cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. and gourds (Cucurbitaceae in the winter and summer seasons, respectively. Group marketing was uncommon and most of the farmers sold their produce at the farm gate (45 % and on local markets (43 %. Seeds and fertilizers were available from commission agents and dealers on a credit basis with the obligation to pay by harvested produce. A major problem reported by the UPA farmers of Faisalabad was the scarcity of high quality irrigation water, especially during the hot dry summer months, in addition to lacking adequate quantities of mineral fertilizers and other inputs during sowing time. Half of the respondents estimated their daily income to be less than 1.25 US$ and spent almost half of it on food. Monthly average household income and expenses were 334 and 237 US

  6. Energy, economic, and environmental impacts of advanced industrial process innovations, 1976--1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, J.E.; Reed, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    maintenance costs, and any non-energy production cost savings). in 1996, two additional DOE programs were transferred to the Office of Industrial Technologies: the Energy-Related Inventions program and the Innovative Concepts program About 30 technologies developed in these programs have seen application in the industrial sector and have had significant energy savings. OIT is currently planning to incorporate these technologies into its tracking system

  7. Apples and Oranges Mean a New Fruit Crop: New Business Plan Competition Model Integrates Economic and Community Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Jacqueline; Oden, Lisa Derby

    2007-01-01

    Mount Wachusett Community College Entrepreneurial Resource Center Business Plan Competition brings together stakeholders across all economic sectors to bolster the regional economy. It also highlights entrepreneurs as a viable career choice. The competition disintegrates existing silos, provides education to all entrants, and gives business…

  8. Potential economic pests of solanaceous crops: a new species of Solanum-feeding psyllid from Australia and first record from New Zealand of Acizzia solanicola (Hemiptera: Psyllidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Gary S; Kent, Deborah S

    2013-02-11

    Acizzia credoensis sp. n. is described from a single population on the native plant, Solanum lasiophyllum, from semi-arid Western Australia. The host range of Acizzia solanicola Kent & Taylor, initially recorded as damaging eggplant, S. melongena, in commercial crops and gardens and on wild tobacco bush, S. mauritianum in eastern Australia, is expanded to include the following Solanaceae: rock nightshade, S. petrophilum, cape gooseberry, Physalis peruviana, and an undetermined species of angel's trumpet Brugmansia and Datura. New Zealand specimens of A. solanicola collected in early 2012 from S. mauritianum are the first record for this species from outside Australia, and possibly represent a very recent incursion. The potential for the solanaceous-inhabiting Psyllidae to vector Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum, an economically important plant pathogen, on native Australian Solanaceae is discussed. The occurrence of A. credoensis and A. solanicola on native Australian Solanum supports the Australian origin for the solanaceous-inhabiting Acizzia psyllids.

  9. Innovation process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolodovski, A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose of this report: This report was prepared for RISO team involved in design of the innovation system Report provides innovation methodology to establish common understanding of the process concepts and related terminology The report does not includeRISO- or Denmark-specific cultural, econom...

  10. Technical potential and its role in development of innovational economics of agricultural entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor' Mikhailovich Gogolev

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a mathematical model of economic development of an enterprise with a particular point of assessment of capital-labor and ratio capitalequipment accumulation conditions and their further changes depending on thestrategy of thecompany. To construct a mathematical model of the economy's growth indicators, Solow model which adequately reflects the key aspects of the economy-wide process of expanded reproduction and helps to highlight the main features of the formal models of the dynamics is applied, as well as Shell model with applying Pontryagin maximum principle. An organization's readiness to investment processes — investment «maturity» — is seen through the current level of technical capacity and current capital-labor ratio. The substantiation of the need for a certain level of saturation of agricultural equipment in the organization as a secure mean of ensuring the optimum performance of work in the most intense phase of the production of complex planting and harvesting is provided. To construct a mathematical model reflecting the dependence of capital-labor productivity on capital-labor ratio, a mathematical model in the form of the production function of Cobb-Douglas type is suggested.

  11. Nível de dano econômico de Brachiaria plantaginea na cultura de milho irrigado Economic weed threshold (EWT of Brachiaria plantaginea in irrigated corn crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Vidal

    2004-03-01

    reas onde foram aspergidos herbicidas residuais. Conclui-se, também, que o NDE de BRAPL em milho aumenta à medida que o preço da cultura diminui e o custo do controle aumenta e que o aumento do preço de grãos reduz o impacto do custo do controle de BRAPL no retorno econômico da cultura.Economic weed threshold (EWT consists of the number of weeds impacting crop grain yield to justify the cost of their control. The objectives of this work were to evaluate the feasibility of using herbicide experiment results to establish EWT, based on regression between corn grain yield and Brachiaria plantaginea (BRAPL density assessed on several occasions; and to evaluate crop price and weed control cost impact on EWT. BRAPL densities were determined by applying herbicide treatments allowing several levels of weed emergence and, consequently several levels of weed-crop interference. Weed density was evaluated at 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 days after crop emergence (DAE to cover the critical weed-crop competition period. Crop grain yield was determined at crop maturity. The results of the regression between BRAPL density and corn grain yield have adjusted exponential decay curves for assessments performed at 10 and 20 DAE and sigmoidal curves at 30, 40 and 50 DAE. EWT of BRAPL in corn, based on densities assessed at 20 DAE and for 10 t ha-1 of grain yield, ranged from 0.2 and 2.0 plants m-2, depending on crop price and weed control cost. EWT assessed at 50 DAE ranged between 1.5 and 13 plants m-2. This work confirmed that weed densities increase with time, allowing to conclude that EWT can be determined from density data assessed on experiments designed to test residual herbicides. Therefore, the EWT obtained are appropriate for situations requiring post-emergence herbicides in areas treated with residual herbicides. The EWT of BRAPL in corn crop increases with the increase of crop prices and reduction of weed control costs; and grain price increase reduces the relative impact of weed

  12. Impact of cash cropping and perennial crops on food crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    significant effects on food crop production and productivity. ... 2 Department of Economics and Resource management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway ... food markets work well, the problem of imperfect markets does not allow ..... prices at the time of purchase with the remaining balance due at the end of the.

  13. Technical and economic feasibility of development innovative technological solutions for expansion the adjustment range of high-power CCP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakelyan, E. K.; Andryushin, A. V.; Burtsev, S. Y.; Andryushin, K. A.

    2017-11-01

    The analysis of technical and parametric constraints on the adjustment range of highpower CCP and recommended technological solutions in the technical literature for their elimination. Established that in the conditions of toughening the requirements for economy, reliability and maneuverability on the part of the system operator with the participation of CCP in control the frequency and power in the power system, existing methods do not ensure the fulfillment of these requirements. The current situation in the energy sector — the lack of highly manoeuvrable power equipment leads to the need participate in control of power consumption diagrams for all types of power plants, including CCP, although initially they were intended primarily for basic loads. Large-scale research conducted at the department of Automated control systems of technological processes, showed the possibility of a significant expansion of the adjustment range of CCP when it operating in the condensing mode and in the heating mode. The report presents the main results of these research for example the CCP-450 and CCP-450T. Various technological solutions are considered: when CCP in the condensation mode — the use of bypass steam distribution schemes, the transfer of a part of the steam turbine into a low-steam mode; when CCP operation in the heating mode — bypass steam distribution and the transfer CCP to gas turbine unit — power heating plants mode with the transfer the steam turbine to the motor mode. Data on the evaluation of the technical and economic feasibility of the proposed innovative technological solutions are presented in comparison with the methods used to solve this problem, which are used in practice, such as passing through the failures of the electric load graphs by transferring the CCP to the mode of operation with incomplete equipment. When comparing, both the economics, and the maneuverability and reliability of the equipment are considered.

  14. ECONOMIC GROWTH BASED ON INNOVATIVE DEVELOPMENT IS THE BASIS OF MACROECONOMIC STABILIZATION AND SUSTAINABILITY OF THE NATIONAL ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ya. Kazhuro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available When the global community entered in the XXI century world emerging economy is more clearly considered as post-industrial, where a leading sector of the economy in the GDP production is not agriculture and not even industry but services. The main productive resource in such circumstances is not natural and productive capital but human capital, which is represented by storage of knowledge and skills accumulated by a person in the process of training and previous employment. Value of this capital is directly dependent on the level of education both general and professional. Human intellect becomes a main factor of production and professional. If the level is higher it means that such person can perform more valuable types of work for expand wealth of the country and it is transformed into intellectual capital. Consequently, a special market is formed that is a market of intellectual capital. An offer in this market is represented by labor with a high level of intellectuality and innovativeness and it has, in its turn, high market value. Well-handled components of human capital contribute to scientific-technical and social progress of the society, its sustainable economic development as the main types of final products unlike with previous stages of development are information and knowledge and the main factor of economic growth is productivity of mental labor workers. It is human capital that is one of the main factors ensuring transition to V and VI technological paradigms under current conditions. These paradigms are underlying a solid foundation for formation of new intellectual and information society. New knowledge and information technologies are making a breakthrough not only in the direct production of commodities but in the non-manufacturing sector as well (education, health, trade, finance etc..

  15. Second COSTECH annual national science and technological conference and exhibitions: Science, technology and innovation in enhancing competitiveness for socio-economic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Government of the United Republic of Tanzania recognizes that science, technology and innovation (STI) are vital to our economic and social progress. In an increasingly globalised world, it is recognised that high levels of investment in research and innovation are essential, both for economic competitiveness and to yield innovations in areas such as agriculture, health, natural resources, environment and energy sectors and make tangible improvements to the quality of our life. The government also realizes the need to provide an enabling environment for competition and innovation which in turn creates pressure for improvements in efficiency, quality and productivity. The development of a knowledge economy is a key challenge that is facing Tanzania today. It is essential that the country strives to build a truly knowledge based society. Such a society will offer new opportunities for economic and social advancement. It is therefore important that for a knowledge translation and disseminations are created and strengthened. The context to this is that knowledge is the currency for development.(author)

  16. Life-cycle environmental and economic impacts of energy-crop fuel-chains: an integrated assessment of potential GHG avoidance in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Styles, David; Jones, Michael B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper combines life-cycle analyses and economic analyses for Miscanthus and willow heat and electricity fuel-chains in Ireland. Displaced agricultural land-uses and conventional fuels were considered in fuel-chain permutations. Avoided greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions ranged from 7.7 to 35.2 t CO 2 eq. ha -1 a -1 . Most fuel-chain permutations exhibited positive discounted financial returns, despite losses for particular entities at a farm-gate processed-biomass price of Euro 100 t -1 dry-matter. Attributing a value of Euro 10 t -1 CO 2 eq. to avoided GHG emissions, but subtracting financial returns associated with displaced fuel supplies, resulted in discounted annual national economic benefits (DANEBs) ranging from -457 to 1887 Euro ha -1 a -1 . Extrapolating a plausible combination of fuel-chains up to a national indicative scenario resulted in GHG emission avoidance of 3.56 Mt CO 2 eq. a -1 (5.2% of national emissions), a DANEB of 167 M Euro , and required 4.6% of national agricultural land area. As cost-effective national GHG avoidance options, Miscanthus and willow fuel-chains are robust to variation in yields and CO 2 price, and appear to represent an efficient land-use option (e.g. compared with liquid biofuel production). Policies promoting utilisation of these energy-crops could avoid unnecessary, and environmentally questionable, future purchase of carbon credits, as currently required for national Kyoto compliance

  17. PENINGKATAN USAHA TERNAK DOMBA MELALUI DIVERSIFIKASI TANAMAN PANGAN: EKONOMI PENDAPATAN PETANI (IMPROVEMENT OF CATTLE SHEEP THROUGH CROPS DIVERSIFICATION: ECONOMIC INCOME FARMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rusdiana dan L. Praharani

    2015-04-01

    land, plantations, even land around the forest. Diversification of cattle and crops in Indonesia varied, sheep population in 2013 is about 12.7 million head and cassava production in 2013 about 21 million tons. Considering the role of farmers to economic growth, it is necessary to increase productivity to be more productive and efficient. The purpose of writing was to determine the increase of cattle sheep through crop diversification in the economic analysis of income by business diversification can reduce risk and still provide the potential rate of profit to farmer. Diversification of livestock and tatanam can be concluded that cattle scale of 5 rams can be achieved on the sales value of about 4.17sheeps, and production BEP selling price around Rp.1.043.625/tail,  net gain of about Rp.1.121.875/period by value of B/C approximately 1.19, butter and arsin variety of cassava with an area of about 2 hectares has profit of cassava on varieties of butter around Rp.8.414.085/ha/year, profit of cassava varieties on Arsin around Rp.6.921.705/ha/year, the value of B/C ratio was 2.7 and 2.6 are not significantly different from the results obtained by the farmers.Diversification become more important for farmers due to income source as economic trigger at rura. Basec on cost and investment calculation, cattle sheep and cassava as main product is technically feasible, economically and financially was good, means that the business had conducted feasible diversification to be continued.  

  18. Linear Programming in the economic estimate of livestock-crop integration: application to a Brazilian dairy farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Hauber Gameiro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A linear programming mathematical model was applied to a representative dairy farm located in Brazil. The results showed that optimization models are relevant tools to assist in the planning and management of agricultural production, as well as to assist in estimating potential gains from the use of integrated systems. Diversification was a necessary condition for economic viability. A total cost reduction potential of about 30% was revealed when a scenario of lower levels of diversification was contrasted to one of higher levels. Technical complementarities proved to be important sources of economies. The possibility of reusing nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium present in animal waste could be increased to 167%, while water reuse could be increased up to 150%. In addition to economic gains, integrated systems bring benefits to the environment, especially with reference to the reuse of resources. The cost dilution of fixed production factors can help economies of scope to be achieved. However, this does not seem to have been the main source of these benefits. Still, the percentage of land use could increase up to 30.7% when the lowest and the highest diversification scenarios were compared. The labor coefficient could have a 4.3 percent increase. Diversification also leads to drastic transaction cost reductions.

  19. Responsible innovation

    CERN Document Server

    De Woot, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Economic development is rooted in disruption, not in equilibrium. And a powerful engine of economic development is innovation; but is this innovation always for the common good? The dark side of the extraordinary dynamism of innovation lies precisely in its destructive power. If simply left to market forces, it could lead to social chaos and great human suffering. To face the challenges of our time, we must create the proper climate and culture to develop strong entrepreneurial drive. But, more than ever, we must give this entrepreneurial drive its ethical and societal dimensions. Responsible innovation means a more voluntary orientation towards the great problems of the 21st century, e.g. depletion of the planet's resources, rising inequality, and new scientific developments potentially threatening freedom, democracy and human integrity. We need to transform our ceaseless creativity into real progress for humankind. In this respect, the rapid development of social innovation opens the door for new methods an...

  20. Technological Innovation in the downstream gas market: Studying the economics of LNG distribution systems with a focus on Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madlener, Reinhard; Jarlsby, Erik

    2005-01-01

    Prospects for the market diffusion of natural gas, apart from other factors, depend strongly on the limitations set by the supply infrastructure. One of these limitations is determined by the economic viability of extending the distribution infrastructure, which can vary widely depending on the technology chosen and the prevailing local circumstances. While large-scale pipeline-based systems benefit from economies of scale, they require huge initial capital investments and may in certain cases not be economical at all, or only after excessively long payback periods, especially when end-use energy densities are low, growth in demand slow, and the topography difficult. This paper focuses on the economics of adoption and diffusion of innovative small- and medium-scale liquefied natural gas (LNG) distribution systems, as compared to large pipeline-based distribution systems, with a particular focus on the situation in Norway. We address issues such as scale economies, learning effects, technological lock-in, niche market formation, and flexibility. Besides, we look at both the complementarity and competition among grid-based and LNG-based gas distribution systems. Finally, we briefly touch upon tax issues and political considerations. In Norway, the debate on natural gas extension has become controversial and politicized in recent years. On the one hand, certain stakeholders lobby for heavy, state-sponsored investment into one or more pipelines, which would bring large quantities of natural gas to industrial centers, at least some of which have struggled to maintain their market position in the past. On the other hand, there are stakeholders that have argued for the promotion of modular and more flexible small-scale LNG technology systems that could enhance competition in the gas market, and provide end-users with natural gas that would otherwise not be connected to the grid. Under present regulatory and market conditions in Norway, LNG supply to end users is

  1. Need to Knowledge (NtK) Model: an evidence-based framework for generating technological innovations with socio-economic impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flagg, Jennifer L; Lane, Joseph P; Lockett, Michelle M

    2013-02-15

    Traditional government policies suggest that upstream investment in scientific research is necessary and sufficient to generate technological innovations. The expected downstream beneficial socio-economic impacts are presumed to occur through non-government market mechanisms. However, there is little quantitative evidence for such a direct and formulaic relationship between public investment at the input end and marketplace benefits at the impact end. Instead, the literature demonstrates that the technological innovation process involves a complex interaction between multiple sectors, methods, and stakeholders. The authors theorize that accomplishing the full process of technological innovation in a deliberate and systematic manner requires an operational-level model encompassing three underlying methods, each designed to generate knowledge outputs in different states: scientific research generates conceptual discoveries; engineering development generates prototype inventions; and industrial production generates commercial innovations. Given the critical roles of engineering and business, the entire innovation process should continuously consider the practical requirements and constraints of the commercial marketplace.The Need to Knowledge (NtK) Model encompasses the activities required to successfully generate innovations, along with associated strategies for effectively communicating knowledge outputs in all three states to the various stakeholders involved. It is intentionally grounded in evidence drawn from academic analysis to facilitate objective and quantitative scrutiny, and industry best practices to enable practical application. The Need to Knowledge (NtK) Model offers a practical, market-oriented approach that avoids the gaps, constraints and inefficiencies inherent in undirected activities and disconnected sectors. The NtK Model is a means to realizing increased returns on public investments in those science and technology programs expressly intended to

  2. User requirements for innovative nuclear reactors and fuel cycle technologies in the area of economics, environment, safety, waste management, proliferation resistance and cross cutting issues, and methodology for innovative technologies assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupitz, Juergen; Depisch, Frank; Allan, Colin

    2003-01-01

    The IAEA General Conference in 2000 has invited ''all interested Member States to combine their efforts under the aegis of the Agency in considering the issues of the nuclear fuel cycle, in particular by examining innovative and proliferation-resistant nuclear technology''. In response to this invitation, the IAEA initiated an ''International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles'', INPRO. The overall objectives of INPRO is to help to ensure that nuclear energy is available to contribute in fulfilling in a sustainable manner energy needs in the 21st century, and to bring together all interested Member States, both technology holders and technology users, to consider jointly the international and national actions required to achieve desired innovations in nuclear reactors and fuel cycles that use sound and economically competitive technology. Phase-I of INPRO was initiated in May 2001. During Phase-I, work was subdivided in two sub phase: Phase 1A (finished in June 2003) and Phase 1B (started in June 2003). Phase 1A dealt with the definition of Basic Principles, User Requirements and Criteria, and the development of a methodology for the evaluation of innovative nuclear technologies. In Phase 1A, task groups for several areas were established: (a) Prospects and Potentials of Nuclear Power, (b) Economics; (c) Sustainability and Environment, (d) Safety of Nuclear Installations, (e) Waste Management, (f) Proliferation Resistance, (g) Crosscutting issues and (h) for the Methodology for Assessment. In Phase-IB evaluations of innovative nuclear energy technologies will be performed by Member States against the INPRO Basic Principles, User Requirements and Criteria. This paper summarizes the results achieved in the Phase 1A of INPRO and is a cooperative effort of the INPRO team, consisting of all INPRO cost free experts and task managers. (author)

  3. Communicating climate change – Learning from business: challenging values, changing economic thinking, innovating the low carbon economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Kaesehage

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The risks and opportunities presented by climate change for Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs have been largely overlooked by previous research. The subsequent lack of knowledge in this field makes it difficult for SMEs to engage with climate change in a meaningful, profitable, and sustainable way. Further, current research cannot explain why SMEs rarely engage with climate change. We examine critically 30 SMEs, which engage with climate change knowledges and 5 Innovation-Support-Organizations (ISOs that communicate climate change knowledges. Over a three-year period we explore why and how these businesses approach the knowledge gap between climate change science and business practice, drawing on a variety of ethnographic research methods: (1 in-depth semi-structured and open interviews; (2 participant observations; and (3 practitioners’ workshops. The results demonstrate that business’ mitigation and adaptation strategies are lay-knowledge-dependent, derived from personal values, space, and place identity. To enhance the number of SMEs engaging with climate change, maximize the potential value of climate change for the econo- my and establish a low carbon economy, climate change communication needs to target personal values of business leaders. The message should highlight local impacts of climate change, the benefits of engagement to (the local society and economy, and possible financial benefits for the business. Climate change communication therefore needs to go beyond thinking about potential financial benefits and scientific evidence and challenge values, cultures, and beliefs to stimulate economic, political, and social frameworks that promote values-based decision-making.

  4. Stochastic techno-economic assessment based on Monte Carlo simulation and the Response Surface Methodology: The case of an innovative linear Fresnel CSP (concentrated solar power) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bendato, Ilaria; Cassettari, Lucia; Mosca, Marco; Mosca, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Combining technological solutions with investment profitability is a critical aspect in designing both traditional and innovative renewable power plants. Often, the introduction of new advanced-design solutions, although technically interesting, does not generate adequate revenue to justify their utilization. In this study, an innovative methodology is developed that aims to satisfy both targets. On the one hand, considering all of the feasible plant configurations, it allows the analysis of the investment in a stochastic regime using the Monte Carlo method. On the other hand, the impact of every technical solution on the economic performance indicators can be measured by using regression meta-models built according to the theory of Response Surface Methodology. This approach enables the design of a plant configuration that generates the best economic return over the entire life cycle of the plant. This paper illustrates an application of the proposed methodology to the evaluation of design solutions using an innovative linear Fresnel Concentrated Solar Power system. - Highlights: • A stochastic methodology for solar plants investment evaluation. • Study of the impact of new technologies on the investment results. • Application to an innovative linear Fresnel CSP system. • A particular application of Monte Carlo simulation and response surface methodology.

  5. The Study of Implementation and Adaptation Processes of Innovative Organization and Economic Management Mechanisms for the Activity of Municipal Educational Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Saktoev, Vladimir; Vanchikova, Elena; Slepneva, Ludmila; Bulatova, Nadezda; Khaltaeva, Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with implementation and adaptation processes of innovative organization and economic management mechanisms over the activity of municipal educational institutions in Ulan-Ude. There was carried out a retrospective analysis, how the managers of municipal educational institutions perceive the implementation of outsourcing and franchising into the activity. The analysis of perception was carried out as per two aspects: according to the level of current knowledge and according t...

  6. Innovative energy technologies in energy-economy models: assessing economic, energy and environmental impacts of climate policy and technological change in Germany.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, K.

    2007-04-18

    Energy technologies and innovation are considered to play a crucial role in climate change mitigation. Yet, the representation of technologies in energy-economy models, which are used extensively to analyze the economic, energy and environmental impacts of alternative energy and climate policies, is rather limited. This dissertation presents advanced techniques of including technological innovations in energy-economy computable general equilibrium (CGE) models. New methods are explored and applied for improving the realism of energy production and consumption in such top-down models. The dissertation addresses some of the main criticism of general equilibrium models in the field of energy and climate policy analysis: The lack of detailed sectoral and technical disaggregation, the restricted view on innovation and technological change, and the lack of extended greenhouse gas mitigation options. The dissertation reflects on the questions of (1) how to introduce innovation and technological change in a computable general equilibrium model as well as (2) what additional and policy relevant information is gained from using these methodologies. Employing a new hybrid approach of incorporating technology-specific information for electricity generation and iron and steel production in a dynamic multi-sector computable equilibrium model it can be concluded that technology-specific effects are crucial for the economic assessment of climate policy, in particular the effects relating to process shifts and fuel input structure. Additionally, the dissertation shows that learning-by-doing in renewable energy takes place in the renewable electricity sector but is equally important in upstream sectors that produce technologies, i.e. machinery and equipment, for renewable electricity generation. The differentiation of learning effects in export sectors, such as renewable energy technologies, matters for the economic assessment of climate policies because of effects on international

  7. Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E

    2016-10-01

    A review of literature in the calendar year 2015 dedicated to environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation.

  8. Pipelines for New Chemicals: a strategy to create new value chains and stimulate innovation-based economic revival in Southern European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmis, Kenneth; de Lorenzo, Victor; Verstraete, Willy; Garcia, Jose Luis; Ramos, Juan Luis; Santos, Helena; Economidis, Ioannis; Nogales, Balbina; Timmis, James Kenneth; Fonseca, César; Pruzzo, Carla; Karagouni, Amalia; Panopoulos, Nickolas; Dixon, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Countries of Southern Europe are currently suffering from severe socio-economic pain resulting from high debt levels and austerity measures which constrain investment in innovation-based recovery strategies that are essential for entry into a long-term sustainable period of increasing employment and wealth creation. Young university-educated people are particularly innovative, and hence vital to the development of such strategies, but employment opportunities are poor and many are forced to seek employment that neither profits from their training nor satisfies their justified career expectations, or to emigrate. They are the 'lost generation'. A strategy is proposed here for the creation of Pipelines for New Chemicals, national centre-network partnerships for the discovery-synthesis of new chemicals obtained though harvesting new biological diversity, and their exploitation to develop new medicines, agrochemicals, materials, and other products and applications. The goal is to create new regional motors of economic growth and development, by harnessing the knowledge, motivation and innovation potential of the excellently educated young people of Europe to catalyse the development of new small, medium and large enterprises centred around novel chemicals, and the value chains that will evolve with them, and thereby develop a powerful sector of sustainable growth in employment and social and economic prosperity in Southern Europe. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The Methodological Foundations of the Economic Evaluation of the Level of Intensification of the Innovative Processes at Industrial Enterprise in the Part of Technical-Technological Subsystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plakhotnik Olena О.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Regularities of technocratic changes define the change of technological methods of production and technological modes at the level of the stages of development of a production enterprise. An important role occupies the commercialization of technical-technological innovation. The article allocates the directions of impact on commodity markets and the production enterprises, which are operating there. It is using the exclusive rights tool will meet the challenges of changes in the structure of the national economy so as to increase the level of its competitiveness on the world market. The article proposes the improved methodological approach to forming a system of analytical indicators for evaluating the economic efficiency of the level of intensification of the technical-technological innovation processes at industrial enterprise, based on reasonable conditions and factors of innovation development of industrial enterprise, models of quantitative measuring the efficiency of innovative projects. Applying this approach would improve the efficiency of use of the technical-technological innovations of the industrial enterprises, having increased the profitability of intellectual activity.

  10. Environmental effectiveness of GAEC cross-compliance Standard 2.1 ‘Maintaining the level of soil organic matter through management of stubble and crop residues’ and economic evaluation of the competitiveness gap for farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Ventrella

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the Project MO.NA.CO. the Environmental effectiveness of GAEC cross-compliance Standard 2.2 ‘Maintaining the level of soil organic matter through management of stubble and crop residues’ and economic evaluation of the competitiveness gap for farmers were evaluated. The monitoring was performed in eight experimental farms of the Council for agricultural research and economics (CREA, distributed throughout Italy and with different soil and climatic conditions. Yield parameters and several components of soil organic matter were evaluated in two contrasting treatments applied to one-year rotation of winter durum wheat and maize: i incorporation into the soil of crop residues (Factual treatment and ii burning or removal of crop residues (Counterfactual treatment. The application of the standard ‘crop residue management’ has showed contrasting results with differences (for yield and soil between the two treatments resulted almost always non significant. The analysis of economic competitiveness gap showed that the CR incorporation is more expensive than CR burning or removal, but the economic disadvantage can be considered rather small and thus easily compensated by Community aids. Therefore, the soil incorporation of crop residues can be considered a ‘good agricultural practice’ that does not penalize farmers in terms of production and cost and at the same time contributes to the maintenance of fertility and soil biodiversity. On the contrary, the removal and burning of residues result in a low or no-addition of organic matter into the soil. Moreover, burning can contribute to decrease the biodiversity and to increase the risk of air pollution, fires and road accidents.

  11. Environmental effectiveness of GAEC cross-compliance standard 2.1 ‘Maintaining the level of soil organic matter through management of stubble and crop residues’ and economic evaluation of the competitiveness gap for farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Ventrella

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the Project MO.NA.CO. the Environmental effectiveness of GAEC cross-compliance standard 2.2 ‘Maintaining the level of soil organic matter through management of stubble and crop residues’ and economic evaluation of the competitiveness gap for farmers were evaluated. The monitoring was performed in eight experimental farms of the Council for agricultural research and economics (CREA, distributed throughout Italy and with different soil and climatic conditions. Yield parameters and several components of soil organic matter were evaluated in two contrasting treatments applied to one-year rotation of winter durum wheat and maize: i incorporation into the soil of crop residues (Factual treatment and ii burning or removal of crop residues (Counterfactual treatment. The application of the standard ‘crop residue management’ has showed contrasting results with differences (for yield and soil between the two treatments resulted almost always non significant. The analysis of economic competitiveness gap showed that the CR incorporation is more expensive than CR burning or removal, but the economic disadvantage can be considered rather small and thus easily compensated by Community aids. Therefore, the soil incorporation of crop residues can be considered a ‘good agricultural practice’ that does not penalize farmers in terms of production and cost and at the same time contributes to the maintenance of fertility and soil biodiversity. On the contrary, the removal and burning of residues result in a low or no-addition of organic matter into the soil. Moreover, burning can contribute to decrease the biodiversity and to increase the risk of air pollution, fires and road accidents.

  12. Guidance for the application of an assessment methodology for Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems. INPRO manual - Economics. Vol. 2 of the final report of phase 1 of the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-11-01

    The International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) was initiated in the year 2000, based on a resolution of the IAEA General Conference (GC(44)/RES/21). The main objectives of INPRO are (1) to help to ensure that nuclear energy is available to contribute in fulfilling energy needs in the 21st century in a sustainable manner, (2) to bring together both technology holders and technology users to consider jointly the international and national actions required to achieve desired innovations in nuclear reactors and fuel cycles; and (3) to create a forum to involve all relevant stakeholders that will have an impact on, draw from, and complement the activities of existing institutions, as well as ongoing initiatives at the national and international level. This publication elaborates on the guidance given in the INPRO report 'Methodology for the assessment of innovative nuclear reactors and fuel cycles', IAEA-TECDOC-1434 (2004), and the previous INPRO report 'Guidance for the evaluation for innovative nuclear reactors and fuel cycles', IAEA-TECDOC-1362 (2003) in the area of economics. The information presented in Volume 1 of the INPRO manual should be considered to be an integral part of this volume and the user should be familiar with that information. The goal of the INPRO Manual for the area of economics (Volume 2) is to provide guidance for performing an INPRO assessment, as described in Volume 1 of the INPRO manual, in the area of economics. The manual is not intended to provide guidance on how to design an INS to meet the INPRO requirements in the area of economics: rather, the focus is on the assessment method and the evaluation of the INPRO criteria in the area of economics. The INPRO assessor, i.e. the individual or group of individuals carrying out the assessment, is assumed to be knowledgeable in the area of economics and financial analysis. The INPRO assessment will either confirm that the INPRO economic criteria are fulfilled

  13. Economism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Simons

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern society is characterised not only by a fascination with scientific technology as a means of solving all problems, especially those that stand in the way of material progress (technicism, but also by an obsessive interest in everything that has to do with money (economism or mammonism. The article discusses the relationship between technicism and economism, on the basis of their relationship to utilitarian thinking: the quest for the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. Recent major studies of neo-liberalism (seen as an intensification of utilitarianism by Laval and Dardot are used as reference to the development of utilitarianism. It is suggested that the western view of the world, as expressed in economism and technicism, with a utilitarian ethics, features three absolutisations: those of theoretical thinking, technology and economics. In a second part, the article draws on the framework of reformational philosophy to suggest an approach that, in principle, is not marred by such absolutisations.

  14. 7th International Crop Science Congress Announcement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    August 14–19,2016 Beijing,China Crop Science—Innovation and SustainabilityInternational Crop Science Congress(ICSC)is a regular forum for crop scientists from around the world to integrate current knowledge into a global context and international applications.The Congress is organized about every four years beginning in July,1992.The International Crop Science Society has primary oversight for general

  15. Exploring the value of social entrepreneurship seen as economic and social innovation driver in the private sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana-Maria Fotea (m. Nica

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A review of online literature refers to an important number of relevant examples about Social Entrepreneurship. Basic papers shed new light on some ideas, taking into account the role of individual creativity and, among others, social networks, all put in the context of becoming an entrepreneur. The examples are associated with surviving the most important, critical first years, naturally both in urban and rural areas. Nowadays, creativity has a huge impact on start-ups in urban areas; it is a place where the environment is even more supportive and competitive. The rule does not apply in rural areas. It is generally known that creativity does not increase the chances of being successful. But we all know that the purpose of social networks in rural areas is to create stronger ties and to increase the number of supporting institutions. Scientists write about the so called “birth of social entrepreneurship”; the term evokes the needs, as well as opportunities and perceived necessities. Current theories that fit in entrepreneurship research lean towards addressing the entrepreneurial venture’s capacity to explore, rec­ognise, and exploit all possible opportunities. There are even voices that claim that social entrepreneurial ventures provide results and actions in response to the needs of the society. However, the research conducted over time has shown the relevance of the notion of “perceived necessities” and “mobilizing human capital; also, in an industrial environment, social capital has a huge impact on the possibility of obtaining high level of results when it comes to entrepreneurial actions”. Entrepreneurship, within its basic meaning, is well known as a critical enabling driver for entire business enterprises and, in addition, for the economic growth of numerous nations. As a result, promoting entrepreneurship has become an important concern among scientists, academic scholars and business practitioners. Each scientific area

  16. GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS: INTERNATIONAL TRADE AND TRADE POLICY EFFECTS

    OpenAIRE

    George Frisvold; Jeanne Reeves

    2015-01-01

    Where approved, producers have adopted genetically modified (GM) crops extensively. Yet, areas not adopting GM crops account for large shares of production and consumption. GM crops differ from previous agricultural innovations because consumers may perceive them as fundamentally different from (and potentially inferior to) conventionally grown crops. Many countries maintain restrictions on production and importation of GM crops. GM crop adoption affects producers and consumers, not only thro...

  17. Innovative Forms of Production Organization in the Context of High-Tech Meso-Economic Systems Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    Shinkevich, Alexey I.; Lubnina, Alsu A.; Chikisheva, Natalia M.; Simonova, Lyudmila M.; Alenina, Elena E.; Khrustalev, Boris B.; Sadykova, Roza Sh.; Kharisova, Regina R.

    2016-01-01

    The article’s objectives involve the models’ development to stimulate joint innovation activities of enterprises of chemistry and technology of polymeric and composite materials based on new forms of co-competition relationships. The leading method to the problem study is a simulation method that allows this issue’s consideration as a focused and organized process to improve the innovative development management of industrial enterprises of chemistry and technology of polymeric and composite ...

  18. The economics and management of innovation in travel and tourism services: The case of European cruise industry in Dubai

    OpenAIRE

    Di Foggia, Giacomo; Lazzarotti, Valentina; Pizzurno, Emanuele

    2012-01-01

    Firms entering new markets face a difficult challenge: how to manage the innovation process to satisfy specific clients’ requests. In view of its geographical location and business friendly policies Dubai has become the gateway between East and West. Thus, European travel & tourism industry predicts business development. Prior research suggests that managers should consider religious factors to avoid strategic drift. In this paper we explore what kind of innovations should be introduced in t...

  19. Strategy of technical innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ga Jong

    1990-12-01

    This book deals with policy of scientific technique and technical innovation such as research for development and types of technical innovation, historical development and process of technical innovation, economic growth, technology change and investment for research and development, structure and form of technical transfer with the meaning process, from, structure and theory, economic growth and investment of research and development with experiential analysis and case study on strategy of technical innovation in electron and fine chemical industry.

  20. Renewing Oregon's Economy: Growing Jobs and Industries through Innovation. A Report from the Oregon Council for Knowledge and Economic Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003

    The Oregon Council for Knowledge and Economic Development (OCKED), a collaborative effort among Oregon's higher education institutions, economic development department, and the private sector, is charged with developing strategies to enhance Oregon's economic competitiveness in a knowledge-based, global economy. This report describes the council's…

  1. BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM CATCH CROPS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molinuevo-Salces, Beatriz; Larsen, Søren U.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2014-01-01

    -substrate in manure-based biogas plants and the profit obtained from the sale of biogas barely compensates for the harvest costs. A new agricultural strategy to harvest catch crops together with the residual straw of the main crop was investigated to increase the biomass and thereby the methane yield per hectare......Catch crop cultivation combined with its use for biogas production would increase renewable energy production in the form of methane, without interfering with the production of food and fodder crops. The low biomass yield of catch crops is the main limiting factor for using these crops as co...... biomass. Leaving the straw on the field until harvest of the catch crop in the autumn could benefit biogas production due to the organic matter degradation of the straw taking place on the field during the autumn months. This new agricultural strategy may be a good alternative to achieve economically...

  2. Mycorrhiza and crop production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayman, D S

    1980-10-09

    This article describes recent research with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza, a symbiotic fungus-root association. The suggestion that the symbiotic association may be harnessed to achieve more economical use of phosphate fertilizers is discussed and the results from various test crops are given.

  3. Systems Biology for Smart Crops and Agricultural Innovation: Filling the Gaps between Genotype and Phenotype for Complex Traits Linked with Robust Agricultural Productivity and Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Rajesh Kumar; Gupta, Sanjay Mohan; Gaur, Vikram Singh; Pandey, Dinesh

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In recent years, rapid developments in several omics platforms and next generation sequencing technology have generated a huge amount of biological data about plants. Systems biology aims to develop and use well-organized and efficient algorithms, data structure, visualization, and communication tools for the integration of these biological data with the goal of computational modeling and simulation. It studies crop plant systems by systematically perturbing them, checking the gene, protein, and informational pathway responses; integrating these data; and finally, formulating mathematical models that describe the structure of system and its response to individual perturbations. Consequently, systems biology approaches, such as integrative and predictive ones, hold immense potential in understanding of molecular mechanism of agriculturally important complex traits linked to agricultural productivity. This has led to identification of some key genes and proteins involved in networks of pathways involved in input use efficiency, biotic and abiotic stress resistance, photosynthesis efficiency, root, stem and leaf architecture, and nutrient mobilization. The developments in the above fields have made it possible to design smart crops with superior agronomic traits through genetic manipulation of key candidate genes. PMID:26484978

  4. THE ECONOMICS AND MANAGEMENT OF INNOVATION IN TRAVEL AND TOURISM SERVICES: THE CASE OF EUROPEAN CRUISE INDUSTRY IN DUBAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Pizzurno

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Firms entering new markets face a difficult challenge: how to manage the innovation process to satisfy specific clients’ requests. In view of its geographical location and business friendly policies Dubai has become the gateway between East and West. Thus, European travel & tourism industry predicts business development. Prior research suggests that managers should consider religious factors to avoid strategic drift. In this paper we explore what kind of innovations should be introduced in travel service to comply with specific clients. We argue that after a long period of strategic and market analysis, the very affected conceptual step is "service development and market testing". Our arguments are supported by empirical analysis.

  5. Environmental policy and technological change: The effects of economic incentives and direct regulation on energy-saving innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Richard G., Jr.

    Over the long run, the impacts of environmental policies will be greatly affected by the influence these policies have on the rate and direction of technological change. In particular, the roles played by energy prices and product regulation in energy-saving technology innovation are exceptionally important considerations in modeling climate change and evaluating alternative policy options. We analyze the effects of energy prices and energy-efficiency regulations on the menu of air conditioner and water heater models available on the market over a period of more than three decades, measuring their innovation in terms of improvements in the products' underlying characteristics. Through estimation of a series of "characteristics transformation surfaces," we find that during less than four decades, substantial innovation in these products reduced the total capital and operating costs of air conditioning by one-half and water heating by more than one-fifth. Although the overall rate of innovation in these products appears to be independent of energy prices and regulations, the evidence suggests that the direction of innovation may be responsive to energy price changes. This would imply that energy price increases induced innovation in a direction that lowered the capital cost tradeoffs inherent in producing more energy-efficient products. The evidence supporting "regulation-induced" changes in these tradeoffs is much weaker. Our estimates indicate that about one- to two-fifths of the energy-efficiency improvements in these products from 1973 to 1993 were associated with historical changes in energy prices. We also find that this responsiveness to price changes increased substantially after product labeling requirements came into effect, and that minimum efficiency standards had a significant positive effect on average efficiency levels. Nonetheless, a sizeable portion of historical efficiency improvements in these technologies is associated with the products' overall

  6. Calculation methodology for economic comparison between different land uses. With focus on comparisons between energy crops and traditional crops; Kalkylmetodik foer loensamhetsjaemfoerelser mellan olika markanvaendning. Med fokus paa jaemfoerelser mellan energigroedor och traditionella groedor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenqvist, Haakan

    2010-02-15

    There are two main objectives to this report. The first is to describe a calculation method for both short- and long-term analysis of crops, as well as present the basis and reasoning around it. Another objective is to create an approach that lay-people can use to compare energy crops with traditional crops in a sufficiently straight-forward and believable manner. The report describes, discusses and develops the technical aspects to the calculation questions around the analysis of crops that are grown only on small area of land today, but have the potential to be grown on much larger areas in the future. The variable costing calculation approach is used in agriculture as decision-support for what should be produced. The present variable costing calculation approach has been reworked and redeveloped in order to be more applicable as a decision-support tool. This includes its use to decide which crop should be grown in both short- and long-term perspectives, as well as for perennial energy crops. A number of items that impact growing economy and how they can be interpreted in the growing calculations are discussed. Some of the examples are: Fertilization effects; Sales commissions/product prices; Storage/reestablishment; Fertilization of P and K; Crop insurance; Labor costs; Machine costs; Timeliness costs; New production chains and unutilized resources; Interest rates; Land costs; Over overhead costs; and Costs which not are annual. The main objective of this report is a methodological question and not to show the absolute profitability for each particular land use alternative. But even though the calculations have been improved for different land uses, there is material that that can even be used for profitability analyses. This has been performed to a smaller degree in this report. The profitability of Salix growing has been studied for a variety of different conditions. For part of the studies have used the entire growing period of 22 years, part with

  7. The Innovation of Management Thought of Leadership in Intellectual Economic Times%知识经济时代领导管理思维的更新

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何志成; 苏国同

    2001-01-01

    This article probe into the innovation of administrative management in the intellectual economic times. The renewal aspects involve: ①the theories and thoughts of management ;②the program of management;③the methodology of management.%本文对知识经济时代领导管理思维的更新进行了探讨。在知识经济时代应更新的问题如下:①管理理念和思维;②管理程序;③管理手段。

  8. Economic Radar of the Sustainable Energy Sector in the Netherlands. Employment, production, investments, innovation, value added, trade. Trends and references 2009/2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuik, J.; Zult, D.; Van Rossum, M.

    2012-06-15

    This monitor of the sustainable energy sector published by Statistics Netherlands (CBS) in 2012 is a follow-up to the study conducted in 2011. This 2012 study was commissioned by the Ministry of Economic Affairs, Agriculture and Innovation (ELI). Detailed economic indicators for the sustainable energy sector are presented for 2008 and 2009. Efforts for the compilation of more recent economic indicators are discussed, and the results for these more up-to-date figures are presented. The relevance of monitoring the sustainable energy sector lies in evaluating economic opportunities of the Netherlands in the global transformation towards a renewable energy supply and demand system and more attention for energy conservation. Several geopolitical, economic and environmental developments motivate policies focused on promoting the energy transformation in the Netherlands. Renewable energy contributes to securing supplies, diversification of energy supply, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and creation of green jobs. The sustainable energy sector - which cuts across all industries of the Standard Industrial Classification (NACE) - consists of companies and institutions that physically produce renewable energy, as well as those active in the value chains that precede this physical production. Apart from renewable energy, the sustainable energy sector also includes companies and institutions that focus on energy conservation activities. As this monitor contains only figures on the recent past, it is not a tool for identifying future opportunities. It is more a tool for evaluating policies aimed at promoting economic opportunities in the sustainable energy sector. The physical data on the production of renewable energy (Protocol monitoring renewable energy) and the data derived from the 'Economic radar for the sustainable energy sector' can be very valuable in supplementing each other. Between 1990 and 2011, the share of renewable energy in total energy

  9. Aspectos econômicos da adubação fosfatada para cultura do milho Economic aspects of phosphorus application to the corn crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato de Mello Prado

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudos econômicos da adubação fosfatada fazem-se necessários, em razão da sua participação expressiva no custo de produção da cultura do milho, especialmente em solos sob vegetação de cerrado e face à competitividade da atividade no mercado globalizado. Assim, objetivou-se avaliar alguns aspectos econômicos de modos de aplicação da adubação fosfatada a lanço e sulco simples comparados ao modo alternativo em sulco duplo, utilizando o híbrido de milho BR 3123. Os tratamentos foram constituídos pelos modos de aplicação em sulco duplo, sulco simples e a lanço nas doses: 0; 0,50; 0,75; 1,00; 1,25; 1,50 vez a dose recomendada para adubação de manutenção para o milho, ou seja, 90 kg de P2O5 ha-1. Para a análise, considerou-se o preço médio da década de 90 para a tonelada do milho e do superfosfato triplo em R$189,33 e R$494,32, respectivamente, e o custo operacional total de R$ 752,90 ha-1. O aumento das doses de adubo fosfatado, em geral, incrementou a produção, o valor da produção e a receita líquida por hectare; a aplicação do adubo fosfatado a lanço não se mostrou viável economicamente; o modo alternativo em sulco duplo permitiu maior receita líquida e uma relação benefício/custo 17,7% superior, em relação ao sulco simples.Phosphorus has an expressive participation in corn crop production costs, especially for the Brazilian 'cerrado' soils. The economic aspects of this practice must be evaluated, mainly in the case of a competitive global market. Therefore an assessment of certain economic aspects related to the application forms of phosphorus was made. Cast and single furrow application methods were used in comparisson to the alternative double furrow practice. The BR 3123 hybrid corn was used. Treatments consisted of the P application modes in double furrow, single furrow and cast, at the levels of: 0; 0.50; 0.75; 1.00; 1.25; 1.50 of the recommended rates for corn (90kg of P2O5 ha-1. For the

  10. Regulation and adaptation of management accounting innovations : The case of economic value added in Thai state-owned enterprises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiwamit, Pimsiri; Modell, Sven; Scapens, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Research on the diffusion of management accounting innovations (MAIs) has grown into a substantial literature which, draws attention to how diffusion processes can be fuelled by compulsory regulation. However, relatively little is known about how MAIs interact with wider regulatory processes in

  11. Analysis of the Technical/Economic Performance of Four Cropping Systems Involving Jatropha curcas L. in the Kinshasa Region (Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minengu, JD.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the sustainability of cultivating Jatropha curcas L. in rural areas in the Kinshasa region, four cropping systems were compared: cultivation of J. curcas as a sole crop with and without fertilisers, a combination of J. curcas with subsistence crops (maize ­ Zea mays L., the common bean ­ Phaseolus vulgaris L. with and without fertilisers. The major attacks by pests (mainly Aphthona sp. suffered by J. curcas plants in the region make it vital to conduct at least two insecticide treatments per year. Dry seed yields of J. curcas obtained in the 4th year of cultivation amounted to 753 kg ha­1 when J. curcas was cultivated as a sole crop without fertilisers, 797 kg ha­1 for intercropping without fertilisers, 1158 kg ha­1 when J. curcas was cultivated as a sole crop with fertilisers and 1173 kg ha­1 for intercropping with fertilisers. Yields from the two annual crops were not improved by the application of mineral fertilisers on the J. curcas plants. They amounted to an average of 815 kg ha­1 for maize and 676 kg ha­1 for the beans. It is more profitable to cultivate J. curcas with maize and beans than to cultivate it as a sole crop. By combining crops in this way, a one­ hectare farm can earn 1102 USD ha­1 without fertilisers and 1049 USD ha­1 with fertilisers. Sustainable cultivation of J. curcas under the test conditions requires the development of efficient weed/pest control methods and improved soil fertility management, in order to minimise the use of mineral fertilisers as well as strong improvement of labour productivity for seed harvesting.

  12. [Use of a Delphi survey to assess the hospital economic impact of innovative products: The example of idarucizumab a dabigatran-specific reversal agent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamet, N; Thivilliers, A P; Paubel, P; Chevalier, D; Bourguignon, S; Bézie, Y

    2017-11-01

    The economic impact of therapeutic innovations on the hospital patient management cannot be easily estimated. The objective of this study is to illustrate the use of a Delphi survey as a support tool to identify the changes following the use of idarucizumab in dabigatran-treated patients with uncontrolled/life-threatening bleeding or who required emergency surgery/urgent procedures. The Delphi questionnaires have been administrated to 8 emergency physicians or anesthetists from 6 different hospital centers. Following the answers, an economic valorization has been carried out on every parameter on which a consensus was reached (at least 4 answers showing an identical trend). A mean management cost for each etiology with and without the use of idarucizumab has thus been identified. For gastro-intestinal and other life-threatening bleedings (excepted intracranial bleedings), the total management cost of the hospital stay was respectively 6058 € (-35%) and 6219 € (-34%) following the use of the reversal agent. The hospital management cost for intracranial bleeding is slightly increasing to 9790 € (+3%). The cost of a stay for emergency surgery decreases to 6962€ (-2%). This study shows a positive economic impact following the use of the dabigatran-specific reversal agent for patients with uncontrolled/life-threatening bleeding excepted in the case of intracranial bleeding. Moreover, it points out that a Delphi survey is an easy way to predict the hospital economic impact of a therapeutic innovation when no other evaluation is possible. Copyright © 2017 Académie Nationale de Pharmacie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Policy Innovation in Innovation Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borras, Susana

    During the past two decades Europe has experienced important changes and transformations in the way in which governments approach the issue of science, technology and innovation, and their relation to economic growth and competitiveness. This has to do with the European Union level as well...... as with national and sub-national governments in Europe, all of them introducing interesting novelties in their innovation policy. These changes refer to different aspects of policy, mainly the content of policy initiatives towards science, technology and innovation; the instruments governments are using...... at the EU level, and mentions similar trends taking place at national and sub-national levels. The questions that guide the contents here are essentially three, namely, what are the main traits of innovation policies in Europe since the 1990s and how have the EU and different national governments approached...

  14. The role of herbaceous crops in soil carbon and nitrogen cycles in relation to soil management . methodological approaches and innovative technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, M.A.A.

    2010-01-01

    stable. In this study the isotopic signature of a series of soils collected throughout Italy was determined before and after eliminating carbonates The field experiment was conducted during the growing seasons 2007 and 2008 at the Agronomic Institute, for industrial crop (ISCI) Battipaglia Italy cooperation with International PhD Crop Systems, Forestry, and Environmental Sciences university of Basilicata - Southern Italy on a Pachic Phaeozems (PHph) (WRB-FAO) soil which was classified as Silty Clay Loam from 0 to 0.30 m depth and a Silty Clay from 0.30 to 1.20 m depth. The studied crop was sorghum Sorghum bicolor Moench x S. sudanense (Piper) Stapf.(BMR333), planted by hand in rows during the first season 2007 on 31 May with density of 20 plant/m 2 and on 14 June 2008

  15. Environmental effectiveness of GAEC cross-compliance standard 2.2 "Maintaining the level of soil organic matter through crop rotation" and economic evaluation of the competitiveness gap for farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamberto Borrelli

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Within the Project MO.NA.CO was evaluated the Environmental effectiveness of GAEC cross-compliance standard 2.2 “Maintaining the level of soil organic matter through crop rotation” and economic evaluation of the competitiveness gap for farmers who support or not the cross-compliance regime. The monitoring was performed in nine experimental farms of the Council for Agricultural Research and Economics (CREA distributed throughout Italy and with different soil and climatic conditions. Were also evaluated the soil organic matter and some yield parameters, in a cereal monocropping (treatment counterfactual and a two-year rotation cereal-legume or forage (treatment factual. The two-years application of the standard “crop rotations” has produced contrasting results with regards to the storage of soil organic matter through crop rotation and these were not sufficient to demonstrate a statistically significant effect of treatment in any of the farms considered in monitoring, only in those farms subjected to more years of monitoring was recorded only a slight effect of the standard as a trend. The variations of organic matter in soils in response to changes in the culture technique or in the management of the soil may have long lag times and two years of time are not sufficient to demonstrate the dynamics of SOM associated with the treatment, also in consideration of the large inter annual variability recorded in different monitored sites.

  16. The State Investment and Innovation Policy for Development of Forest Sector: the Ecological-Economic Aspects and Mechanisms for Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzyubenko Oleksandr M.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available he need for formation of the State investment and innovation policy for development of forest sector has been substantiated as an important prerequisite for overcoming investment deficits in both the public and the corporate sectors of forest and wood processing production. The main tendencies in the implementation of capital investments by the entities of forestry entrepreneurship, dynamics of involvement of credit resources by forestry enterprises, and shifts in the structure of capital investments in 2016 were analyzed as compared to 2013. It has been found that an important part of the State investment and innovation policy for development of forest sector should be incentives to accelerate the modernization and upgrading of the material-technical base of lumbering and wood processing. The need to form an institutional framework for partnership between the State and business entities in the part of financing the projects of modernization of lumbering and wood processing equipment has been substantiated.

  17. Smallholder integrated crop management (ICM) research planning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    More women farmers were invited because they do most of the farming. Other participants came from ... smallholders to innovate their land and crop management strategies. This would be ..... Asian Farming Systems Association, 2 (2): 67.

  18. [Prospective economic evaluation of image-guided radiation therapy for prostate cancer in the framework of the national programme for innovative and costly therapies assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommier, P; Morelle, M; Perrier, L; de Crevoisier, R; Laplanche, A; Dudouet, P; Mahé, M-A; Chauvet, B; Nguyen, T-D; Créhange, G; Zawadi, A; Chapet, O; Latorzeff, I; Bossi, A; Beckendorf, V; Touboul, E; Muracciole, X; Bachaud, J-M; Supiot, S; Lagrange, J-L

    2012-09-01

    The main objective of the economical study was to prospectively and randomly assess the additional costs of daily versus weekly patient positioning quality control in image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT), taking into account the modalities of the 3D-imaging: tomography (CBCT) or gold seeds implants. A secondary objective was to prospectively assess the additional costs of 3D versus 2D imaging with portal imaging for patient positioning controls. Economics data are issued from a multicenter randomized medico-economics trial comparing the two frequencies of patient positioning control during prostate IGRT. A prospective cohort with patient positioning control with PI (control group) was constituted for the cost comparison between 3D (IGRT) versus 2D imaging. The economical evaluation was focused to the radiotherapy direct costs, adopting the hospital's point of view and using a microcosting method applied to the parameters that may lead to cost differences between evaluated strategies. The economical analysis included a total of 241 patients enrolled between 2007 and 2011 in seven centres, 183 in the randomized study (128 with CBCT and 55 with fiducial markers) and 58 in the control group. Compared to weekly controls, the average additional cost per patient of daily controls was €847 (CBCT) and €179 (markers). Compared to PI, the average additional cost per patient was €1392 (CBCT) and €997 (fiducial markers) for daily controls; €545 (CBCT) and €818 (markers) in case of weekly controls. A daily frequency for image control in IGRT and 3D images patient positioning control (IGRT) for prostate cancer lead to significant additional cost compared to weekly control and 2D imaging (PI). Long-term clinical assessment will permit to assess the medico-economical ratio of these innovative radiotherapy modalities. Copyright © 2012 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Prospective economic evaluation of image-guided radiation therapy for prostate cancer in the framework of the national programme for innovative and costly therapies assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pommier, P.; Morelle, M.; Perrier, L.; Crevoisier, R. de; Laplanche, A.; Dudouet, P.; Mahe, M.A.; Supiot, S.; Chauvet, B.; Nguyen, T.D.; Crehange, G.; Zawadi, A.; Chapet, O.; Latorzeff, I.; Bossi, A.; Beckendorf, V.; Touboul, E.; Muracciole, X.; Bachaud, J.M.; Lagrange, J.L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. - The main objective of the economical study was to prospectively and randomly assess the additional costs of daily versus weekly patient positioning quality control in image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT), taking into account the modalities of the 3D-imaging: tomography (CBCT) or gold seeds implants. A secondary objective was to prospectively assess the additional costs of 3D versus 2D imaging with portal imaging for patient positioning controls. Patients and methods. - Economics data are issued from a multicenter randomized medico-economics trial comparing the two frequencies of patient positioning control during prostate IGRT. A prospective cohort with patient positioning control with PI (control group) was constituted for the cost comparison between 3D (IGRT) versus 2D imaging. The economical evaluation was focused to the radiotherapy direct costs, adopting the hospital's point of view and using a micro-costing method applied to the parameters that may lead to cost differences between evaluated strategies. Results. - The economical analysis included a total of 241 patients enrolled between 2007 and 2011 in seven centres, 183 in the randomized study (128 with CBCT and 55 with fiducial markers) and 58 in the control group. Compared to weekly controls, the average additional cost per patient of daily controls was euros 847 (CBCT) and euros 179 (markers). Compared to PI, the average additional cost per patient was euros 1392 (CBCT) and euros 997 (fiducial markers) for daily controls; euros 545 (CBCT) and euros 818 (markers) in case of weekly controls. Conclusion. - A daily frequency for image control in IGRT and 3D images patient positioning control (IGRT) for prostate cancer lead to significant additional cost compared to weekly control and 2D imaging (PI). Long-term clinical assessment will permit to assess the medico-economical ratio of these innovative radiotherapy modalities. (authors)

  20. A health economic model for the development and evaluation of innovations in aged care: an application to consumer-directed care-study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliffe, Julie; Lancsar, Emily; Luszcz, Mary; Crotty, Maria; Gray, Len; Paterson, Jan; Cameron, Ian D

    2014-06-25

    Consumer-directed care is currently being embraced within Australia and internationally as a means of promoting autonomy and choice in the delivery of health and aged care services. Despite its wide proliferation little research has been conducted to date to assess the views and preferences of older people for consumer-directed care or to assess the costs and benefits of such an approach relative to existing models of service delivery. A comprehensive health economic model will be developed and applied to the evolution, implementation and evaluation of consumer-directed care in an Australian community aged care setting. A mixed methods approach comprising qualitative interviews and a discrete choice experiment will determine the attitudes and preferences of older people and their informal carers for consumer-directed care. The results of the qualitative interviews and the discrete choice experiment will inform the introduction of a new consumer-directed care innovation in service delivery. The cost-effectiveness of consumer-directed care will be evaluated by comparing incremental changes in resource use, costs and health and quality of life outcomes relative to traditional services. The discrete choice experiment will be repeated at the end of the implementation period to determine the extent to which attitudes and preferences change as a consequence of experience of consumer-directed care. The proposed framework will have wide applicability in the future development and economic evaluation of new innovations across the health and aged care sectors. The study is approved by Flinders University Social and Behavioural Research Ethics Committee (Project No. 6114/SBREC). Findings from the qualitative interviews, discrete choice experiments and the economic evaluation will be reported at a workshop of stakeholders to be held in 2015 and will be documented in reports and in peer reviewed journal articles. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to

  1. Energetic, exergetic and economic analysis of an innovative Solar CombiSystem (SCS) producing thermal and electric energies: Application in residential and tertiary households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazami, Majdi; Mehdaoui, Farah; Naili, Nabiha; Noro, Marco; Lazzarin, Renato; Guizani, AmenAllah

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The present work studies the potential of using innovative SCS in Tunisia. • In cold months the SCS provide about 50–75% of the total exergy provides. • The SCS produces between 70–150% of electric energy needs. • The SCS payback period (Pb) based on electric water heater was 10.2 years. • The SCS payback period (Pb) based on gas/gas town was about and 8.7 years. - Abstract: The endeavor of this paper is to study of the potential offered by the expenditure of an innovative Solar CombiSystem, SCS, used for the space heating load, the domestic hot water supply and the electric energy production. The investigation achieved in this work was based on an experimental and a simulation studies. A TRNSYS simulation program was achieved in order to evaluate the SCS monthly/annual thermal and electric performances. It was found that the proposed SCS covered between 20 and 45% of the SH energy needs by considering only solar energy. The result shows also that the SCS provided from 40 to 70% of the total DHW needs. It was also found that the SCS electric production ranged between 32 and 225 MJ/m 2 with a gain factor varying between 49 and 125%. An economic appraisal was also achieved to appraise the SCS feasibility. The results of the economic analysis show that the annual energy saved (ARE) and the payback period (Pb) based on electric water heater were respectively equal to 7618.3 kW h/year and 10.2 years. It was found that ARE and Pb based on gas/gas town were about 5825 m 3 and 8.7 years, respectively. The results of the economic analysis shows that the adoption of the SCS saves about 48% of electric energy and about 46% of gas/gas town kept back by the conventional system.

  2. Some strategic conclusions from an economic analysis of wind power based on simple and innovative methods and tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabot, B.

    2001-01-01

    The fast development of wind power is based on improved performance of wind turbines and on higher profitability of wind power projects. Therefore, an economic analysis is necessary to quantify past and future progress. In this respect, the paper presents a simplified economic analysis method in order to assess present and future wind energy costs and in order to determine wind tariffs able to ensure a sustainable development of this technology. Perspectives and scenarios for the development of wind power are described up to 2020 in the case of France and in the 21. century for the world. (author)

  3. On an innovative integrated technique for energy refurbishment of historical buildings: Thermal-energy, economic and environmental analysis of a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisello, Anna Laura; Petrozzi, Alessandro; Castaldo, Veronica Lucia; Cotana, Franco

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An innovative method for the energy retrofit of heritage buildings is proposed. • Dynamic thermal-energy assessment of passive and active solutions is carried out. • The cooling effect of novel tiles suitable for historic buildings is investigated. • Potentialities of a ground source heat pump system with storage tanks are showed. • Energy-environmental-economic assessment is made for the prototype intervention. - Abstract: In the last decades, increasing attention has been paid to the enhancement of energy performance and comfort conditions of historic buildings, where the necessity to preserve architectural heritage does not allow typical invasive retrofit interventions. The need for a replicable methodology for improving the sustainability of historic buildings based on the integration of energy efficiency solutions with renewable technologies is here addressed, by riding over the constraints imposed by architectural preservations, rather taking advantage of heritage architectural peculiarities. The case study is represented by Palazzo Gallenga Stuart, a historical university building located in central Italy. The optimization of the building energy efficiency has been pursued through two strategies specifically prototyped for application in historic buildings, i.e. innovative cool tiles with the same appearance of traditional historic tiles, and a geothermal heat pump system with water storage tanks positioned in the under-ground unoccupied areas of the building previously used as archives, also preventing the use of external units spoiling the building façade. Four retrofit scenarios were analyzed and compared from a both technical and economical point of view. The results showed that the application of the innovative cool tiles lead to a maximum cooling energy saving of 14.0% and 3.8% in the classrooms of the top floor and in the whole building, respectively. Furthermore, the installation of a more effective energy plant leads to an

  4. Biotechnology Towards Energy Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaritopoulou, Theoni; Roka, Loukia; Alexopoulou, Efi; Christou, Myrsini; Rigas, Stamatis; Haralampidis, Kosmas; Milioni, Dimitra

    2016-03-01

    New crops are gradually establishing along with cultivation systems to reduce reliance on depleting fossil fuel reserves and sustain better adaptation to climate change. These biological assets could be efficiently exploited as bioenergy feedstocks. Bioenergy crops are versatile renewable sources with the potential to alternatively contribute on a daily basis towards the coverage of modern society's energy demands. Biotechnology may facilitate the breeding of elite energy crop genotypes, better suited for bio-processing and subsequent use that will improve efficiency, further reduce costs, and enhance the environmental benefits of biofuels. Innovative molecular techniques may improve a broad range of important features including biomass yield, product quality and resistance to biotic factors like pests or microbial diseases or environmental cues such as drought, salinity, freezing injury or heat shock. The current review intends to assess the capacity of biotechnological applications to develop a beneficial bioenergy pipeline extending from feedstock development to sustainable biofuel production and provide examples of the current state of the art on future energy crops.

  5. Sustainability of European winter wheat- and maize-based cropping systems: Economic, environmental and social ex-post assessment of conventional and IPM-based systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasileiadis, V.P.; Dachbrodt-saaydeh, S.; Kudsk, P.; Colnenne-David, C.; Leprince, F.; Holb, I.J.; Kierzek, R.; Furlan, L.; Loddo, D.; Melander, B.; Jørgensen, L.N.; Newton, A.C.; Toque, C.; Dijk, van W.; Lefebvre, M.; Benezit, M.; Sattin, M.

    2017-01-01

    In order to ensure higher sustainability of winter wheat and maize production in Europe, cropping systems featuring different levels of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) need to be tested in the field and validated for their sustainability before being adopted by farmers. However, the sustainability

  6. Enhancing Sustainable Innovation by Design: an Approach to the Co-creation of Economic, Social and Environmental Value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Rocchi

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe thesis introduces a new, flexible and easy-to-use methodological design approach to envisioning product-service systems able to create economic value for business, as well as social and environmental benefits for society. Such an approach has been developed to support business

  7. Addressing Economic Development Goals through Innovative Teaching of University Statistics: A Case Study of Statistical Modelling in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezepue, Patrick Oseloka; Ojo, Adegbola

    2012-01-01

    A challenging problem in some developing countries such as Nigeria is inadequate training of students in effective problem solving using the core concepts of their disciplines. Related to this is a disconnection between their learning and socio-economic development agenda of a country. These problems are more vivid in statistical education which…

  8. Economic evaluation and cost-effectiveness thresholds: signals to firms and implications for R & D investment and innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, John A; Goldberg, Robert; Golec, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    In this article we describe how reimbursement cost-effectiveness thresholds, per unit of health benefit, whether set explicitly or observed implicitly via historical reimbursement decisions, serve as a signal to firms about the commercial viability of their R&D projects (including candidate products for in-licensing). Traditional finance methods for R&D project valuations, such as net present value analyses (NPV), incorporate information from these payer reimbursement signals to help determine which R&D projects should be continued and which should be terminated (in the case of the latter because they yield an NPV important for reimbursement thresholds to reflect the economic value of the unit of health benefit being considered for reimbursement. Thresholds set too low (below the economic value of the health benefit) will result in R&D investment levels that are too low relative to the economic value of R&D (on the margin). Similarly, thresholds set too high (above the economic value of the health benefit) will result in inefficiently high levels of R&D spending. The US in particular, which represents approximately half of the global pharmaceutical market (based on sales), and which seems poised to begin undertaking cost effectiveness in a systematic way, needs to exert caution in setting policies that explicitly or implicitly establish cost-effectiveness reimbursement thresholds for healthcare products and technologies, such as pharmaceuticals.

  9. Innovation Policy in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta-Christina Suciu

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The innovation policies aim to analyze priority factors shaping innovative performance and to reflect the increasing appreciation of the economic and social importance of innovation. This paper is commissioned to examine topics of current interest or concern to innovation policy-makers in Europe. Based on literature and the framework of the European Action Plan for Innovation, this paper investigates different levels and fields of European innovational systems and practices.

  10. Nature-Based Solutions in the EU: Innovating with nature to address social, economic and environmental challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faivre, Nicolas; Fritz, Marco; Freitas, Tiago; de Boissezon, Birgit; Vandewoestijne, Sofie

    2017-11-01

    Contemporary societies are facing a broad range of challenges, from pressures on human health and well-being to natural capital depletion, and the security of food, water and energy. These challenges are deeply intertwined with global processes, such as climate change and with local events such as natural disasters. The EU's research & innovation (R&I) policy is now seeking to address these challenges from a new perspective, with Nature-Based Solutions, and turn them into innovation opportunities that optimise the synergies between nature, society and the economy. Nature-Based Solutions can be an opportunity for innovation, and are here promoted by both policymakers and practitioners as a cost-effective way of creating a greener, more sustainable, and more competitive economy. Since 2013, the European Commission has devoted particular attention to Nature-Based Solutions through consultations and dialogues that sought to make the concept of these solutions more concrete and to define the concept's place within the spectrum of ecosystem-based approaches. In 2014, the Commission launched an expert group, which conducted further analysis, and made recommendations to help increase the use of Nature-Based Solutions and bring nature back into cities. In 2015, a survey was conducted on citizens' views and perceptions of 'Nature in Cities' to provide further insight for future work. Based on these elements and on results from running EU projects, the Commission has developed an R&I agenda for Nature-Based Solutions and has published targeted calls for proposals for large-scale demonstration projects in this field in 2016 and 2017. Additional R&I actions at EU level that promote systemic Nature-Based Solutions and their benefits to cities and territories are planned with the aim to improve the implementation capacity and evidence base for deploying Nature-Based Solutions and developing corresponding future markets. They are also expected to foster an interdisciplinary R

  11. Interconnections between economic subsystems and the IT innovation in avoiding unpredictable effects of finance reforms in East-European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora ALECU

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The tax measures are rapidly changing in East-European countries. The permanence is a concept rarely put in practice. The changes of fiscal policy are usually important, affecting the whole finance system and the investors need to adapt to these various changes. Under such circumstances, the management of information of any kind regarding the activity of investors becomes very important, the information gathered represent a statistic proof of the effects of the economic and finance reforms.

  12. Transforming environmental permitting and compliance policies to promote pollution prevention: Removing barriers and providing incentives to foster technology innovation, economic productivity, and environmental protection. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, D.R.; Kerr, R.L.; Fleischer, S.; Gorsen, M.; Harris, E.

    1993-04-01

    The Technology Innovation and Economics (TIE) Committee, a standing committee of EPA's National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT), has concluded that major changes are needed in federal and state permitting and compliance programs to encourage adoption of practical pollution prevention approaches to environmental protection. The Committee recommends seven major areas for improvement, including: (1) Redesigning permit procedures to encourage regulated facilities to expand multi-media and pollution prevention environmental improvement efforts; (2) Accelerating development and use of innovative pollution prevention technologies and techniques through special permitting and review procedures during RD ampersand D and commercialization phases; (3) Developing and expanding federal and state pollution prevention enforcement initiative; (4) Supporting state initiatives in pollution prevention facility planning; (5) Expanding pollution prevention-related training, educational and technology diffusion efforts to better reach managers in all sectors of the economy; (6) Altering personnel reward systems to encourage EPA staff to champion pollution prevention; (7) Expanding and publicizing the system of national awards honoring outstanding pollution prevention research, training and technology implementation

  13. Development of a web-based tool for the assessment of health and economic outcomes of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (EIP on AHA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehler, Christian E H; de Graaf, Gimon; Steuten, Lotte; Yang, Yaling; Abadie, Fabienne

    2015-01-01

    The European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (EIP on AHA) is a European Commission led policy initiative to address the challenges of demographic change in Europe. For monitoring the health and economic impact of the social and technological innovations carried out by more than 500 stakeholder's groups ('commitments') participating in the EIP on AHA, a generic and flexible web-based monitoring and assessment tool is currently being developed. This paper describes the approach for developing and implementing this web-based tool, its main characteristics and capability to provide specific outcomes that are of value to the developers of an intervention, as well as a series of case studies planned before wider rollout. The tool builds up from a variety of surrogate endpoints commonly used across the diverse set of EIP on AHA commitments in order to estimate health and economic outcomes in terms of incremental changes in quality adjusted life years (QALYs) as well as health and social care utilisation. A highly adaptable Markov model with initially three mutually exclusive health states ('baseline health', 'deteriorated health' and 'death') provides the basis for the tool which draws from an extensive database of epidemiological, economic and effectiveness data; and also allows further customisation through remote data entry enabling more accurate and context specific estimation of intervention impact. Both probabilistic sensitivity analysis and deterministic scenario analysis allow assessing the impact of parameter uncertainty on intervention outcomes. A set of case studies, ranging from the pre-market assessment of early healthcare technologies to the retrospective analysis of established care pathways, will be carried out before public rollout, which is envisaged end 2015. Monitoring the activities carried out within the EIP on AHA requires an approach that is both flexible and consistent in the way health and economic impact is estimated across

  14. Impact of the Pharma Economic Act on Diffusion of Innovation and Reduction of Costs in the Hungarian Prescription Drug Market (2007-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hren, Rok

    In this study, we examined the impact of the Pharma Economic Act, which was introduced in Hungary in 2007. We used detailed data on the Hungarian prescription drug market, which had been made publicly available by the authorities. We evaluated the effect of the Pharma Economic Act on both dynamic and static efficiencies and also on equity, which has been historically a controversial issue in Hungary. We analyzed the overall prescription drug market and statin and atorvastatin markets; as a proxy for determining dynamic efficiency, we examined the oncology drug market for some specific products (e.g., bortezomib) and the long-acting atypical antipsychotic drugs market. There is no denying that the authorities managed to control the overall prescription drug costs; however, they were still paying excessive rents for off-patent drugs. Examples of oncology and long-acting atypical antipsychotic drugs showed that the diffusion of innovation was on per-capita basis at least comparable to G-5 countries. While the share of out-of-pocket co-payments markedly increased and the reimbursement was lowered, the concurrent price decreases often meant that the co-payment per milligram of a given dispensed drug was actually lower than that before the Act, thereby benefiting the patient. It appears that strong mechanisms to control volume rather than price on the supply side (marketing authorization holders) contained the drug expenditure, while offering enough room to strive for innovation. Making data on prescription drug expenditures and associated co-payments publicly available is an item that should be definitely followed by the surrounding jurisdictions. Copyright © 2013, International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Innovation in health economic modelling of service improvements for longer-term depression: demonstration in a local health community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosh, Jonathan; Kearns, Ben; Brennan, Alan; Parry, Glenys; Ricketts, Thomas; Saxon, David; Kilgarriff-Foster, Alexis; Thake, Anna; Chambers, Eleni; Hutten, Rebecca

    2013-04-26

    The purpose of the analysis was to develop a health economic model to estimate the costs and health benefits of alternative National Health Service (NHS) service configurations for people with longer-term depression. Modelling methods were used to develop a conceptual and health economic model of the current configuration of services in Sheffield, England for people with longer-term depression. Data and assumptions were synthesised to estimate cost per Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs). Three service changes were developed and resulted in increased QALYs at increased cost. Versus current care, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) for a self-referral service was £11,378 per QALY. The ICER was £2,227 per QALY for the dropout reduction service and £223 per QALY for an increase in non-therapy services. These results were robust when compared to current cost-effectiveness thresholds and accounting for uncertainty. Cost-effective service improvements for longer-term depression have been identified. Also identified were limitations of the current evidence for the long term impact of services.

  16. The Role of Regional Innovation Systems (RIS in Translating R&D Investments into Economic and Employment Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Filipe Ferreira Moutinho

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of the so-called “European Paradox” shows that increasing Governmental R&D Investment is far from being a ‘panacea’ for stagnant growth. It is worth noting that Governmental R&D Investment does not have a statistically significant impact on employment, indicating the need to assess the trade-offs of policies that could lead to significant increases in government expenditure. Surprisingly, Governmental R&D Employment does not contribute to ‘mass-market’ employment, despite its quite important role in reducing Youth-Unemployment. Despite the negative side-effects of Governmental R&D Employment on both GVA and GDP, University R&D Employment appears to have a quite important role in reducing Unemployment, especially Youth-Unemployment, while it also does not have a downside in terms of economic growth. Technological Capacity enhancement is the most effective instrument for reducing Unemployment and is a policy without any downside regarding sustainable economic development.

  17. El Empresario Innovador y su Relación con el Desarrollo Económico (The innovating entrepreneur and its relation to economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Valencia de Lara

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los economistas más relevantes de la primeramitad del siglo XX es Joseph Alois Schumpeter. Al considerarque Schumpeter es quizás desconocido por muchos expertosen management y que es un autor esencial para entenderla relación entre economía y creación de empresas, en esteestudio se analizan cuatro de los puntos centrales de la teoríadel empresario schumpeteriano: la concepción de empresarioy empresa; la conducta innovadora del empresario y supapel en el desarrollo económico; la asunción de riesgo en lateoría de la “destrucción creativa”; y el estudio del beneficiodel empresario schumpeteriano. Para terminar, el trabajo recogelas principales críticas y defensas realizadas a la teoríaschumpeteriana del empresario innovador.   ABSTRACT Joseph Alois Schumpeter was one of the most importanteconomists of the first half of the XX century. Consideringthat Schumpeter is perhaps unknown to manymanagement experts and a cardinal author to understandthe relationship between economy and company creation,this work analyzes four of the key premises for a “Schumpeterian”entrepreneur: conceptualization of entrepreneurand company; the entrepreneurs´ innovative behavior andits role in economic development; risk assumption in the“creative destruction” theory; and the study of profit forthe Schumpeterian entrepreneur. Finally, main criticismand supporting commentaries to the Schumpeterian innovativeentrepreneur are presented.

  18. Techno-economical analysis of innovative technologies in electrical power systems. A feasibility study for a Russian distribution system operator; Wirtschaftlicher Einsatz von innovativen Technologien in Energieversorgungsnetzen. Machbarkeitsstudie am Beispiel eines russischen Verteilungsnetzes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Holger [Siemens-Division Energy Management, Erlangen (Germany). Bereich Transmission Solutions; Ettinger, Andreas [Siemens-Division Energy Management, Erlangen (Germany). Power Technologies International (PTI); Nikitina, Elena [Siemens-Division Energy Management, Moskau (Russian Federation). Power Technologies International (PTI); Makarov, Andrej [JSC Bashkir Power Grid Company, Ufa (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-01

    Since the liberalization of the energy market in Europe transmission and distribution system operators have been facing fundamentally new challenges when ensuring a safe and reliable power supply. In addition to purely technical criteria economical aspects have become increasingly important in the strategic planning and operation of power systems. As described in this contribution, the results of a feasibility study demonstrate how the use of innovative technologies can make a valuable contribution to improve the economical situation.

  19. Cooperation for Innovation in Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pyka, Andreas; Schön, Benjamin; Windrum, Paul

    the development in service industries include the increasing modularization of services, the increasing importance of the introduction of novelties as well as new organizational forms for the division of labour between private and public actors in service innovation processes. In economics research so far...... is strongly biased towards innovation in manufacturing, only a few attempts exist to develop a self-contained economic theory of innovation for the service industries. The same can be said on economic research on the organization of innovation processes in the service industries. In public sector economics......PPin-Project places collaboration between public and private actors in service innovation processes central. To do this we develop in this working package a theory of public-private service innovation networks. For this purpose the literature on innovation processes and innovation networks is surveyed...

  20. The economic value of innovative treatments over the product life cycle: the case of targeted trastuzumab therapy for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Louis P; Veenstra, David L

    2009-01-01

    Pharmacoeconomic analyses typically project the expected cost-effectiveness of a new product for a specific indication. This analysis develops a dynamic life-cycle model to conduct a multi-indication evaluation using the case of trastuzumab licensed in the United States for both early-stage and metastatic (or late-stage) human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer therapy (early breast cancer [EBC]; metastatic breast cancer [MBC]), approved in 2006 and 1998, respectively. This dynamic model combined information on expected incremental cost-utility ratios for specific indications with an epidemiologically based projection of utilization by indication over the product life cycle-from 1998 to 2016. Net economic value was estimated as the cumulative quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained over the life cycle multiplied by a societal valuation of health gains ($/QALY) minus cumulative net direct treatment costs. Sensitivity analyses were performed under a range of assumptions. We projected that the annual number of EBC patients receiving trastuzumab will be more than three times that of MBC by 2016, in part because adjuvant treatment reduces the future incidence of MBC. Over this life cycle, the estimated overall incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was $35,590/QALY with a total of 432,547 discounted QALYs gained. Under sensitivity analyses, the overall ICER varied from $21,000 to $53,000/QALY, and the projected net economic value resulting from trastuzumab treatment ranged from $6.2 billion to $49.5 billion. Average ICERs for multi-indication compounds can increase or decrease over the product life cycle. In this example, the projected overall life-cycle ICER for trastuzumab was less than one half of that in the initial indication. This dynamic perspective-versus the usual static one-highlights the interdependence of drug development decisions and investment incentives, raising important reimbursement policy issues.

  1. Economic evaluation of slurry-, sewage-sludge, and crop disinfection facility applications based on industrial accelerator and 60Co radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abelovszky, L.

    1979-01-01

    The degree of the compliance with the requirements of slurry and sewage treatment, the range of use of radiation sterilization procedures in agriculture and food industry, the possibilities of the complex application of radiation methods and factors influencing their economic efficiency, the economic evaluation of the versatile chargeable accelerators, the fixed and semi-mobile radioisotope facilities, the economic efficiency of the multipurpose utilization, the differences in the application of accelerators and radio isotopes as to the power source applied, the penetration, the dose rates and the radiation energy focusing are discussed. The radiation facility costs are compared. Conclusions concerning the choice of the most efficient applications are given. (author)

  2. Improvement of new and traditional industrial crops by induced mutations and related biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-08-01

    Industrial crops are an important source of income for many small landholders in developing countries and contribute directly or indirectly to food security in rural areas. Crop diversification, finding alternative crops, development of new uses for existing crops and introduction of new crops are important components in the efforts to meet the demand for food, pharmaceuticals, chemical raw materials, fibres and fuel in developing and developed countries. Plant breeding efforts combining genetic resources and induced mutations using classical, in vitro and innovative molecular approaches have been responsible for much of the development of industrial crops. This co-ordinated research project (CRP) was initiated in 1994. It focused on developing mutagenesis approaches for previously unstudied species, screening procedures for agricultural and industrial requirements and suitable genotypes of traditional industrial crops adapted to new areas and for new needs. The industrial crops selected for improvement under this CRP were oilseeds and fibre plants. The potential of induced mutations to affect critical steps in various biosynthetic pathways leading to oil quality and other metabolic modifications was investigated. The success of this CRP is evidenced by the application of mutation techniques, in combination with in vitro and molecular techniques in genetic improvement of oilseed crops such as soybean, rapeseed, sunflower, linseed, cuphea, meadowfoam and fibre plants such as cotton and jute. As a result, improved breeding lines are available in all the industrial crops that the CRP focused on. Novel oil types were developed in cuphea with potential use as a renewable, economical and safe energy source and in linseed with increased levels of saturated fatty acids. Genes of fatty acid synthesis were isolated from one species and used for modification of quality of other oilseeds. Disease and pest resistance was improved in oilseeds and fibre crops through transgenesis

  3. Improvement of new and traditional industrial crops by induced mutations and related biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-08-01

    Industrial crops are an important source of income for many small landholders in developing countries and contribute directly or indirectly to food security in rural areas. Crop diversification, finding alternative crops, development of new uses for existing crops and introduction of new crops are important components in the efforts to meet the demand for food, pharmaceuticals, chemical raw materials, fibres and fuel in developing and developed countries. Plant breeding efforts combining genetic resources and induced mutations using classical, in vitro and innovative molecular approaches have been responsible for much of the development of industrial crops. This co-ordinated research project (CRP) was initiated in 1994. It focused on developing mutagenesis approaches for previously unstudied species, screening procedures for agricultural and industrial requirements and suitable genotypes of traditional industrial crops adapted to new areas and for new needs. The industrial crops selected for improvement under this CRP were oilseeds and fibre plants. The potential of induced mutations to affect critical steps in various biosynthetic pathways leading to oil quality and other metabolic modifications was investigated. The success of this CRP is evidenced by the application of mutation techniques, in combination with in vitro and molecular techniques in genetic improvement of oilseed crops such as soybean, rapeseed, sunflower, linseed, cuphea, meadowfoam and fibre plants such as cotton and jute. As a result, improved breeding lines are available in all the industrial crops that the CRP focused on. Novel oil types were developed in cuphea with potential use as a renewable, economical and safe energy source and in linseed with increased levels of saturated fatty acids. Genes of fatty acid synthesis were isolated from one species and used for modification of quality of other oilseeds. Disease and pest resistance was improved in oilseeds and fibre crops through transgenesis

  4. Public sector innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the value dimension of public innovation in the light of practitioners’ values and asks why there seems to be a clash between innovation imperatives and workplace practices in the public sector. The paper contributes to the research on public innovation from a practice...... perspective by providing evidence from an ethnographic field study on innovation in social and health care studies in Denmark. These studies are part of the vocational education and training (VET) system, which combines coursework at a college and internship in the elder care sector. The study is thus cross...... initiate innovations grounded in their values. The main point put forward is that the value dimension of public innovation must be understood not only in terms of value creation (economic or non-economic), which frontline practitioners are required to contribute to, but also as value-based practices...

  5. Rural Innovation Fund Grantees

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — There is a need for innovative and catalytic economic development and housing programs that create jobs through business development and expansion and expand the...

  6. Modern regional innovation policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCann, Philip; Ortega-Argiles, Raquel

    This paper analyses the evolution of regional innovation policy into the mainstream of public policy. The paper examines the empirical and theoretical developments which have shifted much of the focus on innovation-related issues to matters of economic geography. As well as academic material we also

  7. Ethics and Transgenic Crops: a Review

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Jonathan

    1999-01-01

    This article represents a review of some of the ethical dilemmas that have arisen as a result of the development and deployment of transgenic crop plants. The potential for transgenic crops to alleviate human hunger and the possible effects on human health are discussed. Risks and benefits to the environment resulting from genetic engineering of crops for resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses are considered, in addition to effects on biodiversity. The socio-economic impacts and distributi...

  8. Genetically Modified Crops and Food Security

    OpenAIRE

    Qaim, Matin; Kouser, Shahzad

    2013-01-01

    The role of genetically modified (GM) crops for food security is the subject of public controversy. GM crops could contribute to food production increases and higher food availability. There may also be impacts on food quality and nutrient composition. Finally, growing GM crops may influence farmers’ income and thus their economic access to food. Smallholder farmers make up a large proportion of the undernourished people worldwide. Our study focuses on this latter aspect and provides the firs...

  9. The spatial impact of genetically modified crops

    OpenAIRE

    MUNRO, Alistair

    2008-01-01

    Although genetically modified (GM) organisms have attracted a great deal of public attention, analysis of their economic impacts has been less common. It is, perhaps, spatial externalities where the divergence between efficient and unregulated outcomes is potentially largest, because the presence of transgenic crops may eliminate or severely reduce the planting of organic varieties and other crops where some consumers have a preference for non-GM crops. This paper constructs a simple model of...

  10. Saline water irrigation for crop production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, A R [Directorate of Water Management Research, Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), Walmi Complex, P.O. - Phulwari Sharif, Patna (India); [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Singh, S S; Singh, S R [Directorate of Water Management Research, Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), Walmi Complex, P.O. - Phulwari Sharif, Patna (India)

    2001-05-01

    Salinity is one of agriculture's most complex production problems. Excessive salts from irrigation water or high water tables can severely limit crop production. Years of saline water irrigation on poorly drained soils can eventually make economic crop production impossible. About 10% of all land are affected by salinity problems. They occur in every continent in different proportions, more frequently in arid and semi-arid areas. This paper discusses a range of problems related to use of saline water for crop irrigation.

  11. Saline water irrigation for crop production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.R.; Singh, S.S.; Singh, S.R.

    2001-05-01

    Salinity is one of agriculture's most complex production problems. Excessive salts from irrigation water or high water tables can severely limit crop production. Years of saline water irrigation on poorly drained soils can eventually make economic crop production impossible. About 10% of all land are affected by salinity problems. They occur in every continent in different proportions, more frequently in arid and semi-arid areas. This paper discusses a range of problems related to use of saline water for crop irrigation

  12. Research Award: Foundations for Innovation

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Office 2004 Test Drive User

    adaptation, and uptake of STEM innovations in their place of origin? ... master's program in one of the following disciplines: economic geography, business, finance, economics, management, administration, sociology, regional science, urban.

  13. Analysis of yield advantage in mixed cropping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranganathan, R.

    1993-01-01

    It has long been recognized that mixed cropping can give yield advantages over sole cropping, but methods that can identify such yield benefits are still being developed. This thesis presents a method that combines physiological and economic principles in the evaluation of yield advantage.

  14. Kenaf and cowpea as sugarcane cover crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of cover crops during the fallow period prior to planting sugarcane has the potential to influence not only the following sugarcane crop, but the economics of the production system as a whole. Typically, a Louisiana sugarcane field is replanted every four years due to declining yields, and,...

  15. Innovation Production Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamam N. Guseinova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the study of the models of production of innovations at enterprise and state levels. The shift towards a new technology wave induces a change in systems of division of labour as well as establishment of new forms of cooperation that are reflected both in theory and practice of innovation policy and management. Within the scope of the research question we have studied different generation of innovation process, starting with simple linear models - "technology push" and "market pull" - and ending with a complex integrated model of open innovations. There are two organizational models of innovation production at the enterprise level: start-ups in the early stages of their development and ambidextrous organizations. The former are prone to linear models of innovation process, while the latter create innovation within more sophisticated inclusive processes. Companies that effectuate reciprocal ambidexterity stand out from all the rest, since together with start-ups, research and development centres, elements of innovation infrastructure and other economic agents operating in the same value chain they constitute the core of most advanced forms of national innovation systems, namely Triple Helix and Quadruple Helix systems. National innovation systems - models of innovation production at the state level - evolve into systems with a more profound division of labour that enable "line production" of innovations. These tendencies are closely related to the advent and development of the concept of serial entrepreneurship that transforms entrepreneurship into a new type of profession. International experience proves this concept to be efficient in various parts of the world. Nevertheless, the use of above mentioned models and concepts in national innovation system should be justified by socioeconomic conditions of economic regions, since they determine the efficiency of implementation of certain innovation processes and

  16. Assessment the Economic Damage of Inter-Basin Water Transfer on Cropping Pattern and Farmers’ Income Situation in the Origin Basin (Case Study: Water Transfer of Alamoutrood to Qazvin Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Parhizkari

    2016-03-01

    building the dam, canals, streams and aqueducts. Even today, many projects are implemented in Iran that water transfer project of Alamoutrood to Qazvin plain is one of the most important of these projects. According to reports of Regional Water Company of Qazvin province and the specifications of inter-basin water transfer project of Alamoutrood to Qazvin plain will be out from the farmers availability of Alamut region about 370 million cubic meters of irrigation water. This issue has the huge impacts on cropping pattern and farmers economic and livelihood condition in the origin basin (Alamout region. Therefore, in this study a hydrological-economic modeling system to analysis the effects of water transfer project of Alamoutrood to Qazvin plain on cropping pattern, farmers gross profit and economic value of irrigation water in the Alamut region (origin basin was used. Materials and Methods: Nowadays different methods to analysis of the issues related to the management of water resources and agriculture are used. One of the most important of these methods is mathematical programming that in recent years are in use to solve problems of water resource management sector and analysis of the agricultural policies. In this study a hydrological-economic modeling system consists of the Positive Mathematical Programming (PMP and product function with Constant Elasticity of Substitution (CES to analysis of the effects of inter-basin water transfer on land use, farmers income situation and economic value of irrigation water in the origin basin (Alamout region was used. The first time PMP model developed by Howitt (1995 to calibrate agricultural supply models have been used to link biophysical and economic information in an integrated biophysical and economic modelling framework and to assess impacts of agricultural policies and scenarios. These models are also accepted for analysing the impact of water resources management policies and scenarios. PMP model used in this paper is a

  17. Innovative learning for innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr.Ir. Hay Geraedts

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Innovation is crucial for companies who have to react to constantly changing markets. Several national and European research institutes stress the importance of developing innovation for small and medium size enterprises (SMEs). This was a trigger to design a minor on strategic

  18. Innovation agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    2008-01-01

    Retooling the global economy for a low-carbon and environmentally responsible future must begin immediately - and a major new United States initiative in this area is vital. The recent downturn in the economy makes this change all the more necessary: energy efficiency and renewable energy can be an engine of dramatic new economic growth and job creation. It will be up to the incoming president to marshal public and industry sentiment behind such a reinvestment in our future. We are at last seeing a global explosion of financial and political interest in energy, focused largely - but, ominously, not exclusively - on clean energy, since, in addition, to solar, wind and other low-carbon sources, investments in some of the most CO 2 -intensive sources are also on the rise. Innovation is the life-blood of economic growth and renewal. It has been known for decades that the bulk of new growth results from the invention, and re-invention, of new scientific and technological opportunities. Over 50 years ago Economics Nobel Laureate Robert Solow concluded that over 90 per cent of new economic growth results from public and private sector investments in innovation. Yet energy is very short of investment in research and development (R and D) despite arguably now posing our top environmental and geopolitical security threat. Total investment on R and D in the U.S. as a whole stands at roughly three per cent of the U.S. gross domestic product, but, for energy, it is proportionally only about one-tenth of that level. By contrast, research and development investments in the medical and biotechnology field are roughly 15 per cent of sales - almost a staggering 40 times more than for energy. This argues that, at minimum, energy R and D should be increased to the three per cent national average

  19. Membership to innovation platforms and gender in ownership of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Membership to innovation platforms and gender in ownership of productive assets in the savannas of west Africa. ... African Crop Science Journal ... inception of the project improved with participation in the innovations of the project, in terms of ...

  20. Five Waves of Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Claus Møller; Rosenstand, Claus Andreas Foss; Gertsen, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Building on previous well-argued work by Jon Sundbo (1995a), on how innovation has evolved in three phases or waves since 1880, this paper’s contribution is extending the historical line, by offering arguments and explanations for two additional waves of innovation that explain the most recent...... developments. The paper also adds new interpretations of the previous work by Sundbo (1995a) in suggesting that the waves are triggered by societal and economic crisis. The result is a new theoretical and historical framework, proposing five waves of innovation triggered by societal and economic crises...

  1. [Innovation in research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zárate, Eduardo

    2010-09-01

    We briefly revise the economic resources that the State allocated between the years 2000 and 2005, and their relationship with the production of research projects. In face of the few fiscal resources, innovations are proposed to the traditional research model, sustained in producing new products. Assuming it is possible to perform innovations in the process of producing a service or a product, which implies modifying the regional and national policies, driving the model proposed by P. Drucker of producing innovations with technology with T in capital letters, would on turn generate patents and social and economic profitability.

  2. Social innovation research: a new stage in innovation analysis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessop, Bob; Moulaert, Frank; Hulgård, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Social innovation is a la mode. The significance that various mainstream strategy and policy documents accord to social innovation varies greatly. Nonetheless, one commonality stands out: they interpret it in economic, indeed often in narrowly market-economic, terms. In this chapter we challenge...

  3. Innovation for Sustainable Tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Jack; Edwards, D; Forde, P

    Innovation is the key to responding to the future challenges that confront all sectors of society and the economy, and especially in tourism. Within tourism, there are numerous corporations and destinations around the world that are responding to the ecological, social and economic challenges...... for an integrated overview of the drivers, barriers, processes and networks for innovation. The cases have been prepared for use in research and teaching of innovation, and the analysis and case notes are both designed to facilitate discussion and further investigation of innovation, not only in tourism......, but in other economic sectors as well. Being an online publication, it is expected that updates in successive editions of this first book will add further to the description and analysis of innovation for sustainable tourism and hence provide a resource for those seeking to enhance the teaching, research...

  4. Improving Resilience of Northern Field Crop Systems Using Inter-Seeded Red Clover: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Deen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In light of the environmental challenges ahead, resilience of the most abundant field crop production systems must be improved to guarantee yield stability with more efficient use of nitrogen inputs, soil and water resources. Along with genetic and agronomic innovations, diversification of northern agro-ecosystems using inter-seeded legumes provides further opportunities to improve land management practices that sustain crop yields and their resilience to biotic and abiotic stresses. Benefits of legume cover crops have been known for decades and red clover (Trifolium pratense is one of the most common and beneficial when frost-seeded under winter wheat in advance of maize in a rotation. However, its use has been declining mostly due to the use of synthetic fertilizers and herbicides, concerns over competition with the main crop and the inability to fully capture red clover benefits due to difficulties in the persistence of uniform stands. In this manuscript, we first review the environmental, agronomic, rotational and economical benefits associated with inter-seeded red clover. Red clover adaptation to a wide array of common wheat-based rotations, its potential to mitigate the effects of land degradation in a changing climate and its integration into sustainable food production systems are discussed. We then identify areas of research with significant potential to impact cropping system profitability and sustainability.

  5. Optimum Plans For Oilpalm And Food Crop Combinations In Edo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intercropping food crops in oil palm plantations is a popular practice among oil ... are not guided by economic rationale for the choice of food crops and oil palm. ... linear programming model for oil palm/food crops enterprise combinations in ...

  6. Cognitive style and consumer innovativeness

    OpenAIRE

    Foxall, Gordon R.; Haskins, Christopher

    1986-01-01

    The identification of consumer innovators offers marketing managers the opportunity to tailor new products to the buyers who initiate the diffusion of innovations. Progress has been made in identifying such consumers in economic and social terms, but there are advantages of cost and convenience in isolating the personality profiles of innovators, especially during prelaunch product testing. But innovative consumers' distinctive personality traits have proved elusive. This paper reports an inv...

  7. GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS: INTERNATIONAL TRADE AND TRADE POLICY EFFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Frisvold

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Where approved, producers have adopted genetically modified (GM crops extensively. Yet, areas not adopting GM crops account for large shares of production and consumption. GM crops differ from previous agricultural innovations because consumers may perceive them as fundamentally different from (and potentially inferior to conventionally grown crops. Many countries maintain restrictions on production and importation of GM crops. GM crop adoption affects producers and consumers, not only through technological change, but also through trade policy responses. This article reviews open economy analyses of impacts of GM crops. To varying degrees, commodities are segmented into GM, conventionally grown, and organic product markets. Recent advances in trade modeling consider the consequences of market segmentation, along with consequences of GM crop import restrictions, product segregation requirements, and coexistence policies.

  8. Economic Theory, Economic Reality And Economic Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Evgenievich Sorokin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the opposition between the «liberals» and «statists» in the Russian political and economic thought. It demonstrates that the economic liberalization is an absolute prerequisite for the transition to sustainable socio-economic development. Such development must rely on investment activities of the state, which in the current circumstances is a necessary but not sufficient measure for reversing the negative trends. The negative developments can be prevented only through implementation, along with the institutional changes in the economic area that form a strata of economically independent entrepreneurs-innovators, of no less profound transformation in political institutions aimed at democratization of public life

  9. Innovation af innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2009-01-01

    , at innovation af innovationen forsøges gennemført på en måde, hvor tiden kræves at forholde sig til sin egen tidslighed i form af fremtid, nutid, fortid og ikke mindst i form af samtidighed. I tiden skal vi iagttage, hvordan vi iagttager tiden. Vi dobbelt-koder tiden på samme måde, som forskning forsker i...... organisationssystemerne. De to typer systemer kan noget helt bestemt med fænomenet tid. De kan synkronisere. Analyseres organisationssystemer ser vi, imidlertid at innovation kræver ro. Stærkt innovative systemer er militærsystemet og kunstsystemet, der også inddrages, og hvor vi ser paradokset mellem innovation og...... involution. Tid er med et medium og ikke et lufttomt rum. Tid er end ikke en gasart, men udgør et solidt fluidum, som samfundet bader i og flyder i, konstant i bevægelse. Reformer forudsætter former, og innovation forudsætter involution. Kun sådan muliggøres evolution....

  10. Automated phenotyping of permanent crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPeek, K. Thomas; Steddom, Karl; Zamudio, Joseph; Pant, Paras; Mullenbach, Tyler

    2017-05-01

    AGERpoint is defining a new technology space for the growers' industry by introducing novel applications for sensor technology and data analysis to growers of permanent crops. Serving data to a state-of-the-art analytics engine from a cutting edge sensor platform, a new paradigm in precision agriculture is being developed that allows growers to understand the unique needs of each tree, bush or vine in their operation. Autonomous aerial and terrestrial vehicles equipped with multiple varieties of remote sensing technologies give AGERpoint the ability to measure key morphological and spectral features of permanent crops. This work demonstrates how such phenotypic measurements combined with machine learning algorithms can be used to determine the variety of crops (e.g., almond and pecan trees). This phenotypic and varietal information represents the first step in enabling growers with the ability to tailor their management practices to individual plants and maximize their economic productivity.

  11. AFRICAN JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC REVIEW

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Kazungu

    regional trade and the region's economic growth remain unknown. ... knowledge, and therefore, contributes to innovation and economic growth. ... The role of agricultural sector in economic development and welfare improvement in EAC states.

  12. Innovative activity of personnel of organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N.Belkin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with transition way of economic of the Russian Federation on an innovative way of development. The special attention is given the internal social and economic environment of the organizations which, as a rule, counteracts development of innovative activity of the personnel. Ways of increase of innovative activity of the personnel are offered.

  13. Regulation for innovativeness or regulation of innovation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larouche, Pierre; Butenko, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The legal literature concerning the interplay between innovation and law is split between two streams: law and economics (broadly defined) and law and technology. They seem to exist in parallel and largely non-intersecting inter-disciplinary silos. This paper attempts to reconcile these two streams

  14. Investigating an Ethical Approach to Genetically Modified Crops in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetically modified (GM) crops gained attention in southern Africa in the context of broader debates about the struggle for food security and poverty alleviation to achieve sustainable development. The prospects of GM crops as a technological innovation have provoked numerous debates and environmental concern ...

  15. Viabilidade econômica do uso do sistema de irrigação por gotejamento na cultura da cebola Economic viability of the use of drip irrigation system on onion crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Carvalho Vilas Boas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este estudo, avaliar a viabilidade econômica do uso do sistema de irrigação por gotejamento na cultura da cebola. O experimento foi conduzido em canteiros construídos a céu aberto, na área experimental do Departamento de Agricultura/ UFLA, no período de junho a outubro de 2008. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 2 x 6, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos constituíram-se de duas cultivares de cebola, cultivar híbrida Optima F1 e cultivar não híbrida Alfa Tropical, e seis tensões da água no solo, 15, 25, 35, 45, 60 e 75 kPa. A análise econômica da lavoura irrigada foi fundamentada na teoria dos custos de produção e, considerando-se a metodologia aplicada, conclui-se que as despesas com os recursos variáveis foram as que mais oneraram o custo final da cebola em todos os tratamentos estudados. Os custos totais médios foram, inversamente, proporcionais às produtividades dos tratamentos de tensão da água no solo, para ambas as cultivares, indicando uma resposta à escala de produção. Na condição do experimento, a recomendação é de que se adote, como momento de irrigar, a tensão da água no solo de 15 kPa e, como cultivar o híbrido Optima F1, para que se obtenha maior rentabilidade na atividade produtiva. A irrigação por gotejamento na cultura da cebola, adotando-se as tensões da água no solo e as cultivares estudadas neste trabalho, é uma técnica economicamente viável.The objective of this study was to evaluate the economic feasibility of the use of drip irrigation system on onion crop. The experiment was set at open field beds in the experimental area of the Agricultural Department/UFLA, from June to October 2008. The experimental design was randomized blocks in factorial scheme 2 x 6, with four replicates. Treatments consisted of two onion cultivars, the hybrid Optima F1 and the non hybrid Alfa Tropical and six soil water tension values, 15

  16. Leaf wetness distribution within a potato crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusinkveld, B. G.

    2010-07-01

    The Netherlands has a mild maritime climate and therefore the major interest in leaf wetness is associated with foliar plant diseases. During moist micrometeorological conditions (i.e. dew, fog, rain), foliar fungal diseases may develop quickly and thereby destroy a crop quickly. Potato crop monocultures covering several hectares are especially vulnerable to such diseases. Therefore understanding and predicting leaf wetness in potato crops is crucial in crop disease control strategies. A field experiment was carried out in a large homogeneous potato crop in the Netherlands during the growing season of 2008. Two innovative sensor networks were installed as a 3 by 3 grid at 3 heights covering an area of about 2 hectares within two larger potato crops. One crop was located on a sandy soil and one crop on a sandy peat soil. In most cases leaf wetting starts in the top layer and then progresses downward. Leaf drying takes place in the same order after sunrise. A canopy dew simulation model was applied to simulate spatial leaf wetness distribution. The dew model is based on an energy balance model. The model can be run using information on the above-canopy wind speed, air temperature, humidity, net radiation and within canopy air temperature, humidity and soil moisture content and temperature conditions. Rainfall was accounted for by applying an interception model. The results of the dew model agreed well with the leaf wetness sensors if all local conditions were considered. The measurements show that the spatial correlation of leaf wetness decreases downward.

  17. PRACT (Prototyping Rotation and Association with Cover crop and no Till) - a tool for designing conservation agriculture systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naudin, K.; Husson, M.O.; Scopel, E.; Auzoux, S.; Giller, K.E.

    2015-01-01

    Moving to more agroecological cropping systems implies deep changes in the organization of cropping systems. We propose a method for formalizing the process of innovating cropping system prototype design using a tool called PRACT (Prototyping Rotation and Association with Cover crop and no Till)

  18. Innovation and efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haustein, H D; Maier, H

    1979-01-01

    Innovation, the process of creation, development, use, and diffusion of a new product or process for new or already-identified needs, has become a topic of concern for both developed and developing countries. Although the causes and motivations for the concern differ widely from country to country, the development of effective innovation policies is a universal problem. The International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) has been concerned with this problem for several years. The main purpose of an innovation is to improve the efficiency of the production unit that adopts the innovation, in comparison with the efficiency of the entire production system. To grasp the nature of the innovation process, its impact on the economic performance of the country, and to identify the appropriate managerial actions to shape and stimulate the innovation process, five different stages through which the innovation process usually runs are outlined. The IIASA has been concerned with supplanting the former approach of spontaneous innovation with a systems analysis approach to help implement new forms of social, innovative learning to be beneficial to mankind. 7 references, 2 figures, 1 table. (SAC)

  19. Innovation in City Governments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewis, Jenny M; Ricard, Lykke Margot; Klijn, Erik Hans

    Innovation has become an important focus for governments around the world over the last decade, with greater pressure on governments to do more with less, and expanding community expectations. Some are now calling this ‘social innovation’ – innovation that is related to creating new services...... that have value for stakeholders (such as citizens) in terms of the social and political outcomes they produce. Innovation in City Governments: Structures, Networks, and Leadership establishes an analytical framework of innovation capacity based on three dimensions: Structure - national governance...... project in Copenhagen, Barcelona and Rotterdam. The book provides major new insights on how structures, networks and leadership in city governments shape the social innovation capacity of cities. It provides ground-breaking analyses of how governance structures and local socio-economic challenges...

  20. Remote Sensing and Cropping Practices: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnès Bégué

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available For agronomic, environmental, and economic reasons, the need for spatialized information about agricultural practices is expected to rapidly increase. In this context, we reviewed the literature on remote sensing for mapping cropping practices. The reviewed studies were grouped into three categories of practices: crop succession (crop rotation and fallowing, cropping pattern (single tree crop planting pattern, sequential cropping, and intercropping/agroforestry, and cropping techniques (irrigation, soil tillage, harvest and post-harvest practices, crop varieties, and agro-ecological infrastructures. We observed that the majority of the studies were exploratory investigations, tested on a local scale with a high dependence on ground data, and used only one type of remote sensing sensor. Furthermore, to be correctly implemented, most of the methods relied heavily on local knowledge on the management practices, the environment, and the biological material. These limitations point to future research directions, such as the use of land stratification, multi-sensor data combination, and expert knowledge-driven methods. Finally, the new spatial technologies, and particularly the Sentinel constellation, are expected to improve the monitoring of cropping practices in the challenging context of food security and better management of agro-environmental issues.

  1. ICT innovation needs solid relationships | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Working in IDRC's Regional Office for Sub-Saharan Africa, Oteku's research ... and economic factors that shape partnerships for technological innovation in Kenya. ... on scientific and technological innovation in its long-term development plan, ...

  2. Research Award: Foundations for Innovation | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-09-07

    Sep 7, 2016 ... The Foundations for Innovation program wishes to better ... disciplines: science, technology and innovation policy; development studies; or economics. ... research to local, national, and/or regional policy debates in Africa.

  3. Mindful innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Poul Bitsch

    2008-01-01

    Mindful innovation is an approach to innovation that pays attention to people's experience in an organization rather than to formal organization or social role.......Mindful innovation is an approach to innovation that pays attention to people's experience in an organization rather than to formal organization or social role....

  4. Innovative didaktik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Birthe

    Innovative didaktik. This deals with innovative didaktik from at methodological point of view in three ways - how to define the concept, how to develop it and how analyse it. Issues analysed: How to create innovative students? How to create innovative learning envoriments? These are core question...... in "Projekt Innovativ didaktik". The hidden curriculum is to inspire students to develop entreprenuership and creativty....

  5. Switchgrass a valuable biomass crop for energy

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The demand of renewable energies is growing steadily both from policy and from industry which seeks environmentally friendly feed stocks. The recent policies enacted by the EU, USA and other industrialized countries foresee an increased interest in the cultivation of energy crops; there is clear evidence that switchgrass is one of the most promising biomass crop for energy production and bio-based economy and compounds. Switchgrass: A Valuable Biomass Crop for Energy provides a comprehensive guide to  switchgrass in terms of agricultural practices, potential use and markets, and environmental and social benefits. Considering this potential energy source from its biology, breed and crop physiology to its growth and management to the economical, social and environmental impacts, Switchgrass: A Valuable Biomass Crop for Energy brings together chapters from a range of experts in the field, including a foreword from Kenneth P. Vogel, to collect and present the environmental benefits and characteristics of this a ...

  6. Economics of windpumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, A.K.N.

    1982-01-01

    To determine whether there is a prima facie case for considering windpumps, it is necessary to start from the area to be irrigated, the type of crop and the number of crops per year. From this data, an approximation can be made of the annual irrigation-water requirements of the crop (over and above the natural rainfall). An economic assessment is made of windpumps. The choice of the scale or size of windpumps and the general techniques for assessing the economic worth of investments are presented. The application of these techniques to the evaluation of a particular windpump and a comparison of windpumping with other modes of pumping are presented.

  7. 75 FR 53667 - Space Coast Regional Innovation Cluster Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... Coast Regional Innovation Cluster Competition AGENCY: Economic Development Administration (EDA... upcoming availability of funding for the Space Coast Regional Innovation Cluster (RIC) Competition under... economic development initiatives aligned with regional cluster and competitiveness analyses to sustain the...

  8. Distributed Energy Generation Systems Based on Renewable Energy and Natural Gas Blending: New Business Models for Economic Incentives, Electricity Market Design and Regulatory Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyangon, Joseph

    Expansion of distributed energy resources (DERs) including solar photovoltaics, small- and medium-sized wind farms, gas-fired distributed generation, demand-side management, and energy storage poses significant complications to the design, operation, business model, and regulation of electricity systems. Using statistical regression analysis, this dissertation assesses if increased use of natural gas results in reduced renewable energy capacity, and if natural gas growth is correlated with increased or decreased non-fossil renewable fuels demand. System Generalized Method of Moments (System GMM) estimation of the dynamic relationship was performed on the indicators in the econometric model for the ten states with the fastest growth in solar generation capacity in the U.S. (e.g., California, North Carolina, Arizona, Nevada, New Jersey, Utah, Massachusetts, Georgia, Texas, and New York) to analyze the effect of natural gas on renewable energy diffusion and the ratio of fossil fuels increase for the period 2001-2016 to policy driven solar demand. The study identified ten major drivers of change in electricity systems, including growth in distributed energy generation systems such as intermittent renewable electricity and gas-fired distributed generation; flat to declining electricity demand growth; aging electricity infrastructure and investment gaps; proliferation of affordable information and communications technologies (e.g., advanced meters or interval meters), increasing innovations in data and system optimization; and greater customer engagement. In this ongoing electric power sector transformation, natural gas and fast-flexing renewable resources (mostly solar and wind energy) complement each other in several sectors of the economy. The dissertation concludes that natural gas has a positive impact on solar and wind energy development: a 1% rise in natural gas capacity produces 0.0304% increase in the share of renewable energy in the short-run (monthly) compared

  9. 76 FR 23543 - The Jobs and Innovation Accelerator Challenge; a Coordinated Initiative To Advance Regional...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    ... Jobs and Innovation Accelerator Challenge; a Coordinated Initiative To Advance Regional Competitiveness... Federal resources to support regional innovation and sustainable economic prosperity. Knowing that regional innovation clusters provide a globally proven approach for developing economic prosperity, this...

  10. Economic Engagement Framework: Economic Impact Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambargis, Zoë; Mead, Charles Ian; Rzeznik, Stanislaw J.; Swenson, David; Weisenberger, Janet

    2014-01-01

    The Association of Public and Land-grant Universities' (APLU's) Commission on Innovation, Competitiveness, and Economic Prosperity (CICEP) views university contributions to the economy across a spectrum of activity--from educating students and creating the talent necessary for the 21st century workforce to developing innovation ecosystems and…

  11. Innovation in nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertel, E.

    2007-01-01

    Innovation has been a driving force for the success of nuclear energy and remains essential for its future. For the continued safe and economically effective operation and maintenance of existing nuclear systems, and to meet the goals set out by projects aiming at designing and implementing advanced systems for the future, efficient innovation systems are needed. Consequently, analysing innovation systems is essential to understand their characteristics and enhance their performance in the nuclear sector. Lessons learnt from innovation programmes that have already been completed can help enhance the effectiveness of future programmes. The analysis of past experience provides a means for identifying causes of failure as well as best practices. Although national and local conditions are important factors, the main drivers for the success of innovative endeavors are common to all countries. Cooperation and coordination among the various actors are major elements promoting success. All interested stakeholders, including research organisations, industrial actors, regulators and civil society, have a role to play in supporting the success of innovation, but governments are an essential trigger, especially for projects with long durations and very ambitious objectives. Governments have a major role to play in promoting innovation because they are responsible for the overall national energy policy which sets the stage for the eventual deployment of innovative products and processes. Moreover, only governments can create the stable legal and regulatory framework favourable to the undertaking and successful completion of innovation programmes. International organisations such as the NEA may help enhance the effectiveness of national policies and innovation programmes by providing a forum for exchanging information, facilitating multilateral collaboration and joint endeavors, and offering technical support for the management of innovative programmes

  12. PHP47 - Early assessment of highly innovative medical technology: clinical and economical gains of point-of-care applications for measuring potassium concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Wetering, G.; Hummel, J. Marjan; van Montfort, Augustinus P.W.P.; Montfoort, A.; IJzerman, Maarten Joost

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Innovative point-of-care diagnostics are likely to be having a strong impact on health care. The aim of this study is to conduct an early assessment of point-of-care chips. These chips can detect many particles and, consequently, many product-market combinations can be developed. This

  13. Tracing the evolutionary path to nitrogen-fixing crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaux, Pierre-Marc; Radhakrishnan, Guru; Oldroyd, Giles

    2015-08-01

    Nitrogen-fixing symbioses between plants and bacteria are restricted to a few plant lineages. The plant partner benefits from these associations by gaining access to the pool of atmospheric nitrogen. By contrast, other plant species, including all cereals, rely only on the scarce nitrogen present in the soil and what they can glean from associative bacteria. Global cereal yields from conventional agriculture are dependent on the application of massive levels of chemical fertilisers. Engineering nitrogen-fixing symbioses into cereal crops could in part mitigate the economic and ecological impacts caused by the overuse of fertilisers and provide better global parity in crop yields. Comparative phylogenetics and phylogenomics are powerful tools to identify genetic and genomic innovations behind key plant traits. In this review we highlight recent discoveries made using such approaches and we discuss how these approaches could be used to help direct the engineering of nitrogen-fixing symbioses into cereals. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Energy crops for biogas plants. Bavaria; Energiepflanzen fuer Biogasanlagen. Bayern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aigner, A.; Biertuempel, A.; Conrad, M. (and others)

    2012-08-15

    For agriculturists in Bavaria (Federal Republic of Germany), the brochure under consideration provides recommendations on alternative crop rotation systems. With the help of these alternative cultivation systems, crop rotation with high yields in combination with high diversity, diversification and sustainability can be realized. Subsequently to the presentation of energy crops for the production of biogas, recommendations for the design of crop rotation are given. Other chapters of this booklet deal with ensilage and gas yields as well as the economics of energy crop cultivation.

  15. Open innovation: The next decade

    OpenAIRE

    West, Joel; Salter, Ammon; VANHAVERBEKE, Wim; Chesbrough, Henry

    2014-01-01

    We review the contribution and evolution of open innovation since the publication of Chesbrough's 2003 Open Innovation book, and suggest likely directions going forward. We link the articles of this special issue to three key trends in open innovation research: better measurement, resolving the role of appropriability and linking that research to the management and economics literature. From this, we identify other trends and suggest opportunities for future research. (C) 2014 Published by El...

  16. Rainfed intensive crop systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jørgen E

    2014-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the importance of intensive cropping systems in contributing to the world supply of food and feed. The impact of climate change on intensive crop production systems is also discussed.......This chapter focuses on the importance of intensive cropping systems in contributing to the world supply of food and feed. The impact of climate change on intensive crop production systems is also discussed....

  17. 4F CROPS: Future crops for food, feed, fibre and fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Alexopoulou, E.; Christou, M.; Eleftheriadis, I. [Center for Renewable Energy Sources (CRES), Pikermi Attikis (Greece)

    2008-07-01

    As different sectors - food, feed, fiber, and fuels - compete for land, the yielding potential of the future non-food crops has to be as efficient as possible in order to minimize the competition for land. The main objective of 4F CROPS project is to survey and analyze all the parameters that will play an important role in successful non-food cropping systems in the agriculture of EU27 alongside the existing food crop systems. The work will start with the prediction of the future land use in short term (2020) and long term (2030), taking under consideration restrict factors for agriculture and the market demand for non-food crops. The cropping possibilities based on regional potential levels, ecology and climate will be determined. This group of non-food crops will be then subjected to a comparative cost analysis with conventional crops for the same time framework. Socio-economic impacts, like farmers' income, rural development, public development, and public acceptance will analyze. Then environmental implications will be assessed compared to their respective conventional products (fossil energy, conversional materials). Several environmental impacts will be assessed like soil quality and soil erosion, air quality and climate change, water issues, biodiversity and landscape by using LCA and EIE methods. The regulatory framework of the non-food crops will be considered including existing policies, co-existence and safety measures when the crops used for both food and non-food crops. All the collected information will be used for the formation of scenarios for successful non-food cropping alongside food cropping systems answering whether a completive bioeconomy is a viable option for EU27.

  18. Innovations in Higher Education? Hah!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner, Ann

    2012-01-01

    One can hardly mention higher education today without hearing the word "innovation," or its understudies "change," "reinvention," "transformation." Last summer the National Governors Association opened its meeting with a plenary session on higher education, innovation, and economic growth. But there is nothing funny about the need for innovation…

  19. Introduction: innovation and small business

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThis paper introduces the special issue of Small Business Economics on Innovation. What binds the papers together is either their focus on the effect of firm size on the causes and consequences of innovation or their focus on the role small firms play in reshaping the industrial

  20. Science Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA provides innovative research activities that help transform the protection of human health and the environment with high-risk, high-reward Pathfinder Innovation Projects, the P3 student competition, and low-cost air monitoring.

  1. Technology Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA produces innovative technologies and facilitates their creation in line with the Agency mission to create products such as the stormwater calculator, remote sensing, innovation clusters, and low-cost air sensors.

  2. Towards sustainable biotechnology innovation in Africa: The roles of stakeholders in local contexts

    OpenAIRE

    Roelofs, Caspar

    2015-01-01

    Aim To contribute to sustainable crop-biotechnology innovation in African contexts by operationalizing guiding concepts from Science, Technology and Society (STS) studies. Objectives To explore the roles of different stakeholders in crop-biotechnology innovation processes in Africa; To explore how local contexts shape crop-biotechnology differently; To explore how crop-biotechnology shapes different contexts differently; To make policy recommendations on stakeholder involvement in decision-ma...

  3. Determinants of firm's innovation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemplinerová, Alena; Hromádková, E.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 4 (2012), s. 487-503 ISSN 1210-0455 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC10062; GA ČR(CZ) GAP402/11/2362 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : innovation * research and development * public subsidies Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.561, year: 2012

  4. Growing Through Innovation Replicability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsuan, Juliana; Lévesque, Moren

    2012-01-01

    of growth policies. We use a utility function that considers proxies for both growth and failure potential to uncover the role played in selecting these policies by the economic environment of the targeted market for expansion. Our analysis further reveals the importance of the innovation...

  5. Essays on economic cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de E.A. (Bert)

    2006-01-01

    Schumpeter’s line of thought of multiple economic cycles is further investigated. The existence of multiple cycles in economic variables is demonstrated. In basic innovations five different cycles are found. Multiple cycle structures are shown in various macro-economic variables from the United

  6. Regional Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ; Sponsored Work Regional Economic Development Technology Opportunities User Facilities About Us Metrics In the News Publications Policies Feynman Center » Deploying Innovation » Regional Economic Development Regional Economic Development Supporting companies in every stage of development through access to

  7. Political innovations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva

    2017-01-01

    are mainly interested in assessing and promoting innovations in public service delivery, but have paid little or no attention to the need for innovations in polity, politics and policy. This article develops a research agenda for studying innovations in political institutions, in the political process...... and in policy outputs. It proposes a number of research themes related to political innovations that call for scholarly attention, and identifies push and pull factors influencing the likelihood that these themes will be addressed in future research....

  8. 75 FR 34418 - Notice of the Specialty Crop Committee's Stakeholder Listening Session

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... Notice of the Specialty Crop Committee's Stakeholder Listening Session AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, USDA. ACTION: Notice of stakeholder listening session. SUMMARY: The notice announces the Specialty Crop Committee's Stakeholder Listening Session. The document contained the wrong date for the...

  9. Subsidizing Media Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammer, Aske; Hobel, Emil

    When the Danish Parliament revised the media-subsidy framework in 2013/2014, one of the new initiatives was the introduction of a pool of funding earmarked to establishing and developing new news media – the so-called “innovation fund”. So, as the news industry struggles to keep journalism a viable...... and economically sustainable activity, the institutionalization of financial support for media innovation constitute one way for policy makers to bring (parts of) the journalistic environment up-to-date with the digital age, thereby improving the conditions for an informed citizenry in the future (Kammer...... scrutinizes the practical administration of the innovation fund in the first two years of its existence, analyzing all applications for innovation subsidies in 2014 and 2015 as well as all acceptance and rejection letters. With this empirical material and a combination of quantitative and qualitative...

  10. Innovation and energy use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    Energy conservation is back. War in the Middle East and environmental concerns are again responsible. Advocates of conservation cite engineering studies to show that improvements in energy efficiency are possible in almost all economic sectors and that the adoption of the cited measures will pay. In technical aspects, such studies correct, in as far as they go. However, conventional energy conservation studies, based on classical thermodynamics, are inherently biased toward refinement in execution of familiar techniques. The tell little of possibilities for profound conceptual change: innovation. Capital invested to refine execution of a technique becomes unavailable for innovation. However, it is innovation that brings the greatest gains in the efficiencies of use of all resources in production, including energy. The first object, in this paper is to explain limitations of conventional assessments; the second is to suggest the outlines of a dynamic theory that might reveal opportunities for innovation

  11. Embedding accountability throughout innovation process in the green economy: the need for an innovative approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Setiawan, A.D.; Singh, R.; Romijn, H.A.; Taufik, T.; Prabasari, I.; Rineksane, I.A.; Yaya, R.; Widowati, R.; Putra, R.; Riyadi, S.; Harsanto, P.

    Innovation in the green economy entails transformative change in society. Vital infrastructure technologies in the fields of energy, water, communication, waste handling, and so on have many interdependencies with other economic sectors. Hence, introducing green innovation in such sectors has

  12. A new vision on competitiveness within the post-crisis economy. Causes, evolutions and possible innovative solutions to fight against the undesirable effects of the economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Mariana CISMAŞ

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to highlight the need for promoting a new vision regarding competitiveness mostly in the context of amplifying the effects and the complexity of the nature of crisis manifested now on the international level (economic, environment, demographic, value and moral etc..The economic thinking pays increased attention to the issues related to economic crisis, as well as the development of theories that give satisfactory answers about the causes and, especially, the solutions to the crisis.Using scientific observation and comparative case study as research methods, this paper aims to make a theoretical critical review of the theories regarding the causes of economic crisis over time and to identify and analyze some anti-crisis policies.

  13. The Maltese ‘Land Registry Certification System’ : Latin and Anglo-Saxon influences : an innovative approach to the economic history of English-speaking nations

    OpenAIRE

    Di Marco, Elena

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author states that the Maltese registry is unique in using both Italian and Anglo-Saxon influences in it's recording system - in itself a valuable source of the country's economic and social history.

  14. Social innovation and deliberative democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgård, Lars; Eschweiler, Jennifer

    In much current literature on social entrepreneurship the entire focus is on the innovation and on the social value (the outcome) generated by the innovation. Social innovation is defined as “new and better ways to create social value” (Dees, 1998; 2002), or “social entrepreneurship seeks tipping...... points for innovation and change” (Light, 2008). In contrast to definitions that tentatively put the entire focus on the social value or end result without observing the process, Mair argues that the nature of social entrepreneurship “cannot be discussed without taking into consideration the complex set...... of institutional, social, economic and political factors” that make up the context of the social innovation (Mair, 2010: 26). Social innovation in its essence is a multidisciplinary phenomenon. Processes, practices and perceptions of social innovation tend to challenge not only the perception of state, market...

  15. Innovation hubs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O´Hara, J.; Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård; Turner, N.

    2008-01-01

    "Whilst ‘incremental innovation' is an imperative for the short-to-medium term success of a company, there is also a need for companies to engage in innovation activity that goes beyond the incremental in order to guarantee long-term success. However, such ‘radical innovation' (RI) poses new chal...

  16. Brugerdreven innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helms, Niels Henrik; Larsen, Lasse Juel

    2007-01-01

    På et generelt plan er vores afsæt et opgør med traditionelle modeller for kreativitet og innovation. Artiklen mener, at brugerdreven innovation ikke bare en god idé, men en beskrivelse af, hvordan innovation finder sted. Vores afsæt er interaktionsdesign, hvor vi bygger på den antagelse...

  17. Biogas production from catch crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molinuevo-Salces, Beatriz; Larsen, Søren U.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2013-01-01

    , being in the ranges of 1.4–3.0 t ha−1 and 0.3–1.7 t ha−1 for Holstebro and Aabenraa, respectively. Specific methane yields were in the range of 229–450 m3 t−1 of VS. Methane yields per hectare of up to 800 m3 ha−1 were obtained, making catch crops a promising source of feedstock for manure-based biogas......Manure-based biogas plants in Denmark are dependent on high yielding biomass feedstock in order to secure economically feasible operation. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of ten different catch crop species or mixtures as feedstock for biogas production in co...

  18. Promoting entrepreneurship and innovation in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leendert de Bell

    2012-01-01

    The potential contribution of entrepreneurship to economic development has been widely acknowledged . Entrepreneurs do not only create employment, productivity, competition and economic growth, but also accelerate the generation, dissemination and application of innovative ideas, through developing

  19. Framing Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, Louise Møller; Laursen, Linda Nhu

    2017-01-01

    Designing a remarkable product innovation is a difficult challenge, which businesses today continuously are striving to tackle. This challenge is particularly present in the early phase of innovation, where the main product concept and frames of the innovation is determined. As a main challenge...... in the early phase is the reasoning process; innovation team are faced with open- ended ill-defines problems, where they need to make decisions about an unknown future having only incomplete, ambiguous and contradicting insights available. We study the reasoning of experts, how they frame to make sense of all...... the insights and create a basis for decision making in relation to a new project. Based on case studies of five innovative products from various industries, we suggest a Product Reasoning Model for understanding reasoning and envisioning of new product innovations in the early phases of innovation....

  20. Multispecies weed competition and their economic threshold on the wheat crop Interferência e nível de dano econômico de várias espécies infestantes na cultura de trigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gherekhloo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Two field experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of multispecies weed competition on wheat grain yield and to determine their economic threshold on the crop. The experiments were conducted in 2002, on two sites in Iran: at the Agricultural Research Station on Ferdowsi University of Mashhad (E1 and on the fields of Shirvan's Agricultural College (E2. A 15 x 50 m area of a 15 ha wheat field in E1 and a 15 x 50 m area of a 28 ha wheat field in E2 were selected as experimental sites. These areas were managed like other parts of the fields, except for the use of herbicides. At the beginning of the shooting stage, 30 points were randomly selected by dropping a 50 x 50 cm square marker on each site. The weeds present in E1 were: Avena ludoviciana, Chenopodium album, Solanum nigrum, Stellaria holostea, Convolvulus spp., Fumaria spp., Sonchus spp., and Polygonum aviculare. In E2 the weeds were A. ludoviciana, Erysimum sp., P. aviculare, Rapistrum rugosum, C. album, Salsola kali, and Sonchus sp. The data obtained within the sampled squares were submitted to regression equations and weeds densities were calculated in terms of TCL (Total Competitive Load. The regression analysis model indicated that only A. ludoviciana, Convolvulus spp. and C. album, in E1; and A. ludoviciana, S. kali, and R. rugosum, in E2 had a significant effect on the wheat yield reduction. Weed economic thresholds were 5.23 TCL in E1 and 6.16 TCL in E2; which were equivalent to 5 plants m-2 of A. ludoviciana or 12 plants m-2 of Convolvulus spp. or 19 plants m-2 of C. album in E1; and 6 plants m-2 A. ludoviciana, 13 plants m-2 S. kali and 27 plants m-2 R. rugosum in E2. Simulations of economic weed thresholds using several wheat grain prices and weed control costs allowed a better comparison of the experiments, suggesting that a more competitive crop at location E1 than at E2 was the cause of a lower weed competitive ability at the first location.Foram realizados dois

  1. Innovation, entrepreneurship and textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton Godfrey, A.; Pourmojib, S.

    2017-10-01

    Innovation and entrepreneurship have become increasingly important parts of economic development in almost every country, region, and community. In this research we investigate the reasons people become entrepreneurs in the textile and apparel industries and compare entrepreneurship in these industries with other industries looking also at the success factors for start up companies. During our research we found many disrupters, people entering the textile and apparel industries from outside often having no prior experience in textiles or apparel. We also investigate the impact of government intervention on entrepreneurship. In recognition of the large economic impact entrepreneurial companies have on economic development and job growth, almost all federal governments, regional governments, and community governments have created support for innovation and entrepreneurship.

  2. Topography Mediates the Influence of Cover Crops on Soil Nitrate Levels in Row Crop Agricultural Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moslem Ladoni

    Full Text Available Supplying adequate amounts of soil N for plant growth during the growing season and across large agricultural fields is a challenge for conservational agricultural systems with cover crops. Knowledge about cover crop effects on N comes mostly from small, flat research plots and performance of cover crops across topographically diverse agricultural land is poorly understood. Our objective was to assess effects of both leguminous (red clover and non-leguminous (winter rye cover crops on potentially mineralizable N (PMN and [Formula: see text] levels across a topographically diverse landscape. We studied conventional, low-input, and organic managements in corn-soybean-wheat rotation. The rotations of low-input and organic managements included rye and red clover cover crops. The managements were implemented in twenty large undulating fields in Southwest Michigan starting from 2006. The data collection and analysis were conducted during three growing seasons of 2011, 2012 and 2013. Observational micro-plots with and without cover crops were laid within each field on three contrasting topographical positions of depression, slope and summit. Soil samples were collected 4-5 times during each growing season and analyzed for [Formula: see text] and PMN. The results showed that all three managements were similar in their temporal and spatial distributions of NO3-N. Red clover cover crop increased [Formula: see text] by 35% on depression, 20% on slope and 32% on summit positions. Rye cover crop had a significant 15% negative effect on [Formula: see text] in topographical depressions but not in slope and summit positions. The magnitude of the cover crop effects on soil mineral nitrogen across topographically diverse fields was associated with the amount of cover crop growth and residue production. The results emphasize the potential environmental and economic benefits that can be generated by implementing site-specific topography-driven cover crop management

  3. Topography Mediates the Influence of Cover Crops on Soil Nitrate Levels in Row Crop Agricultural Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladoni, Moslem; Kravchenko, Alexandra N; Robertson, G Phillip

    2015-01-01

    Supplying adequate amounts of soil N for plant growth during the growing season and across large agricultural fields is a challenge for conservational agricultural systems with cover crops. Knowledge about cover crop effects on N comes mostly from small, flat research plots and performance of cover crops across topographically diverse agricultural land is poorly understood. Our objective was to assess effects of both leguminous (red clover) and non-leguminous (winter rye) cover crops on potentially mineralizable N (PMN) and [Formula: see text] levels across a topographically diverse landscape. We studied conventional, low-input, and organic managements in corn-soybean-wheat rotation. The rotations of low-input and organic managements included rye and red clover cover crops. The managements were implemented in twenty large undulating fields in Southwest Michigan starting from 2006. The data collection and analysis were conducted during three growing seasons of 2011, 2012 and 2013. Observational micro-plots with and without cover crops were laid within each field on three contrasting topographical positions of depression, slope and summit. Soil samples were collected 4-5 times during each growing season and analyzed for [Formula: see text] and PMN. The results showed that all three managements were similar in their temporal and spatial distributions of NO3-N. Red clover cover crop increased [Formula: see text] by 35% on depression, 20% on slope and 32% on summit positions. Rye cover crop had a significant 15% negative effect on [Formula: see text] in topographical depressions but not in slope and summit positions. The magnitude of the cover crop effects on soil mineral nitrogen across topographically diverse fields was associated with the amount of cover crop growth and residue production. The results emphasize the potential environmental and economic benefits that can be generated by implementing site-specific topography-driven cover crop management in row-crop

  4. Transaction Costs For Innovations Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya A. Romanov

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the analysis of transaction costs of the innovations distribution. The factors, affecting the innovations diffusion in accordance with the clusters, relations, dynamics of the distribution are disclosed. Transaction costs as a result of bounded rationality of economic entities are detected. The inevitability of transaction costs as an objective phenomenon is shown. Their dependence on the quality of economic information and information uncertainty is indicated. Correlative approach for the analysis of these costs is applied. The article justifies that the reduction of transaction costs increases the efficiency of innovations.

  5. Water Quality Impacts of Cover Crop/Manure Management Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kern, James Donald

    1997-01-01

    Crop production, soil system, water quality, and economic impacts of four corn silage production systems were compared through a field study including 16 plots (4 replications of each treatment). Systems included a rye cover crop and application of liquid dairy manure in the spring and fall. The four management systems were: 1) traditional, 2) double- crop, 3) roll-down, and 4) undercut. In the fourth system, manure was applied below the soil surface during the ...

  6. Biomass for energy from field crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubr, J.

    1988-01-01

    On the basis of a field experiment, selected crops were evaluated for feasibility in producing biomass applicable as raw material for fuels. Both the main products and byproducts of the crops were investigated in the laboratory for qualitative characteristics and were subjected to methanogenic fermentation under mesophilic conditions. The biogas energy potential and gross energy potential were determined. Under the climatic conditions of Northern Europe, sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) was found to be a superior energy crop. White cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. Capitata), rhubarb (Rheum rhaponticum) and comfrey (Symphytum asperum) can be considered as potential crops for biomass. The agrotechnical and the economic aspects of the biomass production are being subjected to further investigation.

  7. The benefits of herbicide-resistant crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jerry M

    2012-10-01

    Since 1996, genetically modified herbicide-resistant crops, primarily glyphosate-resistant soybean, corn, cotton and canola, have helped to revolutionize weed management and have become an important tool in crop production practices. Glyphosate-resistant crops have enabled the implementation of weed management practices that have improved yield and profitability while better protecting the environment. Growers have recognized their benefits and have made glyphosate-resistant crops the most rapidly adopted technology in the history of agriculture. Weed management systems with glyphosate-resistant crops have often relied on glyphosate alone, have been easy to use and have been effective, economical and more environmentally friendly than the systems they have replaced. Glyphosate has worked extremely well in controlling weeds in glyphosate-resistant crops for more than a decade, but some key weeds have evolved resistance, and using glyphosate alone has proved unsustainable. Now, growers need to renew their weed management practices and use glyphosate with other cultural, mechanical and herbicide options in integrated systems. New multiple-herbicide-resistant crops with resistance to glyphosate and other herbicides will expand the utility of existing herbicide technologies and will be an important component of future weed management systems that help to sustain the current benefits of high-efficiency and high-production agriculture. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Finland: Innovation Policy Tools under National Innovation System Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria A. Vorobeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the for a long time Finland’s national innovation system (NIS had been being one of the most successful and effective in the world. But some years ago the situation changed: Finland’s NIS run into system crisis. And today Finnish government tries to work out anticrisis innovation policy. So the purpose of this article is to show up the innovation policy instruments which are able put an end to the crisis and to determine conditions of their successful use. Methods: the article is based on the national innovation systems concept and government policy-mix aimed at the NIS development. Results: the authors show up how Finnish government looks for optimal policy-mix to overcome the crisis, demonstrate in details complementary components of the relevant innovation policy, describe conditions for their success and effectiveness to consider whether they are useful in other countries. Conclusions and Relevance: to overcome the NIS crisis the Finnish government uses such instruments as strategic programs of socio-economic development with targets which can’t be achieved without adequate high technology and innovative development complemented by incentives to make business innovate actively. The conditions of such policy success are: 1 such feature of Finnish society as all stakeholders of economic development consensus on one issue: the main factor of development are innovations; 2 anticrisis stage of Finnish innovative policy is based previously accumulated knowledge and know-how. 

  9. Business model innovation: the role of leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Foss, Nicolai, J.; Saebi, Tina

    2015-01-01

    We draw on the complementarity literature in economics and management research to dimensionalize business models innovations. Specifically, such innovation can be dimensionalized in terms of the depth and the breadth of the changes to the company’s business model that they imply. In turn, different business model innovations are associated with different management challenges and require different leadership interventions to become successful.

  10. The Social Dynamics of Innovation Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, Roel; Benneworth, Paul Stephen; Irawati, Dessy; Boekema, Frans

    2014-01-01

    The social dynamics of innovation networks captures the important role of trust, social capital, institutions and norms and values in the creation of knowledge in innovation networks. In doing so, this book connects to a long-standing debate on the socio-spatial context of innovation in economic

  11. Migrants and innovation in African societies: definition of a research field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabogunje, A L

    1975-01-01

    Discussion focuses on the position, role, and importance of migrants in African societies. Specifically, it directs attention to the role of migrants both as innovators and as agents for the spatial diffusion of innovations. In this respect it seeks to identify those factors predisposing migrants to innovate and those that induce both their host community and their home community to be receptive to their innovativeness. The 4 sections of the discussion cover the following: a conceptual framework to explain the migrant's predisposition to innovate and the nature of the innovation carried out; empirical evidence, largely from West Africa, of some innovative activities of migrants; research implications of this phenomenon; and the significance of this type of study for current attempts at economic development in Africa. All forms of migrations need not have innovative implications. A simple change of residence from 1 city to another need not encourage innovativeness. It is not so much the distance factor as the intensity of contrast which predisposes to innovativeness. In Africa such intensity of contrasts is found between the social organizations, the behavior and activity patterns, and the norms and thought habits of various ethnic groups. A 2nd element is deprivation of essentials, as referred to by Barnett who regards essentials as an entirely relative term having significance only for a particular group. Migration often creates a sense of deprivation and stimulates innovative cultural readjustments if a people are to survive. Adjustments, at the very least, must be made to accommodate for the absence of essentials that were relied upon in the old habitat. The 3rd dimension is the home area of the migrants, an area to which they can return whenever they like if their migration has been free and voluntary. In this situation their innovative impact can be considerable. Usually, the fact of their having migrated enhances their social. Return migrants can come to be

  12. The state of genetically modified crop regulation in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Stuart J

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops were first commercialized in Canada in 1995 and the 2014 crop represents the 20th year of successful production. Prior to the first commercialization of GM crops, Canada reviewed its existing science-based regulatory framework and adapted the existing framework to allow for risk assessments on the new technology to be undertaken in a timely and efficient manner. The result has been the rapid and widespread adoption of GM varieties of canola, corn and soybeans. The first decade of GM crop production precipitated 2 landmark legal cases relating to patent infringement and economic liability, while the second decade witnessed increased political efforts to have GM crops labeled in Canada as well as significant challenges from the low level comingling of GM crops with non-GM commodities. This article reviews the 20 y of GM crop production in Canada from a social science perspective that includes intellectual property, consumer acceptance and low level presence. PMID:25437238

  13. The feasibility of crop diversification in rice based cropping systems in haor ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Shopan, J.; Bhuiya, M.S.U.; Kader, M.A.; Hasan, M.K.

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted in five farmers’ field in Dingaputa haor of Purba Tetulia village, Mohangonj Upazila in Netrakona district during the period from 20 July 2010 to 15 May 2011. The objective of the study was to determine the feasibility of growing short duration vegetable and oil crops in seasonal fallow of Boro rice-Fallow-Fallow cropping patterns in terms of both combined yields and economic performance. Six short duration vegetables such as potato, red amaranth, stem amaranth, sp...

  14. The relationship between competition and innovation: measuring innovation and causality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lamoen, R.C.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304823856

    2011-01-01

    Technological progress is an important engine of economic growth. The recognition of the importance of technological progress for firm performance and economic growth has ignited the search for drivers of innovation. The search for these drivers and the seminal work of Schumpeter (1942) raised the

  15. RNA interference in designing transgenic crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nusrat; Datta, Swapan K; Datta, Karabi

    2010-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a sequence specific gene silencing mechanism, triggered by the introduction of dsRNA leading to mRNA degradation. It helps in switching on and off the targeted gene, which might have significant impact in developmental biology. Discovery of RNAi represents one of the most promising and rapidly advancing frontiers in plant functional genomics and in crop improvement by plant metabolic engineering and also plays an important role in reduction of allergenicity by silencing specific plant allergens. In plants the RNAi technology has been employed successfully in improvement of several plant species- by increasing their nutritional value, overall quality and by conferring resistance against pathogens and diseases. The review gives an insight to the perspective use of the technology in designing crops with innovation, to bring improvement to crop productivity and quality.

  16. Induced mutations for crop improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micke, A.; Donini, B.; Maluszynski, M.

    1990-01-01

    Mutation induction has become an established tool in plant breeding to supplement existing germ plasma and to improve cultivars in certain specific traits. Hundreds of improved varieties have been released to farmers for many different crop species, demonstrating the economic value of the technology. Limitations arise mainly from the large mutagenized populations to be screened and from the unsatisfactory selection methods. Both limitations may be eased to some extent by advances in techniques of plant in-vitro culture. (author). Refs, 1 fig., 7 tabs

  17. Where to implement local biotech innovations? A framework for multi-scale socio-economic and environmental impact assessment of Green Bio-Refineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cong, Ronggang; Stefaniak, Irena; Madsen, Bjarne

    2017-01-01

    Green Bio-Refineries (GBRs) have economic and environmental potentials through changing land use from cereals to grass production and provision of grass-based protein feed for livestock production and other valuable byproducts. However, the potentials are dependent on local conditions of the GBRs...

  18. Leadership-driven innovation & evolution of societies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coccia, M.

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental problem in the field of the economics of innovation is which economic subjects are the sources of radical innovations and high technological performances. The study here confronts this problem by developing a theoretical framework underpinned in the concept of purposeful system

  19. The Performance Of Oil Palm And Different Food Crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment was carried out between 1996 and 2004 to determine the productivity and economic returns to the resource base of farmers practicing different oil palm/food crop intercropping in an intensive four-year sequential cropping using the standard oil palm density. Oil palm was intercropped for four years, ...

  20. Contribution of Food Crops to Household Food Security Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    Department of Agricultural Economics And Extension, Usmanu Danfodiyo ... farmers to household food security in Patigi Local Government Area, Kwara ... They earn more revenue from rice (87%), sorghum (35%), melon (14.2%), ... the type of crops they grow on their farm .... help farmers achieve high crop yield, ability to.