Sample records for crocidolomia binotalis zell

  1. Inherited sterility in cabbage pest crocidolomia binotalis zell as induced by gamma rays

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    Sutrisno, S. (National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia). Pasar Djumat Research Centre)


    Male moths of crocidolomia binotalis which have been irradiated with gamma rays at a dose of 0.325 kGy were mated with the untreated females. The resulting sterility observed from this mating was 70.86%. A higher sterility was obtained from either male or female F1 offspring when mated with untreated insects (88.62% and 89.46%, respectively). Irradiation of female moths at a dose of 0.15 kGy resulted in 79.6% sterility, however, the sterility of their first offsprings was lower.

  2. Reduction of population of cabbage pests plutela maculipennis curtis and crocidolomia binotalis zell as affected by the release of radiosterilized moths

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    Hoedaya, M.S.; Sutrisno, S.; Nasroh, A.; Sastradihardja, S.I. (National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia). Pasar Djumat Research Centre)


    Moths of plutella maculipennis curtis and crocidolimia binotalis zell radiosterilized with 30 Krad and 40 Krad of gamma radiation respectively were released into a laboratory-cage of 90 cm x 60 cm x 60 cm, a field-cage of 2 m x 2 m x 2 m and an experimental plot of 10 m x 15 m to study their effect on the reduction of F1-population. The release of 450 irradiated moths in the laboratory-cage containing 50 unirradiated moths can reduce the F1-population of plutella maculipennis and crocidolomia binotalis by 61.1% and 65.3% respectively, while in the field-cage the F1-population of plutella maculipennis and crocidolomia binotalis decreased by 55.6% and 50.55% respectively. The release of about 4,500 irradiated crocidolomia binotalis into an experimental plot containing 500 normal moths can reduce the F1-population by 41.02% in the dry season and 50.55% in the rainy season. The release of about 5,000 irradiated moths of plutella maculipennis into an experimental plot containing about 350 moths of natural population resulted in a reduction of egg hatch from 85.9% in the unreleased plot to 17.0% in the released plot.

  3. The effect of Mirabilis jalapa leaves biopesticide treatment on the mycelium growth of entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana inside the larvae body Crocidolomia binotalis (United States)

    Pramita, Mia; Anggraeni, Tjandra


    Pest control with biological method (biopesticide and entomopathogenic fungi) is an alternative program to reduce application of chemical insecticide. Biopesticide of Mirabilis jalapa leaves has been discovered rich in secondary metabolites which has antifeedant activity that can provide physiological interference in insect larvae and the generation numbers[1]. Entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana has potential to control pest populations[2]. The growth of mycelium B. bassiana may interfere metabolism process inside the host body. Otherwise, B. bassiana produce toxins such as beauvericin that can increase mortality of pest. Combination of M. jalapa and B. bassiana reduce LT50 on C. binotalis larvae[3]. Thus, this study aims to determine influence of provision of biopesticide M. jalapa leaves on growth of mycelium entomopathogenic fungi B. bassiana inside larvae body C. binotalis and to detect the presence of beauvericin in vivo. Third instar larvae of C. binotalis were divided into a control, fungal and combination group. The combination group was given biopesticide and fungi. The concentration of biopesticide was 0.8% (w/v) and concentration of fungi spores was 107 spores/ml. Spores (vol. 5µl) done topically to larvae in interval 6 hours after treatment of biopesticide on non-pesticide cabbage leaves. Afterwards, histological observations performed at 24, 48, 72, 96 hours after treatment. The result show of emergence hyphae and mycelium growth inside lumen of larvae midgut on combination group faster than fungal group. This is thought to be caused by the influence of secondary metabolites of biopesticide M. jalapa leaves. In addition, beauviricin is detectable both of fungal and combination group. Thus, it can be concluded that treatment of biopesticide from M. jalapa leaves can accelerate on growth of mycelium entomopathogenic fungi B. bassiana inside the larvae body C. binotalis and toxic of B. bassiana such as beauvericin was detected on fungal and

  4. Radioisotope labelling of several major insect pest. Dipping the pupae in /sup 32/P solution

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    Sutrisno, S. (National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia). Pasar Djumat Research Centre)


    Radioisotope uptake by insects could take place through various parts i.e. mouth, cuticula, intersegmental, secretion and excretion organs. Usually insects are labelled internally by feeding them on an artificial diet containing radioisotope solution. Labelling of several insect pests of cabbage (Crocidolomia binotalis) Zell and Plutella maculipennis Curt and rice (Chilo suppressalis Walker) by dipping of the pupae in /sup 32/P solution showed a promising result. Pupae of Crocidolomia binotalis Zell dipped in 3 ml solution of /sup 32/P with specific activities of 1, 3, 5 and 7 had developed labelled adults of sufficiently high radioactivity levels for ecological studies. Similar results were also obtained with Plutella maculipennis Curt and Chilo suppressalis Walker with doses of 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 /sup 32/P solution. The best doses for radioisotope labelling by dipping of the insects Crocidolomia binotalis Zell, Plutella maculipennis Curt, and Chilo suppressalis Walker were 1, 9, and 7 respectivelly.

  5. B-Zell-Lymphome der Haut - Pathogenese, Diagnostik und Therapie. (United States)

    Nicolay, Jan P; Wobser, Marion


    Primär kutane B-Zell-Lymphome (PCBCL) beschreiben reifzellige lymphoproliferative Erkrankungen der B-Zell-Reihe, die primär die Haut betreffen. Die Biologie und der klinische Verlauf der einzelnen PCBCL-Subtypen variieren untereinander stark und unterscheiden sich grundsätzlich von primär nodalen und systemischen B-Zell-Lymphomen. Primär kutane Marginalzonenlymphome (PCMZL) und primäre kutane follikuläre Keimzentrumslymphome (PCFCL) werden auf Grund ihres unkomplizierten Verlaufs und ihrer exzellenten Prognose zu den indolenten PCBCL gezählt. Demgegenüber stellen die diffus großzelligen B-Zell-Lymphome, hauptsächlich vom Beintyp (DLBCL, LT) die aggressiveren PCBCL-Varianten mit schlechterer Prognose dar. Für die Ausbreitungsdiagnostik und die Therapieentscheidung sind eine genaue histologische und immunhistochemische Klassifizierung sowie der Ausschluss einer systemischen Beteiligung in Abgrenzung zu nodalen oder systemischen Lymphomen notwendig. Die Diagnostik sollte dabei durch molekularbiologische Untersuchungen unterstützt werden. Therapeutisch stehen für die indolenten PCBCL primär operative und radioonkologische Maßnahmen im Vordergrund sowie eine Systemtherapie mit dem CD20-Antikörper Rituximab bei disseminiertem Befall. Die aggressiveren Varianten sollten in erster Linie mit Kombinationen aus Rituximab und Polychemotherapieschemata wie z. B. dem CHOP-Schema oder Modifikationen davon behandelt werden. Auf Grund der in allen seinen Einzelheiten noch nicht vollständig verstandenen Pathogenese und Biologie sowie des begrenzten Therapiespektrums der PCBCL besteht hier, speziell beim DLBCL, LT, noch erheblicher Forschungsbedarf. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. F. Herve operett "Mam'zelle Nitouche" majandusgümnaasiumi laval / Ulvi Tamm

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    Tamm, Ulvi


    Lauluõpetaja Ulvi Tamme ja tema õpilaste lavastatud operetist "Mam'zelle Nitouche". Esiettekanne 18. veebr. Pärnu majandusgümnaasiumi aulas ja 14. märtsil Tallinnas Salme Kultuurikeskuses vabariiklikul muusikateatrite festivalil


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    Novalia Jelita Sari dan Djoko Prijono .


    Full Text Available Development and reproduction of Crocidolomia pavonana (F. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae on natural and artificial diets.  Development and reproduction of Crocidolomia pavonana on natural and artificial diets were studied in the laboratory (25.2 ± 0.9 C; 84.6% ± 6.7% RH; ca. 12 h photophase.  The natural diets tested were broccoli, cabbage, chinese cabbage, and cauliflower leaves.  The artificial diets used were agar–based general lepidopteran diets mixed with red bean or broccoli leaves, and supplemented with vitamins and microbial inhibitors.  Observation of insect development was done since the egg stage.  After the eggs hatched, larvae were kept singly in plastic cups and fed with appropriate diets.  Fifty larvae were used for each diet.  Records were kept with regard to the duration of each larval instar, pupal period, and the pupal weight.  The emerging adults were paired, and then the number of dead adults and that of eggs laid were recorded daily.  On all the natural diets tested, the larval stage of C. pavonana passed through four instars.  The egg incubation, total larval developmental, and pupal period of C. pavonana on chinese cabbage were the shortest compared to those on the other natural diets.  The pupal weight, however, was the highest on broccoli, followed by that on chinese cabbage, cabbage, and cauliflower.  The female fecundity was also the highest on broccoli (average 258 eggs/female followed by that on chinese cabbage (212, cauliflower (162, and cabbage (102.  Broccoli diet also yielded adults with the longest lifespan although the adult lifespan on broccoli was not significantly different from that on the other natural diets, except that of males on cabbage.  C. pavonana failed to develop successfully on six kinds of artificial diets tested.  The best artificial diet (broccoli–based diet with microbial inhibitors 20% of the normal amount only yielded two males and five females with deformed wings, but

  8. Physiological Response of Crocidolomia pavonana to the Calophyllum soulattri Active Fraction

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    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the physiological response of the cabbage head caterpillar Crocidolomia pavonana treated with an active fraction of Calophyllum soulattri bark extract. Extraction of the test plant materials were performed with maceration method using methanol, continued by counter-current distribution separation in ethylacetate and water. Methanol fractionation of C. soulattri was performed by vaccuum liquid chromatography and the bioassays were conducted by a leaf-feeding method. The results showed that the dichloromethane fraction of C. soulattri had strong insecticidal activity against C. pavonana larvae, with LC50 of 0.05%. Sublethal treatments with the active fraction at LC15, LC50, and LC85 reduced the relative growth rate of the fourth instars by 48.9-94.1%. The treatments with the fraction at LC15 and LC50 to the fourth instars reduced the activity of invertase and protease enzyme by 20.7-24.1 and 14.4-25.14%, respectively, but increased the activity of trehalase by 26.7-120% as compared with controls.


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    Djoko Prijono .


    Full Text Available Polytomous Quantal Response of Crocidolomia pavonana (F. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae to Extracts of Aglaia spp. and Dysoxylum spp. (Meliaceae.  This work was done to study the polytomous binary response of the cabbage head caterpillar Crocidolomia pavonana (F. to extracts of two species each of Aglaia and Dysoxylum (Meliaceae. Second-instar larvae C. pavonana were fed extract-treated broccoli leaves for 2 days and then the surviving larvae were maintained on untreated leaves until pupation.  Relationship between extract concentration and the number of dead larvae in different instars was analyzed using polytomous quantal response analysis based on the conditional logit model.  The results showed that twig extract of Dysoxylum acutangulum and seed extract of D. mollissimum possessed strong insect growth regulating activity against C. pavonana larvae as reflected by highly significant responses in the later insect life stages after the feeding treatment was removed, including the significant occurrence of malformed pupae. On the contrary, the feeding treatment with twig extract of Aglaia odorata and seed extract of A. odoratissima resulted in highly significant responses only in the treated larval instar, and after the feeding treatment was removed, responses in the later life stages were insignificant or much less significant. Overall, the above results suggest that Dysoxylum extracts interfered with hormonally-controlled insect development and metamorphosis, whereas the activity of Aglaia extracts was more insecticidal rather than insect growth regulating.


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    Nuraida .


    Full Text Available Effects of formulations and storage length on the viability, bioactivity and persistence of Metarhizium anisopliae against Crocidolomia pavonana Fabricius. Crocidolomia pavonana Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae is important pest on vegetables form Brassicaceae family, that required to be control. Metarhizium anisopliae entomopathogenic fungus is one potensial of the biological agent that can be used to control C. pavonana. This study aimed to investigated the effect of storage duration on viability, bioactivity and persistence of M. anisopliae after formulated to control C. pavonana. Laboratory experiment was arranged in completely randomized design with the treatment was storage duration that included 2,4,6,8 and 10 weeks that replicated three trials. The variabels to be measured were viability and bioactivity at concentrations106, 107, and108. Field experiment used T Student test with treatment was duration of M. anisopliae formulation survive and its persistence on C. pavonana. Laboratory experiment results showed that the best storage duration of formulation on Metarhizium viability was pellet frmulation at 4th week 4 after storage. While the best bioactivity was pellet formulation with concentration 107 at 10 weeks after storage. Field experiment results showed that M. anisopliae formulation could be survived and its persistence to control pests C. pavonana until 4th day after application, either pellet or powder formulation.

  11. Genetische Charakterisierung diffuser großzelliger B-Zell Lymphome vom Keimzentrumstyp, vom aktivierten B-Zelltyp und von primär mediastinalen diffusen großzelligen B-Zell Lymphomen


    Jehn, Philipp


    Diffuse großzellige B-Zell Lymphome (DLBCL) gehören zu den häufigsten lymphatischen Tumoren. Die histologische Klassifikation dieser großen Gruppe von Tumoren ist dabei noch immer durch die mangelnde Reproduzierbarkeit in der Diagnostik geprägt. Außerdem verhalten sich DLBCL klinisch ausgesprochen heterogen. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurden DLBCL mittels komparativer genomischer Hybridisierung (CGH) untersucht. Die DLBCL waren im Vorfeld von uns unabhängig mittels microarray-basierter Genexp...

  12. Gangguan fisiologi dan biokimia Crocidolomia pavonana (F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae akibat perlakuan ekstrak campuran Tephrosia vogelli dan Piper aduncum

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    Eka Chandra Lina


    Full Text Available Plant extracts have been known to cause physiological and biochemical interferences against insect, such as feeding inhibitor, food assimilation, and changes on activity of cytochrome b5 and cytochrome P450. This study was carried out to examine the effect of the extracts mixture of Tephrosia vogeliiand : Piper aduncum (1 : 5 on the physiology of Crocidolomia pavonana (F. as well as extract of P. aduncum on biochemical of C. pavonana. The study showed that larvae of C. pavonana was experiencing a feeding inhibition until 94.82% after treated with extracts mixture on concentration 0.06% or equivalent to LC95. However, larvae treated with extracts mixture on LC25 and LC50 only experienced a relative growth disorders as a result of intrinsic toxicity of extracts mixture which enters into the body of insects. Insect adaptation to toxic plant compounds indicated by an increase in the digestibility of larvae approximately 11.11%. Furthermore, detoxification mechanism by larvae against active compounds of P. aduncum occured and shown by an increase of oxidative enzyme activity of cytochrome b5 and cytochrome P450, in in vivo and in vitro compared to control. This study provides an information about mode of action of extracts mixture of T. vogelii and P. aduncum (1 : 5 on larvae of C. pavonana and detoxification mechanism by larvae due to extract of P. aduncum 


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    Gracia Mediana


    Full Text Available Hama Crocidolomia pavonana merupakan salah satu kendala biotik penting pada budi daya tanaman sayuran famili Brassicaceae. Salah satu sarana pengendalian hama yang ramah lingkungan ialah insektisida nabati. Penelitian ini bertujuan menentukan pengaruh pemanasan dan penyimpanan terhadap aktivitas insektisida ekstrak buah lerak (Sapindus rarak pada larva C. pavonana. Irisan buah lerak digiling dalam akuades menggunakan blender. Tiga macam ekstrak lerak yang diuji ialah (1 ekstrak tanpa pemanasan dan langsung digunakan, (2 ekstrak yang disiapkan dengan pemanasan pada suhu 40 °C dan langsung digunakan, serta (3 ekstrak dengan pemanasan dan disimpan pada suhu  ruang selama 7 hari. Setiap ekstrak diuji pada enam taraf konsentrasi dengan menggunakan metode perlakuan daun pakan. Larva instar II C. pavonana diberi pakan daun kubis perlakuan selama 2 hari dan daun tanpa perlakuan pada 2 hari berikutnya. Data kematian larva uji dicatat setiap hari sampai hari ke-4 dan diolah dengan analisis probit. Secara umum mortalitas larva C. pavonana pada semua perlakuan meningkat tajam antara 24 dan 48 jam setelah perlakuan (JSP. Berdasarkan LC95 pada 96 JSP, ekstrak lerak dengan pemanasan (LC95 2,53% sekitar 1,7 kali lebih toksik terhadap larva C. pavonana daripada ekstrak lerak tanpa pemanasan (LC95 4,19%, tetapi toksisitas ekstrak tersebut menurun sekitar 2,9 kali lipat setelah disimpan pada suhu ruang selama 7 hari (LC95 7.43%. Selain mengakibatkan kematian, perlakuan dengan ekstrak lerak juga dapat menghambat perkembangan larva C. pavonana dari instar II ke instar IV.Kata kunci: insektisida nabati, ketahanan simpan, cara penyiapan, toksisitas.

  14. Ifosfamid, Epirubicin und Etoposid +/- Rituximab bei refraktären oder rezidivierten B-Zell Lymphomen: eine Analyse der Remissionsinduktion und Stammzellmobilisation


    Müller, Andrea Maria


    Die Chemotherapie mit Ifosfamid, Epirubicin und Etoposid (IEV) ist ein effektives Behandlungsprotokoll bei refraktären/rezidivierten NHL. Für Rituximab konnte gezeigt werden, dass es Ansprechraten, das ereignisfreie Überleben sowie das Gesamtüberleben bei B-Zell NHL verbessert. In einer retrospektiven Analyse wurden 85 Patienten analysiert, die an einem Zentrum mit IEV oder Rituximab-IEV (R-IEV) bei refraktärem/rezidiviertem B-Tell NHL therapiert wurden. 67 Patienten wurden mit IEV und 18 mit...

  15. The effect of leaf biopesticide (Mirabilis jalapa) and entomopathogenic fungi (Beauveria bassiana) combinations to some physiological characters and histology of Crocidolomia pavonana (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae (United States)

    Sirajuddin, Nur Tasmiah; Anggraeni, Tjandra


    Crocidolomia pavonana is one of the most prominent pest that cause damage to vegetables especially Brassicaceae such us cabbage, broccoli, mustard greens and turnips, these vegetable have been widely consumed and cultivated in Indonesia. The invation of this pest might created high risk of cultivated failure. Enviromentally pest control efforts by utilizing biological control agents such us biopesticides of plants and entomopathogenic fungi have been carried out, but the work was relatively long and strongly influenced by environmental factors. The purpose of this study was to combine biopesticide of Mirabilis jalapa and entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana to look at mortality of C. pavonana larvae observing by histological incision and scanning electron microscope. Concentration treatments of extracts M. jalapa was (control; 0,1; 0,2; 0,4 and 0,8 gr/ml) and the result showed that the effective concentration was 0,8 g/ml which affect significantly (Pfungi B. bassiana, can be used as an alternative pest control C. pavonana.

  16. The effect of leaf biopesticide (Mirabilis jalapa) and entomopathogenic fungi (Beauveria bassiana) combinations to some physiological characters and histology of Crocidolomia pavonana (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae

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    Sirajuddin, Nur Tasmiah, E-mail:; Anggraeni, Tjandra, E-mail: [Sekolah Ilmu dan Teknologi Hayati - ITB, Jalan Ganesa 10 Bandung (Indonesia)


    Crocidolomia pavonana is one of the most prominent pest that cause damage to vegetables especially Brassicaceae such us cabbage, broccoli, mustard greens and turnips, these vegetable have been widely consumed and cultivated in Indonesia. The invation of this pest might created high risk of cultivated failure. Enviromentally pest control efforts by utilizing biological control agents such us biopesticides of plants and entomopathogenic fungi have been carried out, but the work was relatively long and strongly influenced by environmental factors. The purpose of this study was to combine biopesticide of Mirabilis jalapa and entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana to look at mortality of C. pavonana larvae observing by histological incision and scanning electron microscope. Concentration treatments of extracts M. jalapa was (control; 0,1; 0,2; 0,4 and 0,8 gr/ml) and the result showed that the effective concentration was 0,8 g/ml which affect significantly (P<0,05) in reduce pupa weight, improve pupasi time, lowering percentage of emergence imago and improve the long phase of pupa which differ significantly with control. The combination of biopesticides proved to accelerate the mortality of larvae. Histological incision observed at hour 24, 48, 72 and 96, where the biggest damage occurred at hour 96. Observation by scanning electron microscope showed fungus spores that attach to the body surface of larvae subsequently penetrate into the body. Thus the combination use of biopesticides M. jalapa and fungi B. bassiana, can be used as an alternative pest control C. pavonana.

  17. Intraläsionale Therapie niedrig maligner primär kutaner B-Zell-Lymphome mit Anti-CD20-Antikörper: Nebenwirkungen korrelieren mit gutem klinischen Ansprechen. (United States)

    Eberle, Franziska C; Holstein, Julia; Scheu, Alexander; Fend, Falko; Yazdi, Amir S


    Die intraläsionale Gabe von Anti-CD20-Antikörpern (Rituximab) wurde als effektive Therapieoption für Patienten mit niedrig malignen primär kutanen B-Zell-Lymphomen beschrieben. Bis heute wurden allerdings keine Parameter identifiziert, welche reproduzierbar ein gutes klinisches Ansprechen dieser Therapie vorhersagen. Ziel dieser Studie ist, sowohl das klinische Ansprechen und die unerwünschten Nebenwirkungen als auch die Patientenwahrnehmung hinsichtlich intraläsionaler Injektionen von anti-CD20-Antikörpern zur Behandlung indolenter primär kutaner B-Zell-Lymphome im Vergleich mit anderen Therapien zu evaluieren. Elf Patienten mit einem primär kutanen B-Zell-Lymphom, namentlich primär kutanes Keimzentrumslymphom (n = 9) und primär kutanes Marginalzonenlymphom (n = 2), welche mittels intraläsionalem Anti-CD20-Antikörper behandelt wurden, wurden retrospektiv evaluiert hinsichtlich der Ansprechrate und unerwünschter Nebenwirkungen sowie in Bezug auf deren Selbsteinschätzung dieser und anderer Therapien des primär kutanen B-Zell-Lymphoms. Patienten, deren primär kutanes B-Zell-Lymphom mittels intraläsionaler Gabe von Anti-CD20-Antikörper behandelt wurde, zeigten ein komplettes oder partielles Ansprechen in 45 % beziehungsweise 27 % aller Patienten. Speziell Patienten mit grippeähnlichen Symptomen nach erfolgter Injektion zeigten ein gutes Ansprechen. Die Mehrheit der Patienten empfand die Therapie mit Rituximab als die beste Therapie im Vergleich zu anderen Therapien wie beispielsweise chirurgische Exzision oder Radiotherapie. Intraläsionales Rituximab ist eine effektive Therapie mit hoher Patientenzufriedenheit. Starke therapiebedingte Nebenwirkungen wie Fieber, Schüttelfrost und Kopfschmerzen nach Gabe von Rituximab könnten als Indikator für gute Wirksamkeit dienen. © 2017 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Aktivitas insektisida ekstrak buah Piper aduncum L. (Piperaceae dan Sapindus rarak DC. (Sapindaceae serta campurannya terhadap larva Crocidolomia pavonana (F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae

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    Yan Yanuar Syahroni


    Full Text Available Crocidolomia pavonana is an important pest of Brassicaceous vegetable crops. Botanical insecticides are potential alternatives for the control of C. pavonana pest. Insecticidal activity of Piper aduncum and Sapindus rarak fruit extracts as well as their mixtures was evaluated against C. pavonana larvae in the laboratory. Ethyl acetate P. aduncum (EtPa extract as well as methanolic S. rarak (MeSr and aqueous S. rarak (AqSr extracts were tested separately and in mixtures against second-instar larvae C. pavonana by a leaf-residue feeding method. At the LC95 level - 72 hours after treatment (HAT, EtPa extract was about 14.5 and 12.8 times, respectively, more toxic to C. pavonana larvae than MeSr and AqSr extracts. At the LC95 level, EtPa + MeSr extract mixture (1 : 10 w/w was about 1.64 times more toxic to the test larvae than EtPa + AqSr extract mixture (1 : 10 w/w. Based on combination index at 48, 72, and 96 HAT, EtPa + MeSr extract mixture at LC50 level as well as EtPa + AqSr extract mixture at LC50 and LC95 levels had additive joint action, whereas EtPa + MeSr extract mixture at LC95 was weakly synergistic. In addition to lethal effect, the treatment with all test materials delayed the development of C. pavonana larvae from second-instar to fourth instar. Thus, EtPa, MeSr, and AqSr extracts as well as the mixtures between EtPa and S. rarak extracts are potential alternatives for the control of C. pavonana pest.

  19. Study of Various Extracts of Ayapana triplinervis for their Potential in Controlling Three Insect Pests of Horticultural Crops

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    Lalljee, B.


    Full Text Available Chemical groups of Ayapana triplinervis, extracted successively with hexane, petroleum ether, methanol, chloroform: methanol (1:1, and chloroform: methanol (4:1 were studied for their effects on Plutella xylostella, Crocidolomia binotalis and Myzus persicae, three serious pests of horticultural crops in Mauritius. The most bioactive extracts were further fractionated into groups using Thin Layer Chromatography, and seven of those exhibiting strongest activity were tested on each of the three test insects. Results showed that the alkaloids and tannins exhibited greatest feeding deterrence in P. xylostella and C. binotalis, followed by phenols and flavonoids. In the case of M. persicae, A. triplinervis extracts disrupted growth and development of the nymphs, had significant pest control properties, and were good candidates for further study on their potential as botanical pesticides, in the context of an organic farming/ sustainable agriculture system, as an environmentallyfriendly alternative to synthetic insecticides.

  20. 32nd International Austrian Winter Symposium : Zell am See, the Netherlands. 20-23 January 2016. (United States)

    Langsteger, W; Rezaee, A; Loidl, W; Geinitz, H S; Fitz, F; Steinmair, M; Broinger, G; Pallwien-Prettner, L; Beheshti, M; Imamovic, L; Beheshti, M; Rendl, G; Hackl, D; Tsybrovsky, O; Steinmair, M; Emmanuel, K; Moinfar, F; Pirich, C; Langsteger, W; Bytyqi, A; Karanikas, G; Mayerhöfer, M; Koperek, O; Niederle, B; Hartenbach, M; Beyer, T; Herrmann, K; Czernin, J; Rausch, I; Rust, P; DiFranco, M D; Lassen, M; Stadlbauer, A; Mayerhöfer, M E; Hartenbach, M; Hacker, M; Beyer, T; Binzel, K; Magnussen, R; Wei, W; Knopp, M U; Flanigan, D C; Kaeding, C; Knopp, M V; Leisser, A; Nejabat, M; Hartenbach, M; Kramer, G; Krainer, M; Hacker, M; Haug, A; Lehnert, Wencke; Schmidt, Karl; Kimiaei, Sharok; Bronzel, Marcus; Kluge, Andreas; Wright, C L; Binzel, K; Zhang, J; Wuthrick, Evan; Maniawski, Piotr; Knopp, M V; Blaickner, M; Rados, E; Huber, A; Dulovits, M; Kulkarni, H; Wiessalla, S; Schuchardt, C; Baum, R P; Knäusl, B; Georg, D; Bauer, M; Wulkersdorfer, B; Wadsak, W; Philippe, C; Haslacher, H; Zeitlinger, M; Langer, O; Bauer, M; Feldmann, M; Karch, R; Wadsak, W; Zeitlinger, M; Koepp, M J; Asselin, M-C; Pataraia, E; Langer, O; Zeilinger, M; Philippe, C; Dumanic, M; Pichler, F; Pilz, J; Hacker, M; Wadsak, W; Mitterhauser, M; Nics, L; Steiner, B; Hacker, M; Mitterhauser, M; Wadsak, W; Traxl, A; Wanek, Thomas; Kryeziu, Kushtrim; Mairinger, Severin; Stanek, Johann; Berger, Walter; Kuntner, Claudia; Langer, Oliver; Mairinger, S; Wanek, T; Traxl, A; Krohn, M; Stanek, J; Filip, T; Sauberer, M; Kuntner, C; Pahnke, J; Langer, O; Svatunek, D; Denk, C; Wilkovitsch, M; Wanek, T; Filip, T; Kuntner-Hannes, C; Fröhlich, J; Mikula, H; Denk, C; Svatunek, D; Wanek, T; Mairinger, S; Stanek, J; Filip, T; Fröhlich, J; Mikula, H; Kuntner-Hannes, C; Balber, T; Singer, J; Fazekas, J; Rami-Mark, C; Berroterán-Infante, N; Jensen-Jarolim, E; Wadsak, W; Hacker, M; Viernstein, H; Mitterhauser, M; Denk, C; Svatunek, D; Sohr, B; Mikula, H; Fröhlich, J; Wanek, T; Kuntner-Hannes, C; Filip, T; Pfaff, S; Philippe, C; Mitterhauser, M; Hartenbach, M; Hacker, M; Wadsak, W; Wanek, T; Halilbasic, E; Visentin, M; Mairinger, S; Stieger, B; Kuntner, C; Trauner, M; Langer, O; Lam, P; Aistleitner, M; Eichinger, R; Artner, C; Eidherr, H; Vraka, C; Haug, A; Mitterhauser, M; Nics, L; Hartenbach, M; Hacker, M; Wadsak, W; Kvaternik, H; Müller, R; Hausberger, D; Zink, C; Aigner, R M; Cossío, U; Asensio, M; Montes, A; Akhtar, S; Te Welscher, Y; van Nostrum, R; Gómez-Vallejo, V; Llop, J; VandeVyver, F; Barclay, T; Lippens, N; Troch, M; Hehenwarter, L; Egger, B; Holzmannhofer, J; Rodrigues-Radischat, M; Pirich, C; Pötsch, N; Rausch, I; Wilhelm, D; Weber, M; Furtner, J; Karanikas, G; Wöhrer, A; Mitterhauser, M; Hacker, M; Traub-Weidinger, T; Cassou-Mounat, T; Balogova, S; Nataf, V; Calzada, M; Huchet, V; Kerrou, K; Devaux, J-Y; Mohty, M; Garderet, L; Talbot, J-N; Stanzel, S; Pregartner, G; Schwarz, T; Bjelic-Radisic, V; Liegl-Atzwanger, B; Aigner, R; Stanzel, S; Quehenberger, F; Aigner, R M; Marković, A Koljević; Janković, Milica; Jerković, V Miler; Paskaš, M; Pupić, G; Džodić, R; Popović, D; Fornito, M C; Familiari, D; Koranda, P; Polzerová, H; Metelková, I; Henzlová, L; Formánek, R; Buriánková, E; Kamínek, M; Thomson, W H; Lewis, C; Thomson, W H; O'Brien, J; James, G; Notghi, A; Huber, H; Stelzmüller, I; Wunn, R; Mandl, M; Fellner, F; Lamprecht, B; Gabriel, M; Fornito, M C; Leonardi, G; Thomson, W H; O'Brien, J; James, G; Hudzietzová, J; Sabol, J; Fülöp, M


    A1 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT in staging and restaging of Prostate Cancer Patients: comparative study with 18F-Choline PET/CTW Langsteger, A Rezaee, W Loidl, HS Geinitz, F Fitz, M Steinmair, G Broinger, L Pallwien-Prettner, M BeheshtiA2 F18 Choline PET - CT: an accurate diagnostic tool for the detection of parathyroid adenoma?L Imamovic, M Beheshti, G Rendl, D Hackl, O Tsybrovsky, M Steinmair, K Emmanuel, F Moinfar, C Pirich, W LangstegerA3 [18F]Fluoro-DOPA-PET/CT in the primary diagnosis of medullary thyroid carcinomaA Bytyqi, G Karanikas, M Mayerhöfer, O Koperek, B Niederle, M HartenbachA4 Variations of clinical PET/MR operations: An international survey on the clinical utilization of PET/MRIT Beyer, K Herrmann, J CzerninA5 Standard Dixon-based attenuation correction in combined PET/MRI: Reproducibility and the possibility of Lean body mass estimationI Rausch, P Rust, MD DiFranco, M Lassen, A Stadlbauer, ME Mayerhöfer, M Hartenbach, M Hacker, T BeyerA6 High resolution digital FDG PET/MRI imaging for assessment of ACL graft viabilityK Binzel, R Magnussen, W Wei, MU Knopp, DC Flanigan, C Kaeding, MV KnoppA7 Using pre-existing hematotoxicity as predictor for severe side effects and number of treatment cycles of Xofigo therapyA Leisser, M Nejabat, M Hartenbach, G Kramer, M Krainer, M Hacker, A HaugA8 QDOSE - comprehensive software solution for internal dose assessmentWencke Lehnert, Karl Schmidt, Sharok Kimiaei, Marcus Bronzel, Andreas KlugeA9 Clinical impact of Time-of-Flight on next-generation digital PET imaging of Yttrium-90 radioactivity following liver radioembolizationCL Wright, K Binzel, J Zhang, Evan Wuthrick, Piotr Maniawski, MV KnoppA10 Snakes in patients! Lessons learned from programming active contours for automated organ segmentationM Blaickner, E Rados, A Huber, M Dulovits, H Kulkarni, S Wiessalla, C Schuchardt, RP Baum, B Knäusl, D GeorgA11 Influence of a genetic polymorphism on brain uptake of the dual ABCB1/ABCG2 substrate [11C]tariquidarM Bauer, B Wulkersdorfer, W Wadsak, C Philippe, H Haslacher, M Zeitlinger, O LangerA12 Outcome prediction of temporal lobe epilepsy surgery from P-glycoprotein activity. Pooled analysis of (R)-[11C]-verapamil PET data from two European centresM Bauer, M Feldmann, R Karch, W Wadsak, M Zeitlinger, MJ Koepp, M-C Asselin, E Pataraia, O LangerA13 In-vitro and in-vivo characterization of [18F]FE@SNAP and derivatives for the visualization of the melanin concentrating hormone receptor 1M Zeilinger, C Philippe, M Dumanic, F Pichler, J Pilz, M Hacker, W Wadsak, M MitterhauserA14 Reducing time in quality control leads to higher specific radioactivity of short-lived radiotracersL Nics, B Steiner, M Hacker, M Mitterhauser, W WadsakA15 In vitro 11C-erlotinib binding experiments in cancer cell lines with epidermal growth factor receptor mutationsA Traxl, Thomas Wanek, Kushtrim Kryeziu, Severin Mairinger, Johann Stanek, Walter Berger, Claudia Kuntner, Oliver LangerA16 7-[11C]methyl-6-bromopurine, a PET tracer to measure brain Mrp1 function: radiosynthesis and first PET evaluation in miceS Mairinger, T Wanek, A Traxl, M Krohn, J Stanek, T Filip, M Sauberer, C Kuntner, J Pahnke, O LangerA17 18F labeled azidoglucose derivatives as "click" agents for pretargeted PET imagingD Svatunek, C Denk, M Wilkovitsch, T Wanek, T Filip, C Kuntner-Hannes, J Fröhlich, H MikulaA18 Bioorthogonal tools for PET imaging: development of radiolabeled 1,2,4,5-TetrazinesC Denk, D Svatunek, T Wanek, S Mairinger, J Stanek, T Filip, J Fröhlich, H Mikula, C Kuntner-HannesA19 Preclinical evaluation of [18F]FE@SUPPY- a new PET-tracer for oncologyT Balber, J Singer, J Fazekas, C Rami-Mark, N Berroterán-Infante, E Jensen-Jarolim, W Wadsak, M Hacker, H Viernstein, M MitterhauserA20 Investigation of Small [18F]-Fluoroalkylazides for Rapid Radiolabeling and In Vivo Click ChemistryC Denk, D Svatunek, B Sohr, H Mikula, J Fröhlich, T Wanek, C Kuntner-Hannes, T FilipA21 Microfluidic 68Ga-radiolabeling of PSMA-HBED-CC using a flow-through reactorS Pfaff, C Philippe, M Mitterhauser, M Hartenbach, M Hacker, W WadsakA22 Influence of 24-nor-ursodeoxycholic acid on hepatic disposition of [18F]ciprofloxacin measured with positron emission tomographyT Wanek, E Halilbasic, M Visentin, S Mairinger, B Stieger, C Kuntner, M Trauner, O LangerA23 Automated 18F-flumazenil production using chemically resistant disposable cassettesP Lam, M Aistleitner, R Eichinger, C ArtnerA24 Similarities and differences in the synthesis and quality control of 177Lu-DOTA-TATE, 177Lu -HA-DOTA-TATE and 177Lu-DOTA-PSMA (PSMA-617)H Eidherr, C Vraka, A Haug, M Mitterhauser, L Nics, M Hartenbach, M Hacker, W WadsakA25 68Ga- and 177Lu-labelling of PSMA-617H Kvaternik, R Müller, D Hausberger, C Zink, RM AignerA26 Radiolabelling of liposomes with 67Ga and biodistribution studies after administration by an aerosol inhalation systemU Cossío, M Asensio, A Montes, S Akhtar, Y te Welscher, R van Nostrum, V Gómez-Vallejo, J LlopA27 Fully automated quantification of DaTscan SPECT: Integration of age and gender differencesF VandeVyver, T Barclay, N Lippens, M TrochA28 Lesion-to-background ratio in co-registered 18F-FET PET/MR imaging - is it a valuable tool to differentiate between low grade and high grade brain tumor?L Hehenwarter, B Egger, J Holzmannhofer, M Rodrigues-Radischat, C PirichA29 [11C]-methionine PET in gliomas - a retrospective data analysis of 166 patientsN Pötsch, I Rausch, D Wilhelm, M Weber, J Furtner, G Karanikas, A Wöhrer, M Mitterhauser, M Hacker, T Traub-WeidingerA30 18F-Fluorocholine versus 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose for PET/CT imaging in patients with relapsed or progressive multiple myeloma: a pilot studyT Cassou-Mounat, S Balogova, V Nataf, M Calzada, V Huchet, K Kerrou, J-Y Devaux, M Mohty, L Garderet, J-N TalbotA31 Prognostic benefit of additional SPECT/CT in sentinel lymph node mapping of breast cancer patientsS Stanzel, G Pregartner, T Schwarz, V Bjelic-Radisic, B Liegl-Atzwanger, R AignerA32 Evaluation of diagnostic value of TOF-18F-FDG PET/CT in patients with suspected pancreatic cancerS Stanzel, F Quehenberger, RM AignerA33 New quantification method for diagnosis of primary hyperpatahyroidism lesions and differential diagnosis vs thyropid nodular disease in dynamic scintigraphyA Koljević Marković, Milica Janković, V Miler Jerković, M Paskaš, G Pupić, R Džodić, D PopovićA34 A rare case of diffuse pancreatic involvement in patient with merkel cell carcinoma detected by 18F-FDGMC Fornito, D FamiliariA35 TSH-stimulated 18F-FDG PET/CT in the diagnosis of recurrent/metastatic radioiodine-negative differentiated thyroid carcinomas in patients with various thyroglobuline levelsP Koranda, H Polzerová, I Metelková, L Henzlová, R Formánek, E Buriánková, M KamínekA36 Breast Dose from lactation following I131 treatmentWH Thomson, C LewisA37 A new concept for performing SeHCAT studies with the gamma cameraWH Thomson, J O'Brien, G James, A NotghiA38 Whole body F-18-FDG-PET and tuberculosis: sensitivity compared to x-ray-CTH Huber, I Stelzmüller, R Wunn, M Mandl, F Fellner, B Lamprecht, M GabrielA39 Emerging role 18F-FDG PET-CT in the diagnosis and follow-up of the infection in heartware ventricular assist system (HVAD)MC Fornito, G LeonardiA40 Validation of Poisson resampling softwareWH Thomson, J O'Brien, G JamesA41 Protection of PET nuclear medicine personnel: problems in satisfying dose limit requirementsJ Hudzietzová, J Sabol, M Fülöp.

  1. Status and perspectives of non invasive cell tracking; Status und Zukunft des nichtinvasiven Zell-Trackings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiessling, F.; Semmler, W. [Abt. Medizinische Physik in der Radiologie, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (dkfz), Heidelberg (Germany)


    The interaction of different cells is an important regulator in the development of many diseases, including cancer. Some cells are recruited directly from the local tissue environment, others reach the pathological focus via the circulation. Using non-invasive cell tracking methods, the distribution and migration of labeled cells can be studied in experimental animal models, and the role of these cells on the pathogenesis of disease can thus be elucidated. Scintigraphy and SPECT, and especially MRI and optical imaging, are frequently used for this purpose. Studies are mostly performed with macrophages and granulocytes (inflammatory cells), which accumulate in nephritis, encephalitis, and tumors. At present, the understanding of progenitor cell migration and differentiation is gaining increasing interest in neurological disorders (for example Parkinson's disease) and in cardiac diseases (for example myocardial infarction). Non-invasive cell tracking is already established in basic research; in the future, a clinical application of cell tracking is foreseeable in the framework of cell therapy. (orig.)

  2. Cells and the environment. How do chemical pollutants affect cells. Zelle und Umwelt. Wie wirken sich Umweltgifte auf Zellen aus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braunbeck, T.; Storch, V. (Heidelberg Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Zoologisches Inst.)


    It is possible by means of ultrastructural techniques to prove the harmful effect of chemicals on animal organisms through changes in monitoring organs such as the liver of vertebrates very early and with great sensitivity. The reaction of the fish liver to chemicals in dependence of other factors (fish species, sex) is demonstrated by the example of various model chemicals as well as two pesticides. (orig.).

  3. Biological effects of some natural and chemical compounds on the potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella Zell. (Lepidoptera:Gelechiidae) (United States)

    Sharaby, Aziza; Abdel-Rahman, H.; Moawad, S.


    The olfactory reaction of larvae and moths was investigated towards 18 oils (6 natural oils and 12 commercial chemical oils). Some of these oils such as peppermint and camphor (natural oils) and eugenol and camphene (commercial oils) were repellent to both larvae and moths. Other oils such as strawberry and d-limonene were attractive to both larvae and moths. Some of the repellent oils were, therefore, tested for their effect on certain biological aspects of the insects. Eugenol and peppermint oils, each at the 0.01% conc., caused a significant depression in the fecundity of moth and decreased the percentage of egg hatchability. Eugenol oil was much more effective than peppermint oil at 1%. Dried (leaves, fruits or seeds) powder of 14 different plants species were tested in different concentrations with talcum powder (carrier material) against egg deposition. The results indicated that dried powders of Allium cepa, Curcuma longa, Colocasia antiqurum, Ocimum basilicum. Dodonaea viscose and Thuja orientalis played a highly significant role in reducing egg deposition. The most impressive effect was displayed by powders of D. viscose and A. cepa, which caused the highest depression in egg deposition as well as in the emerging offsprings. Ethanolic extracts of 11 plants indicated that extracts of Pithuranthos tortosus and Iphiona scabra caused the maximum inhibition of egg hatchability, followed by C. longa, Citrullus colocynthia and T. orientalis. Ethanolic extracts of Schinus terebenthiflius (leaves) and I. scabra caused the highest depression in the deposited eggs, as they played a remarkable role as ovipositor deterrents. The majority of the plant extracts at 1% conc. could protect potato tubers at different intervals according to the calculated tuber damage index as follows: Iphiopna > Pithuranthos > Curcuma > Schinus (fruits) Thuja > Schinus (leaves) > Dodonaea > Citrullus. PMID:23961036

  4. Kapton® mit zell-selektiven Oberflächenbeschichtungen für verbesserte Elektroden-Nerv-Interaktionen


    Wissel, K.; Hadler, C.; P Aliuos; Dempwolf, W; Lenarz, T; Menzel, H


    Einleitung: Hinsichtlich der Effektivität der Elektroden-Nerv-Interaktion spielt das Trägermaterial auditorischer Implantate eine besondere Rolle: Dessen Oberflächenbeschaffenheit sollte das Bindegewebswachstum hemmen. Hierbei stellen beschichtete Polyimide das Material der Zukunft zur Elektrodenumhüllung dar. Eine Strategie zur Oberflächenmodifikation von Polyimiden besteht in der photochemischen Anbindung geeigneter Polymere. Methoden: Für die Beschichtung wurden photochemisch reaktive DM...

  5. The essential role of locoregional radiotherapy in the management of Merkel cell tumor. Kasuistische Beitraege zur Bedeutung der lokoregionaeren Strahlentherapie des Merkel-Zell-Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeurer, J.; Busch, M.; Matthaei, D.; Duehmke, E. (Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie, Universitaetsklinikum Goettingen (Germany)); Bergholz, M. (Abt. Allgemeine Pathologie, Universitaetsklinikum Goettingen (Germany)); Halling, F. (Abt. Pathologische Anatomie, Universitaetsklinikum Goettingen (Germany))


    The Merkel cell tumor is becoming an increasingly diagnosed primary neoplasma of the skin. This subepidermal tumor is commonly located on the head and neck or extremities of elderly patients. Occassionally misinterpreted as cutaneous metastases, they show a high rate of lokal recurrence (27 to 52%) and distant metastatic spread (18 to 52%). The definitive diagnosis can be made with immunohistochemistry. Wide surgical excision with postoperative irradiation to the local site and regional lymphatics is the therapy of choice. In seven patients we describe management strategies and discuss their clinical results. (orig.).

  6. Kamusal Hizmet Olarak Cezaevi Hizmetlerinin Özelleştirilmesi ve Türkiye’de Özel Sektör Cezaevlerinin Uygulanabilirliği(Privatization of Prison Services as A Public Service and Applicability of Private Sector Prisons In Turkey)


    Mehmet ŞAHİN; Hilal GÖRKEM


    Private prison implementation is not a new one, but nowadays applicability of private prisons have been frequently discussed. Private prisons that are seen in a few countries like USA and England are discussed in the context of both cost-efficiency and functions of the state. In this study, the reason of privatization of prison services and the applicability of private prisons in Turkey are investigated.

  7. Kamusal Hizmet Olarak Cezaevi Hizmetlerinin Özelleştirilmesi ve Türkiye’de Özel Sektör Cezaevlerinin Uygulanabilirliği(Privatization of Prison Services as A Public Service and Applicability of Private Sector Prisons In Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet ŞAHİN


    Full Text Available Private prison implementation is not a new one, but nowadays applicability of private prisons have been frequently discussed. Private prisons that are seen in a few countries like USA and England are discussed in the context of both cost-efficiency and functions of the state. In this study, the reason of privatization of prison services and the applicability of private prisons in Turkey are investigated.

  8. Influence of atmospheric pollution upon pine Microlepidoptera in the Roumare forest (seine-maritime)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villemant, C.


    Among Microlepidoptera living on scotch Pine Pinus silvestris L., the pine bud moth Rhyacionia buoliana Schiff. (Tortricidae) is the only species presenting an important increase of population in the young pine stands of the Roumare forest which are the most exposed to atmospheric pollution by SO/sub 2/ and fluorine. Other species of pine Tortridicae, Rhyacionia pinicolana Dbld., R. pinivorana Zell., Blastesthia posticana Zell., B. Turionella Hb. and Petrova resinella L., are present at low stock in the pine stands of the area, and their population levels do not increase in the polluted plots. Needle-boring species of Microlepidoptera, Exoteleia dodecella (Gelechiidae) Cedestis farinatella Dup. and Ocnerostoma piniariella Zell. (Hyponomeutidae) present significantly higher population levels in the most polluted stands but show relatively poor abundance. 28 references, 5 figures, 7 tables.

  9. Social Comparison Seeking: Providing General Comparison Curtails Local Comparison (United States)

    Buckingham, Justin T.; Zell, Ethan; Schurtz, David R.


    Past research shows that people use local social comparison information more than general social comparison information when both are given (Zell & Alicke, 2010). The present studies examined the extent to which people seek local comparisons when they have already received general comparison information. In Study 1, students received their…

  10. Arvutijuppidest tehtud ehted 5000 krooni eest müügiks / Kerli Nõu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nõu, Kerli


    Ameerika neiu Liz McLean Knight meisterdab arvuti- ja elektroonikajuppidest trendikaid aksessuaare: kaela- ja randmeehted, kõrvarõngad, sõrmused, käekotid, T-särgid. Ehete kaubamärk Zelle pärineb kunstniku artistinimest muusika- ja arvutimaailmas

  11. The Onset of Aerodynamic Instability in a 3-Stage Transonic Compressor (United States)


    Rotating Stall Control Ritter, H. et al., 1991: " Neuronale Netze ", Addison System for Turbojet Engines", ASME 78-GT-115; Wesley Publishing Company...VKI LS 1996-05 "Unsteady Flows in Turbomachines" Regnery, D., 1998: "Development of a System for the Zell, A., 1994: "Simulation Neuronaler Netze

  12. {delta}{sup 13}C in Tibetan juniper trees - climate trends through the past 1600 years; {delta}{sup 13}C in tibetischen Wacholdern - Klimaentwicklung der letzten 1600 Jahre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, B.


    A {delta}{sup 13}C{sub Zell}-chronology of juniper tree cellulose from the upper treeline covering the last 1600 years was set up. The tree site is situated close to Qamdo in southeast Tibet at an altitude of 4350 m a.s.l. The southwest slope gets rain during the Indian summer monsoon. Ten trees have been sampled either by coring or by cutting of trunc-sections in pentad sampling interval. Three trees were analysed in two different radial directions. The very positive {delta}{sup 13}C{sub Zell}-data generally varying around -18,75 permille show the typical low fractionation of high mountain plants. Different interpretations are suggested for data before and after 1800 A.D. (orig.) [Deutsch] An Zellulose von Wacholdern der oberen Waldgrenze in Suedost-Tibet wurde eine 1600-jaehrige {delta}{sup 13}C{sub Zell}-Chronologie aufgestellt. Der Standort liegt in 4350 m ue.M. in der Naehe von Qamdo, ist nach Suedwest geneigt und erhaelt Niederschlaege in den Sommermonaten durch den Indischen-Suedwest-Monsun. Zehn Baeume wurden anhand von Kernen und Stammscheiben in Abschnitten von fuenf Jahren beprobt. An drei Baeumen konnten zwei Segmente desselben Baumes untersucht werden. Die im Mittel sehr positiven {delta}{sup 13}C{sub Zell}-Daten um -18,75 permille deuten auf eine fuer Hochgebirgspflanzen typische geringere Fraktionierung hin. Unterschiedliche Interpretationswege werden fuer die Daten vor und nach 1800 verfolgt. (orig.)

  13. Chernobyl Doses. Volume 2. Conifer Stress near Chernobyl Derived from Landsat Imagery (United States)


    Vol. 4 of Advances in Radiation Biology , edited by J.T. Lett, H. Adler, and M. Zelle (Academic Press, New York). 66 Wiebelt, J.A., and J.B. Henderson...INC ATTN: J MARSHALL-MIES ASSISTANT CHIEF OF THE AIR FORCE ATTN: SAF/ AQA KAMAN SCIENCES CORP ATTN: DASIAC DEPUTY CHIEF OF STAFF PLANS & OPERS ATTN

  14. Strategic Vision: A Selected Bibliography (United States)


    2005) Glassman , Alan M., Deone Zell, and Shari Duron. Thinking Strategically in Turbulent Times: An Inside View of Strategy Making. Armonk: Sharpe...Leadership: Learning to Lead with Emotional Intelligence , 225-248. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2004. (HD57.7 .G542 2004) Govindarajan, Vijay, and...American Intelligence . Stanford: Stanford University, Hoover Institution Press, 2005. 184pp. (JK468 .I6F77 2005) Biddle, Stephen D. American Grand

  15. Electrophysiological and behavioural responses of chestnut moths, Cydia fagiglandana and C splendana (Lep, Tortricidae), to sex attractants and odours of host plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Otter, C.J.; DeCristofaro, A; Voskamp, K.E.; Rotundo, G

    EAG recordings were made from both males and females of Cydia fagiglandana (Zell.) and C. splendana (Hb.) on stimulation with the tortricid sex attractants (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-yl acetate (E8E10-12:Ac), (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (E8E10-12:OH) and (Z)-8-dodecen-1-yl acetate (Z8-12:Ac). The

  16. Immunogenicity of BCR-ABL-regulated tumorantigens


    Scheich, Florian


    Im Hinblick auf die Entwicklung alternativer, immuntherapeutischer Ansätze zur Behandlung der Ph-positiven chronisch myeloischen Leukämie (CML) wurde in der vorliegenden Arbeit die Immunogenität des BCR-ABL-Fusionsproteins selbst, und der durch die BCR-ABL Kinase hochregulierten Antigene untersucht. Es konnte eindeutig gezeigt werden, dass Antigene, die von der BCR-ABL Tyrosinkinase reguliert werden, einen wesentlichen Anteil haben an einer T-Zell-vermittelten, anti-leukämischen Immunreaktion...

  17. Satellite and Ground Communication Systems: Space and Electronic Warfare Threats to the United States Army (United States)


    assets/670/669930. pdf . 26 Holly Zell, “Impacts of Strong Solar Flares,” NASA, June 7, 2013, accessed November 9, 2016,” (Washington, DC, 2006), 35, accessed on November 25, 2016, pdfs /China%20Report%202006. pdf . 16 The PLA continues to...44 This technological development is significant because it allows the PLA to target multiple satellites in a somewhat covert and surgical manner

  18. Das Tumorsuppressorprotein p53 - Rolle bei der Induktion von Apoptose und bei der Replikation von Adenoviren


    Koch, Philipp


    Das Tumorsuppressorgen p53 gehört zu den zentralen Steuereinheiten von Proliferation und Wachstum in der Zelle. Mutationen und funktioneller Verlust bei diesem Protein ist eng mit der Entstehung maligner Tumoren assoziiert. So kann man in über 50% aller soliden Tumoren Mutationen von p53 nachweisen. Es vermittelt seine Funktion hauptsächlich durch transkriptionelle Aktivierung p53-responsiver Gene. Folge der Aktivierung von p53 is...

  19. Modulation der Tumorreaktivität humaner gd T Lymphozyten durch Toll-like Rezeptor Agonisten


    Shojaei, Amir Hamed


    TLR3 und -7 Liganden führten zu einer gesteigerten gd T-Zell-vermittelten Tumorzell-Lyse und einer…. ….verstärkte Produktion von Granzym A und -B Poly(I:C) verstärkt die Expression von CD54 auf Tumorzellen Imiquimod führt zur Runterregulation von HLA-Klasse I Molekülen in Tumorzellen und möglicherweise zu einer verminderten Bindungsaffinität des KIR NKG2A auf gd T-Zellen

  20. Vom magnetischen Bakterium zur Brieftaube: Geo-Biomagnetismus (United States)

    Winklhofer, Michael


    Die Fähigkeit, das Erdmagnetfeld wahrzunehmen und sich an ihm zu orientieren, ist im Tierreich weit verbreitet. Durch welche physikalischen Mechanismen magnetische Sinnesreize in Nervensignale umgesetzt werden, ist jedoch weitgehend ungeklärt. Bei magnetotaktischen Bakterien üben zum Beispiel biogene ferrimagnetische Kristalle als mikroskopische Kompassnadeln ein Drehmoment auf die Zelle aus. Magnetit findet sich im Gewebe zahlreicher Tiere. Doch erst bei zwei Arten, der Brieftaube und der Regenbogenforelle, konnten auch entsprechende Sinneszellen gefunden werden. Diese unterscheiden sich allerdings in ihren magnetischen Eigenschaften fundamental voneinander. Die Identifizierung der physikalischen Mechanismen des Geo-Biomagnetismus bleibt eine Herausforderung für Biophysik und Sinnesphysiologie.

  1. Evaluation des Comet Assays bei neutralem pH zur Detektion von Alpha-Partikel induzierten DNA-Doppelstrangbrüchen


    Hofbauer, Daniela


    Das Ziel der Arbeit war die Darstellung von initialen DNA-Schäden in Tumorzellen, verursacht durch Bestrahlung mit Alpha-Partikeln. Mit Hilfe des Comet Assays lassen sich sowohl DNA-Einzelstrangbrüche als auch -Doppelstrangbrüche auf dem Niveau einer einzelnen Zelle darstellen. Als Alpha-Strahler wurde Americium-241 verwendet. Für vergleichende Untersuchungen wurde auch der Gamma-Emitter Caesium-137 eingesetzt. Auf Grund von technischen Problemen bei der Durchführung sowohl des neutralen als ...

  2. Büyük mum güvesi (Galleria mellonella L.) ya etkili Bacillus thuringiensis suşları ve bunların plazmid içerikleri üzerinde araştırmalar


    AKÇELİK, Mustafa


       Bu çalışmada bal arısı kovanlarından alman ölü büyük mum güvesi larvalarından izole edilen El izolatı ile Sandoz (İsviçre) tarafından üretilen Thuriap adlı pre- parattan izole edilen Bacillus thurinpiensis var, aizavvai susu kullanılmıştır.

       Bl izolatının teşhisi sonucu Bacillus thuringiensis var. thuringiensis olduğuna karar verilmiştir. Eu iki Bacillus thuringiensis türünün un rüvesi (Eohe stie kuehr.iella Zell) ve b...

  3. STUDY OF BORER PEST CONTROL POTATO TUBER IN WAREHOUSES SEEDLINGS (With fungus Beauveria bassiana and Leaf of Tagetes erecta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loso Winarto


    Full Text Available Study of borer pest control potato tuber (Phthorimaea operculella Zell in warehouses seedlings with the fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo and leaf Tagetes erecta was conducted in Kutagadung village, district of Brand, Karo District, starting in October until December 2010. The draft that is in use is completely randomized (CRD comprised of seven treatments with three replications. Treatment at Kaji is: Control (no treatment, the density of conidia 106 per ml, 105 per ml, 104 per ml, leaf thickness Tegetes two cm, three cm, and four cm. Observations were P. operculella and intensity of attacks healthy seedlings. In the final analysis, the intensity of attacks in 100 percent control treatment, the density of conidia.

  4. Multiple, sclerosis: clinical feature, pathogenesis and current therapeutical approaches; Encephalomyelitis disseminata: Klinik, Pathogenese und aktuelle Therapiekonzepte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkelbach, S.; Koelmel, C.; Schimrigk, K. [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Neurologische Klinik


    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is considered as a T-cell mediated autoimmune disease. Caused by central nervous system demyelination and axonal damage varying clinical signs do occur either with relapsing-remitting or with chronic progressive course. Based on pathogenetic considerations immunomodulative and immunosuppressive therapeutical approaches are used to limit the disease progression. Clinical symptoms, diagnostic criteria, pathogenetical considerations, and consecutive therapeutical interventions are summarized. (orig.) [German] Die Encephalomyelitis disseminata oder Multiple Sklerose (ED oder MS) gilt als T-Zell-vermittelte Autoimmunerkrankung. Schubfoermig oder chronisch progredient kommt es im Zentralnervensystem infolge einer Demyelinisierung der weissen Substanz und axonaler Schaedigungen zu einer Vielzahl neurologischer Symptome. Basierend auf pathogenetischen Erkenntnissen werden derzeit immunmodulative und immunsuppressive Therapien eingesetzt, die den Krankheitsverlauf zumindest bremsen. Klinische Symptome, diagnostische Kriterien, pathogenetische Ueberlegungen und sich daraus ableitende Therapiekonzepte werden zusammenfassend dargestellt. (orig.)

  5. Türk Demokrasisine Müdahaleler/ Interventions To Turkish Democracy


    Boztaş, Asena


    Uluslararası ilişkilerin iki kutuplu yapıda seyrettiği Soğuk Savaş döneminde Türkiye'deki iç politikanın da paralel bir konumda olduğu görülmekteydi. Soğuk savaş dönemindeki kutuplardan ABD tarafında yer almayı tercih eden Türkiye'de yaşanan bazı sorunlarda, bulunduğu tarafın zaman zaman desteğini aldığını zaman zaman ise tepkisini çektiğini ifade etmek isteyen çalışmada, Türk demokrasisine müdahale gibi görünen darbelerin uluslararası boyutları ve etkilerine yer verilecektir. Özell...

  6. Elasto-capillary collapse of floating structures - Non-linear response of elastic structures under capillary forces

    CERN Document Server

    Adami, N; Roman, B; Bico, J; Caps, H


    Flexible rings and rectangle structures floating at the surface of water are prone to deflect under the action of surface pressure induced by the addition of surfactant molecules on the bath. While the frames of rectangles bend inward or outward for any surface pressure difference, circles are only deformed by compression beyond a critical buckling load. However, compressed frames also undergo a secondary buckling instability leading to a rhoboidal shape. Following the pioneering works of \\cite{Hu} and \\cite{Zell}, we describe both experimentally and theoretically the different elasto-capillary deflection and buckling modes as a function of the material parameters. In particular we show how this original fluid structure interaction may be used to probe the adsorption of surfactant molecules at liquid interfaces.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edy Syahputra


    Full Text Available The objective of this test was evaluate the insecticidal activity of ectract of some parts of Calophyllum soulattri (Clusiaceae against larvae of three species of Lepidoptera, i. e Crocidolomia pavonana, Plutella xylostela, and Pieris sp.. Extraction of plant materials was done by infusion method using ethanol. The bioassays were conducted by leaf-feeding method. Second-instar larvae were fed extract-treated broccoli leaves of 48 hours, then they were presented with untreated leaves until the surviving larvae larvae reached the fourth-instar stage. The number of dead larvae was recorded daily an larval mortality date were analyzed by probit method. The result showed the gummy bark exudates and bark extract of old and young C. soulattri plants were highly active against C. pavonana. The abrk extact of old C. soulattri plant was also effective against P. xilostella and Pieris sp. The gummy exudates possessed strong insecticidal activity against C. pavonana larvae with LC50 of 0.04% and prolonged the developmental time from second to fourth instar of C. soulattri 2.03-7.25 days compared with control. The bark excudate gave positive respon to alkaloid flavonoid, and tannin test. Futher studies are needed to identify insecticidal compound in those active extracts.

  8. Synthesis Of Three Analogues Of Trypsin-Modulating Oostatic Factor TMOF And Screening Of Their Insecticidal Properties Towards Cabbage Cluster Caterpillar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Maharani


    Full Text Available Three analogues of TMOF PP H-Pro-Pro-OH PPPPPP H-Pro-Pro-Pro-Pro-Pro-Pro-OH and APPPPPP H-Pro-Pro-Pro-Pro-Pro-Pro-OH were successfully synthesised and screened for their insecticidal properties against cabbage cluster caterpillar Crocidolomia pavonana. All compounds were prepared through Fmoc-based solid-phase peptide synthesis SPPS method. The synthesis employed chlorotrityl resin as solid support. A combination of NN-diisopropylcarbodiimide DIC and ethyl 2-cyano-2-hydroxyiminoacetate oxyma was chosen as coupling reagent in the synthesis. The peptide was cleaved by using TFA cocktail. All peptide crudes were purified by using reversed-phase flash chromatography with octadecyl silane ODS as stationary phase. All purified peptides were characterized by using TOF-ESMS and their purity was analysed using thin layer chromatography and analytical RP-HPLC. The synthesised TMOF analogues together with TMOF were biologically tested towards the C. pavonana at 1000 ppm. The results indicated that TMOF and the analogues were less effective for the cabbage cluster caterpillar compared to previously reported activity of TMOF towards Aedes aegypty.

  9. Die zentrale Bedeutung des "Osteoklasten-differenzierenden Faktors" und seines Antagonisten, des "Osteoklasten-inhibierenden Faktors" für das Verständnis der Osteoklastogenese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruber R


    Full Text Available Osteoklasten sind mehrkernige, den Knochen abbauende Riesenzellen, die durch Differenzierung hämatopoetischer Vorläuferzellen der Monozyten/Makrophagenlinie entstehen können. Die Zell-Zell Interaktion zwischen den Osteoklastenvorläufern und der aus Stromalzellen bzw. Osteoblasten gebildeten "Mikroumgebung" ist für die Entstehung der Osteoklasten essentiell. Es wurde daher angenommen, daß die Synthese eines membrangebundenen "Osteoklasten-differenzierenden Faktors" (ODF in den Stromal/Osteoblasten als Antwort auf Hormone und lokale Faktoren ausgelöst wird (s. Abb. 1. Dieses Protein wurde unlängst charakterisiert und als ODF und/oder "Osteoprotegerin Ligand" (OPGL bezeichnet. ODF/OPGL ist ein Mitglied der "Tumor-Nekrose-Faktor" (TNF Ligandenfamilie und ist mit zwei weiteren, die Funktion der dendritischen Zellen verstärkenden Proteinen, genannt RANKL und TRANCE, identisch. Eine organspezifische Expression konnte im trabekulären Knochen, dem Knochenmark, aber auch in der Milz, dem Thymus und der Lunge beobachtet werden. Ein weiteres, erst kürzlich beschriebenes Protein ist "Osteoprotegerin" (OPG, welches auch als "Osteoklastogenese-inhibierender Faktor" (OCIF bezeichnet wird. OPG/OCIF kann die Osteoklastenneubildung durch die direkte, hoch affine Bindung an den ODF/OPGL der Stromal/Osteoblasten unterbinden. Dieses nicht-membrangebundene Mitglied der TNF-Rezeptor Superfamilie wird ubiquitär exprimiert. Eine spezifische Geninaktivierung zeigt im Tiermodell die typischen Merkmale der "Osteoporose", während die erhöhte Expression zu "Osteopetrose" führt. Grundsätzlich betrachtet, erfolgt durch OPG/OCIF eine Blockierung der osteoklastendifferenzierenden Effekte von ODF/OPGL. Es ist daher anzunehmen, daß diesen extrazellulären Faktoren eine Schlüsselfunktion in der Entwicklung von Osteoklasten zukommt.

  10. Bir tıp fakültesi birinci sınıf öğrencilerinde toplumsal cinsiyet algı düzeyi ve ilişkili faktörlerin değerlendirilmesi


    Varol, Zeynep Sedef; Çiçeklioğlu, Meltem; Taner, Şafak


    Amaç: Bu çalışmanın amacı bir tıp fakültesi birinci sınıf öğrencilerinin toplumsal cinsiyet algı düzeyi ve ilişkili faktörleri değerlendirmektir. Gereç ve Yöntem: Kesitsel araştırma şeklinde yürütülen çalışma Ege Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi 2013-2014 eğitim yılında birinci sınıfta okuyan 435 öğrenciden 352'sine (%81) ulaşılarak gerçekleştirilmiştir. Veri toplama aracı olarak 24 sorudan ve iki alt skaladan oluşan Cinsiyet Eşitliği Ölçeğinin (CEÖ) Türkçe versiyonu ve sosyo-demografik özell...

  11. Update zum klinischen Einsatz von Inhibitoren mutierter Phosphokinasen beim Melanom. (United States)

    Cosgarea, Ioana; Ritter, Cathrin; Becker, Jürgen C; Schadendorf, Dirk; Ugurel, Selma


    Die Behandlungsstrategie beim metastasierten Melanom hat sich mit der Identifizierung therapeutisch angreifbarer molekularer Zielstrukturen innerhalb zellulärer Signalwege radikal geändert. Durch die Zulassung von Substanzen, die gezielt an den zentralen Schaltmolekülen, den Phosphokinasen, angreifen, können diese Signalwege selektiv abgeschaltet werden. Dies ist insbesondere bei denjenigen Tumoren von Interesse, deren Signalwege durch aktivierende Mutationen der für die Schaltmoleküle kodierenden Gene konstitutiv aktiviert sind. Aktuell ist diese therapeutische Strategie insbesondere für Patienten bedeutsam, deren Melanome eine Mutation im BRAF-Gen aufweisen. Diese Patienten können durch eine Kombinationstherapie aus Inhibitoren der Phosphokinasen BRAF und MEK langfristig mit sehr guter Krankheitskontrolle behandelt werden. Unter dieser Kombinationstherapie wird aktuell ein progressionsfreies Überleben von über zehn Monaten und ein Gesamtüberleben von mehr als zwei Jahren bei guter Lebensqualität erzielt. Da unter längerfristiger Therapie mit Kinaseinhibitoren jedoch bei einem Großteil der Patienten eine Resistenzbildung auftritt, sind aktuelle klinische Therapiestudien auf die Suche nach geeigneten Kombinationspartnern unter Blockierung anderer Signalwege oder unter Aktivierung der T-Zell-vermittelten Immunantwort ausgerichtet. Der vorliegende Übersichtsartikel stellt sowohl die aktuell verfügbaren als auch die in der klinischen Testung befindlichen zukünftigen Optionen der zielgerichteten Therapie des Melanoms dar. © 2017 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Stable algorithms for magnetotomography of fuel cells; Stabile Algorithmen fuer die Magnetotomographie an Brennstoffzellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wannert, Martin


    For optimum fuel cell operation, the power distribution must be as homogeneous as possible. It is therefore important for research, diagnosis and maintenance to be able to measure the power distribution inside a fuel cell. The book presents a non-invasive measuring method that reconstructs the internal power distribution from the magnetic field outside the fuel cell. Reconstruction algorithms are developed and tested for stability. The algorithms comprise a certain prior knowledge of the real power distribution; on the other hand, the magnetic field is split up numerically into different part-fields in order to reduce the complexity of the problem. [German] Um einen optimalen Brennstoffzellenbetrieb zu gewaehrleisten, ist es notwendig, eine moeglichst homogene Stromverteilung sicher zu stellen. Daher ist es aus Forschungs-, Diagnose- und Wartungszwecken von Interesse, die Stromverteilung in einer Zelle messen zu koennen. In diesem Buch wird ein nicht-invasives Messverfahren vorgestellt, das aus dem Magnetfeld ausserhalb der Brennstoffzelle die innere Stromverteilung rekonstruiert. Dabei werden Rekonstruktionsalgorithmen entwickelt und auf ihre Stabilitaet hin analysiert. Die Algorithmen beinhalten zum einen ein gewisses Vorwissen ueber die wahre Stromverteilung, zum anderen wird zuerst das Magnetfeld numerisch in unterschiedliche Teilfelder aufgespaltet, um so die Komplexitaet des Problems zu reduzieren.

  13. Čezmejno sodelovanje na primeru občine Tržič = The crossborder cooperation: a case study of the Tržič municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Mrak


    Full Text Available The Municipality of Tržič borders with the Republic of Austria at the main ridge of the Karavanke mountain. Cooperation with the neighbouring communities Borovlje/Ferlach and Sele/Zell Pfare started in the eighties and it has become more intense after the year 1991. The border that was once separating the inhabitants on both sides of the mountain ridge has become more opened after the slovenian independence but the border control is after Schengen agreement more severe. Remote mountain border areas where access used to be limited were suddenly recognised as a great touristic potential. In the recent years the Municipality of Tržič together with Austrian partners managed to form some joined agriculture and tourism development projects within the PHARE programme (CBC - Crossborder Cooperation and ECOS - Ouverture. The projects deal with the regrowing of buckwheat, preservation of a special sheep breed - jezersko solčavska sheep, activation of the natural monument Dovžan gorge which will be logistically connected to Tscheppa gorge on the austrian side. Within the ECOS Ouverture programme the project of Thematic trails around the Košuta mountain has been initiated in order to reactivate and connect hidden natural and cultural potentials into integrated touristic offer of this part of the Karavanke mountain.

  14. Ergenlerde Mobil Telefon Bağımlığı İle Sosyal Kaygı Arasındaki İlişkinin İncelenmesi


    YILMAZ, Gül; ŞAR, Ali Haydar; CİVAN, Sema


    Araştırmanın amacı mobil telefon bağımlılığının ergenlerin sosyal kaygı düzeyleri üzerindeki işleyişlerini incelemektir. Sosyal kaygı düzeyleri incelenirken gittikçe artan ve hayatımızın her anını saran telefon kullanımlarının ergenler üzerindeki sosyal kaygı derecesini ve bunların yaş, cinsiyet, eğitim gibi faktörlere bağlı olarak nasıl değişkenlik gösterdiği araştırılmıştır.Araştırma da öncelikle sosyal kaygı kavramının gelişimine ve aşamalarına bakılmış ardından ergenlik dönemlerinin özell...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Süer


    Full Text Available   ÖZET Mersiye; Arap, Fars ve Türk edebiyatlarında özellikle ölenin veya kaybedilen değerlerin ardından onu öven ve kaybının üzüntüsünü terennüm eden şiirlerin genel adıdır. Bu genel ad zamanla özelleşip “Kerbelâ Mersiyesi” şeklini almış ve Kerbelâ Olayı’nı dile getirir olmuştur.  Kerbelâ mersiyeleri sayesinde tarih sayfalarında yer alan bu vahim olay, edebiyatımızda da yer bulmuştur. Bu çalışmada, Hz. Hasan’a ve Hz. Hüseyin’e isim verilme hâdisesini ve bu iki Peygamber torununun şehâdet şerbetini içme hâdisesini anlatan, müellifi bilinmeyen bir manzume ele alınmıştır.

  16. Technologies for III-V compound semiconductor based solar cells with high power densities and efficiencies. Final report; Technologien fuer Solarzellen aus III-V Verbindungshalbleitern mit hoher Leistungsdichte und hohem Wirkungsgrad. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bett, A.; Wettling, W.


    einer Tandemkonfiguration realisiert werden koennen. Gegenstand des Projekts war es daher, die Herstellung hocheffizienter GaAs Konzentratorsolarzellen, die Fertigung von Tandem-Konzentratorsolarzellen und den Aufbau und Charakterisierung erster Prototyp-Konzentratormodule zu realisieren. Zur Herstellung der Solarzellenstrukturen wurde sowohl die Technologie der Fluessigphasen-Epitaxie (LPE), also auch die Gasphasen-Epitaxie (MOVPE) erprobt. Es wurden vielfaeltige Schichtstrukturen evaluiert und Tandemzellen aus GaAs/GaSb, AlGAs/Si und GaInP/GaAs prozessiert und untersucht. Im Verlauf des Projektes wurden wesentliche Fortschritte bei der Materialpraeparation, der Solarzellentechnologie und der Material- und Prozesscharakterisierung erzielt. Diese Erfolge druecken sich in den erzielten Wirkungsgraden aus: (a) GaAs-Solarzelle hergestellt mit MOVPE-Technologie: 24.2% (AM1.5g) (b) GaAs-Konzentratorsolarzelle hergestellt mit LPE-EBR Verfahren: 25.8% bei C=100 x AM1.5d (c) Mechanisch gestapelte GaAs/GaSb Tandem Konzentrator Zelle: 31.1% bei C=100 x AM1.5d (d) Monolithische GaInP/GaAs Zelle: 28.0% (AM1.5g). (e) GaAs/GaSb-Fresnellinsen-Konzentratormodul: Modulwirkungsgrad 23.0%, im Freien gemessen bei 712 W/m{sup 2} Einstrahlung. (orig.)

  17. The Effects of Eight Weeks of Progressive Resistance Training on Eotaxin Serum Levels in Overweight and Obese Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Ghorbanian


    Full Text Available Background & aim: Eotaxin, a pro-inflammatory adipokine is secreted from adipose tissue, which its secretion increases in the obese, plays a key role in the pathogenesis of asthma. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of eight weeks’ progressive resistance training on serum eotaxin, non-HDL-c, insulin resistance and some physiological variables in overweight and obese men. Methods: In the present quasi-experimental study, 20 healthy overweight and obese male (22.75±1.29 yr, 89.22±13.08 kg, 28.36 ±3.98 kg/m² were participaped and randomly assigned into training (n =10 and control (n =10 groups. Progressive resistance training was carried out for eight weeks (4 d/wk, 60 min/d. Blood samples were taken before, and 48 hours after the last training session to evaluate serum variables. Eotaxin serum concentration were measured by sandwich ELISA method using a special kit manufacturing by Germany ZellBio Company. Dependent and independent t-test and Pearson correlation was employed for data analysis. The criterion of statistical significance was p0.05. The results of dependent t-test showed that after eight weeks of progressive resistance training,   changes  of all the variables in the experimental group (except LDL, HDL and insulin were significant (p<0.05. Finally, in basic terms, the correlation between eotaxin with other variables (other than non-HDL-c was not statistically significant (p<0.05. Conclusion: It seems that eight weeks of progressive resistance training can not have a significant effect on eotaxin serum and insulin resistance. However, it caused significant decrease in non-high-density lipoprotein, triglycerides and cholesterol as cardiovascular risk factors. Perhaps due to the intensity and high volume of this work, further study is suggested.  


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selim SOMUNCU


    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada Millî Eğitim Bakanlığı tarafından 2005 yılında yürürlüğe giren Türkçe öğretim programına göre hazırlanan 7. sınıf Türkçe ders kitabındaki metinler, temel evrensel değerler açısından ve edebî açıdan inceleniyor. Çalışmada bu metin incelemelerine geçmeden önce edebî metinler eğitsel açıdan değerlendirilip bu bağlamda kavramsal bilgiler sunuluyor. Sonrasında temel evrensel değerler üzerinde kısaca duruluyor. Daha sonra kitaptaki metinlere geçilerek önceki bölümlerde verilen bilgilerin ışığında metinlerin okuması yapılıyor. Bu metinler evrensel değerler açısından değerlendirildiği gibi edebî ve sanatsal açıdan da inceleniyor. Hem kuramsal açıdan tartışmaların hem de metin incelemelerinin yapıldığı çalışmada konu bu incelemelerle özelleştiriliyor. Çalışmada, eğitimde edebî metinlerin genel anlamda değer kazandırmada, özelde ise evrensel değerleri kazandırmada ne derece öneme sahip olduğunun tespiti yapılmaya çalışılıyor. 

  19. Pathway-based visualization of cross-platform microarray datasets. (United States)

    Wrzodek, Clemens; Eichner, Johannes; Zell, Andreas


    Traditionally, microarrays were almost exclusively used for the genome-wide analysis of differential gene expression. But nowadays, their scope of application has been extended to various genomic features, such as microRNAs (miRNAs), proteins and DNA methylation (DNAm). Most available methods for the visualization of these datasets are focused on individual platforms and are not capable of integratively visualizing multiple microarray datasets from cross-platform studies. Above all, there is a demand for methods that can visualize genomic features that are not directly linked to protein-coding genes, such as regulatory RNAs (e.g. miRNAs) and epigenetic alterations (e.g. DNAm), in a pathway-centred manner. We present a novel pathway-based visualization method that is especially suitable for the visualization of high-throughput datasets from multiple different microarray platforms that were used for the analysis of diverse genomic features in the same set of biological samples. The proposed methodology includes concepts for linking DNAm and miRNA expression datasets to canonical signalling and metabolic pathways. We further point out strategies for displaying data from multiple proteins and protein modifications corresponding to the same gene. Ultimately, we show how data from four distinct platform types (messenger RNA, miRNA, protein and DNAm arrays) can be integratively visualized in the context of canonical pathways. The described method is implemented as part of the InCroMAP application that is freely available at or

  20. Biosorption of heavy metals by immobilized microalgae; Biosorption von Schwermetallen durch immobilisierte Mikroalgen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilke, A.; Bunke, G.; Goetz, P.; Buchholz, R. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Fachgebiet Bioverfahrenstechnik


    Some microalgae stand out by the fact that they are highly capable of adsorbing heavy metals (biosorption). In contrast to bioaccumulation, where heavy metals are actively integrated into living cells, biosorption is a process of chemical-physical deposition to functional groups of the cell wall components. For a process-technological application, different reactor configurations may be used. Owing to different advantages such as a continuous mode of operation, attainable low effluent concentrations, low operating cost, ease of scaling up, modular design, modest space demand and a high degree of automation, packed-bed adsorption is the process-technological solution to be preferred. Mathematical modelling of adsorption kinetics as a basis for scaling up requires knowledge of resistances to suspended matter transport for the adsorbents used. By appropriate experiments the different resistances (film resistance, diffusion resistance inside particles) need to be decoupled from each other prior to their determination. (orig.) [German] Einige Mikroalgen zeichnen sich dadurch aus, im hohen Masse Schwermetalle zu adsorbieren (Biosorption). Im Gegensatz zur Bioakkumulation, bei der die Schwermetalle aktiv in die lebende Zelle aufgenommen werden, handelt es sich bei der Biosorption um einen chemischen/physikalischen Anlagerungsprozess an funktionelle Gruppen der Zellwandkomponenten. Fuer eine verfahrenstechnische Umsetzung koennen unterschiedliche Reaktorkonfigurationen verwendet werden. Aufgrund verschiedener Vorteile wie kontinuierliche Betriebsweise, niedrige erreichbare Ablaufkonzentration, geringe Betriebskosten, einfache Scale-up-Faehigkeit, modulare Bauweise, geringer Platzbedarf sowie hoher Automatisierungsgrad ist eine Festbettadsorption als verfahrenstechnische Loesung vorzuziehen. Eine mathematische Modellierung der Adsorptionskinetik, als Basis einer Massstabsvergroesserung, erfordert die Kenntnis der Stofftransportwiderstaende bei den verwendeten Adsorbentien

  1. Variogram based and Multiple - Point Statistical simulation of shallow aquifer structures in the Upper Salzach valley, Austria (United States)

    Jandrisevits, Carmen; Marschallinger, Robert


    Quarternary sediments in overdeepened alpine valleys and basins in the Eastern Alps bear substantial groundwater resources. The associated aquifer systems are generally geometrically complex with highly variable hydraulic properties. 3D geological models provide predictions of both geometry and properties of the subsurface required for subsequent modelling of groundwater flow and transport. In hydrology, geostatistical Kriging and Kriging based conditional simulations are widely used to predict the spatial distribution of hydrofacies. In the course of investigating the shallow aquifer structures in the Zell basin in the Upper Salzach valley (Salzburg, Austria), a benchmark of available geostatistical modelling and simulation methods was performed: traditional variogram based geostatistical methods, i.e. Indicator Kriging, Sequential Indicator Simulation and Sequential Indicator Co - Simulation were used as well as Multiple Point Statistics. The ~ 6 km2 investigation area is sampled by 56 drillings with depths of 5 to 50 m; in addition, there are 2 geophysical sections with lengths of 2 km and depths of 50 m. Due to clustered drilling sites, indicator Kriging models failed to consistently model the spatial variability of hydrofacies. Using classical variogram based geostatistical simulation (SIS), equally probable realizations were generated with differences among the realizations providing an uncertainty measure. The yielded models are unstructured from a geological point - they do not portray the shapes and lateral extensions of associated sedimentary units. Since variograms consider only two - point spatial correlations, they are unable to capture the spatial variability of complex geological structures. The Multiple Point Statistics approach overcomes these limitations of two point statistics as it uses a Training image instead of variograms. The 3D Training Image can be seen as a reference facies model where geological knowledge about depositional

  2. Феромониторинг восточной плодожорки и других листоверток




    Рассмотрена сезонная динамика лёта восточной плодожорки в условиях зоны достаточного увлажнения Ставропольского края в 2014 г. В процессе феромониторинга, кроме восточной плодожорки, выявлено еще 9 видов листоверток, относящихся к 5 трибам. Наиболее массовыми и часто встречающимися видами являются восточная плодожорка (Grapholitha molesta Busck), сливовая плодожорка (Grapholitha funebrana Tr.) и Pammene suspectana Lienig et Zell. Показано, что пик видового разнообразия имаго большинства выявл...

  3. ZOXY - a new battery for electric vehicles?; ZOXY - eine neue Batterie fuer Elektrofahrzeuge?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyder, B. [EnBW Badenwerk AG, Karlsruhe (Germany)


    hinsichtlich Gewicht und maschinellem Aufwand abgewickelt werden. Die Verbindung beider Vorgaenge muesste mit handhabbaren Stoffen in einem moeglichst lueckenlosen Kreislauf verwirklicht werden. Beispiele fuer diesen Prozess sind die galvanischen Elemente aus den Anfaengen der Elektrotechnik im vorigen Jahrhundert. In Karlsruhe wurde eine solche Zelle entwickelt, die mit Zink und Luftsauerstoff arbeitet. Sie erreicht eine Energiedichte von mehr als 150 Wh je kg Batteriegewicht und wird derzeit in mehreren Elektroautos erprobt. (orig.)

  4. Assessment of the development of a battery charging infrastructure for a redox flow battery based electromobility concept; Bewertung des Aufbaus einer Ladeinfrastruktur fuer eine Redox-Flow-Batteriebasierte Elektromobilitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arpad Funke, Simon; Wietschel, Martin [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany). Competence Center Energietechnologien und Energiesysteme


    Apart from the high acquisition cost, the major obstacles to widespread use of electric-powered vehicles today are long battery charging times and limited mileage. Rechargeable batteries might be a solution. The publication investigates a potential infrastructure for electric-powered vehicles based on so-called redox flow batteries. Redox flow batteries are characterized in that active materials are dissolved in liquid electrolyte and are stored outside the cell. Batteries are recharged by exchanging charged electrolyte for discharged electrolyte, which can be done in fuel stations. Redox flow batteries have the drawback of low energy and power density and were hardly ever considered for mobile applications so far. A technical analysis of RFB technology identified the vanadium oxygen redox flow fuel cell (VOFC) as a promising version. It provides higher energy density than conventional redox flow batteries, but development is still in an early stage. Assuming a 'best case' scenario, a refuelling infrastructure for VOFC vehicles was developed and compared with battery-powered vehicles (BEV) and fuel cell vehicles (FVEV). It was found that electromobility based on VOFC may be a promising alternative to current electromobility concepts. (orig./AKB) [German] Neben den Anschaffungsausgaben stehen lange Ladezeiten und eine beschraenkte Reichweite dem heutigen Einsatz von Elektrofahrzeugen oft entgegen. Eine moegliche Abhilfe koennten betankbare Batterien leisten. In der vorliegenden Arbeit soll ein moeglicher Infrastrukturaufbau fuer Elektrofahrzeuge mit sogenannten Redox-Flow-Batterien untersucht werden. Redox-Flow-Batterien besitzen die Eigenschaft, dass aktive Materialien geloest in Fluessigelektrolyten ausserhalb der Zelle gespeichert werden. Dieser Aufbau ermoeglicht das Aufladen der Batterie, indem der entladene Elektrolyt durch geladenen ausgetauscht wird. Dieser Tausch kann an einer Tankstelle durchgefuehrt werden. Ein wesentlicher Nachteil von Redox

  5. Skeletal sarcoidosis; Skelettsarkoidose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freyschmidt, J. [Klinikum Bremen-Mitte, Beratungsstelle und Referenzzentrum fuer Osteoradiologie, Bremen (Germany); Freyschmidt, P. [Dermatologische Gemeinschaftspraxis, Schwalmstadt (Germany)


    Beteiligung kann es zu unspezifischen Gelenkbeschwerden (Arthralgien), seltener zu Arthritiden kommen. Typische Hautveraenderungen koennen diagnoseweisend sein. Es kommen vor: Stanzlochartige Osteolysen, groebere Destruktionen, Osteosklerosen, am besten mit der Projektionsradiographie und/oder Computertomographie (CT) zu visualisieren. Reine Markraumherde ohne Interaktion mit dem Knochen sind nur mit der Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT), neuerdings auch mit der Positronenemissionstomographie (PET) zumeist als Zufallsbefunde detektierbar. Bevorzugte Skelettabschnitte sind Hand- und Stammskelett. Skeletttuberkulose, Metastasen, multiples Myelom, Langerhans-Zell-Histiozytose, sarkoidaehnliche Reaktionen bei soliden Tumoren. Der Schluessel zur korrekten Diagnose: Thoraxaufnahme und/oder Thorax-CT, dermatologische Manifestationen. (orig.)

  6. Über die Bedeutung von Magnesium bei der Tumorgenese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golf SW


    Full Text Available Magnesium (Mg und die Tumorgenese sind in funktioneller wie in struktureller Hinsicht vielseitig miteinander verknüpft. Die Tumorzelle ist befähigt, Mg zu Lasten der Mg-Pools des Organismus in überhöhter Konzentration zu speichern, auch wenn für den Organismus eine negative Mg-Bilanz vorliegt. Durch diese Veränderung der Mg-Verteilung wird die Zelle in die Lage versetzt, den erhöhten Enegiebedarf bei Zellwachstum, z.B. durch eine induzierte Proteinbiosynthese und RNA-/DNA-Biosynthese, sowie gesteigerte Transportvorgänge zu decken. Andererseits verlaufen zahlreiche Vorgänge bei der Protein-, RNA-/DNA-Synthese, bei der Signalentstehung und -Propagation, bei Teilen der Mitose (Umbau der nukleären Struktur, Meta- und Anaphase sowie bei der Metastase in einem akzelerierten Modus kalziumabhängig, was diese Reaktionen stark Mg-abhängig gestaltet. Ca verbleibt nur wenige Sekunden funktional und wird durch Influx in das endoplasmatische Retikulum (ER aus dem Zytosol eliminiert, wodurch die Prozesse gebremst oder sogar unterbrochen werden. Für den Rücktransport von Ca in die intrazellulären Speicher wird Mg benötigt; somit kann Mg auch als Inhibitor dieser Vorgänge betrachtet werden. Auch die biologische Zytostase z. B. durch alpha-Tumornekrosefaktor (alphaTNF verläuft Mg-abhängig, da eine gesteigerte Resistenz der Tumorzelle gegenüber alphaTNF bei Mg-Mangel besteht. In struktureller Hinsicht kommen Mg bedeutende Wirkungen bei der Tumorgenese zu. Klassisch sind die schützenden Effekte von Mg bei der durch kanzerogene Metalle, z.B. Arsen, Beryllium, Chrom, Blei, Quecksilber und Nickel, ausgelösten Tumorgenese. Eine Schutzwirkung tritt vor allem bei einem Ungleichgewicht zwischen dem kanzerogenen Metall und dem Mg-Status des Organismus ein. In analoger Weise sind auch die Stabilität von DNA und RNA sowie Reparaturmechanismen von DNA-Schäden nur in ausreichender Gegenwart von funktionellem Mg optimiert. Hinsichtlich der Immunkompetenz

  7. Anabole Wirkungen auf den Knochen durch pulsatiles exogenes Parathormon - ein wiederentdecktes Therapieprinzip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernecker PM


    Full Text Available Parathormon (PTH wird in den Zellen der Nebenschilddrüse produziert und in enger Abhängigkeit vom Serumspiegel des ionisierten Kalziums in die Zirkulation abgegeben. Ein Abfall des Serum-Kalziums führt zu einem augenblicklichen Ansteigen der PTH-Ausschüttung aus der Nebenschilddrüse, ohne daß "second messenger"-Mechanismen zum Tragen kommen; viel mehr wird die Kalziumkonzentration durch einen auf der Oberfläche der Nebenschilddrüsenzellen befindlichen Kalzium-empfindlichen Rezeptor direkt durch die Zelle erfaßt. PTH wirkt auf verschiedene Weise; Ziel der Wirkung ist in jedem Fall eine Anhebung des Serum-Kalzium-Spiegels. Aus der Extrazellulärflüssigkeit (ECF des Knochens, die durch das Havers'sche Kanalsystem zirkuliert, kann recht rasch Kalzium mobilisiert werden. In der Knochen-ECF sind ca. 1-3 Gramm Kalzium in lockerer Ionenbindung gespeichert; diese können unter dem Einfluß von Parathormon sehr rasch in das Blutkompartment übergeführt werden. Am Knochen stimuliert Parathormon die Knochenresorption, auch hier mit dem physiologischen Ziel, Kalzium freizusetzen. Da der Knochenstoffwechsel jedoch in definierten "Knochenumbaueinheiten" (bone remodelling units = BMU erfolgt, in denen Knochenresorption und Knochenformation eng gekoppelt sind und sequentiell ablaufen, wurde die Steuerung dieser Umbauvorgänge durch PTH schon vor längerer Zeit untersucht. Die Überraschung war groß, als man feststellen mußte, daß die den Knochen abbauenden Osteoklasten keinerlei Rezeptoren für PTH, sondern nur für dessen physiologischen Gegenspieler, das Calcitonin, besitzen. PTH-Rezeptoren wurden dagegen in großer Dichte auf Osteoblasten, also Knochen-aufbauenden Zellen, gefunden. Es wird daher angenommen, daß der initiale Reiz für die Knochenresorption auf die Osteoklasten indirekt übermittelt wird, und zwar über bisher unbekannte second-messaging-Mechanismen; Prostaglandine der E- und F-Serien als auch Interleukin-1 wurden hier als solche

  8. Effects of climate, land use and changes in these on water availability and high water events in Europe. Sub-projects: Effects of climate change on water availability and high water in Germany and Europe: An integrated analysis. - Water availability and high water discharge (Elbe and Oder rivers) as a function of climate and land use and changes in these. - Modelling of discharge in the upper section of the Oder river in case of extreme high water events.. Final report; Auswirkungen des Klimas und der Landnutzung sowie ihrer Aenderungen auf die Wasserverfuegbarkeit und auf Hochwasserereignisse in Europa. Einfluss des Klimawandels auf Wasserverfuegbarkeit und Hochwasser in Deutschland und Europa: eine integrierte Analyse - EuroWasser. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcamo, J.; Doell, P.; Lehner, B.


    The EuroWater project led to further development, improvement, and validation of the integrated global water model WaterGAP. WaterGAP 2 is a model that, being unique in its kind, allows to calculate both water abstractions and water availability in a consistent manner on a grid-, watershed-, and country-scale. Combined with scenario analysis, WaterGAP provides a valuable tool to assess the impacts of Global Change upon water resource systems on the continental and global scale. The project's first phase allowed for important modifications and refining of the WaterGAP model and it's applications. In particular, the previous concept of 'water criticality' (i.e. stress on water resources) was re-defined, taking both water availability and water withdrawals into account. Additionally, new concepts were developed on how the effects of Global Change on flood and drought frequencies as well as on hydropower generation can be assessed. In these fields of research, applying consistent model-based approaches for macro-scale analyses was breaking new ground in science. The results may support the evaluation of risk- and conflict-potentials both on a national and an international level, and can thus be especially interesting for political decision-makers. (orig.) [German] Im durchgefuehrten Vorhaben wurde, auf bestehenden Grundlagen aufbauend, eine Verbesserung, Weiterentwicklung und Validierung des integrierten globalen Wassermodells WaterGAP erreicht. WaterGAP 2 stellt ein einzigartiges Modell zur Berechnung des Wasserdargebots und der Wassernutzung sowohl auf Zell-, Einzugsgebiets- und Laenderebene dar, das es erlaubt, die Folgen des Globalen Wandels auf die Ressource Wasser auf kontinentalem und globalem Massstab abzuschaetzen. Im Vorhaben wurden zunaechst bestehende Anwendungskonzepte von WaterGAP modifiziert und verfeinert, insbesondere die Berechnung der Wasserkritikalitaet (Wasserstress) und ihre Aenderung fuer Europa, berechnet aus dem Verhaeltnis

  9. Cascade dams influence on sediment characteristics and phosphorus distribution. (United States)

    Rapin, Anne; Mourier, Brice; Rabiet, Marion; Malgorzata, Grybos; Kestens, Tim; Deluchat, Veronique


    Massive river artificialisation by dam construction, responding to the steadily increasing human demand of water and electricity leads to several environmental consequences, including alteration of hydrological dynamic and sediment discontinuity. Important decreases of water flows and sediment transport downstream impact phosphorus (P) flux to the ocean and its cycle, due to P sediment storage in dam reservoir. Moreover, the release of P from sediments may enhance eutrophication processes in dam reservoir. Our study focused on the influence of cascade dams on physical and chemical characteristics of sediments and particularly on P sedimentary speciation along river continuum. Considering these results, the potential of P release from dam reservoir sediments was appraised and compared to un-impacted river parts. In addition, key parameters controlling P release at sediment/water interface were evaluated. Champsanglard, Chézelles and Age are three consecutive hydroelectric reservoirs on Creuse River (France; respective surfaces area of 55 ha, 23 ha, 38 ha and approximative height of 20 m each) subjected to seasonal cyanobacterial blooms. Surface sediments (17 samples) were collected in dams and free-flow river sections (on a stretch of 17 km); chemical composition (Fe, Al, Ca, Mn and P), organic matter (OM) content, particle size distribution and P fractionation were analysed. An abrupt change in sediment granulometry from a coarse-medium sand to silt texture going through free-flow river to dam reservoirs was observed. The same assessment was made in regard to OM content (from 3 ± 3% in river parts to 18 ± 3% in dams) and total P (0.27 ± 0.11 mgP/g DW in river parts to 1.8 ± 0.3 mgP/gDW in dams). P enrichment in sediment from dam reservoir is due to the retention of fine size particles. Relation between total P content and sediment grain size within each dam reservoir highlighted the role of slowdown river flow occurring in dams. In Champsanglard reservoir

  10. Practical experience in post-mortem tissue donation in consideration of the European tissue law. (United States)

    Karbe, Thomas; Braun, Christian; Wulff, Birgit; Schröder, Ann Sophie; Püschel, Klaus; Bratzke, Hansjürgen; Parzeller, Markus


    In consequence of the European guidelines of safety and quality standards for the donation, retrieval, storing and distribution of human tissues and cells the purpose of tissue transplantation was implemented into German legislation in May 2007. The law came into effect on August 1st 2007 considering of the European rules. The Institutes for Legal Medicine of the University of Frankfurt/Main and the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf developed a model for tissue retrieval. The Institute of Legal Medicine (I.f.R.) at the University Medical Center Hamburg cooperates with the German Institute of Cell and Tissue Replacement (Deutsches Institut für Zell--und Gewebeersatz DIZG). Potential post-mortem tissue donors (PMTD) among the deceased are selected by standardized sets of defined criteria. The procedure is guided by the intended exclusion criteria of the tissue regulation draft (German Transplant Law TPG GewV) in accordance with the European Guideline (2006/17/EC). Following the identification of the donor and subsequent removal of tissue, the retrieved samples were sent to the DIZG, a non-profit tissue bank according to the tissue regulation. Here the final processing into transplantable tissue grafts takes place, which then results in the allocation of tissue to hospitals in Germany and other European countries. The Center of Legal Medicine at the Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Medical Center Frankfurt/Main cooperates since 2000 with Tutogen, a pharmaceutical company. Harvesting of musculoskeletal tissues follows corresponding regulations. To verify the outcome of PMTD at the I.f.R. Hamburg, two-statistic analysis over 12 and 4 months have been implemented. Our results have shown an increasing number of potential appropriate PMTD within the second inquiry interval but a relatively small and unvaryingly rate of successful post-mortem tissue retrievals similar to the first examination period. Thus, the aim of the model developed by the I.f.R. is to

  11. Studies on the Ig response from human peripheral mononuclear cells in the presence of environmental agents - Effect of nicotine and cotinine and respiratory syncytial virus on non specific and specific immune response; Die Modulation der primaeren und sekundaeren in vitro Immunantwort humaner Lymphozyten durch Umweltschadstoffe - Einfluss von Nikotin und Cotinin sowie RSV auf Parameter der unspezifischen und spezifischen Immunantwort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, W. [Ruhr-Universitaet, Bochum (Germany). Med. Mikrobiologie und Immunologie, Arbeitsgruppe fuer Infektabwehrmechanismen; Arnold, R. [Ruhr-Universitaet, Bochum (Germany). Med. Mikrobiologie und Immunologie, Arbeitsgruppe fuer Infektabwehrmechanismen; Fischer, A. [Ruhr-Universitaet, Bochum (Germany). Med. Mikrobiologie und Immunologie, Arbeitsgruppe fuer Infektabwehrmechanismen; Kasimir-Bauer, S. [Ruhr-Universitaet, Bochum (Germany). Med. Mikrobiologie und Immunologie, Arbeitsgruppe fuer Infektabwehrmechanismen


    The cell- and molecularbiological mechanisms of the Ig-response (G,A,E) was studied with human peripheral mononuclear cells and the effect of RSV (respiratory syncytial virus), nicotine and cotinine alone as well as combined were analysed. In addition to the mononuclear cells bronchial epithelial cells (cell lines) were used and the effect of RSV, nicotine and cotinine were studied. Using this two compartment system (bronchial epithelial cells, cell lines) and human immunoeffector cells (coculture and transwell) the in vivo situation can be experimentally mimicked in vitro. Our results show that RSV modulates the Ig-response and the conditions of (polyclonal) IgE-induction with RSV are established. Nicotine and cotinine (10{sup -5} M - 10{sup -10} M) induce mRNA expression for various cytokines in PBMC and also modulate the cytokine induced Ig-response. Nicotine and cotinine prime bronchial epithelial cells so that a subsequent microbial interaction (RSV, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) leads to an exaggerated inflammatory (cytokines, leukotrienes) response. It is suggested that proinflammatory mediators from epithelial cells modulate the Ig-response of cytokine primed B-cells thus affecting secondarily the mucosa barrier. This system will be used to study the effects of environmental agents on the non specific and specific immune response and will be challenged with additional agents. (orig.) [Deutsch] Es wurden die zell- und molekularbiologischen Mechanismen der primaeren und sekundaeren Ig-(G,A,E,M) Antwort unter dem Einfluss von RSV (repiratory syncytial virus) sowie Nikotin und Cotinin bearbeitet. Neben peripheren mononukleaeren Zellen wurden Bronchialepithelzellen (Zellinien) analysiert und die Einwirkung von RSV, Nikotin und Cotinin ueberprueft. Das System wurde benutzt, um die Wechselwirkung mit Immuneffektorzellen unter dem Einfluss der Schadstoffe zu analysieren. Es wird gezeigt, dass RSV als Infektionsstimulus die primaere und sekundaere Ig-Antwort in

  12. Paradigmenwechsel in der Anti-Aging-Medizin: Hormesis, Target-of-Rapamycin-Komplex und erste Anti-Aging-Pillen // Paradigm Shift in Anti-Aging Medicine: Hormesis, Target of Rapamycin Complex and First Human Anti-Aging-Pills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Römmler A


    dieser Gesellschaften. Manche Maßnahmen der Lebensführung (z. B. kalorienreduzierte Ernährung, regelmäßiges Training verbessern die Altersgesundheit, dennoch benötigen viele zusätzlich Therapien gegen Krankheiten im Alter. Deren größter Risikofaktor ist „das Altern“ selbst.brIn Tiermodellen können durch bestimmte Substanzen und Lebensführung die gesunde Lebensspanne verlängert und das Altern verzögert werden. Dies wird durch physiologische Signalketten vermittelt, die evolutionär konserviert erscheinen. Im Mittelpunkt solcher Regulatoren steht der mTOR-Komplex („mechanistic Target of Rapamycin“. Er verknüpft Signale wie Energie-, Nahrungs- und Stressstatus mit grundlegenden Aktivitäten der Zelle, zu denen Proliferation versus Zellarrest sowie Reparatur versus Apoptose gehören.brDie Zellregulation auf solche Signale bzw. Stressoren erfolgt nicht linear, sondern biphasisch (U-förmig, glockenförmig als hormetisches Prinzip. Demnach führen milde Stress-Dosen zunächst zur Aktivierung von Reparatursystemen, womit sich die Zelle an solche „giftigen“ Reize adaptiert und widerstandsfähiger wird. Erst bei höheren Reizen kommt es zum Umkehreffekt und zu toxischer Schädigung. „Hormesis“ beschreibt plausibel die in Modellorganismen beobachteten Anti-Aging-Effekte solcher milden Reize, die sich durch verlängerte Lebensspanne bei verminderter Krankheitsinzidenz (Diabetes mellitus, Karzinome, Demenz auszeichnen.brEinige natürliche mTOR-Inhibitoren sind für humane Anwendungen bereits verfügbar. Hierzu zählen Resveratrol, Rapamycin (Sirolimus und Metformin, die von Bakterien, Pilzen oder Pflanzen jeweils als „Giftstoffe“ zur Abwehr von Fressfeinden gebildet werden. Erste Humandaten bei Diabetikern unter Metformin und bei Älteren mit Immunseneszenz unter Rapamycin zeigen bereits Anti-Aging-Effekte, was neue Perspektiven für die Altersmedizin eröffnet.

  13. Effects of Differential Time Applications on Some Cyanobacterial Norharman Production Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taner DAŞTAN


    Full Text Available Abstract. Cyanobacteria are an important class of bacteria by their metabolic activities for biology, ecology and economy. They contain series of secondary metabolites produced under negative stress conditions and providing specialized functions. One of the metabolites which is biologically active and can be used as drug for antibacterial and antitumor properties is norharman which has (9H-pyrido 3, 4-b indole structure. In this study, water samples were collected from Yesilirmak river of Tokat province of Turkey and cyanobacteria were isolated under inverted microscope by micropipette and microinjection and were cultured for a month. Selection from cultures was done during predetermined time courses and produced norharman levels were determined by HPLC. At 16th day maximum norharman production was determined as 8.8167 and 0.712 µg/g from Chroococcus minitus and Anabaena oryzae respectively. Highest norharman production from Nostoc linckia determined as 1.191 µg/g at 20th day. Since Geitlerinema carotinosum began exponential growth phase faster than other strains the highest amount of norharman production was determined as 0.825 µg/g at 12th day.Keywords: Cyanobacteria; Cultivation; Norharman; HPLC; Seconder Metabolite Özet. Siyanobakteriler, metabolizmalarından ötürü biyolojik, ekolojik ve ekonomik bakımdan önemli bakterilerdir. Özellikle çeşitli olumsuz şartlarda üretilmiş ve her biri özelleşmiş fonksiyonlara sahip bir dizi sekonder metabolit içerirler. Antibakteriyel, antikanser gibi biyolojik etkili ve ilaç olarak kullanılabilen metabolitlerden biri; 9H-Pyrido [3,4-b] indole yapısında Norharman’dır. Bu çalışmada Yeşilırmak Nehri (Tokat’nden su örnekleri alınarak  inverted mikroskop altında  mikropipet ve mikro enjektör yardımıyla izole edilen siyanobakteriler ortalama bir aylık kültüre alınmıştır. Belirli zaman aralığında kültürlerden alınarak ürettikleri norharman miktarı HPLC ile

  14. p53: Biology and role for cellular radiosensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahm-Daphi, J. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Strahlentherapie und Onkologie


    Bestrahlung reguliert p53 den Zellzyklus und ebenso die DNA-Reparatur, insbesondere die homologe und nichthomologe Rekombination. p53-Mutationen veraendern diese Funktionen, was dann fuer eine erhoehte Strahlenresistenz von Zellen und Tumoren verantwortlich sein kann. Bisher konnten nur wenige Arbeiten zeigen, dass unter genau kontrollierten Bedingungen der Verlust der Wild-Typ-Funktion von p53 zu einer erhoehten Strahlenresistenz fuehrt. Ein allgemein gueltiger Beweis steht noch aus. Schlussfolgerung: p53 zeigt sich im Jahre 2000 als ein zentrales Protein in einem Multienzym-Multifunktions-Netzwerk, das bei weitem noch nicht voellig aufgeklaert ist. Obwohl p53 ein Hauptregulator zu sein scheint, ist es sicherlich nicht ein unentbehrlicher Baustein, dessen Verlust in jedem Fall zur Strahlenresistenz fuehrt. Nur weiteres Verstaendnis von Modifikatoren und Kofaktoren im Zell- und Gewebekontext wird die Rolle von p53 fuer die Strahlenempfindlichkeit und damit auch fuer die Strahlentherapie aufklaeren. (orig.)

  15. Runoff experiment and adapted SfM photogrammetry to assess rill erosion in Mediterranean agricultural fields from a holistic point of view (United States)

    Gronz, Oliver; Rodrigo-Comino, Jesús; Seeger, Manuel


    , S., Pereira, P., Novara, A., Brevik, E.C., Azorin-Molina, C., Parras-Alcántara, L., Jordán, A., Cerdà, A., 2016. Effects of soil management techniques on soil water erosion in apricot orchards. Sci. Total Environ. 551-552, 357-366. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.01.182 Marzolff, I., Poesen, J., 2009. The potential of 3D gully monitoring with GIS using high-resolution aerial photography and a digital photogrammetry system. Geomorphology, GIS and SDA applications in geomorphology 111, 48-60. doi:10.1016/j.geomorph.2008.05.047 Poesen, J., Nachtergaele, J., Verstraeten, G., Valentin, C., 2003. Gully erosion and environmental change: importance and research needs. Catena, Gully Erosion and Global Change 50, 91-133. doi:10.1016/S0341-8162(02)00143-1 Rodrigo Comino, J., Brings, C., Lassu, T., Iserloh, T., Senciales, J., Martínez Murillo, J., Ruiz Sinoga, J., Seeger, M., Ries, J., 2015. Rainfall and human activity impacts on soil losses and rill erosion in vineyards (Ruwer Valley, Germany). Solid Earth 6, 823-837. doi:10.5194/se-6-823-2015 Wirtz, S., Seeger, M., Ries, J.B., 2012. Field experiments for understanding and quantification of rill erosion processes. Catena 91, 21-34. doi: Wirtz, S., Seeger, M., Ries, J.B., 2010. The rill experiment as a method to approach a quantification of rill erosion process activity. Z. Für Geomorphol. NF 54, 47-64. Wirtz, S., Seeger, M., Zell, A., Wagner, C., Wagner, J.-F., Ries, J.B., 2013. Applicability of Different Hydraulic Parameters to Describe Soil Detachment in Eroding Rills. PLoS ONE 8, 1-11. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0064861

  16. A national strategy for a long-term monitoring of permafrost and periglacial processes and their relationship to natural hazard prevention in Austria (United States)

    Kellerer-Pirklbauer, Andreas; Bartsch, Annett; Gitschthaler, Christoph; Reisenhofer, Stefan; Weyss, Gernot; Riedl, Claudia; Avian, Michael


    of permafrost temperatures in western Austria. A central recommendation of the permAT-strategy is to increase the number of monitoring sites based on our analyses of the current situation and exchanges with different stakeholders. This should include temperature measurements in deep and shallow boreholes close to the surface, geophysical surveys and ground movement measurements (rock glaciers, instable rock faces). In addition to the terrestrial measurements a spatially continuous observation of surface movements with remote sensing methods is required. Demand is highest for the entire federal province of Tyrol, the district of Zell am See (province of Salzburg) and the south-eastern part of the province of Vorarlberg. In order to achieve a similar spatial coverage and technical set-up as in Switzerland a minimum investment of 1.5 Mio € is required taking advantages in synergies with e.g. existing automatic weather stations (e.g. from the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics), alpine huts and skiing infrastructure into account. Financial support could - similarly to Switzerland - come from a combination of partners from public institutions, economy and research institutes.

  17. Vom "vorklinischen Studienabschnitt" zu "Medizin I" [The new pre-clinical curriculum "Medicine I" at Hamburg Medical School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuhnigk, Olaf


    problemorientiert theoretisches Wissen mit praktischen Fertigkeiten für den vorklinischen Studienabschnitt verknüpft. Zur Reform von Medizin I institutionalisierte der Fakultätsrat ein Curriculum-Komitee. Der Reformprozess wurde in enger Kooperation mit Vertretern der medizinischen und naturwissenschaftlichen Grundlagenfächer umgesetzt und wird von einer zentralen Evaluation durch das Prodekanat für Lehre begleitet. Auf Grundlage einer fachübergreifenden Lernspirale mit horizontaler und vertikaler Vernetzung der naturwissenschaftlichen und medizinischen Inhalte wurden die Unterrichtseinheiten nach inhaltlichen und zeitlichen Aspekten neu eingeteilt. Eine strikte Beschränkung der naturwissenschaftlichen Fächer auf medizinisch relevante Inhalte wurde, wie von der ÄAppO vorgeschrieben, umgesetzt. Die vorklinischen Studieninhalte werden in einem horizontal und vertikal vernetzten Kontext, orientiert an den Bausteinen "Grundlagen", "Die Zelle", "Systeme/Organe", gelehrt. Auf der Basis des "Fallbasierten Lernens" bilden in den "Integrierten Seminaren" Kleingruppenarbeit, Selbststudium und Kurzreferate neben Impulsvorträgen eine Grundlage für moderne lerndidaktische Ausbildungskonzepte. Das Wahlfachangebot ist durch das Forschungsprofil der medizinischen Grundlagenfächer geprägt. Das Training basisärztlicher Fertigkeiten findet im Rahmen der "Einführung in die klinische Medizin" statt. Studienverläufe werden durch regelmäßige studentische Feedbackveranstaltungen und ein Computerprogramm analysiert. Die Homepage für die Studierenden wurde zum besseren Informationsmanagement neu gestaltet. Die bislang positiven Evaluations- und Prüfungsergebnisse sprechen für einen erfolgreichen Strukturveränderungsprozess.

  18. PREFACE: International Symposium on Physical Sciences in Space (United States)

    Meyer, Andreas; Egry, Ivan


    Scientific Program Committee. It is our pleasure to thank the members of this committee for their excellent support in setting up a high-quality, well-balanced program. We also thank our sponsors, the German Aerospace Center and the European Space Agency, the Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Technologie (German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology), the ZARM Center of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity as well as our industrial sponsors EADS-Astrium and Kayser-Threde, for their generous contributions. Our special thanks go to the authors and reviewers of the papers in these proceedings. Together we were able to realize up-to-date, peer reviewed conference proceedings, containing new and original data. Thanks to their efforts and that of the IOP Publishing staff, we succeeded in publishing the proceedings within six months of the conference. We are confident that this collection of papers will provide a useful reference for all workers in the field. Andreas Meyer and Ivan Egry Chairmen ISPS-4 Institute of Materials Physics in Space German Aerospace Center, Cologne Conference photograph Opening ceremony Professor Dr Andreas Meyer, Chairman ISPS 4, Professor Dr Johann-Dietrich Wörner, CEO DLR, and Dr Martin Zell, Head of ESA ISS Utilisation (left to right), at the opening ceremony of ISPS-4.

  19. Neoliberal Eğitim Politikaları ve Eğitimde Fırsat Eşitliği Bağlamında Uluslararası Sınavların (PISA, TIMSS ve PIRLS Analizi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halim Güner


    Full Text Available Ekonomi ve eğitim ilişkisi birçok araştırmaya konu olmuş ve eğitim süreçlerinin ekonomik politikalara hizmet etmesi kabul edilen bir olgudur. Kapital sistemin oluşturduğu eşitsiz yarış sisteminin yeniden oluşturucusu yine eğitim süreçleri olarak düşünülmektedir. Eğitimin dünya genelinde belirli bir standarda ulaşıp, birçok ülkede benzer politikalar ile pazar ekonomisine hizmet edecek yapıya kavuşturulması neoliberal politikaların bir amacı olduğu düşünülmektedir. Ülkeler arasında benzer eğitim politikaları oluşturmanın etkili bir yolu günümüzde yapılan uluslararası sınavlardır. TIMSS, PISA ve PIRLS gibi sınavlar ülkelerin eğitim karnelerini ve ilişkili birçok değişkeni ülkelerin gündemine getirerek reform yapma gereksinimi algısı oluşturmaktadır. Bu reform algısının temel hedefinde ise dünya pazarında daha rekabetçi bir ekonomi için daha yarışçı bir eğitim anlayışıdır. Eğitimin insani gelişimden ziyade ekonomiye hizmet edecek donanımlı bireyler yetiştirmeye odaklanması sonucunda eşitsizlik sosyo-ekonomik duruma göre daha da derinleşmektedir. Her ne kadar uluslararası sınavların raporlarında eğitim eşitsizliğin giderilip öğrenciler arasındaki farkın kapatılması yönünde tavsiyeler barındırsa bile ülkelerin eğitim reformlarında özelleştirmeye gitmeleri ve değişimi takip eden öğretmen kalitesinin farklılık göstermesi nedeniyle öğrenci başarısındaki açı daha da büyümektedir. Bu araştırmanın amacı da bu sorunları literatür çerçevesinde işlemektir. Böylece hızlı reformların olduğu ülkemizde değişim adımlarının daha hesaplı atılmasında katkı sağlanması umulmaktadır.

  20. Zelltyp-spezifische Mikroanalyse von Arabidopsis thaliana-Blättern (United States)

    Brandt, Stephan Peter


    Kapillarelektrophorese zurückgegriffen. Eine Methode, die mit sehr kleinen Probenvolumina auskommt, eine hohe Trennung erzielt und zudem extrem geringe Detektionslimits besitzt. Die Analyse von Kohlenhydraten und Anionen erfordert eine weitere Optimierung. Über UV-Detektion konnte die K+-Konzentration in verschiedenen Geweben von A. thaliana bestimmt werden. Sie lag in Epidermis und Mesophyll mit ca. 25 mM unterhalb der für andere Pflanzenspezies (Solanum tuberosum und Hordeum vulgare) publizierten Konzentration. Weiter konnte gezeigt werden, daß zwölf freie Aminosäuren mittels einer auf Kapillarelektrophorese basierenden Methode in vereinigten Zellproben von Cucurbita maxima identifiziert werden konnten. Die Übertragung der Methode auf A. thaliana-Proben muß jedoch weiter optimiert werden, da die Sensitivität selbst bei Laser induzierter Fluoreszenz-Detektion nicht ausreichte. Im dritten und letzten Teil der Arbeit wurde eine Methode entwickelt, die die Analyse bekannter wie unbekannter Proteine in Gewebe-spezifischen Proben ermöglicht. Hierzu wurde zur Probennahme mittels mechanischer Mikrodissektion eine alternative Methode zur Laser Capture Microdissection verwendet, um aus eingebetteten Gewebeschnitten distinkte Bereiche herauszuschneiden und somit homogenes Gewebe anzureichern. Aus diesem konnten die Proteine extrahiert und über Polyacrylamidgelelektrophorese separariert werden. Banden konnten ausgeschnitten, tryptisch verdaut und massenspektrometrisch die Primärsequenz der Peptidfragmente bestimmt werden. So konnten als Hauptproteine im Mesophyll die große Untereinheit von Rubisco sowie ein Chlorophyll bindendes Protein gefunden werden. Die in dieser Arbeit entwickelten und auf die Modellpflanze Arabidopsis thaliana angewandten Einzelzellanalysetechniken erlauben es in Zukunft, physiologische Prozesse besser sowohl räumlich als auch zeitlich aufzulösen. Dies wird zu einem detaillierteren Verständnis mannigfaltiger Vorgänge wie Zell-Zell

  1. Development of scientific and technological basis for the fabrication of thin film solar cells on the basis of a-Si:H and {mu}c-Si:H using the 'hot-wire' deposition technique. Final report; Entwicklung wissenschaftlicher und technischer Grundlagen fuer die Herstellung von Duennschichtsolarzellen auf der Basis des a-Si:H und {mu}c-Si:H mit der 'Hot-Wire'-Depositionstechnik. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, B.


    - and p-type emitters have been fabricated. After a very short development time conversion efficiencies have been obtained ({eta}{sub max} = 15.2%) which are reported for PECVD emitters. (orig.) [German] Zwei neue Anlagen zur vollstaendigen bzw. grossflaechigen Abscheidung von a-Si:H basierenden Solarzellen mit der sog. 'Hot-Wire (HW)' CVD wurden aufgebaut. Die Abscheidebedingungen fuer geeignete n- und p-dotierte a-Si:H- bzw. {mu}c-Si:H-Schichten wurden ermittelt. Weltweit wurde erstmals eine a-Si:H-pin-Zelle vollstaendig mit der HWCVD-Methode hergestellt, ein Anfangswirkungsgrad von {eta}{sub initial} = 8,9% wurde erreicht. Nach Entwicklung eines p/n-Tunnel- bzw. Rekombinationsueberganges ist es weltweit ebenfalls erstmals gelungen, pin-pin-Tandemstrukturen mit a-Si:H-Absorbern vollstaendig mit der HWCVD-Methode abzuscheiden. Nach Teilalterung wurden noch Wirkungsgrade von {eta}{approx}7% ermittelt. Generell ist die Stabilitaet der all-HWCVD-Zellen noch unbedriedigend, was auf strukturell instabile p-Schichten zurueckgefuehrt werden konnte. Erste nip-Solarzellen auf Edelstahlsubstraten wurden ebenfalls vollstaendig mit der HWCVD praepariert ({eta}{sub initial}>6%). Der Einbau von {mu}c-Si:H-Absorberschichten die mit HWCVD bzw. ECWR-PECVD hergestellt wurden, in pin-Solarzellen war bisher wenig erfolgreich. In einer Anlage zur grossflaechigen HWCVD-Abscheidung wurden a-Si:H-Schichten mit guter Qualitaet und einer Schichtdickenuniformitaet von {delta}d = {+-}2,5% hergestellt. Fuer sog. 'Huepfzellen', nur die i-Schicht wurde in der Anlage abgeschieden, wurden auch sehr uniforme Anfangswirkungsgrade {eta}{sub initial}=6,1{+-}0,2% fuer kleinflaechige Zellen auf einer Flaeche von 20 x 20 cm{sup 2} erreicht. Diese Ergebnisse koennen als 'proof of concept' fuer die grossflaechige HWCVD-Abscheidung fuer a-Si:H-basierende Solarzellen betrachtet werden. Erstmals wurde die HWCVD zur Abscheidung von Emitter-Schichten fuer Hetero-Solarzellen auf c

  2. Kinetics of the methane steam reforming; Kinetik der Methan-Dampf-Reformierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drescher, I.


    determination of the rate determined step. (orig.) [German] Die Methan-Dampf-Reformierung stellt eine attraktive Moeglichkeit dar, Erdgas fuer die Technologie der oxidkeramischen Hochtemperatur-Brennstoffzelle SOFC zu nutzen. Die Anode der Hochtemperatur-Brennstoffzelle besteht aus einem Nickel-Cermet (Ni/YSZ), welches dazu genutzt werden kann, die Methan-Dampf-Reformierung direkt an der Anode zu katalysieren. Diese interne Reformierung bietet eine interessante Option fuer die Reduzierung der Investitions- und Betriebskosten eines SOFS-Systems. Die schnell und endotherm ablaufende Reformierungsreaktion fuehrt zu Problemen im Waermehaushalt der Brennstoffzelle. Fuer eine homogene Waermeverteilung in der Zelle sind genaue Kenntnisse der Reformierungskinetik an SOFC-Anoden bei Betriebsbedingungen notwendig. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird die Kinetik der Methan-Dampf-Reformierung in einem Temperaturbereich von 600 C-700 C, Edukt-Partialdruecken von 3.9{<=}p{sub CH{sub 4}}{<=}20.3 kPa und 0{<=}p{sub H{sub 2}O}{<=}31.2 kPa und bei Atmosphaerendruck (p=101.3 kPa) an Ni/YSZ untersucht. Die SOFC-Anode wird zu einer Siebfraktion von 125 {mu}m{<=}d{sub Kat}{<=}250 {mu}m zerkleinert. Die Wahl dieser Siebfraktion, die in der Groesse der Eindringtiefe der Reformierungsreaktion liegt, ermoeglicht die Untersuchung der Reformierung ohne geschwindigkeitslimitierende Stofftransporte. Durch CO- und Wasserstoff-Adsorptionsuntersuchungen kann die aktive Nickeloberflaeche des Katalysators, die als Normierung der gemessenen Reaktionsgeschwindigkeit dient, bestimmt werden. Ein formalkinetischer Geschwindigkeitsansatz nach Langmuir-Hinshelwood mit konkurrierender Adsorption von Wasserdampf und Methan bietet eine gute Beschreibung der gemessenen Reaktionsgeschwindigkeiten. Isotopenmarkierte Adsorptionsuntersuchungen in einem Temperaturbereich von 600 C-800 C werden durchgefuehrt. Diese dienen zur Abschaetzung der Vorteile fuer die interne Reformierung bei einer Arbeitstemperaturreduzierung des SOFC

  3. Eskişehir’de Hava Kirliliği ve Doğal Gazın Tarihçesi: Genel Değerlendirme / History of Air Pollution and Natural Gas Usage in Eskişehir: A General Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazmi Oruç


    şehir temiz hava planı (2011-2014 hazırlanmıştır. Partikül Madde ve SO2 yanında NO2,O3 ve PAH gibi kirleticilerin ve ulaşım araçlarının neden olduğu kirliliğin de irdelendiği bu raporda, Eskişehir için ulusal yasal sınır değerleri zorlayan bir durum söz konusu olmasa da geniş ölçekte Avrupa Birliği ve Dünya Sağlık Örgütü (DSÖ gibi kuruluşların oluşturmuş olduğu standartların üzerinde değerlere rastlandığı kaydedilmektedir. Hava kirliliğinin önlenmesi amacıyla doğal gaz kullanımına ilk kez Eskişehir Organize Sanayi Bölgesinde (EOSB Botaş bünyesinde 1990 yılında başlanılmış daha sonra bu hizmet özelleştirme kapsamı içerisinde 2004 yılında Eskişehir Doğal Gaz Dağıtım A.Ş. (ESGAZ firmasına devredilmiştir. ESGAZ, Büyükşehir Belediyesi mücavir alanlarda yer alan imara açık tüm cadde ve sokaklara doğal gaz hizmeti vermekte olup 2004 yılında devir alınan 107.000 bağımsız birim sayısını 2011 yılı sonu itibariyle 300.000’e çıkartmıştır. EOSB bölgesi hariç evsel ve şehir içi sanayi tüketimi de 2005 yılında 211.756.888 m3 iken, 2011 yılında 348.974.147 m3’e çıkmıştır. Tüm bu olumlu gelişmelere karşın doğal gaz alt yapısı bulunan bazı semt ve apartmanlarda günümüzde de ithal ve yerli kömür kullanılması zaman zaman hava kirliliğine neden olmaktadır. İlk aşamada kent merkezinde özellikle kış aylarında kömür yerine tamamen doğal gaza geçilmesi ve ulaşım kaynaklı hava kirliğinin azaltılması için gereken önlemlerin alınması önerilmiştir. History of Air Pollution and Natural Gas Usage in Eskişehir: A General Review The aim of this study is to investigate the use of natural gas and air pollution levels in Eskişehir City Center in the last 30 years. Air pollution has been phenomena in Eskişehir since the beginning of 1980s, due to the use of low quality coal, unplanned and irregular urbanization and negative climate factors. First air