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Sample records for crnl radwaste incinerator

  1. Metallic materials corrosion in the CRNL radwaste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapping, R.L.; McVey, E.G.; Disney, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    Corrosion coupon evaluation and in-service materials performance for the CRNL waste incinerator has been carried out since 1980. Data are presented to show that types 309, 310 and 446 stainless steel, Alloy 625 and Alloy 333 all perform well in short-term tests in the afterburner environment (850-1000 0 C) but are subject to sigma-phase embrittlement and grain boundary carbide precipitation following long-term exposures. Several alloys performed satisfactorily in the primary chamber (500 0 C), and the material of construction, type 310 stainless steel, continues to provide good service

  2. CRNL active waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McQuade, D.W.

    1965-02-01

    At CRNL the daily collection of 1200 pounds of active combustible waste is burned in a refractory lined multi-chamber incinerator. Capacity is 500-550 pounds per hour; volume reduction 96%. Combustion gases are cooled by air dilution and decontaminated by filtration through glass bags in a baghouse dust collector. This report includes a description of the incinerator plant, its operation, construction and operating costs, and recommendations for future designs. (author)

  3. An incinerator for combustable radwastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jingquan; Jiang Yun; Zhang Yinsheng; Chen Boling; Zhang Shihang

    1989-01-01

    An incinerator has been built up in Shanghai. In this paper, the devices of the incinerator, main parameters of the process, and the results of non-radioactive waste and simulated radwaste combustion tests were contributed. That provides reference information for radwaste treatment with incineration process

  4. Technological process of a multi-purpose radwaste incineration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Peiyi; Zhou Lianquan; Ma Mingxie; Qiu Mingcai; Yang Liguo; Li Xiaohai; Zhang Xiaobin; Lu Xiaowu; Dong Jingling; Wang Xujin; Li Chuanlian; Yang Baomin

    2002-01-01

    The author introduces the technological process of a multi-purpose radwaste incineration system. It is composed of three parts: pretreatment, incinerating and clean up of off-gas. The waste that may be treated include combustible solid waste, spent resins and oils. Technological routes of the system is pyrolysis incinerating for solid waste, spray incinerating for spent oils, combination of dry-dust removing and wet adsorption for cleaning up off-gas

  5. Radwaste incineration, is it ready for use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coplan, B.W.

    1982-01-01

    The incinerator installed at JAERI in 1973 has the record of being operated continually for eight years without noticeable damage even in the refractories. We are convinced that it can be used for along period of time. These incinerators in Japan are now regarded as the useful and reliable waste management facilities, though they are processing the restricted sorts of wastes, such as low level ombustible solids and oils. In the future, incinerators of these types are supposed to increase in number in Japan, and they will continue to contribute as an important volume reduction measure which can also convert the wastes to chemically stable substances

  6. Verification test of an engineering-scale multi-purpose radwaste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Peiyi; Zhou Lianquan; Ma Mingxie; Qiu Mingcai; Yang Liguo; Li Xiaohai; Zhang Xiaobin; Lu Xiaowu; Dong Jingling; Wang Xujin; Li Chuanlian; Yang Baomin

    2002-01-01

    The verification test of an engineering-scale multi-purpose radwaste incinerator was implemented. The test items include performance determination for the system when solid wastes (include resins) or spent oil were incinerating and off gas was cleaning, tracer test for determining decontamination factor and 72 h continuos running test. 500 h tests verify the reliability and feasibility of designs of technological process, main structure, instrument control and system safety. The incineration system ran smoothly, devices and instruments worked stably. The specifications such as capacity, volume reduction factor, carbon remainder in ash and decontamination factor all meet the design requirements

  7. Design and construction of engineering test device of a multi-purpose radwaste incineration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Peiyi; Zhou Lianquan; Ma Mingxie; Qiu Mingcai; Yang Liguo; Li Xiaohai; Zhang Xiaobin; Lu Xiaowu; Dong Jingling; Wang Xujin; Li Chuanlian; Yang Baomin

    2002-01-01

    The author describes designs of main un-standard devices, monitoring system and safety system, as well as construction of the engineering system devices for a multi-purpose radwaste incineration system. Un-standard devices include waste crusher, pyrolysis furnace, incinerator furnace, cool stream dilution device and bag filter, etc. The monitoring system mainly includes industrial controlled computer, supported by conventional electrical equipment and instruments. Designs of system safety takes account of containment of radioactive materials fire-prevention, explosion prevention, anti-corrosion, redundance and reservation, emergency system, controlling and electric safety system, etc. Results show that main technological system remains good airtight with leakage ratio at 0.67%

  8. Optimization and characterization of cement products incorporating ashes from radwaste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donato, A.; Pace, A.; Ricci, G.

    1989-01-01

    The incineration is presently condidered a very good way to obtain strong volume reduction of intermediate and low activity solid radwastes obtaining at the same time a product apparently easy to be conditioned. In some cases nevertheless the ash solidification by cementation can give in the practice some problems. In this work the optimization of the cementation of two ash types named Nust 1 and Nust 2 has been studied. The Nust 1 ash come from the incineration of the exhausted ion exchange resins already conditioned in urea-formaldehyde. The Nust 2 ash comes from the incineration of the same materials as the Nust 1 mixed with ordinary nuclear power plant solid radwastes. Both ashes have been produced from wastes stored at the Caorso (Italy) Nuclear Power Plant. The two ash types have been characterized by a series of physico-chemical analysis whose results are reported as well as the results of the preliminary tests performed on the products obtained from their cementation

  9. WIMS-CRNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, G.J.

    1982-08-01

    This report describes the preparation of the input for WIMS-CRNL, the Chalk River version of the WIMS lattice code. Also included are notes on the operation of the code, contents of the associated library, and the relation of WIMS-CRNL to other versions of the code

  10. Radwaste Treatment Centre Jaslovske Bohunice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In this leaflet the Bohunice Radwaste Treatment Centre (BSC RAO) is presented. BSC RAO is designed to process and treat liquid and solid radwaste, arising from the NPP A-1 decommissioning, from NPPs V-1, V-2, and Mochovce operations, as well as institutional radwaste of diverse institutional (hospitals, research institutes) in the Slovak Republic. Transport, sorting, incineration, compacting, concentration and cementation of radwaste as well as monitoring of emission are described

  11. Comparison of high temperature gas particulate collectors for low level radwaste incinerator volume reduction systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moscardini, R.L.; Johnston, J.R.; Waters, R.M.; Zievers, J.F.

    1983-01-01

    Incinerator system off-gases must be treated to prevent the release of particulates, noxious gases and radioactive elements to the environment. Fabric filters, venturi scrubbers, cyclone separators, an ceramic or metal filter candles have been used for particulate removal. Dry high temperature particulate collectors have the advantage of not creating additional liquid wastes. This paper presents a graphical comparison of different methods for filtering particles from high temperature incineration system off-gases. Eight methods of off-gas handling are compared. A much larger group may be present, but some judicious selection of different, but related systems was done for this paper based on experience with the Combustion Engineering Waste Incineration System (CE/WIS) Prototype. The eight types are: Inertial Devices, Electrostatic Precipitators (ESP), Standard Fabric Bags, Woven Ceramic Bags, Granular Beds, Sintered Metal Tubes, Felted Ceramic Bags and Ceramic Filter Candles. For high temperature LLRW particulate collection in incinerator off-gas systems, ceramic filter candles are the best overall choice

  12. Radiation risks and radiation protection at CRNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    Radiation exposure is an occupational hazard at CRNL. The predicted health effects of low levels of radiation are described and compared with other hazards of living. Data related to the health of radiation workers are also considered. Special attention is given to the expected effects of radiation on the unborn child. Measures taken to protect CRNL employees against undue occupational exposure to radiation are noted

  13. Nuclear waste incineration technology status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegler, D.L.; Lehmkuhl, G.D.; Meile, L.J.

    1981-07-15

    The incinerators developed and/or used for radioactive waste combustion are discussed and suggestions are made for uses of incineration in radioactive waste management programs and for incinerators best suited for specific applications. Information on the amounts and types of radioactive wastes are included to indicate the scope of combustible wastes being generated and in existence. An analysis of recently developed radwaste incinerators is given to help those interested in choosing incinerators for specific applications. Operating information on US and foreign incinerators is also included to provide additional background information. Development needs are identified for extending incinerator applications and for establishing commercial acceptance.

  14. Nuclear waste incineration technology status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, D.L.; Lehmkuhl, G.D.; Meile, L.J.

    1981-01-01

    The incinerators developed and/or used for radioactive waste combustion are discussed and suggestions are made for uses of incineration in radioactive waste management programs and for incinerators best suited for specific applications. Information on the amounts and types of radioactive wastes are included to indicate the scope of combustible wastes being generated and in existence. An analysis of recently developed radwaste incinerators is given to help those interested in choosing incinerators for specific applications. Operating information on US and foreign incinerators is also included to provide additional background information. Development needs are identified for extending incinerator applications and for establishing commercial acceptance

  15. Design of experimental equipment at CRNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godden, B.

    1976-01-01

    The Plant Design Division provides a design service to the research and development effort at CRNL. Severe constraints, both environmentally and spatially, are placed on the design of special equipment. Several examples are given. Finally, the use of automated drafting systems is described. (author)

  16. NRC licensing criteria for portable radwaste systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, J.J. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The shortcomings of various components of the liquid and solid radwaste systems at nuclear power reactors has resulted in the contracting of the functions performed by these systems to various contractors who utilize portable equipment. In addition, some streams, for which treatment was not originally anticipated, have been processed by portable equipment. The NRC criteria applicable to portable liquid and solid radwaste systems is presented along with discussion on what is required to provide an adequate 10 CFR Part 50.59 review for those situations where changes are made to an existing system. The criteria the NRC is considering for facilities which may intend to utilize portable incinerators is also presented

  17. System cuts radwaste-disposal cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    Pilot-plant and full-scale prototype-system test data on a new volume-reduction system for low-level radioactive wastes, of the type generated by nuclear plants, indicate that total present costs for radwaste disposal can be reduced by more than 50%. In 1975, Newport News Industrial Corp. and Energy Inc. decided to develop cooperatively a fluidized-bed process that would combine the features of a calciner and an incinerator. The new radwaste-volume-reduction system, designated RWR-1, can reduce the volume of concentrated liquids, ion-exchange resin beads, filter sludges, and various combustible solids, such as protective clothing, rags, paper, wood, and plastics

  18. Incineration experiences at the Tsuruga P.S. and outline of the advanced type incineration system at the Tokai No. 2 P.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yui, K.; Kurihara, Y.; Inoue, S.; Takamori, H.; Karita, Y.

    1987-01-01

    In 1978, the first radwaste incineration plant among Japanese nuclear power stations started its operation at Tsuruga P.S., and the first advanced radwaste incineration plant has been constructed and accomplished the test operation in September 1986. This paper describes the outline of Tsuruga incineration plant and its operation achievements, and the outline of advanced incineration technology, Tokai No. 2 incineration plant and its test operation results

  19. Status of LEU conversion program at CRNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, I.C.

    1991-01-01

    After briefly reviewing the salient features of the NRU Reactor at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL), the progress of our LEU fuel development and testing program is described. The results (to date) of full-size prototype fuel-rod irradiations are reviewed, and the status of the new fuel-fabrication facility on the site is updated. Although development work is proceeding on U 3 Si 2 dispersions, all indications so far are that CRNL's U 3 Si fuel is fully acceptable for reactor operation. Fuel rods from the new fabrication shop will be installed in NRU in 1990, and the complete core conversion of NRU to LEU driver fuel is expected by 1991. (orig.)

  20. Volume reduction equipment for low-level radwastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, J.; Schlich, E.

    1982-01-01

    Volume reduction of low-level radwaste has been used for years in Germany to reduce the on-site storage capacity which is required until an ultimate disposal site is available. The incineration of trash is a well established cost effective method for dry active waste volume reduction and now liquid radwaste treatment is gaining the operational experience which establishes it as a routine procedure. Resin pyrolysis is a promising new development which when successfully implemented will augment the other systems by safely volume reducing a radwaste which is of increasing concern

  1. Correlation between radwaste processing and hazardous waste treatment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, O.U.J.; Tulipano, F.J.

    1988-01-01

    The basic framework under SARA has established that preferred remedies are those which permanently and significantly reduce toxicity, mobility or volume of wastes. In the 1970's radwaste process designs at power plants received pressure to satisfy essentially the same criteria when increased emphasis was placed on limited disposal sites which resulted in rapidly escalating disposal costs. This paper provides a historical perspective of radwaste experience and discusses valuable insight to hazardous waste treatment technologies. The radwaste system experience is discussed in terms of providing a source of proven and reliable technologies. Discussion is presented on specific radwaste processes which are applicable technologies for hazardous waste treatment. The technologies presented include (a) Solidification, (b) Evaporation, and (c) Incineration. Experience is presented which establishes assurance that the treatment technologies will provide a permanent remedy to hazardous waste treatment. This paper describes typical radwaste solidification, evaporation and incineration processes at power plants. The design requirements and implementation of radwaste equipment is correlated to design requirement of hazardous waste equipment. Specific discussion is provided on how the available process equipment can reduce toxicity, mobility, and volume of waste. Discussion is presented on how the standard off the shelf processing equipment needs to be modified for radwaste and hazardous waste applications

  2. Radwaste assessment program for nuclear station modifications by design engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eble, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    Radwaste burial for Duke Power Company's (DPC's) seven nuclear units has become a complicated and costly process. Burial costs are based on overall volume, surcharges for radioactivity content and weight of containers, truck and cask rental, driver fees, and state fees and taxes. Frequently, radwaste costs can be as high as $500 per drum. Additionally, DPC is limited on the total burial space allocated for each plant each year. The thrust of this program is to reduce radwaste volumes needing burial at either Barnwell, South Carolina, or Richland, Washington. A limited number of options are available at our sites: (a) minimization of radwaste volume production, (b) segregation of contamination and noncontaminated trash, (c) decontamination of small hardware, (d) volume reduction of compatible trash, (e) incineration of combustible trash (available at Oconee in near future), and (f) burial of below-regulatory-concern very low level waste on site. Frequently, costs can be reduced by contracting services outside the company, i.e., supercompaction, decontamination, etc. Information about radwaste volumes, activities, and weight, however, must be provided to the nuclear production department (NPD) radwaste group early in the nuclear station modification (NSM) process to determine the most cost-effective method of processing radwaste. In addition, NSM radwaste costs are needed for the NPD NSM project budget. Due to the advanced planning scope of this budget, NSM construction costs must be estimated during the design-phase proposal

  3. Incineration of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eid, C.

    1985-01-01

    The incineration process currently seems the most appropriate way to solve the problems encountered by the increasing quantities of low and medium active waste from nuclear power generation waste. Although a large number of incinerators operate in the industry, there is still scope for the improvement of safety, throughput capacity and reduction of secondary waste. This seminar intends to give opportunity to scientists working on the different aspects of incineration to present their most salient results and to discuss the possibilities of making headway in the management of LL/ML radioactive waste. These proceedings include 17 contributions ranging over the subjects: incineration of solid β-γ wastes; incineration of other radwastes; measurement and control of wastes; off-gas filtration and release. (orig./G.J.P.)

  4. Thoron-in-breath monitoring at CRNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterman, B.F.

    1985-04-01

    This report contains a description of the thoron-in-breath monitor (TIBM) developed at CRNL. This monitor can be used to estimate the amount of thorium (Th-232 and/or Th-228) in humans. Thoron-in-breath monitoring is based on the fact that thoron (Rn-220) is a decay product of thorium, and hence deposited thorium produces thoron in vivo, a fraction of which will be exhaled. Experiences with the TIBM indicate that the monitoring is easy to perform and the results in terms of contaminated vs uncontaminated subjects can be easily interpreted. Work on relationships between thoron exhaled and deposited thorium and hence between thoron exhaled and dose, is continuing

  5. USDOE radioactive waste incineration technology: status review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borduin, L.C.; Taboas, A.L.

    1980-01-01

    Early attempts were made to incinerate radioactive wastes met with operation and equipment problems such as feed preparation, corrosion, inadequate off-gas cleanup, incomplete combustion, and isotope containment. The US Department of Energy (DOE) continues to sponsor research, development, and the eventual demonstration of radioactive waste incineration. In addition, several industries are developing proprietary incineration system designs to meet other specific radwaste processing requirements. Although development efforts continue, significant results are available for the nuclear community and the general public to draw on in planning. This paper presents an introduction to incineration concerns, and an overview of the prominent radwaste incineration processes being developed within DOE. Brief process descriptions, status and goals of individual incineration systems, and planned or potential applications are also included

  6. The French centralized low level radwaste treatment centre named CENTRACO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, C.; Sixou, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Socodei, a subsidiary company of EdF and Cogema is commissioned to design, finance, build and operate two low level radwaste treatment facilities: a contaminated scrap metal melting unit, and a solid and liquid waste incinerator. These units frame a low level radwaste treatment centre named Centraco, located near Marcoule in the south of France, and will receive in 1998 waste coming from dismantling, maintenance and operating works of French and foreign nuclear sites. The decision to create this centre is due to the low density and large variety of low level radwaste which take a volume out of proportion with their activity, specially in the surface storage centre. Up to now, all low level radwaste were sent and stored with no treatment optimization in surface storage centres. Socodei proposes in one single site, to optimize low level radwaste management and reduce the volume of ultimate waste to be stored: in a ratio of one to ten by casting ingots coming from melting contaminated scrap metals; in a ratio of one to twenty by encapsulating earth ashes and ashes resulting from incineration of solid and liquid waste. This is a centralized treatment centre and that's why Centraco is a new waste management system. Getting together all means in one place reduces costs, avoids mismanagement and risk increase, and allows consistency in safety, environmental impact, transport and personnel radioprotection. (author)

  7. Radwaste - Multimedia presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Radioactivity is a part of the Nature since the creation of the Earth. We have learned how to use radioactivity in medicine, power industry, and in other areas of life. Similarly as in other activities, waste is generated. We offer you basic information about radioactivity and radioactive waste (radwaste) in four films: Radioactivity, Source of radwaste, Management of radwaste. In the glossary are video presentations: Container (Castor) for radioactive waste; Deep underground repository; Transport vehicle; WWER type reactor. Encyclopedic part of the program contains detailed theoretical and practical information about use of radioactivity and radioactive waste. You will find the explanation in the part Glossary. (authors)

  8. CRNL research reactor diesel generator reliability study 1960-1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winfield, D.J.

    1989-09-01

    A data base has been provided for the CRNL research reactor diesel generator reliability, for use in risk assessment studies of CRNL research reactors. Data from 1960 to the present have been collected, representing 281 diesel generator years of experience. The data is used to provide failure-to-start probabilities and failure-to-run rates. Data is also classified according to subsystem failures, multiple failures and common cause failures. Comparisons with other recent studies of nuclear power plant diesel generator reliability have been made

  9. The development of radwaste in cineration technology (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hun Hwee; Kim, Joon Hyung; Seo, Yong Chil; Kim, In Tae; Ahn, Byung Gil; Yang, Hee Chul; Won, Dong Yeon; Lee, Jae Chun; Kim, Chan Joong

    1988-04-01

    In order to establish a schedule to develope the incineration technology with feasibility, we summarized the recently published reports of the state of the arts and feasibility studies on it. After comparison study between incineration and compaction, we suggested that the combustible wastes should be incinerated and the incombustible wastes should be compacted by a supercompactor. The status of utilization of incineration for industrial and municipal wastes in Korea was surveyed and the applicability of these techniques to incineration of radwastes were evaluated and resulted to be good. Finally, a long-term plan to utilize the incineration technology up to the commercialization was established on the basis of the above data and feasibility. An experimental incineration process with a capacity of 5 kg plastic wastes per hour was designed by the research team and constructed by several machinery industries of the country to study the incineration characteristics and test the performance of each filter unit in the off-gas system. This process consists of waste pretreatment system, incinerator, off-gas treatment system, and measurement and control system. This process was constructed and performed test-operation with feeding some shredded wastes. The actual experiments will be done in 1988. Under the final goal of developing a SiC filter tube which could be used in the incineration process, a SiC sample with a proper binder was fabricated. The attempts to fabricate a bigger tube and to find out the best fabricating condition will be continued. (Author)

  10. WIMS-CRNL: A user's manual for the Chalk River version of WIMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, J.V.

    1986-01-01

    This report describes the preparation of the input for WIMS-CRNL, the Chalk River version of the WIMS lattice code. Also included are notes on the operation of the code, contents of the associated libraries, and the relation of WIMS-CRNL to other versions of the code

  11. Volume reduction of low- and medium-level waste by incineration/calcination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzonniere, A. de; Gauthey, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear installations generate large quantities of low- and medium-level radwaste. This waste comes from various installations in the fuel cycle, reactor operation, research institute, hospitals, nuclear plate dismantling, etc.. TECHNICATOME did the project development work for the incineration plant of PIERRELATE (France) on behalf of COGEMA (Compagnie Generale des d'Etudes Technique). This plant has been in active service since November 1987. In addition, TECHNICATOME was in charge of the incinerator by a turnkey contract. This incinerator was commissioned in 1992. For a number of years, TECHNICATOME has been examining, developing and producing incineration and drying/calcination installations. They are used for precessing low- and medium-level radwaste

  12. Low-level radwaste solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naughton, M.D.; Miller, C.C.; Nelson, R.A.; Tucker, R.F.

    1983-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of ''Advanced Low-Level Radioactive Waste Treatment Systems'' conducted under an EPRI contract. The object of the study is to identify advanced lowlevel radwaste treatment systems that are commercially available or are expected to be in the near future. The current state-ofthe-art in radwaste solidification technology is presented. Related processing technologies, such as the compaction of dry active waste (DAW), containers available for radwaste disposal, and the regulatory aspects of radwaste transportation and solidification, are described. The chemical and physical properties of the currently acceptable solidification agents, as identified in the Barnwell radwaste burial site license, are examined. The solidification agents investigated are hydraulic cements, thermoplastic polymers, and thermosetting polymers. It is concluded that solidification processes are complex and depend not only on the chemical and physical properties of the binder material and the waste, but also on how these materials are mixed

  13. Organics in radwaste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, N.K.

    1988-10-01

    Seventeen papers, each processed separately cover the types of organic materials in radioactive wastes, their effect on repository performance and destruction of organics, including incineration, peroxide and wet oxidation and acid and biological digestion. (U.K.)

  14. Radwaste Decision Support System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westrom, G.; Vance, J.N.; Gelhaus, F.E.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the Radwaste Decision Support System (RDSS) is to provide expert advice, analysis results and instructional material relative to the treatment, handling, transport and disposal of low-level radioactive waste produced in nuclear power plants. This functional specification addresses the following topics: Functions of the RDSS, Relationships and interfaces between the function, Development of the decisions and logic tree structures embodied in waste management, Elements of the database and the characteristics required to support the decision-making process, Specific User requirements for the RDSS, Development of the user interface, Basic software architecture, and Concepts for the RDSS usage including updating and maintenance

  15. Radwaste volume reduction and solidification by General Electric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, T.A.; Weech, M.E.; Miller, G.P.; Eberle, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    Since 1978 General Electric has been actively engaged in developing a volume reduction and solidifcation system or treatment of radwaste generated in commercial nuclear power plants. The studies have been aimed at defining an integrated system that would be directly responsive to the rapid evolving needs of the industry for the volume reduction and solidification of low-level radwaste. The resulting General Electric Volume Reduction System (GEVRS) is an integrated system based on two processes: the first uses azeotropic distillation technology and is called AZTECH, and the second is controlled-air incineration...called INCA. The AZTECH process serves to remove water from concentrated salt solutions, ion exchange resins and filter sludge slurries and then encapsulates the dried solids into a dense plastic product. The INCA unit serves to reduce combustible wastes to ashes suitable for encapsulation into the same plastic product produced by AZTECH

  16. Development of the Mo-99 process at CRNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrill, K.A.; Harrison, R.J.

    1987-11-01

    Highly enriched uranium (HEU) is used for Mo-99 production at CRNL. Dissolution of the targets and loading of the solution onto AI 2 0 3 columns is discussed. Development work continues to reduce processing time and overall product cost. A process for treating the fission product waste has been selected and a facility for processing is being designed. Low enriched uranium (LEU) is planned for targets eventually. Our experience with Si-based fuel for targets is poor, and alternatives are being sought

  17. Fluidized bed volume reduction of diverse radwastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFee, J.N.; McConnell, J.W.; Waddoups, D.A.; Gray, M.F.; Harwood, L.E.; Clayton, N.J.; Drown, D.C.

    1981-01-01

    Method and apparatus for a fluidized bed radwaste volume reduction system are claimed. Low level radioactive wastes, combustible solids, ion exchange resins and filter sludges, and liquids, emanating from a reactor facility are introduced separately through an integrated waste influent system into a common fluidized bed vessel where volume reduction either through incineration or calcination occurs. Addition of a substance to the ion exchange resin before incineration inhibits the formation of low-melting point materials which tend to form clinkers in the bed. Solid particles are scrubbed or otherwise removed from the gaseous effluent of the vessel in an off-gas system, before the cooled and cleaned off-gas is released to the atmosphere. Iodine is chemically or physically removed from the off-gas. Otherwise, the only egress materials from the volume reduction system are containerized dry solids and tramp material. The bed material used during each mode may be circulated, cleaned, stored and exchanged from within the bed vessel by use of a bed material handling system. An instrumentation and control system provides operator information, monitors performance characteristics, implements start up and shut down procedures, and initiates alarms and emergency procedures during abnormal conditions

  18. Liquid radwaste processing south Texas style

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rejcek, M.F.

    1996-01-01

    To reduce the amount of liquid radwaste discharged to the on-site cooling reservoir and to control the rising cost of solid radwaste disposal, the South Texas Project Electric Generating Station (STPEGS) embarked on an effort in mid-1992 to improve the efficiency of liquid radwaste processing. STPEGS has achieved reductions in liquid volumes processed and reduced radwaste curie effluent while also reducing solid radwaste generation and cutting operating cost. Equipment and operating improvements were initially focused on improving the station's liquid radwaste filtration capability. These resulted in radwaste processing which required minimal use of demineralization. This paper will focus on procedural and monitoring improvements. Some of the elements of a liquid radwaste process improvement program are: (1) Dedicated Program Management, (2) Operational Management, (3) Outage Water Management,(4) Non-Radioactive Volume Reduction, and (5) Radwaste Volume ampersand Source Reduction

  19. Radwaste management in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlstroem, P.E.; Ungermark, S.

    1987-01-01

    The waste management system planned for handling the radioactive residues from Sweden's 12 nuclear power units is based on the operation of all the units up to the year 2010 in accordance with Parliament's decision to abolish nuclear power by that time. The main strategy for handling spent nuclear fuel is direct disposal without reprocessing. In the design of the radwaste management system the following fundamental principles have been applied. Short-lived waste will be disposed of as soon as possible after it has been generated. Spent fuel will be intermediately stored for about 40 years before final disposal, thereby reducing heat generation in the repository. Other long-lived waste will be disposed of jointly with the final disposal of spent fuel. 3 figs., 1 tab

  20. Waste Incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    This book deals with plan and design of waste incinerator, which includes process outline of waste, method of measure, test, analysis, combustion way and classification of incineration facilities, condition of combustion and incineration, combustion calculation and heat calculation, ventilation and flow resistivity, an old body and component materials of supplementary installation, attached device, protection of pollution of incineration ash and waste gas, deodorization, prevention of noise in incineration facility, using heat and electric heat, check order of incineration plan.

  1. A program for evolution from storage to disposal of radioactive wastes at CRNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, D.F.

    1985-10-01

    This report reviews past and current radioactive waste management practices at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL) and outlines the proposed future program. For nearly 40 years, radioactive wastes have been generated at CRNL and have also been received there on a continuing basis from hospitals, industries, universities and miscellaneous other sources across Canada. The solid wastes now at CRNL have been either stored or buried and their total consolidated volume is approaching 50 000 m 3 . Much of that waste will require disposal as will the future wastes of similar character. The waste management program plan describes the proposed development of safe disposal facilities which could be built on site to accommodate most, if not all, of the radioactive wastes for which CRNL has responsibility. Three reference disposal concepts, each potentially capable of accepting a portion of the wastes, are described. One of these, the intrusion-resistant shallow land burial (SLB) concept, could be suitable for disposal of most of the CRNL wastes. It is proposed that a prototype SLB facility be designed, constructed and operated on the CRNL property and filled by 1992 to provide a focus for disposal research and development programs and to accumulate experience in all aspects of waste management. 53 refs

  2. Radwaste '86: proceedings volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainslie, L.C.

    1986-12-01

    The volume contains all the papers presented at the above Conference, which was held in Cape Town, South Africa from 7 to 12 September 1986. A total of 55 contributions cover the full spectrum of the theme of the Conference, which was subdivided into four sessions. Conditioning, treatment and management of radioactive waste: 12 papers reporting on experiences in various countries, as well as specialist topics such as the extraction of radioactive contaminants from reactor pool water. Containment, safe handling and long-term integrity of ILLW packages: 2 papers dealing with cask design. Transport and storage of radwaste and spent fuel: 7 papers ranging from broad overviews to specific operations in different parts of the world. Radioactive waste disposal and environmental impact: 32 papers covering topics from site selection, design and operation, to modelling and monitoring studies. South Africa's Vaalputs radioactive waste disposal facility is comprehensively described. The volume is a useful reference for anyone interested in the disposal of radioactive waste, especially in arid environments, as well as its treatment and management prior to disposal, and will appeal to a wide range of disciplines including engineers, geologists, geophysicists, life scientists and environmentalists. Of particular interest would be the intensive studies undertaken in South Africa prior to the establishment of a radioactive waste repository in that country

  3. Tritium transfer process using the CRNL wetproof catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuang, K.T.; Holtslander, W.J.

    1980-01-01

    The recovery of tritium from heavy water in CANDU reactor systems requires the transfer of the tritium atoms from water to hydrogen molecules prior to tritium concentration by cryogenic distillation. Isotopic exchange between liquid water and hydrogen using the CRNL-developed wetproof catalyst provides an effective method for the tritium transfer process. The development of this process has required the translation of the technology from a laboratory demonstration of catalyst activity for the exchange reaction to proving and demonstration that the process will meet the practical restraints in a full-scale tritium recovery plant. This has led to a program to demonstrate acceptable performance of the catalyst at operating conditions that will provide data for design of large plants. Laboratory and pilot plant work has shown adequate catalyst lifetimes, demonstrated catalyst regeneration techniques and defined and required feedwater purification systems to ensure optimum catalyst performance. The ability of the catalyst to promote the exchange of hydrogen isotopes between water and hydrogen has been shown to be technically feasible for the tritium transfer process

  4. Hydrogeologic studies for CRNL's proposed shallow land burial site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killey, R.W.D.; Devgun, J.S.

    1986-09-01

    The first phase of conversion from storage to disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes at CRNL is focussed on solids with hazardous lifetimes less than 500 years. In order to use a facility buried above the water table and to achieve maximum use of radionuclide migration information from studies of existing facilities, the proposed site is located in sands above an active groundwater flow system. The selection of a permeable and geologically-simple slow system has allowed application of a wide variety of techniques for hydrogeologic evaluation of the site. Ground-probing radar in conjunction with continuously cored boreholes have provided stratigraphic data and sediments for testing. Field hydrogeologic testing has included a detailed network of piezometers for hydraulic head mapping and a series of borehole dilution tests. Measurements of contaminant sorption behaviour are also being made in the field to reduce variations in uncontrolled parameters. Mathematical models successfully simulate the real system in terms of groundwater flow. Simulations of reactive contaminant transport are more difficult, but the application of data from field tests of radionuclide migration behaviour and from existing contaminant plumes will, we believe, provide acceptably reliable predictions of the impact of failures in the engineered disposal structure

  5. Philosophy and practice of waste management at CRNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mawson, C.A.

    1967-06-01

    The history of development of waste management practices at CRNL is outlined. The policy has been to develop a system that could be operated safely at a site close to a built-up area and tn demonstrate the construction and use of facilities that can be made and operated at a reasonable cost. The waste facilities are described and an account is given of experiments designed to test the behaviour of fission products moving through the ground water zone. Other experiments on dispersion of radionuclides through the environment are outlined. The basis for setting working limits for certain types of disposals is given, especially the connection between maximum discharge levels to the river and the MPC w recommendations of the ICRP. It is shown that waste at present pumped tn Reactor Pit 2 could be discharged to the river without approaching the ICRP limits, but it is pointed out that this would cause a large increase in the measured levels of Sr-90 and Cs-137 in the river water. (author)

  6. Progress on radioactive waste slurry incineration with oxygen and steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, M.; Hayashi, M.; Oda, I.; Nonaka, N.; Kuwayama, K.; Shigeta, T.

    1988-01-01

    The radioactive waste (radwaste) slurry generated from the nuclear power plant operation, such as spent ion-exchange resins (powdered, bead), fire-retardant oils including phosphate ester and concentrated laundry (by the wet method) liquid waste, has been stored in an untreated condition on the plant site. Recently, since the Condensate Filter Demineralizer (CFD) has been applied in advanced BWR plants, the discharged volume of untreated spent powered resin slurry has been increasing steadily. TEE and NCE have been developing an effective new volume reduction system to treat this radwaste slurry based on an innovative incineration concept. The new system is called the IOS process, the feature of which is incineration with oxygen and steam admixture instead of conventional air. The IOS process, which consists mainly of high heat load incineration with slurry atomization, and combustion gas cooling and condensation by the wet method, has several advantages which are summarized in this paper

  7. Development of commercial robots for radwaste handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colborn, K.A.

    1988-01-01

    The cost and dose burden associated with low level radwaste handling activities is a matter of increasing concern to the commercial nuclear power industry. This concern is evidenced by the fact that many utilities have begun to revaluate waste generation, handling, and disposal activities at their plants in an effort to improve their overall radwaste handling operations. This paper reports on the project Robots for Radwaste Handling, to identify the potential of robots to improve radwaste handling operations. The project has focussed on the potential of remote or automated technology to improve well defined, recognizable radwaste operations. The project focussed on repetitive, low skill level radwaste handling and decontamination tasks which involve significant radiation exposure

  8. Research in radiation biology, in the environment, and in radiation protection at CRNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marko, A.M.; Myers, D.K.; Ophel, I.L.; Cowper, G.; Newcombe, H.B.

    1978-01-01

    Research in radiation biology at CRNL is concerned with: evaluation of the effects of low doses of radiation upon humans and other living organisms; the development of new methods for detecting the effects of radiation exposure in large populations; the continued development of improved methods by which radiation levels can be measured accurately and reliably; and evaluation of the effects of nuclear power use upon the environment. The present report summarizes our background knowledge of radiation hazards and describes current research activities in Biology and Health Physics Division at CRNL. (author)

  9. Strategies for radwaste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1993-01-01

    The production of electricity by any technology produces waste: coal burning creates ash and air pollution, solar-cell wastes contain hazardous heavy metals such as arsenic and cadmium, and nuclear power generates radioactive waste. Protecting the environment requires careful control of all of these wastes. Radioactive wastes are also a by-product of defense activities, research, medical applications, and industrial production. ORNL has long engaged in development of new technology to ensure safe and environmentally benign disposal of these wastes. The basis of radioactive waste management is simple. Because radioactive materials become less radioactive over time, the way to safely dispose of radioactive materials is to store them until they become nonradioactive. Different radioactive materials have different half-lives, so their storage times are different. A rule of thumb is that, after 10 half-lives have passed, the material is essentially no longer radioactive. In contrast, chemical wastes, such as dioxin, can be destroyed by incineration, and toxic heavy-metal wastes, such as lead and arsenic, remain toxic forever and require other waste management technologies to isolate them from the environment

  10. Incineration technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Buekens, Alfons

    2013-01-01

    Waste incineration is the art of completely combusting waste, while maintaining or reducing emission levels below current emission standards. Where possible, objectives include the recovering of energy as well as the  combustion residues.  Successful waste incineration makes it possible to achieve a deep reduction in waste volume, obtain a compact and sterile residue, and eliminate a wide array of pollutants. This book places waste incineration within the wider context of waste management, and demonstrates that, in contrast to landfills and composting, waste incineration can eliminate objectionable and hazardous properties such as flammability and toxicity, result in a significant reduction in volume, and destroy gaseous and liquid waste streams leaving little or no residues beyond those linked to flue gas neutralization and treatment. Moreover, waste incineration sterilizes and destroys putrescible matter, and produces usable heat.  Incineration Technologies first appeared as a peer-reviewed contribution ...

  11. Waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormack, M.D.

    1981-01-01

    As a result of the information gained from retrieval projects, the decision was made to perform an analysis of all the available incinerators to determine which was best suited for processing the INEL waste. A number of processes were evaluated for incinerators currently funded by DOE and for municipal incinerators. Slagging pyrolysis included the processes of three different manufacturers: Andco-Torrax, FLK and Purox

  12. Radwaste disposal by incorporation in matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtiss, D.H.; Heacock, H.W.

    1976-01-01

    A process of safe disposal, handling, or storae of radwaste associated with nuclear power productin is described. A feature of the invention is to incorporate the radwaste in a hardenable, matrix-forming mass employing a cement-type binding agent to which alkali or alkaline-earth silicate is added, among other things, to increase liquid absorption. 9 claims

  13. An analysis on radwaste management in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Haicheng; Qu zhimin

    1999-05-01

    Considerable masses of radwastes have been produced in China during past period of four decades. The government has paid great attentions to the management of those radwastes and much progress has been made. The development of nuclear power has led the national radwaste management into a new era, meanwhile has brought about new challenges and issues for the existing management system. The analysis indicates that the existing management system is comprehensive but needs to be further improved: (1) regulations system of radwaste management needs to be perfected; (2) a special operational agency for managing radwastes has to be founded; (3) a financing system for long-term management is expected to be created; (4) information and interaction programs should be carried out and involved in the national management strategy

  14. Low-level radwaste engineering economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, M.H.; Miller, C.C.; Young, L.G.

    1984-07-01

    This topical report on engineering economics for low-level radwaste systems details the methodologies used for economic analyses of radwaste treatment systems and provides examples of radwaste economic evaluations. All of the parameters and cost items used in an evaluation are defined. Examples of the present-value-of-revenue-requirements method, levelized-revenue-requirements method, and the equivalent-capital-investment method are provided. Also, the calculation to determine the maximum justifiable capital expenditure for a radwaste system is illustrated. The report also provides examples of economic evaluations for many current radwaste treatment options. These options include evaporation versus demineralization, dewatering resins versus solidification of resins, and several volume reduction systems. 15 figures, 6 tables

  15. System analysis for radwaste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lennemann, W.L.

    1987-01-01

    The most logical approach to evaluating radioactive waste management processes and their options is to consider radioactive waste management, handling, and disposal as a complete and complex system from the waste arisings to their disposition. The principal elements that should be considered or taken into account when making a decision involving one or more components of a radwaste management system essentially concern radiation doses or detriments- both radiological and industrial safety and both capital investments and operating costs. This paper discusses the system analysis of the low- and medium-level radioactive waste management

  16. Industrial complex for solid radwaste management (ICSRM) at Chernobyl nuclear power plant pre-commissioning of the facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietsch, Thomas [NUKEM Technologies GmbH, Alzenau (Germany); NUKEM Technologies GmbH, Slavutich (Ukraine)

    2009-07-01

    NUKEM was awarded to build the industrial complex for solid radwaste management (ICSRM) at the NPP Chernobyl. ICSRM consists of four facilities: SLWS (solid low waste storage), solid waste retrieval facility, solid waste processing plant, repository for the disposal of short-lived waste. The contribution describes the approach for testing and pre-commissioning the following systems: sorting, compaction, incineration, transport systems, monitoring, tracking and retrieval. Start-up of the facilities is planned for 2009.

  17. Industrial complex for solid radwaste management (ICSRM) at Chernobyl nuclear power plant pre-commissioning of the facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietsch, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    NUKEM was awarded to build the industrial complex for solid radwaste management (ICSRM) at the NPP Chernobyl. ICSRM consists of four facilities: SLWS (solid low waste storage), solid waste retrieval facility, solid waste processing plant, repository for the disposal of short-lived waste. The contribution describes the approach for testing and pre-commissioning the following systems: sorting, compaction, incineration, transport systems, monitoring, tracking and retrieval. Start-up of the facilities is planned for 2009.

  18. Studies of reactor waste conditioning and disposal at CRNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beamer, N.V.; Bourne, W.T.; Buckely, L.P.; Pettipas, W.H.; Burrill, K.A.; Dixon, D.F.; Charlesworth, D.H.

    1982-09-01

    This report is a compilation of five papers presented at the Second Annual Meeting of the Canadian Nuclear Society in Ottawa, 1981 June. These papers describe recent progress in studies being conducted at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories related to the permanent disposal of low-and intermediate-level wastes arising in the Canadian nuclear industry. The principal topics discussed include waste processing by incineration, ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis, immobilization in bitumen and glass, and also the strategy for disposal of the conditioned wastes

  19. Radwaste treatment complex. DRAWMACS planned maintenance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keel, A.J.

    1992-07-01

    This document describes the operation of the Planned Maintenance System for the Radwaste Treatment Complex. The Planned Maintenance System forms part of the Decommissioning and Radwaste Management Computer System (DRAWMACS). Further detailed information about the data structure of the system is contained in Database Design for the DRAWMACS Planned Maintenance System (AEA-D and R-0285, 2nd issue, 25th February 1992). Information for other components of DRAWMACS is contained in Basic User Guide for the Radwaste Treatment Plant Computer System (AEA-D and R-0019, July 1990). (author)

  20. Human engineering in mobile radwaste systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.; McMahon, J.; Motl, G.

    1988-01-01

    To a large degree, mobile radwaste systems are replacing installed plant systems at US nuclear plants due to regulatory obsolescence, high capital and maintenance costs, and increased radiation exposure. Well over half the power plants in the United States now use some sort of mobile system similar to those offered by LN Technologies Corporation. Human engineering is reflected in mobile radwaste system design due to concerns about safety, efficiency, and cost. The radwaste services business is so competitive that vendors must reflect human engineering in several areas of equipment design in order to compete. The paper discusses radiation exposure control, contamination control, compact components, maintainability, operation, and transportability

  1. Environmental policy on radwaste management and disposal in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yamin

    1993-01-01

    This paper introduces the environmental policy on radwaste management and disposal. In order to prevent different kinds of radwaste from polluting environment, ensure public health, and simultaneously promote the development of nuclear energy and nuclear technology, a set of environmental policies on radwaste management and disposal has been established. The major policy are as follows: (1) Solidifying the temporarily-stored radioactive liquid waste as early as possible. (2) Limiting the temporarily-stored time for intermediate-and low-level solidified radwaste, and solid radwaste. (3) Constructing regional disposal repository for Low and Intermediate level radwaste (L/ILW) (4) The radwaste and spent radiation sources arising from nuclear technology application shall be sent to the provincial waste repositories that are named City Radwaste Repository. (5) The radwaste coming from the development and application of inter-grown radioactive mineral resources should be stored in the dams which have to be provided

  2. Radwaste volume reduction economics: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naughton, M.D.

    1984-01-01

    Today, utilities are faced with mounting charges related to the disposal of radioactive waste from their nuclear power plants. Numerous factors complicate economic analysis of radwaste processing options. This paper details two recent key EPRI studies bearing upon radwaste operations and economics. The first study, RP1557-3, characterizes low level wastes from nuclear power plants during the period 1978 to 1982. This paper presents information on the quantity of waste by type, waste composition, specific activities and major isotopes and radiation fields of final disposal packages. The second study, RP1557-11,12,13, involved the development of a computer code for evaluating radwaste disposal economics. Capital and operating cost estimates were prepared for 11 diferent processing-disposal options. These costs are utilized along with a burial site pricing algorithm in VRTECH, a computer radwaste economic assessment program. This paper discusses the VRTECH code and the results of the generic analyses conducted in the study

  3. Waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumplmayr, A.; Sammer, G.

    2001-01-01

    Waste incineration can be defined as the thermal conversion processing of solid waste by chemical oxidation. The types of wastes range from solid household waste and infectious hospital waste through to toxic solid, liquid and gaseous chemical wastes. End products include hot incineration gases, composed primarily of nitrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapor and to a smaller extend of non-combustible residue (ash) and air pollutants (e. g. NO x ). Energy can be recovered by heat exchange from the hot incineration gases, thus lowering fossil fuel consumption that in turn can reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. Burning of solid waste can fulfil up to four distinctive objectives (Pera, 2000): 1. Volume reduction: volume reduction of about 90 %, weight reduction of about 70 %; 2. Stabilization of waste: oxidation of organic input; 3. Recovery of energy from waste; 4. Sanitization of waste: destruction of pathogens. Waste incineration is not a means to make waste disappear. It does entail emissions into air as well as water and soil. The generated solid residues are the topic of this task force. Unlike other industrial processes discussed in this platform, waste incineration is not a production process, and is therefore not generating by-products, only residues. Residues that are isolated from e. g. flue gas, are concentrated in another place and form (e. g. air pollution control residues). Hence, there are generally two groups of residues that have to be taken into consideration: residues generated in the actual incineration process and others generated in the flue gas cleaning system. Should waste incineration finally gain public acceptance, it will be necessary to find consistent regulations for both sorts of residues. In some countries waste incineration is seen as the best option for the treatment of waste, whereas in other countries it is seen very negative. (author)

  4. Seminar for labour on the objectives and work of CRNL May 29, 30, 31, 1972

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-01-01

    The Seminar for Labour on the Objectives and Work of CRNL was held in Chalk River, Ontario, Canada on May 29-31, 1972. The main objective is to review the work and contributions of employees at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories. Three specific matters communicated at the conference are: a full sense of pride in the achievements the employees have helped to bring about; a realization that CRNL has a long future ahead of it and though much as been accomplished, much more remains to be done; and, that Chalk River is a good place to work and there is a high regard for the safety of every employee. Not all aspects of work done at CRNL could be presented, however the selected samples cover a fairly large spectrum of the functions in the Laboratories. This document provides the opportunity to determine just how large and essential a role the employees and the Laboratory has played and will continue to play in Canadian and world wide affairs.

  5. Novel conditioning methods for radwaste and residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rittscher, D.

    1993-01-01

    Due to the fact that a federal radwaste repository is not yet available and on-site or afr interim storage capacities are limited, new conditioning techniques and strategies for avoiding accruement of radwaste from nuclear power plant operation have been developed, leading to a reduction of annual radwaste amounts from 1800 m 3 (BWR) and 650 m 3 (PWR) in the year 1980 to 160 m 3 (BWR) and 40 m 3 (PWR) in 1990. This very significant reduction of waste amounts was achieved by (1) improvements in on-site waste management, (2) application of volume-reducing, new condititioning techniques (as e.g. dehydration of liquid waste instead of embedding in cement, (3) consequent application of radiologically safe recycling techniques for steel scrap (production of cast steel containers, e.g.), and (4) the use of optimized packaging forms (e.g. containers instead of 200-l waste drums). (orig./DG) [de

  6. The experience of liquid radwaste evaporator performance improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, S. H.

    1997-01-01

    Ulchin NPP has only one monobloc evaporation column which treated all radwaste liquid for two units. Since commercial operation in 1988 the evaporator performance is very poor. I think that the bad condition of evaporator is because of the bad quality of liquid radwaste, the large volume of liquid radwaste to treated, the poor skill of operation and some mistake in equipment design. Because of above conditions the average released activity by liquid radwaste is 35.153mCi/year in last eight years(1988∼1995). So it is necessary that we have to improve the evaporator performance and to reduce the liquid radwaste volume to evaporate

  7. The Morsleben radwaste repository. Preparing for decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehnert, M.; Schmitt, R.

    2001-06-01

    The publication is intended to illustrate with a brief chronology the history and the present situation of the Morsleben radwaste repository, including specific aspects such as the geology of the site and construction and engineering activities, the particulars of waste form emplacement and log-term storage conditions, topical issues relating to radiological safety during operation and after decommissioning. The brochure is designed for the general audience interested in background information on all aspects of the uses, operation and decommissioning of a radwaste repository in Germany. (orig./CB) [de

  8. The COSMOS-S/D assessment code complex for a SLB repository at CRNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, R.G.; Adam, R.Y.; Bretzlaff, C.I.; Laurens, J.M.; Wilkinson, S.R.

    1986-12-01

    The COSMOS-S/D code complex is being developed by the Waste Management Technology Division at CRNL. It models leaching of radionuclides from containment, their migration through vault materials and the ground, their dispersion in surface waters and the atmosphere, and eventual irradiation of man. It is being used at present for safety assessment of a proposed shallow Land Burial Facility, but is is suitable for a wide range of shallow land burial problems. Some examples of its output are given. The scenarios were chosen to be rather conservative, in order to demonstrate the various sections of the code

  9. Economic sensitivity of DAW incineration to PVC content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossmassler, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    Economic analyses of the volume reduction of low level radwaste, including the incinerator of Dry Active Waste (DAW), spent resins and filter sludges, are performed using the microcomputer code VOLREDUCER. Based on BWR and PWR data taken from previous EPRI work, the sensitivity of incinerator economics to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) content in DAW is examined. An annual cost penalty associated with the presence of PVC in the waste is formulated, and the sensitivity of this penalty to a variety of parameters is determined. The alternative of sorting out PVC from the rest of the waste is compared to incineration with regard to this annual cost penalty. These penalties may range as high as $100,000 annually depending on the waste characteristics and percent of PVC

  10. Viability study for the implantation of an incineration unit for low level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Andre Wagner Oliani

    1995-01-01

    Incineration have been a world-wide accepted volume reduction technique for combustible materials due to its high efficiency and excellent results. This technique is used since the last century as an alternative to reduce cities garbage and during the last four decades for the hazardous wastes. The nuclear industry is also involved in this technique development related to the low level radioactive waste management. There are different types of incineration installations and the definition of the right system is based on a criterious survey of its main characteristics, related to the rad wastes as well technical, economical and burocratic parameters. After the autonomous Brazilian nuclear programme development and the onlook of the future intensive nuclear energy uses, a radwaste generation increase is expected. One of the installations where these radwastes volumes are awaited to be high is the Experimental Center of ARAMAR (CEA). Nuclear reactors for propulsion and power generation have been developed in CEA beyond other nuclear combustible cycle activities. In this panorama it is important to evaluate the incineration role in CEA installations, as a volume reduction technique for an appropriate radioactive wastes management implementation. In this work main aspects related to the low level radwaste incineration systems were up rised. This information are important to a coherent viability study and also to give a clear and impartial about a topic that is still non discussed in the national scenery. (author)

  11. North Sea focus on radwaste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cope, D.

    1990-01-01

    At the recent North Sea Conference in the Netherlands possible future strategies for managing radioactive waste (radwaste) proved to be a contentious issue. Several of its North Sea littoral neighbours sought a categorical assurance that the UK would forego the option of constructing a subterranean radwaste repository which though accessed from land, extends under the coastline, or a sub-seabed facility reached from an offshore structure. It was pointed out that the UK has no present plans for such a radwaste repository. However, sub-seabed designs as a possibility for future repositories were not ruled out. NIREX has decided to concentrate its exploration work at two sites -Sellafield and Dounreay. Both sites are coastal locations and the government is aware that detailed geological exploration may favour extension of a radwaste repository beyond the shoreline, even if initially developed entirely on land. The design of such a radioactive waste repository is outlined. The position of NIREX and the Radioactive Waste Management Advisory Committee is discussed. (author)

  12. Duke Power's liquid radwaste processing improvement efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, R.E. Jr.; Bramblett, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    The rising cost of processing liquid radwaste and industry efforts to reduce offsite isotopic contributions has drawn greater attention to the liquid radwaste area. Because of economic pressures to reduce cost and simultaneously improve performance, Duke Power has undertaken a wide ranging effort to cost effectively achieve improvements in the liquid radwaste processing area. Duke Power has achieved significant reductions over recent years in the release of curies to the environment from the Liquid Radwaste Treatmentt systems at its Catawba, McGuire, and Oconee stations. System wide site curie reductions of 78% have been achieved in a 3 year period. These curie reductions have been achieved while simultaneously reducing the amount of media used to accomplish treatment. The curie and media usage reductions have been achieved at low capital cost expenditures. A large number of approaches and projects have been used to achieve these curie and media usage reductions. This paper will describe the various projects and the associated results for Duke Power's processing improvement efforts. The subjects/projects which will be described include: (1) Cooperative philosophy between stations (2) Source Control (3) Processing Improvements (4) Technology Testing

  13. A study of a superconducting heavy ion cyclotron as a post accelerator for the CRNL MP Tandem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, J.S.; Tunnicliffe, P.R.

    1975-08-01

    A novel design for a heavy ion cyclotron is described utilizing superconducting coils. Acting as a post accelerator for the CRNL MP Tandem accelerator, the proposed cyclotron is capable of producing an output energy of 10 MeV/u and intensities up to approximately 10 10 particles/s for uranium. (E.C.B.)

  14. Learn interactively about radwaste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stritar, Andrej; Gortnar, Oton; Mele, Irena; Zeleznik, Nadja

    2001-01-01

    The main purpose of this multimedia, developed by Nuclear Training Centre for the Agency for Radwaste Management is to present the topic to general public, especially schoolchildren. This is a short report about our first experience with the development of multimedia presentations. The whole process was relatively long, almost two years, but the main reason for that was availability of funds. The basic messages, the CD is supposed to deliver to the user, are: Radioactive waste is produced as a by-product of several beneficial human activities. Radioactive waste is dangerous, but we can safely handle and store it. Target audience is younger population that is very familiar with that type of multimedia technology. Therefore the design must be simple, attractive and easily understandable. The way how our messages are delivered must be close to the emotional level of the user, while at the same time factual data must be accurate and up to date. We have decided to use a combination of graphical animations, spoken messages, music, pictures and video clips. Main areas covered are the following: 1. Civilisation and waste 2. About radioactivity 3. What is radioactive waste and where is it produced? 4. What do we do with radioactive waste? 5. Radioactive waste in Slovenia 6. Transport of radioactive waste. Each area is at the top of a single branch of the scenario. In the second step for every display of each branch we have carefully prepared the written and spoken text, selected pictures, eventual video clips and designed animations. During the last development phase the feedback from the target audience was analysed. About 40 students and teacher of elementary school were involved. Their feedback was quite positive. Following figures try to give the impression about the final implementation of the CD ROM. Everything is in Slovenian language, however, translation to any other language is possible. CD-ROM is freely distributed to young visitors of the Nuclear Information

  15. The concept of partitioning/transmutation in radwaste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillaumont, R.

    1993-01-01

    It is trite to say that radwaste is more difficult to handle than conventional industrial waste because of its radioactivity. If many toxic chemical compounds can be destroyed by simple thermal incineration, non-radioactive substances whose radioactivity is linked to the presence of toxic elements give rise, because they undergo ''infinite decay'', to the same problems as long-lived radwaste. Radioactivity, because it involves the self-destruction of radionuclides, is more an advantage, as long as it does not result in stable toxic daughter elements, and as long as radioactive decay remains compatible with their reliable confinement. Disposal of A waste (low level waste), for which the radioactive decay period of the beta and/or gamma emitting radionuclides is of human-scale time periods, has become an industrial practice and there is no conceptual problem for this waste. However, management of B and C waste (alpha and high level waste) and, their storage, remain to day in the design stage. It is because they contain sizeable quantities of alpha, beta and gamma emitting radionuclides with radioactive decay periods much greater than human-scale time periods and because C waste generates heat, that the final stage of their management poses problems. These problems are of a complex nature for reasons of 1) science, 2) ethics 3) economics 4) sociology. The idea of modifying alpha and beta radioactivity in C waste to the point where it could disappear is not in itself a new idea. Over the past twenty years, in response to studies on the disposal of vitrified nuclear waste, this option has been raised on several occasions. It has suddenly resurfaced in the light as the topic of Partitioning Transmutation Concept (PTC). Japan and more recently France announced for the first time consistent research programmes. The idea of reduction of alpha radioactivity of the actual B waste is no more a new idea. It has recently come in light as a complementary idea, possibly

  16. Rocky Flats Plant fluidized-bed incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meile, L.J.; Meyer, F.G.; Johnson, A.J.; Ziegler, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    Laboratory and pilot-scale testing of a fluidized-bed incineration process for radioactive wastes led to the installation of an 82-kg/hr demonstration unit at Rocky Flats Plant in 1978. Design philosophy and criteria were formulated to fulfill the needs and objectives of an improved radwaste-incineration system. Unique process concepts include low-temperature (550 0 C), flameless, fluidized-bed combustion and catalytic afterburning; in-situ neutralization of acid gases; and dry off-gas cleanup. Detailed descriptions of the process and equipment are presented along with a summary of the equipment and process performance during a 2-1/2 year operational-testing period. Equipment modifications made during the test period are described. Operating personnel requirements for solid-waste burning are shown to be greater than those required for liquid-waste incineration; differences are discussed. Process-utility and raw-materials consumption rates for full-capacity operation are presented and explained. Improvements in equipment and operating procedures are recommended for any future installations. Process flow diagrams, an area floor plan, a process-control-system schematic, and equipment sketches are included

  17. The economics of radwaste volume reduction strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giuffre, M.; Ensminger, D.; Nalbandian, J.; Naughton, M.

    1984-01-01

    A recently concluded EPRI study has generated much of the information needed by utilities when they consider the purchase of volume reduction equipment. This paper presents some of the study's results on volume reduction economics. The paper contains two types of results. The first is a detailed look at the economics of fourteen equipment options at a hypothetical reactor station. Costs were calculated with VRTECH, a radwaste economics computer program developed by TASC. This analysis illustrates the major points of the project conclusions. Second, the effects of the major assumptions used in the hypothetical case are examined. This analysis shows that the radwaste generation rate and the burial cost escalation rate are primary considerations when evaluating the benefit of each option

  18. On giving radwaste management some status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, H.W.; Walker, E.E.; Thiesing, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Radwaste management is receiving ever increasing attention in the nuclear industry. The reasons for this include limited allocations for burial, increasing costs of handling and disposal, increased regulatory attention, and ALARA requirements. These issues have lead to an increasing awareness of the disadvantages of running a ''dirty'' plant and a variety of sophisticated systems have been proposed to fix the problem. Instead of these technologically difficult, and sometimes very expensive fixes, this paper focuses on several relatively simple ''low tech,'' and inexpensive solutions. Much can be done with organizational alternatives and assigned responsibilities and authorities to improve the situation. Applying controls on the front end of a radiological task rather than attempting to reduce the magnitude at the back end is the only realistic method for proper radwaste management

  19. Retrofit of radwaste solidification systems in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rorcillo, R.; Virzi, E.

    1983-01-01

    In order to meet current Spanish engineering criteria as well as to provide for likely future Spanish Regulatory requirements, utilities committed to a major policy change in the preferred radwaste solidification media. In the early 1970's Spanish utilities, following the United States experience, purchased inexpensive solidification systems which used urea formaldehyde (UF) as the binding matrix. By the late 1970's the Spanish utilities, seeing the deterioration of the UF position and slow progress toward its improvement, unilaterally changed their binding matrix to cement. This paper illustrates the implementation of this change at the ASCO Nuclear Plant. The problems of layout modifications, shortened delivery schedule and criteria unique for Spain are addressed. Also presented is the operating experience acquired during the pre-operational start-up of the ASCO I Radwaste System

  20. Proceedings: 2001 ASME/EPRI Radwaste Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear utilities continually evaluate methods to improve operations and reduce costs associated with radioactive waste management. The continuing deregulation process has increased the emphasis on this activity. The Annual ASME/EPRI Workshop facilitates this effort by communicating technology and management improvements throughout the industry. This workshop, restricted to utility radwaste professionals, also serves to communicate practical in-plant improvements with the opportunity to discuss them in detail

  1. Cement radwaste solidification studies third annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D.J.; James, J.M.; Lee, D.J.; Smith, D.L.; Walker, A.T.

    1982-03-01

    This report summarises cement radwaste studies carried out at AEE Winfrith during 1981 on the encapsulation of medium and low active waste in cement. During the year more emphasis has been placed on the work which is directly related to the solidification of SGHWR active sludge. Information has been obtained on the properties of 220 dm 3 drums of cemented waste. The use of cement grouts for the encapsulation of solid items has also been investigated during 1981. (U.K.)

  2. Low-level radwaste transportation in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, L.F.; Huang, C.C.

    1993-01-01

    In the past ten years, 273 voyages have been made to ship radwaste produced by nuclear power plants and Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER). It more or less lowers the problem of insufficient storage space in Taiwan. Although all organizations followed various regulations to operate the transportation, ten events occurred in marine transport. However, they were ordinary incidents and neither released any radiation to contaminate the environment nor caused any casualty. (J.P.N.)

  3. UK national consensus conference on radwaste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craven-Howe, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    UK CEED organised a consensus conference to debate radwaste disposal. It lasted from 21-24 May 1999. Among the witnesses called to give evidence were UKAEA, BNFL, Nuclear Industries' Inspectorate, Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions, Friends of the Earth and Greenpeace. The end result was a report produced by the panel of members of the public, recording their views and recommendations. Conclusions are presented. (author)

  4. Calibration method for a radwaste assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dulama, C.; Dobrin, R.; Toma, Al.; Paunoiu, C.

    2004-01-01

    A waste assay system entirely designed and manufactured in the Institute for Nuclear Research is used in radwaste treatment and conditioning stream to ensure compliance with national repository radiological requirements. Usually, waste assay systems are calibrated by using various experimental arrangements including calibration phantoms. The paper presents a comparative study concerning the efficiency calibration performed by shell source method and a semiempirical, computational method based on a Monte Carlo algorithm. (authors)

  5. Proceedings: 2000 ASME/EPRI Radwaste Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear utilities are continually evaluating methods to improve operations and reduce costs associated with radioactive waste management. The continuing deregulation process has added increased emphasis to this activity. The Annual ASME/EPRI Workshop facilitates this effort by communicating technological and managerial improvements throughout the industry. This workshop, restricted to utility radwaste professionals, also serves to communicate practical in-plant improvements with the opportunity to discuss them in detail

  6. Integrated data base for spent fuel and radwaste: inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notz, K.J.; Carter, W.L.; Kibbey, A.H.

    1982-01-01

    The Integrated Data Base (IDB) program provides and maintains current, integrated data on spent reactor fuel and radwaste, including historical data, current inventories, projected inventories, and material characteristics. The IDB program collects, organizes, integrates, and - where necessary - reconciles inventory and projection (I/P) and characteristics information to provide a coherent, self-consistent data base on spent fuel and radwaste

  7. Radwaste inventories and projections: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notz, K.J.

    1982-07-01

    The Integrated Data Base program was set up to provide fully integrated and reconciled inventories, characteristics, and projections for spent nuclear fuel and all categories of radioactive waste. Eight summary papers, six of which were presented at an ANS special session in Los Angeles in June 1982, are included in this report: data base needs and functions: national planning; integrated data base for spent fuel and radwaste: inventories; integrated data base projections; RAWSYM: radioactive waste management system; NWTS program waste projection data needs; low-level waste management data base system; waste sludge composition at the Savannah River Plant; and summary of characteristics of transuranic waste found at DOE sites

  8. Onsite storage facility for low level radwaste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, M.G.

    1984-01-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) has designed and constructed an onsite storage facility for low level radwaste (LLRW) at its Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant in northern Alabama. The paper addresses the function of this facility and provides a complete description of the reinforced concrete storage modules which are the principal structural elements of the facility. The loads and loading combinations for the design of the storage modules are defined to include the foundation design parameters. Other aspects of the modules that are addressed are; the structural roof elements that provide access to the modules, shielding requirements for the LLRW, and tornado missile considerations

  9. Modular radwaste volume reduction and solidification systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, E.L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes both the modular transportable and the modular mobile liquid radwaste volume reduction and solidification units based on a General Electric Company developed and patented process called AZTECH (a trademark of GE). An AZTECH system removes all water by azeotropic distillation and encapsulates the remaining solids in a polyester compound. The resulting monolith is suitable for either long term above ground storage or shallow land burial. Pilot and demonstration plant testing has confirmed the design parameters. The three processing modules are covered together with data which resulted in Nuclear Regulatory Commission approval on Dec. 30, 1985

  10. A master plan for the radwaste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.E.; Lee, S.H.; Lee, C.K.; Moon, S.H.; Sung, R.J.; Sung, K.W.

    1983-01-01

    The accumulated total amount of low-level radioactive wastes to be produced from operating power reactors and nuclear installations up until the year 2007 is estimated to 900,000 drum(approximately 200,000M 3 ). An effective master plan for the safe disposal of the wastes is necessary. Among many different disposal methods available for low-and medium-level radwastes, the engineered trench approach was chosen by an extensive feasibility study as the optimum method for Korea. Site selection, construction and commissioning of such a disposal facility are presumed to take two and a half years, beginning in July 1983. The total cost in opening the site and the unit disposal cost per drum were estimated to be 11 billion won and 40,000 won, respectively. An agency(KORDA) managing the operation of the disposal site is recommended to be established by 1987, assuming that the agency's economic feasibility can be justified by that time. When the disposal site is commissioned, a regulatory guide for ground disposal will be available, and supporting R and D work on the disposal site will be complete. Studies on the technology of radwaste treatment will continue through this period. For the longer term, staff training and future planning have been undertaken to ensure that a master plan, which can be expected to be used as a guideline for disposal of all radioactive waste arising, is fully adequate. (Author)

  11. Development of sampling techniques for ITER Type B radwaste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Kwon Pyo; Kim, Sung Geun; Jung, Sang Hee; Oh, Wan Ho; Park, Myung Chul; Kim, Hee Moon; Ahn, Sang Bok

    2016-01-01

    There are several difficulties and limitation in sampling activities. As the Type B radwaste components are mostly metallic(mostly stainless steel) and bulk(∼ 1 m in size and ∼ 100 mm in thickness), it is difficult in taking samples from the surface of Type B radwaste by remote operation. But also, sampling should be performed without use of any liquid coolant to avoid the spread of contamination. And all sampling procedures are carried in the hot cell red zone with remote operation. Three kinds of sampling techniques are being developed. They are core sampling, chip sampling, and wedge sampling, which are the candidates of sampling techniques to be applied to ITER hot cell. Object materials for sampling are stainless steel or Cu alloy block in order to simulate ITER Type B radwaste. The best sampling technique for ITER Type B radwaste among the three sampling techniques will be suggested in several months after finishing the related experiment

  12. Development of sampling techniques for ITER Type B radwaste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Kwon Pyo; Kim, Sung Geun; Jung, Sang Hee; Oh, Wan Ho; Park, Myung Chul; Kim, Hee Moon; Ahn, Sang Bok [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    There are several difficulties and limitation in sampling activities. As the Type B radwaste components are mostly metallic(mostly stainless steel) and bulk(∼ 1 m in size and ∼ 100 mm in thickness), it is difficult in taking samples from the surface of Type B radwaste by remote operation. But also, sampling should be performed without use of any liquid coolant to avoid the spread of contamination. And all sampling procedures are carried in the hot cell red zone with remote operation. Three kinds of sampling techniques are being developed. They are core sampling, chip sampling, and wedge sampling, which are the candidates of sampling techniques to be applied to ITER hot cell. Object materials for sampling are stainless steel or Cu alloy block in order to simulate ITER Type B radwaste. The best sampling technique for ITER Type B radwaste among the three sampling techniques will be suggested in several months after finishing the related experiment.

  13. Establishment and status of the radwaste management standards in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuo Fengguan

    1993-01-01

    In the last 30 years and more, with the development of nuclear industry in China, the government, nuclear industry circles and scientists have paid great attention to the safety management of radwastes. Especially in past 10 years, with the implementation of the nuclear power programmes, the safety management of radwastes has been legalized steadily NEPA (National Environment Protection Agency, China), NNSA (National Nuclear Safety Administration) and the competent authorities concerned have engaged in establishing and promulgating policies, regulations, and a series of technical standards on the safety management of radwaste, and efforts are being made to complete and perfect related regulations and standards. The status and programs of radwaste safety management standards in China are briefly introduced, including principles, organizations and procedure for drafting the standards

  14. Radwastes management program of the IEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peres, S.S.; Godoy, J.M.O

    2000-01-01

    Low level radioactive wastes are produced during the operation of the radioactive and nuclear installations of the Nuclear Engineering Institute (Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear, IEN) situated in Rio de Janeiro City, Brazil. These wastes can be generated during the operation and maintenance of the CV-28 Cyclotron, the radioisotopes production, the research activities using natural thorium and uranium in chemical laboratories and, eventually, during the operation Argonauta Reactor. In accordance to the methodology of the radwastes management adopted in the IEN, the wastes are segregated and treated depending on theirs physical, chemical, biological and radiological properties. The wastes with important levels of activity are separate and collected in special containers. Wastes containing short-lived radionuclides are also separated and left away for decaying. Solid wastes are constituted of materials used in laboratories, such as papers, rubber gloves, plastics, over shoes, broken glassware, metal pieces, etc. These wastes are classified as compressible, combustible, non-compressible and non- combustible. The solid wastes are collected in suitable containers placed throughout the working area. Basically, the treatment methods used for these wastes are activity decay, decontamination and compaction. Liquid wastes are generated in small volumes and, generally, containing little quantities of radionuclides. These wastes are classified as aqueous and non-aqueous, acid, alkaline. The diluted aqueous wastes produced in hot laboratories are collected in liquid effluent collection stations for analysis by gamma spectrometry. If the activity concentration is smaller than the established limits in waste management national standards, they are discharge inside of the local sanitary sewer system. Otherwise, these wastes are retained for treatment. The treatment methods used for liquid wastes are activity decay, chemical precipitation, ion exchange and immobilization in inert

  15. Introduction to the outlines of radwaste administration policy of the Republic of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, C.C.; Tsai, C.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the Radwaste Administration Policy (ORAP) which first drafted by the Radwaste Administration (RWA), a subordinate organization of the Atomic Energy Council (AEC) of the Republic of China, and was approved by the Executive Yuan (Cabinet) on September 16, 1988. ORAP has laid down the guidelines for both radwaste administration by RWA and radwaste management by Taiwan Power Company (TPC or Taipower) and other radwaste producers. ORAP will govern radwaste-related activities in the Republic of China in the foreseeable future. The text of ORAP is shown in the Appendix of this paper

  16. Hot Isostatic Press (HIP) vitrification of radwaste concretes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemer, D.D.; Scheetz, B.; Gougar, M.L.D.

    1995-01-01

    Properly formulated and properly ''canned'' radwaste concretes can be readily hot-isostatically-pressed (HIPed) into materials that exhibit performance equivalent to typical radwaste-type glasses. The HIPing conditions (temperature/pressure) required to turn a concrete waste form into a ''vitrified'' waste form are quite mild and therefore consistent with both safety and high productivity. This paper describes the process and its products with reference to its potential application to Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) reprocessing wastes

  17. Latest development in project site radwaste treatment facility (SRTF) Sanmen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mennicken, K.; Lohmann, P.

    2015-01-01

    Westinghouse Electric Germany GmbH (WEG) was successful in being awarded a contract as to the planning, delivery, installation and commissioning of radwaste treatment systems for the AP1000 units at Sanmen site, PR China. Operational low and intermediate level radioactive waste will be processed in the Site Radwaste Treatment Facility (SRTF). This paper explains the latest developments of the project, especially the experience with customer-hired Chinese planning partners, installation companies and Customer operating personnel. (authors)

  18. Treatment of LL and ML liquid radwaste. The SGN experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tchemitcheff, E.; Roux, P.

    1993-01-01

    SGN (Societe Generale pour les Techniques Nouvells) with considerable know-how and thirty years of feed-back in industrial management of liquid effluents from the entire French nuclear industry, has accordingly completed many low- and medium-level liquid radwaste treatment, relying on two major industrially proven technologies: evaporation and chemical coprecipitation. The low level and medium level radwaste in France and evaluated

  19. The strategy of radwaste management in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loose, A.; Babsek, B.; Jeran, M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper's intention is to show the present situation and future activities of the Agency for radwaste management. It was established by the slovene government to provide the strategy for a safe management of radioactive waste. The safety is the main concern of the Agency, since the situation in Slovenia is quite complex as it is a small country with a limited number of suitable locations and a strong public opposition towards anything connected with nuclear power generation or radioactivity in general. The emphasis of the Agency's activities at the moment is siting and technology selection for low level waste and intermediate level waste repository as well as solutions on interim storage of high level waste

  20. Impact of LWR decontamination on radwaste systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrigo, L.D.; Divine, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    Increased radiation levels around certain reactors in the United States and accompanying increases in personnel exposures are causing a reexamination of options available to utilities to continue operation. One of the options is decontamination of the primary system to reduce radiation levels. The Battelle-Northwest study of decontamination and its impact on radwaste systems has been directed towards existing reactors and allied systems as they are employed during their operational lifetimes. Decommissioning and cleanup during such work are not within the scope of this project although certain processes and waste systems might be similar. Rupture debris cleanup represents a special situation that requires different design features and concepts and it is not a part of this study

  1. Radwastes management in Qinshan Nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Huan; Ling Kechi; Wang Qingrong; Luo Jingfan

    1987-01-01

    The source terms input used as the basic data for designing the radwaste treatment systems of Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant [300 MW(e)] is presented. The classification of radioactive liquid wastes, off-gases and solid wastes, and their treatment techniques, as well as on-site storage facilities for solid wastes are described. For liquid waste, the method of filtration-evaporation-ion exchange will be used as the main treatment technique. For off-gas, Holdup-decay treatment will be used. For evaporator concentrates, indrumsolidification method with normal domestic portland cement will be used. The assessment of impact of effluents to environment at normal operation of the NPP is also made. The results show that it will be safe for inhabitants nearby during normal operation and it can meet the requirements of national standard ''Regulation of Radiation Protection''

  2. How utilities respond to radwaste needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, S.D.

    1987-01-01

    Slow progress is being made toward regionalization of waste disposal, some states working toward regional compacts while others choose to go it alone. More promising is the reduction of radwaste volumes discharged from nuclear stations. More and more utilities are contracting with private companies for LLW processing. While such services are provided predominantly by mobile units at plant sites, one fixed installation already offers processing of dry waste and two others await final regulatory approval. Both developments are detailed. This article also includes an analysis of the design, performances comparison between slagging combustors (SC) and the FBC boiler. Comparisons are also made for SC technology to FBC for 250-MW unit and of utility-unit conversion costs

  3. Fabrication and irradiation testing of LEU [low enriched uranium] fuels at CRNL status as of 1987 September

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sears, D.F.; Berthiaume, L.C.; Herbert, L.N.

    1987-01-01

    The current status of Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories' (CRNL) program to develop and test low-enriched uranium (LEU), proliferation-resistant fuels for use in research reactors is reviewed. CRNL's fuel manufacturing process has been qualified by the successful demonstration irradiation of 7 full-size rods in the NRU reactor. Now industrial-scale production equipment has been commissioned, and a fuel-fabrication campaign for 30 NRU rods and a MAPLE-X core is underway. Excess capacity could be used for commercial fuel fabrication. In the irradiation testing program, mini-elements with deliberately included core surface defects performed well in-reactor, swelling by only 7 to 8 vol% at 93 atomic percent burnup of the original U-235. The additional restraint provided by the aluminium cladding which flowed into the defects during extrusion contributed to this good performance. Mini-elements containing a variety of particle size distributions were also successfully irradiated to 93 at% burnup in NRU, as part of a study to establish the optimum particle size distribution. Swelling was found to be proportional to the percentage of fines (<44μm particles) contained in the cores. The mini-elements containing the composition normally used at CRNL had swollen by 5.8 vol%, and mini-elements with a much higher percentage of fines had swollen by 6.8 vol%, at 93 at% burnup. Also, a program to develop LEU targets for Mo-99 production, via the technology developed to fabricate dispersed silicide fuel, has started, and preliminary scoping studies are underway. (Author)

  4. Integrated radwaste treatment system. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, M.N.; Houston, H.M.

    1997-10-01

    In May 1988, the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) began pretreating liquid high-level radioactive waste (HLW). This HLW was produced during spent nuclear fuel reprocessing operations that took place at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center from 1966 to 1972. Original reprocessing operations used plutonium/uranium extraction (PUREX) and thorium extraction (THOREX) processes to recover usable isotopes from spent nuclear fuel. The PUREX process produced a nitric acid-based waste stream, which was neutralized by adding sodium hydroxide to it. About two million liters of alkaline liquid HLW produced from PUREX neutralization were stored in an underground carbon steel tank identified as Tank 8D-2. The THOREX process, which was used to reprocess one core of mixed uranium-thorium fuel, resulted in about 31,000 liters of acidic waste. This acidic HLW was stored in an underground stainless steel tank identified as Tank 8D-4. Pretreatment of the HLW was carried out using the Integrated Radwaste Treatment System (IRTS), from May 1988 until May 1995. This system was designed to decontaminate the liquid HLW, remove salts from it, and encapsulate the resulting waste into a cement waste form that achieved US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) criteria for low-level waste (LLW) storage and disposal. A thorough discussion of IRTS operations, including all systems, subsystems, and components, is presented in US Department of Energy (DOE) Topical Report (DOE/NE/44139-68), Integrated Radwaste Treatment System Lessons Learned from 2 1/2 Years of Operation. This document also presents a detailed discussion of lessons learned during the first 2 1/2 years of IRTS operation. This report provides a general discussion of all phases of IRTS operation, and presents additional lessons learned during seven years of IRTS operation

  5. Incineration with energy recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, T.G.

    1986-02-01

    Motherwell Bridge Tacol Ltd. operate a 'Licence Agreement' with Deutsche Babcock Anlagen of Krefeld, West Germany, for the construction of Municipal Refuse Incineration plant and Industrial Waste plant with or without the incorporation of waste heat recovery equipment. The construction in the UK of a number of large incineration plants incorporating the roller grate incinerator unit is discussed. The historical background, combustion process, capacity, grate details, refuse analysis and use as fuel, heat recovery and costs are outlined.

  6. Loading device for incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hempelmann, W.

    1983-01-01

    An incinerator for radioactive waste is described. Heat radiation from the incinerator into the loading device is reduced by the design of the slider with a ceramic plate and the conical widening of the pot, and also by fixing a metal plate between the pot and the floor. (PW) [de

  7. Waste conditioning components for a new radwaste building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewitz, J.C.; Stoelken, G.

    2001-01-01

    In the year 1999 Hansa Projekt Anlagentechnik GmbH made a basic study for the equipment of a new to be build radwaste building for TPC, Taiwan. Within an offer there was made an overall concept together with a proposal for system integration including supply, erection and put into operation for the following components supercompactor with in-/output device, overpack-filling station, resindrying- and filling unit, sorting tables for solid radwaste, cementation unit for liquid radwaste, cementation unit for grouting, drum inspection and decontamination station, storages for primary and conditioned radwaste, HVAC with filtration for several components and a roller conveyor system for transfer throughout the radwaste building. This overall concept was to be realized very similar by the client. The HPA scope of supply was focused onto the key components supercompactor with in-/output device, roller conveyor and turntable for cartridges and pellets, overpack-filling station, sorting tables, HVAC with filtration for supercompactor and sorting tables, and last but not least a drum inspection and decontamination system. In the following at first the functioning of HPA-components and the system as whole will be declared. At second components and system will be shown in detail together with figures and technical data. (orig.)

  8. Development of core sampling technique for ITER Type B radwaste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. G.; Hong, K. P.; Oh, W. H.; Park, M. C.; Jung, S. H.; Ahn, S. B. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Type B radwaste (intermediate level and long lived radioactive waste) imported from ITER vacuum vessel are to be treated and stored in basement of hot cell building. The Type B radwaste treatment process is composed of buffer storage, cutting, sampling/tritium measurement, tritium removal, characterization, pre-packaging, inspection/decontamination, and storage etc. The cut slices of Type B radwaste components generated from cutting process undergo sampling process before and after tritium removal process. The purpose of sampling is to obtain small pieces of samples in order to investigate the tritium content and concentration of Type B radwaste. Core sampling, which is the candidates of sampling technique to be applied to ITER hot cell, is available for not thick (less than 50 mm) metal without use of coolant. Experimented materials were SS316L and CuCrZr in order to simulate ITER Type B radwaste. In core sampling, substantial secondary wastes from cutting chips will be produced unavoidably. Thus, core sampling machine will have to be equipped with disposal system such as suction equipment. Core sampling is considered an unfavorable method for tool wear compared to conventional drilling.

  9. CO-incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehmer, S.; Rumplmayr, A.

    2001-01-01

    'Co-incineration plant means a stationary or mobile plant whose main purpose is the generation of energy or production of material products and which uses wastes as a regular or additional fuel; or in which waste is thermally treated for the purpose of disposal. This definition covers the site and the entire plant including all incineration lines, waste reception, storage, an site pre-treatment facilities; its waste-, fuel- and air-supply systems; the boiler; facilities for treatment or storage of the residues, exhaust gas and waste water; the stack; devices and systems for controlling incineration operations, recording and monitoring incineration conditions (proposal for a council directive an the incineration of waste - 98/C 372/07). Waste incinerators primarily aim at rendering waste inert, at reduction of its volume and at the generation of energy from waste. The main aim of co-incineration an the other hand is either the recovery of energy from waste, the recovery of its material properties or a combination of the latter in order to save costs for primary energy. Two main groups of interest have lately been pushing waste towards co-incineration: conventional fossil fuels are getting increasingly scarce and hence expensive and generate carbon dioxide (greenhouse gas). The use of high calorific waste fractions is considered as an alternative. In many countries land filling of waste is subject to increasingly strict regulations in order to reduce environmental risk and landfill volume. The Austrian Landfill Ordinance for instance prohibits the disposal of untreated waste from the year 2004. Incineration seems to be the most effective treatment option to destroy organic matter. However the capacities of waste incinerators are limited, giving rise to a search for additional incineration capacity. The obvious advantages of co-incineration, such as the saving of fossil fuels and raw materials, the thermal treatment of waste fractions and possible economic benefits by

  10. Robotic cleaning of radwaste tank nozzles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boughman, G.; Jones, S.L.

    1992-01-01

    The Susquehanna radwaste processing system includes two reactor water cleanup phase separator tanks and one waste sludge phase separator tank. A system of educator nozzles and associated piping is used to provide mixing in the tanks. The mixture pumped through the nozzles is a dense resin-and-water slurry, and the nozzles tend to plug up during processing. The previous method for clearing the nozzles had been for a worker to enter the tanks and manually insert a hydrolaser into each nozzle, one at a time. The significant radiation exposure and concern for worker safety in the tank led the utility to investigate alternate means for completing this task. The typical tank configuration is shown in a figure. The initial approach investigated was to insert a manipulator arm in the tank. This arm would be installed by workers and then teleoperated from a remote control station. This approach was abandoned because of several considerations including educator location and orientation, excessive installation time, and cost. The next approach was to use a mobile platform that would operate on the tank floor. This approach was selected as being the most feasible solution. After a competitive selection process, REMOTEC was selected to provide the mobile platform. Their proposal was based on the commercial ANDROS Mark 5 platform

  11. Low level radwaste packaging: why not cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.B.

    1978-01-01

    Over the past several years many words have been expended in a quest to define a variety of competing radioactive waste immobilization technologies. With the more recent recognition of the technical pitfalls of urea-formaldehyde (UF) a liquid chemical binder considered as optimum less than two years ago, utilities, architect-engineers and systems vendors find themselves in a technology void, awaiting the inevitable breakthrough which will identify the perfect immobilization agent. The culmination of these pressures has brought about the introduction of new immobilization technologies including: one which offers both volume reduction and immobilization in yet another new binder agent; the costly development of highly sophisticated volume reduction systems, the highly-concentrated products from which may pose as-yet unknown immobilization problems; and, the marketing of several new more expensive liquid chemical binders which are reputed to have eliminated the kinds of problems associated with urea-formaldehyde. This paper addresses these issues by coming full circle and arriving back at the initial approach employed for low level radwaste immobilization, the use of cement. Based on an evaluation of the three principal competing immobilization approaches, liquid chemical, bitumen and cement, the merits and drawbacks of each is examined. As will be described, an objective assessment of these competing technologies has resulted in a somewhat surprising conclusion that, while none of the approaches is without disadvantages, cement can be shown to offer the most reliable, versatile long-term solution to today's needs

  12. Summary of the ORNL-sponsored reactor radwaste management workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kibbey, A.H.

    1977-01-01

    On January 12 to 14, 1977, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) sponsored a Radwaste Management Workshop in New Orleans, Louisiana, the object of which was to obtain operating data on the uses of evaporation, ion exchange, filtration, and on solid radwaste practices at nuclear power plants. The collected data are being used to update three earlier generic reports done by ORNL on the status of evaporation, ion exchange, and solid radwaste practices at nuclear power plants and to prepare a new one on filtration. All segments of the nuclear power industry were invited to participate, and a total of 188 representatives came. There were four major Workshop groups: volume reduction, solidification, physical and chemical separations, and corrosion. The major findings of each group are reported

  13. Safety analysis report for radwaste foam transport cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ku, J. H.; Lee, J. C.; Bang, K. S.; Seo, K. S.; Lee, D. W.; Kim, J. H.; Park, S. W.; Lee, J. W.; Kim, K. H.

    1999-08-01

    For the tests and examinations of radwaste foam which generated in domestic nuclear power plants a radioactive material transport cask is needed to transport the radwaste foam from the power plants to KAERI. This cask should be easy to handle in the facilities and safe to maintain the shielding safety of operators. According to the regulations, it should be verified that this cask maintains the thermal and structural integrities under prescribed load conditions by the regulations. The basic structural functions and the integrities of the cask under required load conditions were evaluated. Therefore, it was verified that the cask is suitable to transport radwaste foam from nuclear power plants to KAERI. (author). 11 refs., 10 tabs., 25 figs

  14. Commercial incineration demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavruska, J.S.; Borduin, L.C.

    1982-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) generated by nuclear utilities presently are shipped to commercial burial grounds for disposal. Increasing transportation and disposal costs have caused industry to consider incineration as a cost-effective means of volume reduction of combustible LLW. Repeated inquiries from the nuclear industry regarding the applicability of the Los Alamos controlled air incineration (CAI) design led the DOE to initiate a commercial demonstration program in FY-1980. Development studies and results in support of this program involving ion exchange resin incineration and fission/activation product distributions within the Los Alamos CAI are described

  15. The Studsvik incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetzler, F.

    1988-01-01

    The Studsvik Incinerator is a Faurholdt designed, multi-stage, partial pyrolysis, controlled-air system taken into operation in 1976. The incinerator was initially operated without flue-gas filtration from 1976 until 1979 and thereafter with a bag-house filter. The Studsvik site has been host to radioactive activities for approximately 30 years. The last 10 years have included on site incineration of more than 3,000 tons of LLW. During this time routine sampling for activity has been performed, of releases and in the environment, to carefully monitor the area. The author discusses records examined to determine levels of activity prior to incinerator start-up, without and with filter

  16. Radwaste requirements at a biomedical research facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brannegan, D.P.; Wolter, W.; Merenda, J.M.; Figdor, S.K.

    1993-01-01

    The low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) federal legislation that was passed during the 1980s was intended to provide an orderly system of LLRW disposal as the country's three waste sites proceeded toward excluding out-of-state generators. The system was based on a regional interstate compact system. As originally envisioned, several contiguous states were to form an association (compact) with one state receiving radwaste from the compact. Everyone is aware of the difficulties that followed as attempts were made to implement these laws and to meet the prescribed milestones to avoid financial penalties. Although the states (compacts) have labored for over 12 yr along this rocky road, no compact has developed and licensed a new disposal site prior to the January 1, 1993 deadline. A recent report by the Center for the Study of American Business at Washington University in St. Louis states that open-quotes The current regional interstate compact system for disposal of low-level radioactive waste is fatally flawed on both technical and practical political grounds.close quotes Thus, the system has broken down and the three original LLRW sites closed their gates (with the possible exception of Barnwell) as planned on January 1, 1993. It would appear that the fate of LLRW will be the same as that of high-level waste (HLW); it will be stored at the site of the generator until a solution to the problem is found. For the nonutility generator, storage is an entirely new problem. It must be appreciated that almost all nonutility generators are in the business of research or medical treatment and not in the business of storing LLRW. Thus, storage represents a new turn of events and a new aspect of doing business. It also means the diversion of limited resources to a problem that should not exist. Lastly, on-site LLRW storage for the nonutility generator will also require additional regulatory approval for the handling, storage, and ongoing monitoring of this waste

  17. Incineration conference 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the 1990 incineration conference. The proceedings are organized under the following headings: Regulations- international comparison, Current trends in facility design, Oxygen enhancement, Metals, Off-gas treatment, Operating experience: transportable, Materials, Operating experience: R/A and mixed, Incineration of specific wastes, Medical waste management, Ash qualification, Ash solidification/ immobilization, Innovative technologies, Operating experience : medical waste, Instrumentation and monitoring, process control and modeling, Risk assessment/management, Operating considerations

  18. Basic user guide for the radwaste treatment plant computer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keel, A.

    1990-07-01

    This guide has been produced as an aid to using the Radwaste Treatment Plant computer system. It is designed to help new users to use the database menu system. Some of the forms can be used in ways different from those explained and more complex queries can be performed. (UK)

  19. The costs assessment of the RENEL's programme for radwaste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barariu, Gh.; Andreescu, N.

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents first economical assessment of the Radwaste Management Programme of the Romanian Electricity Authority - Nuclear Power Group (RENEL-GEN) until closing all foreseeable activities in the field of nuclear waste processing and disposal. (Author) 1 Tab., 7 Refs

  20. Safety Analysis of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Radwaste Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poskas, P.; Ragaisis, V.

    2001-01-01

    The overview of the activities in the Laboratory of Heat Transfer in Nuclear Reactors related with the assessment of thermal, neutronic and radiation characteristics in spent nuclear fuel and radwaste facilities are performed. Activities related with decommissioning of Ignalina NPP are also reviewed. (author)

  1. Use of robotics in a Radwaste treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leeks, C.W.E.

    1991-01-01

    A 762 Unimate Puma, clean room standard Robot has been installed and commissioned in the Radwaste Treatment Plant at the Winfrith Technology Centre. The robot interacts with a variety of purpose designed tools and proprietary welding equipment. It performs 13 dedicated tasks in the final closure and health physics operations, before the 500 litre waste drum is despatched from the plant. (author)

  2. Radwaste management and spent fuel management in JAVYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozik, M.; Strazovec, R.

    2010-01-01

    In this work authors present radwaste management and spent fuel management in JAVYS, a.s. Processing of radioactive wastes (RAW) in the Bohunice Radioactive Waste Processing Center and surface storage of RAW in National RAW Repository as well as Interim Spent fuel storage in Jaslovske Bohunice are presented.

  3. Data acquisition and monitoring of radwaste cementation plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cable, A.S.; Lee, D.J.; Samways, J.; Weller, F.C.; Williams, J.R.A.

    1988-03-01

    This paper summarises the progress made in the two years to June 1987 on the DOE funded programme for Data acquisition and monitoring of Radwaste Cementation Plants. The results of the computer based data logging and processing system fitted to an in-drum mixing station, cement powder plant and sludge handling plant are reported. (author)

  4. Viability study for the implantation of an incineration unit for low level radioactive wastes; Estudo de viabilidade para implantacao de uma unidade de incineracao para rejeitos radioativos de nivel baixo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Andre Wagner Oliani

    1995-07-01

    Incineration have been a world-wide accepted volume reduction technique for combustible materials due to its high efficiency and excellent results. This technique is used since the last century as an alternative to reduce cities garbage and during the last four decades for the hazardous wastes. The nuclear industry is also involved in this technique development related to the low level radioactive waste management. There are different types of incineration installations and the definition of the right system is based on a criterious survey of its main characteristics, related to the rad wastes as well technical, economical and burocratic parameters. After the autonomous Brazilian nuclear programme development and the onlook of the future intensive nuclear energy uses, a radwaste generation increase is expected. One of the installations where these radwastes volumes are awaited to be high is the Experimental Center of ARAMAR (CEA). Nuclear reactors for propulsion and power generation have been developed in CEA beyond other nuclear combustible cycle activities. In this panorama it is important to evaluate the incineration role in CEA installations, as a volume reduction technique for an appropriate radioactive wastes management implementation. In this work main aspects related to the low level radwaste incineration systems were up rised. This information are important to a coherent viability study and also to give a clear and impartial about a topic that is still non discussed in the national scenery. (author)

  5. Determination of lead, zinc and benzo(a)pyrene in incineration flue gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Baohua; Gao Zhuqin; Guo Qian

    2003-01-01

    An analitical method was developed for the determination of lead(Pb), zinc(Zn) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) in flue gas of radwaste pyroysis incinerator, respectively using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The sample preparation and the influence of major components in back-ground were researched. Interference correction coefficient for Pb and Zn are given in this article. The recovery of Pb, Zn and BaP are all above 84.0% and the relative standard deviation (RSD) were 3.51% for Pb, 7.28% for Zn and 4.50% for BaP, respectively. It shows that this analytical method can meet the incineration processes. (authors)

  6. Analysis on long-term strategy for radwaste management in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Haicheng

    1998-08-01

    Radwaste presents a worldwide issue in the management of environmental protection. Most countries carrying out nuclear programs have developed strategies for their radwastes management. China has been executing its strategy, but the development of nuclear power is representing new challenges for the national radwastes management. This paper tries an analysis on the long-term management of radwastes in China. The exiting system of China's radwastes management is explained. Two important issues on radwastes management i.e. economics and social issues are analyzed. The future issues that will affect China's radwastes management are discussed. A short summary of the national radwastes management in NEA countries is involved in the paper. The analysis indicates that in China the exiting system of radwastes management is comprehensive but remains to be perfected. Improvements of long-term management need to be made in the aspects of economics and social issue. A financing system for long-term management, as a supplement for the exiting system of radwastes management, is expected to be created. (author)

  7. Analysis on long-term strategy for radwaste management in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Haicheng [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-08-01

    Radwaste presents a worldwide issue in the management of environmental protection. Most countries carrying out nuclear programs have developed strategies for their radwastes management. China has been executing its strategy, but the development of nuclear power is representing new challenges for the national radwastes management. This paper tries an analysis on the long-term management of radwastes in China. The exiting system of China`s radwastes management is explained. Two important issues on radwastes management i.e. economics and social issues are analyzed. The future issues that will affect China`s radwastes management are discussed. A short summary of the national radwastes management in NEA countries is involved in the paper. The analysis indicates that in China the exiting system of radwastes management is comprehensive but remains to be perfected. Improvements of long-term management need to be made in the aspects of economics and social issue. A financing system for long-term management, as a supplement for the exiting system of radwastes management, is expected to be created. (author)

  8. Controlled air incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    From 1960 to 1970, incineration was recognized as an economical method of solid waste disposal with many incinerators in operation through the country. During this period a number of legislation acts began to influence the solid waste disposal industry, namely, the Solid Waste Disposal Act of 1965; Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1968; Resource Recovery Act of 1970; and Clean Air Act of 1970. This period of increased environmental awareness and newly created regulations began the closure of many excess air incineration facilities and encouraged the development of new controlled air, also known as Starved-Air incinerator systems which could meet the more stringent air emission standards without additional emission control equipment. The Starved-Air technology initially received little recognition because it was considered unproven and radically different from the established and accepted I.I.A. standards. However, there have been many improvements and developments in the starved-air incineration systems since the technology was first introduced and marketed, and now these systems are considered the proven technology standard

  9. Oxygen enrichment incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Guk; Yang, Hee Chul; Park, Geun Il; Kim, Joon Hyung

    2000-10-01

    Oxygen enriched combustion technology has recently been used in waste incineration. To apply the oxygen enrichment on alpha-bearing waste incineration, which is being developed, a state-of-an-art review has been performed. The use of oxygen or oxygen-enriched air instead of air in incineration would result in increase of combustion efficiency and capacity, and reduction of off-gas product. Especially, the off-gas could be reduced below a quarter, which might reduce off-gas treatment facilities, and also increase an efficiency of off-gas treatment. However, the use of oxygen might also lead to local overheating and high nitrogen oxides (NOx) formation. To overcome these problems, an application of low NOx oxy-fuel burner and recycling of a part of off-gas to combustion chamber have been suggested

  10. Oxygen enrichment incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Guk; Yang, Hee Chul; Park, Geun Il; Kim, Joon Hyung

    2000-10-01

    Oxygen enriched combustion technology has recently been used in waste incineration. To apply the oxygen enrichment on alpha-bearing waste incineration, which is being developed, a state-of-an-art review has been performed. The use of oxygen or oxygen-enriched air instead of air in incineration would result in increase of combustion efficiency and capacity, and reduction of off-gas product. Especially, the off-gas could be reduced below a quarter, which might reduce off-gas treatment facilities, and also increase an efficiency of off-gas treatment. However, the use of oxygen might also lead to local overheating and high nitrogen oxides (NOx) formation. To overcome these problems, an application of low NOx oxy-fuel burner and recycling of a part of off-gas to combustion chamber have been suggested.

  11. Seventy years of incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumbleton, Brian

    1995-06-08

    A third waste incineration plant, which will conform to new United Kingdom emission standards is currently under construction at Tyseley in Birmingham. The plant will generate 25MW of electricity for 25,000 households by burning 350,000 t of municipal wastes per year. The site has been used for such energy from waste schemes since 1926. The new plant includes the latest air pollution abatement equipment designed to absorb mercury vapour and dioxins together with fabric filters. Other improvements at the Tyseley site include a new purpose built public waste disposal facility, clinical waste and animal carcass incineration and the recovery of 16,000t of ferrous metals per year for recycling. Because these waste products are incinerated it also therefore reduce`s Birmingham`s need for landfill sites. (UK)

  12. Demonstration test of 'multi-purpose incinerating melter system'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Hitoshi; Tanimoto, Kenichi; Wakui, Hitoshi; Oasada, Kaoru; Ishikawa, Fuyuhiko.

    1994-01-01

    A Multi-Purpose Incinerating Melter System (MIMS) has been developed as a volume reduction technique for a wide variety of radwastes including flame retardants such as spent resin, and non-combustible materials such as concrete, glass and steel. In the MIMS, these wastes are incinerated and/or melted at temperatures between 1,000 and 1,500degC generated by fossil fueled burner to produce obsidian-like ingots with high integrity. A demonstration test program was carried out from 1989 until 1991 using an engineering-scale demonstration unit. In the test program, various simulated wastes with traces of 60 Co, 54 Mn, 59 Fe, 137 Cs, 22 Na and 106 Ru were treated to obtain decontamination factor (DF) data and leach-resistance data of the products. The summarized results drawn from the 13 runs of demonstrative operations are the following: (1) Most involatile radionuclides are transferred into solidified products. (2) Global DF of the system excluding a HEPA filter ranged 1x10 4 thru 1x10 5 for 60 Co, 2x10 2 thru 2x10 3 for 137 Cs and 2x10 2 thru 1x10 4 for 106 Ru. (3) Leaching resistance of the solidified product is a match for that of a typical borosilicate glass waste form. (author)

  13. Demonstration test of 'multi-purpose incinerating melter system'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazaki, Hitoshi; Tanimoto, Kenichi [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center; Wakui, Hitoshi; Oasada, Kaoru; Ishikawa, Fuyuhiko

    1994-03-01

    A Multi-Purpose Incinerating Melter System (MIMS) has been developed as a volume reduction technique for a wide variety of radwastes including flame retardants such as spent resin, and non-combustible materials such as concrete, glass and steel. In the MIMS, these wastes are incinerated and/or melted at temperatures between 1,000 and 1,500degC generated by fossil fueled burner to produce obsidian-like ingots with high integrity. A demonstration test program was carried out from 1989 until 1991 using an engineering-scale demonstration unit. In the test program, various simulated wastes with traces of [sup 60]Co, [sup 54]Mn, [sup 59]Fe, [sup 137]Cs, [sup 22]Na and [sup 106]Ru were treated to obtain decontamination factor (DF) data and leach-resistance data of the products. The summarized results drawn from the 13 runs of demonstrative operations are the following: (1) Most involatile radionuclides are transferred into solidified products. (2) Global DF of the system excluding a HEPA filter ranged 1x10[sup 4] thru 1x10[sup 5] for [sup 60]Co, 2x10[sup 2] thru 2x10[sup 3] for [sup 137]Cs and 2x10[sup 2] thru 1x10[sup 4] for [sup 106]Ru. (3) Leaching resistance of the solidified product is a match for that of a typical borosilicate glass waste form. (author).

  14. Nanomaterial disposal by incineration

    Science.gov (United States)

    As nanotechnology-based products enter into widespread use, nanomaterials will end up in disposal waste streams that are ultimately discharged to the environment. One possible end-of-life scenario is incineration. This review attempts to ascertain the potential pathways by which ...

  15. Fluidized bed incinerator development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, D.L.; Johnson, A.J.

    1976-01-01

    A fluidized bed incinerator is being developed for burning rad contaminated solid and liquid waste materials. In situ neutralization of acid gases by the bed material, catalytic afterburning, and gas filtration are used to produce a clean flue gas without the use of aqueous scrubbing

  16. PERMITTING HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This publication is a compilation of information presented at a seminar series designed to address the issues that affect the issuance of hazardous waste incineration permits and to improve the overall understanding of trial burn testing. pecifically, the document provides guidan...

  17. Safety assessment for radwaste disposal in Korea: Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, I.S.; Park, H.H.; Han, K.W.; Hahn, P.S.

    1986-01-01

    A simplified safety analysis code has been established in order to provide a basic methodology for the preliminary selection of a disposal method. The disposal type selection is prerequisite to meet the requirements of low and intermediate level radwaste management program in Korea. The code covers resaturation and leaching, migration through fracture-porous media transport such that the rock cavern disposal option can be evaluated compared with that of shallow land burial

  18. Waste management tasks of the Radwaste Collecting Centers of the Laender

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreisvogt, H.

    1994-01-01

    The paper outlines the manifold activities of the Radwaste Collecting Centers of the Laender. According to section 9 a, sub-sec. 3 of the Atomic Energy Act, the various Laender in Germany are obliged to establish such centers whose purpose among other things is to serve as interim storage site for radwaste accrued at medical, industrial, or research facilities. (HP) [de

  19. Incineration by accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cribier, M.; FIoni, G.; Legrain, R.; Lelievre, F.; Leray, S.; Pluquet, A.; Safa, H.; Spiro, M.; Terrien, Y.; Veyssiere, Ch.

    1997-01-01

    The use MOX fuel allows to hope a stabilization of plutonium production around 500 tons for the French park. In return, the flow of minor actinides is increased to several tons. INCA (INCineration by Accelerator), dedicated instrument, would allow to transmute several tons of americium, curium and neptunium. It could be able to reduce nuclear waste in the case of stopping nuclear energy use. This project needs: a protons accelerator of 1 GeV at high intensity ( 50 m A), a window separating the accelerator vacuum from the reactor, a spallation target able to produce 30 neutrons by incident proton, an incineration volume where a part of fast neutrons around the target are recovered, and a thermal part in periphery with flows at 2.10 15 n/cm 2 .s; a chemical separation of elements burning in thermal (americium) from the elements needing a flow of fast neutrons. (N.C.)

  20. Incinerator technology overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoleri, Joseph J.

    1993-03-01

    Many of the major chemical companies in the U.S. who regarded a safe environment as their responsibility installed waste treatment and disposal facilities on their plant sites in the last two decades. Many of these plants elected to use incinerators as the treatment process. This was not always the most economical method, but in many cases it was the only method of disposal that provided a safe and sure method of maximum destruction. Environmental concern over contamination from uncontrolled land disposal sites, and the emergence of tougher regulations for land disposal provide incentives for industry to employ a wide variety of traditional and advanced technologies for managing hazardous wastes. Incineration systems utilizing proper design, operation, and maintenance provides the safest, and in the long run, the most economical avenue to the maximum level of destruction of organic hazardous wastes.

  1. Commercial incineration demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borduin, L.C.; Neuls, A.S.

    1981-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) generated by nuclear utilities presently are shipped to commercial burial grounds for disposal. Substantially increasing shipping and disposal charges have sparked renewed industry interest in incineration and other advanced volume reduction techniques as potential cost-saving measures. Repeated inquiries from industry sources regarding LLW applicability of the Los Alamos controlled-air incineration (CAI) design led DOE to initiate this commercial demonstration program in FY-1980. The selected program approach to achieving CAI demonstration at a utility site is a DOE sponsored joint effort involving Los Alamos, a nuclear utility, and a liaison subcontractor. Required development tasks and responsibilities of the particpants are described. Target date for project completion is the end of FY-1985

  2. Incineration ash conditioning processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouan, A.; Ouvrier, N.; Teulon, F.

    1990-01-01

    Incinerable wastes consist of the following standard composition corresponding to projected wastes from a future mixed oxide fuel fabrication plant with an annual throughput of 1700 kg (i.e. 5.7 m 3 ) of ashes produced by the incineration facility: . 50% polyvinyl chloride (glove box sleeves), . 5% polyethylene (bags), . 35% rubber (equal amounts of latex and neoprene), . 10% cellulose (equal amounts of cotton and cleansing tissues). The work focused mainly on compaction by high-temperature isostatic pressing, is described in some detail with the results obtained. An engineering study was also carried out to compare this technology with two other ash containment processes: direct-induction (cold crucible) melting and cement-resin matrix embedding. Induction melting is considerably less costly than isostatic pressing; the operating costs are about 1.5 times higher than for cement-resin embedding, but the volume reduction is nearly 3 times greater

  3. Controlled air pyrolysis incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufrane, K.H.; Wilke, M.

    1982-01-01

    An advanced controlled air pyrolysis incinerator has been researched, developed and placed into commercial operation for both radioactive and other combustible wastes. Engineering efforts cocentrated on providing an incinerator which emitted a clean, easily treatable off-gas and which produced a minimum amount of secondary waste. Feed material is continuously fed by gravity into the system's pyrolysis chamber without sorting, shredding, or other such pretreatment. Metal objects, liquids such as oil and gasoline, or solid products such as resins, blocks of plastic, tire, animal carcasses, or compacted trash may be included along with normal processed waste. The temperature of the waste is very gradually increased in a reduced oxygen atmosphere. Volatile pyrolysis gases are produced, tar-like substances are cracked and the resulting product, a relatively uniform, easily burnable material, is introduced into the combustion chamber. Steady burning is thus accomplished under easily controlled excess air conditions with the off-gasthen passing through a simple dry clean-up system. Gas temperatures are then reduced by air dilution before passing through final HEPA filters. Both commercial and nuclear installations have been operated with the most recent application being the central incinerator to service West Germany's nuclear reactors

  4. Incineration of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caramelle, D.; Florestan, J.; Waldura, C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that one of the methods used to reduce the volume of radioactive wastes is incineration. Incineration also allows combustible organic wastes to be transformed into inert matter that is stable from the physico-chemical viewpoint and ready to be conditioned for long-term stockage. The quality of the ashes obtained (low carbon content) depends on the efficiency of combustion. A good level of efficiency requires a combustion yield higher than 99% at the furnace door. Removal efficiency is defined as the relation between the CO 2 /CO + CO 2 concentrations multiplied by 100. This implies a CO concentration of the order of a few vpm. However, the gases produced by an incineration facility can represent a danger for the environment especially if toxic or corrosive gases (HCL,NO x ,SO 2 , hydrocarbons...) are given off. The gaseous effluents must therefore be checked after purification before they are released into the atmosphere. The CO and CO 2 measurement gives us the removal efficiency value. This value can also be measured in situ at the door of the combustion chamber. Infrared spectrometry is used for the various measurements: Fourier transform infrared spectrometry for the off-gases, and diode laser spectrometry for combustion

  5. Cost-benefit analysis for environmental impacts and radwaste system for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mun, K.N.; Yook, C.C.

    1982-01-01

    During operation of nuclear power plant, radioactive material is inevitably formed. This radioactive material must be safely processed by radwaste system so that essentially zero activity is released to the environment. However zero released activity is not really practicable and population doses resulted from released activity are proportional to total annual cost for the radwaste system. In this study, cost-benefit analysis for the radwaste system of the Korean Nuclear Units 5 and 6 is performed to evaluate the optimization between the total annual cost for the radwaste system and population doses within 80 km from the plants. From the analysis, the following results are obtained; 1. the total population dose is estimated 4.04 x 10 3 man-rem/year, 2. total annual cost for the radwaste system is required $ 1.74 x 10 6 , 3. cost-benefit ratio is estimated $ 429/man-rem. (Author)

  6. Review of decommissioning, spent fuel and radwaste management in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamrich, J.

    2000-01-01

    Two nuclear power plants with two WWER reactors are currently under operation in Jaslovske Bohunice and NPP A-1 is under decommissioning on the same site. At the second nuclear site in the Slovak Republic in Mochovce third nuclear power plant with two units is in operation. In accordance with the basic Slovak legislation (Act on Peaceful Utilisation of Nuclear Energy) defining the responsibilities, roles and authorities for all organisations involved in the decommissioning of nuclear installations Nuclear Regulatory Authority requires submission of conceptual decommissioning plans by the licensee. The term 'decommissioning' is used to describe the set of actions to be taken at the end of the useful life of a facility, in order to retire the facility from service while, simultaneously, ensuring proper protection of the workers, the general public and the environment. This set of activities is in principle comprised of planning and organisation of decommissioning inclusive strategy development, post-operational activities, implementation of decommissioning (physical and radiological characterisation, decontamination, dismantling and demolition, waste and spent fuel management), radiological, aspects, completion of decommissioning as well as ensuring of funding for these activities. Responsibility for nuclear installations decommissioning, radwaste and spent fuel, management in Slovakia is with a subsidiary of Slovak Electric called Nuclear Installations Decommissioning Radwaste and Spent Fuel Management (acronym SE VYZ), established on January 1, 1996. This paper provides description of an approach to planning of the NPP A-1 and NPPs with WWER reactors decommissioning, realisation of treatment, conditioning and disposal of radwaste, as well as spent fuel management in Slovakia. It takes into account that detail papers on all these issues will follow later during this meeting. (author)

  7. Incineration of toluene and chlorobenzene in a laboratory incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Z.; Mcintosh, M.J.; Demirgian, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports experimental results on the incineration of toluene and chlorobenzene in a small laboratory incinerator. Temperature of the incinerator, excess air ratio and mean residence time were varied to simulate both complete and incomplete combustion conditions. The flue gas was monitored on line using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy coupling with a heated long path cell (LPC). Methane, toluene, benzene, chlorobenzene, hydrogen chloride and carbon monoxide in the flue gas were simultaneously analyzed. Experimental results indicate that benzene is a major product of incomplete combustion (PIC) besides carbon monoxide in the incineration of toluene and chlorobenzene, and is very sensitive to combustion conditions. This suggests that benzene is a target analyle to be monitored in full-scale incinerators

  8. Advanced liquid radwaste decontamination by using a centrifuge system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tscheschlok, K.; Szukala, M.

    1999-01-01

    Waste water streams basically include undissolved suspended solids which contain almost the main part of the activated products. The centrifuge system, called LRS (Liquid Radwaste Treatment System), is able to remove these solids from the liquid content and fills the dewatered product into disposal containers. For this purpose a chemical pre-treatment step is often used for selective precipitation of special radionuclides and flocculents to agglomerate smaller sized particles (colloids) to make them separatable with the LRS. The plant arrangement, the process optimization and the collected operational experiences are described. 2 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs

  9. The remote methods for radwaste and SNF control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, O; Stepanov, V; Danilovich, A; Potapov, V

    2017-01-01

    With the examples of developments carried out in the Kurchatov Institute and by the world leaders in the field the presentation considers the devices and methods to obtain remotely information on the distribution of radioactivity in radwaste and SNF. It describes the different types of light portable gamma cameras. The application of scanning spectrometric systems is considers also. The methods of recording UV radiation for detection of alpha contamination with the luminescence of air are presented. We discuss the scope and tasks that can be solved using remote and non-destructive methods. (paper)

  10. Volume reduction, a safer and cheaper way of radwaste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mergan, L.M.; Cordier, J.P.; Storrer, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    Development of 'Volume Reduction' has demonstrated that it is a safer and cheaper radwaste management method. Safer, because of several advantages: decrease of solidified product volume, satisfactory product properties, absence of free water, better control of process parameters, increased encapsulation efficiency ... The corresponding impact on the waste management costs, results in important savings on different factors, as well as regards the operational costs as the investment expenses. Economy in the range of BF 35.000 per m 3 of incoming waste is achievable. The main volume reduction techniques readily available are briefly reviewed

  11. Solid radwaste characterization at surry and North Anna Power Stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippard, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes a characterization of the solid radwaste generated at Virginia Power's North Anna and Surry power stations. The primary focus of this characterization was dry active waste (DAW). The characterization, covering the 21-month period from January 1985 through September 1986, was based on information in the station's health physics procurement records, radwaste shipping records, and from interviews with station personnel. The procurement records were the principal source of information for DAW. They were reviewed to determine the quantities of various materials, purchased during the study period, that were expected to become DAW. This provides an upper limit on the quantity in the waste for several major DAW components and a basis for the total amount of other components in the waste. The approach to characterizing DAW discussed in this paper could be implemented and regularly updated by utilizing a computerized procurement records system. If a use code (i.e., contaminated or noncontaminated) is associated with each stock requisition, a characterization could be performed by a computer run. This approach would help track minimization effort effectiveness and would refine the characterization of DAW considerably

  12. Design and operation of the Surry Radwaste Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, L.L.; Halverson, W.C.

    1993-01-01

    In September 1991, Virginia Power started processing radioactive waste with a new Radwaste Facility at the Surry Power Station near Norfolk, Virginia. The Surry Radwaste Facility (SRF) was designed to process and store liquid waste, laundry waste, dry active waste, radioactive filters and spent ion-exchange resin. It also provides on-site decontamination services and a fully equipped hot machine shop. The NRC has recognized that the amount of planning and design, and the attention to detail, that was expended on the SRF Project in order to minimize personnel exposure and ensure efficient operation, is a licensee strength. Through its first year of operation, the facility has proven very successful. Using evaporation and demineralization, over 30 million liters of liquid have been released with no chemical impurities or detectable radioactivity (excluding tritium). Over 623,000 liters of concentrated boric acid waste liquid have been processed with the Bitumen Solidification System yielding 139,880 liters (660 drums) of low level Class A-Stable waste. Additional economic benefits will be realized as the effectiveness of the processing systems continues to improve due to increased operational experience and ergonomics

  13. Radwaste knowledge management in cooperation with the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batyukhnova, O.G.; Dmitriev, S.A.; Ozhovan, M.I.; Drejs, Z.; )

    2010-01-01

    The authors report on the emerging of the term knowledge management, and the practice of accumulation and preservation of nuclear knowledge. They emphasize that in addition to collecting and keeping scientific knowledge and identification of practical skills, management of nuclear knowledge includes setting the priorities to take into account the expected departure of retiring experts, and creating the mechanisms for attracting and training future employees. Education and training in radwaste management, as in the entire nuclear sector, is of a multi-disciplinary nature. It requires understanding of subjects such as geology, civil construction, mining, hydrogeology, chemistry, geophysics, mechanics, computing, etc. Moreover, this field is plagued with difficulty of reaching scientific, technical and even social consensus. Creation of effective and efficiently-operating systems for maintaining and disseminating knowledge is a complex and labour-consuming task. The role of the IAEA in the field of radwaste knowledge management is underlined. The SUE SIA Radon Moscow' experience and practice in training specialists of various professions and levels (including regulatory personnel) are described [ru

  14. Clay minerals in sandstone uranium deposits: radwaste applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookins, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    Clay minerals play an important role in the genesis of uranium deposits in sandstones. They incorporate the rate earths (REE), U, Sb, Th, Cs, Rb, Sr, Y, Ba, and even small amounts of chalcophiles. These minerals possess analog elements for many of the radwaste fission products as well as actinides and some actinide daughters. In sandstone uranium deposits, clay minerals are also associated with sulfide minerals, usually pyrite, and organic carbonaceous matter. The primary clay minerals are usually smectites, illites, chlorites and mixed layer varieties. The integrity of these clay minerals is demonstrated by their retention of formational-mineralization ages determined by Rb-Sr geochronologic investigation of the Grants Mineral Belt of the United States. The importance of the clay minerals as analog for parts of the multi-barrier concept in radwaste disposal is their ability to impede water penetration into - and movement of key elements out of uranium rich zones. The clay minerals further sorb and in other ways incorporate into their structures many fission products and actinide analogs from man-made nuclear wastes. 22 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  15. Waste incineration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egede Rasmussen, Anja

    2004-06-15

    This prepatory thesis is a literature study on the incineration of waste. It deals with the concepts of municipal solid waste, the composition and combustion of it. A main focus is on the European emission regulations and the formation of dioxins, as well as a big effort is put into the treatment of solid residues from municipal solid waste incineration. In the latter area, concepts of treatment, such as physical and chemical separations, solidification and stabilization techniques, thermal methods, and extraction methods have been discussed. Evaluation of possible methods of treatment has been done, but no conclusions made of which is the best. Though, indications exist that especially two methods have shown positive qualities and must be further investigated. These methods are the acid extraction and sulfide stabilization (AES) process and the phosphate stabilization method of WES-PHix. Economic potentials of the two methods have been evaluated, and with the information obtained, it seems that the price for treatment and later landfilling of a material with improved leaching characteristics, will be approximately the same as the presently most used solution of export to Norway. However, more tests, investigations and economic evaluations are necessary in order for support of the findings in this work. (au)

  16. The history of radwaste at Zion Station - its problems and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, K.J.

    1982-01-01

    Zion Station is located adjacent to Lake Michigan about 40 miles north of Chicago. The twin Zion units are four loop PWR's each rated at 1080 MWE with units 1 and 2 beginning commercial operation in 1973 and 1974 respectively. The radwaste system at Zion Station was designed in 1967 when radwaste operations of a nuclear power plant received little consideration. At Zion, the system was to be automated with occasional operator interface to pump down a tank when full or to solidify waste. The solidification equipment purchased was designed for the 40 year life of the station; due to the under estimation of the input to radwaste, this was not the case

  17. 40 CFR 761.70 - Incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incineration. 761.70 Section 761.70... and Disposal § 761.70 Incineration. This section applies to facilities used to incinerate PCBs... regular intervals of no longer than 15 minutes. (4) The temperatures of the incineration process shall be...

  18. The incineration of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thegerstroem, C.

    1980-03-01

    In this study, made on contract for the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, different methods for incineration of radioactive wastes are reviewed. Operation experiences and methods under development are also discussed. The aim of incineration of radioactive wastes is to reduce the volume and weight of the wastes. Waste categories most commonly treated by incineration are burnable solid low level wastes like trash wastes consisting of plastic, paper, protective clothing, isolating material etc. Primarily, techniques for the incineration of this type of waste are described but incineration of other types of low level wastes like oil or solvents and medium level wastes like ion-exchange resins is also briefly discussed. The report contains tables with condensed data on incineration plants in different countries. Problems encountered, experiences and new developments are reviewed. The most important problems in incineration of radioactive wastes have been plugging and corrosion of offgas systems, due to incomplete combustion of combustion of materials like rubber and PVC giving rise to corrosive gases, combined with inadequate materials of construction in heat-exchangers, channels and filter housings. (author)

  19. Incinerator for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, J.H.; Hootman, H.E.

    1981-01-01

    A two-stage incinerator is provided which includes a primary combustion chamber and an afterburn chamber for off-gases. The latter is formed by vertical tubes in combination with associated manifolds which connect the tubes together to form a continuous tortuous path. Electrically-controlled heaters surround the tubes while electrically-controlled plate heaters heat the manifolds. A gravity-type ash removal system is located at the bottom of the first afterburner tube while an air mixer is disposed in that same tube just above the outlet from the primary chamber. A ram injector in combination with rotary a magazine feeds waste to a horizontal tube forming the primary combustion chamber. (author)

  20. Waste treatment activities incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    The waste management policy at SRP is to minimize waste generation as much as possible and detoxify and/or volume reduce waste materials prior to disposal. Incineration is a process being proposed for detoxification and volume reduction of combustion nonradioactive hazardous, low-level mixed and low-level beta-gamma waste. Present operation of the Solvent Burner Demonstration reduces the amount of solid combustible low-level beta-gamma boxed waste disposed of by shallow land burial by approximately 99,000 ft 3 per year producing 1000 ft 3 per year of ash and, by 1988, will detoxify and volume reduce 150,000 gallons or organic Purex solvent producing approximately 250 ft 3 of ash per year

  1. Evaluation of the processes used for the treatment of the hospitable radwastes containing Cs-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peres, S.S.; Silva, J.J.G.

    1988-01-01

    This work presents a resume of results obtained in the treatment of radwastes containing Cs-137 from HNMD (Hospital Naval Marcilio Dias) and IRD (Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria), due to the radiological accident of Goiania. (author) [pt

  2. Provision of radiation safety at the designing of the industrial complex of solid radwaste management (ICSRM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobach, S.Yu.; Sevastyuk, O.V.

    2003-01-01

    The article presents the basic principles and criteria of the radiation safety provision, organization of the radiation control system, and dose calculation for the staff irradiation at the construction and operation of the Industrial complex of solid radwaste management (ICSRM)

  3. Incinerator technology overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoleri, Joseph J.

    1991-04-01

    In the 1960's, much effort was expended on cleaning up the air and water. Air Quality and Water Quality Acts were written and inpleinented in many states and coninunities. New products such as unleaded gasoline and water base paints were developed to aid in minimizing pollution. Conversion from oil fired combustion systems to natural gas fired for comfort and industrial heating was the normal practice. In 1970, the Clean Air Act was passed. There was concern on how to safely dispose of hazardous wastes. Indiscriminate dumping of chemical process wastes had been the practice since the birth of the chemical industry in the USA. Land dumping, inadequate landfills, and river-ocean dumping were the most economical ways to dispose of chemical wastes. Processes that would have reduced or eliminated wastes were disregarded as being too costly. Many of the major chemical companies who regarded a safe environment as their responsibility installed waste treatment and disposal facilities on their plant sites. Many of these plants elected to use incinerators as the treatment process. This was not always the most economical method, but in many cases it was the only method of disposal that provided a safe and sure method of maximum destruction. Environmental concern over contamination from uncontrolled land disposal sites, and the emergence of tougher regulations for land disposal provide incentives for industry to employ a wide variety of traditional and advanced technologies for managing hazardous wastes. Incineration systems utilizing proper design, operation, and maintenance provides the safest and in the long run, the most economical avenue to the maximum level of destruction of organic hazardous wastes.

  4. Radwaste reduction experience at Oyster Creek and Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, M.

    1993-01-01

    True radwaste minimization at an operating nuclear power plant means straddling the line between ''what is'' and ''what-can-be'' and then regularly moving that line so that dreams become reality. This effort involves keeping track of and maintaining successful programs of the past while searching out and incorporating the best of the upcoming processes, equipment, and contractors. Some of the tactics used for waste minimization have appreciable results and some have small direct results. But even those with small results add to a final total of volume saved. In addition, the approaches with smaller results demonstrate an unmistakable attitude on the part of management that any unnecessary radwaste production is not acceptable. This attitude is understood and assimilated by engineering, operations, and maintenance in such a way that it becomes a matter of pride to reduce radwaste production to quantities below those officially projected. The GPUN plants at Oyster Creek and Three Mile Island Unit-1 limit the quantity of materials allowed onsite under the premise that an item that stays out of contaminated areas cannot become radwaste. For material exiting contaminated zones, the plants have used a combination of preventative avoidance of radwaste generation and careful processing. This includes sorting and screening of materials leaving contaminated areas to reduce the number of items to eventually be treated, preplanning of work efforts to minimize radwaste that must be generated, wood planning, onsite decontamination units, onsite contractor supplied equipment, and offsite radwaste processors in order to minimize the final amount of radwaste to be buried. Sometimes when employing one of these methods, it is necessary to consider not only the waste generated by the process directly but also secondary wastes caused by interactions with other areas of plant operation, such as equipment maintenance

  5. Bitumen and cement solidifications of LL and ML liquid radwaste. The SGN experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tchemitcheff, E.; Roux, P.

    1993-01-01

    The presentation is focused on the thin-film evaporator technology and the experience gained in the field of the NPPs and research centers on radwaste conditioning. As early as 1970, SGN was licensed by the CEA for the bituminization of LL and ML radwaste. With the support of EDF and COGEMA, SGN has been performing in depth research on cement solidification of borated concentrates and ion exchange resins generated by reactors or reprocessing plant since 1983

  6. Safety aspects of the design of a PWR gaseous radwaste treatment system using hydrogen recombiners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glibert, R.; Nuyt, G.; Herin, S.; Fossion, P.

    1978-01-01

    PWR Gaseous radwaste treatment system is essential for the reduction of impact on environment of the nuclear power plants. Decay tank system has been used for the retention of the radioactive gaseous fission products generated in the primary coolant. The use of a system combining decay tanks and hydrogen recombiner units is described in this paper. Accent is put on the safety aspects of this gaseous radwaste treatment facilitystudied by BN for a Belgian Power Plant. (author)

  7. Conditioning processes for incinerator ashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouan, A.; Ouvrier, N.; Teulon, F.

    1990-01-01

    Three conditioning processes for alpha-bearing solid waste incineration ashes were investigated and compared according to technical and economic criteria: isostatic pressing, cold-crucible direct-induction melting and cement-resin matrix embedding

  8. Incineration: efficient, economical and environmental

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mascarenhas, A.

    2003-01-01

    Significant improvements in incinerator design and technology resulting in optimal performance, increased reliability and reduced capital and operating costs are discussed. The objective of the discussion is to draw attention to incineration as a cost effective and environmentally responsible means of disposing of the waste products generated by the oil and gas industry, while improving air quality and reduce greenhouse gas emissions at the same time. The main point put forward is that because the global warming potential of methane is 21 times greater than that of carbon dioxide, the complete combustion potential of incineration, combined with the fact that incineration requires significantly less fuel gas to combust low heat content streams, offers significantly reduced greenhouse gas emissions and improved air quality

  9. Waste incineration, Part I: Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-01

    Based upon an overview of the technology of incineration and the nature of hospital waste, HHMM offers the following suggestions: Old retort or other excess air incinerators should be replaced regardless of age. Even if emissions control equipment and monitoring devices can be retrofitted, excess-air incinerators are no longer cost-effective in terms of capacity, fuel consumption, and heat recovery. Audit (or have a specialist audit) your waste stream thoroughly. Consult a qualified engineering company experienced in hospital installations to get a system specified as exactly as possible to your individual conditions and needs. Make sure that the capacity of your incinerator will meet projections for future use. Anticipate the cost of emissions control and monitoring devices whether your state currently requires them or not. Make sure that your incinerator installation is engineered to accept required equipment in the future. Develop a strong community relations program well in advance of committing to incinerator installation. Take a proactive position by inviting your neighbors in during the planning stages. Be sure the contract governing incinerator purchase and installation has a cancellation clause, preferably without penalties, in case community action or a change in state regulations makes installation and operation impractical. The technology is available to enable hospitals to burn waste effectively, efficiently, and safely. HHMM echoes the concerns of Frank Cross--that healthcare facilities, as well as regional incinerators and municipalities, show the same concern for environmental protection as for their bottom lines. When emissions are under control and heat is recovered, both the environment and the bottom line are healthier.

  10. Activated carbon for incinerator uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Che Seman Mahmood; Norhayati Alias; Mohd Puad Abu

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports the development of the activated carbon from palm oil kernel shell for use as absorbent and converter for incinerator gas. The procedure is developed in order to prepare the material in bulk quantity and be used in the incinerator. The effect of the use of activating chemicals, physical activation and the preparation parameter to the quality of the carbon products will be discussed. (Author)

  11. Minimum radwaste system to support commercial operation-what equipment can be deferred

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, R.W.; Tafazzoli, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    Because of cash flow problems being experienced by utilities as nuclear power stations approach completion, areas of the plant for which the completion of the construction effort could be deferred past commercial operation should be reviewed. The radwaste treatment systems are prime candidates for such a deferral because of the availability, either temporary or permanent, of alternative treatment methods for the waste streams expected to be produced. In order to identify the radwaste equipment, components and associated hardware in the radwaste building which could be deferred past commercial operation, a study was performed by Impell Corporation to evaluate the existing radwaste treatment system and determine the minimum system necessary to support commercial operation of a typical BWR. The study identified the minimum-installed radwaste treatment system which, in combination with portable temporary equipment, would accommodate the waste types and quantities likely to be produced in the first few years of operation. In addition, the minimum-installed system had to be licensable and excessive radiation exposures should not be incurred during the construction of the deferred portions of the system after commercial operation. From this study, it was concluded that a significant quantity of radwaste processing equipment and the associated piping, valves and instrumentation could be deferred. The estimated savings, in construction manhours (excluding field distributables) alone, was over 102,000 M-H

  12. Approach for Assessing Human Intrusion into a Radwaste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Dong Keun; Kim, Jung Woo; Jeong, Jong Tae; Baik, Min Hoon

    2016-01-01

    An approach to assess human intrusion into radwaste repository resulting from future human actions was proposed based on the common principals, requirements, and recommendations from IAEA, ICRP, and OECD/NEA, with the assumption that the intrusion occurs after loss of knowledge of the hazardous nature of the disposal facility. At first, the essential boundary conditions were derived on the basis of international recommendations, followed by overall approach to deal with inadvertent human intrusion. The essential premises were derived on the basis of international recommendations, followed by overall approach to deal with inadvertent human intrusion. The procedure to derive protective measures was also explained with four steps regarding how to derive safety framework, general measures, potential measures, and eventual protective measures on the basis of stylized scenarios. It is expected that the approach proposed in this study will be effectively used to reduce the potential for and/or consequence of human intrusion during entire processes of realization of disposal facility.

  13. 10CFR61 waste form conformance program for asphalted radwaste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobran, M.J.; Guarini, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    With the enactment of Title 10, Code of Federal Regulation, Part 61, ''Licensing Requirements for Land Disposal of Radioactive Waste'' came the imposition of new requirements on licensees who dispose of radioactive waste via shallow land burial. Specifically, 10CFR61 both imposed a waste classification system requiring segregation of waste according to hazard and established waste performance characteristics required to enhance stability of the burial site. In order to provide licensees with guidance regarding implementation of applicable requirements of 10CFR61, the NRC low level Waste Licensing Branch issued two Technical Positions. To demonstrate compliance of asphalted radwaste produced with oxidized asphalt with 10CFR61 criteria and the NRC's Technical Position, five utilities combined resources. The five utilities sponsoring the program were Public Service Electric and Gas Company, Niagara Mohawk Power Company, Detroit Edison Company, New Hampshire Yankee, and Consumers Power Comany

  14. Sorption data base for performance assessment of radwaste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Y.H.; Jung, J.; Lee, J.K.; Hahn, P.S.

    2001-01-01

    Sorption data base (SDB) provides readily available data for the performance assessment of radwaste repository when site-specific data are not available and/or more reference data are needed. The software developed in the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), SDB-21C, is a graphic user interface (GUI) program that provides efficient and user friendly tools for evaluating the large amount of sorption data. The data base of distribution coefficients compiled in the program contains about 11,000 Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) data and 2,000 KAERI data up to now while the addition of new data is under progress. Furthermore, the parametric model and its compiled data sets are also included in SDB-21C. (author)

  15. The development of radwaste policy and the Nirex programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folger, M.

    1993-01-01

    Radwaste policy has had a chequered past in this country and although some of the blame has occasionally been laid at our door, three things sound be borne in mind, the context within which Nirex has worked and must continue to work, many of the ''myths'' about Nirex, and assurance that there is a well structured programme for stepwise investigation, and potential development, at Sellafield. Through that solution the waste producers will be paying real money to meet the requirement in the present generation. I aim to demonstrate that the United Kingdom (UK) programme for deep disposal is on track and compares well with the programmes which other nuclear nations have in place. Whatever the future investment decisions on nuclear power, government strategy does properly require safe disposal of the wastes we already have and the wastes which will come forward from the present nuclear programme. (Author)

  16. Operation of radiation monitoring system in radwaste form test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Young Gerl; Kim, Ki Hong; Lee, Jae Won; Kwac, Koung Kil

    1998-08-01

    RWFTF (RadWaste Form Test Facility) must have a secure radiation monitoring system (RMS) because of having a hot-cell capable of handling high radioactive materials. And then in controlled radiation zone, which is hot-cell and its maintenance and operation / control room, area dose rate, radioactivities in air-bone particulates and stack, and surface contamination are monitored continuously. For the effective management such as higher utilization, maintenance and repair, the status of this radiation monitoring system, the operation and characteristics of all kinds of detectors and other parts of composing this system, and signal treatment and its evaluation were described in this technical report. And to obtain the accuracy detection results and its higher confidence level, the procedure such as maintenance, functional check and system calibration were established and appended to help the operation of RMS. (author). 6 tabs., 30 figs

  17. Evaluation of brazilian bentonites as additive in the radwaste cementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tello, C.C.O. de.

    1988-01-01

    The behavior of some Brazilian bentonites has been evaluated, concerning to their use as additive in the radwaste cementation. The purpose of the bentonite is to retain the radioelements in the final product in leaching process. Experiments to determine properties such as compressive strenght, viscosity, set time leaching and cesium sorption have been carried out to this evaluation. After one-year test, the results show that the bentonites greatly reduce the cesium release. A literature survey about cementation process and plants and about the cement product characteristics has been made in order to obtain a reliable final product, able to be transported and storaged. Some leaching test methods and mathematical models, that could be applied in the evaluation of cement products with bentonite have been evaluated. (author) [pt

  18. SRL incinerator components test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freed, E.J.

    1982-08-01

    A full-scale (5 kg waste/hour) controlled-air incinerator, the ICTF, is presently being tested with simulated waste as part of a program to develop technology for incineration of Savannah River Plant solid transuranic wastes. This unit is designed specifically to incinerate relatively small quantities of solid combustible waste that are contaminated up to 10 5 times the present nominal 10 nCi/g threshold value for such isotopes as 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 242 Cm, and 252 Cf. Automatic incinerator operation and control has been incorporated into the design, simulating the future plant design which minimizes operator radiation exposure. Over 3000 kg of nonradioactive wastes characteristic of plutonium finishing operations have been incinerated at throughputs exceeding 5 kg/hr. Safety and reliability were the major design objectives. In addition to the incinerator tests, technical data were gathered on two different off-gas systems: a wet system composed of three scrubbers in series, and a dry system employing sintered metal filters

  19. Design Of Fluidized-bed Incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Bong Hun

    1992-04-01

    This book tells of design of fluidized-bed incinerator, which includes outline of fluidized-bed incinerator such as definition, characteristic, structure of principle of incineration and summary of the system, facilities of incinerator with classification of incinerator apparatus of supply of air, combustion characteristic, burnup control and point of design of incinerator, preconditioning facilities on purpose, types and characteristic of that system, a crusher, point of design of preconditioning facilities, rapid progress equipment, ventilation equipment, chimney facilities, flue gas cooling facilities boiler equipment, and removal facility of HCI/SOX and NOX.

  20. Waste incinerating plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1972-12-01

    This plant is provided with a NKK-Ferunst type reciprocating stage fire lattice which has a good ventilating effect and a proper stirring and loosening effect, achieving a high combustion rate, and has also a gas flow system by which gas can flow in the reverse direction to adjust its flow for seasonal variations in the quality of waste. Also, a room in which the exhaust gas is mixed is provided in this plant as a help for the complete neutralization and combustion of acid gas such as hydrogen chloride and imperfect combustion gas from plastic waste contained in wastes. In this system, waste can accept a sufficient radiant heat from the combustion gas, the furnace wall, and the ceiling; even on the post combustion fire lattice the ashes are given heat enough to complete the post combustion, so that it can be completely reduced to ashes. For these reasons, this type of incinerator is suitable for the combustion of low-calorie wastes such as city wastes. The harmful gases resulting from the combustion of wastes are treated completely by desulfurization equipment which can remove the oxides of sulfur. This type of plant also can dispose of a wide variety of wastes, and is available in several capacities from 30 tons per 8 hr to 1,200 tons per 24 hr.

  1. Alpha waste incineration prototype incinerator and industrial project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caramelle, D.; Meyere, A.

    1988-01-01

    To meet our requirements with respect to the processing of solid alpha wastes, a pilot cold incinerator has been used for R and D. This unit has a capacity of 5 kg/hr. The main objectives assigned to this incineration process are: a good reduction factor, controlled combustion, ash composition compatible with plutonium recovery, limited secondary solid and fluid wastes, releases within the nuclear and chemical standards, and in strict observance of the confinement and criticality safety rules. After describing the process we will discuss the major results of the incineration test campaigns with representative solid wastes (50 % PVC). We will then give a description of an industrial project with a capacity of 7 kg/hr, followed by a cost estimate

  2. CRNL library serials list

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alburger, T.P.

    1982-04-01

    A list of 1900 serial publications (periodicals, society transactions and proceedings, annuals and directories, indexes, newspapers, etc.) is presented with volumes and years held by the Main Library. This library is the largest in AECL as well as one of the largest scientific and technical libraries in North America, and functions as a Canadian resource for nuclear information. A main alphabetical list is followed by broad subject field lists representing research interests, and lists of abstract and index serials, general bibliographic serials, conference indexes, press releases, English translations, and original language journals

  3. Peculiarities of the High-Level Concrete-Encased Radwaste Repository Disposition at the Radwaste Disposal Site of the Russian Research Center 'Kurchatov Institute'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, V.G.; Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N.N.; Gorodetsky, G.G.; Zverkov, Yu.A.; Ivanov, O.P.; Lemus, A.V.; Semenov, S.G.; Stepanov, V.E.; Chesnokov, A.V.; Shisha, A.D.

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents peculiarities of organization and performance of activities on disposition of the old repository that contained high-level waste and located at the radwaste disposal site of the Russian Research Center 'Kurchatov Institute' in Moscow. The repository was constructed in the late 1950's. A large number of cases with high-level waste were placed in the repository along with low- and intermediate-level waste. When the repository was filled in 1973, the entire radwaste mass was encased in concrete matrix which caused difficulties with the radwaste extraction and made the work on the repository disposition highly hazardous in terms of radiation conditions. Based on results of the preliminary radiation survey of the repository, technologies and equipment to be used in disposition works were selected, and a decision on construction of external radiation shielding around the repository to maintain normal radiation conditions during these works was made. Specific features of the selected radiation shielding design constructed around the repository and of a technology used for the radwaste extraction from the repository are provided. According to the technology, conventional construction machines equipped with a hydraulic hammer or a clamshell were used for destruction of the concrete-encased radwaste mass and extraction of low-level waste. Intermediate- and high-level waste was extracted by remotely controlled robots operating inside the radiation shielding structure. Video cameras and a gamma imager were used for detection of high-level waste or fragments of such radwaste in the mass concrete being destroyed and for guiding remotely controlled robots. Peculiarities of rapid control of changes in radiation conditions in the working areas are presented. This control was performed using a gamma locator with on-line transmission of its data to a PC for their processing. With disposition of this not easily accessible repository, the stage of remediation of old

  4. Incineration demonstration at Savannah River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewandowski, K.E.; Becker, G.W.; Mersman, K.E.; Roberson, W.A.

    1983-01-01

    A full-scale incineration process for Savannah River Plant (SRP) low level beta-gamma combustible waste was demonstrated at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) using nonradioactive wastes. From October 1981 through September 1982, 15,700 kilograms of solid waste and 5.7 m 3 of solvent were incinerated. Emissions of off-gas components (NO/sub x/, SO 2 , CO, and particulates) were well below South Carolina state standards. Volume reductions of 20:1 for solid waste and 7:1 for Purex solvent/lime slurry were achieved. Presently, the process is being upgraded by SRP to accept radioactive wastes. During a two-year SRP demonstration, the facility will be used to incinerate slightly radioactive ( 3 ) solvent and suspect level (<1 mR/hr at 0.0254 meter) solid wastes

  5. Savannah River Plant incinerator demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewandowski, K.E.

    1983-01-01

    A full-scale incineration process was demonstrated at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) using nonradioactive waste. From October 1981 through September 1982, 15,700 kilograms of solid waste and 5.7 m 3 of solvent were incinerated. Emissions of off-gas components (NO/sub x/, SO 2 , CO, and particulates) were well below South Carolina state standards. Volume reductions of 20:1 for solid waste and 7:1 for Purex solvent/lime slurry were achieved. The process has been relocated and upgraded by the Savannah River Plant to accept low-level beta-gamma combustibles. During a two-year demonstration, the facility will incinerate slightly radioactive ( 3 ) solvent and suspect level (< 1 mR/h at 0.0254 meter) solid wastes. This demonstration will begin in early 1984

  6. INCINERATION TREATMENT OF ARSENIC-CONTAMINATED SOIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    An incineration test program was conducted at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Incineration Research Facility to evaluate the potential of incineration as a treatment option for contaminated soils at the Baird and McGuire Superfund site in Holbrook, Massachusetts. The p...

  7. HANDBOOK: HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION MEASUREMENT GUIDANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This publication, Volume III of the Hazardous Waste Incineration Guidance Series, contains general guidance to permit writers in reviewing hazardous waste incineration permit applications and trial burn plans. he handbook is a how-to document dealing with how incineration measure...

  8. Operational experience on reduction of feedwater iron and liquid radwaste input for Kuosheng Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, T.J.; Huang, Theresa Chen; Liu, Wen Tsung; Liu, T.C.; Shyur, Tzu Sheng; Shen, S.C.

    1998-01-01

    Other than cobalt alloys, or low cobalt materials, feedwater iron content plays an important role in crud activation and transport causing the growth of out-of-core radiation fields and associated with radwaste generation. Before installing prefilter in the upstream of condensate deep-bed demineralizer, increasing demand for suspended solid removal required new backwash and regeneration technique in Kuosheng Nuclear Power Plant. At steady state full power operation, the average iron concentration in condensate demineralizer influent was 8-15 ppb. Considering both the necessity of backwash and reduction of liquid radwaste input, several actions had been taken to promote the crud removal capabilities without using ultrasonic resin cleaner and controlled feedwater iron content between 0.5 and 2.0 ppb. This modified resin backwash technique would also generate minimum liquid radwaste. Meanwhile, significant efforts have been made to promote the quality of waste water by carefully control input streams as well as backwash modification to reduce liquid radwaste generation. The daily quantity of liquid radwaste has decreased dramatically in the past two years and is effectively controlled under the expected average daily input of design basis. (author)

  9. Breaking the paradigm: Revitalizing the liquid radwaste program at River Bend Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallory, C.C. II; Lewis, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    In December 1995, River Bend Station established the goal of becoming a liquid radwaste open-quotes zero dischargeclose quotes plant by 1998. A new paradigm was required to reduce River Bend Station's annual discharge volume from over 7.5 million gallons in 1995 to open-quotes zeroclose quotes gallons in two years. Changes instituted to date include. (1) Creation of a cross-discipline natural work team (NWT) responsible for radwaste improvements. (2) Enhanced walnut shell filter performance using a polymer filter aid. (3) Activated charcoal to reduce total organic carbon (TOC). (4) Improved operating practices based upon data review and trending. (5) Improved operability of radwaste equipment. Results are encouraging. The volume discharged January through May 1996, including a 39 day refueling outage, is 1.25 million gallons. Only one discharge has occurred since March 2. Historically, discharge volume during a similar five month period has exceeded 3 million gallons. No additional discharges are planned for 1996. Additional improvements are being actively evaluated. These include more effective radwaste train media, UV/O3 decomposition of TOC, adding non-precoated filters to the radwaste stream, reverse osmosis and real-time trending of inleakage volume and TOC and source term reduction

  10. Pilot solid-waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farber, M.G.; Hootman, H.E.; Trapp, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental program to develop and confirm technology for incinerating solid radioactive waste is in progress at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) in support of the short-term and long-term waste management objectives of the Savannah River Plant (SRP). This report reviews the experience of a pilot incinerator with a capacity of 1.0 lb/hr. The facility was tested with nonradioactive materials similar to the radioactive waste generated at the Savannah River site. The experimental program included determining operating parameters, testing wet and dry off-gas treatment systems, and evaluating materials of construction

  11. Liquid radwaste processing history at Fort Calhoun Nuclear Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilau, A.; Rutar, F.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents a historical perspective of liquid radwaste processing at the Fort Calhoun Unit 1 Nuclear Power Station, located in east central Nebraska. Of particular interest is the textual and graphical comparison of the operational implications of the various waste processing methods employed in the last ten years at the Fort Calhoun Station. Fort Calhoun's waste collection and processing systems are described in detail. These process systems include evaporation and solidification employing an in-plant drum solidification system. This solidification system was later replaced with vendor solidification services which solidified wastes in large liners. Ultimately, the plant converted its processing operation to ion exchange cleanup using ion selective media. The operational and economic impact of each of these process systems is discussed including overall costs, personnel exposure, capital expenditure requirements, burial volumes generated, maintenance and reliability assessments. Operational goals and performance criteria employed in the decision-making process for selection of the optimal technology are discussed, including the impact of various influent and effluent requirements

  12. Liquid radwaste treatment by microfiltration, ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dulama, M.; Deneanu, N.; Popescu, I.V.

    2001-01-01

    Radioactive liquid waste processing is an integral part of any facility involved in nuclear power generation, radioisotope production, research and development, decontamination or other aspects of nuclear energy. The aqueous liquid radwastes from the decontamination center are currently treated by the membrane plant. Generally, the liquid waste streams are effectively volume-reduced by a combination of continuous crossflow microfiltration (MF), spiral wound reverse osmosis (SWRO) and tubular reverse osmosis membrane technologies. Backwash chemical cleaning wastes from the membrane plant are further volume-reduced by evaporation. The concentrate from the membrane plant is ultimately immobilized with bitumen. We performed experiments using two simulated waste solution; secondary waste from the decontamination process with POD (Permanganate Oxidation Decontamination) solution and secondary waste from decontamination with CAN-DECON solution. The experimental tests have been done with cellulose acetate (CA) membrane and polysulfonate (PSF) membrane manufactured at Research Center for Macromolecular Materials and Membranes Bucharest and with Millipore membrane type VS 0.025 μm. A schematic of the laboratory-scale test facility is presented

  13. Simulation of the saturation process of a radwaste storage cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbe, M.F.; Clouard, A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a simulation of the saturation of the barrier and the plug of a storage cell by the surrounding host rock. Generally speaking, the unsaturated barrier and plug start saturating immediately in the vicinity of the quasi-saturated host rock. Then the saturation front propagates towards the canisters and the symmetry axis. Apart from the part in contact with the plug, the barrier is saturated at about 30 years. The part of the barrier near the plug is saturated around 80 years. If the top of the plug is saturated very soon, the part in the corner near the gallery and the symmetry axis is not completely saturated after 100 years. In the site, we observe a small desaturation during the first month, at the limit with the plug and the barrier, and especially in the corner limited by both FoCa clay pieces. This transient phenomenon may be assigned to the time difference between the immediate suction of water by the unsaturated materials and the delayed water flows coming from the saturated host rock to compensate the water suction. The purpose of this computation was at once to estimate the time necessary for the saturation of the clay layers surrounding the radwaste canisters and to evaluate the hydro-mechanical behaviour of the storage cell during the saturation process. Therefore a mechanical simulation was performed using the present hydraulic results to initiate the mechanical computation. (authors)

  14. Sampling of charged liquid radwaste stored in large tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tchemitcheff, E.; Domage, M.; Bernard-Bruls, X.

    1995-01-01

    The final safe disposal of radwaste, in France and elsewhere, entails, for liquid effluents, their conversion to a stable solid form, hence implying their conditioning. The production of conditioned waste with the requisite quality, traceability of the characteristics of the packages produced, and safe operation of the conditioning processes, implies at least the accurate knowledge of the chemical and radiochemical properties of the effluents concerned. The problem in sampling the normally charged effluents is aggravated for effluents that have been stored for several years in very large tanks, without stirring and retrieval systems. In 1992, SGN was asked by Cogema to study the retrieval and conditioning of LL/ML chemical sludge and spent ion-exchange resins produced in the operation of the UP2 400 plant at La Hague, and stored temporarily in rectangular silos and tanks. The sampling aspect was crucial for validating the inventories, identifying the problems liable to arise in the aging of the effluents, dimensioning the retrieval systems and checking the transferability and compatibility with the downstream conditioning process. Two innovative self-contained systems were developed and built for sampling operations, positioned above the tanks concerned. Both systems have been operated in active conditions and have proved totally satisfactory for taking representative samples. Today SGN can propose industrially proven overall solutions, adaptable to the various constraints of many spent fuel cycle operators

  15. Contact expert group for international radwaste projects. Fourth meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    The Contact Expert Group for International Radwaste Projects is the result of an IAEA seminar on ''International Co-operation on Nuclear Waste Management in the Russian Federation'', 15-17 May 1995, that was requested and sponsored by the Nordic countries. In two working groups at the Seminar, participants from the Russian Federation and 17 countries and international organizations co-operating with the Russian Federation in waste management projects recognized the need for setting up a contact group of experts to assist in co-ordinating their efforts. Such co-ordination would help avoid redundancy and duplication of effort, assure that priority needs were made known to the international community, and provide points of contact to facilitate co-operation. This report is a compilation of the 4. CEG meeting materials, both prepared by the CEG Secretariat and presented by meeting's participants. The materials discussed by the CEG and subsequently modified are presented in the finally approved version. As in the case of previous similar reports, the documentation presented was just compiled without any editing and thus should be considered only as ''working proceedings'' of the meeting

  16. Radwaste management aspects of the test blanket systems in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laan, J.G. van der, E-mail: JaapG.vanderLaan@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, F-13067 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Canas, D. [CEA, DEN/DADN, centre de Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France); Chaudhari, V. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Iseli, M. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, F-13067 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Kawamura, Y. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka-shi, Ibaraki-ken 311-0193 (Japan); Lee, D.W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Petit, P. [European Commission, DG ENER, Brussels (Belgium); Pitcher, C.S.; Torcy, D. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, F-13067 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Ugolini, D. [Fusion for Energy, Barcelona (Spain); Zhang, H. [China Nuclear Energy Industry Corporation, Beijing 100032 (China)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Test Blanket Systems are operated in ITER to test tritium breeding technologies. • The in-vessel parts of TBS become radio-active during the ITER nuclear phase. • For each TBM campaign the TBM, its shield and the Pipe Forests are removed. • High tritium contents and novel materials are specific TBS radwaste features. • A preliminary assessment confirmed RW routing, provided its proper conditioning. - Abstract: Test Blanket Systems (TBS) will be operated in ITER in order to prepare the next steps towards fusion power generation. After the initial operation in H/He plasmas, the introduction of D and T in ITER will mark the transition to nuclear operation. The significant fusion neutron production will give rise to nuclear heating and tritium breeding in the in-vessel part of the TBS. The management of the activated and tritiated structures of the TBS from operation in ITER is described. The TBS specific features like tritium breeding and power conversion at elevated temperatures, and the use of novel materials require a dedicated approach, which could be different to that needed for the other ITER equipment.

  17. Principles and criteria for creation of a concept for national radwaste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milanov, M.; Strezov, A.; Kojuharov, D.

    1993-01-01

    General principles and criteria based on the international experience and requirements as well as on specific Bulgarian conditions are used in the creation of the Concept for Radwaste Repository Construction as a first stage of the Bulgarian nuclear programme. The Concept contains about 70 projects of common or more specific character. The Bulgarian territory is categorized and several prospective areas are selected as a final result of the analysis performed. A model for development of a National System for Radwaste Management is considered. The formation of a working group appointed by governmental authorities as a solution of the existing highly complex situation connected with the treatment and storage of radwaste in the country is proposed. 1 fig., 14 refs. (author)

  18. The improvement program of radwaste treatment at Chinshan nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, M.M.H.; Huang, C.Y.

    1986-01-01

    Chinshan-1 and 2, the twin 636-megawatt boiling water reactors with independent radwaste treatment facilities, located at northern Taiwan, started power generation in 1977 and 1978, respectively. Initial years of operation of CSNPS indicated a need for improvement of the radwaste scheme originally provided. The major betterment programs for radwaste system include: (1) addition of auxiliary demineralization system and addition resin storage tank/demineralizer, (2) addition of dry laundry and miscellant drain system, (3) addition of off-gas charcoal delay system, (4) tie connection of the liquid waste system of unit 1 and 2, (5) solid waste system retrofit study, (6) volume reduction study. The administration and water quality controls have also been much improved and the discharge of radioactivity is considerably lower after the improvement has been implemented

  19. Plutonium waste incineration using pyrohydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    Waste generated by Savannah River Site (SRS) plutonium operations includes a contaminated organic waste stream. A conventional method for disposing of the organic waste stream and recovering the nuclear material is by incineration. When the organic material is burned, the plutonium remains in the incinerator ash. Plutonium recovery from incinerator ash is highly dependent on the maximum temperature to which the oxide is exposed. Recovery via acid leaching is reduced for a high fired ash (>800 degree C), while plutonium oxides fired at lower decomposition temperatures (400--800 degrees C) are more soluble at any given acid concentration. To determine the feasibility of using a lower temperature process, tests were conducted using an electrically heated, controlled-air incinerator. Nine nonradioactive, solid, waste materials were batch-fed and processed in a top-heated cylindrical furnace. Waste material processing was completed using a 19-liter batch over a nominal 8-hour cycle. A processing cycle consisted of 1 hour for heating, 4 hours for reacting, and 3 hours for chamber cooling. The water gas shift reaction was used to hydrolyze waste materials in an atmosphere of 336% steam and 4.4% oxygen. Throughput ranged from 0.14 to 0.27 kg/hr depending on the variability in the waste material composition and density

  20. Landfilling of waste incineration residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Astrup, Thomas; Cai, Zuansi

    2002-01-01

    Residues from waste incineration are bottom ashes and air-pollution-control (APC) residues including fly ashes. The leaching of heavy metals and salts from the ashes is substantial and a wide spectrum of leaching tests and corresponding criteria have been introduced to regulate the landfilling...

  1. Development of incineration and incineration-melting system for radioactive incombustible wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karita, Y.; Kanagawa, Y.; Teshima, T.

    2000-01-01

    Radioactive combustible solid wastes produced by nuclear power plants are generally incinerated for the purpose of volume reduction and stabilization. However incombustible wastes, such as PVC and rubber wastes are not incinerated and are still being stored since the off-gas treatment problems of a large amount of soot and harmful HCl and SO x gas need to be resolved. The authors have developed a new types of incineration system which consists of a water-cooling jacket type incinerator, ceramic filter, HEPA and wet scrubber. And as an application of its incinerator, the hybrid incineration-melting furnace, which is a unification of the incinerator and induction melting furnace, is being tested. Furthermore, the new type of dry absorber for removing HCl and SO x is also being tested. This report mainly describes an outline and the test results of the above incineration system, and secondly, the possibility of the incineration-melting system and dry absorber. (author)

  2. The no-cost radwaste resource: Utilizing the system engineer to help achieve optimum radwaste system performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, R.; Michalski, M.

    1995-01-01

    All of us in the nuclear power business today know and often use words like - de-regulation, downsize, manpower reduction, cost savings, budget cuts, cost per kilowatt and probably 25 other terms, all relating to you doing a better job with less money and fewer resources. Maybe I have a suggestion that will help you find a resource that can help you - a no-cost resource that you may already have and may not be using. I don't know what you believe, but I believe that a nuclear power station can only be as good as the people who work there, and I believe that system performance and reliability can be improved on virtually any system by merely directing focus and attention to that system. In other words, systems are like children, if you neglect them, they go bad... And they go bad when you're not expecting it. This paper looks at what a system engineer can do for you toward a goal of optimum Radwaste system performance and reviews some of the tools we are using at Grand Gulf to reach our goals

  3. Plasmarc technology for the treatment of metallic radwaste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffelner, W.; Weigel, H.

    1999-01-01

    The Plasmarc incineration and melting technology is suitable for processing radioactive wastes arising from the fields of medicine, industry and research, and from the operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants. Combustible wastes can be thermally decomposed and metals melted in the same facility together, and the incineration products and metals are thus turned into a form suitable for disposal in one step. In secondary metallurgy the Plasmarc technology can be used for melting scrap metal and recovering usable metals from metalliferous wastes, particularly composites of different metals and ceramics and metals and plastics. In the case of special wastes, it is possible to thermally decompose otherwise problematic residues in an oxygen free atmosphere at high temperatures. Material construction in the incineration mode could be in 200-litre standard drums with a total weight up to 300 kilograms if an average processing efficiency of 200 kilograms of mixed waste per hours is assumed. Melting: In the melting mode for metals, the drums coming from the storage rack are placed in the slowly rotating furnace using a grabbing device. Because of the low speed of rotation, the central outlet is initially blocked with a stopper. The drums, with contents, are then molten in the plasma arc. As soon as there is a melted mass, the speed of rotation of the furnace is increased until there is no material outflow when the stopper is removed. The stopped is then removed and the speed of rotation is reduced once again to allow the melt to flow out, exactly as in the incineration mode. Mixing: In the mixing mode, metallic/nonmetallic mixtures (e.g. reinforced concrete) can be processed. The meltable components are melted and the organic components are thermally decomposed. Because of differences in density, the inorganic residues float on the surface of the molten metal and can be vitrified using additives. These different operating modes of the Plasmarc furnace allow various

  4. Performance assessment for Nuclear Power Plant Krsko intermediate and low-level rad-waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelavic, V.; Skanata, D.; Plecjas, I.

    1990-01-01

    Performance safety Assessment for NPP Krsko radwaste repository was performed (LLW/ILW). Shallow land and tunnel type concept were analyzed. Because it was based on two unknown referent sites, one for the shallow land concept and the other for the tunnel type, analysis was generic in nature. Scenario selecting process and consequence analysis were performed by using deterministic approach. Results for both concepts of disposal suggests that proposed NPP Krsko radwaste repository reference site and disposal technology will fully meet radiation limits imposed by the Yugoslav regulations and ICRP guidelines. (author)

  5. Deep-well injection of liquid radwaste in Russia - current status and operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, D.J.; Foley, M.G.; Rybal'chenko, A.I.

    1995-01-01

    This paper is submitted as part of a coordinated effort to present the topic of deep-well injection. The companion paper, open-quotes Deep-Well Injection of Liquid Radwaste in Russia - Background and Technical Basis,close quotes focuses on the original decision to inject liquid radwaste, the research behind that decision, and the design and construction of the injection facilities. The emphasis in this paper is on the current status and operation of the well facilities and the control systems used to minimize environmental impact

  6. Underground storage. Study of radwaste storage in deep geological formations: environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoorelbeke, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the Agence nationale pour la gestion des dechets radioactifs (Andra) is to monitor the management methods and storage of radioactive waste produced in France. The agency has this undertaken a vast study program for the evaluation of the management conditions of long-life radwaste, which cannot be stored indefinitely in shallow-ground repositories. Underground laboratories are investigating the feasibility of a possible solution which is to store radwaste in a deep geological layer. However, there will be no decision on this type of storage before the year 2006. 7 figs

  7. Selection of detailed items for periodic safety review on PWR radwaste management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, K. B.; Ahn, Y. S.; Park, Y. S.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, J. T. [Korea Hydric and Nuclear Power Company, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-01

    Selection of detailed-items for Periodic Safety Review on PWR radwaste management system, the main component could be faithfully clarified according to the purpose of establishment on each system and basic purpose. It is proper to select detailed-items those of radioactivities in the reactor coolant activity levels and the released volume of liquid and gaseous radioactive material on safety performance. It's also proper to select solid radwaste production quantities as detailed-item that it would be predict the next ten years trends after PSR.

  8. The development of safety assessment technology for the radwaste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Kyong Won; Cho, Won Jin; Lee, Han Soo; Lee, Jai Wan; Park, Chung Kyun; Lee, Myun Joo; Cho, Young Hwan; Choi, Heui Joo; Lee, Youn Myoung; Park, Hee Sung

    1989-02-01

    This report is composed of three parts. In part I, an improved radwaste disposal safety assessment code named SADROCM, was developed by upgrading the existing SADROC. A numerical approach was adopted for the simulation of diffusion into rock pore and advection in the fracture. Also quantification of resaturation time in repository was obtained by introducing theoretical resaturation model and groundwater flow model. In radiation dose model the calculated dose by existing model was compared with that by LIMCAL code. Part II resulted in several findings. Regarding the leaching of radionuclide, two steps were observed. It was identified that in the initial step, radionuclide leaching occurred at the surface of solidified waste, and then leaching proceeded by dissolution and diffusion of radionuclide from inside of the solidified waste.The results of the sorption experiments on Cs, Co, Sr for the rock samples from four regions, showed that Kd value of F-site quartz-porphery was the lowest, and that of B-site Rhyolitic tuff the highest. E-site granite, M-site granite gneiss showed medium sorption capacities. The Kd values of each radionuclide were in the following order: Cs > Co > Sr . For the radionuclide migration through fractured rock, examination of hydraulic dispersion model and channeling model was carried out to simulate the dispersion phenomena through the fractured rock. In part III, optimum model was established which allows mathematical prediction of the container corrosion rate and leach rate.Based on this model, the equations were obtained to predict corrosion rate and radionuclide leach rate. A good agreement of these equations and existing experimental data was considered to be an indication that it can be used effectively for the estimation of long-term leaching. (Author)

  9. Natural analogue for storage of radwaste in crystalline rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookins, D.G.; Abashian, M.S.; Cohen, L.H.; Wollenberg, H.A. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The Bryan-Eldora stock (Colorado) intruded the Precambrian Idaho Springs Formation metamorphic rocks 58 million years ago. Geochronologic-geochemical work by Hart et al. [S.R. Hart et al., in Radiometric Dating for Geologists, E.I. Hamilton, R.S. Farquhar, eds. (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1968) pp. 73-110] has demonstrated that the heat from the cooling intrusive rocks was sufficient to affect mineral isotopic systematics up to 2000 m from the contact, and the nature of these isotopic perturbations can be explained by a simple diffusion model in turn based on various heat flow models. Our new studies are focused on elemental exchange between stock and intruded rock as a function of distance from the contact; the assumption is made that the stock is a very large, high heat source analogous to a waste form emplaced in the metamorphic rocks without benefit of canister or engineered backfill. Data for U, Th and the REE indicate actinide and lanthanide immobility except perhaps in the 0 to 2m contact zone where some infiltration of the country rocks by stock-derived fluids occurred. Beyond 4m no stock-derived U, Th, REE or *Pb are noted. Further, whole rock Rb-Sr and stable O isotopic data indicate conductive cooling as opposed to convective, water-induced cooling. The intruded rocks possess low porosity and permeability; this helped prevent elemental migration during the 10 5 to 10 6 years of stock crystallization. The petrographic and geochemical studies show that the Idaho Springs (or equivalent) metamorphic rocks are well suited for radwaste storage. 1 figure, 1 table

  10. Radwaste storage in crystalline rocks: a natural analog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookins, D.G.; Abashian, M.S.; Cohen, L.H.; Wollenberg, H.A.

    1982-01-01

    The Eldora-Bryan Stock (Colorado) intruded the 1.4-1.6 billion year old metamorphic rocks of the Idaho Springs Formation 55 million years ago. The stock may be considered a giant analog of a radwaste form without canister or engineered backfill barriers. The authors' lanthanide studies show the following: (1) The intrusive rocks remained as a closed system. (2) Lanthanide/chondrite versus ionic radius plots show only local redistribution in the immediate contact zone, and that rocks in this zone have not gained lanthanides from the magma. (3) No whole rock perturbations for the lanthanides are noted at distances greater than 3 m from the contact. Stable oxygen isotopic variations show a narrow 9.0 +- 0.3 per mille range for the intrusive rocks and whole rock values from 7.6 to 10.0 per mille for the intruded rocks. The authors conclude: (1) The Idaho Springs Formation was not penetrated by hydrothermal fluids from the Eldora-Bryan magma except possibly on a local scale within 3 m of the contact. (2) The light lanthanides may be locally redistributed in the immediate contact zone, but without additions from the magma. (3) The oxygen isotopic data imply lack of hydrothermal fluids from the magma penetrating the intruded rocks, even in the highest temperature contact zones. Whole rock data imply closed system conditions for Rb, Sr, Th, U, Pb even where mineral ages have been lowered. Data for Co, Cr, Sc, Fe, Cs also indicate retention in whole rock systems and no exchange with the magma. The combined chemical, isotopic, petrographic and theoretical data and calculations indicate suitability of rocks of the Idaho Springs Formation, and thus of many types of crystalline rocks as well, for possible use for the storage of radioactive waste

  11. Incineration of spent ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Chiaki

    1990-01-01

    It is a pressing need to reduce radioactive waste which is generated from the maintenance and operation of a nuclear power plant. Incineration of low level combustible solid waste such as polyethylene seats, paper and others have been successfully performed since 1984 at the Shimane Nuclear Power Station. Furthermore, for extending incineration treatment to spent ion exchange resin, the incineration test was carried out in 1989. However, as the cation exchange resin contains sulfur and then incineration generates SOx gases, so the components of this facility will be in a corrosive environment. We surveyed incineration conditions to improve the corrosive environment at the exhaust gas treatment system. This paper includes these test results and improved method to incinerate spent ion exchange resin. (author)

  12. Non-power radwaste inventory, characteristics, storage and disposal plan in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yamin; Guo Zede

    1997-01-01

    Based on the practical experience regarding L/ILW management, national management system and waste management principles have been established in China, and their key points are summarized as follows: The National Environmental Protection Agency (NEPA) is responsible for the centralized management of country's radwastes: unified planning; organizing coordinations; licensing; supervising and inspecting the activities of environment protection. The China national Nuclear Corporation (CNNC) takes the responsibility of research and development of radwaste management; siting, construction, and operating disposal facilities; technical support for making regulations, standards and guidelines. The units using radioactive isotopes and producing radwastes should take charge of temporal storage of their own wastes. L/ILW management principles: controlling waste generation amount as less as possible; collecting wastes according to their categories; reducing volume and immobilizing; reliably packaging; interim storage and disposal. This paper is limited to introduce the waste from nuclear technology application, its inventory, characteristics, interim storage and disposal plan. Information concerning L/ILW management, not limited nuclear technology application radwaste, can be found in references. 4 refs

  13. Preliminary site investigation for LL and IL radwaste disposal for Qinshan NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yawen; Chen Zhangru

    1993-01-01

    With the purpose of selecting a disposal site for the low- and intermediate-level radwastes arising from Qinshan NPP, site investigations were carried out in several districts of Zhejiang Province. Investigation objectives included the circumstances of geology, hydrogeology, environmental ecology, and social economy. On the basis of collected data, five possible sites were recommended for policy-making reference and further investigation

  14. Simulation of Thermal, Neutronic and Radiation Characteristics in Spent Nuclear Fuel and Radwaste Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poskas, P.; Bartkus, G.

    1999-01-01

    The overview of the activities in the Division of Thermo hydro-mechanics related with the assessment of thermal, neutronic and radiation characteristics in spent nuclear fuel and radwaste facilities are performed. Also some new data about radiation characteristics of the RBMK-1500 spent nuclear fuel are presented. (author)

  15. The instrumentation for express characterization of historical radwaste storages and contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkovich, A.G.; Ignatov, S.M.; Danilovich, A.S.; Potapov, V.N.; Ivanov, O.P.; Stepanov, V.E.; Smirnov, S.V.

    2008-01-01

    A variety of special radiation measurement problems arise in planning and performance of rehabilitation activities at the radwaste disposal site (RWDS), including acquisition and refinement of data on composition, location and activity of radwaste (RW) in the old repositories, evaluation of activity of radwaste to be removed, measurement of radioactive contamination of repository structures and soil, monitoring of dose rates [1]. The old repositories are characterized by nonuniform RW distribution over the repository volume. The radwaste in the old repositories are mixed with soil, concrete and other materials. A number of new instruments and systems were developed to conduct the necessary measurements. New instruments with collimated scintillation detectors operating both in current and spectrometry modes were developed for measurements of the distribution of the RW specific activity over layers in the old repositories. The measurements are taken in exploratory wells that are drilled in the old repositories prior to their opening. The technique of specific activity measurements with collimated detectors was used when examining radioactive contamination of soil in a number of Russian contaminated territories and demonstrated a good agreement with results of sampling performed at the same time. (author)

  16. Incineration of low level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gussmann, H.; Klemann, D.; Mallek, H.

    1986-01-01

    At present, various incinerators for radioactive waste are operated with more or less good results worldwide. Both, plant manufacturers and plant owners have repeatedly brought about plant modifications and improvements over the last 10 years, and this is true for the combustion process and also for the waste gas treatment systems. This paper attempts to summarize requirements, in general, by owner/operators for the plants which are designed and erected today

  17. The early days of incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenti, M.

    1995-05-01

    Landfills reaching capacity, beaches fouled with trash, neighborhood residents protesting waste disposal sites in their backyards, and municipalities forced to recycle. Sound familiar? These issues might have been taken from today`s headlines, but they were also problems facing mechanical engineers a century ago. Conditions such as these were what led engineers to design the first incinerators for reducing the volume of municipal garbage, as well as for producing heat and electricity. The paper discusses these early days.

  18. Dioxin formation from waste incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibamoto, Takayuki; Yasuhara, Akio; Katami, Takeo

    2007-01-01

    There has been great concern about dioxins-polychlorinated dibenzo dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzo furans (PCDFs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)-causing contamination in the environment because the adverse effects of these chemicals on human health have been known for many years. Possible dioxin-contamination has received much attention recently not only by environmental scientists but also by the public, because dioxins are known to be formed during the combustion of industrial and domestic wastes and to escape into the environment via exhaust gases from incinerators. Consequently, there is a pressing need to investigate the formation mechanisms or reaction pathways of these chlorinated chemicals to be able to devise ways to reduce their environmental contamination. A well-controlled small-scale incinerator was used for the experiments in the core references of this review. These articles report the investigation of dioxin formation from the combustion of various waste-simulated samples, including different kinds of paper, various kinds of wood, fallen leaves, food samples, polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyvinylidene chloride, polyethylene tetraphthalate (PET), and various kinds of plastic products. These samples were also incinerated with inorganic chlorides (NaCl, KCl, CuCI2, MgCl2, MnCl2, FeCl2, CoCl2, fly ash, and seawater) or organic chlorides (PVC, chlordane, and pentachlorophenol) to investigate the role of chlorine content and/or the presence of different metals in dioxin formation. Some samples, such as newspapers, were burned after they were impregnated with NaCl or PVC, as well as being cocombusted with chlorides. The roles of incineration conditions, including chamber temperatures, O2 concentrations, and CO concentrations, in dioxin formation were also investigated. Dioxins (PCDDs, PCDFs, and coplanar-PCBs) formed in the exhaust gases from a controlled small-scale incinerator, where experimental waste

  19. A reliability-risk modelling of nuclear rad-waste facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, P.H.; El-Bassioni, A.A.

    1975-01-01

    Rad-waste disposal systems of nuclear power sites are designed and operated to collect, delay, contain, and concentrate radioactive wastes from reactor plant processes such that on-site and off-site exposures to radiation are well below permissible limits. To assist the designer in achieving minimum release/exposure goals, a computerized reliability-risk model has been developed to simulate the rad-waste system. The objectives of the model are to furnish a practical tool for quantifying the effects of changes in system configuration, operation, and equipment, and for the identification of weak segments in the system design. Primarily, the model comprises a marriage of system analysis, reliability analysis, and release-risk assessment. Provisions have been included in the model to permit the optimization of the system design subject to constraints on cost and rad-releases. The system analysis phase involves the preparation of a physical and functional description of the rad-waste facility accompanied by the formation of a system tree diagram. The reliability analysis phase embodies the formulation of appropriate reliability models and the collection of model parameters. Release-risk assessment constitutes the analytical basis whereupon further system and reliability analyses may be warranted. Release-risk represents the potential for release of radioactivity and is defined as the product of an element's unreliability at time, t, and the radioactivity available for release in time interval, Δt. A computer code (RARISK) has been written to simulate the tree diagram of the rad-waste system. Reliability and release-risk results have been generated for cases which examined the process flow paths of typical rad-waste systems, the effects of repair and standby, the variations of equipment failure and repair rates, and changes in system configurations. The essential feature of this model is that a complex system like the rad-waste facility can be easily decomposed into its

  20. Incineration and flue gas treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The proceedings are presented of an international symposium on Incineration and Flue Gas Treatment Technologies, held at Sheffield University in July 1997. Papers from each of the six sessions cover the behaviour of particles in incinerator clean-up systems, pollution control technologies, the environmental performance of furnaces and incinerators, controlling nitrogen oxide emissions, separation processes during flue gas treatment and regulatory issues relating to these industrial processes. (UK)

  1. Development of techniques for radwaste systems in CANDU power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourns, W.T.; Buckley, L.P.; Burrill, K.A.

    1979-04-01

    Techniques to reduce the volume of CANDU reactor wastes and to bitumenize them are being developed at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories. Reverse osmosis is suitable for initial purification of dilute radioactive aqueous wastes. Tubular membranes are used to concentrate wastes to 5 weight percent solids, and while the membranes do foul, they may be cleaned mechanically, chemically, or with fresh feed. A wiped-film evaporator then concentrates the retentate to a 20 weight-percent slurry. A twin-screw extruder-evaporator has been used to bitumenize this slurry, and it will also handle ion exchange resin and dry incinerator ash. Work on a wiped-film evaporator as a bitumenizer for various feeds is in progress. More experience in handling solid feeds is needed before work can proceed to the demonstraton phase. (auth)

  2. Offgas treatment for radioactive waste incinerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stretz, L.A.; Koenig, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    Incineration of radioactive materials for resource recovery or waste volume reduction is recognized as an effective waste treatment method that will increase in usage and importance throughout the nuclear industry. The offgas cleanup subsystem of an incineration process is essential to ensure radionuclide containment and protection of the environment. Several incineration processes and associated offgas cleanup systems are discussed along with potential application of commercial pollution control components to radioactive service. Problems common to radioactive waste incinerator offgas service are identified and areas of needed research and development effort are noted

  3. Arc plasma incineration of surrogate radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girold, C.; Cartier, R.; Taupiac, J.P.; Vandensteendam, C.; Baronnet, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this presentation is to demonstrate the feasibility to substitute a single plasma reactor, where the arc is transferred on a melt glass bath, for several steps in an existing nuclear technological wastes incinerator. The incineration of wastes, the produced gas treatment and the vitrification of ashes issued from waste incineration are the three simultaneous functions of this new kind of reactor. The three steps of the work are described: first, post-combustion in an oxygen plasma of gases generated from the waste pyrolysis, then, vitrification of ashes from the calcination of wastes in the transferred plasma furnace and finally, incineration/vitrification of wastes in the same furnace

  4. Controlled air incinerator conceptual design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This report presents a conceptual design study for a controlled air incinerator facility for incineration of low level combustible waste at Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2). The facility design is based on the use of a Helix Process Systems controlled air incinerator. Cost estimates and associated engineering, procurement, and construction schedules are also provided. The cost estimates and schedules are presented for two incinerator facility designs, one with provisions for waste ash solidification, the other with provisions for packaging the waste ash for transport to an undefined location

  5. Incineration process fire and explosion protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, D.L.

    1975-01-01

    Two incinerators will be installed in the plutonium recovery facility under construction at the Rocky Flats Plant. The fire and explosion protection features designed into the incineration facility are discussed as well as the nuclear safety and radioactive material containment features. Even though the incinerator system will be tied into an emergency power generation system, a potential hazard is associated with a 60-second delay in obtaining emergency power from a gas turbine driven generator. This hazard is eliminated by the use of steam jet ejectors to provide normal gas flow through the incinerator system during the 60 s power interruption. (U.S.)

  6. Contamination of incinerator at Tokai Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Mutsuo

    1994-01-01

    Originally, at Tokai Reprocessing Plant an incinerator was provided in the auxiliary active facility(waste treatment building). This incinerator had treated low level solid wastes generated every facilities in the Tokai Reprocessing Plant since 1974 and stopped the operation in March 1992 because of degeneration. The radioactivity inventory and distribution was evaluated to break up incinerator, auxiliary apparatuses(bag filter, air scrubbing tower, etc.), connecting pipes and off-gas ducts. This report deals with the results of contamination survey of incinerator and auxiliary apparatuses. (author)

  7. Why is the NORM Waste Included in to the Croatian RadWaste Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prlic, I.; Suric Mihic, M.; Hajdinjak, M.

    2016-01-01

    Croatian RADWASTE Strategy uses modern approach according to EC Directive 2013/59/EURATOM and Croatian Act on Radiological and Nuclear Safety (Official Gazette 141/13, 39/15) linking the entire field of, till modern times non regulated industrial NORM wastes to properly regulated RADWastes. This approach has brought some obscurities to a professional radiation protection community because the fact that NORM will be treated together with the 'heavy' concept of nuclear and radioactive waste was not acceptable due to a historical division of those two fields of radioactivity. As NORM is still regarded as a slightly technologically blended radioactivity which is of no concern to be a risk for the population and RADWASTE is a 'murder' of any population in its vicinity, the need for terminology harmonization and scientifically correct public education was recognized. It is barely known that during the recent past some Croatian professionals did included the NORM sites into the state documents and reports to international regulatory bodies as pure RADWASTE sites. This fact produces immense regulatory difficulties even today. The one and only legal way to solve both, regulatory issues providing real radiation protection procedures during existing NORM waste site sanation and exempting sites to be reused for a legal public purpose (industrial or any other) was to incorporate the existing Croatian NORM sites into the RADWASTE Strategy and to solve all legal radioactivity burden issues during the governmental acceptance process. This approach is a new one in Croatian regulatory acquits and first responses from the stake holders and public involved are promising. The experience from the field and first responses to a concept of harmonizing the reuse approach of existing NORM waste sites from stake holders and partly from general public will be discussed.(author).

  8. Liquid radwaste processing with spiral wound reverse osmosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengupta, S.K.; Buckley, L.P.; Rimpelainen, S.; Tremblay, A.Y.

    1996-05-01

    Two different reverse osmosis systems were investigated. The first was a 50-element plant-scale system that is used to treat 2200 m 3 of AECL liquid radwastes annually.It uses thin-film composite (TFC) membranes and operates at an applied pressure of 2760 kPa, with a fixed crossflow of about 40 L/min. The other system uses the same thin-film composite membranes for waste processing but is a two-element pilot-scale system. It is operated at pressures m ranging between 1500 and 7000 kPa, at a fixed crossflow of 55 L/min. The average lifetime of the thin-film composite membranes in the plant-scale processing application at AECL is about 3000 h. After this service life has expired the rejection efficiency declines rapidly from 99.5% to about 95% as the membranes become impaired from chemical cleaning procedures that are required after each 100 m 3 of waste is treated. The permeation flux for the plant-scale system decreases from about 2.2 L/min/element to below 0.5 L/min/element at the end of the membrane's useful service life. The plant-scale membrane elements, fouled by an assortment of chemicals including calcium phosphate and various organics, were successfully regenerated by exposing them to a threestep chemical cleaning procedure, using detergent, HCI, and an alkaline-based cleaning with EDTA. The three-step procedure was successful in elevating the flux from 0.5 L/min for the spent membrane to 1.2 L/min after cleaning. The 1.2-L/min postcleaning flux could be maintained provided that the crossflow velocity remained high. The decontamination factor (DF) for cesium for the plant-scale system, decreased from about 100 when the membranes were new, to about 30 after they were replaced. The strontium DF was unaffected by the applied pressure. 9 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs

  9. Materials for Waste Incinerators and Biomass Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rademakers, P.; Grossmann, G.; Karlsson, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews the projects of the sub-package on waste incineration and biomass firing carried out within COST 501 Round III, Work Package 13.......This paper reviews the projects of the sub-package on waste incineration and biomass firing carried out within COST 501 Round III, Work Package 13....

  10. High temperature incineration. Densification of granules from high temperature incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voorde, N. van de; Claes, J.; Taeymans, A.; Hennart, D.; Gijbels, J.; Balleux, W.; Geenen, G.; Vangeel, J.

    1982-01-01

    The incineration system of radioactive waste discussed in this report, is an ''integral'' system, which directly transforms a definite mixture of burnable and unburnable radioactive waste in a final product with a sufficient insolubility to be safely disposed of. At the same time, a significant volume reduction occurs by this treatment. The essential part of the system is a high temperature incinerator. The construction of this oven started in 1974, and while different tests with simulated inactive or very low-level active waste were carried out, the whole system was progressively and continuously extended and adapted, ending finally in an installation with completely remote control, enclosed in an alpha-tight room. In this report, a whole description of the plant and of its auxiliary installations will be given; then the already gained experimental results will be summarized. Finally, the planning for industrial operation will be briefly outlined. An extended test with radioactive waste, which was carried out in March 1981, will be discussed in the appendix

  11. Biomedical waste management: Incineration vs. environmental safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam V

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Public concerns about incinerator emissions, as well as the creation of federal regulations for medical waste incinerators, are causing many health care facilities to rethink their choices in medical waste treatment. As stated by Health Care Without Harm, non-incineration treatment technologies are a growing and developing field. Most medical waste is incinerated, a practice that is short-lived because of environmental considerations. The burning of solid and regulated medical waste generated by health care creates many problems. Medical waste incinerators emit toxic air pollutants and toxic ash residues that are the major source of dioxins in the environment. International Agency for Research on Cancer, an arm of WHO, acknowledged dioxins cancer causing potential and classified it as human carcinogen. Development of waste management policies, careful waste segregation and training programs, as well as attention to materials purchased, are essential in minimizing the environmental and health impacts of any technology.

  12. Organic household waste - incineration or recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The Danish Environmental Protection Agency has carried out a cost benefit analysis of the consequences of increasing recycling of organic household waste. In the cost benefit analysis both the economic consequences for the affected parties and the welfare-economic consequences for the society as a whole have been investigated. In the welfare-economic analysis the value of the environmental effects has been included. The analysis shows that it is more expensive for the society to recycle organic household waste by anaerobic digestion or central composting than by incineration. Incineration is the cheapest solution for the society, while central composting is the most expensive. Furthermore, technical studies have shown that there are only small environmental benefits connected with anaerobic digestion of organic waste compared with incineration of the waste. The primary reason for recycling being more expensive than incineration is the necessary, but cost-intensive, dual collection of the household waste. Treatment itself is cheaper for recycling compared to incinerating. (BA)

  13. Apparatus for incinerating hazardous waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, R.C.W.

    1994-12-20

    An apparatus is described for incinerating wastes, including an incinerator having a combustion chamber, a fluid-tight shell enclosing the combustion chamber, an afterburner, an off-gas particulate removal system and an emergency off-gas cooling system. The region between the inner surface of the shell and the outer surface of the combustion chamber forms a cavity. Air is supplied to the cavity and heated as it passes over the outer surface of the combustion chamber. Heated air is drawn from the cavity and mixed with fuel for input into the combustion chamber. The pressure in the cavity is maintained at least approximately 2.5 cm WC higher than the pressure in the combustion chamber. Gases cannot leak from the combustion chamber since the pressure outside the chamber (inside the cavity) is higher than the pressure inside the chamber. The apparatus can be used to treat any combustible wastes, including biological wastes, toxic materials, low level radioactive wastes, and mixed hazardous and low level transuranic wastes. 1 figure.

  14. An overview of a nuclear waste incinerator's erection and commissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaohai; Zhou Lianquan; Wang Peiyi; Yang Liguo; Zhang Xiaobin; Wang Xujin; Li Chuanlian; Dong Jingling; Zheng Bowen; Qiu Mingcai

    2004-01-01

    An incinerator for combustible nuclear waste, with spent oil and graphite included, was established. The processes are briefly described, which combines pyrolysis-incineration of solid, spray-incineration of oils and fixed bed incineration of graphite, followed by off-gas treatment employing both dry and wet means. The results from non-active and active trial run are also reported

  15. Melting decontamination and free release of metal waste at Studsvik RadWaste Co. in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawatsuma, Shinji; Ishikawa, Keiji; Matsubara, Tatsuo; Donomae, Yasushi; Imagawa, Yasuhiro

    2006-01-01

    The Studsvik RadWaste Co. in Sweden was visited on August 29, 2005 by members of radioactive waste and decommissioning subgroup of central safety task force in old Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute as 'Overseas investigation'. The visit afforded us the chance to survey melting and decontaminating of metallic waste in this company and the status of free release. Domestic and foreign radioactive metallic waste is accepted in this company after 1987, and the majority of the decontaminated waste have been released freely. In the background of the big effort of this company and the strong leadership of the regulator (SSI: Swedish radiation protection Authority), prosperous operation was able to have been achieved. This survey was done based on 'Free release of radioactive metallic waste in Europe: the free release experience for 17 years at Studsvik RadWaste Co. in Sweden' by Dr. J. Lorenzen. (author)

  16. Radwaste reduction through use of condensate non-precoat filters at Perry Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    The concept of non-precoat filtration to remove iron oxide without generating traditional resin and fiber precoat material, which is expensive to dispose of as radwaste, is rapidly becoming a trend of the 90's. In 1991, in response to escalating radwaste disposal costs, Perry Nuclear Power Plant was the first BWR to install non-precoat filters (septa) on a full scale basis in a Condensate System. To date, non-precoat septa from three vendors; including Memtec Power Generation have been installed and operated at Perry. It is important that other utilities considering this technology be given as much open-quotes real lifeclose quotes operational data as possible. This paper presents the data from three different companies and provides recommendations for consideration

  17. Development of regulatory and legal framework for spent fuel and radwaste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezzubtsev, V.S.

    2012-01-01

    The Basics of National Policy in Nuclear and Radiation Safety assurance in the Russian Federation define the principles and objectives of nuclear and radiation safety of nuclear facilities during all stages of their life cycle. Russia's National Report at the Fourth Review Meeting of Contracting Parties to the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management reflected the organizational as well as legal and regulatory changes that have taken place over past three years. Amendments recently made to the Russian Nuclear Energy Law as well as the Law on Radwaste Management adopted in 2011 are discussed. Federal norms and regulations in the field of spent fuel and radwaste management are also presented. Organizational and legal reforms related to state safety regulation are described [ru

  18. Introduction to seminar on organics in radwaste held at Harwell on 22nd September 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradbury, D.

    1988-01-01

    The introduction to the Seminar on Organics in Radwaste stresses the necessity for the efficiency of natural and engineered barriers designed for the management of radioactive wastes to satisfy public scrutiny. The preparation of wastes prior to encapsulation is discussed. The negative effects of introduced organic material in waste sites on safety and the mechanism of organic degradation prior to the removal of organics from wastes is discussed. (U.K.)

  19. Modification of an existing radwaste facility to provide onsite low level waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ault, G.M.; Reiss, J.F.; Commonwealth Edison Co., Chicago, IL)

    1985-01-01

    The decision of whether or not to install onsite storage capacity for low-level radioactive waste is dictated by individual utility circumstances. Commonwealth Edison has decided to construct facilities to store low-level radwaste onsite at each of their four operating nuclear stations, and they plan to have those facilities in operation by January, 1986. At Dresden, that onsite storage capacity is being provided by modifying an existing radwaste building which already has installed a remotely-operated precision-placement type crane. The purposes of this paper are to describe: (1) how Commonwealth Edison arrived at the decision to construct onsite storage facilities as a hedge against possible disruption of burial site availability in January, 1986; (2) why the desire to minimize the capital investment for this protection led to selection of an uncomplicated design for their ''standard'' facility and to the decision to modify an existing building at Dresden rather than construct a new one; and (3) what is being done to adapt the Dresden 1 Decontamination/Radwaste Building for extended onsite storage

  20. Human engineering considerations in the design of New Virginia Power Radwaste facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bankley, A.V.; Morris, L.L.; Lippard, D.W.

    1988-01-01

    Human engineering principles were considered by Virginia Power in the recent design of new radwaste facilities (NRFs) for both the Surry and North Anna power stations. Virginia Power recognized that the rigorous application of human engineering principles to the NRF design was essential to the ultimate success or failure of the facilities. Success of the NRF should not only be measured in the volume of radwaste processed but also by other factors such as (a) availability and maintainability of preferred equipment, (b) as-low-as-reasonably-achievable considerations, (c) actual release rates versus achievable release rates, and (d) flexibility to deal with varying circumstances. Each of these success criteria would suffer as the result of operator/human inefficiencies or error. Therefore, human engineering should be applied to the maximum practical extent to minimize such inefficiencies or errors. No method is ever going to ensure a perfectly human-engineered facility design. Virginia Power believes, however, that significant strides have been made in efforts to design and construct a successful radwaste processing facility, a facility where operating success rests with the ability of the human operators to perform their jobs in an efficient and reliable fashion

  1. Incineration facilities for treatment of radioactive wastes: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, B.L.

    1976-02-01

    A description is given of incinerator installations in the US and in foreign countries. Included are descriptions of inactive incinerators, incinerator facilities currently in operation, and incinerator installations under construction. Special features of each installation and operational problems of each facility are emphasized. Problems in the incineration of radioactive waste are discussed in relation to the composition of the waste and the amount and type of radioactive contaminant

  2. Incineration facilities for treatment of radioactive wastes: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, B.L.

    1976-02-01

    A description is given of incinerator installations in the US and in foreign countries. Included are descriptions of inactive incinerators, incinerator facilities currently in operation, and incinerator installations under construction. Special features of each installation and operational problems of each facility are emphasized. Problems in the incineration of radioactive waste are discussed in relation to the composition of the waste and the amount and type of radioactive contaminant.

  3. Performance history of the WERF incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, J.D.; Bohrer, H.A.; Smolik, G.R.

    1988-01-01

    As society's environmental conscience grows, diverse political economical, and social contentions cloud the issue of proper waste management. However, experience at the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) demonstrates clearly that incineration is an effective component in responsible, long-term waste management. Using a simple but safe design, the WERF incinerator has successfully reduced the volume of low-level beta/gamma waste. This paper discusses some of the achievements and problems experienced during operation of the WERF incinerator

  4. Dioxins in processes of incineration of wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez John; Espinel Jorge; Ocampo Alonso; Londono Carlos

    2001-01-01

    This paper is a door to come into the subject of dioxins, which is a little bit known in Colombia. In this way, in order to clarify and to get a wider knowledge about dioxins and waste incineration process, it has been divided in three main sections. The first one gives a basic information about origin, effects on the human health and a chemical definition of dioxins; in the second one the main kind of incinerator processes are given to know, also a deeper knowledge of reaction formation. The last part emphasizes options to control dioxins emissions in incineration systems

  5. Incineration of ion-exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkiainen, M.; Nykyri, M.

    1985-01-01

    Incineration of ion-exchange resins in a fluidized bed was studied on a pilot plant scale at the Technical Research Centre of Finland. Both granular and powdered resins were incinerated in dry and slurry form. Different bed materials were used in order to trap as much cesium and cobalt (inactive tracers) as possible in the bed. Also the sintering of the bed materials was studied in the presence of sodium. When immobilized with cement the volume of ash-concrete is 4 to 22% of the concrete of equal compressive strength acquired by direct solidification. Two examples of multi-purpose equipment capable of incinerating ion-exchange resins are presented. (orig.)

  6. Emissions and dioxins formation from waste incinerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbone, A.I.; Zagaroli, M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes current knowledge on dioxins formation and emission from waste incinerators. The pertinent Italian law and effects on man health are dealt with, too. The picture of existing municipal incinerators is presented concerning both the actual emission levels and the monitored levels in the environment. Sampling and analysis systems of these organic chlorinated micro-pollutants and current theories on precursors, formation mechanisms, and influence of different parameters are also described. The last section deals with some of the techniques that can be used to reduce dioxins formation and emission from municipal incinerators. (author)

  7. Development and testing of a mobile incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggett, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    The development and testing of a mobile incinerator for processing of combustible dry active waste (DAW) and contaminated oil generated at Nuclear Power Plants is presented. Topics of discussion include initial thoughts on incineration as applied to nuclear waste; DOE's Aerojet's, and CECo's role in the Project; design engineering concepts; site engineering support; licensability; generation of test data; required reports of the NRC and Illinois and California EPA's; present project schedule for incinerating DAW at Dresden and other CECo Stations; and lessons learned from the project

  8. Incineration of dry burnable waste from reprocessing plants with the Juelich incineration process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, H.; Gomoll, H.; Lins, H.

    1987-01-01

    The Juelich incineration process is a two stage controlled air incineration process which has been developed for efficient volume reduction of dry burnable waste of various kinds arising at nuclear facilities. It has also been applied to non nuclear industrial and hospital waste incineration and has recently been selected for the new German Fuel Reprocessing Plant under construction in Wackersdorf, Bavaria, in a modified design

  9. Solidification of radioactive incinerator ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuler, T.F.; Charlesworth, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    The Ashcrete process will solidify ash generated by the Beta Gamma Incinerator (BGI) at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). The system remotely handles, adds material to, and tumbles drums of ash to produce ashcrete, a stabilized wasteform. Full-scale testing of the Ashcrete unit began at Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) in January 1984, using nonradioactive ash. Tests determined product homogeneity, temperature distribution, compressive strength, and final product formulation. Product formulations that yielded good mix homogeneity and final product compressive strength were developed. Drum pressurization and temperature rise (resulting from the cement's heat of hydration) were also studied to verify safe storage and handling characteristics. In addition to these tests, an expert system was developed to assist process troubleshooting

  10. Suicide by self-incineration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Peter Mygind; Hardt-Madsen, Michael

    1997-01-01

    was 43 years, with a broad age range (20-87). Many incidents of self-incineration as a form of political protest were reported in the press especially during the 1960s and 1970s, and the press reports often inspired others to commit suicide in the same way. None of the cases in our investigation were...... victims were of Danish origin, and a religious motive played no significant role. Most of the victims were suffering from mental illness, and a majority had tried to commit suicide before. None of the victims left a suicide note. The scene was most often at home and indoors--only a minority committed...... suicide in remote areas of the countryside. Most were found dead at the scene, and the cause of death was usually heat exposure. Only a minority had a lethal carboxy-hemoglobin (CO-Hb) concentration. It is concluded that close cooperation between police, fire experts, and the forensic pathologist...

  11. Fluidized bed incineration of transuranic contaminated waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, D.L.; Johnson, A.J.

    1978-01-01

    A 9 kg/hr pilot scale fluidized bed incinerator is now being used for burning various types of radioactive waste at Rocky Flats Plant. General solid combustible waste containing halogenated materials is burned in a fluidized bed of sodium carbonate for in situ neutralization of thermally generated acidic gases. A variety of other production related materials has been burned in the incinerator, including ion exchange resin, tributyl phosphate solutions, and air filters. Successful operation of the pilot plant incinerator has led to the design and construction of a production site unit to burn 82 kg/hr of plant generated waste. Residues from incinerator operations will be processed into glass buttons utilizing a vitrification plant now under development

  12. Solid waste combustion for alpha waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orloff, D.I.

    1981-02-01

    Radioactive waste incinerator development at the Savannah River Laboratory has been augmented by fundamental combustion studies at the University of South Carolina. The objective was to measure and model pyrolysis and combustion rates of typical Savannah River Plant waste materials as a function of incinerator operating conditions. The analytical models developed in this work have been incorporated into a waste burning transient code. The code predicts maximum air requirement and heat energy release as a function of waste type, package size, combustion chamber size, and temperature. Historically, relationships have been determined by direct experiments that did not allow an engineering basis for predicting combustion rates in untested incinerators. The computed combustion rates and burning times agree with measured values in the Savannah River Laboratory pilot (1 lb/hr) and full-scale (12 lb/hr) alpha incinerators for a wide variety of typical waste materials

  13. Quantifying capital goods for waste incineration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; Riber, C.; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2013-01-01

    material used amounting to 19,000–26,000tonnes per plant. The quantification further included six main materials, electronic systems, cables and all transportation. The energy used for the actual on-site construction of the incinerators was in the range 4000–5000MWh. In terms of the environmental burden...... that, compared to data reported in the literature on direct emissions from the operation of incinerators, the environmental impacts caused by the construction of buildings and machinery (capital goods) could amount to 2–3% with respect to kg CO2 per tonne of waste combusted.......Materials and energy used for the construction of modern waste incineration plants were quantified. The data was collected from five incineration plants (72,000–240,000tonnes per year) built in Scandinavia (Norway, Finland and Denmark) between 2006 and 2012. Concrete for the buildings was the main...

  14. Giving waste a hot time [incineration technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruickshank, Andrew.

    1986-01-01

    High temperature incineration technology, as an effective way of managing both solid wastes and sludges, is described. The process, developed by the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, is detailed. (U.K.)

  15. Los Alamos controlled-air incineration studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, R.A.; Warner, C.L.

    1983-01-01

    Current regulations of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) require that PCBs in concentrations greater than 500 ppM be disposed of in EPA-permitted incinerators. Four commercial incineration systems in the United States have EPA operating permits for receiving and disposing of concentrated PCBs, but none can accept PCBs contaminated with nuclear materials. The first section of this report presents an overview of an EPA-sponsored program for studying PCB destruction in the large-scale Los Alamos controlled-air incinerator. A second major FY 1983 program, sponsored by the Naval Weapons Support Center, Crane, Indiana, is designed to determine operating conditions that will destroy marker smoke compounds without also forming polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), some of which are known or suspected to be carcinogenic. We discuss the results of preliminary trial burns in which various equipment and feed formulations were tested. We present qualitative analyses for PAHs in the incinerator offgas as a result of these tests

  16. CO2 laser-aided waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costes, J.R.; Guiberteau, P.; Caminat, P.; Bournot, P.

    1994-01-01

    Lasers are widely employed in laboratories and in certain industrial applications, notably for welding, cutting and surface treatments. This paper describes a new application, incineration, which appears warranted when the following features are required: high-temperature incineration (> 1500 deg C) with close-tolerance temperature control in an oxidizing medium while ensuring containment of toxic waste. These criteria correspond to the application presented here. Following a brief theoretical introduction concerning the laser/surface interaction, the paper describes the incineration of graphite waste contaminated with alpha-emitting radionuclides. Process feasibility has been demonstrated on a nonradioactive prototype capable of incinerating 10 kg -h-1 using a 7 kW CO 2 laser. An industrial facility with the same capacity, designed to operate within the constraints of an alpha-tight glove box environment, is now at the project stage. Other types of applications with similar requirements may be considered. (authors). 3 refs., 7 figs

  17. Some notes about radioactive wastes incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin Martin, L.

    1984-01-01

    A general review about the most significant techniques in order to incinerate radioactive wastes by controlled air, acid digestion, fluidized bed, etc., is presented. These features are briefly exposed in the article through feed preparation, combustion effectiveness, etc. (author)

  18. Highly Efficient Fecal Waste Incinerator, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Volume reduction is a critical element of Solid Waste Management for manned spacecraft and planetary habitations. To this end, the proposed fecal waste incinerator...

  19. Waterbury, Conn., Incinerator to Control Mercury Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emission control equipment to limit the discharge of mercury pollution to the atmosphere will be installed at an incinerator owned by the City of Waterbury, Conn., according to a proposed agreement between the city and federal government.

  20. Environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation

    OpenAIRE

    Toller, Susanna; Kärrman, Erik; Gustafsson, Jon Petter; Magnusson, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Incineration ashes may be treated either as a waste to be dumped in landfill, or as a resource that is suit able for re-use. In order to choose the best management scenario, knowledge is needed on the potential environmental impact that may be expected, including not only local, but also regional and global impact. In this study. A life cycle assessment (LCA) based approach Was Outlined for environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation, in which leaching of trace elements as wel...

  1. ORGDP RCRA/PCB incinerator facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, T.

    1987-01-01

    A dual purpose solid/liquid incinerator is currently being constructed at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant [ORGDP (K-25)] to destroy uranium contaminated, hazardous organic wastes in compliance with the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). These wastes are generated by the gaseous diffusion plants in Oak Ridge, TN; Paducah, KY; and Portsmouth, OH. In addition, waste will also be received from the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC). Destruction of PCBs and hazardous liquid organic wastes will be accomplished in a rotary kiln incinerator with an afterburner. This system was selected faster a study of various alternatives. Incineration was chosen because it is dependable, permanent, detoxifies organics, and reduces volume. The rotary kiln incinerator was selected because it can thermally destroy organic constituents of liquids, solids, and sludges to produce an organically inert ash. In addition to the incineration off-gas treatment system, the facility includes a tank farm, drum storage buildings, a solids preparation area, a control room, and a data management system. The incineration system, off-gas treatment system, and related instrumentation and controls are being provided by International Waste Energy Systems (IWES) which is responsible for design, construction, startup, and performances testing

  2. Recycling ampersand incineration: Evaluating the choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denison, R.A.; Ruston, J.

    1993-01-01

    Conflicts between proponents of municipal solid waste incineration and advocates of recycling have escalated with efforts to reduce the volume of waste that ends up in landfills. Central to this debate is competition for materials that are both combustible and recyclable. Environmental and economic concerns also play a major role. This book, produced by the Environmental Defense Fund, compares recycling and incineration. It is intended for 'citizens, government officials, and business people who want to help resolve the solid-waste crisis.' The book is divided into three parts: recycling and incineration; health and environmental risk of incineration; and planning, public participation, and environmental review requirements. The book does an excellent job of discussing the benefits of recycling and the pitfalls of incineration. It provides helpful information for identifying questions that should be raised about incineration, but it does not raise similar queries about recycling. There is much worthwhile information here, but the book would be more useful if it identified critical issues for all waste reduction and management options

  3. Air curtain incinerator equipment performance evaluation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    About 50 tonnes of oil-contaminated debris and related wood products were successfully incinerated in a 10-h performance evaluation of a mobile air curtain incinerator. The test was conducted to evaluate the incinerator's ability to combust oil-contaminated trash and debris obtained from oil spill sites. The operating principle of the apparatus involves a diesel engine driving an air blower to deliver ca 20,000 scfm of air into a 5-m long manifold angled at a 30{degree} slope into an incineration tank. A bottomhole aerator is lowered to the bottom of the tank and compressed air is injected into the aerator to control burn efficiency. The blower is engaged once the debris in the tank is burning sufficiently after starting a fire in the debris. The air curtain effect created by the air deflecting off the opposite wall from the blower manifold and bouncing off the bottom and up the side of the incineration tank results in repeated combustion of the gases, thereby significantly reducing the degree of visible smoke emission. The unit is capable of incinerating ca 5 tonnes/h and of generating ca 16 m{sup 3}/h of hot water which can be used for flushing spill sites and cleaning shorelines. 12 figs.

  4. Report: environmental assessment of Darmstadt (Germany) municipal waste incineration plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimaityte, Ingrida; Denafas, Gintaras; Jager, Johannes

    2007-04-01

    The focus of this study was the emissions from waste incineration plants using Darmstadt (Germany) waste incineration plant as an example. In the study the emissions generated by incineration of the waste were considered using three different approaches. Initially the emissions from the waste incineration plant were assessed as part of the impact of waste management systems on the environment by using a Municipal Solid Waste Management System (MSWMS) assessment tool (also called: LCA-IWM assessment tool). This was followed by a comparison between the optimal waste incineration process and the real situation. Finally a comparison was made between the emissions from the incineration plant and the emissions from a vehicle.

  5. Cogema experience on retrieving and conditioning solid radwaste previously stored in pits. The La Hague north west pit case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodin, F.; Alexandre, D.; Fournier, Ph.

    2000-01-01

    Short lived, low and medium level waste called 'technological waste' produced by the La Hague Reprocessing Plant have been stored in the La Hague North-West concrete-lined pits until implementation at ANDRA's Centre de Stockage de la Manche (CSM). COGEMA decided to retrieve and condition 11,000 m 3 of humid solid radwaste, stored in bulk in pits. This report describes the experience gained from February 1990 to December 1998, taking into account radwaste and integrated dose rate results conditioning such waste. The procedures and means used and improved by COGEMA to comply with ANDRA's storage standards and the ever-decreasing financial costs generated by the workers, allowed to retrieve and condition 11,000 m 3 of old solid radwaste with competitive costs and in complete safety and protection of the environment. (authors)

  6. Conventional incinerator redesign for the incineration of low level radioactive solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara Z, L.E.C.

    1997-01-01

    From several years ago have been detected some problems with the storage of low level radioactive solids wastes, they are occasioned growth in volume and weight, one of most effective treatment for its reduction, the incineration has been. In the work was designed an incinerator of low level radioactive solid wastes, the characteristics, range of temperatures, that operate and the excess of air in order to get a near incineration at 100 %; thickness of refractory material in the combustion chamber, materials and forms of installation, the balances of mass, energy and radioactive material necessary for the design of the auxiliary peripheral equipment is discussed. In theory the incineration is a viable option for the treatment of low level radioactive solid wastes, upon getting an approximate reduction to 95 % of the wastes introduced to the incinerator in the Department of Radioactive Wastes of the National Institute of Nuclear Research, avoiding the dispersion of combustion gases and radioactive material at the environment. (Author)

  7. Incineration of contaminated oil from Sellafield - 16246

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadbent, Craig; Cassidy, Helen; Stenmark, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Studsvik have been incinerating Low Level Waste (LLW) at its licensed facility in Sweden since the mid-1970's. This process not only enables the volume of waste to be significantly reduced but also produces an inert residue suitable for final disposal. The facility has historically incinerated only solid dry LLW, however in 2008 an authorisation was obtained to permit the routine incineration of LLW contaminated oil at the facility. Prior to obtaining the authorisation to incinerate oils and other organic liquids - both from clean-up activities on the Studsvik site and on a commercial basis - a development program was established. The primary aims of this were to identify the optimum process set-up for the incinerator and also to demonstrate to the regulatory authorities that the appropriate environmental and radiological parameters would be maintained throughout the new process. The final phase of the development program was to incinerate a larger campaign of contaminated oil from the nuclear industry. A suitable accumulation of oil was identified on the Sellafield site in Cumbria and a commercial contract was established to incinerate approximately 40 tonnes of oil from the site. The inventory of oil chosen for the trial incineration represented a significant challenge to the incineration facility as it had been generated from various facilities on-site and had degraded significantly following years of storage. In order to transport the contaminated oil from the Sellafield site in the UK to the Studsvik facility in Sweden several challenges had to be overcome. These included characterisation, packaging and international transportation (under a Transfrontier Shipment (TFS) authorisation) for one of the first transports of liquid radioactive wastes outside the UK. The incineration commenced in late 2007 and was successfully completed in early 2008. The total volume reduction achieved was greater than 97%, with the resultant ash packaged and returned to the UK (for

  8. Quantifying capital goods for waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brogaard, L.K.; Riber, C.; Christensen, T.H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Materials and energy used for the construction of waste incinerators were quantified. • The data was collected from five incineration plants in Scandinavia. • Included were six main materials, electronic systems, cables and all transportation. • The capital goods contributed 2–3% compared to the direct emissions impact on GW. - Abstract: Materials and energy used for the construction of modern waste incineration plants were quantified. The data was collected from five incineration plants (72,000–240,000 tonnes per year) built in Scandinavia (Norway, Finland and Denmark) between 2006 and 2012. Concrete for the buildings was the main material used amounting to 19,000–26,000 tonnes per plant. The quantification further included six main materials, electronic systems, cables and all transportation. The energy used for the actual on-site construction of the incinerators was in the range 4000–5000 MW h. In terms of the environmental burden of producing the materials used in the construction, steel for the building and the machinery contributed the most. The material and energy used for the construction corresponded to the emission of 7–14 kg CO 2 per tonne of waste combusted throughout the lifetime of the incineration plant. The assessment showed that, compared to data reported in the literature on direct emissions from the operation of incinerators, the environmental impacts caused by the construction of buildings and machinery (capital goods) could amount to 2–3% with respect to kg CO 2 per tonne of waste combusted

  9. Regenerative-filter-incinerator device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosebrock, T.L.

    1977-10-18

    A regenerative-filter-incinerator device, for use in the exhaust system of a diesel engine, includes a drum-like regenerative-heat exchanger-filter assembly rotatably mounted within a housing that is adapted to be installed directly in the exhaust gas stream discharged from a diesel engine as close to the engine as possible. The regenerative-heat exchanger-filter assembly provides an inner chamber which serves as a reaction chamber for the secondary combustion of exhaust gases including particulates discharged from the engine. The regenerative-heat exchanger-filter assembly includes separately rotatable heat exchange-filter elements pervious to radial flow of fluid therethrough and adapted to filter out particulates from the exhaust gases and to carry them into the reaction chamber. During engine operation, the reaction chamber is provided with a quantity of heat, as necessary, to effect secondary combustion of the exhaust gases and particulates by means of an auxiliary heat source and the heat generated within the reaction chamber is stored in the individual heat exchange-filter elements during the discharge of exhaust gases therethrough from the reaction chamber and this heat is then transferred to the inflowing volume of the exhaust gases so that, in effect, exhaust gas is discharged from the device at substantially the same temperature as it was during its inlet into the device from the engine.

  10. Multi-recycling of plutonium and incineration of americium, curium, and technetium in PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golfier, H.; Bergeron, J.; Puill, A.; Rohart, M.

    2000-01-01

    The future of nuclear power requires a clear strategy for radwaste and Plutonium management. Pressurized water reactors (PWR) and the associated fuel cycle installations represent the largest part of the French power plants (and are partly paid off). The reactors in service produce an annual 10 tons of Pu, 1.4 tons of minor actinides (MA), and 3.8 tons of long-lived fission products (LLFP). The spent fuel is reprocessed in La Hague plant to recover the energetic elements U and Pu. The latter was initially dedicated to power Fast Breeder Reactors that converted the depleted and reprocessed, thus ensuring a significant part of the French national energy resources. The shut-down of Super-Phenix, the postponement of building of Fast Breeder Reactors (FBR) and the relaxed need for stretching natural U resources raise the issue of Pu management. In fact, the Pu mono-recycling practiced in France since 1987 (St Laurent B1) only slows down the Pu accumulation in spent nuclear fuel, yet it is unable to stabilize the Pu inventory. Beyond the cooperation with its industrial partners, CEA investigates solutions for short and medium term Pu management thus contributing to research required for keeping nuclear power as an energy option. The range of these investigations shall cover both adaptations for light water reactors to facilitate Pu recycling and more innovative solutions concerning reactors, fuel and fuel cycle. The aim of using Pu more efficiently in PWR has led, not only for economic and non-proliferation reasons, but also for considerations related to the optimization of Pu and MA management. The mastery of Pu inventory is a requirement for all long-lived radwaste management methods. In this context, the potential of innovative PWRs has been investigated to control the Pu fluxes and to make them a milestone on the way to clean nuclear power. This paper presents the most recent results related to Pu utilization and MA and LLFP incineration like (Am+Cm) and Tc. To

  11. The application of polyelectrolytes to improve liquid radwaste treatment system radionuclide removal efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homyk, W.A.; Spall, M.J.; Vance, J.N.

    1990-01-01

    At nuclear plants, miscellaneous waste water treated in the liquid radwaste processing system contains a significant fraction of suspended particulate materials ranging in size from a few microns down to the submicron region. The fewer particles that typically exist as colloids are generally negatively charged by virtue of inorganic and organic anions absorbed onto the particle surfaces. Because many of the radionuclides exist as colloids and resist agglomeration and settling they are not easily removed by mechanical filtration or ion exchange processes. The colloidal materials will easily pass through most filters with conventional pore size ratings and through most ion exchange media. This leads to poor decontamination Factors (dFs) and higher radionuclide releases to the environment. A laboratory-scale testing program was conducted at Indian Point Unit No. 2 to determine the effectiveness of the use of organic polyelectrolytes to destabilize colloidal suspensions in liquid radwaste. Destabilizing colloidal suspensions will improve the removal efficiencies of the suspended material by typical filtration and ion exchange processes. The increased removal efficiencies will provide increased dFs in the liquid radwaste treatment system. The testing focused on identifying the specific organic polyelectrolytes and the associated dosages which would be effective in destabilizing the colloidal suspensions on actual waste water samples. The testing also examined the filtration characteristics of the water source to determine filter parameters such as: body feed material, body feed dosages, specific flow rates, etc., which would provide the basis for the design of filtration systems for these applications. The testing effort and the major conclusions from this investigation are given. 4 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Radiochemical Separation and Quantification of Tritium in Metallic Radwastes Generated from CANDU Type NPP - 13279

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, H.J.; Choi, K.C.; Choi, K.S.; Park, T.H.; Park, Y.J.; Song, K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, P.O. Box 105, Yuseong, Daejeon, 305-330 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    As a destructive quantification method of {sup 3}H in low and intermediate level radwastes, bomb oxidation, sample oxidation, and wet oxidation methods have been introduced. These methods have some merits and demerits in the radiochemical separation of {sup 3}H radionuclides. That is, since the bomb oxidation and sample oxidation methods are techniques using heating at high temperature, the separation methods of the radionuclides are relatively simple. However, since {sup 3}H radionuclide has a property of being diffused deeply into the inside of metals, {sup 3}H which is distributed on the surface of the metals can only be extracted if the methods are applied. As an another separation method, the wet oxidation method makes {sup 3}H oxidized with an acidic solution, and extracted completely to an oxidized HTO compound. However, incomplete oxidized {sup 3}H compounds, which are produced by reactions of acidic solutions and metallic radwastes, can be released into the air. Thus, in this study, a wet oxidation method to extract and quantify the {sup 3}H radionuclide from metallic radwastes was established. In particular, a complete extraction method and complete oxidation method of incomplete chemical compounds of {sup 3}H using a Pt catalyst were studied. The radioactivity of {sup 3}H in metallic radwastes is extracted and measured using a wet oxidation method and liquid scintillation counter. Considering the surface dose rate of the sample, the appropriate size of the sample was determined and weighed, and a mixture of oxidants was added to a 200 ml round flask with 3 tubes. The flask was quickly connected to the distilling apparatus. 20 mL of 16 wt% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} was given into the 200-ml round flask through a dropping funnel while under stirring and refluxing. After dropping, the temperature of the mixture was raised to 96 deg. C and the sample was leached and oxidized by refluxing for 3 hours. At that time, the incomplete oxidized {sup 3}H compounds were

  13. Preparation of Radwaste Disposal Site in Jawa Island and Its Surrounding Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budi Setiawan; Teddy Sumantry; Heru Sriwahyuni; Hendra A Pratama; Nurul Efri E; Achmad Sjarmufni; Pratomo Budiman; Dadang Suganda; Soegeng Waluyo; Ari Pudyo; Dewi Susilowati; Marwoto

    2008-01-01

    The task continuation and national needs indicate the important of starting for radioactive waste disposal preparation. As the IAEA procedures for the first step are to accomplished the conceptual and planning stage of radwaste disposal siting in Jawa island. Within the plan, the Milestone, the site important factors, the potential host rock, the possible areas, the aims and the investigation programs have been defined. From the procedures which are followed hopefully in the end of the activities, suitable site(s) to be able selected for radioactive waste disposal facility in near future. (author)

  14. Characterization of solid radwaste generated at Virginia Power's Surry and North Anna stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippard, D.W.; Elguindy, H.; Nelson, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a study on characterization of the major constituents of the solid radwaste generated at Virginia Power's North Anna and Surry Power Stations. The characterization consisted of identifying the individual constituents of the dry active waste (DAW) and estimating the fraction of the total DAW (both weight and volume) made up by each constituent. The analysis of the characterization of solid waste streams generated at both North Anna and Surry stations has lead to recommending techniques for both source minimization and waste volume reduction

  15. Preliminary safety assessment and preliminary safety report for the treated radwaste store, Winfrith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staples, A.T.

    1992-06-01

    It is the purpose of this assessment to define the categorisation of the Treated Radwaste Store, TRS, B55 at the Winfrith Technology Centre. Its further purpose is to cover all relevant sections required for a Preliminary Safety Report (PSR) encompassing the TRS and the integral Quality Assessment Unit (QUA). The TRS is designed for the interim storage of intermediate level radioactive wastes. All waste material stored in the TRS will be contained within 500 litre stainless steel drums acceptable to NIREX. It is proposed that the TRS will receive 500 litre stainless steel NIREX drums containing either irradiated DRAGON fuel or encapsulated sludge waste. (author)

  16. Retrofitting and operation solid radwaste system Dresden Station, Units 2 and 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testa, J.; Homer, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    Units 2 and 3 at Dresden Station are twin 794 MW (net) BWR units that became operational in 1970 and 1971. The waste streams are typical of BWR stations, namely, bead resin and filter sludge (powdered resins and diatomaceous earth), evaporator concentrate containing approximately 25% dissolved solids and dry active waste. The original solid radwaste system utilized cement for solidification in open top 55 gallon drums. Remote handling was provided by means of a monorail with moving platforms supporting the drums. A relatively light-weight compactor was used to compact DAW into 55 gallon drums. Difficulties were experienced with this system

  17. Liquid radwaste processing, operational experience utilizing Duratek Mobile Process System (MPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunkele, W.; Jensen, C.E.; Duratek Corp., Beltsville, MD)

    1985-01-01

    The use of Duratek's Mobile Process System (MPS) employing sluiceable pressure vessels and improved operational techniques generates operational efficiencies including volume reduction (VR), reduced personnel labor and exposure and higher flowrates for cleanup of liquid radwaste streams in an operating nuclear power plant (Salem Generating Station). Significant additional VR is achievable based on laboratory and on-site experience utilizing Durasil 70. Under high conductivity, actual waste stream conditions, this proprietary media has demonstrated through-puts of a magnitude 15 times higher than organic cation resin. A long-term problem, cobalt species removal, is mitigated by this media

  18. Improvement of Radwaste Management System at Bilibinskaya NPP in the Far North Conditions - 13456

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorov, Denis; Adamovich, Dmitry; Savkin, Alexander [SUE SIA Radon, 2/14, 7th Rostovsky lane, Moscow, 119121 (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    Since 2009 Bilibinskaya NPP is getting started to prepare to the decommissioning in the Far North conditions. Bilibinskaya NPP is located in the Far North of Russian Federation in Chukotka region. Since 1974 it operates 4 units EGP-6 with the capacity of 48 MW each. According to the contract, SIA Radon has performed the following works: - LLRW disposal safety analysis, - The technology of spent ion-exchanger and salt residue solidification is proposed, - Expected radwaste (till 2027) management economical analysis, - Technical proposals for LLRW and IRW management. (authors)

  19. Immobilization and leaching mechanisms of radwaste in cement-based matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasser, F.P.; Rahman, A.A.; Crawford, R.W.; McCullough, C.E.; Angus, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of potential sorbers including silicas, titania, calcined kaolin, zirconium phosphate and two crystalline calcium silicates, tobermorite and xonotlite, have been used to improve the Cs-retention capacity of cement-based systems. The analysis of the pore fluid compositions of equilibrated cement-radwaste composites provides evidence concerning the leach mechanisms whereby Cs is removed. The reactions occurring between cement and clinoptilolite are elucidated and results of kinetic studies presented. Simulate Magnox waste is shown to react with cement, leading to a carbonate exchange. (author)

  20. On selection of geological medium for disposal of high-level radwaste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min Maozhong

    1991-01-01

    The present paper briefly reviews the suitability of some rocks as geological disposal repositories of high-level radwaste (HLW). The suitable rocks for geological ogi disposal of HLW are rock salt (salt diapir, bedded salt), granite, argillaceous rocks, tuff, basalt, gabbro, diabase, anhydrite, marine sedimentary rocks etc., especially, rock salt, granite, and argillaceous rocks. The data of principal hydraulic properties, mechanical-physical properties for various rocks in typical environment which might be considered for disposal purposes are also given in this paper. These data give a reference to China's geological disposal of HLW in the future

  1. Theoretical aspects of solid waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarbell, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    Theoretical considerations that may be incorporated into the design basis of a prototype incinerator for solid transuranic wastes are described. It is concluded that primary pyrolysis followed by secondary afterburning is a very unattractive incineration strategy unless waste resource recovery is a process goal. The absence of primary combustion air leads to poor waste dispersion with associated diffusion and conduction limitations rendering the process inefficient. Single step oxidative incineration is most attractive when volume reduction is of primary importance. The volume of this type of incinerator (including afterburner) should be relatively much smaller than the pyrolysis type. Afterburning is limited by soot oxidation when preceded by pyrolysis, but limited by turbulent mixing when preceded by direct solid waste oxidation. In either case, afterburner temperatures above 1300 0 K are not warranted. Results based on a nominal solid waste composition and anticipated throughput indicate that NO/sub x/, HF, and SO 2 will not exceed the ambient air quality standards. Control of radioactive particulates, which can be achieved by multiple HEPA filtration, will reduce the conventional particulate emission to the vanishing point. Chemical equilibrium calculations also indicate that chlorine and to a lesser extent fluorine may be precipitated out in the ash as sodium salts if a sufficient flux of sodium is introduced into the incinerator

  2. Clean burn: Incinerators get more efficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budd, G.

    2003-01-01

    Combustion efficiency and accuracy of today's new breed of incinerators is discussed. The latest of these units are capable of delivering 99.99 per cent combustion efficiency with no visible flame, black smoke or detectable odour. Near-complete combustion is achieved with incineration because of the very high temperatures reached in the enclosed combustion chamber as a combination of temperature, time for burning, and a good mix of gases and oxygen. Controlling these inputs is the key to efficient incineration, as is high quality fibre refractory lining; control means control of the stack top temperature, which will affect what comes out of the top water and how well the combustion byproducts are dispersed. Until recently, incinerators have not been highly regarded by the oil industry. However, with the growing concerns about greenhouse gases, carcinogens and in response to increasing regulations aimed at reducing venting and flaring, incinerators are coming into their own. Today they are seen more and more frequently in well testing, coalbed methane testing, at battery sites and at gas plants

  3. Quantifying capital goods for waste incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogaard, L K; Riber, C; Christensen, T H

    2013-06-01

    Materials and energy used for the construction of modern waste incineration plants were quantified. The data was collected from five incineration plants (72,000-240,000 tonnes per year) built in Scandinavia (Norway, Finland and Denmark) between 2006 and 2012. Concrete for the buildings was the main material used amounting to 19,000-26,000 tonnes per plant. The quantification further included six main materials, electronic systems, cables and all transportation. The energy used for the actual on-site construction of the incinerators was in the range 4000-5000 MW h. In terms of the environmental burden of producing the materials used in the construction, steel for the building and the machinery contributed the most. The material and energy used for the construction corresponded to the emission of 7-14 kg CO2 per tonne of waste combusted throughout the lifetime of the incineration plant. The assessment showed that, compared to data reported in the literature on direct emissions from the operation of incinerators, the environmental impacts caused by the construction of buildings and machinery (capital goods) could amount to 2-3% with respect to kg CO2 per tonne of waste combusted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF PIC FORMATION IN CFC INCINERATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of the collection of combustion emission characterization data from chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) incineration. A bench scale test program to provide emission characterization data from CFC incineration was developed and performed, with emphasis on the format...

  5. Mound cyclone incinerator. Volume I. Description and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klingler, L.M.

    1981-01-01

    The Mound cyclone incinerator was developed to fill a need for a simple, relaible incinerator for volume reduction of dry solid waste contaminated with plutonium-238. Although the basic design of the incinerator is for batch burning of solid combustible waste, the incinerator has also been adapted to volume reduction of other waste forms. Specialized waste feeding equipment enables continuous burning of both solid and liquid waste, including full scintillation vials. Modifications to the incinerator offgas system enable burning of waste contaminated with isotopes other than plutonium-238. This document presents the design and performance characteristics of the Mound Cyclone Incinerator for incineration of both solid and liquid waste. Suggestions are included for adaptation of the incinerator to specialized waste materials

  6. Improvement of incineration efficiency of spent ion exchange resins on the incinerator at nuclear power plants. Manufacturing the solids of the resins mixed with paraffin wax and their incinerating test results on actual incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumi, Takeshi; Ohtsu, Takashi; Inagawa, Hirofumi; Kawakami, Takashi; Hagiwara, Masahiro; Ino, Takao; Ishiyama, Yuji

    2011-01-01

    In nuclear power plants, ion exchange resins are used at water purification systems such as condensate demineralizers. After usage, used ion exchange resins are stored at plants as low level radioactive wastes. Ion exchange resins contain water and so, those are flame resistant materials. At present, ion exchange resins are incinerated with other inflammable materials at incinerators. Furthermore, ion exchange resins are fine particle beads and are easy to be scattered in all directions, so operators must pay attentions for treatment. Then, we have developed the new solidification system of ion exchange resins with paraffin wax. Ion exchange resins are mixed and extruded with paraffin wax and these solids are enabled to incinerate at existing incinerators. In order to demonstrate this new method, we made the large amount of solids and incinerated them at actual incinerator. From these results, we have estimated to be able to incinerate the solids only at actual incinerator. (author)

  7. Clinical waste incinerators in Cameroon--a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mochungong, Peter Ikome Kuwoh; Gulis, Gabriel; Sodemann, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Incinerators are widely used to treat clinical waste in Cameroon's Northwest Region. These incinerators cause public apprehension owing to purported risks to operators, communities and the environment. This article aims to summarize findings from an April 2008 case study....

  8. Incineration of Sludge in a Fluidized-Bed Combustor

    OpenAIRE

    Chien-Song Chyang; Yu-Chi Wang

    2017-01-01

    For sludge disposal, incineration is considered to be better than direct burial because of regulations and space limitations in Taiwan. Additionally, burial after incineration can effectively prolong the lifespan of a landfill. Therefore, it is the most satisfactory method for treating sludge at present. Of the various incineration technologies, the fluidized bed incinerator is a suitable choice due to its fuel flexibility. In this work, sludge generated from industrial plants was treated in ...

  9. WILCI: a LCA tool dedicated to MSW incineration in France

    OpenAIRE

    Beylot , Antoine; Muller , Stéphanie; Descat , Marie; Ménard , Yannick; Michel , Pascale; Villeneuve , Jacques

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been increasingly used in the last decades to evaluate the global environmental performance of waste treatment options. This is in particular the case considering incineration that is the major treatment route for Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) in France (28% of French MSW are incinerated, in 126 MSW incineration plants; ADEME, 2015). In this context, this article describes a new Excel-tool, WILCI (for Waste Incineration Life Cycle Inventor...

  10. A new incinerator for burning radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallek, H.; Laser, M.

    1978-01-01

    A new two stage incinerator for burning radioactive waste consisting of a pyrolysis chamber and an oxidation chamber is described. The fly ash is retained in the oxidation chamber by high temperature filter mats. The capacity of the installed equipment is about 100 kg/h. Waste with different composition and different calorific value were successfully burnt. The operation of the incinerator can easily be controlled by addition of a primary air stream to the pyrolysis chamber and a secondary air stream to the oxidation chamber. During continuous operation the CO and C (organic) content is below 100 ppm and 50 ppm, respectively. The burn-out of the ash is very good. After minor changes the incinerator may be suitable for burning of α-bearing waste

  11. Requirements for permitting a mixed waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trichon, M.; Feldman, J.; Serne, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The consideration, design, selection and operation of any incinerator depends primarily on characteristic quality (ultimate and proximate analyses) and quantity to the waste to be incinerated. In the case of burning any combination of mixed hazardous, biomedical and radioactive low level waste, specific federal and generic state environmental regulatory requirements are outlined. Combustion chamber temperature and waste residence time requirements will provide the rest of the envelope for consideration. Performance requirements must be balanced between the effects of time and temperature on destruction of the organic waste and the vaporization and possible emission of the inorganic waste components (e.g., toxic metals, radioactive inorganics) as operating conditions and emission levels will be set in state and federal regulatory permits. To this end the complete characterization of the subject waste stream must be determined if an accurate assessment of incineration effectiveness and impact are to be performed

  12. Energy utilization: municipal waste incineration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaBeck, M.F.

    1981-03-27

    An assessment is made of the technical and economical feasibility of converting municipal waste into useful and useable energy. The concept presented involves retrofitting an existing municipal incinerator with the systems and equipment necessary to produce process steam and electric power. The concept is economically attractive since the cost of necessary waste heat recovery equipment is usually a comparatively small percentage of the cost of the original incinerator installation. Technical data obtained from presently operating incinerators designed specifically for generating energy, documents the technical feasibility and stipulates certain design constraints. The investigation includes a cost summary; description of process and facilities; conceptual design; economic analysis; derivation of costs; itemized estimated costs; design and construction schedule; and some drawings.

  13. Alkali activation processes for incinerator residues management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancellotti, Isabella; Ponzoni, Chiara; Barbieri, Luisa; Leonelli, Cristina

    2013-08-01

    Incinerator bottom ash (BA) is produced in large amount worldwide and in Italy, where 5.1 millionstons of municipal solid residues have been incinerated in 2010, corresponding to 1.2-1.5 millionstons of produced bottom ash. This residue has been used in the present study for producing dense geopolymers containing high percentage (50-70 wt%) of ash. The amount of potentially reactive aluminosilicate fraction in the ash has been determined by means of test in NaOH. The final properties of geopolymers prepared with or without taking into account this reactive fraction have been compared. The results showed that due to the presence of both amorphous and crystalline fractions with a different degree of reactivity, the incinerator BA geopolymers exhibit significant differences in terms of Si/Al ratio and microstructure when reactive fraction is considered. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Alpha waste incinerator at the Cea Valduc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    The Cea/Valduc has brought into operation an incinerator for alpha waste. The incineration is in two steps. The first one is a pyrolysis under reduction atmosphere in a furnace at 550 celsius degrees and the second one is a calcination under oxidizing atmosphere of the pyrolysis residue in a furnace at 900 celsius degrees. The ashes have less than 1% of carbon. The gas coming from incineration become oxidized at 1100 Celsius degrees, then are cooled, filtered to eliminate any track of radioactivity. Then, they are cleaned with a neutralisation process. The facility reduces the volume of waste in a factor 20. The capacity of treatment is 7 kg/h. The annual capacity is 30 m 3 . The investment represents 70 millions of francs and the cost of functioning is 2 M F by year. (N.C.)

  15. Secondary incinerator for radioactive gaseous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Tadashi; Masuda, Takashi.

    1997-01-01

    A vessel incorporated with packings, in which at least either of the packings and the vessel is put to induction-heating by high frequency induction coils, is disposed in a flow channel of radioactive gaseous wastes exhausted from a radioactive waste incinerator. The packings include metals such as stainless pipes and electroconductive ceramics such as C-SiC ceramics. Since only electricity is used as an energy source, in the secondary incinerator for the radioactive gaseous wastes, it can be installed in a cell safely. In addition, if ceramics are used, there is no worry of deterioration of the incinerator due to organic materials, and essential functions are not lowered. (T.M.)

  16. Conceptual process description of M division incinerator project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, T.K.

    1989-04-13

    This interoffice memorandum describes an incineration system to be used for incinerating wood. The system is comprised of a shredder and an incinerator. The entire process is described in detail. A brief study of particulates, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen oxides emission is presented.

  17. 40 CFR 63.988 - Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incinerators, boilers, and process... Routing to a Fuel Gas System or a Process § 63.988 Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters. (a) Equipment and operating requirements. (1) Owners or operators using incinerators, boilers, or process...

  18. Risks of municipal solid waste incineration: an environmental perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denison, R A; Silbergeld, E K

    1988-09-01

    The central focus of the debate over incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) has shifted from its apparent management advantages to unresolved risk issues. This shift is a result of the lack of comprehensive consideration of risks associated with incineration. We discuss the need to expand incinerator risk assessment beyond the limited view of incinerators as stationary air pollution sources to encompass the following: other products of incineration, ash in particular, and pollutants other than dioxins, metals in particular; routes of exposure in addition to direct inhalation; health effects in addition to cancer; and the cumulative nature of exposure and health effects induced by many incinerator-associated pollutants. Rational MSW management planning requires that the limitations as well as advantages of incineration be recognized. Incineration is a waste-processing--not a waste disposal--technology, and its products pose substantial management and disposal problems of their own. Consideration of the nature of these products suggests that incineration is ill-suited to manage the municipal wastestream in its entirety. In particular, incineration greatly enhances the mobility and bioavailability of toxic metals present in MSW. These factors suggest that incineration must be viewed as only one component in an integrated MSW management system. The potential for source reduction, separation, and recycling to increase the safety and efficiency of incineration should be counted among their many benefits. Risk considerations dictate that alternatives to the use of toxic metals at the production stage also be examined in designing an effective, long-term MSW management strategy.

  19. 10 CFR 20.2004 - Treatment or disposal by incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Treatment or disposal by incineration. 20.2004 Section 20... § 20.2004 Treatment or disposal by incineration. (a) A licensee may treat or dispose of licensed material by incineration only: (1) As authorized by paragraph (b) of this section; or (2) If the material...

  20. Recommendations for continuous emissions monitoring of mixed waste incinerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigley, G.P.

    1992-01-01

    Considerable quantities of incinerable mixed waste are being stored in and generated by the DOE complex. Mixed waste is defined as containing a hazardous component and a radioactive component. At the present time, there is only one incinerator in the complex which has the proper TSCA and RCRA permits to handle mixed waste. This report describes monitoring techniques needed for the incinerator

  1. Addition of liquid waste incineration capability to the INEL's low-level waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steverson, E.M.; Clark, D.P.; McFee, J.N.

    1986-01-01

    A liquid waste system has recently been installed in the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) incinerator at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). In this paper, aspects of the incineration system such as the components, operations, capabilities, capital cost, EPA permit requirements, and future plans are discussed. The principal objective of the liquid incineration system is to provide the capability to process hazardous, radioactively contaminated, non-halogenated liquid wastes. The system consists primarily of a waste feed system, instrumentation and controls, and a liquid burner, which were procured at a capital cost of $115,000

  2. Hazardous and radioactive waste incineration studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavruska, J.S.; Stretz, L.A.; Borduin, L.C.

    1981-01-01

    Development and demonstration of a transuranic (TRU) waste volume-reduction process is described. A production-scale controlled air incinerator using commercially available equipment and technology has been modified for solid radioactive waste service. This unit successfully demonstrated the volume reduction of transuranic (TRU) waste with an average TRU content of about 20 nCi/g. The same incinerator and offgas treatment system is being modified further to evaluate the destruction of hazardous liquid wastes such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hazardous solid wastes such as pentachlorophenol (PCP)-treated wood

  3. Cross flow filtration for radwaste applications reverse osmosis demonstration case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malkmus, D.

    1995-01-01

    Today's radwaste economic and regulatory scenarios signify the importance in the improvement of operational practices to reduce generator liabilities. This action is largely due to the rising cost dealing with burial sites and the imposed waste volume restriction. To control the economical burdens associated with waste burial and to comply with stricter environmental regulations, NPP's are attempting to modify their radwaste system(s) design and operating philosophy by placing a major emphasis on waste volume reduction and processing techniques. The utilization of reverse osmosis technology as a means for treatment of process and wastewater streams in the nuclear power industry has been investigated for many years. This paper will outline reverse osmosis theory and highlight performance data for process and waste stream purification applications. Case studies performed at 5 nuclear plants have been outlined. The demonstrations were performed on a widely variety of process stream for both a PWR and BWR application. The data provided by the pilot systems, the equipment design, and the economical impact a reverse osmosis unit will have on producing treated (high purity) are as follows

  4. Evaluation and standardisation of fast analytical techniques for destructive radwaste control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Simone, A.; Troiani, F.

    2001-01-01

    The document describes the work programme carried out by the Laboratorio Nazionale per la 'Caratterizzazione dei Refit Radioattivi', in the frame of the European research project Destructive Radwaste Control. The main tasks of the research work were the evaluation of fast sample pre-treatment procedures and the development of chromatographic methods coupled to fast nuclide detection by Liquid Scintillation Counting. In order to test the High Performance Ion Chromatograph (HPIC) coupled to the Liquid Scintillation Counter (LSC) on high salt content solutions, synthetic cement solutions have been prepared and spiked with several β-emitters hard to be measured with non-destructive analyses, along with other radionuclides important for the determination of the radiological inventory in radwastes. As the validation tests for the new analytical methods involved the manipulation of radioactive solutions, a remote area for HPIC-LSC apparatus has been designed and performed, in order to operate in safe conditions. According to the research programme, fast analytical methods for the chemical separation and radionuclide detection of the radioactive elements of interest, have been developed and qualified. From the results of the work, some protocols of analysis have been defined: they contain all information about operative conditions for HPIC-LSC apparatus, field of applicability, chemical and radioactive detection limits [it

  5. Integrated radwaste treatment system lessons learned from 2 1/2 years of operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, M.N.; Fussner, R.J.

    1997-05-01

    The Integrated Radwaste Treatment System (IRTS) at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) is a pretreatment scheme to reduce the amount of salts in the high-level radioactive waste (vitrification) stream. Following removal of cesium-137 (Cs-137) by ion-exchange in the Supernatant Treatment System (STS), the radioactive waste liquid is volume-reduced by evaporation. Trace amounts of Cs-137 in the resulting distillate are removed by ion-exchange, then the distillate is discharged to the existing plant water treatment system. The concentrated product, 37 to 41 percent solids by weight, is encapsulated in cement producing a stable, low-level waste form. The Integrated Radwaste Treatment System (IRTS) operated in this mode from May 1988 through November 1990, decontaminating 450,000 gallons of high-level waste liquid; evaporating and encapsulating the resulting concentrates into 10,393 71-gallon square drums. A number of process changes and variations from the original operating plan were required to increase the system flow rate and minimize waste volumes. This report provides a summary of work performed to operate the IRTS, including system descriptions, process highlights, and lessons learned

  6. Strategy for the disposal of low- and intermediate-level radwastes in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, D.F.

    The intent of the strategy described is to optimize both safety and cost of disposal by classifying waste segments according to hazardous lifetime and to match these to two or more selected disposl concepts graded according to containment and isolation capabilities. The bulk of low- and intermediate-level radwastes arising in Canada are a relatively short-lived hazard requiring isolation for no more than a few hundred years. Burial of this segment at tens-of-metres in quatenary deposits has been proposed as a concept worth evaluating. It is expected that part of the low- and intermediate-level radwastes will be potentially hazardous for geological time periods. Once methods of isolation for long-lived fuel wastes have been identified, these could be utilized for wastes requiring isolation for longer than a few hundred years. Disposal of a hard-rock vault is being evaluated as a reference concept and costs are presented. It is proposed that waste classification may consider more than two categories to further reduce costs and to better accommodate the radiological character of wastes. The overall disposal strategy should be flexible enough to account for present waste management practices and anticipated future needs

  7. Planning of optimal work path for minimizing exposure dose during radiation work in radwaste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yoon Hyuk; Park, Won Man; Kim, Kyung Soo; Whang, Joo Ho

    2005-01-01

    Since the safety of nuclear power plant has been becoming a big social issue, the exposure dose of radiation for workers has been one of the important factors concerning the safety problem. The existing calculation methods of radiation dose used in the planning of radiation work assume that dose rate dose not depend on the location within a work space, thus the variation of exposure dose by different work path is not considered. In this study, a modified numerical method was presented to estimate the exposure dose during radiation work in radwaste storage considering the effects of the distance between a worker and sources. And a new numerical algorithm was suggested to search the optimal work path minimizing the exposure dose in pre-defined work space with given radiation sources. Finally, a virtual work simulation program was developed to visualize the exposure dose of radiation during radiation works in radwaste storage and provide the capability of simulation for work planning. As a numerical example, a test radiation work was simulated under given space and two radiation sources, and the suggested optimal work path was compared with three predefined work paths. The optimal work path obtained in the study could reduce the exposure dose for the given test work. Based on the results, the developed numerical method and simulation program could be useful tools in the planning of radiation work

  8. Of creation of up-to-date system for liquid radwaste management at Ukraine's NPPs. Problem statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andronov, O.B.

    2015-01-01

    The main aspects are addressed of problems in the field of liquid radwaste (LRW) management for Ukrainian NPPs; approaches for its decision, and offers of NNEGC Energoatom SE STC specialists concerning the above issue. Conceptual principle of creation of up-to-date hi-tech complex for LRW management is considered

  9. COGEMA experience on retrieving and conditioning solid radwaste previously stored in pits. The La Hague North-West pit case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodin, F.; Alexandre, D.; Fournier, P.

    1999-01-01

    Short lived, low and medium level waste called 'technological waste' produced by the La Hague Reprocessing Plant have been stored in the La Hague North-West concrete-lined pits until implementation at ANDRA's Centre de Stockage de la Manche (CSM). COGEMA decided to retrieve and condition 11,000 m 3 of humid solid radwaste, stored in bulk in pits. On account of the variety of radwaste kinds, retrieving and conditioning operations represented real challenge. One goal of these operations was to ensure that the work was performed in complete safety towards environment with optimum containment and with the best radiation protection for the personnel involved. COGEMA decided to split the work into two phases. The feedback from the first phase was very helpful to the second phase. This report describes the experience gained from February 1990 to December 1998, taking into account radwaste and integrated dose rate results conditioning such waste. The procedures and means used and improved by COGEMA to comply with ANDRA's storage standards and the ever-decreasing financial costs generated by the workers, allowed to retrieve and condition 11,000 m 3 of old solid radwaste with competitive costs and in complete safety and protection of the environment. (author)

  10. Development of the Computer Code to Determine an Individual Radionuclides in the Rad-wastes Container for Ulchin Units 3 and 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, D.W.; Chi, J.H.; Goh, E.O. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2001-07-01

    A computer program, RASSAY was developed to evaluate accurately the activities of various nuclides in the rad-waste container for Ulchin units 3 and 4. This is the final report of the project, {sup D}evelopment of the Computer Code to Determine an Individual Radionuclides in the Rad-wastes Container for Ulchin Units 3 and 4 and includes the followings; 1) Structure of the computer code, RASSAY 2) An example of surface dose calculation by computer simulation using MCNP code 3) Methods of sampling and activity measurement of various Rad-wastes. (author). 21 refs., 35 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Incineration plant for thermal destruction of radioactive liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartoli, B.; Lisbonne, P.

    1988-01-01

    Incineration was selected to destroy organic liquids contaminated by radioelements. This treatment offers the advantage of reducing the volume of wastes considerably. Therefore an incineration plant has been built within the nuclear research center of Cadarache. After an experimental work with inactive organic liquids from June 1980 to March 1981, the incineration plant was approved by safety authorities for the incineration of contaminated organic liquids. The capacity ranges from 20l/hr to 50l/hr. On the basis of 6 years of operation and a volume of 200 m3 the incineration plant has shown reliable operating conditions in the destruction of various contaminated organic liquids

  12. Acid gas control process and apparatus for waste fired incinerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubin, P.Z.; Stepan, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a process for reducing noxious emission produced in a waste material incinerator. It comprises incinerating solid waste material in a furnace section of the waste material incinerator; providing an additive to an additive supply storage unit; conveying the additive to an additive injection means that communicates with the furnace section of the waste material incinerator; injecting the additive into a turbulent reaction zone of the furnace section such that acid gas content, acid dewpoint temperature and the level of corrosion in the incinerator are reduced

  13. Incineration of wastes from nuclear installations with the Juelich incineration process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilke, M.

    1979-01-01

    In the Juelich Research Center a two-stage incineration process has been developed which, due to an integral thermal treatment stage, is most suitable for the incineration of heterogeneous waste material. The major advantages of this technique are to be seen in the fact that mechanical treatment of the waste material is no longer required and that off gas treatment is considerably facilitated. (orig.) [de

  14. Molten salt fuels for treatment of plutonium and radwastes in ADS critical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatiev, Victor V.

    2000-01-01

    Introduction of the innovative reactor concept of the incinerator type in the future nuclear power system should provide the following: Low Plutonium and Minor Actinides Total Inventory in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle (M) Reduced Actinides Total Losses to Waste (W) Minimal Uranium-235 SupportMinimal Neutron Captures Outside Actinides (Coolant and Structural Material Activation Products). Estimations have shown strong dependence of the first two parameters (M and W), which are responsible for incinerator efficiency, from the burnup (c) reached in the core of an incinerator and the actinides mass flow rate in the fuel cycle (A(t)=G(t)/Q(t), where G(t)=amount of TRU fed to the process during t, and Q(t)=electricity produced during (t)

  15. Incineration of Non-radioactive Simulated Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, A.Z.; Abdelrazek, I.D.

    1999-01-01

    An advanced controlled air incinerator has been investigated, developed and put into successful operation for both non radioactive simulated and other combustible solid wastes. Engineering efforts concentrated on providing an incinerator which emitted a clean, easily treatable off-gas and which produced minimum amounts of secondary waste. Feed material is fed by gravity into the gas reactor without shredding or other pretreatment. The temperature of the waste is gradually increased in a reduced oxygen atmosphere as the resulting products are introduced into the combustion chamber. Steady burning is thus accomplished under easily controlled excess air conditions with the off-gas then passing through a simple dry cleaning-up system. Experimental studies showed that, at lower temperature, CO 2 , and CH 4 contents in gas reactor effluent increase by the increase of glowing bed temperature, while H 2 O, H 2 and CO decrease . It was proved that, a burn-out efficiency (for ash residues) and a volume reduction factor appeared to be better than 95.5% and 98% respectively. Moreover, high temperature permits increased volumes of incinerated material and results in increased gasification products. It was also found that 8% by weight of ashes are separated by flue gas cleaning system as it has chemical and size uniformity. This high incineration efficiency has been obtained through automated control and optimization of process variables like temperature of the glowing bed and the oxygen feed rate to the gas reactor

  16. High temperature slagging incineration of hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanbrabant, R.; Van de Voorde, N.

    1987-01-01

    The SCK/CEN, as the treatment center for the low level radioactive waste in Belgium, develops appropriate treatment systems for different kinds of wastes. The technical concept of the high temperature slagging incineration system has been developed and improved. The construction of the first demonstration plant was initiated in 1974. Since then the system has been operated regularly and further developed with the view to industrial operations. Now it handles about 5 tons of waste in a week. The waste which is treated consists of low level beta/gamma and alpha-contaminated radioactive waste. Because of the special characteristics the system is thought to be an excellent incineration system for industrial hazardous waste as well. Recently the SCK/CEN has received the authorization to treat industrial hazardous waste in the same installation. Preliminary tests have been executed on special waste products, such as PCB-contaminated liquids, with excellent incineration results. Incineration efficiency up to 99.9999% could be obtained. The paper presents the state of the art of this original The SCK/CEN-technology and gives the results of the tests done with special hazard

  17. OVERVIEW OF HAZARDOUS/TOXIC WASTE INCINERATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effective hazardous/toxic waste disposal and safe dumpsite cleanup are two of EPA's major missions in the 1980s. Incineration has been recognized as a very efficient process to destroy the hazardous wastes generated by industry or by the dumpsite remediations. The paper provides ...

  18. CLOSURE OF A DIOXIN INCINERATION FACILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Mobile Incineration System, whihc was operated at the Denney Farm site in southwestern Miissouri between October 1985 and June 1989, treated almost six million kilograms of dioxin-contaminated wastes from eight area sites. At the conclusi...

  19. Electrically fired incineration of combustible radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlesworth, D.; Hill, M.

    1985-01-01

    Du Pont Company and Shirco, Inc. are developing a process to incinerate plutonium-contaminated combustible waste in an electrically fired incineration system. Preliminary development was completed at Shirco, Inc. prior to installing an incineration system at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL), which is operated by Du Pont for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The waste consists of disposable protective clothing, cleaning materials, used filter elements, and miscellaneous materials exposed to plutonium contamination. Incinerator performance testing, using physically representative nonradioactive materials, was completed in March 1983 at Shirco's Pilot Test Facility in Dallas, TX. Based on the test results, equipment sizing and mechanical begin of a full-scale process were completed by June 1983. The full-scale unit is being installed at SRL to confirm the initial performance testing and is scheduled to begin in June 1985. Remote operation and maintenance of the system is required, since the system will eventually be installed in an isolated process cell. Initial operation of the process will use nonradioactive simulated waste. 2 figs., 2 tabs

  20. 40 CFR 65.148 - Incinerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... temperature monitoring device shall be installed in the fire box or in the ductwork immediately downstream of the fire box in a position before any substantial heat exchange occurs. (ii) Where a catalytic incinerator is used, temperature monitoring devices shall be installed in the gas stream immediately before...

  1. Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Waste Incineration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Karel; Baxter, D.; Martinec, J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 1 (2006), s. 78-90 ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA4072201 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : nitrous oxide * waste * incineration Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 0.360, year: 2006

  2. Analysis of fouling in refuse waste incinerators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van M.C.; Rindt, C.C.M.; Wijers, J.G.; Steenhoven, van A.A.

    2001-01-01

    Gas-side fouling of waste-heat-recovery boilers, caused mainly by the deposition of particulate matter, reduces the heat transfer in the boiler. The fouling as observed on the tube bundles in the boiler of a Dutch refuse waste incinerator varied from thin and powdery for the economizer to thick and

  3. EIA for a waste incinerator in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen

    2017-01-01

    A planned new waste incinerator will be located in an area which is at risk of flooding – a risk that will increase under climate change. During public hear- ings as part of the project’s EIA, inclusion of climate risks was requested. This led to mitigation measures which will decrease the risk...

  4. Use plan for demonstration radioactive-waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooley, L.R.; McCampbell, M.R.; Thompson, J.D.

    1982-04-01

    The University of Maryland at Baltimore was awarded a grant from the Department of Energy to test a specially modified incinerator to burn biomedical radioactive waste. In preparation for the incinerator, the Radiation Safety Office devised a comprehensive plan for its safe and effective use. The incinerator plan includes a discussion of regulations regarding on-site incineration of radioactive waste, plans for optimum use in burning four principal waste forms, controlled air incineration technology, and standard health physics safety practices; a use plan, including waste categorization and segregation, processing, and ash disposition; safety procedures, including personnel and area monitoring; and methods to evaluate the incinerator's effectiveness by estimating its volume reduction factors, mass and activity balances, and by determining the cost effectiveness of incineration versus commercial shallow land burial

  5. Oxygen incineration process for treatment of alpha-contaminated wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Guk; Yang, Hee Chul; Park, Geun Il; Kim, In Tae; Kim, Joon Hyung

    2001-07-01

    As a part of development of a treatment technology for burnable alpha-bearing (or -contaminated) wastes using an oxygen incineration process, which would be expected to produce in Korea, the off-gas volume and compositions were estimated form mass and heat balance, and then compared to those of a general air incineration process. A laboratory-scale oxygen incineration process, to investigate a burnable wastes from nuclear fuel fabricatin facility, was designed, constructed, and then operated. The use of oxygen instead of air in incineratin would result in reduction on off-gas product below one seventh theoretically. In addition, the trends on incineration and melting processes to treat the radioactive alpha-contaminated wastes, and the regulations and guide lines, related to design, construction, and operation of incineration process, were reviewed. Finallu, the domestic regulations related incineration, and the operation and maintenance manuals for oxy-fuel burner and oxygen incineration process were shown in appendixes

  6. On site clean up with a hazardous waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, F.L. Jr.; Tessitore, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    The Army Corps of Engineers and the EPA have determined that on-site incineration for the detoxification of soils, sediments, and sludges is a viable, safe, and economic alternative. This paper discusses an approach to on-site incineration as a method of detoxification of soils/sediments contaminated with organic hazardous wastes. Specifically, this paper describes the procedures used to evaluate on-site incineration at a large Superfund site with extensive PCB contaminated soils and sediments. The paper includes the following: (1) a discussion of site waste quantities and properties, (2) a selection of an incineration technology with a resulting concept and design, (3) a discussion of incinerator permitting requirements, (4) discussion and rationale for an incinerator sub-scale testing approach, and (5) analysis of on-site incineration cost

  7. Oxygen incineration process for treatment of alpha-contaminated wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Guk; Yang, Hee Chul; Park, Geun Il; Kim, In Tae; Kim, Joon Hyung

    2001-07-01

    As a part of development of a treatment technology for burnable alpha-bearing (or -contaminated) wastes using an oxygen incineration process, which would be expected to produce in Korea, the off-gas volume and compositions were estimated form mass and heat balance, and then compared to those of a general air incineration process. A laboratory-scale oxygen incineration process, to investigate a burnable wastes from nuclear fuel fabricatin facility, was designed, constructed, and then operated. The use of oxygen instead of air in incineratin would result in reduction on off-gas product below one seventh theoretically. In addition, the trends on incineration and melting processes to treat the radioactive alpha-contaminated wastes, and the regulations and guide lines, related to design, construction, and operation of incineration process, were reviewed. Finallu, the domestic regulations related incineration, and the operation and maintenance manuals for oxy-fuel burner and oxygen incineration process were shown in appendixes.

  8. The Valduc waste incineration facility starts operations (iris process)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chateauvieux, H.; Guiberteuau, P.; Longuet, T.; Lannaud, J.; Lorich, M.

    1998-01-01

    In the operation of its facilities the Valduc Research Center produces alpha-contaminated solid waste and thus decided to build an incineration facility to treat the most contaminated combustible waste. The process selected for waste incineration is the IRIS process developed by the CEA at the Marcoule Nuclear Research Center. The Valduc Center asked SGN to build the incineration facility. The facility was commissioned in late 1996, and inactive waste incineration campaigns were run in 1997. The operator conducted tests with calibrated radioactive sources to qualify the systems for measuring holdup of active material from outside the equipment. Chlorinated waste incineration test runs were performed using the phosphatizing process developed by the Marcoule Research Center. Inspections performed after these incineration runs revealed the complete absence of corrosion in the equipment. Active commissioning of the facility is scheduled for mid-1998. The Valduc incinerator is the first industrial application of the IRIS process. (author)

  9. The necessity for complex long-term predictions while designing systems for disposal of radwaste and role of those predictions in development of programs for environment protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kedrovsky, O.L.; Schishitz, I.Y.

    1993-01-01

    Development of nuclear power in the future depends on solving two problems: creation of safe reactors; and reliable isolation of radwaste formed during all stages of the nuclear-fuel-cycle. The peculiarity of the second problem consists of the fact that considerable financial expenses are necessary for its decision. The range of the problem is characterized by the predictions of waste accumulation according to which summary activity of those materials (by the year 2000) will come up to 6 x 10 10 mCu. To successfully solve the radwaste isolation problem on the governmental level, it is necessary to formulate the corresponding regulation system. The main task of development of geological aspects of radwaste isolation consists of elimination of dangerous situations, reaching minimum damage effect, and development of a system for hydromonitoring, which includes blocks for search and standard prediction. The paper discusses the activities being carried out in Russia to solve the problems of radwaste disposal

  10. Evaluation of disposal, recycling and clearance scenarios for managing ARIES radwaste after plant decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Guebaly, L.

    2007-01-01

    The wealth of experience accumulated over the past 30-40 years of fusion power plant studies must be forged into a new strategy to reshape all aspects of handling the continual stream of radioactive materials during operation and after power plant decommissioning. With tighter environmental controls and the political difficulty of building new repositories worldwide, the disposal option could be replaced with more environmentally attractive scenarios, such as recycling and clearance. We applied the three scenarios to the most recent ARIES compact stellarator power plant. All ARIES-CS components qualify as Class A or C low-level waste, according to the US guidelines, and can potentially be recycled using conventional and advanced remote handling equipment. Approximately 80% of the total waste can be cleared for reuse within the nuclear industry or, preferably, released to the commercial market. This paper documents the recent developments in radwaste management of nuclear facilities and highlights the benefits and challenges of disposal, recycling and clearance

  11. Immobilization and leaching mechanisms of radwaste in cement-based matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasser, F.P.; Rahman, A.A.; Crawford, R.W.; McCullough, C.E.; Angus, M.J.

    1982-03-01

    The components of anhydrous cement clinkers and their adsorptive properties for Cs has been determined. The efficiency of different analytical methods are compared, and it is shown that only radiochemical methods afford a true picture of the quantitative extent of adsorption. Hydrothermal studies have been undertaken to assess the interactions between the Ca(OH) 2 component of cement and radioactive waste constituents. In most cases, chemical reaction occurs due to the strongly alkaline nature of the medium: the potential of hydrothermal methods for predicting the behaviour and performance of cement-radwaste systems is assessed and the relevant solution chemistry described. Cement-zeolite interactions have been studied: these interactions are revealed by a variety of physical techniques, and begin to afford some insight into the reaction mechanism. (author)

  12. A study of reverse osmosis applicability to light water reactor radwaste processing. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markind, J.; Van Tran, T.

    1979-04-01

    The use of membrane technology has demonstrated significant process potential in nuclear radioactive waste applications. Reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration can provide filtration capability without the need of filter aids, minimize the requirements of chemical regeneration and/or disposal of expensive resins and can preconcentrate wastes without requiring major process equipment with large auxiliary heat supplies. Because of these capabilities, a study was undertaken to review, evaluate and document the existing experience, both nuclear and appropriate non-nuclear, of the membrane industry as it applies to the processing of reactor radwaste by membrane technology and, in particular, reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration. Relevant information was collected from both the literature and extensive communications with users and suppliers of membrane equipment. The systems reviewed ranged from experimental laboratory units to full scale process units

  13. Industrial Complex for Solid Radwaste Management at Chernobyle Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahner, S.; Fomin, V. V.

    2002-02-26

    In the framework of the preparation for the decommissioning of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) an Industrial Complex for Solid Radwaste Management (ICSRM) will be built under the EC TACIS Program in the vicinity of ChNPP. The paper will present the proposed concepts and their integration into existing buildings and installations. Further, the paper will consider the safety cases, as well as the integration of Western and Ukrainian Organizations into a cohesive project team and the requirement to guarantee the fulfillment of both Western standards and Ukrainian regulations and licensing requirements. The paper will provide information on the status of the interim design and the effects of value engineering on the output of basic design phase. The paper therefor summarizes the design results of the involved design engineers of the Design and Process Providers BNFL (LOT 1), RWE NUKEM GmbH (LOT 2 and General) and INITEC (LOT 3).

  14. 40 CFR 60.2886 - What is a new incineration unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is a new incineration unit? 60... Waste Incineration Units for Which Construction is Commenced After December 9, 2004, or for Which... incineration unit? (a) A new incineration unit is an incineration unit subject to this subpart that meets...

  15. 40 CFR 60.2015 - What is a new incineration unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is a new incineration unit? 60... Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units for Which Construction Is Commenced After November 30, 1999 or for... is a new incineration unit? (a) A new incineration unit is an incineration unit that meets either of...

  16. Defense waste cyclone incinerator demonstration program: October--March 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinger, L.M.

    1979-01-01

    The cyclone incinerator developed at Mound has proven to be an effective tool for waste volume reduction. During the first half of FY-1979, efforts have been made to increase the versatility of the system. Incinerator development was continued in three areas. Design changes were drafted for the present developmental incinerator to rectify several minor operational deficiencies of the system. Improvements will be limited to redesign unless installation is required to prove design or to permit implementation of other portions of the plan. The applications development portion of the feasibility plan is focused upon expanding the versatility of the incinerator. An improved delivery system was installed for burning various liquids. An improved continuous feed system was installed and will be demonstrated later this year. Late in FY-1979, work will begin on the conceptual design of a production cyclone incinerator which will handle nonrecoverable TRU waste, and which will fully demonstrate the capabilities of the cyclone incinerator system. Data generated in past years and during FY-1979 are being collected to establish cyclone incineration effects on solids, liquids, and gases in the system. Data reflecting equipment life cycles and corrosion have been tabulated. Basic design criteria for a cyclone incinerator system based on developmental work on the incinerator through FY-1979 have been assembled. The portion of the material dealing with batch-type operation of the incinerator will be published later this year

  17. Radwaste paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, L.J.

    1983-01-01

    The Paradox Basin is one of the places where the US Department of Energy is looking for a site for a deep-mined repository for high-level radioactive waste. This seems appropriately symbolic because the geologic disposal problem has increasingly taken on the aspect of a political and technical conundrum, replete with real or seeming contradictions and paradoxes. A central paradox is that, while the concept of sequestering long-lived wastes in mined repositories is attractive intuitively, the very efforts made to confirm the suitability of particular rock formations give rise to further uncertainties. The new law contemplates repository construction will start as early as 1989. Experience so far at the several sites suggests that the technical and political questions tend to proliferate rather than diminish as more becomes known about the geology and hydrology. The following sites were discussed: the Hanford basalt; the Nevada tuff; and salt beds and salt domes (Utah, Texas, Mississippi). (DP)

  18. Ohio incinerator given the go-ahead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemezis, P.

    1992-01-01

    A federal judge has denied a request for an injunction against the startup of the long-stalled Waste Technologies Industries (WTI) commercial hazardous waste incinerator in East Liverpool, OH. The $140-million plant, owned by a US subsidiary of Swiss engineering group Von Roll Ltd. (Zuerich), will go through a startup stage and a seven-day trial burn during the next two months, according to WTI. In testimony in federal court in Huntington, WV, WTI had said it was losing $115,000/day in fixed costs because of the plant's startup delay. The company also said that long-term contracts with Chemical Waste Management (CWM; Oak Brook, IL), Du Pont (Wilmington, DE), and BASF Corp. (Parsippany, NJ) to use plant services could be jeopardized by the delay. WTI is believed to have 10-year service contracts with the three companies and also will use CWM to dispose of the ash from the incinerator

  19. Radioactive waste incineration system cold demonstration test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hozumi, Masahiro; Takaoku, Yoshinobu; Koyama, Shigeru; Nagae, Madoka; Seike, Yasuhiko; Yamanaka, Yasuhiro; Shibata, Kenji; Manabe, Kyoichi

    1984-12-01

    To demonstrate Waste Incineration System (WIS) which our company has been licensed by Combustion Engineering Inc., USA we installed a demonstration test plant in our Hiratsuka Research Laboratory and started the demonstration test on January 1984. One of the characteristics of this system is to be able to process many kinds of wastes with only one system, and to get high volume reduction factors. In our test plant, we processed paper, cloth, wood, polyethylene sheets as the samples of solid combustible wastes and spent ion exchange resins with incineration and processed condensed liquid wastes with spray drying. We have got good performances and enough Decontamination Factor (DF) data for the dust control equipment. In this paper, we introduce this demonstration test plant and report the test results up to date. (author).

  20. Possibilities of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash utilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Silvie; Koval, Lukáš; Škrobánková, Hana; Matýsek, Dalibor; Winter, Franz; Purgar, Amon

    2015-08-01

    Properties of the waste treatment residual fly ash generated from municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash were investigated in this study. Six different mortar blends with the addition of the municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash were evaluated. The Portland cement replacement levels of the municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash used were 25%, 30% and 50%. Both, raw and washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash samples were examined. According to the mineralogical composition measurements, a 22.6% increase in the pozzolanic/hydraulic properties was observed for the washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash sample. The maximum replacement level of 25% for the washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash in mortar blends was established in order to preserve the compressive strength properties. Moreover, the leaching characteristics of the crushed mortar blend was analysed in order to examine the immobilisation of its hazardous contents. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Commercial Cyclone Incinerator Demonstration Program: April-September 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, B.M.

    1979-01-01

    The commercial cyclone incinerator program was designed to study the effects of burning low-level waste contaminated with beta and gamma emitters in a cyclone system. The ultimate program goal is the demonstration of a cyclone incinerator at a nuclear power plant. During the past six months, the first program objective, NRC review of the Feasibility Plan, was achieved, and work began on the second objective, Complete Incinerator Feasibility Plan. Potential applications for the cyclone incinerator have been investigated. The feasibility plan for the incinerator system was reviewed with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Following a series of cold checkout burns, implementation of the feasibility plan was begun with the start of laboratory-scale experiments. Inconel 601 is being investigated as a material of construction for the incinerator burn chamber

  2. Fluidized bed incineration of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, D.L.

    1976-01-01

    A fluidized-bed incineration facility is being designed for installation at the Rocky Flats Plant to demonstrate a process for the combustion of transuranic waste. The unit capacity will be about 82 kg/hr of combustible waste. The combustion process will utilize in situ neutralization of acid gases generated in the process. The equipment design is based on data generated on a pilot unit and represents a scale-up of nine. Title I engineering is at least 70 percent complete

  3. Arsenic burden survey among refuse incinerator workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Chung-Liang

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Incinerator workers are not considered to have arsenic overexposure although they have the risk of overexposure to other heavy metals. Aim: To examine the relationship between arsenic burden and risk of occupational exposure in employees working at a municipal refuse incinerator by determining the concentrations of arsenic in the blood and urine. Settings and Design: The workers were divided into three groups based on their probability of contact with combustion-generated residues, namely Group 1: indirect contact, Group 2: direct contact and Group 3: no contact. Healthy age- and sex-matched residents living in the vicinity were enrolled as the control group. Materials and Methods: Heavy metal concentrations were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Downstream rivers and drinking water of the residents were examined for environmental arsenic pollution. A questionnaire survey concerning the contact history of arsenic was simultaneously conducted. Statistical analysis: Non-parametric tests, cross-tabulation and multinomial logistic regression. Results: This study recruited 122 incinerator workers. The urine and blood arsenic concentrations as well as incidences of overexposure were significantly higher in the workers than in control subjects. The workers who had indirect or no contact with combustion-generated residues had significantly higher blood arsenic level. Arsenic contact history could not explain the difference. Airborne and waterborne arsenic pollution were not detected. Conclusion: Incinerator workers run the risk of being exposed to arsenic pollution, especially those who have incomplete protection in the workplace even though they only have indirect or no contact with combustion-generated pollutants.

  4. Graphite waste incineration in a fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guiroy, J.J.

    1996-01-01

    French gas-cooled reactors belonging to the Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Electricite de France (EDF), Hifrensa (Spain), etc., commissioned between the 1950s and 1970s, have generated large quantities of graphite wastes, mainly in the form of spent fuel sleeves. Furthermore, some of these reactors scheduled for dismantling in the near future (such as the G2 and G3 reactors at Marcoule) have cores consisting of graphite blocks. Consequently, a fraction of the contaminated graphite, amounting to 6000 t in France for example, must be processed in the coming years. For this processing, incineration using a circulating fluidized bed combustor has been selected as a possible solution and validated. However, the first operation to be performed involves recovering this graphite waste, and particularly, first of all, the spent fuel sleeves that were stored in silos during the years of reactor operation. Subsequent to the final shutdown of the Spanish gas-cooled reactor unit, Vandellos 1, the operating utility Hifrensa awarded contracts to a Framatome Iberica SA/ENSA consortium for removing, sorting, and prepackaging of the waste stored in three silos on the Vandellos site, essentially graphite sleeves. On the other hand, a program to validate the Framatome fluidized bed incineration process was carried out using a prototype incinerator installed at Le Creusot, France. The validation program included 22 twelve-hour tests and one 120-hour test. Particular attention was paid to the safety aspects of this project. During the performance of the validation program, a preliminary safety assessment was carried out. An impact assessment was performed with the help of the French Institute for Protection and Nuclear Safety, taking into account the preliminary spectra supplied by the CEA and EDF, and the activities of the radionuclides susceptible of being released into the atmosphere during the incineration. (author). 4 refs, 11 figs, 1 tab

  5. Environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation

    OpenAIRE

    Toller, Susanna

    2008-01-01

     In Sweden, utilisation of incinerator residues outside disposal areas is restricted by environmental concerns, as such residues commonly contain greater amounts of potentially toxic trace elements than the natural materials they replace. On the other hand, utilisation can also provide environmental benefits by decreasing the need for landfill and reducing raw material extraction. This thesis provides increased knowledge and proposes better approaches for environmental assessment of incinerat...

  6. Conceptual design report for alpha waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-04-01

    The Alpha Waste Incinerator, a new facility in the SRP H-Area, will process transuranic or alpha-contaminated combustible solid wastes. It will seal the radioactive ash and scrubbing salt residues in cans for interim storage in drums on site burial ground pads. This report includes objectives, project estimate, schedule, standards and criteria, excluded costs, safety evaluation, energy consumption, environmental assessment, and key drawings

  7. The Savannah River Plant Consolidated Incineration Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    A full scale incinerator is proposed for construction at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) beginning in August 1989 for detoxifiction and volume reduction of liquid and solid low-level radioactive, mixed and RCRA hazardous waste. Wastes to be burned include drummed liquids, sludges and solids, liquid process wastes, and low-level boxed job control waste. The facility will consist of a rotary kiln primary combustion chamber followed by a tangentially fired cylindrical secondary combustion chamber (SCC) and be designed to process up to 12 tons per day of solid and liquid waste. Solid waste packaged in combustible containers will be fed to the rotary kiln incinerator using a ram feed system and liquid wastes will be introduced to the rotary kiln through a burner nozzle. Liquid waste will also be fed through a high intensity vortex burner in the SCC. Combustion gases will exit the SCC and be cooled to saturation in a spray quench. Particulate and acid gas are removed in a free jet scrubber. The off-gas will then pass through a cyclone separator, mist eliminator, reheater high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration and induced draft blowers before release to the atmosphere. Incinerator ash and scrubber blowdown will be immobilized in a cement matrix and disposed of in an onsite RCRA permitted facility. The Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) will provide detoxification and volume reduction for up to 560,000 CUFT/yr of solid waste and up to 35,700 CUFT/yr of liquid waste. Up to 50,500 CUFT/yr of cement stabilized ash and blowdown will beproduced for an average overall volume reduction fator of 22:1. 3 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Incineration process for plutonium-contaminated waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincent, J.J.; Longuet, T.; Cartier, R.; Chaudon, L.

    1992-01-01

    A reprocessing plant with an annual throughput of 1600 metric tons of fuel generates 50 m 3 of incinerable α-contaminated waste. The reference treatment currently adopted for these wastes is to embed them in cement grout, with a resulting conditioned waste volume of 260 m 3 . The expense of mandatory geological disposal of such volumes justifies examination of less costly alternative solutions. After several years of laboratory and inactive pilot-scale research and development, the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique has developed a two-step incineration process that is particularly suitable for α-contaminated chlorinated plastic waste. A 4 kg-h -1 pilot unit installed at the Marcoule Nuclear Center has now logged over 3500 hours in operation, during which the operating parameters have been optimized and process performance characteristics have been determined. Laboratory research during the same period has also determined the volatility of transuranic nuclides (U, Am and Pu) under simulated incineration conditions. A 100 g-h -1 laboratory prototype has been set up to obtain data for designing the industrial pilot facility

  9. Mobility of organic carbon from incineration residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecke, Holger; Svensson, Malin

    2008-01-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) may affect the transport of pollutants from incineration residues when landfilled or used in geotechnical construction. The leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash and air pollution control residue (APC) from the incineration of waste wood was investigated. Factors affecting the mobility of DOC were studied in a reduced 2 6-1 experimental design. Controlled factors were treatment with ultrasonic radiation, full carbonation (addition of CO 2 until the pH was stable for 2.5 h), liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio, pH, leaching temperature and time. Full carbonation, pH and the L/S ratio were the main factors controlling the mobility of DOC in the bottom ash. Approximately 60 weight-% of the total organic carbon (TOC) in the bottom ash was available for leaching in aqueous solutions. The L/S ratio and pH mainly controlled the mobilization of DOC from the APC residue. About 93 weight-% of TOC in the APC residue was, however, not mobilized at all, which might be due to a high content of elemental carbon. Using the European standard EN 13 137 for determination of total organic carbon (TOC) in MSWI residues is inappropriate. The results might be biased due to elemental carbon. It is recommended to develop a TOC method distinguishing between organic and elemental carbon

  10. Consolidated Incineration Facility metals partitioning test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, D.B.

    1993-01-01

    Test burns were conducted at Energy and Environmental Research Corporation's rotary kiln simulator, the Solid Waste Incineration Test Facility, using surrogate CIF wastes spiked with hazardous metals and organics. The primary objective for this test program was measuring heavy metals partition between the kiln bottom ash, scrubber blowdown solution, and incinerator stack gas. Also, these secondary waste streams were characterized to determine waste treatment requirements prior to final disposal. These tests were designed to investigate the effect of several parameters on metals partitioning: incineration temperature; waste chloride concentration; waste form (solid or liquid); and chloride concentration in the scrubber water. Tests were conducted at three kiln operating temperatures. Three waste simulants were burned, two solid waste mixtures (paper, plastic, latex, and one with and one without PVC), and a liquid waste mixture (containing benzene and chlorobenzene). Toxic organic and metal compounds were spiked into the simulated wastes to evaluate their fate under various combustion conditions. Kiln offgases were sampled for volatile organic compounds (VOC), semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC), polychlorinated dibenz[p]dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF), metals, particulate loading and size distribution, HCl, and combustion products. Stack gas sampling was performed to determine additional treatment requirements prior to final waste disposal. Significant test results are summarized below

  11. Evaluation of radwaste minimization program of dry and wet active waste in the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna-Garza, Hector

    2001-01-01

    A growing rate of radwaste volume production combined with an increase of both, costs and associated dose involved in its treatment and disposition processes have created a serious problem to the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant (BWR, two Units, 682 Mwe each) in Mexico. Due the lack of a Final Repository in the country, the solution in the short or long terms relies on the success of a continuous and aggressive minimization program mainly based on modifications and upgrades applied to these processes. Technical and administrative strategies adopted by LVNPP for the reduction of Liquid Effluents and Dry and Wet Active Waste in the next three years are described. Based on the results of the LVNPP current radwaste process systems, an estimated accumulation of 11,502 m 3 by the year 2035 will exceed the actual on-site storage capacity. If the strategies succeed, this production would fall to an expected manageable volume of 4067 m 3 . (author)

  12. Incineration of alpha-active solid waste by microwaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallik, G K; Bhargava, V K; Kamath, H S; Purushotham, D S.C. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Tarapur (India). Advanced Fuel Fabrication Facility

    1996-12-31

    The conventional techniques for treatment of alpha-active compressible solid waste involve incineration using electrically heated incinerators and subsequent recovery of special nuclear materials (SNM) from the ash by acid leaching. A microwave incineration followed by microwave digestion and SNM recovery from ash has specific advantages from maintenance and productivity consideration. The paper describes a preliminary work carried out with simulated uranium containing compressible solid waste using microwave heating technique. (author). 3 refs., 1 tab.

  13. Research and development plan for the Slagging Pyrolysis Incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedahl, T.G.; McCormack, M.D.

    1979-01-01

    Objective is to develop an incinerator for processing disposed transuranium waste. This R and D plan describes the R and D efforts required to begin conceptual design of the Slagging Pyrolysis Incinerator (Andco-Torrax). The program includes: incinerator, off-gas treatment, waste handling, instrumentation, immobilization analyses, migration studies, regulations, Belgium R and D test plan, Disney World test plan, and remote operation and maintenance

  14. Incinerators for radioactive wastes in Japanese nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karita, Yoichi

    1983-01-01

    As the measures of treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes in nuclear power stations, the development of the techniques to decrease wastes, to reduce the volume of wastes, to treat wastes by solidification and to dispose wastes has been advanced energetically. In particular, efforts have been exerted on the volume reduction treatment from the viewpoint of the improvement of storage efficiency and the reduction of transport and disposal costs. Incineration as one of the volume reduction techniques has been regarded as the most effective method with large reduction ratio, but it was not included in waste treatment system. NGK Insulators Ltd. developed NGK type miscellaneous solid incinerators, and seven incinerators were installed in nuclear power stations. These incinerators have been operated smoothly, and the construction is in progress in six more plants. The necessity of incinerators in nuclear power stations and the problems in their adoption, the circumstance of the development of NGK type miscellaneous solid incinerators, the outline of the incinerator of Karlsruhe nuclear power station and the problems, the contents of the technical development in NGK, the outline of NGK type incinerators and the features, the outline of the pretreatment system, incinerator system, exhaust gas treatment system, ash taking out system and accessory equipment, the operational results and the performance are described. (Kako, I.)

  15. Waste incineration industry and development policies in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Zhao, Xingang; Li, Yanbin; Li, Xiaoyu

    2015-12-01

    The growing pollution from municipal solid waste due to economic growth and urbanization has brought great challenge to China. The main method of waste disposal has gradually changed from landfill to incineration, because of the enormous land occupation by landfills. The paper presents the results of a study of the development status of the upstream and downstream of the waste incineration industry chain in China, reviews the government policies for the waste incineration power industry, and provides a forecast of the development trend of the waste incineration industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Nuclear incineration method for long life radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Takaaki; Uematsu, Kunihiko.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear incineration method is the method of converting the long life radioactive nuclides in wastes to short life or stable nuclides by utilizing the nuclear reaction caused by radiation, unlike usual chemical incineration. By the nuclear incineration, the radioactivity of wastes increases in a short period, but the problems at the time of the disposal are reduced because of the decrease of long life radioactive nuclides. As the radiation used for the nuclear incineration, the neutron beam from fission and fusion reactors and accelerators, the proton beam and gamma ray from accelerators have been studied. The object of the nuclear incineration is actinide, Sr-90, Cs-137, I-129 and Tc-99. In particular, waste actinide emits alpha ray, and is strongly toxic, accordingly, the motive of attempting the nuclear incineration is strong. In Japan, about 24t of waste actinide will accumulate by 2000. The principle of the nuclear incineration, and the nuclear incineration using nuclear fission and fusion reactors and accelerators are described. The nuclear incineration using fission reactors was examined for the first time in 1972 in USA. It is most promising because it is feasible by the present technology without particular research and development. (Kako, I.)

  17. Environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toller, Susanna

    2008-10-15

    In Sweden, utilisation of incinerator residues outside disposal areas is restricted by environmental concerns, as such residues commonly contain greater amounts of potentially toxic trace elements than the natural materials they replace. On the other hand, utilisation can also provide environmental benefits by decreasing the need for landfill and reducing raw material extraction. This thesis provides increased knowledge and proposes better approaches for environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation, particularly bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI). A life cycle assessment (LCA) based approach was outlined for environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation, in which leaching of trace elements as well as other emissions to air and water and the use of resources were regarded as constituting the potential environmental impact from the system studied. Case studies were performed for i) road construction with or without MSWI bottom ash, ii) three management scenarios for MSWI bottom ash and iii) three management scenarios for wood ash. Different types of potential environmental impact predominated in the activities of the system and the scenarios differed in use of resources and energy. Utilising MSWI bottom ash in road construction and recycling of wood ash on forest land saved more natural resources and energy than when these materials were managed according to the other scenarios investigated, including dumping in landfill. There is a potential for trace element leaching regardless of how the ash is managed. Trace element leaching, particularly of copper (Cu), was identified as being relatively important for environmental assessment of MSWI bottom ash utilisation. CuO is suggested as the most important type of Cu-containing mineral in weathered MSWI bottom ash, whereas in the leachate Cu is mainly present in complexes with dissolved organic matter (DOM). The hydrophilic components of the DOM were more important for Cu

  18. Simulation of co-incineration of sewage sludge with municipal solid waste in a grate furnace incinerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hai; Ma, Xiaoqian

    2012-03-01

    Incineration is one of the most important methods in the resource recovery disposal of sewage sludge. The combustion characteristics of sewage sludge and an increasing number of municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration plants provide the possibility of co-incineration of sludge with MSW. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was used to verify the feasibility of co-incineration of sludge with MSW, and predict the effect of co-incineration. In this study, wet sludge and semi-dried sludge were separately blended with MSW as mixed fuels, which were at a co-incineration ratios of 5 wt.% (wet basis, the same below), 10 wt.%, 15 wt.%, 20 wt.% and 25 wt.%. The result indicates that co-incineration of 10 wt.% wet sludge with MSW can ensure the furnace temperature, the residence time and other vital items in allowable level, while 20 wt.% of semi-dried sludge can reach the same standards. With lower moisture content and higher low heating value (LHV), semi-dried sludge can be more appropriate in co-incineration with MSW in a grate furnace incinerator. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Significance of waste incineration in Germany; Stellenwert der Abfallverbrennung in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-10-15

    The report on the relevance of waste incineration in Germany is covering the following issues: change of the issue waste incineration in the last century, the controversy on waste incineration in the 80ies; environmental relevance of waste incineration; utilization of incineration residues; contribution to environmental protection; possible hazards for human health due are waste incinerator plants; the central challenges of waste incineration today; potential restraints to energy utilization in thermal waste processing; optimization of the energetic utilization of municipal wastes; future of the waste management and the relevance of waste incineration.

  20. Evaluation and standardisation of fast analytical techniques for destructive radwaste control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Simone, A.; Troiani, F. [ENEA, Unita' Rifiuti Radioattivi e Disattivazione Impianti, Centro Ricerche Saluggia, Vercelli (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    The document describes the work programme carried out by the Laboratorio Nazionale per la 'Caratterizzazione dei Rifiuti Radioattivi', in the frame of the European research project Destructive Radwaste Control. The main tasks of the research work were the evaluation of fast sample pre-treatment procedures and the development of chromatographic methods coupled to fast nuclide detection by Liquid Scintillation Counting. In order to test the High Performance Ion Chromatograph (HPIC) coupled to the Liquid Scintillation Counter (LSC) on high salt content solutions, synthetic cement solutions have been prepared and spiked with several {beta}-emitters hard to be measured with non-destructive analyses, along with other radionuclides important for the determination of the radiological inventory in radwastes. As the validation tests for the new analytical methods involved the manipulation of radioactive solutions, a remote area for HPIC-LSC apparatus has been designed and performed, in order to operate in safe conditions. According to the research programme, fast analytical methods for the chemical separation and radionuclide detection of the radioactive elements of interest, have been developed and qualified. From the results of the work, some protocols of analysis have been defined: they contain all information about operative conditions for HPIC-LSC apparatus, field of applicability, chemical and radioactive detection limits. [Italian] Questo documento riporta il lavoro realizzato dal Laboratorio Nazionale per la Caratterizzazione dei Rifiuti Radioattivi, nell'ambito del progetto di ricerca Europeo sulle tecniche di misura distruttive per rifiuti radioattivi. Il lavoro era finalizzato sia alla valutazione di nuove procedure veloci per la preparazione dei campioni da analizzare sia allo sviluppo di metodi Cromatografici accoppiati alla rivelazione di radionuclidi mediante Conteggio a Scintillazione Liquida. La sperimentazione della Cromatografia Ionica ad

  1. 40 CFR 270.62 - Hazardous waste incinerator permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... WASTES (CONTINUED) EPA ADMINISTERED PERMIT PROGRAMS: THE HAZARDOUS WASTE PERMIT PROGRAM Special Forms of Permits § 270.62 Hazardous waste incinerator permits. When an owner or operator of a hazardous waste... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hazardous waste incinerator permits...

  2. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF PIC FORMATION DURING CFC INCINERATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of experiments to assess: (1) the effect of residual copper retained in an incineration facility on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/PCDF) formation during incineration of non-copper-containing chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs); and (2) th...

  3. Radioactivity partitioning in incinerators for miscellaneous low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyle, S.; Bellinger, E.

    1988-03-01

    Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Pollution (HMIP) authorises the use of hospital, university and Local Authority incinerators for the disposal of solid radioactive wastes. At present these authorisations are calculated on ''worst case'' assumptions, this report aims to review the experimental data on radioactivity partitioning in these incinerators, in order to improve the accuracy of HMIP predictions. The types of radionuclides used in medicine were presented and it is noted there is no literature on the composition of university waste. The different types of incinerators are detailed, with diagrams. Major differences in design are apparent, particularly the offgas cleaning equipment in nuclear incinerators which hinders comparisons with institutional incinerators. A comprehensive literature review revealed 17 references on institutional radioactive waste incineration, 11 of these contained data sets. The partitioning experiments were described and show a wide range of methodology from incinerating guinea pigs to filter papers. In general, only ash composition data were presented, with no details of emissions or plating out in the incinerator. Thus the data sets were incomplete, often with a poor degree of accuracy. The data sets contained information on 40 elements; those were compared and general trends were apparent such as the absence of H-3, C-14 and I-125 in the ash in contrast to the high retention of Sc-46. Large differences between data sets were noted for P-32, Sr-85 and Sn-113 and within one experiment for S-35. (author)

  4. EXPERIENCE IN INCINERATION APPLICABLE TO SUPERFUND SITE REMEDIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document can be used as a reference tool for hazardous waste site remediation where incineration is used as a treatment alternative. It provides the user with information garnered from the experiences of others who use incineration. The document presents useful lessons in ev...

  5. Desulfurization of waste gases of the incinerator after petroleum refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samesova, D.; Ladomersky, J.

    2001-01-01

    Desulfurization of waste gases of the incinerator after petroleum refining was developed. Mixing of wastes with lime (10% of additive of total volume of waste) was proved before introduction into incinerator. Concentrations of CO, CO 2 , O 2 , NO 2 , SO 2 and temperature of combustion products were measured by automatic analyser

  6. Chloride leaching from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alam, Q.; Schollbach, K.; Florea, M.V.A.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Vlastimil, Bilek; Kersner, Zbynek; Simonova, Hana

    2017-01-01

    The presence of chlorides in the Municipal Solid Waste Incineration bottom ashes (BA) hinders their potential for recycling in building materials. The contaminant content in the incineration residues is strictly regulated by the Dutch legislation Soil Quality Decree (2013). The fine fraction

  7. Incinerator for power reactor low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drolet, T.S.; Sovka, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    The technique chosen for volume reduction of combustible waste is incineration by a propane-fired unit. Noncombustible material will be compacted into 200 liter drums. A program of segregation of wastes at the producing nuclear stations was instituted. The design and operation of the incinerator, dose limits to the public, and derived release limits for airborne effluents are discussed

  8. Refuse derived fuel incineration: Fuel gas monitoring and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranaldi, E.; Coronidi, M.; De Stefanis, P.; Di Palo, C.; Zagaroli, M.

    1993-11-01

    Experience and results on refuse derived fuel (selected from municipal solid wastes) incineration are reported. The study involved the investigation of inorganic compounds (heavy metals, acids and toxic gases) emissions, and included feeding materials and incineration residues characterization and mass balance

  9. Expansion control for cementation of incinerated ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, T.; Suzuki, S.; Hanada, K.; Tomioka, O.; Sato, J.; Irisawa, K.; Kato, J.; Kawato, Y.; Meguro, Y.

    2015-01-01

    A method, in which incinerated ash is solidified with a cement material, has been developed to dispose of radioactive incinerated ash waste. A small amount of metallic Al, which was not oxidized in the incineration, existed in the ash. When such ash was mixed with a cement material and water, alkaline components in the ash and the cement were dissolved in the mixing water and then metallic Al reaction with the alkaline compounds resulted in generation of H 2 . Because the H 2 generation began immediately just after the mixing, H 2 bubbles pushed up the mixed grout material and an expanded solidified form was obtained. The expansion leads to lowering the strength of the solidified form and making harmful void. In this study, we tried to control H 2 generation from the reaction of metallic Al in the cementation by means of following two methods, one was a method to let metallic Al react prior to the cementation and the other was a method to add an expansion inhibitor that made an oxide film on the surface of metallic Al. In the pre-treatment, the ash was soaked in water in order to let metallic Al react with it, and then the ash with the immersion solution was dried at 105 Celsius degrees. The pre-treated ash was mixed with an ordinary portland cement and water. The inhibitor of lithium nitrite, sodium nitrite, phosphoric acid, or potassium dihydrogen phosphate was added at the mixing process. The solidified forms prepared using the pre-treated ash and lithium nitrite were not expanded. Phosphoric acid and sodium nitrite were effective for expansion control, but potassium dihydrogen phosphate did not work. (authors)

  10. AL(0) in municipal waste incinerator ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipp, S. L.; Ronsbo, J. G.; Zunic, T. B.; Christensen, T. H.

    2003-04-01

    Disposal of municipal waste is a challenge to society. Waste volume is substantially decreased by incineration but residual ash usually contains a number of toxic components which must be immobilised to insure environmental protection. One element, chromium, is mobile and toxic in its oxidised state as Cr(VI) but it can be reduced to Cr(III) and immobilised. Reduction can be promoted by ash treatment with Fe(0) or Fe(II), but recent evidence shows that at least some Cr(VI) is reduced spontaneously in the ash. Aspects of ash behaviour suggest metallic aluminium as the reducing agent, but no direct evidence of Al(0) has been found until now. We examined filter ash from an energy-producing, municipal-waste incinerator (Vest-forbrænding) near Copenhagen. X-ray diffraction (XRD) identified expected salts of Na, K and Ca such as halite, sylvite, calcite, anhydrite and gypsum as well as quartz, feldspar and some hematite. Wave-dispersive electron microprobe produced elemen-tal maps of the ash; Al-rich areas were analysed quantitatively by comparison with standards. We identified metallic Al particles, averaging 50 to 100 micrometers in di-ameter, often with a fractured, glassy border of aluminum oxide. The particles were porous, explaining fast Cr(VI) reduction and they contained thin exsolution lamellae of Al-alloys of Pb and Cu or Mn, Fe and Ag, which provide clues of the Al(0) origin in the waste. Sometimes Al(0) occurred inside glassy globes of Al2O3. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOF-SIMS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) proved that surface Al concentrations on ash particles were below detection, confirming reactivity of the Al(0) bulk. The persistence of reduced Al through the highly oxidising combustion procedure comes as a surprise and is a benefit in the immobilisation of Cr(VI) from municipal-waste incineration residues.

  11. Environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toller, S; Kärrman, E; Gustafsson, J P; Magnusson, Y

    2009-07-01

    Incineration ashes may be treated either as a waste to be dumped in landfill, or as a resource that is suitable for re-use. In order to choose the best management scenario, knowledge is needed on the potential environmental impact that may be expected, including not only local, but also regional and global impact. In this study, A life cycle assessment (LCA) based approach was outlined for environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation, in which leaching of trace elements as well as other emissions to air and water and the use of resources were regarded as constituting the potential environmental impact from the system studied. Case studies were performed for two selected ash types, bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and wood fly ash. The MSWI bottom ash was assumed to be suitable for road construction or as drainage material in landfill, whereas the wood fly ash was assumed to be suitable for road construction or as a nutrient resource to be recycled on forest land after biofuel harvesting. Different types of potential environmental impact predominated in the activities of the system and the use of natural resources and the trace element leaching were identified as being relatively important for the scenarios compared. The scenarios differed in use of resources and energy, whereas there is a potential for trace element leaching regardless of how the material is managed. Utilising MSWI bottom ash in road construction and recycling of wood ash on forest land saved more natural resources and energy than when these materials were managed according to the other scenarios investigated, including dumping in landfill.

  12. Project No. 4 - Waste incineration facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    There are currently 12000 m 3 of combustible waste stored at the Ignalina NPP site. It is estimated that by 2005 the volume will have increase to 15000 m 3 (filters, personnel protection, clothing and plastics). As a part of the preparation for the closure of the Ignalina NPP an incineration facility will be required to process combustible wastes to reduce the overall volume of short-lived radioactive wastes stored at the Ignalina NPP site, thus reducing the overall risk to the environment. Project activities includes the design, construction and commissioning of the proposed facility, including all licensing documentation

  13. The hot demonstration operation of the incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Kezhi; Zhang Zhetao; Fan Xianhua; Li Zhenliang

    1991-01-01

    The hot demonstration operation results of the incinerator designed and developed by CIAE described. During the operation, machine oil containing 3 H with the specific activity of 3.7 x 10 4 Bq/L to 3.7 x 10 7 6 Bq/L was burned. The concentration of 3 H in the off-gas after cleaning was about 286 Bq/m 3 . The process parameters, decontamination factors of radionuclides and the results of environmental monitoring and evaluation are also given in this report

  14. Incineration, pyrolysis and gasification of electronic waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurgul, Agnieszka; Szczepaniak, Włodzimierz; Zabłocka-Malicka, Monika

    2017-11-01

    Three high temperature processes of the electronic waste processing: smelting/incineration, pyrolysis and gasification were shortly discussed. The most distinctive feature of electronic waste is complexity of components and their integration. This type of waste consists of polymeric materials and has high content of valuable metals that could be recovered. The purpose of thermal treatment of electronic waste is elimination of plastic components (especially epoxy resins) while leaving non-volatile mineral and metallic phases in more or less original forms. Additionally, the gaseous product of the process after cleaning may be used for energy recovery or as syngas.

  15. Incineration, pyrolysis and gasification of electronic waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurgul Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Three high temperature processes of the electronic waste processing: smelting/incineration, pyrolysis and gasification were shortly discussed. The most distinctive feature of electronic waste is complexity of components and their integration. This type of waste consists of polymeric materials and has high content of valuable metals that could be recovered. The purpose of thermal treatment of electronic waste is elimination of plastic components (especially epoxy resins while leaving non-volatile mineral and metallic phases in more or less original forms. Additionally, the gaseous product of the process after cleaning may be used for energy recovery or as syngas.

  16. Heavy metals in MSW incineration fly ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Celia; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2003-01-01

    Incineration is a common solution for dealing with the increasing amount of municipal solid waste (MSW). During the process, the heavy metals initially present in the waste go through several transformations, ending up in combustion products, such as fly ash. This article deals with some issues...... related to the combustion of MSW and the formation of fly ash, especially in what concerns heavy metals. Treatment of the flue gas in air pollution control equipment plays an important role and the basic processes to accomplish this are explained. Fly ash from a semi-dry flue gas treatment system...

  17. Criticality management organization in the alpha incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devillard, D.; Thiebaut, C.; Poinso, J.Y.; Huin, M.

    2004-01-01

    The Valduc Research Center, which reports to the CEA's Military applications Division, generates solid wastes contaminated with alpha emitters in the operation of its installations. An incineration plant has been built to treat these contaminated wastes. Criticality risk prevention is based on limiting the mass of active material undergoing treatment in the facility. A balance is compiled continuously by calculating the difference between the mass of active material entering the facility and the mass leaving it. Due to measurement uncertainties, the balance must be zeroed periodically by cleaning and drainage of all the equipment and the absence of holdup in the components must be checked. (authors)

  18. High temperature filter for incinerator gas purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billard, Francois; Brion, Jacques; Cousin, Michel; Delarue, Roger

    1969-01-01

    This note describes a regenerable filter for the hot filtering of incinerator gases. The filter is made of several wire gauze candles coated with asbestos fibers as filtering medium. Unburnt products, like carbon black, terminate their combustion on the filter, reducing the risk of clogging and enhancing the operation time to several hundreds of hours between two regeneration cycles. The filter was tested on a smaller scale mockup, and then on an industrial pilot plant with a 20 kg/h capacity during a long duration. This note describes the installation and presents the results obtained [fr

  19. Incineration systems for low level and mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavruska, J.

    1986-01-01

    A variety of technologies has emerged for incineration of combustible radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes. Evaluation and selection of an incineration system for a particular application from such a large field of options are often confusing. This paper presents several current incineration technologies applicable to Low Level Waste (LLW), hazardous waste, and mixed waste combustion treatment. The major technologies reviewed include controlled-air, rotary kiln, fluidized bed, and liquid injection. Coupled with any incineration technique is the need to select a compatible offgas effluent cleaning system. This paper also reviews the various methods of treating offgas emissions for acid vapor, particulates, organics, and radioactivity. Such effluent control systems include the two general types - wet and dry scrubbing with a closer look at quenching, inertial systems, fabric filtration, gas absorption, adsorption, and various other filtration techniques. Selection criteria for overall waste incineration systems are discussed as they relate to waste characterization

  20. Incineration of low level and mixed wastes: 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The University of California at Irvine, in cooperation with the Department of Energy, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, and chapters of the Health Physics Society, coordinated this conference on the Incineration of Low-Level Radioactive and Mixed Wastes, with the guidance of professionals active in the waste management community. The conference was held in April 22-25, 1986 at Sheraton airport hotel Charlotte, North Carolina. Some of the papers' titles were: Protection and safety of different off-gas treatment systems in radioactive waste incineration; performance assessment of refractory samples in the Los Alamos controlled-Air incinerator; incineration systems for low-level and mixed wastes; incineration of low-level radioactive waste in Switzerland-operational experience and future activities

  1. LCA Comparison of waste incineration in Denmark and Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turconi, Roberto; Butera, Stefania; Boldrin, Alessio

    2011-01-01

    Every year around 50 millions Mg solid waste are incinerated in Europe. Large differences exist in different regions, mainly regarding energy recovery, flue gas treatment and management of solid residues. This paper aims to identify and quantify those differences, providing a Life Cycle Assessment...... of two incinerator systems that are representative of conditions in Northern and Southern Europe. The two case studies are Aarhus (Denmark) and Milan (Italy). The results show that waste incineration appears more environmentally friendly in the Danish case than in the Italian one, due to the higher...... energy recovery and to local conditions, e.g. substitution of electricity and heat in the area. Focusing on the incineration process, Milan incinerator performs better than Aarhus, since its upstream impacts (related to the production of chemicals used in flue gas cleaning) are more than compensated...

  2. Shredder and incinerator technology for treatment of commercial transuranic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oma, K.H.; Westsik, J.H. Jr.; Ross, W.A.

    1985-10-01

    This report describes the selection and evaluation of process equipment to accomplish the shredding and incineration of commercial TRU wastes. The primary conclusions derived from this study are: Shredding and incineration technology appears effective for converting simulated commercial TRU wastes to a noncombustible form. The gas-heated controlled-air incinerator received the highest technical ranking. On a scale of 1 to 10, the incinerator had a Figure-of-Merit (FOM) number of 7.0. This compares to an FOM of 6.1 for the electrically heated controlled-air incinerator and an FOM of 5.8 for the rotary kiln incienrator. The present worth costs of the incineration processes for a postulated commercial reprocessing plant were lowest for the electrically heated and gas-heated controlled-air incinerators with costs of $16.3 M and $16.9 M, respectively (1985 dollars). Due to higher capital and operating costs, the rotary kiln process had a present worth cost of $20.8 M. The recommended process from the three evaluated for the commercial TRU waste application is the gas-heated controlled-air incinerator with a single stage of shredding for feed pretreatment. This process had the best cost-effectiveness ratio of 1.0 (normalized). The electrically heated controller-air incinerator had a rating of 1.2 and the rotary kiln rated a 1.5. Most of the simulated wastes were easily processed by the low-speed shredders evaluated. The HEPA filters proved difficult to process, however. Wood-framed HEPA filters tended to ride on the cutter wheels and spacers without being gripped and shredded. The metal-framed HEPA filters and other difficult to shred items caused the shredders to periodically reach the torque limit and go into an automatic reversal cycle; however, the filters were eventually processed by the units. All three incinerators were ineffective for oxidizing the aluminum metal used as spacers in HEPA filters

  3. Experimental investigation of factors affecting the control of redox conditions within a radwaste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guppy, R.M.; Atkinson, A.

    1991-04-01

    The maximum aqueous concentration of multivalent radioelements in a radwaste repository can be estimated from the expected Eh (the oxidising or reducing tendency of the solution) and pH of the aqueous phase in the repository so long as equilibrium between all oxidising and reducing species can be guaranteed. The objective of the work reported here was to ascertain whether any significant departures from redox equilibrium are likely to arise. Technetium (VII) species were exposed under anaerobic conditions to concentrations of ferrous, hydrogen sulphide and thiosulphate species likely to be present in a repository environment to establish which species are capable of reducing aqueous Tc(VII) to a less soluble Tc(IV) solid compound. Potential catalytic solid phases and phases capable of electron exchange were also exposed to Tc(VII) species under anaerobic, aerobic and hydrogen atmospheres. We have not been able to demonstrate conclusively that mutual equilibrium was attained between technetium and iron redox couples, nor that the apparent solubility of technetium was that expected from the resulting Eh and pH of the solution, although some technetium was removed from solution. Hydrogen did not reduce Tc(VII) within the timescale of the experiments and no catalytic effects by haematite or a cementitious backfill grout for reductions involving hydrogen were observable. Magnetite removed some technetium from solution, apparently by surface reaction, under inert (argon) and reducing (hydrogen) atmospheres. Sulphides, and to a lesser extent thiosulphates, will reduce the solubility of technetium to a very low level. (author)

  4. The design, construction, and operation of the Integrated Radwaste Treatment System (IRTS) Drum Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landau, B.; Russillo, A.; Frank, D.; Garland, D.

    1989-12-01

    This report describes the design, construction, and the operation of the Integrated Radwaste Treatment Systems (IRTS) Drum Cell at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The IRTS Drum Cell was designed to provide a shielded, secure storage area for the remote handling and placement of low-level Class C radioactive waste produced in the IRTS. The Drum Cell was designed to contain up to approximately 8,804 drums from decontaminated supernatant processing. This waste is to be poured into 0.27m 3 in a temperature controlled environment to ensure the cement will not be subjected to freezing and thawing cycles. A Temporary Weather Structure (TWS), a pre-engineered building, now encloses the Drum Cell and associated equipment so that remote waste-handling and placement operations can continue without regard to weather conditions. The Drum Cell was designed so that this TWS could be removed and the low-level waste entombed in place. Final disposition of this low-level waste is currently being evaluated in an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). 10 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  5. Maximized liquid radwaste volume reduction through a total integrated process: A new technology success story

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rae, G.A.

    1996-01-01

    A fundamental nuclear industry goal is the minimization of the generation of radioactive waste. This goal has been dramatically reinforced over the past few years due to the spiraling increased costs of both commercial and DOE disposal. To assist in meeting these goals and reducing the industry's costs, NUKEM initiated a new technology program to maximize the reduction of liquid radwaste through the use of a systematic approach or TIPS (Total Integrated Process System). This concept evaluates the total life cycle of various technologies in a combination that results in the final waste form being minimized to the pure solids content of the waste stream. Additionally, it allows for a final waste form that maximizes the utilization of the waste package and is conditioned to be readily acceptable to additional processing to meet new waste form requirements at future disposal sites, should interim storage of the waste be required. The TIPS, although first introduced at commercial facilities, has broad applications for DOE's liquid waste streams

  6. A strategic approach to the conceptual design of complex radwaste facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackay, Stewart; Scott Dam, A.; Holmes, Robert G.G.

    1992-01-01

    The design of radwaste treatment facilities is often complicated by the variety of waste types being treated. Further uncertainties over their composition and final waste form specifications can make the normal conceptual design phase difficult and unreliable. This paper describes the strategic planning necessary to define the facility functions and the process to prepare a Functional Design Criteria. The paper shows clearly, that for complex waste management problems, it is vital to consider and resolve uncertainties by means of a strategic plan before embarking on conceptual design. The paper shows an approach to preparation of design criteria using functional analysis. The paper provides examples where these methods were and are being used, both in the U.K. and the U.S. Strategic plans and functional criteria can be used as a basis for conceptual design which then provides a more meaningful basis for detailed technology selection during the detailed design process. The paper discusses experiences and lessons learned in the planning process. This process is widely applicable to a number of complex waste treatment facilities being planned and developed to process wastes generated at government facilities. (author)

  7. The chemical behaviour of iodine-129 in the process of radwaste conditioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schon, T.

    1993-11-01

    During radwaste reprocessing, elemental I-129 may almost completely be transferred to the dissolver off-gas stream. The AC 6120 adsorbent, consisting of high-heated, amorphous silicic acid impregnated with silver nitrate, proved to be particularly efficient for removing the iodine from the off-gas. In a gas-solid reaction, the elemental iodine is converted into solid silver iodide and silver iodate. The reaction's stoichiometry depends on the loading temperature, with temperatures between 30 and 80 C resulting in a ratio of five between the reaction products of AgI and AgIO 3 , while with temperatures higher than that, up to 150 C, the ratio is three. For assessing the acceptability of the iodine-bearing AC 6120 as a waste product to be emplaced in a salt rock repository, the ratio of the reaction products is one of the main criteria. The products solubility and its complexation reactions with chloride-bearing brines are two other important criteria, especially with a view to the not completely hypothetical accident type of 'water ingress into the salt cavern'. Leaching experiments have shown that in this event, between 30 and over 60% of the waste product's iodine inventory would be leached out within only seven days. Thus AC 6120 is not a candidate adsorbent for immobilization of iodine 129 in a waste product. (orig./HP) [de

  8. Characterization of polymer-modified cement as a solidification agent for the radwaste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Young-Yong; Kwak, Kyung-Kil; Hong, Dae-Seok; Ryu, Woo-Seog

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Polymer-modified cement (PMC) by modification with water-based resins. ► Determination of the optimized polymer content. ► Evaluation of the improved chemical resistance of the PMC. ► Decrease of the amount of ions released into the demineralized water. ► Highly improved property for the nuclide diffusivity at the Co-60. - Abstract: Polymer-modified cement can be produced by partially replacing cement hydrate binders in ordinary Portland cement with polymeric compounds. It is known that the addition of the polymer to the cement paste leads to improved quality, which would be expected to have a high chemical resistance. In order to investigate the application as a solidification agent for the radwaste, polymer-modified cement specimens, by modification with water-based resins, were prepared according to the polymer content from 0% to 30%. The optimized polymer content in the cement pastes was then determined through the compressive strength and the porosity test. Finally, the improved chemical resistance of the polymer-modified cement with the optimized polymer content was evaluated by the thermal cycling, the immersion, and the leaching tests. From the test results, the amount of ions released into the water showed lower values of about 20% at the polymer-modified cement. Especially, a highly improved nuclide diffusivity of Co-60 was observed in the polymer-modified cement.

  9. Radiochemical approaches to the migration of elements from a radwaste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillaumont, R.

    1993-01-01

    Underground high-level or intermediary-level alpha radwaste repositories will contain tons to hundreds of tons of anthropogenic elements. It is predicted that the release of the elements into the far field will be mainly dependent upon the 'solubilities', sums of the concentrations of soluble species and colloidal/pseudo colloidal forms, of expected near field compounds. On the other hand, safety assessments, based on computation models of migration, show that elements in the discharged water into the biosphere will be at tracer level, or at least, at trace levels. Kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of the processes in which elements will be involved during their migration are discussed together with the change in their concentrations, over several orders of magnitude. It is shown that special attention must be given to predict the behaviour of the elements in the far field from what we know from classical chemistry, and that more experimental data must be obtained to improve the models. (author). 31 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  10. Operation of controlled-air incinerators and design considerations for controlled-air incinerators treating hazardous and radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McRee, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reviews the basic theory and design philosophies of the so-called controlled-air incinerator and examines the features of this equipment that make it ideally suited to the application of low-level radioactive waste disposal. Special equipment design considerations for controlled air incinerators treating hazardous and radioactive wastes are presented. 9 figures

  11. The IRIS Incinerator at Cea-Valduc assessment after more than one ton and a half of active waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chateauvieux, H.; Guiberteau, P.; Longuet, T.; Lemort, F.; Lannaud, J.; Lorich, M.; Medzadourian, M.

    2000-01-01

    During the operation of its facilities, the Valduc Research Center produces alpha-contaminated solid waste. An incineration facility has been built to treat the most contaminated combustible waste. The process selected for waste incineration is the IRIS process, which was developed by the CEA at the Marcoule Nuclear Research Center. The Valduc Center asked SGN to build the incineration facility. The facility was commissioned in late 1996, and inactive waste incineration campaigns were run during more than 2,500 hours in 1997-1998. Active commissioning of the facility was performed in March 1999. Since then five campaigns with active waste and a complete plutonium cleaning session have been carried out, the results of which are given in the paper. The Valduc incinerator is the first industrial active application of the IRIS process. (authors)

  12. Residues from waste incineration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astrup, T.; Juul Pedersen, A.; Hyks, J.; Frandsen, F.J.

    2009-08-15

    The overall objective of the project was to improve the understanding of the formation and characteristics of residues from waste incineration. This was done focusing on the importance of the waste input and the operational conditions of the furnace. Data and results obtained from the project have been discussed in this report according to the following three overall parts: i) mass flows and element distribution, ii) flue gas/particle partitioning and corrosion/deposition aspects, and iii) residue leaching. This has been done with the intent of structuring the discussion while tacitly acknowledging that these aspects are interrelated and cannot be separated. Overall, it was found that the waste input composition had significant impact of the characteristics of the generated residues. A similar correlation between operational conditions and residue characteristics could not be observed. Consequently, the project recommend that optimization of residue quality should focus on controlling the waste input composition. The project results showed that including specific waste materials (and thereby also excluding the same materials) may have significant effects on the residue composition, residue leaching, aerosol and deposit formation.It is specifically recommended to minimize Cl in the input waste. Based on the project results, it was found that a significant potential for optimization of waste incineration exist. (author)

  13. Thermal inertializing of solid incinerator residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proelss, J.

    2003-01-01

    Inertialization of residues is a key task of incinerators. Residues of conventional incineration processes may contain high levels of inorganic or organic pollutants and must be treated prior to recycling. the most effective process is thermal treatment above the melting point. This will destroy organic pollutants like dioxins/furans and pathogenic compounds, while the heavy metals will be partly volatilized. The glassy slag obtained as end product is low in heavy metals and more or less resistant to leaching. The The author describes a method for calculating activity coefficients of volatile components of diluted, liquid multicomponent systems. With these data, the data base for thermodynamic description of fluid mixtures was updated, and a set of characteristic data was established for describing transport in an inflatable module. Once the activity coefficients of interesting constituents of the slag are known along with the transport conditions in the volatilization process, it is possible to optimize the thermal treatment of critical ashes and dusts with a view to energy consumption and process control. In two different exemplary process concepts, the energy consumption for residue treatment is estimated. The processes proposed are compared with published process proposals, and their energy consumption is assessed in a comoparative study [de

  14. Incineration of a Single Component Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, A.Z.

    1999-01-01

    An Advanced controlled air incinerator has been investigated, developed and put into successful operation for a single component and other combustible solid wastes. Experimental studies showed that, at lower temperature, CO 2 , and CH 4 contents in gas reactor effluent increases by the increase of glowing bed temperature, while H 2 O, H 2 and CO decreases. It was proved that, a burn- out efficiency (for ash residues) and a volume reduction factor appeared to be better than 95.5% and 98%, respectively. Moreover, high temperature permits increased volumes of incinerated material and results in increased gasification products . Process chemistry and kinetics of the gasification were studied. The rate of reaction of the gasification process was obtained at different operating conditions by solving a set of algebraic equations provided by applying the extent of reaction concept. The comparison showed a satisfactory agreement between the calculated and experimental values. Unsteady state mass balance equations are developed for the gas reactor. The derived equations are Laplace transformed and solved to generate the dynamic behavior of the system . Open loop calculations are conducted to study the effect of some disturbances on the performance of the gas reactor. Model output was compared with actual experimental data as only slight corrections have to be made

  15. Waste processing building with incineration technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasilah, Wasilah; Zaldi Suradin, Muh.

    2017-12-01

    In Indonesia, waste problem is one of major problem of the society in the city as part of their life dynamics. Based on Regional Medium Term Development Plan of South Sulawesi Province in 2013-2018, total volume and waste production from Makassar City, Maros, Gowa, and Takalar Regency estimates the garbage dump level 9,076.949 m3/person/day. Additionally, aim of this design is to present a recommendation on waste processing facility design that would accommodate waste processing process activity by incineration technology and supported by supporting activity such as place of education and research on waste, and the administration activity on waste processing facility. Implementation of incineration technology would reduce waste volume up to 90% followed by relative negative impact possibility. The result planning is in form of landscape layout that inspired from the observation analysis of satellite image line pattern of planning site and then created as a building site pattern. Consideration of building orientation conducted by wind analysis process and sun path by auto desk project Vasari software. The footprint designed by separate circulation system between waste management facility interest and the social visiting activity in order to minimize the croos and thus bring convenient to the building user. Building mass designed by inseparable connection series system, from the main building that located in the Northward, then connected to a centre visitor area lengthways, and walked to the waste processing area into the residue area in the Southward area.

  16. Analysis of Discharged Gas from Incinerator using Simulated Organic Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seungil; Kim, Hyunki; Heo, Jun; Kang, Dukwon; Kim, Yunbok; Kwon, Youngbock

    2014-01-01

    Korea has no experience of treatment of RI organic waste and appropriate measures for treatment of organic waste did not suggested. RI organic wastes which are occurring in KOREA are stored at the RI waste storage building of KORAD. But they can't no more receive the RI organic waste because the storage facility for RI organic waste was saturated with these organic wastes. In case of Japan, they recognized the dangerousness of long-term storage for RI organic wastes. In case of Korea, the released concentration of gaseous pollutant from the incinerator is regulated by attached table No.1 of the Notification No. 2012-60 of Nuclear Safety Commission and attached table No.8 of Clean Air Conservation Act. And the dioxin from the incinerator is regulated by attached table No.3 of Persistent Organic Pollutants Control Act. This experiment was performed to examine whether the incinerator introduced from Japan is manufactured suitably for municipal law regulation and to confirm the compliance about the gaseous pollutant released from incinerator with the above-mentioned laws especially attached table No.1 of NSC using simulated organic waste solution. In this experiment, we examined whether the incinerator was manufactured suitably for municipal law regulation and confirmed the compliance about the gaseous pollutant released from incinerator with the above-mentioned laws using simulated organic waste solution. The design requirement of incinerator for RI organic waste in the municipal law regulation is proposed briefly but the requirements for more detail about the incinerator are proposed in regulation of Japan. The incinerator used in this experiment is satisfied with all clauses of the domestic as well as Japan. Multiple safety functions were installed in the incinerator such as air purge system to remove unburned inflammable gases in the furnace and earthquake detector. Also, perfect combustion of RI organic waste is achieved because the temperature in the furnace

  17. Analysis of Discharged Gas from Incinerator using Simulated Organic Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seungil; Kim, Hyunki; Heo, Jun; Kang, Dukwon [HaJI Co., Ltd., Radiation Eng. Center, Siheung (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yunbok; Kwon, Youngbock [KORAD, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Korea has no experience of treatment of RI organic waste and appropriate measures for treatment of organic waste did not suggested. RI organic wastes which are occurring in KOREA are stored at the RI waste storage building of KORAD. But they can't no more receive the RI organic waste because the storage facility for RI organic waste was saturated with these organic wastes. In case of Japan, they recognized the dangerousness of long-term storage for RI organic wastes. In case of Korea, the released concentration of gaseous pollutant from the incinerator is regulated by attached table No.1 of the Notification No. 2012-60 of Nuclear Safety Commission and attached table No.8 of Clean Air Conservation Act. And the dioxin from the incinerator is regulated by attached table No.3 of Persistent Organic Pollutants Control Act. This experiment was performed to examine whether the incinerator introduced from Japan is manufactured suitably for municipal law regulation and to confirm the compliance about the gaseous pollutant released from incinerator with the above-mentioned laws especially attached table No.1 of NSC using simulated organic waste solution. In this experiment, we examined whether the incinerator was manufactured suitably for municipal law regulation and confirmed the compliance about the gaseous pollutant released from incinerator with the above-mentioned laws using simulated organic waste solution. The design requirement of incinerator for RI organic waste in the municipal law regulation is proposed briefly but the requirements for more detail about the incinerator are proposed in regulation of Japan. The incinerator used in this experiment is satisfied with all clauses of the domestic as well as Japan. Multiple safety functions were installed in the incinerator such as air purge system to remove unburned inflammable gases in the furnace and earthquake detector. Also, perfect combustion of RI organic waste is achieved because the temperature in the furnace

  18. 40 CFR 60.2885 - Does this subpart apply to my incineration unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... incineration unit? 60.2885 Section 60.2885 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... for Other Solid Waste Incineration Units for Which Construction is Commenced After December 9, 2004....2885 Does this subpart apply to my incineration unit? Yes, if your incineration unit meets all the...

  19. 40 CFR 60.2010 - Does this subpart apply to my incineration unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... incineration unit? 60.2010 Section 60.2010 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units for Which Construction Is Commenced After... Applicability § 60.2010 Does this subpart apply to my incineration unit? Yes, if your incineration unit meets...

  20. 40 CFR 60.2992 - What is an existing incineration unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is an existing incineration unit... Times for Other Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Applicability of State Plans § 60.2992 What is an existing incineration unit? An existing incineration unit is...

  1. Stability Analysis of Buffer Storage Large Basket and Temporary Storage Pre-packaging Basket Used in the Type B Radwaste Process Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Kyun; Lee, Kune Woo; Moon, Jei Kwon

    2011-01-01

    The ITER radioactive waste (radwaste) treatment and storage systems are currently being designed to manage Type B, Type A and dust radwastes generated during the ITER machine operation. The Type B management system is to be in the hot cell building basement with temporary storage and the modular type storages outside the hot cell building for the pre-packed Type B radwaste during the ITER operation of 20 years. In order to store Type B radwaste components in onsite storage, the waste treatment chain process for Type B radwastes was developed as follows. First, Type B full components filled in a large basket are imported from Tokamak to the hot cell basement and they are stored in the buffer storage before treatment. Second, they are cut properly with a laser cutting machine or band saw machine and sliced waste parts are filled in a pre-packaging basket. Third, the sampling of Type B components is performed and then the tritium removal treatment is done in an oven to remove tritium from the waste surface and then the sampling is performed again. Forth, the characterization is performed by using a gamma spectrometry. Fifth, the pre-packaging operation is done to ensure the final packaging of the radwaste. Sixth, the pre-packaging baskets are stored in the temporary storage for 6 months and then they are sent to the extension storage and stored until export to host country. One of issues in the waste treatment scheme is to analyze the stacking stability of a stack of large baskets and pre-packaging baskets in the storage system. The baseline plan is to stack the large baskets in two layers in the buffer storage and to stack the pre-packaging baskets in three layers in the temporary storage and extension storage. In this study, the stacking stability analysis for the buffer storage large basket and temporary storage pre-packaging basket was performed for various stack failure modes

  2. Volume Reduction of Decommissioning Burnable Waste with Oxygen Enrich Incinerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, B. Y.; Yang, D. S.; Lee, K. W.; Choi, J. W. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The incineration technology is an effective treatment method that contains hazardous chemicals as well as radioactive contamination. The volume reduction of the combustible wastes through the incineration technologies has merits from the view point of a decrease in the amount of waste to be disposed of resulting in a reduction of the disposal cost. Incineration is generally accepted as a method of reducing the volume of radioactive waste. The incineration technology is an effective treatment method that contains hazardous chemicals as well as radioactive contamination. This paper covers the general facility operation of an oxygen-enriched incinerator for the treatment of decommissioning wastes generated from a decommissioning project. The combustible wastes have been treated by the utilization of incinerator the capacity of the average 20 kg/hr. The decommissioning combustible waste of about 31 tons has been treated using Oxygen Enriched incinerator by at the end of 2016. The off-gas flow and temperature were maintained constant or within the desired range. The measured gases and particulate materials in the stack were considerably below the regulatory limits.

  3. Assessment of relative POHC destruction at EPA's incineration research facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, G.J.; Lee, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    As part of their permitting process, hazardous waste incinerators must undergo demonstration tests, or trial burns, during which their ability to meet EPA performance standards is evaluated. Among the performance standards is a minimum destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) for principal organic hazardous constituents (POHCs) in the incinerator waste feed. In accordance with the regulations promulgated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), selection POHCs for incinerator trial burns is to be based on the degree of difficulty of incineration of the organic constituents in the waste and on their concentration or mass in the waste feed. In order to predict the relative difficulty of incineration specific compounds, several incinerability ranking approaches have been proposed, including a system based on POHC heats of combustion and a system based on thermal stability under pyrolytic condition. The latter ranking system was developed by the University of Dayton Research Institute (UDRI) under contract to the US EPA Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL). The system is supported largely by non-flame, laboratory-scale data and is based on kinetic calculations indicating that contributor to emissions of undestroyed organic compounds. The subject tests were conducted to develop data on POHC behavior in a larger-scale, conventional incineration environment. 5 refs., 3 tabs

  4. Volume Reduction of Decommissioning Burnable Waste with Oxygen Enrich Incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, B. Y.; Yang, D. S.; Lee, K. W.; Choi, J. W.

    2016-01-01

    The incineration technology is an effective treatment method that contains hazardous chemicals as well as radioactive contamination. The volume reduction of the combustible wastes through the incineration technologies has merits from the view point of a decrease in the amount of waste to be disposed of resulting in a reduction of the disposal cost. Incineration is generally accepted as a method of reducing the volume of radioactive waste. The incineration technology is an effective treatment method that contains hazardous chemicals as well as radioactive contamination. This paper covers the general facility operation of an oxygen-enriched incinerator for the treatment of decommissioning wastes generated from a decommissioning project. The combustible wastes have been treated by the utilization of incinerator the capacity of the average 20 kg/hr. The decommissioning combustible waste of about 31 tons has been treated using Oxygen Enriched incinerator by at the end of 2016. The off-gas flow and temperature were maintained constant or within the desired range. The measured gases and particulate materials in the stack were considerably below the regulatory limits.

  5. Low-level waste institutional waste incinerator program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.D.

    1980-04-01

    Literature surveyed indicated that institutional LLW is composed of organic solids and liquids, laboratory equipment and trash, and some pathological waste. Some toxic and hazardous chemicals are included in the variety of LLW generated in the nation's hospitals, universities, and research laboratories. Thus, the incinerator to be demonstrated in this program should be able to accept each of these types of materials as feedstock. Effluents from the DOE institutional incinerator demonstration should be such that all existing and proposed environmental standards be met. A design requirement was established to meet the most stringent flue gas standards. LLW incineration practice was reviewed in a survey of institutional LLW generators. Incinerator manufacturers were identified by the survey, and operational experience in incineration was noted for institutional users. Manufacturers identified in the survey were contacted and queried with regard to their ability to supply an incinerator with the desired capability. Special requirements for ash removal characteristics and hearth type were imposed on the selection. At the present time, an incinerator type, manufacturer, and model have been chosen for demonstration

  6. Low-level and mixed waste incinerator survey report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, E.C.

    1988-10-01

    The Low-Level and Mixed Waste Survey Task was initiated to investigate and document current and planned incinerator facilities in the Department of Energy Defense Programs (DOE-DP) system. A survey was mailed to the DOE field offices requesting information regarding existing or planned incinerator facilities located under their jurisdiction. The information requested included type, capacities, uses, costs, and mechanical description of the incinerators. The results of this survey are documented in this report. Nine sites responded to the survey, with eight sites listing nine incineration units in several stages of operations. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory listed two operational facilities. There are four incinerators that are planned for start-up in 1991. Of the existing incinerators, three are used mostly for low-level wastes, while the planned units will be used for low-level, mixed, and hazardous wastes. This report documents the current state of the incineration facilities in the DOE-DP system and provides a preliminary strategy for management of low-level wastes and a basis for implementing this strategy. 5 refs., 4 figs., 14 tabs

  7. Assessment of tritiated activities in the radwaste generated from ITER Chinese helium cooled ceramic breeding test blanket module system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chang An, E-mail: chenchangan@caep.cn; Liu, Lingbo; Wang, Bo; Xiang, Xin; Yao, Yong; Song, Jiangfeng

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Approaches were developed for calculation/evaluation of tritium activities in the materials and components of a TBM system, with tritium permeation being considered for the first time. • Almost all tritiated materials and components were considered in CNHCCB TBM system including the TBM set, connection pipes, and the ancillary tritium handling systems. • Tritium activity data in HCCB TBM system were updated. Some of which in directly tritium contacted components are to be 2 or 4 magnitudes higher than the original neutron transmutation calculations. • The radwaste amount from both operation and decommission of HCCB TBM system was evaluated. - Abstract: Chinese Helium Cooled Ceramic Breeding Test blanket Module (CNHCCB TBM) will be tested in the ITER machine for the feasibility of in pile tritium production for a future magnetic confinement fusion reactor. The tritium inventories/retentions in the material/components were evaluated and updated mainly based on the tritium diffusion/permeation theory and the analysis of some reported data. Tritiated activities rank from less than 10 Bq g{sup −1} to 10{sup 9} Bq g{sup −1} for the different materials or components, which are generally higher than those from the previous neutron transmutation calculation. The amounts of tritiated radwaste were also estimated according to the operation, decommission, maintenance and replacement strategies, which vary from several tens of kilograms to tons in the different operation phases. The data can be used both for the tritium radiological safety evaluation and radwaste management of CNHCCB TBM set and its ancillary systems.

  8. [Effects of chlorides on Cd transformation in a simulated grate incinerator during sludge incineration process ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-yong; Zhuo, Zhong-xu; Sun, Shui-yu; Luo, Guang-qian; Li, Xiao-ming; Xie, Wu-ming; Wang, Yu- jie; Yang, Zuo-yi; Zhao, Su-ying

    2014-09-01

    The effects of organic chloride-PVC and inorganic chloride-NaCl on Cd partitioning during sludge incineration with adding Cd(CH3COO)2 . 2H2O to the real sludge were investigated using a simulated tubular incineration furnace. And transformation and distribution of Cd were studied in different sludge incineration operation conditions. The results indicated that the partitioning of Cd tended to be enhanced in the fly ash and fule gas as the chloride content increasing. The migration and transformation of Cd-added sludge affected by different chloride were not obvious with the increasing of chloride content. With increasing temperature, organic chloride (PVC) and inorganic chloride (NaC1) can reduce the Cd distribution in the bottom ash. However, the effect of chlorides, the initial concentration and incineration time on Cd emissions had no significant differences. Using SEM-EDS and XRD technique, different Cd compounds including CdCl2, Na2CdCl4, K2CdCl6, K2CdSiO4 and NaCdO2 were formed in the bottom ash and fly ash after adding NaCl to the sludge. In contrast, after adding PVC to the sludge, the Na2CdCl4 and CdCl2 were the main forms of Cd compounds, at the same time, K4CdCI6 and K6CdO4 were also formed. The two different mechanisms of chlorides effects on Cd partitioning were affected by the products of Cd compound types and forms.

  9. The estimation and prediction of the inventories for the liquid and gaseous radwaste systems using the linear regression analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. Y.; Shin, C. H.; Kim, J. K.; Lee, J. K.; Park, Y. J.

    2003-01-01

    The variation transitions of the inventories for the liquid radwaste system and the radioactive gas have being released in containment, and their predictive values according to the operation histories of Yonggwang(YGN) 3 and 4 were analyzed by linear regression analysis methodology. The results show that the variation transitions of the inventories for those systems are linearly increasing according to the operation histories but the inventories released to the environment are considerably lower than the recommended values based on the FSAR suggestions. It is considered that some conservation were presented in the estimation methodology in preparing stage of FSAR

  10. Operation of chemical incinerator for disposal of legacy chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singhal, R.K.; Basu, H.; Saha, S.; Pimple, M.V.; Naik, P.D.

    2017-01-01

    For safe disposal of age-old legacy and unused chemicals in BARC, Trombay, oil-fired chemical incinerator with a capacity of 20 kg h"-"1 for solid and liquid chemical is installed adjacent to trash incinerator near RSMS, Gamma Field. The Incinerator was supplied by M/s B. L. Engineering Works, Ahmedabad. Commission of the same at Trombay site was carried out, under the supervision of Civil Engineering (CED), Technical Services Division (TSD) and Analytical Chemistry Division (custodian of the facility)

  11. Beta-gamma contaminated solid waste incinerator facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hootman, H.E.

    1979-10-01

    This technical data summary outlines a reference process to provide a 2-stage, 400 lb/hour incinerator to reduce the storage volume of combustible process waste contaminated with low-level beta-gamma emitters in response to DOE Manual 0511. This waste, amounting to more than 200,000 ft 3 per year, is presently buried in trenches in the burial ground. The anticipated storage volume reduction from incineration will be a factor of 20. The incinerator will also dispose of 150,000 gallons of degraded solvent from the chemical separations areas and 5000 gallons per year of miscellaneous nonradioactive solvents which are presently being drummed for storage

  12. Heat Recovery From Tail Gas Incineration To Generate Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tawfik, Tarek

    2010-09-15

    Many industrial processes result in tail gas wastes that must be flared or incinerated to abide with environmental guidelines. Tail gas incineration occurs in several chemical processes resulting in high-temperature exhaust gas that simply go to the stack, thus wasting all that valuable heat! This paper discusses useful heat recovery and electric power generation utilizing available heat in exhaust gas from tail gas incinerators. This heat will be recovered in a waste-heat recovery boiler that will produce superheated steam to expand in a steam turbine to generate power. A detailed cost estimate is presented.

  13. Incineration in the nuclear field. The SGN experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpentier, S.

    1993-01-01

    The operation of power reactors, like that of fuel fabrication and nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, generated substantial quantities of waste. A large share of this waste is low- and medium-level waste, which is also combustible. Similarly, a number of institutes, laboratories, and hospitals, in the course of their activities, generated waste which a portion is radioactive and combustible. The chief advantage of incineration is to minimize the volume of burnable waste treated, and to produce a residue termed 'ash'. SGN has built up 25 years of experience in this field. The incinerators have been designed and the incineration processes are specially studied by SGN

  14. Recovery of plutonium from incinerator ash at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, T.C.

    1976-01-01

    Incineration of combustible materials highly contaminated with plutonium produces a residue of incinerator ash. Recovery of plutonium from incinerator ash residues at Rocky Flats is accomplished by a continuous leaching operation with nitric acid containing fluoride ion. Special equipment used in the leaching operation consists of a screw feeder, air-lift dissolvers, filters, solids dryer, and vapor collection system. Each equipment item is described in detail. The average dissolution efficiency of plutonium experienced with the process was 68% on the first pass, 74% on the second pass, and 64% on each subsequent pass. Total-solids dissolution efficiencies averaged 47% on the first pass and about 25% on each subsequent pass

  15. Assessing potential health effects from municipal sludge incinerators: screening methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fradkin, L.; Bruins, J.F.; Lutkenhoff, S.D.; Stara, J.F.; Lomnitz, E.; Rubin, A.

    1987-04-01

    This paper describes a risk assessment methodology for preliminary assessment of municipal sludge incineration. The methodology is a valuable tool in that it can be used for determining the hazard indices of chemical contaminants that might be present in sewage sludge used in incineration. The paper examines source characteristics (i.e., facility design), atmospheric dispersion of emission, and resulting human exposure and risk from sludge incinerators. Seven of the ten organics were screened for further investigation. An example of the calculations are presented for cadmium.

  16. CIF---Design basis for an integrated incineration facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, G.F.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the evolution of chosen technologies that occurred during the design process of the US Department of Energy (DOE) incineration system designated the Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) as the Savannah River Plant, Aiken, South Carolina. The Plant is operated for DOE by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company. The purpose of the incineration system is to treat low level radioactive and/or hazardous liquid and solid wastes by combustion. The objective for the facility is to thermally destroy toxic constituents and volume reduce waste material. Design criteria requires operation be controlled within the limits of RCRA's permit envelope

  17. Gaseous emissions from industrial processes: Municipal solid waste incinerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassitto, L.; Gallarini, V.; Magnani, P.; Rizzi, A. (Politecnico di Milano, Milan (Italy). Impianti Condizionamento e Fisica Tecnica Artea, Milan (Italy))

    A survey of European Communities proposed air pollution standards is coupled with an examination of the technical feasibility of building and operating municipal solid waste incineration plants that can successfully meet those standards. The results of the analysis indicate that modern incineration plants equipped with cogeneration and current-technology materials and energy recovery systems offer a significant contribution to meeting Italian national energy requirements and contemporaneously provide a decisive answer to the pressing need for safe and effective urban area waste disposal. The paper cautions however any final decision making must be based on extensive cost benefit analyses to determine the optimum combination of incinerator plant energy production and pollution control systems.

  18. Incineration plant for low active waste at Inshass, LAWI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krug, W.; Thoene, L.; Schmitz, H.J.; Abdelrazek, I.D.

    1993-10-01

    The LAWI (Low Active Waste Incinerator) prototype incinerating plant was devised and constructed according to the principle of the Juelich thermoprocess and installed at the Egyptian research centre Inshass. In parallel, AEA Cairo devised and constructed their own operations building for this plant with all the features, infrastructural installations and rooms required for operating the plant and handling and treating low-level radioactive wastes. The dimensions of this incinerator were selected so as to be sufficient for the disposal of solid, weakly radioactive combustible wastes from the Inshass Research Centre and the environment (e.g. Cairo hospitals). (orig./DG) [de

  19. Municipal Solid Waste Incineration For Accra Brewery Limited (Ghana)

    OpenAIRE

    Akoore, Alfred Akelibilna

    2016-01-01

    Waste incineration is a common practice of waste management tool in most developed countries, for the purpose of converting mass and volumes of waste into a very useful energy content. The aim of this study was to compare the costs benefits of waste incineration for Accra Brewery boiler plant and to investigate also the availability of waste and it´s compositions in Accra, as well as to determine the feasibility of using this waste as a source of fuel to the waste incineration plant. T...

  20. Development of an incineration system for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrubasik, A.

    1989-01-01

    NUKEM GmbH (W. Germany) has developed and built some plants for treatment of radioactive waste. In cooperation with Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center and on the basis of non-nuclear incineration plants, NUKEM has designed and built a new incineration plant for low level radioactive solid waste. The main features of the plant are improvement of the waste handling during feeding, very low particulate load downstream the incinerator and simple flue-gas cleaning system. This process is suitable for treatment of waste generated above all in nuclear power plants. (author)

  1. Radioactive waste incineration system cold demonstration test, (2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hozumi, Masahiro; Seike, Yasuhiko; Takaoku, Yoshinobu; Yamanaka, Yasuhiro; Asahara, Masaharu; Katagiri, Keishi; Matsumoto, Kenji; Nagae, Madoka

    1985-12-01

    It is urgently necessary to solve the radioactive waste problem. As an effective means for the volume reduction of low-level radioactive wastes, an improved incineration system is greatly required. SHI's Waste Incineration (WIS) licensed by Combustion Engineering, Inc., has the significant advantage of processing a variety of wastes. We started a cold demonstration test in April, 1984 to verify the excellent performance of WIS. The test was successfully completed in September, 1985 with the record of more than 1000 hours of incineration testing time. In the present paper, we describe the test results during one and half years of test period.

  2. Chemical and sewage sludge co-incineration in a full-scale MSW incinerator: toxic trace element mass balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biganzoli, Laura; Grosso, Mario; Giugliano, Michele; Campolunghi, Manuel

    2012-10-01

    Co-incineration of sludges with MSW is a quite common practice in Europe. This paper illustrates a case of co-incineration of both sewage sludges and chemical sludges, the latter obtained from drinking water production, in a waste-to-energy (WTE) plant located in northern Italy and equipped with a grate furnace, and compares the toxic trace elements mass balance with and without the co-incineration of sludges. The results show that co-incineration of sewage and chemical sludges does not result in an increase of toxic trace elements the total release in environment, with the exception of arsenic, whose total release increases from 1 mg t(fuel) (-1) during standard operation to 3 mg t(fuel) (-1) when sludges are co-incinerated. The increase of arsenic release is, however, attributable to the sole bottom ashes, where its concentration is five times higher during sludge co-incineration. No variation is observed for arsenic release at the stack. This fact is a further guarantee that the co-incineration of sludges, when performed in a state-of-the-art WTE plant, does not have negative effects on the atmospheric environment.

  3. Configuration system development of site and environmental information for radwaste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Se-Moon; Yoon, Bong-Yo; Kim, Chang-Lak

    2005-01-01

    License for the nuclear facilities such as radioactive waste repository demands documents of site characterization, environmental assessment and safety assessment. This performance will produce bulk of the relevant data. For the safe management of radioactive waste repository, data of the site and environment have to be collected and managed systematically. Particularly for the radwaste repository, which has to be institutionally controlled for a long period after closure, the data will be collected and maintained through the monitoring programme. To meet this requirement, a new programme called 'Site Information and Total Environmental data management System (SITES)' has been developed. The scope and function of the SITES is issued in data DB, safety assessment and monitoring system. In this respect, SITES is designed with two modules of the SITES Database Module (SDM) and the Monitoring and Assesment (M and A). The SDM module is composed of three sub-modules. One is the Site Information Management System (SIMS), which manages data of site characterization such as topography, geology, hydrogeology, engineering geology, etc. The other is the ENVironmental Information management System (ENVIS) and Radioactive ENVironmental Information management System (RENVIS), which manage environmental data required for environmental assessment performance. ENVIS and RENVIS covered almost whole items of environmental assessment report required by Korean government. The SDM was constructed based on Entity Relationship Diagram produced from each item. Also using ArcGIS with the spatial characteristics of the data, it enables groundwater and water property monitoring networks, etc. To be analyzed in respect of every theme. The sub-modules of M and A called the Site and Environment Monitoring System (SEMS) and the Safety Assessment System (SAS) were developed. SEMS was designed to manage the inspection records of the individual measuring instruments and facilities, and the on

  4. Paper waste - Recycling, incineration or landfilling?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Alejandro; Wenzel, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    comparisons of different management options for waste paper. Despite claims of inconsistency, the LCAs reviewed illustrate the environmental benefits in recycling over incineration or landfill options, for paper and cardboard waste. This broad consensus was found despite differences in geographic location....... Such message has implications for current policy formulation on material recycling and disposal in the EU. Secondly, to identify key methodological issues of paper waste management LCAs, and enlighten the influence of such issues on the conclusions of the LCA studies. Thirdly, in light of the analysis made...... and definitions of the paper recycling/disposal systems studied. A systematic exploration of the LCA studies showed, however, important methodological pitfalls and sources of error, mainly concerning differences in the definition of the system boundaries. Fifteen key assumptions were identified that cover...

  5. Management of municipal solid waste incineration residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabbas, T.; Polettini, A.; Pomi, R.; Astrup, T.; Hjelmar, O.; Mostbauer, P.; Cappai, G.; Magel, G.; Salhofer, S.; Speiser, C.; Heuss-Assbichler, S.; Klein, R.; Lechner, P.

    2003-01-01

    The management of residues from thermal waste treatment is an integral part of waste management systems. The primary goal of managing incineration residues is to prevent any impact on our health or environment caused by unacceptable particulate, gaseous and/or solute emissions. This paper provides insight into the most important measures for putting this requirement into practice. It also offers an overview of the factors and processes affecting these mitigating measures as well as the short- and long-term behavior of residues from thermal waste treatment under different scenarios. General conditions affecting the emission rate of salts and metals are shown as well as factors relevant to mitigating measures or sources of gaseous emissions

  6. Process modeling study of the CIF incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hang, T.

    1995-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) plans to begin operating the Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) in 1996. The CIF will treat liquid and solid low-level radioactive, mixed and RCRA hazardous wastes generated at SRS. In addition to experimental test programs, process modeling was applied to provide guidance in areas of safety, environmental regulation compliances, process improvement and optimization. A steady-state flowsheet model was used to calculate material/energy balances and to track key chemical constituents throughout the process units. Dynamic models were developed to predict the CIF transient characteristics in normal and abnormal operation scenarios. Predictions include the rotary kiln heat transfer, dynamic responses of the CIF to fluctuations in the solid waste feed or upsets in the system equipments, performance of the control system, air inleakage in the kiln, etc. This paper reviews the modeling study performed to assist in the deflagration risk assessment

  7. 33 CFR 159.131 - Safety: Incinerating device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.131 Safety.... Unitized incineration devices must completely burn to a dry, inert ash, a simultaneous defecation and...

  8. Sustainable waste management via incineration system: an Islamic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sustainable waste management via incineration system: an Islamic outlook for conservation of the environment. ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... Abstract. This paper would firstly examine solid waste management currently ...

  9. Radioactive waste incinerator at the Scientific Ecology Group, Inc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, J.D.; Arrowsmith, H.W.

    1990-01-01

    Scientific Ecology Group, Inc. (SEG) is the largest radioactive waste processor in the United States. This paper discusses how SEG recently began operation of the first commercial low-level radioactive waste incinerator in the United States. This incinerator is an Envikraft EK 980 NC multi-stage, partial pyrolysis, controlled-air unit equipped with an off-gas train that includes a boiler, baghouse, HEPA bank, and wet scrubber. The incinerator facility has been integrated into a large waste management complex with several other processing systems. The incinerator is operated on a continuous around-the-clock basis, processing up to 725 kg/hr (1,600 lbs/hr) of solid waste while achieving volume reduction ratios in excess of 300:1

  10. ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM PILOT-SCALE INCINERATION OF CFCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of the characterization of organic emissions resulting from the pilot-scale incineration of trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11) and dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12) under varied feed concentrations. (NOTE: As a result of the Montreal Protocol, an international...

  11. Experimentation with a prototype incinerator for beta-gamma waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farber, M.G.; Lewandowski, K.E.; Becker, G.W.

    1982-01-01

    A test facility for the incineration of suspect and low-level beta-gamma waste has been built and operated at the Savannah River Laboratory. The processing steps include waste feeding, incineration, ash residue packaging, and off-gas cleanup. Demonstration of the full-scale (180 kg/hr) facility with nonradioactive, simulated waste is currently in progress. At the present time, over nine metric tons of material including rubber, polyethylene, and cellulose have been incinerated during three burning campaigns. A comprehensive test program of solid and liquid waste incineration is being implemented. The data from the research program is providing the technical basis for a phase of testing with low-level beta-gamma waste generated at the Savannah River Plant

  12. Control system for high-temperature slagging incinerator plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzaki, Yuji

    1986-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes generated in the nuclear generating plants are increasing year by year and to dispose them safely constitutes a big problem for the society. A few years ago, as the means of reducing them to as little volume as possible by incinerating and fusing the wastes, a high-temperature slagging incinerating method was developed, and this method is highly assessed. JGC Corp. has introduced that system technology and in order to prove the capacity of disposal and salubrity of the plant, and have constructed a full-sized pilot plant, then obtained the operational record and performance as they had planned. This report introduces the general processing of the wastes from their incineration and fusion as well as process control technology characteristic to high-temperature slagging incinerator furnaces and sensor technology. (author)

  13. Operational experience with Seibersdorf low-level incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalupa, G.

    1987-01-01

    This report contains information about an excess air incinerator which burned low level β and γ wastes (also α up to determined limits). The incinerator was started up in 1980 and it is clear that in a technical plant of such magnitude, some changes and alterations will be needed to be overcome according to the experiences of operation. This paper - after a short description of the incinerator plant itself - gives a summary of some of the operation and the changes which are made in the plant according to these facts. A partial redesign of the incinerator plant in the first half of 1985 resulted in a very satisfying new design, which proved its superiority during the runs in 1985 and 1986

  14. A study on the safety of radioactive waste incineration facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Y C [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, W J; Lee, B S; Lee, S H [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-15

    The main scope of the project is the selection of some considerable items in design criteria of radioactive waste incineration facilities not only for the protection of workers and residents during operation but also for the safe disposal of ashes after incineration. The technological and regulational status on incineration technologies in domestic and foreign is surveyed and analyzed for providing such basic items which must be contained in the guideline for safe and appropriate design, construction and operation of the facilities. The contents of the project are summarized as follows; surveying the status on incineration technologies for both radioactive and non-radioactive wastes in domestic and foreign, surveying and analysing same related technical standards and regulations in domestic and foreign, picking out main considerable items and proposing a direction of further research.

  15. Numerical modeling of batch formation in waste incineration plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obroučka Karel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is a mathematical description of algorithm for controlled assembly of incinerated batch of waste. The basis for formation of batch is selected parameters of incinerated waste as its calorific value or content of pollutants or the combination of both. The numerical model will allow, based on selected criteria, to compile batch of wastes which continuously follows the previous batch, which is a prerequisite for optimized operation of incinerator. The model was prepared as for waste storage in containers, as well as for waste storage in continuously refilled boxes. The mathematical model was developed into the computer program and its functionality was verified either by practical measurements or by numerical simulations. The proposed model can be used in incinerators for hazardous and municipal waste.

  16. CO{sub 2} laser-aided waste incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costes, J R; Guiberteau, P [CEA Centre d` Etudes de la Vallee du Rhone, 30 - Marcoule (France). Dept. d` Exploitation du Retraitement et de Demantelement; Caminat, P; Bournot, P

    1994-12-31

    Lasers are widely employed in laboratories and in certain industrial applications, notably for welding, cutting and surface treatments. This paper describes a new application, incineration, which appears warranted when the following features are required: high-temperature incineration (> 1500 deg C) with close-tolerance temperature control in an oxidizing medium while ensuring containment of toxic waste. These criteria correspond to the application presented here. Following a brief theoretical introduction concerning the laser/surface interaction, the paper describes the incineration of graphite waste contaminated with alpha-emitting radionuclides. Process feasibility has been demonstrated on a nonradioactive prototype capable of incinerating 10 kg{sup -h-1} using a 7 kW CO{sub 2} laser. An industrial facility with the same capacity, designed to operate within the constraints of an alpha-tight glove box environment, is now at the project stage. Other types of applications with similar requirements may be considered. (authors). 3 refs., 7 figs.

  17. Elemental composition of suspended particles released in refuse incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamuro, Tetsuo; Mizohata, Akira

    1979-01-01

    Suspended particles released in refuse incineration were subjected to multielement analysis by means of instrumental neutron activation method and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The analytical results were compared with the elemental concentrations observed in the urban atmosphere, and the contribution of the refuse incineration to the urban atmosphere was roughly estimated. Greenberg et al. pointed out on the basis of their analyses that the refuse incineration can account for major portions of the Zn, Cd and Sb observed on urban aerosols. According to our results, the contribution of the refuse incineration for Zn, Cd and Sb is not negligible, but not so serious as in U.S.A. big cities. In Japan big cities there must be other more important sources of these elements. (author)

  18. Naugatuck, Conn. Incinerator to Control Mercury Emissions Under Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Equipment to limit the amount of mercury pollution sent into the atmosphere will be installed at an incinerator owned by Naugatuck, Conn., if an agreement between the USEPA, the U.S. Department of Justice, the Borough of Naugatuck...

  19. Hazardous waste incinerator permitting in Texas from inception to operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simms, M.D.; McDonnell, R.G. III

    1991-01-01

    The regulatory permitting process for hazardous waste incinerators i a long and arduous proposition requiring a well-developed overall strategy. In Texas, RCRA permits for the operation of hazardous waste incinerator facilities are issued through the federally delegated Texas Water Commission (TWC). While the TWC has primacy in the issuance of RCRA permits for hazardous waste incinerators, the Texas Air Control Board (TACB) provides a significant portion of the Part B application review and provides much of the permit language. In addition to dealing with regulatory agencies, RCRA permitting provides by significant public involvement. Often the lack of public support becomes a major roadblock for an incinerator project. In order to establish an effective strategy which addresses the concerns of regulatory agencies and the public, it is important to have an understanding of the steps involved in obtaining a permit. A permit applicant seeking to construct a new hazardous waste incinerator can expect to go through a preapplication meeting with government regulators, a site selection process, file an application, respond to calls for additional technical information from both the TACB and the TWC, defend the application in a hearing, have a recommendation from a TWC hearing examiner and, finally, receive a determination from the TWC's Commissioners. Presuming a favorable response from the Commission, the permittee will be granted a trial burn permit and may proceed with the construction, certification and execution of a trial burn at the facility. Subsequent to publication of the trial burn results and approval by the TWC, the permittee will possess an operational hazardous waste incinerator permit. The paper describes the major steps required to receive an operational permit for a hazardous waste incinerator in the State of Texas. Important issues involved in each step will be discussed including insights gained from recent incinerator permitting efforts

  20. Molt salts reactors capacity for wastes incineration and energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, S.; Nuttin, A.

    2005-01-01

    The molten salt reactors present many advantages in the framework of the IV generation systems development for the energy production and/or the wastes incineration. After a recall of the main studies realized on the molten salt reactors, this document presents the new concepts and the identified research axis: the MSRE project and experience, the incinerators concepts, the thorium cycle. (A.L.B.)

  1. Coal as a supplemental heat source in sludge incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, G J; Bergstedt, D C

    1979-07-01

    The use of coal as a supplemental fuel in multiple hearth sludge incineration was investigated; how sulphur lump coal was added to dewatered sludge being fed to the furnace, reducing incinerator oil requirements by 70%. With full-scale retrofit of the treatment plant total annual costs for coal supplemental feeding would be 161,000 dollars, but oil savings would be 240,000 dollars.

  2. Design considerations for incineration of transuranic-contaminated solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory has established a development program to evaluate alternate production-level (100-200 lb/hr throughput) volume reduction processes for transuranic-contaminated solid waste. The first process selected for installation and study is based on controlled-air incineration. Design considerations leading to selection of feed preparation, incineration, residue removal, and off-gas cleanup components and their respective radioactive containment provisions will be presented

  3. Method for controlling incineration in combustor for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaoku, Y.; Uehara, A.

    1991-01-01

    This invention relates to a method for controlling incineration in a combustor for low-level radioactive wastes. In particular, it relates to a method for economizing in the consumption of supplemental fuel while maintaining a stable incineration state by controlling the amount of fuel and of radioactive wastes fed to the combustor. The amount of fuel supplied is determined by the outlet gas temperature of the combustor. (L.L.)

  4. Localized corrosion of metallic materials and γ radiation effects in passive layers under simulated radwaste repository conditions. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultze, J.W.; Kudelka, S.; Michaelis, A.; Schweinsberg, M.; Thies, A.

    1996-02-01

    The task of the project was to simulate the conditions in a radwaste repository and to perform local analyses in order to detect the critical conditions and material susceptibilities leading to localized corrosion of materials. The information thus obtained was to yield more precise data on the long-term stability of materials for the intended purpose, in order to be able to appropriately select or optimize the materials (Ti, TiO.2Pd, Hastelloy C4, fine-grained structural steel). A major aspect to be examined was natural inhomogeneities of the electrode surfaces, as determined by the grain structure of the selected materials. Thus a laterally inhomogeneous composition in the welded zone induces an inhomogeneous current distribution, and hence strong susceptibility to localized corrosion. This effect was to be quantified, and the localized corrosion processes had to be identified by means of novel, electrochemical methods with a resolution power of μm. The investigations were to be made under conditions as near to practice as possible, for instance by simulating radwaste repository conditions and performing measurements at elevated temperatures (170 C) in an autoclave. Another task was to examine the radiation effects of γ radiation on passive layers, and describe the possible modifications induced by recrystallisation, photocorrosion, or oxide formation. (orig./MM) [de

  5. Experience with radioactive waste incineration at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, V.T.; Beamer, N.V.; Buckley, L.P.

    1988-06-01

    Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories is a nuclear research centre operated by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. A full-scale waste treatment centre has been constructed to process low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes generated on-site. A batch-loaded, two-stage, starved-air incinerator for solid combustible waste is one of the processes installed in this facility. The incinerator has been operating since 1982. It has consistently reduced combustible wastes to an inert ash product, with an average volume reduction factor of about 150:1. The incinerator ash is stored in 200 L drums awaiting solidification in bitumen. The incinerator and a 50-ton hydraulic baler have provided treatment for a combined volume of about 1300 m 3 /a of solid low-level radioactive waste. This paper presents a review of the performance of the incinerator during its six years of operation. In addition to presenting operational experience, an assessment of the starved-air incineration technique will also be discussed

  6. Incineration technology for alpha-bearing radioactive waste in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirks, Friedlich; Pfeiffer, Reinhard

    1997-01-01

    Since 1971 the Karlsruhe Research Center has developed and operated plants for the incineration of radioactive waste. Three incineration plants for pure β/γ solid, α-bearing solid and radioactive liquid waste have been successfully utilized during last two decades. Recently more than 20 year-old β/γ plant was shut down with the economic point of view, mainly due to the recently reduced volume of burnable β/γ waste. Burnable β/γ solid waste is now being treated with α-bearing waste in a α solid incineration plant. The status of incineration technology for α-bearing waste and other radioactive waste treatment technologies, which are now utilized in Karlsruhe Research Center, such as conditioning of incineration ash, supercompaction, scrapping, and decontamination of solid radioactive waste, etc. are introduced in this presentation. Additionally, operational results of the recently installed new dioxin adsorber and fluidized-bed drier for scrubber liquid in α incineration plant are also described in this presentation. (author) 1 tab., 13 figs

  7. Decommissioning Combustible Waste Treatment using Oxygen-Enriched Incinerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Byungyoun; Lee, Yoonji; Yun, Gyoungsu; Lee, Kiwon; Moon, Jeikwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The aim of the paper is current status of treatment for the decommissioning combustible waste in KAERI and for the purpose of the volume reduction and clearance for decommissioning combustible wastes generated by the decommissioning projects. The incineration technology has been selected for the treatment of combustible wastes. About 34 tons of decommissioning combustible waste has been treated using Oxygen Enriched incineration. Temperature, pressure of major components, stack gas concentration, i. e., SOx, NOx, CO, CO{sub 2} and HCl, and the residual oxygen were measured. Measured major parameters during normal operation were sustained on a stable status within a criteria operation condition. Oxygen enriched air, 22vol. % (dry basis) was used for stable incineration. The volume reduction ratio has achieved about 1/117. The incineration with decommissioning radioactive combustible waste is possible with moderate oxygen enrichment of 22 vol.% (dry basis) into the supply air. The incineration facility operated quite smoothly through the analysis major critical parameters of off-gas. The pressure, off-gas flow and temperature of major components remained constant within the range specified. The measures gases and particulate materials in stack were considerably below the regulatory limits. The achieved volume reduction ratio through incineration is about 1/117.

  8. The incineration of absorbed liquid wastes in the INEL's [Idaho National Engineering Laboratory] WERF [Waste Experimental Reduction Facility] incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steverson, E.M.; McFee, J.N.

    1987-01-01

    The concept of burning absorbed flammable liquids in boxes in the WERF incinerator was evaluated as a waste treatment method. The safety and feasibility of this procedure were evaluated in a series of tests. In the testing, the effect on incinerator operations of burning various quantities of absorbed flammable liquids was measured and compared to normal operations conducted on low-level radioactive waste (LLW). The test results indicated that the proposed procedure is safe and practical for use on a wide variety of solvents with quantities as high as one liter per box. No adverse or unacceptable operating conditions resulted from burning any of the solvents tested. Incineration of the solvents in this fashion was no different than burning LLW during normal incineration. 6 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Disposal of radwastes and recycling of wastes and structural materials -fundamental principles, concepts, results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaller, G.; Arens, G.; Brennecke, P.; Goertz, R.; Poschner, J.; Thieme, M.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the German concept for the disposal of radioactive waste, and the re-use or recycling of contaminated materials. All radioactive waste can be disposed of in deep geological formations (practised at ERAM disposal site, planned for Konrad disposal site). Radioactively contaminated material below clearance levels can proceed for disposal at waste disposal sites and incineration plants, or for re-use and recycling, especially where the material consists of contaminated steel and of buildings. The basic principles (dose limits and model structures for deriving recommendations), reference values, or limits are described. The latest concepts are described in greater detail. Waste management in Germany is compared with international concepts. (orig.) [de

  10. Environmental impacts of residual municipal solid waste incineration: a comparison of 110 French incinerators using a life cycle approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beylot, Antoine; Villeneuve, Jacques

    2013-12-01

    Incineration is the main option for residual Municipal Solid Waste treatment in France. This study compares the environmental performances of 110 French incinerators (i.e., 85% of the total number of plants currently in activity in France) in a Life Cycle Assessment perspective, considering 5 non-toxic impact categories: climate change, photochemical oxidant formation, particulate matter formation, terrestrial acidification and marine eutrophication. Mean, median and lower/upper impact potentials are determined considering the incineration of 1 tonne of French residual Municipal Solid Waste. The results highlight the relatively large variability of the impact potentials as a function of the plant technical performances. In particular, the climate change impact potential of the incineration of 1 tonne of waste ranges from a benefit of -58 kg CO2-eq to a relatively large burden of 408 kg CO2-eq, with 294 kg CO2-eq as the average impact. Two main plant-specific parameters drive the impact potentials regarding the 5 non-toxic impact categories under study: the energy recovery and delivery rate and the NOx process-specific emissions. The variability of the impact potentials as a function of incinerator characteristics therefore calls for the use of site-specific data when required by the LCA goal and scope definition phase, in particular when the study focuses on a specific incinerator or on a local waste management plan, and when these data are available. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A comparative assessment of waste incinerators in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nixon, J.D., E-mail: j.nixon@kingston.ac.uk [Sustainable Environment Research Group, School of Engineering and Applied Science, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham B4 7ET (United Kingdom); Wright, D.G.; Dey, P.K. [Aston Business School, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham B4 7ET (United Kingdom); Ghosh, S.K. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Centre for Quality Management System, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Davies, P.A. [Sustainable Environment Research Group, School of Engineering and Applied Science, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham B4 7ET (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • We evaluate operational municipal solid waste incinerators in the UK. • The supply chain of four case study plants are examined and compared in detail. • Technical, financial and operational data has been gathered for the four plants. • We suggest the best business practices for waste incinerators. • Appropriate strategy choices are the major difficulties for waste to energy plants. - Abstract: The uptake in Europe of Energy from Waste (EfW) incinerator plants has increased rapidly in recent years. In the UK, 25 municipal waste incinerators with energy recovery are now in operation; however, their waste supply chains and business practices vary significantly. With over a hundred more plant developments being considered it is important to establish best business practices for ensuring efficient environmental and operational performance. By reviewing the 25 plants we identify four suitable case study plants to compare technologies (moving grate, fluidised bed and rotary kiln), plant economics and operations. Using data collected from annual reports and through interviews and site visits we provide recommendations for improving the supply chain for waste incinerators and highlight the current issues and challenges faced by the industry. We find that plants using moving grate have a high availability of 87–92%. However, compared to the fluidised bed and rotary kiln, quantities of bottom ash and emissions of hydrogen chloride and carbon monoxide are high. The uptake of integrated recycling practices, combined heat and power, and post incineration non-ferrous metal collections needs to be increased among EfW incinerators in the UK. We conclude that one of the major difficulties encountered by waste facilities is the appropriate selection of technology, capacity, site, waste suppliers and heat consumers. This study will be of particular value to EfW plant developers, government authorities and researchers working within the sector of waste

  12. A comparative assessment of waste incinerators in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nixon, J.D.; Wright, D.G.; Dey, P.K.; Ghosh, S.K.; Davies, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We evaluate operational municipal solid waste incinerators in the UK. • The supply chain of four case study plants are examined and compared in detail. • Technical, financial and operational data has been gathered for the four plants. • We suggest the best business practices for waste incinerators. • Appropriate strategy choices are the major difficulties for waste to energy plants. - Abstract: The uptake in Europe of Energy from Waste (EfW) incinerator plants has increased rapidly in recent years. In the UK, 25 municipal waste incinerators with energy recovery are now in operation; however, their waste supply chains and business practices vary significantly. With over a hundred more plant developments being considered it is important to establish best business practices for ensuring efficient environmental and operational performance. By reviewing the 25 plants we identify four suitable case study plants to compare technologies (moving grate, fluidised bed and rotary kiln), plant economics and operations. Using data collected from annual reports and through interviews and site visits we provide recommendations for improving the supply chain for waste incinerators and highlight the current issues and challenges faced by the industry. We find that plants using moving grate have a high availability of 87–92%. However, compared to the fluidised bed and rotary kiln, quantities of bottom ash and emissions of hydrogen chloride and carbon monoxide are high. The uptake of integrated recycling practices, combined heat and power, and post incineration non-ferrous metal collections needs to be increased among EfW incinerators in the UK. We conclude that one of the major difficulties encountered by waste facilities is the appropriate selection of technology, capacity, site, waste suppliers and heat consumers. This study will be of particular value to EfW plant developers, government authorities and researchers working within the sector of waste

  13. Incineration of urban solid waste containing radioactive sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronchin, G.P., E-mail: giulio.ronchin@mail.polimi.i [Dipartimento di Energia (Sezione nucleare - Cesnef), Politecnico di Milano, Via Ponzio 34/3, 20133 Milano (Italy); Campi, F.; Porta, A.A. [Dipartimento di Energia (Sezione nucleare - Cesnef), Politecnico di Milano, Via Ponzio 34/3, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2011-01-15

    Incineration of urban solid waste accidentally contaminated by orphan sources or radioactive material is a potential risk for environment and public health. Moreover, production and emission of radioactive fumes can cause a heavy contamination of the plant, leading to important economic detriment. In order to prevent such a hazard, in February 2004 a radiometric portal for detection of radioactive material in incoming waste has been installed at AMSA (Azienda Milanese per i Servizi Ambientali) 'Silla 2' urban solid waste incineration plant of Milan. Radioactive detections performed from installation time up to December 2006 consist entirely of low-activity material contaminated from radiopharmaceuticals (mainly {sup 131}I). In this work an estimate of the dose that would have been committed to population, due to incineration of the radioactive material detected by the radiometric portal, has been evaluated. Furthermore, public health and environmental effects due to incineration of a high-activity source have been estimated. Incineration of the contaminated material detected appears to have negligible effects at all; the evaluated annual collective dose, almost entirely conferred by {sup 131}I, is indeed 0.1 man mSv. Otherwise, incineration of a 3.7 x 10{sup 10} Bq (1 Ci) source of {sup 137}Cs, assumed as reference accident, could result in a light environmental contamination involving a large area. Although the maximum total dose, owing to inhalation and submersion, committed to a single individual appears to be negligible (less than 10{sup -8} Sv), the environmental contamination leads to a potential important exposure due to ingestion of contaminated foods. With respect to 'Silla 2' plant and to the worst meteorological conditions, the evaluated collective dose results in 0.34 man Sv. Performed analyses have confirmed that radiometric portals, which are today mainly used in foundries, represent a valid public health and environmental

  14. Glass ceramics for incinerator ash immobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinina, G.A.; Stefanovsky, O.I. [SIA Radon, 7th Rostovskii lane 2/14, Moscow 119121 (Russian Federation); Stefanovsky, S.V., E-mail: profstef@mtu-net.ru [SIA Radon, 7th Rostovskii lane 2/14, Moscow 119121 (Russian Federation)

    2011-09-01

    Calcined solid radioactive waste (incinerator slag) surrogate and either Na{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 5} or Na{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7} (borax) at various mass ratios were melted in silicon carbide crucibles in a resistive furnace at temperatures of up to 1775 K (slag without additives). Portions of the melts were poured onto a metal plate; the residues were slowly cooled in turned-off furnace. Both quenched and slowly cooled materials were composed of the same phases. At high slag contents in silicate-based materials nepheline and britholite were found to be major phases. Britholite formed at higher slag content (85 wt.%) became major phase in the vitrified slag. In the system with borax at low slag contents (25 and 50 wt.%) material are composed of predominant vitreous and minor calcium silicate larnite type phase Ca{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} where Ca{sup 2+} ions are replaced by different cations. The materials containing slag in amount of 75 wt.% and more are chemically durable. The changes in the structure of anionic motif of quenched samples depending on slag loading were studied by IR spectroscopy.

  15. Glass ceramics for incinerator ash immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinina, G.A.; Stefanovsky, O.I.; Stefanovsky, S.V.

    2011-01-01

    Calcined solid radioactive waste (incinerator slag) surrogate and either Na 2 Si 2 O 5 or Na 2 B 4 O 7 (borax) at various mass ratios were melted in silicon carbide crucibles in a resistive furnace at temperatures of up to 1775 K (slag without additives). Portions of the melts were poured onto a metal plate; the residues were slowly cooled in turned-off furnace. Both quenched and slowly cooled materials were composed of the same phases. At high slag contents in silicate-based materials nepheline and britholite were found to be major phases. Britholite formed at higher slag content (85 wt.%) became major phase in the vitrified slag. In the system with borax at low slag contents (25 and 50 wt.%) material are composed of predominant vitreous and minor calcium silicate larnite type phase Ca 2 SiO 4 where Ca 2+ ions are replaced by different cations. The materials containing slag in amount of 75 wt.% and more are chemically durable. The changes in the structure of anionic motif of quenched samples depending on slag loading were studied by IR spectroscopy.

  16. Emission of greenhouse gases from waste incineration in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kum-Lok; Choi, Sang-Min; Kim, Moon-Kyung; Heo, Jong-Bae; Zoh, Kyung-Duk

    2017-07-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission factors previously reported from various waste incineration plants have shown significant variations according to country-specific, plant-specific, and operational conditions. The purpose of this study is to estimate GHG emissions and emission factors at nine incineration facilities in Korea by measuring the GHG concentrations in the flue gas samples. The selected incineration plants had different operation systems (i.e., stoker, fluidized bed, moving grate, rotary kiln, and kiln & stoker), and different nitrogen oxide (NO x ) removal systems (i.e., selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR)) to treat municipal solid waste (MSW), commercial solid waste (CSW), and specified waste (SW). The total mean emission factors for A and B facilities for MSW incineration were found to be 134 ± 17 kg CO 2 ton -1 , 88 ± 36 g CH 4 ton -1 , and 69 ± 16 g N 2 O ton -1 , while those for CSW incineration were 22.56 g CH 4 ton -1 and 259.76 g N 2 O ton -1 , and for SW incineration emission factors were 2959 kg CO 2 ton -1 , 43.44 g CH 4 ton -1 and 401.21 g N 2 O ton -1 , respectively. Total emissions calculated using annual incineration for MSW were 3587 ton CO 2 -eq yr -1 for A facility and 11,082 ton CO 2 -eq yr -1 for B facility, while those of IPCC default values were 13,167 ton CO 2- eq yr -1 for A facility and 32,916 ton CO 2- eq yr -1 , indicating that the emissions of IPCC default values were estimated higher than those of the plant-specific emission factors. The emission of CSW for C facility was 1403 ton CO 2 -eq yr -1 , while those of SW for D to I facilities was 28,830 ton CO 2 -eq yr -1 . The sensitivity analysis using a Monte Carlo simulation for GHG emission factors in MSW showed that the GHG concentrations have a greater impact than the incineration amount and flow rate of flue gas. For MSW incineration plants using the same stoker type in operation, the estimated emissions and

  17. Environmental impacts of residual Municipal Solid Waste incineration: A comparison of 110 French incinerators using a life cycle approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beylot, Antoine; Villeneuve, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • 110 French incinerators are compared with LCA based on plant-specific data. • Environmental impacts vary as a function of plants energy recovery and NO x emissions. • E.g. climate change impact ranges from −58 to 408 kg CO 2 -eq/tonne of residual MSW. • Implications for LCA of waste management in a decision-making process are detailed. - Abstract: Incineration is the main option for residual Municipal Solid Waste treatment in France. This study compares the environmental performances of 110 French incinerators (i.e. 85% of the total number of plants currently in activity in France) in a Life Cycle Assessment perspective, considering 5 non-toxic impact categories: climate change, photochemical oxidant formation, particulate matter formation, terrestrial acidification and marine eutrophication. Mean, median and lower/upper impact potentials are determined considering the incineration of 1 tonne of French residual Municipal Solid Waste. The results highlight the relatively large variability of the impact potentials as a function of the plant technical performances. In particular, the climate change impact potential of the incineration of 1 tonne of waste ranges from a benefit of −58 kg CO 2 -eq to a relatively large burden of 408 kg CO 2 -eq, with 294 kg CO 2 -eq as the average impact. Two main plant-specific parameters drive the impact potentials regarding the 5 non-toxic impact categories under study: the energy recovery and delivery rate and the NO x process-specific emissions. The variability of the impact potentials as a function of incinerator characteristics therefore calls for the use of site-specific data when required by the LCA goal and scope definition phase, in particular when the study focuses on a specific incinerator or on a local waste management plan, and when these data are available

  18. Environmental impacts of residual Municipal Solid Waste incineration: A comparison of 110 French incinerators using a life cycle approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beylot, Antoine, E-mail: a.beylot@brgm.fr; Villeneuve, Jacques

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • 110 French incinerators are compared with LCA based on plant-specific data. • Environmental impacts vary as a function of plants energy recovery and NO{sub x} emissions. • E.g. climate change impact ranges from −58 to 408 kg CO{sub 2}-eq/tonne of residual MSW. • Implications for LCA of waste management in a decision-making process are detailed. - Abstract: Incineration is the main option for residual Municipal Solid Waste treatment in France. This study compares the environmental performances of 110 French incinerators (i.e. 85% of the total number of plants currently in activity in France) in a Life Cycle Assessment perspective, considering 5 non-toxic impact categories: climate change, photochemical oxidant formation, particulate matter formation, terrestrial acidification and marine eutrophication. Mean, median and lower/upper impact potentials are determined considering the incineration of 1 tonne of French residual Municipal Solid Waste. The results highlight the relatively large variability of the impact potentials as a function of the plant technical performances. In particular, the climate change impact potential of the incineration of 1 tonne of waste ranges from a benefit of −58 kg CO{sub 2}-eq to a relatively large burden of 408 kg CO{sub 2}-eq, with 294 kg CO{sub 2}-eq as the average impact. Two main plant-specific parameters drive the impact potentials regarding the 5 non-toxic impact categories under study: the energy recovery and delivery rate and the NO{sub x} process-specific emissions. The variability of the impact potentials as a function of incinerator characteristics therefore calls for the use of site-specific data when required by the LCA goal and scope definition phase, in particular when the study focuses on a specific incinerator or on a local waste management plan, and when these data are available.

  19. A comparative assessment of waste incinerators in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, J D; Wright, D G; Dey, P K; Ghosh, S K; Davies, P A

    2013-11-01

    The uptake in Europe of Energy from Waste (EfW) incinerator plants has increased rapidly in recent years. In the UK, 25 municipal waste incinerators with energy recovery are now in operation; however, their waste supply chains and business practices vary significantly. With over a hundred more plant developments being considered it is important to establish best business practices for ensuring efficient environmental and operational performance. By reviewing the 25 plants we identify four suitable case study plants to compare technologies (moving grate, fluidised bed and rotary kiln), plant economics and operations. Using data collected from annual reports and through interviews and site visits we provide recommendations for improving the supply chain for waste incinerators and highlight the current issues and challenges faced by the industry. We find that plants using moving grate have a high availability of 87-92%. However, compared to the fluidised bed and rotary kiln, quantities of bottom ash and emissions of hydrogen chloride and carbon monoxide are high. The uptake of integrated recycling practices, combined heat and power, and post incineration non-ferrous metal collections needs to be increased among EfW incinerators in the UK. We conclude that one of the major difficulties encountered by waste facilities is the appropriate selection of technology, capacity, site, waste suppliers and heat consumers. This study will be of particular value to EfW plant developers, government authorities and researchers working within the sector of waste management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Incineration method for plutonium recovery from alpha contaminated organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahata, Taneaki; Abe, Jiro; Kato, Michiharu; Kurihara, Masayoshi

    1985-01-01

    An incineration method for plutonium recovery from α contaminated organic compounds in a flow of controlled oxygen gas is stated. The species of such thermal decomposition products as hydrocarbons, free carbon, carbon monoxide and hydrogen were determined by mass spectrography. The mixture of the products which are the source of tar or soot was converted to CO 2 and H 2 O in contact with copper oxide catalyst without flaming. This incineration method is composed of two stages. The first stage is the decomposition of organic compounds in the streams of gas mixtures containing oxygen in low ratios. The second stage is the incineration of the decomposition products by catalytic reaction in the streams of gas with higher oxygen ratios. Plutonium was recovered as the form of plutonium dioxide from the incineration residues of the first stage. The behavior of oil was examined as a representative of liquid organic compounds. It was found to evaporate below ca. 500 0 C, but was completely incinerated by the catalytic reaction with copper oxide catalyst in the flow of gas with controlled oxygen amount and was changed to CO 2 and H 2 O. (author)

  1. A sustainability analysis of an incineration project in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikic, Miljan; Naunovic, Zorana

    2013-11-01

    The only option for municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment adopted so far in Serbia is landfilling. Similarly to other south-eastern European countries, Serbia is not recovering any energy from MSW. Fifty percent of electricity in Serbia is produced in coal-fired power plants with emission control systems dating from the 1980s. In this article, the option of MSW incineration with energy recovery is proposed and examined for the city of Novi Sad. A sustainability analysis consisting of financial, economic and sensitivity analyses was done in the form of a cost-benefit analysis following recommendations from the European Commission. Positive and negative social and environmental effects of electricity generation through incineration were valuated partly using conversion factors and shadow prices, and partly using the results of previous studies. Public aversion to MSW incineration was considered. The results showed that the incineration project would require external financial assistance, and that an increase of the electricity and/or a waste treatment fee is needed to make the project financially positive. It is also more expensive than the landfilling option. However, the economic analysis showed that society would have net benefits from an incineration project. The feed-in tariff addition of only €0.03 (KWh)(-1) to the existing electricity price, which would enable the project to make a positive contribution to economic welfare, is lower than the actual external costs of electricity generation from coal in Serbia.

  2. Processing of combustible radioactive waste using incineration techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maestas, E.

    1981-01-01

    Among the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency Member countries numerous incineration concepts are being studied as potential methods for conditioning alpha-bearing and other types of combustible radioactive waste. The common objective of these different processes is volume reduction and the transformation of the waste to a more acceptable waste form. Because the combustion processes reduce the mass and volume of waste to a form which is generally more inert than the feed material, the resulting waste can be more uniformly compatible with safe handling, packaging, storage and/or disposal techniques. The number of different types of combustion process designed and operating specifically for alpha-bearing wastes is somewhat small compared with those for non-alpha radioactive wastes; however, research and development is under way in a number of countries to develop and improve alpha incinerators. This paper provides an overview of most alpha-incineration concepts in operation or under development in OECD/NEA Member countries. The special features of each concept are briefly discussed. A table containing characteristic data of incinerators is presented so that a comparison of the major programmes can be made. The table includes the incinerator name and location, process type, capacity throughput, operational status and application. (author)

  3. Operation of a pilot incinerator for solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hootman, H.E.; Trapp, D.J.; Warren, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    A laboratory-scale incinerator (0.5 kg waste/hr) was built and operated for more than 18 months as part of a program to adapt and confirm technology for incineration of Savannah River Plant solid wastes, which are contaminated with about 0.3 Ci/kg of alpha-emitting transuranium (TRU) nuclides (Slide 1). About 4000 packages of simulated nonradioactive wastes were burned, including HEPA (high-efficiency particulate air) filters, resins, and other types of solid combustible waste from plutonium finishing operations. Throughputs of more than 3 kg/hr for periods up to 4 hours were demonstrated. The incinerator was oerated at temperatures above 750 0 C for more than 7700 hours during a period of 12 months, for an overall availability of 88%. The incinerator was shut down three times during the year: once to replace the primary combustion chamber electrical heater, and twice to replace oxidized electrical connectors to the secondary chamber heaters. Practical experience with this pilot facility provided the design basis for the full-size (5 kg waste/hr) nonradioactive test incinerator, which began operation in March 1979

  4. TRIAL BURN RESULTS AND FUTURE ACTIVITES OF THE EPA MOBILE INCINERATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA Mobile Incinerator has demonstrated its ability to successfully destroy dioxin. A trial burn conducted in 1987 demonstrated the incinerator's ability to destroy a wide variety of compounds. The destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) of carbon tetrachloride, hexachloro...

  5. EVALUATION OF ROTARY KILN INCINERATOR OPERATION AT LOW TO MODERATE TEMPERATURE CONDITIONS VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL RESULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A test program was performed at the Environmental Protection Agency Incineration Research Facility to study the effectiveness of incineration at low-to-moderate temperatures in decontaminating soils containing organic compounds with different volatilities (boiling points). The da...

  6. A COMPARISON: ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATORS VERSUS THE 1990 TOXICS RELEASE INVENTORY AIR RELEASES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incineration is often the preferred technology for disposing of hazardous waste, and remediating Superfund sites. The effective implementation of this technology is frequently impeded by strong public opposition `to hazardous waste' incineration HWI). One of the reasons cited for...

  7. The selection, licensing, and operation of a low-level radioactive waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrowsmith, H.W.; Dalton, D.

    1990-01-01

    The Scientific Ecology Group has just completed the selection, procurement, licensing, and start-up of a low-level radioactive waste incinerator. This incinerator is the only commercial radioactive waste incinerator in the US and was licensed by the Environmental Protection Agency, the State of Tennessee, the City of Oak Ridge, and the Tennessee Valley Authority. This incinerator has a thermal capacity of 13,000,000 BTUs and can burn approximately 1,000 pounds per hour of typical radioactive waste. Waste to be incinerated is sorted in a new waste sorting system at the SEG facility. The sorting is essential to assure that the incinerator will not be damaged by any unexpected waste and to maintain the purity of the incinerator off-gas. The volume reduction expected for typical waste is approximately 100:1. After burning, the incinerator ash is compacted or vitrified before shipment to burial sites

  8. International comparison of safety criteria applied to radwaste repositories. Safety aspects of the post-operational phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltes, B.

    1994-01-01

    There is a generally accepted system of framework safety conditions governing the construction, operation, and post-operational monitoring of radwaste repositories. Although the development of these framework conditions may vary from country to country, the resulting criteria are based on the commonly accepted system of priciples and purposes established for ultimate radioactive waste disposal. The experience accumulated by GRS in the course of the plan approval procedure for the Konrad mine site and the safety-relevant studies performed for the planned Morsleben repository clearly show demand for further development of the safety criteria. In Germany, it is especially the safety criteria and detailed requirements filling the framework safety conditions that need revision and in-depth definition, as well as comparison and harmonisation with internationally applied criteria. These activities will particularly consider the international convention on radioactive waste management currently in preparation under the auspieces of the IAEA. (orig.) [de

  9. Geological evaluation of spent fuel storage and low-intermediate level radwaste disposal in the site of NPP candidate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sucipta; Yatim, S.; Martono, H.; Pudyo, A.

    1997-01-01

    Based on the consideration of techno-economy and environmental safety, the radioactive waste treatment installation (RWI), interim storage of spen fuel (ISSF) and low-intermediate level disposal shall be sited in the surrounding of NPP area. The land suitability of NPP's site candidate at Muria Peninsula as spent fuel storage and low-intermediate level radwaste disposal need to be studied. Site selection was conducted by overlay method and scoring method, and based on safety criteria which include geological and environmental aspects. Land evaluation by overlay method has given result a potential site which have highest suitable land at surrounding of borehole L-15 about 17.5 hectares. Land evaluation by scoring method has given result two land suitability classes, i.e. moderate suitability class (includes 14 borehole) and high suitability class, include borehole L-2, L-14 and L-15 (author)

  10. Geological factors of disposal site selection for low-and intermediate-level solid radwastes in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhangru

    1993-01-01

    For disposal of low- and intermediate-level solid radioactive wastes, shallow-ground disposal can provide adequate isolation of waste from human for a fairly long period of time. The objective of disposal site selection is to ensure that the natural properties of the site together with the engineered barrier site shall provide adequate isolation of radionuclides from the human beings and environment, so the whole disposal system can keep the radiological impact within an acceptable level. Since the early 1980's, complying with the national standards and the expert's conception as well as the related IAEA Criteria, geological selection of disposal sites for low-and intermediate-level solid radwastes has been carried out in East China, South China, Northwest China and Southwest China separately. Finally, 5 candidate sites were recommended to the CNNC

  11. A solution to level 3 dismantling of gas-cooled reactors: Graphite incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubourg, M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents an approach developed to solve the specific decommissioning problems of the G2 and G3 gas cooled reactors at Marcoule and the strategy applied with emphasis in incinerating the graphite core components, using a fluidized-bed incinerator developed jointly between the CEA and FRAMATOME. The incineration option was selected over subsurface storage for technical and economic reasons. Studies have shown that gaseous incineration releases are environmentally acceptable

  12. Speciation of Chromium in Bottom Ash Obtained by the Incineration of the Leather Waste Shavings

    OpenAIRE

    k. louhab; H. Assas

    2006-01-01

    The evolution of bottom ash morphology and chromium metals behavior during incineration of a leather waste shavings at different incineration temperature have been studied. The Cr, Ca, Mg, Cl rates in bottom ashes, flay ashes and emitted gases in different incineration temperature of the tannery wastes are also determined. The morphology of the bottom ashes obtained by incineration at different temperature from the leather waste shavings was examined by MEB. The result sho...

  13. Alternatives to incineration. Technical area status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwinkendorf, W.E. [BDM Federal, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); McFee, J.; Devarakonda, M. [International Technology Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nenninger, L.L.; Fadullon, F.S. [Science Applications International Corp., Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Donaldson, T.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dickerson, K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]|[Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-04-01

    Recently, the DOE`s Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) (superseded by the Mixed Waste Focus Area) initiated an evaluation of alternatives to incineration to identify technologies capable of treating DOE organically contaminated mixed wastes and which may be more easily permitted. These technologies have the potential of alleviating stakeholder concerns by decreasing off-gas volurties and the associated emissions of particulates, volatilized metals and radionuclides, PICs, NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and recombination products (dioxins and furans). Ideally, the alternate technology would be easily permitted, relatively omnivorous and effective in treating a variety of wastes with varying constituents, require minimal pretreatment or characterization, and be easy to implement. In addition, it would produce secondary waste stream volumes significantly smaller than the original waste stream, and would minimize the environmental health and safety effects on workers and the public. The purpose of this report is to provide an up-to-date (as of early 1995) compendium of iternative technologies for designers of mixed waste treatment facilities, and to identify Iternate technologies that may merit funding for further development. Various categories of non-thermal and thermal technologies have been evaluated and are summarized in Table ES-1. Brief descriptions of these technologies are provided in Section 1.7 of the Introduction. This report provides a detailed description of approximately 30 alternative technologies in these categories. Included in the report are descriptions of each technology; applicable input waste streams and the characteristics of the secondary, or output, waste streams; the current status of each technology relative to its availability for implementation; performance data; and costs. This information was gleaned from the open literature, governments reports, and discussions with principal investigators and developers.

  14. Alternatives to incineration. Technical area status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwinkendorf, W.E.; McFee, J.; Devarakonda, M.; Nenninger, L.L.; Fadullon, F.S.; Donaldson, T.L.; Dickerson, K.

    1995-04-01

    Recently, the DOE's Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) (superseded by the Mixed Waste Focus Area) initiated an evaluation of alternatives to incineration to identify technologies capable of treating DOE organically contaminated mixed wastes and which may be more easily permitted. These technologies have the potential of alleviating stakeholder concerns by decreasing off-gas volurties and the associated emissions of particulates, volatilized metals and radionuclides, PICs, NO x , SO x , and recombination products (dioxins and furans). Ideally, the alternate technology would be easily permitted, relatively omnivorous and effective in treating a variety of wastes with varying constituents, require minimal pretreatment or characterization, and be easy to implement. In addition, it would produce secondary waste stream volumes significantly smaller than the original waste stream, and would minimize the environmental health and safety effects on workers and the public. The purpose of this report is to provide an up-to-date (as of early 1995) compendium of iternative technologies for designers of mixed waste treatment facilities, and to identify Iternate technologies that may merit funding for further development. Various categories of non-thermal and thermal technologies have been evaluated and are summarized in Table ES-1. Brief descriptions of these technologies are provided in Section 1.7 of the Introduction. This report provides a detailed description of approximately 30 alternative technologies in these categories. Included in the report are descriptions of each technology; applicable input waste streams and the characteristics of the secondary, or output, waste streams; the current status of each technology relative to its availability for implementation; performance data; and costs. This information was gleaned from the open literature, governments reports, and discussions with principal investigators and developers

  15. A demonstration program to evaluate centralized LLW Incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burian, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    Dramatic increases in low level waste burial charges in the last five years have spurred interest in achieving higher volume reduction than currently achieved by compaction. Battelle has completed a planning study to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of central site incineration for dry active waste to service several generators within a geographical area. We initiated licensing by the USNRC and Ohio EPA and developed plans, procedures, and estimated costs for licensing, construction, operation, and decommissioning of a central site incinerator. In addition, acceptance criteria were established for incoming waste. Response from the NRC and Ohio EPA indicated that no major obstacles existed toward obtaining licenses. The economic study indicated that a commercial incineration operation lasting 20 years or more was economically advantageous over direct burial of compacted waste, assuming that burial costs continue to escalate at their current rates. However, a 5-year demonstration period was not economically advantageous because of the short period to recover the fixed capital investment

  16. Radiation safety for incineration of radioactive waste contaminated by cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veryuzhs'kij, Yu.V.; Gryin'ko, O.M.; Tokarevs'kij, V.V.

    2016-01-01

    Problems in the treatment of radioactive waste contaminated by cesium nuclides are considered in the paper. Chornobyl experience in the management of contaminated soil and contaminated forests is analyzed in relation to the accident at Fukushima-1. The minimization of release of cesium aerosols into atmosphere is very important. Radiation influence of inhaling atmosphere aerosols polluted by cesium has damage effect for humans. The research focuses on the treatment of forests contaminated by big volumes of cesium. One of the most important technologies is a pyro-gasification incineration with chemical reactions of cesium paying attention to gas purification problems. Requirements for process, physical and chemical properties of treatment of radioactive waste based on the dry pyro-gasification incineration facilities are considered in the paper together with the discussion of details related to incineration facilities. General similarities and discrepancies in the environmental pollution caused by the accidents at Chornobyl NPP and Fukushima-1 NPP in Japan are analyzed

  17. The application of probabilistic risk assessment to a LLW incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, K.K.; Huang, F.T.

    1993-01-01

    The 100 Kg/hr low-level radioactive waste (LLW) incinerator and the 1,500 ton supercompactor are two main vehicles in the Taiwan Power Company's Volume Reduction Center. Since the hot test of the incinerator in mid 1990, various problems associated with the original design and operating procedures were encountered. During the early stages of putting an incinerator in service, the modification and fine-tuning of the system would help future reliable operations. The probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) method was introduced to evaluate the interaction between potential system failure and its environmental impact and further help diagnose the system defects initially. The draft Level 1 system analysis was completed and the event and fault trees were constructed. Qualitatively, this approach is useful for preventing the system failure from occurring. However, Levels 2 and 3 analysis can only be done when sufficient data become available in the future

  18. The use of oxygen in hazardous waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, M.D.; Ding, M.G.

    1989-01-01

    The use of advanced oxygen combustion technologies in hazardous waste (such as PCBs and hydrocarbons) incineration has emerged in the last two years as one of the most significant breakthroughs among all the competing treatment technologies. For many years, industrial furnaces have used oxygen enrichment of the combustion air and oxygen-fuel burners, but with conventional technologies a high oxygen level generally poses problems. The flame temperature is high, leading to high NOx formation and local overeating. Different technical approaches to overcome these problems and their respective effectiveness will be reviewed. Previously, commercial oxygen enrichment in incinerators was limited to a rather modest level applications of much higher oxygen enrichment levels in hazardous waste incinerators

  19. Thermodynamic Equilibrium Calculations on Cd Transformation during Sewage Sludge Incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-yong; Huang, Limao; Sun, Shuiyu; Ning, Xun'an; Kuo, Jiahong; Sun, Jian; Wang, Yujie; Xie, Wuming

    2016-06-01

    Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations were performed to reveal the distribution of cadmium during the sewage sludge incineration process. During sludge incineration in the presence of major minerals, such as SiO2, Al2O3 and CaO, the strongest effect was exerted by SiO2 on the Cd transformation compared with the effect of others. The stable solid product of CdSiO3 was formed easily with the reaction between Cd and SiO2, which can restrain the emissions of gaseous Cd pollutants. CdCl2 was formed more easily in the presence of chloride during incineration, thus, the volatilization of Cd was advanced by increasing chlorine content. At low temperatures, the volatilization of Cd was restrained due to the formation of the refractory solid metal sulfate. At high temperatures, the speciation of Cd was not affected by the presence of sulfur, but sulfur could affect the formation temperature of gaseous metals.

  20. Feasibility study of cyclone incineration treatment for radioactive solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Lianquan; Wang Peiyi; Ma Mingxie; Yang Liguo; Li Xiaohai; Qiu Mingcai; Zhang Xiaobin; Dong Jingling; Lu Xiaowu; Li Chuanlian; Yang Baomin

    2002-01-01

    Feasibility study of cyclone incineration treatment for radioactive solid waste is introduced. The structure of cyclone incineration furnace is defined according to test results. The results show: under given conditions of technology: i.e., inlet flowrate ≥30 m/s, total volume ≥210 Nm 3 /h, the mixed solid material with more than 40% of plastics and rubber can completely be incinerated after suitable smash and mixing. The advantages of the furnace are: simple structure, high strength of volume heat, no preheating and combustion-supporting of assistant fuel, bridging and melt leak can be avoided in the stuff. The pretreatment of solid waste is simple, and a little amount of non-combustible substance in the waste can be allowed

  1. Electrodialytic upgrading of municipal waste incineration fly ash for reuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2012-01-01

    As incineration becomes a more widespread means of waste treatment, volumes of incineration residues increase and new means of handling become a demand. Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) fly ash is hazardous material, which is presently disposed off as such; primarily due to its high......]. In order to optimize the process and reach the lowest possible leachability of target constituents (As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cl, Na and SO4) at minimum time and energy consumption, the present work gives results of 10 pilot scale (8 kg MSWI fly ash each) electrodialysis experiments at different...... to investigate the leachability of salts and toxic elements as a function of treatment time and current density. Results show that a delicate balance between pH and treatment-time exist and that continuous monitoring of pH and conductivity may be used for controlling of the process at an industrial scale...

  2. 40 CFR 60.2991 - What incineration units must I address in my State plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What incineration units must I address... and Compliance Times for Other Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Applicability of State Plans § 60.2991 What incineration units must I address in my State...

  3. Transformation of Silver Nanoparticles in Sewage Sludge during Incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Christoph; Voegelin, Andreas; Pradas del Real, Ana; Sarret, Geraldine; Mueller, Christoph R; Kaegi, Ralf

    2016-04-05

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP) discharged into the municipal sewer system largely accumulate in the sewage sludge. Incineration and agricultural use are currently the most important strategies for sewage sludge management. Thus, the behavior of Ag-NP during sewage sludge incineration is essential for a comprehensive life cycle analysis and a more complete understanding of the fate of Ag-NP in the (urban) environment. To address the transformation of Ag-NP during sewage sludge incineration, we spiked metallic Ag(0)-NP to a pilot wastewater treatment plant and digested the sludge anaerobically. The sludge was then incinerated on a bench-scale fluidized bed reactor in a series of experiments under variable conditions. Complementary results from X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray (EM-EDX) analysis revealed that Ag(0)-NP transformed into Ag2S-NP during the wastewater treatment, in agreement with previous studies. On the basis of a principal component analysis and subsequent target testing of the XAS spectra, Ag(0) was identified as a major Ag component in the ashes, and Ag2S was clearly absent. The reformation of Ag(0)-NP was confirmed by EM-EDX. The fraction of Ag(0) of the total Ag in the ashes was quantified by linear combination fitting (LCF) of XAS spectra, and values as high as 0.8 were found for sewage sludge incinerated at 800 °C in a synthetic flue gas atmosphere. Low LCF totals (72% to 94%) indicated that at least one relevant reference spectrum was missing in the LCF analysis. The presence of spherical Ag-NP with a diameter of incineration, as demonstrated in this study, needs to be considered in the life cycle assessment of engineered Ag-NP.

  4. Dioxins from medical waste incineration: Normal operation and transient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tong; Zhan, Ming-xiu; Yan, Mi; Fu, Jian-ying; Lu, Sheng-yong; Li, Xiao-dong; Yan, Jian-hua; Buekens, Alfons

    2015-07-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are key pollutants in waste incineration. At present, incinerator managers and official supervisors focus only on emissions evolving during steady-state operation. Yet, these emissions may considerably be raised during periods of poor combustion, plant shutdown, and especially when starting-up from cold. Until now there were no data on transient emissions from medical (or hospital) waste incineration (MWI). However, MWI is reputed to engender higher emissions than those from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI). The emission levels in this study recorded for shutdown and start-up, however, were significantly higher: 483 ± 184 ng Nm(-3) (1.47 ± 0.17 ng I-TEQ Nm(-3)) for shutdown and 735 ng Nm(-3) (7.73 ng I-TEQ Nm(-3)) for start-up conditions, respectively. Thus, the average (I-TEQ) concentration during shutdown is 2.6 (3.8) times higher than the average concentration during normal operation, and the average (I-TEQ) concentration during start-up is 4.0 (almost 20) times higher. So monitoring should cover the entire incineration cycle, including start-up, operation and shutdown, rather than optimised operation only. This suggestion is important for medical waste incinerators, as these facilities frequently start up and shut down, because of their small size, or of lacking waste supply. Forthcoming operation should shift towards much longer operating cycles, i.e., a single weekly start-up and shutdown. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Volatilisation and oxidation of aluminium scraps fed into incineration furnaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biganzoli, Laura; Gorla, Leopoldo; Nessi, Simone; Grosso, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Aluminium packaging partitioning in MSW incineration residues is evaluated. ► The amount of aluminium packaging recoverable from the bottom ashes is evaluated. ► Aluminium packaging oxidation rate in the residues of MSW incineration is evaluated. ► 80% of aluminium cans, 51% of trays and 27% of foils can be recovered from bottom ashes. - Abstract: Ferrous and non-ferrous metal scraps are increasingly recovered from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash and used in the production of secondary steel and aluminium. However, during the incineration process, metal scraps contained in the waste undergo volatilisation and oxidation processes, which determine a loss of their recoverable mass. The present paper evaluates the behaviour of different types of aluminium packaging materials in a full-scale waste to energy plant during standard operation. Their partitioning and oxidation level in the residues of the incineration process are evaluated, together with the amount of potentially recoverable aluminium. About 80% of post-consumer cans, 51% of trays and 27% of foils can be recovered through an advanced treatment of bottom ash combined with a melting process in the saline furnace for the production of secondary aluminium. The residual amount of aluminium concentrates in the fly ash or in the fine fraction of the bottom ash and its recovery is virtually impossible using the current eddy current separation technology. The average oxidation levels of the aluminium in the residues of the incineration process is equal to 9.2% for cans, 17.4% for trays and 58.8% for foils. The differences between the tested packaging materials are related to their thickness, mechanical strength and to the alloy.

  6. Volatilisation and oxidation of aluminium scraps fed into incineration furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biganzoli, Laura, E-mail: laura.biganzoli@mail.polimi.it [Politecnico di Milano, Piazza L. Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Gorla, Leopoldo; Nessi, Simone; Grosso, Mario [Politecnico di Milano, Piazza L. Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aluminium packaging partitioning in MSW incineration residues is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The amount of aluminium packaging recoverable from the bottom ashes is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aluminium packaging oxidation rate in the residues of MSW incineration is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 80% of aluminium cans, 51% of trays and 27% of foils can be recovered from bottom ashes. - Abstract: Ferrous and non-ferrous metal scraps are increasingly recovered from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash and used in the production of secondary steel and aluminium. However, during the incineration process, metal scraps contained in the waste undergo volatilisation and oxidation processes, which determine a loss of their recoverable mass. The present paper evaluates the behaviour of different types of aluminium packaging materials in a full-scale waste to energy plant during standard operation. Their partitioning and oxidation level in the residues of the incineration process are evaluated, together with the amount of potentially recoverable aluminium. About 80% of post-consumer cans, 51% of trays and 27% of foils can be recovered through an advanced treatment of bottom ash combined with a melting process in the saline furnace for the production of secondary aluminium. The residual amount of aluminium concentrates in the fly ash or in the fine fraction of the bottom ash and its recovery is virtually impossible using the current eddy current separation technology. The average oxidation levels of the aluminium in the residues of the incineration process is equal to 9.2% for cans, 17.4% for trays and 58.8% for foils. The differences between the tested packaging materials are related to their thickness, mechanical strength and to the alloy.

  7. Incineration of Low Level Radioactive Vegetation for Waste Volume Reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, N.P.S.; Rucker, G.G.; Looper, M.G.

    1995-01-01

    The DOE changing mission at Savannah River Site (SRS) are to increase activities for Waste Management and Environmental Restoration. There are a number of Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) locations that are contaminated with radioactivity and support dense vegetation, and are targeted for remediation. Two such locations have been studied for non-time critical removal actions under the National Contingency Plan (NCP). Both of these sites support about 23 plant species. Surveys of the vegetation show that radiation emanates mainly from vines, shrubs, and trees and range from 20,000 to 200,000 d/m beta gamma. Planning for removal and disposal of low-level radioactive vegetation was done with two principal goals: to process contaminated vegetation for optimum volume reduction and waste minimization, and for the protection of human health and environment. Four alternatives were identified as candidates for vegetation removal and disposal: chipping the vegetation and packing in carbon steel boxes (lined with synthetic commercial liners) and disposal at the Solid Waste Disposal Facility at SRS; composting the vegetation; burning the vegetation in the field; and incinerating the vegetation. One alternative 'incineration' was considered viable choice for waste minimization, safe handling, and the protection of the environment and human health. Advantages and disadvantages of all four alternatives considered have been evaluated. For waste minimization and ultimate disposal of radioactive vegetation incineration is the preferred option. Advantages of incineration are that volume reduction is achieved and low-level radioactive waste are stabilized. For incineration and final disposal vegetation will be chipped and packed in card board boxes and discharged to the rotary kiln of the incinerator. The slow rotation and longer resident time in the kiln will ensure complete combustion of the vegetative material

  8. Defense waste cyclone incinerator demonstration program: April-September 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klingler, L.M.

    1981-01-01

    An improved offgas system is being designed. The new system will improve gas cleaning and will also provide for improved offgas sampling and mass balance data collection. Continuous solid feed burning experiments were delayed pending delivery of shredding equipment. Liquid burning experiments were in progress at fiscal year end. Burn data indicate that the incinerator will work well for combustible liquids. Improved data on incinerator performance will be generated upon completion of system changes and utilization of new sampling and analysis equipment. Mound Facility received advanced guidance from the Transuranic Waste Systems Office that this program will be cancelled in FY-1981 because of reductions in funding levels

  9. Evaluation of refractory materials for a nuclear waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grotzky, V.K.; Kneale, P.A.; Teter, A.R.

    1980-01-01

    An experiment to find a suitable refractory lining for a nuclear waste incinerator has been completed. Eleven brick and six castable products were analyzed by optical and scanning microscopy. All the materials were fashioned into cup shapes and subjected to temperatures ranging from 800 to 1200 0 C for as long as six weeks. Some of the cups were charged weekly with pellets made from ash materials that would contact an incinerator liner. Refractory products containing a high percentage of aluminum oxide had the greatest resistance to cracking and slag buildup. 35 figures

  10. Radioactive waste incineration studies at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stretz, L.A.; Borduin, L.C.; Draper, W.E.; Koenig, R.A.; Newmyer, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    Development and demonstration of a transuranic (TRU) waste volume-reduction process is described. A controlled-air incinerator, based upon commercially available equipment and technology, was modified for radioactive service and was successfully tested and demonstrated with contaminated waste. Demonstration of the production-scale unit was completed in May 1980 with the incineration of 272 kg of waste with an average TRU content of about 20 nCi/g. Weight and volume reduction factors for the demonstration run were 40:1 and 120:1, respectively

  11. Experiences with waste incineration for energy production in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Janus; Grohnheit, Poul Erik; Møller Andersen, Frits

    The Bioenergy Department in SENER have requested assistance with planning for the deployment of bioenergy (Biomass, biogas and waste incineration) in Mexico and information on Danish experiences with developing policy initiatives promoting bioenergy. This introduction to the Danish experiences...... with waste incineration for energy production use is compiled as preparation for SENER’s potential visit to Denmark in 2014. This report was prepared 19 June, 2014 by COWI DTU System Analysis to Danish Energy Agency (DEA) as part of a frame contract agreement....

  12. [Public health risk caused by emissions from refuse incinerators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassermann, O; Kruse, H

    1995-01-01

    An irresponsible "approval on request" in favour of waste incineration written by a consulting committee of the German Federal Board of Physicians has meanwhile been widely distributed both nationally and internationally. The aim of this politically motivated paper is to dramatically increase the present number of 49 waste incinerators in Germany. It is our duty to warn of this intention. Health problems are known to exist both in workers at waste incinerators and in humans living in their vicinity. Furthermore, in the long run negative impact also to ecosystems should be expected from the emissions. Health problems in patients living downwind of waste incinerators repeatedly have been reported on by physicians. "Lack of statistical significance", often used as counter-argument, is only due to absence of funding of comprehensive epidemiological studies in Germany. Analyses of soil samples reveal the pollution from waste incineration. Considering the pre-load of the region, additional emissions caused by waste incineration and other sources have to be assessed. The application of preventive limit values is imperative. The presently used "limit values", being about 100 times too high, bear an unacceptable risk. Therefore, reliable regional registers of emissions have to be established immediately. Limit values continuously have to be adjusted to the progress of scientific knowledge. In this respect it is imperative to consider that the actual composition of emissions is unknown; isolated risk assessment of single compounds underestimates the total risk; the negative impact, e.g. of dioxins, on both the immune and hormone systems occurs at concentrations 100 times lower than those causing carcinogenic effects; the assumption of "threshold values" is obsolete; a considerable lack of knowledge exists about accumulation in food webs and in ecosystems; the demand of preservation of natural, geogenic situations is indispensable in assessments of soil and water pollution

  13. Radioactivity partitioning of oil sludge undergoing incineration process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhamat Omar; Suhaimi Hamzah; Muhd Noor Muhd Yunus

    1997-01-01

    Oil sludge waste is a controlled item under the Atomic Energy Act (Act 304) 1984 of which the radioactivity content shall be subjected to analysis. Apart from that the treatment method also shall be approved by Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB). Thus, an analysis of the oil sludge for MSE fluidized incinerator was conducted to comply with above requirements using various techniques. Further screening analysis of fly ash as well as bed material were done to study the effect of incinerating the sludge. This paper highlights the analysis techniques and discusses the results with respect to the radioactivity level and the fate of radionuclides subjected to the processing of the waste

  14. Feasibility study of incineration treatment of radioactive waste oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Peiyi; Zhou Lianquan; Ma Mingxie; Yang Liguo; Li Xiaohai; Qiu Mingcai; Zhang Xiaobin; Dong Jingling; Yang Baomin

    2001-01-01

    The author describes the combustion experiment of radioactive waste oil, including determination of the basic properties of the waste oils, pretreatment and incineration experiment. As for low flash point oil possibly mixed with gasoline, it is recommended to add kerosine to lower the viscosity. Spray incineration experiment shows that for waste oil with viscosity less than 30 mPa·s, it can be completely burnt even if the heat strength in the stove is less than 1.6 x 10 6 kJ/(m 3 ·h). Within a broad range of extra-air coefficient, CO concentration in flue gas is below 0.1%

  15. Recent research in incinerator radioactive smoke filtration and improvements in a TRU waste incinerator plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpernier, S.; de Tassigny, C.; Hashimoto, Y.; Inove, A.

    1989-01-01

    In the area concerned, when incineration is carried out, it is always accompanied by the production of combustion gases which entrain fly ash, which is generally hazardous and/or a carrier of radioactivity, and which must be collected before the gasses are releases to the atmosphere. The fly ash concerned consists of secondary solid effluents which, with the consumable filters designed to stop them, tend to lower and quality of the waste volume and weight reduction factors, sometimes significantly. Hence it is an excellent idea to burn the organic part of the fly ash and also to stop thoroughly the inorganic parts by prefilters and final filters, carefully designed and selected for their performance and their longest possible service life, in order to minimize the process waste built up with time. This paper discusses the testing of ceramic and fiber candles for their refractive qualities, thermal shock behavior, commercial cost and efficiency for a given grain size distribution

  16. Leaching from municipal solid waste incineration residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyks, J.

    2008-02-15

    Leaching of pollutants from Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) residues has been investigated combining a range of laboratory leaching experiments with geochemical modeling. Special attention was paid to assessing the applicability of laboratory data for subsequent modeling with respect to presumed full-scale conditions; both sample pretreatment and actual influence of leaching conditions on the results of laboratory experiments were considered. It was shown that sample pretreatment may have large impact on leaching test data. In particular, a significant fraction of Pb was shown mobile during the washing of residues with water. In addition, drying of residues (i.e. slow oxidation) prior to leaching experiments increased the leaching of Cr significantly. Significant differences regarding the leaching behavior of individual elements with respect to (non)equilibrium conditions in column percolation experiments were observed in the study. As a result, three groups of elements were identified based on the predominant leaching control and the influence of (non)equilibrium on the results of the laboratory column experiments: I. Predominantly availability-controlled elements (e.g. Na, K, Cl) II. Solubility-controlled elements (e.g. Ca, S, Si, Al, Ba, and Zn) III. Complexation-controlled elements (e.g. Cu and Ni) With respect to the above groups it was suggested that results of laboratory column experiments can, with consideration, be used to estimate full-scale leaching of elements from Group I and II. However, in order to avoid large underestimations in the assessment of leaching from Group III, it is imperative to describe the time-dependent transport of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the tested system or to minimize the physical non-equilibrium during laboratory experiments (e.g. bigger column, slower flow velocity). Forward geochemical modeling was applied to simulate long-term release of elements from a MSWI air-pollution-control residue. Leaching of a

  17. Quantification of the resource recovery potential of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allegrini, Elisa; Maresca, Alberto; Olsson, Mikael Emil

    2014-01-01

    Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plays an important role in many European waste management systems. However, increasing focus on resource criticality has raised concern regarding the possible loss of critical resources through MSWI. The primary form of solid output from waste incinerators....... The lack of REE enrichment in BAs indicated that the post-incineration recovery of these resources may not be a likely option with current technology. Based on these results, it is recommended to focus on limiting REE-containing products in waste for incineration and improving pre-incineration sorting...

  18. Exposure dose evaluation of worker at radioactive waste incineration facility on KAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sang Kyu; Jeon, Jong Seon; Kim, Youn Hwa; Lee, Jae Min; Lee, Gi Won

    2011-01-01

    An incineration treatment of inflammable radioactive wastes leads to have a reduction effect of disposal cost and also to contribute an enhancement of safety at a disposal site by taking the advantage of stabilization of the wastes which is accomplished by converting organic materials into inorganic materials. As it was required for an incineration technology, KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) has developed a pilot incineration process and then constructed a demonstration incineration facility having based on the operating experiences of the pilot process. In this study, worker exposure doses were evaluated to confirm safety of workers before the demonstration incineration facility will commence a commercial. (author)

  19. The domestic wastes incinerators; Les incinerateurs d'ordures menegares: quels risques? quelles politiques?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-10-01

    This document presents the opinion of the Committee of Prevention and Precaution (CPP), on the domestic wastes incinerators, in the framework of the global wastes policy. The seven chapters detail and bring advices on the following topics: the elements which are going in and out of the incinerators, the technical processes, the occupational activities and the risks bound to the incinerators use, the transfer modes towards the different environmental areas, the exposure estimation, the risks of people living near the domestic wastes incinerators compared to the other concerning a cancer development, the legislation concerning the domestic wastes and the social acceptability of the incinerators. (A.L.B.)

  20. Waste wood incineration: long-lasting, environment-friendly and CO2-neutral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouma, J.W.J.

    1993-01-01

    The economic aspects of energy production from waste wood are evaluated. Heating systems based on the incineration of wood have been considerably improved recently. Several aspects of the incineration of waste wood are reviewed: the implications with regard to the greenhouse effect, the calorific value of wood, the incineration process, and the cost price calculation of energy production by waste wood incineration. In conclusion is stated that energy production by waste wood incineration is a valuable economic alternative for heat production by oil products, especially in view of the current anti-pollution taxes in Belgium. (A.S.)