WorldWideScience

Sample records for critically ill-the time

  1. Erik Erikson: critical times, critical theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douvan, E

    1997-01-01

    The work and legacy of Erik Erikson are described in this brief outline of his career, his theories, and his impact on psychoanalysis, psychology, history, and the broader culture. His conception of the adolescent task-weaving internal tastes, talents, and values together with elements of one's life history and the demands of one's culture into a coherent identity-has had profound effects on developmental psychology and the way in which sophisticated youth construct and describe their lives. His extension of development through adulthood and old age established the field of life course development. His emphasis on the impact of history and culture on development was a critical element in the developing field of ego psychology. Many of his major contributions can be fruitfully understood in the context of his personal history and individual qualities.

  2. Continuous infusion of antibiotics in the critically ill: The new holy grail for beta-lactams and vancomycin?

    OpenAIRE

    Van Herendael, Bruno; Jeurissen, Axel; Tulkens, Paul M.; Vlieghe, Erika; Verbrugghe, Walter; Jorens, Philippe G.; Ieven, Margareta

    2012-01-01

    The alarming global rise of antimicrobial resistance combined with the lack of new antimicrobial agents has led to a renewed interest in optimization of our current antibiotics. Continuous infusion (CI) of time-dependent antibiotics has certain theoretical advantages toward efficacy based on pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic principles. We reviewed the available clinical studies concerning continuous infusion of beta-lactam antibiotics and vancomycin in critically ill patients. We conclude that...

  3. Doubt and belief in physicians' ability to prognosticate during critical illness: the perspective of surrogate decision makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zier, Lucas S; Burack, Jeffrey H; Micco, Guy; Chipman, Anne K; Frank, James A; Luce, John M; White, Douglas B

    2008-08-01

    Although discussing a prognosis is a duty of physicians caring for critically ill patients, little is known about surrogate decision-makers' beliefs about physicians' ability to prognosticate. We sought to determine: 1) surrogates' beliefs about whether physicians can accurately prognosticate for critically ill patients; and 2) how individuals use prognostic information in their role as surrogate decision-makers. Multicenter study in intensive care units of a public hospital, a tertiary care hospital, and a veterans' hospital. We conducted semistructured interviews with 50 surrogate decision-makers of critically ill patients. We analyzed the interview transcripts using grounded theory methods to inductively develop a framework to describe surrogates' beliefs about physicians' ability to prognosticate. Validation methods included triangulation by multidisciplinary analysis and member checking. Overall, 88% (44 of 50) of surrogates expressed doubt about physicians' ability to prognosticate for critically ill patients. Four distinct themes emerged that explained surrogates' doubts about prognostic accuracy: a belief that God could alter the course of the illness, a belief that predicting the future is inherently uncertain, prior experiences where physicians' prognostications were inaccurate, and experiences with prognostication during the patient's intensive care unit stay. Participants also identified several factors that led to belief in physicians' prognostications, such as receiving similar prognostic estimates from multiple physicians and prior experiences with accurate prognostication. Surrogates' doubts about prognostic accuracy did not prevent them from wanting prognostic information. Instead, most surrogate decision-makers view physicians' prognostications as rough estimates that are valuable in informing decisions, but are not determinative. Surrogates identified the act of prognostic disclosure as a key step in preparing emotionally and practically for the

  4. The use of echocardiography in the critically ill; the role of FADE (Fast Assessment Diagnostic Echocardiography) training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marum, Susan; Price, Susanna

    2011-08-01

    Echocardiography (echo) is a powerful technique that permits direct visualization and assessment of all the cardiac structures and assessment of the patients' haemodynamic status at the bedside. Echo allows detection of valvular disease, evaluation of ventricular function and the pericardium, detection of intracardiac/intrapulmonary shunts, and can be used to calculate flows and relative pressures between the cardiac chambers. This rapid point-of-care haemodynamic evaluation provides information to guide therapeutic interventions, including volume resuscitation, instigation of vasoactive therapy and/or referral for specialist cardiac/surgical intervention. Although there is abundant evidence in the cardiology literature regarding the use of echo, data in the critical care arena is less well defined, but emerging. The use of echo by intensive care doctors is likely to become routine, and therefore training for intensivists in this technique needs to be developed and supported. The Portuguese Working Group on Echocardiography has developed a skill-based program, FADE (Focused Assessment Diagnostic Echocardiography) in order to train clinicians in the use of bedside ultrasound as a diagnostic and monitoring tool for the critically ill.

  5. Universal short-time quantum critical dynamics in imaginary time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shuai; Mai, Peizhi; Zhong, Fan

    2014-04-01

    We propose a scaling theory for the universal imaginary-time quantum critical dynamics for both short and long times. We discover that there exists a universal critical initial slip related to a small initial order parameter M0. In this stage, the order parameter M increases with the imaginary time τ as M ∝M0τθ with a universal initial-slip exponent θ. For the one-dimensional transverse-field Ising model, we estimate θ to be 0.373, which is markedly distinct from its classical counterpart. Apart from the local order parameter, we also show that the entanglement entropy exhibits universal behavior in the short-time region. As the critical exponents in the early stage and in equilibrium are identical, we apply the short-time dynamics method to determine quantum critical properties. The method is generally applicable in both the Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson paradigm and topological phase transitions.

  6. Parity-time symmetric quantum critical phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Ashida, Yuto; Ueda, Masahito

    2016-01-01

    Symmetry plays a central role in the theory of phase transitions. Parity-time (PT) symmetry is an emergent notion in synthetic nonconservative systems, where the gain-loss balance creates a threshold for spontaneous symmetry breaking across which spectral singularity emerges. Considerable studies on PT symmetry have been conducted in optics and weakly interacting open quantum systems. Here by extending the idea of PT symmetry to strongly correlated many-body systems, we discover unconventional quantum critical phenomena, where spectral singularity and quantum criticality conspire to yield an exotic universality class which has no counterpart in known critical phenomena. Moreover, we find that superfluid correlation is anomalously enhanced owing to winding renormalization group flows in a PT-symmetry-broken quantum critical phase. Our findings can experimentally be tested in ultracold atoms.

  7. Critical Time Crystals in Dipolar Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Wen Wei; Choi, Soonwon; Lukin, Mikhail D.; Abanin, Dmitry A.

    2017-07-01

    We analyze the quantum dynamics of periodically driven, disordered systems in the presence of long-range interactions. Focusing on the stability of discrete time crystalline (DTC) order in such systems, we use a perturbative procedure to evaluate its lifetime. For 3D systems with dipolar interactions, we show that the corresponding decay is parametrically slow, implying that robust, long-lived DTC order can be obtained. We further predict a sharp crossover from the stable DTC regime into a regime where DTC order is lost, reminiscent of a phase transition. These results are in good agreement with the recent experiments utilizing a dense, dipolar spin ensemble in diamond [Nature (London) 543, 221 (2017), 10.1038/nature21426]. They demonstrate the existence of a novel, critical DTC regime that is stabilized not by many-body localization but rather by slow, critical dynamics. Our analysis shows that the DTC response can be used as a sensitive probe of nonequilibrium quantum matter.

  8. Critical dwell time of switched linear systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lijun ZHANG; Chunwen LI

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the relation between the switching dwell time and the stabilization of switched linear control systems. First of all, a concept of critical dwell time is given for switched linear systems without control inputs, and the critical dwell time is taken as an arbitrary given positive constant for a switched linear control systems with controllable switching models. Secondly, when a switched linear system has many stabilizable switching models, the problem of stabilization of the overall system is considered. An on-line feedback control is designed such that the overall system is asymptotically stabilizable under switching laws which depend only on those of uncontrollable subsystems of the switching models. Finally, when a switched system is partially controllable (While some switching models are probably unstabilizable), an on-line feedback control and a cyclic switching strategy are designed such that the overall system is asymptotically stabilizable if all switching models of this uncontrollable subsystems are asymptotically stable. In addition,algorithms for designing switching laws and controls are presented.

  9. Critical Time Crystals in Dipolar Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Wen Wei; Choi, Soonwon; Lukin, Mikhail D; Abanin, Dmitry A

    2017-07-07

    We analyze the quantum dynamics of periodically driven, disordered systems in the presence of long-range interactions. Focusing on the stability of discrete time crystalline (DTC) order in such systems, we use a perturbative procedure to evaluate its lifetime. For 3D systems with dipolar interactions, we show that the corresponding decay is parametrically slow, implying that robust, long-lived DTC order can be obtained. We further predict a sharp crossover from the stable DTC regime into a regime where DTC order is lost, reminiscent of a phase transition. These results are in good agreement with the recent experiments utilizing a dense, dipolar spin ensemble in diamond [Nature (London) 543, 221 (2017)NATUAS0028-083610.1038/nature21426]. They demonstrate the existence of a novel, critical DTC regime that is stabilized not by many-body localization but rather by slow, critical dynamics. Our analysis shows that the DTC response can be used as a sensitive probe of nonequilibrium quantum matter.

  10. Discrete Time Crystals: Rigidity, Criticality, and Realizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, N. Y.; Potter, A. C.; Potirniche, I.-D.; Vishwanath, A.

    2017-01-01

    Despite being forbidden in equilibrium, spontaneous breaking of time translation symmetry can occur in periodically driven, Floquet systems with discrete time-translation symmetry. The period of the resulting discrete time crystal is quantized to an integer multiple of the drive period, arising from a combination of collective synchronization and many body localization. Here, we consider a simple model for a one-dimensional discrete time crystal which explicitly reveals the rigidity of the emergent oscillations as the drive is varied. We numerically map out its phase diagram and compute the properties of the dynamical phase transition where the time crystal melts into a trivial Floquet insulator. Moreover, we demonstrate that the model can be realized with current experimental technologies and propose a blueprint based upon a one dimensional chain of trapped ions. Using experimental parameters (featuring long-range interactions), we identify the phase boundaries of the ion-time-crystal and propose a measurable signature of the symmetry breaking phase transition.

  11. Discrete Time Crystals: Rigidity, Criticality, and Realizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, N Y; Potter, A C; Potirniche, I-D; Vishwanath, A

    2017-01-20

    Despite being forbidden in equilibrium, spontaneous breaking of time translation symmetry can occur in periodically driven, Floquet systems with discrete time-translation symmetry. The period of the resulting discrete time crystal is quantized to an integer multiple of the drive period, arising from a combination of collective synchronization and many body localization. Here, we consider a simple model for a one-dimensional discrete time crystal which explicitly reveals the rigidity of the emergent oscillations as the drive is varied. We numerically map out its phase diagram and compute the properties of the dynamical phase transition where the time crystal melts into a trivial Floquet insulator. Moreover, we demonstrate that the model can be realized with current experimental technologies and propose a blueprint based upon a one dimensional chain of trapped ions. Using experimental parameters (featuring long-range interactions), we identify the phase boundaries of the ion-time-crystal and propose a measurable signature of the symmetry breaking phase transition.

  12. A combined early cognitive and physical rehabilitation program for people who are critically ill: the activity and cognitive therapy in the intensive care unit (ACT-ICU) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummel, Nathan E; Jackson, James C; Girard, Timothy D; Pandharipande, Pratik P; Schiro, Elena; Work, Brittany; Pun, Brenda T; Boehm, Leanne; Gill, Thomas M; Ely, E Wesley

    2012-12-01

    In the coming years, the number of survivors of critical illness is expected to increase. These survivors frequently develop newly acquired physical and cognitive impairments. Long-term cognitive impairment is common following critical illness and has dramatic effects on patients' abilities to function autonomously. Neuromuscular weakness affects similar proportions of patients and leads to equally profound life alterations. As knowledge of these short-term and long-term consequences of critical illness has come to light, interventions to prevent and rehabilitate these devastating consequences have been sought. Physical rehabilitation has been shown to improve functional outcomes in people who are critically ill, but subsequent studies of physical rehabilitation after hospital discharge have not. Post-hospital discharge cognitive rehabilitation is feasible in survivors of critical illness and is commonly used in people with other forms of acquired brain injury. The feasibility of early cognitive therapy in people who are critically ill remains unknown. The purpose of this novel protocol trial will be to determine the feasibility of early and sustained cognitive rehabilitation paired with physical rehabilitation in patients who are critically ill from medical and surgical intensive care units. This is a randomized controlled trial. The setting for this trial will be medical and surgical intensive care units of a large tertiary care referral center. The participants will be patients who are critically ill with respiratory failure or shock. Patients will be randomized to groups receiving usual care, physical rehabilitation, or cognitive rehabilitation plus physical rehabilitation. Twice-daily cognitive rehabilitation sessions will be performed with patients who are noncomatose and will consist of orientation, memory, and attention exercises (eg, forward and reverse digit spans, matrix puzzles, letter-number sequences, pattern recognition). Daily physical

  13. A Combined Early Cognitive and Physical Rehabilitation Program for People Who Are Critically Ill: The Activity and Cognitive Therapy in the Intensive Care Unit (ACT-ICU) Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, James C.; Girard, Timothy D.; Pandharipande, Pratik P.; Schiro, Elena; Work, Brittany; Pun, Brenda T.; Boehm, Leanne; Gill, Thomas M.; Ely, E. Wesley

    2012-01-01

    Background In the coming years, the number of survivors of critical illness is expected to increase. These survivors frequently develop newly acquired physical and cognitive impairments. Long-term cognitive impairment is common following critical illness and has dramatic effects on patients' abilities to function autonomously. Neuromuscular weakness affects similar proportions of patients and leads to equally profound life alterations. As knowledge of these short-term and long-term consequences of critical illness has come to light, interventions to prevent and rehabilitate these devastating consequences have been sought. Physical rehabilitation has been shown to improve functional outcomes in people who are critically ill, but subsequent studies of physical rehabilitation after hospital discharge have not. Post-hospital discharge cognitive rehabilitation is feasible in survivors of critical illness and is commonly used in people with other forms of acquired brain injury. The feasibility of early cognitive therapy in people who are critically ill remains unknown. Objective The purpose of this novel protocol trial will be to determine the feasibility of early and sustained cognitive rehabilitation paired with physical rehabilitation in patients who are critically ill from medical and surgical intensive care units. Design This is a randomized controlled trial. Setting The setting for this trial will be medical and surgical intensive care units of a large tertiary care referral center. Patients The participants will be patients who are critically ill with respiratory failure or shock. Intervention Patients will be randomized to groups receiving usual care, physical rehabilitation, or cognitive rehabilitation plus physical rehabilitation. Twice-daily cognitive rehabilitation sessions will be performed with patients who are noncomatose and will consist of orientation, memory, and attention exercises (eg, forward and reverse digit spans, matrix puzzles, letter

  14. Time Critical Isosurface Refinement and Smoothing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascucci, V.; Bajaj, C.L.

    2000-07-10

    Multi-resolution data-structures and algorithms are key in Visualization to achieve real-time interaction with large data-sets. Research has been primarily focused on the off-line construction of such representations mostly using decimation schemes. Drawbacks of this class of approaches include: (i) the inability to maintain interactivity when the displayed surface changes frequently, (ii) inability to control the global geometry of the embedding (no self-intersections) of any approximated level of detail of the output surface. In this paper we introduce a technique for on-line construction and smoothing of progressive isosurfaces. Our hybrid approach combines the flexibility of a progressive multi-resolution representation with the advantages of a recursive sub-division scheme. Our main contributions are: (i) a progressive algorithm that builds a multi-resolution surface by successive refinements so that a coarse representation of the output is generated as soon as a coarse representation of the input is provided, (ii) application of the same scheme to smooth the surface by means of a 3D recursive subdivision rule, (iii) a multi-resolution representation where any adaptively selected level of detail surface is guaranteed to be free of self-intersections.

  15. Generalized dynamic scaling for quantum critical relaxation in imaginary time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuyi; Yin, Shuai; Zhong, Fan

    2014-10-01

    We study the imaginary-time relaxation critical dynamics of a quantum system with a vanishing initial correlation length and an arbitrary initial order parameter M0. We find that in quantum critical dynamics, the behavior of M0 under scale transformations deviates from a simple power law, which was proposed for very small M0 previously. A universal characteristic function is then suggested to describe the rescaled initial magnetization, similar to classical critical dynamics. This characteristic function is shown to be able to describe the quantum critical dynamics in both short- and long-time stages of the evolution. The one-dimensional transverse-field Ising model is employed to numerically determine the specific form of the characteristic function. We demonstrate that it is applicable as long as the system is in the vicinity of the quantum critical point. The universality of the characteristic function is confirmed by numerical simulations of models belonging to the same universality class.

  16. Time discounting and time preference in animals: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Benjamin Y

    2016-02-01

    Animals are an important model for studies of impulsivity and self-control. Many studies have made use of the intertemporal choice task, which pits small rewards available sooner against larger rewards available later (typically several seconds), repeated over many trials. Preference for the sooner reward is often taken to indicate impulsivity and/or a failure of self-control. This review shows that very little evidence supports this assumption; on the contrary, ostensible discounting behavior may reflect a boundedly rational but not necessarily impulsive reward-maximizing strategy. Specifically, animals may discount weakly, or even adopt a long-term rate-maximizing strategy, but fail to fully incorporate postreward delays into their choices. This failure may reflect learning biases. Consequently, tasks that measure animal discounting may greatly overestimate the true discounting and may be confounded by processes unrelated to time preferences. If so, animals may be much more patient than is widely believed; human and animal intertemporal choices may reflect unrelated mental operations; and the shared hyperbolic shape of the human and animal discount curves, which is used to justify cross-species comparisons, may be coincidental. The discussion concludes with a consideration of alternative ways to measure self-control in animals.

  17. Optimization of Time-Partitions for Mixed-Criticality Real-Time Distributed Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamas-Selicean, Domitian; Pop, Paul

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we are interested in mixed-criticality embedded real-time applications mapped on distributed heterogeneous architectures. The architecture provides both spatial and temporal partitioning, thus enforcing enough separation for the critical applications. With temporal partitioning, each...

  18. A Pragmatic Randomised, Controlled Trial of Intensive Care follow up programmes in improving Longer-term outcomes from critical illness. The PRACTICAL study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramsey Craig

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of intensive care (ICU patients experience significant problems with physical, psychological, and social functioning for some time after discharge from ICU. These problems have implications not just for patients, but impose a continuing financial burden for the National Health Service. To support recovery, a number of hospitals across the UK have developed Intensive Care follow-up clinics. However, there is a lack of evidence base to support these, and this study aims to test the hypothesis that intensive care follow up programmes are effective and cost-effective at improving physical and psychological quality of life in the year after intensive care discharge. Methods/Design This is a multi-centre, pragmatic, randomised controlled trial. Patients (n = 270 will be recruited prior to hospital discharge from three intensive care units in the UK, and randomised to one of two groups. The control group will receive standard in-hospital follow-up and the intervention group will participate in an ICU follow-up programme with clinic appointments 2–3 and 9 months after ICU discharge. The primary outcome measure is Health-related Quality of Life (HRQoL 12 months after ICU discharge as measured by the Short Form-36. Secondary measures include: HRQoL at six months; Quality-adjusted life years using EQ-5D; posttraumatic psychopathology as measured by Davidson Trauma Scale; and anxiety and depression using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale at both six and twelve months after ICU discharge. Contacts with health services in the twelve months after ICU discharge will be measured as part of the economic analysis. Discussion The provision of intensive care follow-up clinics within the UK has developed in an ad hoc manner, is inconsistent in both the number of hospitals offering such a service or in the type of service offered. This study provides the opportunity to evaluate such services both in terms of patient benefit and

  19. A critical introduction to the metaphysics of time

    CERN Document Server

    Curtis, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    What is the nature of time? Does it flow? Do the past and future exist? Drawing connections between historical and present-day questions, A Critical Introduction to the Metaphysics of Time provides an up-to-date guide to one of the most central and debated topics in contemporary metaphysics. Introducing the views and arguments of Parmenides, Plato, Aristotle, Descartes, Newton and Leibniz, this accessible introduction covers the history of the philosophy of time from the Pre-Socratics to the beginning of the 20th Century. The historical survey presents the necessary background to understanding more recent developments, including McTaggart's 1908 argument for the unreality of time, the open future, the perdurance/endurance debate, the possibility of time travel, and the relevance of current physics to the philosophy of time. Informed by cutting-edge philosophical research, A Critical Introduction to the Metaphysics of Time evaluates influential historical arguments in the context of contemporary developments. ...

  20. From Safety Critical Java Programs to Timed Process Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bent; Luckow, Kasper Søe; Thomsen, Lone Leth

    2015-01-01

    built and the tools have been used to analyse a number of systems for properties such as worst case execution time, schedulability and energy optimization [12–14,19,34,36,38]. In this paper we will elaborate on the theoretical underpinning of the translation from Java programs to timed automata models...... frameworks, we have in recent years pursued an agenda of translating hard-real-time embedded safety critical programs written in the Safety Critical Java Profile [33] into networks of timed automata [4] and subjecting those to automated analysis using the UPPAAL model checker [10]. Several tools have been...... and briefly summarize some of the results based on this translation. Furthermore, we discuss future work, especially relations to the work in [16,24] as Java recently has adopted first class higher order functions in the form of lambda abstractions....

  1. A critical note on time in the multiverse

    OpenAIRE

    Rugh, Svend E.; Zinkernagel, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    In recent analyses of standard, single-universe, cosmology, it was pointed out that specific assumptions regarding the distribution and motion of matter must be made in order to set up the cosmological standard model with a global time parameter. Relying on these results, we critically examine the notion of time in the multiverse, and in particular the idea that some parts of the multiverse are older than others. By focusing on the most elaborated multiverse proposal in cosmology, the inflati...

  2. Criticality: static profiling for real-time programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandner, Florian; Hepp, Stefan; Jordan, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing performance demand in real-time systems it becomes more and more important to provide feedback to programmers and software development tools on the performance-relevant code parts of a real-time program. So far, this information was limited to an estimation of the worst...... with respect to dominance in control-flow graphs. Exploiting some of those properties, we propose an algorithm that reduces the overhead of computing the metric to cover complete programs. We also investigate ways to efficiently find only those code parts whose criticality is above a given threshold...... view covering the entire code base, tools in the spirit of program profiling are required. This work proposes an efficient approach to compute worst-case timing information for all code parts of a program using a complementary metric, called criticality. Every statement of a program is assigned...

  3. Safety-critical Java on a time-predictable processor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Stephan E.; Schoeberl, Martin; Puffitsch, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    For real-time systems the whole execution stack needs to be time-predictable and analyzable for the worst-case execution time (WCET). This paper presents a time-predictable platform for safety-critical Java. The platform consists of (1) the Patmos processor, which is a time-predictable processor......; (2) a C compiler for Patmos with support for WCET analysis; (3) the HVM, which is a Java-to-C compiler; (4) the HVM-SCJ implementation which supports SCJ Level 0, 1, and 2 (for both single and multicore platforms); and (5) a WCET analysis tool. We show that real-time Java programs translated to C...... and compiled to a Patmos binary can be analyzed by the AbsInt aiT WCET analysis tool. To the best of our knowledge the presented system is the second WCET analyzable real-time Java system; and the first one on top of a RISC processor....

  4. Safety-Critical Java on a Time-predictable Processor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Stephan Erbs; Schoeberl, Martin; Puffitsch, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    For real-time systems the whole execution stack needs to be time-predictable and analyzable for the worst-case execution time (WCET). This paper presents a time-predictable platform for safety-critical Java. The platform consists of (1) the Patmos processor, which is a time-predictable processor......; (2) a C compiler for Patmos with support for WCET analysis; (3) the HVM, which is a Java-to-C compiler; (4) the HVM-SCJ implementation which supports SCJ Level 0, 1, and 2 (for both single and multicore platforms); and (5) a WCET analysis tool. We show that real-time Java programs translated to C...... and compiled to a Patmos binary can be analyzed by the AbsInt aiT WCET analysis tool. To the best of our knowledge the presented system is the second WCET analyzable real-time Java system; and the first one on top of a RISC processor....

  5. Critical Timing without a Timer for Embryonic Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufcea, Daniel E; François, Paul

    2015-10-20

    Timing of embryonic development is precisely controlled, but the mechanisms underlying biological timers are still unclear. Here, a validated model for timing under control of Sonic Hedgehog is revisited and generalized to an arbitrary number of genes. The developmental dynamics where a temporal sequence of gene expression recapitulates a steady-state spatial pattern can be realized through a simple network close to criticality, controlled by the duration of exposure to a morphogen. Criticality simultaneously accounts for many observed biological properties, such as timing, multistability, and canalization of genetic expression. This process can be parsimoniously generalized in many dimensions with a minimum number of genes, all repressing each other with asymmetrical strengths, which also explains sequential activation of different fates. Separation of timescales allows for a simple analytical interpretation. Finally, it is shown that even in the presence of noise, coupling between cells preserves criticality and robust patterning. The model offers a simple theoretical framework for the study of emergent developmental timers. Copyright © 2015 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Time-Critical Data Delivery in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriyachai, Petcharat; Brown, James; Roedig, Utz

    A number of wireless sensor network (WSN) applications demand timely data delivery. However, existing WSNs are designed to conserve energy and not to support timely data transmission. This paper shows how WSNs can be dimensioned, deployed and operated such that both reliable and timely data delivery is ensured while scarce energy is preserved. The presented solution employs a novel Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol that incorporates topology control mechanisms to ensure timely data delivery and reliability control mechanisms to deal with inherently fluctuating wireless links. An industrial process automation and control scenario at an oil refinery in Portugal is used to define protocol requirements. The paper details a TinyOS implementation of the protocol and its evaluation in a testbed. Under high traffic load, the protocol delivers 100% of data in time using a maximum node duty cycle as little as 2.48%. In an idle network a maximum node duty cycle of only 0.62% is achieved. This proposed protocol is thus an extremely energy efficient solution for time-critical data delivery.

  7. Time Critical Social Mobilization: The DARPA Network Challenge Winning Strategy

    CERN Document Server

    Pickard, Galen; Pan, Wei; Cebrian, Manuel; Crane, Riley; Madan, Anmol; Pentland, Alex

    2010-01-01

    It is now commonplace to see the Web as a platform that can harness the collective abilities of large numbers of people to accomplish tasks with unprecedented speed, accuracy and scale. To push this idea to its limit, DARPA launched its Network Challenge, which aimed to "explore the roles the Internet and social networking play in the timely communication, wide-area team-building, and urgent mobilization required to solve broad-scope, time-critical problems." The challenge required teams to provide coordinates of ten red weather balloons placed at different locations in the continental United States. This large-scale mobilization required the ability to spread information about the tasks widely and quickly, and to incentivize individuals to act. We report on the winning team's strategy, which utilized a novel recursive incentive mechanism to find all balloons in under nine hours. We analyze the theoretical properties of the mechanism, and present data about its performance in the challenge.

  8. Identification of integrating and critically damped systems with time delay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAJARANGBALI; Somanath MAJHI

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents identification of second order plus dead time (SOPDT) integrating and critically damped systems based on relay feedback testing. Relay with hysteresis is applied to the unknown system to get the sustained oscillations also called as limit cycle. The limit cycle parameters are utilized in mathematical expressions which are derived using state space technique so that exact process model parameters are estimated. As the relay with hysteresis helps in generating sustained oscillations and also reduces effect of measurement noise which is an important issue in system identification. Different types of processes in the form of transfer function models are considered to show the efficacy of the proposed method and results are compared with available methods in the literature with and without noise effect.

  9. Timing Analysis of Mixed-Criticality Hard Real-Time Applications Implemented on Distributed Partitioned Architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinescu, Sorin Ovidiu; Tamas-Selicean, Domitian; Acretoaie, Vlad;

    In this paper we are interested in the timing analysis of mixed-criticality embedded real-time applications mapped on distributed heterogeneous architectures. Mixedcriticality tasks can be integrated onto the same architecture only if there is enough spatial and temporal separation among them. We...... in partitions using fixedpriority preemptive scheduling. We have extended the stateof- the-art algorithms for schedulability analysis to take into account the partitions. The proposed algorithm has been evaluated using several synthetic and real-life benchmarks....

  10. Timing of critical genetic changes in human breast disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, Rachel E; Ellsworth, Darrell L; Deyarmin, Brenda; Hoffman, Laurel R; Love, Brad; Hooke, Jeffrey A; Shriver, Craig D

    2005-12-01

    Breast cancer development has been characterized as a nonobligatory sequence of histological changes from normal epithelium through invasive malignancy. Although genetic alterations are thought to accumulate stochastically during tumorigenesis, little is known about the timing of critical mutations. This study examined allelic imbalance (AI) in tissue samples representing a continuum of breast cancer development to examine the evolution of genomic instability. Laser-microdissected DNA samples were collected from histologically normal breast specimens (n = 25), atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH, n = 16), ductal carcinoma-in-situ (DCIS, n = 37), and stage I to III invasive carcinomas (n = 72). Fifty-two microsatellite markers representing 26 chromosomal regions commonly deleted in breast cancer were used to assess patterns of AI. AI frequencies were .0001). DCIS lesions contain levels of genomic instability that are characteristic of advanced invasive tumors, and this suggests that the biology of a developing carcinoma may already be predetermined by the in situ stage. Observations that levels of AI in ADH lesions are similar to those in disease-free tissues provide a genomic rationale for why prevention strategies at the ADH level are successful and why cases with ADH involving surgical margins do not require further resection.

  11. Critical source times for nutrient loss in agricultural catchment streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melland, Alice; Shore, Mairead; Mellander, Per-Erik; McDonald, Noeleen; Shortle, Ger; Murphy, Paul; Jordan, Phil

    2014-05-01

    Identifying periods of the year when there is a high risk of incidental nutrient loss from farms via runoff to streams underpins current nutrient management legislation in Europe. This research explored high-temporal resolution nutrient transfer patterns relative to the time that manure and fertiliser are prohibited from being spread (the mandatory spreading 'closed' period) in five Irish agricultural catchments. Catchment nutrient losses during the 12 week closed periods in 2009-10, 2010-11 and 2011-12 were compared with losses during the remainder of the year, and with losses in the two week 'shoulder' periods immediately before and after the closed period. The closed period losses were assumed to be residual from soil nutrient stores and the 'shoulder' periods were considered to also include incidental losses. Nutrient loss was measured at sub-hourly frequency as total phosphorus (P) and total oxidised nitrogen (mostly nitrate-N) fluxes in streamflow. The streamflow fluxes showed that the proportion of the annual nitrate-N loss occurring during the closed periods (33-61%) was high compared with the remainder of the year. Six to ten times more nitrate-N loss occurred in the two weeks after, compared with the two weeks before, the closed period. These two week 'shoulder' period losses were, on average, less than or equal to 2.5 kg nitrate-N/ha and 9% of total annual nitrate-N loss in streamflow. On average, 40-53% of the annual P loss occurred during the closed periods but in a runoff-prone catchment in a year with a wet summer, the closed period was the less risky period. Similar to nitrate-N, two to twenty times more P loss occurred in the two weeks after, compared with the two weeks before, the closed period. These shoulder period losses were, on average, less than or equal to 0.027 kg/ha and 4.2% of total annual P loss in streamflow. The proportion of the shoulder period loss that could be attributed to recently spread nutrients was not known but can be

  12. Scheduling Real-Time Mixed-Criticality Jobs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruah, Sanjoy K.; Bonifaci, Vincenzo; D'Angelo, Gianlorenzo; Li, Haohan; Marchetti-Spaccamela, Alberto; Megow, Nicole; Stougie, Leen

    Many safety-critical embedded systems are subject to certification requirements; some systems may be required to meet multiple sets of certification requirements, from different certification authorities. Certification requirements in such "mixed-criticality" systems give rise to interesting scheduling problems, that cannot be satisfactorily addressed using techniques from conventional scheduling theory. In this paper, we study a formal model for representing such mixed-criticality workloads. We demonstrate first the intractability of determining whether a system specified in this model can be scheduled to meet all its certification requirements, even for systems subject to two sets of certification requirements. Then we quantify, via the metric of processor speedup factor, the effectiveness of two techniques, reservation-based scheduling and priority-based scheduling, that are widely used in scheduling such mixed-criticality systems, showing that the latter of the two is superior to the former. We also show that the speedup factors are tight for these two techniques.

  13. Statistical inference for critical continuous state and continuous time branching processes with immigration

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    We study asymptotic behavior of conditional least squares estimators for critical continuous state and continuous time branching processes with immigration based on discrete time (low frequency) observations.

  14. Applying Cognitive Work Analysis to Time Critical Targeting Functionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-10-01

    Target List/Dynamic Target Queue (DTL/ DTQ ) in the same place. Figure 4-27 shows the task steps involved in achieving Goal 7. 4- 30 Figure 4-27...GUI WG to brainstorm the order of columns in the DTL/ DTQ Table, a critical component of the TCTF CUI, with successful results, which were...Cognitive Work Analysis DTD Display Task Description DTL/ DTQ Dynamic Target List/Dynamic Target Queue FDO Fighter Duty Officer FEBA Forward Edge

  15. Logarithmic modes of critical gravity in de Sitter space-time

    CERN Document Server

    Setare, M R

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we consider the critical gravity in four dimensional de Sitter space-time. We obtain logarithmic modes in the critical point of the theory. Then we show that these logarithmic modes in de Sitter space-time obey similar properties as the ones in AdS-space-time. Our result in this paper indicate that critical gravity theories in de Sitter space-times could lead to a de Sitter/log CFT correspondence.

  16. Time for Teacher Learning, Planning Critical for School Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Eileen G.

    2017-01-01

    Teachers are dedicated, wise, and thoughtful change agents who need more time to identify problems they see in their schools or classrooms and work individually and collectively on solutions. They need both more time for individual planning and time to collaborate with colleagues who teach the same grades or the same subjects. A productive day of…

  17. Accessible high performance computing solutions for near real-time image processing for time critical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielski, Conrad; Lemoine, Guido; Syryczynski, Jacek

    2009-09-01

    High Performance Computing (HPC) hardware solutions such as grid computing and General Processing on a Graphics Processing Unit (GPGPU) are now accessible to users with general computing needs. Grid computing infrastructures in the form of computing clusters or blades are becoming common place and GPGPU solutions that leverage the processing power of the video card are quickly being integrated into personal workstations. Our interest in these HPC technologies stems from the need to produce near real-time maps from a combination of pre- and post-event satellite imagery in support of post-disaster management. Faster processing provides a twofold gain in this situation: 1. critical information can be provided faster and 2. more elaborate automated processing can be performed prior to providing the critical information. In our particular case, we test the use of the PANTEX index which is based on analysis of image textural measures extracted using anisotropic, rotation-invariant GLCM statistics. The use of this index, applied in a moving window, has been shown to successfully identify built-up areas in remotely sensed imagery. Built-up index image masks are important input to the structuring of damage assessment interpretation because they help optimise the workload. The performance of computing the PANTEX workflow is compared on two different HPC hardware architectures: (1) a blade server with 4 blades, each having dual quad-core CPUs and (2) a CUDA enabled GPU workstation. The reference platform is a dual CPU-quad core workstation and the PANTEX workflow total computing time is measured. Furthermore, as part of a qualitative evaluation, the differences in setting up and configuring various hardware solutions and the related software coding effort is presented.

  18. Critical trust : social movements and democracy in times of crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Della Porta, Donatella

    2012-01-01

    The recent financial crisis and, especially, anti-austerity policies, reflects and, at the same time, contribute to a crisis of representative democracy. In this article, I discuss which different conceptions of trust (and relations to democracy) have been debated in the social sciences, and in public debates in recent time. The financial crisis has in fact stimulated a hot debate on “whose trust” is relevant for “whose democracy”. After locating the role of trust in democratic theory, I cont...

  19. Critical Spaces for Critical Times: Global Conversations in Literacy Research as an Open Professional Development and Practices Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peggy Albers

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reflects an OER (Open Educational Resources critical literacy project, Global Conversations in Literacy Research (GCLR, (www.globalconversationsinliteracy.wordpress.com, now in its fourth year. GCLR annually hosts seven web seminars presented by internationally recognized literacy and education scholars. We outline key dimensions of GCLR not only as an OER but as an open educational practice (OEP (Andrade et al., 2011 that through its design, not only provides open access to scholarship, but also understands the critical nexus among resources, practices and theory. Informed by data from a longitudinal study, this paper situates these dimensions within professional development literature, and outlines GCLR as a critical space designed for critical times, and the importance of intentionality when accessing OER. Like scholars before us, we argue that that availability is not the only consideration when using OER (Andrade et al., 2011; OER must be considered in relation to pedagogical considerations and how OER are used as a critical component to online professional development.

  20. Calculation of critical fault recovery time for nonlinear systems based on region of attraction analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabatabaeipour, Mojtaba; Blanke, Mogens

    2014-01-01

    In safety critical systems, the control system is composed of a core control system with a fault detection and isolation scheme together with a repair or a recovery strategy. The time that it takes to detect, isolate, and recover from the fault (fault recovery time) is a critical factor in safety...... of a system. It must be guaranteed that the trajectory of a system subject to fault remains in the region of attraction (ROA) of the post-fault system during this time. This paper proposes a new algorithm to compute the critical fault recovery time for nonlinear systems with polynomial vector elds using sum...

  1. Application of queueing models to multiprogrammed computer systems operating in a time-critical environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, D. E., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    A model of a central processor (CPU) which services background applications in the presence of time critical activity is presented. The CPU is viewed as an M/M/1 queueing system subject to periodic interrupts by deterministic, time critical process. The Laplace transform of the distribution of service times for the background applications is developed. The use of state of the art queueing models for studying the background processing capability of time critical computer systems is discussed and the results of a model validation study which support this application of queueing models are presented.

  2. Seeking worldwide professional consensus on the principles of end-of-life care for the critically ill. The Consensus for Worldwide End-of-Life Practice for Patients in Intensive Care Units (WELPICUS) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprung, Charles L; Truog, Robert D; Curtis, J Randall; Joynt, Gavin M; Baras, Mario; Michalsen, Andrej; Briegel, Josef; Kesecioglu, Jozef; Efferen, Linda; De Robertis, Edoardo; Bulpa, Pierre; Metnitz, Philipp; Patil, Namrata; Hawryluck, Laura; Manthous, Constantine; Moreno, Rui; Leonard, Sara; Hill, Nicholas S; Wennberg, Elisabet; McDermid, Robert C; Mikstacki, Adam; Mularski, Richard A; Hartog, Christiane S; Avidan, Alexander

    2014-10-15

    Great differences in end-of-life practices in treating the critically ill around the world warrant agreement regarding the major ethical principles. This analysis determines the extent of worldwide consensus for end-of-life practices, delineates where there is and is not consensus, and analyzes reasons for lack of consensus. Critical care societies worldwide were invited to participate. Country coordinators were identified and draft statements were developed for major end-of-life issues and translated into six languages. Multidisciplinary responses using a web-based survey assessed agreement or disagreement with definitions and statements linked to anonymous demographic information. Consensus was prospectively defined as >80% agreement. Definitions and statements not obtaining consensus were revised based on comments of respondents, and then translated and redistributed. Of the initial 1,283 responses from 32 countries, consensus was found for 66 (81%) of the 81 definitions and statements; 26 (32%) had >90% agreement. With 83 additional responses to the original questionnaire (1,366 total) and 604 responses to the revised statements, consensus could be obtained for another 11 of the 15 statements. Consensus was obtained for informed consent, withholding and withdrawing life-sustaining treatment, legal requirements, intensive care unit therapies, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, shared decision making, medical and nursing consensus, brain death, and palliative care. Consensus was obtained for 77 of 81 (95%) statements. Worldwide consensus could be developed for the majority of definitions and statements about end-of-life practices. Statements achieving consensus provide standards of practice for end-of-life care; statements without consensus identify important areas for future research.

  3. Design of Mixed-Criticality Applications on Distributed Real-Time Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamas-Selicean, Domitian

    the concept of virtual links, and temporal separation, enforced through schedule tables for TT messages and bandwidth allocation for RC messages. The objective of this thesis is to develop methods and tools for distributed mixed-criticality real-time systems. At the processor level, we are interested......A mixed-criticality system implements applications of different safety-criticality levels onto the same platform. In such cases, the certification standards require that applications of different criticality levels are protected so they cannot influence each other. Otherwise, all tasks have...... to be developed and certified according to the highest criticality level, dramatically increasing the development costs. In this thesis we consider mixed-criticality real-time applications implemented on distributed partitioned architectures. Partitioned architectures use temporal and spatial separation...

  4. Model-based schedulability analysis of safety critical hard real-time Java programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgholm, Thomas; Kragh-Hansen, Henrik; Olsen, Petur

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel approach to schedulability analysis of Safety Critical Hard Real-Time Java programs. The approach is based on a translation of programs, written in the Safety Critical Java profile introduced in [21] for the Java Optimized Processor [18], to timed automata models...... has been implemented in a tool, named SARTS, successfully used to verify the schedulability of a real-time sorting machine consisting of two periodic and two sporadic tasks. SARTS has also been applied on a number of smaller examples to investigate properties of our approach.......In this paper, we present a novel approach to schedulability analysis of Safety Critical Hard Real-Time Java programs. The approach is based on a translation of programs, written in the Safety Critical Java profile introduced in [21] for the Java Optimized Processor [18], to timed automata models...

  5. Ambiguity of the mean time to loss of a neutron in a critical reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Masatoshi [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori, Osaka (Japan)

    1999-10-01

    In this paper, we obtain the following three results. (1) The ambiguity of the mean time from birth of a neutron to its loss in a critical reactor was shown. (2) The neutron lifetime defined as the adjoint-weighted mean loss time should not be interpreted as the mean time from birth of a neutron to its loss. (3) It is not generally valid that the mean time from birth of a neutron to its loss is equal to the mean time of a neutron to its production of a second neutron for a critical reactor. (J.P.N.)

  6. Incubation time for sub-critical crack propagation in SiC-SiC composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Azab, A.; Ghoniem, N.M. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The objective of this work is to investigate the time for sub-critical crack propagation is SiC-SiC composites at high temperatures. The effects of fiber thermal creep on the relaxation of crack bridging tractions in SiC-SiC ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) is considered in the present work, with the objective of studying the time-to propagation of sub-critical matrix cracks in this material at high temperatures. Under the condition of fiber stress relaxation in the bridiging zone, it is found that the crack opening and the stress intensity factor increase with time for sub-critical matrix cracks. The time elapsed before the stress intensity reaches the critical value for crack propagation is calculated as a function of the initial crack length, applied stress and temperature. Stability domains for matrix cracks are defined, which provide guidelines for conducting high-temperature crack propagation experiments.

  7. Time-Averaged Behaviour at the Critical Parameter Point of Transition to Spatiotemporal Chaos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺凯芬

    2001-01-01

    A time-averaged behaviour is found to be important for investigating the critical behaviour in parameter space for the transition from temporal chaos to spatiotemporal chaos by using an energy representation. Considering any wave solution as a superposition of the steady wave with its perturbation wave, we find that when approaching the critical parameter point the averaged positive interaction energy for the k = 1 mode becomes competitive with the negative one, with the summation displaying a scaling behaviour of power law.

  8. Modeling, Evaluation and Detection of Jamming Attacks in Time-Critical Wireless Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    time-critical message delivery among electronic devices on physical infrastructures. However, the shared nature of wireless channels unavoidably exposes...critical than that in conventional data-service networks, such as cellular and WiFi networks. In this paper, we aim at modeling and detecting jamming attacks...technologies (e.g.,3G/4G and WiFi ) has already brought significant change and benefit to people’s life, such as ubiquitous wire- less Internet access, mobile

  9. Natural time analysis of critical phenomena: The case of pre-fracture electromagnetic emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potirakis, S. M. [Department of Electronics, Technological Education Institute (TEI) of Piraeus, 250 Thivon and P. Ralli, Aigaleo, Athens GR-12244 (Greece); Karadimitrakis, A. [Department of Physics, Section of Electronics, Computers, Telecommunications and Control, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, Zografos, Athens GR-15784 (Greece); Eftaxias, K. [Department of Physics, Section of Solid State Physics, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, Zografos, Athens GR-15784 (Greece)

    2013-06-15

    Criticality of complex systems reveals itself in various ways. One way to monitor a system at critical state is to analyze its observable manifestations using the recently introduced method of natural time. Pre-fracture electromagnetic (EM) emissions, in agreement to laboratory experiments, have been consistently detected in the MHz band prior to significant earthquakes. It has been proposed that these emissions stem from the fracture of the heterogeneous materials surrounding the strong entities (asperities) distributed along the fault, preventing the relative slipping. It has also been proposed that the fracture of heterogeneous material could be described in analogy to the critical phase transitions in statistical physics. In this work, the natural time analysis is for the first time applied to the pre-fracture MHz EM signals revealing their critical nature. Seismicity and pre-fracture EM emissions should be two sides of the same coin concerning the earthquake generation process. Therefore, we also examine the corresponding foreshock seismic activity, as another manifestation of the same complex system at critical state. We conclude that the foreshock seismicity data present criticality features as well.

  10. Visualizing Robustness of Critical Points for 2D Time-Varying Vector Fields

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, B.

    2013-06-01

    Analyzing critical points and their temporal evolutions plays a crucial role in understanding the behavior of vector fields. A key challenge is to quantify the stability of critical points: more stable points may represent more important phenomena or vice versa. The topological notion of robustness is a tool which allows us to quantify rigorously the stability of each critical point. Intuitively, the robustness of a critical point is the minimum amount of perturbation necessary to cancel it within a local neighborhood, measured under an appropriate metric. In this paper, we introduce a new analysis and visualization framework which enables interactive exploration of robustness of critical points for both stationary and time-varying 2D vector fields. This framework allows the end-users, for the first time, to investigate how the stability of a critical point evolves over time. We show that this depends heavily on the global properties of the vector field and that structural changes can correspond to interesting behavior. We demonstrate the practicality of our theories and techniques on several datasets involving combustion and oceanic eddy simulations and obtain some key insights regarding their stable and unstable features. © 2013 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2013 The Eurographics Association and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. A new real-time ethernet MAC protocol for time-critical applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈钢; 许晓鸣; 蔡云泽; 何星; 张卫东

    2002-01-01

    The authors propose a new persistent transmission-based real-time Ethernet MAC protocol that provides a predictable upper bound for the delivery delay of real-time frames. Moreover, it is compatible with the protocol used by the existing Ethernet controllers for conventional datagram traffic and thus standard Ethernet stations can be used in the system without any modification. The paper describes the protocol in detail and analyses the maximum delivery delay for real-time traffic and the efficiency of the channel.

  12. Design Optimization of Mixed-Criticality Real-Time Applications on Cost-Constrained Partitioned Architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamas-Selicean, Domitian; Pop, Paul

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we are interested to implement mixed-criticality hard real-time applications on a given heterogeneous distributed architecture. Applications have different criticality levels, captured by their Safety-Integrity Level (SIL), and are scheduled using static-cyclic scheduling. Mixed...... of different SILs can share a partition only if they are all elevated to the highest SIL among them. Such elevation leads to increased development costs.We are interested to determine (i) the mapping of tasks to processors, (ii) the assignment of tasks to partitions, (iii) the sequence and size of the time...

  13. FRACTAL DIMENSION OF TIME SERIES APPLIED TO IDENTIFICATION OF CRITICAL SPEED OF JEFFCOTT ROTOR SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Yucheng; Sun Kun; Zhang Yahong; Xu Qingyu

    2005-01-01

    The dynamical behaviors of logistic map(May's model) and duffing equation are studied through fractal dimension of time series at different parameters. It is shown that the parameters of dynamical behaviors can be identified effectively by the curve of fractal dimension with parameter increments. For further verification, the relation between the fractional dimension of time series and rotational speed can be used to identify critical speed effectively by using this method to a plate Jeffoctt rotor system. The numerical and experimental result indicates that the identification of critical parameters is effective.

  14. Time-Scale and Noise Optimality in Self-Organized Critical Adaptive Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Kuehn, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that adaptive networks driven by simple local rules can organize into "critical" global steady states, thereby providing another framework for self-organized criticality (SOC). Here we study SOC in an adaptive network considered first by Bornholdt and Rohlf [PRL, 84(26), p.6114-6117, 2000]. We focus on the important convergence to criticality and discover time-scale and noise optimal behaviour as well as a noise-induced phase transition. Due to the complexity of adaptive networks dynamics we suggest to investigate each effect separately by developing simple models. These models reveal three generically possible low-dimensional dynamical behaviors: time-scale resonance (TR), a simplified version of stochastic resonance - which call steady state stochastic resonance (SSR) - as well as noise-induced phase transitions. Thereby, our study not only opens up new directions for optimality in SOC but also applies to a much wider class of dynamical systems.

  15. Critical time delay of the pineal melatonin rhythm in humans due to weak electromagnetic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halgamuge, Malka N

    2013-08-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) can increase free radicals, activate the stress response and alter enzyme reactions. Intracellular signalling is mediated by free radicals and enzyme kinetics is affected by radical pair recombination rates. The magnetic field component of an external EMF can delay the "recombination rate" of free radical pairs. Magnetic fields thus increase radical life-times in biological systems. Although measured in nanoseconds, this extra time increases the potential to do more damage. Melatonin regulates the body's sleep-wake cycle or circadian rhythm. The World Health Organization (WHO) has confirmed that prolonged alterations in sleep patterns suppress the body's ability to make melatonin. Considerable cancer rates have been attributed to the reduction of melatonin production as a result of jet lag and night shift work. In this study, changes in circadian rhythm and melatonin concentration are observed due to the external perturbation of chemical reaction rates. We further analyze the pineal melatonin rhythm and investigate the critical time delay or maturation time of radical pair recombination rates, exploring the impact of the mRNA degradation rate on the critical time delay. The results show that significant melatonin interruption and changes to the circadian rhythm occur due to the perturbation of chemical reaction rates, as also reported in previous studies. The results also show the influence of the mRNA degradation rate on the circadian rhythm's critical time delay or maturation time. The results support the hypothesis that exposure to weak EMFs via melatonin disruption can adversely affect human health.

  16. Critical flicker frequency and continuous reaction times for the diagnosis of minimal hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Mette Enok Munk; Jepsen, Peter; Vilstrup, Hendrik

    2011-01-01

    -to-perform reproducible bedside methods: the critical flicker frequency (CFF) and continuous reaction times (CRT) tests. A CFF ... appropriately to a sensory stimulus. The choice of test depends on the information needed in the clinical and scientific care and study of the patients....

  17. Pedagogy in Catastrophic Times: Giroux and the Tasks of Critical Public Intellectuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Doug

    2012-01-01

    This article reflects on Henry Giroux's work as a critical public intellectual and the important role his work plays in fostering educated hope and insurgent possibilities during our present times of daily and longer term catastrophes. In addition to attempting to capture the experience of what it means and how it feels to read Giroux along with…

  18. Burst wait time simulation of CALIBAN reactor at delayed super-critical state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humbert, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique CEA, Centre de Bruyeres-le-Chatel, 91297 Arpajon (France); Authier, N.; Richard, B.; Grivot, P.; Casoli, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique CEA, Centre de Valduc, 21120 Is-sur-Tille (France)

    2012-07-01

    In the past, the super prompt critical wait time probability distribution was measured on CALIBAN fast burst reactor [4]. Afterwards, these experiments were simulated with a very good agreement by solving the non-extinction probability equation [5]. Recently, the burst wait time probability distribution has been measured at CEA-Valduc on CALIBAN at different delayed super-critical states [6]. However, in the delayed super-critical case the non-extinction probability does not give access to the wait time distribution. In this case it is necessary to compute the time dependent evolution of the full neutron count number probability distribution. In this paper we present the point model deterministic method used to calculate the probability distribution of the wait time before a prescribed count level taking into account prompt neutrons and delayed neutron precursors. This method is based on the solution of the time dependent adjoint Kolmogorov master equations for the number of detections using the generating function methodology [8,9,10] and inverse discrete Fourier transforms. The obtained results are then compared to the measurements and Monte-Carlo calculations based on the algorithm presented in [7]. (authors)

  19. Critical capacity, travel time delays and travel time distribution of rapid mass transit systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legara, Erika Fille; Monterola, Christopher; Lee, Kee Khoon; Hung, Gih Guang

    2014-07-01

    We set up a mechanistic agent-based model of a rapid mass transit system. Using empirical data from Singapore's unidentifiable smart fare card, we validate our model by reconstructing actual travel demand and duration of travel statistics. We subsequently use this model to investigate two phenomena that are known to significantly affect the dynamics within the RTS: (1) overloading in trains and (2) overcrowding in the RTS platform. We demonstrate that by varying the loading capacity of trains, a tipping point emerges at which an exponential increase in the duration of travel time delays is observed. We also probe the impact on the rail system dynamics of three types of passenger growth distribution across stations: (i) Dirac delta, (ii) uniform and (iii) geometric, which is reminiscent of the effect of land use on transport. Under the assumption of a fixed loading capacity, we demonstrate the dependence of a given origin-destination (OD) pair on the flow volume of commuters in station platforms.

  20. Design Optimization of Mixed-Criticality Real-Time Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamas-Selicean, Domitian; Pop, Paul

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we are interested in implementing mixed-criticality real-time embedded applications on a given heterogeneous distributed architecture. Applications have different criticality levels, captured by their Safety-Integrity Level (SIL), and are scheduled using static-cyclic scheduling....... tables, such that all the applications are schedulable and the development costs are minimized. We have proposed a Tabu Search-based approach to solve this optimization problem. The proposed algorithm has been evaluated using several synthetic and real-life benchmarks....

  1. Characteristics of Real-Time, Non-Critical Incident Debriefing Practices in the Emergency Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadir, Nur-Ain; Bentley, Suzanne; Papanagnou, Dimitrios; Bajaj, Komal; Rinnert, Stephan; Sinert, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Benefits of post-simulation debriefings as an educational and feedback tool have been widely accepted for nearly a decade. Real-time, non-critical incident debriefing is similar to post-simulation debriefing; however, data on its practice in academic emergency departments (ED), is limited. Although tools such as TeamSTEPPS® (Team Strategies and Tools to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety) suggest debriefing after complicated medical situations, they do not teach debriefing skills suited to this purpose. Anecdotal evidence suggests that real-time debriefings (or non-critical incident debriefings) do in fact occur in academic EDs;, however, limited research has been performed on this subject. The objective of this study was to characterize real-time, non-critical incident debriefing practices in emergency medicine (EM). Methods We conducted this multicenter cross-sectional study of EM attendings and residents at four large, high-volume, academic EM residency programs in New York City. Questionnaire design was based on a Delphi panel and pilot testing with expert panel. We sought a convenience sample from a potential pool of approximately 300 physicians across the four sites with the goal of obtaining >100 responses. The survey was sent electronically to the four residency list-serves with a total of six monthly completion reminder emails. We collected all data electronically and anonymously using SurveyMonkey.com; the data were then entered into and analyzed with Microsoft Excel. Results The data elucidate various characteristics of current real-time debriefing trends in EM, including its definition, perceived benefits and barriers, as well as the variety of formats of debriefings currently being conducted. Conclusion This survey regarding the practice of real-time, non-critical incident debriefings in four major academic EM programs within New York City sheds light on three major, pertinent points: 1) real-time, non-critical incident debriefing

  2. Supporting Multiprocessors in the Icecap Safety-Critical Java Run-Time Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Shuai; Wellings, Andy; Korsholm, Stephan Erbs

    2015-01-01

    The current version of the Safety Critical Java (SCJ) specification defines three compliance levels. Level 0 targets single processor programs while Level 1 and 2 can support multiprocessor platforms. Level 1 programs must be fully partitioned but Level 2 programs can also be more globally...... scheduled. As of yet, there is no official Reference Implementation for SCJ. However, the icecap project has produced a Safety-Critical Java Run-time Environment based on the Hardware-near Virtual Machine (HVM). This supports SCJ at all compliance levels and provides an implementation of the safety......-critical Java (javax.safetycritical) package. This is still work-in-progress and lacks certain key features. Among these is the ability to support multiprocessor platforms. In this paper, we explore two possible options to adding multiprocessor support to this environment: the “green thread” and the “native...

  3. Trustworthy Critical Infrastructures via Physics-Aware Just-Ahead-Of-Time Verification

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Dr. Saman Zonouz, assistant professor at Rutgers University, NJ and the director of the 4N6 Cyber Security and Forensics Laboratory is visiting CERN for a collaboration meeting. His previous works and research interests include PLC program analysis, security of embedded systems, and malware analysis and reverse engineering. Before the collaboration meeting, Dr. Zonouz is giving a 30-minutes-long talk, titled 'Trustworthy Critical Infrastructures via Physics-Aware Just-Ahead-Of-Time Verification', followed by Q&A and discussions. You can find the abstract of the talk below. The presentation is open to anyone interested, but please register on Indico to know the size of the room needed. (Please note the new room: 31/3-004, IT Auditorium.) Abstract Critical cyber-physical infrastructures, such as the power grid, integrate networks of computational and physical processes to provide the people across the globe with essential functionalities and services. Protecting these critical infrastructu...

  4. Spinodals and critical point using short-time dynamics for a simple model of liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loscar, Ernesto S; Ferrara, C Gastón; Grigera, Tomás S

    2016-04-07

    We have applied the short-time dynamics method to the gas-liquid transition to detect the supercooled gas instability (gas spinodal) and the superheated liquid instability (liquid spinodal). Using Monte Carlo simulation, we have obtained the two spinodals for a wide range of pressure in sub-critical and critical conditions and estimated the critical temperature and pressure. Our method is faster than previous approaches and allows studying spinodals without needing equilibration of the system in the metastable region. It is thus free of the extrapolation problems present in other methods, and in principle could be applied to systems such as glass-forming liquids, where equilibration is very difficult even far from the spinodal. We have also done molecular dynamics simulations, where we find the method again able to detect the both spinodals. Our results are compared with different previous results in the literature and show a good agreement.

  5. Evidence of Invariance of Time Scale at Critical Point in Ising Meanfield Equilibrium Equation of State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muktish Acharyya; Ajanta Bhowal Acharyya

    2011-01-01

    We solve the equilibrium meanfield equation of state of Ising ferromagnet (obtained from Bragg-Williams theory) by Newton-Raphson method.The number of iterations required to get a convergent solution (within a specified accuracy) of equilibrium magnetisation, at any particular temperature, is observed to diverge in a power law fashion as the temperature approaches the critical value.This is identified as the critical slowing down.The exponent is also estimated.This value of the exponent is compared with that obtained from analytic solution.Besides this, the numerical results are also compared with some experimental results exhibiting satisfactory degree of agreement.It is observed from this study that the information of the invariance of time scale at the critical point is present in the meanfield equilibrium equation of state of Ising ferromagnet.

  6. Characteristics of Real-Time, Non-Critical Incident Debriefing Practices in the Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadir, Nur-Ain

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Benefits of post-simulation debriefings as an educational and feedback tool have been widely accepted for nearly a decade. Real-time, non-critical incident debriefing is similar to post-simulation debriefing; however, data on its practice in academic emergency departments (ED, is limited. Although tools such as TeamSTEPPS® (Team Strategies and Tools to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety suggest debriefing after complicated medical situations, they do not teach debriefing skills suited to this purpose. Anecdotal evidence suggests that real-time debriefings (or non-critical incident debriefings do in fact occur in academic EDs;, however, limited research has been performed on this subject. The objective of this study was to characterize real-time, non-critical incident debriefing practices in emergency medicine (EM. We conducted this multicenter cross-sectional study of EM attendings and residents at four large, high-volume, academic EM residency programs in New York City. Questionnaire design was based on a Delphi panel and pilot testing with expert panel. We sought a convenience sample from a potential pool of approximately 300 physicians across the four sites with the goal of obtaining >100 responses. The survey was sent electronically to the four residency list-serves with a total of six monthly completion reminder emails. We collected all data electronically and anonymously using SurveyMonkey.com; the data were then entered into and analyzed with Microsoft Excel. The data elucidate various characteristics of current real-time debriefing trends in EM, including its definition, perceived benefits and barriers, as well as the variety of formats of debriefings currently being conducted. This survey regarding the practice of real-time, non-critical incident debriefings in four major academic EM programs within New York City sheds light on three major, pertinent points: 1 real-time, non-critical incident debriefing definitely occurs in

  7. Memory controllers for mixed-time-criticality systems architectures, methodologies and trade-offs

    CERN Document Server

    Goossens, Sven; Akesson, Benny; Goossens, Kees

    2016-01-01

    This book discusses the design and performance analysis of SDRAM controllers that cater to both real-time and best-effort applications, i.e. mixed-time-criticality memory controllers. The authors describe the state of the art, and then focus on an architecture template for reconfigurable memory controllers that addresses effectively the quickly evolving set of SDRAM standards, in terms of worst-case timing and power analysis, as well as implementation. A prototype implementation of the controller in SystemC and synthesizable VHDL for an FPGA development board are used as a proof of concept of the architecture template.

  8. 3-Terminal pMTJ reduces critical current and switching time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Lanting [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Khizroev, Sakhrat [Department of Electrical Engineering, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33174 (United States); Liang, Ping [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    To realize the potential of magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) for high-density non-volatile memory and non-volatile logic, the critical current to switch the magnetization must be lowered. This paper presents a simulation study of a new structure of perpendicular MTJs (pMTJs) which divides the fixed layer into two coupling parts. We investigate the TMR and the critical current density of this new pMTJ by micromagnetic simulation using OOMMF for various cases. The simulation results show that this new structure pMTJ has lower critical current and shorter switching time compared to the conventional three-layer MTJs. - Highlights: • We investigate the factors which may affect the critical current density. • A new structure of 3-ternimal perpendicular MTJ is proposed which can switch between two states without changing the direction of the induced current. • Energy consumed will be lowered since a relatively low induced current density is needed. • The switching time between different states is shorter than conventional perpendicular MTJs.

  9. Supporting Multiprocessors in the Icecap Safety-Critical Java Run-Time Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Shuai; Wellings, Andy; Korsholm, Stephan Erbs

    2015-01-01

    scheduled. As of yet, there is no official Reference Implementation for SCJ. However, the icecap project has produced a Safety-Critical Java Run-time Environment based on the Hardware-near Virtual Machine (HVM). This supports SCJ at all compliance levels and provides an implementation of the safety......-critical Java (javax.safetycritical) package. This is still work-in-progress and lacks certain key features. Among these is the ability to support multiprocessor platforms. In this paper, we explore two possible options to adding multiprocessor support to this environment: the “green thread” and the “native...... thread” approaches. The “native thread” approach is adopted and the design and implementation of a revised icecap SCJ run-time environment is discussed....

  10. Critical Task Re-assignment under Hybrid Scheduling Approach in Multiprocessor Real-Time Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Nair, Gopalakrishnan T R

    2012-01-01

    Embedded hard real time systems require substantial amount of emergency processing power for the management of large scale systems like a nuclear power plant under the threat of an earth quake or a future transport systems under a peril. In order to meet a fully coordinated supervisory control of multiple domains of a large scale system, it requires the scenario of engaging multiprocessor real time design. There are various types of scheduling schemes existing for meeting the critical task assignment in multiple processor environments and it requires the tracking of faulty conditions of the subsystem to avoid system underperformance from failure patterns. Hybrid scheduling usually engages a combined scheduling philosophy comprising of a static scheduling of a set of tasks and a highly pre-emptive scheduling for another set of tasks in different situations of process control. There are instances where highly critical tasks need to be introduced at a least expected catastrophe and it cannot be ensured to meet a...

  11. Timing versus caloric goal in nutritional therapy for critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oellen Stuani Franzosi

    Full Text Available Introduction: Enteral nutrition is an important therapy for severely critically ill patients. The timing and amount of energy have been highly debated. Objective: The aim of the present study was to directly compare the timing and the caloric targets in critically ill patients. Methods: Retrospective cohort study conducted at a single center, comparing timing and caloric goal for critically ill patients. Patients were stratified according to the start of nutritional therapy (24, 48, or more than 48 h and the amount of energy delivered (target adequacy of previously calculated percentage in the first week. Statistical analysis was performed using parametric and non-parametric tests for independent samples and logistic regression. The results were expressed as mean ± standard deviation or incidence and percentage. Results and discussion: There were no differences in major clinical outcomes in relation to the achievement of percentage of caloric goal at the end of the first week of the study. The beginning of caloric intake on the first day of hospitalization was associated with reduced mortality in the intensive care unit, but not with hospital mortality. The strategy of an early and limited amount of calories seems to be associated with a better outcome. Prospective studies evaluating and comparing these strategies are recommended.

  12. Using Six Sigma methodology to reduce patient transfer times from floor to critical-care beds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silich, Stephan J; Wetz, Robert V; Riebling, Nancy; Coleman, Christine; Khoueiry, Georges; Abi Rafeh, Nidal; Bagon, Emma; Szerszen, Anita

    2012-01-01

    In response to concerns regarding delays in transferring critically ill patients to intensive care units (ICU), a quality improvement project, using the Six Sigma process, was undertaken to correct issues leading to transfer delay. To test the efficacy of a Six Sigma intervention to reduce transfer time and establish a patient transfer process that would effectively enhance communication between hospital caregivers and improve the continuum of care for patients. The project was conducted at a 714-bed tertiary care hospital in Staten Island, New York. A Six Sigma multidisciplinary team was assembled to assess areas that needed improvement, manage the intervention, and analyze the results. The Six Sigma process identified eight key steps in the transfer of patients from general medical floors to critical care areas. Preintervention data and a root-cause analysis helped to establish the goal transfer-time limits of 3 h for any individual transfer and 90 min for the average of all transfers. The Six Sigma approach is a problem-solving methodology that resulted in almost a 60% reduction in patient transfer time from a general medical floor to a critical care area. The Six Sigma process is a feasible method for implementing healthcare related quality of care projects, especially those that are complex. © 2011 National Association for Healthcare Quality.

  13. Real time monitoring of reticle etch process tool to investigate and predict critical dimension performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Rick; Yung, Karmen; Guglielmana, Mark; Bald, Dan; Baik, Kiho; Abboud, Frank

    2007-03-01

    As mask pattern feature sizes shrink the need for tighter control of factors affecting critical dimensions (CD) increases at all steps in the mask manufacturing process. To support this requirement Intel Mask Operation is expanding its process and equipment monitoring capability. We intend to better understand the factors affecting the process and enhance our ability to predict reticle health and critical dimension performance. This paper describes a methodology by which one can predict the contribution of the dry etch process equipment to overall CD performance. We describe the architecture used to collect critical process related information from various sources both internal and external to the process equipment and environment. In addition we discuss the method used to assess the significance of each parameter and to construct the statistical model used to generate the predictions. We further discuss the methodology used to turn this model into a functioning real time prediction of critical dimension performance. Further, these predictions will be used to modify the manufacturing decision support system to provide early detection for process excursion.

  14. Fairness of channel access for non-time-critical traffic using the FDDI token ring protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    The Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) is an ANSI draft proposed standard for a 100 megabit per second fiber optic token ring. FDDI supports two types of traffic, synchronous and asynchronous. Synchronous traffic is time critical traffic; stations are assigned guaranteed bandwidth to support their synchronous needs. Asynchronous traffic is lower priority and is sent only if time permits. It is proved analytically that the FDDI access protocol provides all stations on the ring with equal access to the channel to transmit asynchronous frames, regardless of the relative sizes of synchronous bandwidth allocations for individual stations. Analytic results are supported with data from simulation runs.

  15. Approximation and Filtering Techniques for Navigation Data in Time-critical Electronic Warfare Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanitha D.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a holistic solution to the navigation requirements in a time critical electronic warfare systems like missile warning systems (MWS. In a passive MWS using IR sensors the efficiency of the system is determined by attributes such as low false alarm rate, minimal response time and ability to track different IR radiating objects by association and correlation of consecutive detections through time. Such a system is required to be supported by a navigation system capable of accurate estimation of the aircraft position, attitude angles and altitude. In this paper, estimation techniques used to accurately calculate aircraft navigation data at the time of capture of IR frames are discussed. The paper discusses about synchronization of INGPS, IR sensors & Processor on to same timeline. The paper also intends to evaluate the performance of wavelet transform filter in effective elimination of noise in navigation parameters like acceleration and attitude angle rates for a better estimation of position and attitude.

  16. Short-time critical dynamics of damage spreading in the two-dimensional Ising model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio Puzzo, M. Leticia; Albano, Ezequiel V.

    2010-05-01

    The short-time critical dynamics of propagation of damage in the Ising ferromagnet in two dimensions is studied by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Starting with equilibrium configurations at T=∞ and magnetization M=0 , an initial damage is created by flipping a small amount of spins in one of the two replicas studied. In this way, the initial damage is proportional to the initial magnetization M0 in one of the configurations upon quenching the system at TC , the Onsager critical temperature of the ferromagnetic-paramagnetic transition. It is found that, at short times, the damage increases with an exponent θD=1.915(3) , which is much larger than the exponent θ=0.197 characteristic of the initial increase of the magnetization M(t) . Also, an epidemic study was performed. It is found that the average distance from the origin of the epidemic (⟨R2(t)⟩) grows with an exponent z∗≈η≈1.9 , which is the same, within error bars, as the exponent θD . However, the survival probability of the epidemics reaches a plateau so that δ=0 . On the other hand, by quenching the system to lower temperatures one observes the critical spreading of the damage at TD≃0.51TC , where all the measured observables exhibit power laws with exponents θD=1.026(3) , δ=0.133(1) , and z∗=1.74(3) .

  17. Brittle Creep Failure, Critical Behavior, and Time-to-Failure Prediction of Concrete under Uniaxial Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingchong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the time-dependent brittle deformation behavior of concrete as a main building material is fundamental for the lifetime prediction and engineering design. Herein, we present the experimental measures of brittle creep failure, critical behavior, and the dependence of time-to-failure, on the secondary creep rate of concrete under sustained uniaxial compression. A complete evolution process of creep failure is achieved. Three typical creep stages are observed, including the primary (decelerating, secondary (steady state creep regime, and tertiary creep (accelerating creep stages. The time-to-failure shows sample-specificity although all samples exhibit a similar creep process. All specimens exhibit a critical power-law behavior with an exponent of −0.51 ± 0.06, approximately equal to the theoretical value of −1/2. All samples have a long-term secondary stage characterized by a constant strain rate that dominates the lifetime of a sample. The average creep rate expressed by the total creep strain over the lifetime (tf-t0 for each specimen shows a power-law dependence on the secondary creep rate with an exponent of −1. This could provide a clue to the prediction of the time-to-failure of concrete, based on the monitoring of the creep behavior at the steady stage.

  18. Real-time assessment of critical quality attributes of a continuous granulation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonteyne, Margot; Vercruysse, Jurgen; Díaz, Damián Córdoba; Gildemyn, Delphine; Vervaet, Chris; Remon, Jean Paul; De Beer, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    There exists the intention to shift pharmaceutical manufacturing of solid dosage forms from traditional batch production towards continuous production. The currently applied conventional quality control systems, based on sampling and time-consuming off-line analyses in analytical laboratories, would annul the advantages of continuous processing. It is clear that real-time quality assessment and control is indispensable for continuous production. This manuscript evaluates strengths and weaknesses of several complementary Process Analytical Technology (PAT) tools implemented in a continuous wet granulation process, which is part of a fully continuous from powder-to-tablet production line. The use of Raman and NIR-spectroscopy and a particle size distribution analyzer is evaluated for the real-time monitoring of critical parameters during the continuous wet agglomeration of an anhydrous theophylline- lactose blend. The solid state characteristics and particle size of the granules were analyzed in real-time and the critical process parameters influencing these granule characteristics were identified. The temperature of the granulator barrel, the amount of granulation liquid added and, to a lesser extent, the powder feed rate were the parameters influencing the solid state of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). A higher barrel temperature and a higher powder feed rate, resulted in larger granules.

  19. Critical phenomena of regular black holes in anti-de Sitter space-time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Zhong-Ying [Peking University, Center for High Energy Physics, Beijing (China)

    2017-04-15

    In General Relativity, addressing coupling to a non-linear electromagnetic field, together with a negative cosmological constant, we obtain the general static spherical symmetric black hole solution with magnetic charges, which is asymptotic to anti-de Sitter (AdS) space-times. In particular, for a degenerate case the solution becomes a Hayward-AdS black hole, which is regular everywhere in the full space-time. The existence of such a regular black hole solution preserves the weak energy condition, while the strong energy condition is violated. We then derive the first law and the Smarr formula of the black hole solution. We further discuss its thermodynamic properties and study the critical phenomena in the extended phase space where the cosmological constant is treated as a thermodynamic variable as well as the parameter associated with the non-linear electrodynamics. We obtain many interesting results such as: the Maxwell equal area law in the P-V (or S-T) diagram is violated and consequently the critical point (T{sub *},P{sub *}) of the first order small-large black hole transition does not coincide with the inflection point (T{sub c},P{sub c}) of the isotherms; the Clapeyron equation describing the coexistence curve of the Van der Waals (vdW) fluid is no longer valid; the heat capacity at constant pressure is finite at the critical point; the various exponents near the critical point are also different from those of the vdW fluid. (orig.)

  20. Vitamin D deficiency in pediatric critical illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran B. Hebbar, MD, FCCM

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency is common in the pediatric critical care population. Significant seasonal differences were noted even in the critically ill. The role of vitamin D in certain diseases like asthma in critically ill children merit further study.

  1. Influence of time-dependent factors in the evaluation of critical infrastructure protection measures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buehring, W. A.; Samsa, M. E.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2008-03-28

    The examination of which protective measures are the most appropriate to be implemented in order to prevent, protect against, respond to, and recover from attacks on critical infrastructures and key resources typically involves a comparison of the consequences that could occur when the protective measure is implemented to those that could occur when it is not. This report describes a framework for evaluation that provides some additional capabilities for comparing optional protective measures. It illustrates some potentially important time-dependent factors, such as the implementation rate, that affect the relative pros and cons associated with widespread implementation of protective measures. It presents example results from the use of protective measures, such as detectors and pretrained responders, for an illustrative biological incident. Results show that the choice of an alternative measure can depend on whether or not policy and financial support can be maintained for extended periods of time. Choice of a time horizon greatly influences the comparison of alternatives.

  2. Automated implementation of rule-based expert systems with neural networks for time-critical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamoorthy, P. A.; Huang, Song; Govind, Girish

    1991-01-01

    In fault diagnosis, control and real-time monitoring, both timing and accuracy are critical for operators or machines to reach proper solutions or appropriate actions. Expert systems are becoming more popular in the manufacturing community for dealing with such problems. In recent years, neural networks have revived and their applications have spread to many areas of science and engineering. A method of using neural networks to implement rule-based expert systems for time-critical applications is discussed here. This method can convert a given rule-based system into a neural network with fixed weights and thresholds. The rules governing the translation are presented along with some examples. We also present the results of automated machine implementation of such networks from the given rule-base. This significantly simplifies the translation process to neural network expert systems from conventional rule-based systems. Results comparing the performance of the proposed approach based on neural networks vs. the classical approach are given. The possibility of very large scale integration (VLSI) realization of such neural network expert systems is also discussed.

  3. ICT-Enabled Time-Critical Clinical Practices: Examining the Affordances of an Information Processing Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard Hoon

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a case study of a decision-support system deployment at The Alfred Hospital, in Melbourne, Australia. This work outlines Information and Communications Technology (ICT affordances and their actualisations in time-critical clinical practices to enable better information processing. From our study findings, we present a stage-wise model describing the role played by ICT in the context of the Trauma Centre practices. This addresses a knowledge gap surrounding the role and impact of ICT in the delivery of quality improvements to processes and culture in time-critical environments, amid increasing expenditure on ICT globally. Our model has implications for research and practice, such that we observe for the first time how information standards, synergy and renewal are developed between the system and its users in order to reduce error rates in the healthcare context. Through the study findings, we demonstrate that healthcare quality can be further refined as ICT allows for knowledge dissemination and informs existing practices.

  4. Time-domain pumping a quantum-critical charge density wave ordered material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveev, O. P.; Shvaika, A. M.; Devereaux, T. P.; Freericks, J. K.

    2016-09-01

    We determine the exact time-resolved photoemission spectroscopy for a nesting driven charge density wave (described by the spinless Falicov-Kimball model within dynamical mean-field theory). The pump-probe experiment involves two light pulses: the first is an ultrashort intense pump pulse that excites the system into nonequilibrium, and the second is a lower amplitude, higher frequency probe pulse that photoexcites electrons. We examine three different cases: the strongly correlated metal, the quantum-critical charge density wave, and the critical Mott insulator. Our results show that the quantum critical charge density wave has an ultraefficient relaxation channel that allows electrons to be de-excited during the pump pulse, resulting in little net excitation. In contrast, the metal and the Mott insulator show excitations that are closer to what one expects from these systems. In addition, the pump field produces spectral band narrowing, peak sharpening, and a spectral gap reduction, all of which rapidly return to their field free values after the pump is over.

  5. Criticality and Excitation Gap in Quantum Systems: Applications of Continuous Matrix Product States in Imaginary Time

    CERN Document Server

    Tirrito, Emanuele; Ran, Shi-Ju

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate an efficient method that allows for simultaneous determination of the ground state, low energy excitation properties and excitation gap in quantum many body systems. To this aim we first use the \\textit{ab-initio} optimization principle of tensor networks (TN), to show that the infinite density matrix renormalization group (iDMRG) in the real space is associated in a natural manner to the infinite time-evolving block decimation (iTEBD) implemented on a continuous matrix product state (MPS), and defined in imaginary time. We illustrate this association showing that the (imaginary) time matrix product state (MPS) in iTEBD reproduces accurately the properties of the two-dimensional (2D) classical Ising model, verifying in this way that the time MPS corresponds to a well-defined physical state. We apply then our scheme to the one-dimensional (1D) quantum Ising chain, where the time MPS is defined in continuous imaginary time. It is found that the time MPS at or close to the critical point is always...

  6. Statistical inference for 2-type doubly symmetric critical irreducible continuous state and continuous time branching processes with immigration

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    We study asymptotic behavior of conditional least squares estimators for 2-type doubly symmetric critical irreducible continuous state and continuous time branching processes with immigration based on discrete time (low frequency) observations.

  7. Prediction of the Critical Curvature for LX-17 with the Time of Arrival Data from DNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Jin [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Fried, Laurence E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Moss, William C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-01-10

    We extract the detonation shock front velocity, curvature and acceleration from time of arrival data measured at grid points from direct numerical simulations of a 50mm rate-stick lit by a disk-source, with the ignition and growth reaction model and a JWL equation of state calibrated for LX-17. We compute the quasi-steady (D, κ) relation based on the extracted properties and predicted the critical curvatures of LX-17. We also proposed an explicit formula that contains the failure turning point, obtained from optimization for the (D, κ) relation of LX-17.

  8. Reinforcement learning using a continuous time actor-critic framework with spiking neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frémaux, Nicolas; Sprekeler, Henning; Gerstner, Wulfram

    2013-04-01

    Animals repeat rewarded behaviors, but the physiological basis of reward-based learning has only been partially elucidated. On one hand, experimental evidence shows that the neuromodulator dopamine carries information about rewards and affects synaptic plasticity. On the other hand, the theory of reinforcement learning provides a framework for reward-based learning. Recent models of reward-modulated spike-timing-dependent plasticity have made first steps towards bridging the gap between the two approaches, but faced two problems. First, reinforcement learning is typically formulated in a discrete framework, ill-adapted to the description of natural situations. Second, biologically plausible models of reward-modulated spike-timing-dependent plasticity require precise calculation of the reward prediction error, yet it remains to be shown how this can be computed by neurons. Here we propose a solution to these problems by extending the continuous temporal difference (TD) learning of Doya (2000) to the case of spiking neurons in an actor-critic network operating in continuous time, and with continuous state and action representations. In our model, the critic learns to predict expected future rewards in real time. Its activity, together with actual rewards, conditions the delivery of a neuromodulatory TD signal to itself and to the actor, which is responsible for action choice. In simulations, we show that such an architecture can solve a Morris water-maze-like navigation task, in a number of trials consistent with reported animal performance. We also use our model to solve the acrobot and the cartpole problems, two complex motor control tasks. Our model provides a plausible way of computing reward prediction error in the brain. Moreover, the analytically derived learning rule is consistent with experimental evidence for dopamine-modulated spike-timing-dependent plasticity.

  9. Reinforcement learning using a continuous time actor-critic framework with spiking neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Frémaux

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Animals repeat rewarded behaviors, but the physiological basis of reward-based learning has only been partially elucidated. On one hand, experimental evidence shows that the neuromodulator dopamine carries information about rewards and affects synaptic plasticity. On the other hand, the theory of reinforcement learning provides a framework for reward-based learning. Recent models of reward-modulated spike-timing-dependent plasticity have made first steps towards bridging the gap between the two approaches, but faced two problems. First, reinforcement learning is typically formulated in a discrete framework, ill-adapted to the description of natural situations. Second, biologically plausible models of reward-modulated spike-timing-dependent plasticity require precise calculation of the reward prediction error, yet it remains to be shown how this can be computed by neurons. Here we propose a solution to these problems by extending the continuous temporal difference (TD learning of Doya (2000 to the case of spiking neurons in an actor-critic network operating in continuous time, and with continuous state and action representations. In our model, the critic learns to predict expected future rewards in real time. Its activity, together with actual rewards, conditions the delivery of a neuromodulatory TD signal to itself and to the actor, which is responsible for action choice. In simulations, we show that such an architecture can solve a Morris water-maze-like navigation task, in a number of trials consistent with reported animal performance. We also use our model to solve the acrobot and the cartpole problems, two complex motor control tasks. Our model provides a plausible way of computing reward prediction error in the brain. Moreover, the analytically derived learning rule is consistent with experimental evidence for dopamine-modulated spike-timing-dependent plasticity.

  10. Living in critical times: The impact of critical incidents on frontline ambulance personnel--a qualitative perspective.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gallagher, Sharon

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of Critical Incidents (CIs) on the lives of ambulance personnel. One-to-one interviews were conducted with 27 participants who had experienced CIs during the previous 12 months in order to: assess the nature and impact of CIs on health and well-being; examine attitudes toward support services; and explore barriers to service use. The results showed that incidents involving children, suicides, and grotesque mutilation were the most distressing. Participants reported a wide range of physical and mental health problems including sleep difficulties, angry outbursts, irrationality and feelings of alienation. Key themes included: low support service uptake due to fears relating to confidentiality and machismo; a perceived lack of concern and support from management; and a need for professional counselling and stress awareness training. Emergency Medical Controllers (EMCs) also reported a number of difficulties unique to their role. The findings suggest that exposure to CIs has a significant impact on health and well-being; this has important implications for recognizing and appropriately addressing the health and training needs of ambulance personnel, including the effective management of Critical Incident Stress.

  11. Critical phenomena of regular black holes in anti-de Sitter space-time

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Zhong-Ying

    2016-01-01

    In General Relativity coupled to a non-linear electromagnetic field, together with a negative cosmological constant, we obtain the general static spherical symmetric black hole solution with magnetic charges, which is asymptotic to anti-de Sitter (AdS) space-times. In particular, for a degenerate case the solution becomes a Hayward-AdS black hole, which is regular everywhere in the full space-time. The existence of such a regular black hole solution preserves the weak energy condition while the strong energy condition is violated. We then derive the first law and the Smarr formula of the black hole solution. We further discuss its thermodynamic properties and study the critical phenomena in the extended phase space where the cosmological constant is treated as a thermodynamic variable as well as the parameter associated with the non-linear electrodynamics. We obtain many interesting results such as: the Maxwell's equal area law in the $P-V$ (or $S-T$) diagram is violated and consequently the critical point $(...

  12. Critical time step for a bilinear laminated composite Mindlin shell element.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerand, Daniel Carl

    2004-06-01

    The critical time step needed for explicit time integration of laminated shell finite element models is presented. Each layer is restricted to be orthotropic when viewed from a properly oriented material coordinate system. Mindlin shell theory is used in determining the laminated response that includes the effects of transverse shear. The effects of the membrane-bending coupling matrix from the laminate material model are included. Such a coupling matrix arises even in the case of non-symmetric lay-ups of differing isotropic layers. Single point integration is assumed to be used in determining a uniform strain response from the element. Using a technique based upon one from the literature, reduced eigenvalue problems are established to determine the remaining non-zero frequencies. It is shown that the eigenvalue problem arising from the inplane normal and shear stresses is decoupled from that arising from the transverse shear stresses. A verification example is presented where the exact and approximate results are compared.

  13. Light-scattering signal may indicate critical time zone to rescue brain tissue after hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawauchi, Satoko; Sato, Shunichi; Uozumi, Yoichi; Nawashiro, Hiroshi; Ishihara, Miya; Kikuchi, Makoto

    2011-02-01

    A light-scattering signal, which is sensitive to cellular/subcellular structural integrity, is a potential indicator of brain tissue viability because metabolic energy is used in part to maintain the structure of cells. We previously observed a unique triphasic scattering change (TSC) at a certain time after oxygen/glucose deprivation for blood-free rat brains; TSC almost coincided with the cerebral adenosine triphosphate (ATP) depletion. We examine whether such TSC can be observed in the presence of blood in vivo, for which transcranial diffuse reflectance measurement is performed for rat brains during hypoxia induced by nitrogen gas inhalation. At a certain time after hypoxia, diffuse reflectance intensity in the near-infrared region changes in three phases, which is shown by spectroscopic analysis to be due to scattering change in the tissue. During hypoxia, rats are reoxygenated at various time points. When the oxygen supply is started before TSC, all rats survive, whereas no rats survive when the oxygen supply is started after TSC. Survival is probabilistic when the oxygen supply is started during TSC, indicating that the period of TSC can be regarded as a critical time zone for rescuing the brain. The results demonstrate that light scattering signal can be an indicator of brain tissue reversibility.

  14. Approximation and Filtering Techniques for Navigation Data in Time-critical Electronic Warfare Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanitha D.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a holistic solution to the navigation requirements in a time critical electronic warfare systems like missile warning systems (MWS. In a passive MWS using IR sensors the efficiency of the system is determined by attributes such as low false alarm rate, minimal response time and ability to track different IR radiating objects by association and correlation of consecutive detections through time. Such a system is required to be supported by a navigation system capable of accurate estimation of the aircraft position, attitude angles and altitude. In this paper, estimation techniques used to accurately calculate aircraft navigation data at the time of capture of IR frames are discussed. The paper discusses about synchronization of INGPS, IR sensors & Processor on to same timeline. The paper also intends to evaluate the performance of wavelet transform filter in effective elimination of noise in navigation parameters like acceleration and attitude angle rates for a better estimation of position and attitude.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(2, pp.204-209, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.63.4265

  15. Critical analysis of the daylight saving time; Analisis critico al horario del verano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero Paredes Rubio, Hernando [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Ciudad-Ixtapalapa, Mexico, D.F., (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    The critical analysis is presented as a synthesis of the problem untied since the implementation of the daylight saving time. The often related history is retaken to introduce the reader into the context of the causes of a such program. The geometric aspect of the solar trajectories is discussed and the length of the day as a function of the latitude and the time of the year to have technical elements for the time displacement in a certain region. The technical implementation of the daylight saving time based on three elements is justified: time of dawn and the decline (length of the day), national economic motivation and tourism industry. Stands out that although the daylight saving time schedule has a set of social and economic benefits it is not centered in the individual but in the society as a whole. The errors in handling the information and the misinformation are pointed out as the main causes of the controversy, the discord and the political manipulation of competing groups. [Spanish] El analisis critico se presenta como una sintesis del problema desatado desde la implementacion del horario de verano. La historia muchas veces contada se retoma para introducir al lector en el contexto de las causas de un tal programa. Se discute el aspecto geometrico de las trayectorias solares y la longitud del dia como una funcion de la latitud y de la epoca del ano para tener elementos tecnicos para el desplazamiento horario en una region determinada. Se justifica la implementacion tecnica del horario de verano en funcion de tres elementos: hora de alba y del ocaso (longitud del dia), motivacion economica nacional e industria turistica. Se destaca que si bien el horario de verano tiene un conjunto de beneficios sociales y economicos no se centra en el individuo sino en la sociedad en su conjunto. Se senalan los errores de manejo de la informacion y la desinformacion como los principales causantes de la polemica, el desacuerdo y la manipulacion politica de grupos

  16. Time scales of critical events around the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renne, Paul R; Deino, Alan L; Hilgen, Frederik J; Kuiper, Klaudia F; Mark, Darren F; Mitchell, William S; Morgan, Leah E; Mundil, Roland; Smit, Jan

    2013-02-08

    Mass extinctions manifest in Earth's geologic record were turning points in biotic evolution. We present (40)Ar/(39)Ar data that establish synchrony between the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary and associated mass extinctions with the Chicxulub bolide impact to within 32,000 years. Perturbation of the atmospheric carbon cycle at the boundary likely lasted less than 5000 years, exhibiting a recovery time scale two to three orders of magnitude shorter than that of the major ocean basins. Low-diversity mammalian fauna in the western Williston Basin persisted for as little as 20,000 years after the impact. The Chicxulub impact likely triggered a state shift of ecosystems already under near-critical stress.

  17. Network Topology and Time Criticality Effects in the Modularised Fleet Mix Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Whitacre, James M; Baker, Stephen; Fan, Qi; Sarker, Ruhul A; Abbass, Hussein

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the interplay between network topology and time criticality in a military logistics system. A general goal of this work (and previous work) is to evaluate land transportation requirements or, more specifically, how to design appropriate fleets of military general service vehicles that are tasked with the supply and re-supply of military units dispersed in an area of operation. The particular focus of this paper is to gain a better understanding of how the logistics environment changes when current Army vehicles with fixed transport characteristics are replaced by a new generation of modularised vehicles that can be configured task-specifically. The experimental work is conducted within a well developed strategic planning simulation environment which includes a scenario generation engine for automatically sampling supply and re-supply missions and a multi-objective meta-heuristic search algorithm (i.e. Evolutionary Algorithm) for solving the particular scheduling and routing problems....

  18. Evaluation of Electric Vehicle Charging Controllability for Provision of Time Critical Grid Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinenas, Sergejus; Marinelli, Mattia; Andersen, Peter Bach;

    2016-01-01

    Replacement of conventional generation by more stochastic renewable generation sources leads to reduction of inertia and controllability in the power system. This introduces the need for more dynamic regulation services. These faster services could potentially be provided by the growing number...... of electric vehicles. EVs are a fast responding energy resource with high availability. This work evaluates and experimentally shows the limits of EV charging controllability with the focus on its suitability for providing ancillary grid services. Three different series produced EVs are tested....... The experimental testing is done by using charging current controllability of built-in AC charger to provide a primary frequency regulation service with very dynamic input frequency. The results show that most the controllability of most EVs is more than suitable for providing time critical grid services...

  19. Healthcare Team Performance in Time Critical Environments: Coordinating Events, Foraging, and System Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrett S. Caldwell

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This review paper addresses issues in how healthcare providers search, obtain, and share resources in provider teams. Based in part on a System of Systems (SoS analysis of provider coordination and resource flows, this paper expands the concepts of resource foraging theory and event dynamics to develop systematic methods for studying healthcare provider coordination. Process flow and human factors emphases from industrial engineering are used to address critical concerns of single-scale and multi-scale performance in healthcare delivery settings. Provider strategies for acquiring the information and resources needed for successful healthcare delivery are dependent on interactions between task requirements, time constraints, and provider coordination processes, as well as limitations of information and resource flow capabilities. These improved definitions and measures will enhance engineers' ability to contribute to improved patient care timeliness, effectiveness, quality, and safety.

  20. Critical Clearing Time and Wind Power in Small Isolated Power Systems Considering Inertia Emulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elías Jesús Medina-Domínguez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The stability and security of small and isolated power systems can be compromised when large amounts of wind power enter them. Wind power integration depends on such factors as power generation capacity, conventional generation technology or grid topology. Another issue that can be considered is critical clearing time (CCT. In this paper, wind power and CCT are studied in a small isolated power system. Two types of wind turbines are considered: a squirrel cage induction generator (SCIG and a full converter. Moreover, the full converter wind turbine’s inertia emulation capability is considered, and its impact on CCT is discussed. Voltage is taken into account because of its importance in power systems of this kind. The study focuses on the small, isolated Lanzarote-Fuerteventura power system, which is expected to be in operation by 2020.

  1. High critical temperature nodal superconductors as building block for time-reversal invariant topological superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trani, F.; Campagnano, G.; Tagliacozzo, A.; Lucignano, P.

    2016-10-01

    We study possible applications of high critical temperature nodal superconductors for the search for Majorana bound states in the DIII class. We propose a microscopic analysis of the proximity effect induced by d -wave superconductors on a semiconductor wire with strong spin-orbit coupling. We characterize the induced superconductivity on the wire employing a numerical self-consistent tight-binding Bogoliubov-de Gennes approach, and analytical considerations on the Green's function. The order parameter induced on the wire, the pair correlation function, and the renormalization of the Fermi points are analyzed in detail, as well as the topological phase diagram in the case of weak coupling. We highlight optimal Hamiltonian parameters to access the nontrivial topological phase which could display time-reversal invariant Majorana doublets at the boundaries of the wire.

  2. Assessing qualitative usability in life-threatening, time-critical and unstable situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestler, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We developed a heuristic for assessing the usability of mobile user-interfaces in life-threating, time-critical and unstable situations in a qualitative way. The major advantages of our approach as opposed to standardized quantitative questionnaires is the independence from a baseline, the possibility to make absolute statements and the potential for adaptations. When creating a qualitative semi structured interview we adhere to the common modus operandi of the qualitative social research. On the basis of 17 common quantitative questionnaires on usability we identified the five major categories Utility, Intuitiveness, Memorability, Learnability and Personal Effect. We selected all questions from the questionnaires which are useful for assessing the usability of user-interfaces in emergencies. Furthermore, we rephrased the closed-ended questions to open-ended ones. The quantification of research results is possible by weighting the qualitative results in dependence to the research question.

  3. The critical node problem in stochastic networks with discrete-time Markov chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Hassan Shirdel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The length of the stochastic shortest path is defined as the arrival probability from a source node to a destination node. The uncertainty of the network topology causes unstable connections between nodes. A discrete-time Markov chain is devised according to the uniform distribution of existing arcs where the arrival probability is computed as a finite transition probability from the initial state to the absorbing state. Two situations are assumed, departing from the current state to a new state, or waiting in the current state while expecting better conditions. Our goal is to contribute to determining the critical node in a stochastic network, where its absence results in the greatest decrease of the arrival probability. The proposed method is a simply application for analyzing the resistance of networks against congestion and provides some crucial information of the individual nodes. Finally, this is illustrated using networks of various topologies.

  4. Nuclear criticality safety and time reactivity enhancement aspects of energy amplifier system devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siciliano, F. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Trisaia, Rotondelle, Matera (Italy). Direzione INFO

    1995-12-01

    As far as the Rubbia`s and colleagues proposal of innovating Energy Amplifier system (E.A.s.) device driven by a particle beam accelerator is concerned, four basic topics are comprised in the present paper: (1) A short outline of the nuclear aspects of Th-U and U-Pu fuel cycles regarding their general breeding and efficiency features. (2) The needed nuclear criticality control requirements have been studied in terms of safety regulating parameters on the basis of the ThO2 mixed oxides selected as fuel kind for the E.A.s. device technology development. Particular attention is devoted to time evolution of neutron multiplication factor since delayed development of the 233U buildup and so system reactivity are expected in the Th-U cycle. (3) Code E.A.s. device irradiation and post-irradiation modelling for determining higher actinides buildup, fission products formation and fuel consumption trends as function of time, system enrichment degree and flux level parameters. (4) The confirmation, on the basis of the same specific power irradiation, of expected actinides waste obtainment cleaner than the one deriving from the U-Pu cycle utilization. For this end, a model comparison of equivalent enriched fissile nuclides in both cycles has been devised as having, within the range of 0-700 days, ten irradiation periods of about 53 MW/ton specific power and equivalent cooling time post-irradiation periods.

  5. A Criticism of Doyle's survey of time preference: A correction regarding the CRDI and CADI families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Bleichrodt

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Doyle's (2013 theoretical survey of discount functions criticizes two parametric families abbreviated as CRDI and CADI families. We show that Doyle's criticisms are based on a mathematical mistake and are incorrect.

  6. A Criticism of Doyle's survey of time preference: A correction regarding the CRDI and CADI families

    OpenAIRE

    Han Bleichrodt; Potter van Loon, Rogier J. D.; Kirsten I.M. Rohde; Wakker, Peter P.

    2013-01-01

    Doyle's (2013) theoretical survey of discount functions criticizes two parametric families abbreviated as CRDI and CADI families. We show that Doyle's criticisms are based on a mathematical mistake and are incorrect.

  7. Analyzing the waiting time pattern for non-critical patients in the emergency department using six sigma approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, Noriza; Mohd Suradi, Nur Riza; Ahmad Sabri, Safura

    2013-04-01

    This study was conducted to examine the waiting time of non-critical patients in the Emergency Department (ED) of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC) using the approach of six sigma (6σ). The define phase is completed by obtaining customers' critical to quality in UKMMC using survey. In measure phase, data on patients to the ED of UKMMC in May 2009 were gathered. Subsequently, analysis phase is performed using cause-and-effect diagram to identify root causes of the problems. Finally, improvements are proposed based on the identified problems. Results show that waiting time is critical to quality for health services in the ED.

  8. Timing of Tracheotomy in Mechanically Ventilated Critically Ill Morbidly Obese Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Alhajhusain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The optimal timing of tracheotomy and its impact on weaning from mechanical ventilation in critically ill morbidly obese patients remain controversial. Methods. We conducted a retrospective chart review of morbidly obese subjects (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2 or BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2 and one or more comorbid conditions who underwent a tracheotomy between July 2008 and June 2013 at a medical intensive care unit (ICU. Clinical characteristics, rates of nosocomial pneumonia (NP, weaning from mechanical ventilation (MV, and mortality rates were analyzed. Results. A total of 102 subjects (42 men and 60 women were included; their mean age and BMI were 56.3 ± 15.1 years and 53.3 ± 13.6 kg/m2, respectively. There was no difference in the rate of NP between groups stratified by successful weaning from MV (P=0.43. Mortality was significantly higher in those who failed to wean (P=0.02. A cutoff value of 9 days for the time to tracheotomy provided the best balanced sensitivity (72% and specificity (59.8% for predicting NP onset. Rates of NP and total duration of MV were significantly higher in those who had tracheostomy ≥ 9 days (P=0.004 and P=0.002, resp.. Conclusions. The study suggests that tracheotomy in morbidly obese subjects performed within the first 9 days may reduce MV and decrease NP but may not affect hospital mortality.

  9. The timing of monozygotic twinning: a criticism of the common model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herranz, Gonzalo

    2015-02-01

    In the dominant model, monozygotic (MZ) twinning is universally accepted as a post-fertilization event resulting from splitting of the embryo along its first 2 weeks of development. The stage at which splitting occurs determines chorionicity and amnionicity. A short history on how the model was built is presented, stressing the role played by some embryologists, in particular George Corner, in its completion and final success. Strikingly, for more than 60 years no deep criticisms have been raised against the model, which, in virtue of its rational and plausible character, enjoys the status of undisputed truth. At close examination, the embryological support of the model shows some important weak points, particularly when dealing with late splitting. In the author's view, the model not only has contributed to 'suspend' our knowledge on the timing of MZ twinning, but seems indefensible and claims to be substituted. That factor could imply relevant consequences for embryology and bioethics. As an alternative to the model, a new theory to explain the timing of MZ twinning is proposed. It is based on two premises. First, MZ twinning would be a fertilization event. In that case, due to an alteration of the zygote-blastomere transition, the first zygotic division, instead of producing two blastomeres, generates twin zygotes. Second, monochorionicity and monoamnionicity would not depend on embryo splitting, but on fusion of membranes. Some support for this theory can be found in recent embryological advances and also in some explanations of old.

  10. Soil water storage, mixing dynamics and resulting travel times through the critical zone in northern latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprenger, Matthias; Tetzlaff, Doerthe; Weiler, Markus; Soulsby, Chris

    2017-04-01

    Water partitioning in the unsaturated zone into groundwater recharge, plant transpiration, and evaporation is fundamental for estimating storages and travel times. How water is mixed and routed through the soil is of broad interest to understand plant available water, contamination transport and weathering rates in the critical zone. Earlier work has shown how seasonal changes in hydroclimate influence the time variant character of travel times. A strong seasonality characterizes the northern latitudes which are particularly sensitive to climate and land use changes. It is crucial to understand how variation and change in hydroclimate and vegetation phenology impact time variant storage dynamics and flow path partitioning in the unsaturated zone. To better understand the influence of these ecohydrological processes on travel times of evaporative, transpiration and recharge fluxes in northern latitudes, we characterized soil physical properties, hydrometric conditions and soil water isotopic composition in the upper soil profile in two different land scape units in the long term experimental catchment, Bruntland Burn in the Scottish Highlands. Our two sampling locations are characterized by podzol soils with high organic matter content but they differ with regard to their vegetation cover with either Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris) or heather (Calluna sp. and Erica Sp). To assess storage and mixing dynamics in the vadose zone, we parameterized a numerical 1-D flow model using the soil textural information along with soil moisture and soil water stable isotopes (δ2H and δ18O). The water flow and transport were simulated based on the Richards and the advection dispersion equation. Differences between water flows of mobile and tightly bound soil waters and the mixing between the two pore spaces were considered. Isotopic fractionation due to evaporation from soil and interception storage was taken into account, while plant water uptake did not alter the isotopic

  11. Locked-in syndrome: a critical and time-dependent diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbic, David; Levine, Zachary; Tampieri, Donatella; Teitelbau, Jeanne

    2012-09-01

    Locked-in syndrome (LIS) is the combination of quadriplegia and anarthria (inability to speak), with the preservation of consciousness. The majority of cases are caused by basilar artery occlusion leading to brainstem infarction in the ventral pons, yet numerous other etiologies have been described. The diagnosis of LIS is completely dependent on the physician's ability to know that these manifestations originate in the brainstem and the posterior circulation that supplies it. This knowledge hinges on the ability of the examining physician to conduct a rapid, yet appropriately thorough neurologic examination. With recent advances in interventional neuroradiology leading to improved patient outcomes, LIS has evolved into a critical, time-dependent diagnosis. Herein, we present the case of a male patient who initially presented to the emergency department of a community hospital with coma of unknown cause. By presenting this case and focusing on the importance of the occulomotor exam, we hope to help in the rapid identification and treatment of patients with LIS in the emergency room and avoid outcomes similar to that of our patient.

  12. Critical Space-Time Networks and Geometric Phase Transitions from Frustrated Edge Antiferromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Trugenberger, Carlo A

    2015-01-01

    Recently I proposed a simple dynamical network model for discrete space-time which self-organizes as a graph with Hausdorff dimension d_H=4. The model has a geometric quantum phase transition with disorder parameter (d_H-d_s) where d_s is the spectral dimension of the dynamical graph. Self-organization in this network model is based on a competition between a ferromagnetic Ising model for vertices and an antiferromagnetic Ising model for edges. In this paper I solve a toy version of this model defined on a bipartite graph in the mean field approximation. I show that the geometric phase transition corresponds exactly to the antiferromagnetic transition for edges, the dimensional disorder parameter of the former being mapped to the staggered magnetization order parameter of the latter. The model has a critical point with long-range correlations between edges, where a continuum random geometry can be defined, exactly as in Kazakov's famed 2D random lattice Ising model but now in any number of dimensions.

  13. Influence of variable heat transfer coefficient of fireworks and crackers on thermal explosion critical ambient temperature and time to ignition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Zerong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of variable heat transfer coefficient of fireworks and crackers on thermal explosion critical ambient temperature and time to ignition, considering the heat transfer coefficient as the power function of temperature, mathematical thermal explosion steady state and unsteady-state model of finite cylindrical fireworks and crackers with complex shell structures are established based on two-dimensional steady state thermal explosion theory. The influence of variable heat transfer coefficient on thermal explosion critical ambient temperature and time to ignition are analyzed. When heat transfer coefficient is changing with temperature and in the condition of natural convection heat transfer, critical ambient temperature lessen, thermal explosion time to ignition shorten. If ambient temperature is close to critical ambient temperature, the influence of variable heat transfer coefficient on time to ignition become large. For firework with inner barrel in example analysis, the critical ambient temperature of propellant is 463.88 K and the time to ignition is 4054.9s at 466 K, 0.26 K and 450.8s less than without considering the change of heat transfer coefficient respectively. The calculation results show that the influence of variable heat transfer coefficient on thermal explosion time to ignition is greater in this example. Therefore, the effect of variable heat transfer coefficient should be considered into thermal safety evaluation of fireworks to reduce potential safety hazard.

  14. Time for self-criticism : on the viability of school effectiveness research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheerens, J; Bosker, RJ; Creemers, BPM

    2001-01-01

    Critical reviews from "outside", notably educational sociologists arguing mainly from a British context, have caused some ripples, and maybe even waves, among school effectiveness researchers. To a large extent these external criticisms and the overall nature of the response from school effectivenes

  15. Hospitalizations, Costs, and Mortality among Infants with Critical Congenital Heart Disease: How Important Is Timely Detection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Cora; Dawson, April; Grosse, Scott D.; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany; Olney, Richard S.; Tanner, Jean Paul; Kirby, Russell S.; Correia, Jane A.; Watkins, Sharon M.; Cassell, Cynthia H.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Critical congenital heart disease (CCHD) was recently added to the U.S. Recommended Uniform Screening Panel for newborns. States considering screening requirements may want more information about the potential impact of screening. This study examined potentially avoidable mortality among infants with late detected CCHD and assessed whether late detection was associated with increased hospital resource use during infancy. METHODS This was a state-wide, population-based, observational study of infants with CCHD (n =3603) born 1998 to 2007 identified by the Florida Birth Defects Registry. We examined 12 CCHD conditions that are targets of newborn screening. Late detection was defined as CCHD diagnosis after the birth hospitalization. Deaths potentially avoidable through screening were defined as those that occurred outside a hospital following birth hospitalization discharge and those that occurred within 3 days of an emergency readmission. RESULTS For 23% (n =825) of infants, CCHD was not detected during the birth hospitalization. Death occurred among 20% (n =568/2,778) of infants with timely detected CCHD and 8% (n =66/825) of infants with late detected CCHD, unadjusted for clinical characteristics. Potentially preventable deaths occurred in 1.8% (n =15/825) of infants with late detected CCHD (0.4% of all infants with CCHD). In multivariable models adjusted for selected characteristics, late CCHD detection was significantly associated with 52% more admissions, 18% more hospitalized days, and 35% higher inpatient costs during infancy. CONCLUSION Increased CCHD detection at birth hospitals through screening may lead to decreased hospital costs and avoid some deaths during infancy. Additional studies conducted after screening implementation are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:24000201

  16. Moderate Exercise Allows for shorter Recovery Time in Critical Limb Ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejay, Anne; Laverny, Gilles; Paradis, Stéphanie; Schlagowski, Anna-Isabel; Charles, Anne-Laure; Singh, François; Zoll, Joffrey; Thaveau, Fabien; Lonsdorfer, Evelyne; Dufour, Stéphane; Favret, Fabrice; Wolff, Valérie; Metzger, Daniel; Chakfe, Nabil; Geny, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Whether and how moderate exercise might allow for accelerated limb recovery in chronic critical limb ischemia (CLI) remains to be determined. Chronic CLI was surgically induced in mice, and the effect of moderate exercise (training five times per week over a 3-week period) was investigated. Tissue damages and functional scores were assessed on the 4th, 6th, 10th, 20th, and 30th day after surgery. Mice were sacrificed 48 h after the last exercise session in order to assess muscle structure, mitochondrial respiration, calcium retention capacity, oxidative stress and transcript levels of genes encoding proteins controlling mitochondrial functions (PGC1α, PGC1β, NRF1) and anti-oxidant defenses markers (SOD1, SOD2, catalase). CLI resulted in tissue damages and impaired functional scores. Mitochondrial respiration and calcium retention capacity were decreased in the ischemic limb of the non-exercised group (Vmax = 7.11 ± 1.14 vs. 9.86 ± 0.86 mmol 02/min/g dw, p mitochondrial respiration and calcium retention capacity in the ischemic limb (Vmax = 9.75 ± 1.00 vs. 9.82 ± 0.68 mmol 02/min/g dw; CRC = 11.36 ± 1.33 vs. 12.01 ± 1.24 microM/mg dw, respectively). Exercise also enhanced the transcript levels of PGC1α, PGC1β, NRF1, as well as SOD1, SOD2, and catalase. Moderate exercise restores mitochondrial respiration and calcium retention capacity, and it has beneficial functional effects in chronic CLI, likely by stimulating reactive oxygen species-induced biogenesis and anti-oxidant defenses. These data support further development of exercise therapy even in advanced peripheral arterial disease.

  17. Moderate Exercise Allows for shorter Recovery Time in Critical Limb Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Lejay

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Whether and how moderate exercise might allow for accelerated limb recovery in chronic critical limb ischemia (CLI remains to be determined. Chronic CLI was surgically induced in mice, and the effect of moderate exercise (training five times per week over a 3-week period was investigated. Tissue damages and functional scores were assessed on the 4th, 6th, 10th, 20th, and 30th day after surgery. Mice were sacrificed 48 h after the last exercise session in order to assess muscle structure, mitochondrial respiration, calcium retention capacity, oxidative stress and transcript levels of genes encoding proteins controlling mitochondrial functions (PGC1α, PGC1β, NRF1 and anti-oxidant defenses markers (SOD1, SOD2, catalase. CLI resulted in tissue damages and impaired functional scores. Mitochondrial respiration and calcium retention capacity were decreased in the ischemic limb of the non-exercised group (Vmax = 7.11 ± 1.14 vs. 9.86 ± 0.86 mmol 02/min/g dw, p < 0.001; CRC = 7.01 ± 0.97 vs. 11.96 ± 0.92 microM/mg dw, p < 0.001, respectively. Moderate exercise reduced tissue damages, improved functional scores, and restored mitochondrial respiration and calcium retention capacity in the ischemic limb (Vmax = 9.75 ± 1.00 vs. 9.82 ± 0.68 mmol 02/min/g dw; CRC = 11.36 ± 1.33 vs. 12.01 ± 1.24 microM/mg dw, respectively. Exercise also enhanced the transcript levels of PGC1α, PGC1β, NRF1, as well as SOD1, SOD2, and catalase. Moderate exercise restores mitochondrial respiration and calcium retention capacity, and it has beneficial functional effects in chronic CLI, likely by stimulating reactive oxygen species-induced biogenesis and anti-oxidant defenses. These data support further development of exercise therapy even in advanced peripheral arterial disease.

  18. Multiple actor-critic structures for continuous-time optimal control using input-output data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ruizhuo; Lewis, Frank; Wei, Qinglai; Zhang, Hua-Guang; Jiang, Zhong-Ping; Levine, Dan

    2015-04-01

    In industrial process control, there may be multiple performance objectives, depending on salient features of the input-output data. Aiming at this situation, this paper proposes multiple actor-critic structures to obtain the optimal control via input-output data for unknown nonlinear systems. The shunting inhibitory artificial neural network (SIANN) is used to classify the input-output data into one of several categories. Different performance measure functions may be defined for disparate categories. The approximate dynamic programming algorithm, which contains model module, critic network, and action network, is used to establish the optimal control in each category. A recurrent neural network (RNN) model is used to reconstruct the unknown system dynamics using input-output data. NNs are used to approximate the critic and action networks, respectively. It is proven that the model error and the closed unknown system are uniformly ultimately bounded. Simulation results demonstrate the performance of the proposed optimal control scheme for the unknown nonlinear system.

  19. Early-warning signals (potentially) reduce uncertainty in forecasted timing of critical shifts in vegetation systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karssenberg, D.J.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2011-01-01

    Non-linear systems may undergo abrupt transitions as a result of a gradual change in system drivers. Such regime shifts, or critical transitions, have been described for a large range of spatio-temporal systems, including those studied in the social sciences, ecology, geology, and climatology. Regim

  20. The effects of real-time continuous glucose monitoring on oxidative stress and mortality in critically ill patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱武强

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of real-time continuous glucose monitoring(RT-CGM) system on oxidative stress and mortality in critically ill patients and to explore the correlation between glucose index,oxidative stress and mortality. Methods 123 selected cases of

  1. Impact of critically ill patients in regards to the boarding time from the emergency department to the intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Fildissis

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the association between ED overcrowding and outcomes for critically ill patients Design and Setting: We included medical and surgical pts that all of them were intubated promptly to ED of 2 general hospitals of Athens GR, for 12 months. Pts survived > 24hours were divided into 2 groups: ED boarding 61 yrs, female gender and direct admission to ICU were associated with lower hospital survival (odds ratio 0.815; 95% 0.612-0.976. Conclusions: Boarding time of critically ill from ED to ICUs is very important because it is strongly related to the hospital LOS and mortality rate.

  2. Heading east this time: critical readings on gender in southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Sarmento, Clara

    2006-01-01

    This essay intends to discuss some critical readings of fictional and theoretical texts on gender condition in Southeast Asian countries. Nowadays, many texts about women in Southeast Asia apply concepts of power in unusual areas. Traditional forms of gender hegemony have been replaced by other powerful, if somewhat more covert, forms. We will discuss some universal values concerning conventional female roles as well as the strategies used to recognize women in political fields...

  3. Identification of a Critical Time with Acoustic Emission Monitoring during Static Fatigue Tests on Ceramic Matrix Composites: Towards Lifetime Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Godin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Non-oxide fiber-reinforced ceramic-matrix composites are promising candidates for some aeronautic applications that require good thermomechanical behavior over long periods of time. This study focuses on the behavior of a SiCf/[Si-B-C] composite with a self-healing matrix at intermediate temperature under air. Static fatigue experiments were performed below 600 °C and a lifetime diagram is presented. Damage is monitored both by strain measurement and acoustic emission during the static fatigue experiments. Two methods of real-time analysis of associated energy release have been developed. They allow for the identification of a characteristic time that was found to be close to 55% of the measured rupture time. This critical time reflects a critical local energy release assessed by the applicability of the Benioff law. This critical aspect is linked to a damage phase where slow crack growth in fibers is prevailing leading to ultimate fracture of the composite.

  4. CoR-MAC: Contention over Reservation MAC Protocol for Time-Critical Services in Wireless Body Area Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jeongseok; Park, Laihyuk; Park, Junho; Cho, Sungrae; Keum, Changsup

    2016-05-09

    Reserving time slots for urgent data, such as life-critical information, seems to be very attractive to guarantee their deadline requirements in wireless body area sensor networks (WBASNs). On the other hand, this reservation imposes a negative impact on performance for the utilization of a channel. This paper proposes a new channel access scheme referred to as the contention over reservation MAC (CoR-MAC) protocol for time-critical services in wireless body area sensor networks. CoR-MAC uses the dual reservation; if the reserved time slots are known to be vacant, other nodes can access the time slots by contention-based reservation to maximize the utilization of a channel and decrease the delay of the data. To measure the effectiveness of the proposed scheme against IEEE 802.15.4 and IEEE 802.15.6, we evaluated their performances with various performance indexes. The CoR-MAC showed 50% to 850% performance improvement in terms of the delay of urgent and time-critical data according to the number of nodes.

  5. Degree of Schedulability of Mixed-Criticality Real-time Systems with Probabilistic Sporadic Tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boudjadar, Jalil; David, Alexandre; Kim, Jin Hyun

    2014-01-01

    We present the concept of degree of schedulability for mixed-criticality scheduling systems. This concept is given in terms of the two factors 1) Percentage of Missed Deadlines (PoMD), and 2) Degradation of the Quality of Service (DoQoS). The novel aspect is that we consider task arrival patterns...... that follow user-defined continuous probability distributions. We determine the degree of schedulability of a single scheduling component which can contain both periodic and sporadic tasks using statistical model checking in the form of UPPAAL SMC. We support uniform, exponential, Gaussian and any user......-defined probability distribution....

  6. Neuregulin-Dependent Regulation of Fast-Spiking Interneuron Excitability Controls the Timing of the Critical Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yu; Tran, Trinh; Murase, Sachiko; Borrell, Andrew; Kirkwood, Alfredo; Quinlan, Elizabeth M

    2016-10-05

    Maturation of excitatory drive onto fast-spiking interneurons (FS INs) in the visual cortex has been implicated in the control of the timing of the critical period for ocular dominance plasticity. However, the mechanisms that regulate the strength of these synapses over cortical development are not understood. Here we use a mouse model to show that neuregulin (NRG) and the receptor tyrosine kinase erbB4 regulate the timing of the critical period. NRG1 enhanced the strength of excitatory synapses onto FS INs, which inhibited ocular dominance plasticity during the critical period but rescued plasticity in transgenics with hypoexcitable FS INs. Blocking the effects of endogenous neuregulin via inhibition of erbBs rescued ocular dominance plasticity in postcritical period adults, allowing recovery from amblyopia induced by chronic monocular deprivation. Thus, the strength of excitation onto FS INs is a key determinant of critical period plasticity and is maintained at high levels by NRG-erbB4 signaling to constrain plasticity in adulthood.

  7. Early depth assessment of local burns by videomicroscopy: 24 h after injury is a critical time point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihara, Kyomi; Shindo, Hajime; Ohtani, Minako; Nagasaki, Kotaro; Nakashima, Reiko; Katoh, Norito; Kishimoto, Saburo

    2011-09-01

    Videomicroscopy has simple and prompt operability, and useful in the burn depth assessment in its early phase. A burn wound is, however, a dynamic environment in the first few days and the critical time to assess a burn wound by videomicroscopy has not been investigated. The aim of this study is to investigate the critical time point to assess the burn depth by videomicroscopy. Forty one patients with 44 intermediate depth burns admitted within 7 days after injury were included. Accuracies were assessed by comparison with clinical outcome: healing within 21 days after injury or not with conservative treatment. We prospectively evaluated and compared the accuracy of the videomicroscopy measurements with the clinical assessments. All findings were serialized in order of time after injury and divided into three groups, and we compared the appreciation of burn depth by videomicroscopy findings among groups. The videomicroscopy measurements is significantly accurate compared with clinical assessments (p=0.001). The accuracy of videomicroscopy measurements was significantly lower in the post-injury burn depth and the critical time point to assess the burn depth by videomicroscopy is 24 h after injury. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  8. Primary weathering rates, water transit times and concentration-discharge relations: A theoretical analysis for the critical zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameli, Ali; Erlandsson, Martin; Beven, Keith; Creed, Irena; McDonnell, Jeffrey; Bishop, Kevin

    2017-04-01

    The permeability architecture of the critical zone exerts a major influence on the hydrogeochemistry of the critical zone. Water flowpath dynamics drive the spatio-temporal pattern of geochemical evolution and resulting streamflow concentration-discharge (C-Q) relation, but these flowpaths are complex and difficult to map quantitatively. Here, we couple a new integrated flow and particle tracking transport model with a general reversible Transition-State-Theory style dissolution rate-law to explore theoretically how C-Q relations and concentration in the critical zone respond to decline in saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) with soil depth. We do this for a range of flow rates and mineral reaction kinetics. Our results show that for minerals with a high ratio of equilibrium concentration to intrinsic weathering rate, vertical heterogeneity in Ks enhances the gradient of weathering-derived solute concentration in the critical zone and strengthens the inverse stream C-Q relation. As the ratio of equilibrium concentration to intrinsic weathering rate decreases, the spatial distribution of concentration in the critical zone becomes more uniform for a wide range of flow rates, and stream C-Q relation approaches chemostatic behaviour, regardless of the degree of vertical heterogeneity in Ks. These findings suggest that the transport-controlled mechanisms in the hillslope can lead to chemostatic C-Q relations in the stream while the hillslope surface reaction-controlled mechanisms are associated with an inverse stream C-Q relation. In addition, as the ratio of equilibrium concentration to intrinsic weathering rate decreases, the concentration in the critical zone and stream become less dependent on groundwater age (or transit time)

  9. Influence of variable heat transfer coefficient of fireworks and crackers on thermal explosion critical ambient temperature and time to ignition

    OpenAIRE

    Guo Zerong; Xia Quan; Yan Peiyu; Du Zhiming

    2016-01-01

    To study the effect of variable heat transfer coefficient of fireworks and crackers on thermal explosion critical ambient temperature and time to ignition, considering the heat transfer coefficient as the power function of temperature, mathematical thermal explosion steady state and unsteady-state model of finite cylindrical fireworks and crackers with complex shell structures are established based on two-dimensional steady state thermal explosion theory. T...

  10. Design optimization for security-and safety-critical distributed real-time applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Wei; Pop, Paul; Jiang, Ke

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we are interested in the design of real-time applications with security, safety, timing, and energy requirements. The applications are scheduled with cyclic scheduling, and are mapped on distributed heterogeneous architectures. Cryptographic services are deployed to satisfy securit...

  11. Time-Critical Database Conditions Data-Handling for the CMS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    De Gruttola, M; Innocente, V; Pierro, A

    2011-01-01

    Automatic, synchronous and of course reliable population of the condition database is critical for the correct operation of the online selection as well as of the offline reconstruction and data analysis. We will describe here the system put in place in the CMS experiment to automate the processes to populate centrally the database and make condition data promptly available both online for the high-level trigger and offline for reconstruction. The data are ``dropped{''} by the users in a dedicated service which synchronizes them and takes care of writing them into the online database. Then they are automatically streamed to the offline database, hence immediately accessible offline worldwide. This mechanism was intensively used during 2008 and 2009 operation with cosmic ray challenges and first LHC collision data, and many improvements were done so far. The experience of this first years of operation will be discussed in detail.

  12. Regionalized care for time-critical conditions: lessons learned from existing networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Brendan G; Matthew Edwards, J; Martinez, Ricardo

    2010-12-01

    The 2010 Academic Emergency Medicine (AEM) consensus conference "Beyond Regionalization" aimed to place the design of a 21st century emergency care delivery system at the center of emergency medicine's (EM's) health policy research agenda. To examine the lessons learned from existing regional systems, consensus conference organizers convened a panel discussion made up of experts from the fields of acute care surgery, interventional cardiology, acute ischemic stroke, cardiac arrest, critical care medicine, pediatric EM, and medical toxicology. The organizers asked that each member provide insight into the barriers that slowed network creation and the solutions that allowed them to overcome barriers. For ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) management, the American Heart Association's (AHA's) Mission: Lifeline aims to increase compliance with existing guidelines through improvements in the chain of survival, including emergency medical services (EMS) protocols. Increasing use of therapeutic hypothermia post-cardiac arrest through a network of hospitals in Virginia has led to dramatic improvements in outcome. A regionalized network of acute stroke management in Cincinnati was discussed, in addition to the effect of pediatric referral centers on pediatric capabilities of surrounding facilities. The growing importance of telemedicine to a variety of emergencies, including trauma and critical care, was presented. Finally, the importance of establishing a robust reimbursement mechanism was illustrated by the threatened closure of poison control centers nationwide. The panel discussion added valuable insight into the possibilities of maximizing patient outcomes through regionalized systems of emergency care. A primary challenge remaining is for EM to help to integrate the existing and developing disease-based systems of care into a more comprehensive emergency care system.

  13. Timing of tracheostomy in critically ill patients: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huibin Huang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare important outcomes between early tracheostomy (ET and late tracheostomy (LT or prolonged intubation (PI for critically ill patients receiving long-term ventilation during their treatment. METHOD: We performed computerized searches for relevant articles on PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane register of controlled trials (up to July 2013. We contacted international experts and manufacturers. We included in the study randomized controlled trials (RCTs that compared ET (performed within 10 days after initiation of laryngeal intubation and LT (after 10 days of laryngeal intubation or PI in critically ill adult patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs. Two investigators evaluated the articles; divergent opinions were resolved by consensus. RESULTS: A meta-analysis was evaluated from nine randomized clinical trials with 2,072 participants. Compared to LT/PI, ET did not significantly reduce short-term mortality [relative risks (RR = 0.91; 95% confidence intervals (CIs = 0.81-1.03; p = 0.14] or long-term mortality (RR = 0.90; 95% CI = 0.76-1.08; p = 0.27. Additionally, ET was not associated with a markedly reduced length of ICU stay [weighted mean difference (WMD = -4.41 days; 95% CI = -13.44-4.63 days; p = 0.34], ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP (RR = 0.88; 95% CI = 0.71-1.10; p = 0.27 or duration of mechanical ventilation (MV (WMD = - 2.91 days; 95% CI = -7.21-1.40 days; p = 0.19. CONCLUSION: Among the patients requiring prolonged MV, ET showed no significant difference in clinical outcomes compared to that of the LT/PI group. But more rigorously designed and adequately powered RCTs are required to confirm it in future.

  14. Timing of Newborn Pulse Oximetry Screenings for Critical Congenital Heart Defects Before Discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Lynn; Speroni, Karen Gabel; Jones, Ruth Ann; MacDougall, Eileen P; Daniel, Marlon G

    2016-01-01

    To determine if there would be positive results from a second pulse oximetry screening (POS) completed for newborns at discharge at 28 to 48 hours of age in addition to the newborn POS completed at 24 to 25 hours of age. Prospective descriptive research study. Rural, mid-Atlantic, 13-bed, level I hospital. Newborns (N = 1,002) at 35 weeks' gestation or older discharged from the newborn nursery. Registered nurses (RNs) performed POS at 24 to 25 hours of age (POS 1) and at discharge but less than 48 hours of age (POS 2). Data related to critical congenital heart defects were collected. There were no positive POS results (O2 saturation ≤ 90%) at POS 1 or POS 2, and no additional diagnostic tests were ordered as a result of POS. Although one full-term newborn had negative results at POS 1 and POS 2, the RN identified a murmur, and a subsequent echocardiogram was used to detect tetralogy of Fallot and pulmonary atresia. The RNs detected concerning conditions in 14 newborns that resulted in 28 additional tests, including echocardiograms (9), chest x-ray imaging (8), laboratory testing (7), electrocardiograms (3), and ultrasound imaging (1). The POS-positive result rate was 0 for newborns at POS 1 and POS 2. Therefore, our study findings supported Maryland's mandate of one POS completed within 24 to 48 hours of birth. Nurses must continue to be vigilant about assessing newborns, including screening for critical congenital heart defects and congenital heart defects. Copyright © 2016 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Optimal Time-decay Estimates for the Compressible Navier-Stokes Equations in the Critical L p Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danchin, Raphaël; Xu, Jiang

    2016-11-01

    The global existence issue for the isentropic compressible Navier-Stokes equations in the critical regularity framework was addressed in Danchin (Invent Math 141(3):579-614, 2000) more than 15 years ago. However, whether (optimal) time-decay rates could be shown in critical spaces has remained an open question. Here we give a positive answer to that issue not only in the L 2 critical framework of Danchin (Invent Math 141(3):579-614, 2000) but also in the general L p critical framework of Charve and Danchin (Arch Ration Mech Anal 198(1):233-271, 2010), Chen et al. (Commun Pure Appl Math 63(9):1173-1224, 2010), Haspot (Arch Ration Mech Anal 202(2):427-460, 2011): we show that under a mild additional decay assumption that is satisfied if, for example, the low frequencies of the initial data are in {L^{p/2}({R}d)} , the L p norm (the slightly stronger {dot B^0_{p,1}} norm in fact) of the critical global solutions decays like {t^{-d(1/p-1/4)}} for {tto+∞,} exactly as firstly observed by Matsumura and Nishida in (Proc Jpn Acad Ser A 55:337-342, 1979) in the case p = 2 and d = 3, for solutions with high Sobolev regularity. Our method relies on refined time weighted inequalities in the Fourier space, and is likely to be effective for other hyperbolic/parabolic systems that are encountered in fluid mechanics or mathematical physics.

  16. The Evolution of Television Criticism in the New York "Times": 1949-1977.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Richard C.

    1980-01-01

    Shows that "The New York Times" devoted a significant portion of its television-related articles to personality features from 1949 to 1977 and that only recently has this trend showed signs of changing. (FL)

  17. Port-City Closeness and Turnaround Time Critical for Short Sea Shipping Sustainable Performance a Case Study: Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Martínez de Osés

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is the most relevant externality of maritime transport and its effects are more acute in urban areas. As Short Sea Shipping (SSS services call ports frequently and expend significant time in port, both the overall turnaround time and the port city closeness, become critical in their sustainable performance. This paper analyses the impact of maritime transport on Spanish SSS ports and identifies the ideal ones, reflecting the differences in their sustainable performance and finally identifying the characteristics that a harbour needs to gather in order to minimize air pollution impact in the maritime transport sector.

  18. Heart rate time series characteristics for early detection of infections in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambuyzer, T; Guiza, F; Boonen, E; Meersseman, P; Vervenne, H; Hansen, T K; Bjerre, M; Van den Berghe, G; Berckmans, D; Aerts, J M; Meyfroidt, G

    2017-04-01

    It is difficult to make a distinction between inflammation and infection. Therefore, new strategies are required to allow accurate detection of infection. Here, we hypothesize that we can distinguish infected from non-infected ICU patients based on dynamic features of serum cytokine concentrations and heart rate time series. Serum cytokine profiles and heart rate time series of 39 patients were available for this study. The serum concentration of ten cytokines were measured using blood sampled every 10 min between 2100 and 0600 hours. Heart rate was recorded every minute. Ten metrics were used to extract features from these time series to obtain an accurate classification of infected patients. The predictive power of the metrics derived from the heart rate time series was investigated using decision tree analysis. Finally, logistic regression methods were used to examine whether classification performance improved with inclusion of features derived from the cytokine time series. The AUC of a decision tree based on two heart rate features was 0.88. The model had good calibration with 0.09 Hosmer-Lemeshow p value. There was no significant additional value of adding static cytokine levels or cytokine time series information to the generated decision tree model. The results suggest that heart rate is a better marker for infection than information captured by cytokine time series when the exact stage of infection is not known. The predictive value of (expensive) biomarkers should always be weighed against the routinely monitored data, and such biomarkers have to demonstrate added value.

  19. A spectral-timing model for ULXs in the super-critical regime

    CERN Document Server

    Middleton, Matthew; Pintore, Fabio; Walton, Dominic; Roberts, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) with luminosities lying between ~3x10^{39} - 2x10^{40} erg/s represent a contentious sample of objects as their brightness, together with a lack of unambiguous mass estimates for the vast majority of the central objects, leads to a degenerate scenario where the accretor could be a stellar remnant (black hole or neutron star) or intermediate mass black hole (IMBH). Recent, high-quality observations imply that the presence of IMBHs in the majority of these objects is unlikely unless the accretion flow somehow deviates strongly from expectation based on objects with known masses. On the other-hand, physically motivated models for super-critical inflows can re-create the observed X-ray spectra and their evolution, although have been lacking a robust explanation for their variability properties. In this paper we include the effect of a partially inhomogeneous wind that imprints variability onto the X-ray emission via two distinct methods. The model is heavily dependent on both in...

  20. Effect of timing of critical incident stress debriefing (CISD) on posttraumatic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campfield, K M; Hills, A M

    2001-04-01

    Seventy-seven civilian employees who were victims of robbery were randomly assigned to either an immediate ( 48 hr) debriefing group, using the J. Mitchell (1983) CISD protocol. Scores on the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale were obtained at 4 time intervals: debrief, 2 and 4 days post-debrief, and 2 weeks postrobbery. The number and severity of symptoms did not differ at debrief, but were lower for the immediate than for the delayed group at each subsequent time interval. The number and severity of symptoms declined across time intervals; however, although this reduction was pronounced for the immediate group it was minimal for the delayed group. The results supported use of immediate debriefing with this type of incident and victim.

  1. Exercise training can improve spatial characteristics of time-critical obstacle avoidance in elderly people.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerdesteijn, V.G.M.; Nienhuis, B.; Duysens, J.

    2008-01-01

    Fall prevention programs have rarely been evaluated by quantitative movement analysis methods. Quantitative movement analyses could provide insight into the mechanisms underlying the effects of training. A treadmill obstacle avoidance task under time pressure has recently been used to evaluate a

  2. A Paradox within the Time Value of Money: A Critical Thinking Exercise for Finance Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Charles J.; Rich, Steven P.; Rose, John T.

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a paradox within the time value of money (TVM), namely, that the interest-principal sequence embedded in the payment stream of an amortized loan is exactly the opposite of the interest-principal sequence implicit in the present value of a matching annuity. We examine this inverse sequence, both mathematically and intuitively,…

  3. Task Mapping and Partition Allocation for Mixed-Criticality Real-Time Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamas-Selicean, Domitian; Pop, Paul

    2012-01-01

    are scheduled using static-cyclic scheduling. We are interested to determine the task mapping to processors, and the sequence and size of the time slots within the Major Frame on each processor, such that the applications are schedulable. We have proposed a Tabu Search-based approach to solve this optimization...

  4. The efficacy of a restart break for recycling with optimal performance depends critically on circadian timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dongen, Hans P A; Belenky, Gregory; Vila, Bryan J

    2011-07-01

    Under simulated shift-work conditions, we investigated the efficacy of a restart break for maintaining neurobehavioral functioning across consecutive duty cycles, as a function of the circadian timing of the duty periods. As part of a 14-day experiment, subjects underwent two cycles of five simulated daytime or nighttime duty days, separated by a 34-hour restart break. Cognitive functioning and high-fidelity driving simulator performance were tested 4 times per day during the two duty cycles. Lapses on a psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) served as the primary outcome variable. Selected sleep periods were recorded polysomnographically. The experiment was conducted under standardized, controlled laboratory conditions with continuous monitoring. Twenty-seven healthy adults (13 men, 14 women; aged 22-39 years) participated in the study. Subjects were randomly assigned to a nighttime duty (experimental) condition or a daytime duty (control) condition. The efficacy of the 34-hour restart break for maintaining neurobehavioral functioning from the pre-restart duty cycle to the post-restart duty cycle was compared between these two conditions. Relative to the daytime duty condition, the nighttime duty condition was associated with reduced amounts of sleep, whereas sleep latencies were shortened and slow-wave sleep appeared to be conserved. Neurobehavioral performance measures ranging from lapses of attention on the PVT to calculated fuel consumption on the driving simulators remained optimal across time of day in the daytime duty schedule, but degraded across time of night in the nighttime duty schedule. The 34-hour restart break was efficacious for maintaining PVT performance and other objective neurobehavioral functioning profiles from one duty cycle to the next in the daytime duty condition, but not in the nighttime duty condition. Subjective sleepiness did not reliably track objective neurobehavioral deficits. The 34-hour restart break was adequate for maintaining

  5. Health Monitor for Multitasking, Safety-Critical, Real-Time Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoerner, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Health Manager can detect Bad Health prior to a failure occurring by periodically monitoring the application software by looking for code corruption errors, and sanity-checking each critical data value prior to use. A processor s memory can fail and corrupt the software, or the software can accidentally write to the wrong address and overwrite the executing software. This innovation will continuously calculate a checksum of the software load to detect corrupted code. This will allow a system to detect a failure before it happens. This innovation monitors each software task (thread) so that if any task reports "bad health," or does not report to the Health Manager, the system is declared bad. The Health Manager reports overall system health to the outside world by outputting a square wave signal. If the square wave stops, this indicates that system health is bad or hung and cannot report. Either way, "bad health" can be detected, whether caused by an error, corrupted data, or a hung processor. A separate Health Monitor Task is started and run periodically in a loop that starts and stops pending on a semaphore. Each monitored task registers with the Health Manager, which maintains a count for the task. The registering task must indicate if it will run more or less often than the Health Manager. If the task runs more often than the Health Manager, the monitored task calls a health function that increments the count and verifies it did not go over max-count. When the periodic Health Manager runs, it verifies that the count did not go over the max-count and zeroes it. If the task runs less often than the Health Manager, the periodic Health Manager will increment the count. The monitored task zeroes the count, and both the Health Manager and monitored task verify that the count did not go over the max-count.

  6. Testing the critical exponent in the relation between stress drop of earthquake and lead time of seismic electric signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Dologlou

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The application of new data in the power law relation between the stress drop of the earthquake and the lead time of the precursory seismic electric signal led to an exponent which falls in the range of the values of critical exponents for fracture and it is in excellent agreement with a previous one found by (Dologlou, 2012. In addition, this exponent is very close to the one reported by Varotsos and Alexopoulos (1984a, which interconnects the amplitude of the precursory seismic electric signals (SES and the magnitude of the impending earthquake. Hence, the hypothesis that underlying dynamic processes evolving to criticality prevail in the pre-focal area when the SES is emitted is significantly supported.

  7. Determining Inventory Replenishment Policy, Vehicle Type and Optimal Order Quantity in Critical Situation with Variable Lead Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadali Pirayesh Neghab

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In Iran Khodro Khorasan, inventory replenishment policy of some items is based on certain simple model (Wilson model. Sometimes because of some reasons, goods reception may not be achieved at the planned time. This state is called as critical situation because the production line is on the eve of stop. The purpose of this paper is to present different inventory replenishment policies in critical situation. For each policy, the cost function that includes cost of line stop, ordering cost, holding cost and transportation cost has been modeled and through its minimization, vehicle type and optimal order quantity have been determined. This model has been used numerically for two items of Iran Khodro Khorasan. Findings show that applying the proposed policy leads to saved cost compared to the current policy of Iran Khodro Khorasan.

  8. Real-time dynamics induced by quenches across the quantum critical points in gapless Fermi systems with a magnetic impurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleine, Christian; Mußhoff, Julian; Anders, Frithjof B.

    2014-12-01

    The energy-dependent scattering of fermions from a localized orbital at an energy-dependent rate Γ (ɛ ) ∝|ɛ| r gives rise to quantum critical points (QCPs) in the pseudogap single-impurity Anderson model separating a local moment phase with an unscreened spin moment from a strong-coupling phase which slightly deviates from the screened phase of standard Kondo problem. Using the time-dependent numerical renormalization group (TD-NRG) approach we show that local dynamic properties always equilibrate towards a steady-state value even for quenches across the QCP but with systematic deviations from the thermal equilibrium depending on the distance to the critical coupling. Local nonequilibrium properties are presented for interaction quenches and hybridization quenches. We augment our numerical data by an analytical calculation that becomes exact at short times and find excellent agreement between the numerics and the analytical theory. For interaction quenches within the screened phase we find a universal function for the time-dependent local double occupancy. We trace back the discrepancy between our results and the data obtained by a time-dependent Gutzwiller variational approach to restrictions of the wave-function ansatz in the Gutzwiller theory: while the NRG ground states properly account for the formation of an extended spin moment which decouples from the system in the unscreened phase, the Gutzwiller ansatz only allows the formation of the spin moment on the local impurity orbital.

  9. Effect of meal timing not critical for the pharmacokinetics of tegaserod (HTF 919).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, H; Khalilieh, S; Lau, H; Guerret, M; Osborne, S; Alladina, L; Laurent, A L; McLeod, J F

    1999-09-01

    This study assessed the pharmacokinetic profiles of administering tegaserod (HTF 919) at different time intervals with respect to a meal. It was a randomized, open-label, two-phase, five-period crossover study. In the first phase, 18 healthy subjects received a single 12 mg oral dose of tegaserod administered either 30 or 15 minutes prior to the start of the 600-calorie, fat-rich breakfast. In the second phase, subjects received a single 12 mg oral dose of tegaserod 1 minute before, 2.5 hours after the start of meal, or with a continued 4-hour postdose fast. Safety assessment and plasma samples for the determination of drug concentration were obtained for 24 hours postdose. Noncompartmental analysis results indicated that the AUC of tegaserod was reduced by almost half under fed conditions compared to the fasted condition. Exploratory analyses were implemented to further investigate the absorption characteristics of tegaserod under different fed conditions. A numerical deconvolution approach was used to obtain the tegaserod oral absorption versus time profiles under both fasted and fed conditions. The tegaserod oral absorption versus time profiles were then fitted by NONMEM to a model containing two absorption phases. Based on the absorption analyses, we found that the reduction in the bioavailability of tegaserod under fed conditions was primarily due to a decrease in the extent of absorption and less so to a decrease in the absorption rate(s). Therefore, although the timing of administration of food does not appear to significantly alter the pharmacokinetics of tegaserod, the administration of food reduces the AUC by approximately 50%.

  10. Does Be10 Underestimate Residence Time of Critical Zones in Acid Environments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, D., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    Meteoric 10Be inventories were coupled with with mass balance of 9Be (bedrock to 18.3 meters soil-saprolite profile) to estimate the soil residence time (SRT) of a biogeomorphically stable Ultisol. We estimate SRT after correcting for observed9Be losses, which indicate that more than half of the 9Be weathered from primary minerals had been leached from the soil and saprolite. Our estimates of minimum SRT range between 1.3-1.4 Ma and between 2.6-3.1 Ma under high and low (2.0 and 1.3 × 106 atoms cm-2 yr-1, respectively) estimates of atmospheric 10Be deposition. Denudation rates of the physiographic region corroborate our residence time estimates. We double to quadruple the pedogenic time constraints of interfluves on the Southern Piedmont, and demonstrate that assumptions of complete meteoric 10Be retention in acidic soil systems need questioning. The results may have far-reaching consequences for soil, sediment, river, and ocean research using meteoric 10Be.

  11. Task-oriented quality assessment and adaptation in real-time mission critical video streaming applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, James; Wang, Qi; Grecos, Christos

    2015-02-01

    In recent years video traffic has become the dominant application on the Internet with global year-on-year increases in video-oriented consumer services. Driven by improved bandwidth in both mobile and fixed networks, steadily reducing hardware costs and the development of new technologies, many existing and new classes of commercial and industrial video applications are now being upgraded or emerging. Some of the use cases for these applications include areas such as public and private security monitoring for loss prevention or intruder detection, industrial process monitoring and critical infrastructure monitoring. The use of video is becoming commonplace in defence, security, commercial, industrial, educational and health contexts. Towards optimal performances, the design or optimisation in each of these applications should be context aware and task oriented with the characteristics of the video stream (frame rate, spatial resolution, bandwidth etc.) chosen to match the use case requirements. For example, in the security domain, a task-oriented consideration may be that higher resolution video would be required to identify an intruder than to simply detect his presence. Whilst in the same case, contextual factors such as the requirement to transmit over a resource-limited wireless link, may impose constraints on the selection of optimum task-oriented parameters. This paper presents a novel, conceptually simple and easily implemented method of assessing video quality relative to its suitability for a particular task and dynamically adapting videos streams during transmission to ensure that the task can be successfully completed. Firstly we defined two principle classes of tasks: recognition tasks and event detection tasks. These task classes are further subdivided into a set of task-related profiles, each of which is associated with a set of taskoriented attributes (minimum spatial resolution, minimum frame rate etc.). For example, in the detection class

  12. Use of risk assessment analysis by failure mode, effects, and criticality to reduce door-to-balloon time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Rahul K; Nannicelli, Anna P; Powell, Emilie S; Seivert, Nicholas P; Adams, James G; Holl, Jane L

    2013-10-01

    The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services currently endorses a door-to-balloon time of 90 minutes or less for patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Recent evidence shows that a door-to-balloon time of 60 minutes significantly decreases inhospital mortality. We seek to use a proactive risk assessment method of failure mode, effects, and criticality analysis (FMECA) to evaluate door-to-balloon time process, to investigate how each component failure may affect the performance of a system, and to evaluate the frequency and the potential severity of harm of each failure. We conducted a 2-part study: FMECA of the door-to-balloon time system and process of care, and evaluation of a single institution's door-to-balloon time operational data using a retrospective observational cohort design. A multidisciplinary group of FMECA participants described the door-to-balloon time process to then create a comprehensive map and table listing all process steps and identified process failures, including their frequency, consequence, and causes. Door-to-balloon time operational data were assessed by "on" versus "off" hours. Fifty-one failure points were identified across 4 door-to-balloon time phases. Of the 12 high-risk failures, 58% occurred between ECG and catheterization laboratory activation. Total door-to-balloon time during on hours had a median time of 55 minutes (95% confidence interval 46 to 60 minutes) compared with 77 minutes (95% confidence interval 68 to 83 minutes) during off hours. The FMECA revealed clear areas of potential delay and vulnerability that can be addressed to decrease door-to-balloon time from 90 to 60 minutes. FMECAs can provide a robust assessment of potential risks and can serve as the platform for significant process improvement and system redesign for door-to-balloon time. Copyright © 2013 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Mechanical diagnosis of human erythrocytes by ultra-high speed manipulation unraveled critical time window for global cytoskeletal remodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiroaki; Murakami, Ryo; Sakuma, Shinya; Tsai, Chia-Hung Dylan; Gutsmann, Thomas; Brandenburg, Klaus; Pöschl, Johannes M. B.; Arai, Fumihito; Kaneko, Makoto; Tanaka, Motomu

    2017-02-01

    Large deformability of erythrocytes in microvasculature is a prerequisite to realize smooth circulation. We develop a novel tool for the three-step “Catch-Load-Launch” manipulation of a human erythrocyte based on an ultra-high speed position control by a microfluidic “robotic pump”. Quantification of the erythrocyte shape recovery as a function of loading time uncovered the critical time window for the transition between fast and slow recoveries. The comparison with erythrocytes under depletion of adenosine triphosphate revealed that the cytoskeletal remodeling over a whole cell occurs in 3 orders of magnitude longer timescale than the local dissociation-reassociation of a single spectrin node. Finally, we modeled septic conditions by incubating erythrocytes with endotoxin, and found that the exposure to endotoxin results in a significant delay in the characteristic transition time for cytoskeletal remodeling. The high speed manipulation of erythrocytes with a robotic pump technique allows for high throughput mechanical diagnosis of blood-related diseases.

  14. Frequency and Time Domain Analysis of Foetal Heart Rate Variability with Traditional Indexes: A Critical Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Romano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of foetal heart rate and its variability (FHRV covers an important role in assessing health of foetus. Many analysis methods have been used to get quantitative measures of FHRV. FHRV has been studied in time and in frequency domain and interesting clinical results have been obtained. Nevertheless, a standardized definition of FHRV and a precise methodology to be used for its evaluation are lacking. We carried out a literature overview about both frequency domain analysis (FDA and time domain analysis (TDA. Then, by using simulated FHR signals, we defined the methodology for FDA. Further, employing more than 400 real FHR signals, we analysed some of the most common indexes, Short Term Variability for TDA and power content of the spectrum bands and sympathovagal balance for FDA, and evaluated their ranges of values, which in many cases are a novelty. Finally, we verified the relationship between these indexes and two important parameters: week of gestation, indicator of foetal growth, and foetal state, classified as active or at rest. Our results indicate that, according to literature, it is necessary to standardize the procedure for FHRV evaluation and to consider week of gestation and foetal state before FHR analysis.

  15. Critical analysis of rhinovirus RNA load quantification by real-time reverse transcription-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schibler, Manuel; Yerly, Sabine; Vieille, Gaël; Docquier, Mylène; Turin, Lara; Kaiser, Laurent; Tapparel, Caroline

    2012-09-01

    Rhinoviruses are the most frequent cause of human respiratory infections, and quantitative rhinovirus diagnostic tools are needed for clinical investigations. Although results obtained by real-time reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR) assays are frequently converted to viral RNA loads, this presents several limitations regarding accurate virus RNA quantification, particularly given the need to reliably quantify all known rhinovirus genotypes with a single assay. Using an internal extraction control and serial dilutions of an in vitro-transcribed rhinovirus RNA reference standard, we validated a quantitative one-step real-time PCR assay. We then used chimeric rhinovirus genomes with 5'-untranslated regions (5'UTRs) originating from the three rhinovirus species and from one enterovirus to estimate the impact of the 5'UTR diversity. Respiratory specimens from infected patients were then also analyzed. The assay quantification ability ranged from 4.10 to 9.10 log RNA copies/ml, with an estimated error margin of ±10%. This variation was mainly linked to target variability and interassay variability. Taken together, our results indicate that our assay can reliably estimate rhinovirus RNA load, provided that the appropriate error margin is used. In contrast, due to the lack of a universal rhinovirus RNA standard and the variability related to sample collection procedures, accurate absolute rhinovirus RNA quantification in respiratory specimens is currently hardly feasible.

  16. Construction delays causing risks on time and cost - a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chidambaram Ramanathan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available There is an increase in the number of construction projects experiencing extensive delays leading to exceeding initial time and cost budget.  This paper reviews 41 studies around the world which surveyed the delay factors and classified them into Groups.  The main purpose of this paper is to review literature, each of which have categorized the causes that are responsible for time delays and cost overrun in projects. The collected list has 113 causes for delays categorized in to 18 different groups.  Most of the researches have analysed the responses from the Questionnaire survey.    The collected data are used to rank the problem.  The data are further used to investigate and analyse Important Index, Frequency Index, Severity Index, Relative Important Index, Relative Importance Weight, Weighted Average, Mean, Standard Deviation and Variance.  The collective comparison has revealed that the ranking given by all the researchers is not the same.  Further each and every study has different rank ratings for the different group of the delays.  This review paper attempts to provide an updated compilation of the earlier studies on ranking of the delay causers, which are never similar and constant for universal projects.  It is concluded that a separate study is required for identifying the factors causing delay for projects operated in Sabah, East Malaysia.

  17. Hardware And Software Architectures For Reconfigurable Time-Critical Control Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Piłat

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The most popular configuration of the controlled laboratory test-rigs is the personalcomputer (PC equipped with the I/O board. The dedicated software components allowsto conduct a wide range of user-defined tasks. The typical configuration functionality canbe customized by PC hardware components and their programmable reconfiguration. Thenext step in the automatic control system design is the embedded solution. Usually, thedesign process of the embedded control system is supported by the high-level software. Thededicated programming tools support multitasking property of the microcontroller by selectionof different sampling frequencies of algorithm blocks. In this case the multi-layer andmultitasking control strategy can be realized on the chip. The proposed solutions implementrapid prototyping approach. The available toolkits and device drivers integrate system-leveldesign environment and the real-time application software, transferring the functionality ofMATLAB/Simulink programs to PCs or microcontrolers application environment.

  18. Laws of Large Numbers for the Occupation Time of an Age-Dependent Critical Binary Branching System

    OpenAIRE

    López-Mimbela, José Alfredo; Salas, Antonio Murillo

    2009-01-01

    The occupation time of an age-dependent branching particle system in $\\Rd$ is considered, where the initial population is a Poisson random field and the particles are subject to symmetric $\\alpha$-stable migration, critical binary branching and random lifetimes. Two regimes of lifetime distributions are considered: lifetimes with finite mean and lifetimes belonging to the normal domain of attraction of a $\\gamma$-stable law, $\\gamma\\in(0,1)$. It is shown that in dimensions $d>\\alpha\\gamma$ fo...

  19. Statistical Analysis of fMRI Time-Series: A Critical Review of the GLM Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin M Monti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI is one of the most widely used tools to study the neural underpinnings of human cognition. Standard analysis of fMRI data relies on a General Linear Model (GLM approach to separate stimulus induced signals from noise. Crucially, this approach relies on a number of assumptions about the data which, for inferences to be valid, must be met. The current paper reviews the GLM approach to analysis of fMRI time-series, focusing in particular on the degree to which such data abides by the assumptions of the GLM framework, and on the methods that have been developed to correct for any violation of those assumptions. Rather than biasing estimates of effect size, the major consequence of non-conformity to the assumptions is to introduce bias into estimates of the variance, thus affecting test statistics, power and false positive rates. Furthermore, this bias can have pervasive effects on both individual subject and group-level statistics, potentially yielding qualitatively different results across replications, especially after the thresholding procedures commonly used for inference-making.

  20. Statistical Analysis of fMRI Time-Series: A Critical Review of the GLM Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, Martin M

    2011-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is one of the most widely used tools to study the neural underpinnings of human cognition. Standard analysis of fMRI data relies on a general linear model (GLM) approach to separate stimulus induced signals from noise. Crucially, this approach relies on a number of assumptions about the data which, for inferences to be valid, must be met. The current paper reviews the GLM approach to analysis of fMRI time-series, focusing in particular on the degree to which such data abides by the assumptions of the GLM framework, and on the methods that have been developed to correct for any violation of those assumptions. Rather than biasing estimates of effect size, the major consequence of non-conformity to the assumptions is to introduce bias into estimates of the variance, thus affecting test statistics, power, and false positive rates. Furthermore, this bias can have pervasive effects on both individual subject and group-level statistics, potentially yielding qualitatively different results across replications, especially after the thresholding procedures commonly used for inference-making.

  1. CriticalEd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellberg, Caspar Mølholt; Meredith, David

    2014-01-01

    The best text method is commonly applied among music scholars engaged in producing critical editions. In this method, a comment list is compiled, consisting of variant readings and editorial emendations. This list is maintained by inserting the comments into a document as the changes are made....... Since the comments are not input sequentially, with regard to position, but in arbitrary order, this list must be sorted by copy/pasting the rows into place—an error-prone and time-consuming process. Scholars who produce critical editions typically use off-the-shelf music notation software...... such as Sibelius or Finale. It was hypothesized that it would be possible to develop a Sibelius plug-in, written in Manuscript 6, that would improve the critical editing work flow, but it was found that the capabilities of this scripting language were insufficient. Instead, a 3-part system was designed and built...

  2. Sediment residence times constrained by uranium-series isotopes: A critical appraisal of the comminution approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Heather K.; Turner, Simon; Afonso, Juan C.; Dosseto, Anthony; Cohen, Tim

    2013-02-01

    Quantifying the rates of landscape evolution in response to climate change is inhibited by the difficulty of dating the formation of continental detrital sediments. We present uranium isotope data for Cooper Creek palaeochannel sediments from the Lake Eyre Basin in semi-arid South Australia in order to attempt to determine the formation ages and hence residence times of the sediments. To calculate the amount of recoil loss of 234U, a key input parameter used in the comminution approach, we use two suggested methods (weighted geometric and surface area measurement with an incorporated fractal correction) and typical assumed input parameter values found in the literature. The calculated recoil loss factors and comminution ages are highly dependent on the method of recoil loss factor determination used and the chosen assumptions. To appraise the ramifications of the assumptions inherent in the comminution age approach and determine individual and combined comminution age uncertainties associated to each variable, Monte Carlo simulations were conducted for a synthetic sediment sample. Using a reasonable associated uncertainty for each input factor and including variations in the source rock and measured (234U/238U) ratios, the total combined uncertainty on comminution age in our simulation (for both methods of recoil loss factor estimation) can amount to ±220-280 ka. The modelling shows that small changes in assumed input values translate into large effects on absolute comminution age. To improve the accuracy of the technique and provide meaningful absolute comminution ages, much tighter constraints are required on the assumptions for input factors such as the fraction of α-recoil lost 234Th and the initial (234U/238U) ratio of the source material. In order to be able to directly compare calculated comminution ages produced by different research groups, the standardisation of pre-treatment procedures, recoil loss factor estimation and assumed input parameter values

  3. Collision-free Multiple Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicles Cooperative Trajectory Planning for Time-critical Missions using Differential Flatness Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueqiang Gu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the cooperative trajectory planning for multiple unmanned combat aerial vehicles in performing autonomous cooperative air-to-ground target attack missions. Firstly, the collision-free cooperative trajectory planning problem for time-critical missions is formulated as a cooperative trajectory optimal control problem (CTP-OCP, which is based on an approximate allowable attack region model, several constraints model, and a multi-criteria objective function. Next, a planning algorithm based on the differential flatness, B-spline curves and nonlinear programming is designed to solve the CTP-OCP. In particular, the notion of the virtual time is introduced to deal with the temporal constraints. Finally, the proposed approach is validated by two typical scenarios and the simulation results show the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed planning approach.Defence Science Journal, Vol. 64, No. 1, January 2014, DOI:10.14429/dsj.64.2999

  4. Handling of time-critical Conditions Data in the CMS experiment - Experience of the first year of data taking

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    Data management for a wide category of non-event data plays a critical role in the operation of the CMS experiment. The processing chain (data taking-reconstruction-analysis) relies in the prompt availability of specific, time dependent data describing the state of the various detectors and their calibration parameters, which are treated separately from event data. The Condition Database system is the infrastructure established to handle these data and to make sure that they are available to both offline and online workflows. The Condition Data layout is designed such that the payload data (the Condition) is associated to an Interval Of Validity (IOV). The IOV allows accessing selectively the sets corresponding to specific intervals of time, run number or luminosity section. Both payloads and IOVs are stored in a cluster of relational database servers (Oracle) using an object-relational access approach. The strict requirements of security and isolation of the CMS online systems are imposing a redundant archit...

  5. Chemical Vapour Deposition Diamond - Charge Carrier Movement at Low Temperatures and Use in Time-Critical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jansen, Hendrik; Pernegger, Heinz

    Diamond, a wide band gap semiconductor with exceptional electrical properties, has found its way in diverse fields of application reaching from the usage as a sensor material for beam loss monitors at particle accelerator facilities, to laser windows, to UV light sensors in space applications, e.g. for space weather forecasting. Though often used at room temperature, little is known about the charge transport in diamond towards liquid helium temperatures. In this work the method of the transient current technique is employed at temperatures between room temperature and 2 K. The temperature and electric field strength dependence of the pulse shape, the charge carrier transit time, the drift velocity, the saturation velocity, and the low-field mobility is measured in detector-grade scCVD diamond. Furthermore, the usability of diamond in time-critical applications is tested, and the main results are presented.

  6. Is timing of prescribed fire critical for limiting post-fire erosion? Lessons from Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakesby, Richard A.; Ferreira, Carla S. S.; Walsh, Rory P. D.; Ferreira, António J. D.; Urbanek, Emilia; Stoof, Cathelijne R.

    2010-05-01

    before summer 2009 indicated soil losses generally lower than those collected from similar terrain affected by wildfire. However, rainfall events during the 2009-10 autumn - winter period have been large and have included some intense storms sufficiently erosive to increase erosion rates relative to those recorded in the early post-fire months of spring and early summer 2009. Despite a relatively moist post-fire spring and the rapid appearance of new shoots from resprouting vegetation in particular, the thin degraded nature of the soil has been in large part responsible for the slow establishment of a vegetation cover sufficiently dense to be very effective at protecting the soil. Pre-fire and post-fire erosion and indicative nutrient content of soil collected from the sediment fences are considered and compared with results from the wildfire site and from the literature to assess whether timing of prescribed fire within the window of opportunity matters to any great extent.

  7. The critical relationship between the timing of stimulus presentation and data acquisition in blocked designs with fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, C J; Veltman, D J; Ashburner, J; Josephs, O; Friston, K J

    1999-07-01

    This paper concerns the experimental design and statistical models employed by fMRI activation studies which block presentation of linguistic stimuli. In particular, we note that the relationship between the timing of stimulus presentation and data acquisition can have a substantial impact on the ability to detect activations in critical language areas, even when the stimuli are presented in blocks. Using a blocked word rhyming paradigm and repeated investigations on a single subject, activation was observed in Broca's area (left inferior frontal cortex) and Wernicke's area (left posterior temporoparietal cortex) when (i) the timing of data acquisition was distributed throughout the peristimulus time and (ii) an event-related analysis was used to model the phasic nature of the hemodynamic response within each block of repeated word stimuli. In contrast, when the timing of data acquisition relative to stimulus presentation was fixed, activation was detected in Broca's area but not consistently in Wernicke's area. Our results indicate that phasic responses to stimuli occur even in a blocked design and that the sampling and proper modeling of these responses can have profound effects on their detection. Specifically, distributed sampling over peristimulus time is essential in order to detect small activations particularly when they are transient. These findings are likely to generalize to the detection of transient signals in any cognitive paradigm.

  8. Riding the lexical speedway: a critical review on the time course of lexical selection in speech production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristof eStrijkers

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Speech requires time. How much time often depends on the amount of labor the brain has to perform in order to retrieve the linguistic information related to the ideas we want to express. Although most psycholinguistic research in the field of language production has focused on the net result of time required to utter words in various experimental conditions, over the last years more and more researchers pursued the objective to flesh out the time course of particular stages implicated in language production. Here we critically review these studies, with particular interest for the time course of lexical selection. First, we evaluate the data underlying the estimates of an influential temporal meta-analysis on language production (Indefrey & Levelt, 2004. We conclude that those data alone are not sufficient to provide a reliable time frame of lexical selection. Next, we discuss recent neurophysiological evidence which we argue to offer more explicit insights into the time course of lexical selection. Based on this evidence we suggest that, despite the absence of a clear time frame of how long lexical selection takes, there is sufficient direct evidence to conclude that the brain initiates lexical access within 200 ms after stimulus presentation, hereby confirming Indefrey and Levelt’s estimate. In a final section, we briefly review the proposed mechanisms which could lead to this rapid onset of lexical access, namely automatic spreading activation versus specific concept selection, and discuss novel data which support the notion of spreading activation, but indicate that the speed with which this principle takes effect is driven by a top-down signal in function of the intention to engage in a speech act.

  9. Providing critical laboratory results on time, every time to help reduce emergency department length of stay: how our laboratory achieved a Six Sigma level of performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blick, Kenneth E

    2013-08-01

    To develop a fully automated core laboratory, handling samples on a "first in, first out" real-time basis with Lean/Six Sigma management tools. Our primary goal was to provide services to critical care areas, eliminating turnaround time outlier percentage (TAT-OP) as a factor in patient length of stay (LOS). A secondary goal was to achieve a better laboratory return on investment. In 2011, we reached our primary goal when we calculated the TAT-OP distribution and found we had achieved a Six Sigma level of performance, ensuring that our laboratory service can be essentially eliminated as a factor in emergency department patient LOS. We also measured return on investment, showing a productivity improvement of 35%, keeping pace with our increased testing volume. As a result of our Lean process improvements and Six Sigma initiatives, in part through (1) strategic deployment of point-of-care testing and (2) core laboratory total automation with robotics, middleware, and expert system technology, physicians and nurses at the Oklahoma University Medical Center can more effectively deliver lifesaving health care using evidence-based protocols that depend heavily on "on time, every time" laboratory services.

  10. Long-time behavior of the velocity autocorrelation function at low densities and near the critical point of simple fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dib, R F A; Ould-Kaddour, F; Levesque, D

    2006-07-01

    Numerous theoretical and numerical works have been devoted to the study of the algebraic decrease at large times of the velocity autocorrelation function of particles in a fluid. The derivation of this behavior, the so-called long-time tail, generally based on linearized hydrodynamics, makes no reference to any specific characteristic of the particle interactions. However, in the literature doubts have been expressed about the possibility that by numerical simulations the long-time tail can be observed in the whole fluid phase domain of systems in which the particles interact by soft-core and attractive pair potentials. In this work, extensive and accurate molecular-dynamics simulations establish that the predicted long-time tail of the velocity autocorrelation function exists in a low-density fluid of particles interacting by a soft-repulsive potential and near the liquid-gas critical point of a Lennard-Jones system. These results contribute to the confirmation that the algebraic decay of the velocity autocorrelation function is universal in these fluid systems.

  11. Sociologie du travail et critique du temps industriel The Sociology of Labor and a critical vision of industrial Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Thoemmes

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available La sociologie du travail a développé un point de vue particulier sur l'analyse des temporalités sociales. L'objectif de cet article est de montrer l'élaboration progressive d'une critique d'un temps industriel unique et unifiant. Cette critique s'appuie sur trois éléments : la multiplicité des temporalités de l’activité professionnelle, le caractère déstructurant du travail industriel et l'émergence d'un temps des loisirs. Ce point de vue a été élaboré par la sociologie du travail en France après 1945, notamment par Georges Friedmann, Pierre Naville et William Grossin.  Avant d’aborder cette période nous voudrions  interroger le moment de la fondation de la sociologie. En mobilisant des travaux peu connus de Max Weber sur le travail, nous verrons en quoi il est un précurseur de l’analyse des attitudes diversifiées des individus et des collectifs à l’égard du temps. Cette perspective lie, dès les premières enquêtes sociologiques, le travail industriel à une interrogation sur les temporalités.The sociology of work and labor developed a particular viewpoint on the analysis of social times. The objective of this article is to show how a criticism of a unique and unifying industrial time progressively grew up. Such criticism leans on three elements: the multiplicity of social times linked to the occupational activity, the disintegrating nature of work in the manufacturing process and the emergence of leisure-time. This point of view was elaborated by the sociology of work in France after 1945, notably by Georges Friedmann, Pierre Naville and William Grossin. Before approaching this period we question the moment of the foundation of sociology. By mobilizing little known research by Max Weber on the manufacturing process, we shall see in what way he was a precursor of the analysis of diversified attitudes regarding time by individuals and groups.

  12. The critical phenomenon and the re-entrance phenomenon in the anti-tumor model induced by the time delay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Luchun [Department of Physics, Yunnan University, Kunming, 650091 (China); Mei Dongcheng, E-mail: meidch@ynu.edu.c [Department of Physics, Yunnan University, Kunming, 650091 (China)

    2010-07-19

    The effects of time delay {tau} on an anti-tumor model driven by a multiplicative noise and a periodic signal are investigated. The results obtained from the small delay approximation and numerical simulations indicate: (i) For the absence of the periodic signal in the system, the two-peak structure of the stationary probability distribution transforms into the single-peak structure with the increasing {tau}, and {tau} exists a critical value {tau}{sub c}. For {tau}<{tau}{sub c}, the stationary mean value {sub st} of the cell population decreases as the noise intensity D increases, however, for {tau}>{tau}{sub c}, the {sub st} increases as the D increases; (ii) For the presence of the periodic signal in the system, the structure of the signal-to-noise ratio with changes of the D exhibits the transitions of one peak {yields} two peaks {yields} one peak as {tau} increases.

  13. Time-critical database condition data handling in the CMS experiment during the first data taking period

    CERN Document Server

    Di Guida, Salvatore

    2011-01-01

    Automatic, synchronous and of course reliable population of the condition databases is critical for the correct operation of the online selection as well as of the offline reconstruction and analysis of data. In this complex infrastructure, monitoring and fast detection of errors is a very challenging task. To recover the system and to put it in a safe state requires spotting a faulty situation within strict time constraints. We will describe here the system put in place in the CMS experiment to automate the processes that populate centrally the Condition Databases and make condition data promptly available both online for the high-level trigger and offline for reconstruction. The data are automatically collected using centralized jobs or are ``dropped'' by the users in dedicate services (offline and online drop-box), which synchronize them and take care of writing them into the online database. Then they are automatically streamed to the offline database, and thus are immediately acce...

  14. Mechanical diagnosis of human erythrocytes by ultra-high speed manipulation unraveled critical time window for global cytoskeletal remodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiroaki; Murakami, Ryo; Sakuma, Shinya; Tsai, Chia-Hung Dylan; Gutsmann, Thomas; Brandenburg, Klaus; Pöschl, Johannes M. B.; Arai, Fumihito; Kaneko, Makoto; Tanaka, Motomu

    2017-01-01

    Large deformability of erythrocytes in microvasculature is a prerequisite to realize smooth circulation. We develop a novel tool for the three-step “Catch-Load-Launch” manipulation of a human erythrocyte based on an ultra-high speed position control by a microfluidic “robotic pump”. Quantification of the erythrocyte shape recovery as a function of loading time uncovered the critical time window for the transition between fast and slow recoveries. The comparison with erythrocytes under depletion of adenosine triphosphate revealed that the cytoskeletal remodeling over a whole cell occurs in 3 orders of magnitude longer timescale than the local dissociation-reassociation of a single spectrin node. Finally, we modeled septic conditions by incubating erythrocytes with endotoxin, and found that the exposure to endotoxin results in a significant delay in the characteristic transition time for cytoskeletal remodeling. The high speed manipulation of erythrocytes with a robotic pump technique allows for high throughput mechanical diagnosis of blood-related diseases. PMID:28233788

  15. P-V criticality in the extended phase space of charged f(R) black holes in AdS space-time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jun; Sun, Chang-Bo; Feng, Hai-Tao

    2016-02-01

    The P\\text-V criticality and phase transition in the extended phase space of charged f(R) black holes in Anti-de Sitter (AdS) space-time are studied, where the cosmological constant appears as a dynamical pressure and its conjugate quantity is a thermodynamic volume of the black holes. We take into account three-dimensional and higher-dimensional black holes of the f(R) theory coupled to a conformally invariant Maxwell (CIM) field and find that for a f(R) black hole in three-dimensional space-time, critical behavior cannot occur; for a f(R) black hole in higher-dimensional space-time, no P\\text-V criticality occurs in n = 8 dimensions either, while P\\text-V criticality and the small-black-hole/large-black-hole phase transition appears in n = 12 dimensions. It is shown that the f(R) correction affects the phase transition as well as the critical temperature, volume and pressure. In addition, we also discuss the critical exponents at the critical point for the f(R) black hole in n space-time dimensions and show that they are the same as those in the van de Waals liquid-gas system.

  16. Resolving critical dimension drift over time in plasma etching through virtual metrology based wafer-to-wafer control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho Ki; Baek, Kye Hyun; Shin, Kyoungsub

    2017-06-01

    As semiconductor devices are scaled down to sub-20 nm, process window of plasma etching gets extremely small so that process drift or shift becomes more significant. This study addresses one of typical process drift issues caused by consumable parts erosion over time and provides feasible solution by using virtual metrology (VM) based wafer-to-wafer control. Since erosion of a shower head has center-to-edge area dependency, critical dimensions (CDs) at the wafer center and edge area get reversed over time. That CD trend is successfully estimated on a wafer-to-wafer basis by a partial least square (PLS) model which combines variables from optical emission spectroscopy (OES), VI-probe and equipment state gauges. R 2 of the PLS model reaches 0.89 and its prediction performance is confirmed in a mass production line. As a result, the model can be exploited as a VM for wafer-to-wafer control. With the VM, advanced process control (APC) strategy is implemented to solve the CD drift. Three σ of CD across wafer is improved from the range (1.3-2.9 nm) to the range (0.79-1.7 nm). Hopefully, results introduced in this paper will contribute to accelerating implementation of VM based APC strategy in semiconductor industry.

  17. Critical evaluation of methods used to determine amplification efficiency refutes the exponential character of real-time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart Don

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The challenge of determining amplification efficiency has long been a predominant aspect of implementing real-time qPCR, playing a critical role in the accuracy and reliability that can be achieved. Based upon analysis of amplification profile position, standard curves are currently the gold standard for amplification efficiency determination. However, in addition to being highly resource intensive, the efficacy of this approach is limited by the necessary assumption that all samples are amplified with the same efficiency as predicted by a standard curve. These limitations have driven efforts to develop methods for determining amplification efficiency by analyzing the fluorescence readings from individual amplification reactions. The most prominent approach is based on analysis of the "log-linear region", founded upon the presumption that amplification efficiency is constant within this region. Nevertheless, a recently developed sigmoidal model has provided new insights that challenge such historically held views, dictating that amplification efficiency is not only dynamic, but is linearly coupled to amplicon DNA quantity. Called "linear regression of efficiency" or LRE, this kinetic-based approach redefines amplification efficiency as the maximal efficiency (Emax generated at the onset of thermocycling. Results This study presents a critical evaluation of amplification efficiency determination, which reveals that potentially large underestimations occur when exponential mathematics is applied to the log-linear region. This discrepancy was found to stem from misinterpreting the origin of the log-linear region, which is derived not from an invariant amplification efficiency, but rather from an exponential loss in amplification rate. In contrast, LRE analysis generated Emax estimates that correlated closely to that derived from a standard curve, despite the fact that standard curve analysis is founded upon exponential

  18. Implementing the IA stage and developing an instrument to assess the fidelity of critical time interventional: task shifting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Fernandes Carpinteiro Silva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available One strategy that has been used for treat patients with mental health disorder is the implementation of psychosocial interventions. Like the development of a new drug, which requires safety studies before efficacy assessment, the psychosocial interventions should be implemented following defined stages, with the objective of increase the validity and reliability of such interventions. These stages are IA (pre-pilot, IB (pilot study, II (randomized clinical trial and III (additional studies. This study proposes a description of all activities carried out in implementation of the pre-pilot (IA Critical Time Intervention – Task Shifting (CTI-TS, including the development of manuals and the development of an instrument to assess fidelity to the original protocol. As a result, were performed the adaptation of instruments to be used in the pilot study, the adaptation of CTI-TS manual to Brazilian context, the adaptation of the agents CTI-TS training manual, as well the development of the CTI-TS assessment scale fidelity and its instruction manual. This allows multicentric studies conducted in different contexts could be performed avoiding biases. Considering that Brazil is a country that lacks resources allocated to mental care, it is expected that more psychosocial interventions can be implemented, since it was possible to develop the implementation process according to the methods recommended by the international scientific literature.

  19. Critical review of real-time methods for solid waste characterisation: Informing material recovery and fuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrancken, C; Longhurst, P J; Wagland, S T

    2017-03-01

    Waste management processes generally represent a significant loss of material, energy and economic resources, so legislation and financial incentives are being implemented to improve the recovery of these valuable resources whilst reducing contamination levels. Material recovery and waste derived fuels are potentially valuable options being pursued by industry, using mechanical and biological processes incorporating sensor and sorting technologies developed and optimised for recycling plants. In its current state, waste management presents similarities to other industries that could improve their efficiencies using process analytical technology tools. Existing sensor technologies could be used to measure critical waste characteristics, providing data required by existing legislation, potentially aiding waste treatment processes and assisting stakeholders in decision making. Optical technologies offer the most flexible solution to gather real-time information applicable to each of the waste mechanical and biological treatment processes used by industry. In particular, combinations of optical sensors in the visible and the near-infrared range from 800nm to 2500nm of the spectrum, and different mathematical techniques, are able to provide material information and fuel properties with typical performance levels between 80% and 90%. These sensors not only could be used to aid waste processes, but to provide most waste quality indicators required by existing legislation, whilst offering better tools to the stakeholders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Addressing critical environmental data gaps via low-cost, real-time, cellular-based environmental monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caylor, K. K.; Wolf, A.; Siegfried, B.

    2014-12-01

    Models in the environmental sciences are repositories in a sense of the current state of understanding of critical processes. However, as our understanding of these processes (and their accompanying models) become more granular, the data requirements to parameterize them become more limiting. In addition, as these models become more useful, they are often pressed into service for decision support, meaning that they cannot accept the data latency typical of most environmental observations. Finally, the vast majority of environmental data is generated at highly-instrumented, infrastructure-rich "mega sites" in the US/Europe, while many of the most pressing environmental issues are in rural locales and in the developing world. Cellular-based environmental sensing is a promising means to provide granular data in real time from remote locales to improve model-based forecasting using data assimilation. Applications we are working on include drought forecasting and food security; forest and crop responses to weather and climate change; and rural water usage. Over the past two years, we have developed a suite of integrated hardware, firmware, and backend APIs that accommodates an unlimited variety of sensors, and propagates these data onto the internet over mobile networks. Scientific data holds a unique role for demanding well-characterized information on sensor error and our design attempts to balance error reduction with low costs. The result is a deployment system that undercuts competing commercial products by as much as 90%, allowing more ubiquitous deployment with lower risks associated with sensor loss. Enclosure design and power management are critical ingredients for remote deployments under variable environmental conditions. Sensors push data onto cloud storage and make this data available via public API's via a backend server that accommodates additional metadata essential for interpreting observations, particularly their measurement errors. The data these pods

  1. Association between illness severity and timing of initial enteral feeding in critically ill patients: a retrospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Hsiu-Hua

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early enteral nutrition is recommended in cases of critical illness. It is unclear whether this recommendation is of most benefit to extremely ill patients. We aim to determine the association between illness severity and commencement of enteral feeding. Methods One hundred and eight critically ill patients were grouped as “less severe” and “more severe” for this cross-sectional, retrospective observational study. The cut off value was based on Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score 20. Patients who received enteral feeding within 48 h of medical intensive care unit (ICU admission were considered early feeding cases otherwise they were assessed as late feeding cases. Feeding complications (gastric retention/vomiting/diarrhea/gastrointestinal bleeding, length of ICU stay, length of hospital stay, ventilator-associated pneumonia, hospital mortality, nutritional intake, serum albumin, serum prealbumin, nitrogen balance (NB, and 24-h urinary urea nitrogen data were collected over 21 days. Results There were no differences in measured outcomes between early and late feedings for less severely ill patients. Among more severely ill patients, however, the early feeding group showed improved serum albumin (p = 0.036 and prealbumin (p = 0.014 but worsened NB (p = 0.01, more feeding complications (p = 0.005, and prolonged ICU stays (p = 0.005 compared to their late feeding counterparts. Conclusions There is a significant association between severity of illness and timing of enteral feeding initiation. In more severe illness, early feeding was associated with improved nutritional outcomes, while late feeding was associated with reduced feeding complications and length of ICU stay. However, the feeding complications of more severely ill early feeders can be handled without significantly affecting nutritional intake and there is no eventual difference in length of hospital stay or mortality

  2. No Critical Peripheral Fatigue Threshold during Intermittent Isometric Time to Task Failure Test with the Knee Extensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froyd, Christian; Beltrami, Fernando G.; Millet, Guillaume Y.; Noakes, Timothy D.

    2016-01-01

    It has been proposed that group III and IV muscle afferents provide inhibitory feedback from locomotor muscles to the central nervous system, setting an absolute threshold for the development of peripheral fatigue during exercise. The aim of this study was to test the validity of this theory. Thus, we asked whether the level of developed peripheral fatigue would differ when two consecutive exercise trials were completed to task failure. Ten trained sport students performed two exercise trials to task failure on an isometric dynamometer, allowing peripheral fatigue to be assessed 2 s after maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) post task failure. The trials, separated by 8 min, consisted of repeated sets of 10 × 5-s isometric knee extension followed by 5-s rest between contractions. In each set, the first nine contractions were performed at a target force at 60% of the pre-exercise MVC, while the 10th contraction was a MVC. MVC and evoked force responses to supramaximal electrical femoral nerve stimulation on relaxed muscles were assessed during the trials and at task failure. Stimulations at task failure consisted of single stimulus (SS), paired stimuli at 10 Hz (PS10), paired stimuli at 100 Hz (PS100), and 50 stimuli at 100 Hz (tetanus). Time to task failure for the first trial (12.84 ± 5.60 min) was longer (P < 0.001) than for the second (5.74 ± 1.77 min). MVC force was significantly lower at task failure for both trials compared with the pre-exercise values (both P < 0.001), but there were no differences in MVC at task failure in the first and second trials (P = 1.00). However, evoked peak force for SS, PS100, and tetanus were all reduced more at task failure in the second compared to the first trial (P = 0.014 for SS, P < 0.001 for PS100 and tetanus). These results demonstrate that subjects do not terminate exercise at task failure because they have reached a critical threshold in peripheral fatigue. The present data therefore question the existence of a

  3. Understanding the Concentration Dependence of Viral Capsid Assembly Kinetics—the Origin of the Lag Time and Identifying the Critical Nucleus Size

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hagan, Michael F; Elrad, Oren M

    2010-01-01

    ... )), but extracting mechanistic information such as the critical nucleus size or the time to assemble an individual capsid has been challenging. In this article, we theoretically examine two models for capsid assembly kinetics to show that these properties can be determined from the concentration dependence of median assembly times and the la...

  4. Large-scale analysis of acute ethanol exposure in zebrafish development: a critical time window and resilience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaukat Ali

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In humans, ethanol exposure during pregnancy causes a spectrum of developmental defects (fetal alcohol syndrome or FAS. Individuals vary in phenotypic expression. Zebrafish embryos develop FAS-like features after ethanol exposure. In this study, we ask whether stage-specific effects of ethanol can be identified in the zebrafish, and if so, whether they allow the pinpointing of sensitive developmental mechanisms. We have therefore conducted the first large-scale (>1500 embryos analysis of acute, stage-specific drug effects on zebrafish development, with a large panel of readouts. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Zebrafish embryos were raised in 96-well plates. Range-finding indicated that 10% ethanol for 1 h was suitable for an acute exposure regime. High-resolution magic-angle spinning proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed that this produced a transient pulse of 0.86% concentration of ethanol in the embryo within the chorion. Survivors at 5 days postfertilisation were analysed. Phenotypes ranged from normal (resilient to severely malformed. Ethanol exposure at early stages caused high mortality (≥88%. At later stages of exposure, mortality declined and malformations developed. Pharyngeal arch hypoplasia and behavioral impairment were most common after prim-6 and prim-16 exposure. By contrast, microphthalmia and growth retardation were stage-independent. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that some ethanol effects are strongly stage-dependent. The phenotypes mimic key aspects of FAS including craniofacial abnormality, microphthalmia, growth retardation and behavioral impairment. We also identify a critical time window (prim-6 and prim-16 for ethanol sensitivity. Finally, our identification of a wide phenotypic spectrum is reminiscent of human FAS, and may provide a useful model for studying disease resilience.

  5. Influence of hang time and location on bacterial contamination of intravenous bags in a veterinary emergency and critical care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaumin, Julien; Olp, Nichole M; Magnusson, Karissa D; Butler, Amy L; Daniels, Joshua B

    2017-09-01

    To assess the rate of bacterial contamination of fluid and ports in intravenous bags in a veterinary emergency room (ER) and intensive care unit (ICU). Experimental model. Ninety intravenous fluid bags of lactated balanced-electrolytes solution (1 L) hung in a university hospital. Bags were hung in 2 different locations in the ER (sink and bins) and one location in the ICU (sink) for 11 days. Bags were punctured 3 times daily with a sterile needle to simulate clinical use. Injection ports were swabbed and 50 mL of fluid were collected in duplicates on days 0, 2, 4, 7, and 10. Aerobic bacterial cultures were performed on the fluid and injection port. Contamination was defined as bacterial growth of a similar phenotype across 2 consecutive times. Increase in the fluid contamination rate from day 0 was tested using an exact binomial test. Port contamination rate between locations was tested using Fisher's exact test. Combined bacterial growth on injection ports reached a mean (95% confidence interval) of 8.1 (0.005-16.2) cfu/port on day 10. The combined port contamination was 3.3%, 11.1%, 17.8%, and 31.1% on days 0, 2, 4, and 7, respectively. Port contamination was similar between ER and ICU. However, port contamination was higher in the sink versus the bins area (38.3% vs 16.7%, P = 0.032). No fluid bag was contaminated at days 0 and 2. The contamination rate of fluid bag was 1.1% and 4.4% on days 4 and 7, respectively. All bags with contaminated fluid were in the ER (6.7%, 95% exact binomial confidence interval 1.9-16.2%). Injection port contamination reached 31.1% on day 7. Contamination was more likely when the bags were hung next to a sink. In our model of bag puncture, fluid contamination occurred between days 2 and 4. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2017.

  6. Time to decannulation and associated risk factors in the postacute rehabilitation of critically ill patients with intensive care unit-acquired weakness: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Simone; Sauter, Wolfgang; Starrost, Ulrike; Pohl, Marcus; Mehrholz, Jan

    2017-08-01

    Treatment of critical illness on intensive-care-units (ICU) results often in persistent invasive endotracheal intubation which might delay rehabilitation and increases the risk of mortality. Recent longitudinal studies have described the recovery of critically ill people, but the detailed time course of decannulation in patients with chronic critical illness with ICU-acquired muscle weakness (ICUAW) is not well known. The aim of our study was to describe the decannulation times and associated risk factors in patients who are chronic critically ill with ICU acquired weakness. This is a cohort study. Postacute and rehabilitation units. Chronic critically ill patients with ICUAW and tracheostomy tube. We calculated the time until decannulation and used possible predictor variables to explain this time course. We included 122 patients with ICUAW. Successful decannulation of the tracheostomy tube was achieved after a median of 40.5 days (interquartile range= 44) after study onset and after a median of 89 days (interquartile range= 58) after onset of primary illness. Our final multivariate Cox-Proportional Hazard model included two main risk factors for decannulation: the amount of medical tubes such as catheters at admission to the rehabilitation center (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]=1.572 (95% CI: 1.021 to 2.415) and the duration of weaning from respirator in days (adjusted HR= 1.02 per day (95% CI: 1.006 to 1.03). No adverse events occurred. We described the detailed time course of decannulation in the rehabilitation of chronic critically ill patients and no adverse events were observed. Taken many single factors into account the quantity of medical tubes and the duration of weaning from respirator were associated risk factors for decannulation in this population. Knowing an exact time course of decannulation supports medical decisions in clinical rehabilitation and might help to give a prognosis for decannulation. The amount of medical tubes and the duration of weaning

  7. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation for preventing skeletal-muscle weakness and wasting in critically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maffiuletti, Nicola A.; Roig, Marc; Karatzanos, Eleftherios

    2013-01-01

    Background: Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) therapy may be useful in early musculoskeletal rehabilitation during acute critical illness. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the effectiveness of NMES for preventing skeletal-muscle weakness and wasting in critically...

  8. Global Existence and Finite Time Blow-Up for Critical Patlak-Keller-Segel Models with Inhomogeneous Diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Bedrossian, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    The $L^1$-critical parabolic-elliptic Patlak-Keller-Segel system is a classical model of chemotactic aggregation in micro-organisms well-known to have critical mass phenomena. In this paper we study this critical mass phenomenon in the context of Patlak-Keller-Segel models with spatially varying diffusivity and decay rate of the chemo-attractant. The primary tool for the proof of global existence below the critical mass is the use of pseudo-differential operators to precisely evaluate the leading order quadratic portion of the potential energy (interaction energy). Under the assumption of radial symmetry, blow-up is proved above critical mass using a maximum-principle type argument based on comparing the mass distribution of solutions to a barrier consisting of the unique stationary solutions of the scale-invariant PKS. Although effective where standard Virial methods do not apply, this method seems to be dependent on the assumption of radial symmetry. For technical reasons we work in dimensions three and hig...

  9. Critical Length Criterion and the Arc Chain Model for Calculating the Arcing Time of the Secondary Arc Related to AC Transmission Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Haoxi; Li, Qingmin; Xing, Jinyuan; Li, Jinsong; Chen, Qiang

    2015-06-01

    The prompt extinction of the secondary arc is critical to the single-phase reclosing of AC transmission lines, including half-wavelength power transmission lines. In this paper, a low-voltage physical experimental platform was established and the motion process of the secondary arc was recorded by a high-speed camera. It was found that the arcing time of the secondary arc rendered a close relationship with its arc length. Through the input and output power energy analysis of the secondary arc, a new critical length criterion for the arcing time was proposed. The arc chain model was then adopted to calculate the arcing time with both the traditional and the proposed critical length criteria, and the simulation results were compared with the experimental data. The study showed that the arcing time calculated from the new critical length criterion gave more accurate results, which can provide a reliable criterion in term of arcing time for modeling and simulation of the secondary arc related with power transmission lines. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51277061 and 51420105011)

  10. New Scheduling Algorithm for Mixed-Criticality Real-Time Task Sets%新的混合关键任务调度算法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱怡安; 黄姝娟; 段俊花; 陆伟

    2014-01-01

    By analyzing the problems of real-time scheduling in mix-criticality systems, a new scheduling algorithm, forward and backward time window partition-criticality factor prior (FBTWP-CFP), is proposed. It can separate the running time windows for the tasks of all criticality levels offline from the forward direction and backward direction and generate the idle windows for the tasks which get the lower priority by the criticality factor for the criticality level changed. The simulation results show that FBTWP-CFP is better than criticality assigned priority algorithm (CAPA) and own criticality based priority (OCBP) in completed tasks number and reduced miss deadline ratio.%分析了混合关键系统中当前任务调度方法存在的问题,提出一种正反向时间分割和关键因子优先的调度算法,该方法将所有混合关键任务按照不同级别进行时间正反向分割得出空闲时间窗口,并根据关键因子的大小决定优先级别。为了减少在关键级别转化过程中优先级低的任务丢失死限的工作数量,将空闲窗口分配给由于关键级别转化而使得优先级落后的任务。仿真实验表明,该方法在降低任务丢失死限率和完成任务的数量方面比按照关键级别进行优先级指派算法(CAPA)和OCBP方法较优。

  11. Reliable Real-time Calculation of Heart-rate Complexity in Critically Ill Patients Using Multiple Noisy Waveform Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    related metrics for detecting sepsis and multior- gan failure, improvement of HRC calculations may help detect significant changes from baseline values...calculations. Equiva- lence tests between mean HRC values derived from man- ually verified sequences and those derived from automatically detected peaks...assessment of HRC in critically ill patients. Keywords Signal detection analysis Electrocardiography Heart rate Clinical decision support

  12. Large time behavior of solutions for critical and subcritical complex Ginzburg-Landau equations in H1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王保祥

    2003-01-01

    Considering the Cauchy problem for the critical complex Ginzburg-Landau equation in H1(Rn), weshall show the asymptotic behavior for its solutions in C(0, ∞; H1 (Rn)) ∩ L2(0, ∞; H1,2n/(n-2)(Rn )), n≥ 3.Analogous results also hold in the case that the nonlinearity has the subcritical power in H1(Rn), n≥ 1.

  13. P- v criticality in the extended phase space of a noncommutative geometry inspired Reissner-Nordström black hole in AdS space-time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jun; Guan, Zhi-Hua; Liu, Yan-Chun; Liu, Bo

    2017-02-01

    The P- v criticality and phase transition in the extended phase space of a noncommutative geometry inspired Reissner-Nordström (RN) black hole in Anti-de Sitter (AdS) space-time are studied, where the cosmological constant appears as a dynamical pressure and its conjugate quantity is thermodynamic volume of the black hole. It is found that the P- v criticality and the small black hole/large black hole phase transition appear for the noncommutative RN-AdS black hole. Numerical calculations indicate that the noncommutative parameter affects the phase transition as well as the critical temperature, horizon radius, pressure and ratio. The critical ratio is no longer universal, which is different from the result in the van de Waals liquid-gas system. The nature of phase transition at the critical point is also discussed. Especially, for the noncommutative geometry inspired RN-AdS black hole, a new thermodynamic quantity Ψ conjugate to the noncommutative parameter θ has to be defined further, which is required for consistency of both the first law of thermodynamics and the corresponding Smarr relation.

  14. A proposed procedure for expressing the behavior of a full engine cycle by identifying its critical load timings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marius Andrei, Mihalache; Gheorghe, Nagit; Gavril, Musca; Vasile, Merticaru, Jr.; Marius Ionut, Ripanu

    2016-11-01

    In the present study the authors propose a new algorithm for identifying the right loads that act upon a functional connecting rod during a full engine cycle. The loads are then divided into three categories depending on the results they produce, as static, semi-dynamic and dynamic ones Because an engine cycle extends up to 720°, the authors aim to identify a method of substitution of values that produce the same effect as a previous value of a considered angle did. In other words, the proposed method aims to pin point the critical values that produce an effect different as the one seen before during a full engine cycle. Only those values will then be considered as valid loads that act upon the connecting rod inside FEA analyses. This technique has been applied to each of the three categories mentioned above and did produced different critical values for each one of them. The whole study relies on a theoretical mechanical project which was developed in order to identify the right values that correspond to each degree of the entire engine cycle of a Daewoo Tico automobile.

  15. Buy now, saved later? The critical impact of time-to-pandemic uncertainty on pandemic cost-effectiveness analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Tom; Chalabi, Zaid; Coker, Richard

    2015-02-01

    Investment in pandemic preparedness is a long-term gamble, with the return on investment coming at an unknown point in the future. Many countries have chosen to stockpile key resources, and the number of pandemic economic evaluations has risen sharply since 2009. We assess the importance of uncertainty in time-to-pandemic (and associated discounting) in pandemic economic evaluation, a factor frequently neglected in the literature to-date. We use a probability tree model and Monte Carlo parameter sampling to consider the cost effectiveness of antiviral stockpiling in Cambodia under parameter uncertainty. Mean elasticity and mutual information (MI) are used to assess the importance of time-to-pandemic compared with other parameters. We also consider the sensitivity to choice of sampling distribution used to model time-to-pandemic uncertainty. Time-to-pandemic and discount rate are the primary drivers of sensitivity and uncertainty in pandemic cost effectiveness models. Base case cost effectiveness of antiviral stockpiling ranged between is US$112 and US$3599 per DALY averted using historical pandemic intervals for time-to-pandemic. The mean elasticities for time-to-pandemic and discount rate were greater than all other parameters. Similarly, the MI scores for time to pandemic and discount rate were greater than other parameters. Time-to-pandemic and discount rate were key drivers of uncertainty in cost-effectiveness results regardless of time-to-pandemic sampling distribution choice. Time-to-pandemic assumptions can "substantially" affect cost-effectiveness results and, in our model, is a greater contributor to uncertainty in cost-effectiveness results than any other parameter. We strongly recommend that cost-effectiveness models include probabilistic analysis of time-to-pandemic uncertainty. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2013; all rights reserved.

  16. Towards spatial isolation design in a multi-core real-time kernel targeting safety-critical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Gang; Top, Søren

    2013-01-01

    . Partitioning can prevent fault propagation among mixed-criticality applications, if spatial and temporal isolation are adequately ensured. This paper focuses on the solution of spatial isolation in the HARTEX kernel on a multi-core platform in terms of memory, communication between applications and I/O sharing....... According to formulated isolation requirements, a simple partitioning multi-core hardware architecture is proposed using SoC and memory protection units, and the kernel is extended to support spatial isolation between the kernel and applications as well as between applications. Combined design of hardware...... and software can easily achieve this isolation. At last, the spatial isolation is evaluated using a statistical sampling method and its performance is tested in terms of task switch, system call and footprint....

  17. Critical Stage Rule-Based Real Time Dispatch(RTD)System in Highly-Mixed-Products (HMP) FAB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUXiao-hua; XIANGYu-qun

    2005-01-01

    An improving utilization and efficiency of critical equipments in semiconductor wafer fabrication facilities are concerned. Semiconductor manufacturing FAB is one of the most complicated and cost sensitive environments. A good dispatching tool will make big difference in equipment utilization and FAB output as a whole. The equipment in this paper is In-Line DUV Scanner.There are many factors impacting utilization and output on this equipment group. In HMP environment one of the issues is changing of reticule in this area and idle counts due to load unbalance between equipments. Here we'll introduce a rule-based RTD system which aiming at decreasing the number of recipe change and idle counts among a group of scanner equipment in a high-mixedproducts FAB.

  18. Critical Stage Rule-Based Real Time Dispatch(RTD) System in Highly-Mixed-Products (HMP) FAB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Xiao-hua; XIANG Yu-qun

    2005-01-01

    An improving utilization and efficiency of critical equipments in semiconductor wafer fabrication facilities are concerned. Semiconductor manufacturing FAB is one of the most omplicated and cost sensitive environments. A good dispatching tool will make big difference in equipment utilization and FAB output as a whole. The equipment in this paper is In-Line DUV Scanner.There are many factors impacting utilization and output on this equipment group. In HMP environment one of the issues is changing of reticule in this area and idle counts due to load unbalance between equipments. Here we'll introduce a rule-based RTD system which aiming at decreasing the number of recipe change and idle counts among a group of scanner equipment in a high-mixedproducts FAB.

  19. Investigating critical effects of variegated lubricants, glidants and hydrophilic additives on lag time of press coated ethylcellulose tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patadia, Riddhish; Vora, Chintan; Mittal, Karan; Mashru, Rajashree

    2016-01-01

    The research envisaged focuses on vital impacts of variegated lubricants, glidants and hydrophilic additives on lag time of press coated ethylcellulose (EC) tablets using prednisone as a model drug. Several lubricants and glidants such as magnesium stearate, colloidal SiO2, sodium stearyl fumarate, talc, stearic acid, polyethylene glycol (6000) and glyceryl behenate were investigated to understand their effects on lag time by changing their concentrations in outer coat. Further, the effects of hydrophilic additives on lag time were examined for hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (E5), hydroxypropylcellulose (EF and SSL), povidone (K30), copovidone, polyethylene glycol (4000), lactose and mannitol. In vitro drug release testing revealed that each selected lubricant/glidant, if present even at concentration of 0.25% w/w, significantly reduced the lag time of press coated tablets. Specifically, colloidal SiO2 and/or magnesium stearate were detrimental while other lubricants/glidants were relatively less injurious. Among hydrophilic additives, freely water soluble fillers had utmost influence in lag time, whereas, comparatively less impact was observed with polymeric binders. Concisely, glidant and lubricant should be chosen to have minimal impact on lag time and further judicious selection of hydrophilic additives should be exercised for modulating lag time of pulsatile release formulations.

  20. Prognostic categories and timing of negative prognostic communication from critical care physicians to family members at end-of-life in an intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Karen M

    2013-09-01

    Negative prognostic communication is often delayed in intensive care units, which limits time for families to prepare for end-of-life. This descriptive study, informed by ethnographic methods, was focused on exploring critical care physician communication of negative prognoses to families and identifying timing influences. Prognostic communication of critical care physicians to nurses and family members was observed and physicians and family members were interviewed. Physician perception of prognostic certainty, based on an accumulation of empirical data, and the perceived need for decision-making, drove the timing of prognostic communication, rather than family needs. Although prognoses were initially identified using intuitive knowledge for patients in one of the six identified prognostic categories, utilizing decision-making to drive prognostic communication resulted in delayed prognostic communication to families until end-of-life (EOL) decisions could be justified with empirical data. Providers will better meet the needs of families who desire earlier prognostic information by separating prognostic communication from decision-making and communicating the possibility of a poor prognosis based on intuitive knowledge, while acknowledging the uncertainty inherent in prognostication. This sets the stage for later prognostic discussions focused on EOL decisions, including limiting or withdrawing treatment, which can be timed when empirical data substantiate intuitive prognoses. This allows additional time for families to anticipate and prepare for end-of-life decision-making.

  1. Ebola Virus Disease: Rapid Diagnosis and Timely Case Reporting are Critical to the Early Response for Outbreak Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, Lola V

    2015-09-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a life-threatening zoonosis caused by infection with the Ebola virus. Since the first reported EVD outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, several small outbreaks have been reported in central Africa with about 2,400 cases occurring between 1976 and 2013. The 2013-2015 EVD outbreak in west Africa is the first documented outbreak in this region and the largest ever with over 27,000 cases and more than 11,000 deaths. Although EVD transmission rates have recently decreased in west Africa, this crisis continues to threaten global health and security, particularly since infected travelers could spread EVD to other resource-limited areas of the world. Because vaccines and drugs are not yet licensed for EVD, outbreak control is dependent on the use of non-pharmaceutical interventions (e.g., infection control practices, isolation of EVD cases, contact tracing with follow-up and quarantine, sanitary burial, health education). However, delays in diagnosing and reporting EVD cases in less accessible rural areas continue to hamper control efforts. New advances in rapid diagnostics for identifying presumptive EVD cases and in mobile-based technologies for communicating critical health-related information should facilitate deployment of an early response to prevent the amplification of sporadic EVD cases into large-scale outbreaks. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  2. A Time-Critical Investigation of Parameter Tuning in Differential Evolution for Non-Linear Global Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Hui Ong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Parameter searching is one of the most important aspects in getting favorable results in optimization problems. It is even more important if the optimization problems are limited by time constraints. In a limited time constraint problems, it is crucial for any algorithms to get the best results or near-optimum results. In a previous study, Differential Evolution (DE has been found as one of the best performing algorithms under time constraints. As this has help in answering which algorithm that yields results that are near-optimum under a limited time constraint. Hence to further enhance the performance of DE under time constraint evaluation, a throughout parameter searching for population size, mutation constant and f constant have been carried out. CEC 2015 Global Optimization Competition’s 15 scalable test problems are used as test suite for this study. In the previous study the same test suits has been used and the results from DE will be use as the benchmark for this study since it shows the best results among the previous tested algorithms. Eight different populations size are used and they are 10, 30, 50, 100, 150, 200, 300, and 500. Each of these populations size will run with mutation constant of 0.1 until 0.9 and from 0.1 until 0.9. It was found that population size 100, Cr = 0.9, F=0.5 outperform the benchmark results. It is also observed from the results that good higher Cr around 0.8 and 0.9 with low F around 0.3 to 0.4 yields good results for DE under time constraints evaluation

  3. Utilizing Social Networks in Times of Crisis: Understanding, Exploring and Analyzing Critical Incident Management at Institutions of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asselin, Martha Jo

    2012-01-01

    With the rising number of major crises on college campuses today (Security on Campus Inc., 2009), institutions of higher education can benefit from understanding of how social networks may be used in times of emergency. What is currently known about the usage of social networks is not integral to the current practices of crisis management that are…

  4. Critical assessment of day time traffic noise level at curbside open-air microenvironment of Kolkata City, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu Chowdhury, Anirban; Debsarkar, Anupam; Chakrabarty, Shibnath

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the research work is to assess day time traffic noise level at curbside open-air microenvironment of Kolkata city, India under heterogeneous environmental conditions. Prevailing traffic noise level in terms of A-weighted equivalent noise level (Leq) at the microenvironment was in excess of 12.6 ± 2.1 dB(A) from the day time standard of 65 dB(A) for commercial area recommended by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) of India. Noise Climate and Traffic Noise Index of the microenvironment were accounted for 13 ± 1.8 dB(A) and 88.8 ± 6.1 dB(A) respectively. A correlation analysis explored that prevailing traffic noise level of the microenvironment had weak negative (-0.21; p microenvironment of Kolkata City was higher than the standard recommended by CPCB of India. It was highly annoying also. Air temperature and relative humidity had little influence and the peak noise component had the most significant influence on the prevailing traffic noise level at curbside open-air microenvironment. Therefore, traffic noise level at the microenvironment of the city can be reduced with careful honking and driving.

  5. Time and Demand are Two Critical Dimensions of Immunometabolism: The Process of Macrophage Activation and the Pentose Phosphate Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Csörsz; Haschemi, Arvand

    2015-01-01

    A process is a function of time; in immunometabolism, this is reflected by the stepwise adaptation of metabolism to sustain the bio-energetic demand of an immune-response in its various states and shades. This perspective article starts by presenting an early attempt to investigate the physiology of inflammation, in order to illustrate one of the basic concepts of immunometabolism, wherein an adapted metabolism of infiltrating immune cells affects tissue function and inflammation. We then focus on the process of macrophage activation and aim to delineate the factor time within the current molecular context of metabolic-rewiring important for adapting primary carbohydrate metabolism. In the last section, we will provide information on how the pentose phosphate pathway may be of importance to provide both nucleotide precursors and redox-equivalents, and speculate how carbon-scrambling events in the non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway might be regulated within cells by demand. We conclude that the adapted metabolism of inflammation is specific in respect to the effector-function and appears as a well-orchestrated event, dynamic by nature, and based on a functional interplay of signaling- and metabolic-pathways.

  6. Critical elements in implementations of just-in-time management: empirical study of cement industry in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Muhammad Imran; Iftikhar, Mehwish; Bhatti, Mansoor Nazir; Shams, Tauqeer; Zaman, Khalid

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, inventory management is continuous challenge for all organizations not only due to heavy cost associated with inventory holding, but also it has a great deal to do with the organizations production process. Cement industry is a growing sector of Pakistan's economy which is now facing problems in capacity utilization of their plants. This study attempts to identify the key strategies for successful implementation of just-in-time (JIT) management philosophy on the cement industry of Pakistan. The study uses survey responses from four hundred operations' managers of cement industry in order to know about the advantages and benefits that cement industry have experienced by Just in time (JIT) adoption. The results show that implementing the quality, product design, inventory management, supply chain and production plans embodied through the JIT philosophy which infect enhances cement industry competitiveness in Pakistan. JIT implementation increases performance by lower level of inventory, reduced operations & inventory costs was reduced eliminates wastage from the processes and reduced unnecessary production which is a big challenge for the manufacturer who are trying to maintain the continuous flow processes. JIT implementation is a vital manufacturing strategy that reaches capacity utilization and minimizes the rate of defect in continuous flow processes. The study emphasize the need for top management commitment in order to incorporate the necessary changes that need to take place in cement industry so that JIT implementation can take place in an effective manner.

  7. A novel time series analysis approach for prediction of dialysis in critically ill patients using echo-state networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verplancke, T; Van Looy, S; Steurbaut, K; Benoit, D; De Turck, F; De Moor, G; Decruyenaere, J

    2010-01-21

    Echo-state networks (ESN) are part of a group of reservoir computing methods and are basically a form of recurrent artificial neural networks (ANN). These methods can perform classification tasks on time series data. The recurrent ANN of an echo-state network has an 'echo-state' characteristic. This 'echo-state' functions as a fading memory: samples that have been introduced into the network in a further past, are faded away. The echo-state approach for the training of recurrent neural networks was first described by Jaeger H. et al. In clinical medicine, until this moment, no original research articles have been published to examine the use of echo-state networks. This study examines the possibility of using an echo-state network for prediction of dialysis in the ICU. Therefore, diuresis values and creatinine levels of the first three days after ICU admission were collected from 830 patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) between May 31 th 2003 and November 17th 2007. The outcome parameter was the performance by the echo-state network in predicting the need for dialysis between day 5 and day 10 of ICU admission. Patients with an ICU length of stay network was then compared by means of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) with results obtained by two other time series analysis methods by means of a support vector machine (SVM) and a naive Bayes algorithm (NB). The AUC's in the three developed echo-state networks were 0.822, 0.818, and 0.817. These results were comparable to the results obtained by the SVM and the NB algorithm. This proof of concept study is the first to evaluate the performance of echo-state networks in an ICU environment. This echo-state network predicted the need for dialysis in ICU patients. The AUC's of the echo-state networks were good and comparable to the performance of other classification algorithms. Moreover, the echo-state network was more easily configured than other time series modeling

  8. A novel time series analysis approach for prediction of dialysis in critically ill patients using echo-state networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Turck F

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Echo-state networks (ESN are part of a group of reservoir computing methods and are basically a form of recurrent artificial neural networks (ANN. These methods can perform classification tasks on time series data. The recurrent ANN of an echo-state network has an 'echo-state' characteristic. This 'echo-state' functions as a fading memory: samples that have been introduced into the network in a further past, are faded away. The echo-state approach for the training of recurrent neural networks was first described by Jaeger H. et al. In clinical medicine, until this moment, no original research articles have been published to examine the use of echo-state networks. Methods This study examines the possibility of using an echo-state network for prediction of dialysis in the ICU. Therefore, diuresis values and creatinine levels of the first three days after ICU admission were collected from 830 patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU between May 31th 2003 and November 17th 2007. The outcome parameter was the performance by the echo-state network in predicting the need for dialysis between day 5 and day 10 of ICU admission. Patients with an ICU length of stay Results The AUC's in the three developed echo-state networks were 0.822, 0.818, and 0.817. These results were comparable to the results obtained by the SVM and the NB algorithm. Conclusions This proof of concept study is the first to evaluate the performance of echo-state networks in an ICU environment. This echo-state network predicted the need for dialysis in ICU patients. The AUC's of the echo-state networks were good and comparable to the performance of other classification algorithms. Moreover, the echo-state network was more easily configured than other time series modeling technologies.

  9. Adaptation of Critical Time Intervention for use in Brazil and its implementation among users of psychosocial service centers (CAPS) in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Tavares Cavalcanti; Maria Cecília de Araújo Carvalho; Elie Valência; Catarina Magalhães Dahl; Flávia Mitkiewicz de Souza

    2011-01-01

    A Reforma Psiquiátrica Brasileira propõe um modelo de atenção baseado na implantação de uma rede comunitária no qual os Centros de Atenção Psicossocial (CAPS) detêm papel fundamental. Neste artigo são apresentados os resultados do estudo piloto que visou adaptar para o contexto brasileiro a "Critical Time Intervention" (CTI) e testar sua viabilidade com pessoas com transtornos do espetro esquizofrênico em tratamento nos CAPS do município do Rio de Janeiro. O desenho da pesquisa incluiu três f...

  10. Verification and Validation of Neutronic/Thermalhydraulic 3D-Time Dependent Model for Treatment of Super-critical States of Light water Research Reactors Accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaled, S.M. [Department of Basic Studies and Sciences, Community College, University of Tabuk, Tabuk (Saudi Arabia); Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Sciences, Helwan University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2015-07-01

    This work presents the Verification and testing both the neutronic and thermal-hydraulics response of the positive reactivity-initiated power excursion accidents in small light water research reactors. Some research reactors have to build its own severe accidents code system. In this sense, a 3D space-time-dependent neutron diffusion models with thermal hydraulic feedback have been introduced, compared and tested both experimentally at criticality 14-cent and theoretically up to 1.5 $ with a number of similar codes. The results shows that no expected core failure or moderator boiling. (author)

  11. A complexity basis for phenomenology: How information states at criticality offer a new approach to understanding experience of self, being and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankey, Alex

    2015-12-01

    In the late 19th century Husserl studied our internal sense of time passing, maintaining that its deep connections into experience represent prima facie evidence for it as the basis for all investigations in the sciences: Phenomenology was born. Merleau-Ponty focused on perception pointing out that any theory of experience must accord with established aspects of biology i.e. be embodied. Recent analyses suggest that theories of experience require non-reductive, integrative information, together with a specific property connecting them to experience. Here we elucidate a new class of information states with just such properties found at the loci of control of complex biological systems, including nervous systems. Complexity biology concerns states satisfying self-organized criticality. Such states are located at critical instabilities, commonly observed in biological systems, and thought to maximize information diversity and processing, and hence to optimize regulation. Major results for biology follow: why organisms have unusually low entropies; and why they are not merely mechanical. Criticality states form singular self-observing systems, which reduce wave packets by processes of perfect self-observation associated with feedback gain g = 1. Analysis of their information properties leads to identification of a new kind of information state with high levels of internal coherence, and feedback loops integrated into their structure. The major idea presented here is that the integrated feedback loops are responsible for our 'sense of self', and also the feeling of continuity in our sense of time passing. Long-range internal correlations guarantee a unique kind of non-reductive, integrative information structure enabling such states to naturally support phenomenal experience. Being founded in complexity biology, they are 'embodied'; they also fulfill the statement that 'The self is a process', a singular process. High internal correlations and René Thom

  12. Molecular and morphological phylogenetics of chelonine parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), with a critical assessment of divergence time estimations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittel, Rebecca N; Austin, Andrew D; Klopfstein, Seraina

    2016-08-01

    Parasitoid wasps of the subfamily Cheloninae are both species rich and poorly known. Although the taxonomy of Cheloninae appears to be relatively stable, there is no clear understanding of relationships among higher-level taxa. We here applied molecular phylogenetic analyses using three markers (COI, EF1α, 28S) and 37 morphological characters to elucidate the evolution and systematics of these wasps. Analyses were based on 83 specimens representing 13 genera. All genera except Ascogaster, Phanerotoma, and Pseudophanerotoma formed monophyletic groups; Furcidentia (stat. rev.) is raised to generic rank. Neither Chelonus (Chelonus) nor Chelonus (Microchelonus) were recovered as monophyletic, but together formed a monophyletic lineage. The tribes Chelonini and Odontosphaeropygini formed monophyletic groups, but the Phanerotomini sensu Zettel and Pseudophanerotomini were retrieved as either para- or polyphyletic. The genera comprising the former subfamily Adeliinae were confirmed as being nested within the Cheloninae. To estimate the age of the subfamily, we used 16 fossil taxa. Three approaches were compared: fixed-rate dating, node dating, and total-evidence dating, with age estimates differing greatly between the three methods. Shortcomings of each approach in relation to our dataset are discussed, and none of the age estimates is deemed sufficiently reliable. Given that most dating studies use a single method only, in most cases without presenting analyses on the sensitivity to priors, it is likely that numerous age estimates in the literature suffer from a similar lack of robustness. We argue for a more rigorous approach to dating analyses and for a faithful presentation of uncertainties in divergence time estimates. Given the results of the phylogenetic analysis the following taxonomic changes are proposed: Furcidentia Zettel (stat. rev.), previously treated as a subgenus of Pseudophanerotoma Zettel is raised to generic rank; Microchelonus Szépligeti (syn. nov

  13. Development of electronic nose and near infrared spectroscopy analysis techniques to monitor the critical time in SSF process of feed protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hui; Chen, Quansheng

    2014-10-17

    In order to assure the consistency of the final product quality, a fast and effective process monitoring is a growing need in solid state fermentation (SSF) industry. This work investigated the potential of non-invasive techniques combined with the chemometrics method, to monitor time-related changes that occur during SSF process of feed protein. Four fermentation trials conducted were monitored by an electronic nose device and a near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) spectrometer. Firstly, principal component analysis (PCA) and independent component analysis (ICA) were respectively applied to the feature extraction and information fusion. Then, the BP_AdaBoost algorithm was used to develop the fused model for monitoring of the critical time in SSF process of feed protein. Experimental results showed that the identified results of the fusion model are much better than those of the single technique model both in the training and validation sets, and the complexity of the fusion model was also less than that of the single technique model. The overall results demonstrate that it has a high potential in online monitoring of the critical moment in SSF process by use of integrating electronic nose and NIRS techniques, and data fusion from multi-technique could significantly improve the monitoring performance of SSF process.

  14. Determination of the critical time of canal storage capacity controlled by cross pump stations “Case Study: Egypt, El-Salam Canal”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. El-Belasy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El-Salam Pump Stations (1 and (2 are located at 22.1 km and 54.3 km respectively at El-Salam Canal. When El-Salam Pump Station (1 is in operation, and switching off El-Salam Pump Station (2, water level rises upstream El-Salam Pump Station (2. Water level overtops El-Salam Pump Station (2 and banks upstream it. Flooding then takes place as Wadi El Noqra Canal, Egypt. This necessitates discharging the excess water to protect the pump station and the canal from water flooding when the electricity is shut down. The hydrodynamic simulation of El-Salam Canal determinates the critical time for storage capacity according to location and type of emergency spillways through the numerical model to prevent water overtopping upstream pump stations. Determination of the critical time of storage capacity is considered as a new parameter in case of the hydraulic design of the canal controlled by cross pump stations.

  15. Development of Electronic Nose and Near Infrared Spectroscopy Analysis Techniques to Monitor the Critical Time in SSF Process of Feed Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Jiang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to assure the consistency of the final product quality, a fast and effective process monitoring is a growing need in solid state fermentation (SSF industry. This work investigated the potential of non-invasive techniques combined with the chemometrics method, to monitor time-related changes that occur during SSF process of feed protein. Four fermentation trials conducted were monitored by an electronic nose device and a near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS spectrometer. Firstly, principal component analysis (PCA and independent component analysis (ICA were respectively applied to the feature extraction and information fusion. Then, the BP_AdaBoost algorithm was used to develop the fused model for monitoring of the critical time in SSF process of feed protein. Experimental results showed that the identified results of the fusion model are much better than those of the single technique model both in the training and validation sets, and the complexity of the fusion model was also less than that of the single technique model. The overall results demonstrate that it has a high potential in online monitoring of the critical moment in SSF process by use of integrating electronic nose and NIRS techniques, and data fusion from multi-technique could significantly improve the monitoring performance of SSF process.

  16. The impact of a Critical Care Information System (CCIS) on time spent charting and in direct patient care by staff in the ICU: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mador, Rebecca L; Shaw, Nicola T

    2009-07-01

    The introduction of a Critical Care Information System (CCIS) into an intensive care unit (ICU) is purported to reduce the time health care providers (HCP) spend on documentation and increase the time available for direct patient care. However, there is a paucity of rigorous empirical research that has investigated these assertions. Moreover, those studies that have sought to elucidate the relationship between the introduction of a CCIS and the time spent by staff on in/direct patient care activities have published contradictory findings. The objective of this literature review is to establish the impact of a CCIS on time spent documenting and in direct patient care by staff in the ICU. Five electronic databases were searched including PubMed Central, EMBASE, CINAHL, IEEE Xplore, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Reference lists of all published papers were hand searched, and citations reviewed to identify extra papers. We included studies that were empirical articles, published in English, and provided original data on the impact of a CCIS on time spent documenting and in direct patient care by staff in the ICU. In total, 12 articles met the inclusion criteria. Workflow analysis (66%) and time-and-motion analysis (25%) were the most common forms of data collection. Three (25%) studies found an increase in time spent charting, five (42%) found no difference, and four (33%) studies reported a decrease. Results on the impact of a CCIS on direct patient care were similarly inconclusive. Due to the discrepant findings and several key methodological issues, the impact of a CCIS on time spent charting and in direct patient care remains unclear. This review highlights the need for an increase in rigorous empirical research in this area and provides recommendations for the design and implementation of future studies.

  17. Critical Mass

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2070299

    2017-01-01

    Critical Mass is a cycling event typically held on the last Friday of every month; its purpose is not usually formalized beyond the direct action of meeting at a set location and time and traveling as a group through city or town streets on bikes. The event originated in 1992 in San Francisco; by the end of 2003, the event was being held in over 300 cities around the world. At CERN it is held once a year in conjunction with the national Swiss campaing "Bike to work".

  18. Critical evaluation of a simple retention time predictor based on LogKow as a complementary tool in the identification of emerging contaminants in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bade, Richard; Bijlsma, Lubertus; Sancho, Juan V; Hernández, Felix

    2015-07-01

    There has been great interest in environmental analytical chemistry in developing screening methods based on liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) for emerging contaminants. Using HRMS, compound identification relies on the high mass resolving power and mass accuracy attainable by these analyzers. When dealing with wide-scope screening, retention time prediction can be a complementary tool for the identification of compounds, and can also reduce tedious data processing when several peaks appear in the extracted ion chromatograms. There are many in silico, Quantitative Structure-Retention Relationship methods available for the prediction of retention time for LC. However, most of these methods use commercial software to predict retention time based on various molecular descriptors. This paper explores the applicability and makes a critical discussion on a far simpler and cheaper approach to predict retention times by using LogKow. The predictor was based on a database of 595 compounds, their respective LogKow values and a chromatographic run time of 18min. Approximately 95% of the compounds were found within 4.0min of their actual retention times, and 70% within 2.0min. A predictor based purely on pesticides was also made, enabling 80% of these compounds to be found within 2.0min of their actual retention times. To demonstrate the utility of the predictors, they were successfully used as an additional tool in the identification of 30 commonly found emerging contaminants in water. Furthermore, a comparison was made by using different mass extraction windows to minimize the number of false positives obtained.

  19. 面向安全关键系统的时间触发软件%Time-triggered software for safety-critical systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏罗辉; 郑小宁; 张超

    2014-01-01

    为了保证任务的执行免受事件驱动行为的影响,安全关键控制系统软件设计时应当避免使用任何时间不确定的结构。时间触发软件是时间触发架构重要的组成部分,具有较高的可靠性和确定性,易于开发和综合。重点研究了时间触发软件的体系架构、时间触发操作系统的调度策略和任务管理策略。同时容错通信层的实现使得副本的数目、表决和重新综合对于应用软件完全保持透明。总之,时间触发操作系统和容错通信层可以使应用软件和安全关键控制算法的开发更加简单和快捷,也更易于测试和验证。%In order to protect execution of the tasks from the effects of event-driven behavior, any time-uncertain structure should not be adopted in safety-critical control software design. Time-triggered software is an important part of time triggered architecture with high reliability and certainty which is easy to develop and integrate. Time triggered software architecture, scheduling policy and task management policy of time triggered operation system were mainly studied. Fault-tolerant communication layer made number of copies, voting and reintegration keeping entirely transparent to the application software. Owing to time triggered operating system and fault-tolerant communication layer, the development of application software and safety-critical control algorithm becomes easy and rapid and it is easy to test and verify too.

  20. Dynamics of pulsed laser ablation plasmas in high-density CO2 near the critical point investigated by time-resolved shadowgraph imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urabe, Keiichiro; Kato, Toru; Himeno, Shohei; Kato, Satoshi; Stauss, Sven; Baba, Motoyoshi; Suemoto, Tohru; Terashima, Kazuo

    2013-09-01

    Pulsed laser ablation (PLA) plasmas generated in high-density gases and liquids are promising for the synthesis of nanomaterials. However, the characteristics of such plasmas are still not well understood. In order to improve the understandings of PLA plasmas in high-density fluids including gases, liquids, and supercritical fluids (SCFs), we have investigated the dynamics of PLA plasmas in high-density carbon dioxide (CO2) . We report on experimental results of time-resolved shadowgraph imaging, from the generation of plasma plume to the extinction of cavitation bubbles. Shadowgraph images revealed that the PLA plasma dynamics showed two distinct behaviors. These are divided by gas-liquid coexistence curve and the so-called Widom line, which separates gas-like and liquid-like SCF domains. Furthermore, cavitation bubble observed in liquid CO2 near the critical point showed peculiar characteristics, the formation of an inner bubble and an outer shell structure, which so far has never been reported. The experiments indicate that thermophysical properties of PLA plasmas can be tuned by controlling solvent temperature and pressure around the critical point, which may be useful for materials processing. This work was supported financially in part by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas (No. 21110002) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology of Japan.

  1. L-Kuramoto-Sivashinsky SPDEs vs. time-fractional SPIDEs: Exact continuity and gradient moduli, 1/2-derivative criticality, and laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allouba, Hassan; Xiao, Yimin

    2017-07-01

    We establish exact, dimension-dependent, spatio-temporal, uniform and local moduli of continuity for (1) the fourth order L-Kuramoto-Sivashinsky (L-KS) SPDEs and for (2) the time-fractional stochastic partial integro-differential equations (SPIDEs), driven by the space-time white noise in one-to-three dimensional spaces. Both classes were introduced-with Brownian-time-type kernel formulations-by Allouba in a series of articles starting in 2006, where he presented class (2) in its rigorous stochastic integral equations form. He proved existence, uniqueness, and sharp spatio-temporal Hölder regularity for the above two classes of equations in d = 1 , 2 , 3. We show that both classes are (1 / 2)- Hölder continuously differentiable in space when d = 1, and we give the exact uniform and local moduli of continuity for the gradient in both cases. This is unprecedented for SPDEs driven by the space-time white noise. Our results on exact moduli show that the half-derivative SPIDE is a critical case. It signals the onset of rougher modulus regularity in space than both time-fractional SPIDEs with time-derivatives of order laws governing (1) and (2) are fundamentally different. We relate L-KS SPDEs to the Houdré-Villa bifractional Brownian motion, yielding a Chung-type law of the iterated logarithm for these SPDEs. We use the underlying explicit kernels and spectral/harmonic analysis to prove our results. On one hand, this work builds on the recent works on delicate sample path properties of Gaussian random fields. On the other hand, it builds on and complements Allouba's earlier works on (1) and (2). Similar regularity results hold for the Allen-Cahn nonlinear members of (1) and (2) on compacts via change of measure.

  2. Critical Ischemia Times and the Effect of Novel Preservation Solutions HTK-N and TiProtec on Tissues of a Vascularized Tissue Isograft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messner, Franka; Hautz, Theresa; Blumer, Michael J F; Bitsche, Mario; Pechriggl, Elisabeth J; Hermann, Martin; Zelger, Bettina; Zelger, Bernhard; Öfner, Dietmar; Schneeberger, Stefan

    2017-09-01

    We herein investigate critical ischemia times and the effect of novel preservation solutions such as new histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate (HTK-N) and TiProtec on the individual tissues of a rat limb isograft. Orthotopic hind-limb transplantations were performed in male Lewis rats after 2 hours, 6 hours, or 10 hours of cold ischemia (CI). Limbs were flushed and stored in HTK-N, TiProtec, HTK, or saline solution. Muscle, nerve, vessel, skin, and bone samples were procured on day 10 for histology, immunohistochemistry, confocal and electron microscopy, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. Histomorphology of the muscle showed a mainly perivascular inflammatory infiltrate, fibrotic degeneration, and neovascularization after 6 hours and 10 hours of CI. However, centrally aligned nuclei observed in muscle fibers suggest for muscle regeneration in these samples. In addition to Wallerian degeneration, nerve injury was significantly aggravated (P = 0.032) after prolonged CI. Proinflammatory and regulatory cytokines were most significantly upregulated after 2-hour CI. Our data suggest no superiority of novel perfusates HTK-N and TiProtec in terms of tissue preservation, compared with HTK and saline. Limiting CI time for less than 6 hours is the most significant factor to reduce tissue damage in vascularized tissue transplantation. Signs of muscle regeneration give rise that ischemic muscle damage in limb transplantation might be reversible to a certain extent.

  3. Thinking Critically about Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulnix, Jennifer Wilson

    2012-01-01

    As a philosophy professor, one of my central goals is to teach students to think critically. However, one difficulty with determining whether critical thinking can be taught, or even measured, is that there is widespread disagreement over what critical thinking actually is. Here, I reflect on several conceptions of critical thinking, subjecting…

  4. Hillslope lowering rates and mobile-regolith residence times from in situ and meteoric 10Be analysis: Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, M. A.; Anderson, R. S.; Wyshnytzky, C.; Ouimet, W. B.; Dethier, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    Mobile regolith is produced as weathered saprolite is entrained into the mobile layer. The rate of mobile-regolith production and its residence time on hillslopes shapes the topography and evolution of hillslopes. We calculate the production rate of mobile regolith and the mobile-regolith residence times on active hillslopes in Gordon Gulch, within the Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory (CZO), Colorado. We find mobile-regolith production rates (average 3.1 cm/ka) and residence times (average 10-20 ka) derived from both in situand meteoric methods agree. Lowering-rates derived from our study are also comparable to basin-averaged denudation rates for small basins in the Colorado Front Range (Dethier and Lazarus, 2006). In this study, we have measured both in situ and meteoric 10Be in saprolite and mobile regolith separately. We find that, on average, two-thirds of in situ 10Be is produced within saprolite, and that at least one-tenth of the meteoric 10Be inventories are stored in saprolite. In the case of in situ 10Be, this simply reflects the exponential fall-off in production rates through a thin mobile-regolith cover. In the case of meteoric 10Be, our calculations suggest that >40% of the meteoric 10Be deposition occurs within the saprolite. Most studies that utilize 10Be report residence times and soil-production rates based on concentrations in either the mobile regolith or saprolite; therefore, our 10Be data highlight the importance of clearly identifying mobile and immobile portions of the regolith, constraining its 10Be inventory, and use of consistent terminology for the mobile-layer.

  5. A review of the first 10 years of critical care aeromedical transport during operation iraqi freedom and operation enduring freedom: the importance of evacuation timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingalls, Nichole; Zonies, David; Bailey, Jeffrey A; Martin, Kathleen D; Iddins, Bart O; Carlton, Paul K; Hanseman, Dennis; Branson, Richard; Dorlac, Warren; Johannigman, Jay

    2014-08-01

    Advances in the care of the injured patient are perhaps the only benefit of military conflict. One of the unique aspects of the military medical care system that emerged during Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom has been the opportunity to apply existing civilian trauma system standards to the provision of combat casualty care across an evolving theater of operations. To identify differences in mortality for soldiers undergoing early and rapid evacuation from the combat theater and to evaluate the capabilities of the Critical Care Air Transport Team (CCATT) and Joint Theater Trauma Registry databases to provide adequate data to support future initiatives for improvement of performance. Retrospective review of CCATT records and the Joint Theater Trauma Registry from September 11, 2001, to December 31, 2010, for the in-theater military medicine health system, including centers in Iraq, Afghanistan, and Germany. Of 2899 CCATT transport records, those for 975 individuals had all the required data elements. Rapid evacuation by the CCATT. Survival as a function of time from injury to arrival at the role IV facility at Landstuhl Regional Medical Center. The patient cohort demonstrated a mean Injury Severity Score of 23.7 and an overall 30-day mortality of 2.1%. Mortality en route was less than 0.02%. Statistically significant differences between survivors and decedents with respect to the Injury Severity Score (mean [SD], 23.4 [12.4] vs 37.7 [16.5]; P < .001), cumulative volume of blood transfused among the patients in each group who received a transfusion (P < .001), worst base deficit (mean [SD], -3.4 [5.0] vs -7.8 [6.9]; P = .02), and worst international normalized ratio (median [interquartile range], 1.2 [1.0-1.4] vs 1.4 [1.1-2.2]; P = .03) were observed. We found no statistically significant difference between survivors and decedents with respect to time from injury to arrival at definitive care. Rapid movement of critically

  6. The critical time of avian leukosis virus subgroup J-mediated immunosuppression during early stage infection in specific pathogen-free chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Wang, Xiaowei; Chen, Hongbo; Liu, Jianzhu; Cheng, Ziqiang

    2011-09-01

    The critical time of avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J)-mediated immunosuppression was determined by body weight, relative immune organ weight, histopathology, and presence of group specific antigen and antibodies in specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens. CD4(+) and CD8(+) cell activity in the spleen, total and differential leukocyte counts in blood, and viral RNA levels in spleen were measured. Significant growth suppression was observed in the two ALV-J-infected groups. A strong immune response by infected groups was present in spleen at 2-weeks-of-age, but after 4-weeks-of-age, the response decreased quickly. The thymus and bursa showed persistent immunosuppression until 4-weeks-of-age. Proliferation of fibroblasts and dendritic cells were observed in immune organs at 4- and 5-weeks-of-age. However, the granulocyte cell number was markedly lower in the infected groups than in the control group. In group 1 (day 1 infection) CD4(+) cells increased during the second week but significantly decreased during the fourth week, while group 2 (day 7 infection) showed the opposite effect. Viral RNA increased significantly by the fourth week. These data identify 3~4 weeks post-infection as the key time at which the ALV-J virus exerts its immunosuppressive effects on the host.

  7. 关于休谟对时空概念的批判研究%Dawid Hume's Critical Research on Space-time Concept

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖竹燕

    2012-01-01

    Dawid Hume is a great exprimental philosopher who doubt method of reason, who inherited and criticized Lock's and Berkeley's experimental theory, and he thinks reason and notion which are improper and inaccurate. He also suggests that we get knownledge in the extent of experience. And he thinks the most smallest point which can be tangible and visble by us. We use our imagination connect these atom impression or simple idea into complex idea.We recognize physical subject from time and space which are the foundation of recognizance, we can use imagination connect colour point into space and time. Vaccum and infinite divisible space and time don't exist in reality. He contributes to science and congnizance.%休谟是近代纯粹经验论的哲学家,他继承和批判了贝克莱、洛克的经验论,质问了理性知识或“概念”的不精确.他提出了知识的范围和新标准在经验范围内获得可靠知识,而且他认为最小的可靠的认识单位就是原子印象,人运用想象连接原子印象或简单观念形成复杂观念时间和空间是认识事物的基础,在休谟看来时间和空间是人运用想象把色点连接形成的,纯粹的抽象时间和空间观念是不存在的.他对认识论和科学做出了重要探索和贡献.

  8. Critical Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critical care helps people with life-threatening injuries and illnesses. It might treat problems such as complications ... a team of specially-trained health care providers. Critical care usually takes place in an intensive care ...

  9. Archetypal Criticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesebro, James W.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Argues that archetypal criticism is a useful way of examining universal, historical, and cross-cultural symbols in classrooms. Identifies essential features of an archetype; outlines operational and critical procedures; illustrates archetypal criticism as applied to the cross as a symbol; and provides a synoptic placement for archetypal criticism…

  10. Optimal task mapping in safety-critical real-time parallel systems; Placement optimal de taches pour les systemes paralleles temps-reel critiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aussagues, Ch

    1998-12-11

    This PhD thesis is dealing with the correct design of safety-critical real-time parallel systems. Such systems constitutes a fundamental part of high-performance systems for command and control that can be found in the nuclear domain or more generally in parallel embedded systems. The verification of their temporal correctness is the core of this thesis. our contribution is mainly in the following three points: the analysis and extension of a programming model for such real-time parallel systems; the proposal of an original method based on a new operator of synchronized product of state machines task-graphs; the validation of the approach by its implementation and evaluation. The work addresses particularly the main problem of optimal task mapping on a parallel architecture, such that the temporal constraints are globally guaranteed, i.e. the timeliness property is valid. The results incorporate also optimally criteria for the sizing and correct dimensioning of a parallel system, for instance in the number of processing elements. These criteria are connected with operational constraints of the application domain. Our approach is based on the off-line analysis of the feasibility of the deadline-driven dynamic scheduling that is used to schedule tasks inside one processor. This leads us to define the synchronized-product, a system of linear, constraints is automatically generated and then allows to calculate a maximum load of a group of tasks and then to verify their timeliness constraints. The communications, their timeliness verification and incorporation to the mapping problem is the second main contribution of this thesis. FInally, the global solving technique dealing with both task and communication aspects has been implemented and evaluated in the framework of the OASIS project in the LETI research center at the CEA/Saclay. (author) 96 refs.

  11. Incidence, timing and outcome of AKI in critically ill patients varies with the definition used and the addition of urine output criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeze, J.; Keus, F.; Dieperink, W.; van der Horst, I. C. C.; Zijlstra, J. G.; van Meurs, M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a serious complication of critical illness with both attributed morbidity and mortality at short-term and long-term. The incidence of AKI reported in critically ill patients varies substantially with the population evaluated and the definitions used. We aimed

  12. Training of clinical thinking in critical care medicine%重症医学临床思路的培养

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宏民; 刘大为

    2015-01-01

    重症患者情况复杂,重症医生需要及时掌握病情变化,迅速确定针对性干预措施。重症医生临床思路的培养包含以下三个方面的内容:牢固的重症医学理论基础;扎实的临床操作技能;充分的临床实践工作历练。%Most patients in ICU are critically ill. The physician in charge should be able to evaluate and deal with the critical condition in a timely and accurately manner. The clinical thinking for intensivists entail abilities in the following three aspects: solid foundation of critical care theory; experienced clinical operation skill; enough clinical training.

  13. Training of clinical thinking in critical care medicine%重症医学临床思路的培养

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宏民; 刘大为

    2015-01-01

    重症患者情况复杂,重症医生需要及时掌握病情变化,迅速确定针对性干预措施。重症医生临床思路的培养包含以下三个方面的内容:牢固的重症医学理论基础;扎实的临床操作技能;充分的临床实践工作历练。%Most patients in ICU are critically ill. The physician in charge should be able to evaluate and deal with the critical condition in a timely and accurately manner. The clinical thinking for intensivists entail abilities in the following three aspects:solid foundation of critical care theory;experienced clinical operation skill;enough clinical training.

  14. How Critical Is Critical Thinking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Ryan D.

    2014-01-01

    Recent educational discourse is full of references to the value of critical thinking as a 21st-century skill. In music education, critical thinking has been discussed in relation to problem solving and music listening, and some researchers suggest that training in critical thinking can improve students' responses to music. But what exactly is…

  15. From Critical Theory to Critical Hermeneutics

    OpenAIRE

    Øjvind Larsen

    2014-01-01

    From their beginning in the 1930s, critical theory and the Frankfurt school had their focus on a critique of disturbed social relations in western society dominated by totalitarian political regimes like Stalinism, Fascism, Nazism, and by capitalism as an oppressive and destructive economic system and culture. Now, 80 years later, this has all become history and thus it is time to leave the concept of critical theory behind us, and instead bring the concept of critique to a broader theoretica...

  16. Critical Jostling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pippin Barr

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Games can serve a critical function in many different ways, from serious games about real world subjects to self-reflexive commentaries on the nature of games themselves. In this essay we discuss critical possibilities stemming from the area of critical design, and more specifically Carl DiSalvo’s adversarial design and its concept of reconfiguring the remainder. To illustrate such an approach, we present the design and outcomes of two games, Jostle Bastard and Jostle Parent. We show how the games specifically engage with two previous games, Hotline Miami and Octodad: Dadliest Catch, reconfiguring elements of those games to create interactive critical experiences and extensions of the source material. Through the presentation of specific design concerns and decisions, we provide a grounded illustration of a particular critical function of videogames and hope to highlight this form as another valuable approach in the larger area of videogame criticism.

  17. Criticality Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Alsaed

    2004-09-14

    The ''Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report'' (YMP 2003) presents the methodology for evaluating potential criticality situations in the monitored geologic repository. As stated in the referenced Topical Report, the detailed methodology for performing the disposal criticality analyses will be documented in model reports. Many of the models developed in support of the Topical Report differ from the definition of models as given in the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management procedure AP-SIII.10Q, ''Models'', in that they are procedural, rather than mathematical. These model reports document the detailed methodology necessary to implement the approach presented in the Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report and provide calculations utilizing the methodology. Thus, the governing procedure for this type of report is AP-3.12Q, ''Design Calculations and Analyses''. The ''Criticality Model'' is of this latter type, providing a process evaluating the criticality potential of in-package and external configurations. The purpose of this analysis is to layout the process for calculating the criticality potential for various in-package and external configurations and to calculate lower-bound tolerance limit (LBTL) values and determine range of applicability (ROA) parameters. The LBTL calculations and the ROA determinations are performed using selected benchmark experiments that are applicable to various waste forms and various in-package and external configurations. The waste forms considered in this calculation are pressurized water reactor (PWR), boiling water reactor (BWR), Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), Training Research Isotope General Atomic (TRIGA), Enrico Fermi, Shippingport pressurized water reactor, Shippingport light water breeder reactor (LWBR), N-Reactor, Melt and Dilute, and Fort Saint Vrain Reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The scope of

  18. Clinical application of real-time PCR to screening critically ill and emergency-care surgical patients for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a quantitative analytical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdman, M Trent; Wyncoll, Duncan; Halligan, Eugene; Cliff, Penelope R; French, Gary; Edgeworth, Jonathan D

    2009-12-01

    The clinical utility of real-time PCR screening assays for methicillin (methicillin)-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization is constrained by the predictive values of their results: as MRSA prevalence falls, the assay's positive predictive value (PPV) drops, and a rising proportion of positive PCR assays will not be confirmed by culture. We provide a quantitative analysis of universal PCR screening of critical care and emergency surgical patients using the BD GeneOhm MRSA PCR system, involving 3,294 assays over six months. A total of 248 PCR assays (7.7%) were positive; however, 88 failed to be confirmed by culture, giving a PPV of 65%. Multivariate analysis was performed to compare PCR-positive culture-positive (P+C+) and PCR-positive culture-negative (P+C-) assays. P+C- results were positively associated with a history of methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus infection or colonization (odds ratio [OR], 3.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.32 to 7.54) and high PCR thresholds of signal intensity, indicative of a low concentration of target DNA (OR, 1.19 per cycle; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.26). P+C- results were negatively associated with a history of MRSA infection or colonization (OR, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.09 to 0.42) and male sex (OR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.20 to 0.81). P+C+ patients were significantly more likely to have subsequent positive MRSA culture assays and microbiological evidence of clinical MRSA infection. The risk of subsequent MRSA infection in P+C- patients was not significantly different from that in case-matched PCR-negative controls. We conclude that, given the low PPV and poor correlation between a PCR-positive assay and the clinical outcome, it would be prudent to await culture confirmation before altering infection control measures on the basis of a positive PCR result.

  19. Critical Muralism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosette, Arturo

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on the development and practices of Critical Muralists--community-educator-artist-leader-activists--and situates these specifically in relation to the Mexican mural tradition of los Tres Grandes and in relation to the history of public art more generally. The study examines how Critical Muralists address artistic and…

  20. 临床实验室生化检验危急值报告时间调查分析%Investigation and analysis of the critical value reporting time of biochemical test in clinical laboratory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯倩; 邓德耀; 唐德焕; 高宗鹰; 李丽莉; 薛云松; 李增安; 周林华

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the critical value reporting time of biochemical test under the existing work processes ,to explore the influence factors ,and to continous improvement of critical value management .Methods A total of 424 cases of emergency critical value and 528 case of non-emergency critical value were retrospectively analyzed .Results The occurrence rate of emergency critical value was 3 .3% ,and that of non-emergency critical val-ue was 1 .7% .All of emergency critical value could be reported within 48 min ,and 26 .5% of non-emergency critical value could be reported within 60 min .Conclusion Critical value reporting time of emergency could meet the clinical need ,but the critical value reporting time of non-emergency should be further shortened to improve quality of critical value .%目的:调查现有工作流程下部分生化检验项目危急值报告时间,探讨实验室内外的影响因素,为持续改进危急值管理提供依据。方法回顾性分析云南省第二人民医院2011年1~6月检验科部分生化检验项目。分析危急值发生率,报告时间及影响因素。结果急诊检验危急值424例,平诊检验危急值528例;急诊检验危急值发生率3.3%,平诊检验危急值发生率1.7%。急诊检验危急值报告于48 min内全部完成,平诊危急值报告时间大于60 min的占26.5%。结论急诊检验危急值报告时间基本满足临床需要,平诊检验危急值报告时间尚不能满足临床需要,需采取措施缩短平诊检验危急值报告时间,提高危急值管理质量。

  1. From Critical Theory to Critical Hermeneutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øjvind Larsen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available From their beginning in the 1930s, critical theory and the Frankfurt school had their focus on a critique of disturbed social relations in western society dominated by totalitarian political regimes like Stalinism, Fascism, Nazism, and by capitalism as an oppressive and destructive economic system and culture. Now, 80 years later, this has all become history and thus it is time to leave the concept of critical theory behind us, and instead bring the concept of critique to a broader theoretical framework like hermeneutics. This allows the possibility of retaining the theoretical intentions of the old Frankfurt school and at the same time there will be no boundaries by specific dominant theoretical perspectives. In this paper, such a framework for a critical hermeneutics is discussed on the basis of Weber’s, Gadamer’s, and Habermas’ theories on hermeneutics within the social sciences.

  2. Critical proximity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay considers how written language frames visual objects. Drawing on Michel Foucault’s response to Raymond Roussel’s obsessive description, the essay proposes a model of criticism where description might press up against its objects. This critical closeness is then mapped across the conceptual art practice and art criticism of Ian Burn. Burn attends to the differences between seeing and reading, and considers the conditions which frame how we look at images, including how we look at, and through words. The essay goes on to consider Meaghan Morris’s writing on Lynn Silverman’s photographs. Both Morris and Burn offer an alternative to a parasitic model of criticism and enact a patient way of looking across and through visual landscapes.

  3. Critical Proximity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Simon

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This essay considers how written language frames visual objects. Drawing on Michel Foucault’s response to Raymond Roussel’s obsessive description, the essay proposes a model of criticism where description might press up against its objects. This critical closeness is then mapped across the conceptual art practice and art criticism of Ian Burn. Burn attends to the differences between seeing and reading, and considers the conditions which frame how we look at images, including how we look at, and through words. The essay goes on to consider Meaghan Morris’s writing on Lynn Silverman’s photographs. Both Morris and Burn offer an alternative to a parasitic model of criticism and enact a patient way of looking across and through visual landscapes.

  4. Effectiveness of a sediment time critical removal action-PCB reduction in fish tissue, surface water, and sediment via wet excavation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, Andrew D; King, Todd; Krawczyk, Keith; Kern, John W

    2015-01-01

    Documenting successful remediation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated sediments is limited; potentially due to inadequate monitoring methods, complexities associated with the environment, and selected remedial techniques. At some sites, absence of appropriate baseline and postremoval monitoring limits proper evaluation of remedial efficacy. Accurate interpretation of interactions between media, space, time, species, lipid content, and remedial technique requires robust study design and data. This article presents baseline and postremoval data documenting reduced PCB concentrations in fish tissue, surface water, and sediment in response to the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) time-critical removal action (TCRA) that was conducted at the former Bryant Mill Pond (BMP) on Portage Creek in Kalamazoo, Michigan. The BMP is part of an operable unit (OU) within the Allied Paper, Inc./Portage Creek/Kalamazoo River Superfund Site. PCBs discharged to the creek as a byproduct of carbonless copy paper recycling are the primary contaminant of concern. Paper waste residuals commonly appear as gray to light gray clays in river sediments and floodplain soils. The cleanup criterion was 10 mg/kg, with a residual PCB concentration goal of 1 mg/kg. Because the PCB-containing waste is (generally) associated with readily visible light gray clay, excavation of all visibly contaminated current or formerly impounded sediment served as a surrogate for the cleanup criteria and goal. Sediment was wet excavated and backfilled after diversion of the creek. After confirmation that PCB concentrations met cleanup criteria, the stream was diverted to the excavated side, and excavation and backfilling were completed. Overall, 146000 cubic yards of material including PCB-contaminated sediments were removed from the BMP. The long-term monitoring (LTM) program implemented by the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ), and historic data from a variety of sources

  5. In-Network Processing for Mission-Critical Wireless Networked Sensing and Control: A Real-Time, Efficiency, and Resiliency Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Qiao

    2014-01-01

    As wireless cyber-physical systems (WCPS) are increasingly being deployed in mission-critical applications, it becomes imperative that we consider application QoS requirements in in-network processing (INP). In this dissertation, we explore the potentials of two INP methods, packet packing and network coding, on improving network performance while…

  6. Rethinking Creative Teaching and Teaching as Research: Mapping the Critical Phases that Mark Times of Change and Choosing as Learners and Teachers of Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnard, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the use of a visual-based construct elicitation tool developed from the use of critical incident charting for the purpose of reflecting on our creative learning journeys either at significant points as music learners in childhood, in adult life, or as preservice or experienced teachers. In this article, I introduce diverse…

  7. In-Network Processing for Mission-Critical Wireless Networked Sensing and Control: A Real-Time, Efficiency, and Resiliency Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Qiao

    2014-01-01

    As wireless cyber-physical systems (WCPS) are increasingly being deployed in mission-critical applications, it becomes imperative that we consider application QoS requirements in in-network processing (INP). In this dissertation, we explore the potentials of two INP methods, packet packing and network coding, on improving network performance while…

  8. Quantum criticality of a spin-1 XY model with easy-plane single-ion anisotropy via a two-time Green function approach avoiding the Anderson-Callen decoupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercaldo, M. T.; Rabuffo, I.; De Cesare, L.; Caramico D'Auria, A.

    2016-04-01

    In this work we study the quantum phase transition, the phase diagram and the quantum criticality induced by the easy-plane single-ion anisotropy in a d-dimensional quantum spin-1 XY model in absence of an external longitudinal magnetic field. We employ the two-time Green function method by avoiding the Anderson-Callen decoupling of spin operators at the same sites which is of doubtful accuracy. Following the original Devlin procedure we treat exactly the higher order single-site anisotropy Green functions and use Tyablikov-like decouplings for the exchange higher order ones. The related self-consistent equations appear suitable for an analysis of the thermodynamic properties at and around second order phase transition points. Remarkably, the equivalence between the microscopic spin model and the continuous O(2) -vector model with transverse-Ising model (TIM)-like dynamics, characterized by a dynamic critical exponent z=1, emerges at low temperatures close to the quantum critical point with the single-ion anisotropy parameter D as the non-thermal control parameter. The zero-temperature critic anisotropy parameter Dc is obtained for dimensionalities d > 1 as a function of the microscopic exchange coupling parameter and the related numerical data for different lattices are found to be in reasonable agreement with those obtained by means of alternative analytical and numerical methods. For d > 2, and in particular for d=3, we determine the finite-temperature critical line ending in the quantum critical point and the related TIM-like shift exponent, consistently with recent renormalization group predictions. The main crossover lines between different asymptotic regimes around the quantum critical point are also estimated providing a global phase diagram and a quantum criticality very similar to the conventional ones.

  9. Critical Vidders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svegaard, Robin Sebastian Kaszmarczyk

    2015-01-01

    This article will introduce and take a look at a specific subset of the fan created remix videos known as vids, namely those that deal with feminist based critique of media. Through examples, it will show how fans construct and present their critique, and finally broach the topic of the critical ...

  10. Critical Vidders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svegaard, Robin Sebastian Kaszmarczyk

    2015-01-01

    This article will introduce and take a look at a specific subset of the fan created remix videos known as vids, namely those that deal with feminist based critique of media. Through examples, it will show how fans construct and present their critique, and finally broach the topic of the critical...

  11. Quantum Criticality

    OpenAIRE

    Keimer, Bernhard; Sachdev, Subir

    2011-01-01

    This is a review of the basic theoretical ideas of quantum criticality, and of their connection to numerous experiments on correlated electron compounds. A shortened, modified, and edited version appeared in Physics Today. This arxiv version has additional citations to the literature.

  12. Critical reading and critical thinking Critical reading and critical thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loni Kreis Taglieber

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide, for L1 and L2 reading and writing teachers, a brief overview of the literature about critical reading and higher level thinking skills. The teaching of these skills is still neglected in some language classes in Brazil, be it in L1 or in L2 classes. Thus, this paper may also serve as a resource guide for L1 and/or L2 reading and writing teachers who want to incorporate critical reading and thinking into their classes. In modern society, even in everyday life people frequently need to deal with complicated public and political issues, make decisions, and solve problems. In order to do this efficiently and effectively, citizens must be able to evaluate critically what they see, hear, and read. Also, with the huge amount of printed material available in all areas in this age of “information explosion” it is easy to feel overwhelmed. But often the information piled up on people’s desks and in their minds is of no use due to the enormous amount of it. The purpose of this paper is to provide, for L1 and L2 reading and writing teachers, a brief overview of the literature about critical reading and higher level thinking skills. The teaching of these skills is still neglected in some language classes in Brazil, be it in L1 or in L2 classes. Thus, this paper may also serve as a resource guide for L1 and/or L2 reading and writing teachers who want to incorporate critical reading and thinking into their classes. In modern society, even in everyday life people frequently need to deal with complicated public and political issues, make decisions, and solve problems. In order to do this efficiently and effectively, citizens must be able to evaluate critically what they see, hear, and read. Also, with the huge amount of printed material available in all areas in this age of “information explosion” it is easy to feel overwhelmed. But often the information piled up on people’s desks and in their minds is of

  13. Critical scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stirling, W.G. [Liverpool Univ., Dep. of Physics, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Perry, S.C. [Keele Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics

    1996-12-31

    We outline the theoretical and experimental background to neutron scattering studies of critical phenomena at magnetic and structural phase transitions. The displacive phase transition of SrTiO{sub 3} is discussed, along with examples from recent work on magnetic materials from the rare-earth (Ho, Dy) and actinide (NpAs, NpSb, USb) classes. The impact of synchrotron X-ray scattering is discussed in conclusion. (author) 13 figs., 18 refs.

  14. [Scoring system for early detection of critical illness can fail].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamstrup Christiansen, Lærke; Andreasen, Jo Bønding; Frederiksen, Christian Alcaraz; Juhl-Olsen, Peter; Sloth, Erik

    2013-02-18

    A 57-year old male underwent elective aortic valve replacement. The immediate post-operative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged with the lowest possible score on a newly implemented scale for early detection of critical illness. The following day he was readmitted with dyspnoea. The critical illness score was still low despite ultrasonic demonstration of a large pericardial effusion requiring drainage. We are concerned that the widely adopted critical illness scale is not sufficiently sensitive for cardiac surgery patients and advocate the use of point-of-care ultrasound.

  15. Altered gonadal steroidogenesis in critical illness: is treatment with anabolic steroids indicated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spratt, D I

    2001-12-01

    The physiology of the reproductive system changes dramatically with the onset of major illness. The serum testosterone concentrations fall to pre-pubertal levels secondary to a decreased secretion of gonadotropins and a decreased Leydig cell response to luteinizing hormone. At the same time, the serum oestrogen concentration rises as the result of an increased rate of peripheral aromatization. The clinical consequences of these marked changes are not yet well understood. One line of evidence argues for the administration of anabolic steroids (derivatives of testosterone) to critically ill patients to improve their catabolic state. Another line of evidence in animal models suggests that testosterone may suppress the immune system and myocardial function in critical illness. No clinical trials of oestrogen administration to critically ill patients have been reported, although two animal studies suggest that oestrogen may have a positive effect on survival. This chapter reviews changes in the physiology of the reproductive system in major illness as well as current evidence regarding the clinical effects of androgens and oestrogens in critical illness and their potential therapeutic roles.

  16. Adaptation Of Critical Time Intervention For Use In Brazil And Its Implementation Among Users Of Psychosocial Service Centers (caps) In The Municipality Of Rio De Janeiro [adaptação Da "critical Time Intervention" Para O Contexto Brasileiro E Sua Implementação Junto A Usuários Dos Centros De Atenção Psicossocial Do Município Do Rio De Janeiro

    OpenAIRE

    Cavalcanti M.T.; Carvalho M.C.A.; Valencia E.; Dahl C.M.; de Souza F.M.

    2011-01-01

    Brazilian Psychiatric Reform proposes a mental healthcare model based on the implementation of a community-based service network, in which Psychosocial Service Centers (CAPS) play a fundamental role. The report presents the results of a pilot study which aimed to adapt Critical Time Intervention to the Brazilian context, and to test its feasibility to provide it to persons with schizophrenic spectrum disorders who are enrolled in CAPS of Rio de Janeiro. Methods: The research design included t...

  17. How Critical Is Critical Infrastructure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    to Examine Critical Issues Underlying the Planned Rebuilding at the World Trade Center Site. 178 HVS Global Hospitality Services, 2012 Manhattan...Hotel Market Overview (Mineola, NY: HVS Global Hospitality Services, 2012, http://www.hvs.com/Content/3268.pdf. 179 “Key Office Properties,” accessed...premier real estate, luxury shopping, world class hotels, destination dining, and tourism , into an area that produces cumulative consumer spending of

  18. [Critical incidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidegger, D

    2005-03-01

    In medicine real severe mishaps are rare. On the other hand critical incidents are frequent. Anonymous critical incident reporting systems allow us to learn from these mishaps. This learning process will make our daily clinical work safer Unfortunately, before these systems can be used efficiently our professional culture has to be changed. Everyone in medicine has to admit that errors do occur to see the need for an open discussion. If we really want to learn from errors, we cannot punish the individual, who reported his or her mistake. The interest is primarily in what has happened and why it has happened and not who has committed this mistake. The cause for critical incidents in medicine is in over 80% the human factor Poor communication, work under enormous stress, conflicts and hierarchies are the main cause. This has been known for many years, therefore have already 15 years ago high-tech industries, like e.g. aviation, started to invest in special courses on team training. Medicine is a typical profession were until now only the individual performance decided about the professional career Communication, conflict management, stress management, decision making, risk management, team and team resource management were subjects that have never been taught during our preor postgraduate education. These points are the most important ones for an optimal teamwork. A multimodular course designed together with Swissair (Human Aspect Development medical, HADmedical) helps to cover, as in aviation, the soft factor and behavioural education in medicine and to prepare professionals in health care to work as a real team.

  19. 中古赋论批评形态之类型、特征与影响%Criticism of Fu Theory in Medieval Times:Types, Features and Influence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭安湘

    2013-01-01

    中古赋论论题广泛、内涵博赡,以重“情”尚“丽”迥别于两汉赋论的依“经”立论。而且,中古赋论批评形态也非常丰富。在汉代批评形态甚为单调的情状下,中古出现了诸如赋序、史传、笔记、选本以及赋学专论等形貌各异的批评形态。它们呈显状貌繁富、表述随感漫议、行文外呈骈俪、内蕴情感,存在状态渐显独立品格的特征。尤其是赋序批评、笔记批评及选本批评的演进历程表明它们在古代赋论批评形态学史上具有示范作用与生发意义。%There are various subjects and rich content in Fu theory in the medieval times .Emotion and beauty are emphasized in the theory , greatly different from that of Fu theory in the Han dynasty which discusses Fu issues based on Confucian classics .Furthermore , the criticism forms of Fu at that time are colorful , including prelude , historical biography, notes and anthology, etc.With multiple appearance, emotional opinion, parallelism writing style and rich content , the Fu criticism tends to form an independent style .Furthermore, the development of the criticisms on preludes of Fu, notes and anthologies reflects their significance in the history of the criticism forma-tions in ancient times .

  20. Critical reading and critical thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loni Kreis Taglieber

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide, for L1 and L2 reading and writing teachers, a brief overview of the literature about critical reading and higher level thinking skills. The teaching of these skills is still neglected in some language classes in Brazil, be it in L1 or in L2 classes. Thus, this paper may also serve as a resource guide for L1 and/or L2 reading and writing teachers who want to incorporate critical reading and thinking into their classes. In modern society, even in everyday life people frequently need to deal with complicated public and political issues, make decisions, and solve problems. In order to do this efficiently and effectively, citizens must be able to evaluate critically what they see, hear, and read. Also, with the huge amount of printed material available in all areas in this age of “information explosion” it is easy to feel overwhelmed. But often the information piled up on people’s desks and in their minds is of no use due to the enormous amount of it.

  1. Optimal Egg Size in Marine Invertebrates: Theory and Phylogenetic Analysis of the Critical Relationship between Egg Size and Development Time in Echinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitan

    2000-08-01

    Life-history models for marine invertebrate larvae generally predict a dichotomy in egg size in different species: eggs should be either minimal in size or large enough to support development fully without larval feeding. This prediction is contradicted, however, by the empirical observation of wide, continuous variation in egg size between these extremes. The prediction of dichotomy rests on the assumption of a negative linear relationship between egg size and development time. Here, I present a simple model in which development time is inversely proportional to egg size. Incorporating this relationship into an optimality model produces predictions of intermediate rather than extreme egg size. Modeled variations in mortality, food availability, fertilization rates, and temperature all produce continuous shifts in the value of the intermediate optimal size, in direct contrast to those produced by previous models, which predict shifts between two extreme optima. Empirical data on echinoid egg size and development time strongly support the model's assumption of an inverse proportional relationship between egg size and development time. A composite phylogeny is constructed of the 37 species for which egg size, development time, water temperature, and phylogenetic relatedness are known. Independent contrasts are made of the evolutionary changes in egg size and development time. This analysis indicates that evolutionary shifts in development time are correlated with the inversely proportional shifts in egg size assumed in the model. The assumption of a negative linear relationship used in previous models is rejected. This model provides a potential explanation for intraspecific variation in egg size along environmental gradients, sympatric differences in egg size among species, and biogeographic trends in egg size and development mode across taxa.

  2. District health planning at a time of transition: a critical review and lessons learnt from the implementation of regional planning in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtale, Filippo; Musila, Timothy; Opigo, Jimmy; Nantamu, Dyogo; Ezati, Isaac Alidria

    2016-05-01

    A quarter of a century after the Harare Declaration on Strengthening District Health Systems Based on Primary Health Care (1987) was conceived, district health teams (DHTs) are facing a markedly changed situation. Rapid population growth, urbanization, a rapidly developing private sector, and the increasing role of vertical programs and global initiatives have marginalized the planning process and weakened the entire district health system (DHS). The Ugandan Ministry of Health (MoH) responded to these challenges by beginning a review of district planning: a key action point of the Harare Declaration. The first step was a critical review of relevant literature, then central and district health staff were engaged with to provide their input in developing the new strategy. Through a field experiment started in 2012-13, and still underway, the MoH is developing an innovative regional approach to health planning, which aims to encompass the complexity of the new context of health care provision and coordinate all new actors (private health providers, projects and local government staff from other sectors) operating in the health sector. A strategic revision of the planning process represents an opportunity to develop an appropriate 'Theory of Change', intended as a broader approach of thinking about the entire DHS and the relative role and functions of the DHT. Leadership and stewardship capacities of MoH staff, at central and peripheral level, must be strengthened and supported to achieve the expected changes and results.

  3. First two months of pregnancy - critical time for preterm delivery and low birthweight caused by adverse effects of coal combustion toxics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohorovic, L. [Obstetric and Gynecologic Primary Care, Labin, Rabac (Croatia)

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this study was to define the most critical gestation period for adverse effects of environmental toxics in terms of preterm delivery ({lt}37 weeks) and low birthweight ({lt}2500 g) in humans. From January 1, 1987 to December 31, 1989, 704 women were included in a retrospective epidemiological study. All were from the district of Labin and lived in the vicinity of a coal power plant Plomin 1, Croatia. This plant is the single large source of air pollution in the area. The coal used for fuel is extremely rich with sulfur, 9-11%. Daily, weekly, and monthly consumption of coal and related SO{sub 2} emissions were calculated for each pregnant woman from the beginning to the end of pregnancy. The results show that a greater and longer exposure to SO{sub 2} emissions during the initial two months of pregnancy resulted in a significantly shorter gestation. The results of this study confirm the role of inhaled environmental toxics in the early development of human embryo and in adverse pregnancy course caused by permanent oxidative stress, misbalanced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS), reactive sulfur species (RSS), and other unfavorable metabolic processes on early embryogenesis, resulting in growth-arrested cells.

  4. Applying critical thinking to nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Bob

    2015-08-19

    Critical thinking and writing are skills that are not easy to acquire. The term 'critical' is used differently in social and clinical contexts. Nursing students need time to master the inquisitive and ruminative aspects of critical thinking that are required in academic environments. This article outlines what is meant by critical thinking in academic settings, in relation to both theory and reflective practice. It explains how the focus of a question affects the sort of critical thinking required and offers two taxonomies of learning, to which students can refer when analysing essay requirements. The article concludes with examples of analytical writing in reference to theory and reflective practice.

  5. Danto and Art Criticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Freeland

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article I examine the relationship between Arthur Danto's philosophy of art and his practice of art criticism. Danto has said that he included many actual examples of discussions of art in The Transfiguration of the Commonplace because of the feeling that, previously, philosophers had theorized about art in a vacuum. And since the time of publishing that book, he has written on a wide variety of both historical and contemporary artists and art practices. Danto's philosophy of art commits him to an account of the practice of art criticism as interpretation. However, I question whether the Danto-esque interpretive essay can serve as an adequate model for art criticism. My primary claim is that art criticism must include a more strongly evaluative element than Danto's theory leaves room for, since on his view, the critic primarily explains meaning by examining how it is embodied in a work. This leaves open the question of which meanings count as valuable or important. In his more recent work Danto has explored a "Hegelian" view that art is primarily about art, but this view too does not allow for art to be evaluated or "criticized" on the basis of whether or how well it tackles the more profound questions of meaning.

  6. The Critical Bricolage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim McMillan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Change in health care has become rapid and continuous. Much decision-making processes guiding change management are derived from organizational literature which is heavily reflective of managerial perspectives. These perspectives represent and aim to serve only a small subgroup of organizational members. However, change is complex, fragile, and has higher rates of success and sustainability when change management strategies reflect a multitude of organizational voices. There is a dearth of literature exploring the intersect between organizational and nursing discourses on the subject of rapid and continuous change in health care. Multitheoretical, multimethodological, and multidisciplinary informed approaches to methodological decision making are needed to link organizational and nursing discourses in ways that will offer alternative perspectives on the subject of change. Furthermore, critically guided multitheoretical, multimethodological, and multidisciplinary methodologies are timely and important in organizational research. Critically guided research seeks to analyze taken-for-granted assumptions and institutionalized practices seeking alternative perspectives and alternative sources of organizational knowledge. Exploring alternative perspectives from a critical lens recognizes the impact predominant discursive influences have on change management and the subsequent impact on organizational members’ working lives. This article will explore how Kincheloe’s discussions of the critical bricolage serve to support combining critical organizational methodologies (guided by Alvesson and Deetz with a voice-centered relational method of data analysis (guided by Brown and Gilligan to create a critical interpretive methodology that explores the voices of nurses as they experience rapid and continuous change in health care.

  7. First two months of pregnancy - critical time for preterm delivery and low birthweight caused by adverse effects of coal combustion toxics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohorovic, L. [Obstetrics & Gynecology Primary Care, Rabac (Croatia)

    2004-11-15

    The objective of this study was to define the most critical gestation period for adverse effects of environmental toxics in terms of preterm delivery ({lt}37 weeks) and low birthweight ({lt}2500 g) in humans. From January 1, 1987 to December 31, 1989, 704 women were included in a retrospective epidemiological study. All were from the district of Labin and lived in the vicinity of a coal power plant Plomin 1, Croatia. This plant is the single large source of air pollution in the area. The coal used for fuel is extremely rich with sulfur, 9-11%. Daily, weekly, and monthly consumption of coal and related SO{sub 2} emissions were calculated for each pregnant woman from the beginning to the end of pregnancy. We found that a greater and longer exposure to SO emissions during the initial two months of pregnancy resulted in a significantly shorter gestation (end of the first month: -0.0914, p=0.008, end of the second month: -0.0806, p=0.016) and in lower body mass of a newborn (end of the first month: -0.0807, p-0.016, end of the second month -0.0733, p=0.026). The results of this study confirm the role of inhaled environmental toxics in the early development of human embryo and in adverse pregnancy course caused by permanent oxidative stress, misbalanced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS), reactive sulfur species (RSS), and other unfavorable metabolic processes on early embryogenesis, resulting in growth-arrested cells.

  8. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Dynamic-Tracking Directional Wireless Antennas for Low Powered Applications that Require Reliable Extended Range Operations in Time Critical Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott G. Bauer; Matthew O. Anderson; James R. Hanneman

    2005-10-01

    The proven value of DOD Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) will ultimately transition to National and Homeland Security missions that require real-time aerial surveillance, situation awareness, force protection, and sensor placement. Public services first responders who routinely risk personal safety to assess and report a situation for emergency actions will likely be the first to benefit from these new unmanned technologies. ‘Packable’ or ‘Portable’ small class UAVs will be particularly useful to the first responder. They require the least amount of training, no fixed infrastructure, and are capable of being launched and recovered from the point of emergency. All UAVs require wireless communication technologies for real- time applications. Typically on a small UAV, a low bandwidth telemetry link is required for command and control (C2), and systems health monitoring. If the UAV is equipped with a real-time Electro-Optical or Infrared (EO/Ir) video camera payload, a dedicated high bandwidth analog/digital link is usually required for reliable high-resolution imagery. In most cases, both the wireless telemetry and real-time video links will be integrated into the UAV with unity gain omni-directional antennas. With limited on-board power and payload capacity, a small UAV will be limited with the amount of radio-frequency (RF) energy it transmits to the users. Therefore, ‘packable’ and ‘portable’ UAVs will have limited useful operational ranges for first responders. This paper will discuss the limitations of small UAV wireless communications. The discussion will present an approach of utilizing a dynamic ground based real-time tracking high gain directional antenna to provide extend range stand-off operation, potential RF channel reuse, and assured telemetry and data communications from low-powered UAV deployed wireless assets.

  9. Characterization of attenuated food motivation in high-fat diet-induced obesity: Critical roles for time on diet and reinforcer familiarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Andrea L; Wee, Colin J M; Hazeltine, Grace E; Carter, Rebecca A

    2015-03-15

    Prior work using animal models to study the effects of obesogenic diets on food motivation have generated inconsistent results, with some reporting increases and others reporting decreases in responding on food-reinforced tasks. Here, we identified two specific variables that may account for these discrepant outcomes - the length of time on the obesigenic diet and the familiarity of the food reinforcer - and examined the independent roles of these factors. Time on diet was found to be inversely related to food motivation, as rats consuming a 40% high-fat diet (HFD) for only 3weeks did not differ from chow-fed rats when responding for a sucrose reinforcer on a progressive ratio (PR) schedule, but responding was suppressed after 6weeks of ad lib HFD consumption. Explicitly manipulating experience with the sucrose reinforcer by pre-exposing half the rats prior to 10weeks of HFD consumption attenuated the motivational deficit seen in the absence of this familiarity, resulting in obese rats performing at the same level as lean rats. Finally, after 8weeks on a HFD, rats did not express a conditioned place preference for sucrose, indicating a decrement in reward value independent of motivation. These findings are consistent with prior literature showing an increase in food motivation for rats with a shorter time consuming the obesigenic diet, and for those with more prior experience with the reinforcer. This account also helps reconcile these findings with increased food motivation in obese humans due to extensive experience with palatable food and suggests that researchers engaging in non-human animal studies of obesity would better model the conditions under which human obesity develops by using a varied, cafeteria-style diet to increase the breadth of food experiences.

  10. Critical points of DNA quantification by real-time PCR – effects of DNA extraction method and sample matrix on quantification of genetically modified organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žel Jana

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Real-time PCR is the technique of choice for nucleic acid quantification. In the field of detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs quantification of biotech products may be required to fulfil legislative requirements. However, successful quantification depends crucially on the quality of the sample DNA analyzed. Methods for GMO detection are generally validated on certified reference materials that are in the form of powdered grain material, while detection in routine laboratories must be performed on a wide variety of sample matrixes. Due to food processing, the DNA in sample matrixes can be present in low amounts and also degraded. In addition, molecules of plant origin or from other sources that affect PCR amplification of samples will influence the reliability of the quantification. Further, the wide variety of sample matrixes presents a challenge for detection laboratories. The extraction method must ensure high yield and quality of the DNA obtained and must be carefully selected, since even components of DNA extraction solutions can influence PCR reactions. GMO quantification is based on a standard curve, therefore similarity of PCR efficiency for the sample and standard reference material is a prerequisite for exact quantification. Little information on the performance of real-time PCR on samples of different matrixes is available. Results Five commonly used DNA extraction techniques were compared and their suitability for quantitative analysis was assessed. The effect of sample matrix on nucleic acid quantification was assessed by comparing 4 maize and 4 soybean matrixes. In addition 205 maize and soybean samples from routine analysis were analyzed for PCR efficiency to assess variability of PCR performance within each sample matrix. Together with the amount of DNA needed for reliable quantification, PCR efficiency is the crucial parameter determining the reliability of quantitative results, therefore it was

  11. Critical points of DNA quantification by real-time PCR – effects of DNA extraction method and sample matrix on quantification of genetically modified organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cankar, Katarina; Štebih, Dejan; Dreo, Tanja; Žel, Jana; Gruden, Kristina

    2006-01-01

    Background Real-time PCR is the technique of choice for nucleic acid quantification. In the field of detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) quantification of biotech products may be required to fulfil legislative requirements. However, successful quantification depends crucially on the quality of the sample DNA analyzed. Methods for GMO detection are generally validated on certified reference materials that are in the form of powdered grain material, while detection in routine laboratories must be performed on a wide variety of sample matrixes. Due to food processing, the DNA in sample matrixes can be present in low amounts and also degraded. In addition, molecules of plant origin or from other sources that affect PCR amplification of samples will influence the reliability of the quantification. Further, the wide variety of sample matrixes presents a challenge for detection laboratories. The extraction method must ensure high yield and quality of the DNA obtained and must be carefully selected, since even components of DNA extraction solutions can influence PCR reactions. GMO quantification is based on a standard curve, therefore similarity of PCR efficiency for the sample and standard reference material is a prerequisite for exact quantification. Little information on the performance of real-time PCR on samples of different matrixes is available. Results Five commonly used DNA extraction techniques were compared and their suitability for quantitative analysis was assessed. The effect of sample matrix on nucleic acid quantification was assessed by comparing 4 maize and 4 soybean matrixes. In addition 205 maize and soybean samples from routine analysis were analyzed for PCR efficiency to assess variability of PCR performance within each sample matrix. Together with the amount of DNA needed for reliable quantification, PCR efficiency is the crucial parameter determining the reliability of quantitative results, therefore it was chosen as the primary

  12. Critical points of DNA quantification by real-time PCR--effects of DNA extraction method and sample matrix on quantification of genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cankar, Katarina; Stebih, Dejan; Dreo, Tanja; Zel, Jana; Gruden, Kristina

    2006-08-14

    Real-time PCR is the technique of choice for nucleic acid quantification. In the field of detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) quantification of biotech products may be required to fulfil legislative requirements. However, successful quantification depends crucially on the quality of the sample DNA analyzed. Methods for GMO detection are generally validated on certified reference materials that are in the form of powdered grain material, while detection in routine laboratories must be performed on a wide variety of sample matrixes. Due to food processing, the DNA in sample matrixes can be present in low amounts and also degraded. In addition, molecules of plant origin or from other sources that affect PCR amplification of samples will influence the reliability of the quantification. Further, the wide variety of sample matrixes presents a challenge for detection laboratories. The extraction method must ensure high yield and quality of the DNA obtained and must be carefully selected, since even components of DNA extraction solutions can influence PCR reactions. GMO quantification is based on a standard curve, therefore similarity of PCR efficiency for the sample and standard reference material is a prerequisite for exact quantification. Little information on the performance of real-time PCR on samples of different matrixes is available. Five commonly used DNA extraction techniques were compared and their suitability for quantitative analysis was assessed. The effect of sample matrix on nucleic acid quantification was assessed by comparing 4 maize and 4 soybean matrixes. In addition 205 maize and soybean samples from routine analysis were analyzed for PCR efficiency to assess variability of PCR performance within each sample matrix. Together with the amount of DNA needed for reliable quantification, PCR efficiency is the crucial parameter determining the reliability of quantitative results, therefore it was chosen as the primary criterion by which to

  13. Quantitative real-time PCR identifies a critical region of deletion on 22q13 related to prognosis in oral cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reis, Patricia P; Rogatto, Silvia R; Kowalski, Luiz P;

    2002-01-01

    of disease (P=0.025), family history of cancer (P=0.001), and death (P=0.021). Relative copy number loss involving the DIA1 gene was correlated to family history of cancer (Palcohol (P=0.026). Log-rank test revealed a significant decrease in survival (P=0......Quantitative real time PCR was performed on genomic DNA from 40 primary oral carcinomas and the normal adjacent tissues. The target genes ECGFB, DIA1, BIK, and PDGFB and the microsatellite markers D22S274 and D22S277, mapped on 22q13, were selected according to our previous loss of heterozygosity...... findings in head and neck tumors. Quantitative PCR relies on the comparison of the amount of product generated from a target gene and that generated from a disomic reference gene (GAPDH-housekeeping gene). Reactions have been performed with normal control in triplicates, using the 7700 Sequence Detection...

  14. Blackhole/String Transition for the Small Schwarzschild Blackhole of $AdS_5 \\times S^5$ and Critical Unitary Matrix Models

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez-Gaumé, Luís; Marino, M; Wadia, S R; Alvarez-Gaume, Luis; Basu, Pallab; Marino, Marcos; Wadia, Spenta R.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the blackhole-string transition of the small Schwarzschild blackhole of $AdS_5 \\times S^5$ using the AdS/CFT correspondence at finite temperature. The finite temperature gauge theory effective action, at weak {\\it and} strong coupling, can be expressed entirely in terms of constant Polyakov lines which are $SU (N)$ matrices. In showing this we have taken into account that there are no Nambu-Goto modes associated with the fact that the 10 dimensional blackhole solution sits at a point in $S^5$. We show that the phase of the gauge theory in which the eigenvalue spectrum has a gap corresponds to supergravity saddle points in the bulk theory. We identify the third order $N = \\infty$ phase transition with the blackhole-string transition. This singularity can be resolved using a double scaling limit in the transition region where the large N expansion is organized in terms of powers of $N^{-2/3}$. The $N = \\infty$ transition now becomes a smooth crossover in terms of a renormalized string c...

  15. Critical Assessment of Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory for Excited States of Open-Shell Systems: II. Doublet-Quartet Transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhendong; Liu, Wenjian

    2016-06-14

    Compared with closed-shell systems, open-shell systems place three additional challenges to time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) for electronically excited states: (a) the spin-contamination problem is a serious issue; (b) the exchange-correlation (XC) kernel may be numerically instable; and (c) the single-determinant description of open-shell ground states readily becomes energetically instable. Confined to flip-up single excitations, the spin-contamination problem can largely be avoided by using the spin-flip TD-DFT (SF-TD-DFT) formalism, provided that a noncollinear XC kernel is employed. As for the numerical instabilities associated with such a kernel, only an ad hoc scheme has been proposed so far, viz., the ALDA0 kernel, which amounts to setting the divergent components (arising from density gradients and kinetic energy density) simply to zero. The ground-state instability problem can effectively be avoided by introducing the Tamm-Dancoff approximation (TDA) to TD-DFT. Therefore, on a general basis, the SF-TDA/ALDA0 Ansatz is so far the only promising means within the TD-DFT framework for flip-up single excitations of open-shell systems. To assess systematically the performance of SF-TDA/ALDA0, in total 61 low-lying quartet excited states of the benchmark set of 11 small radicals [J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2016, 12, 238] are investigated with various XC functionals. Taking the MRCISD+Q (multireference configuration interaction with singles and doubles plus the Davidson correction) results as benchmark, it is found that the mean absolute errors of SF-TDA/ALDA0 with the SAOP (statistical averaging of model orbital potentials), global hybrid, and range-separated hybrid functionals are in the range of 0.2-0.4 eV. This is in line not only with the typical accuracy of TD-DFT for singlet and triplet excited states of closed-shell systems but also with the gross accuracy of spin-adapted TD-DFT for spin-conserving excited states of open-shell systems.

  16. Perinatal undernutrition modifies cell proliferation and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels during critical time-windows for hypothalamic and hippocampal development in the male rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupé, B; Dutriez-Casteloot, I; Breton, C; Lefèvre, F; Mairesse, J; Dickes-Coopman, A; Silhol, M; Tapia-Arancibia, L; Lesage, J; Vieau, D

    2009-01-01

    Maternal perinatal undernutrition (MPU) modifies the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and sensitises to the development of metabolic and cognitive adult diseases. Because the hypothalamus and hippocampus are involved in the regulation of neuroendocrine activity, energy metabolism and cognition, we hypothesised that a maternal 50% food restriction (FR50) from day 14 of pregnancy (E14) until postnatal day 21 (P21) would affect the development of these structures in male rat offspring. Protein and mRNA levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cell proliferation [analysed by 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation] were compared in both control and FR50 rats from E21 to P22. Although the pattern of the evolution of BDNF concentration and cell proliferation throughout development was not strikingly different between groups, several disturbances at specific developmental stages were observed. FR50 rats exhibited a delayed increase of hippocampal BDNF content whereas, in the hypothalamus, BDNF level was augmented from E21 to P14 and associated, at this latter stage, with an increased mRNA expression of TRkB-T2. In both groups, a correlation between BDNF content and the number of BrdU positive cells was noted in the dentate gyrus, whereas opposite variations were observed in CA1, CA2 and CA3 layers, and in the arcuate and ventromedial nuclei. In the hippocampus, P15-FR50 rats showed an increased number of BrdU positive cells in all regions, whereas, at P22, a decrease was observed in the CA2. In the hypothalamus, between E21 and P8, MPU increases the number of BrdU positive cells in all regions analysed and, until P15, marked differences were noticed in the median eminence, the paraventricular nucleus and the arcuate nucleus. Taken together, the results obtained in the present study show that MPU changes the time course of production of BDNF and cell proliferation in specific hippocampal and hypothalamic areas during sensitive

  17. Thinking Critically about Critical Thinking: Integrating Online Tools to Promote Critical Thinking

    OpenAIRE

    B. Jean Mandernach

    2006-01-01

    The value and importance of critical thinking is clearly established; the challenge for instructors lies in successfully promoting students’ critical thinking skills within the confines of a traditional classroom experience. Since instructors are faced with limited student contact time to meet their instructional objectives and facilitate learning, they are often forced to make instructional decisions between content coverage, depth of understanding, and critical analysis of course materia...

  18. 在时代的旋律中寻找趣味——朱自清的小说批评浅析%Searching for Fun in the Melody of the Times -An Analysis of Zhu Ziqings Fiction Criticism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李萍

    2012-01-01

    As a writer and critic in modern literary history, Zhu Zi--qing's novel criticism focuses on a limitless pursuit of fun in novels, reflecting the times and concerning about the realistic lives, and pointing out the way for the development of novels. Its greatest contribution lies in the revelation of modernity in the novels, which is a breath of fresh air to the literary world of that time.%朱自清作为一个现代文学史上的作家批评家,他的小说批评注重对小说“趣味”的无限追求,表现时代、关注现实人生,为小说发展指明出路。其最大的贡献在于对小说“现代性”的揭示,为当时文坛注入了一股新鲜的血液。

  19. An introduction to critical paths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Richard J; Richards, Janet S; Remmert, Carl S; LeRoy, Sarah S; Schoville, Rhonda R; Baldwin, Phyllis J

    2005-01-01

    A critical path defines the optimal sequencing and timing of interventions by physicians, nurses, and other staff for a particular diagnosis or procedure. Critical paths are developed through collaborative efforts of physicians, nurses, pharmacists, and others to improve the quality and value of patient care. They are designed to minimize delays and resource utilization and to maximize quality of care. Critical paths have been shown to reduce variation in the care provided, facilitate expected outcomes, reduce delays, reduce length of stay, and improve cost-effectiveness. The approach and goals of critical paths are consistent with those of total quality management (TQM) and can be an important part of an organization's TQM process.

  20. Critical Pedagogy for Critical Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutak, Fatma Aslan; Bondy, Elizabeth; Adams, Thomasenia L.

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a brief introduction to critical pedagogy and further discussion on critical mathematics education. Critical mathematics education enables students to read the world with mathematics. Three emerging domains of mathematics education related to critical mathematics education are discussed in this manuscript: ethnomathematics,…

  1. Critical Pedagogy for Critical Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutak, Fatma Aslan; Bondy, Elizabeth; Adams, Thomasenia L.

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a brief introduction to critical pedagogy and further discussion on critical mathematics education. Critical mathematics education enables students to read the world with mathematics. Three emerging domains of mathematics education related to critical mathematics education are discussed in this manuscript: ethnomathematics,…

  2. Putting the Critical Back in Critical Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    CRITICAL BACK IN CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE by Bradford C. Mason December 2015 Thesis Advisor: Rudolph P. Darken Second Reader: Thomas Mackin...COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE PUTTING THE CRITICAL BACK IN CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Bradford C. Mason...12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE A 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) In the context of national critical infrastructure security and resilience doctrine

  3. Variable On-time Controlled Critical Conduction Mode Flyback PFC Converters%变导通时间控制临界连续模式反激PFC变换器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎铁生; 许建平; 张斐; 何圣仲; 董政

    2013-01-01

    提出了一种变导通时间(variable on-time,VOT)控制临界连续模式(critical conduction mode,CRM)反激功率因数校正(power factor correction,PFC)变换器的控制策略。引入输入电压和反激变压器辅助绕组电压参与CRM反激PFC变换器开关管的导通时间控制,解决了传统恒定导通时间(constant on-time,COT)控制CRM反激PFC变换器功率因数(power factor , PF)低和总谐波畸变(total harmonic distortion,THD)高的问题。分析传统COT控制CRM反激PFC变换器和VOT控制CRM反激PFC变换器的工作原理,实验验证结果表明,VOT控制CRM反激PFC变换器比传统COT控制CRM反激PFC变换器具有更高的PF值和更低的THD。%A control strategy for critical conduction mode (CRM) Flyback power factor correction (PFC) converters which can realize unity power factor (PF) is proposed in this paper. By using input voltages and the voltage across the auxiliary winding of the Flyback transformer to control the turn-on time of the switch of the CRM Flyback PFC converter, the PF and the total harmonic distortion (THD) of the CRM Flyback PFC converter can be improved. The operation principles of the traditional constant On-Time (COT) controlled CRM Flyback PFC converters and the variable On-Time (VOT) controlled CRM Flyback PFC converter are analyzed. The experimental results show that the PF and THD of VOT controlled CRM Flyback PFC converters are better than these of COT controlled CRM Flyback PFC converters.

  4. Time Critical Conventional Strike from Strategic Standoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    associated with their navigation systems, including the TERCOM radars, DSMAC cameras, or other position update sensors. Tactical Tomahawk also uses...Transporter-Erector-Launcher TERCOM Terrain Comparison TF Task Force TLA Target Location Accuracy TLAM Tomahawk Land Attack Missile TLE Target

  5. Camus: a life lived in critical times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Poel, I.; Hughes, E.J.

    2007-01-01

    The life of Albert Camus (1913-60) was profoundly affected by the three major tragedies which dominate the history of twentieth-century France: the Great War (1914-18), World War II (1939-45) and the Algerian War of Independence (1954-62). It is unusual that Camus's destiny should have been so close

  6. Time-Critical Detection of Anomalous Behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizing, A.G.

    2008-01-01

    Terrorist attacks such a suicide bombings and detonation of improved explosive devices are a worldwide problem that caused many casualties and economic damage. To prevent these attacks, human intelligence gathering, social network analysis and data mining of databases containing financial transactio

  7. Camus: a life lived in critical times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Poel, I.; Hughes, E.J.

    2007-01-01

    The life of Albert Camus (1913-60) was profoundly affected by the three major tragedies which dominate the history of twentieth-century France: the Great War (1914-18), World War II (1939-45) and the Algerian War of Independence (1954-62). It is unusual that Camus's destiny should have been so

  8. Critical Choices in a Time of Austerity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-30

    Martin provides the Republic of Singapore Air Force (RSAF) with the highest quality turnkey training solution available to undergraduate pilots...Transportation • Enhanced Use Lease Can we capitalize on prior efforts? LS14.0342 Joint Ventures - AMMROC • Joint venture enterprise between Mubadala, Sikorsky

  9. Critical Time Span and Nonlinear Action Structure of Climatic Atmosphere and Ocean%气候大气和海洋的临界时间跨度与非线性作用结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志仁; 吴德星; 陈大可; 吴辉碇; 宋学家; 张占海

    2002-01-01

    研究了气候海洋与大气的临界时间跨度及其非线性作用的大致结构.与预报的空间分辩率及系统的非线性强度相联系,气候大气和海洋的临界时间跨度可反映系统可预报的相对时间尺度.对于具有同样空间特征尺度的大气和海洋,海洋的最小临界时间跨度约是大气的9倍(可达数日至数十日).一般(外源变化缓慢的)气候海洋与大气的一阶非线性越强,其临界时间跨度越小.气候海洋与大气非线性作用的大致结构是:通常与科里奥利力对流体运动的规范作用(如地转运动)有关,非线性作用随纬度增加而减弱.距平流场的切变结构及其沿经向与纬向上强度的比较直接改变气候大气和海洋的非线性作用(比如,向东的距平环流强度与经向环流强度相当时,非线性作用最强),较强的外部驱动(风应力和压强梯度力)使非线性作用加大等等.%This paper studies the critical time span and the approximate nonlinear action structure of climatic atmosphere and ocean. The critical time span of the climatic atmosphere and ocean, which is related to the spatial resolution required, the strength of nonlinear action, and the calculation exactness, may represent the relative temporal scale of predictability. As far as the same characteristic spatial scale is concerned, the minimum critical time span of the ocean is about 9 times of that of atmosphere, several days or more. Usually,the stronger the nonlinear action, the shorter the critical time span with smooth changes of external forces.The approximate structure of nonlinear action of climatic atmosphere and ocean is: the nonlinear action decreases usually with increasing latitude, which is related to the role of the Coriolis force in fluid motion (forming geostrophic current); the nonlinear action changes with the anomalous cyclonic or anticyclonic circulation shear, for instance, when the strength of anomalous eastward zonal circulation

  10. Real-time scheduling model of fuzzy itemized tasks for non-traditional safety critical system%非传统安全关键系统中模糊分类调度模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭礼强; 尹俊文; 汪飞

    2011-01-01

    The development of IoT and WSN may take more applications into safety-critical systems.But those applications have different characters with traditional safety-critical systems,such as medical systems,nuclear power systems and aeronautical systems.Study on scheduling characters of non-traditional safety critical systems is carried on in this paper.And great differences are founded between the non-traditional and the traditional, especially on itemization of tasks.lt will cause many problems while applying existing scheduling models to those applications directly.Scheduling characters of non-traditional safety-critical systems are set up.A real-time scheduling model and MSF algorithm to meet those characters, where tasks are fuzzy itemized and the algorithm includes two steps to schedule tasks ordered by sensitity.Finally,a feasibility analysis and a test on the non-taxable system of Changsha city are taken.The result shows that MSF holds better performance and less failure number of tasks than MUF.%物联网及无线传感网的发展将使越来越多的应用成为安全关键系统,而这类应用在性质上区别于医疗、核能和航空航天等领域的传统安全关键系统,研究了非传统安全关键系统的调度特征,发现这类应用与传统安全关键系统存在较大差异,特别是在任务分类上,若直接套用已有的调度模型将产生诸多问题.在特征分析的基础上建立了满足特征需求的实时调度模型并给出了相应的调度算法.模型采取模糊分类的方式划分任务,算法分两个阶段实现了任务按敏感度优先的原则进行调度.最后对算法进行了调度可行性分析,并在长沙市非税系统中进行了实验,结果表明其性能及失效率较MUF更优.

  11. Research on the Effect of Information Chain Error upon Probability of Capturing Time Critical Target%信息链误差对导弹捕捉时间敏感目标概率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛赤龙; 沙基昌; 任义广; 陈超

    2008-01-01

    终端信息质量是影响打击时间敏感目标(TCT: Time-critical Target)效果的关键因素,从传感器到射手的各个节点都对终端信息质量有影响.运用信息链误差对信息链终端信息质量进行度量,以系统地反映各节点对终端信息质量的影响.在信息链误差计算模型基础上,建立了信息链误差与导弹捕捉TCT概率之间的函数关系.并以导弹攻击水面舰艇为例,分析出了影响反舰导弹捕捉TCT概率的最大误差来源.

  12. Critical Learning Skills for Business Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jance, Marsha; Morgan, Anita

    2013-01-01

    A survey addressing critical skills for business students was developed and disseminated. Sixteen critical skills (such as critical thinking and time management) were identified as skills that need to be acquired in order for business students to be successful in their advanced courses and careers. The survey was disseminated and taken by several…

  13. Nuclear criticality safety guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruvost, N.L.; Paxton, H.C. [eds.

    1996-09-01

    This technical reference document cites information related to nuclear criticality safety principles, experience, and practice. The document also provides general guidance for criticality safety personnel and regulators.

  14. 面向安全关键实时应用的分层防危调度算法研究%Hierarchical Safeguard Scheduling Algorithm for Safety Critical Real-time Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏平; 周兴社

    2013-01-01

    The paper solved the problem that current popular safeguard scheduling algorithm cannot achieve the safeguard function under the environment of software and hardware failure. It built a new hierarchical real-time scheduling model which describes the safety requirement of safety-critical real-time application from two aspects including function component and safe partition, and designed a three-level safeguard scheduler framework Based on the model and framework, the paper proposed a new hierarchical safeguard scheduling algorithm (HSS) which achieves spacial separation effect by distributing function components with different critical degrees to different physical processor clusters,and attains temporal separation effect by activating various partitions running on the same processor in a fixed cycle. Empirical investigations show that the improvements in the safeguard performance and the endurance to different application loads can be achieved by choosing HSS than other similar algorithms.%针对现有防危调度算法在软硬件失效情况下防危能力不足的问题,具体进行了以下工作:构建了一种分层防危实时调度模型,该模型从功能组件和安全分区两方面描述了安全关键实时应用的防危性需求,并给出一种基于分层调度思想的三级防危调度器框架.以该模型和框架为基础,提出了一种新的分层防危调度算法(HSS),该算法对安全关键实时应用中不同关键度的功能组件采用空间隔离机制,对同一功能组件内的不同分区采用时间隔离机制,兼顾实现了时空隔离的防危效果.仿真实验结果表明,HSS算法与其他同类算法相比,在防危效果和应用负载承受能力方面具有较好的表现.

  15. Thinking Critically about Critical Thinking: Integrating Online Tools to Promote Critical Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Jean Mandernach

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The value and importance of critical thinking is clearly established; the challenge for instructors lies in successfully promoting students’ critical thinking skills within the confines of a traditional classroom experience. Since instructors are faced with limited student contact time to meet their instructional objectives and facilitate learning, they are often forced to make instructional decisions between content coverage, depth of understanding, and critical analysis of course material. To address this dilemma, it is essential to integrate instructional strategies and techniques that can efficiently and effectively maximize student learning and critical thinking. Modern advances in educational technology have produced a range of online tools to assist instructors in meeting this instructional goal. This review will examine the theoretical foundations of critical thinking in higher education, discuss empirically-based strategies for integrating online instructional supplements to enhance critical thinking, offer techniques for expanding instructional opportunities outside the limitations of traditional class time, and provide practical suggestions for the innovative use of critical thinking strategies via online resources.

  16. Design of Critical Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    2001-01-01

    Critical component design is based on minimizing product failures that results in loss of life. Potential catastrophic failures are reduced to secondary failures where components removed for cause or operating time in the system. Issues of liability and cost of component removal become of paramount importance. Deterministic design with factors of safety and probabilistic design address but lack the essential characteristics for the design of critical components. In deterministic design and fabrication there are heuristic rules and safety factors developed over time for large sets of structural/material components. These factors did not come without cost. Many designs failed and many rules (codes) have standing committees to oversee their proper usage and enforcement. In probabilistic design, not only are failures a given, the failures are calculated; an element of risk is assumed based on empirical failure data for large classes of component operations. Failure of a class of components can be predicted, yet one can not predict when a specific component will fail. The analogy is to the life insurance industry where very careful statistics are book-kept on classes of individuals. For a specific class, life span can be predicted within statistical limits, yet life-span of a specific element of that class can not be predicted.

  17. A Critical Humanist Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magill, Kevin; Rodriguez, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    This essay is a critical humanist discussion of curriculum; a departure from the technicist view of education [education meant to support a global capitalist economy] and an analysis of curriculum considering critical humanism, political economy and critical race theory among other modes of critical analysis and inquiry. Our discussion supports a…

  18. Criticality Analysis of GTPPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asis Sarkar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper is concerned with the study of criticality analysis of components of Gas Turbine Power Plant Systems (GTPPS and the failures occurring in the plant. Failure mode and effect and criticality analysis (FMECA is carried out to estimate the criticality number for different components and failure modes. In addition the failure effects, higher effects and end effectsare incorporated in the final FMECA sheet. The criticality resultscompensating provision will highlight possible ways to tackle thefailures economically. The findings in this Paper are (1 criticality index of the components (2 Critical failures (3 compensating provision of critical failure.

  19. DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF SAFETY-CRITICAL REAL-TIME COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL NOP BASED ON UIO%基于 UIO 的安全关键实时通信协议 NOP的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    狄长艳; 张轲; 李婵娟; 周庆国

    2013-01-01

    As a novel safety-critical real-time communication protocol , the node order protocol ( NOP) constructs the distributed system with the concept of node order , eliminates the dependence of communication protocol on global time , establishes communication semantics of the time-triggered protocol which depends on node order and realises by using the event as the triggering mode , all are done in IEC61508 frame.And meanwhile , the NOP improves the flexibility and resource utilisation of the protocol when ensuring the safety of time -triggered protocol.For the realisation of the NOP, the Userspace I/O (UIO) is taken into consideration, the NOP is deemed as an independent module outside the kernel space to accomplish the control and communication of the protocol .This can effectively reduce the security threats caused by some problems like system kernel crash , etc., thus improves the safety and reliability of the NOP .%NOP( Node Order Protocol )作为一种全新的安全关键实时通信协议,它在IEC61508框架下以节点顺序的理念构建分布式系统,消除通信协议对全局时钟的依赖,建立依赖于节点顺序的以事件为触发模式实现的时间触发协议的传输语义。同时NOP在保证时间触发协议安全性的同时,提高了协议的灵活性和资源利用率。对于NOP协议的实现,结合用户空间接口UIO( Userspace I/O),将NOP作为一个独立于内核之外的单独模块来完成协议的控制和通信,有效地减少由于系统内核崩溃等问题而产生的安全威胁,提高了NOP协议的安全性和可靠性。

  20. A Critical Look into Critical Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pishghadam, Reza; Meidani, Elham Naji

    2012-01-01

    In line with postmodern philosophy, critical pedagogy has gained considerable importance and has become a valuable educational goal. The purpose of this study is to dig into the effects of critical pedagogy in a modernist educational system. To this aim, 15 Iranian university students were asked to write down their feelings at the end of a course…

  1. A Critical Look into Critical Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pishghadam, Reza; Meidani, Elham Naji

    2012-01-01

    In line with postmodern philosophy, critical pedagogy has gained considerable importance and has become a valuable educational goal. The purpose of this study is to dig into the effects of critical pedagogy in a modernist educational system. To this aim, 15 Iranian university students were asked to write down their feelings at the end of a course…

  2. Critical Approaches to Critical Pedagogy in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grollios, George; Liambas, Anastassios

    2015-01-01

    This paper is an initial review of the presentations and uses of critical pedagogy in Greek educational literature since the mid-1980s. These have appeared in the form of three books and an edited volume (translated in Greek), all written by American critical educators, as well as in texts produced by Greek educators who have either written the…

  3. Autism: a "critical period" disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Jocelyn J; Fagiolini, Michela

    2011-01-01

    Cortical circuits in the brain are refined by experience during critical periods early in postnatal life. Critical periods are regulated by the balance of excitatory and inhibitory (E/I) neurotransmission in the brain during development. There is now increasing evidence of E/I imbalance in autism, a complex genetic neurodevelopmental disorder diagnosed by abnormal socialization, impaired communication, and repetitive behaviors or restricted interests. The underlying cause is still largely unknown and there is no fully effective treatment or cure. We propose that alteration of the expression and/or timing of critical period circuit refinement in primary sensory brain areas may significantly contribute to autistic phenotypes, including cognitive and behavioral impairments. Dissection of the cellular and molecular mechanisms governing well-established critical periods represents a powerful tool to identify new potential therapeutic targets to restore normal plasticity and function in affected neuronal circuits.

  4. Feasibility study of preoperative timing for fasting drink for infant with critical congenital heart disease%危重先天性心脏病小婴儿术前禁食禁饮时间可行性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海霞; 付勤; 潘晓兰; 李博; 马超

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the ways of shortening fasting drink time for infant with critical congenital heart disease. Method 556 infants with critical congenital heart disease was randomly divided into two groups, 264 patients in control group, 292 patients in experimental group. Patients in control group was given traditional fasting drink scheme, include fasting eight hours and drinking 6 hours before anesthesia. Patients in experimental group was given conventional fast 4~6 hours and drinking 2 hours. The indicators, including thirsty, sense of hungry, fatigue, crying, vomiting and aspiration, body temperature, oxygen attack and heart failure, gastric liquid pH and blood sugar, was observed and compared between the two groups. Result The incidence of thirsty, hungry, fatigue, crying,body temperature more than 38. 0 ℃ , oxygen attack and heart failure in experimental group was significantly lower than that of in control group(P0. 05). Conclusion Preoperative fast 4~6 hours and the drinking 2 hours for selective surgery infant with critical congenital heart and disease was safe. It didn't increase gastric pH level, vomiting and aspiration during operation, and can reduce adverse reactions.%目的 探讨缩短危重先天性心脏病小婴儿术前禁食禁饮时间.方法 将择期手术的556例危重先天性心脏病小婴儿随机分为两组,对照组264例,实验组292例.对照组采用传统的禁食、禁饮方案,麻醉前常规禁食8h,禁饮6h.实验组术前常规禁食4~6 h,禁饮2h,观察比较两组患儿的口渴、饥饿感、疲乏无力、哭闹、术中呕吐及误吸、体温、缺氧发作和心力衰竭的发生率,测量胃液pH值及血糖值.结果 与对照组比较,实验组的口渴、饥饿感、疲乏无力程度、哭闹、体温≥38.0℃、缺氧发作和心力衰竭的发生率均显著低于对照组,差异有显著意义(P<0.05);两组血糖值的差异也有显著意义(P<0.05);胃液pH值差异无显著意义(P>0

  5. Stigmatization on the way to recovery in mental illness - the factors associated with social functioning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Podogrodzka-Niell, Magdalena; Tyszkowska, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Persons with mental disorders often experience stigmatization. There is a number of social factors that may affect the process of recovery and at the same time, in certain circumstances, could be a source of stigma...

  6. Superstatistics and renewal critical events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradisi, Paolo; Cesari, Rita; Grigolini, Paolo

    2009-09-01

    An approach to intermittent systems based on renewal processes is reviewed. The Waiting Times (WTs) between events are the main variables of interest in intermittent systems. A crucial role is played by the class of critical events, characterized by Non-Poisson statistics and non-exponential WT distribution. A particular important case is given by WT distributions with power tail. Critical events play a crucial role in the behavior of a property known as Renewal Aging. Focusing on the role of critical events, the relation between superstatistics and non-homogeneous Poisson processes is discussed, and the role of Renewal Aging is illustrated by comparing a Non-Poisson model with a Poisson one, both of them modulated by a periodic forcing. It is shown that the analysis of Renewal Aging is sensitive to the presence of critical events and that this property can be exploited to detect Non-Poisson statistics in a time series. As a consequence, it is claimed that, apart from the characterization of superstatistical features such as the distribution of the intensive parameter or the separation of the time scales, the Renewal Aging property can give some effort to better determine the role of Non-Poisson critical events in intermittent systems.

  7. Durability of critical infrastructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Pascu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with those infrastructures by which world society, under the pressure ofdemographic explosion, self-survives. The main threatening comes not from terrorist attacks, but fromthe great natural catastrophes and global climate change. It’s not for the first time in history when suchmeasures of self-protection are built up. First objective of this paper is to present the background fordurability analysis. Then, with the aid of these mathematical tools the absolute durability of three linearmodels, typical for critical infrastructures, are successively calculated. In order to enhance the durabilityof critical infrastructures the solution based on redundancies is chosen. Five types of connection theredundancies for each of the three models are considered. Three topological schemes for connecting theredundancies are adopted: locally, by twining and globally. Absolute values of durability in all fifteenmodels with redundancies are further calculated. Then, the relative performances of enhanced durabilityin the same fifteen models, compared with the three original models, considered as references, areanalysed. The relative costs of the same fifteen models and in similar topologic conditions are furtheranalysed. By dividing the performance with cost the relative profitableness of each model is obtained.Finally, the three initial models, each reshaped with redundancies in three selective modes, arecompared from the perspective of their relative profitableness. The outcomes of this paper are original.They are of practical interests in planning the maintenance programs and checking the plausibility ofproposed interventions according to the clause 7.4 of ISO 13822:2001

  8. Real-time-guided bone regeneration around standardized critical size calvarial defects using bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and collagen membrane with and without using tricalcium phosphate: an in vivo microcomputed tomographic and histologic experiment in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khalid Al-Hezaimi; Sundar Ramalingam; Mansour Al-Askar; Aws S ArRejaie; Nasser Nooh; Fawad Jawad; Abdullah Aldahmash; Muhammad Atteya; Cun-Yu Wang

    2016-01-01

    The aimof the present real time in vivo micro-computed tomography (mCT) and histologic experiment was to assess the efficacy of guided bone regeneration (GBR) around standardized calvarial critical size defects (CSD) using bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), and collagen membrane (CM) with and without tricalcium phosphate (TCP) graft material. In the calvaria of nine female Sprague-Dawley rats, full-thickness CSD (diameter 4.6 mm) were created under general anesthesia. Treatment-wise, rats were divided into three groups. In group 1, CSD was covered with a resorbable CM; in group 2, BMSCs were filled in CSD and covered with CM; and in group 3, TCP soaked in BMSCs was placed in CSD and covered with CM. All defects were closed using resorbable sutures. Bone volume and bone mineral density of newly formed bone (NFB) and remaining TCP particles and rate of new bone formation was determined at baseline, 2, 4, 6, and 10 weeks using in vivo mCT. At the 10th week, the rats were killed and calvarial segments were assessed histologically. The results showed that the hardness ofNFBwas similar to that of the native bone in groups 1 and 2 as compared to theNFB in group 3. Likewise, values for the modulus of elasticity were also significantly higher in group 3 compared to groups 1 and 2. This suggests that TCP when used in combination with BMSCs and without CM was unable to form bone of significant strength that could possibly provide mechanical “lock” between the natural bone and NFB. The use of BMSCs as adjuncts to conventional GBR initiated new bone formation as early as 2 weeks of treatment compared to when GBR is attempted without adjunct BMSC therapy.

  9. [Nutrition in critical illness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ökrös, Ilona

    2014-12-21

    Critically ill patients are often unable to eat by themselves over a long period of time, sometimes for weeks. In the acute phase, serious protein-energy malnutrition may develop with progressive muscle weakness, which may result in assisted respiration of longer duration as well as longer stay in intensive care unit and hospital. In view of the metabolic processes, energy and protein intake targets should be defined and the performance of metabolism should be monitored. Enteral nutrition is primarily recommended. However, parenteral supplementation is often necessary because of the disrupted tolerance levels of the gastrointestinal system. Apparently, an early parenteral supplementation started within a week would be of no benefit. Some experts believe that muscle loss can be reduced by increased target levels of protein. Further studies are needed on the effect of immune system feeding, fatty acids and micronutrients.

  10. From Critical Theory to Critical Hermeneutics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Øjvind Larsen

    2014-01-01

    From their beginning in the 1930s, critical theory and the Frankfurt school had their focus on a critique of disturbed social relations in western society dominated by totalitarian political regimes...

  11. Critical anthropometry for menarche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, G F; Villena, A

    1996-08-01

    The objective of the study was to determine if any anthropometric measurements, including weight, height, and upper arm circumference, or the calculated body mass index observed at the time of menarche may be used as a threshold for menarche. The sample was randomly selected from 1133 girls aged 10-18 years from two groups, one residing in Lima, Peru, at 150 m above sea level, and the second in Cerro de Pasco, Peru, at 4340 m above sea level. For the purpose of this study, all girls who reached menarche at least 1 month before the study (n = 93) were considered as cases (girls at menarche); 88 girls without menarche at the time of the study were randomly matched by age and place of residence, and designated as controls. All subjects came from the same low socioeconomic status. Body weight at menarche was 44.6 +/- 5.09 kg (mean +/- SD; coefficient of variation [CV], 11.4%). Height at menarche was 151.6 +/- 5.5 cm (CV, 3.7%). Body mass index, defined as weight/height2.15, was 18.26 +/- 1.96 kg/m2.15 at menarche (CV, 10.7%). Upper arm circumference at menarche was 21.8 +/- 1.6 cm (CV, 7.3%). The logistic regression analysis showed that any of the four anthropometric measurements analyzed were critical for menarche; i.e., any of the four could be used as a threshold for menarche. Data from the present study do not support the hypothesis that there are anthropometric markers that are critical for menarche.

  12. Man and Machines: Three Criticisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Edward F.

    As machines have become a more common part of daily life through the passage of time, the idea that the line separating man and machine is slowly fading has become more popular as well. This paper examines three critics of change through their most famous works. One of the most popular views of Mary Shelley's "Frankenstein" is that it is a…

  13. Surgical Critical Care Initiative

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Surgical Critical Care Initiative (SC2i) is a USU research program established in October 2013 to develop, translate, and validate biology-driven critical care....

  14. Interface localization near criticality

    CERN Document Server

    Delfino, Gesualdo

    2016-01-01

    The theory of interface localization in near-critical planar systems at phase coexistence is formulated from first principles. We show that mutual delocalization of two interfaces, amounting to interfacial wetting, occurs when the bulk correlation length critical exponent $\

  15. California Condor Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — These Data identify (in general) the areas where critical habitat for the California Condor occur. Critical habitat for the species consists of the following 10...

  16. ICU-acquired weakness: what is preventing its rehabilitation in critically ill patients?

    OpenAIRE

    Lee Christie M; Fan Eddy

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Intensive care unit-acquired weakness (ICUAW) has been recognized as an important and persistent complication in survivors of critical illness. The absence of a consistent nomenclature and diagnostic criteria for ICUAW has made research in this area challenging. Although many risk factors have been identified, the data supporting their direct association have been controversial. Presently, there is a growing body of literature supporting the utility and benefit of early mobility in r...

  17. ICU-acquired weakness: what is preventing its rehabilitation in critically ill patients?

    OpenAIRE

    Lee Christie M; Fan Eddy

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Intensive care unit-acquired weakness (ICUAW) has been recognized as an important and persistent complication in survivors of critical illness. The absence of a consistent nomenclature and diagnostic criteria for ICUAW has made research in this area challenging. Although many risk factors have been identified, the data supporting their direct association have been controversial. Presently, there is a growing body of literature supporting the utility and benefit of early mobility in r...

  18. Critical dynamics near QCD critical point

    CERN Document Server

    Minami, Yuki

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, we study the critical dynamics near the QCD critical point. Near the critical point, the relevant modes for the critical dynamics are identified as the hydrodynamic modes. Thus, we first study the linear dynamics of them by the relativistic hydrodynamics. We show that the thermal diffusion mode is the most relevant mode, whereas the sound mode is suppressed around the critical point. We also find that the Landau equation, which is believed to be an acausal hydrodynamic equation, has no problem to describe slowly varying fluctuations. Moreover, we find that the Israel-Stewart equation, which is a causal one, gives the same result as the Landau equation gives in the long-wavelength region. Next, we study the nonlinear dynamics of the hydrodynamic modes by the nonlinear Langevin equation and the dynamic renormalization group (RG). In the vicinity of the critical point, the usual hydrodynamics breaks down by large fluctuations. Thus, we must consider the nonlinear Langevin equation. We construct t...

  19. Toward critical bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Árnason, Vilhjálmur

    2015-04-01

    This article deals with the question as to what makes bioethics a critical discipline. It considers different senses of criticism and evaluates their strengths and weaknesses. A primary method in bioethics as a philosophical discipline is critical thinking, which implies critical evaluation of concepts, positions, and arguments. It is argued that the type of analytical criticism that restricts its critical role to critical thinking of this type often suffers from other intellectual flaws. Three examples are taken to demonstrate this: premature criticism, uncritical self-understanding of theoretical assumptions, and narrow framing of bioethical issues. Such flaws can lead both to unfair treatment of authors and to uncritical discussion of topics. In this context, the article makes use of Häyry's analysis of different rationalities in bioethical approaches and argues for the need to recognize the importance of communicative rationality for critical bioethics. A radically different critical approach in bioethics, rooted in social theory, focuses on analyses of power relations neglected in mainstream critical thinking. It is argued that, although this kind of criticism provides an important alternative in bioethics, it suffers from other shortcomings that are rooted in a lack of normative dimensions. In order to complement these approaches and counter their shortcomings, there is a need for a bioethics enlightened by critical hermeneutics. Such hermeneutic bioethics is aware of its own assumptions, places the issues in a wide context, and reflects critically on the power relations that stand in the way of understanding them. Moreover, such an approach is dialogical, which provides both a critical exercise of speech and a normative dimension implied in the free exchange of reasons and arguments. This discussion is framed by Hedgecoe's argument that critical bioethics needs four elements: to be empirically rooted, theory challenging, reflexive, and politely skeptical.

  20. Antibiotic dose optimization in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotta, M O; Roberts, J A; Lipman, J

    2015-12-01

    The judicious use of existing antibiotics is essential for preserving their activity against infections. In the era of multi-drug resistance, this is of particular importance in clinical areas characterized by high antibiotic use, such as the ICU. Antibiotic dose optimization in critically ill patients requires sound knowledge not only of the altered physiology in serious infections - including severe sepsis, septic shock and ventilator-associated pneumonia - but also of the pathogen-drug exposure relationship (i.e. pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic index). An important consideration is the fact that extreme shifts in organ function, such as those seen in hyperdynamic patients or those with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, can have an impact upon drug exposure, and constant vigilance is required when reviewing antibiotic dosing regimens in the critically ill. The use of continuous renal replacement therapy and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation remain important interventions in these patients; however, both of these treatments can have a profound effect on antibiotic exposure. We suggest placing emphasis on the use of therapeutic drug monitoring and dose individualization when optimizing therapy in these settings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  1. Prediction of critical illness in elderly outpatients using elder risk assessment: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biehl M

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Michelle Biehl,1 Paul Y Takahashi,2 Stephen S Cha,3 Rajeev Chaudhry,2 Ognjen Gajic,1 Bjorg Thorsteinsdottir2 1Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, 2Division of Primary Care Internal Medicine, 3Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA Rationale: Identifying patients at high risk of critical illness is necessary for the development and testing of strategies to prevent critical illness. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between high elder risk assessment (ERA score and critical illness requiring intensive care and to see if the ERA can be used as a prediction tool to identify elderly patients at the primary care visit who are at high risk of critical illness. Methods: A population-based historical cohort study was conducted in elderly patients (age >65 years identified at the time of primary care visit in Rochester, MN, USA. Predictors including age, previous hospital days, and comorbid health conditions were identified from routine administrative data available in the electronic medical record. The main outcome was critical illness, defined as sepsis, need for mechanical ventilation, or death within 2 years of initial visit. Patients with an ERA score of 16 were considered to be at high risk. The discrimination of the ERA score was assessed using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Results: Of the 13,457 eligible patients, 9,872 gave consent for medical record review and had full information on intensive care unit utilization. The mean age was 75.8 years (standard deviation ±7.6 years, and 58% were female, 94% were Caucasian, 62% were married, and 13% were living in nursing homes. In the overall group, 417 patients (4.2% suffered from critical illness. In the 1,134 patients with ERA >16, 154 (14% suffered from critical illness. An ERA score ≥16 predicted critical illness (odds ratio 6.35; 95% confidence interval 3.51–11.48. The area under the

  2. Social support and functional outcome in severe mental illness: the mediating role of proactive coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Lisa; Brekke, John

    2014-01-30

    Individuals with Severe Mental Illness (SMI) are faced with wide-spread social and occupational impairment, yet some are able to achieve a meaningful degree of functional improvement. A structural model based on Proactive Coping Theory was developed and tested in a longitudinal context to better understand: (1) the impact of proactive processes on functioning for people with SMI, and (2) the stability of the theoretical framework over time for this population. A latent path analysis examining social support, positive reappraisal, intrinsic motivation, and role functioning was tested with 148 severely mentally ill individuals receiving psychosocial rehabilitation treatment at baseline. An observed path analysis of the model was examined at six months post-baseline with 102 people. The baseline model displayed an excellent fit to the data and accounted for 54% of the variance in role functioning. Results at time 2 also suggest the empirical promise and potential longitudinal viability of the model. In line with Proactive Coping Theory and a social resources model of coping, social support may facilitate proactive coping processes to enhance role functioning, and these processes may be stable over time for people with SMI.

  3. Reimagining Critical Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rexhepi, Jevdet; Torres, Carlos Alberto

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses Critical Theory, a model of theorizing in the field of the political sociology of education. We argue for a "reimagined" Critical Theory to herald an empowering, liberatory education that fosters curiosity and critical thinking, and a means for successful bottom-up, top-down political engagement. We present arguments at a…

  4. Reimagining Critical Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rexhepi, Jevdet; Torres, Carlos Alberto

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses Critical Theory, a model of theorizing in the field of the political sociology of education. We argue for a "reimagined" Critical Theory to herald an empowering, liberatory education that fosters curiosity and critical thinking, and a means for successful bottom-up, top-down political engagement. We present arguments…

  5. Foundations for Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bers, Trudy; Chun, Marc; Daly, William T.; Harrington, Christine; Tobolowsky, Barbara F.

    2015-01-01

    "Foundations for Critical Thinking" explores the landscape of critical-thinking skill development and pedagogy through foundational chapters and institutional case studies involving a range of students in diverse settings. By establishing a link between active learning and improved critical thinking, this resource encourages all higher…

  6. Reimagining Critical Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rexhepi, Jevdet; Torres, Carlos Alberto

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses Critical Theory, a model of theorizing in the field of the political sociology of education. We argue for a "reimagined" Critical Theory to herald an empowering, liberatory education that fosters curiosity and critical thinking, and a means for successful bottom-up, top-down political engagement. We present arguments…

  7. International critical perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sambrook, S.A.; Poell, R.F.

    2014-01-01

    The Problem Critical perspectives on human resource development (HRD) have emerged, across Europe and America, hailed as the future of the field. However, we note the paucity of critical perspectives globally, the problematic dominance of critical HRD activities in Western sites of theory and

  8. Criticism, Visible and Invisible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Northrop

    1964-01-01

    The central activity of literary criticism, the understanding of literature, is related to the process of establishing a context for the works of literature being studied. Choosing not to discuss the factual elements of literary criticism, the author clarifies and concentrates on the "lower" and "upper" limits of criticism. While the "lower" limit…

  9. Creating a Critical Thinker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piergiovanni, Polly R.

    2014-01-01

    A college education is expected to improve students' critical thinking skills. Keeping students active in class--through writing activities and class discussion--has been shown to help students think critically. In this article, creative hands-on activities, which are common in engineering courses, are shown to improve students' critical thinking…

  10. Reconceptualising Critical Digital Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangrazio, Luciana

    2016-01-01

    While it has proved a useful concept during the past 20 years, the notion of "critical digital literacy" requires rethinking in light of the fast-changing nature of young people's digital practices. This paper contrasts long-established notions of "critical digital literacy" (based primarily around the critical consumption of…

  11. Reconceptualising Critical Digital Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangrazio, Luciana

    2016-01-01

    While it has proved a useful concept during the past 20 years, the notion of "critical digital literacy" requires rethinking in light of the fast-changing nature of young people's digital practices. This paper contrasts long-established notions of "critical digital literacy" (based primarily around the critical consumption of…

  12. Creating a Critical Thinker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piergiovanni, Polly R.

    2014-01-01

    A college education is expected to improve students' critical thinking skills. Keeping students active in class--through writing activities and class discussion--has been shown to help students think critically. In this article, creative hands-on activities, which are common in engineering courses, are shown to improve students' critical thinking…

  13. PALEO-COASTLINE CHANGES IN SOUTH CHINA SEA IN SOME CRITICAL TIMES%南海关键地质历史时期的古海岸线变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许淑梅; 吴鹏; 张威; 张海洋; 刘智; 戴黎明; 李健伟; 李灵波

    2013-01-01

    The evolutionary history of South China Sea can be summarized as a series of events of micro-plate pulling and thinning, cracking, slipping, rotation, convergence and collision under the influence of the movement of the Pacific Plate and the Indian Ocean Plate, through some critical evolutionary periods as 55 Ma, 33 Ma, 25 Ma, 16 Ma, 6 Ma, 2 Ma. There are lack of studies on long term sea-level changes and coastaline changes in the region of SCS. Based on the study of coastal depositional facies and paleobathym-etry from the drilling data of SCS basins, we reestablished the paleocoastal line for each critical geological time since Paleocene. Comparison was made with the coastaline changes in the periods of Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum, Eocene -Oligocene global climate cooling event, Oligocene-Miocene global cooling, sea-level fall event, Middle Miocene climate warmer global sea level rise events, Early Pliocene global warming event, Late Pliocene Arctic ice cap formation event. Environment evolution of the SCS since Paleocene is further described.%整个南海新生代的演变可概括为一系列微板块在太平洋板块与印度洋板块运动影响下发生拉薄、裂解、滑移、旋转、会聚和碰撞的过程,特别是经过55、33、25、16、6、2 Ma关键时期的演化,最终形成现在具有陆架和深水海盆特征的西太平洋最大边缘海.依据南海内部各坳陷盆地的最新研究进展,包括海相边缘沉积相类型、古水深、钻井资料等能够依次重建南海特殊历史时期的古岸线位置,分析其变迁规律,并与古新世、始新世之交的高温事件,始新世末渐新世初全球气候变冷事件,渐新世—中新世全球变冷、海平面下降事件,中中新世早期气候回暖、全球海平面上升事件,上新世早期全球变暖事件,晚上新世北极冰盖形成等系列事件进行对比,从而进一步了解古新世以来南海的环境演变过程.

  14. Stigmatization on the way to recovery in mental illness - the factors associated with social functioning.

    OpenAIRE

    Magdalena Podogrodzka-Niell; Magdalena Tyszkowska

    2014-01-01

    Persons with mental disorders often experience stigmatization. There is a number of social factors that may affect the process of recovery and at the same time, in certain circumstances, could be a source of stigma. Mentally ill may find strength in themselves to fight against the disease or the opposite – can internalize the negative attitudes of the society and become self-stigmatized. The patient’s family, on the one hand, is often the only source of social support, on the other hand, can ...

  15. Chloride Ion Critical Content in Reinforced Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Chloride ion critical content was studied under soaking and cycle of dry and wet conditions,with three electrochemical nondestructive measuring techniques, i e, half-cell potential, A C impedance, and time potential. The experimental results show that chloride ion critical content is primarily determined by the water cement ratio, while for the same concrete mixture the chloride ion critical content in soaking conditions is larger than that in a cycle of dry and wet conditions.

  16. Stigmatization on the way to recovery in mental illness - the factors associated with social functioning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Podogrodzka-Niell

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Persons with mental disorders often experience stigmatization. There is a number of social factors that may affect the process of recovery and at the same time, in certain circumstances, could be a source of stigma. Mentally ill may find strength in themselves to fight against the disease or the opposite – can internalize the negative attitudes of the society and become self-stigmatized. The patient’s family, on the one hand, is often the only source of social support, on the other hand, can experience a destructive influence of courtesy-stigma. Mentally ill have to face social reluctance which is reinforced by stereotypical media coverage of mental disorders. The social network of patients is poor and often limited to a family system. Negative views about persons diagnosed with mental illness are most visible in the labour market. Patients experience many types of discrimination at work,have lower employment rates and lower mean wages than healthy ones. Structural discrimination is a form of stigma which is revealed in underfunded and inefficient system of mental health care. All the social factors mentioned above are necessary for recovery (positive stimulation of functioning, but can also increase stigma and become a significant barrier in the recovery of psychiatric patients. This paper highlights the complex and ambiguous nature of the relationship between social factors and the recovery of the mentally ill basing on the data from the literature.

  17. [Stigmatization on the way to recovery in mental illness - the factors associated with social functioning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podogrodzka-Niell, Magdalena; Tyszkowska, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Persons with mental disorders often experience stigmatization. There is a number of social factors that may affect the process of recovery and at the same time, in certain circumstances, could be a source of stigma. Mentally ill may find strength in themselves to fight against the disease or the opposite - can internalize the negative attitudes of the society and become self-stigmatized. The patient's family, on the one hand, is often the only source of social support, on the other hand, can experience a destructive influence of courtesy-stigma. Mentally ill have to face social reluctance which is reinforced by stereotypical media coverage of mental disorders. The social network of patients is poor and often limited to a family system. Negative views about persons diagnosed with mental illness are most visible in the labour market. Patients experience many types of discrimination at work,have lower employment rates and lower mean wages than healthy ones. Structural discrimination is a form of stigma which is revealed in underfunded and inefficient system of mental health care. All the social factors mentioned above are necessary for recovery (positive stimulation of functioning), but can also increase stigma and become a significant barrier in the recovery of psychiatric patients. This paper highlights the complex and ambiguous nature of the relationship between social factors and the recovery of the mentally ill basing on the data from the literature.

  18. Charles Darwin's (1809-1882) illness - the role of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyse-Moore, Louis

    2016-09-15

    During most of his adult life, in counterpoint to his fame in describing the theory of evolution, Charles Darwin was chronically ill. He consulted many doctors with only limited and temporary success. His symptoms were many and varied. His doctors favoured dyspepsia or suppressed gout as the diagnosis. The Water Cure was only effective initially. Many diagnoses have been proposed by physicians since then. Perhaps he suffered from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), not instead of but as well as other physical problems. His symptoms match with criteria for PTSD. Traumatic episodes from his life are considered in this paper: his mother's painful, sudden death from an acute abdominal event when he was eight; his reaction to seeing operations without anaesthetic; the deaths of three of his children, including his beloved daughter, Annie, aged ten; and being overwhelmed by his chronic, unrelenting symptoms. Trauma had not been conceptualised as a diagnosis in Darwin's time. Rather, hysteria and, in war, irritable heart were names given to what is now called PTSD.

  19. Critical Literacy for Xenophobia: A Wake-Up Call

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Lisa Patel; Stovall, David Omotoso

    2010-01-01

    Critical literacy has been on the map of literacy pedagogy internationally since the time of Freire, and more commonplace in the United States in the last few decades. However, in this column the authors argue that the common practices of critical literacy are insufficient for critical engagement with texts. The tools of critical literacy are…

  20. Critical Psychologies for Critical Health Literacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Health education is largely informed by psychological theories and practices that pursue reductionist views of people learning. However, critical attention is moving to understand health in ways that reconsider relationships to context and the forms of life within which everyday living takes place. This shift is apparent in theoretical…

  1. Critical Psychologies for Critical Health Literacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Health education is largely informed by psychological theories and practices that pursue reductionist views of people learning. However, critical attention is moving to understand health in ways that reconsider relationships to context and the forms of life within which everyday living takes place. This shift is apparent in theoretical…

  2. Critical incident reporting systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Jag; Marriott, Lin

    2005-02-01

    Approximately 10% of all hospital admissions are complicated by critical incidents in which harm is caused to the patient - this amounts to more than 850,000 incidents annually. Critical incident reporting (CIR) systems refer to the structured reporting, collation and analysis of such incidents. This article describes the attributes required for an effective CIR system. Example neonatal trigger events and a management pathway for handling a critical incident report are described. The benefits and limitations of CIR systems, reactive and prospective approaches to the analysis of actual or potential critical incidents and the assessment of risk are also reviewed. Individual human error is but one contributor in the majority of critical incidents. Recognition of this and the fostering of an organisational culture that views critical incident reports as an opportunity to learn and to improve future patient care is vital if CIR systems are to be effective.

  3. Vulnerability of critical infrastructures : identifying critical nodes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Roger Gary; Robinson, David Gerald

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this research was the development of tools and techniques for the identification of critical nodes within critical infrastructures. These are nodes that, if disrupted through natural events or terrorist action, would cause the most widespread, immediate damage. This research focuses on one particular element of the national infrastructure: the bulk power system. Through the identification of critical elements and the quantification of the consequences of their failure, site-specific vulnerability analyses can be focused at those locations where additional security measures could be effectively implemented. In particular, with appropriate sizing and placement within the grid, distributed generation in the form of regional power parks may reduce or even prevent the impact of widespread network power outages. Even without additional security measures, increased awareness of sensitive power grid locations can provide a basis for more effective national, state and local emergency planning. A number of methods for identifying critical nodes were investigated: small-world (or network theory), polyhedral dynamics, and an artificial intelligence-based search method - particle swarm optimization. PSO was found to be the only viable approach and was applied to a variety of industry accepted test networks to validate the ability of the approach to identify sets of critical nodes. The approach was coded in a software package called Buzzard and integrated with a traditional power flow code. A number of industry accepted test networks were employed to validate the approach. The techniques (and software) are not unique to power grid network, but could be applied to a variety of complex, interacting infrastructures.

  4. Surveillance and Critical Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fuchs

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this comment, the author reflects on surveillance from a critical theory approach, his involvement in surveillance research and projects, and the status of the study of surveillance. The comment ascertains a lack of critical thinking about surveillance, questions the existence of something called “surveillance studies” as opposed to a critical theory of society, and reflects on issues such as Edward Snowden’s revelations, and Foucault and Marx in the context of surveillance.

  5. Extending Critical Performativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spicer, André; Alvesson, Mats; Kärreman, Dan

    2016-01-01

    In this article we extend the debate about critical performativity. We begin by outlining the basic tenets of critical performativity and how this has been applied in the study of management and organization. We then address recent critiques of critical performance. We note these arguments suffer...... from an undue focus on intra-academic debates; engage in author-itarian theoretical policing; feign relevance through symbolic radicalism; and repackage common sense. We take these critiques as an opportunity to offer an extended model of critical performativity that involves focusing on issues...

  6. Constructing criticality by classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machacek, Erika

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the role of expertise, the nature of criticality, and their relationship to securitisation as mineral raw materials are classified. It works with the construction of risk along the liberal logic of security to explore how "key materials" are turned into "critical materials......, legitimizing a criticality discourse.Specifically, the paper introduces a typology delineating the inferences made by the experts from their produced recommendations in the classification of rare earth element criticality. The paper argues that the classification is a specific process of constructing risk...

  7. The Intellectual Landscape of Critical Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diem, Sarah; Young, Michelle D.; Welton, Anjalé D.; Mansfield, Katherine Cumings; Lee, Pei-Ling

    2014-01-01

    What counts as critical policy analysis in education? Over the past 30 years, a tightening of national educational policies can be seen in the USA and across the globe. Over this same period of time, a growing number of educational policy scholars, dissatisfied with traditional frameworks, have used critical frameworks in their analyses. Their…

  8. Sarcopenia and critical illness: a deadly combination in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Joseph S

    2015-03-01

    Sarcopenia is the age-associated loss of lean skeletal muscle mass. It is the result of multiple physiologic derangements, ultimately resulting in an insidious functional decline. Frailty, the clinical manifestation of sarcopenia and physical infirmity, is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in the elderly population. The underlying pathology results in a disruption of the individual's ability to tolerate internal and external stressors such as injury or illness. This infirmity results in a markedly increased risk of falls and subsequent morbidity and mortality from the resulting traumatic injury, as well as an inability to recover from medical insults, resulting in critical illness. The increasing prevalence of sarcopenia and critical illness in the elderly has resulted in a deadly intersection of disease processes. The lethality of this combination appears to be the result of altered muscle metabolism, decreased mitochondrial energetics needed to survive critical illness, and a chronically activated catabolic state likely mediated by tumor necrosis factor-α. Furthermore, these underlying derangements are independently associated with an increased incidence of critical illness, resulting in a progressive downward spiral. Considerable evidence has been gathered supporting the role of aggressive nutrition support and physical therapy in improving outcomes. Critical care practitioners must consider sarcopenia and the resulting frailty phenotype a comorbid condition so that the targeted interventions can be instituted and research efforts focused.

  9. Safety-critical Java for embedded systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeberl, Martin; Dalsgaard, Andreas Engelbredt; Hansen, René Rydhof

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the motivation for and outcomes of an engineering research project on certifiable Javafor embedded systems. The project supports the upcoming standard for safety-critical Java, which defines asubset of Java and libraries aiming for development of high criticality systems....... The outcome of this projectinclude prototype safety-critical Java implementations, a time-predictable Java processor, analysis tools formemory safety, and example applications to explore the usability of safety-critical Java for this applicationarea. The text summarizes developments and key contributions...

  10. Extending the application of critical path methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, R J; Othman, J E; Walters, J I

    1995-01-01

    Most health care organizations are using critical pathways in an attempt to reduce the variation in patient care, improve quality, enhance communication, and reduce costs. Virtually all of the critical path efforts to date have developed tables of treatments, medications, and so forth by day and have displayed them in a format known as a Gantt chart. This article presents a methodology for identifying the true "time-limiting" critical path, describes three additional methods for presenting the information--the network, precedent, and resource formats--and shows how these can significantly enhance current critical path efforts.

  11. Furthering critical institutionalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cleaver, Frances; Koning, De Jessica

    2015-01-01

    This special issue furthers the study of natural resource management from a critical institutional perspective. Critical institutionalism (CI) is a contemporary body of thought that explores how institutions dynamically mediate relationships between people, natural resources and society. It focus

  12. Critical Care Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patients and Families > About Critical Care > Team Tweet Team Page Content ​The critical care team is a group of specially trained caregivers who ... help very ill patients get better. The care team often teach the patient and family strategies that ...

  13. Creating a Critical Thinker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piergiovanni, Polly R.

    2014-01-01

    A college education is expected to improve students' critical thinking skills. Keeping students active in class--through writing activities and class discussion--has been shown to help students think critically. In this article, creative hands-on activities, which are common in engineering courses, are shown to improve students' critical…

  14. Against Critical Thinking Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, David

    2015-01-01

    Critical thinking pedagogy is misguided. Ostensibly a cure for narrowness of thought, by using the emotions appropriate to conflict, it names only one mode of relation to material among many others. Ostensibly a cure for fallacies, critical thinking tends to dishonesty in practice because it habitually leaps to premature ideas of what the object…

  15. Critical Literacy: Foundational Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Allan

    2012-01-01

    The term "critical literacy" refers to use of the technologies of print and other media of communication to analyze, critique, and transform the norms, rule systems, and practices governing the social fields of everyday life (A. Luke, 2004). Since Freire's (1970) educational projects in Brazil, approaches to critical literacy have been developed…

  16. Critical Utopian Action Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birger Steen; Nielsen, Kurt Aagaard

    2016-01-01

    The specific concept of critical utopian action research is presented and discussed, as to its origin, use and potentials. The inspiration from Robert Jungk and his future creating workshops is elaborated.......The specific concept of critical utopian action research is presented and discussed, as to its origin, use and potentials. The inspiration from Robert Jungk and his future creating workshops is elaborated....

  17. Critical Literacy: Foundational Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Allan

    2012-01-01

    The term "critical literacy" refers to use of the technologies of print and other media of communication to analyze, critique, and transform the norms, rule systems, and practices governing the social fields of everyday life (A. Luke, 2004). Since Freire's (1970) educational projects in Brazil, approaches to critical literacy have been…

  18. Rethinking Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Christopher J.

    2008-01-01

    Critical thinking is of primary importance in higher education, yet the concept remains slippery and the skill elusive. The author argues that most current critical thinking textbooks are out of line with the seminal work of John Dewey. Rather than logical argument and justification, it is suggested that carefulness, open-mindedness and creativity…

  19. Critical Teaching and Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R. E.

    1988-01-01

    This essay begins with a description of Jurgen Habermas's theory of communicative action, emphasizing aspects which relate to a critical theory of teaching/learning. Existing theory and research is reviewed. A critical theory of pedagogy as a form of communicative action or interaction is presented. (MT)

  20. Critical Discourse Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜梅香

    2006-01-01

    This paper is about the discourse analysis and illustrate the approach to analysis the Critical discourses and the discourses about the educational situation of China. And it also includes the condensed theoretical support of the Critical discourse analysis and analysis of the sample I of the discourses between an illiterate person and the literate.

  1. Critical Literacy: Foundational Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Allan

    2012-01-01

    The term "critical literacy" refers to use of the technologies of print and other media of communication to analyze, critique, and transform the norms, rule systems, and practices governing the social fields of everyday life (A. Luke, 2004). Since Freire's (1970) educational projects in Brazil, approaches to critical literacy have been…

  2. Critical Schwinger Pair Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gies, Holger; Torgrimsson, Greger

    2016-03-04

    We investigate Schwinger pair production in spatially inhomogeneous electric backgrounds. A critical point for the onset of pair production can be approached by fields that marginally provide sufficient electrostatic energy for an off-shell long-range electron-positron fluctuation to become a real pair. Close to this critical point, we observe features of universality which are analogous to continuous phase transitions in critical phenomena with the pair-production rate serving as an order parameter: electric backgrounds can be subdivided into universality classes and the onset of pair production exhibits characteristic scaling laws. An appropriate design of the electric background field can interpolate between power-law scaling, essential Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless-type scaling, and a power-law scaling with log corrections. The corresponding critical exponents only depend on the large-scale features of the electric background, whereas the microscopic details of the background play the role of irrelevant perturbations not affecting criticality.

  3. Predictability of Critical Transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xiaozhu; Hallerberg, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Critical transitions in multistable systems have been discussed as models for a variety of phenomena ranging from the extinctions of species to socio-economic changes and climate transitions between ice-ages and warm-ages. From bifurcation theory we can expect certain critical transitions to be preceded by a decreased recovery from external perturbations. The consequences of this critical slowing down have been observed as an increase in variance and autocorrelation prior to the transition. However especially in the presence of noise it is not clear, whether these changes in observation variables are statistically relevant such that they could be used as indicators for critical transitions. In this contribution we investigate the predictability of critical transitions in conceptual models. We study the the quadratic integrate-and-fire model and the van der Pol model, under the influence of external noise. We focus especially on the statistical analysis of the success of predictions and the overall predictabil...

  4. Critical Infrastructure References: Documented Literature Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    complex policy fabric that has developed over time. This paper summarises key parts of the federal critical infrastructure (CI) protection policy...vulnerability assessments. At each participating organization, interviewers talked with personnel from departments that had participated in the

  5. Nutritional requirements of surgical and critically-ill patients: do we really know what they need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Clare L

    2004-08-01

    Malnutrition remains a problem in surgical and critically-ill patients. In surgical patients the incidence of malnutrition ranges from 9 to 44%. Despite this variability there is a consensus that malnutrition worsens during hospital stay. In the intensive care unit (ICU), 43% of the patients are malnourished. Although poor nutrition during hospitalisation may be attributable to many factors, not least inadequacies in hospital catering services, there must also be the question of whether those patients who receive nutritional support are being fed appropriately. Indirect calorimetry is the 'gold standard' for determining an individual's energy requirements, but limited time and financial resources preclude the use of this method in everyday clinical practice. Studies in surgical and ICU patient populations have been reviewed to determine the 'optimal' energy and protein requirements of these patients. There are only a small number of studies that have attempted to measure energy requirements in the various surgical patient groups. Uncomplicated surgery has been associated with energy requirements of 1.0-1.15 x BMR whilst complicated surgery requires 1.25-1.4 x BMR in order to meet the patient's needs. Identifying the optimal requirements of ICU patients is far more difficult because of the heterogeneous nature of this population. In general, 5.6 kJ (25 kcal)/kg per d is an acceptable and achievable target intake, but patients with sepsis or trauma may require almost twice as much energy during the acute phase of their illness. The implications of failing to meet and exceeding the requirements of critically-ill patients are also reviewed.

  6. [Delusion in the critical patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palencia-Herrejón, E; Romera, M A; Silva, J A

    2008-02-01

    Delirium, the acute confusional syndrome, is a common although infradiagnosed problem in the critically ill patient, especially the hypoactive subtype. Risk factors for delirium are previous cognitive disturbances, some comorbidities, ambiental factors and the acute organic alterations of critical illness. Delirium is associated to an increase in short and long term mortality, prolongation of mechanical ventilation, increased Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and hospital length of stay, and cognitive impairment after hospital discharge. In the last years several tools have been developed to detect delirium in critically ill patients. The Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist (ICDSC) and the Confusion Assessment Method for ICU patients (CAM-ICU) have been validated and are useful even in patients receiving mechanical ventilation. Some interventions on specific risk factors can decrease the incidence of delirium in hospitalized patients. Treatment of delirium is based on the identification and correction of contributing factors, the introduction of support measures, and pharmacological therapy for symptomatic control. Halloperidol is the first line therapy of delirium in the critically ill patient, while experience with atypical neuroleptics and other drugs is limited, precluding to do recommendations about its use. Neuroleptic drugs can produce severe side effects and need careful dosage and monitoring. When agitation is important, can be necessary the simultaneous use of benzodiazepines or propofol, and some times, the temporal and protocolized application of physical restraints.

  7. Critical points of metal vapors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khomkin, A. L., E-mail: alhomkin@mail.ru; Shumikhin, A. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-15

    A new method is proposed for calculating the parameters of critical points and binodals for the vapor–liquid (insulator–metal) phase transition in vapors of metals with multielectron valence shells. The method is based on a model developed earlier for the vapors of alkali metals, atomic hydrogen, and exciton gas, proceeding from the assumption that the cohesion determining the basic characteristics of metals under normal conditions is also responsible for their properties in the vicinity of the critical point. It is proposed to calculate the cohesion of multielectron atoms using well-known scaling relations for the binding energy, which are constructed for most metals in the periodic table by processing the results of many numerical calculations. The adopted model allows the parameters of critical points and binodals for the vapor–liquid phase transition in metal vapors to be calculated using published data on the properties of metals under normal conditions. The parameters of critical points have been calculated for a large number of metals and show satisfactory agreement with experimental data for alkali metals and with available estimates for all other metals. Binodals of metals have been calculated for the first time.

  8. From self-organized to extended criticality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa eLovecchio

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We address the issue of criticality that is attracting the attention of an increasing number of neurophysiologists. Our main purpose is to establish the specific nature of some dynamical processes that although physically different, are usually termed as "critical", and we focus on those characterized by the cooperative interaction of many units. We notice that the term "criticality" has been adopted to denote both noise-induced phase transitions and Self-Organized Criticality (SOC with no clear connection with the traditional phase transitions, namely the transformation of a thermodynamic system from one state of matter to another. We notice the recent attractive proposal of extended criticality advocated by Bailly and Longo, which is realized through a wide set of critical points rather than emerging as a singularity from a unique value of the control parameter. We study a set of cooperatively firing neurons and we show that for an extended set of interaction couplings the system exhibits a form of temporal complexity similar to that emerging at criticality from ordinary phase transitions. This extended criticality regime is characterized by three main properties: i In the ideal limiting case of infinitely large time period, temporal complexity corresponds to Mittag-Leffler complexity; ii For large values of the interaction coupling the periodic nature of the process becomes predominant while maintaining to some extent, in the intermediate time asymptotic region, the signature of complexity; iii Focusing our attention on firing neuron avalanches, we find two of the popular SOC properties, namely the power indexes 2 and 1.5 respectively for time length and for the intensity of the avalanches. We derive the conclusion that SOC emerges from extended criticality, thereby explaining the experimental observation of Plenz and Beggs: avalanches occur in time with surprisingly regularity, in apparent conflict with he temporal complexity of physical

  9. A Profile for Safety Critical Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeberl, Martin; Søndergaard, Hans; Thomsen, Bent

    2007-01-01

    We propose a new, minimal specification for real-time Java for safety critical applications. The intention is to provide a profile that supports programming of applications that can be validated against safety critical standards such as DO-178B [15]. The proposed profile is in line with the Java...... specification request JSR-302: Safety Critical Java Technology, which is still under discussion. In contrast to the current direction of the expert group for the JSR-302 we do not subset the rather complex Real-Time Specification for Java (RTSJ). Nevertheless, our profile can be implemented on top of an RTSJ...

  10. Critical illness myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latronico, Nicola; Tomelleri, Giuliano; Filosto, Massimiliano

    2012-11-01

    To describe the incidence, major risk factors, and the clinical, electrophysiological, and histological features of critical illness myopathy (CIM). Major pathogenetic mechanisms and long-term consequences of CIM are also reviewed. CIM is frequently associated with critical illness polyneuropathy (CIP), and may have a relevant impact on patients' outcome. CIM has an earlier onset than CIP, and recovery is faster. Loss of myosin filaments on muscle biopsy is important to diagnose CIM, and has a good prognosis. Critical illness, use of steroids, and immobility concur in causing CIM. A rationale diagnostic approach to CIM using clinical, electrophysiological, and muscle biopsy investigations is important to plan adequate therapy and to predict recovery.

  11. Traffic class assignment for mixed-criticality frames in TTEthernet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavrilut, Voica Maria; Pop, Paul

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we are interested in mixed-criticality applications, which have functions with different timing requirements, i.e., hard real-time (HRT), soft real-time (SRT) and functions that are not time-critical (NC). The applications are implemented on distributed architectures that use the TT...

  12. Green Turtle Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data represent the critical habitat for green turtle as designated by Federal Register Vol. 63, No. 46701, September 2, 1998, Rules and Regulations.

  13. Designated Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Critical habitats include those areas documented as currently supporting self-sustaining populations of any threatened or endangered species of wildlife as well as...

  14. Art Criticism and Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Edmund Burke; Woods, Don

    1981-01-01

    The authors review a body of theory and accumulating evidence which suggests that critical study of the arts facilitates the development of cognitive skills, including those essential to reading. (Author/SJL)

  15. Green Turtle Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data represent the critical habitat for green turtle as designated by Federal Register Vol. 63, No. 46701, September 2, 1998, Rules and Regulations.

  16. Right Whale Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the critical habitat for Right Whale as designated by Federal Register Vol. 59, No. 28805, May 19, 1993, Rules and Regulations.

  17. Critical Limb Ischemia (CLI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Buerger’s Disease Carotid Artery Disease Chronic Venous Insufficiency Congenital Vascular Malformation Critical Limb Ischemia (CLI) Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) Diabetes and Vascular Disease Fibromuscular Dysplasia High Blood Pressure and Vascular Disease Kidney Failure ...

  18. Critical Schwinger pair production

    CERN Document Server

    Gies, Holger

    2015-01-01

    We investigate Schwinger pair production in spatially inhomogeneous electric backgrounds. A critical point for the onset of pair production can be approached by fields that marginally provide sufficient electrostatic energy for an off-shell long-range electron-positron fluctuation to become a real pair. Close to this critical point, we observe features of universality which are analogous to continuous phase transitions in critical phenomena with the pair-production rate serving as an order parameter: electric backgrounds can be subdivided into universality classes and the onset of pair production exhibits characteristic scaling laws. An appropriate design of the electric background field can interpolate between power-law scaling, essential BKT-type scaling and a power-law scaling with log corrections. The corresponding critical exponents only depend on the large-scale features of the electric background, whereas the microscopic details of the background play the role of irrelevant perturbations not affecting ...

  19. Wittgenstein and Critical Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Shusterman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In his paper Wittgenstein and Critical Reasoning, Richard Shusterman analyses the influence which Wittgensteinian aesthetics has had on contemporary criticism. Concentrating primarily on the second phase of Wittgenstein’s philosophy, Shusterman first demonstrates how the idea of language games and related concepts undermined both essentialist deductive and quasi-scientific inductive models of criticism. In place of these two approaches, Shusterman argues, Wittgensteinian aesthetics offers a new one, which he describes as perceptual-persuasive. In the next step, however, Shusterman observes that Wittgenstein’s followers often commit the very fallacy that Wittgenstein wanted to avoid, by imposing the perceptual persuasive model as the only valid solution for criticism. However, in order to be more in line with Wittgensteinian aesthetics, he argues, we should rather recognise the plurality of possibilities – perceptual-persuasive, deductive or inductive – whose choice depends on the language game currently played.

  20. Green Turtle Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the critical habitat for green turtle as designated by Federal Register Vol. 63, No. 46701, September 2, 1998, Rules and Regulations.

  1. Critical Habitat Designations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Endangered Species Act (ESA) requires the Federal government to designate 'critical habitat' for any species it lists under the ESA. This dataset combines both...

  2. Johnsons Seagrass Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the critical habitat for Johnson's Seagrass as designated by Federal Register Vol. 65, No. 66, Wednesday, April 5, 2000, Rules and Regulations.

  3. Smalltooth Sawfish Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the critical habitat for smalltooth sawfish (Pristis pectinatat) as designated by 74 FR 45353, September 2, 2009, Rules and Regulations.

  4. Furthering critical institutionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Dalton Cleaver

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This special issue furthers the study of natural resource management from a critical institutional perspective. Critical institutionalism (CI is a contemporary body of thought that explores how institutions dynamically mediate relationships between people, natural resources and society. It focuses on the complexity of institutions entwined in everyday social life, their historical formation, the interplay between formal and informal, traditional and modern arrangements, and the power relations that animate them. In such perspectives a social justice lens is often used to scrutinise the outcomes of institutional processes. We argue here that critical institutional approaches have potentially much to offer commons scholarship, particularly through the explanatory power of the concept of bricolage for better understanding institutional change.  Critical institutional approaches, gathering momentum over the past 15 years or so, have excited considerable interest but the insights generated from different disciplinary perspectives remain insufficiently synthesised. Analyses emphasising complexity can be relatively illegible to policy-makers, a fact which lessens their reach. This special issue therefore aims to synthesise critical institutional ideas and so to lay the foundation for moving beyond the emergent stage to make meaningful academic and policy impact. In bringing together papers here we define and synthesise key themes of critical institutionalism, outline the concept of institutional bricolage and identity some key challenges facing this school of thought.

  5. Properties of Neutron Star Critical Collapses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Mew-Bing

    2010-01-01

    Critical phenomena in gravitational collapse opened a new mathematical vista into the theory of general relativity and may ultimately entail fundamental physical implication in observations. However, at present, the dynamics of critical phenomena in gravitational collapse scenarios are still largely unknown. My thesis seeks to understand the properties of the threshold in the solution space of the Einstein field equations between the black hole and neutron star phases, understand the properties of the neutron star critical solution and clarify the implication of these results on realistic astrophysical scenarios. We develop a new set of neutron star-like initial data to establish the universality of the neutron star critical solution and analyze the structure of neutron star and neutron star-like critical collapses via the study of the phase spaces. We also study the different time scales involved in the neutron star critical solution and analyze the properties of the critical index via comparisons between neutron star and neutron star-like initial data. Finally, we explore the boundary of the attraction basin of the neutron star critical solution and its transition to a known set of non-critical fixed points.

  6. Time-to-Hire Charts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — Agencies report time-to-hire data for all hires made using USAJOBS and report on government-wide mission critical occupations and agency specific mission critical...

  7. "Syllable-timing in Brazilian Portuguese": uma crítica a Roy Major Tempo-silábico em português do Brasil: a critic to Roy Major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plínio Almeida BARBOSA

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A tese de R. Major, segundo a qual haveria evidências para se considerar o português brasileiro (PB como "stress-timing" ou tendendo para tal, é rediscutida. As questões fonético-fonológicas suscitadas pela dicotomia de línguas "stress-timed" e "syllable-timed" e o suposto isocronismo absoluto são apresentadas sob um prisma estritamente prosódico-temporal. Um modelo empregando dois osciladores acoplados (acentual e silábico possibilita a caracterização biparamétrica (taxa de elocução e força de acoplamento de um conjunto arbitrário de frases de uma língua e permite mostrar que, em PB, há alto grau de "syllable-timing". À luz de uma análise fonética mais cuidadosa dos fatores ligados ao ritmo, mostra-se que os argumentos apresentados por Major para justificar "stress-timing" em PB são completamente equivocados.This paper reintroduces the discussion about stress-timing in Brazilian Portuguese (BP. It begins by surveying some phonetic and phonological issues raised by the syllable- vs stress-timed dichotomy which culminated with the emergence of the p-center notion. Strict considerations of timing of V-V units and stress groups are taken into account to analyze the long term coupling of two basic oscillators (vowel and stress flow. This coupling allows a two-parameter characterization of language rhythms (coupling strength and speech rate revealing that BP utterances present a high-degree of syllable-timing. A comparison with other languages, including European Portuguese, is also presented. The results analyzed indicate that Major's arguments for considering Portuguese (sic as stress-timing are misleading.

  8. Music critic Gustav Michel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasić Aleksandar N.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The writers whose real vocation was not music left significant traces in the history of Serbian music critics and essayism of the late 19th century and the first half of the 20th century. Numerous authors, literary historians theoreticians and critics, jurists and theatre historians, wrote successfully on music in Serbian daily newspapers, literary and other magazines, until the Second World War. This study is devoted to Gustav Michel (1868 - 1926, one of the music amateurs who ought to be remembered in the history of Serbian music critics. Gustav Michel was a pharmacist by vocation. He ran a private pharmacy in Belgrade all his life. But he was a musician as well. He played the viola in the second (in chronological order of foundation Serbian String Quartet. The ensemble mostly consisted of amateurs, and it performed standard pieces of chamber music (W. A. Mozart L. v. Beethoven, F. Schubert, F. Mendelsohn-Bartholdy, A. Dvořžak. These musicians had performed public concerts in Belgrade since 1900 up until Michel’s death. Belgrade music critics prised the performances of this string ensemble highly. Gustav Michel was also a music critic. Until now only seven articles, published by this author between 1894 and 1903, in Order (Red, Folk Newspaper (Narodne novine and Serbian Literary Magazine (Srpski književni glasnik have been found. Michel’s preserved articles unambiguously prove that their author had a solid knowledge of music theory and history, the knowledge that exceeded amateurism. Nevertheless, Michel did not burden his first critics with expert language of musicology. Later on, in Serbian Literary Magazine, the magazine which left enough room for music, Michel penetrated more into musical terminology, thus educating slowly forming Serbian concert-going public. The analysis of Michel’s texts showed that he was not, in contrast to the majority of professional music critics, an opponent of virtuosity. Gentle and liberal, he did not

  9. Critical Management in Knowledge Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, Reynold

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to invite educational managers and management educators to reflect critically on practice. Design/methodology/approach: Using the point of Socrates' death, the paper suggests ways of reflecting on actions using ethically-critical, socially-critical, environmentally-critical, politically-critical and…

  10. The Anatomy of Critical Discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, Lawrence W.

    1968-01-01

    Critical discourse is best understood when its logical features are identified. An examination of the basic elements and modes of rhetorical criticism (a form of critical discourse) produces a finite set of options for the critic, thus enabling him to develop a system of alternatives in his critical efforts. For example, by selecting from among…

  11. Do Neural Avalanches Indicate Criticality After All?

    CERN Document Server

    Dehghani, Mohammad; Shahbazi, Farhad

    2016-01-01

    Neural avalanches in size and duration exhibit a power law distribution illustrating as a straight line when plotted on the logarithmic scales. The power-law exponent is interpreted as the signature of criticality and it is assumed that the resting brain operates near criticality. However, there is no clear evidence that supports this assumption, and even there are extensive research studies conflicting one another. The model of the current paper is an extension of a previous publication wherein we used an integrate-and-fire model on a regular lattice with periodic boundary conditions and introduced the temporal complexity as a genuine signature of criticality. However, in that model the power-law distribution of neural avalanches were manifestation of super-criticality rather than criticality. Here, however, we show that replacing the discrete noise in the model with a Gaussian noise and continuous time solution of the equation leads to coincidence of temporal complexity and spatiotemporal patterns of neural...

  12. Criticality in Plasma Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machta, Benjamin; Papanikolaou, Stefanos; Sethna, James; Veatch, Sarah

    2011-03-01

    We are motivated by recent observations of micron-sized critical fluctuations in the 2d Ising Universality class in plasma membrane vesicles that are isolated from cortical cytoskeleton. We construct a minimal model of the plasma membrane's interaction with intact cytoskeleton which explains why large scale phase separation has not been observed in Vivo. In addition, we use analytical techniques from conformal field theory and numerical simulations to investigate the form of effective forces mediated by the membrane's proximity to criticality. We show that the range of this force is maximized near a critical point and we quantify its usefulness in mediating communication using techniques from information theory. Finally we use theoretical techniques from statistical physics in conjunction with Monte-Carlo simulations to understand how criticality can be used to increase the efficiency of membrane bound receptor mediated signaling. We expect that this sort of analysis will be broadly useful in understanding and quantifying the role of lipid ``rafts'' in a wide variety of membrane bound processes. Generally, we demonstrate that critical fluctuations provide a physical mechanism to organize and spatially segregate membrane components by providing channels for interaction over relatively large distances.

  13. Critical Environmental Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VICTOR SOROCOVSCHI

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A short etymological interpretation of the notion of regions (Rette Lineatte, etc.. The region is: R= f (S+P, where S is space and P is power. There follows an evaluation of the characteristics of the region and the presentation of different approaches to the region. From the classic ideas (von Humboldt, 1885, Dokuceaev, 1899, Herbertson, 1905, and others we get to a wide interpretative array of what we accept as organizational spatial units of geographical reality. The environmental region has important connotations with regard to the system as a surrounded element (man, society and the adjacent system. Critical environmental regions are areas where there already exists interactive degradation. The critical character may be physical, hence the “geocritical regions” or the result of human impact, hence the “anthropocritical regions.” Critical situations are differentiated at the local, regional, and global level. In order to understand critical regional situations we must refer to the following characteristics: fragility, resilience, and vulnerability. Still there are few environmental studies on critical regions and work must be done in this field.

  14. Critical Machine Based Scheduling -A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivek, P.; Saravanan, R.; Chandrasekaran, M.; Pugazhenthi, R.

    2017-03-01

    This article aims to identify the natural occurrence of the critical machines in scheduling. The exciting scheduling in the real time manufacturing environment is focused on considering equal weight-age of all the machines, but very few researchers were considered the real time constraint(s) like processor/ machine/ workstation availability, etc.,. This article explores the gap between the theory and practices by identifying the critical machine in scheduling and helps the researcher to find the suitable problem in their case study environment. Through the literature survey, it is evident that, in scheduling the occurrence of the critical machine is in nature. The critical machine is found in various names and gives a various range of weight-age based on the particular manufacturing environment and it plays a vital role in scheduling which includes one or more circumstances of occurrence in the production environment. Very few researchers were reported that in manufacturing environment, the critical machine occurrence is in nature, but most of the researchers were focused to optimize the manufacturing environment by only reducing the cycle time. In real-time manufacturing environment, the scheduling of critical machine(s) was keenly monitored and some weight-age was considered.

  15. Why Mission-Critical Systems Are Critical to the Future of Academic Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlander, Cyril

    2012-01-01

    A mission-critical system is one that is so intertwined with the operation of an organization that the organization can scarcely function without it. Just as in corporations, mission-critical library systems offer the capability to unlock talent and time. They are essential to the transformation of higher education and the learning environment. A…

  16. Critical Narrative Inquiry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    While organizations have become central for thinking and structuring contemporary social action, existing perspectives on what they are and how to deal with them are still rooted in modern ideas about the foundations of society. The chapters in this volume take critical narrative inquiry — inspired...... by postmodern or post-human approaches to organizations — as a broad range of research and development strategies that challenge the dominant perspectives prevalent in the organizational literature. The purpose of the volume is three-fold. Firstly, a critical reading of organizations foregrounding notions...... of power and ethics is presented. Secondly, a new framework for understanding and analyzing organizational action based on critical notions of storytelling and sustainability is unfolded. Thirdly, the framework is deployed through innovative concepts and learning methodologies for leadership...

  17. Apoptosis in Critical Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Golubev

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis is a variant of programmed cell death. This term was introduced by Kerr et al. in 1972, but information on the important role of apoptosis of some cells in critical conditions has recently appeared. The review of literature considers the basic mechanisms of induction, development, and regulation of apoptosis. Based on a literature update, the authors analyze the role of apoptosis in the pathogenesis of various critical conditions: acute lung lesion (neutrophilic and epithelial hypotheses, sepsis, myocardial infarction, and ischemic stroke (apoptosis of tubular epithelial cells, hepatic dysfunction in sepsis, myopathies in critical conditions. The data of studies dealing with the effects of inhaled and non-inhaled anesthetics on the apoptosis of neurons of the brain and lymphocytes are given. The review of literature presents the options of therapeutic apoptosis modulation by pharmacological methods.  

  18. Emergency responders' critical infrared (ERCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konsin, Larry S.

    2004-08-01

    Emergency Responders (Fire, Police, Medical, and Emergency Management) face a high risk of injury or death. Even before September 11, 2001, public and private organizations have been driven to better protect Emergency Responders through education, training and improved technology. Recent research on Emergency Responder safety, health risks, and personal protective requirements, shows infrared (IR) imaging as a critical need. Today"s Emergency Responders are increasingly challenged to do more, facing demands requiring technological assistance and/or solutions. Since the introduction of Fire Service IR imaging in the mid 1990s, applications have increased. Emergency response IR is no longer just seeing through smoke to find victims or the seat of a fire. Many more mission critical needs now exist across the broad spectrum of emergency response. At the same time, Emergency Responder injuries and deaths are increasing. The Office of Domestic Preparedness (ODP) has also recognized IR imaging as critical in protecting our communities -- and in preventing many of the injuries and deaths of Emergency Responders. Currently, only 25% of all fire departments (or less than 7% of individual firefighters) have IR imaging. Availability to Police, EMS and Emergency Management is even lower. Without ERCI, Emergency Responders and our communities are at risk.

  19. Critical Axial Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walt Wells

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Our objective in this paper is to solve a second order differential equation for a long, simply supported column member subjected to a lateral axial load using Heun's numerical method. We will use the solution to find the critical load at which the column member will fail due to buckling. We will calculate this load using Euler's derived analytical approach for an exact solution, as well as Euler's Numerical Method. We will then compare the three calculated values to see how much they deviate from one another. During the critical load calculation, it will be necessary to calculate the moment of inertia for the column member.

  20. The critical interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pold, Søren

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, I argue that aesthetics might serve the role of critical reflection on representation within the field of computing, and I demonstrate through three analytic examples from computer art how this might look like and what the contribution might be.......In this paper, I argue that aesthetics might serve the role of critical reflection on representation within the field of computing, and I demonstrate through three analytic examples from computer art how this might look like and what the contribution might be....

  1. Critical Narrative Inquiry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    by postmodern or post-human approaches to organizations — as a broad range of research and development strategies that challenge the dominant perspectives prevalent in the organizational literature. The purpose of the volume is three-fold. Firstly, a critical reading of organizations foregrounding notions...... of power and ethics is presented. Secondly, a new framework for understanding and analyzing organizational action based on critical notions of storytelling and sustainability is unfolded. Thirdly, the framework is deployed through innovative concepts and learning methodologies for leadership...

  2. Critical care transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kenneth A; Sullivan, Francis M

    2013-12-03

    Critical care transport (CCT) is the segment of the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) system that transports patients who are critically ill or injured. Nearly 1,000 medical helicopters affiliated with over 300 transport programs, hundreds of fixed-wing aircraft, and many, many ground ambulances assisting adult, pediatric and neonatal CCT teams are operating in the United States.1 This article reviews the history of and indications for CCT, team qualifications, vehicle options, safety, CCT system design, and physician involvement in CCT. It concludes with a brief review of CCT services in Rhode Island.

  3. Communication and Critical Thinking Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Elizabeth H.

    2011-03-01

    This talk will discuss how faculty can help graduate students (and even postdocs) improve non-technical professional skills required for success in scientific careers. Examples to be covered will include a) planning and delivering high-quality presentations b) listening critically to others' presentations c) writing grant proposals, cover letters, and CV's d) reviewing manuscripts and responding to referee reports. The faculty member(s) involved must be prepared to project a welcoming attitude, to convey the importance of these skills, and to make a consistent investment of time.

  4. Delirium in Pediatric Critical Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Anita K; Bell, Michael J; Traube, Chani

    2017-10-01

    Delirium occurs frequently in the critically ill child. It is a syndrome characterized by an acute onset and fluctuating course, with behaviors that reflect a disturbance in awareness and cognition. Delirium represents global cerebral dysfunction due to the direct physiologic effects of an underlying medical illness or its treatment. Pediatric delirium is strongly associated with poor outcomes, including increased mortality, prolonged intensive care unit length of stay, longer time on mechanical ventilation, and increased cost of care. With heightened awareness, the pediatric intensivist can detect, treat, and prevent delirium in at-risk children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Cultural criticism as an imperative for Christians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andries G. van Aarde

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article cultural criticism is approached from an epistemological perspective, in other words from the viewpoint of a theory of knowledge that includes matters such as the nature of knowledge, its sources, criteria, possibilities, and limits. Seen from this perspective, cultural criticism represents a critical position towards those culturally oriented studies, which advocate a positivist schema in epistemology. A cultural-critical disposition in Christian theology is to question whether meaningful life depends on a Christian’s acceptance and conformity to the so-called “orders of creation” as divine imperatives. Since such compliance was biblically legitimated as God’s will and wisdom, cultural criticism seeks for another theological validation that can create space for an “alternative wisdom” within a postmodern paradigm. The article aims at showing that dialectical thinking paved the way for applying critical theory in the humanities, theology and biblical exegesis. In the article different critical theories in firstcontinental (Euro-centric philosophy and Christian theology are discussed. It argues that cultural criticism should be seen as an imperative for Christians because they ought to build their lives on the “cultural wisdom” of Jesus of Nazareth, which pertains to a “cultural-critical” position in his time.

  6. Introduction, Critical Text logy and Textual Criticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    فرزاد قائمی

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Asadi’s Shahnameh is a great epic consisting of twenty-four thousand distiches and is attributed to Asadi or another poet of the same nickname. This work was created in the same line of development as Ferdowsi’s Shahnameh. The main theme is the old campaign of Soleymān to Iran to confront with Rostam and Keykhosrow and to repeat the pattern of Rostam’s battles with his children in a state of anonymity. The text structure is episodic with numerous central characters. The narratives are for the most part derived from oral literature. Textual evidence demonstrates that the poet is Shiite. The narrative content, chronogram as well as the literary and linguistic style of one of the manuscripts reveal that the text was written in the ninth century (probably 809 A.H.. The article first introduces the text and the origin of its narratives in oral literature; it then proceeds with the study of the narrative structure of the epic using three available manuscripts dating back to the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries (A.H.. Textology and Textual Criticism have been employed as the research methodology. The literary and linguistic features of the text have also been examined at three levels: lexical, syntactic and rhetorical.

  7. Robinson’s Indirect Ways to Support Critical Period Hypothesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Si-qin

    2014-01-01

    On the Critical Period Hypothesis, Robinson indirectly supported it in his paper Individual Differences, Cognitive Abili-ties, Aptitude Complexes and Learning Conditions in Second Language Acquisition. This paper digs out that time-boundedness and different lengths of time are important issues in his frame work, closely related with the critical period of time for language acquisi-tion. In conclusion, Robinson’s framework is convincing, with the premise of admitting the existence of the critical period hy-pothesis.

  8. The Application and Significance of Timing Blood Sugar Monitoring in Blood Sugar Management of Critically Ill Patients in RICU.%定时血糖监测在RICU危重症患者血糖管理中的应用及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱贻芬

    2013-01-01

    RICU病房中危重症患者的血糖管理已经成为临床医务工作者的重点。本文通过对危重患者血糖的定时监测,总结出的血糖管理方法,临床护理人员在血糖管理中有着非常重要的作用。定期监测患者的血糖,纠正血糖异常将患者的血糖控制在理想的范围内能有效改善危重患者病情,对促进疾病恢复,减少并发症,降低病死率有着重要意义。%The blood sugar management of critically ill patients in RICU had become the emphasis of medical workers. Through the timing of blood sugar monitoring of the critically ill patients, we summed up the methods of blood sugar management, and found medical workers was very important role in the blood sugar management. It could effectively improve the critically ill patient's condition, promote the disease recovery, reducing complicate, drop the mortality by timing blood sugar monitoring and correcting the abnormality of blood sugar.

  9. Marxist Literary Criticism, Then and Now

    OpenAIRE

    Imre Szeman

    2009-01-01

    Is there such a thing as a Marxist literary criticism? Imre Szeman argues that, despite the fact that Marxism has long privileged literature as an object of analysis and critique, there is no unitary methodology or set of considerations that distinguish a “Marxist” approach to literature from others. Here, Szeman provides a historicization and structural analysis of what he identifies as the three primary modes of Marxist literary criticism. At the same time, this essay also points to a fourt...

  10. Critical market crashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sornette, D.

    2003-04-01

    This review presents a general theory of financial crashes and of stock market instabilities that his co-workers and the author have developed over the past seven years. We start by discussing the limitation of standard analyses for characterizing how crashes are special. The study of the frequency distribution of drawdowns, or runs of successive losses shows that large financial crashes are “outliers”: they form a class of their own as can be seen from their statistical signatures. If large financial crashes are “outliers”, they are special and thus require a special explanation, a specific model, a theory of their own. In addition, their special properties may perhaps be used for their prediction. The main mechanisms leading to positive feedbacks, i.e., self-reinforcement, such as imitative behavior and herding between investors are reviewed with many references provided to the relevant literature outside the narrow confine of Physics. Positive feedbacks provide the fuel for the development of speculative bubbles, preparing the instability for a major crash. We demonstrate several detailed mathematical models of speculative bubbles and crashes. A first model posits that the crash hazard drives the market price. The crash hazard may sky-rocket at some times due to the collective behavior of “noise traders”, those who act on little information, even if they think they “know”. A second version inverses the logic and posits that prices drive the crash hazard. Prices may skyrocket at some times again due to the speculative or imitative behavior of investors. According the rational expectation model, this entails automatically a corresponding increase of the probability for a crash. We also review two other models including the competition between imitation and contrarian behavior and between value investors and technical analysts. The most important message is the discovery of robust and universal signatures of the approach to crashes. These precursory

  11. Does College Teach Critical Thinking? A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Christopher R.; Kuncel, Nathan R.

    2016-01-01

    Educators view critical thinking as an essential skill, yet it remains unclear how effectively it is being taught in college. This meta-analysis synthesizes research on gains in critical thinking skills and attitudinal dispositions over various time frames in college. The results suggest that both critical thinking skills and dispositions improve…

  12. Critical thinking in clinical nurse education: application of Paul's model of critical thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrea Sullivan, E

    2012-11-01

    Nurse educators recognize that many nursing students have difficulty in making decisions in clinical practice. The ability to make effective, informed decisions in clinical practice requires that nursing students know and apply the processes of critical thinking. Critical thinking is a skill that develops over time and requires the conscious application of this process. There are a number of models in the nursing literature to assist students in the critical thinking process; however, these models tend to focus solely on decision making in hospital settings and are often complex to actualize. In this paper, Paul's Model of Critical Thinking is examined for its application to nursing education. I will demonstrate how the model can be used by clinical nurse educators to assist students to develop critical thinking skills in all health care settings in a way that makes critical thinking skills accessible to students.

  13. Translation as Literary Criticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Stefano, B. Follkart

    1982-01-01

    It is proposed that literary translation is intrinsically an act of literary criticism. This theory is illustrated by discussion of specific problems in translating Sartre's "La Nausee" and Leonard Forest's "Le pays de la Sagouine," especially the use of verb tense. (MSE)

  14. Critical-Illness Polyneuropathy

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1993-01-01

    A review of the neurological complications of sepsis from the University of Western Ontario, London, and Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada, draws attention to “critical-illness polyneuropathy” as a cause of difficulty in weaning from the ventilator.

  15. Reply to critics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindahl, H.K.

    2014-01-01

    In my reply to critics I address a raft of issues raised by the commentators to Fault Lines of Globalization. These issues include: the radicalization of the Husserlian concept of intentionality as differance; the irreducibility of a-legality to (il)legality; the relation between legal orders and

  16. Views on Critical Pedagogy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李怡静

    2015-01-01

    Instead of being a theory Critical Pedagogy is a way of teaching. It tries to establish a bridge between the classroom and the wider social context, and mainly deals with power, such as social justice and social change through education. Based on the idea that education should be equal to everyone, CP never stops exploring the right way of realizing education equality.

  17. Translation as Literary Criticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Stefano, B. Follkart

    1982-01-01

    It is proposed that literary translation is intrinsically an act of literary criticism. This theory is illustrated by discussion of specific problems in translating Sartre's "La Nausee" and Leonard Forest's "Le pays de la Sagouine," especially the use of verb tense. (MSE)

  18. Introducing Veteran Critical Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Glenn A.; Lincoln, Yvonna S.

    2017-01-01

    Research on student veterans is in an infant state. As veterans continue to enroll in institutions of higher education, researchers must explore new ways of "knowing" student veterans. It is not enough to only describe and model this growing demographic, researchers must also have a tool for criticism and question. The next in an…

  19. TQM in critical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massarweh, L J

    1998-06-01

    No consistently accepted methods reliably measure quality differences among and within critical care units (CCUs). With total quality management, physicians and nurses have the framework to accurately assess the organizational climate of their CCU. A study asks nurses to identify organizational components in their CCU.

  20. Reply to critics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindahl, H.K.

    2014-01-01

    In my reply to critics I address a raft of issues raised by the commentators to Fault Lines of Globalization. These issues include: the radicalization of the Husserlian concept of intentionality as differance; the irreducibility of a-legality to (il)legality; the relation between legal orders and so

  1. Critical Points of Contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Morelli, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    where the networks meet and establish contact. Thus we argue for the usefulness of the notion of Critical Point of Contact (CPC) to deepen our understanding of the actual life within networks. En route to this notion we draw upon theories within as diverse realms such as interaction design, service...

  2. Critical Points of Contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    In this brief article, we shall illustrate the application of the analytical and interventionist concept of ‘Critical Points of Contact’ (CPC) through a number of urban design studios. The notion of CPC has been developed over a span of the last three to four years and is reported in more detail...

  3. APS Quantum Critical Higgs

    CERN Document Server

    Bellazzini, Brando; Hubisz, Jay; Lee, Seung J.; Serra, Javi; Terning, John

    2016-01-01

    The appearance of the light Higgs boson at the LHC is difficult to explain, particularly in light of naturalness arguments in quantum field theory. However light scalars can appear in condensed matter systems when parameters (like the amount of doping) are tuned to a critical point. At zero temperature these quantum critical points are directly analogous to the finely tuned standard model. In this paper we explore a class of models with a Higgs near a quantum critical point that exhibits non-mean-field behavior. We discuss the parametrization of the effects of a Higgs emerging from such a critical point in terms of form factors, and present two simple realistic scenarios based on either generalized free fields or a 5D dual in AdS space. For both of these models we consider the processes $gg\\to ZZ$ and $gg\\to hh$, which can be used to gain information about the Higgs scaling dimension and IR transition scale from the experimental data.

  4. Infancy and Critical Theory

    OpenAIRE

    UENO, Toshiya

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines with a relationship between infancy and critical theory by addressing a Japanese postwar intellectual who is a kind of counterparts of Frankfurt School scholar in Euro/Am context, Fujita Shozo, and one of his texts in the details.

  5. Replies to Criticisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, James R.

    2009-01-01

    In this essay, Hamilton responds to criticisms of his book "The Art of Theater" (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2007). Acknowledging that he expected that the central proposals in "The Art of Theater" would seem a little strange to philosophers, he reiterates his belief that the three general facts of any theatrical performance are its presentation, its…

  6. The critical interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pold, Søren

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, I argue that aesthetics might serve the role of critical reflection on representation within the field of computing, and I demonstrate through three analytic examples from computer art how this might look like and what the contribution might be....

  7. Evaluation of real-time data obtained from gravimetric preparation of antineoplastic agents shows medication errors with possible critical therapeutic impact: Results of a large-scale, multicentre, multinational, retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terkola, R; Czejka, M; Bérubé, J

    2017-08-01

    Medication errors are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality especially with antineoplastic drugs, owing to their narrow therapeutic index. Gravimetric workflow software systems have the potential to reduce volumetric errors during intravenous antineoplastic drug preparation which may occur when verification is reliant on visual inspection. Our aim was to detect medication errors with possible critical therapeutic impact as determined by the rate of prevented medication errors in chemotherapy compounding after implementation of gravimetric measurement. A large-scale, retrospective analysis of data was carried out, related to medication errors identified during preparation of antineoplastic drugs in 10 pharmacy services ("centres") in five European countries following the introduction of an intravenous workflow software gravimetric system. Errors were defined as errors in dose volumes outside tolerance levels, identified during weighing stages of preparation of chemotherapy solutions which would not otherwise have been detected by conventional visual inspection. The gravimetric system detected that 7.89% of the 759 060 doses of antineoplastic drugs prepared at participating centres between July 2011 and October 2015 had error levels outside the accepted tolerance range set by individual centres, and prevented these doses from reaching patients. The proportion of antineoplastic preparations with deviations >10% ranged from 0.49% to 5.04% across sites, with a mean of 2.25%. The proportion of preparations with deviations >20% ranged from 0.21% to 1.27% across sites, with a mean of 0.71%. There was considerable variation in error levels for different antineoplastic agents. Introduction of a gravimetric preparation system for antineoplastic agents detected and prevented dosing errors which would not have been recognized with traditional methods and could have resulted in toxicity or suboptimal therapeutic outcomes for patients undergoing anticancer treatment.

  8. Analysis of construction dynamic plan using fuzzy critical path method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurij Kazimir V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Critical Path Method (CPM technique has become widely recognized as valuable tool for the planning and scheduling large construction projects. The aim of this paper is to present an analytical method for finding the Critical Path in the precedence network diagram where the duration of each activity is represented by a trapezoidal fuzzy number. This Fuzzy Critical Path Method (FCPM uses a defuzzification formula for trapezoidal fuzzy number and applies it on the total float (slack time for each activity in the fuzzy precedence network to find the critical path. The method presented in this paper is very effective in determining the critical activities and finding the critical paths.

  9. Situation criticality and basketball officials' stress levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Jason; Basevitch, Itay; Rodenberg, Ryan; Tenenbaum, Gershon

    2017-11-01

    Officials are expected to perform impeccably despite the wide range of stressors they experience. A stressor that officials frequently report is situation criticality. Situation criticality is comprised of score differential (i.e., more pressure in close games) and time remaining in a game (i.e., more pressure as time expires), which affects athletes' stress levels. The present study explored the effect of situation criticality on officials' stress levels. High school basketball officials (n = 108) with an average of 18.1 (SD = 11.2) years of officiating experience were given a survey packet containing game situations that varied in criticality. For each game situation (n = 9) officials completed the overall stress and appraisal portions of the Stress Appraisal Measure (SAM). Results revealed that situation criticality has an effect on officials' perceived stress levels. Both threat and challenge appraisals were positively correlated with perceived stress. Overall, these findings indicate that officials' stress levels fluctuate within games depending on score differential and time of game. The findings encourage officials to recognise and manage their stress, possibly through their appraisals. Additionally, the findings can affect the training of officials in the management of stress, as well as prompt the consideration of potential rule changes that reflect the increased situational demands on officials in critical situations (e.g., expanded instant replay).

  10. Critical care nursing: Embedded complex systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinier, Ruth; Liske, Lori; Nenadovic, Vera

    2016-01-01

    Variability in parameters such as heart rate, respiratory rate and blood pressure defines healthy physiology and the ability of the person to adequately respond to stressors. Critically ill patients have lost this variability and require highly specialized nursing care to support life and monitor changes in condition. The critical care environment is a dynamic system through which information flows. The critical care unit is typically designed as a tree structure with generally one attending physician and multiple nurses and allied health care professionals. Information flow through the system allows for identification of deteriorating patient status and timely interventionfor rescue from further deleterious effects. Nurses provide the majority of direct patient care in the critical care setting in 2:1, 1:1 or 1:2 nurse-to-patient ratios. The bedside nurse-critically ill patient relationship represents the primary, real-time feedback loop of information exchange, monitoring and treatment. Variables that enhance information flow through this loop and support timely nursing intervention can improve patient outcomes, while barriers can lead to errors and adverse events. Examining patient information flow in the critical care environment from a dynamic systems perspective provides insights into how nurses deliver effective patient care and prevent adverse events.

  11. Ambulance nurses' experiences of nursing critically ill and injured children: A difficult aspect of ambulance nursing care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordén, Charlotte; Hult, Karin; Engström, Åsa

    2014-04-01

    Ambulance nurses work daily in both emergency and non-emergency situations that can be demanding. One emotionally demanding situation for ambulance nurses is to nurse children who are ill. The aim of this study was to describe ambulance nurses' experiences of nursing critically ill or injured children. Eight specialist ambulance nurses were interviewed and the interviews were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The analysis resulted in one theme, a difficult aspect of ambulance nursing care, with five categories. The security of both child and parents was considered to be paramount. Ambulance nurses felt relieved when they handed over the responsibility and the child to the receiving unit. The ambulance nurses felt that more training, education and follow-up was desirable in order to increase their security when nursing children. Ambulance nurses are subject to stressful feelings while nursing children. As providing reassurance to the child and its parents is a cornerstone of the treatment, it is important for the ambulance nurses to take the time to build up a trusting relationship in such an encounter. Skill development in the area might lead to increased security and reduce the mental burden resulting from negative stress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Critical theory and holocaust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Predrag

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author is attempting to establish the relationship - or the lack of it - of the Critical Theory to the "Jewish question" and justification of perceiving signs of Jewish religious heritage in the thought of the representatives of this movement. The holocaust marked out by the name of "Auschwitz", is here tested as a point where the nature of this relationship has been decided. In this encounter with the cardinal challenge for the contemporary social theory, the particularity of the Frankfurt School reaction is here revealed through Adorno installing Auschwitz as unexpected but lawful emblem of the ending of the course that modern history has assumed. The critique of this "fascination" with Auschwitz, as well as certain theoretical pacification and measured positioning of the holocaust into discontinued plane of "unfinished" and continuation and closure of the valued project, are given through communicative-theoretical pre-orientation of Jürgen Habermas’s Critical Theory and of his followers. Finally, through the work of Detlev Claussen, it is suggested that in the youngest generation of Adorno’s students there are signs of revision to once already revised Critical Theory and a kind of defractured and differentiated return to the initial understanding of the decisiveness of the holocaust experience. This shift in the attitude of the Critical Theory thinkers to the provocation of holocaust is not, however, particularly reflected towards the status of Jews and their tradition, but more to the age old questioning and explanatory patterns for which they served as a "model". The question of validity of the enlightenment project, the nature of occidental rationalism, (nonexistence of historical theology and understanding of the identity and emancipation - describe the circle of problems around which the disagreement is concentrated in the social critical theory.

  13. Critical Education, Critical Pedagogies, Marxist Education in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Jean Ann; Morris, Doug; Gounari, Panayota; Agostinone-Wilson, Faith

    2015-01-01

    As critical pedagogy becomes more mainstream on the educational landscape in the United States, it is important to revisit the original tenets of critical pedagogy and explore their current manifestations. Since the beginning of "criticalism" from the theoretical/foundational work of the Frankfurt School of Critical Social Theory,…

  14. Critical Education, Critical Pedagogies, Marxist Education in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Jean Ann; Morris, Doug; Gounari, Panayota; Agostinone-Wilson, Faith

    2015-01-01

    As critical pedagogy becomes more mainstream on the educational landscape in the United States, it is important to revisit the original tenets of critical pedagogy and explore their current manifestations. Since the beginning of "criticalism" from the theoretical/foundational work of the Frankfurt School of Critical Social Theory,…

  15. 3rd International Workshop on Critical Systems Development with UML

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Jürjens; Fernandez, Eduardo B.; Robert France; Bernhard Rumpe

    2017-01-01

    Topics of the Workshop include: --- Applications of UML to real-time systems security-critical systems dependable / safety-critical systems performance-critical systems embedded systems hybrid systems reactive systems --- Extensions of UML (UML-RT, UMLsec, Automotive UML, Embedded UML, ...) and new developments (UML 2.0, MDA) --- Modeling, synthesis, model transformation, code generation, testing, validation, and verification of critical systems using UML --- Aspect-oriented or Component-base...

  16. 3rd International Workshop on Critical Systems Development with UML

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Jürjens; Eduardo B. Fernandez; Robert France; Bernhard Rumpe

    2016-01-01

    Topics of the Workshop include: --- Applications of UML to real-time systems security-critical systems dependable / safety-critical systems performance-critical systems embedded systems hybrid systems reactive systems --- Extensions of UML (UML-RT, UMLsec, Automotive UML, Embedded UML, ...) and new developments (UML 2.0, MDA) --- Modeling, synthesis, model transformation, code generation, testing, validation, and verification of critical systems using UML --- Aspect-oriented or Component-base...

  17. Finding critical points whose polarization is also a critical point

    OpenAIRE

    Squassina, Marco; Van Schaftingen, Jean

    2011-01-01

    We show that near any given minimizing sequence of paths for the mountain pass lemma, there exists a critical point whose polarization is also a critical point. This is motivated by the fact that if any polarization of a critical point is also a critical point and the Euler-Lagrange equation is a second-order semi-linear elliptic problem, T. Bartsch, T. Weth and M. Willem (J. Anal. Math., 2005) have proved that the critical point is axially symmetric.

  18. Feeding the critically ill obese patient: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secombe, Paul; Harley, Simon; Chapman, Marianne; Aromataris, Edoardo

    2015-10-01

    intensify and compound the metabolic changes that occur during critical illness. The early phases of critical illness are characterized by an increase in energy expenditure, resulting in a catabolic state driven by the stress response. Activation of the stress response involves up-regulation of the sympathetic nervous system and the release of pituitary hormones resulting in altered cortisol metabolism and elevated levels of endogenous catecholamines. These produce a range of metabolic disturbances including stress hyperglycemia, arising from both peripheral resistance to the effects of anabolic factors (predominantly insulin) and increased hepatic gluconeogenesis. Proteolysis is accelerated, releasing amino acids that are thought to be important in supporting tissue repair, immune defense and the synthesis of acute phase reactants. There is also altered mobilization of fuel stores, futile cycling, and evidence of altered lipoprotein metabolism. In the short term this is likely to be an adaptive response, but with time and ongoing inflammation this becomes maladaptive with a concomitant risk of protein-calorie malnutrition, immunosuppression and wasting of functional muscle tissue resulting from protein catabolism, and this is further compounded by disuse atrophy. Muscle atrophy and intensive care unit (ICU) acquired weakness is complex and poorly understood, but it is postulated that the provision of calories and sufficient protein to avoid a negative nitrogen balance mitigates this process. Avoiding lean muscle mass loss in the obese intuitively has substantial implications, given the larger mass that is required to be mobilized during their rehabilitation phase.There is, in addition, evolving evidence that hormones derived from both the gut and adipose tissue are also involved in the response to stress and critical illness, and that adipose tissue in particular is not a benign tissue bed, but rather should be considered an endocrine organ. Some of these hormones are

  19. A systematic review of critical thinking in nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Zenobia C Y

    2013-03-01

    This review aimed to explore how critical thinking is perceived in previous studies of nursing education, and analyse the obstacles and strategies in teaching and learning critical thinking mentioned in these studies. Systematic review. This review was based on the following five databases: The British Nursing Index, Ovid Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Scopus. After the screening process and evaluation through using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tool, 17 studies were identified that met the inclusion and quality criteria. The studies were read through several times and analysed through thematic synthesis. A total of three themes were developed. The first theme, components for critical thinkers, suggests the abilities and attitudes that critical thinkers should have. The other two themes, influential factors of critical thinking in nursing education, and strategies to promote critical thinking, describe the obstacles and strategies in teaching and learning critical thinking. The 17 studies illustrated that the definition and concept of critical thinking may change from time to time, and hence there is a need to clarify educators' perspective towards critical thinking. There is also a need to evaluate the efficacy of the new strategies mentioned in several selected studies, such as art-based, questioning, cross-cultural nursing experience, and preceptorship. With a better understanding of critical thinking in nursing education, educators and nursing faculty are able to develop better strategies in enhancing critical thinking development in nursing students, in turn preparing them for future clinical practice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Society of Critical Care Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Critical Care Medicine Podcasts Hosts iCritical Care App Social Media Critical Care Statistics eCommunity Media Relations SmartBrief SCCM App Education Center Annual Congress Program Abstracts Registration and Hotel Exhibits-Sponsorship Sightseeing Activities Past and Future Critical ...

  1. Critical Analysis of Multimodal Discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, Theo

    2013-01-01

    This is an encyclopaedia article which defines the fields of critical discourse analysis and multimodality studies, argues that within critical discourse analysis more attention should be paid to multimodality, and within multimodality to critical analysis, and ends reviewing a few examples...... of recent work in the critical analysis of multimodal discourse....

  2. Affecting Critical Thinking through Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Virginia P.

    Intended for teachers, this booklet shows how spoken language can affect student thinking and presents strategies for teaching critical thinking skills. The first section discusses the theoretical and research bases for promoting critical thinking through speech, defines critical thinking, explores critical thinking as abstract thinking, and tells…

  3. Toward a Gramscian Critical Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zompetti, Joseph P.

    1997-01-01

    Contends A. Gramsci can provide a perspective on the cultural dominance of rhetoric and formation of a critical "telos"--his work can contribute to understanding critical rhetoric. Demonstrates that Gramscian notions can extend critical rhetoric into an enterprise that permits critical self-reflexivity and praxis and create new…

  4. Critical branching neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kello, Christopher T

    2013-01-01

    It is now well-established that intrinsic variations in human neural and behavioral activity tend to exhibit scaling laws in their fluctuations and distributions. The meaning of these scaling laws is an ongoing matter of debate between isolable causes versus pervasive causes. A spiking neural network model is presented that self-tunes to critical branching and, in doing so, simulates observed scaling laws as pervasive to neural and behavioral activity. These scaling laws are related to neural and cognitive functions, in that critical branching is shown to yield spiking activity with maximal memory and encoding capacities when analyzed using reservoir computing techniques. The model is also shown to account for findings of pervasive 1/f scaling in speech and cued response behaviors that are difficult to explain by isolable causes. Issues and questions raised by the model and its results are discussed from the perspectives of physics, neuroscience, computer and information sciences, and psychological and cognitive sciences.

  5. Critical Digital Tourism Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Munar, Ana María

    2013-01-01

    ) are approached mostly from a business administration perspective and informed by conceptual frameworks developed in management and marketing. IT studies in tourism are still at a stage similar to the first advocacy phase of tourism research in general (Jafari, 1990) and are seldom inspired by relevant......This paper advocates the need for a critical and cross-disciplinary research agenda on the field of digital technologies and tourism. The changing virtual landscape of tourism has received increased attention by tourism scholars. However, contemporary studies on information technologies (IT...... to studying digital socio-technical systems and virtual mediation in tourism. Critical Digital Tourism Studies opens a new cross-disciplinary field where the sociality of virtual tourism interactions is examined (entailing the study of structures, social rules, ideologies, power relations, sustainability...

  6. Ghosts of Critical Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Porrati, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Recently proposed "critical" higher-derivative gravities in $AdS_D$ $D>3$ are expected to carry logarithmic representation of the Anti de Sitter isometry group. In this note, we quantize linear fluctuations of these critical gravities, which are known to be either identical with linear fluctuations of Einstein's gravity or else satisfy logarithmic boundary conditions at spacial infinity. We identify the scalar product uniquely defined by the symplectic structure implied by the classical action, and show that it does not posses null vectors. Instead, we show that the scalar product between any two Einstein modes vanishes, while the scalar product of an Einstein mode with a logarithmic mode is generically nonzero. This is the basic property of logarithmic representation that makes them neither unitary nor unitarizable.

  7. Drug related critical incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, F A; Hoda, M Q

    2005-01-01

    Drug related incidents are a common form of reported medical errors. This paper reviews the critical incidents related to drug errors reported from the main operating theatre suite in a teaching hospital in a developing country from January 1997 to December 2002. Each report was evaluated individually by two reviewers using a structured process. During this period, 44 874 anaesthetics were administered; 768 critical incidents were reported, 165 (21%) of which were related to drug errors. Underdosage, side-effect/drug reaction and syringe swap were the most common. A total of 76% were classified as preventable; 56% due to human error and 19% due to system error. High risk incidents accounted for 10% of all drug errors and most of these were related to the use of neuromuscular blocking drugs. This analysis has been found useful in addressing some issues about priorities.

  8. Critical Digital Tourism Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Munar, Ana María

    2013-01-01

    ) are approached mostly from a business administration perspective and informed by conceptual frameworks developed in management and marketing. IT studies in tourism are still at a stage similar to the first advocacy phase of tourism research in general (Jafari, 1990) and are seldom inspired by relevant......This paper advocates the need for a critical and cross-disciplinary research agenda on the field of digital technologies and tourism. The changing virtual landscape of tourism has received increased attention by tourism scholars. However, contemporary studies on information technologies (IT...... to studying digital socio-technical systems and virtual mediation in tourism. Critical Digital Tourism Studies opens a new cross-disciplinary field where the sociality of virtual tourism interactions is examined (entailing the study of structures, social rules, ideologies, power relations, sustainability...

  9. Critical Mandelbrot Cascades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barral, Julien; Kupiainen, Antti; Nikula, Miika; Saksman, Eero; Webb, Christian

    2014-01-01

    We study Mandelbrot's multiplicative cascade measures at the critical temperature. As has been recently shown by Barral et al. (C R Acad Sci Paris Ser I 350:535-538, 2012), an appropriately normalized sequence of cascade measures converges weakly in probability to a nontrivial limit measure. We prove that these limit measures have no atoms and give bounds for the modulus of continuity of the cumulative distribution function of the measure. Using the earlier work of Barral and Seuret (Adv Math 214:437-468, 2007), we compute the multifractal spectrum of the measures. We also extend the result of Benjamini and Schramm (Commun Math Phys 289:653-662, 2009), in which the KPZ formula from quantum gravity is validated for the high temperature cascade measures, to the critical and low temperature cases.

  10. Criticality safety training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodruff, S.K. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-06-01

    Criticality safety training is an important element of the Plutonium Facility safety program at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Training consists of student self-study handbooks and hands-on performance-based training in a mock-up laboratory containing gloveboxes, trolley conveyor system, and self-monitoring instruments. A 10-minute video tape and lecture was presented to describe how training in this area is conducted.

  11. Critical care cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, S L; Abbott, J A

    1998-11-01

    Emergency management of the patient with cardiac disease is an important part of veterinary practice. Although the causes of cardiac disease may be diverse, the understanding of basic pathophysiology will enable the clinician to formulate a rational diagnostic and therapeutic plan. The veterinary clinician must be able to triage the emergency patient, assess the clinical condition, and provide appropriate therapy. Close monitoring of the critically ill patient is crucial to patient survival and will help tailor therapy.

  12. Criticisms of Relevance Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚静; 孟晔; 焦丽芳

    2006-01-01

    This paper briefly introduces first the notion of Sperber and Wilson's Relevance Theory. Then, the motivation of S & W putting forward their RT is also mentioned. Secondly, the paper gives some details about the methodology of RT, in which ostensive-inferential communication, context and optimal relevance are highlighted. Thirdly, the paper focuses on the criticisms of RT from different areas of research on human language and communication. Finally, the paper draws a conclusion on the great importance of RT in pragmatics.

  13. Carahunge - A Critical Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, A. César

    Carahunge is a megalithic monument in southern Armenia that has often been acclaimed as the oldest observatory. The monument, composed of dozens of standing stones, has some perforated stones. The direction of the holes has been measured and their orientation is related to the sun, moon, and stars, obtaining a date for the construction of such devices. After a critical review of the methods and conclusions, these are shown as untenable.

  14. Education for Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    develop critical thinkers because knowing the pit - falls of logic can hone one’s understanding. Because logic is so important for parsing complexity...provide answers. We are looking for a program similar to what the Naval War College famously did during the 1930s when leaders like William “ Bull ...the 1930s when leaders like William “ Bull ” Halsey not only ex- changed ideas but also had the chance to test “pet theories” in an uncon- strained

  15. Horizon as critical phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Sik

    2016-09-01

    We show that renormalization group flow can be viewed as a gradual wave function collapse, where a quantum state associated with the action of field theory evolves toward a final state that describes an IR fixed point. The process of collapse is described by the radial evolution in the dual holographic theory. If the theory is in the same phase as the assumed IR fixed point, the initial state is smoothly projected to the final state. If in a different phase, the initial state undergoes a phase transition which in turn gives rise to a horizon in the bulk geometry. We demonstrate the connection between critical behavior and horizon in an example, by deriving the bulk metrics that emerge in various phases of the U( N ) vector model in the large N limit based on the holographic dual constructed from quantum renormalization group. The gapped phase exhibits a geometry that smoothly ends at a finite proper distance in the radial direction. The geometric distance in the radial direction measures a complexity: the depth of renormalization group transformation that is needed to project the generally entangled UV state to a direct product state in the IR. For gapless states, entanglement persistently spreads out to larger length scales, and the initial state can not be projected to the direct product state. The obstruction to smooth projection at charge neutral point manifests itself as the long throat in the anti-de Sitter space. The Poincare horizon at infinity marks the critical point which exhibits a divergent length scale in the spread of entanglement. For the gapless states with non-zero chemical potential, the bulk space becomes the Lifshitz geometry with the dynamical critical exponent two. The identification of horizon as critical point may provide an explanation for the universality of horizon. We also discuss the structure of the bulk tensor network that emerges from the quantum renormalization group.

  16. Relative Critical Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra Lewis

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Relative equilibria of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian systems with symmetry are critical points of appropriate scalar functions parametrized by the Lie algebra (or its dual of the symmetry group. Setting aside the structures – symplectic, Poisson, or variational – generating dynamical systems from such functions highlights the common features of their construction and analysis, and supports the construction of analogous functions in non-Hamiltonian settings. If the symmetry group is nonabelian, the functions are invariant only with respect to the isotropy subgroup of the given parameter value. Replacing the parametrized family of functions with a single function on the product manifold and extending the action using the (coadjoint action on the algebra or its dual yields a fully invariant function. An invariant map can be used to reverse the usual perspective: rather than selecting a parametrized family of functions and finding their critical points, conditions under which functions will be critical on specific orbits, typically distinguished by isotropy class, can be derived. This strategy is illustrated using several well-known mechanical systems – the Lagrange top, the double spherical pendulum, the free rigid body, and the Riemann ellipsoids – and generalizations of these systems.

  17. Relative Critical Points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Debra

    2013-05-01

    Relative equilibria of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian systems with symmetry are critical points of appropriate scalar functions parametrized by the Lie algebra (or its dual) of the symmetry group. Setting aside the structures - symplectic, Poisson, or variational - generating dynamical systems from such functions highlights the common features of their construction and analysis, and supports the construction of analogous functions in non-Hamiltonian settings. If the symmetry group is nonabelian, the functions are invariant only with respect to the isotropy subgroup of the given parameter value. Replacing the parametrized family of functions with a single function on the product manifold and extending the action using the (co)adjoint action on the algebra or its dual yields a fully invariant function. An invariant map can be used to reverse the usual perspective: rather than selecting a parametrized family of functions and finding their critical points, conditions under which functions will be critical on specific orbits, typically distinguished by isotropy class, can be derived. This strategy is illustrated using several well-known mechanical systems - the Lagrange top, the double spherical pendulum, the free rigid body, and the Riemann ellipsoids - and generalizations of these systems.

  18. Diagnostics in critical conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SadchikovD.V.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research: improvement of quality of diagnostics at the patients in a critical condition in intensive care unit. Material and methods. In total have analyzed 1957 medical cards of the patients who have died in ICU»s. At the first stage studied the factors influencing on diagnostics of critically ill patients (medical cards of 1557 patients; at the second stage investigated influence of the diagnostic standards in ICU»s practice on improvement of quality of diag- nostics of critically ill patients (400 medical cards of the patients who have died. Entry criterions were standards and algorithm of diagnostics. Techniques of research: average bed-day in groups, first-day lethality, quantity of the carried out laboratory tests and tool methods of research, level of consciousness of the patients (Glasgow come score, severity of disease by ICU»s patients (APACHE II scores. Results. Quality of diagnostics depend on carried out laboratory tests and tool methods of research, level of consciousness of the patients (Glasgow come score, severity of disease by ICU»s patients (APACHE II score. The conclusion. The laboratory tests and tool methods of research conforming to the standards of diagnostics are necessary for improvement of quality of diagnostics, it is necessary to take into account an altered level of consciousness (Glasgow come score and severity of disease by ICU»s patients (APACHE II scores

  19. Anaerobic critical velocity in four swimming techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiva, H P; Fernandes, R J; Vilas-Boas, J P

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess critical velocity in order to control and evaluate anaerobic swimming training. 51 highly trained male swimmers performed maximal 15, 25, 37.5 and 50 m in the 4 swimming techniques to determine critical velocity from the distance-time relationship. Anaerobic critical velocity was compared with 100 m swimming performance and corresponding partials. Complementarily, 9 swimmers performed a 6×50 m (4 min interval) training series at front crawl individual anaerobic critical velocity, capillary blood lactate concentrations being assessed after each repetition. The mean±SD values of anaerobic critical velocity and its relationship with the 100 m event were: 1.61±0.07 (r=0.60, p=0.037), 1.53±0.05 (r=0.81, p=0.015), 1.33±0.05 (r=0.83, p=0.002), and 1.75±0.05 (r=0.74, p=0.001), for butterfly, backstroke, breaststroke and front crawl, respectively. However, differences between anaerobic critical velocity and performance were observed (with exception of the second half of the 100 m swimming events in breaststroke and butterfly). Lactate concentration values at the end of the series were 14.52±1.06 mmol.l (-1), which suggests that it was indeed an anaerobic training set. In this sense, anaerobic critical velocity can be used to prescribe anaerobic training intensities.

  20. New Criticism and Poetry Interpretation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洁成

    2012-01-01

      New Criticism is a dominant trend in literary criticism of the mid twentieth century. New Criticism, focusing on the text and emphasizing close reading, finds its excellence in poetry interpretation. This essay introduces the theoretical basis, the approach—close reading, and terms of New Criticism. The essay analyzes the metaphysical poem“Virtue”written by George Herbert by the use of New Criticism.

  1. Assessment of critical thinking: a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Sheila A

    2014-11-01

    Nurse educators are responsible for preparing nurses who critically analyze patient information and provide meaningful interventions in today's complex health care system. By using the Delphi research method, this study, utilized the specialized and experiential knowledge of Certified Nurse Educators. This original Delphi research study asked Certified Nurse Educators how to assess the critical-thinking ability of nursing students in the clinical setting. The results showed that nurse educators need time, during the clinical experience, to accurately assess each individual nursing student. This study demonstrated the need for extended student clinical time, and a variety of clinical learning assessment tools.

  2. Time Crystals: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacha, Krzysztof; Zakrzewski, Jakub

    2017-09-08

    Time crystals are time-periodic self-organized structures postulated by Frank Wilczek in 2012. While the original concept was strongly criticized, it stimulated at the same time an intensive research leading to propositions and experimental verifications of discrete (or Floquet) time crystals -- the structures that appear in the time domain due to spontaneous breaking of discrete time translation symmetry. The struggle to observe discrete time crystals is reviewed here together with propositions that generalize this concept introducing condensed matter like physics in the time domain. We shall also revisit the original Wilczek's idea and review strategies aimed at spontaneous breaking of continuous time translation symmetry. . © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  3. Allosteric Regulation by a Critical Membrane

    CERN Document Server

    Kimchi, Ofer; Machta, Benjamin B

    2016-01-01

    Many of the processes that underly neural computation are carried out by ion channels embedded in the plasma membrane, a two-dimensional liquid that surrounds all cells. Recent experiments have demonstrated that this membrane is poised close to a liquid-liquid critical point in the Ising universality class. Here we use both exact and stochastic techniques on the lattice Ising model to explore the ramifications of proximity to criticality for proteins that are allosterically coupled to Ising composition modes. Owing to diverging generalized susceptibilities, such a protein's activity becomes strongly influenced by perturbations that influence the two relevant parameters of the critical point, especially the critical temperature. In addition, the protein's kinetics acquire a range of time scales from its surrounding membrane, naturally leading to non-Markovian dynamics.

  4. Autism: A “Critical Period” Disorder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyn J. LeBlanc

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cortical circuits in the brain are refined by experience during critical periods early in postnatal life. Critical periods are regulated by the balance of excitatory and inhibitory (E/I neurotransmission in the brain during development. There is now increasing evidence of E/I imbalance in autism, a complex genetic neurodevelopmental disorder diagnosed by abnormal socialization, impaired communication, and repetitive behaviors or restricted interests. The underlying cause is still largely unknown and there is no fully effective treatment or cure. We propose that alteration of the expression and/or timing of critical period circuit refinement in primary sensory brain areas may significantly contribute to autistic phenotypes, including cognitive and behavioral impairments. Dissection of the cellular and molecular mechanisms governing well-established critical periods represents a powerful tool to identify new potential therapeutic targets to restore normal plasticity and function in affected neuronal circuits.

  5. Nuclear waste management in Canada : critical issues, critical perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durant, D.; Fuji Johnson, G. (eds.)

    2009-07-01

    As oil reserves decline and the environment takes centre stage in public policy discussions, the merits and dangers of nuclear power and nuclear waste management continue to be debated. Canada is intent on building more reactors to increase energy production without destroying the planet, but it and other nuclear energy-producing countries face not only technical problems but also social and ethical issues. This book provides a critical antidote to the favourable position of government and industry. The contributors build their case by exploring key issues and developments. What do frequently used terms such as safety, risk, and acceptability really mean? How and why did the public consultation process in Canada fail to address ethical and social issues? What is the significance and potential of a public consultation process that involves diverse interests, epistemologies, and actors, including Aboriginal peoples? And how do we ensure that our frameworks for discussion are inclusive and ethical? This timely collection defuses the uncertainty, ambiguity, and ignorance that surrounds nuclear energy. It will appeal to academics, students, and stakeholders in public policy or environmental studies who want to think critically and more broadly about how we approach energy generation and waste management.

  6. European interlaboratory comparison of Schmallenberg virus (SBV) real-time RT-PCR detection in experimental and field samples: The method of extraction is critical for SBV RNA detection in semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Claudia; van der Poel, Wim H M; Ponsart, Claire; Cay, Ann Brigitte; Steinbach, Falko; Zientara, Stéphan; Beer, Martin; Hoffmann, Bernd

    2015-07-01

    Molecular methods for the detection of Schmallenberg virus (SBV) RNA were rapidly developed after the emergence of this novel orthobunyavirus in Europe. The SBV epizootic wave has declined, but infectious SBV in SBV RNA-positive semen remains a possible risk for the distribution of SBV. However, the abilities of SBV molecular detection methods used at European laboratories have not yet been assessed, to our knowledge. The performances of extraction and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) methods used at 27 German and 17 other European laboratories for SBV RNA detection in the matrices of whole blood, serum, tissue homogenate, RNA eluates, and bovine semen were evaluated in 2 interlaboratory trials with special emphasis on semen extraction methods. For reliable detection of viral genome in bovine semen samples, highly effective extraction methods are essential to cope with the potential inhibitory effects of semen components on PCR results. All methods used by the 44 laboratories were sufficiently robust to detect SBV RNA with high diagnostic sensitivity (100%) and specificity (95.8%) in all matrices, except semen. The trials demonstrated that the published recommended semen extraction methods (Hoffmann et al. 2013) and a combination of TRIzol LS with an alternative extraction kit have a considerably higher diagnostic sensitivity to detect SBV RNA in semen up to a detection limit of Cq ≤35 compared to other extraction methods used. A thorough validation of extraction methods with standardized semen batches is essential before their use for SBV RNA detection in bovine semen.

  7. The timing of the human circadian clock is accurately represented by the core body temperature rhythm following phase shifts to a three-cycle light stimulus near the critical zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewett, M. E.; Duffy, J. F.; Czeisler, C. A.

    2000-01-01

    A double-stimulus experiment was conducted to evaluate the phase of the underlying circadian clock following light-induced phase shifts of the human circadian system. Circadian phase was assayed by constant routine from the rhythm in core body temperature before and after a three-cycle bright-light stimulus applied near the estimated minimum of the core body temperature rhythm. An identical, consecutive three-cycle light stimulus was then applied, and phase was reassessed. Phase shifts to these consecutive stimuli were no different from those obtained in a previous study following light stimuli applied under steady-state conditions over a range of circadian phases similar to those at which the consecutive stimuli were applied. These data suggest that circadian phase shifts of the core body temperature rhythm in response to a three-cycle stimulus occur within 24 h following the end of the 3-day light stimulus and that this poststimulus temperature rhythm accurately reflects the timing of the underlying circadian clock.

  8. Critically damped quantum search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizel, Ari

    2009-04-17

    Although measurement and unitary processes can accomplish any quantum evolution in principle, thinking in terms of dissipation and damping can be powerful. We propose a modification of Grover's algorithm in which the idea of damping plays a natural role. Remarkably, we find that there is a critical damping value that divides between the quantum O(sqrt[N]) and classical O(N) search regimes. In addition, by allowing the damping to vary in a fashion we describe, one obtains a fixed-point quantum search algorithm in which ignorance of the number of targets increases the number of oracle queries only by a factor of 1.5.

  9. Critically damped quantum search

    OpenAIRE

    Mizel, Ari

    2008-01-01

    Although measurement and unitary processes can accomplish any quantum evolution in principle, thinking in terms of dissipation and damping can be powerful. We propose a modification of Grover's algorithm in which the idea of damping plays a natural role. Remarkably, we have found that there is a critical damping value that divides between the quantum $O(\\sqrt{N})$ and classical O(N) search regimes. In addition, by allowing the damping to vary in a fashion we describe, one obtains a fixed-poin...

  10. Critical cyberculture studies

    CERN Document Server

    Silver, David; Jones, Steve

    2006-01-01

    Starting in the early 1990s, journalists and scholars began responding to and trying to take account of new technologies and their impact on our lives. By the end of the decade, the full-fledged study of cyberculture had arrived. Today, there exists a large body of critical work on the subject, with cutting-edge studies probing beyond the mere existence of virtual communities and online identities to examine the social, cultural, and economic relationships that take place online. Taking stock of the exciting work that is being done and positing what cyberculture's future might look like, Criti

  11. Critical Points of Contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Morelli, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    where the networks meet and establish contact. Thus we argue for the usefulness of the notion of Critical Point of Contact (CPC) to deepen our understanding of the actual life within networks. En route to this notion we draw upon theories within as diverse realms such as interaction design, service...... design, geography, and mobility studies. After the introduction in section we develop and define the notion of CPC based upon a broad set of disciplines and theories. We illustrate the usefulness of the notion within the field of mobility in the network city and within the field of service design...

  12. Critical Zen art history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory P. A. Levin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay sketches a history of the study of Zen art from the late nineteenth century to post-war reconsiderations, leading towards what I term “critical Zen art studies.” The latter, I suggest, has been undertaken by historians of art and others to challenge normative definitions of Zen art based on modern constructs, revise understanding of the types and functions of visual art important to Chan/Sŏn/Zen Buddhist monasteries, and study iconographies and forms not as a transparent aesthetic indices to Zen Mind or No Mind but as rhetorically, ritually, and socially complex, even unruly, events of representation.

  13. Critical Casimir forces from the equation of state of quantum critical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rançon, Adam; Henry, Louis-Paul; Rose, Félix; Cardozo, David Lopes; Dupuis, Nicolas; Holdsworth, Peter C. W.; Roscilde, Tommaso

    2016-10-01

    The mapping between a classical length and inverse temperature as imaginary time provides a direct equivalence between the Casimir force of a classical system in D dimensions and internal energy of a quantum system in d =D -1 dimensions. The scaling functions of the critical Casimir force of the classical system with periodic boundaries thus emerge from the analysis of the symmetry related quantum critical point. We show that both nonperturbative renormalization group and quantum Monte Carlo analysis of quantum critical points provide quantitative estimates for the critical Casimir force in the corresponding classical model, giving access to widely different aspect ratios for the geometry of confined systems. In light of these results, we propose protocols for the realization of critical Casimir forces for periodic boundaries through state-of-the-art cold-atom and solid-state experiments.

  14. Design of SINS/GNSS integrated navigation system for aerial time-critical guided bomb%航空时敏炸弹SINS/GNSS组合导航系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈帅; 雷浩然; 薄煜明; 徐芹丽

    2014-01-01

    To satisfy the requirements of miniaturization and high reliability for airborne precision guided munitions, a compact close-loop FOG IMU/GNSS integrated navigation system is designed based on DSP C6747+FPGA shallow-parallel architecture. An adaptive Kalman filter is designed for information fusion, and the principle prototype’s overall size is 13 cm×14 cm×12 cm. A hardware-in-loop simulation scheme is designed for analyzing the integrated navigation system performance through computer simulation of target information and flight course. The simulation and ground test results show that the integrated navigation system offers better stability and real-time performance, and its accuracy meets the requirement for precision strike.%为满足机载精确制导弹药小型化、高可靠性方面的要求,设计了一体化闭环光纤惯导/GNSS紧凑型组合导航系统,该样机基于DSP C6747+FPGA浅并行架构,运用自适应卡尔曼滤波算法实现组合导航系统的信息融合,样机整体尺寸为13 cm×14 cm×12 cm。为验证系统性能,搭建了弹载组合导航半实物仿真平台,通过计算机仿真模拟目标信息和炸弹飞行全过程,分析了在组合导航系统辅助下制导炸弹对目标的打击精度,最后对样机进行了地面跑车试验的考核。半实物仿真与地面跑车试验结果表明,该组合导航系统具有较好的实时性和稳定性,导航精度满足精确打击的要求。

  15. Review - Critical Han Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiguo Ye

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Thomas Mullaney, James Leibold, Stéphane Gros, and Eric Armand Vanden Bussche (eds. 2012. Critical Han Studies: The History, Representation, and Identity of China's Majority. Berkeley, Calif: University of California Press. This path-breaking volume is an academic collaboration that emerged out of the "Critical Han Studies Conference and Workshop" at Stanford University in April 2008. Eleven scholars contributed to the question of what it means to be 'Han' in China, both historically and at present. Constituting over ninety percent of China's population, the Han are not only the largest ethnic group in China, but are also one of the largest categories of collective identity in the world. Despite this, the dominant Han group has so far eluded careful scholarly scrutiny, with the Han often referred to as an unmarked majority category in contemporary China. This volume challenges such conventional views by conceptualizing new interdisciplinary approaches to the question of Hanness. The eleven essays of the volume are divided into three themes: 'Han and China', 'The Problem of Han Origins', and 'The Problem of Han Formations'. The first theme, comprised of four essays, analyzes the ties that bind the category of Han to those of Chinese ethnicity, race, and polity. Kevin Carrico in "Recentering China: The Cantonese in and Beyond the Han" questions a single, unitary Hanness that he believes conceals "countless other perceived and imagined lines of differentiation" (25. The study examines how multiple identities...

  16. Criticism in the Romantic Relationships of Individuals With Social Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Eliora; Chambless, Dianne L; Keefe, John R

    2017-07-01

    Social anxiety is associated with difficulties in intimate relationships. Because fear of negative evaluation is a cardinal feature of social anxiety disorder, perceived criticism and upset due to criticism from partners may play a significant role in socially anxious individuals' intimate relationships. In the present study, we examine associations between social anxiety and perceived, observed, and expressed criticism in interactions with romantic partners. In Study 1, we collected self-report data from 343 undergraduates and their romantic partners on social anxiety symptoms, perceived and expressed criticism, and upset due to criticism. One year later couples reported whether they were still in this relationship. Results showed that social anxiety was associated with being more critical of one's partner, and among women, being more upset by criticism from a partner. Social anxiety was not related to perceived criticism, nor did criticism variables predict relationship status at Time 2. In Study 2, undergraduate couples with a partner high (n = 26) or low (n = 26) in social anxiety completed a 10-minute, video-recorded problem-solving task. Both partners rated their perceived and expressed criticism and upset due to criticism following the interaction, and observers coded interactions for criticism. Results indicated that social anxiety was not significantly related to any of the criticism variables, but post hoc analyses cast doubts upon the external validity of the problem-solving task. Results are discussed in light of known difficulties with intimacy among individuals with social anxiety. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Writer, Reader, Critic: Comparing Critical Theories as Discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beaugrande, Robert

    1984-01-01

    Attempts to show how each of three influential critical theories--deconstructionism, reader response criticism, and authorial intention--implies a particular view of how literary discourse is or should be processed and indicates that each view is in part justified, but not to the extent claimed by the critics themselves. (CRH)

  18. What Makes Critical Thinking Critical for Adult ESL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miekley, Joshua P.

    2014-01-01

    Critical-thinking skills help to prepare adult education students for a successful transition to college degree programs and for job advancement. Yet fostering critical thinking poses a challenge to ESL instructors. Brookfield (2012) provides a way forward for adult educators when he explains that the crux of critical thinking is to discover one's…

  19. Critical Literature Pedagogy: Teaching Canonical Literature for Critical Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsheim-Black, Carlin; Macaluso, Michael; Petrone, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces Critical Literature Pedagogy (CLP), a pedagogical framework for applying goals of critical literacy within the context of teaching canonical literature. Critical literacies encompass skills and dispositions to understand, question, and critique ideological messages of texts; because canonical literature is often…

  20. Erp Systems Critical Success Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam K. Sowan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Enterprise Resources Planning (ERP systems are one of the highly complex systems in the information systems field; the implementations of this type of systems need a long time, high cost, and a lot of resources. Many factors affect the successful implementation of ERP system. The critical success factors (CSFs can be categorized as general, ICT related and software engineering or system life cycle (SLC related. This paper is a survey paper that identifies ERP systems CSFs in general and software engineering CSFs in specific. Also an agile methodology for ERP systems' implementations will be presented. Many existing ERP systems were surveyed and presented from ICT / software engineering point of view.

  1. Cyberspace and Critical Information Infrastructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan COLESNIUC

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Every economy of an advanced nation relies on information systems and interconnected networks, thus in order to ensure the prosperity of a nation, making cyberspace a secure place becomes as crucial as securing society. Cyber security means ensuring the safety of this cyberspace from threats which can take different forms, such as stealing secret information from national companies and government institutions, attacking infrastructure vital for the functioning of the nation or attacking the privacy of the single citizen. The critical information infrastructure (CII represents the indispensable "nervous system", that allow modern societies to work and live. Besides, without it, there would be no distribution of energy, no services like banking or finance, no air traffic control and so on. But at the same time, in the development process of CII, security was never considered a top priority and for this reason they are subject to a high risk in relation to the organized crime.

  2. Critical phenomena in active matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoluzzi, M.; Maggi, C.; Marini Bettolo Marconi, U.; Gnan, N.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the effect of self-propulsion on a mean-field order-disorder transition. Starting from a φ4 scalar field theory subject to an exponentially correlated noise, we exploit the unified colored-noise approximation to map the nonequilibrium active dynamics onto an effective equilibrium one. This allows us to follow the evolution of the second-order critical point as a function of the noise parameters: the correlation time τ and the noise strength D . Our results suggest that the universality class of the model remains unchanged. We also estimate the effect of Gaussian fluctuations on the mean-field approximation finding an Ornstein-Zernike-like expression for the static structure factor at long wavelengths. Finally, to assess the validity of our predictions, we compare the mean-field theoretical results with numerical simulations of active Lennard-Jones particles in two and three dimensions, finding good qualitative agreement at small τ values.

  3. Universal Postquench Prethermalization at a Quantum Critical Point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagel, Pia; Orth, Peter P; Schmalian, Jörg

    2014-11-28

    We consider an open system near a quantum critical point that is suddenly moved towards the critical point. The bath-dominated diffusive nonequilibrium dynamics after the quench is shown to follow scaling behavior, governed by a critical exponent that emerges in addition to the known equilibrium critical exponents. We determine this exponent and show that it describes universal prethermalized coarsening dynamics of the order parameter in an intermediate time regime. Implications of this quantum critical prethermalization are: (i) a power law rise of order and correlations after an initial collapse of the equilibrium state and (ii) a crossover to thermalization that occurs arbitrarily late for sufficiently shallow quenches.

  4. Direct Observation of Critical Point Wetting in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaukler, W. F.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this program is to observe the interface shape in single and multicomponent systems at the onset of critical wetting in microgravity using the MSFC drop tower and KC-135 aircraft. Test cells for the drop facility were built and tested up to critical point of CCl. Low temperature drops were conducted for two-component systems near the critical consolute point. Contact angle seems to approach 90 deg near the critical consolute temperature contrary to expectations. It is suspected that since the interfacial energy becomes vanishingly small at the critical consolute temperature, the interface shape has not reached equilibrium in the available low-gravity time.

  5. Critical laboratory values in hemostasis: toward consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Adcock, Dorothy; Simundic, Ana-Maria; Tripodi, Armando; Favaloro, Emmanuel J

    2017-02-10

    The term "critical values" can be defined to entail laboratory test results that significantly lie outside the normal (reference) range and necessitate immediate reporting to safeguard patient health, as well as those displaying a highly and clinically significant variation compared to previous data. The identification and effective communication of "highly pathological" values has engaged the minds of many clinicians, health care and laboratory professionals for decades, since these activities are vital to good laboratory practice. This is especially true in hemostasis, where a timely and efficient communication of critical values strongly impacts patient management. Due to the heterogeneity of available data, this paper is hence aimed to analyze the state of the art and provide an expert opinion about the parameters, measurement units and alert limits pertaining to critical values in hemostasis, thus providing a basic document for future consultation that assists laboratory professionals and clinicians alike. KEY MESSAGES Critical values are laboratory test results significantly lying outside the normal (reference) range and necessitating immediate reporting to safeguard patient health. A broad heterogeneity exists about critical values in hemostasis worldwide. We provide here an expert opinion about the parameters, measurement units and alert limits pertaining to critical values in hemostasis.

  6. Controlling superconductivity by tunable quantum critical points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, S; Park, E; Bauer, E D; Ronning, F; Kim, J N; Shim, J-H; Thompson, J D; Park, Tuson

    2015-03-04

    The heavy fermion compound CeRhIn5 is a rare example where a quantum critical point, hidden by a dome of superconductivity, has been explicitly revealed and found to have a local nature. The lack of additional examples of local types of quantum critical points associated with superconductivity, however, has made it difficult to unravel the role of quantum fluctuations in forming Cooper pairs. Here, we show the precise control of superconductivity by tunable quantum critical points in CeRhIn5. Slight tin-substitution for indium in CeRhIn5 shifts its antiferromagnetic quantum critical point from 2.3 GPa to 1.3 GPa and induces a residual impurity scattering 300 times larger than that of pure CeRhIn5, which should be sufficient to preclude superconductivity. Nevertheless, superconductivity occurs at the quantum critical point of the tin-doped metal. These results underline that fluctuations from the antiferromagnetic quantum criticality promote unconventional superconductivity in CeRhIn5.

  7. Memory Management for Safety-Critical Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeberl, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Safety-Critical Java (SCJ) is based on the Real-Time Specification for Java. To simplify the certification of Java programs, SCJ supports only a restricted scoped memory model. Individual threads share only immortal memory and the newly introduced mission memory. All other scoped memories...

  8. CRITICAL WAVE EPISODES FOR ASSESSMENT OF ROLL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2006-01-01

    the time-varying restoring moment and the heave acceleration. The result is the mean outcrossing rate of the roll angle together with corresponding most probable wave scenarios (critical wave episodes), leading to specific maximum roll angles. The procedure is computationally very effective and can thus...

  9. A Critical Thinking Activity for Communication Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ann E.

    2017-01-01

    Courses: This semester long activity can be employed in any communication classroom and is designed particularly to provide first-time graduate student instructors (GSIs) with a theory-based assessment tool. As such, the article is appropriate for graduate-level pedagogy classes. Objective: To introduce a theory-based, critical thinking activity…

  10. Dehumanization: An Overview of Educational Technology's Critics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Geoff

    Almost since its inception, the word "dehumanization" has caused apprehension, especially as the words relate to educational technology. This paper is a brief analysis of educational technology's critics from the late 1950s through present time; it also serves as a study of how their rhetoric has affected the structure of elementary and…

  11. Critical Infrastructures: Background, Policy, and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    amount of time to assist the Secretary in determining if a food product has been adulterated and represents a public health problem. The FY2006 DHS...Sharing and Analysis Center (ISAC) ................................................................ 22 Identifying Critical Assets, Assessing...infrastructures) is to collect and disseminate the latest information on intrusion techniques, threat analysis , and ways to defend against hackers. The

  12. Process Mapping: Tools, Techniques, & Critical Success Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalman, Howard K.

    2002-01-01

    Explains process mapping as an analytical tool and a process intervention that performance technologists can use to improve human performance by reducing error variance. Highlights include benefits of process mapping; and critical success factors, including organizational readiness, time commitment by participants, and the availability of a…

  13. Endangered Species Act Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Critical habitat (CH) is designated for the survival and recovery of species listed as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Critical...

  14. Modeling Dependencies in Critical Infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuijs, A.H.; Luiijf, H.A.M.; Klaver, M.H.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a model for expressing critical infrastructure dependencies. The model addresses the limitations of existing approaches with respect to clarity of definition, support for quality and the influence of operating states of critical infrastructures and environmental factors.

  15. Mission Critical Occupation (MCO) Charts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — Agencies report resource data and targets for government-wide mission critical occupations and agency specific mission critical and/or high risk occupations. These...

  16. What Is Critical Discourse Analysis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin Kendall

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In this interview, Ruth WODAK discusses the beginnings of her career, and what propelled her into critical discourse analysis. She analyses what makes critical discourse analysis "critical", distinguishes criticalness from dogmatism, but expounds upon the relationship between critique and norms. Finally, she discusses how "integrative indisciplinarity" might help us with problems of disciplinary incommensurability. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0702297

  17. Critical Incidents in Internal Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Voima, Päivi

    2000-01-01

    Critical incidents have had an important role in service quality and service management research. The focus of critical-incident studies has gradually shifted from separate acts and episodes towards relationships, and even switching from one relationship to another. The Critical Incident Technique has mainly been used when studying the service sector, concentrating on the customer's perception of critical incidents. Although some studies have considered the perceptions of employees important,...

  18. Teaching Critical Thinking

    CERN Document Server

    Holmes, N G; Bonn, D A

    2015-01-01

    The ability to make decisions based on data, with its inherent uncertainties and variability, is a complex and vital skill in the modern world. The need for such quantitative critical thinking occurs in many different contexts, and while it is an important goal of education, that goal is seldom being achieved. We argue that the key element for developing this ability is repeated practice in making decisions based on data, with feedback on those decisions. We demonstrate a structure for providing suitable practice that can be applied in any instructional setting that involves the acquisition of data and relating that data to scientific models. This study reports the results of applying that structure in an introductory physics lab course. Students in an experimental condition were repeatedly instructed to make and act on quantitative comparisons between datasets, and between data and models, an approach that is common to all science disciplines. These instructions were slowly faded across the course. After the...

  19. Why Critical design is useless

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbesen, Toke Riis

    practical use, critical design may then become another echo chamber for designers, where they can safely repeat the slogans of design modernism without changing the world. The aim of this presentation will be to return to critical design in the light of the concept of use, and thus to critically examine...

  20. From Memorization to Critical Thinking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long; Feng

    2015-01-01

    The essay introduces the author’s experiences in the UK and Canada to explain the difference of educational methods in China and western countries:from memorization to critical thinking.The author explains what the critical thinking is and what features should a critical thinker have,then give some suggestions to improve Chinese educational system.